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Sample records for baked potato bar

  1. Baked Potato Routing \\Lambda (Extended Abstract)

    E-print Network

    Kranakis, Evangelos

    Baked Potato Routing \\Lambda (Extended Abstract) Shlomi Dolev y Evangelos Kranakis z Danny Krizanc. Scheduling of packet trans­ mission schemes, which we call baked­potato schemes, are used to avoid a matching lower bound. Our baked­potato scheme does not assume any prior knowledge on the source des

  2. Changes in sugar composition during baking and their effects on sensory attributes of baked sweet potatoes.

    PubMed

    Chan, Chin-Feng; Chiang, Chih-Ming; Lai, Yung-Chang; Huang, Che-Lun; Kao, Shu-Chen; Liao, Wayne C

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of sugar composition on the sensory attributes of seven baked sweet potatoes. The sugar composition was analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography. Results showed that the total sugar content of baked sweet potatoes increased significantly because of the formation of maltose. The maltose content dramatically increased after baking, and became the major sugar component of baked sweet potatoes. On the other hand, baked sweet potatoes were evaluated on a 7-point hedonic scale for sensory analysis. Overall acceptability results showed that the panelists preferred baked CYY95-26 and TNG66 over the other baked varieties. Because the correlation between overall acceptability and sweetness was the highest (r?=?0.69, p?baked sweet potatoes. Although sugar composition changed on baking, the overall acceptability of baked sweet potatoes was highly associated with the sucrose content. PMID:25477683

  3. Studies of sugar composition and starch morphology of baked sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam).

    PubMed

    Lai, Yung-Chang; Huang, Che-Lun; Chan, Chin-Feng; Lien, Ching-Yi; Liao, Wayne C

    2013-12-01

    Sugar composition of seven sweet potato cultivars was successfully analyzed. Fresh CYY95-26 sweet potatoes had the highest (8.41%) total sugar content while TNG73 had the lowest (4.5%). For these fresh sweet potatoes, maltose content was very low (0?~?0.39%). Because 49.92?~?92.43% of total sugars were sucrose, sucrose was the major sugar composition of fresh sweet potatoes. After the baking treatment, the total sugar content of baked sweet potatoes was dramatically increased due to the formation of maltose. The maltose content significantly increased from 0?~?0.39% to 8.81?~?13.97% on dry weight basis. Therefore, maltose should be included in calculating the total sugar content. Electronic micrographs of fresh sweet potato samples showed that the size of starch granules was generally less than 20 ?m. After the baking treatment, starch granules completely gelatinized. PMID:24426034

  4. Effects of baking and boiling on the nutritional and antioxidant properties of sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] cultivars.

    PubMed

    Dincer, Cuneyt; Karaoglan, Mert; Erden, Fidan; Tetik, Nedim; Topuz, Ayhan; Ozdemir, Feramuz

    2011-11-01

    The effects of baking and boiling on the nutritional and antioxidant properties of three sweet potato cultivars (Beniazuma, Koganesengan, Kotobuki) cultivated in Turkey were investigated. The samples were analyzed for proximate composition, total phenolic content, ascorbic acid, ?-carotene, antiradical activity, and free sugars. The dry matter, protein, and starch contents of the sweet potatoes were significantly changed by the treatments while the ash and crude fiber contents did not differ as significantly. The ?-carotene contents of baked and boiled sweet potatoes were lower than those of fresh sweet potatoes; however, the total phenolic and ascorbic acid contents of the baked and boiled sweet potatoes were higher than those of the fresh samples. Generally, the antiradical activity of the sweet potatoes increased with the treatments. Sucrose, glucose, and fructose were quantified as free sugars in all fresh sweet potatoes; however, maltose was determined in the treated samples. In terms of the analyzed parameters, there were no explicit differences among the sweet potato cultivars. PMID:22101780

  5. Effect of ingredients on rheological, nutritional and quality characteristics of fibre and protein enriched baked energy bars.

    PubMed

    Rawat, Neelam; Darappa, Indrani

    2015-05-01

    Effect of substitution of brown flour (BF) with fiber rich ingredient mixture, FRIM (banana flour, psyllium husk, partially defatted coconut flour and oats) and protein rich ingredient mixture, PRIM (chickpea flour, sesame, soya protein isolate and whey protein concentrate) at the levels of 25, 50 and 75 % on the rheological, nutritional and quality characteristics of baked energy bars (BEB) were studied. Use of increasing amount of FRIM increased farinograph water absorption and amylograph peak viscosity while PRIM decreased the aforementioned parameters. Addition of FRIM or PRIM increased the bar dough hardness and decreased cohesiveness and springiness. The overall quality score of BEB increased only up to the substitution of 50 % of BF with FRIM or PRIM. The BEB with 50 % FRIM and PRIM remained chemically stable during storage up to 3 months and showed 9 times increase in dietary fiber content and about 2 times increase in protein content respectively. PMID:25892802

