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1

How much reducing sugar may potatoes contain to avoid excessive acrylamide formation during roasting and baking?  

Microsoft Academic Search

For many consumers, potatoes fried or roasted in professional or private kitchens are the most important source of exposure to acrylamide. Acrylamide formation can be reduced by appropriate preparation techniques, but suitable potatoes are a prerequisite. The tendency of potato to form acrylamide can be approximated by the content of reducing sugar. Roast potatoes (hash browns, Rösti) and oven-fried potatoes

Sandra Biedermann-Brem; Anja Noti; Koni Grob; Daniel Imhof; Diego Bazzocco; Anton Pfefferle

2003-01-01

2

Multigeneration reproductive and developmental toxicity study of bar gene inserted into genetically modified potato on rats.  

PubMed

Each specific protein has an individual gene encoding it, and a foreign gene introduced to a plant can be used to synthesize a new protein. The identification of potential reproductive and developmental toxicity from novel proteins produced by genetically modified (GM) crops is a difficult task. A science-based risk assessment is needed in order to use GM crops as a conventional foodstuff. In this study, the specific characteristics of GM food and low-level chronic exposure were examined using a five-generation animal study. In each generation, rats were fed a solid pellet containing 5% GM potato and non-GM potato for 10 wk prior to mating in order to assess the potential reproductive and developmental toxic effects. In the multigeneration animal study, there were no GM potato-related changes in body weight, food consumption, reproductive performance, and organ weight. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was carried out using extracted genomic DNA to examine the possibility of gene persistence in the organ tissues after a long-term exposure to low levels of GM feed. In each generation, the gene responsible for bar was not found in any of the reproductive organs of the GM potato-treated male and female rats, and the litter-related indexes did not show any genetically modified organism (GMO)-related changes. The results suggest that genetically modified crops have no adverse effects on the multigeneration reproductive-developmental ability. PMID:16326439

Rhee, Gyu Seek; Cho, Dae Hyun; Won, Yong Hyuck; Seok, Ji Hyun; Kim, Soon Sun; Kwack, Seung Jun; Lee, Rhee Da; Chae, Soo Yeong; Kim, Jae Woo; Lee, Byung Mu; Park, Kui Lea; Choi, Kwang Sik

2005-12-10

3

Modern Baking  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Baking is an art, a science, and a field that many people (especially young students) wish to learn more about. Visitors to this site can learn about the hands-on details of baking, along with gaining insights into business trends within the baking world. Modern Baking contains classified ads for those bakers looking to pick up some new equipment (or a new job), and a section of up-to-date industry news as well. The content is divided into eight sections: Formulas & Techniques, Cake Decorating, Supermarket Baking, Retail Baking, Specialty Wholesale Baking, Foodservice Baking, Bread & Pastry, and Bakery Management. Visitors would do well to try the formula in the Formulas & Techniques section for chestnut and cognac brioche, as it brings together two flavors that are truly divine.

2006-11-16

4

Potato Flavor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potato is one of the most popular vegetables worldwide and is the most important vegetable crop in the United States,\\u000a accounting for nearly one-third of per-capita vegetable consumption. Potatoes can be prepared in many ways, including baking,\\u000a boiling, roasting, frying, steaming, and microwaving, allowing for a diversity of uses. Most people find potatoes to be an\\u000a agreeable food and

Shelley H. Jansky

2010-01-01

5

Glycaemic effect and satiating capacity of potato chips and milk chocolate bar as snacks in teenagers with diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 14 adolescents with diabetes, the postprandial blood glucose, after ingestion of two popular snacks, milk chocolate bar and potato chips, was compared to a prescribed mid-afternoon snack that was isocaloric with the comparison snacks. The prescribed diabetes snack consisted of wholemeal wheat bread, margarine, cheese and apple (1533 kJ\\/365 kcal): 14% protein, 32% fat and 54% carbohydrate. The milk

G. Cedermark; M. Selenius; K. Tullus

1993-01-01

6

Pastry Baking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed as part of the Marine Corps Institute (MCI) correspondence training program, this course on pastry baking is designed to provide a source of study materials on the preparation of pastry items within central pastry shops throughout the Marine Corps; it is adaptable for nonmilitary instruction. Introductory materials include specific…

Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

7

Structure and morphology of baked starch foams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Baked starch foams were characterized by several physical methods in order to better understand the relationship between process parameters and starch foam structure. In this process, a thin-walled object such as a plate is formed by heating a starch batter inside a closed mould. Normal corn and potato starches are gelatinized by this treatment but some swollen granules remain. The

R. L Shogren; J. W Lawton; W. M Doane; K. F Tiefenbacher

1998-01-01

8

Baking soda overdose  

MedlinePLUS

Baking soda is a cooking product that helps batter to rise. This article discusses the effects of swallowing a large amount of baking soda. Soda loading refers to drinking baking soda. Some ... believe that drinking baking soda prior to competition helps ...

9

Exploring Baking Powder  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners examine baking powder, a combination of three powders: baking soda, cream of tartar, and cornstarch. Learners use their data from the previous activity (see related resource) to identify these three powders as possible ingredients. Then, they test combinations of these powders to determine the active ingredients in baking powder.

Kessler, James H.; Galvan, Patricia M.

2007-01-01

10

potato-casserole  

E-print Network

... into rings 2 potatoes sliced into circles 2 tart apples, pared, cored, cut into slices 1 tsp ... Turn into a casserole dish (you may want to spray Pam in first, or wipe with a small amount of oil). ... Bake at 350 until brown on top and heated through.

11

Baking Soda Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the basic principles of baking soda chemistry including the chemical composition of baking soda, its acid-base properties, the reaction of bicarbonate solution with calcium ions, and a description of some general types of chemical reactions. Includes a science activity that involves removing calcium ions from water. (LZ)

Science Activities, 1994

1994-01-01

12

Selected Baking Formulas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is designed to help baking students learn to use formulas in the preparation of baking products. Tested and proven formulas are, for the most part, standard ones with only slight modifications. The recipes are taken mainly from bakery product manufacturers and are presented in quantities suitable for school-shop use. Each recipe…

Bogdany, Melvin

13

Commercial Baking. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A project filmed three commercial baking videotapes for use by secondary and adult students in food service programs. The three topics were basic dinner rolls, bread making, and hard breads and rolls. Quick-rise dough recipes were developed, written down, and explained for use with the videotapes. A pretest, posttest, and student guide were…

Booth, Nancy

14

Ziploc bags (10+) Baking Soda  

E-print Network

Bomb Bags Materials · Ziploc bags (10+) · Vinegar · Baking Soda · Paper Towels · Food Coloring mixing colors? 5. Why do we not want to mix the baking soda and vinegar right away? 6. Why do we move and review color mixing from last week 3. Wrap baking soda in paper towel and fold into a square 4. Hold

Benitez-Nelson, Claudia

15

Kitchen Korner! EASY APPLE BAKE  

E-print Network

Kitchen Korner! EASY APPLE BAKE 4 apples Cinnamon (to taste) 1/2 cup sugar 1/2 cup flour 1/2 cup. · Spread dough over top of apples (dough will be thick). · Bake in 350° F oven for 15-25 minutes. MAKE butter, cut into small pieces · Peel and slice apples into 1/4" slices; spread in shal- low baking dish

Goodman, Robert M.

16

Antibacterial activity of baking soda.  

PubMed

The antibacterial activity of baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) was assessed using three different experimental approaches. Standard minimum inhibitory concentration analyses revealed substantial inhibitory activity against Streptococcus mutans that was not due to ionic strength or high osmolarity. Short-term exposure assays showed significant killing of bacterial suspensions when baking soda was combined with the detergent sodium dodecylsulfate. Multiple, brief exposures of sucrose-colonized S mutans to baking soda and sodium dodecylsulfate caused statistically significant decreases in numbers of viable cells. Use of oral health care products with high concentrations of baking soda could conceivably result in decreased levels of cariogenic S mutans in saliva and plaque. PMID:12017929

Drake, D

1997-01-01

17

Antibacterial activity of baking soda.  

PubMed

The antibacterial activity of baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) was assessed using three different experimental approaches. Standard minimum inhibitory concentration analyses revealed substantial inhibitory activity against Streptococcus mutans that was not due to ionic strength or high osmolarity. Short-term exposure assays showed significant killing of bacterial suspensions when baking soda was combined with the detergent sodium dodecylsulfate. Multiple, brief exposures of sucrose-colonized S mutans to baking soda and sodium dodecylsulfate caused statistically significant decreases in numbers of viable cells. Use of oral health care products with high concentrations of baking soda could conceivably result in decreased levels of cariogenic S mutans in saliva and plaque. PMID:11524862

Drake, D

1996-01-01

18

6.NS Baking Cookies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Alice, Raul, and Maria are baking cookies together. They need $\\frac34$ cup of flour and $\\frac13$ cup of butter to make a dozen cookies. They each bro...

19

6.NS Bake Sale  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Lindy is having a bake sale. She has 48 chocolate chip cookies to put in bags. How many bags can she fill if she puts the same number in each bag and u...

20

Baking powder pica mimicking preeclampsia.  

PubMed

We report a case of baking powder pica during pregnancy that was associated with maternal hypertension, hypokalemia, and elevated liver function tests. After discontinuation of baking powder ingestion and correction of electrolyte abnormalities, the blood pressure and the liver function tests normalized. PMID:1442966

Barton, J R; Riely, C A; Sibai, B M

1992-07-01

21

Combined effects of storage and processing on the bioactive compounds and pro-apoptotic properties of color-fleshed potatoes in human colon cancer cells.  

PubMed

Potatoes can be stored for up to 1 year before being processed and consumed. The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which fresh and stored color-fleshed potatoes retain their anticancer properties after baking and chipping compared with unprocessed potatoes. We utilized white-, yellow-, and purple-fleshed potato clones and tested their phenolic and anthocyanin content, antioxidant activity, metabolite profile, and antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic properties. When compared with unprocessed samples, baking or chipping led to significant losses in the phenolic and anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity of the potatoes. However, with storage, total phenolic and anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity increased in baked samples while in the chipped samples they remained constant. Ethanolic extracts of baked and chipped samples suppressed proliferation and elevated apoptosis (p < 0.05) in HCT-116 (p53 wild-type; ras mutated) and HT-29 (p53 mutated; ras wild-type) human colon cancer cell lines. Antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic properties of baked potatoes were similar to that of fresh potatoes, while chipping caused a significant suppression. Phenolic content and antioxidant activity of purple-fleshed potatoes, after baking, were comparable with those of anthocyanin-rich berries. Hence, purple-fleshed potatoes can be a healthier choice for consumers as they possess greater levels of bioactive compounds and anticancer properties even after processing as compared with their white- and yellow-fleshed counterparts. PMID:23039105

Madiwale, Gaurav P; Reddivari, Lavanya; Stone, Martha; Holm, David G; Vanamala, Jairam

2012-11-01

22

Control of Fusarium oxysporum by baking soda  

Microsoft Academic Search

Baking soda (NaHCO3) or KHCO3 was found capable of significantly reducing the mycelial growth of Fusarium species. In Czapek Dox broth with baking soda or KHCO3 at as low as 0.2g\\/100mL, for example, the mycelial growth of Fusarium oxysporum 950 was inhibited by greater than 95%. The bicarbonate component of baking soda was responsible for the inhibitory effect.

Y. D. Hang; E. E. Woodams

2003-01-01

23

A method to determine ingredient functionality in baked tortilla chips  

E-print Network

An air impingement oven was used to evaluate the structures developed by different ingredients in baked corn chips and baked tortilla chips. Dry masa flour (DMF) was hydrated into masa, sheeted and cut. Masa triangles were baked in an air...

Quintero-Fuentes, Ximena

2012-06-07

24

An Analysis of the Baking Occupation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The general purpose of the occupational analysis is to provide workable, basic information dealing with the many and varied duties performed in the baking occupation. Such tasks as choosing ingredients and the actual baking process are logical primary concerns, but also explored are the safety and sanitation factors and management problems in a…

Boyadjid, Thomas A; Paoletti, Donald J.

25

Sweet Potatoes.  

E-print Network

amollg many shippers of the vegetable that the soft sugary yams so highly appreciated in the South do not meet with ready sale in the Northern markets, consequelltly Sweet Potatoes shipped to the latter market should be rather dry and mealy like... is nearly all vine with few potatoes'" Mr. E. V. Dunn, Grapevine, Texas, Nov. 6th 1893 wrote "I gathered 200 bushels of the Runch Yams from an acre. Half the acre SWEET POTATOES. 335. was set from the 25th to the 28th of July. The weather was very dry...

Price, R. H.

1893-01-01

26

Microbial ecology of muffins baked from cassava and other nonwheat flours.  

PubMed

Cassava flour was evaluated as a partial substitute for wheat flour in gluten-free muffins. Four replicate test bakes were carried out to evaluate the microbial ecology of two muffin mixes, made with different combinations of cassava, soya, sorghum, sago, and potato flour. The muffins were baked at 180 degrees C for 25 min, stored at 30 degrees C and analysed microbiologically for up to 10 days post-baking. Raw materials were similarly analysed microbiologically on the day of baking. Characterization of predominant bacterial and mould isolates from the raw materials and the muffins was carried out. The rope-free and minimum mould-free shelf life of both muffin types were approximately 1 day and approximately 3 days, respectively. The predominant bacterial isolates from the raw materials and muffins were Bacillus species (83 and 99%, respectively). The moulds predominating in the raw materials were Gloeosporium (42%), Penicillium (13%) and Mucorales (13%), and from muffins Penicillium (37%) and Aspergillus (37%). PMID:11368089

Chauhan, S; Lindsay, D; Rey, M E; van Holy, A

2001-01-01

27

Baking soda: a potentially fatal home remedy.  

PubMed

We present a case of a six-week-old infant who developed life-threatening complications after unintentional sodium bicarbonate intoxication. Baking soda was being used by the mother as a home remedy to "help the baby burp." A review of the literature regarding the use (or misuse) of baking soda follows. Our patient, along with the other noted case reports, emphasizes the need for warnings on baking soda products whose labels recommend its use as an antacid. Poisonings must be high in the differential diagnosis of any patient, regardless of age, who presents with altered mental status or status epilepticus. PMID:7596870

Nichols, M H; Wason, S; Gonzalez del Rey, J; Benfield, M

1995-04-01

28

A novel wafer baking system using hot air streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel wafer baking system that uses hot air streams as heating media and achieves good temperature uniformity across the entire wafer surfaces during the baking process. Wind tunnel experiments have been carried out to verify the concept of using hot air streams for wafer baking. A simple prototyping wafer baking system has been designed and fabricated,

Lan Wang; Siew Loong Chow; Ai Poh Loh; Zhi Ming Gong; Woei Wan Tan; Arthur E. B. Tay; Weng Khuen Ho

2004-01-01

29

Differences between wafer and bake plate temperature uniformity in proximity bake: a theoretical and experimental study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the lithography industry moves toward finer features, specifications on temperature uniformity of the bake plates are expected to become more stringent. Consequently, aggressive improvements are needed to conventional bake station designs to make them perform significantly better than current market requirements. To this end, we have conducted a rigorous study that combines state-of-the-art simulation tools and experimental methods to predict the impact of the parameters that influence the uniformity of the wafer in proximity bake. The key observation from this detailed study is that the temperature uniformity of the wafer in proximity mode depends on a number of parameters in addition to the uniformity of the bake plate itself. These parameters include the lid design, the air flow distribution around the bake chamber, bake plate design and flatness of the bake plate and wafer. By performing careful experimental studies that were guided by extensive numerical simulations, we were able to understand the relative importance of each of these parameters. In an orderly fashion, we made appropriate design changes to curtail or eliminate the nonuniformity caused by each of these parameters. After implementing all these changes, we have now been able to match or improve the temperature uniformity of the wafer in proximity with that of a contact measurement on the bake plate. The wafer temperature uniformity is also very close to the theoretically predicted uniformity of the wafer.

Ramanan, Natarajan; Kozman, Austin; Sims, James B.

2000-06-01

30

Potato processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of potato processing at the Ore-Ida Foods, Inc. plant in a recent agribusiness study of the Klamath and Western Snake River Basins in Oregon is described. The application of geothermal resources to the process and the economic analysis are included. (MHR)

Lienau

1979-01-01

31

Bar Fight Bar  

E-print Network

dressed up like those suckers. A bar here in Nanjing, China has come up with a new method of attracting clientele: it lets them beat up the staff. Clients ask the staff to dress up like the person they wish to muscle up on most. As of now, China lags...

Hacker, Randi; Tsutsui, William

2006-11-29

32

IBL Thermal Mockup Bake-Out Tests  

E-print Network

This note summarizes different bake-out tests that have been performed with the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer (IBL) mockup. Two beam pipe configurations have been tested: one with the aerogel insulation layer all along the pipe and one without insulation over 622 mm around Z0. These tests have been crucial for decisions about aerogel removal, choice of heaters for the LHC beam pipe bake-out, and choice of temperature setpoints for the cooling system during nominal IBL operation. They also revealed very useful information on integration issues and the thermo-mechanical behaviour of the IBL detector.

Nuiry, FX

2014-01-01

33

STONE BAKED PIZZAS 10" GOURMET SANDWICHES  

E-print Network

with garlic bread and salad Spinach & Ricotta Cannelloni (v) £5.25 An oven baked dish of pasta tubes filled with spinach and ricotta, layered with tomato sauce, white sauce and melting mozzarella. Served with garlic in a creamy sauce, on a bed of freshly cooked spaghetti. Served with garlic bread. Roast Vegetable Tagliatelle

Oakley, Jeremy

34

Potato Straw  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this physics demonstration, learners are challenged to insert a straw the furthest into a potato. After learners explore different techniques, the demonstrator can show them how to hold the straw firmly about 2/3 of the way up and use a sharp thrusting movement. Use this activity to explore force and surface area. This activity guide includes a helpful video that demonstrates each step of the demonstration.

Physics, Institute O.

2012-07-12

35

Potatoes and Human Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber follows only rice and wheat in world importance as a food crop for human consumption. Cultivated potatoes have spread from the Andes of South America where they originated to 160 countries around the world. Consumption of fresh potatoes has declined while processed products have increased in popularity. As the potato becomes a staple in

Mary Ellen Camire; Stan Kubow; Danielle J. Donnelly

2009-01-01

36

A novel wafer baking system using hot air streams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a novel wafer baking system that uses hot air streams as heating media and achieves good temperature uniformity across the entire wafer surfaces during the baking process. Wind tunnel experiments have been carried out to verify the concept of using hot air streams for wafer baking. A simple prototyping wafer baking system has been designed and fabricated, and experiments of the baking process have been conducted. Good temperature uniformity across the wafer surface has been achieved. The experimental results match well with the computer fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation results. It is observed that the velocity of the airflow has significant influence on the temperature transient responses. Further optimization of the parameters of the baking system and analytical modelling studies are currently under way.

Wang, Lan; Chow, Siew Loong; Loh, Ai Poh; Gong, Zhi Ming; Tan, Woei Wan; Tay, Arthur E. B.; Ho, Weng Khuen

2004-05-01

37

Baking the first bread in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Getaway Special program is a joint venture between Spar, Monarch flour and Telesat, with Telesat being responsible for the design, manufacture and implementation of the equipment. The purpose of the experiment is to investigate the behavior of bread yeast in the absence of gravity and in the presence of normal atmospheric pressure. The proposed design mixes flour, water and yeast on-orbit, allows the mixture to prove and then bakes it. This paper outlines the development history of the experiment, the various test programs and some of the problems encountered, with their solutions.

1987-01-01

38

The Irish Potato.  

E-print Network

in reference to scabby potatoes: first, no scabby ones should be used for planting; second, ground which grew scabby potatoes .should not be planted again for sometime. 926 TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. Fig. 5.?Dry Rot. B o g - NI (.Fusarium... in reference to scabby potatoes: first, no scabby ones should be used for planting; second, ground which grew scabby potatoes .should not be planted again for sometime. 926 TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. Fig. 5.?Dry Rot. B o g - NI (.Fusarium...

Price, R. H.

1987-01-01

39

Germination of oat and quinoa and evaluation of the malts as gluten free baking ingredients.  

PubMed

Germination can be used to improve the sensory and nutritional properties of cereal and pseudocereal grains. Oat and quinoa are rich in minerals, vitamins and fibre while quinoa also contains high amounts of protein of a high nutritional value. In this study, oat and quinoa malts were produced and incorporated in a rice and potato based gluten free formulation. Germination of oat led to a drastic increase of ?-amylase activity from 0.3 to 48 U/g, and minor increases in proteolytic and lipolytic activities. Little change was observed in quinoa except a decrease in proteolytic activity from 9.6 to 6.9 U/g. Oat malt addition decreased batter viscosities at both proofing temperature and during heating. These changes led to a decrease in bread density from 0.59 to 0.5 g/ml and the formation of a more open crumb, but overdosing of oat malt deteriorated the product as a result of excessive amylolysis during baking. Quinoa malt had no significant effect on the baking properties due to low ?-amylase activity. Despite showing a very different impact on the bread quality, both malts influenced the electrophoretic patterns of rice flour protein similarly. This suggests that malt induced proteolysis does not influence the technological properties of a complex gluten free formulation. PMID:23386201

Mäkinen, Outi E; Zannini, Emanuele; Arendt, Elke K

2013-03-01

40

The Sweet Potato Weevil.  

E-print Network

TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION - AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS W. B. BIZZELL, President BULLETIN NO. 308 APRIL, 1923 DIVISION OF ENTOMOLOGY THE SWEET POTATO WEEVIL B. YOUNGBLOOD, DIRECTOR COLLEGE STATION, BRAZOS COUNTY... ................................................ SO Quarantine Laws, Rules, Regulations, and Interception Notices .... 88 ?INRE PAGE .............. 1 . World Distribution of the Sweet Potato Weevil 8 ............. 2 . Distribution of the Sweet Potato Weevil in Texas 10 ................. 3...

Reinhard, H. J. (Henry Jonathan)

1923-01-01

41

Acrylamide in Baking Products: A Review Article  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acrylamide or 2-propenamide is a chemical compound, with chemical formula CH2=CH–CO–NH2, that can be produced at high levels in high-carbohydrate heat-treated foods. The risks of acrylamide to health and its toxic\\u000a properties (neurotoxicity, genotoxicity, carcinogenicity and reproductive toxicity) were demonstrated by the Scientific Committee\\u000a on Toxicity, Ecotoxicity and the Environment in 2001. Potato and bakery products account for around 50%

Javad Keramat; Alain LeBail; Carole Prost; Maryam Jafari

2011-01-01

42

Using Easy-Bake Ovens to Teach Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

After participating in an internship at the American Institute of Baking, the author developed an innovative way for students to explore basic chemistry concepts through bakery science. An Easy-Bake Oven is a quick and safe oven that is perfect for the classroom. Two activity series are described, one exploring chemical and physical changes, and one exploring pH.

Herald, Christine

2004-02-01

43

Evolution of bubble size distribution in baked foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model to predict the bubble size distribution in baked foods and the oven rise during baking process is presented, and the effect of changing various model parameters on the model output is studied. The model incorporates a population balance equation for the formation and expansion of bubbles coupled with reaction kinetics and heat and mass transfer equations. Nucleation and

Prashant Deshlahra; Anurag Mehra; Debjani Ghosal

2009-01-01

44

Bar Graph  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students use preset data or input their own data to be represented by a bar graph. This activity allows students to explore bar graphs and how changing scales will alter how their data is represented. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

2010-01-01

45

Acute toxicity from baking soda ingestion.  

PubMed

Sodium bicarbonate is an extremely well-known agent that historically has been used for a variety of medical conditions. Despite the widespread use of oral bicarbonate, little documented toxicity has occurred, and the emergency medicine literature contains no reports of toxicity caused by the ingestion of baking soda. Risks of acute and chronic oral bicarbonate ingestion include metabolic alkalosis, hypernatremia, hypertension, gastric rupture, hyporeninemia, hypokalemia, hypochloremia, intravascular volume depletion, and urinary alkalinization. Abrupt cessation of chronic excessive bicarbonate ingestion may result in hyperkalemia, hypoaldosteronism, volume contraction, and disruption of calcium and phosphorus metabolism. The case of a patient with three hospital admissions in 4 months, all the result of excessive oral intake of bicarbonate for symptomatic relief of dyspepsia is reported. Evaluation and treatment of patients with acute bicarbonate ingestion is discussed. PMID:8285975

Thomas, S H; Stone, C K

1994-01-01

46

Potatoes and human health.  

PubMed

The potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber follows only rice and wheat in world importance as a food crop for human consumption. Cultivated potatoes have spread from the Andes of South America where they originated to 160 countries around the world. Consumption of fresh potatoes has declined while processed products have increased in popularity. As the potato becomes a staple in the diets of an increasing number of humans, small differences in potato nutritional composition will have major impacts on population health. The potato is a carbohydrate-rich, energy-providing food with little fat. Potato protein content is fairly low but has an excellent biological value of 90-100. Potatoes are particularly high in vitamin C and are a good source of several B vitamins and potassium. The skins provide substantial dietary fiber. Many compounds in potatoes contribute to antioxidant activity and interest in cultivars with pigmented flesh is growing. This review will examine the nutrient and bioactive compounds in potatoes and their impact on human health. PMID:19960391

Camire, Mary Ellen; Kubow, Stan; Donnelly, Danielle J

2009-11-01

47

Changes of dietary fiber and starch composition of processed potato products during domestic cooking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of domestic cooking on dietary fiber and starch composition of selected processed potato products were evaluated. Microwave-heating and deep-fat frying reduced an appreciable amount of in-vitro digestible starch and significantly increased both the resistant starch (RS) and water-insoluble dietary fiber (IDF), while boiling and baking had less effect. Water-soluble dietary fiber content was not affected by any of

R. D. Phillips

1995-01-01

48

Modification of gluten-free sorghum batter and bread using maize, potato, cassava or rice starch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gluten-free sorghum bread was made from cassava, maize, potato or rice starch and sorghum in the ratios 10:90, 20:80, 30:70, 40:60 and 50:50. The other baking ingredients, on flour-weight-basis, were water (100%), sugar (6.7%), egg white powder (6%), fat (2%), salt (1.7%) and yeast (1.5%). Increasing starch content changed the batters’ consistencies from soft doughs to thin pourable batters. Increasing

Calvin Onyango; Christopher Mutungi; Günter Unbehend; Meinolf G. Lindhauer

2011-01-01

49

9 CFR 381.163 - “(Kind) baked” or “(Kind) roasted.”  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions and Standards of Identity or Composition § 381.163 “(Kind) baked” or...

2011-01-01

50

9 CFR 381.163 - “(Kind) baked” or “(Kind) roasted.”  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions and Standards of Identity or Composition § 381.163 “(Kind) baked” or...

2010-01-01

51

Sourdough products for convenient use in baking.  

PubMed

Sourdough fermentations require a specific knowledge on the effects of process parameters, raw materials and micro-organisms in order to obtain a specific, reproducible sourdough and bread quality. This knowledge is not necessarily available in bakeries. Sourdough starter cultures, either active sourdoughs (Reinzuchtsauerteig) or freeze-dried micro-organisms are used to start sourdough fermentation with the required micro-flora. As sourdough fermentation is a labour-intensive and a time-consuming process, a growing demand for convenient products arised early. First organic acids (lactic acid, acetic acid, citric acid) and mixtures thereof came in use. These agents were used directly without or in combination with a sourdough; however, flavour and taste of the resulting breads were unsatisfactory. Based on modified and optimized traditional sourdough processes, dried, pasty and liquid sourdoughs were developed. Companies which produce such ready-to-use products, claim for a convenient, direct production of baked goods in constant quality, in combination with all advantages of a biological sourdough fermentation, e.g. flavour and taste, fresh keeping and prolonged microbial shelf-life. Currently, a broad variety of sourdough products with different fermented cereals is available on the market. In order to obtain a stable product, it is a necessity to inactivate the sourdough micro-biota by e.g. pasteurization, drying or autosterilization. PMID:17008160

Brandt, Markus J

2007-04-01

52

Development of Gluten-Free Baking Methods Utilizing Sorghum Flour  

E-print Network

DEVELOPMENT OF GLUTEN-FREE BREAD BAKING METHODS UTILIZING SORGHUM FLOUR A Thesis by SARA ELIZABETH BOSWELL Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2010 Major Subject: Food Science and Technology Development of Gluten-Free Bread Baking Methods Utilizing Sorghum Flour Copyright 2010 Sara...

Boswell, Sara Elizabeth

2012-02-14

53

Put plain, fat-free yogurt on baked potatoes instead of sour cream.  

E-print Network

by the Expanded Food Nutrition Education Program, USDA, NIFA. Physical Fun Simple Milk Snacks Flex Your MOM POWER, and cheese for meals and snacks. Fat-free and low-fat (1%) milk provides ALL the vitamins and minerals found and employer.This material is partially funded by USDA's Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program � SNAP which

Liskiewicz, Maciej

54

Potato Operation: automatic detection of potato diseases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Potato Operation is a collaborative, multidisciplinary project in the domain of destructive testing of agricultural products. It aims at automatizing pulp sampling of potatoes in order to detect possible viral diseases. Such viruses can decrease fields productivity by a factor of up to ten. A machine, composed of three conveyor belts, a vision system, a robotic arm and controlled by a PC has been built. Potatoes are brought one by one from a bulk to the vision system, where they are seized by a rotating holding device. The sprouts, where the viral activity is maximum, are then detected by an active vision process operating on multiple views. The 3D coordinates of the sampling point are communicated to the robot arm holding a drill. Some flesh is then sampled by the drill, then deposited into an Elisa plate. After sampling, the robot arm washes the drill in order to prevent any contamination. The PC computer simultaneously controls these processes, the conveying of the potatoes, the vision algorithms and the sampling procedure. The master process, that is the vision procedure, makes use of three methods to achieve the sprouts detection. A profile analysis first locates the sprouts as protuberances. Two frontal analyses, respectively based on fluorescence and local variance, confirm the previous detection and provide the 3D coordinate of the sampling zone. The other two processes work by interruption of the master process.

Lefebvre, Marc; Zimmerman, Thierry; Baur, Charles; Guegerli, Paul; Pun, Thierry

1995-01-01

55

Partial-Baking Process on Gluten-Free Bread: Impact of Hydrocolloid Addition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this work were to assess the impact of partial-baking process on gluten-free bread, and to study how carboxymethylcellulose\\u000a (CMC) and xanthan gum addition affected this process. As different from the conventional baking which involves only one baking\\u000a step (40 min), the part-baking process consisted in an initial-baking step (25 min), storage (7 days, 4°C), and final-baking\\u000a step (15 min). Bread-specific volume

Lorena Susana Sciarini; Gabriela Teresa Pérez; Marie de Lamballerie; Alberto Edel León; Pablo Daniel Ribotta

56

Spicy Chipotle Roasted Potatoes  

E-print Network

paprika · ½ teaspoon salt · ¼ teaspoon garlic powder · ¼ teaspoon ground chipotle pepper, or ½ teaspoon, paprika, salt, garlic powder and ground chipotle (or chili powder) in a large bowl.Add potatoes; toss

McConnell, Terry

57

International Potato Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With headquarters in La Molina, Peru, the International Potato Center seeks to reduce poverty and achieve food security through research activities on not only the potato, but also on the sweet potato, and other root and tuber crops. The Center has a staff of scientists from 25 countries working on these pressing topics, and visitors with like-minded interests will appreciate the diversity of materials offered on the site. The site has a number of sections, and those dedicated to the potato and the sweet potato are most deserving of a visit. Within each of these sections, visitors can learn about each crop, its conservation, the pests and diseases that threaten each one, and a wide array of related statistics. It should be noted that the homepage itself is a great source of updated news reports on these plants, and recent items have included information on new growing techniques for potatoes (such as aeroponics, which involves suspending tubers) and the nutritional benefits of these plants.

58

[Accidents affecting potato harvesters].  

PubMed

During industrialization in agriculture, many farming machines have been introduced. It is well-known that farming is a dangerous workplace and that farm machinery cause many serious accidents every year. Four cases of accidents with potato harvesters are discussed. In three of four cases the farmers were injured while cleaning the machine without stopping it, which probably was the main cause of the accidents. Farmers are in general not careful enough when using farm machinery. Every year, farmers in Denmark are severely invalided in accidents with potato harvesters. A strategy to lower the accidents is proposed: 1. Information of farmers, farmer schools, machine constructors and importers about mechanisms of injury. 2. A better education of farmers in using potato harvesters (and other farming machines). 3. Better fencing of the potato harvesters. 4. If possibly constructional changes in the potato harvesters so things will not get stuck, or so that the machine will stop if things stuck. 5. Installation of switches on potato harvesters, which can be reached from all positions, stopping the machines immediately, or a remote switch control carried by the farmer. PMID:8212405

Hansen, J U

1993-09-27

59

Utilisation of the Commonwealth Potato Collection in potato breeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The use of the Commonwealth Potato Collection in potato breeding is set in the context of the evolution of the crop and the\\u000a need to widen its genetic base by introgression and base broadening. The introduction of the potato to Europe and its subsequent\\u000a worldwide spread is described. An introduction is given to the world's major potato genebanks, and the

John E. Bradshaw; Gavin Ramsay

2005-01-01

60

Structural and physical modifications of corn biscuits during baking process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colour, crust browning and specific volume of batter is essential to the manufacture of biscuit of good quality, but these properties are rarely measured directly in fermenting batter due to lack of suitable instrumentation. The aim of this study was to systematically evaluate the changes in quality parameters and physical properties of corn biscuits during baking in real time and

E. Lara; P. Cortés; V. Briones; M. Perez

2011-01-01

61

15. 110 SANSOM STREET, BAKE OVEN IN CELLAR (Above the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. 110 SANSOM STREET, BAKE OVEN IN CELLAR (Above the chamber is the entrance to the squirrel tail flue. Below and to the right at floor level is a wood storage compartment.) - James McCrea Houses, 108-110 Sansom Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

62

Clean Label Mold Inhibitors for Baking Rene Albers-Nelson  

E-print Network

FAPC-173 Robert M. Kerr Food & Agricultural Products Center FOOD TECHNOLOGY FACT SHEET 405 widely used antimicrobial in yeast-raised baked foods (Pyler and Gorton, 2008). Propionic acid products by encapsulation, spraying onto the product as an aerosol or incorporating it into the packaging

Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

63

Baking of SST-1 vacuum vessel modules and sectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SST-1 Tokamak is a steady state super-conducting tokamak for plasma discharge of 1000 sec duration. The plasma discharge of such long time duration can be obtained by reducing the impurities level, which will be possible only when SST-1 vacuum chamber is pumped to ultra high vacuum. In order to achieve UHV inside the chamber, the baking of complete vacuum chamber has to be carried out during pumping. For this purpose the C-channels are welded inside the vacuum vessel. During baking of vacuum vessel, these welded channels should be helium leak tight. Further, these U-channels will be in accessible under operational condition of SST-1. So, it will not possible to repair if any leak is developed during experiment. To avoid such circumstances, a dedicated high vacuum chamber is used for baking of the individual vacuum modules and sectors before assembly so that any fault during welding of the channels will be obtained and repaired. This paper represents the baking of vacuum vessel modules and sectors and their temperature distribution along the entire surface before assembly.

Pathan, Firozkhan S.; Khan, Ziauddin; Yuvakiran, Paravastu; George, Siju; Ramesh, Gattu; Manthena, Himabindu; Shah, Virendrakumar; Raval, Dilip C.; Thankey, Prashant L.; Dhanani, Kalpesh R.; Pradhan, Subrata

2012-11-01

64

Homespun Remedy, Homespun Toxicity: Baking Soda Ingestion for Dyspepsia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 68-year-old man presented to the Emergency Department with a severe metabolic alkalosis after ingesting large quantities of baking soda to treat his dyspepsia. His underlying pulmonary disease and a progressively worsening mental status necessitated intubation for respiratory failure. Laboratory studies revealed a hyponatremic, hypochloremic, hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis. The patient was successfully treated after cessation of the oral bicarbonate, initiation

Keyur Ajbani; Michael E. Chansky; Brigitte M. Baumann

2011-01-01

65

Milling and Baking Quality of Low Phytic Acid Wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low phytic acid (LPA) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one ap- proach to improving nutritional quality of wheat by reducing the major storage form of phosphorus and increasing the level of inorganic phosphorus, which is more readily absorbed by humans and other monogastric animals. Milling and baking quality evaluations were con- ducted on hard red, hard white, and soft white

M. J. Guttieri; K. M. Peterson; E. J. Souza

2006-01-01

66

Blow up Balloon with Baking Soda One small empty plastic soda or water bottle  

E-print Network

Blow up Balloon with Baking Soda One small empty plastic soda or water bottle 1/2 cup of vinegar Small balloon Baking soda Funnel or piece of paper 1. Carefully pour the vinegar into the bottle. 2 the balloon into the bottle and mixes with the vinegar. Watch the fizz-inflator at work! The baking soda

Benitez-Nelson, Claudia

67

Easy Gardening.....Irish Potatoes  

E-print Network

Easy Gardening Joseph Masabni, Assistant Professor and Extension Horticulturist, The Texas A&M University System IRISH POTATOES ? IRISH POTATOES ? IRISH POTA - -1- I rishpotatoesareoneofAmerica?smost popularvegetables?theaverageAmeri- caneatsabout...Easy Gardening Joseph Masabni, Assistant Professor and Extension Horticulturist, The Texas A&M University System IRISH POTATOES ? IRISH POTATOES ? IRISH POTA - -1- I rishpotatoesareoneofAmerica?smost popularvegetables?theaverageAmeri- caneatsabout...

McGraw, Dean; Masabni, Joseph

2009-05-17

68

TOMATO AND POTATO LATE BLIGHT  

E-print Network

TOMATO AND POTATO LATE BLIGHT ALERT WHAT EVERY GROWER NEEDS TO KNOW ABOUT TOMATO AND POTATO LATE.potatodiseases.org #12;This year the disease known as late blight has affected many tomato and potato crops throughout the northern states. The disease is thought to have started in tomato transplants. Once the disease has taken

Douches, David S.

69

Effects of domestic cooking methods on polyphenols and antioxidant activity of sweet potato leaves.  

PubMed

In this study, effects of boiling, steaming, microwaving, baking, and frying on proximate composition, total and individual polyphenol contents, and antioxidant activity of sweet potato leaves were investigated. An increase of 9.44% in total polyphenol content was observed after steaming, whereas decreases of 30.51, 25.70, and 15.73% were noted after boiling, microwaving, and frying, respectively. Decreases of 63.82 and 32.35% in antioxidant activity were observed after boiling and microwaving, respectively, whereas increases of 81.40, 30.09, and 85.82% in antioxidant activity were observed after steaming, baking, and frying, respectively. Eight phenolic compounds were identified in sweet potato leaves. The correlation analysis between content of individual phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity suggested that antioxidant activity could be mainly attributed to 4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 3,4-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, and 3,4,5-tri-O-caffeoylquinic acid. It was suggested that steaming is a preferred method to maintain polyphenols and antioxidant activity of sweet potato leaves. PMID:25152015

Sun, Hongnan; Mu, Taihua; Xi, Lisha; Song, Zhen

2014-09-10

70

Evaluation of iodine content and stability in recipes prepared with biofortified potatoes.  

PubMed

Abstract Iodine is an essential micronutrient of the human diet. Deficiency of iodine is diffused in many areas of the world and mild deficiency is present also in developed countries around Europe. Biofortification of vegetables could represent a better strategy with respect to iodized salt in order to increase iodine intake. The aim of this study was evaluating the stability of iodine, derived from biofortified potatoes, in the preparation process of three Italian typical dishes: dumplings, vegetable pie, and focaccia bread. The obtained results showed a good stability of iodine in cooking processes, in particular, during baking of focaccia bread. Significant losses of iodine were detected during boiling of dumplings and baking of vegetable pie. Although the different stability during the cooking processes, the three dishes maintained a good final content of iodine, ranging from the 33.3% to 52.7% of daily recommended intake in adults for individual serving size. PMID:24828007

Cerretani, Lorenzo; Comandini, Patrizia; Fumanelli, Davide; Scazzina, Francesca; Chiavaro, Emma

2014-11-01

71

The Sweet Potato Borer.  

E-print Network

such as had been badly infested for a long tfme so that the potato had become dry and hard. Furthermore the castings in the burrows as well as the solid~fied walls of the same have a bitter flavor which may be objectionable to stcck. 2. Boiling lnfested... such as had been badly infested for a long tfme so that the potato had become dry and hard. Furthermore the castings in the burrows as well as the solid~fied walls of the same have a bitter flavor which may be objectionable to stcck. 2. Boiling lnfested...

Conradi, Albert F. (Albert Frederick)

1907-01-01

72

Computational fluid dynamics modeling of bun baking process under different oven load conditions.  

PubMed

A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed to study the temperature profile of the bun during baking process. Evaporation-condensation mechanism and effect of the latent heat during phase change of water was incorporated in this model to represent actual bun baking process. Simulation results were validated with experimental measurements of bun temperature at two different positions. Baking process is completed within 20 min, after the temperature of crumb become stable at 98 °C. Further, this study was extended to investigate the effect of partially (two baking trays) loaded and fully loaded (eight baking trays) oven on temperature profile of bun. Velocity and temperature profile differs in partially loaded and fully loaded oven. Bun placed in top rack showed rapid baking while bun placed in bottom rack showed slower baking due to uneven temperature distribution in the oven. Hence, placement of bun inside the oven affects temperature of bun and consequently, the quality of the product. PMID:25190860

Tank, A; Chhanwal, N; Indrani, D; Anandharamakrishnan, C

2014-09-01

73

Attraction of Colorado Potato Beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) to Damaged and Chemically Induced Potato Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unmated adult female Colorado potato beetles, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), were attracted to damaged and chemically treated potato plants in an olfactometer. Significantly more beetles moved upwind to potato plants with damage from larval Colorado potato beetle compared with undamaged plants. More beetles moved upwind toward potato plants treated with regurgitant from Colorado potato beetle larvae or cabbage looper larvae, Trichoplusia

PETER J. LANDOLT; J. H. TUMLINSON; D. H. ALBORN

74

Mapping Potato Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students construct a topographic map of model terrain using a potato as their model. After making the map, they should be able to explain what contour lines are and what they represent. A materials list, instructions, and background information are provided. National content standards and links to additional information are also included.

75

Homespun remedy, homespun toxicity: baking soda ingestion for dyspepsia.  

PubMed

A 68-year-old man presented to the Emergency Department with a severe metabolic alkalosis after ingesting large quantities of baking soda to treat his dyspepsia. His underlying pulmonary disease and a progressively worsening mental status necessitated intubation for respiratory failure. Laboratory studies revealed a hyponatremic, hypochloremic, hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis. The patient was successfully treated after cessation of the oral bicarbonate, initiation of intravenous hydration, and correction of electrolyte abnormalities. PMID:18164162

Ajbani, Keyur; Chansky, Michael E; Baumann, Brigitte M

2011-04-01

76

10 Tips for Parents: How to Get Kids to Eat More Complex Carbohydrates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers 10 suggestions to help parents encourage their children to eat more complex carbohydrates. Suggestions include microwaving baked potatoes; baking whole-grain breads; snacking on gingersnaps, fig bars, pretzels, or vegetable sticks; mixing cereal into low-fat yogurt; and making soup containing beans, rice, pasta, or potatoes. (SM)

PTA Today, 1991

1991-01-01

77

To place your meal order please dial MEAL (ext. 6325)  

E-print Network

Rice Baked Sweet Potato Rice Pilaf Butternut Squash Corn Breadstick Reg. / Baked Potato Chips Dinner Cottage Cheese Tossed Salad (Oil & Vinegar/Low-fat Italian/Low-fat French) Chicken Caesar Salad Chef Salad (Oil & Vinegar/Lowfat Italian/Lowfat French) Cottage Cheese Fruit Plate DELI BAR ~ Create your own

Oliver, Douglas L.

