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1

Pre-Cooked Baking Potatoes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pre-cooked baking potatoes are prepared by a process wherein raw potatoes are cooked under controlled conditions. The potatoes are cooked to their centers without damage to their surface tissue. An important feature of the cooking is that the temperature ...

K. C. Ng M. L. Weaver M. Nonaka R. N. Sayre

1977-01-01

2

Precooked Baking Potatoes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application discloses a process wherein raw potatoes are cooked under controlled conditions. The potatoes are cooked to their centers without damage to their surface tissue. An important feature of the cooking is that the temperature thereof fo...

K. C. Ng M. L. Weaver M. Nonaka R. N. Sayre

1978-01-01

3

Genotypic and Environmental Contributions to Baked Potato Flavor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was carried out to determine the relative contributions of genotype and environment to baked potato flavor variation\\u000a in standard potato cultivars. In addition, relationships between individual flavor components and overall quality perception\\u000a scores were determined. The study was carried out for 2 years using stored potatoes. In addition, fresh potato tubers were\\u000a evaluated in the second year. Taste panels

Shelley H. Jansky

2008-01-01

4

Utilization of fresh cassava and sweet potato pulps in baking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cassava and Sweet Potato fresh pulps were characterized for their physico?chemical properties and were tested in cake making with the addition of little or no wheat flour. The pulps consisted of water (64.3, 69.13), starch (21.18, 18.57), sugars (6.08, 7.14) and ash (0.72, 0.62)% respectively. They had less than 2% of either crude protein or fibre. Baking reduced the hydrocyanic

E. W. Wanjekeche; E. L. Keya

1995-01-01

5

Effect of cooking method (baking compared with frying) on acrylamide level of potato chips.  

PubMed

The effect of cooking method (baking compared with frying) on acrylamide level of potato chips was investigated in this study. Baking and frying experiments were conducted at 170, 180, and 190 degrees C using potato slices with a thickness of 1.4 mm. Raw potatoes were analyzed for reducing sugars and asparagine. Surface and internal temperatures of potato slices were monitored during the experiments to better explain the results. Fried and baked chips were analyzed for acrylamide content using an LC-MS method. The results showed that acrylamide level of potato chips prepared by frying increased with frying temperature (19.6 ng/g at 170 degrees C, 39 ng/g at 180 degrees C, and 95 ng/g at 190 degrees C). In baking, however, the highest acrylamide level was observed in potato chips prepared at 170 degrees C (47.8 ng/g at 170 degrees C, 19.3 ng/g at 180 degrees C, and 29.7 ng/g at 190 degrees C). The results showed that baking at 170 degrees C more than doubled the acrylamide amount that formed upon frying at the same temperature, whereas at 180 and 190 degrees C, the acrylamide levels of chips prepared by baking were lower than their fried counterparts. PMID:20492162

Palazo?lu, T Koray; Savran, Derya; Gökmen, Vural

6

The determination of a mid-scale reference standard for baked potato mealiness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eleven sensory tests (six with Kennebecs and five with Russet Burbank) of five to seven baked potato samples varying in specific\\u000a gravity by 0.004 were conducted to relate the mid-scale mealiness rating by sensory panels to a characteristic specific gravity\\u000a (raw) and total solids (cooked).\\u000a \\u000a The means for specific gravity values associated with the midpoint mealiness rating as estimated from

Elizabeth F. Murphy; Ruth H. True; John M. Hogan

1969-01-01

7

Effects of baking and boiling on the nutritional and antioxidant properties of sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] cultivars.  

PubMed

The effects of baking and boiling on the nutritional and antioxidant properties of three sweet potato cultivars (Beniazuma, Koganesengan, Kotobuki) cultivated in Turkey were investigated. The samples were analyzed for proximate composition, total phenolic content, ascorbic acid, ?-carotene, antiradical activity, and free sugars. The dry matter, protein, and starch contents of the sweet potatoes were significantly changed by the treatments while the ash and crude fiber contents did not differ as significantly. The ?-carotene contents of baked and boiled sweet potatoes were lower than those of fresh sweet potatoes; however, the total phenolic and ascorbic acid contents of the baked and boiled sweet potatoes were higher than those of the fresh samples. Generally, the antiradical activity of the sweet potatoes increased with the treatments. Sucrose, glucose, and fructose were quantified as free sugars in all fresh sweet potatoes; however, maltose was determined in the treated samples. In terms of the analyzed parameters, there were no explicit differences among the sweet potato cultivars. PMID:22101780

Dincer, Cuneyt; Karaoglan, Mert; Erden, Fidan; Tetik, Nedim; Topuz, Ayhan; Ozdemir, Feramuz

2011-11-01

8

Glycaemic effect and satiating capacity of potato chips and milk chocolate bar as snacks in teenagers with diabetes.  

PubMed

In 14 adolescents with diabetes, the postprandial blood glucose, after ingestion of two popular snacks, milk chocolate bar and potato chips, was compared to a prescribed mid-afternoon snack that was isocaloric with the comparison snacks. The prescribed diabetes snack consisted of wholemeal wheat bread, margarine, cheese and apple (1533 kJ/365 kcal): 14% protein, 32% fat and 54% carbohydrate. The milk chocolate bar and the potato chips contained 4% protein, 55% fat and 41% carbohydrate. The mean blood glucose peak was 4.7 (+/- 0.8) mmol/l after the regular diabetes snack, after the milk chocolate bar 2.9 (+/- 0.6) mmol/l, and 3.2 (+/- 0.6) mmol/l after the potato chips (P > 0.05). The mean incremental area under the blood glucose curve was 450.3 (+/- 105.5) mmol/l x 180 min for the regular diabetes snack, 269.5 (+/- 96.7) mmol/l x 180 min for the milk chocolate bar and 191.7 (+/- 95.0) mmol/l x 180 min for the potato chips (P > 0.05). We conclude that an occasional exchange of a regular diabetes afternoon snack for an isocaloric amount of milk chocolate bar or potato chips has no negative impact on the postprandial blood glucose. PMID:8404965

Cedermark, G; Selenius, M; Tullus, K

1993-08-01

9

Modern Baking  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Baking is an art, a science, and a field that many people (especially young students) wish to learn more about. Visitors to this site can learn about the hands-on details of baking, along with gaining insights into business trends within the baking world. Modern Baking contains classified ads for those bakers looking to pick up some new equipment (or a new job), and a section of up-to-date industry news as well. The content is divided into eight sections: Formulas & Techniques, Cake Decorating, Supermarket Baking, Retail Baking, Specialty Wholesale Baking, Foodservice Baking, Bread & Pastry, and Bakery Management. Visitors would do well to try the formula in the Formulas & Techniques section for chestnut and cognac brioche, as it brings together two flavors that are truly divine.

2006-11-16

10

Glycaemic effect and satiating capacity of potato chips and milk chocolate bar as snacks in teenagers with diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 14 adolescents with diabetes, the postprandial blood glucose, after ingestion of two popular snacks, milk chocolate bar and potato chips, was compared to a prescribed mid-afternoon snack that was isocaloric with the comparison snacks. The prescribed diabetes snack consisted of wholemeal wheat bread, margarine, cheese and apple (1533 kJ\\/365 kcal): 14% protein, 32% fat and 54% carbohydrate. The milk

G. Cedermark; M. Selenius; K. Tullus

1993-01-01

11

Potato Flavor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potato is one of the most popular vegetables worldwide and is the most important vegetable crop in the United States,\\u000a accounting for nearly one-third of per-capita vegetable consumption. Potatoes can be prepared in many ways, including baking,\\u000a boiling, roasting, frying, steaming, and microwaving, allowing for a diversity of uses. Most people find potatoes to be an\\u000a agreeable food and

Shelley H. Jansky

2010-01-01

12

Potato  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a During the past 20 years, since potato\\u000a became transformable, potato transgenic research mainly focused on fundamental aspects of plant molecular physiology or molecular\\u000a genetics using the potato as a model system. But there are also striking achievements with regard to commercially relevant\\u000a and useful traits. This chapter highlights some examples of how genetic engineering has been used to address the

Jens Lübeck

13

Effect of Batter Solids and Starch Type on the Structure of Baked Starch Foams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 76(5):682-687 The effects of starch type on the properties of baked starch foams were investigated. Starch types used for baking were normal corn, normal potato, waxy corn, high-amylopectin potato, wheat, and tapioca. Solids content of the starch batters used to bake foam trays ranged from 25 to 45%. Pro- cessing parameters and physical properties of the foams were

J. W. Lawton; R. L. Shogren; K. F. Tiefenbacher

1999-01-01

14

Baking loss of bread with special emphasis on increasing water holding capacity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potato flour (PF), hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and honey were used as baking agents and their effects on baking loss\\u000a and sensory quality were studied. PF at 1, 2 and 4% levels decreased baking loss followed by HPMC and honey. Water absorption\\u000a was substantially high with the HPMC (70.8–80.8%) and PF (61.7–71.7%) compared to honey and normal standard bread. PF incorporation

D. Kotoki; S. C. Deka

2010-01-01

15

Role of Starch Granules in Controlling Expansion of Dough During Baking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 76(6):920-924 The role of starch granules in the expansion of doughs during baking was investigated using artificial flours made from dry vital wheat gluten and wheat starch, potato starch, or tapioca starch. The three starches were selected because of their diverse gelatinization properties. Baking tests on flour from tapioca starch gave the largest loaf volume and the most

Chiharu Kusunose; Toshiko Fujii; Hiroshi Matsumoto

1999-01-01

16

Vinegar and baking soda  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Vinegar is an acid. An acid has a pH less than 7. When baking soda is added to vinegar, bubbles are produced and gas is released. Fizzing, bubbling, and change in smell are all evidence of a chemical reaction. The amount of gas produced using baking soda as an indicator tells you the relative concentration of the acid.

N/A N/A (None;)

2008-03-09

17

Selected Baking Formulas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This manual is designed to help baking students learn to use formulas in the preparation of baking products. Tested and proven formulas are, for the most part, standard ones with only slight modifications. The recipes are taken mainly from bakery product manufacturers and are presented in quantities suitable for school-shop use. Each recipe…

Bogdany, Melvin

18

Baking Soda Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the basic principles of baking soda chemistry including the chemical composition of baking soda, its acid-base properties, the reaction of bicarbonate solution with calcium ions, and a description of some general types of chemical reactions. Includes a science activity that involves removing calcium ions from water. (LZ)|

Science Activities, 1994

1994-01-01

19

Baking Soda & Vinegar Bag  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, create an endothermic reaction by dropping a tissue filled with baking soda in a bag of vinegar. Learners will enjoy the popping sounds they hear as the acids and bases in the bag neutralize each other and create carbon dioxide. This activity guide includes a step-by-step instructional video.

Center, Saint L.

2013-01-17

20

Greenhouse Baked Cookies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, investigate the greenhouse effect and use it to bake cookies on the dashboard of a car! This is a great activity to do in the summer and is a fun way to explore how the Sun's thermal energy can be put to good use. This activity guide includes a step-by-step instructional video.

Center, Saint L.

2013-02-11

21

Commercial Baking. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A project filmed three commercial baking videotapes for use by secondary and adult students in food service programs. The three topics were basic dinner rolls, bread making, and hard breads and rolls. Quick-rise dough recipes were developed, written down, and explained for use with the videotapes. A pretest, posttest, and student guide were…

Booth, Nancy

22

Bread Baking Contest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a classroom project in which elementary students bake homemade bread to learn about the settlement period in Canadian history and the early history of the students' community. Maintains that students learn to compare the lifestyle of the past with the present. (CFR)

Blanchette, Amy; And Others

1995-01-01

23

Should Psychology Bake Bread?  

Microsoft Academic Search

At least two considerations may militate against the wise application of a science: First, the science may be so new and its conclusions in consequence so half-baked, that the premature utilization of them is of no value, or second, we run a liability of prejudicing the future of the science itself, so that subsequent researches are no longer as search

E. Frost

1920-01-01

24

6.NS Baking Cookies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Alice, Raul, and Maria are baking cookies together. They need $\\frac34$ cup of flour and $\\frac13$ cup of butter to make a dozen cookies. They each bro...

25

6.NS Bake Sale  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Lindy is having a bake sale. She has 48 chocolate chip cookies to put in bags. How many bags can she fill if she puts the same number in each bag and u...

26

Protein and starch digestibilities and mineral availability of products developed from potato, soy and corn flour  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique for development of potato flour was standardized. Five products viz. cake, biscuit, weaning food, panjiri and ladoo were prepared incorporating potato flour, defatted soy flour and corn flour. Baking and roasting were the major processing techniques employed for the development of these products. Protein, ash and fat contents of potato flour were almost similar to those of raw

Poonam Gahlawat; Salil Sehgal

1998-01-01

27

Baking powder pica mimicking preeclampsia.  

PubMed

We report a case of baking powder pica during pregnancy that was associated with maternal hypertension, hypokalemia, and elevated liver function tests. After discontinuation of baking powder ingestion and correction of electrolyte abnormalities, the blood pressure and the liver function tests normalized. PMID:1442966

Barton, J R; Riely, C A; Sibai, B M

1992-07-01

28

Influences of Baking and Thawing Conditions on Quality of Par-Baked French Bread  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 84(1):38-43 We examined the effects of baking time and temperature for the preparation of par-baked French bread, and of thawing and second baking conditions on the characteristics of bread prepared from par-baked bread. Par-baked French bread with loaf volume and crumb structure com- parable to fully baked bread (control) was obtained with ?6 min baking at 218°C, which

Chul Soo Park; Byung-Kee Baik

2007-01-01

29

Acrylamide Mitigation in Potato Chips by Using NaCl  

Microsoft Academic Search

In April 2002, Swedish researchers shocked the world when they presented preliminary findings on the presence of acrylamide\\u000a in fried and baked foods, most notably potato chips and French fries, at levels of 30–2,300 ppb. The objective of this research\\u000a was to study the effect of immersing potato slices in a NaCl solution over the acrylamide formation in the resultant potato

Franco Pedreschi; Kit Granby; Jørgen Risum

2010-01-01

30

Protein and starch digestibilities and mineral availability of products developed from potato, soy and corn flour.  

PubMed

A technique for development of potato flour was standardized. Five products viz. cake, biscuit, weaning food, panjiri and ladoo were prepared incorporating potato flour, defatted soy flour and corn flour. Baking and roasting were the major processing techniques employed for the development of these products. Protein, ash and fat contents of potato flour were almost similar to those of raw potatoes. Significant differences in protein, ash and fat contents of all the products were observed. Protein and starch digestibility of potato flour was significantly higher than that of raw potatoes. Protein digestibility increased by 12 to 17 percent on baking or roasting of products. Processed products had significantly higher starch digestibility and mineral availability compared to raw products. Thus, it can be concluded that roasting and baking are effective means of improving starch and protein digestibility and mineral availability of products. PMID:9839814

Gahlawat, P; Sehgal, S

1998-01-01

31

Potato Types and Characteristics: Laboratory Exercises.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a number of simple exercises that demonstrate potato tuber characteristics and are designed for high school biology students and teachers. Exercises include Typing, Grading, Shape, Eye Characteristics, Defects, Specific Gravity, Dry Matter Content, Glucose Content, Baking, Frying/Chipping, and Taste Testing. (JRH)|

Pavlista, Alexander D.

1997-01-01

32

Potato Bouquet.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The production of such potato products as doughnuts, mashed potatoes, etc. -- 'instant products' -- is insufficient to meet public needs. The products meet consumer requirements with respect to quality, except mashed potatoes. Increased output and establi...

K. Baikin

1969-01-01

33

Foamed articles based on potato starch, corn fibers and poly(vinyl alcohol)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single-use packaging materials made of expanded polystyrene (EPS) have been identified as suitable items to be replaced by biodegradable materials. Plates made with EPS represent a source of non-degradable waste that is difficult to collect and to recycle. Potato starch based foamed plates have been prepared by a baking process. Presently, foam plates have been prepared by baking aqueous mixtures

P. Cinelli; E. Chiellini; J. W. Lawton; S. H. Imam

2006-01-01

34

Fried potatoes and human cancer.  

PubMed

A considerable public concern about cancer risk from acrylamide-rich foods followed the announcement that high concentrations of acrylamide are found in fried potatoes and potato chips and, more generally, in starch-containing foods cooked at high temperatures. From a series of hospital-based case-control studies conducted in Italy and Switzerland between 1991 and 2000, we have analyzed the relation between intake of fried/baked potatoes and cancer risk. The cancer sites considered were oral cavity and pharynx (749 cases, 1772 controls), esophagus (395 cases, 1066 controls), larynx (527 cases, 1297 controls), large bowel (1225 colon and 728 rectum cases, 4154 controls), breast (2569 cases, 2588 controls) and ovary (1031 cases, 2411 controls). All cancer cases were incident and histologically confirmed. Controls were subjects admitted to the same network of hospitals of cases for acute, non-neoplastic conditions. All the odds ratios (OR) for the highest vs. the lowest tertile of intake ranged between 0.8-1.1. We found no evidence of interaction with age, gender, alcohol and tobacco use. Our data provide reassuring evidence for the lack of an important association between consumption of fried/baked potatoes and cancer risk. PMID:12712450

Pelucchi, Claudio; Franceschi, Silvia; Levi, Fabio; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Bosetti, Cristina; Negri, Eva; La Vecchia, Carlo

2003-07-01

35

Combined effects of storage and processing on the bioactive compounds and pro-apoptotic properties of color-fleshed potatoes in human colon cancer cells.  

PubMed

Potatoes can be stored for up to 1 year before being processed and consumed. The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which fresh and stored color-fleshed potatoes retain their anticancer properties after baking and chipping compared with unprocessed potatoes. We utilized white-, yellow-, and purple-fleshed potato clones and tested their phenolic and anthocyanin content, antioxidant activity, metabolite profile, and antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic properties. When compared with unprocessed samples, baking or chipping led to significant losses in the phenolic and anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity of the potatoes. However, with storage, total phenolic and anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity increased in baked samples while in the chipped samples they remained constant. Ethanolic extracts of baked and chipped samples suppressed proliferation and elevated apoptosis (p < 0.05) in HCT-116 (p53 wild-type; ras mutated) and HT-29 (p53 mutated; ras wild-type) human colon cancer cell lines. Antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic properties of baked potatoes were similar to that of fresh potatoes, while chipping caused a significant suppression. Phenolic content and antioxidant activity of purple-fleshed potatoes, after baking, were comparable with those of anthocyanin-rich berries. Hence, purple-fleshed potatoes can be a healthier choice for consumers as they possess greater levels of bioactive compounds and anticancer properties even after processing as compared with their white- and yellow-fleshed counterparts. PMID:23039105

Madiwale, Gaurav P; Reddivari, Lavanya; Stone, Martha; Holm, David G; Vanamala, Jairam

2012-10-26

36

Collection Development: Hitting the Sweet Spot (Baking)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Baking can be intimidating. Just ask all those contestants on "Top Chef" who would rather prepare Beef Wellington than bake a cake. But libraries can take the fear factor out of baking by putting together a solid collection of cookbooks that can help anyone master the sweeter side of the culinary arts or even serve as delicious armchair reading…

Charles, John

2010-01-01

37

Baking Soda and Vinegar Rockets  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Rocket experiments demonstrating conservation of momentum will never fail to generate enthusiasm in undergraduate physics laboratories. In this paper, we describe tests on rockets from two vendors that combine baking soda and vinegar for propulsion. The experiment compared two analytical approximations for the maximum rocket height to the…

Claycomb, James R.; Zachary, Christopher; Tran, Quoc

2009-01-01

38

Effect of crust temperature and water content on acrylamide formation during baking of white bread: Steam and falling temperature baking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of crust temperature and water content on acrylamide formation was studied during the baking of white bread. To assess the effect of over-baking, we used a full factorial experimental design in which the baking time was increased by 5 and 10min at each baking temperature. Additional experiments were performed with steam baking and falling temperature baking. Immediately after

Lilia Ahrné; Claes-Göran Andersson; Per Floberg; Johan Rosén; Hans Lingnert

2007-01-01

39

Quinoa flour in baked products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of quinoa-wheat flour blends (5\\/95, 10\\/90, 20\\/80, 30\\/70) were evaluated in breads, cakes and cookies. Breads baked with 5% and 10% quinoa flour were of good quality. Loaf volume decreased, crumb grain became more open and the texture slightly harsh at higher usage levels of quinoa flour. A bitter aftertaste was noted at the 30% level. Cake quality

K. Lorenz; L. Coulter

1991-01-01

40

A Large Outbreak of Botulism: The Hazardous Baked Potato  

Microsoft Academic Search

In April 1994, the largest outbreak of botulism in the United States since 1978 occurred in El Paso, Texas. Thirty persons were affected; 4 required mechanical ventilation. All ate food from a Greek restaurant. The attack rate among persons who ate a potatobased dip was 86% (19\\/22) compared with 6% (11\\/176) among persons who did not eat the dip (relative

Frederick J. Angulo; Jonathan Getz; Jeffery P. Taylor; Katherine A. Hendricks; Charles L. Hatheway; Suzanne S. Barth; Haim M. Solomon; Ann E. Larson; Eric A. Johnson; Laurance N. Nickey; Allen A. Ries

1998-01-01

41

Potato with growth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Potatoes are grown in the ground. Potatoes can be eaten by humans and animals and they can also grow more potatoes. Potatoes sprout things called eyes. The eyes are from where both the roots and potatoes develop.

Peggy Greb (USDA;ARS)

2006-05-23

42

Climate variability and wheat baking quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of climatic factors on the baking quality of bread wheat was explored by establishing relationships between Mechanical Dough Development (MDD) bake scores and monthly temperature and rainfall from November to January. Wheat quality data for Triticum aestivum L. cultivars ‘Rongotea’, ‘Oroua’, and ‘Otane’ were collated from recommended list trials in Hawke's Bay, Manawatu, Canterbury, south Otago, and Southland,

M. J. Salinger; P. D. Jamieson; J. V. Johnstone

1995-01-01

43

Recent developments in carbon baking technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the aluminum industry strives to improve productivity and efficiency, carbon baking technology is one area receiving attention. With the anode plant accounting for a significant portion of total smelter investment, completely new installations are often out of the question. But the alternative of retrofitting existing carbon baking furnaces can often provide incremental capacity, reduce fuel consumption, and cut unwanted emissions.

Hurlen, J.; Naterstad, T.

1991-11-01

44

Natural Gas Profile: The Baking Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. baking industry contains three segments: bakeries which produce perishable products (SIC 2051); bakeries for dry bakery products, such as cookies and crackers (SIC 2052), and retail bakeries which bake and sell (SIC 5462). Data are presented on t...

1975-01-01

45

Quinoa flour in baked products.  

PubMed

The performance of quinoa-wheat flour blends (5/95, 10/90, 20/80, 30/70) were evaluated in breads, cakes and cookies. Breads baked with 5% and 10% quinoa flour were of good quality. Loaf volume decreased, crumb grain became more open and the texture slightly harsh at higher usage levels of quinoa flour. A bitter after taste was noted at the 30% level. Cake quality was acceptable with 5% and 10% of quinoa flour. Cake grain became more open and the texture less silky as the level of quinoa substitution increased. Cake taste improved with either 5% or 10% quinoa flour in the blend. Cookie spread and top grain scores decreased with increasing levels of quinoa flour blended with high-spread cookie flour. Flavor improved up to 20% quinoa flour in the blend. Cookie spread and cookie appearance was improved with a quinoa/low-spread flour blend by using 2% lecithin. PMID:1924185

Lorenz, K; Coulter, L

1991-07-01

46

Bread baking in halogen lamp–microwave combination oven  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of the study was to compare the effects of halogen lamp–microwave combination baking on quality of breads with other baking methods (conventional, microwave and halogen lamp baking). It was also aimed to improve the quality of microwave baked breads by using combination oven. Weight loss, specific volume, firmness and color of the breads were measured as quality

Semin Ozge Keskin; Gulum Sumnu; Serpil Sahin

2004-01-01

47

Image analysis of structural changes in dough during baking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bakery market is developing new technologies based on dough partial baking and the study of the changes that dough undergoes through the whole baking process could help in the selection of baking times. The aim of this work was to study the changes of dough structure and their relationship with dough temperature, mass loss and loaf height during baking

A. Pérez-Nieto; J. J. Chanona-Pérez; R. R. Farrera-Rebollo; G. F. Gutiérrez-López; L. Alamilla-Beltrán; G. Calderón-Domínguez

2010-01-01

48

Physicochemical changes in breads from bake off technologies during storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quality of several bread specialties from frozen partially baked breads was assessed to define main quality features. Loss of crust freshness shortly after baking was also determined. Quality parameters that characterize bread crust and crumb were determined by instrumental methods in nine different (regarding to formulation and bake off duration) bread types obtained from frozen partially baked breads. Principal component

Rossana Altamirano-Fortoul; Cristina M. Rosell

2011-01-01

49

Determination and prediction of thermal conductivity of frozen part baked bread during thawing and baking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal conductivity of food is usually measured in isothermal conditions with a line-heat source probe. The thermal conductivity of bread during the baking phase is function of temperature and is an important parameter to assess. This work aims at (i) developing a measurement method of thermal conductivity in pseudo-non-isothermal conditions, usable during the part baked bread thawing–baking phase, and

Vanessa Jury; Jean-Yves Monteau; Jacques Comiti; Alain Le-Bail

2007-01-01

50

Effect of Flour Type and Baking Temperature on Cake Dynamic Height Profile Measurements During Baking  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dynamic height profile method using digital imaging of cakes at 2 min intervals during baking was used to analyze changes\\u000a in volume during baking for cakes made with three different flour types (plain flour, heat-treated cake flour, and strong\\u000a white flour) and baked at three different temperatures (175°C, 190°C, and 205°C). The cakes made from the different flours\\u000a showed, with

Mehri HadiNezhad; Francis Butler

2010-01-01

51

Energy Cost Reduction in the Baking Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Information is presented on methods for saving fuel and electric power in the baking industry; the cost of specific retrofits to bakery equipment and of modifications to processes; ways to reduce transportation costs and energy; and reducing energy demand...

1979-01-01

52

Competitive Position of Natural Gas: Industrial Baking.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To quantify the competitive position of natural gas in industrial baking, market profiles were developed to define current technologies (single lap, tunnel, and Lanham ovens are predominant) and to characterize the applications and use of each technology ...

B. S. Minsker S. Y. Salama

1988-01-01

53

Competitive position of natural gas: Industrial baking  

SciTech Connect

Industrial baking is one of the largest natural gas consumers in the food industry. In 1985, bread, rolls, cookies, and crackers accounted for over 82 percent of all baked goods production. Bread accounting for 46 percent of all production. The baking industry consumed approximately 16 trillion Btu in 1985. About 93 percent was natural gas, while distillate fuel oil accounted for seven percent, and electricity accounted for much less than one percent. The three main types of baking ovens are the single lap, tunnel, and Lanham ovens. In the single lap oven, trays carry the product back and forth through the baking chamber once. The single lap oven is the most common type of oven and is popular due to its long horizontal runs, extensive steam zone, and simple construction. The tunnel oven is slightly more efficient and more expensive that the single lap oven. IN the tunnel oven, the hearth is a motorized conveyor which passes in a straight line through a series of heating zones, with loading and unloading occurring at opposite ends of the oven. The advantages of the tunnel oven include flexibility with respect to pan size and simple, accurate top and bottom heat control. The tunnel oven is used exclusively in the cookie and cracker baking, with the product being deposited directly on the oven band. The most recently developed type of oven is the Lanham oven. The Lanham oven is the most efficient type of oven, with a per pound energy consumption approaching the practical minimum for baking bread. Between one--half and two--thirds of all new industrial baking ovens are Lanham ovens. In the Lanham oven, the product enters the oven near the top of the chamber, spirals down through a series of heating zones, and exits near the bottom of the oven. The oven is gas--fired directly by ribbon burners. 31 refs.

Minsker, B.S.; Salama, S.Y.

1988-01-01

54

Differences between wafer and bake plate temperature uniformity in proximity bake: a theoretical and experimental study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the lithography industry moves toward finer features, specifications on temperature uniformity of the bake plates are expected to become more stringent. Consequently, aggressive improvements are needed to conventional bake station designs to make them perform significantly better than current market requirements. To this end, we have conducted a rigorous study that combines state-of-the-art simulation tools and experimental methods to predict the impact of the parameters that influence the uniformity of the wafer in proximity bake. The key observation from this detailed study is that the temperature uniformity of the wafer in proximity mode depends on a number of parameters in addition to the uniformity of the bake plate itself. These parameters include the lid design, the air flow distribution around the bake chamber, bake plate design and flatness of the bake plate and wafer. By performing careful experimental studies that were guided by extensive numerical simulations, we were able to understand the relative importance of each of these parameters. In an orderly fashion, we made appropriate design changes to curtail or eliminate the nonuniformity caused by each of these parameters. After implementing all these changes, we have now been able to match or improve the temperature uniformity of the wafer in proximity with that of a contact measurement on the bake plate. The wafer temperature uniformity is also very close to the theoretically predicted uniformity of the wafer.

Ramanan, Natarajan; Kozman, Austin; Sims, James B.

2000-06-01

55

Effect of hard bake process on LER  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Line-edge roughness (LER) continues to be one of the biggest challenges as the CD size shrinks down to sub 100 nm. It is shown that resist components as well as illumination conditions play a big role. Influence of resist components in both 248 and 193nm chemically amplified resist formulations has been reported but the root cause is not fully understood and may be platform or even specific formulation dependent. This paper attempts to tackle the issue from the processing side. Effects of a simple hard bake process on the LER were studied. In the hard bake process, a given resist pattern was typically baked close to the glass-transition temperature after the development process. LER improved dramatically due to melting down of the rough surface. However, the wall angle of the edge lines also started to degrade at the optimum hard bake temperature. Studies on the effects of polymer Tg, hard bake temperature and time and the issues of the process are discussed.

Padmanaban, Munirathna; Rentkiewicz, David; Lee, SangHo; Hong, Chisun; Lee, Dongkwan; Rahman, Dalil; Sakamuri, Raj; Dammel, Ralph R.

2005-05-01

56

25. DETAIL OF INSCRIPTION ON BAKE OVEN WHICH READS: PREMIUM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

25. DETAIL OF INSCRIPTION ON BAKE OVEN WHICH READS: PREMIUM PATENT BAKE OVEN ROASTER BY ALFRED H. REIP NO. 337 BALT. STREET BALTIMORE - Hazelwood, 18611 Queen Anne Road, Upper Marlboro, Prince George's County, MD

57

Infrared Baking of Positive Photoresist for Hybrid Microcircuit Fabrication.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of infrared heating to bake Shipley AZ1350 positive photoresist before exposure was investigated as an integral part of a cost-effective hybrid microcircuit photolithographic procedure. The baking parameters which affected the substrate temperatur...

L. E. Schantz

1976-01-01

58

Effect of Irish potato starch, yeast and sprouted soybean flour on the quality of acha bread  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to report on a study to produce wheatless bread from acha\\/fonio (Digitaria exilis) flour with sprouted soybean flour (SSF) using Irish potato starch (IPS) as gluten replacer and determine the sensory qualities of the product. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Acha bread (AB) was baked from acha flour with varying quantities of yeast and IPS

Victoria Adaora Jideani; Rosemary Aina Salami; Israel Afam Jideani

2008-01-01

59

Development of a Benchtop Baking Method for Chemically Leavened Crackers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Traditionally, the baking performance of soft wheat flours has been evaluated by well-established benchtop cookie-baking methods. In contrast, a benchtop cracker-baking method has not been widely explored or implemented as an official method, due to hurdles including the difficulty in finding ideal...

60

Baking a magnetic-field display  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Copy machine developer powder is an alternative for creating permanent displays of magnetic fields. A thin layer of developer powder on a sheet of paper placed over a magnet can be baked in the oven, producing a lasting image of a magnetic field.

Cavanaugh, Terence; Cavanaugh, Catherine

1998-02-01

61

Flavor Control in Baked Cereal Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Baked cereal products represent one of the most consumed foodstuffs in the world. Extensive scientific research has been focused on the volatile composition of these types of products. It has been shown that in spite of the great number of compounds identified, only a small number of them are responsible for the aroma. Many factors can affect the aroma composition

M. A. Pozo-Bayón; E. Guichard; N. Cayot

2006-01-01

62

Bioavailability of a potato chromium complex to the laboratory rat  

SciTech Connect

Research objectives were to study the effect of food source, preparation method and chemical form on bioavailability of chromium. Chromium concentration in potatoes was determined and tubers labeled either intrinsically or extrinsically with radioactive chromate. A labeled chromium complexes was isolated from preparations of raw, baked or fried potatoes and chromatographed on gel permeation media. Availability of the potato chromium complex to the rat was examined in three feeding studies. Animals were dosed with radioactive extrinsically or intrinsically labeled potato extract or with chromate. A labeled chromium complex was isolated from gastrointestinal contents of rats and chromatographed. Potato pulp and peel contained 1.63 and 2.70 ..mu..g Cr/g tissue respectively. True and apparent absorption from extrinsically labeled feedings were 33.4 +/- 4.7 and 29.8 +/- 11.2% respectively, and no differences existed between absorption from raw and cooked potatoes. Absorption from the extrinsic labeled potatoes differed significantly from absorption of inorganic chromatium. Apparent absorption of raw (11.1 +/- 7.9%) and cooked (-0.7 +/- 2.8%) intrinsically labeled feedings differed significantly. Absorption of inorganic chromium was 17.8% (true) and 11.5% (apparent). Examination of the chromium complex isolated from gastrointestinal tract contents showed enlargement of the complex in the stomach after consumption.

Gilbert, H.K.

1985-01-01

63

Effect of Initial Baking and Storage Time on Pasting Properties and Aging of Par-Baked and Rebaked Rye Bread  

Microsoft Academic Search

Part-baked rye bread with and without Ca-propionate (0.2 g\\/100 flour) were baked for 10, 15, 20 minutes at 230°C and stored at refrigerator temperature (4°C) for 10, 20, 30 days then second-baked for 5, 10, 15 minutes at the same temperature to give an oven-fresh end product. The effect of antimicrobial additive (Ca-propionate), part-baking, storage in refrigerator and rebaking on

M. Murat Karaoglu

2006-01-01

64

Energy consumption for baking and characteristics of baked product in relation to type of oven and baking procedure  

SciTech Connect

Data were obtained and analyzed on 1) energy consumption when a test food was baked with four types of electric ovens (electric range oven, table model conventional oven, table model forced convection oven, and table model broiler/toaster oven) with three cooking procedures (participant's own procedure, preheated procedure, and cold start procedure); 2) patterns of energy consumption in 10-minute intervals; and 3) the characteristics of the finished food. Twenty participants from households in Columbus, Ohio, baked loaves of quick bread in a laboratory in the four types of ovens with three cooking procedures. Statistical analyses of data included analyses of variance, Tukey test, and Duncan's multiple range test. Significantly more energy was used with the participants' own procedures than with either the preheated or the cold start procedure (p < .01). There was no consistency in total energy consumption between the preheated and the cold start procedures in the four types of ovens. The electric range oven consumed significantly more energy than the other three types of ovens in the first 10-minute interval; however, the table model forced convection oven consumed significantly more energy than other ovens in the second and third 10-minute intervals. No consistent patterns were observed for volume and weight loss of breads baked with the three cooking procedures, but use of the table model forced convection oven always resulted in larger volume than with other ovens.

Nee, Y.

1982-01-01

65

Precooked Potato Products.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Precooked potato products are prepared by a process wherein the potatoes are washed, peeled, and treated whole or cut into pieces. The so-prepared potatoes are cooked at a temperature below the temperature at which sloughing of the potato surface would oc...

M. L. Weaver K. C. Ng

1977-01-01

66

Use of immobilized cell biocatalysts in baking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Baking using baker's yeast immobilized in a starch–gluten–milk matrix (traditional fermented cereal food trahanas), containing viable lactic acid bacteria (LAB), and kefir (natural co-culture of yeasts and LAB) immobilized on orange peel, were investigated. The use of immobilized cells increased shelf life, delayed staling, and improved overall the quality of bread, compared with the traditional baker's yeast bread. These improvements

Stavros Plessas; Argyro Bekatorou; Maria Kanellaki; Athanasios A. Koutinas; Roger Marchant; Ibrahim M. Banat

2007-01-01

67

ITT Continental Baking tests electric vans  

SciTech Connect

ITT Continental Baking Co., operator of one of the largest truck fleets in the U.S., is studying battery power as an alternative fuel for the future. The company currently has a total of 10 lead battery-powered vans delivering bread and cake products in Sacramento, California, and Spokane, Washington. Through a cost-sharing program with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the company will operate the vehicles through at least June 30, 1985, gathering data on their performance. The joint program began in 1981.

Not Available

1983-02-01

68

Germination of oat and quinoa and evaluation of the malts as gluten free baking ingredients.  

PubMed

Germination can be used to improve the sensory and nutritional properties of cereal and pseudocereal grains. Oat and quinoa are rich in minerals, vitamins and fibre while quinoa also contains high amounts of protein of a high nutritional value. In this study, oat and quinoa malts were produced and incorporated in a rice and potato based gluten free formulation. Germination of oat led to a drastic increase of ?-amylase activity from 0.3 to 48 U/g, and minor increases in proteolytic and lipolytic activities. Little change was observed in quinoa except a decrease in proteolytic activity from 9.6 to 6.9 U/g. Oat malt addition decreased batter viscosities at both proofing temperature and during heating. These changes led to a decrease in bread density from 0.59 to 0.5 g/ml and the formation of a more open crumb, but overdosing of oat malt deteriorated the product as a result of excessive amylolysis during baking. Quinoa malt had no significant effect on the baking properties due to low ?-amylase activity. Despite showing a very different impact on the bread quality, both malts influenced the electrophoretic patterns of rice flour protein similarly. This suggests that malt induced proteolysis does not influence the technological properties of a complex gluten free formulation. PMID:23386201

Mäkinen, Outi E; Zannini, Emanuele; Arendt, Elke K

2013-03-01

69

Relationship between Processing Method and the Glycemic Indices of Ten Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas) Cultivars Commonly Consumed in Jamaica  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the effect of different traditional cooking methods on glycemic index (GI) and glycemic response of ten Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) cultivars commonly eaten in Jamaica. Matured tubers were cooked by roasting, baking, frying, or boiling then immediately consumed by the ten nondiabetic test subjects (5 males and 5 females; mean age of 27 ± 2 years). The GI varied between 41 ± 5–93 ± 5 for the tubers studied. Samples prepared by boiling had the lowest GI (41 ± 5–50 ± 3), while those processed by baking (82 ± 3–94 ± 3) and roasting (79 ± 4–93 ± 2) had the highest GI values. The study indicates that the glycemic index of Jamaican sweet potatoes varies significantly with the method of preparation and to a lesser extent on intravarietal differences. Consumption of boiled sweet potatoes could minimize postprandial blood glucose spikes and therefore, may prove to be more efficacious in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Bahado-Singh, Perceval S.; Riley, Cliff K.; Wheatley, Andrew O.; Lowe, Henry I. C.