  6. Multigeneration reproductive and developmental toxicity study of bar gene inserted into genetically modified potato on rats.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Gyu Seek; Cho, Dae Hyun; Won, Yong Hyuck; Seok, Ji Hyun; Kim, Soon Sun; Kwack, Seung Jun; Lee, Rhee Da; Chae, Soo Yeong; Kim, Jae Woo; Lee, Byung Mu; Park, Kui Lea; Choi, Kwang Sik

    2005-12-10

    Each specific protein has an individual gene encoding it, and a foreign gene introduced to a plant can be used to synthesize a new protein. The identification of potential reproductive and developmental toxicity from novel proteins produced by genetically modified (GM) crops is a difficult task. A science-based risk assessment is needed in order to use GM crops as a conventional foodstuff. In this study, the specific characteristics of GM food and low-level chronic exposure were examined using a five-generation animal study. In each generation, rats were fed a solid pellet containing 5% GM potato and non-GM potato for 10 wk prior to mating in order to assess the potential reproductive and developmental toxic effects. In the multigeneration animal study, there were no GM potato-related changes in body weight, food consumption, reproductive performance, and organ weight. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was carried out using extracted genomic DNA to examine the possibility of gene persistence in the organ tissues after a long-term exposure to low levels of GM feed. In each generation, the gene responsible for bar was not found in any of the reproductive organs of the GM potato-treated male and female rats, and the litter-related indexes did not show any genetically modified organism (GMO)-related changes. The results suggest that genetically modified crops have no adverse effects on the multigeneration reproductive-developmental ability. PMID:16326439

  7. Potato Flavor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato is one of the most popular vegetables worldwide and is the most important vegetable crop in the United States, accounting for nearly one-third of per-capita vegetable consumption. Potatoes can be prepared in many ways, including baking, boiling, roasting, frying, and microwaving, allowin...

  8. Pastry Baking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    Developed as part of the Marine Corps Institute (MCI) correspondence training program, this course on pastry baking is designed to provide a source of study materials on the preparation of pastry items within central pastry shops throughout the Marine Corps; it is adaptable for nonmilitary instruction. Introductory materials include specific…

  9. Growing Potatoes in Your Home Garden

    E-print Network

    Douches, David S.

    Growing Potatoes in Your Home Garden A Guide to Growing Potatoes In Your Home Garden Yes potatoes! Potatoes, along with many other vegetables, can be prepared as part of a healthy diet. Luckily, potatoes are versatile and are easy to prepare. Whether baked, boiled, roasted or fried

  10. Baking powder overdose

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Center at 1-800-222-1222. See also: Baking soda overdose ... Baking powder contains sodium bicarbonate (found in baking soda) and an acid (such as cream of tartar). It may also contain a moisture-reducing product such as corn starch.

  11. Storage performance of Taiwanese sweet potato cultivars.

    PubMed

    Huang, Che-Lun; Liao, Wayne C; Chan, Chin-Feng; Lai, Yung-Chang

    2014-12-01

    Three sweet potato cultivars (TNG57, TNG66, and TNG73), provided by the Taiwanese Agricultural Research Institute (TARI), were stored at either 15 °C or under ambient conditions (23.8?~?28.4 °C and 77.1?~?81.0 % of relative humidity). Sweet potato roots were randomly chosen from each replicate and evaluated for measurement of weight loss, sugar content analysis, and sprouting after 0, 14, 24, 48, 56, 70, 84, and 98 days of storage. Fresh sweet potato roots were baked at 200 °C for 60 min then samples were taken for sugar analysis. After 14 days of ambient condition storage, the sprouting percentages for TNG57, TNG66, and TNG73 were 100, 85, and 95 % respectively. When sweet potatoes were stored at 15 °C, the weight loss became less and no sweet potato root sprouted after 14 days of storage. Because manufacturers can store sweet potatoes at 15 °C for almost 2 month without other treatments, the supply capacity shortage in July and September can be reduced. The total sugar content slowly increased along with increasing the storage time. After baking, the total sugar content of sweet potatoes significantly increased due to the formation of maltose. Maltose became the major sugar of baked sweet potatoes. Raw sweet potatoes stored at 15 °C had higher total sugar contents after baking than those stored under ambient conditions. Raw sweet potatoes were recommended to be stored at 15 °C before baking. PMID:25477675

  12. Selected Baking Formulas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogdany, Melvin

    This manual is designed to help baking students learn to use formulas in the preparation of baking products. Tested and proven formulas are, for the most part, standard ones with only slight modifications. The recipes are taken mainly from bakery product manufacturers and are presented in quantities suitable for school-shop use. Each recipe…