78

Growing Potatoes in Your Home Garden  

E-print Network

parcels of land. Potatoes are important in our world! Figure 1. Children love helping in the garden that there are purple, red and yellow potatoes ? Potatoes make a great garden project for your children

Douches, David S.

79

Effect of Baking on Spot Welds of a Prestrained Ultra-Low Carbon Bake Hardening Steel Sheet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of bake hardening (BH) treatment on the strength of spot-welded joints made on prestrained (PS) sheets of an ultra-low carbon (ULC) BH grade steel has been investigated using tensile-shear specimens. A series of these experiments has been carried out on spot-welds made on as-received and PS sheets; a part of the latter being subjected to BH treatment. Determination

Goutam Mukhopadhyay; Sandip Bhattacharya; Kalyan Kumar Ray

2010-01-01

80

Potato Chip Classification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity introduces the structure and function of a dichotomous key, in preparation for student identification of plant and animal specimens. It also reinforces the idea that there are many possible answers in science. Students will be able to classify specimens (in this case, potato chips) according to observable characteristics, prepare a key showing their classification system, use their key to identify a specimen, and recognize the validity of classmates' classification systems.

1998-01-01

81

Ovomucoid Is Not Superior to Egg White Testing in Predicting Tolerance to Baked Egg  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Children with egg allergy may tolerate baked egg products. Ovomucoid specific IgE (sIgE) antibody levels have been suggested to predict outcomes of baked egg challenges. OBJECTIVE We determined the relationship of ovomucoid and egg white sIgE levels and egg white skin prick test (SPT) wheal size with baked egg challenge outcome. METHODS Retrospective review of 1186 patients who underwent ovomucoid sIgE blood testing. Subset analysis was of 169 patients who underwent baked egg food challenges. RESULTS Egg white sIgE, ovomucoid sIgE, and egg white SPT were different among those eating regular egg, eating baked egg only, or avoiding all egg (P < .001 for all). One hundred forty-two of 169 patients (84.0%) passed baked egg challenges. We were able to establish >90% predictive values for passing baked egg challenge for egg white sIgE, ovomucoid sIgE, and egg white SPT. No patient with egg white SPT wheal <3 mm failed a baked egg challenge. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis of egg white sIgE, ovomucoid sIgE, and egg white SPT showed areas under the curve of 0.721, 0.645, and 0.624, respectively. No significant difference was observed among these immunologic parameters in their abilities to predict baked egg challenge outcome (P = .301). CONCLUSION Most children with egg allergy in this study passed baked egg challenges. Ovomucoid sIgE, although a useful clinical predictor of baked egg tolerance, was not superior to egg white SPT or sIgE in predicting outcome of baked egg challenge. PMID:24013255

Bartnikas, Lisa M.; Sheehan, William J.; Larabee, Katherine S.; Petty, Carter; Schneider, Lynda C.; Phipatanakul, Wanda

2013-01-01

82

A Study on Degree of Starch Gelatinization in Cakes Baked in Three Different Ovens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of the study was to determine the effects of different baking ovens and different cake formulations on\\u000a the degree of starch gelatinization during cake baking. Baking was performed in microwave, infrared–microwave combination,\\u000a and conventional ovens. Starch gelatinization levels of fat free, 25% fat, and 25% Simplesse™-containing cake samples were\\u000a examined using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and rapid

Ozge Sakiyan; Gulum Sumnu; Serpil Sahin; Venkatesh Meda; Hamit Koksel; Peter Chang

83

Bar Graph Mania  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Use these activities to build and interpret data on bar graphs. Catch all the bugs in the system and put them in the correct column of the bar graph. Answer the questions about the bugs in the graph. Catch bugs in six rooms. Bugs in the system Do these bar graphing activities. You don\\'t have to do the last question ...

Thurlow, Ms.

2005-10-26

84

Usual Intake of White potatoes  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of White potatoes Table A13. White potatoes: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.2 (0.01) 0.1

85

Acoustic Measurement of Potato Cannon Velocity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Potato cannon velocity can be measured with a digitized microphone signal. A microphone is attached to the potato cannon muzzle, and a potato is fired at an aluminum target about 10 m away. Flight time can be determined from the acoustic waveform by subtracting the time in the barrel and time for sound to return from the target. The potato…

Courtney, Michael; Courtney, Amy

2007-01-01

86

Effects of baking-soda-containing dentifrices on oral malodor.  

PubMed

Oral malodor, also known as bad breath or halitosis, is an extremely common problem. Bad breath can arise from many sources in the body, but most frequently is produced in the mouth by the action of gram-negative anaerobic bacteria on sulfur-containing proteinaceous substrates in the saliva, such as debris and plaque. The primary molecules responsible for oral malodor are volatile sulfur compounds (VSC), such as hydrogen sulfide and methylmercaptan. Increased malodor production is related to greater bacterial numbers, reducing conditions, availability of protein substrates, and a pH above neutral. Bad breath is more common in the elderly, as well as those with unhygienic mouths, gingivitis, and periodontitis, but bad breath can also be found in some individuals who are periodontally healthy. The major source of oral malodor is the tongue. Approaches to controlling malodor have included masking, oral hygiene, antibacterial agents, conversion of VSC to nonodorous forms, oxidizing agents, and traditional approaches, including the use of baking soda. Results of controlled double-blind crossover studies, using both organoleptic (sensory) and gas chromatographic analysis of mouth air VSC, indicate that two dentifrices with high baking-soda concentrations, Arm & Hammer Dental Care and Arm & Hammer PeroxiCare, reduce oral malodor. PMID:11524864

Brunette, D M

1996-01-01

87

Cooking with Dried Potatoes  

E-print Network

make a tasty vegetable dish. For added flavor, you can add salt and pepper along with small amounts of grated cheese, margarine or butter. Be careful: Adding large amounts of cheese, butter or margarine can turn a low-fat vegetable, such as potatoes... and pepper (to taste) How to make it 1. Wash your hands; make sure your cooking area is clean. 2. Melt the butter or margarine in a large saucepan. 3. Add the onion and celery, cook them until they are soft. 4. Add the milk...

Anding, Jenna

2008-12-09

88

An air-flow based wafer bake system for improved temperature uniformity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an innovative apparatus for wafer baking\\/chilling using a stream of temperature controlled air-flow. This apparatus takes the form of a baking chamber on which the wafer is placed. A stream of hot air is passed through the chamber below the wafer. Heat is transferred from the hot air to the wafer from the bottom surface of the

Lan Wang; Ai Poh Loh; Zhi Ming Gong; Siew Loong Chow

2008-01-01

89

Detection of Baking Soda in Flat Bread by Direct pH Metery and Alkalinity Measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is evaluation of direct pH metery and alkalinity measurement methods for determination of baking soda in lavash bread (a kind of flat bread) in order to introduce and recommend a good practice of control. For running the experiments, various samples of lavash bread having different concentrations of baking soda were prepared. Ten grams of each

G. H. R. Jahed Khaniki; F. Vaezi; M. Yunesian; R. Nabizadeh; G. H. A. Paseban

2007-01-01

90

PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED WHILE USING BAKING SODA SOLUTIONS FOR RINSING SALMON EGGS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pre-rinsing unfertilized eggs with a baking soda solution is an effective way of countering the harmful effects of ruptured egg material on fertilization rates but there are problems when using this procedure in large scale fish culture. With large batches of eggs it is difficult to thoroughly decant the final rinse solution so precise control of the amount of baking

W. E. McLean; J. O. T. Jensen

91

Hysteresis variations of (Pb, La)(Zr, Ti)O3 capacitors baked in a hydrogen atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Baking (Pb, La)(Zr, Ti)O3 capacitors in a hydrogen atmosphere causes a significant loss of remanent polarization even at 150 °C. The hysteresis variations depend on the polarization states during baking. The hysteresis loop showed voltage shifts when the capacitor was polarized before baking, whereas it became a cramped shape when the baking was carried out on a virgin capacitor. Although

T. Tamura; K. Matsuura; H. Ashida; K. Kondo; S. Otani

1999-01-01

92

Bar Code Labels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

American Bar Codes, Inc. developed special bar code labels for inventory control of space shuttle parts and other space system components. ABC labels are made in a company-developed anodizing aluminum process and consecutively marketed with bar code symbology and human readable numbers. They offer extreme abrasion resistance and indefinite resistance to ultraviolet radiation, capable of withstanding 700 degree temperatures without deterioration and up to 1400 degrees with special designs. They offer high resistance to salt spray, cleaning fluids and mild acids. ABC is now producing these bar code labels commercially or industrial customers who also need labels to resist harsh environments.

1988-01-01

93

Interactive WSN-Bar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the concept of ambient intelligence, we utilized wireless sensor network (WSN) and vision-based tracking technologies to create an interactive WSN-Bar. WSN-Bar is an interactive and innovative creation which has two modules: Garden of Light and Vivacious Bushes. It refers the variety of natural environmental factors and focuses on the relationship between human and nature. WSN-Bar can also detect the changes of brightness, temperature, CO2 density outdoors and the movement of people inside the building. Besides, WSN-Bar is an interactive installation art which creates the opportunity to reduce the estranged gape among the participants.

Lin, Jiun-Shian; Hsu, Su-Chu; Chen, Ying-Chung

94

Enzyme exposure and enzyme sensitisation in the baking industry.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To assess the exposure to enzymes and prevalence of enzyme sensitisation in the baking industry. METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted in four bakeries, one flour mill, and one crispbread factory. Sensitisation to enzymes, flours, and storage mites was examined by skin prick and radioallergosorbent (RAST) tests. 365 workers were tested. The workers were interviewed for work related respiratory and skin symptoms. Total dust concentrations were measured by a gravimetric method, and the concentration of alpha-amylase in air was measured by a catalytic method. An immunochemical method was used for measuring cellulase and xylanase in air. RESULTS: Total measured dust concentrations were from 0.1 to 18 mg/m3, with highest values in dough making areas of bakeries. The alpha-amylase concentrations generally followed the total dust concentrations and reached the highest values < 6.6 micrograms/m3 in the same areas. Cellulase and xylanase varied with concentrations < 180 ng/m3 and < 40 ng/m3, respectively, in the flour mill and the crispbread factory. No cellulase, but concentrations of 1-200 ng/m3 xylanase, were found in the bakeries, probably indicating the natural xylanase activity of wheat. 12 workers (8%) in the bakeries, three (5%) in the flour mill, and four (3%) in the crispbread factory were skin prick positive to enzymes. The corresponding percentages of positive reactions to flours were 12%, 5%, and 8%. CONCLUSIONS: The study confirmed that industrial enzymes in baking used as additives in a powdered form pose a risk of sensitisation. The no effect air concentrations for industrial enzymes are not known. Based on present knowledge, however, lowering exposures and eliminating short and high peaks by technical measures would lower the risk of sensitisation. This would be most effectively accomplished by shifting to non-dusty products. PMID:8943831

Vanhanen, M; Tuomi, T; Hokkanen, H; Tupasela, O; Tuomainen, A; Holmberg, P C; Leisola, M; Nordman, H

1996-01-01

95

Porcelain-metal bonding: part I. Effects of repeated baking process.  

PubMed

A plurality of repeated porcelain-baking procedures are normally practiced in order to achieve the final adjustment metal-porcelain restorations. By increasing the number of baking cycles, the undesired internal strain would be built-up, causing the reduction of mechanical properties and deterioration of color characteristics. However the extensive studies on such deterioration have not been done. In this study, effects of numbers (up to 10 times) of repeated baking cycles on baking shrinkage, surface roughness, bend strength, color changes and internal microstructure were investigated when opaque, body and enamel was individually applied or when a triple-player comprising of these three porcelains was repeatedly applied. It was concluded that (1) the bend strengths increased by increasing baking cycles, (2) the average surface roughness decreased by increasing number of baking procedures, (3) changes in color characteristics was very small in the Vintage halo porcelain system, and (4) since the pores entrapped in the porcelain remained even by increasing baking cycles, it is recommended to remove the surface pores before forming the next layer when handling the high viscous opaque porcelain. PMID:11564902

Nagasawa, S; Yoshida, T; Mizoguchi, H; Ito, M; Oshida, Y

2001-01-01

96

Building Brilliant Bar Graphs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this series of three lesson plans, students create bar graphs, double bar graphs, and determine appropriate intervals for scale. Each lesson incorporates teacher modeling, student practice (students have an opportunity to label and create the scale for their own graphs), assessment (including rubrics), and reteaching or extension options.

Bower, Briana; Miller, Mary

2005-01-01

97

PLANT RESISTANCE Field and Storage Testing Bt Potatoes for Resistance to Potato  

E-print Network

of potato tuberworm. We report on the Ã?eld and storage studies to evaluate Bt-cry5 potato lines tubers in the Ã?eld studies. In agronomic Ã?eld trials in Michigan from 1997 to 2001, the BtPLANT RESISTANCE Field and Storage Testing Bt Potatoes for Resistance to Potato Tuberworm

Douches, David S.

98

Kinetics of acrylamide formation in potato chips  

E-print Network

in potato chips. Seven potato cultivars were analyzed to determine their influence on acrylamide formation during traditional and vacuum frying. The White Rose cultivar produced the highest level of acrylamide during both traditional and vacuum frying...

Granda, Claudia Esthela

2006-08-16

99

White potatoes, human health, and dietary guidance.  

PubMed

The white potato is a concentrated source of carbohydrate, dietary fiber, and resistant starch and continues to be the staple food of choice for many cultures. The white potato is also a concentrated source of vitamin C and potassium. Two of the nutrients in white potatoes, dietary fiber and potassium, have been designated as nutrients of concern in the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Potatoes are often maligned in nutrition circles because of their suspected link to obesity, and popular potato foods often contain more fat calories than carbohydrate calories. Some food guides do not include potatoes in the vegetable group because of their association with high-fat diets. However, potatoes should be included in the vegetable group because they contribute critical nutrients. All white vegetables, including white potatoes, provide nutrients needed in the diet and deserve a prominent position in food guides. PMID:23674809

King, Janet C; Slavin, Joanne L

2013-05-01

100

Ready-to-Eat Potato Products.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application is concerned with the provision of novel potato food products, and novel processes for preparing them. Potatoes are converted-by operations including cooking, mashing, forming into thin pieces, steaming, and dehydration-into novel r...

M. Nonaka, R. N. Sayre, M. L. Weaver

1976-01-01

101

Moisture distribution during conventional or electrical resistance oven baking of bread dough and subsequent storage.  

PubMed

Electrical resistance oven (ERO) baking processes bread dough with little temperature gradient in the baking dough. Heating of the dough by means of an ERO is based on the principles of Joule's first law and Ohm's law. This study compared the changes in moisture distribution and physical changes in starch of breads conventionally baked or using an ERO. The moisture contents in fresh ERO breads are generally lower than those in conventional breads. During storage of conventionally baked breads, water migrates from the crumb to the crust and moisture contents decrease throughout the bread crumb. Evidently, less moisture redistribution occurs in ERO breads. Also, the protons of ERO bread constituents were less mobile than their counterparts in conventional bread. Starch retrogradation occurs to similar extents in conventional and ERO bread. As a result, the changes in proton mobility cannot be attributed to differences in levels of retrograded starch and seem to be primarily determined by the overall lower moisture content. PMID:24949810

Derde, Liesbeth J; Gomand, Sara V; Courtin, Christophe M; Delcour, Jan A

2014-07-01

102

Comparing the Bake Hardening of Nano-Grain AA6056 with its Coarse-Grain Structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In preset work, the bake hardening behavior of 6056 aluminum alloy with nanostructured layer, produced by surface severe plastic deformation (SSPD), was compared with that of AA6056 with conventional coarse grain structure. Wire brushing process was employed in order to produce surface layers with nanograins. After formation of nanostructured surface layer, the structure was characterized using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. According to the microhardness measurements, the depth of nanostructured layer, with the grains of 50-110 nm, was about 40-50 ?m on each side of specimens. The bake hardenability of the produced nanostructured AA6056 was then studied. The results indicate an increase of about 40% in the bake hardening of nanograin AA6056 comparing to the bake hardening of coarse-grain AA6956. The maximum microhardness of nanograin layer was about 250 HV, whereas it was 65 HV for coarse-grain AA6056.

Dehghani, Kamran

103

Effects of baking-soda-containing dentifrices on oral malodor.  

PubMed

Oral malodor, also known as bad breath or halitosis, is an extremely common problem. Bad breath can arise from many sources in the body, but most frequently is produced in the mouth by the action of gram-negative anaerobic bacteria on sulfur-containing proteinaceous substrates in the saliva, such as debris and plaque. The primary molecules responsible for oral malodor are volatile sulfur compounds (VSC), such as hydrogen sulfide and methylmercaptan. Increased malodor production is related to greater bacterial numbers, reducing conditions, availability of protein substrates, and a pH above neutral. Bad breath is more common in the elderly, as well as those with unhygienic mouths, gingivitis, and periodontitis, but bad breath can also be found in some individuals who are periodontally healthy. The major source of oral malodor is the tongue. Approaches to controlling malodor have included masking, oral hygiene, antibacterial agents, conversion of VSC to nonodorous forms, oxidizing agents, and traditional approaches, including the use of backing soda. Results of controlled double-blind crossover studies, using both organoleptic (sensory) and gas chromatographic analysis of mouth air VSC, indicate that two dentifrices with high baking-soda concentrations, Arm & Hammer Dental Care and Arm & Hammer PeroxiCare, reduce oral malodor. PMID:12017931

Brunette, D M

1997-01-01

104

Change in high field Q-slope by baking and anodizing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low temperature RF performance of two niobium cavities that underwent different chemical treatments was measured after they were heat treated at 100 °C for 48 h. After heat treatment cavities were anodized in ammonia hydroxide solution for sequentially increasing voltage until baking effect was gone. The thickness of niobium finally consumed is estimated to be 20 nm. The results are discussed in view of one of the current models for the baking effect on the high field Q-slope.

Eremeev, G.; Padamsee, H.

2006-07-01

105

Baking properties and microstructure of pseudocereal flours in gluten-free bread formulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, the baking properties of the pseudocereals amaranth, quinoa and buckwheat as potential healthy and high-quality\\u000a ingredients in gluten-free breads were investigated. Scanning electron micrographs were taken of each of the flours. The pasting\\u000a properties of these flours were assessed using a rapid visco analyser. Standard baking tests and texture profile analysis\\u000a were performed on the gluten-free

Laura Alvarez-Jubete; Mark Auty; Elke K. Arendt; Eimear Gallagher

2010-01-01

106

Investigation of the exposure and bake of a positive acting resist with chemical amplification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The exposure and post-exposure bake of a chemical amplification resist that relies on the acid catalyzed removal of a tert-butyloxycarbonyl (t-BOC) group have been investigated. The effects of the acid generator on the production of acid during exposure and the extent of deprotection during the bake were examined by using different weight percent mixtures of both a 2,6 dinitrobenzyl tosylate and a triarylsulfonium salt. The generation of acid was monitored by measuring the resist transmission during exposure. The decrease during exposure of the nitro group absorbance at 1540 cm' In the FFIR spectrum of the tosylate was correlated with the transmission measurements. The experimental results were used to determine absorption coefficients and acid generation rate constants for both acid generators. The extent of deprotection that occurred during the bake was determined by monitoring the characteristic FTIR absorbance band at 1760 cm1 over a range of exposure doses, bake temperatures, and bake times. The extent of deprotection was related to the local acid concentration generated during exposure through chemical reaction kinetics. The model for the resist with the tosylate consisted of a primary deprotection reaction where the rate of deprotection was proportional to the acid concentration to the mth power (m > 1). For the resist with the onium salt, an additional acid loss reaction was required to account for saturation of the deprotection reaction with increasing bake time. The resist with the onium salt was less sensitive to the bake conditions in comparison to the resist with the tosylate. Improved resist performance during the bake was obtained when using higher loadings of both the tosylate and the onium salt acid generators.

Ferguson, Richard A.; Spence, Chris A.; Reichmanis, Elsa; Thompson, Larry F.; Neureuther, Andrew R.

1990-06-01

107

Mass modeling for bars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methods of modeling mass for bars are surveyed. A method for extending John Archer's concept of consistent mass beyond just translational inertia effects is included. Recommendations are given for various types of modeling situations.

Butler, Thomas G.

1987-01-01

108

Gray assist bar OPC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assist bar Optical Proximity Correction (OPC) has been demonstrated to increase across pitch performance and depth-of-focus of semi-dense to isolated lines. As the sub-resolution assist feature (SRAF) or assist bar's size increases, so does its desired lithographic effect, as well as its undesired printability. In other words, when large assist features are required at isolated pitches, the assist features may

Neal V. Lafferty; Geert Vandenberghe; Bruce W. Smith; Matthew Lassiter; Patrick M. Martin

2004-01-01

109

Magnetic Bar Field Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EJS Magnetic Bar Field Model shows the field of a bar magnet and has a movable compass that reports the magnetic field values. The bar magnet model is built by placing a group of magnetic dipoles along the bar magnet. You can modify this simulation if you have Ejs installed by right-clicking within the plot and selecting âOpen Ejs Modelâ from the pop-up menu item. The Magnetic Bar Field model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_em_MagneticBarField.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. Ejs is a part of the Open Source Physics Project and is designed to make it easier to access, modify, and generate computer models. Additional Ejs models are available. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or Ejs.

Christian, Wolfgang; Franciscouembre; Cox, Anne

2009-09-18

110

Solid matrix and liquid culture procedures for growth of potatoes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report discusses the advantages and limitations of several different procedures for growth of potatoes for CELSS. Solution culture, in which roots and stolons are submerged, and aeroponic culture were not found useful for potatoes because stolons did not produce tubers unless a severe stress was applied to the plants. In detailed comparison studies, three selected culture systems were compared, nutrient film technique (NFT), NFT with shallow media, and pot culture with deep media. For the NFT and NFT plus shallow media, plants were grown in 0.3 m2 trays and for the deep medium culture, in 20 liter pots. A 1 cm depth of arcillite, a baked montmorillonite clay, was used as shallow media (NFT-arc). Peatvermiculite mixture was used to fill the pots for the deep media. Nutrient solution, modified half-strength Hoagland's was recirculated among the tray culture plants with pH automatically controlled at 5.5, and conductivity maintained ~ 1100 ?S cm-1 by adding stock nutrients or renewing the solution. A separate nutrient solution was used to water the pot plants four times daily to excess and the excess was discarded. Plants of Norland cv. were utilized and transplanted from sterile-propagated stem cutting plantlets. The plants were grown for 66 days under 12 h photoperiod in a first study and grown for 54 days under 24 h photoperiod in a second study. Under both photoperiods, total plant growth was greater in NFT-arc than in either NFT or pot culture. Under 12 h photoperiod, tuber dry weight was 30% higher with NFT-arc, but 50% lower with NFT, than with pot culture. Under 24 h photoperiod, however, tuber dry weight in both NFT and NFT-arc was only 20% of that in pot culture. The NFT and NFT-arc produced a greater shoot growth and larger number of small tubers than pot culture, especially with 24 h photoperiod. It is concluded that there are serious limitations to the use of NFT alone for growth of potatoes in a CELSS system. These limitations can be minimized by using a modified NFT with a shallow layer of media, such as arcillite, yet additional work is needed to ensure high tuber production with this system under long photoperiods.

Tibbitts, T. W.; Cao, W.

1994-11-01

111

Solid matrix and liquid culture procedures for growth of potatoes.  

PubMed

This report discusses the advantages and limitations of several different procedures for growth of potatoes for CELSS. Solution culture, in which roots and stolons are submerged, and aeroponic culture were not found useful for potatoes because stolons did not produce tubers unless a severe stress was applied to the plants. In detailed comparison studies, three selected culture systems were compared, nutrient film technique (NFT), NFT with shallow media, and pot culture with deep media. For the NFT and NFT plus shallow media, plants were grown in 0.3 m2 trays and for the deep medium culture, in 20 liter pots. A 1 cm depth of arcillite, a baked montmorillonite clay, was used as shallow media (NFT-arc). Peat-vermiculite mixture was used to fill the pots for the deep media. Nutrient solution, modified half-strength Hoagland's, was recirculated among the tray culture plants with pH automatically controlled at 5.5, and conductivity maintained at approximately 1100 microS cm-1 by adding stock nutrients or renewing the solution. A separate nutrient solution was used to water the pot plants four times daily to excess and the excess was discarded. Plants of Norland cv. were utilized and transplanted from sterile-propagated stem cutting plantlets. The plants were grown for 66 days under 12 h photoperiod in a first study and grown for 54 days under 24 h photoperiod in a second study. Under both photoperiods, total plant growth was greater in NFT-arc than in either NFT or pot culture. Under 12 h photoperiod, tuber dry weight was 30% higher with NFT-arc, but 50% lower with NFT, than with pot culture. Under 24 h photoperiod, however, tuber dry weight in both NFT and NFT-arc was only 20% of that in pot culture. The NFT and NFT-arc produced a greater shoot growth and larger number of small tubers than pot culture, especially with 24 h photoperiod. It is concluded that there are serious limitations to the use of NFT alone for growth of potatoes in a CELSS system. These limitations can be minimized by using a modified NFT with a shallow layer of media, such as arcillite, yet additional work is needed to ensure high tuber production with this system under long photoperiods. PMID:11540216

Tibbitts, T W; Cao, W

1994-11-01

112

Cookie- versus cracker-baking--what's the difference? Flour functionality requirements explored by SRC and alveography.  

PubMed

The many differences between cookie- and cracker-baking are discussed and described in terms of the functionality, and functional requirements, of the major biscuit ingredients--flour and sugar. Both types of products are similar in their major ingredients, but different in their formulas and processes. One of the most important and consequential differences between traditional cracker and cookie formulas is sugar (i.e., sucrose) concentration: usually lower than 30% in a typical cracker formula and higher than 30% in a typical cookie formula. Gluten development is facilitated in lower-sugar cracker doughs during mixing and sheeting; this is a critical factor linked to baked-cracker quality. Therefore, soft wheat flours with greater gluten quality and strength are typically preferred for cracker production. In contrast, the concentrated aqueous sugar solutions existing in high-sugar cookie doughs generally act as an antiplasticizer, compared with water alone, so gluten development during dough mixing and starch gelatinization/pasting during baking are delayed or prevented in most cookie systems. Traditional cookies and crackers are low-moisture baked goods, which are desirably made from flours with low water absorption [low water-holding capacity (WHC)], and low levels of damaged starch and water-soluble pentosans (i.e., water-accessible arabinoxylans). Rheological (e.g., alveography) and baking tests are often used to evaluate flour quality for baked-goods applications, but the solvent retention capacity (SRC) method (AACC 56-11) is a better diagnostic tool for predicting the functional contribution of each individual flour functional component, as well as the overall functionality of flours for cookie- and/or cracker-baking. PMID:24188236

Kweon, Meera; Slade, Louise; Levine, Harry; Gannon, Diane

2014-01-01

113

Determination of caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline in standard reference material 2384, baking chocolate, using reversed-phase liquid chromatography.  

PubMed

A rapid and selective isocratic reversed-phase liquid chromatographic method has been developed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology to simultaneously measure caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline in a food-matrix standard reference material (SRM) 2384, Baking Chocolate. The method uses isocratic elution with a mobile phase composition (volume fractions) of 10% acetronitrile/90% water (pH adjusted to 2.5 using acetic acid) at a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min with ultraviolet absorbance detection (274 nm). Total elution time for these analytes is less than 15 min. Concentration levels of caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline were measured in single 1-g samples taken from each of eight bars of chocolate over an eight-day period. Samples were defatted with hexane, and beta-hydroxyethyltheophylline was added as the internal standard. The repeatability for the caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline measurements was 5.1, 2.3, and 1.9%, respectively. The limit of quantitation for all analytes was <100 ng/mL. The measurements from this method were used in the value-assignment of caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline in SRM 2384. PMID:15161179

Thomas, Jeanice Brown; Yen, James H; Schantz, Michele M; Porter, Barbara J; Sharpless, Katherine E

2004-06-01

114

Impingement drying of potato chips  

E-print Network

Superheated steam impingement drying was used as an alternative technique to develop nutritious fat-free potato chips. The effect of superheated steam temperature (115, 130, and 145° C) and convective heat transfer coefficient (100 and 160 W/m² °C...

Caixeta, Aline Teixeira

2012-06-07

115

Potato glycoalkaloids: Some unanswered questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite its status as a food of global importance, the potato tuber contains toxic glycoalkaloids (GA) that cause sporadic outbreaks of poisoning in humans. Probably because GA are natural compounds present in a staple food that has been used for millenia, their effects on humans have not been investigated as thoroughly as they would have been had they been synthetic

David B. Smith; James G. Roddick; J. Leighton Jones

1996-01-01

116

Growth of potatoes for CELSS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report summarizes research on the utilization of white potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) for space life support systems at the University of Wisconsin-Madison over the period of 1984 to 1993. At full maturity the tuber productivity was 37.5 gm(exp -2) d(exp -1), equating to a growing area requirement for one human (2800 kcal d(exp -1)) of 10.1 m(exp -2). A recirculating nutrient system using slanted trays produced best potato growth and tuber yields when a 2-3 cm layer of gravel or arcillite media was utilized. Potato production was close to maximum under lighting levels of 400 micromol m(exp -2) s(exp -1) of photosynthetic photo flux (PPF) for 24 hours or 800 micromol m(exp -2) s(exp -1) for 12 hours, alternating diurnal temperatures of 22 C and 14 C, relative humidity of 85 percent, and a carbon dioxide level of 1000 micromol m(exp -1). The range of effective concentrations of each separate nutrient is reported. The extensive studies with potatoes in this project have demonstrated that this crop has high productivity of nutritous tubers with a high harvest index in controlled environments, and can fulfill a significant portion of the energy and protein requirements for humans in space.

Tibbitts, T. W.; Cao, W.; Wheeler, R. M.

1994-01-01

117

The Present and Future Role of Insect-Resistant Genetically Modified Potato Cultivars in IPM  

E-print Network

potato leafroll virus and potato virus Y. Management of insect pests of potato relies almost entirely to L. decemlineata, potato virus Y, and potato leaf roll virus were registered and marketed in the USA

Douches, David S.

118

Performance evaluation and analysis of a novel 300-mm combination bake-chill station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

DUV resists are extremely sensitive to temperature variations on the wafer during bake and chill cycles. In resist-processing tracks today, the wafer is moved by a robot or transfer arm, from the bake to chill plate. During this move, since the resist is still above the activation temperature, the wafer temperature is uncontrolled until it is placed on a chill plate. In the new station design presented here, the wafer is heated to the desired bake temperature and chilled back to room temperature before being moved by the robot, resulting in a tight temperature control of the wafer, throughout the process. Two models, axi-symmetric and three-dimensional (geometrically similar to the new station), are generated for analyzing the thermal performance of the above station. The numerical simulations, solving the momentum and energy equations in the computational domain, are performed using the commercial CFD software Fluent. The simulated temporal evolution of temperature from the beginning to the end of the bake-chill process is verified with the experimental data as measured by a 42-point OnWafer temperature sensor wafer on the new station. Methods to improve wafer surface temperature uniformity, in light of bake-chill-station mechanical and thermal design losses are discussed. Higher throughput of the cluster, a major productivity improvement contribution of this new design, is also highlighted.

Narasimhan, Arunn; Ramanan, Natarajan R.; Williams, Daniel J.

2003-06-01

119

Toll Bar on Sea  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the summer of 2007 the United Kingdom experienced some of the heaviest rainfall since records began. Toll Bar in South Yorkshire featured prominently in media coverage as the village and the homes surrounding it began to flood. Many people lost everything: their homes, their furniture, their possessions. In an effort to come to terms with what…

Hunter, Dave

2008-01-01

120

Bar-grid oscillators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grid oscillators are an attractive way of obtaining high power levels from the solid-state devices, since potentially the output powers of thousands of individual devices can be combined. The active devices do not require an external locking signal, and the power combining is done in free space. Thirty-six transistors were mounted on parallel brass bars, which provide a stable bias

ZOYA BASTA POPOVIC; ROBERT M. WEIKLE; MOONIL KIM; KENT A. POTTER; DAVID B. RUTLEDGE

1990-01-01

121

Permanent Bar Magnets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about the basic properties of magnets and magnetism. Learners explore concepts such as magnetic fields and polarity, which form the basic ingredients of a study of Earth's magnetic field and the technology of magnetometers. Materials needed include bar magnets and paper clips. This is Activity 1 of Exploring Magnetism: A Teacher's Magnetism Activity Guide.

122

Data Analysis: Bar Graphs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this Bridges In Mathematics Supplement, two activities are presented in which primary students are introduced to bar graphs. In each activity students graph catagorical data that reflects their own opinions. Once the graphs are complete, students analyze the data as a class and make conclusions based on the data.

2009-01-01

123

Cooperative Fertilizer Experiments with Cotton, Corn, Sweet Potatoes and Irish Potatoes, 1908-1917.  

E-print Network

A350-918-1 Om 1 TEXAS AGRlCUlTURAl EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN NO. 235 SEPTEMBER, 191 8 --- DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY Cooperative Fertilizer Experiments With Cot- ton, Corn, Sweet Potatoes and Irish I Potatoes, 1908- 19 17 R. YOUNGBTAOOT), DI... .......................... Results of the experiments with corn 15 .................. Results of the experiments with Irish potatoes 17 ................. Results of the experiments with sweet potatoes 19 ................................... ~fiscellaneous experiments 20...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

1918-01-01

124

Transgenic resistance of Bulgarian potato cultivars to the Colorado potato beetle based on Bt technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say, is the most destructive insect pest of potatoes. When the population of beetles is high, plants can be completely defoliated\\u000a and commercial potato production is nearly impossible without control of the beetle. The beetles have shown a tremendous ability\\u000a to develop resistance against insecticides. Previously, a biotechnology approach to control Colarado potato beetle based

Ivanka Kamenova; Rossitza Batchvarova; Stanislaw Flasinski; Lidia Dimitrova; Petya Christova; Slavcho Slavov; Atanas Atanassov; Plamen Kalushkov; Wojciech Kaniewski

2008-01-01

125

Resonances in barred galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inner parts of many spiral galaxies are dominated by bars. These are strong non-axisymmetric features which significantly affect orbits of stars and dark matter particles. One of the main effects is the dynamical resonances between galactic material and the bar. We detect and characterize these resonances in N-body models of barred galaxies by measuring angular and radial frequencies of individual orbits. We found narrow peaks in the distribution of orbital frequencies with each peak corresponding to a specific resonance. We found five different resonances in the stellar disc and two in the dark matter. The corotation resonance (CR) and the inner and outer Lindblad resonances are the most populated. The spatial distributions of particles near resonances are wide. For example, the inner Lindblad resonance is not localized at a given radius. Particles near this resonance are mainly distributed along the bar and span a wide range of radii. On the other hand, particles near the CR are distributed in two broad areas around the two stable Lagrange points. The distribution resembles a wide ring at the corotation radius. Resonances capture disc and halo material in near-resonant orbits. Our analysis of orbits in both N-body simulations and simple analytical models indicates that resonances tend to prevent the dynamical evolution of this trapped material. Only if the bar evolves as a whole, resonances drift through the phase space. In this case particles anchored near resonant orbits track the resonance shift and evolve. The criteria to ensure a correct resonant behaviour discussed by Weinberg and Katz can be achieved with few millions particles because the regions of trapped orbits near resonances are large and evolving.

Ceverino, D.; Klypin, A.

2007-08-01

126

Storage of parbaked bread affects shelf life of fully baked end product: a ¹H NMR study.  

PubMed

Full baking of earlier partially baked (parbaked) bread can supply fresh bread to the consumer at any time of the day. When parbaked bread loaves were stored at -25, 4 or 23°C, the extent of crumb to crust moisture migration and amylopectin retrogradation differed with storage temperature, and the firming rate was evidently lowest during frozen storage. The extent of crumb to crust moisture migration during parbaked bread storage largely determined the mass of the fresh finished bread, and its crumb and crust moisture contents. Initial NMR proton mobility, initial resilience, the extent of amylopectin retrogradation and changes in firmness and resilience during storage of fully baked bread were affected by its crumb moisture content. The lowest firming rate was observed for finished bread resulting from parbaked bread stored at -25°C, while the highest firming rate was observed for finished bread from parbaked bread stored at 23°C. PMID:25038661

Bosmans, Geertrui M; Lagrain, Bert; Ooms, Nand; Fierens, Ellen; Delcour, Jan A

2014-12-15

127

Potato crop growth as influenced by potato cyst nematodes (Globodera pallida) and abiotic factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the research described in this thesis was to determine the major mechanisms by which potato cyst nematodes reduce potato crop growth and to explain interactions known to occur with cultivar and abiotic factors. Understanding of these interactions may lead to strategies that potato growers can use to minimise nematode damage.The research concentrated on the interaction between nematodes

Ruijter de F. J

1998-01-01

128

Integration of Two Diploid Potato Linkage Maps with the Potato Genome Sequence  

E-print Network

Integration of Two Diploid Potato Linkage Maps with the Potato Genome Sequence Kimberly J. Felcher1 resources. To validate the Infinium 8303 Potato Array, we developed linkage maps from two diploid the genome. Markers with distorted segregation ratios occurred in blocks in both linkage maps, accounting

Douches, David S.

129

BAR PACKAGES Standard Bar Package Price Liquor Beer/Wine  

E-print Network

BAR PACKAGES Standard Bar Package Price Liquor Beer/Wine 1-2 hours $21/ person Sobieski Vodka MGD 3 Select Wine Cutty Sark Scotch Cruzan Rum Premium Bar Package Price Liquor Beer/Wine 1-2 hours $24/person Brothers Brewing Co* Dewars Scotch Field Museum Select Wine Bacardi Rum Super Premium Package Price Liquor

Westneat, Mark W.

130

Bake condition effect on hybrid lithography process for negative-tone chemically amplified resists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the process optimization study of negative tone Chemically Amplified Resists (CAR) under E-Beam exposure. The importance of post apply bake temperature choice on resolution is underlined. The process study determines the process window in which optimal conditions of both post apply and post exposure bake steps are defined and present a method to define more precisely the thermal cross-linking onset. Finally lithographic performances of CARs are studied and we show that resolution can be pushed down to 40 nm.

Pain, Laurent; Sala, F.; Higgins, C.; Dal'zotto, B.; Tedesco, Serge V.

2000-06-01

131

Expression of synthetic maganin genes in potato.  

E-print Network

??This thesis describes the design and construction of four synthetic antimicrobial genes, their assembly into binary vectors and the subsequent Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of potato (Solanum… (more)

Barrell, P. J.

2001-01-01

132

Measurements of vertical bar Vcb vertical bar and vertical bar Vub vertical bar at BaBar  

SciTech Connect

We report results from the BABAR Collaboration on the semileptonic B decays, highlighting the measurements of the magnitude of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements Vub and Vcb. We describe the techniques used to obtain the matrix element |Vcb| using the measurement of the inclusive B {yields} Xclv process and a large sample of exclusive B {yields} D*lv decays. The vertical bar Vub vertical bar matrix elements has been measured studying different kinematic variables of the B {yields} Xulv process, and also with the exclusive reconstruction of B {yields} {pi}({rho})lv decays.

Rotondo, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica Galileo Galilei, Via Marzolo 8, Padova 35131 (Italy)

2005-10-12

133

Regulation of potato tuber sprouting.  

PubMed

Following tuber induction, potato tubers undergo a period of dormancy during which visible bud growth is inhibited. The length of the dormancy period is under environmental, physiological and hormonal control. Sucrose availability is one prerequisite for bud break. In the absence of sucrose, no bud break occurs. Thus, sucrose is likely to serve as nutrient and signal molecule at the same time. The mode of sucrose sensing is only vaguely understood, but most likely involves trehalose-6-phosphate and SnRK1 signalling networks. This conclusion is supported by the observation that ectopically manipulation of trehalose-6-phosphate levels influences the length of the dormancy period. Once physiological competence is achieved, sprouting is controlled by the level of phytohormones. Two phytohormones, ABA and ethylene, are supposed to suppress tuber sprouting; however, the exact role of ethylene remains to be elucidated. Cytokinins and gibberellins are required for bud break and sprout growth, respectively. The fifth classical phytohormone, auxin, seems to play a role in vascular development. During the dormancy period, buds are symplastically isolated, which changes during bud break. In parallel to the establishment of symplastic connectivity, vascular tissue develops below the growing bud most likely to support the outgrowing sprout with assimilates mobilised in parenchyma cells. Sprouting leads to major quality losses of stored potato tubers. Therefore, control of tuber sprouting is a major objective in potato breeding. Although comparative transcriptome analysis revealed a large number of genes differentially expressed in growing versus dormant buds, no master-regulator of potato tuber sprouting has been identified so far. PMID:24100410

Sonnewald, Sophia; Sonnewald, Uwe

2014-01-01

134

Development of Coating Materials and Feeding Processes for Energy-Optimized Baking of Carbon Products. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Carbon products, as for instance anodes for the aluminium industry, are worldwide baked in annular chamber furnaces with a lump fill of granular coke. The large thermal mass of this coke fill requires a high energy consumption and long baking times. This ...

K. J. Schroeder, P. Schroeder, B. Grimm

1986-01-01

135

Breaking through the Bar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Howard University School of Law had a problem, and school officials knew it. Over a 20-year period, 40 percent of its graduates who took the Maryland bar exam failed it on their first try. During the next 24 months--the time frame required to determine its "eventual pass rate"--almost 90 percent of the students did pass. What they did not know was…

Gray, Katti

2011-01-01

136

Bar coded retroreflective target  

DOEpatents

This small, inexpensive, non-contact laser sensor can detect the location of a retroreflective target in a relatively large volume and up to six degrees of position. The tracker's laser beam is formed into a plane of light which is swept across the space of interest. When the beam illuminates the retroreflector, some of the light returns to the tracker. The intensity, angle, and time of the return beam is measured to calculate the three dimensional location of the target. With three retroreflectors on the target, the locations of three points on the target are measured, enabling the calculation of all six degrees of target position. Until now, devices for three-dimensional tracking of objects in a large volume have been heavy, large, and very expensive. Because of the simplicity and unique characteristics of this tracker, it is capable of three-dimensional tracking of one to several objects in a large volume, yet it is compact, light-weight, and relatively inexpensive. Alternatively, a tracker produces a diverging laser beam which is directed towards a fixed position, and senses when a retroreflective target enters the fixed field of view. An optically bar coded target can be read by the tracker to provide information about the target. The target can be formed of a ball lens with a bar code on one end. As the target moves through the field, the ball lens causes the laser beam to scan across the bar code.

Vann, Charles S. (Fremont, CA)

2000-01-01

137

Effects of a Baking Soda Gum on extrinsic dental stain: results of a longitudinal 4-week assessment.  