2011-01-01

70

Thermophysical properties evolution of French partly baked bread during freezing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few data are available on the thermophysical properties of the frozen partly baked breads. In this paper, thermophysical properties, including apparent and true densities, specific heat, enthalpy and effective thermal conductivity were determined separately for crumb and crust of partly baked bread. Total enthalpy of fusion, unfrozen water and solid specific heat were determined by differential scanning calorimetry. The apparent

Nasser Hamdami; Jean-Yves Monteau; Alain Le Bail

2004-01-01

71

No-Bake Systems in Modern Foundry Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An innovation in modern foundry technology is the use of no-bake systems for the preparation of sand molds and cores. As the name suggests, a no-bake system consists of two or three chemicals, which cure the sand in molds and cores at room temperature wit...

C. W. Chen

1978-01-01

72

Using Easy-Bake Ovens to Teach Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

After participating in an internship at the American Institute of Baking, the author developed an innovative way for students to explore basic chemistry concepts through bakery science. An Easy-Bake Oven is a quick and safe oven that is perfect for the classroom. Two activity series are described, one exploring chemical and physical changes, and one exploring pH.

Herald, Christine

2004-02-01

73

Electrolytic polishing and etching of sections of baked tungsten  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electropolishing and electroetching of baked tungsten moldings were studied using an electrolyte solution containing equal quantities of caustic potash and potassium ferrocyanide. Volt-ampere curves for the electropolishing process were presented; and a 200x magnification representation of the surface of baked tungsten after electropolishing was given. (DDA)

R. G. Berezin; V. A. Savrai; A. A. Nazarov

1975-01-01

74

[Effect of soybean lipoxygenae on baking properties of wheat flour].  

PubMed

Changes in bread-baking properties of wheat flour caused by soybean lipoxygenase and polyunsaturated fatty acids were studied. A positive effect of soybean flour added during dough kneading in an amount of 2% was demonstrated. A method for dough fermentation increasing the loaf volume and improving organoleptic characteristics and total bread-baking estimate is recommended. PMID:21790037

Permiakova, M D; Trufanov, V A

75

Loss of Thiamin During the Baking of Bread  

Microsoft Academic Search

WE have just received the published account1 of a symposium on ``Factors Affecting the Nutritive Value of Bread as Human Food''. An important issue not touched upon by the various speakers, but raised during discussion, concerned the loss of thiamin during the baking of bread. Two speakers expressed the view that in baking bread the loss of vitamin B1 is

Leon Goldberg; J. M. Thorp

1946-01-01

76

Air Pollution Control in the Carbon Baking Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon baking process involves evolution of fumes containing hydrocarbons and soot particles which cannot be discharged directly into the atmosphere. An incinerator can be used to clean these fumes. However, length of the baking cycle, nature of the fumes and variations in fume volume and temperature may result in excessive auxiliary fuel usage and inefficient incineration, if the incinerator is

Klaus H. Hemsath; Arvind C. Thekdi

1974-01-01

77

Baked bean consumption reduces serum cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Baked bean consumption has been linked to reductions in total cholesterol (TC), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in previous research with hypercholesterolemic adult men in controlled settings. The objective of the current research was to determine if daily intake of half a cup of vegetarian baked beans would reduce risk factors for coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes in

Donna M. Winham; Andrea M. Hutchins

2007-01-01

78

No-bake systems in modern foundry technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

An innovation in modern foundry technology is the use of no-bake systems for the preparation of sand molds and cores. As the name suggests, a no-bake system consists of two or three chemicals, which cure the sand in molds and cores at room temperature without heating. The sand is cured by a chemical process through the reactions of a binder

1978-01-01

79

Sushi Bar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An innovative website where customers order from a realistic sushi bar menu to learn about international fisheries resources and impacts. Select shrimp, tuna, squid, octopus, or sea urchin to learn where resources are harvested, current fisheries methods, population status and concerns. This on-line activity also demonstrates how global our use of resources has become, with a single country dependent on seafood imports from around the world. The site also contains lesson plans on natural resources and resource management. Appropriate for grades 6 and up.

2010-12-02

80

Conestoga: A new early potato cultivar with very good table and chipping qualities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conestoga is an early, white-skinned potato with very vigorous early growth. It has very good boiling, baking and chipping\\u000a qualities. Yield is comparable to that of Superior, with chip colour and specific gravity slightly higher than Norchip’s.\\u000a Conestoga is moderately resistant to virus leafroll, net necrosis, early blight, and common scab and moderately susceptible\\u000a to mild and rugose mosaic.

G. R. Johnston; R. G. Rowberry; J. F. Alex

1983-01-01

81

Baking Performance of Phosphorylated Cross-Linked Resistant Starch in Low-Moisture Bakery Goods  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phosphorylated cross-linked resistant starch (RS) is a type 4 RS, which can be used for enhancing the benefits of dietary fiber. The baking performance of the RS was explored using wire-cut cookie baking and benchtop chemically-leavened cracker baking methods to produce low-moisture baked goods (coo...

82

Baking of Flat Bread in an Impingement Oven: Modeling and Optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

An artificial neural network (ANN) was developed to model the effect of baking parameters on the quality attributes of flat bread; i.e., crumb temperature, moisture content, surface color change and bread volume increase during baking process. As the hot air impinging jets were employed for baking, the baking control parameters were the jet temperature, the jet velocity, and the time

S. Banooni; S. M. Hosseinalipour; A. S. Mujumdar; P. Taherkhani; M. Bahiraei

2009-01-01

83

Effect of frozen storage time on the bread crumb and aging of par-baked bread  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of frozen storage time of par-baked bread on the bread crumb and staling of bread obtained after thawing and full baking is described. The moisture content, hardness and retrogradation enthalpy of the amylopectin were determined in the par-baked bread and in the full baked bread after 7, 14, 28 and 42 days of frozen storage at ?25 °C.

María Eugenia Bárcenas; Cristina M. Rosell

2006-01-01

84

Impact of different baking processes on bread firmness and starch properties in breadcrumb  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence the quality and shelf life of baked product has previously been reported to be effected by the time and temperature of the baking process. In this study, dough was baked at 219°C by using different ovens (conventional, impingement or hybrid) or with doughs of different sizes (large or small) for varying times. During baking the temperature profile at

B. K. Patel; R. D. Waniska; K. Seetharaman

2005-01-01

85

Composition of sulfited potatoes: comparison with fresh and frozen potatoes.  

PubMed

The content in moisture, fat, protein, carbohydrate, fibre and vitamin C was analyzed in three commercial types of potatoes: sulfited (treated with E223), frozen potatoes (pre-fried) and fresh potatoes (not processed). The composition of sulfited potatoes does not usually appear in food composition tables. Our results showed significant differences in the content of carbohydrates and fibre between sulfited and fresh potatoes. The content of vitamin C in sulfited potatoes, which is similar to that of frozen potatoes, was shown to be approximately half of that found in fresh potatoes. PMID:7792261

Chalom, S; Elrezzi, E; Peña, P; Astiarsarán, I; Bello, J

1995-02-01

86

Ceramic Bar-on-Bar Impact Experiments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ceramic bar-on-bar (uniaxial stress) experiments are performed to extend uniaxial strain deformation states imposed in flyer plate impact experiments. The major objective of these experiments is to generate a variety of multi axial deformation states for ...

N. S. Brar

2003-01-01

87

24. VIEW OF COOKING FIREPLACE AND BAKE OVEN IN KITCHEN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

24. VIEW OF COOKING FIREPLACE AND BAKE OVEN IN KITCHEN OF SOUTH (ORIGINAL) SECTION, SOUTHEAST ROOM, SOUTH WALL, WITH OVEN DOOR CLOSED - Hazelwood, 18611 Queen Anne Road, Upper Marlboro, Prince George's County, MD

88

23. VIEW OF COOKING FIREPLACE AND BAKE OVEN IN KITCHEN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

23. VIEW OF COOKING FIREPLACE AND BAKE OVEN IN KITCHEN OF SOUTH (ORIGINAL) SECTION, SOUTHEAST ROOM, SOUTH WALL, WITH OVEN DOOR OPEN - Hazelwood, 18611 Queen Anne Road, Upper Marlboro, Prince George's County, MD

89

Characteristic coloring curve for white bread during baking.  

PubMed

The effect of heating conditions on the crust color formation was investigated during the baking of white bread. The surface temperatures were monitored with thermocouples attached to the inside surface of the loaf pan cover. The trace of the surface color in the L(*)a(*)b(*) color coordinate system is defined as the characteristic coloring curve. The overall baking process was classified into the following four stages based on the characteristic coloring curve: i) pre-heating (surface temperature < 110 °C), ii) Maillard reaction (110-150 °C), iii) caramelization (150-200 °C), and iv) over-baking (surface temperature>200 °C). A linear relationship was observed between the L(*) decrease and the increase in weight loss of a sample at each oven air temperature. The L(*) value appeared to be suitable as an indicator to control the surface color by baking conditions. PMID:21307578

Onishi, Masanobu; Inoue, Michiko; Araki, Tetsuya; Iwabuchi, Hisakatsu; Sagara, Yasuyuki

2011-02-07

90

89. BAKE SHOP AFT LOOKING FORWARD SHOWING KNEADING TABLE, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

89. BAKE SHOP - AFT LOOKING FORWARD SHOWING KNEADING TABLE, OVENS, DOUGH MIXER, BREAD RACKS AND RISING CABINETS. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

91

Diatom Cells Grown and Baked on a Functionalized Mica Surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate the cultivation of diatom cells on a functionalized mica surface and the preparation of frustules on a mica\\u000a surface by baking. Diatom cells were successfully grown on a mica surface treated with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane. After\\u000a baking at 400?C for 2 h, frustule structures without the organic components of the diatom cells were successfully observed\\u000a by scanning electron microscopy and atomic

Kazuo Umemura; Yusuke Noguchi; Takuya Ichinose; Yo Hirose; Reiko Kuroda; Shigeki Mayama

2008-01-01

92

Quality and storage life of par-baked frozen breads  

Microsoft Academic Search

During storage of frozen par-baked breads for a prolonged period of time, bread quality may undergo changes such as increased firmness, moisture and flavour losses resulting in product deterioration. Four categories of par-baked breads namely—variety, white, multi-grain and rye were stored at ?18°C for 9 months to evaluate the effects of storage period on product quality, and to develop prediction

I. R Vulicevic; E. S. M Abdel-Aal; G. S Mittal; X Lu

2004-01-01

93

Moisture adsorption isotherms of microwave-baked Madeira cake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adsorption isotherms of microwave-baked Madeira cake, flour and sugar were determined using a standard static gravimetric method within the temperature range 5–60°C and relative humidity range of 0.04–0.96. Microwave-baked Madeira cake and sugar samples exhibited Type III isotherm behaviour, whereas flour exhibited Type II characteristics, with the sorption capacity decreasing with increasing temperature for Madeira cake and flour. Conversely, the

Ala'a H. Al-Muhtaseb; Muhanned A. Hararah; E. K. Megahey; W. A. M. McMinn; T. R. A. Magee

2010-01-01

94

Morphology and physical-chemical properties of baked nanoporous frustules.  

PubMed

We investigated the morphology and physical-chemical properties of baked and unbaked nanoporous frustules. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations showed that the nanoporous structures of frustules unchanged at 400 degrees C even after baking for 6 h. During baking at 800 degrees C, the frustule structures changed dramatically. On the other hand, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) of bulk frustule samples indicated that physical-chemical properties of the frustules had clearly changed after baking at not only 800 degrees C but also 400 degrees C. These results showed that the reconstruction of the structures had occurred inside the frustules, even though the morphology of the frustules had not apparently changed at 400 degrees C. In order to characterize the exact shape of the frustules, living diatom cells were grown on a functionalized mica surface, and then baked without any chemical treatment for SEM study. This 'direct baking' technique is effective for comparing minute structures of the frustules, because completed combination of every part of the frustules can be observed. PMID:21125874

Umemura, Kazuo; Noguchi, Yusuke; Ichinose, Takuya; Hirose, Yo; Mayama, Shigeki

2010-08-01

95

Low-acrylamide French fries and potato chips  

PubMed Central

Acrylamide is produced in starchy foods that are baked, roasted or fried at high temperatures. Concerns about the potential health issues associated with the dietary intake of this reactive compound led us to reduce the accumulation of asparagine, one of its main precursors, in the tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosum). This metabolic change was accomplished by silencing two asparagine synthetase genes through ‘all-native DNA’ transformation. Glasshouse-grown tubers of the transformed intragenic plants contained up to 20-fold reduced levels of free asparagine. This metabolic change coincided with a small increase in the formation of glutamine and did not affect tuber shape or yield. Heat-processed products derived from the low-asparagine tubers were also indistinguishable from their untransformed counterparts in terms of sensory characteristics. However, both French fries and potato chips accumulated as little as 5% of the acrylamide present in wild-type controls. Given the important role of processed potato products in the modern Western diet, a replacement of current varieties with intragenic potatoes could reduce the average daily intake of acrylamide by almost one-third.

Rommens, Caius M; Yan, Hua; Swords, Kathy; Richael, Craig; Ye, Jingsong

2008-01-01

96

Bioavailability of zinc from sweet potato roots and leaves  

SciTech Connect

Bioavailability of zinc from sweet potato (SP) roots and leaves were determined, by extrinsic labeling technique, in rats fed control and zinc deficient diets. Weanling male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats (60-75g) were divided into 4 groups, and fed laboratory chow, a control diet (ad libitum and pair fed) and a zinc deficient diet, for 4 weeks. Each group then was divided into at least 2 sub groups, containing 6 rats, which were intubated with one of 3 tubing solutions extrinsically labeled with /sup 65/Zn; baked sweet potato roots (BSPR), raw sweet potato leaves (RSPL) and cooked sweet potato leaves (CSPL). Five hours after intubation the rats were sacrificed, blood, liver, testes, spleen, heart, brain, thymus and lungs were removed. Feces, urine, and GI tract contents were collected and their /sup 65/Zn activity was determined in a gamma counter. In all treatment groups zinc bioavailability from BSPR, RSPL or CSPL were not significantly different. Zinc deficient rats absorbed significantly more (P < 0.01) /sup 65/Zn (86-90% of the dose), regardless of type of tubing solution than the pairfed or control animals (35-58% of the dose). The highest retention of /sup 65/Zn was found in the liver (12-20% of absorbed dose), GI tract (6-17% of absorbed dose), kidney (2-8% of absorbed dose), and blood (1-5% of absorbed dose). The lowest retention was found in the brain, heart, thymus and testes. (< 1% of absorbed dose).

Baiden, H.N.; Ercanli-Huffman, F.G.

1986-03-05

97

Effect of Baking Procedure and Storage on the Pasting Properties and Staling of Part-Baked and Rebaked White Pan Bread Crumb  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this investigation, the white pan breads were part-baked for 10, 15, 20 minutes at 230°C with and without calcium propionate (0.2%), were stored at room temperature (20°C) for 3, 5, 7 days wrapped with two polyethylene bags. After storage, baking time of part-baked breads was completed to the baking time of control breads (25 minutes). Breads were subjected to

M. Murat Karaoglu

2006-01-01

98

THE POTATO SYSTEMS PLANNER  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Developing profitable crop rotations is a top research priority for the potato industry. An interdisciplinary team of ARS scientists from the New England Plant, Soil, & Water Laboratory evaluated 14 rotations for their impacts on potato yield and quality, nutrient availability, plant diseases, soil ...

99

Abrasive peeling of potatoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the processing of potatoes in any form, removal of peel is an important unit operation. Hence, a power operated batch type potato peeler was developed and its performance was evaluated. The main parts of the machine are a peeling drum and a water spraying unit. The peeling drum with protrusions on the inside surface rotates and detaches peel from

K. K. Singh; B. D. Shukla

1995-01-01

100

Improved Sweet Potato Products.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method for producing sweet potato sections, which upon heat processing results in products having improved firmness, is described. The process comprises treating sections of sweet potatoes with a 0.01M to 3M aqueous solution of at least one compound whi...

W. M. Walter H. P. Fleming R. F. McFeeters

1991-01-01

101

Partial-Baking Process on Gluten-Free Bread: Impact of Hydrocolloid Addition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this work were to assess the impact of partial-baking process on gluten-free bread, and to study how carboxymethylcellulose\\u000a (CMC) and xanthan gum addition affected this process. As different from the conventional baking which involves only one baking\\u000a step (40 min), the part-baking process consisted in an initial-baking step (25 min), storage (7 days, 4°C), and final-baking\\u000a step (15 min). Bread-specific volume

Lorena Susana Sciarini; Gabriela Teresa Pérez; Marie de Lamballerie; Alberto Edel León; Pablo Daniel Ribotta

102

Phenolic content, composition, antioxidant activity, and their changes during domestic cooking of potatoes.  

PubMed

Potatoes in the diet contribute significantly to antioxidant daily intake worldwide. The influence of different domestic cooking conditions, boiling, microwaving, and baking, on total phenolics (TP), antioxidant capacity, phenolic composition, and tryptophan content was studied using eight commercial potato varieties. The antioxidant capacity was detected by the methods of oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay (ORAC) and the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH(*)) assay. The phenolic composition and tryptophan content were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD), whereas phenolics and tryptophan were identified by means of HPLC-mass spectrometry, HPLC-DAD, and authentic standards. Antioxidant capacity was influenced by potato variety and cooking conditions; however, cooked potatoes retained 68-97% ORAC value depending on cooking procedure and variety. Chlorogenic acid and its isomers dominated the phenolic composition of each variety involved in this study. ORAC and TP were highly and positively correlated (r = 0.9119). Norkotah ranked highest in chlorogenic acid content and antioxidant value. Principal component analysis showed different cooking processes did not influence the trend of the antioxidant profile of the eight potato varieties, but specific compounds exert influence on the antioxidant capacity. The results imply that the potato varieties rich in antioxidant components could be good antioxidant sources as activities are not greatly affected by different cooking conditions. PMID:19831402

Xu, Xiaoyun; Li, Wende; Lu, Zhanhui; Beta, Trust; Hydamaka, Arnie W

2009-11-11

103

Diatom cells grown and baked on a functionalized mica surface.  

PubMed

We demonstrate the cultivation of diatom cells on a functionalized mica surface and the preparation of frustules on a mica surface by baking. Diatom cells were successfully grown on a mica surface treated with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane. After baking at 400 degrees C for 2 h, frustule structures without the organic components of the diatom cells were successfully observed by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Furthermore, the frustules deformed and became slender when a sample was baked at 800 degrees C for 2 h. Our method is effective for the direct characterization of frustule structures and physical properties without changing the configuration of the diatom cells grown on the mica surface. PMID:19669502

Umemura, Kazuo; Noguchi, Yusuke; Ichinose, Takuya; Hirose, Yo; Kuroda, Reiko; Mayama, Shigeki

2008-06-24

104

Incorporating tangent refinement in the Shake-and-Bake formalism.  

PubMed

Shake-and-Bake is a direct-methods procedure in which phase refinement and Fourier refinement are alternated repetitively, unconditionally and automatically. The traditional Shake-and-Bake approach invoked a parameter-shift routine to perform phase refinement in an effort to reduce the value of minimal function. In this paper, parameter shift is replaced with the tangent formula as a means of phase refinement. This study shows that the tangent formula is more efficient than parameter shift for small structures when the number of refinement cycles and number of applications of the tangent formula per Shake-and-Bake cycle are chosen very carefully. For larger structures, including the 400 non-H-atom crambin structure, the two methods generally perform with similar efficiency. However, only parameter shift has successfully produced recognizable solutions for the difficult 317 non-H-atom structure gramicidin A. PMID:9232836

Chang, C S; Weeks, C M; Miller, R; Hauptman, H A

1997-07-01

105

Potato Operation: automatic detection of potato diseases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Potato Operation is a collaborative, multidisciplinary project in the domain of destructive testing of agricultural products. It aims at automatizing pulp sampling of potatoes in order to detect possible viral diseases. Such viruses can decrease fields productivity by a factor of up to ten. A machine, composed of three conveyor belts, a vision system, a robotic arm and controlled by a PC has been built. Potatoes are brought one by one from a bulk to the vision system, where they are seized by a rotating holding device. The sprouts, where the viral activity is maximum, are then detected by an active vision process operating on multiple views. The 3D coordinates of the sampling point are communicated to the robot arm holding a drill. Some flesh is then sampled by the drill, then deposited into an Elisa plate. After sampling, the robot arm washes the drill in order to prevent any contamination. The PC computer simultaneously controls these processes, the conveying of the potatoes, the vision algorithms and the sampling procedure. The master process, that is the vision procedure, makes use of three methods to achieve the sprouts detection. A profile analysis first locates the sprouts as protuberances. Two frontal analyses, respectively based on fluorescence and local variance, confirm the previous detection and provide the 3D coordinate of the sampling zone. The other two processes work by interruption of the master process.

Lefebvre, Marc; Zimmerman, Thierry; Baur, Charles; Guegerli, Paul; Pun, Thierry

1995-01-01

106

Microbiological Characteristics of Part-Baked White Pan Bread During Storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, white pan breads part-baked 10, 15, and 20 min with and without added calcium propionate were stored at 20°C (room temperature) for 3, 5, and 7 days and at 4°C (refrigerator temperature) for 7, 14, and 21 days. After storage, the baking time of part-baked breads was completed to the baking time of control breads (25 min).

M. Murat Karaoglu; H. Gürbüz Kotancilar; Mustafa Gurses

2005-01-01

107

Two-stage freezing of part baked breads: Application and optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Partially baked bread or part baked bread can be frozen to extend its shelf life. Process conditions can influence frozen part baked bread quality, which can be related to excessive drying of the surface at the end of the post-baking chilling and freezing process. This excessive drying might be responsible for crust flaking and\\/or dull colour of the crust. Build-up

Nasser Hamdami; Q. Tuan Pham; Alain Le-Bail; Jean-Yves Monteau

2007-01-01

108

Modified test for potato sloughing assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct methods for potato sloughing assessment mostly consist in CPM (cooked potato mass) tests in which potato cubes are cooked, sieved and the mass of the remaining cooked potato tissue on the sieve is recorded. The characteristic time CT100 determined from the CPM cooking curve indicates the potato resistance to sloughing. The CPEM (cooked potato effective mass) method was proposed

Anna Hejlová; Ji?í Blahovec; Josef Vacek

2006-01-01

109

NewLeaf Plus® Russet Burbank potatoes: replicase-mediated resistance to potato leafroll virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potato leafroll poleovirus and the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say)) are major pests of potato in the USA. The US Department of Agriculture estimates that over 50% of annual insecticide use on potato is applied to control the Colorado potato beetle and aphids that transmit potato leafroll virus (PLRV). To address this issue, Russet Burbank potatoes have been genetically

E. C. Lawson; J. D. Weiss; P. E. Thomas; W. K. Kaniewski

2001-01-01

110

Tow Bar for Aircraft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The tow bar includes a rigid, elongated beam having a hitch located at each of its opposite ends for accommodating a coupling of the tow bar between a gear truck and a towing vehicle. Interposed between the center mass of the tow bar and the end thereof t...

P. Baldridge

1978-01-01

111

Modeling of Simultaneous Heat and Water Transport in the Baking Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the recent past, several experimental and mathematical studies have been conducted to understand the basic mechanism of heat and water transport involved in the baking process. The experimental studies have helped in developing phenomenological hypotheses for the baking of bread and biscuit. The experimental studies on baking of bread showed that the major transport mechanism involved was evaporation-condensation of

S. S. Sablani; M. Marcotte; O. D. Baik; F. Castaigne

1998-01-01

112

Different approaches for increasing the shelf life of partially baked bread: Low temperatures and hydrocolloid addition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Partially baked bread is a product with short shelf life that requires sub-zero temperatures for extending it. The storage of par-baked bread at low temperatures and the addition of bread improvers with antistaling effects, such as hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC), are very attractive alternatives for extending the shelf life of these products. In this study, staling during storage of partially baked bread

María Eugenia Bárcenas; Cristina M. Rosell

2007-01-01

113

Use of glycoside hydrolase family 8 xylanases in baking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Xylanases have long been used in the baking industry for improving dough stability and flexibility and for increasing bread volume and crumb structure. Only xylanases from glycoside hydrolase families 10 and 11 appear to have been tested in this application and only those from the latter family have as yet found application. Interestingly, enzymes with a putative xylanase activity are

Tony Collins; Anne Hoyoux; Agnès Dutron; Jacques Georis; Bernard Genot; Thierry Dauvrin; Filip Arnaut; Charles Gerday; Georges Feller

2006-01-01

114

Clay alumina brick used in anode baking furnaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently, the choice of refractory for use in the flue walls of a carbon baking furnace is dependent upon the degree of control achieved in the furnace. This article describes how this interrelationship has occurred and describes what refractory systems are in use.

Corliss, Glenn F.; Stett, Mark A.

1996-11-01

115

15. 110 SANSOM STREET, BAKE OVEN IN CELLAR (Above the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. 110 SANSOM STREET, BAKE OVEN IN CELLAR (Above the chamber is the entrance to the squirrel tail flue. Below and to the right at floor level is a wood storage compartment.) - James McCrea Houses, 108-110 Sansom Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

116

Find the Fizz: Discover the Secret of Baking Powder  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity on page 4 of the PDF, learners investigate ingredients that combine to produce gas bubbles. Learners mix together various ingredients to observe chemical reactions that produce a gas. Learners use the scientific method to determine what baking powder is made of.

Society, American C.

2000-01-01

117

16. 110 SANSOM STREET, OBLIQUE VIEW OF BAKE OVEN IN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

16. 110 SANSOM STREET, OBLIQUE VIEW OF BAKE OVEN IN CELLAR (Note the double arch in front of the oven. The front arch supported the structural framing.) - James McCrea Houses, 108-110 Sansom Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

118

Milling and Baking Qualities of Weathered Soft Wheats  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The effects of weathered/pre-harvested sprouted soft wheats on milling and baking qualities were explored with 12 soft wheat cultivars. Weathered/pre-harvested sprouted wheats increased break flour yield, but significantly decreased test weight. The relationships between falling number and a-amylas...

119

Enzyme exposure and enzyme sensitisation in the baking industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To assess the exposure to enzymes and prevalence of enzyme sensitisation in the baking industry. METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted in four bakeries, one flour mill, and one crispbread factory. Sensitisation to enzymes, flours, and storage mites was examined by skin prick and radioallergosorbent (RAST) tests. 365 workers were tested. The workers were interviewed for work related

M Vanhanen; T Tuomi; H Hokkanen; O Tupasela; A Tuomainen; P C Holmberg; M Leisola; H Nordman

1996-01-01

120

The effects of storage on flour quality and baking performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

In times of low wheat reserves, newly harvested wheat is processed almost immediately after harvest, which presents a series of problems to the millers and bakers. Newly harvested wheat generally has poor milling and baking quality. However, after wheat is aged, the bran is easier to separate from the endosperm, flour extraction increases, and ash content drops. These improvements have

Linfeng Wang; Rolando A. Flores

1999-01-01

121

Architecture of baked breads depicted by a magnetic resonance imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The architecture of baked breads made of fresh dough and frozen dough was depicted by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Pieces of bread (16 mm cubic cakes) were soaked in organic solvents containing various concentrations of heavy metals (Cu2+, Co2+ and Fe3+) and images of the grain structure of the breads were obtained. Of the organic solvents tested, acetone was preferable

Nobuaki Ishida; Hiroyuki Takano; Shigehiro Naito; Seiichiro Isobe; Kunihiko Uemura; Tomoyuki Haishi; Katsumi Kose; Mika Koizumi; Hiromi Kano

2001-01-01

122

Treatment of Rice Flour to Obtain Improved Quality Baked Products.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention relates to and has among its objects a simple and inexpensive treatment of rice flour to obtain rice-containing baked goods having improved properties. Rice has characteristics such as the absence of gluten; low levels of sodium, protein, fa...

M. M. Bean K. D. Nishita E. A. Hoops

1982-01-01

123

Food Production, Management, and Services. Baking. Teacher Edition. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|These instructional materials are intended for a course on food production, management, and services involved in baking. The following introductory information is included: use of this publication; competency profile; instructional/task analysis; related academic and workplace skills list; tools, materials, and equipment list; 13 references; and…

Gibson, LeRoy

124

A Database Approach for Predicting and Monitoring Baked Anode Properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The baked anode quality control strategy currently used by most carbon plants based on testing anode core samples in the laboratory is inadequate for facing increased raw material variability. The low core sampling rate limited by lab capacity and the common practice of reporting averaged properties based on some anode population mask a significant amount of individual anode variability. In addition, lab results are typically available a few weeks after production and the anodes are often already set in the reduction cells preventing early remedial actions when necessary. A database approach is proposed in this work to develop a soft-sensor for predicting individual baked anode properties at the end of baking cycle. A large historical database including raw material properties, process operating parameters and anode core data was collected from a modern Alcoa plant. A multivariate latent variable PLS regression method was used for analyzing the large database and building the soft-sensor model. It is shown that the general low frequency trends in most anode physical and mechanical properties driven by raw material changes are very well captured by the model. Improvements in the data infrastructure (instrumentation, sampling frequency and location) will be necessary for predicting higher frequency variations in individual baked anode properties. This paper also demonstrates how multivariate latent variable models can be interpreted against process knowledge and used for real-time process monitoring of carbon plants, and detection of faults and abnormal operation.

Lauzon-Gauthier, Julien; Duchesne, Carl; Tessier, Jayson

2012-11-01

125

Effect of low temperature baking on niobium cavities  

SciTech Connect

A low temperature (100 C-150 C) ''in situ'' baking under ultra-high vacuum has been successfully applied as final preparation of niobium RF cavities by several laboratories over the last few years. The benefits reported consist mainly of an improvement of the cavity quality factor and a recovery from the so-called ''Q-drop'' without field emission at high field. A series of experiments with a CEBAF single cell cavity have been carried out at Jefferson Lab to carefully investigate the effect of baking at progressively higher temperatures for a fixed time on all the relevant material parameters. Measurements of the cavity quality factor in the temperature range 1.37K-280K and resonant frequency shift between 6K-9.3K provide information about the surface resistance, energy gap, penetration depth and mean free path. The experimental data have been analyzed with the complete BCS theory of superconductivity using a modified version of the computer code originally written by J. Halbritter [1] . Small niobium samples inserted in the cavity during its surface preparation were analyzed with respect to their hydrogen content with a Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA). The single cell cavity has been tested at three different temperatures before and after baking to gain some insight on thermal conductivity and Kapitza resistance and the data are compared with different models. This paper describes the results from these experiments and comments on the existing models to explain the effect of baking on the performance of niobium RF cavities.

Peter Kneisel; Ganapati Myneni; William Lanford; Gianluigi Ciovati

2003-09-01

126

Utilisation of the Commonwealth Potato Collection in potato breeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The use of the Commonwealth Potato Collection in potato breeding is set in the context of the evolution of the crop and the\\u000a need to widen its genetic base by introgression and base broadening. The introduction of the potato to Europe and its subsequent\\u000a worldwide spread is described. An introduction is given to the world's major potato genebanks, and the

John E. Bradshaw; Gavin Ramsay

2005-01-01

127

Genetically improved potatoes: protection from damage by Colorado potato beetles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Russet Burbank potato plants have been genetically improved to resist insect attack and damage by Colorado potato beetles (Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say)) by the insertion of a cryIIIA gene encoding the insect control protein of Bacillus thuringiensis var. tenebrionis. A modified gene that dramatically improved plant expression of this protein was utilized. Its expression in Russet Burbank potato plants resulted in

Frederick J. Perlak; Terry B. Stone; Yvonne M. Muskopf; Lisa J. Petersen; Gregory B. Parker; Sylvia A. McPherson; Jeff Wyman; Stephen Love; Gary Reed; Duane Biever; David A. Fischhoff

1993-01-01

128

Organic potato production – seed potato production and participatory variety trials  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potatoes are vegetatively propagated, thus many pathogens can be transmitted in seed potatoes and affect the subsequent crop. Certified seed potatoes, which are inspected to ensure that pathogen levels are below a specified threshold, provide effective control of most tuber-borne diseases. Organic g...

129

First report of Potato virus Y in potato in Tajikistan  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is widely grown as a staple food and cash crop in Tajikistan and is an important food security crop in the country. In June 2011, we conducted a survey of potatoes in farmers’ fields in Buston and Dushanbe regions of Tajikistan. Potato plants with stunted growth and lea...

130

10 Tips for Parents: How to Get Kids to Eat More Complex Carbohydrates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Offers 10 suggestions to help parents encourage their children to eat more complex carbohydrates. Suggestions include microwaving baked potatoes; baking whole-grain breads; snacking on gingersnaps, fig bars, pretzels, or vegetable sticks; mixing cereal into low-fat yogurt; and making soup containing beans, rice, pasta, or potatoes. (SM)|

PTA Today, 1991

1991-01-01

131

The effects of boiling and leaching on the content of potassium and other minerals in potatoes.  

PubMed

The white potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is a valuable source of potassium in the human diet. While most consumers benefit from high levels of potassium in potato tubers, individuals with compromised kidney function must minimize their potassium intake. This study was undertaken to determine the effects of leaching and boiling on levels of potassium and other minerals in potato tubers. Leaching alone did not significantly reduce levels of potassium or other minerals in tubers. Boiling tuber cubes and shredded tubers decreased potassium levels by 50% and 75%, respectively. Reductions in mineral amounts following boiling were observed for phosphorus, magnesium, sulfur, zinc, manganese, and iron. There was no difference between the leaching and boiling treatment and the boiling treatment. In addition, mineral levels in tubers of 6 North American potato cultivars are reported. Significant differences in mineral levels were detected among cultivars, but they were too small to be nutritionally important. Individuals wishing to maximize the mineral nutrition benefits of consuming potatoes should boil them whole or bake, roast, or microwave them. Those who must reduce potassium uptake should boil small pieces before consuming them. PMID:18576999

Bethke, P C; Jansky, S H

2008-06-01

132

Organic vs. traditional potato powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work the profile of primary metabolites in potato (Solanum tuberosum L., cultivar Agria) grown under organic vs traditional farming system was studied, and the influence of heat processing (for producing potato powder) on nutritionally important compounds such as essential amino acids, proteins and carbohydrates was evaluated. The potato powder was obtained by means of a drum dryer using

Petronia Carillo; Domenico Cacace; Stefania De Pascale; Mariateresa Rapacciuolo; Amodio Fuggi

133

Bar Code Labels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

American Bar Codes, Inc. developed special bar code labels for inventory control of space shuttle parts and other space system components. ABC labels are made in a company-developed anodizing aluminum process and consecutively marketed with bar code symbology and human readable numbers. They offer extreme abrasion resistance and indefinite resistance to ultraviolet radiation, capable of withstanding 700 degree temperatures without deterioration and up to 1400 degrees with special designs. They offer high resistance to salt spray, cleaning fluids and mild acids. ABC is now producing these bar code labels commercially or industrial customers who also need labels to resist harsh environments.

1988-01-01

134

Genetic and phenotypic characteristics of baker's yeast: relevance to baking.  

PubMed

Yeasts rarely encounter ideal physiological conditions during their industrial life span; therefore, their ability to adapt to changing conditions determines their usefulness and applicability. This is especially true for baking strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The success of this yeast in the ancient art of bread making is based on its capacity to rapidly transform carbohydrates into CO2 rather than its unusual resistance to environmental stresses. Moreover, baker's yeast must exhibit efficient respiratory metabolism during yeast manufacturing, which determines biomass yield. However, optimal growth conditions often have negative consequences in other commercially important aspects, such as fermentative power or stress tolerance. This article reviews the genetic and physiological characteristics of baking yeast strains, emphasizing the activation of regulatory mechanisms in response to carbon source and stress signaling and their importance in defining targets for strain selection and improvement. PMID:23464571

Randez-Gil, Francisca; Córcoles-Sáez, Isaac; Prieto, José A

2013-01-01

135

Optimized Baking of the DIII-D Vessel  

SciTech Connect

The DIII-D tokamak vacuum vessel baking system is used to heat the vessel walls and internal hardware to an average temperature of 350 C to allow rapid conditioning of the vacuum surfaces. The system combines inductive heating and a circulating hot air system to provide rapid heating with temperature uniformity required by stress considerations. In recent years, the time to reach 350 C had increased from 9 hrs to 14 hrs. To understand and remedy this sluggish heating rate, an evaluation of the baking system was recently performed. The evaluation indicated that the mass of additional in-vessel hardware (50% increase in mass) was primarily responsible. This paper reports on this analysis and the results of the addition of an electric air heater and procedural changes that have been implemented. Preliminary results indicate that the time to 350 C has been decreased to 4.5 hours and the temperature uniformity has improved.