  13. Baking Soda Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Activities, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the basic principles of baking soda chemistry including the chemical composition of baking soda, its acid-base properties, the reaction of bicarbonate solution with calcium ions, and a description of some general types of chemical reactions. Includes a science activity that involves removing calcium ions from water. (LZ)

  14. Potato Types and Characteristics: Laboratory Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlista, Alexander D.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a number of simple exercises that demonstrate potato tuber characteristics and are designed for high school biology students and teachers. Exercises include Typing, Grading, Shape, Eye Characteristics, Defects, Specific Gravity, Dry Matter Content, Glucose Content, Baking, Frying/Chipping, and Taste Testing. (JRH)

  15. Effect of the intensity of cooking methods on the nutritional and physical properties of potato tubers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yali; Achaerandio, Isabel; Pujolà, Montserrat

    2016-04-15

    The different intensities of common culinary techniques (boiling, baking and microwaving) produce several changes that reduce the nutritional and physical properties of potatoes. This study evaluated the effect of those cooking methods on the quality of commercial potato tubers (Agata, Kennebec, Caesar and Red Pontiac). The higher weight losses were obtained for baking, but the potato softening depended on the cultivar. Color losses were independent of the intensity of the treatment; however, microwaving promoted a prompt starch gelatinization with respect to the other methods. The resistant starch retention of baking and microwaving was higher than that of boiling, and the maximum retention of bioactive compounds was obtained with the lower core temperature during boiling, as well as higher temperature and shorter baking time and the lower power and longer microwaving time. Principal component analysis revealed significant relationships between the instrumental and functional properties of cooked potatoes. PMID:26675872

  16. Baking Soda and Vinegar Rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claycomb, James R.; Zachary, Christopher; Tran, Quoc

    2009-02-01

    Rocket experiments demonstrating conservation of momentum will never fail to generate enthusiasm in undergraduate physics laboratories. In this paper, we describe tests on rockets from two vendors1,2 that combine baking soda and vinegar for propulsion. The experiment compared two analytical approximations for the maximum rocket height to the experimentally measured rocket height. Baking soda and vinegar rockets present fewer safety concerns and require a smaller launch area than rapid combustion chemical rockets. Both kits were of nearly identical design, costing ˜20. The rockets required roughly 30 minutes of assembly time consisting of mostly taping the soft plastic fuselage to the Styrofoam nose cone.

  17. Starch-Lignin Baked Foams

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Starch-kraft lignin foams were prepared by a baking process. Replacing up to 20% of the starch with lignin has no effect on foam density or overall morphology. At 10% replacement, lignin marginally increases water resistance and modulus of elasticity but decreases strain at maximum stress. At 20% re...

  18. Baking Soda and Vinegar Rockets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claycomb, James R.; Zachary, Christopher; Tran, Quoc

    2009-01-01

    Rocket experiments demonstrating conservation of momentum will never fail to generate enthusiasm in undergraduate physics laboratories. In this paper, we describe tests on rockets from two vendors that combine baking soda and vinegar for propulsion. The experiment compared two analytical approximations for the maximum rocket height to the…

  19. A method to determine ingredient functionality in baked tortilla chips 

    E-print Network

    Quintero-Fuentes, Ximena

    1997-01-01

    An air impingement oven was used to evaluate the structures developed by different ingredients in baked corn chips and baked tortilla chips. Dry masa flour (DMF) was hydrated into masa, sheeted and cut. Masa triangles were baked in an air...

  20. Influence of final baking technologies in partially baked frozen gluten-free bread quality.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Núria; Albanell, Elena; Miñarro, Begoña; Gallardo, Joan; Capellas, Marta

    2015-03-01

    The effect of final baking in convection oven (FBC), microwave oven (FBM), and microwave oven with susceptor packaging material (FBMS) on partially baked (PB) frozen gluten-free bread characteristics was investigated. Specific volume and crust color of loaves were measured at day 0. Bread moisture, water activity, and crumb and crust texture (at 15, 45, and 90 min after baking) were analyzed at day 0 and after 28 d of frozen storage (-18 °C). Volatile compounds from breads baked in convection oven or microwave oven with susceptor packaging material were also evaluated. Bread finally baked in convection oven or in microwave oven with susceptor packaging increased crust browning. Crumb and roll hardness increased with time after final baking (measured at 15, 45, 90 min) and after 28 d of frozen storage. Bread finally baked in microwave oven was the hardest, due to high water losses. At day 0, bread finally baked in convection oven had softer crumb than bread finally baked in microwave oven with susceptor packaging but, after 28 d of frozen storage, there were no differences between them. Moreover, FBC and FBMS rendered gluten-free breads that could not be distinguished in a triangular test and had the same volatile compounds profile. In conclusion, FBMS could be an alternative to FBC. PMID:25656390

  1. Competitive position of natural gas: Industrial baking

    SciTech Connect

    Minsker, B.S.; Salama, S.Y.