PubMed

An evaluation of the effects of ARM & HAMMER DENTAL CARE The Baking Soda Gum (AHDC) on extrinsic dental stain was made in 48 subjects presenting with measurable extrinsic stain. The subjects were randomized to use either the baking soda gum or a non-baking soda placebo gum for 20 minutes twice daily after lunch and dinner while brushing once daily. The procedure of limited brushing was chosen to simulate the level of hygiene normally practiced by participants entering a clinical study. After 4 weeks, the reduction in measurable extrinsic stain in the baking soda gum group was statistically significant (P = .0044) relative to baseline. Statistical analysis of the placebo gum group revealed no significant change in extrinsic stain from baseline. The magnitude of the unadjusted longitudinal reduction in extrinsic stain in the baking soda gum group was 29.7% at 4 weeks. PMID:11913306

Soparkar, P; Newman, M B

2001-07-01

138

Influence of solid dairy manure and compost with and without alum on survival of indicator bacteria in soil and on potato.  

PubMed

We measured Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp. and fecal coliform numbers in soil and on fresh potato skins after addition of solid dairy manure and dairy compost with and without alum (Al(2)(SO(4))(3)) treatment 1, 7, 14, 28, 179 and 297 days after application. The addition of dairy compost or solid dairy manure at rates to meet crop phosphorus uptake did not consistently increase E. coli and Enterococcus spp. and fecal coliform bacteria in the soil. We did not detect E. coli in any soil sample after the first sampling day. Seven, 14, 28, 179 and 297 days after solid dairy waste and compost and alum were applied to soil, alum did not consistently affect Enterococcus spp. and fecal coliform bacteria in the soil. We did not detect E. coli in any soil, fresh potato skin or potato wash-water at 214 days after dairy manure or compost application regardless of alum treatment. Dairy compost or solid dairy manure application to soil at rates to meet crop phosphorus uptake did not consistently increase Enterococcus spp. and fecal coliform numbers in bulk soil. Solid dairy manure application to soil at rates to meet crop phosphorus uptake, increased Enterococcus spp. and fecal coliform numbers in potato rhizosphere soil. However, fresh potato skins had higher Enterococcus spp. and fecal coliform numbers when solid dairy manure was added to soil compared to compost, N and P inorganic fertilizer and N fertilizer treatments. We did not find any E. coli, Enterococcus or total coliform bacteria on the exterior of the tuber, within the peel or within a whole baked potato after microwave cooking for 5 min. PMID:15978710

Entry, James A; Leytem, April B; Verwey, Sheryl

2005-11-01

139

How the sourdough may affect the functional features of leavened baked goods.  

PubMed

Sourdough fermentation is one of the oldest food biotechnologies, which has been studied and recently rediscovered for its effect on the sensory, structural, nutritional and shelf life properties of leavened baked goods. Acidification, proteolysis and activation of a number of enzymes as well as the synthesis of microbial metabolites cause several changes during sourdough fermentation, which affect the dough and baked good matrix, and influence the nutritional/functional quality. Currently, the literature is particularly rich of results, which show how the sourdough fermentation may affect the functional features of leavened baked goods. In the form of pre-treating raw materials, fermentation through sourdough may stabilize or to increase the functional value of bran fractions and wheat germ. Sourdough fermentation may decrease the glycaemic response of baked goods, improve the properties and bioavailability of dietary fibre complex and phytochemicals, and may increase the uptake of minerals. Microbial metabolism during sourdough fermentation may also produce new nutritionally active compounds, such as peptides and amino acid derivatives (e.g., ?-amino butyric acid) with various functionalities, and potentially prebiotic exo-polysaccharides. The wheat flour digested via fungal proteases and selected sourdough lactobacilli has been demonstrated to be probably safe for celiac patients. PMID:24230470

Gobbetti, Marco; Rizzello, Carlo G; Di Cagno, Raffaella; De Angelis, Maria

2014-02-01

140

A Model of Mozzarella Cheese Melting and Browning During Pizza Baking1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shreds of full fat Mozzarella cheese usually melt, fuse, and form light brown blisters, but fat-free or lower fat Mozzarella cheese shreds have limited melt and fusion and become scorched during pizza baking in commercial food service pizza ovens. Why is the functionality so different? Our results indicate that dehydration of the shred surface and subsequent skin formation are the

Michael A. Rudan; David M. Barbano

1998-01-01

141

Microwave palaeointensities from a recent Mexican lava ow, baked sediments and reheated pottery  

E-print Network

Microwave palaeointensities from a recent Mexican lava £ow, baked sediments and reheated pottery H form 10 June 2003; accepted 10 June 2003 Abstract Microwave palaeointensity (PI) estimates have been to overestimate the correct values. In addition to lava samples, microwave PIs were also determined from pottery

Utrecht, Universiteit

142

Detection of Baking Soda in Flat Bread by Direct pH Metery and Alkalinity Measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this study is evaluation of direct pH metery and alkalinity measurement methods for determination of baking soda in lavash bread (a kind of flat bread) in order to introduce and recommend a good practice of control. For running the experiments, various samples of lavash bread having different concentrations of baking soda were prepared. Ten grams of each sample were mixed with distilled water and then the prepared solutions were filtrated. The filtrates were then analyzed for pH and total alkalinity according to the distractions described in Standard Methods. Results show a significant correlation between the pH values of bread samples and the amount of baking soda. Also, a positive correlation has been observed between the alkalinity of bread samples and used baking soda. By comparing the R2-values specified for these two methods it could be concluded that the direct pH metery method is more reasonable. Furthermore, by this simple method it is possible to accelerate the detection of minute amounts of this chemical in bread.

Jahed Khaniki, G. H. R.; Vaezi, F.; Yunesian, M.; Nabizadeh, R.; Paseban, G. H. A.

143

A microbiological and clinical study of the safety and efficacy of baking-soda dentifrices.  

PubMed

This article reports the results of a study that examined the clinical and microbiological changes associated with regular use of baking-soda dentifrices. Two dentifrice formulations were examined in a 6-month longitudinal study of 101 adult subjects with assessments for plaque, gingival inflammation, and stain at baseline and 3 and 6 months during the active phase of the study, and at 3 months after cessation of product use. One dentifrice contained 52% baking soda and 3% sodium percarbonate (Arm & Hammer PeroxiCare) while the other dentifrice contained 65% baking soda (Arm & Hammer Dental Care). Both dentifrices resulted in statistically significant reductions in dental plaque, gingival inflammation, and stain at all time periods compared to baseline. Dental plaque and buccal soft-tissue samples were obtained for microbiological analysis from a 50-subject subset. Microbiological assays, including bacterial culture, phase-contrast microscopy, and immunofluorescence microscopy, confirmed the safety of both formulations. Beneficial alterations in dental plaque bacteria were noted, including significant reductions in the levels of Actinomyces species. The data from this study indicate that dentifrices containing high levels of baking soda are clinically effective and microbiologically safe. PMID:12017933

Zambon, J J; Mather, M L; Gonzales, Y

1997-01-01

144

A microbiological and clinical study of the safety and efficacy of baking-soda dentifrices.  

PubMed

This article reports the results of a study that examined the clinical and microbiological changes associated with regular use of baking-soda dentifrices. Two dentifrice formulations were examined in a 6-month longitudinal study of 101 adult subjects with assessments for plaque, gingival inflammation, and stain at baseline and 3 and 6 months during the active phase of the study, and at 3 months after cessation of product use. One dentifrice contained 52% baking soda and 3% sodium percarbonate (Arm & Hammer PeroxiCare) while the other dentifrice contained 65% baking soda (Arm & Hammer Dental Care). Both dentifrices resulted in statistically significant reductions in dental plaque, gingival inflammation, and stain at all time periods compared to baseline. Dental plaque and buccal soft-tissue samples were obtained for microbiological analysis from a 50-subject subset. Microbiological assays, including bacterial culture, phase-contrast microscopy, and immunofluorescence microscopy, confirmed the safety of both formulations. Beneficial alterations in dental plaque bacteria were noted, including significant reductions in the levels of Actinomyces species. The data from this study indicate that dentifrices containing high levels of baking soda are clinically effective and microbiologically safe. PMID:11524866

Zambon, J J; Mather, M L; Gonzales, Y

1996-01-01

145

Muffins with resistant starch: Baking performance in relation to the rheological properties of the batter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect on baked muffins of progressively replacing wheat flour with resistant starch (RS) was studied. Muffin volume and height and the number and area of gas cells decreased significantly when the RS level reached about 15% (by weight of total formulation) or higher. Rheological properties of the raw batters were studied: the mechanical spectra of batters at 25°C, the

R. Baixauli; T. Sanz; A. Salvador; S. M. Fiszman

2008-01-01

146

Effect of baking on dietary fibre and phenolics of muffins incorporated with apple skin powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apple fruit skin, a rich source of dietary fibre and phenolics, is a by-product of apple processing. The effect of baking on the dietary fibre, phenolics, and total antioxidant capacity was investigated using a model system of muffins incorporated with dried apple skin powder (ASP) as a value-added food ingredient. The blanched, dehydrated, and ground ASP contained approximately 41% total

H. P. Vasantha Rupasinghe; Laixin Wang; Gwendolyn M. Huber; Nancy L. Pitts

2008-01-01

147

Baking enables McLeod gauge to measure in ultrahigh vacuum range  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Accurate measurements in the ultrahigh vacuum range by a conventional McLeod gage requires degassing of the gage's glass walls. A closed system, in which mercury is forced into the gage by gravity alone, and in which the gage components are baked out for long periods, is used to achieve this degassing.

Kreisman, W. S.

1965-01-01

148

Home-Made Breads [and] Home-Baked Breads for Busy People.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This packet contains two lesson plans for a class on making bread to be taught in an adult literacy program. Developed by a teacher who has taught the classes to 175 people, the lesson plans each contain complete directions for working with students while baking bread. One lesson plan is for experienced home bakers, and the other is a simpler…

Kirk, John

149

Ultrasonic cure and temperature monitoring of photoresist during pre-exposure bake process  

E-print Network

to be the softening or glass transition temperature (Tg). The lower frequency (200kHz) time of flight measurement be at a high enough temperature that the resist can reach and exceed its glass transition temperature (Tg to know whether or not it has reached glass transition during the bake. Temperature uniformity

Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T. "Pierre"

150

ORGANIC EMISSIONS EVALUATION OF A PAINT BAKE OVEN WITH CATALYTIC INCINERATION  

EPA Science Inventory

This report describes a test program conducted at a paint bake oven facility. The purpose was to measure total hydrocarbon (THC) concentrations at the inlet and outlet of an incinerator with heat recovery used to reduce organic solvent emissions. Data were also collected to evalu...

151

Different approaches for improving the quality and extending the shelf life of the partially baked bread: low temperatures and HPMC addition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of refrigeration or positive temperature storage as an alternative to frozen storage for extending the shelf life of partially baked bread is described. In addition, the effect of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) on the baking performance of those products is detailed. With this purpose, the quality and shelf life of the bread from partially baked bread stored at frozen temperatures

María Eugenia Bárcenas; Cristina M. Rosell

2006-01-01

152

Growing Potatoes in Your Home Garden  

E-print Network

://migarden.msu.edu/uploads/files/8/growingPotatoes.pdf Children love helping in the garden and getting dirty is an added bonus. #12 including purple, red and yellow potatoes! *They even make a great garden project for your children

Douches, David S.

153

Natural diversity of potato (Solanum tuberosum) invertases  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Invertases are ubiquitous enzymes that irreversibly cleave sucrose into fructose and glucose. Plant invertases play important roles in carbohydrate metabolism, plant development, and biotic and abiotic stress responses. In potato (Solanum tuberosum), invertases are involved in 'cold-induced sweetening' of tubers, an adaptive response to cold stress, which negatively affects the quality of potato chips and French fries. Linkage and

Astrid M Draffehn; Sebastian Meller; Li Li; Christiane Gebhardt

2010-01-01

154

To place your meal order please dial MEAL (ext. 6325)  

E-print Network

Broth Cream of Broccoli Cottage Cheese Coleslaw Tossed Salad (Italian/Ranch/French/Caesar/Oil & Vinegar/Ranch/French/Caesar/Oil & Vinegar/Lowfat Italian/Lowfat French) Cottage Cheese Fruit Plate DELI BAR ~ Create your own custom/bacon) Extras: Lettuce, Tomato, Onion, Pickle ACCOMPANIMENTS: Mashed Potatoes Baked Sweet Potato Curly Fries

Oliver, Douglas L.

155

Frying of Potatoes: Physical, Chemical, and Microstructural Changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frying is one of the oldest unit operations and is used not only in industry but also at home. The most commonly fried vegetable is potato, for important commercial products such as potato chips, par-fried potatoes, and french fries. Quality parameters of interest for fried potatoes include physical and chemical properties such as color, mechanical properties (e.g., crispness, hardness, etc.),

Franco Pedreschi

2012-01-01

156

Phosphorus Management for Irrigated Potato Production in Manitoba  

Microsoft Academic Search

anitoba has become a major contributor to potato production in Canada, with output of over 12 million cwt of processing potatoes valued at $97.3 million in 2001. While P is routinely applied to most potato fields in Manitoba, much of the research regarding potato responses to P in Manitoba was conducted in the 1960s. More recently, Geisel (1995) and Tomasiewicz

Ramona Mohr; Dale Tomasiewicz

2008-01-01

157

Texas Crop Profile: Sweet Potatoes  

E-print Network

,? for 100 acres of potatoes. Transplants are moved to the field mid-May to late June, preferably into deep sandy loam, fine sandy loam or loamy fine sand soils. In many cases, pesticide applications will be made at this time (planting). Fertilization is at a.... Pesticide % Acres Treated Type of Appl. Typical Rates Timing # of Appl. Carbaryl (Sevin ? ) 2 ground 1 lb. a.i. per acre Apply when 40 percent of plants are damaged. 1 Use in IPM Programs: The use of carbaryl can cause outbreaks of secondary pests...

Hall, Kent D.; Holloway, Rodney L.; Smith, Dudley

2000-04-12

158

Chemical desiccation of potato vines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potato (Solanum tuberosum L., ‘Russet Burbank’) vine desiccation was compared with sulfuric acid (89 kg ha?1 sulfur), dinoseb [2-(1-methylpropyl)-4, 6-dinitrophenol] (2.4 kg ha?1), diquat (6, 7-dihydrodipyrido [1,2-?:2?,1?-c] pyrazinediium ion) (0.28 kg ha?1) and endothal (7-oxabicyclo[2.2.1] heptane-2,3-dicarboxylic acid) (1.1 kg ha?1). All treatments were field-applied in southern Idaho during August and September. Vine (stem and leaf) desiccation was most\\u000a rapid and

L. C. Haderlie; J. L. Halderson; P. W. Leino; P. J. Petersen; R. H. Callihan

1989-01-01

159

Number Line Bars--Fractions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use these virtual fraction bars to model fractional addition, subtraction, multiplication (of fractions by whole numbers), and division on a number line. Students can create bars in positive or negative fractional lengths; align, stack, or remove bars; and change the number line marks in increments between 1/2 and 1/15. Applet instructions and teaching ideas are included in the links at the top of the page.

2005-01-01

160

Biotransformation of potato stress metabolites rishitin, lubimin, and 15-dihydro lubimin by potato and soybean cell cultures.  

PubMed

Potato callus and cell suspensions of potato and soybean were exogenously supplied with potato phytoalexin rishitin, much of which was converted by both species to an unknown tenatively identified as glutinosone. Exogenous lubimin was unaffected by the potato cell culture, but was transformed to 15-dihydro lubimin by the soybean cell suspensions. The stability of the exogenous lubimin may be ascribed to a second block in the rishitin pathway of the potato cell culture. PMID:24253632

Zacharius, R M; Kalan, E B; Kimoto, W I

1985-02-01

161

Double Bars, Inner Disks, and Nuclear Rings in Barred Galaxies  

E-print Network

We present results of a high-resolution imaging survey of barred S0--Sa galaxies which demonstrate that the central regions of these galaxies are surprisingly complex. We see many inner bars --- small, secondary bars (typically less than a kiloparsec in radius) located inside of, and probably rotating faster than, the large primary bars. These are present in about one quarter to one third of all our sample. In contrast to some theoretical expectations, they do not seem to enhance AGN activity significantly. A third of barred S0's appear to host kiloparsec-scale disks within their bars; but the frequency of such inner disks is much lower in our S0/a and Sa galaxies. In addition, we find one example of a triple barred galaxy, and two cases of purely stellar nuclear rings --- probably the fossil remnants of past circumnuclear starbursts. We comment briefly on results from an ongoing analysis of known double-barred systems, extending to Hubble types as late as Sbc, and discuss their characteristic sizes and orientations.

Peter Erwin; Linda S. Sparke; Juan Carlos Vega Beltran; John Beckman

2001-07-07

162

Implementation of viscoelastic Hopkinson bars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge of the properties of soft, viscoelastic materials at high strain rates are important in furthering our understanding of their role during blast or impact events. Testing these low impedance materials using a metallic split Hopkinson pressure bar setup results in poor signal to noise ratios due to impedance mismatching. These difficulties are overcome by using polymeric Hopkinson bars. Conventional Hopkinson bar analysis cannot be used on the polymeric bars due to the viscoelastic nature of the bar material. Implementing polymeric Hopkinson bars requires characterization of the viscoelastic properties of the material used. In this paper, 30 mm diameter Polymethyl Methacrylate bars are used as Hopkinson pressure bars. This testing technique is applied to polymeric foam called Divinycell H80 and H200. Although there is a large body of of literature containing compressive data, this rarely deals with strain rates above 250s-1 which becomes increasingly important when looking at the design of composite structures where energy absorption during impact events is high on the list of priorities. Testing of polymeric foams at high strain rates allows for the development of better constitutive models.

Curry, R.; Cloete, T.; Govender, R.

2012-08-01

163

Another bar in the Bulge  

E-print Network

A map of the projected density of the old stellar population of the Galactic Bulge region is reconstructed using 2MASS data. By making a combination of the H and K photometric bands, it is possible to overcome the effect of reddening, and thus penetrate the inner structure of the Galactic Bulge. The main structure in the map corresponds to the well documented peanut shaped bar which is formed by the inner parts of the Galactic disk as a result of dynamical instabilities. As suggested by numerical simulations, the projected Z profile of the bar, has an almost exponential shape. After subtracting the exponential profile associated with the bar, a large residual appear near the Galactic Center. This residual is elongated and asymmetrical, which suggest a bar structure. Thus we arrive at the conclusion that in addition to the main bar a smaller bar with a different orientation may exist in the central region of the Milky Way. This finding makes the Milky Way very similar to a large number of barred spiral Galaxies which show as well a smaller bar in their central regions.

C. Alard

2001-10-22

164

Dough and Baking Properties of High-Amylose and Waxy Wheat Flours  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 79(4):491-495 The dough properties and baking qualities of a novel high-amylose wheat flour (HAWF) and a waxy wheat flour (WWF) (both Triticum aestivum L.) were investigated by comparing them with common wheat flours. HAWF and WWF had more dietary fiber than Chinese Spring flour (CSF), a nonwaxy wheat flour. Also, HAWF contained larger amounts of lipids and proteins

Naofumi Morita; Tomoko Maeda; Megumi Miyazaki; Makoto Yamamori; Hideho Miura; Ichiro Ohtsuka

2002-01-01

165

Thermal profiles of domestically baked leg-of-lamb roasts and implications for microbiological safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

The measurement of the effectiveness of cooking in the real world has received little attention in the scientific literature. In this study the core temperatures of 16 leg-of-lamb roasts were measured during baking in 14 electric or gas-fired domestic ovens in order to assess the adequacy of cooking relative to recommendations of food authorities to minimise foodborne illness due to

R. J. Whittington; A. Waldron

2010-01-01

166

Multivariate Bayesian cognitive modeling for unsupervised quality control of baked pizzas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present article describes a Bayesian multivariate methodology developed for unsupervised quality control of pizzas based\\u000a on RGB color attributes. A sensory experiment was done to define the readiness point ground truth. During the validation phase,\\u000a different pizza samples were baked at a different temperature. The cheese and crust color patterns were statistically compared\\u000a against the ground truth to check

Sylvio Luiz Mantelli Neto; Daniel Besen de Aguiar; Bianca Sens dos Santos; Aldo von Wangenheim

167

A kinetic model for browning in the baking of biscuits: Effects of water activity and temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe here a rigorous and fundamental approach to the extraction of kinetic parameters when solid foods undergo colour change, and provide a generic basis for other studies on foods. Freeze-dried ‘digestive’ biscuit dough samples were used for kinetic studies of browning during the baking process. Browning data were recorded (temperature T: 105–135°C; water activity aw: 0.04–0.15; t=0–26min) as colorimeter

Sandra Mundt; Bronislaw L. Wedzicha

2007-01-01

168

Heat and mass transfer in par-baked bread during freezing  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand the phenomena governing the heat and mass transfers during the freezing of par-baked bread, simulation of freezing in an infinite two-layer cylinder was performed. A fixed grid finite difference method was used in the solution of simultaneous heat and moisture transfer (SHMT) equations according to Lees' three-level scheme. The model accommodates the effects of temperature dependent variables such

Nasser Hamdami; Jean-Yves Monteau; Alain Le Bail

2004-01-01

169

Molecular properties of cassava starch modified with different UV irradiations to enhance baking expansion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial cassava starch was modified with 1% (w\\/w) lactic acid solution and irradiated with ultraviolet radiation: UVBA (280–420nm), UVB (310–330nm) and UVC (254nm) for 7–15h. Thermal properties and molecular size distributions of the cassava starch molecules were investigated to explain structural changes responsible for baking expansion ability. The acidified starches irradiated with UVB or UVC for 7 and 9h achieved

N. Vatanasuchart; O. Naivikul; S. Charoenrein; K. Sriroth

2005-01-01

170

Cookie vs. Cracker-Baking—What's the Difference? Flour Functionality Requirements Explored by SRC and Alveography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The many differences between cookie- and cracker-baking are discussed, and described in terms of the functionality, and functional requirements, of the major biscuit ingredients—flour and sugar. Both types of products are similar in their major ingredients, but different in their formulas and processes. One of the most important and consequential differences between traditional cracker and cookie formulas is sugar (i.e.

Meera Kweon; Louise Slade; Harry Levine; Diane Gannon

2012-01-01

171

The effect of baking soda when applied to bleached enamel prior to restorative treatment.  

PubMed

This in vitro study evaluated the effect of 10% baking soda solution and sodium bicarbonate powder (applied with jets) when applied to bleached enamel prior to restorative treatment. The surfaces of 40 bovine incisors were flattened and divided into 5 groups (n = 8): Group B (bleached and restored, negative control), Group W (bleached, stored in distilled water for 7 days, and restored), Group BSJ (bleached, abraded with baking soda jet for 1 min, and restored), Group BSS (bleached, application of 10% baking soda solution for 5 min, and restored), and Group R (restored, without bleaching, positive control). The samples were bleached in 1 session with 3 applications of 35% HP-based gel and activated with a LED appliance for 9 min each. Resin composite cylinders (2 mm height and 0.8 mm diameter) were made on the enamel surface after the acid etching and a conventional 1-step single vial adhesive application was performed. After storage in distilled water (37 ± 1°C, 24 hr), the microshear bond test was performed (1 mm/min). ANOVA and Tukey tests were applied to compare the results. The mean results of these tests showed that Groups W, BBS, and R were not statistically different. These groups also indicated a higher bond strength when compared with Groups B and BSJ. The application of 10% baking soda solution for 5 min may be an alternative pre-restorative treatment for bleached enamel, but further studies are needed to consider whether or not this treatment may be effectively used in clinical practice. PMID:23928450

Tostes, Bhenya Ottoni; Mondelli, Rafael Francisco Lia; Lima-Arsati, Ynara Bosco de Oliveira; Rodrigues, Jose Augusto; Costa, Leonardo Cesar

2013-08-01

172

Comparison of rheological, fermentative and baking properties of gluten-free dough formulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the fundamental rheological properties, capability of CO2 retention during proofing, and baking behaviour of gluten-free (GF) dough. Maize flour, maize starch, rice flour, and buckwheat\\u000a flour formulations are compared. Apple pectin is used as the structuring agent. Rheologically, the GF dough formulations can\\u000a be defined as physical gels of different viscoelasticity and structural networking. The curves of

Anna Pruska-K?dzior; Zenon K?dzior; Mateusz Gor?cy; Katarzyna Pietrowska; Anna Przybylska; Karolina Spychalska

2008-01-01

173

Optimization of Baking of Rice Cakes in Infrared–Microwave Combination Oven by Response Surface Methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, response surface methodology was used to design gluten-free cakes made from rice flour to be baked in infrared-microwave\\u000a combination oven. Two types of cake formulations containing different types of gums were used in the experiments, which were\\u000a xanthan gum and xanthan–guar gum blend. The independent variables were emulsifier content (0, 3, and 6% of flour weight),\\u000a upper

Elif Turabi; Gulum Sumnu; Serpil Sahin

2008-01-01

174

Slip systems in wurtzite ZnO activated by Vickers indentation on {21bar1bar0} and {101bar0} surfaces at elevated temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dislocations were introduced in wurtzite zinc oxide single crystals by Vickers indentations on {21bar1bar0} and {101bar0} surfaces at elevated temperatures, and their slip systems were determined by transmission electron microscopy combined with etch pit observations. The observed system for {21bar1bar0} indentations was {101bar1bar}<1bar21bar0> or (0001)<1bar21bar0>, while that for {101bar0} indentations was {101bar0}<1bar21bar0>. Activation of the slip systems was briefly discussed in terms of the Peierls stress and resolved shear stress acting on the slip systems.

Ohno, Y.; Koizumi, H.; Tokumoto, Y.; Kutsukake, K.; Taneichi, H.; Yonenaga, I.

2014-05-01

175

Lack of carcinogenesis by the baked mushroom Agaricus bisporus in mice: different feeding regimen [corrected].  

PubMed

Agaricus bisporus, the cultivated mushroom of the western hemisphere, was baked at 220-230 degrees C for 10 minutes and subsequently fed to mice for 12 hours each day, five days each week throughout their life. After each feeding cycle, the animals received a well-balanced semisynthetic diet for 12 hours each day for five days plus the remaining two full days each week. The estimated average daily mushroom consumption per animal was 4.8 g for a female and 4.2 g for a male. Randomly bred Swiss mice, six weeks old at the start of the experiment, were used. In the baked mushroom-fed group, the incidences of tumors in the lungs, blood vessels, cecum, and colon increased when compared to the untreated controls. These increases were not, however, statistically significant. In another previous experiment, both the raw and the baked mushrooms, when used in different feeding regimens, induced statistically significant incidences of cancers in several organs of the mice. It is possible that the negative finding in the current study was due to insufficient mushroom consumption. PMID:9239516

Toth, B; Erickson, J; Gannett, P

1997-01-01

176

Efficacy of baking soda-containing chewing gum in removing natural tooth stain.  

PubMed

A 14-week, double-blind, randomized clinical trial was conducted with 126 healthy volunteers to compare the efficacy of twice-daily use of 3 baking soda-containing chewing gums in removing natural tooth stain when used in conjunction with a program of regular oral hygiene. All 3 chewing gums significantly reduced extrinsic stain (P < .0001) and improved the whitened appearance of teeth (P < .0001) at both the 2-week interim and the final 4-week evaluations. ARM & HAMMER DENTAL CARE The Baking Soda Gum (AHDC) reduced dental stain by 70.8%, compared to reductions of 71.9% and 65.3%, after use of 2 experimental gum formulations. Whitened appearance improved by 1.73 shade tabs using AHDC gum, and up to 2.49 shade tabs with the experimental formulations. These results suggest that the use of baking soda-containing gum after meals, in conjunction with good oral hygiene, can improve both extrinsic dental staining and the whitened appearance of teeth. PMID:11913307

Mankodi, S M; Conforti, N; Berkowitz, H

2001-07-01

177

The motivational benefits of a dentifrice containing baking soda and hydrogen peroxide.  

PubMed

Twenty-two family practice dentists, in a large metropolitan area, were recruited to act as independent examiners in a study to evaluate the compliance of their patients to accept a good oral hygiene regimen with the use of a fluoride dentifrice, containing hydrogen peroxide and baking soda, dispensed from a dual dispensing package. To evaluate compliance, the dentists attended an orientation seminar and were trained to assess gingival health using the CPITN periodontal probe. Each dentist evaluated the gingival health status of five to seven of his own patients, initially and after one and three months of product use following hygiene instruction and product assignment. One-hundred and thirty-one patients successfully completed the study. After one month of using the hydrogen peroxide/baking soda toothpaste, the mean reduction in bleeding sites was 53%; at three months the reduction was 62%. The hydrogen peroxide/baking soda dentifrice was well accepted by dentist and patient, and a discernible improvement in oral health of the patients was achieved when the product was used in a conscientious oral hygiene program. PMID:1333217

Fischman, S L; Kugel, G; Truelove, R B; Nelson, B J; Cancro, L P

1992-01-01

178

Measuring and simulating postexposure bake temperature effects in chemically amplified photoresists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The kinetic processes occurring during postexposure bake (PEB) were studied for different Shipley photoresists as a function of bake temperature with the aim of developing models to accurately simulate the observed temperature dependent responses. S7 193nm photoresist based on a high activation energy methacrylate platform and SL4000 248 nm photoresist based on a low activation energy acetal platform were investigated. Deprotection rate constants, Kamp, were measured directly by IR spectroscopy. Kamp was independent of PEB temperature for SL4000 and followed standard Arrhenius behavior for S7. Activation energies of deprotection determined from measurements of Kamp were 13.4 and 0.82 kcal/mol for S7 and SL4000, respectively, and of the same order of magnitude as the corresponding pseudo- Arrhenius activation energies, 10.3 and 3.2 kcal/mol, respectively, determined from E0 clearing doses as a matching experimental and simulated CDs of isolated lines as a function of PEB time and temperature. However, values of D could not be unambiguously determined because a finite bulk acid loss rate constant was required to accurately simulate the observed CD changes at high PEB temperature. The need for a blk acid loss rate constant at high bake temperatures suggests that the effects of base diffusion are significant under these conditions. CD changes in SL4000 were best simulated with a 1st order model, where the imaging chemistry occurs solely during the exposure step as in DNQ/Novolac photoresists.

Kang, Doris; Robertson, Stewart A.

2002-07-01

179

FOOD PRESERVATION SERIES types of potatoes  

E-print Network

to prepare recipe Flavor mashed potatoes with finely chopped or grated onion, garlic or low-fat cheese. Top Seasoning suggestions: 2 cloves garlic, finely chopped, or Italian seasoning spice mix, or chili powder

180

Energy Recovery from Potato Chip Fryers  

E-print Network

The design, operating characteristics, and energy savings from an energy recovery system employed on a potato chip fryer which became operational in December, 1979, is discussed. The design incorporates a modification to an odor control system which...

McKee, H. B.; Kympton, H. W.; Arnold, J. W.; Paisan, J. J.

1980-01-01

181

Cooking Potatoes: Experimentation and Mathematical Modeling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a laboratory activity involving a mathematical model of cooking potatoes that can be solved analytically. Highlights the microstructure aspects of the experiment. Provides the key aspects of the results, detailed background readings, laboratory procedures and data analyses. (MM)

Chen, Xiao Dong

2002-01-01

182

Galaxy Zoo: CANDELS Barred Disks and Bar Fractions  

E-print Network

The formation of bars in disk galaxies is a tracer of the dynamical maturity of the population. Previous studies have found that the incidence of bars in disks decreases from the local Universe to z ~ 1, and by z > 1 simulations predict that bar features in dynamically mature disks should be extremely rare. Here we report the discovery of strong barred structures in massive disk galaxies at z ~ 1.5 in deep rest-frame optical images from CANDELS. From within a sample of 876 disk galaxies identified by visual classification in Galaxy Zoo, we identify 123 barred galaxies. Selecting a sub-sample within the same region of the evolving galaxy luminosity function (brighter than L*), we find that the bar fraction across the redshift range 0.5< z < 2 (f_bar = 10.7 +6.3 -3.5% after correcting for incompleteness) does not significantly evolve. We discuss the implications of this discovery in the context of existing simulations and our current understanding of the way disk galaxies have evolved over the last 11 bil...

Simmons, B D; Lintott, Chris; Masters, Karen L; Willett, Kyle W; Keel, William C; Smethurst, R J; Cheung, Edmond; Nichol, Robert C; Schawinski, Kevin; Rutkowski, Michael; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S; Bell, Eric F; Casteels, Kevin R V; Conselice, Christopher J; Almaini, Omar; Ferguson, Henry C; Fortson, Lucy; Hartley, William; Kocevski, Dale; Koekemoer, Anton M; McIntosh, Daniel H; Mortlock, Alice; Newman, Jeffrey A; Ownsworth, Jamie; Bamford, Steven; Dahlen, Tomas; Faber, Sandra M; Finkelstein, Steven L; Fontana, Adriano; Galametz, Audrey; Grogin, N A; Grutzbauch, Ruth; Guo, Yicheng; Haussler, Boris; Jek, Kian J; Kaviraj, Sugata; Lucas, Ray A; Peth, Michael; Salvato, Mara; Wiklind, Tommy; Wuyts, Stijn

2014-01-01

183

Galaxy Zoo: CANDELS barred discs and bar fractions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation of bars in disc galaxies is a tracer of the dynamical maturity of the population. Previous studies have found that the incidence of bars in discs decreases from the local Universe to z ˜ 1, and by z > 1 simulations predict that bar features in dynamically mature discs should be extremely rare. Here, we report the discovery of strong barred structures in massive disc galaxies at z ˜ 1.5 in deep rest-frame optical images from the Cosmic Assembly Near-Infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey. From within a sample of 876 disc galaxies identified by visual classification in Galaxy Zoo, we identify 123 barred galaxies. Selecting a subsample within the same region of the evolving galaxy luminosity function (brighter than L*), we find that the bar fraction across the redshift range 0.5 ? z ? 2 ( f_{bar} = 10.7^{+6.3}_{-3.5} per cent after correcting for incompleteness) does not significantly evolve. We discuss the implications of this discovery in the context of existing simulations and our current understanding of the way disc galaxies have evolved over the last 11 billion years.

Simmons, B. D.; Melvin, Thomas; Lintott, Chris; Masters, Karen L.; Willett, Kyle W.; Keel, William C.; Smethurst, R. J.; Cheung, Edmond; Nichol, Robert C.; Schawinski, Kevin; Rutkowski, Michael; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; Bell, Eric F.; Casteels, Kevin R. V.; Conselice, Christopher J.; Almaini, Omar; Ferguson, Henry C.; Fortson, Lucy; Hartley, William; Kocevski, Dale; Koekemoer, Anton M.; McIntosh, Daniel H.; Mortlock, Alice; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Ownsworth, Jamie; Bamford, Steven; Dahlen, Tomas; Faber, Sandra M.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Fontana, Adriano; Galametz, Audrey; Grogin, N. A.; Grützbauch, Ruth; Guo, Yicheng; Häußler, Boris; Jek, Kian J.; Kaviraj, Sugata; Lucas, Ray A.; Peth, Michael; Salvato, Mara; Wiklind, Tommy; Wuyts, Stijn

2014-12-01

184

Growing More Potatoes with Less Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Demand for potato is steadily rising in developing countries, where actual per-hectare production levels reach mere fractions\\u000a of the yields achieved in Europe or North America. Improving abiotic stress tolerance, e.g., against drought, could increase\\u000a these low potato yields and thus help to satisfy the growing demand for this crop. Hypotheses about genes and traits that\\u000a could mitigate yield decreases

Roland Schafleitner

2009-01-01

185

Making a Battery from a Potato  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this electrochemistry activity, young learners and adult helpers create a battery from a potato to run a clock. This resource includes background information about electricity, electronics, and chemical reactions. Learners can also test this experiment with other fruits and vegetables in place of the potato. This activity was written to be part of a kit that could be checked out of a library, though the kit is not required.

Shaw, Maisie; Gomez, Maria

2010-01-01

186

Potato soil-borne diseases. A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potato crop is the fourth main food crop in the world and it will certainly feed a big part of the global population in the\\u000a next years. The economical outlets for this crop are great; however, numerous diseases either soil- or air-borne can cause\\u000a huge losses in the production. Worldwide, about 40 soil-borne diseases affect potato and cause severe damages

Marie Fiers; Véronique Edel-Hermann; Catherine Chatot; Yves Le Hingrat; Claude Alabouvette; Christian Steinberg

187

Insect resistance in potatoes: sources, evolutionary relationships, morphological and chemical defenses, and ecogeographical associations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The past 25 years, 1686 potato accessions, representing 100 species in the genus Solanum L., subgenus Potatoe, section Petota, were evaluated for field resistance to one or more of the following insect pests: green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer); potato aphid, Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas); Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say); potato flea beetle, Epitrix cucumeris (Harris); and potato leafhopper, Empoasca

Kathy L. Flanders; John G. Hawkes; Edward B. Radcliffe; Florian I. Lauer

1992-01-01

188

How Large Are the Bars in Barred Galaxies?  

E-print Network

I present a study of the sizes (semimajor axes) of bars in disc galaxies, combining a detailed study of 65 S0-Sb galaxies with measurements of 70 Sb-Sd galaxies from Martin (1995). As has been noted before with smaller samples, bars in early-type (S0-Sb) galaxies are clearly larger than bars in late-type (Sc-Sd) galaxies; this is true both for relative sizes (bar length as fraction of isophotal radius R_25 or exponential disc scale length h) and absolute sizes (kpc). S0-Sab bars extend to ~1-10 kpc (mean ~3.3 kpc), ~0.2-0.8 R_25 (mean \\~0.38 R_25) and ~0.5-2.5 h (mean ~1.4 h). Late-type bars extend to only \\~0.5-3.5 kpc, 0.05-0.35 R_25 and 0.2-1.5 h; mean sizes are ~1.5 kpc, 0.14 R_25 and 0.6 h. Sb galaxies resemble earlier-type galaxies in terms of bar size relative to h; their smaller R_25-relative sizes may be a side effect of higher star formation, which increases R_25 but not h. For S0-Sbc galaxies, bar size correlates well with disc size (both R_25 and h); these correlations are stronger than the known correlation with M_B. All correlations appear to be weaker or absent for late-type galaxies; in particular, there seems to be no correlation between bar size and either h or M_B for Sc-Sd galaxies. I show that the bars detected in HST near-IR images at z ~ 1 by Sheth et al. (2003) have absolute sizes consistent with those in bright, nearby S0-Sb galaxies. I also compare the sizes of real bars with those produced in simulations, and discuss some possible implications for scenarios of secular evolution along the Hubble sequence. Simulations often produce bars as large as -- or larger than -- those seen in S0-Sb galaxies, but rarely any as small as those in Sc-Sd galaxies. (Abridged.)

Peter Erwin

2005-08-26

189

Ethanol production from potato peel waste (PPW).  

PubMed

Considerable concern is caused by the problem of potato peel waste (PPW) to potato industries in Europe. An integrated, environmentally-friendly solution is yet to be found and is currently undergoing investigation. Potato peel is a zero value waste produced by potato processing plants. However, bio-ethanol produced from potato wastes has a large potential market. If Federal Government regulations are adopted in light of the Kyoto agreement, the mandatory blending of bio-ethanol with traditional gasoline in amounts up to 10% will result in a demand for large quantities of bio-ethanol. PPW contain sufficient quantities of starch, cellulose, hemicellulose and fermentable sugars to warrant use as an ethanol feedstock. In the present study, a number of batches of PPW were hydrolyzed with various enzymes and/or acid, and fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisae var. bayanus to determine fermentability and ethanol production. Enzymatic hydrolysis with a combination of three enzymes, released 18.5 g L(-1) reducing sugar and produced 7.6 g L(-1) of ethanol after fermentation. The results demonstrate that PPW, a by-product of the potato industry features a high potential for ethanol production. PMID:20471817

Arapoglou, D; Varzakas, Th; Vlyssides, A; Israilides, C

2010-10-01

190

The influence of baking fuel on residues of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals in bread.  

PubMed

The influence of fuel type used to bake bread on the spectrum and concentrations of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals in baked bread was assessed. Bread samples were collected from different bakeries operated by either electricity, solar, mazot or solid waste and their residue content of PAHs and heavy metals was assessed. The total concentration of PAHs detected in mazot, solar, solid waste and electricity operated bakeries had an average of 320.6, 158.4, 317.3 and 25.5 microgkg(-1), respectively. Samples collected from mazot, solar and solid waste operated bakeries have had a wide spectrum of PAHs, in comparison to that detected in bread samples collected from electricity operated bakeries. Lead had the highest concentrations in the four groups of bread samples, followed by nickel, while the concentrations of zinc and cadmium were the least. The concentration of lead detected in bread samples produced from mazot, solar, solid waste and electricity fueled bakeries were 1375.5, 1114, 1234, and 257.3 microgkg(-1), respectively. Estimated daily intake of PAHs based on bread consumption were 48.2, 28.5, 80. 1, and 4.8 microg per person per day for bread produced in bakeries using mazot, solar, solid waste and electricity, respectively. Meanwhile, the estimated daily intake of benzo (a) pyrene were 3.69, 2.65, 8.1, and 0.81 microg per person per day for bread sample baked with mazot, solar, solid waste and electricity, respectively. The daily intake of lead, based on bread consumption was 291, 200.5, 222, and 46.31 microg per person per day for bread sample baked with mazot, solar, solid waste and electricity, respectively. The present work has indicated the comparatively high level of daily intake of benzo (a) pyrene and lead in comparison to levels reported from many other countries and those recommended by international regulatory bodies. It is probable that residues detected in bread samples are partially cereal-borne but there is strong evidence that the process of baking and the gases emitted are responsible for most of the contamination load. PMID:11080564

Ahmed, M T; Abdel Hadi el-S; el-Samahy, S; Youssof, K

2000-12-30

191

THE EL FAROL BAR PROBLEM AND COMPUTATIONAL EFFORT: WHY PEOPLE FAIL TO USE BARS EFFICIENTLY  

E-print Network

THE EL FAROL BAR PROBLEM AND COMPUTATIONAL EFFORT: WHY PEOPLE FAIL TO USE BARS EFFICIENTLY WILLIAM? For instance, if agents attend the bar randomly on average 50 people will go to the bar. On the other hand people will go to the bar. In other words, if the agents spend no computational effort, the bar

Wilensky, Uri

192

Comparison of several methods for the extraction of DNA from potatoes and potato-derived products.  

PubMed

Eight methods were compared for the extraction of DNA from raw potato tubers, and nine methods were evaluated for the extraction of DNA from dehydrated potato slices, potato flakes, potato flour, potato starch, and two ready-to-eat potato snack foods. Extracts were assessed for yield using a fluorescence-based DNA quantification assay. Real-time amplification of an endogenous gene, sucrose synthase (sus), was used to assess extract and template quality. A CTAB-based method extracted the highest DNA yields from the tuber material. An in-house method, which utilized the Kingfisher magnetic particle processor, yielded the highest template quality from the tubers. For most of the tuber samples, the Kingfisher and CTAB methods recovered the highest levels of amplifiable sus. DNA yields for potato-derived foods generally decreased with the extent that the product had been processed. The methods that utilized the magnetic particle processor delivered the highest template quality from one of the snack products that was particularly high in fat. For most of the remaining processed products, the levels of amplifiable target DNA recovered were roughly correlated with total DNA recovery, indicating that overall yield had greater influence over sus amplification than template quality. The Wizard method was generally the best method for the extraction of DNA from most of the potato-derived foods. PMID:16366665

Smith, Donna S; Maxwell, Philip W; De Boer, Solke H

2005-12-28

193

Characteristics of acetylated and enzyme-modified potato and sweet potato flours  

Microsoft Academic Search

The properties of modified potato and sweet potato flours have been determined by incorporating acetyl groups (acetylation) and by treating with glucoamylase (enzymatic modification). Fractionation studies on Sepharose CL-2B showed that the content of high molecular weight fraction decreased, with a proportionate increase in the lower molecular weight carbohydrate fraction, whereas FT-IR indicated changes in crystallinity of the modified starches.