P.M. Anderson; A.G. Kellman

1999-11-01

136

Thermal degradation of deoxynivalenol during maize bread baking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal degradation of deoxynivalenol (DON) was determined at isothermal baking conditions within the temperature range of 100–250°C, using a crust-like model, which was prepared with naturally contaminated maize flour. No degradation was observed at 100°C. For the temperatures of 150, 200 and 250°C, thermal degradation rate constants (k) were calculated and temperature dependence of DON degradation was observed by

E. Numanoglu; V. Gökmen; U. Uygun; H. Koksel

2012-01-01

137

Aluminium contents in baked meats wrapped in aluminium foil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this investigation, the effect of cooking treatments (60min at 150°C, 40min at 200°C, and 20min at 250°C) on aluminium contents of meats (beef, water buffalo, mutton, chicken and turkey) baked in aluminium foil were evaluated. Cooking increased the aluminium concentration of both the white and red meats. The increase was 89–378% in red meats and 76–215% in poultry. The

Sadettin Turhan

2006-01-01

138

The effect of baking powder residues on rancidity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary and Conclusions  The effect on rancidity of heated residues of the four commercial types of baking powder was measured in artificial aqueous\\u000a fat systems. The powders inhibited rancidity in such systems in the following order: combination, tartrate, monocalcium phosphate,\\u000a and pyrophosphate—the combination being least effective and the pyrophosphate very much more effective than any other type.\\u000a \\u000a The antioxidant effect of

Betty M. Watts; Barbara Lehmann; Frances Goodrich

1949-01-01

139

Evaluation of Various Baking Methods for Polished Wheat Flours  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 81(5):660-665 Flour qualities of polished wheat flours of three fractions, C-1 (100- 90%), C-5 (60-50%), and C-8 (30-0%), obtained from hard-type wheat grain were used for the evaluation of four kinds of baking methods: optimized straight (OSM), long fermentation (LFM), sponge-dough (SDM) and no-time (NTM) methods. The dough stability of C-5 in farinograph mixing was excellent and the

Tomoko Maeda; Ji Hyun Kim; Naofumi Morita

2004-01-01

140

Preparation and Evaluation of Chicken Rolls with Baking Powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of yeast and baking powder on the storage stability of chicken rolls was studied with the combination of 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, 0:100 ratio respectively. Effect of different treatments and storage for 0-48 hours on moisture, protein, fat, fiber, ash and nitrogen free extract contents of chicken rolls prepared from wheat flour were studied for quality acceptability. It

RASHID MINHAS; M. S. BUTT; TAHIR ZAHOOR; MOAZZAM RAFIQ; MUHAMMAD SAEED

2006-01-01

141

Gas Me Up, or, A Baking Powder Diver  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this procedure, a pipet that repeatedly submerges and rises to the surface in a tub of water is produced from a beral pipet and baking powder. The diver uses the same principles as the "submarine" or "frogman" that were obtained with cereal box tops in the 1950s. More recently, various "sharks" using this chemistry have accompanied a candy product of the same name. A weighted plastic pipet, with its tip sealed and the majority of its bulb end removed, is packed with baking powder and placed in water. In the presence of the water, carbon dioxide is formed from the baking powder, changing the buoyancy of the diver. The buoyancy of the diver oscillates between positive and negative as the amount of gas attached increases and then decreases at the surface of the water. The procedure works well in outreach activities with children aged 4 to 40 and beyond. It was used with great success in a mall outreach program during National Chemistry Week. Visitors to the chemistry area were able to make-and-take a diver after testing it in a tub of water.

Derr, Henry R.; Lewis, Tricia; Derr, Bretton J.

2000-02-01

142

Potato operation: computer vision for agricultural robotics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Each year at harvest time millions of seed potatoes are checked for the presence of viruses by means of an Elisa test. The Potato Operation aims at automatizing the potato manipulation and pulp sampling procedure, starting from bunches of harvested potatoes and ending with the deposit of potato pulp into Elisa containers. Automatizing these manipulations addresses several issues, linking robotic

Thierry Pun; Marc Lefebvre; Sylvia Gil; Denis Brunet; Jean-Daniel Dessimoz; Paul Guegerli

1992-01-01

143

Minimally processed potatoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sliced potatoes were stored in flexible packaging under different oxygen partial pressures (10, 55 and 100kPa) after dipping treatments with ascorbic and citric acid at different concentrations. The levels of oxygen, ascorbic and citric acid were modulated according to a Central Composite Design. The response surface methodology allowed an assessment of the effects of these variables and their interactions on

S. Limbo; L. Piergiovanni

2007-01-01

144

Mapping Potato Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students construct a topographic map of model terrain using a potato as their model. After making the map, they should be able to explain what contour lines are and what they represent. A materials list, instructions, and background information are provided. National content standards and links to additional information are also included.

145

Effect of Baking on Spot Welds of a Prestrained Ultra-Low Carbon Bake Hardening Steel Sheet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of bake hardening (BH) treatment on the strength of spot-welded joints made on prestrained (PS) sheets of an ultra-low carbon (ULC) BH grade steel has been investigated using tensile-shear specimens. A series of these experiments has been carried out on spot-welds made on as-received and PS sheets; a part of the latter being subjected to BH treatment. Determination

Goutam Mukhopadhyay; Sandip Bhattacharya; Kalyan Kumar Ray

2010-01-01

146

Bar Graph Sorter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students make bar graphs by sorting shapes either by shape or by color. This activity allows students to explore how to sort data to make bar graphs. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

2010-01-01

147

Ring Bar Grizzly.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application relates to a ring bar grizzly used as a materials handling device to enable the jam-free transfer of loose rocks or other materials at the discharge end of a generally horizontal conveyor. Normally, this ring bar grizzly is used in ...

A. T. Fisk

1980-01-01

148

Multi Bar Graph  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students enter in data to be represented in a double bar graph. Multi bar graphs allow the student to compare multiple characteristics of different subjects like population for different continents over time. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

2010-01-01

149

Oskri Recalls “Coconut Bar Dark Chocolate”, “Coconut Bar ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... of Lake Mills, WI is recalling “Coconut Bar Dark Chocolate”, “Coconut Bar Dark Chocolate Minis”, “Fig Dark Chocolate Bars” and “Almond Dark ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/recallsoutbreaksemergencies/recalls

150

Effects of bake temperature and surface modifications on hardmask materials for trilayer applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comparison of bake temperature effects on two hardmask materials was performed. The first hardmask was a silicon-based material, BSI.M06092K, and the second was a titanium-based material, BSI.S07051. The materials have inherently different chemistries that performed differently as bake temperature was varied. BSI.M06092K undergoes condensation of silanols on the wafer during baking and BSI.S07051 undergoes removal of the ligand followed by condensation during baking. In general, the performance of BSI.M06092K showed little or no dependency on bake temperature. BSI.S07051 showed an increase in contact angle with water, slower etch rates, and square profiles as bake temperature increased.

Neef, Charles J.; Finazzo, Jim; Nesbit, Cheryl; Weigand, Michael

2008-04-01

151

Temperature and weight loss profiles of model cakes baked in the microwave oven.  

PubMed

Model cake systems were formulated with wheat and rice starches at hydration levels of 112.5% and 137.5% (flour weight basis) and baked in a microwave oven at power levels of 80% and 100%. Temperature profiles and weight loss profiles of the cakes baked in the microwave oven were compared with those of the cakes baked conventionally. One cake was baked at a time, and three replications of each treatment were used. Center and edge temperatures of microwave cakes increased significantly with increasing moisture content of the batter and oven power. Weight loss of the cakes was dependent on oven power, starch type and hydration levels. Cakes baked in the microwave oven had greater weight loss than the cakes baked in convection mode. Wheat starch cakes had greater volumes than rice starch cakes. Rice starch cakes were more tender than wheat starch cakes. PMID:10687154

Sumnu, G; Ndife, M K; Bayindirli, L

1999-01-01

152

7 CFR 1207.306 - Potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...10 2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Potatoes. 1207.306 Section 1207.306 Agriculture...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions...

2009-01-01

153

7 CFR 1207.306 - Potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 1207.306 Section 1207.306 Agriculture...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions...

2010-01-01

154

7 CFR 1207.306 - Potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Potatoes. 1207.306 Section 1207.306 Agriculture...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions...

2012-01-01

155

Physical, textural and sensory characteristics of 7-day frozen part-baked French bread  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bread partially baked for 7min at 250°C, after cooling, was frozen until core temperature reached ?18°C and stored at this same temperature up to 7 days. Samples were removed daily from the freezer, thawed and baked at 250°C for 6min. Analyses were performed 1h after final baking, and were also conducted on fresh French bread daily produced (control). Weight and

Laura G. Carr; Maria A. B. Rodas; Jussara C. M. Della Torre; Carmen C. Tadini

2006-01-01

156

Color and Texture Development During Microwave and Conventional Baking of Breads  

Microsoft Academic Search

The color parameters (L*, a*, and b*) and hardness of breads baked in microwave and conventional ovens were compared. Moreover, the effect of susceptor on color and texture development during microwave baking were studied. Microwave oven was operated at 30 and 40% powers for 3.5–5.5 min with half-minute intervals. Breads were baked in conventional oven at 175°C and 200°C for 10–18 min

D. ?çöz; G. Sumnu; S. Sahin

2004-01-01

157

Energy demand for selected bread making processes: Conventional versus part baked frozen technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents some results on the energy demand in conventional bread baking and in the processing of frozen part baked breads, resulting from the “EU-FRESHBAKE” European project (FP6). Bread baking is one of the most energy demanding processes (around 4MJ\\/kg), compared with other thermal processes such as canning. However, there is a large variability of data in the literature.

Alain Le-bail; Tzvetelin Dessev; Vanessa Jury; Ruben Zuniga; Thomas Park; Martin Pitroff

2010-01-01

158

Effective baking of thick and ultra-thick photoresist layers by infrared radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

IR baking as an approach to effective baking of thick and ultra-thick photoresist layers is reported. An experimental set-up is presented. The resist temperature is pyrometrically determined and is used to control the system. The performance and benefits of IR baking are proved by patterning results. Examples of two positive tone resists, ma-P 100 and ma-P 1275 (Micro Resist Technology

M Kubenz; U Ostrzinski; F Reuther; G Gruetzner

2003-01-01

159

Consideration of a non-baked start-up of a synchrotron light source  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vacuum baking of large complex uhv devices, such as synchrotron light sources, requires both careful design and consideration of potential problems regarding the operation and maintenance of the device. Intense synchrotron irradiation can be utilized for degassing; it is indeed necessary to achieve the required operating pressure in most light sources. To examine a non-baked start-up, the outgassing of non-baked

Y Hori; M Kobayashi

1996-01-01

160

Black spot of potatoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1. \\u000a \\u000a Black spot was produced in the laboratory in a reversible reaction by manipulating cell turgor.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2. \\u000a \\u000a The amount of air used in cooling potatoes affected black spot.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 3. \\u000a \\u000a The addition of moisture to the ventilating air used in cooling potatoes lowered the incidence of black spot.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 4. \\u000a \\u000a Skin characteristics such as lenticel and periderm structure indicate an explanation

R. L. Sawyer; G. H. Collin

1960-01-01

161

Bar Code Label Requirements  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... Blood and blood components must be labeled with with specific machine-readable bar code information by April 26th, 2006. ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/developmentapprovalprocess/advertisinglabelingpromotionalmaterials

162

Potato Chip Classification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity introduces the structure and function of a dichotomous key, in preparation for student identification of plant and animal specimens. It also reinforces the idea that there are many possible answers in science. Students will be able to classify specimens (in this case, potato chips) according to observable characteristics, prepare a key showing their classification system, use their key to identify a specimen, and recognize the validity of classmates' classification systems.

1998-01-01

163

Iron Currency-Bars  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN NATURE of May 19, p. 372, reference is made to iron currency-bars and ``early British water-clocks.'' The discovery of the true nature of the currency-bars is not, as is implied, a recent one, but was made in 1905 by Mr. Reginald Smith (see his paper, Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries, vol. xx., pp. 179-94). Similarly, the ``early British

O. G. S. Crawford

1921-01-01

164

21 CFR 102.41 - Potato chips made from dried potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Potato chips made from dried potatoes. 102...Nonstandardized Foods § 102.41 Potato chips made from dried potatoes. ...and is of the same composition as potato chips, except that it is composed...

2009-04-01

165

21 CFR 102.41 - Potato chips made from dried potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potato chips made from dried potatoes. 102...Nonstandardized Foods § 102.41 Potato chips made from dried potatoes. ...and is of the same composition as potato chips, except that it is composed...

2010-04-01

166

Potato consumption and dietetic value  

Microsoft Academic Search

A worth-while treatment of the subjects comprehended in the title of this report requires that each be treated under a separate heading. Potato consumption per se might well be considered in several phases such as per capita use as food, seed, loss from diseases in field and storage, storage shrinkage, use as feed for livestock, processed potatoes, waste in handling

E. V. Hardenburg

1937-01-01

167

Temperature rising effect of 193-nm chemically amplified resist during postexposure bake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deprotection of chemically amplified resist is amplified by photogenerated acid during post exposure bake. The deprotection rate is mainly dependent on bake temperature and time. It has been assumed that the temperature of wafer surface and photoresist is to be raised instantaneously up to desired set temperature, but in real world it can not happen. We investigated the temperature

Young-Mi Lee; Moon-Gyu Sung; Eun-Mi Lee; Young-Soo Sohn; Heung-Jin Bak; Hye-Keun Oh

2000-01-01

168

Bake-Out of a Portion of a New High-Rise Office Building.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A partial building bake-out was performed in U.S. EPA's new Region IX Headquarters' Building in San Francisco, California in July, 1990. The intent of the bake-out was to reduce indoor air contaminant concentrations associated with residual volatile organ...

A. B. Lindstrom R. M. Taft L. C. Michael M. C. Oberg

1991-01-01

169

Acrylamide–asparagine relationship in baked\\/toasted wheat and rye breads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acrylamide in baked and toasted wheat and rye bread was studied in relation to levels of asparagine in flour, dough, bread and toasts. Asparagine was consumed during bread preparation resulting in reduced acrylamide content in the products. In wheat bread, 12% of the asparagine initially present in the flour (0.14 g kg) remained after yeast fermentation and baking; for rye

Kit Granby; Nikoline Juul Nielsen; Rikke V. Hedegaard; Tue Christensen; Mette Kann; Leif H. Skibsted

2008-01-01

170

EFFECT OF DRYING ON HEAT TRANSFER OF BREAD DURING BAKING IN OVEN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of drying on heat transfer in a loaf of bread during baking processing from dough in an electric oven was experimentally investigated. This study was performed to obtain informations for the development of an analytical model on baking processing of bread.When the preheating period completed, a rise in temperature of bread was suspended with keeping the uniform temperature

M. Hasatani; N. Arai; H. Harui; Y. Itaya; N. Fushida; C. Hori

1992-01-01

171

Application of Gabor Filter and Multi-class SVM in Baking Bread Quality Classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a method in classifying the baking quality-test bread based on Gabor filters and SVMs. Gray images of the field of view are transformed with different orientations and scales by filters. The texture features are denoted by the energy standard value and standard variance. A multi-class Support Vector Machine is proposed to implement the quick classification of baking

Yanfeng Fan; Hongmei Zhang

2006-01-01

172

Impact of selected process parameters on crust flaking of frozen partly baked bread  

Microsoft Academic Search

Partially baked bread or partly baked bread can be frozen to extend its shelf life. Freezing can also be responsible for damage such as crust flaking. This paper presents a study aimed at identifying the process parameters that can interact with crust flaking. The study used a French baguette as a model system. The effect of proving condition (50% and

A. Le Bail; J. Y. Monteau; F. Margerie; T. Lucas; A. Chargelegue; Y. Reverdy

2005-01-01

173

The influence of baking fuel on residues of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals in bread  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of fuel type used to bake bread on the spectrum and concentrations of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals in baked bread was assessed. Bread samples were collected from different bakeries operated by either electricity, solar, mazot or solid waste and their residue content of PAHs and heavy metals was assessed. The total concentration of PAHs detected

Mohamed Tawfic Ahmed; El-Sayed Abdel Hadi; S El Samahy; K Youssof

2000-01-01

174

Effect of freezing and frozen storage on the staling of part-baked bread  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of part-baking, freezing, frozen storage, thawing, rebaking on the aging behaviour of bread was evaluated. The amylopectin modification during the process was assessed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), while changes in bread quality were followed by crumb hardness measurements. During frozen storage no retrogradation of amylopectin was detected in the part-baked dough. When analysing the aging of the

Mar??a Eugenia Bárcenas; Mónica Haros; Carmen Benedito; Cristina M Rosell

2003-01-01

175

Effects of different formulations on the quality of microwave baked breads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of different amounts of gluten, fat, emulsifier, and dextrose on the quality of breads baked in the microwave oven were investigated. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the formulation of microwave baked breads. Firmness, specific volume, and weight loss of the breads were determined. Breads formulated with low gluten flour were softer and had higher volume. Volume of

O. Ozmutlu; Gülüm Sumnu; S. Sahin

2001-01-01

176

Identification and characterization of yeasts causing chalk mould defects on par-baked bread  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pichia anomala, Hyphopichia burtonii and Saccharomycopsis fibuligera are spoilage yeasts causing chalk mould defects on par-baked breads packaged under modified atmosphere. The first objective of this study was to identify yeasts isolated from spoiled par-baked breads by means of a RAPD protocol and to determine the dominant spoilers amongst identified strains. The second objective was to determine the effects of

N. Deschuyffeleer; K. Audenaert; S. Samapundo; S. Ameye; M. Eeckhout; F. Devlieghere

2011-01-01

177

Pilot technology and equipment to produce baking yeast in shorter multiplication cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents an optimized technology for baking yeast producing. The specific feature of the proposed technology is the multiplication of baking yeast cells in intensive system using the dynamic aeration in reduced multiplication cycle. The yeast multiplication is performed in three steps, in a pilot installation designed in order to process molasses as raw material. The designed pilot process

Mihaela Bege; Mariana Vl?descu; Gheorghe Bâldea; Paul Bege; Cristina Stoicescu; Cornelia Cîmpeanu; Alexandru Cîrîc; Mariana Liliana

2009-01-01

178

Effect of Baking Method and Fermentation on Folate Content of Rye and Wheat Breads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 81(1):134-139 The effect of baking method on folates of rye and wheat breads, as well as the effect of sourdough fermentation of rye, were examined. Sourdough fermentations were performed both with and without added yeast, and samples were taken throughout the baking process. Samples were analyzed microbiologically for their total folate content after tri- enzyme extraction. Individual folate

Susanna Kariluoto; Liisa Vahteristo; Hannu Salovaara; Kati Katina; Kirsi-Helena Liukkonen; Vieno Piironen

2004-01-01

179

Shelf life extension of pre-baked buns by an ACTIVE PACKAGING ethanol emitter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reports the influence of an ethanol emitter (Ethicap®) on the microbiological condition and the shelf life extension of a bakery product. Pre-baked buns, with a water activity of 0.95, were packaged with different amounts of Ethicap ® and stored at room temperature. Yeasts and moulds remained largely absent from the core of the pre-baked bun (< 10 cfug)

I. Franke; E. Wijma; K. Bouma

2002-01-01

180

Study of sponge cake batter baking process. II. Modeling and parameter estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 1D model for heat and mass transfer within a sponge cake batter during a baking process, based on the qualitative analysis of the transfer mechanisms reported in part I of this paper, is presented. With respect to previous literature reports concerning cake baking modeling, the model takes additionally into account the gas phase internal convective flux, the vapo-condensation heat

Mathieu Lostie; Roman Peczalski; Julien Andrieu; Michel Laurent

2002-01-01

181

Effect of Baking and Stress on the Hydrogen Content of Cadmium Plated High Strength Steels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Variations in the diffusible hydrogen concentration of cadmium plated AISI 4340 and 300M steels due to baking and stress are reported. Long baking times of greater than 100 hours at 190C are needed to remove all the hydrogen from bright cadmium plated spe...

D. A. Berman

1985-01-01

182

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of an electrical heating oven for bread-baking process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiation is the most dominant heat transfer mode in an electrical heating oven. A 3D CFD model for an electric heating baking oven was developed. Three different radiation models namely, discrete transfer radiation model (DTRM), surface to surface (S2S) and discrete ordinates (DO) were employed for the simulation of the electrical baking oven. All models predicted almost similar results, which

N. Chhanwal; A. Anishaparvin; D. Indrani; K. S. M. S. Raghavarao; C. Anandharamakrishnan

2010-01-01

183

7 CFR 947.12 - Seed potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 947.12 Section 947.12 Agriculture...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU COUNTIES...Handling Definitions § 947.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and...

2009-01-01

184

Acoustic Measurement of Potato Cannon Velocity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Potato cannon velocity can be measured with a digitized microphone signal. A microphone is attached to the potato cannon muzzle, and a potato is fired at an aluminum target about 10 m away. Flight time can be determined from the acoustic waveform by subtracting the time in the barrel and time for sound to return from the target. The potato…

Courtney, Michael; Courtney, Amy

2007-01-01

185

Degradation of the Alternaria mycotoxins alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, and altenuene upon bread baking.  

PubMed

The stability of the Alternaria mycotoxins alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, and altenuene upon bread baking was investigated by model experiments using a spiked wholemeal wheat flour matrix. For alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether, but not for altenuene, degradation products, formed through a sequence of hydrolysis and decarboxylation, could be identified in pilot studies. The simultaneous quantification of alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, altenuene, and the degradation products was achieved by a newly developed high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) multimethod. The obtained quantitative data indicate that the Alternaria mycotoxins are barely degraded during wet baking, while significant degradation occurs upon dry baking, with the stability decreasing in the order alternariol monomethyl ether>alternariol>altenuene. The novel degradation products could be detected after the wet baking of flour spiked with alternariol and in a sample survey of 24 commercial cereal based baking products. PMID:20687560

Siegel, David; Feist, Michael; Proske, Matthias; Koch, Matthias; Nehls, Irene

2010-09-01

186

An approach to studying the effect of different bread improvers on the staling of pre-baked frozen bread  

Microsoft Academic Search

The usefulness of different bread improvers (a-amylase, sourdough, ?-carrageenan, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose) in an interrupted baking process was evaluated by using a differential scanning calorimeter as an oven. The thermal transitions of the wheat starch produced during the part-baking process, frozen storage at –18 °C, finish baking and aging of the baked dough at 4 °C were registered. The thermal properties of wheat starch

María Eugenia Bárcenas; Mónica Haros; Cristina M. Rosell

2003-01-01

187

78 FR 9629 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Reestablishment of Membership on the Colorado Potato...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FV12-948-2 PR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Reestablishment of Membership on the Colorado Potato Administrative Committee, Area No...comments on reestablishing the membership on the Colorado Potato Administrative Committee, Area...

2013-02-11

188

78 FR 30737 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Reestablishment of Membership on the Colorado Potato...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FV12-948-2 FR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Reestablishment of Membership on the Colorado Potato Administrative Committee, Area No...rule reestablishes the membership on the Colorado Potato Administrative Committee, Area...

2013-05-23

189

Mechanical properties of weightlifting bars.  

PubMed

Weightlifting training and competition involves lifting a revolving shaft bar loaded with weights. The design of a bar and the location of the weights result in bar deformation during lifting tasks. Because there are many manufacturers of weightlifting bars, the actual deformation of a bar may vary, depending on the steel alloys used. A modified 4-point static bending test was used to assess deformation of 8 weightlifting bars and 1 general purpose weight training bar. The apparent stiffness of the bars was determined by plotting bending moment vs. bar deformation (the vertical height difference between the center vs. ends of the bar). All bars tested had an absence of hysteresis during cyclic loading and unloading in 50-kg increments (up to 220-kg total barbell weight), demonstrating pure elastic properties. At maximum loading, bar deformation was 4-5 cm. A large range existed for apparent stiffness. Based on apparent stiffness calculations, recommendations are made for which bars are suitable for weightlifting training and competition. The deformable nature of weightlifting and weight training bars should be considered before their use in exercise, sport, or research. PMID:20683350

Chiu, Loren Z F

2010-09-01

190

Enzyme exposure and enzyme sensitisation in the baking industry.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To assess the exposure to enzymes and prevalence of enzyme sensitisation in the baking industry. METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted in four bakeries, one flour mill, and one crispbread factory. Sensitisation to enzymes, flours, and storage mites was examined by skin prick and radioallergosorbent (RAST) tests. 365 workers were tested. The workers were interviewed for work related respiratory and skin symptoms. Total dust concentrations were measured by a gravimetric method, and the concentration of alpha-amylase in air was measured by a catalytic method. An immunochemical method was used for measuring cellulase and xylanase in air. RESULTS: Total measured dust concentrations were from 0.1 to 18 mg/m3, with highest values in dough making areas of bakeries. The alpha-amylase concentrations generally followed the total dust concentrations and reached the highest values < 6.6 micrograms/m3 in the same areas. Cellulase and xylanase varied with concentrations < 180 ng/m3 and < 40 ng/m3, respectively, in the flour mill and the crispbread factory. No cellulase, but concentrations of 1-200 ng/m3 xylanase, were found in the bakeries, probably indicating the natural xylanase activity of wheat. 12 workers (8%) in the bakeries, three (5%) in the flour mill, and four (3%) in the crispbread factory were skin prick positive to enzymes. The corresponding percentages of positive reactions to flours were 12%, 5%, and 8%. CONCLUSIONS: The study confirmed that industrial enzymes in baking used as additives in a powdered form pose a risk of sensitisation. The no effect air concentrations for industrial enzymes are not known. Based on present knowledge, however, lowering exposures and eliminating short and high peaks by technical measures would lower the risk of sensitisation. This would be most effectively accomplished by shifting to non-dusty products.

Vanhanen, M; Tuomi, T; Hokkanen, H; Tupasela, O; Tuomainen, A; Holmberg, P C; Leisola, M; Nordman, H

1996-01-01

191

Toll Bar on Sea  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the summer of 2007 the United Kingdom experienced some of the heaviest rainfall since records began. Toll Bar in South Yorkshire featured prominently in media coverage as the village and the homes surrounding it began to flood. Many people lost everything: their homes, their furniture, their possessions. In an effort to come to terms with what…

Hunter, Dave

2008-01-01

192

Candy Bar Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students model Earth's interior and plate tectonics (movement at the boundaries) by manipulating taffy and a Milky Way candy bar. This is a worksheet-led activity to help students "visualize" the movement of the plates and to relate Earth's interior to objects they see on a regular basis.

Workshop, Rocks A.

2009-05-04

193

Toll Bar on Sea  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the summer of 2007 the United Kingdom experienced some of the heaviest rainfall since records began. Toll Bar in South Yorkshire featured prominently in media coverage as the village and the homes surrounding it began to flood. Many people lost everything: their homes, their furniture, their possessions. In an effort to come to terms with what…

Hunter, Dave

2008-01-01

194

7 CFR 945.7 - Certified seed potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Certified seed potatoes. 945.7 Section 945.7 Agriculture...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED COUNTIES...Definitions § 945.7 Certified seed potatoes. Certified seed potatoes means...

2009-01-01

195

Characterization of next-generation bake plate requirements for 193-nm lithography tools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we have characterized a bake process for a 193nm poly process. We used a wafer dynamic sensor plate, which uses embedded thin film platinum RTDs (resistance temperature detector) from SensArray to capture temperature information across the hot plate and throughout the baking process. Our goal is to see whether we can use current hot plates and bake processes to meet the requirements set by the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductor (ITRS). Two different types of hot plates from Tokyo Electron are being evaluated, LHP (low temperature hot plate) and PCH (precision chill plate).

Do, Phong T.; Kang, Ann; Pender, Joseph; Lehmann, Thomas; McArdle, Leo; Quli, Farhat; Pascale, James

2004-05-01

196

Vitamin a added to fats as related to stability during baking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Various types of baked goods prepared from fats fortified with vitamin A have been assayed for the vitamin by the Carr-Price\\u000a color reaction and by U.S.P. bio-assays.\\u000a \\u000a In products such as bread, biscuits, and cake, which are baked under moderate conditions, it appears that 80 to 100 per cent\\u000a of the vitamin survives the baking process.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a In pie crust, which

E. E. Rice; H. C. Black; G. T. Carlin; H. E. Robinson

1942-01-01

197

Vitamin A added to fats as related to stability during baking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Various types of baked goods prepared from fats fortified with vitamin A have been assayed for the vitamin by the Carr-Price\\u000a color reaction and by U.S.P. bio-assays.\\u000a \\u000a In products such as bread, biscuits, and cake, which are baked under moderate conditions, it appears that 80 to 100 per cent\\u000a of the vitamin survives the baking process.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a In pie crust, which

E. E. Rice; H. C. Black; G. T. Carlin; H. E. Robinson

1941-01-01

198

Increment Thresholds on Black Bars.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Under conditions that isolate rod vision, increment thresholds were measured on black bars of various widths, and compared to the increment threshold measured on a homogeneously illuminated field without the bar. Thresholds were found to be elevated in th...

D. Y. Teller

1968-01-01

199

Incidence of potato virus Y and potato leaf roll virus in autumn potatoes in Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Random sampling of autumn grown potatoes in Israel revealed potato virus Y incidences of 2.7, 2.5 and 3% during the years\\u000a 1976, 1977 and 1978, respectively, figures only slightly higher than those found in spring-planted fields (2.3% in 1976),\\u000a and which agree with visual estimates by the Inspection Service.\\u000a \\u000a Assaying random samples for potato leaf roll virus (PLRV) by aphid

S. Marco

1981-01-01

200

Volume estimation of potatoes partly covered with dirt tare  

Microsoft Academic Search

During on line yield mapping of potatoes with machine vision on a potato harvester not all potatoes will be free from dirt tare. Proper yield estimation requires a good estimation of the size of these potatoes. The objective of the work described in this paper is the development of a method to assess the volume of these potatoes. The potatoes

J. W. Hofstee; G. J. Molema

2003-01-01

201

What's behind Orion's Bar?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose to obtain deep spectra of the outer region of the Orion Nebula. The area of particular interest is SE of the Bar where archival Spitzer spectra have shown high signal-to-noise lines of [S IV] 10.5 and [Ne III] 15.6 microns. We were staggered with astonishment to see such S/N in high ionization species well beyond the Bright Bar, given the conventional view of the Bar as the boundary between ionized and photodissociated regions (PDR). Previous IR missions observed only the inner few arcmin, the so-called Huygens region. The extreme sensitivity of Spitzer's IRS short-high (SH) and long-high (LH) modules in the 10-37 micron spectral range will permit us to measure the above lines and many others of interest to much larger distances from the exciting star theta1 Ori C. Orion is the benchmark for studies of the interstellar medium, particularly for elemental abundances. In the case of the Orion Nebula, the best way to obtain abundances from observations has been through detailed photoionization modeling. These new Spitzer spectra will provide a unique, legacy dataset for new science, including improved current and future models of Orion. Indeed we will use our own modeling codes for this purpose, one of which self-consistently treats the H II region and the PDR. The Orion Bar is the defining interface by which all H+ - H0 - H2 regions are judged. Because there must be extra emission along this sight line, we need to understand this contribution and remove what is not physically a part of the Bar. Our program will permit a more reliable set of line emission that actually arises from the Bar that can rigorously be used to define the interface problem. Our spectra will be the deepest ever taken in these outer regions of Orion over the 10-37 micron range. Tracking the changes in ionization structure via the line emission to larger distances provides much more leverage for understanding the far less studied outer regions. The outer Veil is likely to provide a new, benchmark HIIR-PDR interface.

Rubin, Robert; Colgan, Sean; Erickson, Edwin; Ferland, Gary; O'Dell, C. Robert; Simpson, Janet

2008-03-01

202

Measurements of vertical bar Vcb vertical bar and vertical bar Vub vertical bar at BaBar  

SciTech Connect

We report results from the BABAR Collaboration on the semileptonic B decays, highlighting the measurements of the magnitude of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements Vub and Vcb. We describe the techniques used to obtain the matrix element |Vcb| using the measurement of the inclusive B {yields} Xclv process and a large sample of exclusive B {yields} D*lv decays. The vertical bar Vub vertical bar matrix elements has been measured studying different kinematic variables of the B {yields} Xulv process, and also with the exclusive reconstruction of B {yields} {pi}({rho})lv decays.

Rotondo, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica Galileo Galilei, Via Marzolo 8, Padova 35131 (Italy)

2005-10-12

203

Vacuum frying of potato chips  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vacuum frying was tested as an alternative technique to develop low oil content potato chips. The effect of oil temperature (118, 132, 144 °C) and vacuum pressure (16.661, 9.888, and 3.115 kPa) on the drying rate and oil absorption of potato chips and on the product quality attributes such as shrinkage, color, and texture was investigated. Furthermore, the characteristics of

Jagoba Garayo; Rosana Moreira

2002-01-01

204

Kolsky Bar Impact Test Facility  

SciTech Connect

Testing for the Kolsky Bar is conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico. The Kolsky bar is operated by the Dynamic testing team of NMT-11, (Nuclear Material Technology Division) to enable measurements of stress-strain characteristics for the MST-8 (Material Science and Technology) personnel. The Kolsky Bar is located at the Plutonium Facility at TA-55 (Tech Area).

Contreras, P.; Montoya, J.

1998-12-31

205

Production of herbicide-resistant transgenic sweet potato plants through Agrobacterium tumefaciens method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transgenic herbicide-resistant sweet potato plants [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] were produced through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system. Embryogenic calli derived from shoot apical meristems were infected with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 harboring the pCAMBIA3301 vector containing the bar gene encoding phosphinothricin N-acetyltransferase (PAT) and the gusA gene encoding ?-glucuronidase (GUS). The PPT-resistant calli and plants were selected with 5 and 2.5 mg l?1 PPT,

Hye Jin Choi; Thummala Chandrasekhar; Hyo-Yeon Lee; Kyung-Moon Kim

2007-01-01

206

Water under the BAR.  

PubMed

Many cellular processes require the generation of highly curved regions of cell membranes by interfacial membrane proteins. A number of such proteins are now known, and several mechanisms of curvature generation have been suggested, but so far a quantitative understanding of the importance of the various potential mechanisms remains elusive. Following previous theoretical work, we consider the electrostatic attraction that underlies the scaffold mechanism of membrane bending in the context of the N-BAR domain of amphiphysin. Analysis of atomistic molecular dynamics simulations reveals considerable water between the membrane and the positively charged concave face of the BAR, even when it is tightly bound to highly curved membranes. This results in significant screening of electrostatic interactions, suggesting that electrostatic attraction is not the main driving force behind curvature sensing, supporting recent experimental work. These results also emphasize the need for care when building coarse-grained models of protein-membrane interactions. These results are emphasized by simulations of oligomerized amphiphysin N-BARs at the atomistic and coarse-grained level. In the coarse-grained simulations, we find a strong dependence of the induced curvature on the dielectric screening. PMID:20858422

Lyman, Edward; Cui, Haosheng; Voth, Gregory A

2010-09-22

207

Water under the BAR  

PubMed Central

Many cellular processes require the generation of highly curved regions of cell membranes by interfacial membrane proteins. A number of such proteins are now known, and several mechanisms of curvature generation have been suggested, but so far a quantitative understanding of the importance of the various potential mechanisms remains elusive. Following previous theoretical work, we consider the electrostatic attraction that underlies the scaffold mechanism of membrane bending in the context of the N-BAR domain of amphiphysin. Analysis of atomistic molecular dynamics simulations reveals considerable water between the membrane and the positively charged concave face of the BAR, even when it is tightly bound to highly curved membranes. This results in significant screening of electrostatic interactions, suggesting that electrostatic attraction is not the main driving force behind curvature sensing, supporting recent experimental work. These results also emphasize the need for care when building coarse-grained models of protein-membrane interactions. These results are emphasized by simulations of oligomerized amphiphysin N-BARs at the atomistic and coarse-grained level. In the coarse-grained simulations, we find a strong dependence of the induced curvature on the dielectric screening.

Lyman, Edward; Cui, Haosheng; Voth, Gregory A.

2010-01-01

208

Hash browns for breakfast, baked potatoes for dinner: Changes in food attitudes as a function of motivation and context  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies investigated whether participants' motivational state and the context in which attitude reports are made influence food attitudes. Specifically, these studies examined whether hunger and the time-typicality of foods (i.e. match or mismatch between the time when a food is typically eaten and the time the attitude is reported) interact to influence reported attitudes. Study 1 suggests that hunger

Shelley N. Aikman; Stephen L. Crites

2005-01-01

209

Comparing the Bake Hardening of Nano-Grain AA6056 with its Coarse-Grain Structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In preset work, the bake hardening behavior of 6056 aluminum alloy with nanostructured layer, produced by surface severe plastic deformation (SSPD), was compared with that of AA6056 with conventional coarse grain structure. Wire brushing process was employed in order to produce surface layers with nanograins. After formation of nanostructured surface layer, the structure was characterized using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. According to the microhardness measurements, the depth of nanostructured layer, with the grains of 50-110 nm, was about 40-50 ?m on each side of specimens. The bake hardenability of the produced nanostructured AA6056 was then studied. The results indicate an increase of about 40% in the bake hardening of nanograin AA6056 comparing to the bake hardening of coarse-grain AA6956. The maximum microhardness of nanograin layer was about 250 HV, whereas it was 65 HV for coarse-grain AA6056.

Dehghani, Kamran

210

Modelling heat and mass transfer in bread baking with mechanical deformation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the thermo-hydric behaviour of bread during baking is studied. A numerical model has been developed with Comsol Multiphysics© software. The model takes into account the heat and mass transfers in the bread and the phenomenon of swelling. This model predicts the evolution of temperature, moisture, gas pressure and deformation in French "baguette" during baking. Local deformation is included in equations using solid phase conservation and, global deformation is calculated using a viscous mechanic model. Boundary conditions are specified with the sole temperature model and vapour pressure estimation of the oven during baking. The model results are compared with experimental data for a classic baking. Then, the model is analysed according to physical properties of bread and solicitations for a better understanding of the interactions between different mechanisms within the porous matrix.

Nicolas, V.; Salagnac, P.; Glouannec, P.; Ploteau, J.-P.; Jury, V.; Boillereaux, L.

2012-11-01

211

Expression of the potato leafroll luteovirus coat protein gene in transgenic potato plants inhibits viral infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transgenic potato plants, cultivar Désirée, were produced that contained the coat protein gene of potato leafroll luteovirus (PLRV). The transformed potato plants expressed the PLRV coat protein (CP) RNA sequences but accumulation of coat protein in transgenic tissues could not be detected. Upon inoculation with PLRV, the PLRV CP RNA expressing potato plants showed a reduced rate of virus multiplication.