A. Ramesh Yadav; S. Mahadevamma; R. N. Tharanathan; R. S. Ramteke

2007-01-01

194

Modeling and characterization of potato quality by active thermography  

E-print Network

This research focuses on characterizing a potato with extra sugar content and identifying the location and depth of the extra sugar content using the active thermography imaging technique. The extra sugar content of the potato is an important...

Sun, Chih-Chen

2009-05-15

195

Property Control through Bar Coding.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A public utility company uses laser wands to read bar-coded labels on furniture and equipment. The system allows an 80 percent savings of the time required to create reports for inventory control. (MLF)

Kingma, Gerben J.

1984-01-01

196

Triple bar, high efficiency mechanical sealer  

DOEpatents

A clamp with a bottom clamp bar that has a planar upper surface is provided. The clamp may also include a top clamp bar connected to the bottom clamp bar, and a pressure distribution bar between the top clamp bar and the bottom clamp bar. The pressure distribution bar may have a planar lower surface in facing relation to the upper surface of the bottom clamp bar. An object is capable of being disposed in a clamping region between the upper surface and the lower surface. The width of the planar lower surface may be less than the width of the upper surface within the clamping region. Also, the pressure distribution bar may be capable of being urged away from the top clamp bar and towards the bottom clamp bar.

Pak, Donald J.; Hawkins, Samantha A.; Young, John E.

2013-03-19

197

An economic analysis of factors affecting the Texas potato market  

E-print Network

prices of all commodities; per-capita disposable income; index numbers of retail prices of processed vegetables; and a time trend. Estes, et al examine the regional and national impact of expanded potato production in the Pacific Northwestern potato... prices of all commodities; per-capita disposable income; index numbers of retail prices of processed vegetables; and a time trend. Estes, et al examine the regional and national impact of expanded potato production in the Pacific Northwestern potato...

Asgill, Oladimagi Winsome

2012-06-07

198

Maximal dismounts from high bar.  

PubMed

In men's artistic gymnastics the triple straight somersault dismount from the high bar has yet to be performed in competition. The present study used a simulation model of a gymnast and the high bar apparatus (J. Appl. Biomech. 19(2003a) 119) to determine whether a gymnast could produce the required angular momentum and flight to complete a triple straight somersault dismount. Optimisations were carried out to maximise the margin for error in timing the bar release for a given number of straight somersaults in flight. The amount of rotation potential (number of straight somersaults) the model could produce whilst maintaining a realistic margin for error was determined. A simulation model of aerial movement (J. Biomech.23 (1990) 85) was used to find what would be possible with this amount of rotation potential. The model was able to produce sufficient angular momentum and time in the air to complete a triple straight somersault dismount. The margin for error when releasing the bar using the optimum technique was 28 ms, which is small when compared with the mean margin for error determined for high bar finalists at the 2000 Sydney Olympic Games (55 ms). Although the triple straight somersault dismount is theoretically possible, it would require close to maximum effort and precise timing of the release from the bar. However, when the model was required to have a realistic margin for error, it was able to produce sufficient angular momentum for a double twisting triple somersault dismount. PMID:16154409

Hiley, Michael J; Yeadon, Maurice R

2005-11-01

199

Wild and Cultivated Potato (Solanum sect. Petota) Escaped and  

E-print Network

Wild and Cultivated Potato (Solanum sect. Petota) Escaped and Persistent Outside of its Natural Dumort; cultivated potato, Solanum tuberosum L. Key words: Invasive species, Maxent, predictive habitat). A wild tuber- bearing relative of cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), Solanum chacoense Bitter

Spooner, David

200

Subcritical water extraction of phenolic compounds from potato peel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potato peel, a waste generated from potato processing, is a disposal problem. But, potato peel is a good source of functional ingredients such as phenolic compounds. This study investigated the extraction of eight phenolic compounds (Gallic acid, GAC; Chlorogenic acid, CGA; Caffeic acid, CFA; Protocatechuic acid, PCA; Syringic acid, SGA; p-hydroxyl benzoic acid, PBA; Ferulic acid, FRA and Coumaric acid,

Pushp Pal Singh; Marleny D. A. Saldaña

2011-01-01

201

Original article Digestion of wheat gluten and potato protein  

E-print Network

Original article Digestion of wheat gluten and potato protein by the preruminant calf%) substituted by a native wheat gluten or a potato protein concentrate, were given to intact or ileo.05) with the potato than with the gluten and control diets (0.90, 0.93 and 0.95, respec- tively). The same trend

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

202

Purification and substrate specificity of peroxidase from sweet potato tubers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previously the screening of tropical plants demonstrated a high peroxidase activity in sweet potato (Ipomoeabatatas) tubers. The major peroxidase pool is localized in peel. Using peel of sweet potato as a source, the sweet potato peroxidase (SPP) has been isolated and purified to homogeneity. The enzyme purification included homogenization, extraction of colored compounds and consecutive chromatographies on Phenyl-Sepharose and DEAE-Toyopearl.

J. Castillo Leon; I. S Alpeeva; T. A Chubar; I. Yu Galaev; E Csoregi; I. Yu Sakharov

2002-01-01

203

Improved Vacuum Frying Process for High Quality Sweet Potato Chips  

E-print Network

two-stage frying process was also evaluated to improve the flavor and texture of sweet potato chips. First, a basket filled with the sweet potato slices was submerged into the oil under atmospheric conditions. As soon as the potato slices were...

Ravli, Yagmur 1985-

2012-08-27

204

Simulating the effects of bake process parameters on resist thermal reflow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Producing smaller feature sizes by extending current and near-term lithographic printing tools is a cost-effective strategy for high-volume production of integrated circuits. The hardbake process, as an annealing step to strengthen resist structures, includes a desirable thermal reflow that can facilitate this objective. Thermal reflow of polymer-based resists is a phase-dependent phenomenon in which a polymeric material with recyclable / reversible thermal characteristics experiences dimensional changes through relaxation during thermal cycling at hardbake. Unlike polymer melts, resist reflow is accompanied by a continuous change in the physical state of the resist over a specific temperature range, so it can be described on the basis of the relaxation modulus-temperature relation. Resist behavior during thermal transitions (e.g., glassy, leathery, rubbery plateau, etc.) can effectively be classified into either solid or viscous, depending on whether the resist material is below or above the characteristic glass transition temperature. In general, resist contact hole size can be significantly reduced by optimizing the principal factors driving resist reflow, i.e., temperature-dependent material properties, bake cycle parameters, contact-hole dimensions, and the type of contact array. Recognizable size reduction of the contact hole appears as the resist passes through the leathery state, and its maximum permanent deformation after thermal cycling completely depends on the resist material used. This research focuses on a bake profile of the resist described by the parameters in typical three-stage proximity contact wafer processing. Simulation programs were developed to characterize the primary thermal properties and process parameters affecting the bake profile, and to identify their relative effects on the resist contact-hole response.

Lee, Jae-Won; Feng, Zhaohua; Engelstad, Roxann L.; Lovell, Edward G.

2004-12-01

205

HBr/O2 plasma treatment followed by a bake for photoresist linewidth roughness smoothing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the decrease of CMOS device dimensions, the linewidth roughness (LWR) of transistor gates is being recognized as a major concern. In integrated circuit manufacturing, an HBr plasma treatment has been used so far to reduce the LWR of photoresist (PR) lines printed by 193 nm lithography before transfer into the gate stack by plasma etching. In this article, a more efficient treatment based on HBr/O2 plasma exposure followed by a bake is developed, and the plasma conditions are optimized. We show that by controlling the dose of vacuum ultra violet (VUV) light emitted by the HBr/O2 plasma, the PR bulk can be either softened (photolysis) or strengthened (crosslinking). Moreover, the PR surface properties can be controlled by the O2 content of the plasma. The surface and bulk properties of the PR line after plasma treatment determine the LWR behavior during the subsequent thermal cure treatment. A soft resist bulk combined with a thin surface carbon layer is the ideal case to get the best LWR smoothing effect during the subsequent bake without reflowing. By optimizing both the plasma oxygen content and the VUV dose, we obtained a 59% LWR decrease (from 7.3 nm to 3.0 nm) using an HBr/O2 plasma treatment followed by a bake. The detailed study on the impact of the VUV dose during the plasma treatment permitted to determine the sidewall smoothing mechanisms involved. During both the plasma and the thermal treatments, the outgassing of the products of photolysis or deprotection reactions followed by the re-densification of the polymer material is shown to be the main sidewall smoothing enabler.

Fouchier, M.; Pargon, E.

2014-02-01

206

Integration of Two Diploid Potato Linkage Maps with the Potato Genome Sequence  

PubMed Central

To facilitate genome-guided breeding in potato, we developed an 8303 Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) marker array using potato genome and transcriptome resources. To validate the Infinium 8303 Potato Array, we developed linkage maps from two diploid populations (DRH and D84) and compared these maps with the assembled potato genome sequence. Both populations used the doubled monoploid reference genotype DM1-3 516 R44 as the female parent but had different heterozygous diploid male parents (RH89-039-16 and 84SD22). Over 4,400 markers were mapped (1,960 in DRH and 2,454 in D84, 787 in common) resulting in map sizes of 965 (DRH) and 792 (D84) cM, covering 87% (DRH) and 88% (D84) of genome sequence length. Of the mapped markers, 33.5% were in candidate genes selected for the array, 4.5% were markers from existing genetic maps, and 61% were selected based on distribution across the genome. Markers with distorted segregation ratios occurred in blocks in both linkage maps, accounting for 4% (DRH) and 9% (D84) of mapped markers. Markers with distorted segregation ratios were unique to each population with blocks on chromosomes 9 and 12 in DRH and 3, 4, 6 and 8 in D84. Chromosome assignment of markers based on linkage mapping differed from sequence alignment with the Potato Genome Sequencing Consortium (PGSC) pseudomolecules for 1% of the mapped markers with some disconcordant markers attributable to paralogs. In total, 126 (DRH) and 226 (D84) mapped markers were not anchored to the pseudomolecules and provide new scaffold anchoring data to improve the potato genome assembly. The high degree of concordance between the linkage maps and the pseudomolecules demonstrates both the quality of the potato genome sequence and the functionality of the Infinium 8303 Potato Array. The broad genome coverage of the Infinium 8303 Potato Array compared to other marker sets will enable numerous downstream applications. PMID:22558443

Felcher, Kimberly J.; Coombs, Joseph J.; Massa, Alicia N.; Hansey, Candice N.; Hamilton, John P.; Veilleux, Richard E.; Buell, C. Robin; Douches, David S.

2012-01-01

207

Bad bars: A review of risk factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bars, inns, taverns, and hotels have been popular settings for recreational alcohol consumption for centuries. The bar is firmly established as an important adjunct of leisure in many societies. Alcohol consumption in bars is mainly convivial, restrained and problem-free. Even so it has long been apparent that heavy drinking in bars is associated with aggression, violence, public disorder and injuries.

J. Green; M. A. Plant

2007-01-01

208

Effects of the Discharge of Potato Pulp on Farmland Soil Fertility: Farmland Soil Contaminated by Potato Pulp  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the rapid development of the starch industry, the discharge of potato pulp—an industrial waste produced during extraction of starch from potatoes—has increased each year and has become an environmental pollution problem that cannot be neglected. In order to realize the comprehensive utilization of potato pulp and protect field ecological environment, it is necessary to illuminate the effects of the

Tuo-yi Wang; Shuai Shi; Yu-wei Gao; Cheng-ying Jiang; Yang Zhang; Shan Tang; Qiu-ju Lu; Yun-hong Wu

2011-01-01

209

Double-Barred Galaxies: I. A Catalog of Barred Galaxies with Stellar Secondary Bars and Inner Disks  

E-print Network

I present a catalog of 67 barred galaxies which contain distinct, elliptical stellar structures inside their bars. Fifty of these are double-barred galaxies: a small-scale, "inner" or "secondary" bar is embedded within a large-scale, "outer" or "primary" bar. I provide homogenized measurements of the sizes, ellipticities, and orientations of both inner and outer bars, along with with global parameters for the galaxies. The other 17 are classified as "inner-disk" galaxies, where a large-scale bar harbors an inner elliptical structure which is aligned with the galaxy's outer disk. Four of the double-barred galaxies also possess inner disks, located in between the inner and outer bars. While the inner-disk classification is ad-hoc -- and undoubtedly includes some inner bars with chance alignments (five such probable cases are identified) -- there is good evidence that inner disks form a statistically distinct population, and that at least some are indeed disks rather than bars. In addition, I list 36 galaxies which may be double-barred, but for which current observations are ambiguous or incomplete, and another 23 galaxies which have been previously suggested as potentially being double-barred, but which are probably *not*. False double-bar identifications are usually due to features such as nuclear rings and spirals being misclassified as bars; I provide some illustrated examples of how this can happen.

Peter Erwin

2003-10-28

210

Plastid transformation in potato: Solanum tuberosum.  

PubMed

Although plastid transformation has attractive advantages and potential applications in plant biotechnology, for long time it has been highly efficient only in tobacco. The lack of efficient selection and regeneration protocols and, for some species, the inefficient recombination using heterologous flanking regions in transformation vectors prevented the extension of the technology to major crops. However, the availability of this technology for species other than tobacco could offer new possibilities in plant breeding, such as resistance management or improvement of nutritional value, with no or limited environmental concerns. Herein we describe an efficient plastid transformation protocol for potato (Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum). By optimizing the tissue culture system and using transformation vectors carrying homologous potato flanking sequences, we obtained up to one transplastomic shoot per bombardment. Such efficiency is comparable to that usually achieved in tobacco. The method described in this chapter can be used to regenerate potato transplastomic plants expressing recombinant proteins in chloroplasts as well as in amyloplasts. PMID:24599861

Valkov, Vladimir T; Gargano, Daniela; Scotti, Nunzia; Cardi, Teodoro

2014-01-01

211

In vivo antioxidant, hypoglycemic, and anti-tumor activities of anthocyanin extracts from purple sweet potato.  

PubMed

Anthocyanin from purple sweet potato (PSP) extracted by microwave baking (MB) and acidified electrolyzed water (AEW) exhibited antioxidant activity. After further purification by macroporous AB-8 resin, the color value of PSP anthocyanin (PSPA) reached 30.15 with a total flavonoid concentration of 932.5 mg/g. The purified extracts had more potent antioxidant activities than the crude extracts. After continuously administering the PSP extracts to 12-mo-old mice for 1 mo, the anti-aging index of the experimental group was not significantly different from that of 5-mo-old mice. To a certain degree, PSPA was also effective for controlling plasma glucose levels in male Streptozocin (STZ)-treated diabetic mice. In addition, the extracts inhibited Sarcoma S180 cell growth in ICR mice. Mice consuming the PSP extracts formed significantly fewer and smaller sarcomas than mice consuming the control diets. The highest inhibition rate was 69.03%. These results suggest that anthocyanin extracts from PSP not only exert strong antioxidant effects in vitro, but also had anti-aging, anti-hyperglycemic, and anti-tumor activities. PMID:24133614

Zhao, Jin-Ge; Yan, Qian-Qian; Lu, Li-Zhen; Zhang, Yu-Qing

2013-10-01

212

Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of Barred Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic fields are pervasive in barred galaxies, especially in gaseous substructures such as dust lanes and nuclear rings. To explore the effects of magnetic fields on the formation of the substructures as well as on the mass inflow rates to the galaxy center, we run two-dimensional, ideal magnetohydrodynamic simulations. We use a modified version of the Athena code whose numerical magnetic diffusivity is shown to be of third order in space. In the bar regions, magnetic fields are compressed and abruptly bent around the dust-lane shocks. The associated magnetic stress not only reduces the peak density of the dust-lane shocks but also removes angular momentum further from the gas that is moving radially in. Nuclear rings that form at the location of centrifugal barrier rather than resonance with the bar are smaller and more radially distributed, and the mass flow rate to the galaxy center is correspondingly larger in models with stronger magnetic fields. Outside the bar regions, the bar potential and strong shear conspire to amplify the field strength near the corotation resonance. The amplified fields transport angular momentum outward, producing trailing magnetic arms with strong fields and low density. The base of the magnetic arms are found to be unstable to a tearing-mode instability of magnetic reconnection. This produces numerous magnetic islands that eventually make the outer regions highly chaotic.

Kim, W.-T.

2013-04-01

213

Impulse Excitation Internal Friction Study of Dislocation and Point Defect Interactions in Ultra-Low Carbon Bake-Hardenable Steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The simultaneous presence of interstitial solutes and dislocations in an ultra-low carbon bake-hardenable steel gives rise to two characteristic peaks in the internal friction (IF) spectrum: the dislocation-enhanced Snoek peak and the Snoek-Kê-Köster peak. These IF peaks were used to study the dislocation structure developed by the pre-straining and the static strain aging effect of C during the bake-hardening process. A Ti-stabilized interstitial-free steel was used to ascertain the absence of a ?-peak in the IF spectrum of the deformed ultra-low carbon steel. The analysis of the IF data shows clearly that the bake-hardening effect in ultra-low carbon steel is entirely due to atmosphere formation, with the dislocation segment length being the main parameter affecting the IF peak amplitude. Recovery annealing experiments showed that the rearrangement of the dislocation structure lead to the elimination of the C atmosphere.

Jung, Il-Chan; Kang, Deok-Gu; De Cooman, Bruno C.

2014-04-01

214

An Assessment of Recycled Refractory Material Performance After Two Years of Service in a Carbon Bake Furnace  

SciTech Connect

Material removed from carbon bake furnaces used to manufacture anodes for the production of aluminum metal has historically been disposed by landfill. This material is composed primarily of 50% alumina refractory. in 1997, Alcoa completed a highly successful program to reuse the spent refractories in castables for carbon bake furnace headwalls and flooring, as roadbed aggregate, and in other internal applications. This program recycled/reused 11,000 metric tons of used refractory material (99% of the material removed from the carbon bake furnace) and saved Alcoa over 3.8 of the 9.6 million dollar projected furnace rebuild costs. As assessment is made of the performance of the recycled refractory components after two years of service.

Schubert, N.; Bennett, J.P.; Kwong, K.S.

1999-10-27

215

The laboratory and clinical safety evaluation of a dentifrice containing hydrogen peroxide and baking soda.  

PubMed

This study reports the laboratory, clinical, and microbiological finding of the safety testing and daily use of a dentifrice delivering 0.75% hydrogen peroxide and 5% baking soda. Laboratory studies using Ca45 labeled teeth and biologically stained teeth confirmed that the dentifrice did not decalcify enamel or bleach teeth. Over the course of a six-month period, 62 subjects using a hydrogen peroxide-baking soda dentifrice and 21 subjects using a control dentifrice were examined for oral soft tissue change and hard tissue alterations. No soft tissue changes attributable to the use of either dentifrice were noted. Experienced clinicians using Trubyte shade guide teeth observed no significant changes to the subjects' anterior teeth following 6 months use of the test dentifrice. Paired discrimination tests revealed that the examiners could distinguish color differences in the shade guide teeth at 0.7%. Microbiological monitoring of the subjects for six months use of their assigned dentifrice and for the following months on the control dentifrice, revealed neither an increased incidence of candida nor increased candida counts. PMID:1339125

Fischman, S L; Truelove, R B; Hart, R; Cancro, L P

1992-01-01

216

Quantitation of the lignan secoisolariciresinol diglucoside in baked goods containing flax seed or flax meal.  

PubMed

Samples of commercially prepared white, whole wheat, flax, and multigrain breads were analyzed by a rapid RP-HPLC method for the presence of the lignan secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG). SDG was detected only in products containing flax, with concentrations ranging from 0.06 to 1.98 microM/g of DW (19-602 microM/loaf). Full-fat flax meal, powdered aqueous alcohol extracts of flax seed, and SDG were added to a white bread mix and baked into loaves in a domestic bread maker. Quantitative recovery of SDG from the test breads was observed when SDG was added; however, when flax meal or aqueous alcohol extracts were added, only 73-75% of the theoretical yield of SDG was recovered. SDG was also detected in commercially prepared flax cookies, bagels, and muffins with concentrations ranging from 0.26 to 2.93 microM/g of DW. The extent of grinding of the flax seed was also shown to have a significant effect on the recovery of SDG from both flax meal breads and baked goods, with extraction of SDG from finely ground samples greater than that from course material. PMID:10995312

Muir, A D; Westcott, N D

2000-09-01

217

Effect of tuber skin on the thermal properties of whole tubers of potato and sweet potato  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperature-dependent thermal coefficients of mathematical models of the postharvest storage process play an important role in determining the models accuracy. Thermal properties of tubers under storage available in literature are generally of those in semi processed form (skinless) such as those having undergone peeling, dicing and cutting actions. This study investigates the effect of tuber skin on the thermal properties of whole tubers of potato and sweet potato. A direct approach was used to measure the tubers' density and thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity by the transient heat transfer method. Indirect approach was used to measure the tubers' specific heat. Experimental data were used to develop empirical models of the thermal coefficients as a function of temperature. Results of the study should find great use in the modeling of potato and sweet potato storage process.

Oluwo, A. A.; Khan, R. M.; Salami, M. J. E.

2013-12-01

218

21 CFR 102.41 - Potato chips made from dried potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...USUAL NAME FOR NONSTANDARDIZED FOODS Requirements for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.41 Potato chips...common or usual name of the food product that resembles and...or graphic matter, and in a height not less than the larger...

2011-04-01

219

21 CFR 102.41 - Potato chips made from dried potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...USUAL NAME FOR NONSTANDARDIZED FOODS Requirements for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.41 Potato chips...common or usual name of the food product that resembles and...or graphic matter, and in a height not less than the larger...

2013-04-01

220

21 CFR 102.41 - Potato chips made from dried potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...USUAL NAME FOR NONSTANDARDIZED FOODS Requirements for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.41 Potato chips...common or usual name of the food product that resembles and...or graphic matter, and in a height not less than the larger...

2012-04-01

221

21 CFR 102.41 - Potato chips made from dried potatoes.  

...USUAL NAME FOR NONSTANDARDIZED FOODS Requirements for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.41 Potato chips...common or usual name of the food product that resembles and...or graphic matter, and in a height not less than the larger...

2014-04-01

222

BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR POTATOES seec ing Potato Voriet-es  

E-print Network

under 2 obtained from U.S. and Canadian potato breeding inches in diameter; those 2 to 31/4 inches-115 and 130-135 commercial trials in several counties on cooperating days after planting). After harvest

Douches, David S.

223

Importance and control of potato virus Y N (PVY N ) in seed potato production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The tobacco veinal necrosis strain of potato virus Y (PVYN) first became epidemic in several European countries in the 1950s. To prevent PVYN-infections, account must be taken of virus sources both within and without potato fields; for forecasting, the aphid vector\\u000a species, their vector efficiency, and their flight activity must all be known. Well-timed haulm destruction needs knowledges\\u000a of PVYN-translocation

H. L. Weidemann

1988-01-01

224

Mature-plant resistance of potato plants against potato virus Y O (PVY O )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mature-plant resistance of potato plants against potato virus YO (PVYO) was studied in field experiments in 1976–1979 in southern Sweden. At intervals of 7 days, from mid June until mid August, PVYO was mechanically inoculated to one well-developed upper leaf per stem of each plant. Each week, a new group of plants were inoculated. In 1976–1977, the natural spread of

R. Sigvald

1985-01-01

225

Peroxidases and photosynthetic pigments in susceptible potato infected with potato virus Y NTN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to investigate the activity of soluble, ionically- and covalently-bound peroxidases (EC 1.11.1.7), the protein content, and the photosynthetic pigment metabolism in the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cv. Igor, at the time of local lesion development resulting from infection with potato virus YNTN. In comparison to intact plants, mock inoculation with the sap of healthy

Mojca Milavec; Maja Ravnikar; Maja Kova?

2001-01-01

226

6.EE Chocolate Bar Sales  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Stephanie is helping her band collect money to fund a field trip. The band decided to sell boxes of chocolate bars. Each bar sells for \\$1.50 and each ...

227

RFLP maps of potato and their alignment with the homoeologous tomato genome  

Microsoft Academic Search

An RFLP linkage map of the potato is presented which comprises 304 loci derived from 230 DNA probes and one morphological marker (tuber skin color). The self-incompatibility locus of potato was mapped to chromosome I, which is homoeologous to tomato chromosome I. By mapping chromosome-specific tomato RFLP markers in potato and, vice versa, potato markers in tomato, the different potato

C. Gebhardt; E. Ritter; A. Barone; T. Debener; B. Walkemeier; U. Schachtschabel; H. Kaufmann; R. D. Thompson; M. W. Bonierbale; M. W. Ganal; S. D. Tanksley; F. Salamini

1991-01-01

228

Dynamically possible pattern speeds of double bars.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The method to study oscillating potentials of double bars, based on invariant loops, is introduced here in a new way, intended to be more intelligible. Using this method, I show how the orbital structure of a double-barred galaxy (nested bars) changes with the variation of nuclear bar's pattern speed. Not all pattern speeds are allowed when the inner bar rotates in the same direction as the outer bar. Below a certain minimum pattern speed orbital support for the inner bar abruptly disappears, while high values of this speed lead to loops that are increasingly round. For values between these two extremes, loops supporting the inner bar extend further out as its pattern speed decreases, and they become more eccentric and pulsate more. These findings do not apply to counter-rotating inner bars.

Maciejewski, W.

229

Yield and size of deficit irrigated potatoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Controlled deficit irrigation (CDI) has been studied in a potato crop cultivated in a semi-arid zone (Albacete, Spain). Ten drip irrigation treatments were differentiated by the level of fulfilment of the water requirements. The effect of deficit irrigation at three crop stages (growth, tuber bulking and ripening) has been studied. Tuber yield and its components were highly influenced by the

C. Fabeiro; F Mart??n de Santa Olalla; J. A. de Juan

2001-01-01

230

Existing potato markers and marker conversions  

E-print Network

) � Colton et al. 2006 Crop Sci 46:589-594 11 #12;some markers for potato quality traits Dominant allele makes for a good marker? � diagnostic for trait of interest � robust � works even with DNA of poor quality or low quantity � cheap � easy to use � co-dominant � dosage sensitive #12;Agarose Gel

Douches, David S.

231

Physical characteristics of dehydrated potatoes — Part I  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the drying process food systems undergo several simultaneous physical and structural modifications, undesirable from the viewpoint of material enduse. The physical attributes pertaining to convective drying were explored within an experimental air tunnel drying system. Cylindrical potato samples (Solanum tuberosum) were utilized as the test media, providing simulants for piece-form high-moisture content food systems. Moisture removal was accompanied by

W. A. M. McMinn; T. R. A. Magee

1997-01-01

232

Internal ballistics of a pneumatic potato cannon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Basic laws of thermodynamics and mechanics are used to analyse an air gun. Such devices are often employed in outdoor physics demonstrations to launch potatoes using compressed gas that is here assumed to expand reversibly and adiabatically. Reasonable agreement is found with reported muzzle speeds for such homebuilt cannons. The treatment is accessible to undergraduate students who have taken calculus-based introductory physics.

Mungan, Carl E.

2009-05-01

233

LOW WASTEWATER POTATO STARCH/PROTEIN PRODUCTION  

EPA Science Inventory

While potato starch has been an item of commerce for many years, traditional processing methods have incurred large volumes of high BOD effluents. The research summarized by this report has lead to a modified process which upgrades the soluble components formerly discarded in the...

234

--Discussion Paper--ORGANIC AND CONVENTIONAL POTATOES  

E-print Network

. The Organic Trade Association reports that sales of organic foods in 2005 accounted for nearly 2.5% of total1 --Discussion Paper-- ORGANIC AND CONVENTIONAL POTATOES: PRICING AND DEMAND, 2000-2005 I. ORGANICS: A GROWING INDUSTRY In the past decade, the US organic food industry has grown nearly 20% annually

Radeloff, Volker C.

235

Using the Potato Genome Sequence! Robin Buell!  

E-print Network

funding through National Science Foundation 6 #12;With so many potatoes with lots of variation-what genomics & post-genomic biology genomes genera 2002 2010 3 #12;So, you say you can sequence-Now what% of assembly anchored to genetic map 15 #12;16 #12;What are we interested in annotating? Genes

Douches, David S.

236

Barred Owl (Strix varia)1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Have you ever been walking in a forest and heard something that sounded like a very loud, piercing scream? Well, it's very likely that you've heard the call of the Barred Owl. The vocalization of this owl sounds like a powerful voice that says \\

Karen Heulett; Mark E. Hostetler; Ronald F. Labisky

237

Bars and Cold Dark Matter Halos  

E-print Network

The central part of a dark matter halo reacts to the presence and evolution of a bar. Not only does the halo absorb angular momentum from the disk, it can also be compressed and have its shape modified. We study these issues in a series of cosmologically motivated, highly resolved N-body simulations of barred galaxies run under different initial conditions. In all models we find that the inner halo's central density increases. We model this density increase using the standard adiabatic approximation and the modified formula by Gnedin et al. and find that halo mass profiles are better reproduced by this latter. In models with a strong bar, the dark matter in the central region forms a bar-like structure (``dark matter bar''), which rotates together with the normal bar formed by the stellar component (``stellar bar''). The minor-to-major axial ratio of a halo bar changes with radius with a typical value 0.7 in the central disk region. DM bar amplitude is mostly a function of the stellar bar strength. Models in which the bar amplitude increases or stays roughly constant with time, initially large (40%-60%) misalignment between the halo and disk bars quickly decreases with time as the bar grows. The halo bar is nearly aligned with the stellar bar (~10 degrees lag for the halo) after ~2 Gyr. The torque, which the halo bar exerts on the stellar bar, can serve as a mechanism to regulate the angular momentum transfer from the disk to the halo.

P. Colin; O. Valenzuela; A. Klypin

2005-06-26

238

Galaxy Zoo: Observing Secular Evolution Through Bars  

E-print Network

Observations have shown that there is a connection between the presence of a bar and the properties of a galaxy. In a parallel effort, simulations have shown that this connection is consistent with the theory of bar-driven secular evolution. But observational evidence of bar-driven secular evolution has been sparse. In this paper, we use the Galaxy Zoo 2 dataset to look for evidence of this secular evolution. Our sample consists of 13,295 disk galaxies, with an overall bar fraction of 23.6 +/- 0.4%, of which 1,154 barred galaxies also have bar length measurements. These samples are the largest ever used to study the role of bars in disk galaxy evolution. We characterize bars by the bar likelihood, the likelihood a bar is present in a given galaxy, and the bar length. These two bar properties show interesting correlations with the specific star formation rate and the inner central structure of galaxies. Comparing these observations to state-of-the-art simulations of bar evolution, which include live halos and ...

Cheung, Edmond; Masters, Karen L; Nichol, Robert C; Bosma, A; Bell, Eric F; Faber, S M; Koo, David C; Lintott, Chris; Melvin, Thomas; Schawinski, Kevin; Skibba, Ramin A; Willett, Kyle W

2013-01-01

239

Effects of baking on cyanidin-3-glucoside content and antioxidant properties of black and yellow soybean crackers.  

PubMed

Black soybean is a potential functional food ingredient with high anthocyanin content, but the ability to maintain anthocyanin content under dry heat processing has not been reported. This study investigated the effects of soybean seed coat colour and baking time-temperature combinations on the extractable antioxidant properties of a soy cracker food model. Crackers prepared with black soybeans had significantly higher TPC, total isoflavones, and peroxyl, hydroxyl, and ABTS(+) radical scavenging abilities than their yellow counterparts, at all time-temperature combinations. Cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) was detected only in black soybean crackers, and all baking treatments significantly decreased C3G. The greatest losses occurred at the low temperature×long time and high temperature×short time, the smallest loss with moderate temperature×short/medium time. The high temperature treatment altered phenolic acid and isoflavone profiles; however, total isoflavones were unaffected. Overall results suggest that moderate baking temperature at minimal time may best preserve anthocyanin and other phenolics in baked black soybean crackers. PMID:23790899

Slavin, Margaret; Lu, Yingjian; Kaplan, Nicholas; Yu, Liangli Lucy

2013-11-15

240

Anesthetic management of a patient with sustained severe metabolic alkalosis and electrolyte abnormalities caused by ingestion of baking soda.  

PubMed

The use of alternative medicine is prevalent worldwide. However, its effect on intraoperative anesthetic care is underreported. We report the anesthetic management of a patient who underwent an extensive head and neck cancer surgery and presented with a severe intraoperative metabolic alkalosis from the long term ingestion of baking soda and other herbal remedies. PMID:25180100

Soliz, Jose; Lim, Jeffrey; Zheng, Gang

2014-01-01

241

Logical metonymy resolution beyond qualia roles. Sentences like The baker began the cake ( baking the cake), where an event-  

E-print Network

Logical metonymy resolution beyond qualia roles. Sentences like The baker began the cake ( baking referred to as logical metonymies: "Logical" because of the systematic patterns this phenomenon is ascribed to, "metonymies" because the entity-event type clash is assumed to trigger an extension

Reyle, Uwe

242

Three experiments on logical metonymy Logical metonymies (The baker began the cake baking the cake) have been assumed  

E-print Network

Three experiments on logical metonymy Logical metonymies (The baker began the cake baking the cake realized in the sentence. The Generative Lexicon (Pustejovsky 1995) convincingly explains logical metonymy the cake; The child began the cake eating the cake). We present three experiments on logical metonymy

Reyle, Uwe

243

Assessing the accuracy of thermoluminescence for dating baked sediments beneath late Quaternary lava flows, Snake River Plain, Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

Baked sediments beneath lava flows on the Snake River Plain, Idaho, with independent age control by either C-14 or K\\/Ar dating were analyzed to evaluate the accuracy of the thermoluminescence (TL) technique. The age of flows ranges from approx. 2 to 100 ka and multiple TL analyses by the total bleach method yielded ages that overlap at one sigma with

Steven L. Forman; James Pierson; R. P. Smith; W. R. Hackett; G. Valentine

1994-01-01

244

Severe metabolic alkalosis due to baking soda ingestion: case reports of two patients with unsuspected antacid overdose  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral ingestion of baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) has been used for decades as a home remedy for acid indigestion. Excessive bicarbonate ingestion places patients at risk for a variety of metabolic derangements including metabolic alkalosis, hypokalemia, hypernatremia, and even hypoxia. The clinical presentation is highly variable but can include seizures, dysrhythmias, and cardiopulmonary arrest. We present two cases of severe

Leslie J. Fitzgibbons; Eric R. Snoey

1999-01-01

245

Starch, fiber and CaCO 3 effects on the physical properties of foams made by a baking process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single-use food containers with a self-closing hinged lid made of extruded polystyrene (EPS) or coated paperboard (PB) are used to serve a variety of food products. Food containers made of materials that are inexpensive and can be composted into a useful mulch would be of commercial interest as a replacement for EPS or PB. In this report, a baking process

G. M Glenn; W. J Orts; G. A. R Nobes

2001-01-01

246

Baking Industry. Grade 2. One in a Series of Career Development Curriculum Units for the Elementary Classroom. (Second Edition).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focusing on the occupational clusters of natural resources and manufacturing, this unit entitled "Baking Industry" is one of four grade 2 units which are part of a total set of twenty-seven career development curriculum units for grades K-6. This unit is organized into four sections. Section 1 identifies one career development-centered curriculum…

Barret, Jennifer; And Others

247

Anesthetic Management of a Patient with Sustained Severe Metabolic Alkalosis and Electrolyte Abnormalities Caused by Ingestion of Baking Soda  

PubMed Central

The use of alternative medicine is prevalent worldwide. However, its effect on intraoperative anesthetic care is underreported. We report the anesthetic management of a patient who underwent an extensive head and neck cancer surgery and presented with a severe intraoperative metabolic alkalosis from the long term ingestion of baking soda and other herbal remedies.

Lim, Jeffrey

2014-01-01

248

7 CFR 946.140 - Handling potatoes for commercial processing into products.  

...AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Modification...persons whose names are on the State of Washington Potato Committee's list of manufacturers...application for such listing, the State of Washington Potato Committee shall make...

2014-01-01

249

7 CFR 946.140 - Handling potatoes for commercial processing into products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Modification...persons whose names are on the State of Washington Potato Committee's list of manufacturers...application for such listing, the State of Washington Potato Committee shall make...

2013-01-01

250

7 CFR 946.140 - Handling potatoes for commercial processing into products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Modification...persons whose names are on the State of Washington Potato Committee's list of manufacturers...application for such listing, the State of Washington Potato Committee shall make...

2012-01-01

251

7 CFR 946.140 - Handling potatoes for commercial processing into products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Modification...persons whose names are on the State of Washington Potato Committee's list of manufacturers...application for such listing, the State of Washington Potato Committee shall make...

2011-01-01

252

Strong Meissner screening change in superconducting radio frequency cavities due to mild baking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate "hot" regions with anomalous high field dissipation in bulk niobium superconducting radio frequency cavities for particle accelerators by using low energy muon spin rotation (LE-?SR) on corresponding cavity cutouts. We demonstrate that superconducting properties at the hot region are well described by the non-local Pippard/BCS model for niobium in the clean limit with a London penetration depth ?L=23±2 nm. In contrast, a cutout sample from the 120 ?C baked cavity shows a much larger ? >100 nm and a depth dependent mean free path, likely due to gradient in vacancy concentration. We suggest that these vacancies can efficiently trap hydrogen and hence prevent the formation of hydrides responsible for rf losses in hot regions.

Romanenko, A.; Grassellino, A.; Barkov, F.; Suter, A.; Salman, Z.; Prokscha, T.

2014-02-01

253

Strong Meissner screening change in superconducting radio frequency cavities due to mild baking  

E-print Network

We investigate "hot" regions with anomalous high field dissipation in bulk niobium superconducting radio frequency cavities for particle accelerators by using low energy muon spin rotation (LE-$\\mu$SR) on corresponding cavity cutouts. We demonstrate that superconducting properties at the hot region are well described by the non-local Pippard/BCS model for niobium in the clean limit with a London penetration depth $\\lambda_\\mathrm{L} = 23 \\pm 2$ nm. In contrast, a cutout sample from the 120$^\\circ$C baked cavity shows a much larger $\\lambda > 100$ nm and a depth dependent mean free path, likely due to gradient in vacancy concentration. We suggest that these vacancies can efficiently trap hydrogen and hence prevent the formation of hydrides responsible for rf losses in hot regions.

Romanenko, A; Barkov, F; Suter, A; Salman, Z; Prokscha, T

2013-01-01

254

Numerical simulation of the baking of porous anode carbon in a vertical flue ring furnace  

SciTech Connect

The interaction of pitch pyrolysis in porous anode carbon during heating and volatiles combustion in the flue gas channel has been analyzed to gain insight in the anode baking process. A two-dimensional geometry of a flue gas channel adjacent to a porous flue gas wall, packing coke, and an anode was used for studying the effect of heating rate on temperature gradients and internal gas pressure in the anodes. The mathematical model included porous heat and mass transfer, pitch pyrolysis, combustion of volatiles, radiation, and turbulent channel flow. The mathematical model was developed through source code modification of the computational fluid dynamics code FLUENT. The model was useful for studying the effects of heating rate, geometry, and anode properties.

Jacobsen, M. [Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway). Dept. of Thermal Energy and Hydropower; Melaaen, M.C. [Telemark Inst. of Tech., Porsgrunn (Norway)

1998-11-13

255

Nucleation of the AB transition in superfluid 3He: Surface effects and baked Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first-order phase transition between the A and B phases of superfluid 3He has remained an outstanding mystery in helium physics for nearly 20 years. The small difference in bulk free energies between the two phases, combined with the relatively large surface energy associated with the AB interface, leads to an anomalously large critical radius for nucleation, of order 1 ?m, suggesting a lifetime for the super-cooled A phase against homogeneous nucleation far beyond the age of the universe. Yet anisotropy of the high-temperature phase minimizes the depairing effects of surfaces, thus making conventional heterogeneous nucleation unlikely. Recent experiments have been reported that lend support to one of the more exotic nucleation mechanisms ever proposed: Leggett's "baked Alaska" model, in which the B phase is nucleated by cosmic rays penetrating the supercooled A phase. The results of these experiments are discussed, along with the prospects for future work.

Schiffer, P.; Osheroff, D. D.

1995-04-01

256

Utilization of potatoes for life support in space. V. Evaluation of cultivars in response to continuous light and high temperature  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Twenty-four potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars from different regions of the world were evaluated in terms of their responses to continuous light (24 h photoperiod) and to high temperature (30 C) in two separate experiments under controlled environments. In each experiment, a first evaluation of the cultivars was made at day 35 after transplanting, at which time 12 cultivars exhibiting best growth and tuber initiation were selected. A final evaluation of the 12 cultivars was made after an additional 21 days of growth, at which time plant height, total dry weight, tuber dry weight, and tuber number were determined. In the continuous light evaluation, the 12 selected cultivars were Alaska 114, Atlantic, Bintje, Denali, Desiree, Haig, New York 81, Ottar, Rutt, Snogg, Snowchip, and Troll. In the high temperature evaluation, the 12 selected cultivars were Alpha, Atlantic, Bake King, Denali, Desiree, Haig, Kennebec, Norland, Russet Burbank, Rutt, Superior, and Troll. Among the cultivars selected under continuous irradiation, Desiree, Ottar, Haig, Rutt, Denali and Alaska showed the best potential for high productivity whereas New York 81 and Bintje showed the least production capability. Among the cultivars selected under high temperature, Rutt, Haig, Troll and Bake King had best performance whereas Atlantic, Alpha, Kennebec and Russet Burbank exhibited the least production potential. Thus, Haig and Rutt were the two cultivars that performed well under continuous irradiation and high temperature conditions, and could have maximum potential for adaptation to varying stress environments. These two cultivars may have the best potential for use in future space farming in which continuous light and/or high temperature conditions may exist. However, cultivar responses under combined conditions of continuous light and high temperature remains for further validation.

Tibbitts, T. W.; Cao, W.; Bennett, S. M.

1992-01-01

257

BAR proteins in cancer and blood disorders  

PubMed Central

Remodeling of the membrane and cytoskeleton is involved in a wide range of normal and pathologic cellular function. These are complex, highly-coordinated biochemical and biophysical processes involving dozens of proteins. Serving as a scaffold for a variety of proteins and possessing a domain that interacts with plasma membranes, the BAR family of proteins contribute to a range of cellular functions characterized by membrane and cytoskeletal remodeling. There are several subgroups of BAR proteins: BAR, N-BAR, I-BAR, and F-BAR. They differ in their ability to induce angles of membrane curvature and in their recruitment of effector proteins. Evidence is accumulating that BAR proteins contribute to cancer cell invasion, T cell trafficking, phagocytosis, and platelet production. In this review, we discuss the physiological function of BAR proteins and discuss how they contribute to blood and cancer disorders. PMID:22773959

Chen, Yolande; Aardema, Jorie; Misra, Ashish; Corey, Seth J

2012-01-01

258

Generation of sand bars under surface waves  

E-print Network

(cont.) Experiments were performed in a large wave flume to validate the theory and to study additional aspects of sand bar evolution. The wave envelope and bar profile were recorded for low and high beach reflection, ...

Hancock, Matthew James, 1975-

2005-01-01

259

Diode laser bars fabricated with pulsed anodization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We report diode laser bar fabrication using pulsed anodization to form isolation trenches and an electrically insulating native oxide layer in one processing step. This technique results in a reduction in laser bar fabrication steps.

D. A. Hudson, M. J. Grove, P. S. Zory, M. A. Emanuel, R. J. Beach

1994-01-01

260

Multi-disciplinary dating of a baked clay kiln excavated at Chieri, Northern Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A combined archaeological, archaeomagnetic and thermoluminescence study has been carried out on a rescue excavation kiln, discovered at Chieri, Northern Italy. Rock magnetic experiments indicate the dominance of a low coercivity magnetic phase, such as magnetite and/or Ti-magnetite as the main carrier of the remanent magnetization. Stepwise thermal demagnetization experiments generally show a stable characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM). The mean archaeomagnetic direction, calculated from 17 independently oriented samples, is D=18.2o, I=66.8o with ?95=2.6o and k=184. Archaeomagnetic dating of the kiln has been obtained after comparison of the kiln's ChRM direction with the reference curves produced by the SHA.DIF.3K European regional geomagnetic field model. Independent dating of the kiln has also been obtained from thermoluminescence (TL) study of two baked clay samples coming from the kiln's walls. The environmental dose has been measured in situ using field dosimeters. Accurate TL procedures have been followed for the calculation of annual dose and eventually the TL age. The combination of the archaeological evidence, archaeomagnetic and TL datings suggest that the last usage of the kiln occurred around the 17th century AD. Comparison of the results obtained from the different methods shows the relevant potential of these techniques on dating of baked clay artefacts; yet it also highlights the range of uncertainty sources affecting measurements, related to the samples and/or to the environment, and the utility of dating cross-checking for obtaining reliable dates.

Tema, Evdokia; Fantino, Fulvio; Ferrara, Enzo; Lo Giudice, Alessandro; Re, Alessandro; Barello, Federico; Vella, Silvia; Cirillo, Luigi; Gulmini, Monica

2014-05-01

261

Adventures of a tidally induced bar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using N-body simulations, we study the properties of a bar induced in a discy dwarf galaxy as a result of tidal interaction with the Milky Way. The bar forms at the first pericentre passage and survives until the end of the evolution at 10 Gyr. Fourier decomposition of the bar reveals that only even modes are significant and preserve a hierarchy so that the bar mode is always the strongest. They show a characteristic profile with a maximum, similar to simulated bars forming in isolated galaxies and observed bars in real galaxies. We adopt the maximum of the bar mode as a measure of the bar strength and we estimate the bar length by comparing the density profiles along the bar and perpendicular to it. The bar strength and the bar length decrease with time, mainly at pericentres, as a result of tidal torques acting at those times and not to secular evolution. The pattern speed of the bar varies significantly on a time-scale of 1 Gyr and is controlled by the orientation of the tidal torque from the Milky Way. The bar is never tidally locked, but we discover a hint of a 5/2 orbital resonance between the third and fourth pericentre passage. The speed of the bar decreases in the long run so that the bar changes from initially rather fast to slow in the later stages. The boxy/peanut shape is present for some time and its occurrence is preceded by a short period of buckling instability.

?okas, E. L.; Athanassoula, E.; Debattista, V. P.; Valluri, M.; Pino, A. del; Semczuk, M.; Gajda, G.; Kowalczyk, K.

2014-12-01

262

Energy consumption evaluation of fuel bioethanol production from sweet potato.  

PubMed

The energy consumption for different operative conditions and configurations of the bioethanol production industrial process from an experimental variety of sweet potato (Ipomea batatas) K 9807.1 was evaluated. A process simulation model was developed using SuperPro Designer® software. The model was based on experimental data gathered from our laboratory experiments and technology and equipment suppliers. The effects of the dry matter ratio of sweet potato to water, the fermentation efficiency, and sweet potato sugar content, on the energy consumption (steam and electricity) were respectively evaluated. All factors were significant. The best ratio of dry matter to total water to work with fresh sweet potato was 0.2 kg dry sweet potato/kg water, as for greater ratios was not found a significant reduction in energy consumption. Also, the drying of the sweet potato previous its processing was studied. It presented an energy consumption greater than the energetic content of the bioethanol produced. PMID:23567705

Ferrari, Mario Daniel; Guigou, Mairan; Lareo, Claudia

2013-05-01

263

Sports Nutrition Products PowerBar Protein  

E-print Network

Sports Nutrition Products PowerBar Protein Plus 30%, 55g Bar · Contains 16.7g protein (sports contain caffeine for alertness / focus. PowerBar ProteinPlus 50%, 500 ml · Ready to drink protein shake. · Therefore ideal for those wishing to purchase a ready made drink to take away. · Contains

Heinke, Dietmar

264

Studies on Sweet Potato Production Methods in Texas.  

E-print Network

be greatly expanded if economic conditions justified the increase. Due to its high vitamin and food content and the ease with which it can , be processed the sweet potato has acquired added prominence during the . i war emergency. The various government... 1 and artificial means. The sweet potato as a source of commercial aicohol I should not be overlooked. I In most cases it is not practical for the average farmer to increase his 1 sweet potato acreage. Therefore, if increased production...

Wright, R. E.

1945-01-01

265

Alaska red: A general purpose, productive, red-skinned potato  

Microsoft Academic Search

‘Alaska Red’ is the first red-skinned potato bred and selected in Alaska as a clone suitable for the fresh potato market.\\u000a Its parents are Alaska Clone 11-57-1-59 and ‘Red Beauty’. It is a high yielding, medium specific gravity potato with uniform\\u000a skin and eye basin color, shallow eyes, uniform oval-to-flattened shape and is very attractive. The flesh is snowy white

C. H. Dearborn

1977-01-01

266

Expression of hepatitis B surface antigen in potato hairy roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transgenic potato plants with two different expression cassettes for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) expression were developed. These plants were used to induce hairy roots. The transgenic nature of the potato plants was confirmed by PCR and PCR-Southern analysis. A maximum expression of 19.11, 23.94 and 97.1ng\\/g F.W. was noted in potato plants, microtubers and hairy roots, respectively. HBsAg expression

G. B. Sunil Kumar; T. R. Ganapathi; L. Srinivas; C. J. Revathi; V. A. Bapat

2006-01-01

267

Healthy Aspects of Potatoes as Part of the Human Diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potatoes are constituents of many diets. Nutritionalists identify several positive aspects but also discuss some adverse reactions.\\u000a Therefore, healthiness of potato food has to be established taking into account new knowledge about natural constituents and\\u000a food-borne substances. This paper presents data of three main areas: carbohydrates, toxins and antioxidants. The glycaemic\\u000a behaviour of prepared potatoes has discredited the general understanding

N. U. Haase

2008-01-01

268

Fractionation of Potato Proteins: Solubility, Thermal Coagulation and Emulsifying Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water-soluble potato proteins were extracted and an acidic and a basic fraction were isolated by ion-exchange chromatography. The acidic fraction contained mainly patatin (67%), the major soluble protein of potato tubers. The basic fraction contained the 20–25-kDa proteins family (64%) and a 16-kDa polypeptide (22%), probably corresponding to the protease inhibitor potato II. Functionality as pH–solubility curves, thermocoagulation sensitivity, kinetics

Marie-Christine Ralet; Jacques Guéguen

2000-01-01

269

Transgenic sweet potato expressing mammalian cytochrome P450  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam] is considered to be recalcitrant to transformation and regeneration because of its genotype-dependent in vitro\\u000a responses. The lack of a genotype-independent transformation and regeneration system limits biotechnological applications\\u000a in this plant species. To establish a transformation system for a diverse group of sweet potato genotypes, we examined sweet\\u000a potato regeneration after transformation in five

Nadia AnwarKazuo; Kazuo N. Watanabe; Junko A. Watanabe

2011-01-01

270

RED MOUNTAIN BAR PUMPED STOR AGE PR OJEC T Red Mountain Bar Pumped Storage Project  

E-print Network

RED MOUNTAIN BAR PUMPED STOR AGE PR OJEC T Red Mountain Bar Pumped Storage Project Continuing a pumped storage project to generate electricity during peak demand. The proposed Red Mountain Bar Pumped for irrigation water storage, flood control, power production and recreation, the Red Mountain Bar Pumped Storage

Laughlin, Robert B.

271

Storage and Diseases of the Sweet Potato in Texas.  

E-print Network

is during warm, dry weather, I rince the potatoes, especially the bruised ones, are more likely to rot when dug while wet; besides, the potatoes dug during wet weather will be more watery, and hence harder to cure. However, in wet seasons the grower... is during warm, dry weather, I rince the potatoes, especially the bruised ones, are more likely to rot when dug while wet; besides, the potatoes dug during wet weather will be more watery, and hence harder to cure. However, in wet seasons the grower...

Youngblood, B. (Bonney)

1919-01-01

272

Galaxy Zoo: Observing Secular Evolution through Bars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we use the Galaxy Zoo 2 data set to study the behavior of bars in disk galaxies as a function of specific star formation rate (SSFR) and bulge prominence. Our sample consists of 13,295 disk galaxies, with an overall (strong) bar fraction of 23.6% ± 0.4%, of which 1154 barred galaxies also have bar length (BL) measurements. These samples are the largest ever used to study the role of bars in galaxy evolution. We find that the likelihood of a galaxy hosting a bar is anticorrelated with SSFR, regardless of stellar mass or bulge prominence. We find that the trends of bar likelihood and BL with bulge prominence are bimodal with SSFR. We interpret these observations using state-of-the-art simulations of bar evolution that include live halos and the effects of gas and star formation. We suggest our observed trends of bar likelihood with SSFR are driven by the gas fraction of the disks, a factor demonstrated to significantly retard both bar formation and evolution in models. We interpret the bimodal relationship between bulge prominence and bar properties as being due to the complicated effects of classical bulges and central mass concentrations on bar evolution and also to the growth of disky pseudobulges by bar evolution. These results represent empirical evidence for secular evolution driven by bars in disk galaxies. This work suggests that bars are not stagnant structures within disk galaxies but are a critical evolutionary driver of their host galaxies in the local universe (z < 1). .

Cheung, Edmond; Athanassoula, E.; Masters, Karen L.; Nichol, Robert C.; Bosma, A.; Bell, Eric F.; Faber, S. M.; Koo, David C.; Lintott, Chris; Melvin, Thomas; Schawinski, Kevin; Skibba, Ramin A.; Willett, Kyle W.

2013-12-01

273

Galaxy Zoo: Observing Secular Evolution Through Bars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this talk, I use the Galaxy Zoo 2 dataset to study the behavior of bars in disk galaxies as a function of specific star formation rate (SSFR), and inner galactic structure, i.e., the prominence of the bulge as parameterized by Sérsic index and central surface stellar mass density. Our sample consists of 13,295 disk galaxies, with an overall bar fraction of 23.6 ± 0.4%, of which 1,154 barred galaxies also have bar length measurements. These samples are the largest ever used to study the role of bars in disk galaxy evolution. I find that the likelihood of a galaxy hosting a bar is anti-correlated with SSFR, regardless of stellar mass or bulge prominence. I find that the trends of bar likelihood with bulge prominence are bimodal with SSFR, i.e., in star-forming galaxies, bulges are more prominent in galaxies more likely to host bars, while in quiescent disk galaxies, bars are less frequent where there are prominent bulges. Our observations of bar length reveal a complex picture. In star-forming disks, longer bars are found where the bulges are more prominent, while in quiescent disks there is a maximum in the average bar length as a function of bulge prominence. I interpret these observations using state-of-the-art simulations of bar evolution which include live halos and the effects of gas and star formation. I suggest our observed trends of bar likelihood with SSFR are driven by the gas fraction of the disks; a factor demonstrated to significantly retard both bar formation and evolution in models. I interpret the bimodal relationship between bulge prominence and bar properties as due to the complicated effects of classical bulges and central mass concentrations on bar evolution, and also to the growth of disky pseudobulges by bar evolution. These results represent empirical evidence for secular evolution driven by bars in disk galaxies. This work suggests that bars are not stagnant structures within disk galaxies, but are a critical evolutionary driver of their host galaxies in the local universe (z < 1).

Cheung, Edmond; Athanassoula, L.; Masters, K.; Faber, S. M.; Koo, D. C.; Zoo, Galaxy

2014-01-01

274

Thermodynamic Analysis of the Cu-As-S-(O) System Relevant to Sulfuric Acid Baking of Enargite at 473 K (200 °C)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While the growing demand for copper has compelled the industry to adapt new technologies for the treatment of copper-arsenic (enargite) concentrates, the refractory nature of such concentrates combined with the troublesome presence of arsenic has created a major metallurgical and environmental challenge. Preliminary results of the acid bake-leach process at the University of Utah have shown some potential advantages for the treatment of enargite concentrates. While the transformation of enargite to copper sulfate, arsenolite, and elemental sulfur has already been established experimentally, thermodynamic evaluation of the sulfuric acid baking process provides further understanding which should be useful. In this article, the available thermodynamic data for the species involved in the Cu-As-S-O system are compiled. These data were used to calculate the phase stability (Kellogg) diagrams as well as equilibrium compositions at 473 K (200 °C) using the STABCAL and HSC Chemistry® 5.1 software packages. The equilibrium composition calculations indicate that enargite can transform to copper sulfate either directly or through chalcocite and/or covellite. The major gaseous species during baking were found to be SO2 and H2O. The results of the thermodynamic calculations were further compared with two confirmatory baking experiments involving a high-quality enargite sample. The condensed reaction products from sulfuric acid baking based on XRD results include CuSO4, As2O3, CuO·CuSO4, and S8 under both neutral and oxidative conditions. While all these compounds were predicted through equilibrium calculations, some of the predicted compounds were not detected in the sulfuric acid-baked enargite. None of the calculations indicated any appreciable amounts of arsenic-bearing gases at the baking temperature of 473 K (200 °C). Consistent with thermodynamic predictions, no H2S gas was detected during the sulfuric acid baking experiment. Approximately, 80 pct of the baked enargite samples were leached in water.

Safarzadeh, M. Sadegh; Miller, Jan D.; Huang, Hsin H.

2014-04-01

275

Wastewater purification in the potato starch industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deproteinized and protein-containing wastewater from the potato starch industry was purified by anaerobic digestion followed by aerobic treatment. Inhibition of methanation by NH3 in concentrated deproteinized wastewater can be prevented by lowering the pH. SO32- was removed by reduction in an acidification-reactor. SO42- reduction was hydraulic retention time-dependent during acidification. Further elimination of SO42- can take place in the CH4

D. J. Wijbenga; J. B. M. Meiberg; K. Brunt

1984-01-01

276

Isolation, Crystallization, and Partial Identification of Potato Factor II from Potato Tubers 1  

PubMed Central

The isolation, crystallization, and partial identification of potato factor II, a stimulator from the chemically neutral fraction of potato extract, is described. The compound was originally found to stimulate elongation of dwarf peas grown under red light, a gibberellin bioassay. It melts between 137° and 139°. In paper chromatography it migrates to RF 0.62 in isopropyl alcohol: ammonium hydroxide: H2O (10:1:1, v/v). Based on infrared and NMR data, it does not contain a lactone ring and possibly possesses an amide radical and an OH? group, as well as many methylene radicals. Potato factor II may be similar to certain of the fatty acid derivatives previously reported to stimulate growth of excised sections, but it is unique in that it stimulates growth of intact plants. This effect points to the need for completely separating neutral from acid gibberellin-like substances when the latter are assayed on dwarf peas. PMID:16656231

Hayashi, Fumihiko; Rappaport, Lawrence

1966-01-01

277

Studies for Somatic Embryogenesis in Sweet Potato  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this study was to improve the somatic embryo (SE) system for plant production of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L(Lam)). Explants isolated from SE-derived sweet potato plants were compared with control (non SE-derived) plants for their competency for SE production. Leaf explants were cultured on Murashige-Skoog (MS) medium with 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (0.2 mg/L) and 6-benzylaminopurine (2.5 mg/L) for 2 weeks in darkness and transferred to MS medium with abscisic acid (2.5 mg/L). Explants isolated from those plants developed through somatic embryogenesis produced new somatic embryos rapidly and in higher frequency than those isolated from control plants They also appeared to grow faster in tissue culture than the control plants. Current studies in the laboratory are examining whether plants derived from a cyclical embryogenesis system (five cycles) would have any further positive impact on the rapidity and frequency of somatic embryo development. More detailed studies using electron microscopy are expected to show the point of origin of the embryos and to allow determination of their quality throughout the cyclical process. This study may facilitate improved plant micropropagation, gene transfer and germplasm conservation in sweet potato.

Bennett, J. Rasheed; Prakash, C. S.

1997-01-01

278

Resistance in Potato to Pratylenchus penetrans.  

PubMed

Potato clones from five different breeding populations were evaluated for their relative resistance and susceptibility to Pratylenchus penetrans. Resistance and susceptibility were distinguished by an index of susceptibility (SI) calculated from the numbers of P. penetrans (including eggs) per g of root of individual clones in relation to that of a susceptible control at 30 or 70 days after inoculation. Evaluations were carried out using 7.5-cm clay pots in a growth chamber at 24 C with 15-hour day length. In the initial evaluation, 70 days after inoculation, the SI of individual clones ranged from 0.01 to 0.75. Clones that supported the least P. penetrans were from a breeding population derived from Solanum tuberosum ssp. andigena that was originally selected for its resistance to the potato cyst nematode, Globodera pallida. In succeeding tests, these clones had a significantly low SI than did susceptible controls or cultivars that were previously reported to possess resistance to P. penetrans, except cv. Hudson. Resistance to P. penetrans from the Pallida-resistant breeding population was incorporated into potato germplasm better adapted to North American growing conditions. PMID:19279796

Brodie, B B; Plaisted, R L

1993-09-01

279

Plant pathogen population dynamics in potato fields.  

PubMed

Modern technologies incorporating Geographic Information Systems (GIS), Global Positioning Systems (GPS), remote sensing, and geostatistics provide unique opportunities to advance ecological understanding of pests across a landscape. Increased knowledge of the population dynamics of plant pathogens will promote management strategies, such as site-specific management, and cultural practices minimizing the introduction and impact of plant pathogens. The population dynamics of Alternaria solani, Verticillium dahliae, and Pratylenchus penetrans were investigated in commercial potato fields. A 0.5-ha diamond grid-sampling scheme was georeferenced, and all disease ratings and nematode samples were taken at these grid points. Percent disease severity was rated weekly, and P. penetrans densities were quantified 4 weeks after potato emergence. Spatial statistics and interpolation methods were used to identify the spatial distribution and population dynamics of each pathogen. Interpolated maps and aerial imagery identified A. solani intra-season progression across the fields as the potato crop matured. Late-season nitrogen application reduced A. solani severity. The spatial distributions of V. dahliae and P. penetrans were spatially correlated. PMID:19265932

Morgan, G D; Stevenson, W R; Macguidwin, A E; Kelling, K A; Binning, L K; Zhu, J

2002-09-01

280

Bar code identification of digital levels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper introduced the algorithm of bar code identification of digital level. In the digital level system, the original gauge rod is substituted by bar code rod. The CCD-sensor is used to substitute the eyes of people. The automatic measuring is realized by identifying the bar code on the rod using image process, code principle and the geometry optics technology. The data processing algorithm is achieved purposively after analyzing the data and waveform of CCD output signal. At first, the noise is attenuated with the filter algorithm and signal noise ratio is increased. Then the bar code information from bar image of the gauge is gotten with the speedy edge detection algorithm based on exponent, and the load of calculation is decreased. According to the principle of photoelectric transform of CCD, identify the corresponding bar code and the altitude of the point was calculated. The experiment results indicate that the algorithm of bar code identification is feasible.

Li, Jinhui; Geng, Liqing

2005-04-01

281

The potato amylase inhibitor gene SbAI regulates cold-induced sweetening in potato tubers by modulating amylase activity.  

PubMed

Potato cold-induced sweetening (CIS) is critical for the postharvest quality of potato tubers. Starch degradation is considered to be one of the key pathways in the CIS process. However, the functions of the genes that encode enzymes related to starch degradation in CIS and the activity regulation of these enzymes have received less attention. A potato amylase inhibitor gene known as SbAI was cloned from the wild potato species Solanum berthaultii. This genetic transformation confirmed that in contrast to the SbAI suppression in CIS-resistant potatoes, overexpressing SbAI in CIS-sensitive potatoes resulted in less amylase activity and a lower rate of starch degradation accompanied by a lower reducing sugar (RS) content in cold-stored tubers. This finding suggested that the SbAI gene may play crucial roles in potato CIS by modulating the amylase activity. Further investigations indicated that pairwise protein-protein interactions occurred between SbAI and ?-amylase StAmy23, ?-amylases StBAM1 and StBAM9. SbAI could inhibit the activities of both ?-amylase and ?-amylase in potato tubers primarily by repressing StAmy23 and StBAM1, respectively. These findings provide the first evidence that SbAI is a key regulator of the amylases that confer starch degradation and RS accumulation in cold-stored potato tubers. PMID:24985879

Zhang, Huiling; Liu, Jun; Hou, Juan; Yao, Ying; Lin, Yuan; Ou, Yongbin; Song, Botao; Xie, Conghua

2014-09-01

282

Comparative analysis of fruit-based functional snack bars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim was to develop snack bars with high dietary fibre (DF) and polyphenol contents. Snack bar base was formulated without (control bar) or with fibre (inulin or apple DF bar). Snack bar filling was formulated with or without apple polyphenol extract (APE). Nutritional assessment of snack bars was based on the total DF, phenolics, protein, fat, uronic acid (UA)

D. Sun-Waterhouse; A. Teoh; C. Massarotto; R. Wibisono; S. Wadhwa

2010-01-01

283

Galaxy Zoo: Observing Secular Evolution Through Bars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although often seen in galaxies, the role that bars play in galaxy evolution has been largely overlooked. Observations show that bars — stellar linear-shaped structures — have been present in galaxies since z ˜ 1, about 8 billion years ago, and that more and more galaxies are becoming barred with time. This trend has continued to the present, where about two-thirds of all disk galaxies are barred. Observations have also shown that there is a connection between the presence of a bar and the properties of a galaxy, including morphology, star formation, chemical abundance gradients, and nuclear activity. These trends are consistent with the predicted effects of bars on galaxy evolution, i.e., secular evolution. Thus, observations and simulations indicate that bars are important drivers of galaxy evolution. But despite these evidence, bars are still commonly omitted in the lore of galaxy evolution. This proceeding briefly highlights work by Cheung et al. (2013), which tries to change this common omission by presenting the best evidence of bar-driven secular evolution yet. This work implies that bars are not stagnant structures within galaxies, but are instead, critical drivers of galaxy evolution.

Cheung, E.; Athanassoula, E.; Masters, K. L.; Nichol, R. C.; Bosma, A.; Bell, E. F.; Faber, S. M.; Koo, D. C.; Lintott, C.; Melvin, T.; Schawinski, K.; Skibba, R. A.; Willett, K. W.

2014-03-01

284

Production of low oil content potato chips using vacuum frying  

E-print Network

Vacuum frying was used as an alternative technique to develop low oil content potato chips. The effect of oil temperature (118, 132, 144?C) and vacuum pressure (84.66, 91.43, 98.20 kPa) on the drying rate and oil absorption of potato chips...

Garayo, Jagoba

2012-06-07

285

Recombinant Protein for Biocontrol of Brown Rot Disease in Potato  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Egypt, potato has an important position among all vegetable crops. Potato crop is infected with the brown rot disease producing a major problem which caused by Ralstonia. Solanacearum. Soil samples were collected from Gharbia governorate, bacterial isolation was carried out using suitable media. Many bacterial isolates were obtained and used for bioagent against R. solanacearum. One isolate among all

S. S. Kabeil; Elsayed E. Hafez; Ayman S. Daba; M. A. El-Saadani

2009-01-01

286

Solid matrix and liquid culture procedures for growth of potatoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report discusses the advantages and limitations of several different procedures for growth of potatoes for CELSS. Solution culture, in which roots and stolons are submerged, and aeroponic culture were not found useful for potatoes because stolons did not produce tubers unless a severe stress was applied to the plants. In detailed comparison studies, three selected culture systems were compared,

T. W. Tibbitts; W. Cao

1994-01-01

287

Changes in structure, density and porosity of potato during dehydration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structural changes in potato during drying were studied by light microscopy. It was observed that the degree of shrinkage of potato during low-temperature drying is greater than at high-temperature drying. Shrinkage also affects the physical properties of materials, such as the density and porosity. In the early stage of drying the density increased as the moisture content decreased, reaching a

N. Wang; J. G. Brennan

1995-01-01

288

Transformation of potato with cucumber peroxidase: expression and disease response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peroxidase is thought to be important in a variety of plant defence responses against pathogens. Potato was transformed with a cucumber anionic peroxidase under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter, which is highly expressed in potato tuber tissue. This particular peroxidase is associated with the induced resistance response in cucumber. High levels of transgenic peroxidase activity were

H Ray; D. S Douches; R Hammerschmidt

1998-01-01

289

Chlorflurenol Inhibits Peroxidase Activity in Sweet Potato Roots.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Chlorflurenol (0.000073 M) inhibits peroxidase activity in sweet potato root discs within 4 hr after treatment and by almost 50% after 24 hr. Ethylene is thought to induce the de novo synthesis of peroxidase in sweet potato root discs. Chlorflurenol parti...

D. H. Gaither, D. T. Webb, G. R. Leather, L. E. Forrence, R. C. Sievert

1973-01-01

290

Overproduction of sweet potato peroxidases in transgenic tobacco plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two peroxidase (POD) cDNAs, anionic (swpal) and neutral (swpnl) POD derived from suspension cultures of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), were used to express high levels in transgenic plants. Two sweet potato PODs were overproduced in two cultivars of transformed tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants, cv. Bel W3 and cv. Samsun by introducing a chimeric gene composed of the cauliflower mosaic virus

Gyung-Hye Huh; Byung-Wook Yun; Haeng-Soon Lee; Jin-Ki Jo; Sang-Soo Kwak

1998-01-01

291

Induction of peroxidase activity by ethylene in sweet potato  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metabolic activation in sweet potato root tissues injured by mechanical, chemical, or fungal damage has been extensively investigated. Previously, it was shown that metabolic activation, particularly peroxidase and phenylalanine-ammonia lyase activities, developed when sweet potato roots were sliced. These activities were significantly enhanced by a strikingly low level of ethylene exogenously supplied to the slices. Incubated root slices produced enough

H. Imaseki

1970-01-01

292

Usual Intake of Other starchy vegetables, excluding white potatoes  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Other starchy vegetables, excluding white potatoes Table A14. Other starchy vegetables, excluding white potatoes: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10%

293

Control Strategies for Late Blight in the Alaska Potato Crop  

E-print Network

://portage.uwex.edu/files/2010/05/LateB- lightOccurrenceandMGT2009McGrath.pdf and other links for further information. TomatoControl Strategies for Late Blight in the Alaska Potato Crop PMC-00339 Late blight is a devastating disease of both tomatoes and potatoes that is occasionally found in Alaska. There is no "cure

Wagner, Diane

294

Boosting minimalist classifiers for blemish detection in potatoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces novel methods for detecting blemishes in potatoes using machine vision. After segmentation of the potato from the background, a pixel-wise classifier is trained to detect blemishes using features extracted from the image. A very large set of candidate features, based on statistical information relating to the colour and texture of the region surrounding a given pixel, is

Michael Barnes; Tom Duckett; Grzegorz Cielniak

2009-01-01

295

Two Species of Myxomycetes Causing Slime Mold of Sweet Potato  

PubMed Central

Specimens collected from sweet potato plants with slime mold symptoms in fields in Daejeon, Korea were examined. Two species of Myxomycetes, Fuligo septica and Stemonitis herbatica were identified based on their morphological characteristics. This is the first report that the two species of Myxomycetes cause slime mold of sweet potato in Korea. PMID:24015079

Lee, Sang Yeob; Cho, Weon Dae

2007-01-01

296

Introduction of the Potato into Western and Central Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE botanist Clusius, who prepared one of the first descriptions of the potato plant1, indicated not only the time (the beginning of 1588) of his receiving from Philippe de Sivry (Prefect of the City of Mons, Belgium) two potato tubers and a berry, but also when Philippe de Sivry himself obtained the tubers. Clusius wrote that Philippe de Sivry had

V. S. Lekhnovitch

1961-01-01

297

REVIEW ARTICLE Potato soil-borne diseases. A review  

E-print Network

of the interactions between a pathogen and its host, influenced by biotic and abiotic factors of the environment, make. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 I. Effects of abiotic factors on the occurrence and development of soil-borne potato diseases factors on the occurrence and development of soil-borne potato diseases . . . . . . . . 18 II. 1

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

298

Hot Potato T e chniques in High Level Synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces hot potato high level synthesis transformation techniques. These techniques add deflection operations in the behavioral description of a computation in such a way that the requirements for two important components of the final implementation cost, the number of registers and the number of interconnects, are significantly reduced. Moreover, it is shown how hot potato techniques can be

Miodrag Potkonjak; Sujit Dey

299

Line width roughness reduction by rational design of photoacid generator for sub-millisecond laser post-exposure bake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sub-millisecond laser post-exposure bake (PEB) is an alternative technology to address the excessive acid diffusion for chemically amplified photoresist systems. By rationally designing the resist, laser post-exposure bake is able to improve the resolution and reduce the line width roughness (LWR) compared to patterns exposed under the same conditions but using conventional hotplate PEB. It was found that only the resist with high deprotection activation energy and low diffusion activation energy showed improved performance using laser PEB. Accordingly, a PAG was designed to have low acid diffusivity by binding the counter ions to a molecular glass core while keeping photophysical properties and processing conditions similar to a conventional PAG. By reducing the diffusivity of the counter ions, the PAG was able to further reduce LWR by 60% using laser PEB.

Jiang, Jing; Thompson, Michael O.; Ober, Christopher K.

2014-03-01

300

Evaluation of genetically modified potatoes against the potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea  

E-print Network

and Entomology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, 0002, South Africa; 3Department of Crop and Soil Sciences Potato Center in Lima, Peru (Raman and Palacios, 1982). Because resistance in already improved cultivars than to other cultivars (Gyawali, 1989). The common soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) produces

Douches, David S.

301

Assessing the accuracy of thermoluminescence for dating baked sediments beneath late Quaternary lava flows, Snake River Plain, Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

Baked sediments beneath lava flows on the Snake River Plain, Idaho, with independent age control by either ¹⁴C or K\\/Ar dating were analyzed to evaluate the accuracy of the thermoluminescence (TL) technique. The age of flows ranges from â¼2 to 100 ka and multiple TL analyses by the total bleach method yielded ages that overlap at one sigma with independent

Steven L. Forman; James Pierson; G. Valentine; W. R. Hackett

1994-01-01

302

Severe metabolic alkalosis due to baking soda ingestion: case reports of two patients with unsuspected antacid overdose.  

PubMed

Oral ingestion of baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) has been used for decades as a home remedy for acid indigestion. Excessive bicarbonate ingestion places patients at risk for a variety of metabolic derangements including metabolic alkalosis, hypokalemia, hypernatremia, and even hypoxia. The clinical presentation is highly variable but can include seizures, dysrhythmias, and cardiopulmonary arrest. We present two cases of severe metabolic alkalosis in patients with unsuspected antacid overdose. The presentation and pathophysiology of antacid-related metabolic alkalosis is reviewed. PMID:9950389

Fitzgibbons, L J; Snoey, E R

1999-01-01

303

Determination of the overall migration from silicone baking moulds into simulants and food using H-NMR techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different silicone baking moulds (37 samples) were characterized with respect to potential migrating substances using H-NMR, RP-HPLC–UV\\/ELSD and GC techniques. In all cases cyclic organosiloxane oligomers with the formula [Si(CH3)2–O]n were identified (n = 6 … 50). Additionally, linear, partly hydroxyl-terminated organosiloxanes HO–[Si(CH3)2–O]n–H (n = 7 … 20) were found in 13 samples. No substances other than siloxanes could be

Ruediger Helling; Anja Mieth; Stefan Altmann; Thomas Joachim Simat

2009-01-01

304

Performance of connected GSO bars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performance of connected GSO (Gd 2SiO 5:Ce) bars was investigated using a proton beam of 0.6-1.0 GeV/ c. Single crystals of 20 cm-long GSO with different Ce concentrations (1.5, 0.5 mol%) and cross-sections (1×1 cm 2, 2×2 cm 2) were prepared. Long GSO bars were constructed by connecting two crystals of the same type with or without a 10 cm-long plastic scintillator between the crystals. The position dependences of the pulse height, energy resolution and time resolution were investigated. At a typical proton momentum, 1.0 GeV/ c, the best energy resolution was 4.8% for 2×2×20 cm 3 GSO crystals doped with 0.5 mol% Ce due to the larger light yield, and the best position resolution was 0.55 cm for 1.5 mol% Ce due to the shorter attenuation length.

Tamagawa, Y.; Shirasaka, H.; Kobayashi, M.; Komatsubara, T. K.; Mimori, K.; Omata, K.; Sekiguchi, T.; Sugimoto, S.; Tsunemi, T.; Yoshioka, T.; Yoshimura, Y.; Fujiwara, T.

2006-06-01

305

COBE's Galactic Bar and Disk  

E-print Network

A model of the bar and old stellar disk of the Galaxy has been derived from the survey of the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) of the Cosmic Background Explorer at wavelengths of 1.25, 2.2, 3.5, and 4.9 microns. It agrees very well with the data, except in directions in which the near- infrared optical depth is high. Among the conclusions drawn from the model: The Sun is located approximately 16.5 pc above the midpoint of the Galactic plane. The disk has an outer edge four kpc from the Sun, and is warped like the HI layer. It has a central hole roughly the diameter of the inner edge of the "three-kiloparsec" molecular cloud ring, and within that hole lies a bright, strong, "early-type" bar, tilted approximately 14 degrees from the Sun-Galactic center line. The model has 47 free parameters. The model is discussed in detail and contour plots and images of the residuals presented.

H. T. Freudenreich

1997-07-30

306

Boric Acid Reclamation System (BARS)  

SciTech Connect

KLM Technologies' personnel have identified a Boric Acid Reclamation System (BARS) utilizing reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration to produce a recyclable grade of otherwise waste boric acid at PWRs, thus reducing a major source of low-level radwaste. The design of a prototype BARS as a compact volume reduction system was the result of KLM's Phase 1 Program, and based upon a preliminary feasibility program, which assessed the applicability of membrane technology to refurbish and recycle waste boric acid from floor and equipment drain streams. The analysis of the overall program indicated a substantial savings regarding off-site disposal costs. Today's economic scenario indicates that optimization of volume reduction operation procedures could significantly reduce waste management costs, especially where burial penalties have become more severe. As a reaction to the economic burden imposed by final disposal, many nuclear plants are currently modifying their design and operating philosophies concerning liquid radwaste processing systems to meet stricter environmental regulations, and to derive potential economic benefits by reducing the ever-increasing volumes of wastes that are produced. To effect these changes, innovative practices in waste management and more efficient processing technologies are being successfully implemented.

Kniazewycz, B.G.; Markind, J.

1986-03-01

307

Properties of starch from potatoes differing in glycemic index.  

PubMed

Potatoes are a popular source of dietary carbohydrate worldwide and are generally considered to be a high glycemic index (GI) food. Potato starch characteristics play a key role in determining their rate of digestion and resulting glycemic response. Starches isolated from seven potato cultivars with different GI values, including a low GI cultivar (Carisma), were examined for relative crystallinity, granule size distribution, amylopectin chain length, and thermal and pasting properties. Starch from the Carisma cultivar was more thermally stable and more resistant to gelatinization, with significantly higher (p < 0.05) pasting temperature and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) gelatinization onset, peak and conclusion temperatures, compared to the other cultivars. Differences between the potatoes in the other properties measured did not align with the GI ranking. Thermal analysis and starch pasting properties may be useful indicators for preliminary identification of potato cultivars that are digested slowly and have a lower GI. PMID:25124366

Lin Ek, Kai; Wang, Shujun; Brand-Miller, Jennie; Copeland, Les

2014-10-24

308

Food, Nutrition and Health Tips from the American Dietetic Association Healthy Eating on the Run: A Month of Tips  

E-print Network

, lettuce, peppers or other vegetables. #12;13. A baked potato offers more fiber, fewer calories and less with a friend. 16. Enjoy ethnic foods such as Chinese stirfry, vegetable-stuffed pita or Mexican fajitas. Go easy on the sour cream, cheese and guacamole. 17. At the salad bar, pile on the dark leafy greens

Oklahoma, University of

309

BREAKFASTMenu1+3 Yourmenuwillbecorrectedaccording  

E-print Network

FieldGreens (VinegarOnly) DESSERTS:(Limit2,1mustbefruit) Cookies:OatmealRaisin,PeanutButter Sherbet(noranchdressing) (OnlyVinegar) CottageCheeseFruitPlate DeliBar~Createyourcustomsandwich Meats Cheeses Turkey Roast: BakedSweetPotato WhiteRice (Limit1Starch,1Vegetable) GreenBeansButternutSquash Carrots

Oliver, Douglas L.

310

Colorado potato beetle [ Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say)] resistance to organophosphates and carbamates in Serbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), the Colorado potato beetle (potato beetle), is the most destructive potato pest in Serbia. Up to four pesticide treatments are necessary for its control. Insecticide resistance of the potato beetle in Serbia is well-investigated and documented, especially to organophosphates and carbamates. Toxicity of chlorpyriphos (organophosphates) and carbosulfan (carbamates) was investigated by topical application, using adults of the

S. Stankovi?; A. Zabel; M. Kostic; B. Manojlovic; S. Rajkovic

2004-01-01

311

Modelling the effects of orange pomace using response surface design for gluten-free bread baking.  

PubMed

The development of gluten-free bread creates many challenges; producing bread that will match the properties of its wheat counterpart can be difficult. Fruit by-products are know from literature to contain a high level of dietary fibre which could improve the bread properties and fibre contents of gluten-free bread. Therefore, a mathematical design was created; three variables were identified from preliminary tests (water (85-100% flour weight, OP 0-8% flour weight and proofing time 35-100 min) as being crucial in the development of acceptable bread. Results illustrated longer proofing times (p<0.05) and lower orange pomace levels (OP) (p<0.001) produced a bread with a greater specific volume. OP had the most significant (p<0.0001) effect on hardness at 2h and 24h post-baking. The optimised formulation was calculated to contain 5.5% OP, 94.6% water and a proofing time of 49 min. Total fibre content of the control bread (2.1%) was successfully increased t o 3.9% in the OP containing bread. Substituting gluten-free flours with orange pomace flour can help improve the total dietary intake of a coeliac while not negating on the quality properties of the bread. PMID:25053049

O'Shea, N; Rößle, C; Arendt, E; Gallagher, E

2015-01-01

312

Baked shale and slag formed by the burning of coal beds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The baking and reddening of large masses of strata caused by the burning of coal beds is a striking feature of the landscape in most of the great western coal-bearing areas. The general character and broader effects of the burning have been described by many writers, but the fact that in places enough heat is generated to fuse and thoroughly recrystallize the overlying shale and sandstone has received less attention. Some of the natural slags thus formed simulate somewhat abnormal igneous rocks, but others consist largely of rare and little known minerals. A wide range in the mineral composition of such slags is to be expected, depending on the composition of the original sediment and the conditions of fusion and cooling. These products of purely thermal metamorphism offer a fertile field for petrologic investigation. The writer has observed the effects produced by the burning of coal beds in several localities in Montana, particularly along upper Tongue River in the southern part of the State, in the district lying southeast of the mouth of Bighorn River, and in the Little Sheep Mountain coal field north of Miles City. A number of specimens of the rock formed have been examined under the microscope, though time has not been available for a systematic examination. The writer is greatly indebted to Mr. E. S. Larsen for assistance in the study of some of the minerals.

Rogers, G. Sherburne

1918-01-01

313

High insoluble fibre content increases in vitro starch digestibility in partially baked breads.  

PubMed

Wheat breads prepared from frozen partially baked breads were characterized by their content of rapidly digestible starch (RDS) and slowly digestible starch (SDS) by the in vitro starch digestibility method developed by Englyst. Breads with different contents and types of fibre and breads prepared with different fermentation processes were studied. Bread with inulin and with a double fermentation had the lowest RDS content of 58.8 ± 1.7 and 60.0 ± 1.9 (% dry matter), respectively. Wheat bran bread, seeded bread, triple fermentation white bread and baguette-type bread showed values of RDS between 63.1 ± 1.7 and 65.7 ± 1.7 with no significant differences between them (p < 0.05). The fraction of SDS was higher in wheat breads than in breads with added fibre. The highest values of the starch digestive rate index (SDRI) were obtained by the three types of breads with added fibre, which ranged from 91.8 ± 3.5 to 95.8 ± 3.5 versus 80.2 ± 3.5 to 87.5 ± 3.5 for white wheat breads. A significant (p < 0.01) positive linear correlation between the insoluble fibre content and SDRI was obtained (R² = 0.96). Insoluble fibre dilutes and disrupts gluten network and probably weakens the interaction between gluten and starch, which protects starch from digestive enzymes action. Scanning electronic microscopy microstructure of bread crumbs corroborated this statement. PMID:22621760

Ronda, Felicidad; Rivero, Pablo; Caballero, Pedro A; Quilez, Joan

2012-12-01

314

Effect of baking improvers on the quality of whole cassava biscuits.  

PubMed

Improving agents such as ascorbic acid, sodium metabisulphite, sorbic acid and soyflour were used in the production of whole cassava biscuits. Cassava flour and small amount of soyflour were produced. Bulk density, water binding capacity and amylograph viscosity of cassava flour were determined. Mixing and dough extrusion time were recorded for each sample of biscuit dough developed with addition of improvers. Length, width and thickness of cut-out dough were measured before and after baking to evaluate biscuits flow. Proximate and sensory analysis of the biscuits samples was also determined. The result showed that, there was a slight decrease in mixing time, extrusion time, length and width of the biscuits samples prepared with improvers. However, there was a considerable increase in biscuits thickness. Amylograph result showed an improvement in flour stability and low retrogadation tendency, most especially flour with inclusion of ascorbic acid. Crude protein and fat increased with sample contained soyflour. Sensory evaluation result indicated no significant difference among the samples except the texture of the biscuits. PMID:25328229

Obadina, A O; Oyewole, O B; Olaniyi, G

2014-10-01

315

Effect of lyophilized jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) fin and mantle muscle on dough properties and bread baking performance of commercial wheat flour  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of 25 and 50 g\\/kg of lyophilized jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) fin (JSF) and mantle muscle (JSM) on dough properties and baking performance of wheat flour were studied. Dough maximum resistance (Rmax), extensibility, deformation work (Area, 45-min resting time), baking performance, loaf volume, and acceptability were evaluated. JSF (25 g\\/kg) almost tripled (P? 0.05) Rmaxcompared to control dough,

J. C. Ramirez-Suarez; A. R. Islas-Rubio; L. C. Montoya-Ballesteros; M. C. Granados-Nevarez; F. Vázquez-Lara; R. Pacheco-Aguilar; M. E. Lugo-Sánchez

2012-01-01

316

Conservation Research and Development/ New Ultra-Low Carbon High Strength Steels with Improved Bake Hardenability for Enhanced Stretch Formability and Dent Resistance  

SciTech Connect

Conservation Research and Development/New Ultra-Low Carbon High Strength Steels with Improved Bake Hardenability for Enhanced Stretch Formability and Dent Resistance. The experimental work can be divided into four phases. In each phase, the materials were received or designed, processed and tested, to evaluate the BH increment or response, as a function of compositions and processing conditions. Microstructural characterization by various techniques was performed in order to gain insights into the mechanisms of flow stress increment by bake hardening.