Frank van der Wilk; Dinie Posthumus-Lutke Willink; Marianne J. Huisman; Harm Huttinga; Rob Goldbach

1991-01-01

212

Potato virus Y induced changes in the gene expression of potato ( Solanum tuberosum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tuber necrotic strain of Potato virus Y (PVYNTN) causes potato tuber necrotic ringspot disease in sensitive potato cultivars. Gene expression in the disease response of the susceptible potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivar Igor was investigated at different times after infection, using subtractive hybridization, cDNA microarrays and real-time PCR. The most pronounced change in the expression pattern of functionally diverse

Maruša Pompe-Novak; Kristina Gruden; Špela Baebler; Hana Kre?i?-Stres; Maja Kova?; Maarten Jongsma; Maja Ravnikar

2005-01-01

213

The bake-out of an office building: A case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

To reduce concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOC) emitted by building materials and furnishings, it has been suggested that new buildings undergo a bake-out. This paper reports the results of the bake-out of a newly renovated office building at temperatures ranging from 32 to 39°C for 24 hours at a ventilation rate of 1.59 h⁻¹. Based upon the 14 VOC

J. R. Girman; L. E. Alevantis; G. C. Kulasingam; M. X. Petreas; L. M. Webber

1989-01-01

214

Effects of Amylose\\/Amylopectin Ratio and Baking Conditions on Resistant Starch Formation and Glycaemic Indices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possible improvement of the nutritional properties of starch in barley flour-based bread by using barley genotypes varying in amylose content (3–44%) was evaluated. Breads were made from 70% whole-meal barley flour and 30% white wheat flour. Test breads were baked from waxy barley (WB), ordinary barley (OB), ordinary Glacier barley (OGB) and high-amylose barley (HAB). Each bread was baked

A. Åkerberg; H. Liljeberg; I. Björck

1998-01-01

215

Effect of leavening agents and sugars on the formation of hydroxymethylfurfural in cookies during baking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of recipe compositions in terms of leavening agent (ammonium and sodium bicarbonates) and sugars (sucrose and\\u000a glucose), and baking conditions (temperature and time) on HMF formation in cookies were studied. Five recipes were prepared\\u000a by varying the types of leavening agent and sugar. The cookies were baked at different temperatures (180, 200, 210 and 220\\u000a °C) for different

Vural Gökmen; Özge Ç. Açar; Arda Serpen; Francisco J. Morales

2008-01-01

216

Impact of fibers on physical characteristics of fresh and staled bake off bread  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technological functionality of different fibers (high methylated ester pectin, resistant starch, insoluble-soluble fiber blend) was tested in partially baked breads stored either under sub-zero or low temperatures, in order to assess their possible role as breadmaking ingredients in bake off technologies (BOT). Fiber-containing formulations affected bread specific volume and crumb hardness, and those characteristics were also dependent on both

Cristina M. Rosell; Eva Santos

2010-01-01

217

Thermophysical and thermo-mechanical assessment of partially baked bread during chilling and freezing process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several problems could arise from the storage of frozen part-baked breads under controlled freezing conditions for a prolonged period of time. One of the major quality problems of this product is crust flaking. The aim of this study was to study the thermo-physical changes provoked by freezing and frozen storage of partially baked bread (PB-bread) and to examine the effect

P. D. Ribotta; A. Le Bail

2007-01-01

218

Starch affecting anti-staling agents and their function in freestanding and pan-baked bread  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anti-staling agents with different mechanisms were added to a normal white wheat bread to investigate the relation between bread staling, amylopectin retrogradation and water-related properties (i.e. water content and distribution between crumb and crust). Bread was baked both as pan-baked and freestanding loaves. The anti-staling agents maltogenic ?-amylase, distilled monoglyceride and lipase had a direct influence on starch retrogradation, whereas

Jeanette K. Purhagen; Malin E. Sjöö; Ann-Charlotte Eliasson

2011-01-01

219

Effects of changes in the mitochondrial genome on the performance of baking yeasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modifications to the mitochondria in baking yeasts affect their performance in doughraising tests significantly. Conversion\\u000a of a respiratory-competent baking strain, sensitive to glucose repression, to the petite mutant, yielded a strain which was\\u000a released from this effect, as shown by the increased development of the cytochrome c peak in the cytochrome spectrum, and\\u000a which showed a comparably improved dough-raising performance,

J. F. T. Spencer; Dorothy M. Spencer; Nicola Reynolds

1989-01-01

220

The FlashBake oven: Lightwave oven delivers high-quality, quick cooking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The FlashBake oven is a well-publicized new electrotechnology that over 40 utilities are promoting for commercial food service applications, but is it worth its high price? E Source research shows that this $5,000 to $8,500 lightwave oven can increase sales and profitability in a number of applications, thus paying for itself within months to a year or two. The FlashBake

Gregerson

1995-01-01

221

Competitive position of natural gas: Industrial baking and frying. May 1988  

SciTech Connect

The summary of reports GRI-88/0020 and GRI-88/0042 provides the results of studies performed to determine the status of natural gas technologies in the industrial baking and frying markets and to identify R D to enhance the performance of these technologies. The studies indicate that natural gas will continue to be the most economical energy source for industrial baking and frying.

Not Available

1988-01-01

222

Potato Genes for Resistance to Late Blight.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Resistance genes and their encoded proteins from the wild potato, Solanum bulbocastanum, are disclosed. The genes and proteins are useful for conferring disease resistance to plants, particularly solanaceous species such as potato and tomato. In particula...

J. Jiang J. Song J. P. Helgeson S. Austin-Phillips S. K. Naess

2004-01-01

223

Influences of pretreatment and hard baking on the mechanical reliability of SU-8 microstructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the influences of pretreatment and hard baking on the mechanical characteristics of SU-8 microstructures are described. Four types of samples with different combinations of O2 plasma ashing, primer coating and hard baking were prepared for shear strength tests and uniaxial tensile tests. Specially developed shear test equipment was used to experimentally measure the shear adhesion strength of SU-8 micro posts on a glass substrate. The adhesiveness was strengthened by hard baking at 200 °C for 60 min, whereas other pretreatment processes hardly affected the strength. The pretreatment and hard baking effects on the adhesive strength were compared with those on the fracture strength measured by uniaxial tensile testing. There were no influences of O2 plasma ashing on both the strengths, and primer coating affected only tensile strength. The primer coating effect as well as the hard baking effect on stress relaxation phenomena in uniaxial tension was observed as well. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy demonstrated that surface degradation and epoxide-ring opening polymerization would have given rise to the primer coating effect and the hard baking effect on the mechanical characteristics, respectively.

Morikaku, Toshiyuki; Kaibara, Yoshinori; Inoue, Masatoshi; Miura, Takuya; Suzuki, Takaaki; Oohira, Fumikazu; Inoue, Shozo; Namazu, Takahiro

2013-10-01

224

Potentials of biodegraded cashew pomace for cake baking.  

PubMed

The use of biodegraded cashew pomace processed into flour for cake baking was investigated. The physico-chemical changes during the submerged fermentation of the pomace and the organoleptic qualities of the composite cake were also monitored. There was an increase of about 50% in protein content of the pomace after 96 h of fermentation. However, a reduction of about 61% in the total microbial count after 24 h was due to the toxic effect of the organic acids on the microbial cells during fermentation. The cashew flour had high crude fibre (ca. 20-33%) and carbohydrate (ca. 16-47%) values. The composite cake made from a 10:90 combination of 96 h-degraded cashew flour/wheat flour respectively was the most accepted. The cake which had a specific volume of 0.53 ml/g lost 11.1% moisture when 38 g of its batter was exposed to 190 degrees C for 10 minutes. This cake had a calorie value of 293.8/100 g and may be useful in feeding diabetic patients who require low carbohydrate foods. PMID:1315432

Aderiye, B I; Igbedioh, S O; Caurie, S A

1992-04-01

225

Development of a composite boring bar  

Microsoft Academic Search

A composite boring bar, whose stability against chattering is superior to not only conventional steel bars but also cemented carbide bars, has recently been developed. The main material of this composite bar is pitch-based carbon fiber reinforced plastic. Carbon fibers aligned unidirectionally in the longitudinal direction of the bars give high bending stiffness. Four types of bar having different shaped

Shuzo Nagano; Takayuki Koizumi; Toru Fujii; Nobutaka Tsujiuchi; Hiroki Ueda; Kobe Steel

1997-01-01

226

POTATOES AS A SOURCE OF DIETARY NUTRIENTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potatoes are the most eaten vegetable, with the average American consuming about 140 pounds a year. Given this high consumption, potatoes have considerable potential to be a source of dietary phytonutrients. Developing and positioning potato as a “functional food,” (i.e., a food that provides health...

227

Potato production in the United States  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potatoes have been a staple in the American diet for almost 250 years. The United States is the world's fifth biggest producer, behind China, India, the Russian Federation, and the Ukraine. Potatoes in the United States are grown in nearly every state. Idaho produces approximately 1/3 of all potatoe...

228

7 CFR 947.12 - Seed potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

means and includes all potatoes officially certified and tagged, marked or otherwise appropriately identified under the supervision of the official seed potato certifying agency of the State from which the potatoes are shipped, or other seed certification agencies which the Secretary may...

2004-01-01

229

Maximizing the Phytonutrient Content of Potatoes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We are exploring to what extent the rich genetic diversity of potatoes can be used to maximize the nutritional potential of potatoes. Metabolic profiling is being used to screen potatoes for genotypes with elevated amounts of vitamins and phytonutrients. Substantial differences in phytonutrients am...

230

Subchronic toxicity evaluation of potato protein isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The protein content of potatoes has a high nutritional value on par with eggs and soybeans. As a result, processed potato protein isolates may have commercial value for addition to other food products to increase protein content A manufacturing process to produce total potato (TP), as well as low (LMW) and high molecular (HMW) weight, protein isolates as food ingredients.

B. Lynch; R. R. Simon; F. M. van Otterdijk; H. H. Emmen; M. L. F. Giuseppin; C. Kemme-Kroonsberg

231

Effects of plastic mulch on potato growth  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Northern China is a major potato production region, and water-saving measures that can enhance both potato yield and quality play an important role in this region due to general water shortages. Plastic mulch has been used as an effective water-saving measure for potato cultivation in China. This ch...

232

Attractant pheromone for the Colorado potato beetle  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A method has been discovered for attracting Colorado potato beetles to an area of object or area, which method involves treating the object or area with a Colorado potato beetle attracting composition which contains a carrier material and a Colorado potato beetle attracting effective amount of (S)-3,7-dimethyl-2-oxo-oct-6-ene-1,3-diol.

Dickens; Joseph C. (Ellicott City, MD); Oliver; James (Laurel, MD)

2005-10-25

233

Potato Types: Their Characteristics and Uses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents material for a talk and demonstration about the relationship of potato types to their different uses by consumers and processors. Includes background information for the instructor and discussions to accompany classroom exercises. Discusses the history of the potato, potato types and external characteristics, and internal characteristics…

Pavlista, Alexander D.

1997-01-01

234

Bar press and bar release as avoidance responses1  

PubMed Central

Two experiments were performed in which rats had to avoid shock by both pressing and releasing a bar within specified intervals. When the release-shock interval was held constant and the press-shock interval was increased, response rate decreased and bar holding increased. When the press-shock interval was held constant and the release-shock interval was increased, both response rate and bar holding decreased.

Meltzer, Donald; Tiller, James E.

1979-01-01

235

bar Knn Resonance bar Knn - ? yn Coupled Channel Faddeev Equation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The three-body resonance of bar KNN system is investigated by using the bar KNN - ? YN coupled channels Faddeev equation. The resonance energy is determined from the pole of S-matrix on the unphysical sheet. It is found that the pole positions of the predicted amplitudes are significantly modified when the three-body dynamics is approximately treated by introducing the effective bar KN two-body interaction.

Sato, T.; Ikeda, Y.

236

Reducing acrylamide precursors in raw materials derived from wheat and potato.  

PubMed

A review of agronomic and genetic approaches as strategies for the mitigation of acrylamide risk in wheat and potato is presented. Acrylamide is formed through the Maillard reaction during high-temperature cooking, such as frying, roasting, or baking, and the main precursors are free asparagine and reducing sugars. In wheat flour, acrylamide formation is determined by asparagine levels and asparagine accumulation increases dramatically in response to sulfur deprivation and, to a much lesser extent, with nitrogen feeding. In potatoes, in which sugar concentrations are much lower, the relationships between acrylamide and its precursors are more complex. Much attention has been focused on reducing the levels of sugars in potatoes as a means of reducing acrylamide risk. However, the level of asparagine as a proportion of the total free amino acid pool has been shown to be a key parameter, indicating that when sugar levels are limiting, competition between asparagine and the other amino acids for participation in the Maillard reaction determines acrylamide formation. Genetic approaches to reducing acrylamide risk include the identification of cultivars and other germplasm in which free asparagine and/or sugar levels are low and the manipulation of genes involved in sugar and amino acid metabolism and signaling. These approaches are made more difficult by genotype/environment interactions that can result in a genotype being "good" in one environment but "poor" in another. Another important consideration is the effect that any change could have on flavor in the cooked product. Nevertheless, as both wheat and potato are regarded as of relatively high acrylamide risk compared with, for example, maize and rice, it is essential that changes are achieved that mitigate the problem. PMID:18624429

Muttucumaru, Nira; Elmore, J Stephen; Curtis, Tanya; Mottram, Donald S; Parry, Martin A J; Halford, Nigel G

2008-07-15

237

Number Line Bars--Fractions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use these virtual fraction bars to model fractional addition, subtraction, multiplication (of fractions by whole numbers), and division on a number line. Students can create bars in positive or negative fractional lengths; align, stack, or remove bars; and change the number line marks in increments between 1/2 and 1/15. Applet instructions and teaching ideas are included in the links at the top of the page.

2005-01-01

238

Baking of Flat Bread in an Impingement Oven: An Experimental Study of Heat Transfer and Quality Aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new impingement oven was designed and tested for its thermal and quality performance for baking of thin flat bread. The test facility was instrumented to monitor and record during the baking process. Bread temperature and weight loss were recorded on-line during baking at oven temperatures of 150, 175, 200, 225, and 250°C and 1, 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 m\\/s

S. Banooni; S. M. Hosseinalipour; A. S. Mujumdar; E. Taheran; M. Bahiraei; P. Taherkhani

2008-01-01

239

Stellar bar in NGC 1068  

SciTech Connect

High-resolution 2-micron mapping of the inner disk of NGC 1068 reveals a bar extending to + or - 16 arcsec from the nucleus at position angle 48 deg. The stellar mass distribution, presumably traced by the near-infrared light, is therefore strongly nonaxisymmetric with a contrast of approximately 3:1 between the major and minor axes of the bar. This large-scale galactic structure is probably responsible for the concentration of molecular clouds in a ring just outside the bar. The massive bar may also drive noncircular motions in the inner disk of the galaxy as possibly seen in the gaseous emission lines. 21 references.

Scoville, N.Z.; Matthews, K.; Carico, D.P.; Sanders, D.B.

1988-04-01

240

Baking reduces prostaglandin, resolvin, and hydroxy-fatty acid content of farm-raised Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).  

PubMed

The consumption of seafood enriched in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease. Several n-3 oxidation products from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) have known protective effects in the vasculature. It is not known whether the consumption of cooked seafood enriched in n-3 PUFA causes appreciable consumption of lipid oxidation products. We tested the hypothesis that baking Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) increases the level of n-3 and n-6 PUFA oxidation products over raw salmon. We measured the contents of several monohydroxy-fatty acids (MHFA), prostanoids, and resolvins. Our data demonstrate that baking did not change the overall total levels of MHFA. However, baking resulted in selective regioisomeric loss of hydroxy fatty acids from arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) and EPA, while significantly increasing hydroxyl-linoleic acid levels. The contents of prostanoids and resolvins were reduced several-fold with baking. The inclusion of a coating on the salmon prior to baking reduced the loss of some MHFA but had no effect on prostanoid losses incurred by baking. Baking did not decrease n-3 PUFA contents, indicating that baking of salmon is an acceptable means of preparation that does not alter the potential health benefits of high n-3 seafood consumption. The extent to which the levels of MHFA, prostanoids, and resolvins in the raw or baked fish have physiologic consequence for humans needs to be determined. PMID:21919483

Raatz, Susan K; Golovko, Mikhail Y; Brose, Stephen A; Rosenberger, Thad A; Burr, Gary S; Wolters, William R; Picklo, Matthew J

2011-10-04

241

Baking Reduces Prostaglandin, Resolvin, and Hydroxy-Fatty Acid Content of Farm-Raised Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar)  

PubMed Central

Consumption of seafood enriched in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease. Several n-3 oxidation products from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) have known protective effects in the vasculature. It is not known whether consumption of cooked seafood enriched in n-3 PUFA causes appreciable consumption of lipid oxidation products. We tested the hypothesis that baking Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) increases the level of n-3 and n-6 PUFA oxidation products over raw salmon. We measured the content of several monohydroxy-fatty acids (MHFA), prostanoids, and resolvins. Our data demonstrate that baking did not change the overall total levels of MHFA. However, baking resulted in selective regio-isomeric loss of hydroxy fatty acids from arachidonic acid (20:4n-6), and EPA while significantly increasing hydroxyl-linoleic acid levels. The content of prostanoids and resolvins were reduced several-fold with baking. The inclusion of coating upon the salmon prior to baking reduced the loss of some MHFA but had no effect upon prostanoid losses incurred by baking. Baking did not decrease n-3 PUFA content indicating that baking of salmon is an acceptable means of preparation that does not alter the potential health benefits of high n-3 seafood consumption. The extent to which the levels of MHFA, prostanoids and resolvins in the raw or baked fish have physiologic consequence for humans needs to be determined.

Raatz, Susan K.; Golovko, Mikhail Y.; Brose, Stephen A.; Rosenberger, Thad A.; Burr, Gary S.; Wolters, William R.; Picklo, Matthew J.

2011-01-01

242

The Potato Operation: Computer vision for agricultural robotics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Each year at harvest time millions of seed potatoes are checked for the presence of viruses, by means of an Elisa test. The Potato Operation aims at automatizing the potato manipulation and pulp sampling procedure, starting from bunches of harvested potatoes and ending with the deposit of potato pulp into Elisa containers. Automatizing these manipulations addresses several issues, linking robotic

Thierry Pun; Marc Lefebvre; Sylvia Gil; Denis Brunet; Jean-Daniel Dessimoz; Paul Gugerli

1991-01-01

243

Improving the bulk laser-damage resistance of KDP by baking and pulsed-laser irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Isolated bulk damage centers are produced when KDP crystals are irradiated by 1-ns 1064-nm pulses. We have tested about 100 samples and find the median threshold to be 7 J/cm/sup 2/ when the samples are irradiated only once at each test volume (1-on-1 tests). The median threshold increased to 11 J/cm/sup 2/ when the test volumes were first subjected to subthreshold laser irradiation (n-on-1 tests). We baked several crystals at temperatures from 110 to 165/sup 0/C and remeasured their thresholds. Baking increased thresholds in some crystals, but did not change thresholds of others. The median threshold of baked crystals ranged from 8 to 10 J/cm/sup 2/ depending on the baking temperature. In crystals that had been baked, subthreshold irradiation produced a large change in the bulk damage threshold, and reduced the volume density of damage centers relative to the density observed in unbaked crystals. The data are summarized in the table.

Swain, J.E.; Stokowski, S.E.; Milam, D.; Rainer, F.

1981-09-16

244

Implementation of viscoelastic Hopkinson bars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge of the properties of soft, viscoelastic materials at high strain rates are important in furthering our understanding of their role during blast or impact events. Testing these low impedance materials using a metallic split Hopkinson pressure bar setup results in poor signal to noise ratios due to impedance mismatching. These difficulties are overcome by using polymeric Hopkinson bars. Conventional Hopkinson bar analysis cannot be used on the polymeric bars due to the viscoelastic nature of the bar material. Implementing polymeric Hopkinson bars requires characterization of the viscoelastic properties of the material used. In this paper, 30 mm diameter Polymethyl Methacrylate bars are used as Hopkinson pressure bars. This testing technique is applied to polymeric foam called Divinycell H80 and H200. Although there is a large body of of literature containing compressive data, this rarely deals with strain rates above 250s-1 which becomes increasingly important when looking at the design of composite structures where energy absorption during impact events is high on the list of priorities. Testing of polymeric foams at high strain rates allows for the development of better constitutive models.

Curry, R.; Cloete, T.; Govender, R.

2012-08-01

245

Properties of barred spiral galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blue and near-infrared surface photometry of 15 barred spiral galaxies, combined with results from photometric and kinematic studies of barred galaxies, reveals that: (1) early Hubble types have flat bars with uniform intensities along their lengths and stellar spiral arms with amplitudes that decrease with radius, and (2) late Hubble types have bars with exponential-like intensity profiles and spiral arm amplitudes that increase or remain constant with radius. Relative bar luminosities are derived using Fourier decompositions of the bar azimuthal profiles. It is concluded that bars in early-type galaxies probably contain highly elongated stellar orbits out to the corotation vicinity and also stimulate stellar spiral structure either by continuously growing, in the case of a non-self-gravitating stellar disk, or by exciting a wave mode at a resonance, in the case of a strongly self-gravitating stellar disk. It is shown that bars in some late-type galaxies may extend out only to the inner Lindbald resonances and that they appear to be too short or too weak to drive prominent stellar spirals because the spirals in these galaxies are often irregular.

Elmegreen, B. G.; Elmegreen, D. M.

1985-01-01

246

Growth of Potatoes for CELSS.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes research on the utilization of white potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) for space life support systems at the University of Wisconsin-Madison over the period of 1984 to 1993. At full maturity the tuber productivity was 37.5 gm(exp -2) ...

T. W. Tibbitts W. Cao R. M. Wheeler

1994-01-01

247

A dual web potato harvester  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using information gathered from trials with a dual web potato digger, a single-row, power take-off driven harvester was manufactured. The machine has dual rod-link webs running one within the other. The outer web rods are spaced 51 mm apart and the inner web rods 32 mm apart.

J. Carruthers

1977-01-01

248

Leafhoppers and potatoes in Alaska  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Research conducted from 2004 to 2006 in the main potato production areas of Alaska resulted in the identification of 41 leafhopper species associated with agricultural settings. Two species, Davisonia snowi (Dorst) and Macrosteles fascifrons (Stål), made up approximately 60% of the total number of i...

249

Potato Protoplasts in Crop Improvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clonal populations regenerated from single-leaf cell protoplasts of the potato cultivar `Russet Burbank' display a high frequency of variation for several horticultural and disease resistance characters. Observations over a period of three tuber generations suggest stable changes in tuber shape, yield, and maturity date, in photoperiod requirements for flowering, and in plant morphology. Enhanced resistance to early blight (Alternaria solani)

James F. Shepard; Dennis Bidney; Elias Shahin

1980-01-01

250

Barred Galaxies: Intrinsic or Extrinsic?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A unified picture is presented of the formation of bar structures in disk galaxies of various morphological types. In order to discuss bar formation in the context of galactic disk formation, a simple analytic model is constructed of the growth of galactic disks by infall of primordial gas from halos and subsequent star formation in the disks. It is monitored during the course of disk growth whether or not the condition for spontaneous bar formation (i.e., bar instability) is fulfilled for the stellar disk component. It is found that the infall timescale is a key parameter that controls the dynamical property of the resulting stellar disk. Disks that grow fast by rapid infall experience gas-rich phases, in which massive gas clumps arising from gravitational instability in the gas disk heat the stellar disk component dynamically. When the disk has fully grown and becomes mostly stellar, it has already acquired enough random motions to suppress bar instability. On the other hand, when the gas infall from the halo region proceeds slowly, star formation (though less intense than in rapid infall cases) keeps gas mass in the disk low, leading to a dynamically cold stellar component due to lack of strong heating by massive gas clumps. Therefore, the stellar disk becomes unstable and forms a bar once its mass fraction relative to the total galaxy mass reaches a critical value. Based on this result, we propose that late-type barred galaxies, the disks of which are considered to have formed by slow accretion of the halo gas, have intrinsic origin, whereas the bars in early-type galaxies, whose disks are likely to have grown quickly, have been formed in tidal interactions with other galaxies. Numerical simulations have been carried out which show that the bars created by tidal perturbations tend to have a relatively flat density profile along the bar major axis with "shoulders" (abrupt steepening of the gradient) at the bar ends, whereas spontaneous bars have a steeper profile. The formation scenario described above, combined with this numerical result, can explain the observed dichotomy that early-type galaxies generally have a flat bar, while late-type galaxies have a bar of exponential type.

Noguchi, Masafumi

1996-10-01

251

How large are the bars in barred galaxies?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I present a study of the sizes (semimajor axes) of bars in disc galaxies, combining a detailed R-band study of 65 S0-Sb galaxies with the B-band measurements of 70 Sb-Sd galaxies from Martin (1995). As has been noted before with smaller samples, bars in early-type (S0-Sb) galaxies are clearly larger than bars in late-type (Sc-Sd) galaxies; this is true both for relative sizes (bar length as fraction of isophotal radius R25 or exponential disc scalelength h) and absolute sizes (kpc). S0-Sab bars extend to ~1-10 kpc (mean ~ 3.3 kpc), ~0.2-0.8R25 (mean ~ 0.38R25) and ~0.5-2.5h (mean ~ 1.4h). Late-type bars extend to only ~0.5-3.5 kpc, ~0.05-0.35R25 and 0.2-1.5h their mean sizes are ~1.5 kpc, ~ 0.14R25 and ~0.6h. Sb galaxies resemble earlier-type galaxies in terms of bar size relative to h; their smaller R25-relative sizes may be a side effect of higher star formation, which increases R25 but not h. Sbc galaxies form a transition between the early- and late-type regimes. For S0-Sbc galaxies, bar size correlates well with disc size (both R25 and h); these correlations are stronger than the known correlation with MB. All correlations appear to be weaker or absent for late-type galaxies; in particular, there seems to be no correlation between bar size and either h or MB for Sc-Sd galaxies. Because bar size scales with disc size and galaxy magnitude for most Hubble types, studies of bar evolution with redshift should select samples with similar distributions of disc size or magnitude (extrapolated to present-day values); otherwise, bar frequencies and sizes could be mis-estimated. Because early-type galaxies tend to have larger bars, resolution-limited studies will preferentially find bars in early-type galaxies (assuming no significant differential evolution in bar sizes). I show that the bars detected in Hubble Space Telescope (HST) near-infrared(IR) images at z~ 1 by Sheth et al. have absolute sizes consistent with those in bright, nearby S0-Sb galaxies. I also compare the sizes of real bars with those produced in simulations and discuss some possible implications for scenarios of secular evolution along the Hubble sequence. Simulations often produce bars as large as (or larger than) those seen in S0-Sb galaxies, but rarely any as small as those in Sc-Sd galaxies.

Erwin, Peter

2005-11-01

252

Acrylamide-asparagine relationship in baked/toasted wheat and rye breads.  

PubMed

Acrylamide in baked and toasted wheat and rye bread was studied in relation to levels of asparagine in flour, dough, bread and toasts. Asparagine was consumed during bread preparation resulting in reduced acrylamide content in the products. In wheat bread, 12% of the asparagine initially present in the flour (0.14 g kg(-1)) remained after yeast fermentation and baking; for rye bread, 82% of asparagine remained after sourdough fermentation and baking. Asparagine present in untoasted wheat bread had totally reacted after hard toasting. Toasted wheat and rye bread slices contained 11-161 and 27-205 microg kg(-1) acrylamide, respectively, compared to untoasted wheat and rye bread with <5 and 7-23 microg kg(-1) acrylamide, respectively. The dietary intake of acrylamide from bread (untoasted) of 2 microg day(-1) is relatively low; however, acrylamide exposure from bread increases several fold for people eating toasted bread. PMID:18608496

Granby, Kit; Nielsen, Nikoline Juul; Hedegaard, Rikke V; Christensen, Tue; Kann, Mette; Skibsted, Leif H

2008-08-01

253

7 CFR 51.1578 - Off-Grade potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...INSPECTION ACT FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Off-Grade § 51.1578 Off-Grade potatoes. Potatoes which fail to meet...

2013-01-01

254

7 CFR 51.1578 - Off-Grade potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...OF 1946 FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Off-Grade § 51.1578 Off-Grade potatoes. Potatoes which fail to meet...

2009-01-01

255

7 CFR 948.151 - Colorado Potato Committee membership.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee membership. 948...AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Rules and Regulations Modification of Inspection Requirements § 948.151 Colorado Potato Committee...

2009-01-01

256

7 CFR 948.151 - Colorado Potato Committee membership.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee membership. 948...AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Rules and Regulations Modification of Inspection Requirements § 948.151 Colorado Potato Committee...

2013-01-01

257

7 CFR 948.51 - Colorado Potato Committee.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee. 948.51 Section...AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Committees § 948.51 Colorado Potato Committee. The...

2009-01-01

258

7 CFR 948.51 - Colorado Potato Committee.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee. 948.51 Section...AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Committees § 948.51 Colorado Potato Committee. The...

2013-01-01

259

On the Decomposition of Martensite During Bake Hardening of Thermomechanically Processed TRIP Steels  

SciTech Connect

Thermomechanically processed (TMP) CMnSi transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) steels with and without additions of Nb, Mo, or Al were subjected to prestraining and bake hardening. Atom probe tomography (APT) revealed the presence of fine C-rich clusters in the martensite of all studied steels after the thermomechanical processing. After bake hardening, the formation of iron carbides, containing from 25 to 90 at. pct C, was observed. The evolution of iron carbide compositions was independent of steel composition and was a function of carbide size.

Pereloma, E. V. [University of Wollongong, Wollongong, Australia; Miller, Michael K [ORNL; Timokhina, I. B. [Monash University, Australia

2008-01-01

260

Formation of heterocyclic amines in salami and ham pizza toppings during baking of frozen pizza.  

PubMed

Heterocyclic amines (HAs) are formed as Maillard reaction products in the crust of meat products during heating processes. Two typical pizza toppings--salami and cooked ham--were analyzed for the presence of HAs after baking frozen pizzas at top and bottom temperatures of 250 and 230 °C, respectively. After baking pizza slices for 12 min, MeIQx (2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline; 0.2 ng/g), 4,8-DiMeIQx (2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline; 0.5 ng/g), PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine; 0.2 ng/g), norharman (4.5 ng/g), and harman (2.5 ng/g) were found in the ham toppings, whereas only the comutagenic norharman (107.4 ng/g) and harman (11.4 ng/g) were found in the salami toppings. The content of MeIQx and 4,8-DiMeIQx in ham increased from 0.3 to 1.8 ng/g and 0.8 to 1.6 ng/g, respectively, when the recommended baking time was increased from 15 min (manufacturer's specification) to 18 min at 230 °C. MeIQx was formed in salami when the heating time was extended to 18 min. Moreover, higher concentrations of PhIP in salami or ham slices were found when baking temperatures were 250 °C rather than 230 °C (baking time of 12 min). However, sensory tests showed that panelists preferred longer-baked pizzas due to an increased crispiness. Thus, results show that a substantial formation of HAs may occur in pizza toppings such as ham and salami, with ham being particularly susceptible when compared to salami. Formation of HAs increases with increasing baking time and temperature. The occurrence of the cupping of ham or salami slices during baking may also increase the formation of HAs. PMID:23600962

Gibis, Monika; Weiss, Jochen

2013-04-19

261

Flight take-off performance of Colorado potato beetle in relation to potato phenology.  

PubMed

The flight take-off frequency of adult Colorado potato beetles, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), from potato plants, Solanum tuberosum L. 'Red Pontiac' at the bloom stage of development was 2.2-2.5-fold that of Colorado potato beetle from plants at the vegetative stage. Tests were conducted in a flight chamber over a period of 3 h. Prefeeding Colorado potato beetles for 48 h on potato plants at the bloom or at the vegetative stage before placing them into the flight chamber resulted in the same significantly higher flight take-off frequency from potato plants at the bloom stage than from plants at the vegetative stage. These results demonstrate that the factor in potato plants in bloom that stimulates the flight take-off of the Colorado potato beetle is independent of the feeding history of the beetles and begins acting only when the beetles are in the presence of the plant. According to these results, the dispersal of adult Colorado potato beetles from potato fields in bloom to younger potato fields with plants at the vegetative stage, previously reported in the literature, is at least partly explained by the effect of plant phenology on the frequency of flight take-off. Results confirm the value of planting potato fields of similar phenology over as wide an area as possible to reduce Colorado potato beetle dispersal between fields. Results also imply that staggering the planting dates of conventional potato refuge areas near Colorado potato beetle transgenic or conventionally resistant potato fields is a sound management practice, because it promotes the movement of wild beetles over to the adjacent younger resistant crops. PMID:18330116

Mbungu, Nsitu T; Boiteau, Gilles

2008-02-01

262

Criminal careers behind bars.  

PubMed

In the criminal career literature, prison is usually viewed as an interruption of offending. Little research has applied the criminal career perspective to misconduct committed by prisoners. The current study used official data from a probability sample of 1,005 inmates from the southwestern United States to examine offending careers during incarceration. Descriptive and negative binomial regression analyses produced findings that suggest both similarities and dissimilarities between conventional and prison criminal careers. The incidence and prevalence of crime were inversely related to its seriousness but the magnitude of crime was higher in prison. One-third of inmates were never contacted for a prison violation and 74% were never contacted for a serious/violent violation. On the other hand, 40% of inmates were chronic or extreme career offenders even while incarcerated. A small cadre of inmates accounted for 100% of the murders, 75% of the rapes, 80% of the arsons, and 50% of the aggravated assaults occurring behind bars. Finally, prior criminality was the best predictor of prison offending, which is supportive of the importation model. While a significant number of inmates fully comply with prison rules, an even larger percentage of inmates continue to commit an array of crimes and rule violations despite the efforts of prison officials. PMID:14502694

DeLisi, Matt

2003-01-01

263

Comparison of the effects of sucrose and hexose on furfural formation and browning in cookies baked at different temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of the type of sugar and baking temperature on sugar degradation, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) formation and browning was studied in model cookies. The baking process was characterised by the temperature in the cookie and the water content and activity. A reference browning was selected to compare the differently processed cookies. The accumulation of HMF was modelled at three temperatures

Lamia Ait Ameur; Odile Mathieu; Valérie Lalanne; Gilles Trystram; Ines Birlouez-Aragon

2007-01-01

264

Estimating baking temperatures in a Roman pottery kiln by rock magnetic properties: implications of thermochemical alteration on archaeointensity determinations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Absolute past geomagnetic field intensity determinations requiring laboratory heating are labourious and the success rate is rather low, mostly because of induced thermochemical magnetic mineral alterations. Archaeomagnetic intensity determinations are mainly limited to displaced ceramics produced in kilns. In this study, the suitability of an in situ baked structure is investigated. Different magnetic properties of baked material taken from the

Simo Spassov; Jozef Hus

2006-01-01

265

REACTION OF POTATO VARIETIES TO POTATO MOP-TOP VIRUS INFECTION IN THE ANDES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The unexpected detection in 2002 of Potato mop-top virus (PMTV) in potatoes growing at several locations in the U.S. and Canada has led to the realization that this soil-borne virus is actually wide-spread throughout the potato-producing regions of both countries. The lack of information concerning...

266

Emerging diversity in Potato virus Y poses new challenges for the U.S. potato industry  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Until recently tobacco and potato tuber necrotic strains of Potato virus Y (PVY) were considered to be absent from the U.S., and seed certification programs were able to limit PVY incidence in seed potatoes. PVY has become more problematic in recent years and beginning in 2002, necrotic strains of P...

267

Some properties of potatoes and their starches I. Cooking, textural and rheological properties of potatoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three different potato cultivars (Kufri Jyoti, Kufri Badshah and Pukhraj) were analyzed for cooking, sensory, textural and rheological properties. Potato cultivars (Kufri Jyoti and Kufri Badshah) with higher mealiness scores had lower cooking times and compression forces than cultivars with lower mealiness scores (Pukhraj). Kufri Jyoti and Kufri Badshah potatoes also showed higher total solids loss and water uptake values

Lovedeep Kaur; Narpinder Singh; Navdeep Singh Sodhi; Hardeep Singh Gujral

2002-01-01

268

Male Bar Drinkers' Perspective on Female Bar Drinkers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five focus group discussions were conducted with 34 male bar drinkers to obtain their perception of the character and risks for aggression among women they observe in bars. The majority of the men were European American (61.8%), 29.4% were African American, and 8.8% were from other ethnic groups. Their impressions of women were based on appearance, type and speed of

Kathleen A. Parks; Douglas M. Scheidt

2000-01-01

269

Physicochemical and functional properties of potato proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Key words:<\\/strong> potato proteins, patatin, protease inhibitors, solubility, structure, pH, temperature, ethanol, ionic strength, phenolic compounds, foams, emulsionsIn potato starch manufacture an aqueous byproduct remains that is called potato fruit juice (PFJ). On a dry matter basis PFJ contains about 20-25 % protein and amino acids, 15 % sugars, 20 % minerals, 14 % organic acids and other components, such

Koningsveld van G

2001-01-01

270

Boric Acid Reclamation System (BARS).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

KLM Technologies' personnel have identified a Boric Acid Reclamation System (BARS) utilizing reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration to produce a recyclable grade of otherwise waste boric acid at PWRs, thus reducing a major source of low-level radwaste. The d...

B. G. Kniazewycz J. Markind

1986-01-01

271

Property Control through Bar Coding.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A public utility company uses laser wands to read bar-coded labels on furniture and equipment. The system allows an 80 percent savings of the time required to create reports for inventory control. (MLF)|

Kingma, Gerben J.