Anthony J. DeArdo; C. Isaac Garcia

2003-12-15

317

Genetic control of wheat quality: interactions between chromosomal regions determining protein content and composition, dough rheology, and sponge and dough baking properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the genetic control of wheat processing characteristics such as dough rheology is well understood, limited information\\u000a is available concerning the genetic control of baking parameters, particularly sponge and dough (S&D) baking. In this study,\\u000a a quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was performed using a population of doubled haploid lines derived from a cross between\\u000a Australian cultivars Kukri × Janz grown at

Gulay Mann; Simon Diffey; Brian Cullis; Fermin Azanza; David Martin; Alison Kelly; Lynne McIntyre; Adele Schmidt; Wujun Ma; Zena Nath; Ibrahim Kutty; P. Emmett Leyne; Lynette Rampling; Ken J. Quail; Matthew K. Morell

2009-01-01

318

New Constraints on the Galactic Bar  

E-print Network

Previous work has related the Galactic Bar to structure in the local stellar velocity distribution. Here we show that the Bar also influences the spatial gradients of the velocity vector via the Oort constants. By numerical integration of test-particles we simulate measurements of the Oort C value in a gravitational potential including the Galactic Bar. We account for the observed trend that C is increasingly negative for stars with higher velocity dispersion. By comparing measurements of C with our simulations we improve on previous models of the Bar, estimating that the Bar pattern speed is Omega_b/Omega_0=1.87\\pm0.04, where Omega_0 is the local circular frequency, and the Bar angle lies within 20affects measurements of the Oort constants A and B less than ~2 km/s/kpc for the hot stars.

I. Minchev; J. Nordhaus; A. C. Quillen

2007-03-30

319

New Constraints on the Galactic Bar  

E-print Network

Previous work has related the Galactic Bar to structure in the local stellar velocity distribution. Here we show that the Bar also influences the spatial gradients of the velocity vector via the Oort constants. By numerical integration of test-particles we simulate measurements of the Oort C value in a gravitational potential including the Galactic Bar. We account for the observed trend that C is increasingly negative for stars with higher velocity dispersion. By comparing measurements of C with our simulations we improve on previous models of the Bar, estimating that the Bar pattern speed is Omega_b/Omega_0=1.87\\pm0.04, where Omega_0 is the local circular frequency, and the Bar angle lies within 20affects measurements of the Oort constants A and B less than ~2 km/s/kpc for the hot stars.

Minchev, I; Quillen, A C

2007-01-01

320

Effect of dentifrice containing fluoride and/or baking soda on enamel demineralization/remineralization: an in situ study.  

PubMed

The additive effect of baking soda on the anticariogenic effect of fluoride dentifrice is not well established. To evaluate it, a crossover in situ study was done in three phases of 28 days. Volunteers, using acrylic palatal appliances containing four human enamel blocks, two sound (to evaluate demineralization) and two with artificial caries lesions (to evaluate remineralization), took part in this study. During each phase, 10% sucrose solution was dripped (3 times a day) only onto the sound blocks. After 10 min, a slurry of placebo, fluoride (F) or fluoride and baking soda (F+NaHCO(3)) dentifrice was dripped onto all enamel blocks. The results showed a higher F concentration in dental plaque formed during treatment with F+NaHCO(3) than placebo (p<0.05), but the difference related to F dentifrice was not significant. The enamel demineralization was lower, and remineralization was greater, after treatment with F+NaHCO(3) than placebo (p<0.05), but the difference related to F dentifrice was not significant. The data suggest that baking soda neither improves nor impairs the effect of F dentifrice on reduction of demineralization and enhancement of remineralization of enamel. PMID:11275669

Cury, J A; Hashizume, L N; Del Bel Cury, A A; Tabchoury, C P

2001-01-01

321

Comparative Life Tables of the Potato Tuberworm, Phthorimaea operculella, on Leaves and Tubers of Different Potato Cultivars  

PubMed Central

The potato tuberworm, Phthorimaea operculella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a serious pest of the potato, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanales: Solanaceae), in both fields and stores in tropical and subtropical regions. In the present study, the susceptibility of different potato cultivars to P. operculella was evaluated by measuring life table parameters. Tests were undertaken with leaves and tubers of 10 potato cultivars in the laboratory: Agria, Agata, Almera, Arinda, Baneba, Fiana, Marfona, Ramus, Satina, and Volvox. All parameters showed significant differences among tested cultivars. The longest mean generation times were observed on Marfona and Satina cultivars in the experiments on potato leaves and tubers, respectively. The lowest reproductive rate was observed on leaves and tubers of Marfona cultivar. Correspondingly, the lowest values of intrinsic rate of increase and the lowest finite rate of increase were also obtained on Marfona cultivar in tests on potato leaves and tubers. The highest intrinsic rate of incrase values were observed on Arinda and Baneba in the tests on leaves and tubers, respectively. The intrinsic rates of increase were significantly higher on potato leaves than on potato tubers. The lower performance of P. operculella on Marfona cultivar indicated that this cultivar is relatively less susceptible this pest and could be used in integrated pest management programs of P. operculella.

Golizadeh, Ali; Esmaeili, Nader; Razmjou, Jabraeil; Rafiee-Dastjerdi, Hooshang

2014-01-01

322

Comparative life tables of the potato tuberworm, Phthorimaea operculella, on leaves and tubers of different potato cultivars.  

PubMed

The potato tuberworm, Phthorimaea operculella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a serious pest of the potato, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanales: Solanaceae), in both fields and stores in tropical and subtropical regions. In the present study, the susceptibility of different potato cultivars to P. operculella was evaluated by measuring life table parameters. Tests were undertaken with leaves and tubers of 10 potato cultivars in the laboratory: Agria, Agata, Almera, Arinda, Baneba, Fiana, Marfona, Ramus, Satina, and Volvox. All parameters showed significant differences among tested cultivars. The longest mean generation times were observed on Marfona and Satina cultivars in the experiments on potato leaves and tubers, respectively. The lowest reproductive rate was observed on leaves and tubers of Marfona cultivar. Correspondingly, the lowest values of intrinsic rate of increase and the lowest finite rate of increase were also obtained on Marfona cultivar in tests on potato leaves and tubers. The highest intrinsic rate of incrase values were observed on Arinda and Baneba in the tests on leaves and tubers, respectively. The intrinsic rates of increase were significantly higher on potato leaves than on potato tubers. The lower performance of P. operculella on Marfona cultivar indicated that this cultivar is relatively less susceptible this pest and could be used in integrated pest management programs of P. operculella. PMID:25373189

Golizadeh, Ali; Esmaeili, Nader; Razmjou, Jabraeil; Rafiee-Dastjerdi, Hooshang

2014-01-01

323

Basic physics of xylophone and marimba bars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The frequency-dependent wave velocity and nonsinusoidal spatial dependence found for transverse waves in finite vibrating bars stands in stark contrast to the solutions to the one-dimensional wave equation, for example for the idealized vibrating string. The difference is particularly important when the resulting vibrations are used to produce music. Here, the appropriate approximate equations for transverse vibrations on a uniform bar are developed and compared to measurements using wooden bars. The results are extended using a simple finite element model to provide a means to predict normal mode behavior in nonuniform wooden bars such as those used for xylophones, marimbas, and related musical instruments.

Suits, B. H.

2001-07-01

324

Dark matter halos of barred disk galaxies  

E-print Network

We use a large volume-limited sample of disk galaxies drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 to study the dependence of the bar fraction on the stellar to halo mass ratio, making use of a group catalog we identify central and satellite galaxies in our sample. For the central galaxies in the sample we estimate the stellar to halo mass ratio (M$_{\\mathrm{*}}/$M$_{\\mathrm{h}}$) and find that the fraction of barred galaxies is a strong function of this ratio, specially for the case of strong bars. Bars are more common on galaxies with high M$_{\\mathrm{*}}/$M$_{\\mathrm{h}}$ values, as expected from early theoretical works which showed that systems with massive dark matter halos are more stable against bar instabilities. We find that the change of the bar fraction with M$_{\\mathrm{h}}$ and M$_{\\mathrm{*}}$ is stronger if we consider a relation with the form $f_{\\mathrm{bar}}=f_{\\mathrm{bar}}$(M$_{\\mathrm{*}}^{\\alpha}/$M$_{\\mathrm{h}}$) with $\\alpha=1.5$, and therefore the bar fraction is largely ind...

Sodi, Bernardo Cervantes; Park, Changbom

2014-01-01

325

NGC 4340: Double Bar + Fossil Nuclear Ring  

E-print Network

NGC 4340 is a double-barred SB0 galaxy in the Virgo cluster (Wozniak et al. 1995). Here, we present evidence that this galaxy also posseses a luminous stellar nuclear ring of relatively old stars with little or no gas. The ring lies just outside the inner bar, at the probable inner inner Lindblad resonance (IILR) of the outer bar. Careful inspection of the isophotes and unsharp masks shows that the two bars are slightly misaligned, which suggests they may be independently rotating.

P. Erwin; J. C. Vega Beltran; J. E. Beckman

2000-09-12

326

Cardioinhibitory properties of potato glycoalkaloids in beetles.  

PubMed

The semi-isolated heart bioassay was used to evaluate the effect of glycoalkaloids extracted from potato leaves on the heart contractile activity of three beetle species Zophobas atratus, Tenebrio molitor and Leptinotarsa decemlineata. The dose-response curves indicated species specific action of tested substances. Application of glycoalkaloids on the continuously perfused Z. atratus heart inhibited progressively frequency contractions; higher concentrations exerted short and reversible cardiac arrests. In the rest two beetle species tested glycoalkaloids caused no cardiotropic effect. In vivo bioassay with 1 day old Z. atratus pupae showed that the extract induces a negative inotropic effect on the heart. PMID:20024528

Marciniak, Pawe?; Adamski, Zbigniew; Bednarz, Pawe?; Slocinska, Malgorzata; Ziemnicki, Kazimierz; Lelario, Filomena; Scrano, Laura; Bufo, Sabino A

2010-02-01

327

Aphid specific predators in potato in Belgium.  

PubMed

In summer 2003, aphid specific predators populations were sampled in four potato fields located in Wallonia. Ladybirds, hoverflies and lacewings were the most abundant predators collected. A total of 6 ladybird, 8 syrphid and 2 lacewing species was found. Predator species composition and abundance greatly differed from field to field, while aphids populations were more or less similar with a peak of 3 to 5 aphid/potato leaf in mid-July. All chrysopidae sampled belong to the Chrysoperla kolthoffi (NAVAS) species except 2 specimens of Chrysopa perla L. Episyrphus balteatus DEGEER was the dominant syrphid species. Sphaerophoria scripta L. and Syrphus vitripiennis MEIGEN were subdominant species and 1 or 2 specimens of Melanostoma scalare F., Melanostoma mellinum (L.), Melliscaeva cinctella (ZETTERSTED), Metasyrphus corollae (F.) and Platycheirus albimanus F. were also collected. Coccinella septempunctata (L.) and Propylea quatuordecimpunctata (L.) were the dominant ladybird species. P. 14-punctata was proportionally more abundant in beating samples than with visual inspection samples, indicating that this ladybird is probably more discrete than C. septempunctata and that their populations can be underestimated with only visual inspection. Adalia bipunctata (L.) was also present in nearly all samples, but with lower levels of populations. Coccinella quinquepunctata (L.) and Adalia tenpunctata (L.) were found in small numbers at one occasion. Larvae and adults of Harmonia axyridis PALLAS, the multicoloured Asian beetle introduced in glasshouse for aphid control, were found in 3 fields out of 4, with 1.5 to 6% of ladybirds sampled. This is the first record of H. axyridis in open field in Belgium. As this beetle has been found in numbers at different locations and with different growth stages including larvae and pupae, it is supposed that H. axyridis is adapted to ware potato aphid and able to complete a full life cycle in this crop. As this species is very competitive for exploitation of food resources and aggressive for other predators, they are several questions about the evolution in the future of aphid specific predator biodiversity in ware potato. PMID:15759406

Jansen, J P; Warnier, A M

2004-01-01

328

Cultural systems for growing potatoes in space.  

PubMed

Higher plants are being evaluated for life support to provide needed food, oxygen and water as well as removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The successful utilization of plants in space will require the development of not only highly productive growing systems but also highly efficient bioregenerative systems. It will be necessary to recycle all inedible plant parts and all human wastes so that the entire complement of elemental compounds can be reused. Potatoes have been proposed as one of the desirable crops because they are 1) extremely productive, yielding more than 100 metric tons per hectare from field plantings, 2) the edible tubers are high in digestible starch (70%) and protein (10%) on a dry weight basis, 3) up to 80% of the total plant production is in tubers and thus edible, 4) the plants are easily propagated either from tubers or from tissue culture plantlets, 5) the tubers can be utilized with a minimum of processing, and 6) potatoes can be prepared in a variety of different forms for the human diet (Tibbitts et al., 1982). However potatoes have a growth pattern that complicates the development of growing the plants in controlled systems. Tubers are borne on underground stems that are botanically termed 'rhizomes', but in common usage termed 'stolons'. The stolons must be maintained in a dark, moist area with sufficient provision for enlargement of tubers. Stems rapidly terminate in flowers forcing extensive branching and spreading of plants so that individual plants will cover 0.2 m2 or more area. Thus the growing system must be developed to provide an area that is darkened for tuber and root growth and of sufficient size for plant spread. A system developed for growing potatoes, or any plants, in space will have certain requirements that must be met to make them a useful part of a life support system. The system must 1) be constructed of materials, and involve media, that can be reused for many successive cycles of plant growth, 2) involve a minimum quantity of media, 3) contain media that is essentially inert and not oxidize or degrade with use, 4) utilize a recirculating nutrient solution to permit regulation of pH and nutrient concentrations, and 5) be capable of complete automation of all planting, maintenance and harvesting procedures. PMID:11539774

Tibbitts, T; Bula, R; Corey, R; Morrow, R

1988-01-01

329

Cultural systems for growing potatoes in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Higher plants are being evaluated for life support to provide needed food, oxygen and water as well as removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The successful utilization of plants in space will require the development of not only highly productive growing systems but also highly efficient bioregenerative systems. It will be necessary to recycle all inedible plant parts and all human wastes so that the entire complement of elemental compounds can be reused. Potatoes have been proposed as one of the desirable crops because they are 1) extremely productive, yielding more than 100 metric tons per hectare from field plantings, 2) the edible tubers are high in digestible starch (70%) and protein (10%) on a dry weight basis, 3) up to 80% of the total plant production is in tubers and thus edible, 4) the plants are easily propagated either from tubers or from tissue culture plantlets, 5) the tubers can be utilized with a minimum of processing, and 6) potatoes can be prepared in a variety of different forms for the human diet (Tibbitts et al., 1982). However potatoes have a growth pattern that complicates the development of growing the plants in controlled systems. Tubers are borne on underground stems that are botanically termed 'rhizomes', but in common usage termed 'stolons'. The stolons must be maintained in a dark, moist area with sufficient provision for enlargement of tubers. Stems rapidly terminate in flowers forcing extensive branching and spreading of plants so that individual plants will cover 0.2 m2 or more area. Thus the growing system must be developed to provide an area that is darkened for tuber and root growth and of sufficient size for plant spread. A system developed for growing potatoes, or any plants, in space will have certain requirements that must be met to make them a useful part of a life support system. The system must 1) be constructed of materials, and involve media, that can be reused for many successive cycles of plant growth, 2) involve a minimum quantity of media, 3) contain media that is essentially inert and not oxidize or degrade with use, 4) utilize a recirculating nutrient solution to permit regulation of pH and nutrient concentrations, and 5) be capable of complete automation of all planting, maintenance and harvesting procedures.

Tibbitts, T.; Bula, R.; Corey, R.; Morrow, R.

1988-01-01

330

Introduction Potato Types and Uses The potato is native to the Andean region of South Potato varieties vary according to shape, flesh color  

E-print Network

potatoes grow under the soil, the fruits of your labor will become most affect a variety's use- apparent weeKS after planting, Soil Preparation and Fertility and resuIts from the production and movement be periormed before planting. The best soil pH for potatoes is between 5.5 and 6.0. A pH above 6.0 may increase

Douches, David S.

331

A WIYN Survey of Early-Type Barred Galaxies: Double Bars and Central Structures  

E-print Network

We present results from a preliminary analysis of a recently-completed, multicolor imaging survey of nearby, early-type barred galaxies in the field, carried out with the WIYN telescope and supplemented with archival HST images. This forms a reasonably complete sample of nearby, bright, barred S0 and Sa galaxies in the field. The excellent seeing provided by WIYN allows us to examine the galaxies for central features such as circumnuclear rings and secondary bars; we find some evidence for dust lanes within secondary bars. The most striking results is the high frequency of double bars: our analysis suggests that at least $\\sim 20%$ of barred S0-Sa galaxies possess secondary bars}. We also find an excellent candidate triply barred galaxy: NGC 2681.

Peter Erwin; Linda S. Sparke

1998-11-21

332

Influence of baking conditions and precursor supplementation on the amounts of the antioxidant pronyl-L-lysine in bakery products.  

PubMed

The influence of baking conditions and dough supplements on the amounts of the antioxidant and Phase II-Enzyme modulating, protein-bound 2,4-dihydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-1-(5-acetamino-5-methoxycarbonyl-pentyl)-3-oxo-2H-pyrrol (pronyl-L-lysine) in bakery products was investigated in quantitative studies. These studies revealed high amounts of the antioxidant in bread crust, only low amounts in the crumb, and the absence of this compound in untreated flour. The amounts of pronyl-L-lysine were found to be strongly influenced by the intensity of the thermal treatment. For example, increasing the baking time from 70 to 210 min or increasing the baking temperature from 220 to 260 degrees C led to a 5- or 3-fold increase in the concentrations of this antioxidant in the crust, respectively. In addition, modifications in the recipe showed to have a major impact on pronyl-L-lysine formation. For example, substituting 5% of the flour with the lysine-rich protein casein or with 10% of glucose increased the amounts of the antioxidant by more than 200%. Quantitative analyses of commercial bread samples collected from German bakeries revealed the highest amount of 43 mg/kg for a full grain bread, followed by a rye/wheat bread, both of which have been sourdough fermented. A mixed-grain bread as well as pale wheat bread, both prepared without sourdough fermentation, contained significantly lower amounts of pronyl-L-lysine, and German pretzels, which are treated with a dilute sodium hydroxide solution prior to baking, contained only trace amounts of pronyl-L-lysine (e.g., less than 5 mg/kg were detectable in pretzels). Systematic studies revealed that the decrease of the pH value induced by microbial acid formation during sourdough fermentation is the clue for producing high amounts of pronyl-L-lysine in baking products. These data clearly demonstrate for the first time that the amounts of the antioxidant and chemopreventive compound pronyl-L-lysine in bakery products is strongly dependent on the manufacturing conditions as well as the recipe. PMID:14733520

Lindenmeier, Michael; Hofmann, Thomas

2004-01-28

333

The effects of storage on starch characteristics and chip quality of Texas Irish potatoes  

E-print Network

of potato varieties at different storage temperatures and relative humidities 14 4. Changes in dry matter percent of potatoes stored at dii'ferent temperatures snd relative humitities 18 5. Potato starch grains. (4) Large starch grains (B) Small starch.... CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION The Irish potato is one of the more important agricultural products in the world. Starch, comprising some 65 to 80 percent of the dry weight of the potato tuber, is calorically the most important nutritional component. Since...

McDonald, Roy E

2012-06-07

334

Occurrence and physico-chemical properties of protease inhibitors from potato tuber (Solanum tuberosum)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potato proteins are present in a by-product of the potato starch industry, the so-called potato juice. They are recovered by an acidic heat-treatment of the potato juice. This results in a completely irreversible precipitation of the proteins, with a complete loss of functionality for food applications. This explains that so far potato proteins are only used in low-value applications such

L. A. M. Pouvreau

2004-01-01

335

Evolution of the Chocolate Bar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The majority of both student and faculty populations react quite favorably to chocolate and may even know something about its history. The movie Chocolat made millions, partly due to its starring actors, but also because the move drew salivating viewers to the multiple applications of chocolate. With its stimulant properties, chocolate generally makes people feel good. For purposes of this essay, chocolate also has the fortunate characteristic of appearing in many different sizes, shapes, and combinations. In this exercise, dubbed 'Evolution of the Chocolate Bar,' students build the most plausible phylogenetic tree based on identified synapomorphies of different 'species,' i.e. brands of chocolate. The exercise described below is easily assembled, works as a class demonstration or could be modified into small group projects, and also fits a variety of class timeframes. Substantial lines of inquiry could also be developed from this example.

Romi Burks (Southwestern University;); Larry Boles (Southwestern University;)

2007-04-20

336

Too Much Bar and Not Enough Mitzvah? A Proposed Research Agenda on Bar/Bat Mitzvah  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Jewish educators are understandably interested in research on how bar/bat mitzvah affect Jewish education or research on what Jewish schools have done to avoid the distortions of a focus on bar/bat mitzvah. Research might also focus on the somewhat different and more ambitious topic of the role that bar/bat mitzvah play in contemporary Jewish…

Schoenfeld, Stuart

2010-01-01

337

THE EL FAROL BAR PROBLEM AND COMPUTATIONAL EFFORT: WHY PEOPLE FAIL TO USE BARS EFFICIENTLY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Does how much an agent thinks about its own actions affect the global properties of a system? We use the El Farol Bar Problem to investigate this question. In this model, the El Farol Bar represents a scarce resource. Does the amount of computational ability that agents possess affect resource utilization? For instance, if agents attend the bar randomly on

WILLIAM RAND; FORREST STONEDAHL

338

In Vitro Conservation of Sweet Potato Genotypes  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to develop a protocol for the in vitro conservation of sweet potato genotypes using the slow growth technique. The first experiment was conducted in a 4 × 5 × 2 factorial scheme, testing four genotypes (IPB-007, IPB-052, IPB-072, and IPB-137), five concentrations of abscisic acid (ABA) (0.0, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 8.0?mg·L?1), and two temperatures (18 and 25°C). The second experiment was conducted in a 4 × 3 × 3 factorial scheme at 18°C, testing four genotypes (IPB-007, IPB-052, IPB-072, and IPB-137), three variations of MS salts (50, 75, and 100%), and three concentrations of sucrose (10, 20, and 30?g·L?1). Every three months, we evaluated the survival (%), shoot height, and shoot viability. In vitro conservation of the sweet potato genotypes IPB-052 and IPB-007 was obtained over three and six months, respectively, using MS medium plus 2.0?mg·L?1 of ABA at either 18 or 25°C. Genotypes IPB-072 and IPB-137 can be kept for three and six months, respectively, in MS medium without ABA at 18°C. It is possible to store IPB-052 and IPB-072 for six months and IPB-007 and IPB-137 for nine months using 30?g·L?1 of sucrose and 50% MS salts. PMID:24563627

Arrigoni-Blank, Maria de Fatima; Tavares, Fernanda Ferreira; dos Santos, Maria Clezia; Menezes, Thays Saynara Alves; de Santana, Alea Dayane Dantas

2014-01-01

339

Physical and hydraulic properties of baked ceramic aggregates used for plant growth medium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Baked ceramic aggregates (fritted clay, arcillite) have been used for plant research both on the ground and in microgravity. Optimal control of water and air within the root zone in any gravity environment depends on physical and hydraulic properties of the aggregate, which were evaluated for 0.25-1-mm and 1-2-mm particle size distributions. The maximum bulk densities obtained by any packing technique were 0.68 and 0.64 g cm-3 for 0.25-1-mm and 1-2-mm particles, respectively. Wettable porosity obtained by infiltration with water was approximately 65%, substantially lower than total porosity of approximately 74%. Aggregate of both particle sizes exhibited a bimodal pore size distribution consisting of inter-aggregate macropores and intra-aggregate micropores, with the transition from macro- to microporosity beginning at volumetric water content of approximately 36% to 39%. For inter-aggregate water contents that support optimal plant growth there is 45% change in water content that occurs over a relatively small matric suction range of 0-20 cm H2O for 0.25-1-mm and 0 to -10 cm H2O for 1-2-mm aggregate. Hysteresis is substantial between draining and wetting aggregate, which results in as much as a approximately 10% to 20% difference in volumetric water content for a given matric potential. Hydraulic conductivity was approximately an order of magnitude higher for 1-2-mm than for 0.25-1-mm aggregate until significant drainage of the inter-aggregate pore space occurred. The large change in water content for a relatively small change in matric potential suggests that significant differences in water retention may be observed in microgravity as compared to earth.

Steinberg, Susan L.; Kluitenberg, Gerard J.; Jones, Scott B.; Daidzic, Nihad E.; Reddi, Lakshmi N.; Xiao, Ming; Tuller, Markus; Newman, Rebecca M.; Or, Dani; Alexander, J. Iwan. D.

2005-01-01

340

Physicochemical, nutritional, and sensory qualities of wine grape pomace fortified baked goods.  

PubMed

Wine grape pomace (WGP) as a source of antioxidant dietary fiber (DF) was used to fortify baked goods, including breads, muffins, and brownies. Pinot Noir WGP (RWGP) and Pinot Grigio WGP (WWGP) substituted wheat flour at concentration of 5%, 10%, and 15% for bread, 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25% RWGP for brownies, and 5%, 10%, and 15% RWGP or 10%, 15%, and 20% WWGP for muffins. The finished products were evaluated for total phenolic content (TPC), radical scavenging activity (RSA), and total DF, as well as physicochemical and sensory properties. WGP flour blends were also tested for solvent retention capacity (SRC). The highest TPC and RSA values for bread and muffins were achieved in 15% RWGP fortified samples with TPC and RSA values of 68.32 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/serving and 80.70 AAE mg/serving, respectively for bread, and 2164 mg GAE/serving and 1526 mg AAE/serving, respectively for muffins. Brownies fortified with 10% RWGP had the highest RSA value (115.52 mg AAE/serving) while the control had the highest TPC value (1152 mg GAE/serving). Breads and muffins with 15% RWGP and brownies with 25% RWGP had the highest amount of DF (6.33, 12.32, and 7.73 g/serving, respectively). Sensory evaluation concluded that there is no difference in overall liking of 5% and 10% RWGP breads and muffins or 15% and 20% WGP brownies compared to the controls. This study demonstrated that WGP is a viable functional ingredient in bakery goods to increase TPC, RSA, and DF in consumer's diets. PMID:25102950

Walker, Rebecca; Tseng, Angela; Cavender, George; Ross, Andrew; Zhao, Yanyun

2014-09-01

341

Bar Study Stories. Issues in Prevention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of "Issues in Prevention" focuses on the impact of the availability of drinks in licensed establishments, such as bars and taverns on student drinking. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Cheap Drinks at College Bars Can Escalate Student Drinking (John D. Clapp); (2) High Alcohol Outlet Density: A Problem for Campuses and…

Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

2012-01-01

342

Algorithms: Greedy Algorithms Amotz Bar-Noy  

E-print Network

Algorithms: Greedy Algorithms Amotz Bar-Noy CUNY Spring 2012 Amotz Bar-Noy (CUNY) Greedy Algorithms Spring 2012 1 / 62 #12;Greedy Algorithms Greedy algorithms make decisions that "seem" to be the best) Greedy Algorithms Spring 2012 2 / 62 #12;How and When to use Greedy Algorithms? Initial solution

Bar-Noy, Amotz

343

Adventures of a tidally induced bar  

E-print Network

Using N-body simulations, we study the properties of a bar induced in a dwarf galaxy as a result of tidal interaction with the Milky Way. The dwarf is initially composed of a disk embedded in a dark matter halo and we follow its evolution on a typical orbit for 10 Gyr. It undergoes an evolution typical of tidally stirred dwarf galaxies: it loses mass, the stellar component transforms from a disk to a spheroid and the rotation of the stars is partially replaced by random motions. A tidally induced bar forms at the first pericentre passage and survives until the end of the evolution. Fourier decomposition of the distribution of stars reveals that only even modes are significant and preserve a hierarchy so that the bar mode is always the strongest. They show a characteristic profile with a maximum, similar to simulated bars forming in isolated galaxies and observed bars in real galaxies. We adopt the maximum of the bar mode as a measure of the bar strength and we estimate the bar length by comparing the density ...

Lokas, E L; Debattista, V P; Valluri, M; del Pino, A; Semczuk, M; Gajda, G; Kowalczyk, K

2014-01-01

344

$\\bar K$-Nuclear Deeply Bound States?  

E-print Network

Following the prediction by Akaishi and Yamazaki of relatively narrow $\\bar K$-nuclear states, deeply bound by over 100 MeV where the main decay channel $\\bar K N \\to \\pi \\Sigma$ is closed, several experimental signals in stopped $K^-$ reactions on light nuclei have been interpreted recently as due to such states. In this talk I review (i) the evidence from $K^-$-atom data for a {\\it deep} $\\bar K$-nucleus potential, as attractive as $V_{\\bar K}(\\rho_0) \\sim -(150 - 200)$ MeV at nuclear matter density, that could support such states; and (ii) the theoretical arguments for a {\\it shallow} potential, $V_{\\bar K}(\\rho_0) \\sim -(40 - 60)$ MeV. I then review a recent work by Mare\\v{s}, Friedman and Gal in which $\\bar K$-nuclear bound states are generated dynamically across the periodic table, using a RMF Lagrangian that couples the $\\bar K$ to the scalar and vector meson fields mediating the nuclear interactions. Substantial polarization of the core nucleus is found for light nuclei, with central nuclear densities enhanced by almost a factor of two. The binding energies and widths calculated in this dynamical model differ appreciably from those calculated for a static nucleus. These calculations provide a lower limit of $\\Gamma_{\\bar K} \\sim 50 \\pm 10$ MeV on the width of nuclear bound states for $\\bar K$ binding energy in the range $B_{\\bar K} = 100 - 200$ MeV.

Avraham Gal

2006-04-25

345

Increasing the efficiency of agronomy experiments in potato using INFOCROP-POTATO model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  This paper reports adaptations of a generic crop model IN FOCROP for potato and its application in increasing the efficiency\\u000a of agronomic experiments in tropical environments. A dataset of 13 experiments consisting of 153 treatments was assembled\\u000a from an extensive literature search. These experiments were conducted over the period 1976-1999 in diverse Indian locations\\u000a from 31 °N 75 ° E

J. P. Singh; P. M. Govindakrishnan; S. S. Lal; P. K. Aggarwal

2005-01-01

346

Seed transmission of potato spindle tuber virus in tomato and potato  

Microsoft Academic Search

A PSTV isolate originating from the Schultz virus collection was obtained from Dr. W. B. Raymer, U.S.D.A., Beltsville, Maryland. A potato seedling (ND 3671-1) infected with PSTV in North Dakota was also used in some crosses. The tomato cultivar Sheyenne, was used for making crosses. Crosses were made in four possible combinations: healthy female x healthy male (H x H);

Rudra P. Singh

1970-01-01

347

The potato genetic resources held in trust by the International Potato Center (CIP) in Peru  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Potatoes account for about half of the world's annual output of all roots and tubers, and since the early 1960s, the increase\\u000a in area planted in developing countries has been higher than for any other major food crop. Annual world production currently\\u000a totals 274 million tons on 18 million hectares, with China and India accounting for 22 percent of this

Zósimo Huamán; Peter Schmiediche

1999-01-01

348

Rhizosphere Communities of Genetically Modified Zeaxanthin-Accumulating Potato Plants and Their Parent Cultivar Differ Less than Those of Different Potato Cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Received 19 February 2009\\/Accepted 10 April 2009 The effects of genetically modified (GM), zeaxanthin-accumulating potato plants on microbial communities in the rhizosphere were compared to the effects of different potato cultivars. Two GM lines and their parental cultivar, as well as four other potato cultivars, were grown in randomized field plots at two sites and in different years. Rhizosphere samples

Nicole Weinert; Remo Meincke; Christine Gottwald; Holger Heuer; Newton C. M. Gomes; Michael Schloter; Gabriele Berg; Kornelia Smalla

2009-01-01

349

Search for B^0-> p p-bar, Lambda Lambda-bar and B^+ -> p Lambda-bar at Belle  

E-print Network

We report on a new search for two-body baryonic decays of the B meson. Improved sensitivity compared to previous Belle results is obtained from 414 fb^-1 of data that corresponds to 449 million B B-bar pairs, which were taken on the Upsilon(4S) resonance and collected with the Belle detector at the KEKB e^+e^- collider. No significant signals are observed and we set the 90% confidence level upper limits: Br(B^0-> p pbar) Lambda Lambda-bar) p Lambda-bar) < 3.2X10^-7.

Y. -T. Tsai; P. Chang

2007-03-30

350

Cam-controlled boring bar  

DOEpatents

A cam-controlled boring bar system (100) includes a first housing (152) which is rotatable about its longitudinal axis (154), and a second housing in the form of a cam-controlled slide (158) which is also rotatable about the axis (154) as well as being translatable therealong. A tool-holder (180) is mounted within the slide (158) for holding a single point cutting tool. Slide (158) has a rectangular configuration and is disposed within a rectangularly configured portion of the first housing (152). Arcuate cam slots (192) are defined within a side plate (172) of the housing (152), while cam followers (194) are mounted upon the cam slide (158) for cooperative engagement with the cam slots (192). In this manner, as the housing (152) and slide (158) rotate, and as the slide (158) also translates, a through-bore (14) having an hourglass configuration will be formed within a workpiece (16) which may be, for example, a nuclear reactor steam generator tube support plate.

Glatthorn, Raymond H. (St. Petersburg, FL)

1986-01-01

351

7 CFR 980.501 - Safeguard procedures for potatoes, onions, and tomatoes exempt from grade, size, quality, and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...procedures for potatoes, onions, and tomatoes exempt from grade, size, quality...procedures for potatoes, onions, and tomatoes exempt from grade, size, quality...imports: (1) Potatoes, onions or tomatoes for consumption by charitable...

2012-01-01

352

7 CFR 980.501 - Safeguard procedures for potatoes, onions, and tomatoes exempt from grade, size, quality, and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...procedures for potatoes, onions, and tomatoes exempt from grade, size, quality...procedures for potatoes, onions, and tomatoes exempt from grade, size, quality...imports: (1) Potatoes, onions or tomatoes for consumption by charitable...

2011-01-01

353

7 CFR 980.501 - Safeguard procedures for potatoes, onions, and tomatoes exempt from grade, size, quality, and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...procedures for potatoes, onions, and tomatoes exempt from grade, size, quality...procedures for potatoes, onions, and tomatoes exempt from grade, size, quality...imports: (1) Potatoes, onions or tomatoes for consumption by charitable...

2010-01-01

354

7 CFR 980.501 - Safeguard procedures for potatoes, onions, and tomatoes exempt from grade, size, quality, and...  

...procedures for potatoes, onions, and tomatoes exempt from grade, size, quality...procedures for potatoes, onions, and tomatoes exempt from grade, size, quality...imports: (1) Potatoes, onions or tomatoes for consumption by charitable...

2014-01-01

355

7 CFR 980.501 - Safeguard procedures for potatoes, onions, and tomatoes exempt from grade, size, quality, and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...procedures for potatoes, onions, and tomatoes exempt from grade, size, quality...procedures for potatoes, onions, and tomatoes exempt from grade, size, quality...imports: (1) Potatoes, onions or tomatoes for consumption by charitable...

2013-01-01

356

32 CFR 776.66 - Bar admission and disciplinary matters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Bar admission and disciplinary matters. 776.66 Section 776.66 National...776.66 Bar admission and disciplinary matters. (a) Bar admission and disciplinary matters. A covered attorney, in...

2012-07-01

357

32 CFR 776.66 - Bar admission and disciplinary matters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Bar admission and disciplinary matters. 776.66 Section 776.66 National...776.66 Bar admission and disciplinary matters. (a) Bar admission and disciplinary matters. A covered attorney, in...

2013-07-01

358

33 CFR 13.01-40 - Miniature medals and bars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-40 Miniature medals and bars. (a) Miniature Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals and bars are replicas of...

2013-07-01

359

33 CFR 13.01-40 - Miniature medals and bars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-40 Miniature medals and bars. (a) Miniature Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals and bars are replicas of...

2010-07-01

360

33 CFR 13.01-40 - Miniature medals and bars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-40 Miniature medals and bars. (a) Miniature Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals and bars are replicas of...

2012-07-01

361

33 CFR 13.01-40 - Miniature medals and bars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-40 Miniature medals and bars. (a) Miniature Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals and bars are replicas of...

2011-07-01

362

21 CFR 201.25 - Bar code label requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bar code label requirements. 201.25 Section...General Labeling Provisions § 201.25 Bar code label requirements. (a) Who is subject to these bar code requirements? Manufacturers,...

2013-04-01

363

21 CFR 201.25 - Bar code label requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bar code label requirements. 201.25 Section...General Labeling Provisions § 201.25 Bar code label requirements. (a) Who is subject to these bar code requirements? Manufacturers,...

2011-04-01

364

21 CFR 201.25 - Bar code label requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bar code label requirements. 201.25 Section...General Labeling Provisions § 201.25 Bar code label requirements. (a) Who is subject to these bar code requirements? Manufacturers,...

2012-04-01

365

21 CFR 201.25 - Bar code label requirements.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bar code label requirements. 201.25 Section...General Labeling Provisions § 201.25 Bar code label requirements. (a) Who is subject to these bar code requirements? Manufacturers,...

2014-04-01

366

32 CFR 776.66 - Bar admission and disciplinary matters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Bar admission and disciplinary matters. 776.66 Section 776.66 National...776.66 Bar admission and disciplinary matters. (a) Bar admission and disciplinary matters. A covered attorney, in...

2011-07-01

367

32 CFR 776.66 - Bar admission and disciplinary matters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Bar admission and disciplinary matters. 776.66 Section 776.66 National...776.66 Bar admission and disciplinary matters. (a) Bar admission and disciplinary matters. A covered attorney, in...

2010-07-01

368

32 CFR 776.66 - Bar admission and disciplinary matters.  

...2014-07-01 false Bar admission and disciplinary matters. 776.66 Section 776.66 National...776.66 Bar admission and disciplinary matters. (a) Bar admission and disciplinary matters. A covered attorney, in...

2014-07-01

369

Search for the Decay [bar over B][superscript 0] ? ?[+ over c][bar over p]p[bar over p  

E-print Network

We report a search for the decay [bar over B][superscript 0] ? ?[+ over c][bar over p]p[bar over p]. Using a data sample of 471 × 10[superscript 6] B[bar over B] pairs collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II2 storage ...

Cowan, Ray Franklin

370

7 CFR 980.1 - Import regulations; Irish potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Department of Agriculture and the Food of Plant Origin Division, Plant Products Directorate, Canadian Food Inspection Agency, are hereby...potatoes imported for canning, freezing, other processing, livestock...Processing includes canning, freezing, dehydration, chips,...

2010-01-01

371

7 CFR 980.1 - Import regulations; Irish potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Department of Agriculture and the Food of Plant Origin Division, Plant Products Directorate, Canadian Food Inspection Agency, are hereby...potatoes imported for canning, freezing, other processing, livestock...Processing includes canning, freezing, dehydration, chips,...

2011-01-01

372

7 CFR 980.1 - Import regulations; Irish potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Department of Agriculture and the Food of Plant Origin Division, Plant Products Directorate, Canadian Food Inspection Agency, are hereby...potatoes imported for canning, freezing, other processing, livestock...Processing includes canning, freezing, dehydration, chips,...

2013-01-01

373

7 CFR 980.1 - Import regulations; Irish potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Department of Agriculture and the Food of Plant Origin Division, Plant Products Directorate, Canadian Food Inspection Agency, are hereby...potatoes imported for canning, freezing, other processing, livestock...Processing includes canning, freezing, dehydration, chips,...

2012-01-01

374

7 CFR 318.13-25 - Sweet potatoes from Hawaii.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Sweet potatoes from Hawaii. 318.13-25 Section...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE OF HAWAII AND TERRITORIES QUARANTINE...untreated sweetpotato from Hawaii for treatment on the mainland United States in accordance with...

2010-01-01

375

Alcohol fermentation of sweet potato. Membrane reactor in enzymatic hydrolysis  

SciTech Connect

Use of ultrafiltration membrane systems in stirred cell and in thin-channel systems for immobilizing enzyme (sweet potato intrinsic and crystalline /beta/-amylase) in hydrolysis of sweet potato through a continuous operation mode were studied. Both the filtration rate and reducing sugars, produced as the result of enzymatic hydrolysis, decreased with the filtration time. THe immobilized enzymes in the thin-channel system showed a much better performance compared to that in the stirred cell system. Addition of crystalline sweet potato /beta/-amylase to the sweet potato increased both the filtration rate and reducing-sugars content. Alcoholic fermentation of the filtrate resulted in an alcohol content of 4.2%. This represented fermentation of 95% of the sugars with an efficiency of 88%. 17 refs.

Azhar, A.; Hamdy, M.K.

1981-06-01

376

Alcohol fermentation of sweet potato. Membrane reactor in enzymic hydrolysis  

SciTech Connect

Use of ultrafiltration membrane systems in stirred cell and in thin-channel systems for immobilizing enzyme (sweet potato intrinsic and crystalline beta-amylase) in hydrolysis of sweet potato through a continuous operation mode were studied. Both the filtration rate and reducing sugars, produced as the result of enzymic hydrolysis, decreased with the filtration time. The immobilized enzymes in the thin-channel system showed a much better performance compared to that in the stirred cell system. Addition of crystalline sweet potato beta-amylase to the sweet potato increased both the filtration rate and reducing-sugars content. Alcohol fermentation of the filtrate resulted in an alcohol content of 4.2%. This represented fermentation of 95% of the sugars with an efficiency of 88%.

Azhar, A.; Hamdy, M.K.

1981-01-01

377

The Influence of Bars on Nuclear Activity  

E-print Network

We test ideas on fueling of galactic nuclei by bar-driven inflow by comparing the detection rate and intensity of nuclear H II regions and AGNs among barred and unbarred galaxies in a sample of over 300 spirals selected from our recent optical spectroscopic survey of nearby galaxies. Among late-type spirals (Sc-Sm), but not early-type (S0/a-Sbc), we observe in the barred group a very marginal increase in the detection rate of H II nuclei and a corresponding decrease in the incidence of AGNs. The minor differences in the detection rates, however, are statistically insignificant, most likely stemming from selection effects and not from a genuine influence from the bar. The presence of a bar seems to have no noticeable impact on the likelihood of a galaxy to host either nuclear star formation or an AGN. The nuclei of early-type barred spirals do exhibit measurably higher star-formation rates than their unbarred counterparts, as indicated by either the luminosity or the equivalent width of H-alpha emission. By contrast, late-type spirals do not show such an effect. Bars have a negligible effect on the strength of the AGNs in our sample, regardless of the Hubble type of the host galaxy. This result confirms similar conclusions reached by other studies based on much smaller samples.

Luis C. Ho; Alexei V. Filippenko; Wallace L. W. Sargent

1997-04-11

378

Galaxy Zoo: bars in disc galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present first results from Galaxy Zoo 2, the second phase of the highly successful Galaxy Zoo project (). Using a volume-limited sample of 13 665 disc galaxies (0.01 < z < 0.06 and Mr < -19.38), we study the fraction of galaxies with bars as a function of global galaxy properties like colour, luminosity and bulge prominence. Overall, 29.4 ± 0.5 per cent of galaxies in our sample have a bar, in excellent agreement with previous visually classified samples of galaxies (although this overall fraction is lower than that measured by automated bar-finding methods). We see a clear increase in the bar fraction with redder (g-r) colours, decreased luminosity and in galaxies with more prominent bulges, to the extent that over half of the red, bulge-dominated disc galaxies in our sample possess a bar. We see evidence for a colour bimodality for our sample of disc galaxies, with a 'red sequence' that is both bulge and bar dominated, and a 'blue cloud' which has little, or no, evidence for a (classical) bulge or bar. These results are consistent with similar trends for barred galaxies seen recently both locally and at higher redshift, and with early studies using the RC3. We discuss these results in the context of internal (secular) galaxy evolution scenarios and the possible links to the formation of bars and bulges in disc galaxies. This publication has been made possible by the participation of more than 200 000 volunteers in the Galaxy Zoo project. Their contributions are individually acknowledged at http://www.galaxyzoo.org/Volunteers.aspx

Masters, Karen L.; Nichol, Robert C.; Hoyle, Ben; Lintott, Chris; Bamford, Steven P.; Edmondson, Edward M.; Fortson, Lucy; Keel, William C.; Schawinski, Kevin; Smith, Arfon M.; Thomas, Daniel

2011-03-01

379

ShelfLife Extension of Fresh Ready-to-Bake Pizza by the Application of Modified Atmosphere Packaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combined effects of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and refrigeration (7±1 °C) were studied on shelf-life extension of\\u000a ready-to-bake pizza. The gas atmospheres in the present study included four variables, namely viz. MAP1, air (control); MAP 2,\\u000a 100% CO2; MAP 3, 100% N2; and MAP 4, 50%CO2\\/50%N2. The effect of MAP variables was observed for moisture content, water activity, pH, titratable acidity, free fatty acids,

Preeti Singh; Ali Abas Wani; Gyanendra K. Goyal

380

Study of hydrogen peroxide, potato enzymes and blackspot  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rate of oxidation of tyrosine, p-cresol and catechol by potato enzyme diminished as H2O2 concentration increased. By contrast, the rate of oxidation of chlorogenic acid in the presence of H2O2 increased. Bovine catalase destroyed H2O2 and thus effectively prevented either H2O2-induced inhibition or acceleration of oxidation of the four substrates by potato enzyme. Horseradish peroxidase in the presence\\u000a of

M. L. Weaver; E. Hautala

1970-01-01

381

Acidic peroxidases from suspension-cultures of sweet potato  

Microsoft Academic Search

We established an efficient production system of peroxidase (POD, EC 1.11.1.7) in cultured cells of sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. cv White Star]. A cell line SP-47 derived from cell suspension cultures of sweet potato produced a level of POD, i.e. ca 6800 units g?1 dry cell wt (substrate, pyrogallol) when 1 g (fr. wt) of cells was inoculated

Sang-Soo Kwak; Soo-Kyung Kim; Moon-Soon Lee; Kyung-Hee Jung; Il-Hyun Park; Jang-Ryol Liu

1995-01-01

382

Advances in Functional Genomics and Genetic Modification of Potato  

Microsoft Academic Search

The challenges facing potato breeding have actually changed very little over the years with resistance to pests and pathogens\\u000a remaining high on the agenda together with improvements in storability, reduction in blemishes, and novelty and consistency\\u000a in cooking\\/processing qualities. The need to expand the range of targets for potato improvement is being driven by requirements\\u000a for reduced agrochemical usage and

Howard Davies; Glenn J. Bryan; Mark Taylor

2008-01-01

383

ACE-inhibitory and antioxidant properties of potato ( Solanum tuberosum)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proteins were isolated from potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum) at different physiological states, and by-products from the potato industry were used to evaluate their ACE-inhibitory and radical-scavenging potencies. Protein isolates and by-products were autolysed or hydrolysed by alcalase, neutrase and esperase. Hydrolysis increased the inhibition of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and the radical-scavenging activity. The ACE-inhibitory potencies of the hydrolysates were

Anne Pihlanto; Sari Akkanen; Hannu J. Korhonen

2008-01-01

384

Influence of airflow rate on chip potato storage management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through-the-pile ventilation is a common practice for potatoes stored in bulk. Research was initiated in 1986 to study the\\u000a influence of ventilation rate on the temperature, moisture and market quality of bulk stored chip potatoes. Ventilation rates\\u000a up to 168 m3 hr?1 t?1 were used. All ventilation rates achieved the required temperature and humidity control. Fan operation time (hours) was

Todd Forbush; Roger Brook

1993-01-01

385

PLANT RESISTANCE Evaluation of Potato Tuber Moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)  

E-print Network

. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ef�cacy of a Bt-cry5 transgene to control the potato tuber moth of Bt-cry5 Transgenic Potato Lines AHMED MOHAMMED,1 D. S. DOUCHES,2 W. PETT,3 E. GRAFIUS,3 J. COOMBS,2 in tuber tissues. Tuber bioassays using stored (11-12 mo old) and newly harvested tubers of Bt-cry5-Lemhi

Douches, David S.

386

The market for consultants in the Idaho potato industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Idaho potato growers and consultants were surveyed to analyze the market for consulting services. Potato growers use three\\u000a types of technical consultants to improve the profitability of their operations: public consultants, industry consultants,\\u000a and independent consultants. Growers rated independent consultants most reliable and were most satisfied with industry consultants.\\u000a Growers rated their own records as the most valuable sources of

J. F. Guenthner; D. K. Lanclos; J. C. Foltz; L. D. Makus; W. K. Sanchez

1996-01-01

387

Star Formation Properties in Barred Galaxies(SFB). III. Statistical Study of Bar-driven Secular Evolution using a sample of nearby barred spirals  

E-print Network

Stellar bars are important internal drivers of secular evolution in disk galaxies. Using a sample of nearby spiral galaxies with weak and strong bars, we explore the relationships between the star formation feature and stellar bars in galaxies. We find that galaxies with weak bars tend to be coincide with low concentrical star formation activity, while those with strong bars show a large scatter in the distribution of star formation activity. We find enhanced star formation activity in bulges towards stronger bars, although not predominantly, consistent with previous studies. Our results suggest that different stages of the secular process and many other factors may contribute to the complexity of the secular evolution. In addition, barred galaxies with intense star formation in bars tend to have active star formation in their bulges and disks, and bulges have higher star formation densities than bars and disks, indicating the evolutionary effects of bars. We then derived a possible criterion to quantify the ...

Zhou, Zhi-Min; Wu, Hong

2014-01-01

388

Wastewater purification in the potato starch industry  

SciTech Connect

Deproteinized and protein-containing wastewater from the potato starch industry was purified by anaerobic digestion followed by aerobic treatment. Inhibition of methanation by NH3 in concentrated deproteinized wastewater can be prevented by lowering the pH. SO32- was removed by reduction in an acidification-reactor. SO42- reduction was hydraulic retention time-dependent during acidification. Further elimination of SO42- can take place in the CH4 reactor. With both deproteinized and protein-containing wastewater, high CH4 production rates were obtained (more than or equal to 26 kg COD/cubic m-day). Aerobic treatment of the anaerobic effluent resulted in extensive deodorization and concomitant elimination of BOD and PO4(-3).

Wijbenga, D.J.; Meiberg, J.B.M.; Brunt, K.

1984-01-01

389

Neutrino tracking calorimetry with plastic scintillator bars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The technique of plastic scintillator bars coupled to wavelength shifting fibers is proposed for neutrino tracking calorimeters, in the context of very large, massive detectors for experiments on the neutrino factory beam. A prototype has been built with 180 scintillator bars interleaved with an equal number of iron bars. The light from the fibers is collected by multi-anode PMTs and converted with Amplitude-Time-Pattern self-triggering digitizing electronics. The prototype has been tested with electron and pion beams at CERN.

Giannini, Gianrossano; Santin, Giovanni; Spinetti, Mario; Votano, Lucia; Hoepfner, Kerstin

2001-10-01

390

Jasmonic acid inducible aspartic proteinase inhibitors from potato.  

PubMed

A new cDNA clone coding for an aspartic proteinase inhibitor homologue was isolated from a potato tuber cDNA library. Southern blot analysis was used to study the structural diversity of the aspartic proteinase inhibitor gene family in several species of the Solanaceae. The existence of sequence-homologous genes was confirmed in the genomic DNA of different potato cultivars (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Désirée, Pentland Squire and Igor), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), aubergine (S. melongena L.) and a wild type of bittersweet (S. dulcamara L.). Northern blot hybridization of total RNA, isolated from leaves under non-stress conditions, of different solanaceous species and of potato tubers showed that the gene transcripts encoding aspartic proteinase inhibitors occur mainly in potato tubers. The presence of several cathepsin D inhibitor isoforms has been detected at the protein level. At least four isoforms were isolated by affinity chromatography on cathepsin D-Sepharose and characterized. Additionally, exogenous treatment of potato plantlets by jasmonic acid (JA) over a wide range of concentrations (0-100 microM) was performed in a stem node culture in vitro. We demonstrated that the expression of aspartic proteinase inhibitor mRNA was drastically induced in potato shoots at concentrations of 50-100 microM JA. PMID:9055446

Kreft, S; Ravnikar, M; Mesko, P; Pungercar, J; Umek, A; Kregar, I; Strukelj, B

1997-03-01

391

Design of a hybrid composite roof bar  

SciTech Connect

This project entailed the design and construction of a hybrid composite roof bar for a passenger vehicle in accordance to AS 1235-1989. The design was based on finite element modeling. The manufacture of the roof bar incorporated tool fabrication and a wet lay-up technique. Experimental substantiation of the roof bar was performed by testing the roof bar to the static loading requirements set by AS 1235-1989. The findings of both the finite element and experimental work were presented and discussed, which included a comparison between the two sets of results. A commercial manufacture technique which could be adopted, alternative designs, and the applicability of composites in high load bearing automotive structures, were also discussed and recommended.

Falzon, P.J.; Janardhana, M.N. [Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (Australia). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

1993-12-31

392

Immediate loading and implant-bar overdenture.  

PubMed

Immediate loaded implants may be used with an implant-bar overdenture to provide fixed splinting. This is a relatively new system that provides for immediate implant placement and restoration. PMID:24787132

Chang, John; Millstein, Philip

2014-10-01

393

Symmetry violations at BaBar  

E-print Network

Following a brief introduction I report the current status of symmetry violation tests from the BaBar experiment, including recent results on the measurement of T violation, and searches for CP and T violation in mixing.

Bevan, Adrian J

2014-01-01

394

HOW DIFFERENT ARE NORMAL AND BARRED SPIRALS?  

SciTech Connect

No significant color differences are found between normal and barred spirals over the range of Hubble stages a-ab-b-bc. Furthermore, no significant difference is seen between the luminosity distributions of normal and barred galaxies over the same range of Hubble stages. However, SBc galaxies are found to be systematically fainter than Sc galaxies at 99% confidence. The observation that normal and barred spirals with Hubble stages a-ab-b-bc have indistinguishable intrinsic colors hints at the possibility that the bars in such spiral galaxies might be ephemeral structures. Finally, it is pointed out that lenticular galaxies of types S0 and SB0 are systematically fainter than are other early-type galaxies, suggesting that such galaxies are situated on evolutionary tracks that differ systematically from those of galaxies that lie along the E-Sa-Sb-Sc and E-SBa-SBb-SBc sequences.

Van den Bergh, Sidney, E-mail: sidney.vandenbergh@nrc.gc.ca [Dominion Astrophysical Observatory, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada)

2011-06-15

395

Intelligent Bar Chart Plagiarism Detection in Documents  

PubMed Central

This paper presents a novel features mining approach from documents that could not be mined via optical character recognition (OCR). By identifying the intimate relationship between the text and graphical components, the proposed technique pulls out the Start, End, and Exact values for each bar. Furthermore, the word 2-gram and Euclidean distance methods are used to accurately detect and determine plagiarism in bar charts. PMID:25309952

Al-Dabbagh, Mohammed Mumtaz; Salim, Naomie; Alkawaz, Mohammed Hazim; Saba, Tanzila; Al-Rodhaan, Mznah; Al-Dhelaan, Abdullah

2014-01-01

396

Intelligent bar chart plagiarism detection in documents.  

PubMed

This paper presents a novel features mining approach from documents that could not be mined via optical character recognition (OCR). By identifying the intimate relationship between the text and graphical components, the proposed technique pulls out the Start, End, and Exact values for each bar. Furthermore, the word 2-gram and Euclidean distance methods are used to accurately detect and determine plagiarism in bar charts. PMID:25309952

Al-Dabbagh, Mohammed Mumtaz; Salim, Naomie; Rehman, Amjad; Alkawaz, Mohammed Hazim; Saba, Tanzila; Al-Rodhaan, Mznah; Al-Dhelaan, Abdullah

2014-01-01

397

Comparing Columns on a Bar Graph (Illuminations)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson plan students learn to create bar graphs using unifix cubes, translate this representation to graph paper, and then compare the data that has been collected and displayed. Students are encouraged to make up their own questions about the data (favorite juice) and to practice with multiple sets of data. Sample questions for students and extension ideas are included. The lesson contains links to a PDF of graph paper and the Bar Grapher tool which is cataloged separately in this database.

Burton, Grace M.

2012-01-01

398

Gaseous Vortices in Barred Spiral Galaxies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simulations of the gas flow in a variety of two-dimensional barred spiral galaxies have shown that vortices in the gas appear, when viewed from above, in the corotation frame of the bar. These low-density vortices generally appear at or near the L4 and L5 Lagrangian points. We show that these gas vortices in our models are the hydrodynamic analogs of

Martin N. England; J. H. Hunter Jr.; G. Contopoulos

2000-01-01

399

Boston University Physics Applets: A Moving Bar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page is an interactive physics problem on magnetic flux. Given a bar sliding on rails with a current passing through it, the user is asked to determine if changes in the magnetic flux will cause the bar to speed up or slow down. The guide then works through the problem from both a magnetism and a conservation of energy perspective. This is part of a collection of similar simulation-based student activities.

Duffy, Andrew

2008-07-11

400

Dust appearance rates during neutral beam injection and after oxygen bake in the DIII-D tokamak  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple model to quantify source and sink terms of dust observed in tokamaks using fast visible imaging is presented. During neutral beam injection (NBI), dust appearance rates increase in front of the neutral beam port by up to a factor of 5. The images show dust streaming from the port box as previously settled dust becomes mobilized during beam injection. Following an oxygen bake and vent, the dust observation rate is a factor of 2 lower than that after a vessel entry vent with no oxygen bake. Detected dust levels decay on a shot-to-shot basis in a roughly exponential fashion, with a decay time of approximately 20 s of plasma exposure. Appearance rates of dust mass are estimated using assumed lognormal and power law functional forms for the dust size distribution. The two dust size distributions differ significantly on the amount the dust material carried by the largest particles, highlighting the need for further dust studies in order to make accurate forecasts to ITER.

Yu, J. H.; Smirnov, R. D.; Rudakov, D. L.

2011-08-01

401

Sensory evaluation of baked chicken wrapped with antimicrobial apple and tomato edible films formulated with cinnamaldehyde and carvacrol.  

PubMed

The addition of plant essential oils to edible films and coatings has been shown to protect against bacterial pathogens and spoilage while also enhancing sensory properties of foods. This study evaluated the effect of adding 0.5 and 0.75% carvacrol (active ingredient of oregano oil) to apple- and tomato-based film-forming solutions and 0.5 and 0.75% cinnamaldehyde (active ingredient of cinnamon oil) to apple-based film-forming solutions on sensory properties of cooked chicken wrapped with these films. Paired preference tests indicated no difference between baked chicken wrapped with tomato and apple films containing 0.5% carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde compared to chicken wrapped with tomato or apple films without the plant antimicrobials. The taste panel indicated a higher preference for carvacrol-containing tomato-coated chicken over the corresponding apple coating. There was also a higher preference for cinnamaldehyde-containing apple films over corresponding carvacrol-containing wrapping. Films containing antibacterial active compounds derived from essential oils can be used to protect raw chicken pieces against bacterial contamination without adversely affecting preferences of wrapped chicken pieces after baking. PMID:22831761

Du, Wen-Xian; Avena-Bustillos, Roberto J; Woods, Rachelle; Breksa, Andrew P; McHugh, Tara H; Friedman, Mendel; Levin, Carol E; Mandrell, Robert

2012-08-15

402

Barred Galaxies in the Coma Cluster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use ACS data from the HST Treasury survey of the Coma cluster (z˜0.02) to study the properties of barred galaxies in the Coma core, the densest environment in the nearby Universe. This study provides a complementary data point for studies of barred galaxies as a function of redshift and environment. From ˜470 cluster members brighter than MI = -11 mag, we select a sample of 46 disk galaxies (S0-Im) based on visual classification. The sample is dominated by S0s for which we find an optical bar fraction of 47±11% through ellipse fitting and visual inspection. Among the bars in the core of the Coma cluster, we do not find any very large (abar>2 kpc) bars. Comparison to other studies reveals that while the optical bar fraction for S0s shows only a modest variation across low-to-intermediate density environments (field to intermediate-density clusters), it can be higher by up to a factor of ˜ 2 in the very high-density environment of the rich Coma cluster core.

Marinova, I.; Jogee, S.; Trentham, N.; Ferguson, H. C.; Weinzirl, T.; Balcells, M.; Carter, D.; den Brok, M.; Erwin, P.; Graham, A. W.; Goudfrooij, P.; Guzmán, R.; Hammer, D.; Hoyos, C.; Peletier, R. F.; Peng, E.; Verdoes Kleijn, G.

2010-10-01

403

Scintillator Replacement Option for BaBar  

SciTech Connect

A replacement technology for the muon detection system in BaBar using scintillator bars with Wavelength Shifting (WLS) fibers and Avalanche Photo Diodes (APDs). APDs must be used in BaBar due to the high magnetic fields that disrupt the electron multiplying effects of Photo Multiplier Tubes (PMTs). Muons passing through scintillator cause fluors in the scintillator to emit photons, which are captured by WLS fibers and then re-emitted at the ends of the fibers to awaiting APDs. The detector configuration that will produce the largest Light Yield (LY) and produce a clear APD signal that will be larger than background noise is the main goal of the study. Bar dimensions, number of WLS fibers, and placement of fibers are parameters that may be adjusted to produce the largest LY. Additionally, good timing resolution is needed to determine where a muon passed through the detector along the long direction of the bar. A scintillator bar 2cm x 4cm in x-y with four round lmm fibers produced the largest LY out of four different configurations with a timing resolution of 25cm. A Monte Carlo simulation confirmed the relative LY compared to other detectors. This detector was able to produce a 40mV pulse from the APD that was easily discernable above the 2-SmV background noise. Refinement of the fabrication process could produced higher LYs and better timing resolutions, while a redesign of the electronics may increase the signal to noise ratio.

Lometti, m

2004-02-05

404

$\\bar d - \\bar u$ asymmetry in the proton in chiral effective theory  

E-print Network

We compute the $\\bar d - \\bar u$ asymmetry in the proton in chiral effective theory, including both nucleon and $\\Delta$ degrees of freedom, within both the relativistic and heavy baryon frameworks. In addition to the distribution at $x>0$, we compute the corrections to the asymmetry arising from zero momentum contributions from pion rainbow and bubble diagrams at $x=0$, which have not been accounted for in previous analyses. We find that the empirical $x$ dependence of $\\bar d - \\bar u$ as well as the integrated asymmetry can be well reproduced in terms of a transverse momentum cutoff parameter.

Salamu, Yusupujiang; Melnitchouk, W; Wang, P

2014-01-01

405

How-To-Do-It. A Beetle, a Bur, and the Potato: An Introduction to Ecology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how the interrelation of the potato beetle, the buffalo-bur, and the potato is used as an introduction to ecology. Methods of controlling the beetle and ecological principles illustrated in the interrelationship are discussed. (JN)

Jantzen, Paul G.

1983-01-01

406

Determination of thiabendazole residues in white and sweet potatoes by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.  

PubMed

A liquid chromatographic (LC) method was developed for determination of thiabendazole (TBZ) residues in or on whole, unwashed white potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) and sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas). TBZ is extracted from the potato homogenate with ethyl acetate and the extract purified and concentrated on a cation-exchange, solid-phase extraction column. The extract is analyzed for TBZ residues by column LC with a cation-exchange column and fluorescence detection. Recoveries of TBZ from whole white potatoes fortified with TBZ at 0.05-20 ppm and from whole sweet potatoes fortified with TBZ at 0.005-0.1 ppm averaged 100 and 94%, respectively. The method is also applicable for quantitation of TBZ residues in white potato waste (dried peel) used as an animal feed additive. The present method for monitoring TBZ residues in white and sweet potatoes and white potato waste (dried peel) is simple, rapid, and sensitive. PMID:8664582

Arenas, R V; Rahman, H; Johnson, N A

1995-01-01

407

75 FR 1269 - Vegetable Import Regulations; Modification of Potato Import Regulations; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...The rule modified the import regulations for Irish potatoes and made minor administrative changes to the potato, onion, and tomato import regulations to update informational references. This document corrects two Code of Federal Regulation citations in...

2010-01-11

408

7 CFR 947.134 - Establishment of list of manufacturers of potato products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...COUNTIES, CALIF., AND IN ALL COUNTIES IN OREGON, EXCEPT MALHEUR COUNTY Rules and Regulations...an application for such listing, the Oregon-California Potato Committee shall...shall place the person's name on the Oregon-California Potato Committee's...

2011-01-01

409

7 CFR 947.134 - Establishment of list of manufacturers of potato products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...COUNTIES, CALIF., AND IN ALL COUNTIES IN OREGON, EXCEPT MALHEUR COUNTY Rules and Regulations...an application for such listing, the Oregon-California Potato Committee shall...shall place the person's name on the Oregon-California Potato Committee's...

2012-01-01

410

7 CFR 947.134 - Establishment of list of manufacturers of potato products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...COUNTIES, CALIF., AND IN ALL COUNTIES IN OREGON, EXCEPT MALHEUR COUNTY Rules and Regulations...an application for such listing, the Oregon-California Potato Committee shall...shall place the person's name on the Oregon-California Potato Committee's...

2013-01-01

411

7 CFR 947.134 - Establishment of list of manufacturers of potato products.  

...COUNTIES, CALIF., AND IN ALL COUNTIES IN OREGON, EXCEPT MALHEUR COUNTY Rules and Regulations...an application for such listing, the Oregon-California Potato Committee shall...shall place the person's name on the Oregon-California Potato Committee's...

2014-01-01

412

7 CFR 457.145 - Potato crop insurance-certified seed endorsement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 false Potato crop insurance-certified seed endorsement. 457...Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.145 Potato...

2011-01-01

413

The smell of freshly baked cookies arrives in a most unlikely location  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Milk board debuts cookie-scented ads in bus sheltershttp://www.mercurynews.com/mld/mercurynews/news/local/states/california/northern_california/16163858.htmGet a whiff of the latest trend in advertisinghttp://www.jsonline.com/story/index.aspx?id=537438Hot Stuff: Smells Like Faux Cookieshttp://www.sfist.com/archives/2006/11/30/hot_stuff_smells_like_faux_cookies.phpHot on The Cookie Trailhttp://www.sfist.com/archives/2006/06/26/hot_on_the_cookie_trail.phpSmell-O-Visionhttp://www.retrofuture.com/smell-o-vision.htmlWatson and Crick. Laurel and Hardy. Sam and Dave. These are the type of duos that are seemingly inseparable, and a number of such pairings exist within the world of foodstuffs as well. When most people think about cookies, they probably think about reaching for a glass of milk. This popular pairing has been turned on its head most recently in the fair city of San Francisco, where an advertising company has recently paired cookies with an object that probably doesnâÂÂt come to mind: bus shelters. Though some would associate bus shelters with entirely different (and rather pungent) smells, the individuals behind this marketing campaign installed devices to emit the scent of freshly baked cookies in five bus shelters. Given the strong opinions that residents in that fair city tend to have about most everything, the reaction has been mixed thus far. A number of critical comments have come from animal-rights advocates who oppose the dairy industry, and even more from activists in the scent-sensitive community who are more than a bit annoyed by this most unwelcome intrusion. In the classic âÂÂman on the streetâ interview, a journalist from the San Francisco Chronicle asked local night watchman Joe Broulliette what he thought of this smell-enhanced bus shelters. His reply? A simple âÂÂIâÂÂd rather eat chocolate chip cookies than smell them.â This first link will lead to Rachel GordonâÂÂs news article from this TuesdayâÂÂs San Francisco Chronicle, where she investigates this most unusual trend in smell-based product promotion and placement. Moving along, the second link will take users to another news article on this subject from MondayâÂÂs San Jose Mercury News. The third link will take users to a piece from Jim Stingl of the Milwaukee Journal Sentinel who explores the topic of whether or not the city of Milwaukee should venture into such territory and other such marketing schemes. The fourth link leads to a nice bit of commentary on the whole cookie-scent infused bus shelters debate from Mary Ladd, who writes for SFist, a weblog dedicated to all things by the Bay. Visitors who find themselves in San Francisco and craving actual cookies will appreciate the fifth link, as it contains some expert testimony on where to find the best cookies in the city. Finally, the last link provides a bit of historical information on that ever-so brief marriage of film and piped-in smells from the 1950s that was known quite appropriately as âÂÂSmell-O-VisionâÂÂ.

Grinnell, Max

2006-01-01

414

Soft-rot Resistance of Coloured Potato Cultivars ( Solanum tuberosum L.): The Role of Anthocyanins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coloured potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) rich in anthocyanins are gaining increasing interest on the markets, mainly due to beneficial health effects. Potato\\u000a varieties containing colour pigments are therefore utilized more and more in actual breeding programmes. In this study, 10\\u000a purple-fleshed potato cultivars were compared in their resistance to soft rot caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum (Pc) with 10 white\\/yellow-fleshed potato

Christina B. Wegener; Gisela Jansen

2007-01-01

415

Transgenic Potatoes Expressing a Novel Cationic Peptide are Resistant to Late Blight and Pink Rot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potato is the world’s largest non-cereal crop. Potato late blight is a pandemic, foliar wasting potato disease caused by Phytophthora infestans, which has become highly virulent, fungicide resistant, and widely disseminated. Similarly, fungicide resistant isolates\\u000a of Phytophthora erythroseptica, which causes pink rot, have also become an economic scourge of potato tubers. Thus, an alternate, cost effective strategy\\u000a for disease control

Milan Osusky; Lubica Osuska; Robert E. Hancock; William W. Kay; Santosh Misra

2004-01-01

416

SPH Simulations of Barred Galaxies: Evolution of Nuclear Rings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerical simulations based on the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) is performed to investigate the dynamical properties of barred galaxies that have nuclear rings. The nuclear ring morphology depends on the relative strength of bar potentials. Nuclear rings form between the two ILRs and align perpendicular to the bars unless the bar potentials are strong enough to allow the x1 orbits

H. B. Ann

2001-01-01

417

Social Organization in Bars: Implications for Tobacco Control Policy  

PubMed Central

This paper considers social roles and relationships of the patrons, staff and owners of bars as critical factors determining adherence to public health policies, and specifically California’s smokefree workplace law. Specific elements of social organization in bars affecting health policy include the community within which the bar is set, the unique identity the bar creates, the bar staff and patrons who enact this identity, and their bar society. These elements were found to contribute to the development of power relations within the bar and solidarity against the outside world, resulting in either resistance to or compliance with smokefree workplace policy. PMID:22522904

Lee, Juliet P.; Antin, Tamar M.J.; Moore, Roland S.

2011-01-01

418

Artificial diets for rearing the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata  

PubMed Central

Colorado potato beetles have been reared successfully through 12 generations on artificial diets containing either 2.5% potato leaf powder or 2.5% lettuce leaf powder/0.75% potato leaf powder. For all but one of the treatment groups, the mean duration of each of the four larval stages was between 0.8 and 1.5 days longer than the durations exhibited by control beetles that had been fed on potato leaves. Maximum weights of prepupae, newly emerged adults and day 5 – 9 adults were approximately 78, 80 and 82%, respectively, of the weights for comparable stages of control beetles. Mean percent mortality for 1st instars was two to six times higher for artificial diet-fed CPBs than for leaf-fed beetles. However, since pupal mortality was four times higher for control beetles than for beetles reared on artificial diet, mean percent total mortality (newly hatched through the 9 day old adult) was equivalent for leaf-fed beetles and for later generations of potato and Lettuce+Potato diet-fed CPBs. Hemolymph ecdysteroid levels and fluctuations in mature 4th instar larvae and prepupae were similar in controls and experimental groups. Number of hatchlings produced per adult pair per day (fertility) was approximately eight times greater in control beetles than in later generations of artificial diet-fed beetles, primarily because fewer egg masses were laid per day, percent hatch was lower and cannibalism of eggs was higher in these latter groups. Interestingly, the mean percent hatch, although only 68% of the control value, was 1.5 times greater for beetles reared on diet containing lettuce-leaf powder, and a small percentage of potato leaf powder, than on diet containing only potato leaf powder. Percent hatch was equal for beetles fed on diet containing only lettuce-leaf powder and those fed on potato leaves. Finally, it is noteworthy that the quality of eggs, as judged by the ability of the wasp parasitoid, Edovum puttleri, to parasitize and develop in the eggs, was similar for eggs produced by control beetles and for those produced by beetles fed on potato and Lettuce+Potato diets. The diets and rearing system described here will be useful for providing beetles on a year-round basis for experiments designed to evaluate the effects of potential insect control agents, to investigate the mechanism(s) by which insects become resistant to control agents and for other applied and fundamental studies related to the control of this serious pest. The use of lettuce leaf powder in place of most of the potato leaf powder is especially advantageous because of the much reduced cost and greater availability of lettuce as compared to potato leaves. PMID:15455067

Gelman, Dale B.; Bell, Robert A.; Liska, Lynda J.; Hu, Jing S.

2001-01-01

419

Physicochemical properties of dry matter and starch from potatoes grown in Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study dry matter and starch were isolated from three potato cultivars (AC Stempede Russet, Russet Burbank and Karnico) grown at two locations (Fredericton and Benton) in New Brunswick, Canada. The chemical composition including total starch, dietary fibre, free glucose and protein content in potato dry matter and apparent amylose and total phosphorus content in potato starch were determined.

Qiang Liu; Richard Tarn; Dermot Lynch; Neil M. Skjodt

2007-01-01

420

Potential Environmental Concerns vis-a-vis the Introduction of a Specific Trait: Experiences with Potatoes  

E-print Network

in Egypt and Indonesia. Traits we are currently introducing into potato are resistance to potato tuber moth) and fusarium dry rot along with starch accumulation.1 1 The cooperating scientists of this research team: Experiences with Potatoes Engineered to Express Insect or Virus Resistance David S. Douches and Walter Pett

Douches, David S.

421

For Immediate Release --Friday, July 11, 2014 Potato Growers of Alberta and industry partners to  

E-print Network

years from the Potato Growers of Alberta (PGA), McCain Foods, ConAgra Lamb," says Terence Hochstein, the PGA's executive director. "There are only a handful." The Potato Growers of Alberta (PGA) is a non-profit potato grower organization

Morris, Joy

422

Market Access in Western Canadian and Northwestern United States Table Potato Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report examines market opportunities in British Columbia for Alberta produced table potatoes. The report also seeks (1) to assess the cost competitiveness of the Alberta table potato sector, compared with costs of potato production in British Columbia and the Pacific Northwest (PNW) of the United States (US); (2) to provide a preliminary understanding of potential trade flows and trading

Kevin J. Dunlevy; Mel L. Lerohl

1998-01-01

423

Preliminary evaluation of bacterial soft rot resistance in native Chilean potato clones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tuber and stem rots induced by Erwinia carotovora pv. carotovora (Ecc) and E. carotovora pv. atroseptica (Eca) are serious diseases of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) in the southern regions of Chile (2). Resistance in potato to soft rot and black leg has been investigated extensively in Europe and North America (7). However, the native Chilean potato collection has received little

Luigi Ciampi-Panno; Nancy Andrade-Soto

1984-01-01

424

1268 Plant Disease /Vol. 97 No. 10 Integrated Control of Potato Pathogens  

E-print Network

, produce, or sell planting material for vegetative fruit and vegetable crops to farm- ers. The exception domain. Seed potato production in Wisconsin is an example of produc- tion and certification of planting1268 Plant Disease /Vol. 97 No. 10 Integrated Control of Potato Pathogens Through Seed Potato

Scharer, John E.

425

Morphology of Cold Bars in Early and Late Type Galaxies  

E-print Network

We compare stellar orbits in an early (NGC 4314) and a late-type barred galaxy (NGC 1073). We find that these bars are cold in the sense that the majority of stars can be described as being nearby to periodic orbits. We place limits of (65km/s)^2 and (50km/s)^2 on the components of the diagonalized velocity dispersion ellipsoid matrix for stars in the bars of NGC 4314 and NGC 1073 respectively. Both bars end near the inner 4:1 Lindblad (ultraharmonic) resonance. We conjecture that a large class of bars end near this resonance. The morphology of the bars depends on the strength of the 4:1 resonance, which is strong in the early-type barred galaxy and weak in the other. This results in a flat bar major axis surface brightness profile for the early-type bar and an exponential profile for the late-type bar.

A. C. Quillen

1996-09-05

426

Cooperation and cognitive radio O. Simeone, J. Gambini(), Y. Bar-Ness  

E-print Network

Cooperation and cognitive radio O. Simeone, J. Gambini(), Y. Bar-Ness CWCSPR, NJIT University implementation of cognitive radio. In this paper, we first give a brief overview of the envisioned applications of cooperative technology to cognitive radio, distinguishing among cooperative sensing for detection

Simeone, Osvaldo

427

Long-time fatigue properties of high yield reinforcing bars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatigue tests were conducted on beam specimens containing reinforcing bars. 6 bars from five US manufacturers were evaluated.\\u000a Each bar was embedded as main reinforcement in a concrete beam. 5 bars were evaluated at target stress ranges of 2 ksi (13.8\\u000a M Pa) below the mean fatigue limit at 5 million cycles. 1 bar was loaded at a target stress

B. G. Rabbat; W. G. Corley

1984-01-01

428

Dynamical evolution of two associated galactic bars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the dynamical interactions of mass systems in equilibrium under their own gravity that mutually exert and experience gravitational forces. The method we employ is to model the dynamical evolution of two isolated bars, hosted within the same galactic system, under their mutual gravitational interaction. In this study, we present an analytical treatment of the secular evolution of two bars that oscillate with respect to one another. Two cases of interaction, with and without geometrical deformation, are discussed. In the latter case, the bars are described as modified Jacobi ellipsoids. These triaxial systems are formed by a rotating fluid mass in gravitational equilibrium with its own rotational velocity and the gravitational field of the other bar. The governing equation for the variation of their relative angular separation is then numerically integrated, which also provides the time evolution of the geometrical parameters of the bodies. The case of rigid, non-deformable, bars produces in some cases an oscillatory motion in the bodies similar to that of a harmonic oscillator. For the other case, a deformable rotating body that can be represented by a modified Jacobi ellipsoid under the influence of an exterior massive body will change its rotational velocity to escape from the attracting body, just as if the gravitational torque exerted by the exterior body were of opposite sign. Instead, the exchange of angular momentum will cause the Jacobian body to modify its geometry by enlarging its long axis, located in the plane of rotation, thus decreasing its axial ratios.

Garzón, F.; López-Corredoira, M.

2014-10-01

429

Partial entrainment of gravel bars during floods  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Spatial patterns of bed material entrainment by floods were documented at seven gravel bars using arrays of metal washers (bed tags) placed in the streambed. The observed patterns were used to test a general stochastic model that bed material entrainment is a spatially independent, random process where the probability of entrainment is uniform over a gravel bar and a function of the peak dimensionless shear stress ??*0 of the flood. The fraction of tags missing from a gravel bar during a flood, or partial entrainment, had an approximately normal distribution with respect to ??*0 with a mean value (50% of the tags entrained) of 0.085 and standard deviation of 0.022 (root-mean-square error of 0.09). Variation in partial entrainment for a given ??*0 demonstrated the effects of flow conditioning on bed strength, with lower values of partial entrainment after intermediate magnitude floods (0.065 < ??*0 < 0.08) than after higher magnitude floods. Although the probability of bed material entrainment was approximately uniform over a gravel bar during individual floods and independent from flood to flood, regions of preferential stability and instability emerged at some bars over the course of a wet season. Deviations from spatially uniform and independent bed material entrainment were most pronounced for reaches with varied flow and in consecutive floods with small to intermediate magnitudes.

Konrad, C.P.; Booth, D.B.; Burges, S.J.; Montgomery, D.R.

2002-01-01

430

Sucrose synthesis in gamma irradiated sweet potato  

SciTech Connect

Effect of ..cap alpha..-irradiation carbohydrate metabolism was examined to elucidate mechanism of sucrose accumulation in sweet potato (SP). Enzymes examined were: ..beta..-amylase, phosphorylase, phosphoglucomutase, phosphoglucose isomerase, sucrose phosphate synthetase and sucrose synthetase. Irradiated SP (Red Jewell) sucrose was synthesized to yield 10.7% after 4 d PI. Activities of sugar synthesizing enzymes in irradiated SP were enhanced to different degrees using 100-200 Krad and 3 d PI at 24/sup 0/C. Phosphorylase and phosphoglucomutases specific activities reached 2.4 and 1.8 folds, respectively compared to control SP. ..beta..-amylase, phosphoglucose isomerase, sucrose synthetase and sucrose phosphate synthetase were also affected to yield 1.2, 1.3, 1.3 and 1.2 folds, respectively compared to controls. It is believed that amylase hydrolyzed starch to glucose which is converted to fructose by phosphoglucose isomerase. Sucrose is then formed by sucrose phosphate synthetase and/or sucrose synthetase leading to its accumulation. The irradiated SP was used for alcohol fermentation leading to 500 gal. of 200 proof ethanol/acre (from 500-600 bushels tuber/acre).

Ailouni, S.; Hamdy, M.K.; Toledo, R.T.

1987-01-01

431

Ribozyme-mediated high resistance against potato spindle tuber viroid in transgenic?potatoes  

PubMed Central

A hammerhead ribozyme [R(-)] targeting the minus strand RNA of potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) and a mutated nonfunctional ribozyme [mR(-)] were designed, cloned, and transcribed. As predicted, both monomer and dimer transcripts of the active R(-) ribozyme gene could cleave the PSTVd minus strand dimer RNA into three fragments of 77, 338, and 359 bases in vitro at 25 and 50°C. The tandem dimer genes of R(-) and mR(-) were subcloned separately into the plant expression vector pROK2. Transgenic potato plants (cultivar Desirée) were generated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Twenty-three of 34 independent transgenic plant lines expressing the active ribozyme R(-) resulted in having high levels of resistance to PSTVd, being free of PSTVd accumulation after challenge inoculation with PSTVd, but the remaining lines showed weaker levels of resistance to PSTVd with low levels of PSTVd accumulation. In contrast, 59 of 60 independent transgenic lines expressing the mutated ribozyme mR(-) were susceptible to PSTVd inoculation and had levels of PSTVd accumulation similar to that of the control plants transformed with the empty vector. The resistance against PSTVd replication was stably inherited to the vegetative progenies. PMID:9144155

Yang, Xicai; Yie, Yin; Zhu, Feng; Liu, Yule; Kang, Liangyi; Wang, Xiaofeng; Tien, Po

1997-01-01

432

On the Galactic Spin of Barred Disk Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a study of the connection between the galactic spin parameter (? d ) and the bar fraction in a volume-limited sample of 10,674 disk galaxies drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7. The galaxies in our sample are visually classified into one of three groups: non-barred galaxies and galaxies hosting long or short bars, respectively. We find that the spin distributions of these three classes are statistically different, with galaxies hosting long bars having the lowest ? d values, followed by non-barred galaxies, while galaxies with short bars present typically high spin parameters. The bar fraction presents its maximum at low to intermediate ? d values for the case of long bars, while the maximum for short bars is at high ? d . This bimodality is in good agreement with previous studies finding longer bars hosted by luminous, massive, red galaxies with a low content of cold gas, while short bars were found in low luminosity, low mass, blue galaxies that were typically gas rich. In addition, the rise and fall of the bar fraction as a function of ? d , within the long-bar sample shown in our results, can be explained as a result of two competing factors: the self-gravity of the disk that enhances bar instabilities and the support by random motions, instead of ordered rotational motion, that prevents the formation/growth of bars.

Cervantes-Sodi, Bernardo; Li, Cheng; Park, Changbom; Wang, Lixin

2013-09-01

433

ON THE GALACTIC SPIN OF BARRED DISK GALAXIES  

SciTech Connect

We present a study of the connection between the galactic spin parameter (?{sub d}) and the bar fraction in a volume-limited sample of 10,674 disk galaxies drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7. The galaxies in our sample are visually classified into one of three groups: non-barred galaxies and galaxies hosting long or short bars, respectively. We find that the spin distributions of these three classes are statistically different, with galaxies hosting long bars having the lowest ?{sub d} values, followed by non-barred galaxies, while galaxies with short bars present typically high spin parameters. The bar fraction presents its maximum at low to intermediate ?{sub d} values for the case of long bars, while the maximum for short bars is at high ?{sub d}. This bimodality is in good agreement with previous studies finding longer bars hosted by luminous, massive, red galaxies with a low content of cold gas, while short bars were found in low luminosity, low mass, blue galaxies that were typically gas rich. In addition, the rise and fall of the bar fraction as a function of ?{sub d}, within the long-bar sample shown in our results, can be explained as a result of two competing factors: the self-gravity of the disk that enhances bar instabilities and the support by random motions, instead of ordered rotational motion, that prevents the formation/growth of bars.

Cervantes-Sodi, Bernardo; Li, Cheng; Wang, Lixin [Partner Group of the Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics and Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Nandan Road 80, Shanghai 200030 (China); Park, Changbom, E-mail: bernardo@shao.ac.cn [Korea Institute for Advanced Study, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-722 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-09-20

434

Volatiles from potato plants infected with potato leafroll virus attract and arrest the virus vector, Myzus persicae (Homoptera: Aphididae).  