1984-01-01

272

Different approaches for improving the quality and extending the shelf life of the partially baked bread: low temperatures and HPMC addition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of refrigeration or positive temperature storage as an alternative to frozen storage for extending the shelf life of partially baked bread is described. In addition, the effect of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) on the baking performance of those products is detailed. With this purpose, the quality and shelf life of the bread from partially baked bread stored at frozen temperatures

María Eugenia Bárcenas; Cristina M. Rosell

2006-01-01

273

Staling of frozen partly and fully baked breads. Study of the combined effect of amylopectin recrystallization and water content on bread firmness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Partly baked (PB) and fully baked (FB) breads were frozen at ?18 °C for 7, 21, 63, 92, 126 and 188 d and were analysed after its thawing (FB) or thawing and final baking (PB). The starch retrogradation, the moisture content and the firmness were measured as properties closely related to the aging of bread. The temperature of glass transition of the

Felicidad Ronda; Pedro A. Caballero; Joan Quilez; Yrjö H. Roos

2011-01-01

274

Sand bars in tidal channels. Part 1. Free bars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the basic mechanism whereby bars form in tidal channels or estuaries. The channel is assumed to be long enough to allow neglect of the effects of end conditions on the process of bar formation. In this respect, the object of the present analysis differs from that of Schuttelaars & de Swart (1999) who considered bars of length scaling with the finite length of the tidal channel. The channel bottom is assumed to be cohesionless and consisting of uniform sediments. Bars are shown to arise from a mechanism of instability of the erodible bed subject to the propagation of a tidal wave. Sediment is assumed to be transported both as bedload and as suspended load. A fully three-dimensional model is employed both for the hydrodynamics and for sediment transport. At the leading order of approximation considered, the effects of channel convergence, local inertia and Coriolis forces on bar instability are shown to be negligible. Unlike fluvial free bars, in the absence of mean currents tidal free bars are found to be non-migrating features (in the mean). Instability arises for large enough values of the mean width to depth ratio of the channel, for given mean values of the Shields parameter and of the relative channel roughness. The role of suspended load is such as to stabilize bars in the large-wavenumber range and destabilize them for small wavenumbers. Hence, for large values of the mean Shields stress, it turns out that the first critical mode (the alternate bar mode) is characterized by a very small value of the critical width to depth ratio. Furthermore, the order-m mode being characterized by a critical value of the width to depth ratio equal to m times the critical value for the first mode, it follows that for large values of the mean Shields stress several unstable modes are simultaneously excited for relatively low values of the aspect ratio. This suggests that the actual bar pattern observed in nature may arise from an interesting nonlinear competition among different unstable modes.

Seminara, G.; Tubino, M.

2001-08-01

275

Influence of solid dairy manure and compost with and without alum on survival of indicator bacteria in soil and on potato.  

PubMed

We measured Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp. and fecal coliform numbers in soil and on fresh potato skins after addition of solid dairy manure and dairy compost with and without alum (Al(2)(SO(4))(3)) treatment 1, 7, 14, 28, 179 and 297 days after application. The addition of dairy compost or solid dairy manure at rates to meet crop phosphorus uptake did not consistently increase E. coli and Enterococcus spp. and fecal coliform bacteria in the soil. We did not detect E. coli in any soil sample after the first sampling day. Seven, 14, 28, 179 and 297 days after solid dairy waste and compost and alum were applied to soil, alum did not consistently affect Enterococcus spp. and fecal coliform bacteria in the soil. We did not detect E. coli in any soil, fresh potato skin or potato wash-water at 214 days after dairy manure or compost application regardless of alum treatment. Dairy compost or solid dairy manure application to soil at rates to meet crop phosphorus uptake did not consistently increase Enterococcus spp. and fecal coliform numbers in bulk soil. Solid dairy manure application to soil at rates to meet crop phosphorus uptake, increased Enterococcus spp. and fecal coliform numbers in potato rhizosphere soil. However, fresh potato skins had higher Enterococcus spp. and fecal coliform numbers when solid dairy manure was added to soil compared to compost, N and P inorganic fertilizer and N fertilizer treatments. We did not find any E. coli, Enterococcus or total coliform bacteria on the exterior of the tuber, within the peel or within a whole baked potato after microwave cooking for 5 min. PMID:15978710

Entry, James A; Leytem, April B; Verwey, Sheryl

2005-11-01

276

Microscopic structure of potato chips  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Microscopic examination of potato chips and French fries has provided conclusive demonstration that the cellular structure\\u000a remains intact and that the cell walls rarely, if ever, rupture during the deep-fat frying process. Blistering of chips is\\u000a a result of simple cell separation due to expansion of steam trapped within the slices when the surface become dehydrated\\u000a and sealed. Deep-fat frying

R. M. Reeve; E. M. Neel

1960-01-01

277

Gold ball-bond mechanical reliability at 40?m pitch: squash height and bake temperature effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gold ball-bonding is still used for manufacturing over 90% of the worlds of electronics packages and has moved towards finer pitch in response to increasing demands for more I\\/O's in smaller spaces. However, as commonly observed when reducing the size of components or features in semiconductor assemblies, reliability decreases. Wirebonding behaves similarly in terms of isothermal bake testing and it

J. Beleran; F. Wulff; C. D. Breach

2004-01-01

278

Development of a benchtop baking method for chemically leavened crackers. II. Validation of the method  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A benchtop baking method has been developed to predict the contribution of gluten functionality to overall flour performance for chemically leavened crackers. Using a diagnostic formula and procedure, dough rheology was analyzed to evaluate the extent of gluten development during mixing and machinin...

279

Effect of baking on dietary fibre and phenolics of muffins incorporated with apple skin powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apple fruit skin, a rich source of dietary fibre and phenolics, is a by-product of apple processing. The effect of baking on the dietary fibre, phenolics, and total antioxidant capacity was investigated using a model system of muffins incorporated with dried apple skin powder (ASP) as a value-added food ingredient. The blanched, dehydrated, and ground ASP contained approximately 41% total

H. P. Vasantha Rupasinghe; Laixin Wang; Gwendolyn M. Huber; Nancy L. Pitts

2008-01-01

280

[Exploration on baking conditions for Atractylodes macrocephala Kloidz in qiweibaizhusan bags].  

PubMed

This paper is concerned with a comprehensive study on the conditions required for baking pieces and grains of Atractylodes macrocephala Kloidz. through the determination of the relative content of atractylone and moisture content in the rhizome. Optimum roasting temperature and time before pulverizing have been determined, thus providing reliable basis for devising the suitable technological process. PMID:2512945

Yang, Y H; Yang, D H

1989-05-01

281

Effect of an enzyme preparation on wheat flour and dough color, mixing, and test baking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bleaching flours with natural rather than chemical extracts is attractive because it reduces risks upon exposure and appeals to natural food consumers. This paper reports effects of a commercial proprietary blend of ‘natural’ bleaching enzymes on wheat flour and dough color, mixing behavior and test bake performance. Enzyme preparation did not improve whiteness (L*) and yellowness (b*) of flour system,

B. P. Lamsal; J. M. Faubion

2009-01-01

282

Improvement in melting and baking properties of low-fat Mozzarella cheese.  

PubMed

Low-fat cheeses dehydrate too quickly when baked in a forced air convection oven, preventing proper melting on a pizza. To overcome this problem, low-fat Mozzarella cheese was developed in which fat is released onto the cheese surface during baking to prevent excessive dehydration. Low-fat Mozzarella cheese curd was made with target fat contents of 15, 30, 45, and 60 g/kg using direct acidification of the milk to pH 5.9 before renneting. The 4 portions of cheese curd were comminuted and then mixed with sufficient glucono-?-lactone and melted butter (45, 30, 15, or 0 g/kg, respectively), then pressed into blocks to produce low-fat Mozzarella cheese with about 6% fat and pH 5.2. The cheeses were analyzed after 15, 30, 60, and 120 d of storage at 5°C for melting characteristics, texture, free oil content, dehydration performance, and stretch when baked on a pizza at 250°C for 6 min in a convection oven. Cheeses made with added butter had higher stretchability compared with the control cheese. Melting characteristics also improved in contrast to the control cheese, which remained in the form of shreds during baking and lacked proper melting. The cheeses made with added butter had higher free oil content, which correlated (R2?0.92) to the amount of butterfat added, and less hardness and gumminess compared with the control low fat cheese. PMID:21426959

Wadhwani, R; McManus, W R; McMahon, D J

2011-04-01

283

ORGANIC EMISSIONS EVALUATION OF A PAINT BAKE OVEN WITH CATALYTIC INCINERATION  

EPA Science Inventory

This report describes a test program conducted at a paint bake oven facility. The purpose was to measure total hydrocarbon (THC) concentrations at the inlet and outlet of an incinerator with heat recovery used to reduce organic solvent emissions. Data were also collected to evalu...

284

Muffins with resistant starch: Baking performance in relation to the rheological properties of the batter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect on baked muffins of progressively replacing wheat flour with resistant starch (RS) was studied. Muffin volume and height and the number and area of gas cells decreased significantly when the RS level reached about 15% (by weight of total formulation) or higher. Rheological properties of the raw batters were studied: the mechanical spectra of batters at 25°C, the

R. Baixauli; T. Sanz; A. Salvador; S. M. Fiszman

2008-01-01

285

Resistant starch formation in bread as influenced by choice of ingredients or baking conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation of resistant starch (RS) in bread products was evaluated in vitro in relation to the processing conditions. The impact of the particular baking conditions applied to pumpernickel bread was investigated as well as the presence of malt and sourdough acids, commonly present in such bread. Also studied was the potential effect of including wholemeal barley from a high-amylose

Helena Liljeberg; Anna Åkerberg; Inger Björck

1996-01-01

286

Influence of the freezing condition on the baking performances of French frozen dough  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freezing affects the baking performance of frozen bread dough. The volume of the dough during proofing is related to two main factors. First, yeast is affected by freezing. A slow freezing rate is usually recommended in the literature so as to preserve its activity. Second, the gluten network is damaged during freezing. This latter phenomenon affects the ability of the

M Havet; M Mankai; A Le Bail

2000-01-01

287

Takagi-sugeno multiple-model controller for a continuous baking yeast fermentation process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this work is to design a fuzzy integral controller to force the switching of a bioprocess between two different metabolic states. A continuous baking yeast culture is divided in two sub-models: a respiro-fermentative with ethanol production and a respirative with ethanol consumption. The switching between both different metabolic states is achieved by means of tracking a reference

Enrique Herrera; Bernardino Castillo; Jesús Ramírez; Eugénio C. Ferreira

2007-01-01

288

Home-Made Breads [and] Home-Baked Breads for Busy People.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This packet contains two lesson plans for a class on making bread to be taught in an adult literacy program. Developed by a teacher who has taught the classes to 175 people, the lesson plans each contain complete directions for working with students while baking bread. One lesson plan is for experienced home bakers, and the other is a simpler…

Kirk, John

289

Mathematical modeling of the stability of green tea catechin epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) during bread baking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tea catechins have been linked with many health benefits including prevention of oxidative DNA damage and improvement on blood flow and liver function. Fortifying bread with (?)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a principal catechin in green tea, would turn the bread into a functional food. This study aimed to establish mathematical models for the stability of EGCG during bread baking process. It

Rong Wang; Weibiao Zhou; Xiaohui Jiang

2008-01-01

290

Half-baked mathematical microworlds as boundary objects in connected design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper addresses the problem of disparate theoretical frameworks, contexts and assumptions of the communities involved in the design of digital media for mathematical education. It draws on experience with international multi-organizational projects where design, development and use of digital media for mathematics education was promised as a collective collaborative activity. It discusses the notion of 'half-baked' mathematical microworlds as

Chronis Kynigos

291

Changes in Starch Microstructure on Baking and Staling of Wheat Bread  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microstructure of starch in dough and in fresh and aged bread crumb was studied by light microscopy. The samples were cryosectioned and stained with Light Green and iodine to localize protein and starch, respectively. In dough a partial segregation of starch from the protein phase is observed. On baking, starch was gelatinized and led to the formation of a

Susanna Hug-Iten; Stephan Handschin; Béatrice Conde-Petit; Felix Escher

1999-01-01

292

Baked-Bean Waste: a Potential Substrate for Producing Fungal Amylases  

PubMed Central

Baked-bean waste was found to be a favorable substrate for amylase production by Aspergillus foetidus NRRL 337. Under optimum conditions, the yields of ?-amylase (EC 3.2.1.1) and glucoamylase (EC 3.2.1.3) were 47 and 226 U, respectively, per ml of the waste fermented.

Hang, Y. D.; Woodams, E. E.

1977-01-01

293

The role of potatoes and potato components in cardiometabolic health: A review.  

PubMed

Abstract Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) are an important food crop worldwide and contribute key nutrients to the diet, including vitamin C, potassium, and dietary fiber. Potatoes and potato components have been shown to have favorable impacts on several measures of cardiometabolic health in animals and humans, including lowering blood pressure, improving lipid profiles, and decreasing markers of inflammation. A range of glycemic index (GI) values have been reported for potatoes, and data are sparse regarding the impact of potato consumption on the postprandial glycemic response, especially when potatoes are consumed with other foods. There is a lack of clinical trial data regarding the impact of potatoes on weight management. A small number of human cohort studies have reported beneficial associations between potato consumption as part of a healthy lifestyle and cardiometabolic health. Another small number of human population studies have included potatoes as part of a dietary pattern with other calorie-dense foods and have not reported cardiometabolic benefits. The epidemiological literature should be interpreted with caution due to lack of consistency in both defining dietary patterns that include potatoes and in control for potential confounding variables. Controlled clinical trials are needed to define the impact of potatoes on cardiometabolic health. PMID:23855880

McGill, Carla R; Kurilich, Anne C; Davignon, Jean

2013-07-15

294

The influence of dehydrated potatoes processing on the glycoalkaloids content in coloured-fleshed potato.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different temperatures of blanching and pre-drying used in the laboratory production of dried potato dice on the content of glycoalkaloids in red and blue fleshed potato varieties. Studied potatoes of coloured fleshed varieties were characterised by a low glycoalkaloids content at 5.47 mg 100 g(-1). The production of dehydrated potato dice influenced on the decrease in glycoalkaloids content in potato products. The majority of these compounds were removed during the peeling (70%) and blanching process (29%). Potato dice blanched at the highest temperature (85 °C) and pre-dried at 120 °C was characterised by the lowest quantity of glycoalkaloids content, whereas the highest content of these compounds was found in dice blanched potato at the lowest temperature (65 °C) and pre-dried at 120 °C. The blanching process much influenced on the decrease in glycoalkaloids content than pre-drying process. PMID:23870986

Rytel, El?bieta; Tajner-Czopek, Agnieszka; Anio?owska, Magda; Hamouz, Karel

2013-05-24

295

Bad bars: A review of risk factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bars, inns, taverns, and hotels have been popular settings for recreational alcohol consumption for centuries. The bar is firmly established as an important adjunct of leisure in many societies. Alcohol consumption in bars is mainly convivial, restrained and problem-free. Even so it has long been apparent that heavy drinking in bars is associated with aggression, violence, public disorder and injuries.

J. Green; M. A. Plant

2007-01-01

296

Redesign of a Torsion Bar Testing Machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many types of vehicles utilize torsion bar suspensions. In particular, many types of racecars use torsion bar suspension systems because they are durable, compact, easy to remove, and easy to replace. In order to more effectively test torsion bar suspensions, a torsion bar rating machine was redesigned using 3D solid modeling, finite element analysis, and computer programming software. Some distinct

Amanda J. Meiser; David Lawrence; Brian Maher

2011-01-01

297

The Potato in Irish Cuisine and Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article will discuss the introduction of the potato from its South American origin into Irish cuisine and culture. The authors will outline the stages of development from introduction to acceptance as a winter vegetable, to widespread acceptance, moving on to overdependence and leading to subsequent famine. The article will discuss the varieties of potatoes used, the methods of production

Máirtín Mac Con Iomaire; Pádraic Óg Gallagher

2009-01-01

298

RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH EARLY POTATO PLANTING  

Microsoft Academic Search

It's no secret that a uniform stand of healthy, vigorous plants is one of the keys to producing high yields of good quality potatoes. Most potato growers spend a lot of time selecting seed and preparing to cut and plant in an effort to achieve those kinds of stands. Unfortunately, growers are sometimes disappointed with seed performance due to high

Mike Thornton; Phil Nolte

2005-01-01

299

Potato cyst nematodes: pests of national importance  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potato cyst nematodes (PCN; G. rostochiensis and G. pallida) are internationally-recognized quarantine pests and considered the most devastating pests of potatoes due to annual worldwide yield losses estimated at 12.2%. PCNs continue to spread throughout North America and were recently detected in I...

300

Identifying and reducing constraints to potato productivity  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potato yield in Maine has remained relatively constant for over 50 years, despite increased inputs of pesticides, nutrients, and water. Research is needed to identify and reduce the constraints to potato productivity. We evaluated Status Quo, Soil Conserving, Soil Improving, and Disease Suppressive ...

301

Acrylamide in home-prepared roasted potatoes.  

PubMed

Potato is one of the world's most widely grown tuber crop, in which starch is the predominant form of carbohydrates. Potatoes can be prepared in many ways: boiled, fried or roasted. Frying and roasting potatoes at high temperatures result in an appetizing crust, but at the same time acrylamide can form. In this study, the concentrations of the acrylamide precursors, asparagine and sugars, were determined in five different Swedish-grown potato varieties, together with the acrylamide content after typical home-cooking procedures; oven-roasting of potato wedges and pan-frying of cubes of boiled potatoes. Pan-frying of boiled potato cubes resulted in higher levels of acrylamide (530-1100 microg/kg) than in the wedges (140-250 microg/kg). Blanching combined with a shorter roasting time was shown to be an efficient way of reducing the acrylamide content in roasted potato wedges, especially in the experiments performed after long-term storage, where the acrylamide content was reduced from 110-260 to 50-140 microg/kg. No correlation was found between precursor content and acrylamide content, and this finding emphasizes the need for further studies on factors affecting acrylamide formation, for example, the availability of precursors at the surface during cooking. PMID:18320571

Skog, Kerstin; Viklund, Gunilla; Olsson, Kerstin; Sjöholm, Ingegerd

2008-03-01

302

Potato operation: computer vision for agricultural robotics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Each year at harvest time millions of seed potatoes are checked for the presence of viruses by means of an Elisa test. The Potato Operation aims at automatizing the potato manipulation and pulp sampling procedure, starting from bunches of harvested potatoes and ending with the deposit of potato pulp into Elisa containers. Automatizing these manipulations addresses several issues, linking robotic and computer vision. The paper reports on the current status of this project. It first summarizes the robotic aspects, which consist of locating a potato in a bunch, grasping it, positioning it into the camera field of view, pumping the pulp sample and depositing it into a container. The computer vision aspects are then detailed. They concern locating particular potatoes in a bunch and finding the position of the best germ where the drill has to sample the pulp. The emphasis is put on the germ location problem. A general overview of the approach is given, which combines the processing of both frontal and silhouette views of the potato, together with movements of the robot arm (active vision). Frontal and silhouette analysis algorithms are then presented. Results are shown that confirm the feasibility of the approach.

Pun, Thierry; Lefebvre, Marc; Gil, Sylvia; Brunet, Denis; Dessimoz, Jean-Daniel; Guegerli, Paul

1992-03-01

303

Potato Tubers and Soil Aeration1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potato plants are more sensitive to soil oxygen stress than many other common crops. Some recent literature suggests this may be due to a relatively high oxygen requirement for tuber growth, rather than a greater requirement for the roots per se. Consequently, the oxygen consumption of growing potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum cv. Russet Burbank) was measured in the field on

J. W. Cary

1985-01-01

304

Whitefly transmission of sweet potato viruses.  

PubMed

Three genera of plant viruses, Begomovirus (Geminiviridae), Crinivirus (Closteroviridae) and Ipomovirus (Potyviridae), contain members that infect sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) and are transmitted by whiteflies. The begomoviruses, Sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV) and Ipomoea leaf curl virus (ILCV), and the ipomovirus Sweet potato mild mottle virus are transmitted by Bemisia tabaci, the sweet potato whitefly. The crinivirus, Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV), is transmitted by B. tabaci and Trialeurodes abutilonea, the bandedwinged whitefly. Transmission experiments were done with three of these viruses using laboratory-reared whiteflies and 2-day acquisition and transmission feeding periods. SPLCV and ILCV were transmitted from single and double infections by B. tabaci at rates of 5-10%. Transmission rates for SPLCV by B. tabaci were 15-20%. T. abutilonea transmitted SPCSV at a rate of ca. 3% but did not transmit ILCV or SPLCV. PMID:15036843

Valverde, Rodrigo A; Sim, Jeonggu; Lotrakul, Pongtharin

2004-03-01

305

Analysis of usability of potato pulp as solid fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes an attempt to analyse the usability of potato pulp as a future ecological solid fuel. The analysis of potato pulp, carried out within the framework of the study, comprised the following aspects: assessing energetic values of potato pulp, assessing the effects of burning solid fuel in the form of pellets made of potato pulp, assessing energy expenditures

S?awomir Obidzi?ski

306

Frying of Potatoes: Physical, Chemical, and Microstructural Changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frying is one of the oldest unit operations and is used not only in industry but also at home. The most commonly fried vegetable is potato, for important commercial products such as potato chips, par-fried potatoes, and french fries. Quality parameters of interest for fried potatoes include physical and chemical properties such as color, mechanical properties (e.g., crispness, hardness, etc.),

Franco Pedreschi

2012-01-01

307

A Brief History of the Potato in Ireland.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides historical information on the potato in Ireland focusing on how the potato arrived in Ireland and the advantages and disadvantages of the potato as a food crop. Discusses the Irish potato famine in Ireland, effects of the famine, and the government's laissez-faire response. Includes a list of questions. (CMK)|

Social Education, 2000

2000-01-01

308

Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of Barred Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic fields are pervasive in barred galaxies, especially in gaseous substructures such as dust lanes and nuclear rings. To explore the effects of magnetic fields on the formation of the substructures as well as on the mass inflow rates to the galaxy center, we run two-dimensional, ideal magnetohydrodynamic simulations. We use a modified version of the Athena code whose numerical magnetic diffusivity is shown to be of third order in space. In the bar regions, magnetic fields are compressed and abruptly bent around the dust-lane shocks. The associated magnetic stress not only reduces the peak density of the dust-lane shocks but also removes angular momentum further from the gas that is moving radially in. Nuclear rings that form at the location of centrifugal barrier rather than resonance with the bar are smaller and more radially distributed, and the mass flow rate to the galaxy center is correspondingly larger in models with stronger magnetic fields. Outside the bar regions, the bar potential and strong shear conspire to amplify the field strength near the corotation resonance. The amplified fields transport angular momentum outward, producing trailing magnetic arms with strong fields and low density. The base of the magnetic arms are found to be unstable to a tearing-mode instability of magnetic reconnection. This produces numerous magnetic islands that eventually make the outer regions highly chaotic.

Kim, W.-T.

2013-04-01

309

6.EE Chocolate Bar Sales  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Stephanie is helping her band collect money to fund a field trip. The band decided to sell boxes of chocolate bars. Each bar sells for \\$1.50 and each ...

310

CSERD Interactivate: Bar Graph Lesson  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This simulation-based lesson for grades 5-9 provides hands-on practice in exploring bar graphs using authentic information. It features an interactive Java graphing applet to create and read bar graphs. Students can work within parameters provided in the applet or input their own data sets. This resource includes a complete lesson plan, teaching tips, and alignment to NCTM standards. This resource is part of CSERD (Computational Science Education Reference Desk), a portal of the National Science Digital Library. The Interactivate collection contains more than 200 standards-based activities, many of which have been classroom tested.

2011-03-01

311

Hysteresis variations of (Pb, La)(Zr, Ti)O3 capacitors baked in a hydrogen atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Baking (Pb, La)(Zr, Ti)O3 capacitors in a hydrogen atmosphere causes a significant loss of remanent polarization even at 150 °C. The hysteresis variations depend on the polarization states during baking. The hysteresis loop showed voltage shifts when the capacitor was polarized before baking, whereas it became a cramped shape when the baking was carried out on a virgin capacitor. Although remanent polarization diminished in all cases, saturation polarization was not suppressed. The clamped hysteresis loop can be described as an average of two loops shifted to positive and negative voltages. The results indicate that the loss of remanent polarization is not due to the suppression of switching, but due to the shift of the hysteresis of each domain larger than the coercive voltage.

Tamura, T.; Matsuura, K.; Ashida, H.; Kondo, K.; Otani, S.

1999-05-01

312

Moisture requirements to reduce interfacial sub-oxides and lower hydrogen pre-bake temperatures for RPCVD Si epitaxy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In silicon epitaxy technology, residual O/H2O contamination requires thermal reduction using hydrogen pre-bakes to achieve atomically clean Si surfaces. This H2 pre-bake leads to unwanted increase of thermal budget. The higher the level of interfacial O, the longer the pre-bake period and the higher the temperature have to be for removal of these contaminants. Moisture contamination from the pre-epi chamber etch (immediately before the wafer is loaded), with it's use of high flows of HCl, is identified as a major contributor to the area density of the interfacial O. Stringent control of moisture impurity in the HCl is required to reduce thermal budget. Ultra low temperature technology to desiccate HCl is used to achieve single digit ppb moisture resulting in lower temperature hydrogen pre-bakes than achieved with standard solid media-type HCl purification.

Brabant, Paul D.; Shinriki, Manabu; Vininski, Joe; Raynor, Mark W.; Torres, Robert; Francis, Terry A.

2013-10-01

313

The textural quality of cooked potatoes. I. The relationship of cooking time to the separation and rupture of potato cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mealy mashed potatoes were obtained from potato slabs steam cooked as little as 8 min. The potato slabs were undercooked by\\u000a the fork test. The bud-end slabs were softer than the stem-end slabs and the compressive force to rice the potato was high.\\u000a Histologically, potatoes cooked 8–18 min showed no distention of cell walls and the rupture of cells was

M. Nonaka

1980-01-01

314

Dynamics of pesticides in potato crops.  

PubMed

This study investigated the behavior of pesticides commonly used on potato in a part of northwestern Spain with a large area devoted to this crop. Experimental potato plots were treated with commercial formulations of two insecticides, a nematicide, a herbicide, and a combination of two fungicides, and the concentrations of the active ingredients were monitored throughout the growing season in the 0-1 and 1-15 cm soil layers, in water dripping off the potato plants, and in the potatoes themselves. The technique used for pesticide determination was gas chromatography with mass selective detection. For potato analyses, pesticide extraction was optimized. The only pesticide ever detected in potato tubers was metalaxyl, the concentration of which never exceeded half the maximum residual limit even when it was applied several times more often than is officially recommended for potato crops. Metalaxyl was also the only pesticide detected in wash-off, apparently due to its being more soluble in water than the other pesticides applied to the growing plants. A mathematical model of pesticide transport in soil was fitted to the experimental data using the program HYDRUS-1D. PMID:16506836

López-Pérez, Gonzalo C; Arias-Estévez, Manuel; López-Periago, Eugenio; Soto-Gonzalez, Benedicto; Cancho-Grande, Beatriz; Simal-Gandara, Jesús

2006-03-01

315

Grocery store baking soda. A source of sodium bicarbonate in the management of chronic metabolic acidosis.  

PubMed

Oral sodium bicarbonate is used to treat metabolic acidosis in patients with renal tubular acidosis. Since infants and young children are unable to swallow tablets, those affected must ingest sodium bicarbonate in a powder or liquid form. Pharmacy-weighed sodium bicarbonate is expensive and inconvenient to obtain; some pharmacists are reluctant to provide it. We determined that the sodium bicarbonate contained in 8-oz boxes of Arm and Hammer Baking Soda was sufficiently constant in weight that, dissolved in water to a given volume, it yielded a quantitatively acceptable therapeutic solution of sodium bicarbonate at a cost of approximately 3 percent of that of pharmacy-weighed sodium bicarbonate. Grocery store baking soda can be a safe, economical, and convenient source of sodium bicarbonate for the treatment of chronic metabolic acidosis in infants and young children. PMID:6319065

Booth, B E; Gates, J; Morris, R C

1984-02-01

316

Talaromyces emersonii thermostable enzyme systems and their applications in wheat baking systems.  

PubMed

In this study, novel extracellular thermozymes were produced by the thermophilic fungus Talaromyces emersonii (IMI 392299) on low-cost carbon inducers. This paper reports the cocktail characterization, substrate hydrolysis studies, and their application in baking. Relevant enzymes were optimally active at pH 4.5-5.0 and 70 degrees C. Model studies confirmed production of significant levels of yeast monosaccharide sugars during cereal flour hydrolysis. The "thermozyme cocktails" are thermostable secreted T. emersonii enzyme blends. In baking trials, these thermozyme cocktails showed significant improvements in bread quality with respect to hardness, staling, and loaf volume (p < 0.5). Thermozyme cocktail B- treated loaf volume was 23.2% greater than the control and 49.5% softer. Staling analysis showed that bread treated with cocktail B was 41.7% softer than the control. This is the first report of T. emersonii thermozymes positively influencing bread quality. PMID:20496912

Waters, Deborah M; Murray, Patrick G; Ryan, Liam A; Arendt, Elke K; Tuohy, Maria G

2010-06-23

317

Detection of maltose fermentation genes in the baking yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

The presence of any one of the five unlinked MAL loci (MAL1, MAL2, MAL3, MAL4 and MAL6) confers the ability to ferment maltose on the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Each locus is composed of three genes encoding maltose permease, alpha-glucosidase and MAL activator. Chromosomal DNA of seven representative baking strains has been separated by pulse-field gel electrophoresis and probed with three genes in MAL6 locus. The DNA bands to which all of the three MAL-derived probes simultaneously hybridized were chromosome VII carrying MAL1 in all of the strains tested, chromosome XI carrying MAL4 in six strains, chromosome III carrying MAL2 in three strains and chromosomes II and VIII carrying MAL3 and MAL6, respectively, in the one strain. The number of MAL loci in baking strains was comparable to those of brewing strains. PMID:8987701

Oda, Y; Tonomura, K

1996-10-01

318

Combinatorial process optimization for negative photo-imageable spin-on dielectrics and investigation of post-apply bake and post-exposure bake interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Patternable dielectric materials were developed and introduced to reduce semiconductor manufacturing complexity and cost of ownership (CoO). However, the bestowed dual functionalities of photo-imageable spin-on dielectrics (PSOD) put great challenges on the material design and development. In this work, we investigated the combinatorial process optimization for the negative-tone PSOD lithography by employing the Temperature Gradient Plate (TGP) technique which significantly reduced the numbers of wafers processed and minimized the developmental time. We demonstrated that this TGP combinatorial is very efficient at evaluating the effects and interactions of several independent variables such as post-apply bake (PAB) and post-exposure bake (PEB). Unlike most of the conventional photoresists, PAB turned out to have a great effect on the PSOD pattern profiles. Based on our extensive investigation, we observed great correlation between PAB and PEB processes. In this paper, we will discuss the variation of pattern profiles as a matrix of PAB and PEB and propose two possible cross-linking mechanisms for the PSOD materials to explain the unusual experimental results.

Kim, Jihoon; Zhang, Ruzhi M.; Wolfer, Elizabeth; Patel, Bharatkumar K.; Toukhy, Medhat; Bogusz, Zachary; Nagahara, Tatsuro

2012-03-01

319

Preparation of cationic cotton with two-bath pad-bake process and its application in salt-free dyeing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cationic cotton was prepared by a designed two-bath pad-bake process with 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyltrimethylammonium chloride as cationizing reagent to realize recycle utilization of the reagent and continuous processing of cationization. Experiments showed that 8.0% (o.w.bath) of the reagent, 1:1 of molar ratio of sodium hydroxide to the reagent, 60°C and 6min of baking temperature and time were selected for cationization and the

Lili Wang; Wei Ma; Shufen Zhang; Xiaoxu Teng; Jinzong Yang

2009-01-01

320

Chilling and freezing of part-baked bread. Part II: Experimental assessment of water phase changes and structure collapse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first objective of the present work was to assess physical changes taking place during the pre-chilling and freezing of part-baked bread, by means of MRI. The second objective was to relate them to the appearance of crust flakes in certain circumstances after final baking at retail.The intensity of the MRI signal decreased in all voxels once water crystallization started.

T. Lucas; S. Quellec; A. Le Bail; A. Davenel

2005-01-01

321

Density yield relationships and economic injury level model for the Colorado potato beetle larvae on potatoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A three year study revealed that the relationship between the density of Colorado potato beetle larvae per stalk and a decrease\\u000a in the yield of potatoes can be described by a model comprised of two straight lines. Potato cv. Superior was found to have\\u000a a damage boundary of 12 larvae per stalk, which is the maximum level of injury or

G. Mailloux; M. R. Binns; N. J. Bostanian

1991-01-01

322

Symptoms induced by Andean potato latent virus in wild and cultivated potatoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The symptomatology of Andean potato latent virus (APLV) was studied in several wild potato species and potato cultivars using\\u000a isolates Caj, Hu and Ay from Peru. In greenhouse tests, the virus was latent in most isolate\\/cultivar combinations with primary\\u000a infection but secondary infection commonly caused symptoms. Wild species infected with the different isolates normally reacted\\u000a with symptoms with either type

R. A. C. Jones; C. E. Fribourg

1978-01-01

323

Characterisation of kernel resistance against Fusarium infection in spring wheat by baking quality and mycotoxin assessments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat heads by Fusarium culmorum causes serious yield losses and compromises the end-use quality by accumulation of mycotoxins and alteration of baking characteristics.\\u000a The most promising control strategies against the disease combine adequate cropping techniques (i.e. crop rotation avoiding\\u000a maize as a preceding crop) with the use of resistant varieties. Different types of resistance against

Brigitte Häller Gärtner; Marielle Munich; Geert Kleijer; Fabio Mascher

2008-01-01

324

Porous multiphase approach for baking process – Explicit formulation of evaporation rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multiphase model for simultaneous heat and mass transfer in porous medium was developed to simulate the baking process of a bread product. The model was based on Fourier’s law for conductive heat transfer and Darcy’s and Fick’s laws for mass transfer of liquid (water) and gas (water vapour and CO2) phases. Explicit formulation was adopted for the evaporation rate

A. Ousegui; C. Moresoli; M. Dostie; B. Marcos

2010-01-01

325

Stress co-tolerance and trehalose content in baking strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Microsoft Academic Search

  Fourteen wild-type baking strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were grown in batch culture to true stationary phase (exogenous carbon source exhausted) and tested for their trehalose\\u000a content and their tolerance to heat (52°C for 4.5 min), ethanol (20% v\\/v for 30 min), H2O2 (0.3?M for 60 min), rapid freezing (?196°C for 20 min, cooling rate 200°C min?1), slow freezing (?20°C for

J G Lewis; R P Learmonth; P V Attfield; K Watson

1997-01-01

326

A kinetic model for browning in the baking of biscuits: Effects of water activity and temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe here a rigorous and fundamental approach to the extraction of kinetic parameters when solid foods undergo colour change, and provide a generic basis for other studies on foods. Freeze-dried ‘digestive’ biscuit dough samples were used for kinetic studies of browning during the baking process. Browning data were recorded (temperature T: 105–135°C; water activity aw: 0.04–0.15; t=0–26min) as colorimeter

Sandra Mundt; Bronislaw L. Wedzicha

2007-01-01

327

Correlations Between Empirical and Fundamental Rheology Measurements and Baking Performance of Frozen Bread Dough  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 76(3):421-425 Empirical and fundamental rheology measurements were made on fresh and frozen dough to investigate the effects of fr eezing, frozen storage, and additives. These results were compared with results of a standard baking test. Four formulations were tested: a control dough, and doughs with addi- tions of 100 ppm of ascorbic acid (AA), 0.5% sodium stearoyl lactylate

S. Kenny; K. Wehrle; T. Dennehy; E. K. Arendt

1999-01-01

328

Evaluation of four types of resistant starch in muffin baking performance and relationship with batter rheology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of wheat flour partial replacement with different types of resistant starch (RS) in muffin batter rheological\\u000a properties and in baked muffin height, volume and number of air bubbles was investigated. The type of RS affected the above-described\\u000a properties differently. In comparison to the control batter (without RS), replacement with RS type 3 (Novelose 330 and C*Actistar)\\u000a increased viscosity

T. Sanz; A. Salvador; S. M. Fiszman

2008-01-01

329

Performance Analysis of Contact Baking of Flat Bread in an Indirect-Heating Oven  

Microsoft Academic Search

A significant portion of Iranian flat breads are produced in semi-industrial, indirect-heating ovens. Therefore, an efficient oven design and a proper selection of operating conditions are crucial to improve the product quality and reduce energy consumption. In the present study, a mathematical model is developed to simulate a semi-industrial, indirect-heating, continuous oven performance during contact baking of an Iranian flat

Gholamreza Karimi; Mehrzad Feilizadeh; Ali Taheri Najafabadi

2012-01-01

330

Optimisation of HS-SPME to study representativeness of partially baked bread odorant extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Head-space solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) has been successfully applied to extract partially baked bread volatile compounds. During this study, three HS-SPME parameters (extraction time, extraction temperature, SPME fibre) were optimised on volatile compounds extraction thanks to a representativeness analysis. Results displayed that a CAR\\/PDMS or a CAR\\/PDMS\\/DVB fibre associated with a time of 30min or 60min and a temperature of

Pauline Poinot; Joëlle Grua-Priol; Gaëlle Arvisenet; Cécile Rannou; Michel Semenou; Alain Le Bail; Carole Prost

2007-01-01

331

Heat and mass transfer in par-baked bread during freezing  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand the phenomena governing the heat and mass transfers during the freezing of par-baked bread, simulation of freezing in an infinite two-layer cylinder was performed. A fixed grid finite difference method was used in the solution of simultaneous heat and moisture transfer (SHMT) equations according to Lees' three-level scheme. The model accommodates the effects of temperature dependent variables such

Nasser Hamdami; Jean-Yves Monteau; Alain Le Bail

2004-01-01

332

Investigation of Ancient Egyptian Baking and Brewing Methods by Correlative Microscopy  

PubMed

Ancient Egyptian methods of baking and brewing are investigated by optical and scanning electron microscopy of desiccated bread loaves and beer remains. The results suggest that current conceptions about ancient Egyptian bread and beer making should be modified. Bread was made not only with flour from raw grain, but sometimes also with malt and with yeast. Brewing blended cooked and uncooked malt with water; the mixture was strained free of husk before inoculation with yeast. PMID:8662535

Samuel

1996-07-26

333

Properties of yeast free bread produced by supercritical fluid extrusion (SCFX) and vacuum baking  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel technology, supercritical fluid extrusion (SCFX), allows for continuous production of yeast-free dough leavened via incorporation of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2). In this study, an optimum dough formulation, SCFX leavened dough production and baking procedures were developed. A premixed dough was leavened by 1% (feed basis) SC-CO2 injection in a twin screw extruder at 37°C. Specific mechanical energy input

Khanitta Ruttarattanamongkol; Michael Emil Wagner; Syed S. H. Rizvi

2011-01-01

334

A survey on yeast microbiota associated with an Italian traditional sweet-leavened baked good fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eighty-six yeasts were isolated from samples collected during the productive process of Colomba, an Italian traditional sweet-leavened baked good. They were characterised by phenotypic methods and rapidly identified by RAPD-PCR as Candida milleri and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cluster analysis of RAPD-PCR profiles indicated a considerable polymorphism among the isolates. Analysis of fermentation products and sugars revealed high amounts of acetic acid

Pamela Vernocchi; Sara Valmorri; Veronica Gatto; Sandra Torriani; Andrea Gianotti; Giovanna Suzzi; Maria Elisabetta Guerzoni; Fausto Gardini

2004-01-01

335

DSC analysis of starch thermal properties related to functionality in low-moisture baked goods  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe an application of DSC as an analytical ‘fingerprinting’ method that has been used to characterize the thermal properties of wheat starch in low-moisture, wheat-flour-based baked products, including cookies, crackers, and pretzels. This use of DSC has enabled us to relate starch thermal properties, on the one hand, to starch structure, and on the other hand, to starch functionality,

Louise Slade; H. Levine; Martha Wang; J. Ievolella

1996-01-01

336

Health surveillance in milling, baking and other food manufacturing operations--five years' experience.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to describe the incidence of allergic respiratory disease and its outcome in terms of symptoms and jobs, across different flour-using industries. It uses the findings of a health surveillance programme in a large food organization over a five-year period. The population under surveillance consisted of 3,450 employees with exposure to ingredient dusts, of whom 400 were in flour milling, 1,650 in bread baking, 550 in cake baking and 850 in other flour-using operations. A total of 66 employees with either asthma or rhinitis symptoms attributable to sensitization to allergens in the workplace were identified. The majority of these (48/66) had become symptomatic prior to the commencement of the health surveillance programme in 1993. The incidence rates (per million employees per year) for those who developed symptoms between 1993 and 1997 were 550 for flour milling, 1,940 for bread baking, 0 for cake baking and 235 for other flour-using operations. The agent believed to be responsible for symptoms was most commonly grain dust in flour millers and fungal amylase in bread bakers. Wheat flour appeared to have a weaker sensitizing potential than these other two substances. In terms of outcome, at follow-up 18% of symptomatically sensitized employees had left the company. Two of the ex-employees retired through ill health due to occupational asthma. Of those still in employment, 63% described an improvement in symptoms, 32% were unchanged and 4% were worse than when first diagnosed. Over half the cases still in employment were continuing to work in the same job as at the time of diagnosis. PMID:10451595

Smith, T A; Patton, J

1999-04-01

337

Dough and Baking Properties of High-Amylose and Waxy Wheat Flours  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 79(4):491-495 The dough properties and baking qualities of a novel high-amylose wheat flour (HAWF) and a waxy wheat flour (WWF) (both Triticum aestivum L.) were investigated by comparing them with common wheat flours. HAWF and WWF had more dietary fiber than Chinese Spring flour (CSF), a nonwaxy wheat flour. Also, HAWF contained larger amounts of lipids and proteins

Naofumi Morita; Tomoko Maeda; Megumi Miyazaki; Makoto Yamamori; Hideho Miura; Ichiro Ohtsuka

2002-01-01

338

New magnetic mineralogy and archaeointensity results from greek kilns and baked clays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven archaeological sites in Northern Greece and a pottery assemblage from Ithaki Island (Ionian Sea) have provided material\\u000a from kilns and a collection of baked clays. The whole dataset consists of 69 samples and covers a period of almost 4000 years.\\u000a Although the majority of the samples was oriented, only few directions could be obtained, mostly due to small sample

Vassileios Spatharas; Despina Kondopoulou; Elina Aidona; Konstantinos G. Efthimiadis

2011-01-01

339

Clinical and immunological responses to occupational exposure to alpha-amylase in the baking industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

alpha-Amylase is a starch cleaving enzyme often used in the baking industry as a flour additive. It is usually of fungal origin, produced by Aspergillus oryzae. One previous report has shown IgE antibodies and positive skin prick test against alpha-amylase in asthmatic bakers. This paper describes four alpha-amylase sensitised index cases with occupational asthma or rhinitis and the results of

J Brisman; L Belin

1991-01-01

340

Effects of baking conditions, dough fermentation, and bran particle size on antioxidant properties of whole-wheat pizza crusts.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effects of processing conditions including bran particle size, dough fermentation time, and baking time and temperature on the extractable antioxidant properties of whole-wheat pizza crust. Experiments were carried out using two different varieties of hard white winter wheat, Trego and Lakin. Antioxidant properties examined included oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC), hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity (HOSC), relative 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity (RDSC), cation 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) radical scavenging capacity, total phenolic contents (TPC), and ferulic acid contents. Results indicated that bran particle size had no effect on the antioxidant properties evaluated. Increasing dough fermentation time from 0 to 48 h had no significant influence on antioxidant properties except HOSC, which increased as much as 28%, possibly as a result of increase in soluble free ferulic acid, which increased as much as 130%. Increasing baking temperature from 204 to 288 degrees C with a 7 min bake time increased all evaluated antioxidant properties by as much as 82%. Increasing baking time from 7 to 14 min with 204 degrees C baking temperature might increase some antioxidant properties as much as 60%. The results from this study suggest that longer dough fermentation times and increased baking time or temperature may be potential approaches to increase the antioxidant availability in whole-wheat pizza crust. PMID:19138086

Moore, Jeffrey; Luther, Marla; Cheng, Zhihong; Yu, Liangli Lucy

2009-02-11

341

The influence of baking fuel on residues of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals in bread.  