PubMed Central

The influence of viral disease symptoms on the behaviour of virus vectors has implications for disease epidemiology. Here we show that previously reported preferential colonization of potatoes infected by potato leafroll virus (genus Polerovirus) (luteovirus) (PLRV) by alatae of Myzus persicae, the principal aphid vector of PLRV, is influenced by volatile emissions from PLRV-infected plants. First, in our bioassays both differential immigration and emigration were involved in preferential colonization by aphids of PLRV-infected plants. Second, M. persicae apterae aggregated preferentially, on screening above leaflets of PLRV-infected potatoes as compared with leaflets from uninfected plants, or from plants infected with potato virus X (PVX) or potato virus Y (PVY). Third, the aphids aggregated preferentially on screening over leaflet models treated with volatiles collected from PLRV-infected plants as compared with those collected from uninfected plants. The specific cues eliciting the aphid responses were not determined, but differences between headspace volatiles of infected and uninfected plants suggest possible ones. PMID:11886636

Eigenbrode, Sanford D; Ding, Hongjian; Shiel, Patrick; Berger, Philip H

2002-01-01

435

Interactions between Population Density of the Colorado Potato Beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata , and Herbicide Rate for Suppression of Solanaceous Weeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of volunteer potato Solanum tuberosum L., cutleaf nightshade, S. triflorum N., and hairy nightshade, S. physalifolium Rusby (Solanales: Solanaceae), throughout potato crop rotations can diminish the effectiveness of crop rotations designed to control disease and pest problems associated with growing potatoes. In greenhouse bioassays, larvae of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) were placed in

Chase Metzger; Rick Boydston; Holly Ferguson; Martin M. Williams; Richard Zack; Doug Walsh

2008-01-01

436

The glass transition and the sub- T g endotherm of amorphous and native potato starch at low moisture content  

Microsoft Academic Search

The glass transition temperature (Tg) of amorphous and native potato starch with 16% moisture was investigated by means of DSC. The glass transition in amorphous potato starch could be observed in a rescan of native potato starch, after heating to 210 °C and quenching. The Tg-onset was 40 °C, in agreement with literature data. The Tg of native potato starch

Harm J. Thiewes; Peter A. M. Steeneken

1997-01-01

437

Study of hydroxymethylfurfural and furfural formation in cakes during baking in different ovens, using a validated multiple-stage extraction-based analytical method.  

PubMed

A procedure for extraction of hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and furfural from cakes was validated. Higher yield was achieved by multiple step extraction with water/methanol (70/30) and clarification with Carrez I and II reagents. Oven type and baking time strongly influenced HMF, moisture and volatile profile of model cakes, whereas furfural content was not significantly affected. No correlation was found between these parameters. Baking time influenced moisture and HMF formation in cakes from traditional and microwave ovens but not in steam oven cakes. Significant moisture decrease and HMF increase (3.63, 9.32, and 41.9 mg kg(-1)dw at 20, 40 and 60 min, respectively) were observed during traditional baking. Cakes baked by microwave also presented a significant increase of HMF (up to 16.84 mg kg(-1)dw at 2.5 min). Steam oven cakes possessed the highest moisture content and no significant differences in HMF and furfural. This oven is likely to form low HMF and furfural, maintaining cake moisture and aroma compounds. PMID:23993492

Petisca, Catarina; Henriques, Ana Rita; Pérez-Palacios, Trinidad; Pinho, Olívia; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O

2013-12-15

438

Effect of bake-out on reducing VOC emissions and concentrations in a residential housing unit with a radiant floor heating system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzed the effect of bake-out on reducing VOC emissions and indoor concentrations in a residential housing unit with a radiant floor heating system. The effect of an elevated temperature on VOC emissions from a wallpaper assembly, plywood flooring assembly, and particle board (as an example of furniture material) was investigated in a small-scale chamber. Simultaneously, in the residential

Dong Hwa Kang; Dong Hee Choi; Seung Min Lee; Myoung Souk Yeo; Kwang Woo Kim

2010-01-01

439

Effect of Dentifrice Containing Fluoride and/or Baking Soda on Enamel Demineralization/ Remineralization: An in situ Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The additive effect of baking soda on the anticariogenic effect of fluoride dentifrice is not well established. To evaluate it, a crossover in situ study was done in three phases of 28 days. Volunteers, using acrylic palatal appliances containing four human enamel blocks, two sound (to evaluate demineralization) and two with artificial caries lesions (to evaluate remineralization), took part in

J. A. Cury; L. N. Hashizume; A. A. Del Bel Cury; C. P. M. Tabchoury

2001-01-01

440

The effect of baking soda/hydrogen peroxide dentifrice (Mentadent) and a 0.12 percent chlorhexidine gluconate mouthrinse (Peridex) in reducing gingival bleeding.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a baking soda/hydrogen peroxide dentifrice, Mentadent, and a 0.12 percent chlorhexidine gluconate mouthrinse, Peridex, in reducing gingival bleeding. Forty subjects were divided into three groups; the baking soda group, the chlorhexidine group and the control group. All groups received oral hygiene instruction and brushed and flossed three times per day. Bleeding point scores were evaluated at baseline and at five weeks. The baking soda/hydrogen peroxide group used the supplied dentifrice as their sole toothpaste. The 0.12 percent chlorhexidine group used the mouthrinse twice per day. The control group performed oral hygiene as instructed. At five weeks, the 0.12 percent chlorhexidine mouthrinse significantly reduced gingival bleeding. The dentifrice and control groups revealed no statistically significant reductions. The results indicate that the 0.12 percent chlorhexidine mouthrinse is useful in improving oral health, whereas the baking soda/hydrogen peroxide dentifrice offered no advantages to conventional oral hygiene. PMID:8040707

Taller, S H

1993-01-01

441

Milling and Baking Qualities of Some Wheats Developed for Eastern or Northwestern Regions of the United States and Grown at Both Locations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nine soft wheats that were developed for the Eastern United States and six soft wheats developed for the Northwestern United States were each grown in the states of Michigan and Washington for two crop years. Wheats were analyzed for milling and baking qualities by two laborato- ries. Cultivar differences were observed relative to intended region of adaptation and to location

CHARLES S. GAINES; PATRICK L. FINNEY; GORDON RUBENTHALER

442

The Value of Culinary Education: Evaluating Educational Costs, Job Placement Outcomes, and Satisfaction With Value of Associate Degree Culinary and Baking Arts Program Graduates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cost of an associate degree in culinary or baking and pastry arts varies significantly depending on whether the program is housed in a public, private for-profit, or nonprofit institution. Rising tuition and student debt and new federal regulations concerning “gainful employment” have focused debate on the costs and value of education. This exploratory study surveyed chefs with associate degrees

Jean L. Hertzman; John Maas

2012-01-01

443

Apparel, Baking, Laundry and Dry Cleaning, and Textile Mill Products Industries. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focusing on occupations in the clothing and baking industries, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include occupations in the…

Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

444

The Shake-and-Bake structure determination of triclinic lysozyme Ashley M. Deacon, Charles M. Weeks, Russ Miller, and Steven E. Ealick  

E-print Network

-methods procedures used to determine three-dimensional structures from single-crystal x-ray diffrac- tion data replacement to determine their structures. Consequently, it often takes several weeks or even months of workThe Shake-and-Bake structure determination of triclinic lysozyme Ashley M. Deacon, Charles M. Weeks

Miller, Russ

445

Evidence for B+ -> K*0bar K*+  

SciTech Connect

We present measurements of the branching fraction and fraction of longitudinal polarization for the decay B{sup +} {yields} {bar K}*{sup 0} K*{sup +} with a sample of 467 {+-} 5 million B{bar B} pairs collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. We obtain the branching fraction {Beta}(B{sup +} {yields} {bar K}*{sup 0} K*{sup +}) = (1.2 {+-} 0.5 {+-} 0.1) x 10{sup ?6} with a significance of 3.7 standard deviations including systematic uncertainties. We measure the fraction of longitudinal polarization f{sub L} = 0.75{sub -0.26}{sup +0.16} {+-} 0.03. The first error quoted is statistical and the second is systematic.

Aubert, B.; Bona, M.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Prudent, X.; Tisserand, V.; /Annecy, LAPP; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; /Barcelona U., ECM; Lopez, L.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; /INFN, Bari /Bari U.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; /Bergen U.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D.N.; Kerth, L.T.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Lynch, G.; /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UCLA /UC, Riverside /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /Frascati /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /Harvard U. /Heidelberg U. /Humboldt U., Berlin /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Orsay, LAL /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Karlsruhe U., EKP /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT, LNS /McGill U. /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /Mt. Holyoke Coll. /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /Paris U., VI-VII /Pennsylvania U. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Princeton U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DSM, DAPNIA, Saclay /South Carolina U. /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Albany /Tennessee U. /Texas U. /Texas U., Dallas /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /Valencia U., IFIC /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison

2009-06-19

446

Bars and Dark Matter Halo Cores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Self-consistent bars that form in galaxies embedded within cuspy halos are unable to flatten the cusp. Short bars form in models with quasi-flat rotation curves. They lose angular momentum to the halo through dynamical friction, but the continuous concentration of mass within the disk as the bar grows actually compresses the halo further, overwhelming any density reduction due to the modest angular momentum transfer to the halo. Thus, the Weinberg-Katz proposed solution to the nonexistence of the predicted cuspy halos from cold dark matter simulations would seem to be unworkable. I also find that the concerns over the performance of N-body codes raised by these authors do not apply to the methods used here.

Sellwood, J. A.

2003-04-01

447

Effects of post exposure bake temperature and exposure time on SU-8 nanopattern obtained by electron beam lithography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SU-8 is a photoresist imaged using UV rays. However, we investigated the characteristics of an SU-8 nanopattern obtained by electron beam lithography (EBL). In particular, we studied the relationship between post-exposure bake (PEB) temperature and exposure time on an SU-8 nanopattern with a focus on phase transition temperature. SU-8 residue was formed by increasing both PEB temperature and exposure time. To prevent the formation of this, Monte Carlo simulation was performed; the results of such simulation showed that decreasing the thickness of SU-8 can reduce the amount of residue from the SU-8 nanopattern. We confirmed that decreasing the thickness of SU-8 can also prevent the formation of residue from the SU-8 nanopattern with EBL.

Yasui, Manabu; Kazawa, Elito; Kaneko, Satoru; Takahashi, Ryo; Kurouchi, Masahito; Ozawa, Takeshi; Arai, Masahiro

2014-11-01

448

The Use of Xylanases from Different Microbial Origin in Bread Baking and Their Effects on Bread Qualities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effects of xylanases on bread quality were examined. Enzymes used were endo-xylanase (EC 3.2.1.8) from different sources of microorganisms. Baked loaves were assessed for Loaves volume, colour and staling rate. Xylanases produced from rumen microorganisms M6 had clearly positive effects on loaf volume of bread as well as anti-firming potential. M3 (produced from Trichoderma longibrachiatum) improved crumb softness. The use of xylanase for breadmaking lowered firmness of bread crumb effectively compared with control loaf. It can be summarized that xylanases had significant positive effects on bread characteristics. In particular, they had advantage in retarding the staling rate of bread. It is recommended that the optimum dosage of enzymes, method of application in industrial scale especially with xylanase should be studied further in order to gain the great advantages of enzyme addition in breadmaking.

Al-Widyan, Omar; Khataibeh, Moayad H.; Abu-Alruz, Khaled

449

Ultrasonic extraction of steroidal alkaloids from potato peel waste.  

PubMed

Potato processors produce large volumes of waste in the form of potato peel which is either discarded or sold at a low price. Potato peel waste is a potential source of steroidal alkaloids which are biologically active secondary metabolites which could serve as precursors to agents with apoptotic, chemopreventive and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study investigated the relative efficacy of ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) and solid liquid extraction (SLE) both using methanol, to extract steroidal alkaloids from potato peel waste and identified optimal conditions for UAE of ?-solanine, ?-chaconine, solanidine and demissidine. Using response surface methodology optimal UAE conditions were identified as an amplitude of 61 ?m and an extraction time of 17 min which resulted the recovery of 1102 ?g steroidal alkaloids/g dried potato peel (DPP). In contrast, SLE yielded 710.51 glycoalkaloid ?g/g DPP. Recoveries of individual glycoalkoids using UAE yielded 273, 542.7, 231 and 55.3 ?g/g DPP for ?-solanine, ?-chaconine, solanidine and demissidine respectively. Whereas for SLE yields were 180.3, 337.6, 160.2 and 32.4 ?g/g DPP for ?-solanine, ?-chaconine, solanidine and demissidine respectively. The predicted values from the developed second order quadratic polynomial equation were in close agreement with the experimental values with low average mean deviation (E<5%) values. Predicted models were highly significant (p<0.05) for all parameters studied. This study indicates that UAE has strong potential as an extraction method for steroidal alkaloids from potato peel waste. PMID:24582305

Hossain, Mohammad B; Tiwari, Brijesh K; Gangopadhyay, Nirupama; O'Donnell, Colm P; Brunton, Nigel P; Rai, Dilip K

2014-07-01

450

Climate change and potato cropping in the Peruvian Altiplano  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential impacts of climate change on potatoes cropping in the Peruvian highlands (Altiplano) is assessed using climate projections for 2071-2100, obtained from the HadRM3P regional atmospheric model of the Hadley Centre. The atmospheric model is run under two different special report on emission scenarios: high CO2 concentration (A2) and moderate CO2 concentration (B2) for four locations situated in the surroundings of Lake Titicaca. The two main varieties of potato cultivated in the area are studied: the Andean potato ( Solanum tuberosum) and the bitter potato ( Solanum juzepczukii). A simple process-oriented model is used to quantify the climatic impacts on crops cycles and yields by combining the effects of temperature on phenology, of radiation and CO2 on maximum yield and of water balance on yield deficit. In future climates, air temperature systematically increases, precipitation tends to increase at the beginning of the rainy season and slightly decreases during the rest of the season. The direct effects of these climatic changes are earlier planting dates, less planting failures and shorter crop cycles in all the four locations and for both scenarios. Consequently, the harvesting dates occur systematically earlier: roughly in January for the Andean potato instead of March in the current situation and in February for the bitter potato instead of April. Overall, yield deficits will be higher under climate change than in the current climate. There will be a strong negative impact on yields for S. tuberosum (stronger under A2 scenario than under B2); the impact on S. juzepczukii yields, however, appears to be relatively mixed and not so negative.

Sanabria, J.; Lhomme, J. P.

2013-05-01

451

THE CAMPUS BAR AS A "BASTARD INSTITUTION"  

E-print Network

for its pa.~~):: A 'Halloween party is held every year, whe.re approxim~::';'-,~::: 150 people in complete .cosrume crowd inside and outside1~t:~:': bar and drink free beer as long as the three free kegs 1ast'1;~:;~f~ . annual "End-of-Summer Get Together...':at:mosphere of sexual tension which exists at most ca.mtt;:::::·~·:: bars.: There is little "pick-up" activity; in fact, women areHk·;..:;;,~:,.,,~ to:h:ugother women and all kinds of people readily talk and:\\:.; together. ":.~;!~:~~!;i;l~: ;At::five minutes before...

Willsie, Deborah A.; Riemer, Jeffrey W.

1980-04-01

452

Pseudobulges in Barred S0 Galaxies  

E-print Network

We present preliminary results from an ongoing study of the bulges of S0 galaxies. We show that in a subsample of 14 barred S0 galaxies, fully half the photometrically defined bulges show kinematic signatures of "pseudobulges" -- that is, their kinematics are dominated by rotation. In four of these galaxies, we identify at least two subcomponents in the photometric bulge region: flatter, disk or bar components, assocated with disklike kinematics; and rounder "inner bulges,'' which appear to be hotter systems more like classical bulges.

Peter Erwin; John E. Beckman; Juan Carlos Vega Beltran

2004-09-05

453

Advances in functional use of sweet potato, [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam].  

PubMed

This article reviews the patents that have been presented over the past two decades related to alternative functional use of the Sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. The major categories of available patents include alternative food products such as Sweet potato chips and fries, Sweet potato ornamental products, and fuel ethanol production from Sweet potato. The majority of recent patents fall under the category of ornamental products and alternative food products, with only a few fuel ethanol products. Figure 1 shows the major categories of patented alternative products from Sweet potato. PMID:22741930

Barnes, Sandra L; Sanders, Sheila A

2012-08-01

454

Weed suscepts of the potato yellow dwarf virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Fifteen new weed suscepts of the potato yellow dwarf virus are reported.\\u000a \\u000a Limited evidence is presented which indicates thatChrysanthemum leucanthemum var.pinnatifidum may be a more important source of the potato yellow dwarf virus under field conditions than Medium Red clover.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a The presence of the yellow dwarf virus was demonstrated in naturally infected plants of the following species:Chrysanthemum leucanthemum var.pinnatifidum, Trifolium

S. G. Younkin

1942-01-01

455

Pentasaccharide glycosides from the tubers of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas).  

PubMed

Sweet potato ( Ipomoea batatas) has been used as food and herb in many countries. In this research on the active constituents of sweet potato, nine compounds were isolated and identified, including seven new resin glycosides, batatosides A-G (1- 7), along with two known compounds, batatinoside I ( 8) and simonin IV ( 9). The structures of 1- 9 have been established by a combination of spectroscopic and chemical methods. The major characteristics of the new compounds are the presence of three different substituents. The absolute configuration of aglycones was established as S by Mosher's method. Batatoside E ( 5) showed weak cytotoxic activity against Hep-2 cells. PMID:18341282

Yin, Yongqin; Li, Yi; Kong, Lingyi

2008-04-01

456

Keys to Profitable Texas Sweet Potato Production, Storage and Marketing.  

E-print Network

offilled crates. Prevent chilling of the roots while in transit. Marketing Sweet potatoes are sold in fiberboard cartons or in wooden crates containing 40 to 50 pounds of product. Check with your buyer and pack in the container he wants. Sales begin... offilled crates. Prevent chilling of the roots while in transit. Marketing Sweet potatoes are sold in fiberboard cartons or in wooden crates containing 40 to 50 pounds of product. Check with your buyer and pack in the container he wants. Sales begin...

Roberts, Roland E.; Longbrake, Thomas D.; Cotner, Sam; Menges, Terry; McCraw, B. Dean; Paterson, Donald R.

1979-01-01

457

Effect of baking of sardine (Sardina pilchardus) and frying of anchovy (Engraulis encrasicholus) in olive and sunflower oil on their quality.  

PubMed

Quality changes due to oven-baking of sardine for 20, 40, 50 and 60?min and due to deep frying of anchovy for 2, 3, 4 and 5?min in olive and sunflower oil were studied. Linear increase in total losses with the time of processing was observed. A linear inverse relationship was observed between moisture/lipid and moisture/protein due to time of baking of sardines and time of frying of anchovies (wet matter). However, no changes were detected in sardine samples due to time of baking (dry matter), while a reduction in proteins and ash followed by an increase in lipids was detected in fried anchovies due to time of frying (dry matter). The fatty acid profiles indicated that a rich in EPA?+?DHA (33.16%) and in ?-3/?-6 ratio (9.40) baked sardines can be produced in 20?min at 200?°C. The fatty acid profiles of fried anchovies tremendously changed, indicating entirely different products. Olive oil is probably a better medium to fry fish products, since either the two beneficial fatty acids (EPA and DHA) detected at higher concentrations in anchovies fried in olive oil or the ?-3/?-6 ratio remained at higher values (0.71-2.56). An increase of cholesterol and squalene content with increasing the time of baking was detected in sardine samples, probably due to decline of moisture content. On the contrary, cholesterol significantly reduced due to frying of anchovy in olive oil. Simultaneously squalene concentration significantly and linearly increased, from 3.87?mg/100?g in the unprocessed anchovies to 73.25?mg/100?g in the samples fried for 5?min, indicating its existence at beneficial levels, besides low cholesterol concentration detected in fried olive oil and squalene concentration gradually and linearly decreased, confirming the absorption from the anchovy samples. Similar was the changes of cholesterol and squalene in anchovies samples fried in sunflower oil. PMID:23239760

Zotos, Anastasios; Kotaras, Akylas; Mikras, Emmanouil

2013-02-01

458

Short and long distance spread of potato leafroll luteovirus: effects of host genes and transgenes conferring resistance to virus accumulation in potato  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potato leafroll luteovirus (PLRV) movement through phloem of PLRV-resistant potato clones was exam- ined in experiments in which stem pieces were grafted either between infected rootstocks and virus-free susceptible scions or between infected scions and virus-free susceptible rootstocks. These test plants permitted either upwards or downwards virus movement into the susceptible tissue. Re- sistant potato clones had either host gene-mediated

Peter M. Derrickã; Hugh Barker

459

The sweet potato sporamin promoter confers high-level phytase expression and improves organic phosphorus acquisition and tuber yield of transgenic potato  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sweet potato sporamin promoter was used to control the expression in transgenic potato of the E. coli appA gene, which encodes a bifunctional enzyme exhibiting both acid phosphatase and phytase activities. The sporamin promoter\\u000a was highly active in leaves, stems and different size tubers of transgenic potato, with levels of phytase expression ranging\\u000a from 3.8 to 7.4% of total

Ya-Fang Hong; Chang-Yeu Liu; Kuo-Joan Cheng; Min-Tsair Chan; Tung-Hai Tseng; Kai-Yi Chen; Jei-Fu Shaw; Su-May Yu

2008-01-01

460

Production of Surfactant from Bacillus subtilis ATCC 21332 using Potato substrates  

SciTech Connect

Surfactin, a lipopeptide biosurfactant, produced by Bacillus subtilis is known to reduce the surface tension of water from 72 to 27 mN/m. Potato substrates were evaluated as a carbon source for surfactant production by B. subtilis ATCC 21332. An established potato medium, simulated liquid and solid potato waste media, and a commercially prepared potato starch in a mineral salts medium were evaluated in shake flask experiments to verify growth, surface tension reduction, and carbohydrate reduction capabilities. Total carbohydrate assays and glucose monitoring indicated that B. subtilis was able to degrade potato substrates to produce surfactant. Surface tensions dropped from 71.3±0.1 to 28.3±0.3 mN/m (simulated solid potato medium) and to 27.5±0.3 mN/m (mineral salts medium). A critical micelle concentration (CMC) of 0.10 g/l was obtained from a methylene chloride extract of the simulated solid potato medium.

Fox, Sandra Lynn; Bala, Greg Alan

2000-12-01

461

Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam)--a valuable medicinal food: a review.  

PubMed

Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam, also known as sweet potato, is an extremely versatile and delicious vegetable that possesses high nutritional value. It is also a valuable medicinal plant having anti-cancer, antidiabetic, and anti-inflammatory activities. Sweet potato is now considered a valuable source of unique natural products, including some that can be used in the development of medicines against various diseases and in making industrial products. The overall objective of this review is to give a bird's-eye view of the nutritional value, health benefits, phytochemical composition, and medicinal properties of sweet potato. Specifically, this review outlines the biological activities of some of the sweet potato compounds that have been isolated, the pharmacological action of the sweet potato extract, clinical studies, and plausible medicinal applications of sweet potato (along with a safety evaluation), and demonstrates the potential of sweet potato as a medicinal food. PMID:24921903

Mohanraj, Remya; Sivasankar, Subha

2014-07-01

462

The Morphology of Collisionless Galactic Rings Exterior to Evolving Bars  

E-print Network

The morphology of the outer rings of early-type spiral galaxies is compared to integrations of massless collisionless particles initially in nearly circular orbits. Particles are perturbed by a quadrupolar gravitational potential corresponding to a growing and secularly evolving bar. We find that outer rings with R1R2 morphology and pseudorings are exhibited by the simulations even though they lack gaseous dissipation. Simulations with stronger bars form pseudorings earlier and more quickly than those with weaker bars. We find that the R1 ring, perpendicular to the bar, is fragile and dissolves after a few bar rotation periods if the bar pattern speed increases by more than ~ 8%, bar strength increases (by >~ 140%) after bar growth, or the bar is too strong (Q_T>0.3). If the bar slows down after formation, pseudoring morphology persists and the R2 ring perpendicular to the bar is populated due to resonance capture. The R2 ring remains misaligned with the bar and increases in ellipticity as the bar slows down. The R2 ring becomes scalloped and does not resemble any ringed galaxies if the bar slows down more than 3.5% suggesting that bars decrease in strength before they slow down this much. We compare the morphology of our simulations to B-band images of 9 ringed galaxies from the Ohio State University Bright Spiral Galaxy Survey, and we find a reasonable match in morphologies to R1R2' pseudorings seen within a few bar rotation periods of bar formation. Some of the features previously interpreted in terms of dissipative models may be due to transient structure associated with recent bar growth and evolution.

Micaela Bagley; Ivan Minchev; Alice C. Quillen

2008-08-13

463

My Bar Graph Tells a Story  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Connecting stories to qualitative coordinate graphs has been suggested as an effective instructional strategy. Even students who are able to "create" bar graphs may struggle to correctly "interpret" them. Giving children opportunities to work with qualitative graphs can help them develop the skills to interpret, describe, and compare information…

McMillen, Sue; McMillen, Beth

2010-01-01

464

Charm Baryon Results from BaBar  

SciTech Connect

We present experimental results from the BaBar experiment on charm baryon spectroscopy and production studies, including studies of excited cascades produced in charm baryon decays. We review the discovery of new decay modes of known states and searches for predicted states.

Ziegler, Veronique; /SLAC

2012-04-27

465

BARRED OWL RANGE EXPANSION INTO THE  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past century the geographic range of the Barred Owl (Strix varia) has expanded in western North America beginning in Alberta and British Columbia and moving southward in the United States. The pattern of range expansion remains poorly documented and several untested ex- planatory hypotheses have been proposed. We surveyed for owls in central Idaho from 1980-95 and recorded

ANTHONY L. WRIGHT; GREGORY D. HAYWARD

466

Divorce and Bar Mitzvah: A First Look.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After an introductory discussion and review of literature on divorce among Jewish families, this document presents and analyzes two case studies which show the adverse effect of divorce and child-custody battles on the children of Jewish families who subsequently plan a B'nai Mitzvah (Bar or Bat Mitzvah) ceremony--a joyous ritual of initiation…

Geffen, Michael; Kaplan, Earl

467

NYC Bar Association meeting, March 22, 2007  

E-print Network

Good for New York City? March 22, 2007 #12;Transfer Station & HHW Facility Lancaster County Frey Farm· NYC Bar Association meeting, · March 22, 2007 Jim Warner #12;Is Thermal Treatment of Solid Wastes Landfill & LFG Plant Waste-to-Energy Facility Pennsylvania Only County in Pennsylvania to Own & Operate

Columbia University

468

Control of gymnast on a high bar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fundamental problems in controlling a gymnast robot to do stunts on a high bar are discussed. To increase swing amplitude there are two methods. One is to pull up and pull down the mass center of the whole body. The other is to oscillate swing by sinusoidal joint movement at the eigenfrequency of the pendulum. But oscillation in constant frequency

S. Takashima

1991-01-01

469

Spinners, Scroll Bars and Simpson's Rule  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the most remarkable devices embedded in a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet is known as the spinner. Its staggering simplicity is undoubtedly its strength. As an incrementing device that allows graphs to dance across the screen, it gives the concept of variability a whole new meaning. Spinners and their close cousins scroll bars can be grabbed…

Staples, Ed

2005-01-01

470

Unitarity Triangles at BaBar  

SciTech Connect

The BaBar experiment has used a variety of methods to determine the angles {alpha}, {beta}, and {gamma} of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa Unitarity Triangle, which give insight into the Standard Model description of CP violation in the quark sector of the electroweak interactions. Here we review the main experimental techniques and analyses, with emphasis in the most recent results.

Martinez-Vidal, Fernando; /Valencia U., IFIC

2011-11-23

471

2Cosmic Bar Graphs Galaxy Type  

E-print Network

2Cosmic Bar Graphs 0 20 40 60 80 100 S E SB I Galaxy Type Number 0 200 400 600 800 1000 FB SB Burst Classification Number Problem1 ­ Astronomers have classified the 160 largest galaxies in the Virgo Cluster classed as E, 56 were classed as SB and 3 were classed as I. About what fraction of galaxies

472

Measuring Di-Higgs Physics via the $t \\bar t hh \\to t \\bar t b \\bar bb\\bar b$ Channel  

E-print Network

The measurement of di-Higgs physics may provide crucial information on how electroweak phase transition is achieved in the early Universe and important clues on new physics which couples with the Higgs field directly. It has been suggested to be pursued mainly via the $gg \\to hh$ channel. In this letter, we propose a new strategy to measure the di-Higgs physics, i.e., via the $t \\bar t hh \\to tt b \\bar b b \\bar b$ channel. We conclude that this strategy provides a sensitivity potentially comparable to that of the $gg \\to hh \\to bb \\gamma\\gamma$ channel in searching for the di-Higgs production predicted by the Standard Model at High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC). Explicitly, we analyzed two possibilities in which the $t\\bar t$ pair decays semi-leptonically and di-leptonically, respectively. With 3000fb$^{-1}$ of data, a statistical significance of $2.0 \\sigma$ can be achieved in the semi-leptonic top-pair case, and with the di-leptonic possibility incorporated, a statistical significance of $2.2 \\sigma$ can be achieved.

Tao Liu; Hao Zhang

2014-10-07

473

Determination of the branching fractions for $?(3770) \\to D^0 \\bar D^0, D^+D^-,D\\bar D$ and $?(3770) \\to {\\rm non-}D\\bar D$  

E-print Network

The branching fractions for $\\psi(3770) \\to D^0 \\bar D^0, D^+D^-,D\\bar D$ and $\\psi(3770) \\to {\\rm non-}D\\bar D$ are determined based on the cross sections for $\\psi(3770)$ and $D \\bar D$ production measured by BES Collaboration. From its recent publications we determine the branching fractions for $\\psi(3770) \\to D^0 \\bar D^0, D^+D^-$ and $\\psi(3770) \\to D\\bar D$ to be $(52.2\\pm 4.8\\pm 5.5)%$, $(37.0 \\pm 5.0 \\pm 4.3)%$ and $(89.1 \\pm 6.9 \\pm 9.2)%$, respectively. The latter one implies the branching fraction for $\\psi(3770) \\to {\\rm non-}D\\bar D$ to be $(10.9 \\pm 6.9 \\pm 9.2)%$, corresponding the inclusive ${\\rm non-}D \\bar D$ partial width $\\Gamma(\\psi(3770) \\to {\\rm non-}D\\bar D) = (2.8 \\pm 1.8 \\pm 2.4)$ MeV. Meanwhile we determine the observed cross section for $non-D\\bar D$ event production from $\\psi(3770)$ decays to be $\\sigma^{\\rm obs}(\\psi(3770)\\to non-D\\bar D) = (0.72 \\pm 0.46 \\pm 0.62)$ nb.

G. Rong; D. H. Zhang; J. C. Chen

2005-06-23

474

Gaseous Vortices in Barred Spiral Galaxies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the course of examining many two-dimensional, as well as a smaller sample of three-dimensional, models of gas flows in barred spiral galaxies, we have been impressed by the ubiquitous presence fo vortex pairs, oriented roughly perpendicular to their bars, with one vortex on each side. The vortices are obvious only when viewed in the bar frame, and the centers of their velocity fields usually are near Lagrangian points L(sub 4,5). In all models that we have studied, the vortices form on essentially the same time scale as that for the development of gaseous spiral arms, typically two bar rotations. Usually the corotation radius, r(sub c), lies slightly beyond the end of the bar. Depending upon the mass distributions of the various components, gas spirals either into, or out of, the vortices: In the former case, the vortices become regions of high density, whereas the opposite is true if the gas spirals out of a vortex. The models described in this paper have low-density vortices, as do most of the models we have studied. Moreover, usually the vortex centers lie approximately within +/- 15 deg of L(sub 4,5). In the stellar dynamic limit, when pressure and viscous forces are absent, short-period orbits exist, centered on L(sub 4,5). These orbits need not cross and therefore their morphology is that of gas streamlines, that is, vortices. We believe that the gas vortices in our models are hydrodynamic analogues of closed, short-period, libration orbits centered on L(sub 4,5).

England, Martin N.; Hunter, James H., Jr.

1995-01-01

475

50 CFR Figures 14a and 14b to Part... - Maximum Angle of Deflector Bars With Straight Bars Attached to the Bottom of the Frame and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Maximum Angle of Deflector Bars With Straight Bars Attached to the Bottom of the Frame and Maximum Angle of Deflector Bars With Bent Bars Attached...Figures 14a and 14b to Part 223—Maximum Angle of Deflector Bars With Straight Bars...

2011-10-01

476

First measurements of J/Psi decays into $?^+ \\bar?^-$ and $?^0 \\bar?^0$  

E-print Network

Based on 58 million J/Psi events collected with the BESII detector at the BEPC, the baryon pair processes J/Psi to $\\Sigma^+ \\bar{\\Sigma}^-$ and J/Psi to $\\Xi^0 \\bar{\\Xi}^0$ are observed for the first time. The branching fractions are measured to be ${\\cal B}(J/Psi to \\Sigma^+ \\bar{\\Sigma}^-)=(1.50\\pm 0.10\\pm 0.22)\\times 10^{-3}$ and ${\\cal B}(J/Psi to \\Xi^0 \\bar{\\Xi}^0)=(1.20\\pm 0.12\\pm 0.21)\\times 10^{-3}$, where the first errors are statistical and the second ones are systematic.

BES Collaboration

2008-10-10

477

Metabolic changes associated with calcium deficiency in potato sprouts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in the major elements and in citric, malic and chlorogenic acids have been studied in relation to sub-apical necrosis of potato sprouts. Both citric and chlorogenic acids accumulated in the necrotic sprout; application of calcium decreased these acids but increased malic acid.

P. C. Dekock; P. W. Dyson; A. Hall; Flora B. Grabowska

1975-01-01

478

Effects of Calcium Deficiency on Potato Sets in Acid Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

DURING the War, when many poor upland areas and commons in Britain were ploughed up for crop production, potatoes were commonly planted as a first crop in view of their tolerance to acid soil conditions. Many failures, however, were experienced where the soils were very strongly acid, with pH values of the order of 4.0, and it was shown that

T. Wallace; E. J. Hewitt

1948-01-01

479

Agricultural Chemical Usage. Postharvest Applications: Apples and Potatoes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The agricultural chemical use estimates in this report are based on data compiled from the Postharvest Chemical Use Surveys. Separate surveys were conducted for apples and potatoes in the summer of 1997, covering the 1996 crop. All results refer to pestic...

1998-01-01

480

Breeding varieties of potato resistant to Verticillium wilt in Maine  

Microsoft Academic Search

& Berthold, has been receiving much attention in Maine. The causal fungus is soil- and seed-borne and the practice followed by many growers, especially during the days of price control, of producing potatoes year after year on the same land has resulted in the soil sometimes becoming heavily infested with it and in reduction in yield due to the early

R. V. Akeley; F. J. Stevenson; D. Folsom; R. Bonde

1956-01-01

481

Sweet potatoes are a warm-weather vegetable  

E-print Network

Sweet potatoes are a warm- weather vegetable related to the morning glory family. Recommended varieties Beauregard -- large, elongated roots with light purple to red skin and dark orange flesh in a cool, dry, dark place, unwrapped, for up to two months or at room temperature for up to a week. Cooked

482

Method of Producing Crisp Reheated French Fried Potatoes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent relates to an improved method of producing crisp, non-rubbery, reheated french fried potatoes which are frozen for storage purposes after being fried in deep fat and subsequently reheated by means of microwave oven heating without employing add...

H. Gorfien, A. R. Rahman, D. E. Westcott

1978-01-01

483

Single nucleotide polymorphism discovery in elite north american potato germplasm  

E-print Network

;RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Single nucleotide polymorphism discovery in elite north american potato diverse North American germplasm, the chip processing market class was most distinct, clearly separated from all other market classes. The round white and russet market classes both include fresh market

Douches, David S.

484

Resistance to root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp., I potato  

Microsoft Academic Search

Root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp., are world-wide one of the most damaging pests to arable farming. In North Western Europe, the species M. chitwoodi, M. fallax and M. hapla are becoming a serious problem in potato growing areas as a result of recent changes in crop rotation, that now include highly profitable host crops, and a reduced use of nematicides in

G. J. W. Janssen

1997-01-01

485

Botanicals to control soft rot bacteria of potato.  

PubMed

Extracts from eleven different plant species such as jute (Corchorus capsularis L.), cheerota (Swertia chiraita Ham.), chatim (Alstonia scholaris L.), mander (Erythrina variegata), bael (Aegle marmelos L.), marigold (Tagetes erecta), onion (Allium cepa), garlic (Allium sativum L.), neem (Azadiracta indica), lime (Citrus aurantifolia), and turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) were tested for antibacterial activity against potato soft rot bacteria, E. carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc) P-138, under in vitro and storage conditions. Previously, Ecc P-138 was identified as the most aggressive soft rot bacterium in Bangladeshi potatoes. Of the 11 different plant extracts, only extracts from dried jute leaves and cheerota significantly inhibited growth of Ecc P-138 in vitro. Finally, both plant extracts were tested to control the soft rot disease of potato tuber under storage conditions. In a 22-week storage condition, the treated potatoes were significantly more protected against the soft rot infection than those of untreated samples in terms of infection rate and weight loss. The jute leaf extracts showed more pronounced inhibitory effects on Ecc-138 growth both in in vitro and storage experiments. PMID:22701096

Rahman, M M; Khan, A A; Ali, M E; Mian, I H; Akanda, A M; Abd Hamid, S B

2012-01-01

486

Potato Peroxidase for the Study of Enzyme Properties.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains how the surface of a freshly sliced potato can be used for a variety of enzyme action experiments including the influence of pH on enzyme action, the enzyme denaturation potential of boiling water, the inhibition of enzymes by heavy metals, and the effects of salt concentration on enzyme effectiveness. (PR)

Shamaefsky, Brian R.

1993-01-01

487

The hatching factor of the potato-root eelworm  

PubMed Central

1. The hatching factor of the potato-root eelworm was concentrated from potato-root leachings by adsorption on charcoal. The crude material, extracted from charcoal with acetone, was purified by partition between ethyl acetate and m-potassium dihydrogen phosphate, and ethyl acetate and a solution of potassium metabisulphite (disulphite). Neutral material was removed by extraction from phosphate buffer at pH7·8. The yield of purified material, after chromatography on silica, DEAE-cellulose and Perlon columns, was 18?g./l. of potato-root leachings, and 0·04% by weight of the acetone-soluble material extracted from charcoal; 20% of the activity of the original potato-root leachings was recovered. 2. The purified material was a colourless gum. On paper chromatograms it gave a single weakly fluorescing spot, which reacted with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine and aniline–xylose reagents. It was confirmed that the hatching factor is an acid, and it is inactivated at values above pH9. Other properties were a ready oxidation by permanganate and reaction with certain carbonyl reagents. Colour tests for ?- and ?-unsaturated ?-lactones were negative. The hatching factor showed no light-absorption maxima at wavelengths above 210m?; absorption bands in the infrared region (670–4000cm.?1) are given. Our purified material, although a gum, gave a similar hatch to a `crystalline' product at 640 times its concentration. PMID:5911530

Clarke, A. J.; Widdowson, Elizabeth

1966-01-01

488

Propagation of potato by shoot tip culture in petri dishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A method is described for propagating potato shoot tips with liquid culture in petri dishes. With cv: Exton, Pontiac, Kennebec\\u000a and Sebago multiplication rates could exceed 8-fold every 8 weeks. The petri dishes can be packed so as to accommodate large\\u000a numbers of multiplying tips in a small space.

P. B. Goodwin; T. Adisarwanto

1980-01-01

489

Developmental changes in carbohydrate metabolism during early tuberisation of potato  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potato tuber is a vegetative storage organ, which is initiated at the tip of an underground diagravitropic growing stem, called a stolon. The process of tuber formation comprises the induction, initiation and growth of a stolon, cessation of the longitudinal growth of the stolon, followed by the induction, initiation and growth of the tuber. Tuber initiation is characterized by

N. Appeldoorn

1999-01-01

490

Treatment of Potato Processing Waste Water on Agricultural Land1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical oxygen demand (COD) and the total N and NO3 -N concentrations in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) process- ing plant waste water and in the soil solution at several depths in a treatment field where the waste water was applied were studied for a 2-year period. The COD decreased 95 to 99% from 850 to 2,000 ppm in waste

J. H. Smith

1976-01-01

491

Routing with Bounded Buffers and HotPotato Routing  

E-print Network

auf der Heide and Christian Scheideler Department of Mathematics and Computer Science and Heinz for storing routing tables influences the runtime. For hot­potato routing, even without space restrictions would involve the packets to be stored in electronic media. In this paper we present on­line routing

Paderborn, Universität

492

Phenolic acids in potatoes, vegetables, and some of their products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine the distribution and contents of soluble and total phenolic acids in a wide range of vegetables consumed in Finland. The determinations were performed from the pooled samples (14 potato and 45 other vegetable samples). Soluble phenolic acids were extracted with methanolic acetic acid and a tentative quantification was performed by HPLC. The

Pirjo Mattila; Jarkko Hellström

2007-01-01

493

Red Dot Foods, Inc. and its potato research program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusion  The potato breeder has many hereditary characters with which to work and it should not be long before new varieties, with\\u000a superior chip quality, will replace in whole, or in part, the varieties that are grown today to supply the many factories\\u000a owned and operated by Red Dot Foods, Inc.

F. J. Stevenson

1957-01-01

494

Changes in Peroxidase Activity during Potato Ring Rot Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of the ring rot causal agent Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus (a virulent strain 5369) on the peroxidase activity of various tissues of potato plants grown under axenic conditions were studied. Root infection enhanced peroxidase activity in all plant tissues (roots, leaves, and stems). In the resistant cv. Lugovskoi, peroxidase activity was much higher than in the susceptible cv.

I. A. Graskova; A. S. Romanenko; S. V. Vladimirova; A. V. Kolesnichenko

2004-01-01

495

Activity of peroxidase during blanching of peaches, carrots and potatoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peroxidase (POD) activity was measured in peaches, carrots and potatoes after blanching treatments at different constant temperatures. Two isoenzymes exist, one bound and one soluble. The bound form can be converted into the soluble form by a temperature-dependent conversion reaction. Both forms are susceptible to heat denaturation. However, the conversion precedes the denaturation of the bound form. Heat denaturation of

L. M. M. Tijskens; P. S. Rodis; M. L. A. T. M. Hertog; K. W. Waldron; L. Ingham; N. Proxenia; C. van Dijk

1997-01-01

496

In Vitro Antioxidant Effects of Flavonoids of Sweet Potato Vines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flavonoids of sweet potato vines (FSPV) were examined for their antioxidant effects in vitro. The scavenging capacities of FSPV on 1,1-diphenyl 2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide anion radical, and hydroxyl radical were measured, and their antioxidant activity in a linoleic acid model system was studied using thiobarbituric acid (TBA) method. The results showed that FSPV had a strong scavenging effect on DPPH.

Hongxiu Ding; Yinyu Gao; Hanwu Lei; Liping Luo; Hongjuan Chao; Roger Ruan

2010-01-01

497

HORTICULTURAL ENTOMOLOGY Potato Aphid, Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas), in Tomatoes  

E-print Network

HORTICULTURAL ENTOMOLOGY Potato Aphid, Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas), in Tomatoes: Plant Canopy Distribution and Binomial Sampling on Processing Tomatoes in California NATALIE A. HUMMEL,1, 2 FRANK G. ZALOM,1 tomato plants,Lycopersicon esculentum(Mill), is proposed. Relationships between mean number of M

Underwood, Nora