PubMed

The influence of fuel type used to bake bread on the spectrum and concentrations of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals in baked bread was assessed. Bread samples were collected from different bakeries operated by either electricity, solar, mazot or solid waste and their residue content of PAHs and heavy metals was assessed. The total concentration of PAHs detected in mazot, solar, solid waste and electricity operated bakeries had an average of 320.6, 158.4, 317.3 and 25.5 microgkg(-1), respectively. Samples collected from mazot, solar and solid waste operated bakeries have had a wide spectrum of PAHs, in comparison to that detected in bread samples collected from electricity operated bakeries. Lead had the highest concentrations in the four groups of bread samples, followed by nickel, while the concentrations of zinc and cadmium were the least. The concentration of lead detected in bread samples produced from mazot, solar, solid waste and electricity fueled bakeries were 1375.5, 1114, 1234, and 257.3 microgkg(-1), respectively. Estimated daily intake of PAHs based on bread consumption were 48.2, 28.5, 80. 1, and 4.8 microg per person per day for bread produced in bakeries using mazot, solar, solid waste and electricity, respectively. Meanwhile, the estimated daily intake of benzo (a) pyrene were 3.69, 2.65, 8.1, and 0.81 microg per person per day for bread sample baked with mazot, solar, solid waste and electricity, respectively. The daily intake of lead, based on bread consumption was 291, 200.5, 222, and 46.31 microg per person per day for bread sample baked with mazot, solar, solid waste and electricity, respectively. The present work has indicated the comparatively high level of daily intake of benzo (a) pyrene and lead in comparison to levels reported from many other countries and those recommended by international regulatory bodies. It is probable that residues detected in bread samples are partially cereal-borne but there is strong evidence that the process of baking and the gases emitted are responsible for most of the contamination load. PMID:11080564

Ahmed, M T; Abdel Hadi el-S; el-Samahy, S; Youssof, K

2000-12-30

342

BAR proteins in cancer and blood disorders  

PubMed Central

Remodeling of the membrane and cytoskeleton is involved in a wide range of normal and pathologic cellular function. These are complex, highly-coordinated biochemical and biophysical processes involving dozens of proteins. Serving as a scaffold for a variety of proteins and possessing a domain that interacts with plasma membranes, the BAR family of proteins contribute to a range of cellular functions characterized by membrane and cytoskeletal remodeling. There are several subgroups of BAR proteins: BAR, N-BAR, I-BAR, and F-BAR. They differ in their ability to induce angles of membrane curvature and in their recruitment of effector proteins. Evidence is accumulating that BAR proteins contribute to cancer cell invasion, T cell trafficking, phagocytosis, and platelet production. In this review, we discuss the physiological function of BAR proteins and discuss how they contribute to blood and cancer disorders.

Chen, Yolande; Aardema, Jorie; Misra, Ashish; Corey, Seth J

2012-01-01

343

7 CFR 948.6 - Seed potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.6 Seed...certified by the official seed certification agency of the State of Colorado and bear the official tags, seals, or other appropriate...

2013-01-01

344

Potato Glycoalkaloids, Past Present and Future  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The steroidal glycoalkaloids of the potato are naturally occurring specialty metabolites of questionable desirability. Although undoubtedly originating under selection as antifeedants against herbivorous pests, glycoalkaloids no longer function as the primary feeding deterrent. However, due to the...

345

Irradiation processing of potatoes, onions and garlic.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this report, studies have been conducted on irradiation preservation of potatoes, onions and garlic involving different varieties, harvesting season and storage life. As a result of these investigations, optimum conditions were established for each cro...

M. Jan A. Starr M. Wahid A. Ahmad I. Khan

1992-01-01

346

Water Leaching Pre-Fried Potato Slices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention enables the production of fried potato products of greatly improved texture, flavor, and color from raw stock that exhibits excessive browning tendencies and which would normally yield fried products of excessively dark color. Typically, pie...

M. L. Weaver M. Nonaka

1976-01-01

347

What Time Did The Potato Die?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Spreadsheets Across the Curriculum module. Simulating a forensic calculation, students build spreadsheets and create graphs to find the time of death of a potato victim from temperature vs. time data.

Sunderman, Rebecca

348

Probing the environmental stability and bake latitudes of acetal vs. ketal protected polyvinylphenol DUV resist systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental stability has been a major concern in chemically amplified resist systems. These are the major chemistry platforms adopted in DUV resists. To resolve this issue, two extreme approaches were proposed recently. One is using the annealing concept through high temperature bake to densify the film and reduce free volume in the resist, thus minimizing the uptake of airborne contaminants. In this approach, high post exposure bake temperature is used which then bakes away major portion of airborne base from top of the resist, thus minimizing (or eliminating) T-top formation. To be able to execute this concept, a highly thermally stable copolymer of 4-hydroxystyrene and t-butyl acrylate was adopted. The nature of the thermal stability is due to the high activation energy of t-butyl ester group during the deprotection process. The other approach in achieving the environmental stability is using an extremely low activation energy protecting group which will deprotect during the exposure step. Since T-top formation usually occurs between exposure and PEB, the spontaneous room temperature deblocking eliminates any delay, thus PED effect free resist can be obtained. In this approach, the ketal resist system (KRS) using methoxy propene protected polyvinylphenol was used. The advantages of low activation energy are not only environmental stability but also large bake latitudes with PEB variation as low as 0 nm/degrees Celsius. Besides ketal, silyl ethers and acetals are the other two distinct resist families which have lower activation energy than t-butoxycarbonyl and t-butyl ester systems. According to many recent publications, the acetal resist systems have demonstrated some environmental robustness and insensitivity to bake temperature variation. In order to shed some light on the lithographic performance of these low activation energy resist systems, we present here some of our work on acetal resist family in comparison to ketal family. In the acetal resist family, we have evaluated a few protecting groups which include ethoxy ethyl, propyloxy ethyl and isobutyloxy ethyl. Since ethoxy ethyl had better polymer properties than other acetal groups, most lithographic work was done on this protecting group in comparison to ketal groups. The experimental findings suggest that the environmental stability in the acetal system is inferior to the ketal system. Since the reaction is completed during exposure, ketal system is completely insensitive to the bake temperature. Acetal system can have large bake latitudes (PAB & PEB) only if the resist formulation contains large amount of basic additive, e.g. ethoxy ethyl protected polyvinylphenol resist with significant amount of basic additive gives only 3 - 4% change in Eo when PEB temperature changes from 90 to 130 degrees Celsius (PAB 120 degrees Celsius), and 4 - 5% change when PAB temperature changes from 100 to 120 degrees Celsius (PEB 110 degrees Celsius).

Kumar, Uday; Pandya, Ashish; Sinta, Roger F.; Huang, Wu-Song; Bantu, Rao; Katnani, Ahmad D.

1997-07-01

349

Studies on the etiology of tuber necrotic ringspot disease in potato  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potato virus M (PVM), potato virus S (PVS), potato virus X and tobacco veinal necrosis strain of potato virus Y (PVYR) were isolated from potatoes showing tuber necrotic ringspot disease (TNRD). Potato mop-top virus, tobacco rattle virus, tobacco necrosis virus and tomato black ring virus could not be isolated from the diseased plants. Because PVM and PVS could be isolated

L. Beczner; J. Horváth; I. Romhányi; H. Förster

1984-01-01

350

Diurnal Patterns in Host Finding by Potato Aphids, Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Homoptera: Aphididae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potato aphid, Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Homoptera: Aphididae), is an abundant potato pest and vector of potato leaf-roll virus and potato virus Y in Maine and other potato growing areas. We investigated the circadian rhythmicity of its movement towards host plant odor. Effects of daily cycle (day or night) and illumination (light or dark) on the proportion of aphids colonizing potato leaflets

Girish K. Narayandas; Andrei V. Alyokhin

2006-01-01

351

Potato processing: Past, present and future  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the time of the Incas, man has dehydrated potatoes to alleviate famine and feed its warriors. After the Spaniards brought\\u000a potatoes to Europe, the same became true there. During the Industrial Revolution, drying processes emerged in Germany and\\u000a England for dried pieces, extruded mash filaments and, finally, thin layers of mash on heated surfaces. During the 19th century,\\u000a fermentation

Miles Willard

1993-01-01

352

Production of dextran in transgenic potato plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of dextran in potato tubers and its effect on starch biosynthesis were investigated. The mature dextransucrase (DsrS) gene from Leuconostoc mesenteroides was fused to the chloroplastic ferredoxin signal peptide (FD) enabling amyloplast entry, which was driven by the highly tuber-expressed patatin promoter. After transformation of two potato genotypes (cv. Kardal and the amylose-free (amf) mutant), dextrans were detected

Géraldine A. Kok-Jacon; Jean-Paul Vincken; Luc C. J. M. Suurs; Denong Wang; Shaoyi Liu; Richard G. F. Visser

2005-01-01

353

Potato Shoot Tip Cryopreservation. A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potato is one of the most important crops worldwide. Genetic resources of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. ssp. tuberosum) and related cultivated species are conserved through storage of tubers, in vitro plants and in cryopreservation. Cryopreservation,\\u000a storage in or above liquid nitrogen, is the best option to maintain vegetatively propagated plants in the long term. The present\\u000a review gives comprehensive information

Anja Kaczmarczyk; Veli-Matti Rokka; E. R. Joachim Keller

2011-01-01

354

A structural homolog of CONSTANS in potato  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 2-kb genome fragment cloned from potato cv. Bastoneza closely resembles CONSTANS, the arabidopsis gene for the photoperiodic control of flowering, and its homologs in tomato, cottonwood, and barley. The\\u000a potato homolog is immediately related to tomato CONSTANS 1; their exons and introns were 94 and 82% identical. Within the most variable middle region of CONSTANS protein and its homologs,

P. E. Drobyazina; E. E. Khavkin

2006-01-01

355

Making a Battery from a Potato  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this electrochemistry activity, young learners and adult helpers create a battery from a potato to run a clock. This resource includes background information about electricity, electronics, and chemical reactions. Learners can also test this experiment with other fruits and vegetables in place of the potato. This activity was written to be part of a kit that could be checked out of a library, though the kit is not required.

Shaw, Maisie; Gomez, Maria

2010-01-01

356

Salt Tolerance of Four Potato Cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tests are needed to evaluate the salt tolerance of new and untested potato cultivars under various cultural conditions. Two lysimeter experiments were conducted in two seasons to investigate the influence of irrigation water salinity on tuber yields of four potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars (Spunta, Alpha, Cara, and King Edward). Four salinity levels [ECw 0.53 (control), 3.13, 6.25, and 9.38 dS m

H. A. Elkhatib; E. A. Elkhatib; A. M. Khalaf-Allah; A. M. El-Sharkawy

2005-01-01

357

Ethanol production from potato peel waste (PPW).  

PubMed

Considerable concern is caused by the problem of potato peel waste (PPW) to potato industries in Europe. An integrated, environmentally-friendly solution is yet to be found and is currently undergoing investigation. Potato peel is a zero value waste produced by potato processing plants. However, bio-ethanol produced from potato wastes has a large potential market. If Federal Government regulations are adopted in light of the Kyoto agreement, the mandatory blending of bio-ethanol with traditional gasoline in amounts up to 10% will result in a demand for large quantities of bio-ethanol. PPW contain sufficient quantities of starch, cellulose, hemicellulose and fermentable sugars to warrant use as an ethanol feedstock. In the present study, a number of batches of PPW were hydrolyzed with various enzymes and/or acid, and fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisae var. bayanus to determine fermentability and ethanol production. Enzymatic hydrolysis with a combination of three enzymes, released 18.5 g L(-1) reducing sugar and produced 7.6 g L(-1) of ethanol after fermentation. The results demonstrate that PPW, a by-product of the potato industry features a high potential for ethanol production. PMID:20471817

Arapoglou, D; Varzakas, Th; Vlyssides, A; Israilides, C

2010-05-14

358

ORBITAL SUPPORT OF FAST AND SLOW INNER BARS IN DOUBLE-BARRED GALAXIES  

SciTech Connect

We analyze how the orbital support of the inner bar in a double-barred galaxy (nested bars) depends on the angular velocity (i.e., pattern speed) of this bar. We study orbits in seven models of double bars using the method of invariant loops. The range of pattern speed is covered exhaustively. We find that not all pattern speeds are allowed when the inner bar rotates in the same direction as the outer bar. Below a certain minimum pattern speed orbital support for the inner bar abruptly disappears, while at high values of this speed the orbits indicate an increasingly round bar that looks more like a twist in the nuclear isophotes than a dynamically independent component. For values between these two extremes, orbits supporting the inner bar extend further out as the bar's pattern speed decreases, their corresponding loops become more eccentric, pulsate more, and their rotation becomes increasingly non-uniform, as they speed up and slow down in their motion. Lower pattern speeds also lead to a less coherent bar, as the pulsation and acceleration increasingly varies among the loops supporting the inner bar. The morphologies of fast and slow inner bars expected from the orbital structure studied here have been recently recovered observationally by decomposition of double-barred galaxies. Our findings allow us to link the observed morphology to the dynamics of the inner bar.

Maciejewski, Witold; Small, Emma E., E-mail: wxm@astro.livjm.ac.u [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Twelve Quays House, Egerton Wharf, Birkenhead, CH41 1LD (United Kingdom)

2010-08-10

359

Weather Bar 2.1  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It might be raining outside, but how will you know? Fortunately, there is the ever-handy Weather Bar, created by Dennis Delimarsky. This delightfully simple program sits in the taskbar, and visitors can set their location, and also elect to have weather updates sent out every minute. This program promises the highs and lows, the relative humidity levels, and a predictive icon. This version is compatible with computers running with all operating systems, including Linux.

Delimarsky, Dennis

2010-03-26

360

Colorado potato beetles ( leptinotarsa decemlineata) adapt to proteinase inhibitors induced in potato leaves by methyl jasmonate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potato plants were treated with gaseous methyl jasmonate (MJ) to obtain leaves with high induced levels of cysteine and aspartic proteinase inhibitors. Induced papain inhibitor activity was estimated at 4% of total protein. Other conditions produced leaves with low and moderate levels of this inhibitor. Development of Colorado potato beetle larvae was similar when they were reared on leaves containing

Caroline J. Bolter; Maarten A. Jongsma

1995-01-01

361

Comparison of several methods for the extraction of DNA from potatoes and potato-derived products.  

PubMed

Eight methods were compared for the extraction of DNA from raw potato tubers, and nine methods were evaluated for the extraction of DNA from dehydrated potato slices, potato flakes, potato flour, potato starch, and two ready-to-eat potato snack foods. Extracts were assessed for yield using a fluorescence-based DNA quantification assay. Real-time amplification of an endogenous gene, sucrose synthase (sus), was used to assess extract and template quality. A CTAB-based method extracted the highest DNA yields from the tuber material. An in-house method, which utilized the Kingfisher magnetic particle processor, yielded the highest template quality from the tubers. For most of the tuber samples, the Kingfisher and CTAB methods recovered the highest levels of amplifiable sus. DNA yields for potato-derived foods generally decreased with the extent that the product had been processed. The methods that utilized the magnetic particle processor delivered the highest template quality from one of the snack products that was particularly high in fat. For most of the remaining processed products, the levels of amplifiable target DNA recovered were roughly correlated with total DNA recovery, indicating that overall yield had greater influence over sus amplification than template quality. The Wizard method was generally the best method for the extraction of DNA from most of the potato-derived foods. PMID:16366665

Smith, Donna S; Maxwell, Philip W; De Boer, Solke H

2005-12-28

362

Characteristics of acetylated and enzyme-modified potato and sweet potato flours  

Microsoft Academic Search

The properties of modified potato and sweet potato flours have been determined by incorporating acetyl groups (acetylation) and by treating with glucoamylase (enzymatic modification). Fractionation studies on Sepharose CL-2B showed that the content of high molecular weight fraction decreased, with a proportionate increase in the lower molecular weight carbohydrate fraction, whereas FT-IR indicated changes in crystallinity of the modified starches.

A. Ramesh Yadav; S. Mahadevamma; R. N. Tharanathan; R. S. Ramteke

2007-01-01

363

DSC study of mixtures of wheat flour and potato, sweet potato, cassava, and yam starches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) traces at a 30wt% suspension were studied for mixture of wheat flour and following starches: potato (PS), sweet potato (SPS), yam (YS), and cassava (CS) at 10% to 50% starch. In the endothermal transition, the gelatinization peak temperature of the first peak (TP1) was attributed to the wheat flour and that of the second peak (TP2),

I. S. M. Zaidul; N. Absar; S.-J. Kim; T. Suzuki; A. A. Karim; H. Yamauchi; T. Noda

2008-01-01

364

RVA analysis of mixtures of wheat flour and potato, sweet potato, yam, and cassava starches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid visco analysis (RVA) was performed to study the pasting properties of mixtures of wheat flour and tuber starches, i.e., potato starch (PS), sweet potato starch (SPS), yam starch (YS), and cassava starch (CS), at 10–50% starch in the mixtures. Lower phosphorus and higher amylose contents were observed in CS, followed by YS, SPS, and PS. The peak, breakdown, final,

I. S. M. Zaidul; N. A. Nik Norulaini; A. K. Mohd. Omar; H. Yamauchi; T. Noda

2007-01-01

365

Production of biosafe transgenic potato plants with coat protein gene for potato virus Y  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most techniques of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation described in the literature used antibiotic resistance genes as selectable marker genes. Theoretically, risks of horizontal gene flow of antibiotic resistance genes from transgenic plants to enteric bacteria are expected. We describe here the possibility of producing transgenic potato plants harbouring the coat protein gene of potato virus Y (CP-PVY), conferring resistance against potyvirus Y

Mahmoud M. Saker

2003-01-01

366

Predation on Colorado Potato Beetle Eggs by Generalist Predators in Research and Commercial Potato Plantings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field studies quantified predation on Colorado potato beetle [Leptinotarsa decemlineata(Say)] eggs and determined the relationship between predation and egg mass abundance in research and commercial potato plantings in eastern North Carolina. Predator exclusion experiments were conducted weekly in research plantings. In addition, egg mass density and predation on egg masses were monitored throughout the season in research plots and commercial

Angelika Hilbeck; Craig Eckel; George G. Kennedy

1997-01-01

367

DD-bar production and their interactions  

SciTech Connect

We have explored the bound state problem and the scattering problem of the DD-bar pair in a meson exchange model. When considering their production in the e{sup +}e{sup -} process, we included the DD-bar rescattering effect. Although it is difficult to answer whether the S-wave DD-bar bound state exists or not from the binding energies and the phase shifts, one may get an upper limit of the binding energy from the production of the BB-bar, the bottom analog of DD-bar.

Liu Yanrui; Oka, Makoto [Department of Physics, H-27, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Takizawa, Makoto [Showa Pharmaceutical University, Machida, Tokyo 194-8543 (Japan); Liu Xiang [School of Physical Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

2011-05-23

368

Study of Foaming Process in Manufacture of Dried Mashed Potatoes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The process consists of the following basic technological operations: washing the potatoes and chopping them, cooking them until done, mashing the potatoes and adding liquid, introduction of a foam stabilizer, foaming, and drying of the foamed material.

S. A. Genin

1973-01-01

369

Host plant preference in Colorado potato beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Field and laboratory-choice tests were conducted to better understand host plant preference by the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), in Virginia. In laboratory olfactometer studies, L. decemlineata preferred potato over both tomato and eggplant foli...

370

78 FR 59628 - Importation of Potatoes From Mexico  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...a pathogenic fungus that causes potato wart disease. Thecaphora solani...solani become misshapen or covered with wart-like galls. Additionally, as mentioned...a pathogenic fungus that causes potato wart disease; and Thecaphora solani...

2013-09-27

371

Effect of baking and frying on the in vivo toxicity to rats of cornmeal containing fumonisins.  

PubMed

Fumonisins are mycotoxins produced by Fusarium verticillioides (=F. moniliforme) and other Fusarium species. They are found in corn and corn-based foods. Cooking decreases fumonisin concentrations in food products under some conditions; however, little is known about how cooking effects biological activity. Baked cornbread, pan-fried corncakes, and deep-fried fritters were made from cornmeal that was spiked with 5% w/w F. verticillioides culture material (CM). The cooked materials and the uncooked CM-spiked cornmeal were fed to male rats (n = 5/group) for 2 weeks at high (20% w/w spiked cornmeal equivalents) or low (2% w/w spiked cornmeal equivalents) doses. A control group was fed a diet containing 20% w/w unspiked cornmeal. Toxic response to the uncooked CM-spiked cornmeal and the cooked products included decreased body weight gain (high-dose only), decreased kidney weight, and microscopic kidney and liver lesions of the type caused by fumonisins. Fumonisin concentration, as determined by HPLC analysis, in the 20% w/w pan-fried corncake diet [92.2 ppm of fumonisin B(1) (FB(1))] was slightly, but not statistically significantly, lower than those of the 20% w/w baked cornbread (132.2 ppm of FB(1)), deep-fried fritter (120.2 ppm of FB(1)) and CM-spiked cornmeal (130.5 of ppm FB(1)) diets. Therefore, baking and frying had no significant effect on the biological activity or concentration of fumonisins in these corn-based products, and the results provided no evidence for the formation of novel toxins or "hidden" fumonisins during cooking. PMID:12926912

Voss, Kenneth A; Meredith, Filmore I; Bacon, Charles W

2003-08-27

372

Heat Conduction to Photoresist on Top of Wafer during Post Exposure Bake Process: II. Application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemically amplified resists are used for 248 nm, 193 nm, immersion and extreme ultraviolet (UV) lithography. Among many process steps, post exposure bake (PEB) is the key process to make the desired small line width and critical dimension control. During PEB, the de-protection reaction and acid diffusion are determined by bake temperature and time. One of the key factors that determines the de-protection and acid diffusion is the initial temperature rising of the hot plate. The unpredictable temperature rising to the pre-set temperature is the main cause of line width variation. In order to predict the accurate PEB temperature and time dependency to the line width, the heat transfer from the hot plate to the resist on top of the silicon wafer is studied. Numerical approach is used to solve the heat conduction problem. Only the boundary temperature values are needed to solve this conduction, the information inside each layer is not required. We calculated the temperature rising characteristics of the photoresist on top of the several layers of the mask. The air conductivity, air gap, number of layers underneath the resist, thickness of the wafer, thickness of the layer including the resist, and different kind of layers are varied to see the characteristics of the bake temperature rising. We showed that there was small temperature difference at photoresist among the layer stack and thickness variation, even though it was very small. There is a strong possibility that this small PEB temperature difference would cause serious critical dimension (CD) control problem.

Oh, Hye-Keun; Kim, Do Wan; Lee, Ji-Eun

2008-11-01

373

Novel two-step baking process for high-aspect-ratio photolithography with conventional positive thick photoresist  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a novel two-step baking process to achieve high-aspect-ratios in UV photolithography with a conventional positive thick photoresist. We newly report high-aspect-ratio (greater than 10:1) results in a single coated 91 micrometer- thick photoresist AZ9262, which was introduced Hoechst at SPIE in 1996. From extensive experiments, we improved the aspect ratio by minimum exposure, diluted development, reabsorption of sufficient water before exposure, and especially by extended and effective soft bake in two steps. In the optimum two-step baking, first the baking is performed at an intermediate temperature in a forced convection oven for hours to evaporate large amounts of solvent. Second, the photoresist is heat-treated at an elevated temperature on an air-gapped hotplate with cover for minutes to enhance aspect ratios. The reason for this improvement has been studied based on the photochemical process of the DNQ/novolac-type positive photoresist. Using this two-step baking, we have obtained lines of 4.4 micrometer-wide bottom in a single coated 91 micrometer-thick photoresist (aspect ratio: 20). The line width in the mask was 8.9 micrometer, and hence 2.2 micrometer undercut was observed.

Yoon, Jun-Bo; Han, Chul-Hi; Yoon, Euisik; Kim, Choong-Ki

1998-09-01

374

An investigation of bread-baking process in a pilot-scale electrical heating oven using computational fluid dynamics.  

PubMed

A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed for bread-baking process in a pilot-scale baking oven to find out the effect of hot air distribution and placement of bread on temperature and starch gelatinization index of bread. In this study, product (bread) simulation was carried out with different placements of bread. Simulation results were validated with experimental measurements of bread temperature. This study showed that nonuniform air flow pattern inside the oven cavity leads to uneven temperature distribution. The study with respect to placement of bread showed that baking of bread in upper trays required shorter baking time and gelatinization index compared to those in the bottom tray. The upper tray bread center reached 100 °C at 1200 s, whereas starch gelatinization completed within 900 s, which was the minimum baking index. Moreover, the heat penetration and starch gelatinization were higher along the sides of the bread as compared to the top and bottom portions of the bread. PMID:21535595

Anishaparvin, A; Chhanwal, N; Indrani, D; Raghavarao, K S M S; Anandharamakrishnan, C

375

Sorghum brewing using sweet potato enzymic flour to increase saccharification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diastatic activity of three sweet potato varieties was principally due to \\\\-amylase. Substitution of sorghum malt with sweet potato at 20% (w\\/v) gave a higher activity than an all-sorghum malt. Maltose in the sorghum\\/potato wort was 50 mg\\/ml, similar to that in barley malt. The free alpha amino nitrogen of the sorghum\\/potato worts was lower than that of the

M. U. Etim; O. U. EtokAkpan

1992-01-01

376

The determination of the cooking quality of potatoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions  In this discussion on the cooking quality of potatoes, we have shown that although potatoes are an important article in our\\u000a diet, their quality is not taken into consideration in the potato grades. Quality in potatoes has been associated with dry\\u000a matter content, therefore, a high dry matter content of 30 per cent is associated with “good quality” and a

E. R. Bewell

1937-01-01

377

Effect of low temperature baking on the RF properties of niobium superconducting cavities for particle accelerators  

SciTech Connect

Radio-frequency superconducting (SRF) cavities are widely used to accelerate a charged particle beam in particle accelerators. The performance of SRF cavities made of bulk niobium has significantly improved over the last ten years and is approaching the theoretical limit for niobium. Nevertheless, RF tests of niobium cavities are still showing some ''anomalous'' losses that require a better understanding in order to reliably obtain better performance. These losses are characterized by a marked dependence of the surface resistance on the surface electromagnetic field and can be detected by measuring the quality factor of the resonator as a function of the peak surface field. A low temperature (100 C-150 C) ''in situ'' bake under ultra-high vacuum has been successfully applied as final preparation of niobium RF cavities by several laboratories over the last few years. The benefits reported consist mainly of an improvement of the cavity quality factor at low field and a recovery from ''anomalous'' losses (so-called ''Q-drop'') without field emission at higher field. A series of experiments with a CEBAF single-cell cavity have been carried out at Jefferson Lab to carefully investigate the effect of baking at progressively higher temperatures for a fixed time on all the relevant material parameters. Measurements of the cavity quality factor in the temperature range 1.37 K-280 K and resonant frequency shift between 6 K-9.3 K provide information about the surface resistance, energy gap, penetration depth and mean free path. The experimental data have been analyzed with the complete BCS theory of superconductivity. The hydrogen content of small niobium samples inserted in the cavity during its surface preparation was analyzed with Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA). The single-cell cavity has been tested at three different temperatures before and after baking to gain some insight on thermal conductivity and Kapitza resistance and the data are compared with different models. This paper describes the results of these experiments and comments on existing models to explain the effect of baking on the performance of niobium RF cavities.

Gianluigi Ciovati

2004-03-01

378

The History of the Potato in Irish Cuisine and Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few plants have been as central to the destiny of the nation as the potato (Solanum tuberosum) has been to Ireland. Ireland was the first European country to accept the potato as a serious food crop. From its introduction in the 16th Century, the potato has held a central place in the Irish diet, and by extension, in the culture

Mairtin Mac Con Iomaire; Pádraic Óg Gallagher

2009-01-01

379

Osmotin Overexpression in Potato Delays Development of Disease Symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transgenic potato and tobacco plants carrying the osmotin gene under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter constitutively overexpressed osmotin to a level of ≈2% of total cellular protein. Leaves of transgenic potato plants exhibited delayed development of disease symptoms after inoculation with spore suspensions of Phytophthora infestans, which is the cause of late blight disease of potato.

Dong Liu; Kashchandra G. Raghothama; Paul M. Hasegawa; Ray A. Bressan

1994-01-01

380

76 FR 16323 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Continuance Referendum  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AMS-FV-11-0010; FV11-946-1 CR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Continuance Referendum...be conducted among eligible Washington potato growers to determine whether they favor...order regulating the handling of Irish potatoes grown in Washington. DATES: The...

2011-03-23

381

DIFFERENTIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SALICYLIC ACID-MEDIATED SIGNALING IN POTATO  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potato has key differences in salicylic acid (SA) metabolism and signaling from tobacco and Arabidopsis. One difference is that potato has high basal salicylic acid concentrations in all tissues examined, including roots and tubers. Despite the high total SA concentrations, some potato varieties a...

382

VOLUNTEER POTATO UPDATE FOR THE COLUMBIA BASIN 2002  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In order to forecast volunteer potato severity for the upcoming growing seasson, soil temperature at several depths and volunteer potato tuber viability is being monitored at three locations in the Columbia Basin potato growing region of Washington during the 2001-02 winter months. Minimum soil tem...

383

76 FR 31787 - United States Standards for Grades of Potatoes  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...requirement to allow mixed colors and/ or types of potatoes...intended to have retroactive effect. There are no administrative...potato farms. The effects of this rule are not...requirement to allow mixed colors and/or types of potatoes...suggested only allowing mixed colors and not mixed types...

2011-06-02

384

75 FR 22707 - United States Standards for Grades of Potatoes  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...requirement to allow mixed colors and/or types of potatoes...intended to have retroactive effect. There are no administrative...potato farms. The effects of this rule are not...standard to allow mixed colors and/or types of potatoes...standard to allow for mixed colors and/or types of...

2010-04-30

385

Methods for the preparation of cell walls from potatoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A group of new methods is described for preparing cell walls from potatoes and processed potato products. Starting from raw domestic potatoes, starch is degraded enzymatically after a very brief 100 °C gelatinisation step conducted after homogenisation to minimise the time required for heat transfer. Protein is removed by detergent and phenol extraction. This procedure (method 1) gave cell wall

Broek van den L. A. M; C. Jarvis

2002-01-01

386

Thermal analysis of mixtures of wheat flour and potato starches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potato starches with various contents of amylose from the Eniwa, Benimaru, and Norin No. 1 cultivars were blended with wheat flour at 10 to 50% potato starch (on a weight basis), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies were then conducted to determine if there were any traces of starch at 30% wt suspension. The amylose content of Eniwa potato starch

I. S. M. Zaidul; H. Yamauchi; C. Matsuura-Endo; S. Takigawa; T. Noda

2008-01-01

387

Caecal fermentation in rats fed diets containing transgenic potato tubers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caecal fermentation in rats fed diets with 40% autoclaved potato tubers was examined. The potato tubers of the conventional cultivar, Irga, somaclone Irga, and four transgenic lines with genetically improved resistance to a necrotic strain of potato virus Y (PVY N ) were compared. As regards the analysed indices, tubers of transgenic clone R1F (truncated gene coding PVY N

J. Ju?kiewicz; Z. Zdu?czyk; S. Frejnagel; J. Fornal

388

Properties of starches separated from potatoes stored under different conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Starches from 11 potato cultivars stored at five temperatures (4, 8, 12, 16 and 20°C) for 120 days were evaluated for physicochemical, thermal and pasting properties. Amylose content and swelling power increased with increase in storage temperatures. The proportion of small size granules was higher in starches from potatoes stored at 4°C. The starch granules of stored potatoes were slightly

Amritpal Kaur; Narpinder Singh; Rajarathnam Ezekiel; Navdeep Singh Sodhi

2009-01-01

389

Potato utilization in relation to variety (Heredity) and environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potato utilization is a subject that is freely discussed especially in years of surplus. Utilization in its broadest sense includes the use made of potatoes whether consumed in the fresh state, processed before they reach the ultimate consumer, fed to live stock, used for seed, or exported, and regardless of the way in which potatoes are utilized, variety, and the

F. J. Stevenson; R. V. Akeley; John G. McLean

1954-01-01

390

Sensory evaluation of pigmented flesh potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pigmented potato cultivars were ranked by a consumer panel for overall acceptance, and acceptance of aroma, appear- ance, and flavor. Potatoes were analyzed for total phenolics, anthocyanins and carotenoids. Concentrations of total phenolics in yellow and purple potato cultivars were 2-fold greate...

391

Model approach for estimating potato pesticide bioconcentration factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

We presented a model that estimates the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of pesticides in potatoes supposing that the pesticide in the soil solution is absorbed by the potato by passive diffusion, following Fick’s second law. The pesticides in the model are nonionic organic substances, traditionally used in potato crops that degrade in the soil according to a first-order kinetic equation. This

Lourival Costa Paraíba; Karen Kataguiri

2008-01-01

392

7 CFR 980.1 - Import regulations; Irish potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...shall not be applicable to potatoes imported for canning, freezing...charity, or relief, but such potatoes shall be subject to the safeguard...freezing, dehydration, chips, shoestrings, starch and flour. Processing does not include potatoes that are only peeled, or...

2010-01-01

393

7 CFR 980.1 - Import regulations; Irish potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...shall not be applicable to potatoes imported for canning, freezing...charity, or relief, but such potatoes shall be subject to the safeguard...freezing, dehydration, chips, shoestrings, starch and flour. Processing does not include potatoes that are only peeled, or...

2009-01-01

394

Fossil Nuclear Rings in Barred Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present observations and analysis of three barred S0 galaxies which contain smooth, luminous, stellar nuclear rings within their bars. These rings, which have little or no dust and are approximately the same color as surrounding bar and bulge, are probably the old remnants of bar-driven circumnuclear starburst episodes similar to those seen in many barred galaxies today. Using kinematic data from long-slit spectroscopy, we construct rotation and resonance curves and relate the relative sizes of the rings to possible bar resonances. Two of the galaxies are actually double-barred, with misaligned secondary bars inside the nuclear rings. In at least one of these (NGC 4340), the resonance curves indicate that the nuclear ring lies near or at one of the outer bar's inner Lindblad resonances; this is a plausible location for the secondary bar's corotation radius. We also discuss the difficulties inherent in detecting and identifying such rings, and show some of the surprising ways in which stellar rings can distort galaxy isophotes and ellipse fits.

Erwin, P.; Vega Beltran, J. C.; Beckman, J.

2000-12-01

395

Spinning dark matter haloes promote bar formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stellar bars are the most common non-axisymmetric structures in galaxies and their impact on the evolution of disc galaxies at all cosmological times can be significant. Classical theory predicts that stellar discs are stabilized against bar formation if embedded in massive spheroidal dark matter haloes. However, dark matter haloes have been shown to facilitate the growth of bars through resonant gravitational interaction. Still, it remains unclear why some galaxies are barred and some are not. In this study, we demonstrate that corotating (i.e. in the same sense as the disc rotating) dark matter haloes with spin parameters in the range of 0 ? ?dm ? 0.07 - which are a definite prediction of modern cosmological models - promote the formation of bars and boxy bulges and therefore can play an important role in the formation of pseudo-bulges in a kinematically hot dark-matter-dominated disc galaxies. We find continuous trends for models with higher halo spins: bars form more rapidly, the forming slow bars are stronger and the final bars are longer. After 2 Gyr of evolution, the amplitude of the bar mode in a model with ?dm = 0.05 is a factor of ˜6 times higher, A2/A0 = 0.23, than in the non-rotating halo model. After 5 Gyr, the bar is ˜2.5 times longer. The origin of this trend is that more rapidly spinning (corotating) haloes provide a larger fraction of trailing dark matter particles that lag behind the disc bar and help growing the bar by taking away its angular momentum by resonant interactions. A counter-rotating halo suppresses the formation of a bar in our models. We discuss potential consequences for forming galaxies at high-redshift and present-day low-mass galaxies which have converted only a small fraction of their baryons into stars.

Saha, Kanak; Naab, Thorsten

2013-09-01

396

Development of an IPM Program for Management of the Potato Psyllid to Reduce Incidence of Zebra Chip Disorder in Potatoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT The seasonal phenology of the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc.) was monitored in insecticide- treated commercial potatoes, untreated experimentalplots and in stands of native host plants, using a combination,of yellow sticky traps and leaf samplesin the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Adult potato psyllids entered the growing,areas in late fall shortly before emergence,of potatoes to overwinter,and reproduce,on cultivated

John A. Goolsby; John Adamczyk; Blake Bextine; Denice Lin; Joseph E. Munyaneza; Gerhard Bester; Frito Lay

397

Isolation and characterization of antagonistic fungi against potato scab pathogens from potato field soils.  

PubMed

Potato scab is a serious plant disease caused by several Streptomyces sp., and effective control methods remain unavailable. Although antagonistic bacteria and phages against potato scab pathogens have been reported, to the best of our knowledge, there is no information about fungi that are antagonistic to the pathogens. The aim of this study was to isolate fungal antagonists, characterize their phylogenetic positions, determine their antagonistic activities against potato scab pathogens, and highlight their potential use as control agents under lower pH conditions. Fifteen fungal stains isolated from potato field soils were found to have antagonistic activity against three well-known potato scab pathogens: Streptomyces scabiei, Streptomyces acidiscabiei, and Streptomyces turgidiscabiei. These 15 fungal strains were phylogenetically classified into at least six orders and nine genera based on 18S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. These fungal isolates were related to members of the genera Penicillium, Eupenicillium, Chaetomium, Fusarium, Cladosporium, Mortierella, Kionochaeta, Pseudogymnoascus, and Lecythophora. The antagonistic activities of most of the fungal isolates were highly strengthened under the lower pH conditions, suggesting the advantage of combining their use with a traditional method such as soil acidification. This is the first report to demonstrate that phylogenetically diverse fungi show antagonistic activity against major potato scab pathogens. These fungal strains could be used as potential agents to control potato scab disease. PMID:20653777

Tagawa, Masahiro; Tamaki, Hideyuki; Manome, Akira; Koyama, Osamu; Kamagata, Yoichi

2010-04-01

398

The impact of the mandatory seed law on Maine potato acreage, yield and price  

Microsoft Academic Search

A statistical analysis of the economic impact of Maine’s mandatory seed potato law was conducted. Results suggest that since\\u000a the law was implemented, Maine potato yields increased, total Maine potato acreage decreased, Maine seed potato acreage increased,\\u000a seed potato rejections from certification were reduced, seed potato prices increased, and commercial potato prices decreased.\\u000a Attempts to estimate the impact on commercial

J. F. Guenthner; E. S. Plissey; A. E. Levi; L. D. Makus

1991-01-01

399

Integration of Two Diploid Potato Linkage Maps with the Potato Genome Sequence  

PubMed Central

To facilitate genome-guided breeding in potato, we developed an 8303 Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) marker array using potato genome and transcriptome resources. To validate the Infinium 8303 Potato Array, we developed linkage maps from two diploid populations (DRH and D84) and compared these maps with the assembled potato genome sequence. Both populations used the doubled monoploid reference genotype DM1-3 516 R44 as the female parent but had different heterozygous diploid male parents (RH89-039-16 and 84SD22). Over 4,400 markers were mapped (1,960 in DRH and 2,454 in D84, 787 in common) resulting in map sizes of 965 (DRH) and 792 (D84) cM, covering 87% (DRH) and 88% (D84) of genome sequence length. Of the mapped markers, 33.5% were in candidate genes selected for the array, 4.5% were markers from existing genetic maps, and 61% were selected based on distribution across the genome. Markers with distorted segregation ratios occurred in blocks in both linkage maps, accounting for 4% (DRH) and 9% (D84) of mapped markers. Markers with distorted segregation ratios were unique to each population with blocks on chromosomes 9 and 12 in DRH and 3, 4, 6 and 8 in D84. Chromosome assignment of markers based on linkage mapping differed from sequence alignment with the Potato Genome Sequencing Consortium (PGSC) pseudomolecules for 1% of the mapped markers with some disconcordant markers attributable to paralogs. In total, 126 (DRH) and 226 (D84) mapped markers were not anchored to the pseudomolecules and provide new scaffold anchoring data to improve the potato genome assembly. The high degree of concordance between the linkage maps and the pseudomolecules demonstrates both the quality of the potato genome sequence and the functionality of the Infinium 8303 Potato Array. The broad genome coverage of the Infinium 8303 Potato Array compared to other marker sets will enable numerous downstream applications.

Felcher, Kimberly J.; Coombs, Joseph J.; Massa, Alicia N.; Hansey, Candice N.; Hamilton, John P.; Veilleux, Richard E.; Buell, C. Robin; Douches, David S.

2012-01-01

400

In vivo antioxidant, hypoglycemic, and anti-tumor activities of anthocyanin extracts from purple sweet potato.  

PubMed

Anthocyanin from purple sweet potato (PSP) extracted by microwave baking (MB) and acidified electrolyzed water (AEW) exhibited antioxidant activity. After further purification by macroporous AB-8 resin, the color value of PSP anthocyanin (PSPA) reached 30.15 with a total flavonoid concentration of 932.5 mg/g. The purified extracts had more potent antioxidant activities than the crude extracts. After continuously administering the PSP extracts to 12-mo-old mice for 1 mo, the anti-aging index of the experimental group was not significantly different from that of 5-mo-old mice. To a certain degree, PSPA was also effective for controlling plasma glucose levels in male Streptozocin (STZ)-treated diabetic mice. In addition, the extracts inhibited Sarcoma S180 cell growth in ICR mice. Mice consuming the PSP extracts formed significantly fewer and smaller sarcomas than mice consuming the control diets. The highest inhibition rate was 69.03%. These results suggest that anthocyanin extracts from PSP not only exert strong antioxidant effects in vitro, but also had anti-aging, anti-hyperglycemic, and anti-tumor activities. PMID:24133614

Zhao, Jin-Ge; Yan, Qian-Qian; Lu, Li-Zhen; Zhang, Yu-Qing

2013-10-01

401

In vivo antioxidant, hypoglycemic, and anti-tumor activities of anthocyanin extracts from purple sweet potato  

PubMed Central

Anthocyanin from purple sweet potato (PSP) extracted by microwave baking (MB) and acidified electrolyzed water (AEW) exhibited antioxidant activity. After further purification by macroporous AB-8 resin, the color value of PSP anthocyanin (PSPA) reached 30.15 with a total flavonoid concentration of 932.5 mg/g. The purified extracts had more potent antioxidant activities than the crude extracts. After continuously administering the PSP extracts to 12-mo-old mice for 1 mo, the anti-aging index of the experimental group was not significantly different from that of 5-mo-old mice. To a certain degree, PSPA was also effective for controlling plasma glucose levels in male Streptozocin (STZ)-treated diabetic mice. In addition, the extracts inhibited Sarcoma S180 cell growth in ICR mice. Mice consuming the PSP extracts formed significantly fewer and smaller sarcomas than mice consuming the control diets. The highest inhibition rate was 69.03%. These results suggest that anthocyanin extracts from PSP not only exert strong antioxidant effects in vitro, but also had anti-aging, anti-hyperglycemic, and anti-tumor activities.

Zhao, Jin-Ge; Yan, Qian-Qian; Lu, Li-Zhen

2013-01-01

402

Microstructure and in vitro beta carotene bioaccessibility of heat processed orange fleshed sweet potato.  

PubMed

Orange fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) has been identified as a good source of beta-carotene but the beta-carotene bioaccessibility is affected by processing. In this study, the effect of traditional heat processing methods on the microstructure and in vitro bioaccessibility of beta-carotene from OFSP were investigated. Bioaccessibility was determined using simulated in vitro digestion model followed by membrane filtration to separate the micellar fraction containing bioaccessible beta-carotene. Processing led to decrease in the amount of all-trans-beta-carotene and increase in 13-cis-beta-carotene. Processed OFSP had significantly higher (P < 0.05) bioaccessible beta-carotene compared to the raw forms. Bioaccessibility varied with processing treatments in the order; raw < baked < steamed/boiled < deep fried. Light microscopy showed that the microstructure of OFSP was disrupted by the processing methods employed. The cell walls of OFSP were sloughed by the traditional heat processing methods applied. The findings show that heat processing improves bioaccessibility of beta-carotene in OFSP and this was probably due to disruption of the tissue microstructure. PMID:19908145

Tumuhimbise, Gaston A; Namutebi, Agnes; Muyonga, John H

2009-12-01

403

Behavioral responses of adult potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae), to potato germplasm and transmission of Candidatus Liberibacter psyllaurous  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae), is a major pest of potatoes that can cause yield loss by direct feeding on crop plants and by transmitting a bacterial pathogen, Candidatus Liberibacter psyllaurous (a.k.a. Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum) associated with zebra chip disease of the crop. In recent years, there have been no studies regarding resistance of potato to the

Casey D. Butler; Beatriz Gonzalez; Keremane L. Manjunath; Richard F. Lee; Richard G. Novy; J. Creighton Miller; John T. Trumble

2011-01-01

404

Population Dynamics of the Colorado Potato Beetle in an Agroecosystem with Tomatoes and Potatoes with Management Implications to Processing Tomatoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the population dynamics of Colorado potato beetle in processing toma- toes and potatoes using immigration proÞles, density through time, rates of development and survi- vorship. We also evaluated the beetleÕs inßuence on yield of processing cultivars. Colorado potato beetle immigrated into both crops. The Þrst available crop had the earliest immigration event and higher immigrating adult and egg

Chris L. Harding; S. J. Fleischer; P. E. Blom

2002-01-01

405

Molecular Characterization of two Potato Virus S Isolates from Late Blight Resistant Genotypes of Potato (Solanum tuberosum)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potato virus S (PVS) has a widespread distribution in the U.S. However, only two complete nucleotide sequences have been published. A recent survey of potato fields in the state of Washington confirms that PVS is widely prevalent. Late blight resistant (LBR) potato cultivars and genotypes were sho...

406

Effects of the Discharge of Potato Pulp on Farmland Soil Fertility: Farmland Soil Contaminated by Potato Pulp  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the rapid development of the starch industry, the discharge of potato pulp—an industrial waste produced during extraction of starch from potatoes—has increased each year and has become an environmental pollution problem that cannot be neglected. In order to realize the comprehensive utilization of potato pulp and protect field ecological environment, it is necessary to illuminate the effects of the

Tuo-yi Wang; Shuai Shi; Yu-wei Gao; Cheng-ying Jiang; Yang Zhang; Shan Tang; Qiu-ju Lu; Yun-hong Wu

2011-01-01

407

Microwave drying characteristics of potato and the effect of different microwave powers on the dried quality of potato  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little detailed information is available on the microwave drying characteristics of potato and the use of different microwave powers to dry food products. Experiments were conducted to study the microwave drying characteristics and the dried quality of potato. The study focuses on describing the microwave drying characteristics of potato and discussing the effect of sample thickness, drying power and mass.

Jun Wang; Yong-Sen Xiong; Yong Yu

2004-01-01

408

Compaction and flow of potato starch and potato granules Compactación y flujo de almidón de patata y gránulos de patata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potato starch and potato granules are materials that are often used in extrusion processes. It is important to quantify their rheology for modelling and prediction of process performance. The compaction behaviour of potato starch was examined at water contents of 4-18% wwb (wet weight basis) for pressures between 1 and 85 MPa. The Heckel deformation stress decreased as the water

P. J. Halliday; A. C. Smith

1997-01-01

409

Spread of potato virus Y NTN in potato cultivars ( Solanum tuberosum L.) with different levels of sensitivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to correlate the appearance of the symptoms, multiplication and spread of virus after mechanical inoculation of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars showing different levels of susceptibility and sensitivity to Potato virus YNTN (PVYNTN). The potato cultivars used were the resistant cultivar Sante and susceptible cultivars Igor, Pentland squire and Désirée. The spread of the

Nataša Mehle; Maja Kova?; Nataša Petrovi?; Maruša Pompe Novak; Špela Baebler; Hana Kre?i? Stres; Kristina Gruden; Maja Ravnikar

2004-01-01

410

Boric Acid Reclamation System (BARS)  

SciTech Connect

KLM Technologies' personnel have identified a Boric Acid Reclamation System (BARS) utilizing reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration to produce a recyclable grade of otherwise waste boric acid at PWRs, thus reducing a major source of low-level radwaste. The design of a prototype BARS as a compact volume reduction system was the result of KLM's Phase 1 Program, and based upon a preliminary feasibility program, which assessed the applicability of membrane technology to refurbish and recycle waste boric acid from floor and equipment drain streams. The analysis of the overall program indicated a substantial savings regarding off-site disposal costs. Today's economic scenario indicates that optimization of volume reduction operation procedures could significantly reduce waste management costs, especially where burial penalties have become more severe. As a reaction to the economic burden imposed by final disposal, many nuclear plants are currently modifying their design and operating philosophies concerning liquid radwaste processing systems to meet stricter environmental regulations, and to derive potential economic benefits by reducing the ever-increasing volumes of wastes that are produced. To effect these changes, innovative practices in waste management and more efficient processing technologies are being successfully implemented.

Kniazewycz, B.G.; Markind, J.

1986-03-01

411

Role of specific IgE and skin-prick testing in predicting food challenge results to baked egg  

PubMed Central

Previous studies suggest that children with egg allergy may be able to tolerate baked egg. Reliable predictors of a successful baked egg challenge are not well established. We examined egg white–specific IgE levels, skin-prick test (SPT) results, and age as predictors of baked egg oral food challenge (OFC) outcomes. We conducted a retrospective chart review of children, aged 2–18 years, receiving an egg white–specific IgE level, SPT, and OFC to baked egg from 2008 to 2010. Fifty-two oral baked egg challenges were conducted. Of the 52 challenges, 83% (n = 43) passed and 17% (n = 9) failed, including 2 having anaphylaxis. Median SPT wheal size was 12 mm (range, 0–35 mm) for passed challenges and 17 mm (range, 10–30 mm) for failed challenges (p = 0.091). The negative predictive value for passing the OFC was 100% (9 of 9) if SPT wheal size was <10 mm. Median egg white–specific IgE was 2.02 kU/L (range, <0.35–13.00 kU/L) for passed challenges and 1.52 kU/L (range, 0.51–6.10 kU/L) for failed challenges (p = 0.660). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis for SPT revealed an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.64. ROC curve analysis for egg white–specific IgE revealed an AUC of 0.63. There was no significant difference in age between patients who failed and those who passed (median = 8.8 years versus 7.0 years; p = 0.721). Based on our sample, SPT, egg white–specific IgE and age are not good predictors of passing a baked egg challenge. However, there was a trend for more predictability with SPT wheal size.

Cortot, Catherine F.; Sheehan, William J.; Permaul, Perdita; Friedlander, James L.; Baxi, Sachin N.; Gaffin, Jonathan M.; Dioun, Anahita F.; Hoffman, Elaine B.; Schneider, Lynda C.

2012-01-01

412

Simulating the process of carbon anode baking used in the aluminum industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simulation scheme for the baking process of carbon anodes as practiced in the aluminum industry is presented. Despite the very complex nature of the process, the proposed scheme is simple enough to be readily implemented on the computer yet takes into account all the important aspects of anode baking: the infiltration of air, the control of depression in the flues, the release and burning of volatiles, and the heat loss to the atmosphere and to the furnace foundation. Emphasis in this paper is laid on the design of the simulation algorithm, more than on the detailed arguments behind the development of the model equations. Two interesting features are worth mentioning. First, the modular structure adopted for the algorithm helps increase its clarity. Second, in executing a simulation run on the computer, the analyst actually “adjusts” the depression in the flues and the fuel flow at the burners the same way a human operator does in the real process. Test runs are made, first to reproduce the existing operating conditions, then to study the effects of various parameter changes on the process. Most of the time this cannot be done on the real facility due to the costs and risks involved. Results show that the proposed model is a reliable tool for process evaluation and improvement.

Bui, R. T.; Charette, A.; Bourgeois, T.

1984-09-01

413

Deprotection blue in extreme ultraviolet photoresists: influence of base loading and post-exposure bake temperture  

SciTech Connect

The deprotection blur of Rohm and Haas XP 5435, XP 5271, and XP5496 extreme ultraviolet photoresists has been determined as their base weight percent is varied. They have also determined the deprotection blur of TOK EUVR P1123 photoresist as the post-exposure bake temperature is varied from 80 C to 120 C. In Rohm and Haas XP 5435 and XP5271 resists 7x and 3x (respective) increases in base weight percent reduce the size of successfully patterned 1:1 line-space features by 16 nm and 8 nm with corresponding reductions in deprotection blur of 7 nm and 4 nm. In XP 5496 a 7x increase in base weight percent reduces the size of successfully patterned 1:1 line-space features from 48 nm to 38 nm without changing deprotection blur. In TOK EUVR P1123 resist, a reduction in post-exposure bake temperature from 100 C to 80 C reduces deprotection blur from 21 nm to 10 nm and reduces patterned LER from 4.8 nm to 4.1 nm.

Anderson, Christopher N.; Naulleau, Patrick P.

2008-06-02

414

Improved bread-baking process using Saccharomyces cerevisiae displayed with engineered cyclodextrin glucanotransferase.  

PubMed

A bread-baking process was developed using a potential novel enzyme, cyclodextrin glucanotransferase[3-18] (CGTase[3-18]), that had previously been engineered to have enhanced hydrolyzing activity with little cyclodextrin (CD) formation activity toward starch. CGTase[3-18] was primarily manipulated to be displayed on the cell surface of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. S. cerevisiae carrying pdeltaCGT integrated into the chromosome exhibited starch-hydrolyzing activity at the same optimal pH and temperature as the free enzyme. Volumes of the bread loaves and rice cakes prepared using S. cerevisiae/pdeltaCGT increased by 20% and 45%, respectively, with no detectable CD. Retrogradation rates of the bread and rice cakes decreased significantly during storage. In comparison to the wild type, S. cerevisiae/pdeltaCGT showed improved viability during four freeze-thaw cycles. The results indicated that CGTase[3-18] displayed on the surface of yeast hydrolyzed starch to glucose and maltose that can be used more efficiently for yeast fermentation. Therefore, display of an antistaling enzyme on the cell surface of yeast has potential for enhancing the baking process. PMID:17488117

Shim, Jae-Hoon; Seo, Nam-Seok; Roh, Sun-Ah; Kim, Jung-Wan; Cha, Hyunju; Park, Kwan-Hwa

2007-05-09

415

Effects of asparagine, fructose, and baking conditions on acrylamide content in yeast-leavened wheat bread.  

PubMed

A repeatable procedure for studying the effects of internal and external factors on acrylamide content in yeast-leavened wheat bread has been developed. The dough contained wheat endosperm flour with a low content of precursors for acrylamide formation (asparagine and reducing sugars), dry yeast, salt, and water. The effects of asparagine and fructose, added to the dough, were studied in an experiment with a full factorial design. More than 99% of the acrylamide was found in the crust. Added asparagine dramatically increased the content of acrylamide in crusts dry matter (from about 80 microg/kg to between 600 and 6000 microg/kg) while added fructose did not influence the content. The effects of temperature and time of baking were studied in another experiment using a circumscribed central composite design. Mainly temperature (above 200 degrees C) but also time increased the acrylamide content in crust dry matter (from below 10 to 1900 microg/kg), and a significant interaction was found between these two factors. When baked at different conditions with the same ingredients, a highly significant relationship (P < 0.001) between color and acrylamide content in crust was found. Added asparagine, however, did not increase color, showing that mainly other amino compounds are involved in the browning reactions. PMID:15053550

Surdyk, Nicolas; Rosén, Johan; Andersson, Roger; Aman, Per

2004-04-01

416

Significance of Wheat Flour Dough Rheology to Gas Cell Structure Development in Bread and Other Baked Products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss which rheological material functions of wheat flour dough are most relevant for structure development in baked products under common processing conditions. We consider the growth of gas cells during dough proofing (driven by yeast) and during baking, where the growth is driven by a combination of CO2 desorption, water and ethanol evaporation, and thermal expansion of gas. Attention is given to upper limits on biaxial extension rate and stress and the consequences for the required rheological material functions. The applicability of the ``Considère criterion'' to predict the probability of coalescence between gas cells and its effect on loaf aeration is briefly discussed.

Engmann, Jan

2008-07-01

417

Coriolis effects and the thermal bar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A model for the thermal bar system in the rotating frame that includes unsteady inertia is formulated. Asymptotic solutions are found to the initial value problem in the frictionless, small bottom slope limit. These solutions include inertial oscillations that are significant enough to reverse the circulation ahead of the thermal bar. These asymptotic solutions are compared with numerical solutions of the full model that includes friction. The consequences of both sets of results on the thermal bar in lakes is discussed.

Farrow, Duncan E.; McDonald, N. Robb

2002-05-01

418

Highly reliable qcw laser bars and stacks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on a well established technology for continuous-wave (cw) diode lasers, further development and optimization lead to high performance laser bars for quasi-continuous-wave (qcw) operation suitable for pumping applications. Mounted on standard heat sinks, these 808nm laser bars exhibit more than 300W (400W) qcw output power with 50% (75%) filling factors. Reliability tests of these bars are running at >200W.

E. Deichsel; D. Schröder; J. Meusel; R. Hülsewede; J. Sebastian; S. Ludwig; P. Hennig

2008-01-01

419

Do Bars Drive Spiral Density Waves?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present deep near-infrared Ks -band Anglo-Australian Telescope Infrared Imager and Spectrograph observations of a selected sample of nearby barred spiral galaxies, including some with the strongest known bars. The sample covers a range of Hubble types from SB0- to SBc. The goal is to determine if the torque strengths of the spirals correlate with those of the bars, which

Ronald J. Buta; Johan H. Knapen; Bruce G. Elmegreen; Heikki Salo; Eija Laurikainen; Debra Meloy Elmegreen; Ivânio Puerari; David L. Block; David L

2009-01-01

420

The use of normal and heat-treated barley flour and waxy barley starch as anti-staling agents in laboratory and industrial baking processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Normal and heat-treated barley, both as flour and waxy starch, were added at a concentration of 3% to a white wheat bread. The effect not only of selected additives, but also of laboratory- and industrial baking processes on stalling was evaluated. Laboratory baked breads with heat-treated barley flour differed from control breads with regard to water content, firmness and amylopectin

Jeanette K. Purhagen; Malin E. Sjöö; Ann-Charlotte Eliasson

2011-01-01

421

DO BARS DRIVE SPIRAL DENSITY WAVES?  

SciTech Connect

We present deep near-infrared K{sub s} -band Anglo-Australian Telescope Infrared Imager and Spectrograph observations of a selected sample of nearby barred spiral galaxies, including some with the strongest known bars. The sample covers a range of Hubble types from SB0{sup -} to SBc. The goal is to determine if the torque strengths of the spirals correlate with those of the bars, which might be expected if the bars actually drive the spirals as has been predicted by theoretical studies. This issue has implications for interpreting bar and spiral fractions at high redshift. Analysis of previous samples suggested that such a correlation exists in the near-infrared, where effects of extinction and star formation are less important. However, the earlier samples had only a few excessively strong bars. Our new sample largely confirms our previous studies, but still any correlation is relatively weak. We find two galaxies, NGC 7513 and UGC 10862, where there is only a weak spiral in the presence of a very strong bar. We suggest that some spirals probably are driven by their bars at the same pattern speed, but that this may be only when the bar is growing or if there is abundant gas and dissipation.

Buta, Ronald J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Knapen, Johan H. [Instituto de AstrofIsica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna (Spain); Elmegreen, Bruce G. [IBM Research Division, T.J. Watson Research Center, 1101 Kitchawan Road, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States); Salo, Heikki; Laurikainen, Eija [Division of Astronomy, Department of Physical Sciences, University of Oulu, Oulu FIN-90014 (Finland); Elmegreen, Debra Meloy [Vassar College, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Box 745, Poughkeepsie, NY 12604 (United States); Puerari, Ivanio [Instituto Nacional de AstrofIsica, Optica y Electronica, Tonantzintla, PUE 72840 (Mexico); Block, David L. [Anglo American Cosmic Dust Laboratory, School of Computational and Applied Mathematics, University of the Witwatersrand, P.O. Box 60 Wits, 2050 (South Africa)], E-mail: rbuta@bama.ua.edu, E-mail: jhk@iac.es, E-mail: bge@watson.ibm.com, E-mail: hsalo@sun3.oulu.fi, E-mail: eija@sun3.oulu.fi, E-mail: elmegreen@vassar.edu, E-mail: puerari@inaoep.mx, E-mail: David.Block@wits.ac.za

2009-05-15

422

TESTING THEORIES IN BARRED-SPIRAL GALAXIES  

SciTech Connect

According to one version of the recently proposed 'manifold' theory that explains the origin of spirals and rings in relation to chaotic orbits, galaxies with stronger bars should have a higher spiral arms pitch angle when compared to galaxies with weaker bars. A subsample of barred-spiral galaxies in the Ohio State University Bright Galaxy Survey was used to analyze the spiral arms pitch angle. These were compared with bar strengths taken from the literature. It was found that the galaxies in which the spiral arms maintain a logarithmic shape for more than 70 Degree-Sign seem to corroborate the predicted trend.

Martinez-Garcia, Eric E., E-mail: martinez@astroscu.unam.mx [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 70-264, Distrito Federal 04510 (Mexico)

2012-01-10

423

New design of high performance ionizing bar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper introduces a new design of DC-pulse ionizing bar to solve the problem of imbalance offset voltage for the AC ionizing bar, which is easily affected by the environment, as well as indicate the final tests. The new design mainly includes five parts: power supply circuit, main control unit, logic circuit, high frequency transformer unit, and feedback unit. The ionizing bar can automatically adjust the discharge voltage, pulse frequency and pulse width to balance the positive and negative ions. The final test results indicate that the DC ionizing bar owns good effect in electrostatic elimination.

Wang, Ronggang; Sun, Yurong

2013-03-01

424

NGC 4340: Double Bar + Fossil Nuclear Ring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NGC 4340 is a double-barred SB0 galaxy in the Virgo cluster (Wozniak et al. 1995). Here, we present evidence that this galaxy also posseses a luminous stellar nuclear ring of relatively old stars with little or no gas. The ring lies just outside the inner bar, at the probable inner inner Lindblad resonance (IILR) of the outer bar. Careful inspection of the isophotes and unsharp masks shows that the two bars are slightly misaligned, which suggests they may be independently rotating.

Erwin, Peter; Vega Beltrán, Juan Carlos; Beckman, John

425

Plant regeneration from callus culture in potato  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure for plant regeneration from callus culture of potato, Solanum tuberosum L. is described. Calli were induced from 1–2 mm long shoot apices of potato cultivars Cara and A25\\/19 on half-strength Murashige and Skoog's medium (half-MS) supplemented with 3.2 mg IAA (indole-3-acetic acid), 1.0 mg kinetin (6-furfurylamino)purine], and 0.5 mg 2,4-D [2,4-dichlorophenoxy)acetic acid]\\/1. Sixty percent explants produced nodular calli

B. S. Ahloowalia

1982-01-01

426

{bar d}/{bar u} asymmetry and the origin of the nucleon sea  

SciTech Connect

The Drell-Yan cross section ratios, {sigma}(p+d)/{sigma}(p+p), measured in Fermilab E866, have led to the first determination of {bar d}(x)/{bar u}(x), {bar d}(x){minus}{bar u}(x), and the integral of {bar d}(x){minus}{bar u}(x) for the proton over the range 0.02{le}x{le}0.345. The E866 results are compared with predictions based on parton distribution functions and various theoretical models. The relationship between the E866 results and the NMC measurement of the Gottfried integral is discussed. The agreement between the E866 results and models employing virtual mesons indicates that these non-perturbative processes play an important role in the origin of the {bar d},{bar u} asymmetry in the nucleon sea. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

Bush, J.D.; Isenhower, L.D.; Sadler, M.E.; Towell, R.S.; Willis, J.L.; Wise, D.K. [Abilene Christian University, Abilene, Texas 79699 (United States); Geesaman, D.F.; Kaufman, S.B.; Makins, N.; Mueller, B.A. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Brown, C.N.; Cooper, W.E. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States); He, X.C.; Lee, W.M.; Petitt, G. [Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia 30303 (United States); Kaplan, D.M. [Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois 60616 (United States); Peng, J.C.; Garvey, G.T.; Brooks, M.L.; Carey, T.A.; Lee, D.M.; Leitch, M.J.; McGaughey, P.L.; Moss, J.M.; Park, B.K.; Reimer, P.E.; Sondheim, W.E.; Thompson, T.N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Kirk, P.N.; Wang, Y.C.; Wang, Z.F. [Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States); Beddo, M.E.; Chang, T.H.; Kyle, G.; Papavassiliou, V.; Webb, J.C. [New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico 88003 (United States); Awes, T.C.; Stankus, P.W.; Young, G.R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Gagliardi, C.A.; Hawker, E.A.; Tribble, R.E.; Vasiliev, M.A. [Texas A M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Koetke, D.D.; Nord, P.M. [Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, Indiana 46383 (United States)

1998-11-01

427

Medicinal use of potato-derived products: a systematic review.  

PubMed

In the traditional medicine of Europe, raw potatoes are used for gastrointestinal disorders, and topical potato preparations as a hot pack for pain or for softening furuncles. The aim of this study was to review the literature and summarize the data on the medicinal use of potato-derived products. Several databases and other sources were searched to identify clinical trials investigating potato-derived preparations. The trials were analysed for quality. Five trials were identified; two open uncontrolled studies, two open controlled studies and one double-blind study. These results stimulate further investigation of oral potato juice concentrate in patients with dyspeptic complaints, of potato proteinase inhibitor II for weight reduction, and of topical potato proteins for preventing protease-induced perianal dermatitis. We recommend that future studies have a confirmatory design. PMID:19441069

Vlachojannis, J E; Cameron, M; Chrubasik, S

2010-02-01

428

Evolution of the Chocolate Bar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The majority of both student and faculty populations react quite favorably to chocolate and may even know something about its history. The movie Chocolat made millions, partly due to its starring actors, but also because the move drew salivating viewers to the multiple applications of chocolate. With its stimulant properties, chocolate generally makes people feel good. For purposes of this essay, chocolate also has the fortunate characteristic of appearing in many different sizes, shapes, and combinations. In this exercise, dubbed 'Evolution of the Chocolate Bar,' students build the most plausible phylogenetic tree based on identified synapomorphies of different 'species,' i.e. brands of chocolate. The exercise described below is easily assembled, works as a class demonstration or could be modified into small group projects, and also fits a variety of class timeframes. Substantial lines of inquiry could also be developed from this example.

Romi Burks (Southwestern University;); Larry Boles (Southwestern University;)

2007-04-20

429

Comparative detectability of potato leafroll virus, potato virus X and potato virus S using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and serologically specific electron microscopy (SSEM)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detection of potato viruses in plants derived from tissue culture is sometimes difficult using ELISA when virus titers are\\u000a low. Because of this, SSEM and ELISA were compared for the assay of dilution series of sap from potato plants known to be\\u000a infected with PVX, PVS and potato leafroll virus. SSEM detected PVX, PVS and PLRV at 10, 10 and

A. L. Braun; D. C. Opgenorth

1987-01-01

430

AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF ALTERNATIVE ROTATION CROPS IN POTATO CROPPING SYSTEMS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potato cropping systems in New England include both continuous potatoes and potatoes rotated with small grains. Producers recognize the benefits of increased rotations, but the economics of producing a high-valued crop, such as potatoes, create incentives for continuous potato production. Research...

431

Colonic fermentation of potato starch after a freeze-thaw cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

To estimate colonic carbohydrate fermentation following a potato meal, 13 healthy volunteers consumed 375 g potatoes containing 60 g starch on three different occasions in random order: (A) potatoes boiled and consumed fresh at 60° C; (B) potatoes boiled, frozen, thawed and consumed at 20° C; and (C) potatoes boiled, frozen, thawed, reheated to 90° C, and consumed at 60°

Wolfgang Scheppach; Matthias Bach; Peter Bartram; Stefan Christl; Wolfgang Bergthaller; Heinrich Kasper

1991-01-01

432

RFLP maps of potato and their alignment with the homoeologous tomato genome  

Microsoft Academic Search

An RFLP linkage map of the potato is presented which comprises 304 loci derived from 230 DNA probes and one morphological marker (tuber skin color). The self-incompatibility locus of potato was mapped to chromosome I, which is homoeologous to tomato chromosome I. By mapping chromosome-specific tomato RFLP markers in potato and, vice versa, potato markers in tomato, the different potato

C. Gebhardt; E. Ritter; A. Barone; T. Debener; B. Walkemeier; U. Schachtschabel; H. Kaufmann; R. D. Thompson; M. W. Bonierbale; M. W. Ganal; S. D. Tanksley; F. Salamini

1991-01-01

433

Interactions between Potato leafroll virus and potato plants and their implications for assessment of infection resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) isolates and inoculation method on the resistance to PLRV in potato clones and\\u000a cultivars were investigated. In the season of inoculation, aphid inoculation resulted in higher proportions of infected plants\\u000a and higher virus concentration in infected plants, as compared to graft inoculation. In these respects, grafting showed superiority\\u000a over aphid inoculation in the

Bogdan Flis; Jerzy Syller; Iwona Wasilewicz-Flis; Ewa Zimnoch-Guzowska

2005-01-01

434

Effect of Cooking and Processing on CIPC Residue Concentrations in Potatoes and Processed Potato Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Residue concentrations of the sprout suppressant chlorpropham (or CIPC) were determined in raw and cooked potatoes and processed\\u000a potato products, 48 h after CIPC aerosol treatment and after 30 days of subsequent storage at 4 or 12 °C. In the raw (uncooked)\\u000a tuber, 48 h after CIPC treatment, the CIPC residue in the peel was 4.7 mg kg-1, while in the peeled tuber

R. Ezekiel; Brajesh Singh

2007-01-01

435

Resistance to potato leaf roll virus multiplication in potato is under major gene control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentration of potato leaf roll virus (PLRV), as measured by a quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, in the foliage of potato plants (Solanum tuberosum) of cv ‘Maris Piper’ with secondary infection was 2900 ng\\/g leaf, whereas in clones G7445(1) and G7032(5) it was 180 ng\\/g leaf and 120 ng\\/g leaf, respectively. To examine the genetic control of resistance to PLRV

H. Barker; R. M. Solomon-Blackburn; J. W. McNicol; J. E. Bradshaw

1994-01-01

436

Peroxidases and photosynthetic pigments in susceptible potato infected with potato virus Y NTN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to investigate the activity of soluble, ionically- and covalently-bound peroxidases (EC 1.11.1.7), the protein content, and the photosynthetic pigment metabolism in the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cv. Igor, at the time of local lesion development resulting from infection with potato virus YNTN. In comparison to intact plants, mock inoculation with the sap of healthy

Mojca Milavec; Maja Ravnikar; Maja Kova?

2001-01-01

437

A rapid quantitative assay for solanidine glycoalkaloids in potatoes and industrial potato protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Aprapid quantitative assay for potato glycoalkaloids with solanidine (solanid-5en-3?-ol) as steriodal aglycone is described.\\u000a The method of Sachse & Bachmann has been modified with respect to the extraction and working up procedures to increase the\\u000a speed ans ease of analysis. A considerable simplification of analysis was achieved by replacing the original ether extraction\\u000a and celite filtration by centrifugation. Fresh potato

W. W. A. Bergers

1980-01-01

438

Do Bars Trigger Activity in Galactic Nuclei?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the connection between the presence of bars and active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity, using a volume-limited sample of ~9000 late-type galaxies with axis ratio b/a > 0.6 and Mr < -19.5 + 5 log h at low redshift (0.02 <= z <~ 0.055), selected from Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7. We find that the bar fraction in AGN-host galaxies (42.6%) is ~2.5 times higher than in non-AGN galaxies (15.6%), and that the AGN fraction is a factor of two higher in strong-barred galaxies (34.5%) than in non-barred galaxies (15.0%). However, these trends are simply caused by the fact that AGN-host galaxies are on average more massive and redder than non-AGN galaxies because the fraction of strong-barred galaxies (f SB) increases with u - r color and stellar velocity dispersion. When u - r color and velocity dispersion (or stellar mass) are fixed, both the excess of f SB in AGN-host galaxies and the enhanced AGN fraction in strong-barred galaxies disappears. Among AGN-host galaxies we find no strong difference of the Eddington ratio distributions between barred and non-barred systems. These results indicate that AGN activity is not dominated by the presence of bars, and that AGN power is not enhanced by bars. In conclusion, we do not find clear evidence that bars trigger AGN activity.

Lee, Gwang-Ho; Woo, Jong-Hak; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Hwang, Ho Seong; Lee, Jong Chul; Sohn, Jubee; Lee, Jong Hwan

2012-05-01

439

THE EL FAROL BAR PROBLEM AND COMPUTATIONAL EFFORT: WHY PEOPLE FAIL TO USE BARS EFFICIENTLY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Does how much an agent thinks about its own actions affect the global properties of a system? We use the El Farol Bar Problem to investigate this question. In this model, the El Farol Bar represents a scarce resource. Does the amount of computational ability that agents possess affect resource utilization? For instance, if agents attend the bar randomly on

WILLIAM RAND; FORREST STONEDAHL

440

Acing the Bar Exam : A Checklist Approach to Taking the Bar Exam  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aid provides candidates with a complete guide to the bar exam - from pre-planning considerations through bar review and sitting for the exam. Every aspect of the process is explained in detail and by example. The bar exam is deconstructed, section by section, where candidates are led through the steps they need to follow to succeed. Approaches for

Suzanne Darrow-Kleinhaus

2008-01-01

441

Bar graphs depicting averages are perceptually misinterpreted: the within-the-bar bias.  

PubMed

Perhaps the most common method of depicting data, in both scientific communication and popular media, is the bar graph. Bar graphs often depict measures of central tendency, but they do so asymmetrically: A mean, for example, is depicted not by a point, but by the edge of a bar that originates from a single axis. Here we show that this graphical asymmetry gives rise to a corresponding cognitive asymmetry. When viewers are shown a bar depicting a mean value and are then asked to judge the likelihood of a particular data point being part of its underlying distribution, viewers judge points that fall within the bar as being more likely than points equidistant from the mean, but outside the bar--as if the bar somehow "contained" the relevant data. This "within-the-bar bias" occurred (a) for graphs with and without error bars, (b) for bars that originated from both lower and upper axes, (c) for test points with equally extreme numeric labels, (d) both from memory (when the bar was no longer visible) and in online perception (while the bar was visible during the judgment), (e) both within and between subjects, and (f) in populations including college students, adults from the broader community, and online samples. We posit that this bias may arise due to principles of object perception, and we show how it has downstream implications for decision making. PMID:22648655

Newman, George E; Scholl, Brian J

2012-08-01

442

Too Much Bar and Not Enough Mitzvah? A Proposed Research Agenda on Bar/Bat Mitzvah  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Jewish educators are understandably interested in research on how bar/bat mitzvah affect Jewish education or research on what Jewish schools have done to avoid the distortions of a focus on bar/bat mitzvah. Research might also focus on the somewhat different and more ambitious topic of the role that bar/bat mitzvah play in contemporary Jewish…

Schoenfeld, Stuart

2010-01-01

443

Too Much Bar and Not Enough Mitzvah? A Proposed Research Agenda on Bar/Bat Mitzvah  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Jewish educators are understandably interested in research on how bar/bat mitzvah affect Jewish education or research on what Jewish schools have done to avoid the distortions of a focus on bar/bat mitzvah. Research might also focus on the somewhat different and more ambitious topic of the role that bar/bat mitzvah play in contemporary Jewish…

Schoenfeld, Stuart

2010-01-01

444

Coriolis effects and the thermal bar  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model for the thermal bar system in the rotating frame that includes unsteady inertia is formulated. Asymptotic solutions are found to the initial value problem in the frictionless, small bottom slope limit. These solutions include inertial oscillations that are significant enough to reverse the circulation ahead of the thermal bar. These asymptotic solutions are compared with numerical solutions of

Duncan E. Farrow; N. Robb McDonald

2002-01-01

445

Constraints from microlensing on the COBE bar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the first review of converging evidences for a bar in the center of the Galaxy by de Zeeuw (1992) at the IAU Sym. 153 in Gent five years ago, the Galactic bar idea has been put on a solid footing by an influx of new data (COBE/DIRBE maps, star count data of bulge red clump giants, microlensing optical depth, and bulge stellar proper motions, etc.) and a burst of increasingly sophisticated theoretical models (triaxial luminosity models of Dwek et al. 1994, and Binney, Gerhard & Spergel 1997, steady state stellar bar dynamical model of Zhao 1996, combined luminosity, microlensing and gas kinematics models of Zhao, Rich & Spergel 1996, and Bissantz et al. 1997, etc.), which fit new data and improve upon earlier simple bulge/bar models (Kent 1992, Binney et al. 1991, Blitz & Spergel 1991). While research in this field shifts more and more to constraining the exact phase space and parameter space of the bar, both the non-uniqueness of and the mismatches among bars from different datasets start to show up. I compare the bar from microlensing data with the COBE bar and point out the effects the non-uniqueness.

Zhao, H. S.

446

The Galactic Bar and Spiral Arms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence has accumulated in the last few years that the Galactic bulge is barred and rotates rapidly. We describe recent work on the structure and dynamics of the Galactic bar and inner disk. Starting with the COBE\\/DIRBE near-infrared surface brightness distribution, we have begun to construct a quantitative model which is to integrate NIR photometry, source count observations, gas kinematics,

O. Gerhard

1998-01-01

447

PHYSIOLOGICAL REGULATION OF POTATO TUBER DORMANCY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

At harvest, potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers are dormant and will not sprout. As the period of postharvest storage is extended, tuber dormancy is broken and sprout growth commences. The loss of tuber dormancy and onset of sprout growth is accompanied by numerous biochemical changes, many of wh...

448

Observations on the sprouting of seed potatoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sprouting of seed potatoes and the influence of temperature on this is analysed by means of a large number of experiments done over a period of several years. Differences in sprouting capacity have been established between lots, varieties and different tubers, mature and immature, large and small ones and from sand and clay soil. There is a distinet seasonal

N. Krijthe

1962-01-01

449

Shelf life of minimally processed potatoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shelf life of minimally processed potatoes is limited by enzyme-catalysed browning reactions. Generally, this phenomenon is controlled by the use of chemical reagents such as ascorbic acid, citric acid, or 4-hexyl resorcinol, but it seems that “oxygen shock” treatments are also particularly effective in inhibiting enzymatic browning. The aim of this work was to study the effects of high

S. Limbo; L. Piergiovanni

2006-01-01

450

Potato breeding and certification in North America  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Virus resistance cultivars have been an objective of potato breeders since it was understood that ‘degeneration’ of seed was caused by virus-infection. Virus resistant cultivars are a component of an integrated pest management strategy. Insecticides, roguing, and seed certification have allowed th...

451

Alcohol production from fermentation of sweet potatoes  

SciTech Connect

A study was conducted to determine the ethanol production characteristics of sweet potatoes. Ethanol yields were as high as 137 liters per tonne of feedstock using procedures developed for grain. Major problems encountered were low ethanol concentrations in the beer and poor stillage dewatering properties.

Egg, R.P.; Coble, C.G.; O'Neal, H.P.; Sweeten, J.M.

1982-12-01

452

Genetic comparisons of gibberellin mutants in potato  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Gibberellin deficient mutants in potato have been published as ga1 (from S. tuberosum ssp. tuberosum and andigena), pito (from the tuberosum cultivar Pito), and ga2 (from the phureja haploid inducing clone “phu-1.22”). We conducted crossing experiments to investigate genetic similarities. When the...

453

Verticillium wilt of potato: Importance and control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of Verticillium wilt of potato and its control are discussed. Among the factors considered in controlling the\\u000a disease are the role of seed tubers in disseminating the pathogen, the interaction of nematodes and fungus, chemical eradication,\\u000a the use of tolerant or resistant cultivars, and integrated control measures.

J. Krikun; D. Orion

1979-01-01

454

Inhibition of Potato Sprouting Using Volatile Monoterpenes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For many centuries, the Incas of South America and their descendants have buried potato tubers in pits that are layered with soil and the leaves of Muna plants that belong to the mint family Lamiaceae, and the genera Minthostachys and Satureja. The treatm...

S. F. Vaughn G. F. Spencer R. G. Powell

1990-01-01

455

Aminopyralid residue impacts on potatoes and weeds  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aminopyralid is used in Alaska to control certain invasive weed species; however it appears to have an extended soil half-life in interior Alaska resulting in carry-over injury in potatoes. Field studies at three experiment stations in Delta Junction, Fairbanks, and Palmer, Alaska were established ...

456

Forage potential of American potato bean  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

American potato bean (Apios americana Medikus) is a nitrogen-fixing perennial leguminous vine that is native to the eastern half of the United States. In the wild, the plant prefers moist soils near bodies of water and full sunlight for at least part of the day. It grows well in waterlogged, acidi...

457

Classification of Potato Chips Using Pattern Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

F. P EDRESCHI, D. MERY, F. MENDOZA, AND J.M. AGUILERA ABSTRACT: An approach to classify potato chips using pattern recognition from color digital images consists of 5 steps: (1) image acquisition, (2) preprocessing, (3) segmentation, (4) feature extraction, and (5) classification. Ten chips prepared for each of the following 6 conditions were examined: 2 pretreatments (blanched and unblanched) at 3

458

Hormone Metabolism During Potato Tuber Dormancy  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

At harvest and for an indeterminate period thereafter potato tubers will not sprout and are physiologically dormant. The length of tuber dormancy is dependent on cultivar and pre- and postharvest environmental conditions. Plant hormones have been shown to be involved in all phases of dormancy prog...

459

Light-colored, Low Acrylamide Potato Chips  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potato tubers are stored at cold temperatures to prevent sprouting, minimize disease losses and increase the marketing window. Cold storage also causes an accumulation of reducing sugars, a phenomenon referred to as cold-induced sweetening. Unacceptable, dark colored chips and fries are formed durin...

460

After-cooking discolouration of potatoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences in after-cooking blackening between varieties of potatoes were found to be due to differences in the chlorogenic acid content. There is no discolouration when the chlorogenic acid content is sufficiently low and the citrate content is high. The citrate content and tissue pH is controlled to some extent by the potassium level. A method is described to determine chlorogenic

N. Vertregt

1968-01-01

461

Radio wave propagation in potato fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reliable communication is crucial for successful de- ployment of wireless sensor networks. Therefore, it is important to understand the impact of environmental conditions on the performance of the radios (Chipcon CC1000 transceivers) used in typical sensor nodes. This paper reports on an extensive set of measurements taken in a potato field, where the foliage has an important effect on the

John Thelen; Daan Goense; Koen Langendoen

2005-01-01

462

Internal Ballistics of a Pneumatic Potato Cannon  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Basic laws of thermodynamics and mechanics are used to analyse an air gun. Such devices are often employed in outdoor physics demonstrations to launch potatoes using compressed gas that is here assumed to expand reversibly and adiabatically. Reasonable agreement is found with reported muzzle speeds for such homebuilt cannons. The treatment is…

Mungan, Carl E.

2009-01-01

463

Surface area estimation of potato tubers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface areas of tubers of the potato cultivars Cara, Désirée, King Edward and Maris Piper were estimated empirically by measuring the area of adhesive tape required to cover each tuber surface. Measuring the area of thin peelings of all four cultivars underestimated tuber surface area, the degree of underestimation increasing with decreasing tuber size. ‘Shape factors’ (D), calculated as:D =

N. H. Banks

1985-01-01

464

Air Drying Kinetics of Potato Cylinders  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental air tunnel dryer was used to investigate the kinetics of moisture transport in potato cylinders (Solanum tuberasum). Acoordingly, the experimental results, represnting only falling-rate drying behaviour and hence. dehydration completely controlled by internal mass transfer, were interpreted on the basis of Fick's diffusional model for non-stedy state radial diffusion. The effects of air velocity and temperature on the

W. A. M McMinn; T. R. A. Maere

1996-01-01

465

Sprout Inhibition of Potatoes by gamma Irradiation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Harvested fresh potatoes of Spunta variety were irradiated at 0, 60, 90, 120 and 150 gray and then stored at three different temperatures; room temperature (30 +- 5 sup 0 C) with R.H. 55-65%, 15 sup 0 C and 10 sup 0 C with R.H. 85-95%. The percentage of s...

V. Pringsulaka

1982-01-01

466

Sensory qualities of plain white pan bread: Influence of farming system, year of harvest and baking technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sensory qualities of products from sustainable production systems are not well known, but important for development of such systems. To understand how wheat growing systems and baking processes influence white bread quality, six samples of wheat (Triticum aestivum, var.Ebi) from field trials harvested in two consecutive years, three grown in conventional farming systems and three in organic farming systems

Iwona Kihlberg; Åsa Öström; Lisbeth Johansson; Einar Risvik

2006-01-01

467

Effects of baking on cyanidin-3-glucoside content and antioxidant properties of black and yellow soybean crackers.  

PubMed

Black soybean is a potential functional food ingredient with high anthocyanin content, but the ability to maintain anthocyanin content under dry heat processing has not been reported. This study investigated the effects of soybean seed coat colour and baking time-temperature combinations on the extractable antioxidant properties of a soy cracker food model. Crackers prepared with black soybeans had significantly higher TPC, total isoflavones, and peroxyl, hydroxyl, and ABTS(+) radical scavenging abilities than their yellow counterparts, at all time-temperature combinations. Cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) was detected only in black soybean crackers, and all baking treatments significantly decreased C3G. The greatest losses occurred at the low temperature×long time and high temperature×short time, the smallest loss with moderate temperature×short/medium time. The high temperature treatment altered phenolic acid and isoflavone profiles; however, total isoflavones were unaffected. Overall results suggest that moderate baking temperature at minimal time may best preserve anthocyanin and other phenolics in baked black soybean crackers. PMID:23790899

Slavin, Margaret; Lu, Yingjian; Kaplan, Nicholas; Yu, Liangli Lucy

2013-04-23

468

Effect of Baking Process on Added Folic Acid and Endogenous Folates Stability in Wheat and Rye Breads  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Poland bread as a staple food both made from wheat and rye flour can be a potential product for future fortification with folic acid. The objective of the study was to examine the effect of fermentation and baking on added folic acid and some endogenous folates stability during breadmaking of rye and wheat breads. Breads were produced using the

El?bieta Gujska; Katarzyna Majewska

2005-01-01

469

Probabilistic methodology for assessing changes in the level and molecular weight of barley ?-glucan during bread baking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to create a probabilistic model to assess changes in the levels and molecular weight (Mw) of ?-glucan during the bread baking process using Monte Carlo simulation techniques. Three different composite flours were formulated by substituting wheat flour (WF) with barley whole meal flour (BWMF), barley straight grade flour (BSGF) or barley fibre rich fraction

U. Tiwari; E. Cummins; P. Sullivan; J. O’. Flaherty; N. Brunton; E. Gallagher

2011-01-01

470

Changes in ochratoxin A and type B trichothecenes contained in wheat flour during dough fermentation and bread-baking.  

PubMed

Ochratoxin A (OTA) and type B trichothecenes are mycotoxins that occur frequently in cereals and thus can be found in cereal by-products such as bread. The aim of this work was to study the variation of the levels of OTA, deoxynivalenol (DON), 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON) and nivalenol (NIV) during the bread-making process. This was done by using wheat flour spiked with different levels of toxins. Mycotoxin levels were controlled after fermentation of the dough with yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and after further baking at different temperature-time combinations. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the results showed a significant reduction in OTA level (p < 0.05) during fermentation of the dough. The reduction ranged between 29.8% and 33.5%, depending on the initial concentration of toxin in the flour. During this period, the level of the other mycotoxins studied was not modified. By contrast, in the baking phase there were significant changes in the levels of the four mycotoxins, although the reduction was similar under all the baking conditions. Considering all the temperature-time conditions tested, it can be concluded that during the baking period the average reduction of OTA, NIV, 3-ADON, and DON was 32.9%, 76.9%, 65.6%, and 47.9%, respectively. PMID:19680965

Valle-Algarra, F M; Mateo, E M; Medina, A; Mateo, F; Gimeno-Adelantado, J V; Jimenez, M

2009-06-01

471

Effect and procedures of post exposure bake temperature optimization on the CD uniformity in a mass production environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Controlling a very tight CD budget in Photolithography is one of the challenges of the next technology nodes. The Post Exposure Bake (PEB) process is known as one of the main Litho contributors to CD non-uniformity for processes using resists with moderate or high PEB sensitivity. However, to achieve a good CD uniformity plate to plate (PtP) and within plate

Kirsten Ruck; Heiko Weichert; Steffen Hornig; Frank Finger; Göran Fleischer; Dave Hetzer

2007-01-01

472

Kinetics of strain aging in bake hardening ultra low carbon steel---a comparison with low carbon steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kinetics of the static strain aging process have been analyzed in a vacuum-degassed ultra low carbon bake hardenable (ULC BH) steel with a total carbon content of 20 wt.ppm through measurement of the strength properties. The influence of prestrain and free interstitial carbon content has been studied. The kinetic results were compared with those of a BH low carbon

A. K. de; B. C. de Cooman; S. Vandeputte

2001-01-01

473

DETERMINING THE EFFECT OF BAKING, FRYING AND MIXTAMALIZATION ON FUMONISINS BY MEANS OF IN VIVO AND IN VITRO BIOASSAYS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fumonisin mycotoxins are found in corn and corn-based foods. Cooking decreases fumonisin concentrations under some conditions, but little is known about how cooking affects its biological activity. Baked cornbread, pan-fried corn cakes, and deep-fried corn fritters were made from corn meal spiked w...

474

Persistent sand bars explained by geodynamic effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The persistent nature of intertidal sand bars has been the subject of much speculation concerning the hydrodynamic mechanisms involved, but its origin remains enigmatic. Here, we introduce salient geophysics in contrast to the physics of fluids above the sediments. The geophysical evidence combined with theoretical modeling and analysis demonstrates that the geodynamic processes ensuing during exposure periods have a profound impact, yielding the persistent nature of the intertidal bars under severe hydrodynamic forcing which would otherwise lead to unstable bar behavior. The feedback between the effects of the dynamics of suction, i.e. negative pore water pressure relative to atmospheric air pressure, and sediment transport and morphology is found to play a crucial role in the intertidal bar morphodynamics. Our finding may fundamentally alter the current perspective, leading to a new level of understanding, of sediment transport and bar behavior at waterfronts that are ubiquitous in rivers, estuaries, and coastal seas.

Sassa, Shinji; Watabe, Yoichi

2009-01-01

475

[Development of cereal bar with pineapple skin].  

PubMed

The cereal bars are multi-component products consisting of cereals, dried fruit and syrup binder and may be added to the consumable parts of fruits and vegetables which usually are not exploited and have high nutritional value, thereby reducing food waste. It was developed a jam with pineapple skin, which it was utilized in 13.5% in the cereal bar formulation. The cereal bar was sensorial evaluated and had its centesimal and mineral composition determined. The new product achieved average of 8.3 for global impression using 9 points hedonic scale, 91% of acceptance rate and 67% of purchase intent. In this first use of pineapple skin jam as food ingredient it can be concluded that its aggregation in the cereal bar formula is feasible, making an accepted product with fibers, proteins and minerals, as an alternative to traditional cereal bars. PMID:22308949

Fonseca, Renata Siqueira; Del Santo, Victor Rogério; Souza, Gilberto Batista de; Pereira, Cíntia Alessandra Matiucci

2011-06-01

476

Development of a dynamic triaxial Kolsky bar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a confined Kolsky bar device capable of applying hydrostatic confining pressures and dynamic axial shear loads to right-circular cylindrical samples. The conventional Kolsky bar apparatus is modified by adding a high-pressure hydraulic chamber capable of applying radial confining pressures up to 400 MPa to the test specimen. An additional pressure chamber is added to the free end of the transmission bar and applies the axial portion of the hydrostatic pressure to the specimen. Once confinement is achieved, a striker bar impacts the incident bar to apply a dynamic, axial shear load to the test specimen. Pulse shaping techniques are employed in this device to generate the desired incident pulse necessary to achieve stress equilibrium in the sample and strain the sample at a nearly constant rate. We present data for an Indiana limestone tested at confining pressures up to 200 MPa and strain rates of 400 s-1, and compare results to quasi-static data.

Frew, D. J.; Akers, S. A.; Chen, W.; Green, Mark L.

2010-10-01

477

The potential of genetic engineering for improving brewing, wine-making and baking yeasts.  

PubMed

The end of the twentieth century was marked by major advances in life technology, particularly in areas related to genetics and more recently genomics. Considerable progress was made in the development of genetically improved yeast strains for the wine, brewing and baking industries. In the last decade, recombinant DNA technology widened the possibilities for introducing new properties. The most remarkable advances, which are discussed in this Mini-Review, are improved process performance, off-flavor elimination, increased formation of by-products, improved hygienic properties or extension of substrate utilization. Although the introduction of this technology into traditional industries is currently limited by public perception, the number of potential applications of genetically modified industrial yeast is likely to increase in the coming years, as our knowledge derived from genomic analyses increases. PMID:11601604

Dequin, S

2001-09-01

478

Acid Diffusion Length Corresponding to Post Exposure Bake Time and Temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The post exposure bake (PEB) step in lithography is important for fabricating good patterns when a chemically amplified resist is used. Hydrogen ions or acid is generated by a photoacid generator through light exposure. The generated acid diffuses and acts as a catalyst for chemical amplification during the PEB step. Acid diffusion length (ADL) affects the deprotection of a resist polymer, such that linewidth is affected by ADL. The common parameter that determines ADL is the acid diffusion coefficient D; thus, we must determine D accurately in order to obtain the actual linewidth. However, D cannot be unambiguously determined for the actual PEB temperature and time. ADL has become a critical factor for 100 nm patterns and below. Thus, the accurate ADL determination becomes an important issue for better linewidth prediction by simulation. To match ADL and PEB time and temperature, we attempted to determine the relationship between the PEB parameters and ADL. As a result, we obtained a reasonable ADL.

Park, Jin-Back; Kim, Sung-Hyuck; Kim, Sung-Jin; Cho, Jung-Hyuk; Oh, Hye-Keun

2007-01-01

479

Nutritive value of potato-based silages for dairy bulls.  

PubMed

Diet acceptability, nutrient digestibility, and nitrogen and energy partition were measured in growing Holstein bulls to compare corn silage with three potato-based silages which consisted of (fresh basis): 1) 50% potatoes, 20% hay; 2) 60% potatoes, 20% hay, 20% whole oats; 3) 50% potatoes, 25% hay, 25% whole oats. The 50% potato 50% hay silage dry matter was consumed at 3.0% of body weight per day which was greater than for any of the other three silages. Consequently, daily consumption of each nutrient was generally higher for this silage even though it was lower in content of many nutritional components. Except for ether extract, the digestion coefficients for the 50% potato 50% hay silage were higher than for the other three silages. The addition of whole oats to the potato-based silage tended to depress apparent digestibility of the nutritional components below those for corn silage. Both nitrogen and energy utilization were higher for the 50% potato 50% hay silage than for any of the other three experimental silages. Efficiency of use of absorbed nitrogen was higher for the oat-containing potato-based silages than for corn silage while the oat-containing silages were comparable to corn silage in energy efficiency. The 50% potato 50% hay silage was equal or superior to corn silage in dry matter intake, overall overall digestibility, nitrogen and energy balance for growing Holstein bulls. PMID:950398

Hoover, W H; Sniffen, C J; Wildman, E E

1976-07-01

480

Model approach for estimating potato pesticide bioconcentration factor.  

PubMed

We presented a model that estimates the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of pesticides in potatoes supposing that the pesticide in the soil solution is absorbed by the potato by passive diffusion, following Fick's second law. The pesticides in the model are nonionic organic substances, traditionally used in potato crops that degrade in the soil according to a first-order kinetic equation. This presents an expression that relates BCF with the pesticide elimination rate by the potato, with the pesticide accumulation rate within the potato, with the rate of growth of the potato and with the pesticide degradation rate in the soil. BCF was estimated supposing steady state equilibrium of the quotient between the pesticide concentration in the potato and the pesticide concentration in the soil solution. It is suggested that a negative correlation exists between the pesticide BCF and the soil sorption partition coefficient. The model was built based on the work of Trapp et al. [Trapp, S., Cammarano, A., Capri, E., Reichenberg, F., Mayer, P., 2007. Diffusion of PAH in potato and carrot slices and application for a potato model. Environ. Sci. Technol. 41 (9), 3103-3108], in which an expression to calculate the diffusivity of persistent organic substances in potatoes is presented. The model consists in adding to the expression of Trapp et al. [Trapp, S., Cammarano, A., Capri, E., Reichenberg, F., Mayer, P., 2007. Diffusion of PAH in potato and carrot slices and application for a potato model. Environ. Sci. Technol. 41 (9), 3103-3108] the hypothesis that the pesticide degrades in the soil. The value of BCF suggests which pesticides should be monitored in potatoes. PMID:18752828

Paraíba, Lourival Costa; Kataguiri, Karen

2008-08-26

481

Identification and characterization of yeasts causing chalk mould defects on par-baked bread.  

PubMed

Pichia anomala, Hyphopichia burtonii and Saccharomycopsis fibuligera are spoilage yeasts causing chalk mould defects on par-baked breads packaged under modified atmosphere. The first objective of this study was to identify yeasts isolated from spoiled par-baked breads by means of a RAPD protocol and to determine the dominant spoilers amongst identified strains. The second objective was to determine the effects of water activity (a(w)) and pH value on the growth rates and lag phase durations of P. anomala, H. burtonii and S. fibuligera. 95% of the yeasts tested were identified as P. anomala and 5% as S. fibuligera, H. burtonii was not detected. In order to investigate the effect of a(w) and pH the growth of the three yeasts was tested within an a(w) range of 0.88-0.98 and a pH range of 2.8-8.0. P. anomala was able to grow from pH 2.8 to 8 without a clear optimum. S. fibuligera and H. burtonii showed a pH optimum for growth of 5. The optimum water activity for growth was different for the three strains and varied between 0.96 and 0.98. These growth data were further used to develop secondary models that describe the relationship between a(w) and the radial or colony growth rate (g, mm/d) or the lag phase duration (?, d). The identification of the spoilage organisms and a good understanding of the effects of a(w) and pH on the growth behavior is essential for future development of adequate conservation strategies against chalk mould defects. PMID:21569947

Deschuyffeleer, N; Audenaert, K; Samapundo, S; Ameye, S; Eeckhout, M; Devlieghere, F

2011-02-23

482

7 CFR 946.140 - Handling potatoes for commercial processing into products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Handling potatoes for commercial processing into products...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations...Requirements § 946.140 Handling potatoes for commercial processing into...

2009-01-01

483

7 CFR 946.140 - Handling potatoes for commercial processing into products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handling potatoes for commercial processing into products...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations...Requirements § 946.140 Handling potatoes for commercial processing into...

2010-01-01

484

7 CFR 947.134 - Establishment of list of manufacturers of potato products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Establishment of list of manufacturers of potato products. 947.134 Section 947...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU COUNTIES...Establishment of list of manufacturers of potato products. (a) The committee...

2009-01-01

485

7 CFR 947.134 - Establishment of list of manufacturers of potato products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Establishment of list of manufacturers of potato products. 947.134 Section 947...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU COUNTIES...Establishment of list of manufacturers of potato products. (a) The committee...

2010-01-01

486

76 FR 71022 - Dicloran; Cancellation Order for Amendment To Terminate Use on Potatoes  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Order for Amendment To Terminate Use on Potatoes AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...for the amendment to terminate use on potatoes, voluntarily requested by the registrant...voluntarily amend to terminate DCNA use on potatoes for these product registrations....

2011-11-16

487

19 CFR 10.57 - Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. 10.57 Section 10.57...ETC. General Provisions Potatoes, Corn, Or Maize § 10.57 Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. Claim for classification...

2009-04-01

488

19 CFR 10.57 - Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. 10.57 Section 10.57...ETC. General Provisions Potatoes, Corn, Or Maize § 10.57 Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. Claim for classification...

2013-04-01

489

The population of barred galaxies in the local universe. I. Detection and characterisation of bars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context: Bars are very common in the centre of the disc galaxies, and they drive the evolution of their structure. The state-of-the-art imaging and redshift surveys of galaxies allow us to study the relationships between the properties of the bars and those of their hosts in statistically significant samples. Aims: A volume-limited sample of 2106 disc galaxies was studied to derive the bar fraction, length, and strength as a function of the morphology, size, local galaxy density, light concentration, and colour of the host galaxy. The sample galaxies were selected to not be strongly disturbed/interacting. Methods: The bar and galaxy properties were obtained by analysing the r-band images of the sample galaxies available in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 5. Results: The bars were detected using the ellipse fitting method and Fourier analysis method. They were tested and calibrated with extensive simulations on artificial images. The ellipse fitting method was found to be more efficient in detecting bars in spiral galaxies. The fraction of barred galaxies turned out to be 45%. A bar was found in 29% of the lenticular galaxies, in 55% and 54% of the early- and late-type spirals, respectively. The bar length (normalised by the galaxy size) of late-type spirals is shorter than in early-type or lenticular ones. A correlation between the bar length and galaxy size was found with longer bars hosted by larger galaxies. The bars of the lenticular galaxies are weaker than those in spirals. Moreover, the unimodal distribution of the bar strength found for all the galaxy types argues against a quick transition between the barred and unbarred statues. There is no difference between the local galaxy density of barred and unbarred galaxies. Besides, neither the length nor strength of the bars are correlated with the local density of the galaxy neighbourhoods. In contrast, a statistical significant difference between the central light concentration and colour of barred and unbarred galaxies was found. Bars are mostly located in less concentrated and bluer galaxies. Conclusions: These results indicate that the properties of bars are strongly related to those of their host galaxies, but do not depend on the local environment.

Aguerri, J. A. L.; Méndez-Abreu, J.; Corsini, E. M.

2009-02-01

490

32 CFR 776.66 - Bar admission and disciplinary matters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Bar admission and disciplinary matters. 776.66 Section 776.66 National...776.66 Bar admission and disciplinary matters. (a) Bar admission and disciplinary matters. A covered attorney, in...

2013-07-01

491

33 CFR 13.01-10 - Gold and silver bars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Gold and silver bars. 13.01-10 Section 13...RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-10 Gold and silver bars. No person shall receive...

2010-07-01

492

33 CFR 13.01-40 - Miniature medals and bars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-40 Miniature medals and bars. (a) Miniature Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals and bars are replicas of...

2013-07-01

493

Selective Area Growth of Semipolar (20\\bar{2}1) and (20\\bar{2}\\bar{1}) GaN Substrates by Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We carried out the selective area growths of GaN on semipolar (20\\bar{2}1), (20\\bar{2}\\bar{1}), and related non- and semi-polar GaN substrates by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy. By changing the growth parameters and directions of the SiO2 stripe mask, the differences in GaN structures between the growths on the different substrates were investigated. In the case of the stripes \\parallel a-axis, anisotropic GaN structures with (000\\bar{1}) and (10\\bar{1}1) facets were obtained for all the non- and semi-polar GaN substrates. On the other hand, in the case of the stripes \\perp a-axis, isotropic GaN structures were obtained for the (20\\bar{2}1) and (20\\bar{2}\\bar{1}) GaN substrates. However, the GaN structures between them were quite different. After 120 min of growth, \\{11\\bar{2}0\\} and (20\\bar{2}\\bar{1}) facets markedly expanded for the (20\\bar{2}1) and (20\\bar{2}\\bar{1}) GaN substrates, respectively. Moreover, by exploiting the effect of growth temperature, the growth of a continuous (20\\bar{2}\\bar{1}) GaN layer with voids was realized.

Jinno, Daiki; Ma, Bei; Miyake, Hideto; Hiramatsu, Kazumasa; Enatsu, Yuuki; Nagao, Satoru

2013-08-01

494

Simultaneous detection and differentiation of four closely related sweet potato potyviruses by a multiplex one-step RT-PCR  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Four closely related potyviruses, Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV), Sweet potato virus C (SPVC), Sweet potato virus G (SPVG) and/or Sweet potato virus 2 (SPV2), are involved in Sweet Potato Viral Disease, the most devastating disease of sweet potato worldwide. Identification and detection ...

495

Undertow over a barred beach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatial distribution of the mean cross-shore flow (undertow) over a barred beach is examined with field data obtained on three energetic wave days during the Duck94 experiment. The vertical structure of the undertow is modeled using a turbulent eddy viscosity closure and includes the important effects of wave breaking (described using the roller concept) and convective acceleration of the current. Other than a more realistic description of observed turbulence variations, a depth-dependent eddy viscosity (compared with a constant) does not improve the agreement between predicted and observed undertow profiles. The effect of using different boundary conditions is investigated by extending the formulations of Stive and Wind [1986] and Svendsen et al. [1987] to include random waves by ensemble averaging over the wave height distribution. The contribution of breaking wave rollers to the surface mass flux can be of the same order or greater than the contribution associated with the organized wave motion. The largest discrepancies between model predictions and observations occur over the sandbar, where the mass transport of the breaking waves appears to be underestimated.

Faria, A. F. Garcez; Thornton, E. B.; Lippmann, T. C.; Stanton, T. P.

2000-07-01

496

The "Bar of Soap" test.  

PubMed

The Du Pont HIV CHEK test is appropriate for screening blood in developing countries for antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) 1 and 2. This is popularly known as the "bar of soap" test due to the equipment's appearance. In this procedure, HIV antigen is absorbed on a membrane fitted in the recess of a block of plastic. Serum or plasma is added and allowed to soak through to the membrane. Any HIV antibody remains on the membrane and joins to the HIV antigen. A buffer and wash solution are then passed through the membrane and protein-A gold conjugate is added. This red reagent joins to the HIV antibody and is seen as a red spot on the membrane. If there is no HIV antibody, the red reagent soaks through and there is no red spot. This test, which takes 5-10 minutes, has a sensitivity of 99.3% and a specificity of 98.4%. It can be performed individually and has the advantages of ease of reading and simplicity of technique. Although HIV CHEK is not the cheapest test available, a special reduced price is available through several nonprofit or charitable organizations that assist blood screening programs in developing countries. PMID:12281631

Cheesbrough, M

1988-12-01

497

Elastic bars with cohesive energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most quasi-static variational models of fracture are based on the splitting of the energy functional into the sum of two terms: bulk, depending on the displacement gradient, and surface, depending on the displacement discontinuities. In this paper we consider the simplest one-dimensional problem of this type, a bar stretched by a given axial displacement, and systematically compare two alternative interpretations of the surface energy term. In the first interpretation ( elastic model), the surface energy is viewed as a cohesive energy which is stored and can be recovered. In the second ( inelastic model), it is irreversibly lost. We show that by assuming an evolution scheme based on local minimization and by varying the convexity-concavity properties of the surface energy the elastic model can reproduce a broad class of macroscopic material responses which have been traditionally treated as unrelated. These responses are associated with monotone loading and range from brittle fracture to rate independent plasticity. However, a realistic description for both loading and unloading is achieved only within the inelastic model.

Piero, Gianpietro Del; Truskinovsky, Lev

2009-07-01

498

Effects of Potato-cyst Nematodes (Globodera pallida) and Soil pH on Root Growth, Nutrient Uptake and Crop Growth of Potato  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potato-cyst nematodes (Globodera pallida) cause severe yield losses in potato. Plants infected with potato-cyst nematodes generally have reduced concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in the foliage. This study investigated whether reduced growth of nematode-infected potato is caused by nutrient limitation.

F. J. De Ruijter; A. J. Haverkort

1999-01-01

499

Highly reliable qcw laser bars and stacks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on a well established technology for continuous-wave (cw) diode lasers, further development and optimization lead to high performance laser bars for quasi-continuous-wave (qcw) operation suitable for pumping applications. Mounted on standard heat sinks, these 808nm laser bars exhibit more than 300W (400W) qcw output power with 50% (75%) filling factors. Reliability tests of these bars are running at >200W. Several GShots at 2, 4 and 10% duty cycle (d.c.) were already achieved. With this high performance qcw laser bars, passively cooled laser stacks were developed and tested using a new design compatible to high power operation. Thermal expansion matched materials and hard solder techniques allow reliable operation, even under rough environmental conditions. Output powers of 2.5kW (>300W per bar) were demonstrated from a stack with 8 bars. After environmental tests (vibration and thermal cycles), an ongoing life test exhibits more than 2.5GShots with 1.6kW (~200W per bar) at 4% duty cycle.

Deichsel, E.; Schröder, D.; Meusel, J.; Hülsewede, R.; Sebastian, J.; Ludwig, S.; Hennig, P.

2008-03-01

500

K bar -Hyperon Interactions and Possible S-Wave Resonances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using one-hadron-exchange potentials which describe consistently the baryon-baryon ( NN, YN and YY) and meson-baryon (? N and KN) interactions, we discuss properties of the S-wave K bar -hyperon interactions. Solving the coupled-channel ??-K bar ?-K bar ? problem, we obtain the possible existence of an S-wave resonance (a quasibound state of K bar ?) below the K bar ? threshold. A K bar ? bound state with I = 0 is also predicted.

Shinmura, Shoji; Xiem, Ngo Thi Hong

2013-08-01