    1988-01-01

    Industrial baking is one of the largest natural gas consumers in the food industry. In 1985, bread, rolls, cookies, and crackers accounted for over 82 percent of all baked goods production. Bread accounting for 46 percent of all production. The baking industry consumed approximately 16 trillion Btu in 1985. About 93 percent was natural gas, while distillate fuel oil accounted for seven percent, and electricity accounted for much less than one percent. The three main types of baking ovens are the single lap, tunnel, and Lanham ovens. In the single lap oven, trays carry the product back and forth through the baking chamber once. The single lap oven is the most common type of oven and is popular due to its long horizontal runs, extensive steam zone, and simple construction. The tunnel oven is slightly more efficient and more expensive that the single lap oven. IN the tunnel oven, the hearth is a motorized conveyor which passes in a straight line through a series of heating zones, with loading and unloading occurring at opposite ends of the oven. The advantages of the tunnel oven include flexibility with respect to pan size and simple, accurate top and bottom heat control. The tunnel oven is used exclusively in the cookie and cracker baking, with the product being deposited directly on the oven band. The most recently developed type of oven is the Lanham oven. The Lanham oven is the most efficient type of oven, with a per pound energy consumption approaching the practical minimum for baking bread. Between one--half and two--thirds of all new industrial baking ovens are Lanham ovens. In the Lanham oven, the product enters the oven near the top of the chamber, spirals down through a series of heating zones, and exits near the bottom of the oven. The oven is gas--fired directly by ribbon burners. 31 refs.

  2. Moisture Transport and Diffusive Instability during Bread Baking

    E-print Network

    Huang, Huaxiong

    Moisture Transport and Diffusive Instability during Bread Baking H. HUANG , P. LIN and W. ZHOU June transfer process during bread baking. Our main objective is to provide an expla- nation and a remedy instability) and the effect of the diffusive instability to the bread-baking simulation is also explained

  3. Energy consumption for baking and characteristics of baked product in relation to type of oven and baking procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Nee, Y.

    1982-01-01

    Data were obtained and analyzed on 1) energy consumption when a test food was baked with four types of electric ovens (electric range oven, table model conventional oven, table model forced convection oven, and table model broiler/toaster oven) with three cooking procedures (participant's own procedure, preheated procedure, and cold start procedure); 2) patterns of energy consumption in 10-minute intervals; and 3) the characteristics of the finished food. Twenty participants from households in Columbus, Ohio, baked loaves of quick bread in a laboratory in the four types of ovens with three cooking procedures. Statistical analyses of data included analyses of variance, Tukey test, and Duncan's multiple range test. Significantly more energy was used with the participants' own procedures than with either the preheated or the cold start procedure (p < .01). There was no consistency in total energy consumption between the preheated and the cold start procedures in the four types of ovens. The electric range oven consumed significantly more energy than the other three types of ovens in the first 10-minute interval; however, the table model forced convection oven consumed significantly more energy than other ovens in the second and third 10-minute intervals. No consistent patterns were observed for volume and weight loss of breads baked with the three cooking procedures, but use of the table model forced convection oven always resulted in larger volume than with other ovens.

  4. Introduction to Potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is an introductory chapter on potatoes which gives a brief history of the potato, potato morphology, taxonomy, production statistics, nutritional content, and future prospects for potato research and production. It will appear in a new book entitled Genetics, Genomics, and Breeding of Potato ...

  5. Influence of baking method and baking temperature on the optical properties of ZnO thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, Zi-Neng; Chan, Kah-Yoong

    2015-04-24

    In this work, sol-gel spin coating technique was utilised to coat ZnO thin films on glass substrates. During the intermediate 3 minutes baking process, either hotplate or convection oven was employed to bake the samples. The temperature for the baking process was varied from 150°C to 300°C for both instruments. Avantes Optical Spectrophotometer was used to characterise the optical property. The optical transmittances of hotplate-baked and oven-baked samples showed different trends with increasing baking temperatures, ranging from below 50% transmittance to over 90% transmittance in the visible range of wavelength. The difference in baking mechanisms using hotplate and convection oven will be discussed in this paper.

  6. Influence of baking method and baking temperature on the optical properties of ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Zi-Neng; Chan, Kah-Yoong

    2015-04-01

    In this work, sol-gel spin coating technique was utilised to coat ZnO thin films on glass substrates. During the intermediate 3 minutes baking process, either hotplate or convection oven was employed to bake the samples. The temperature for the baking process was varied from 150°C to 300°C for both instruments. Avantes Optical Spectrophotometer was used to characterise the optical property. The optical transmittances of hotplate-baked and oven-baked samples showed different trends with increasing baking temperatures, ranging from below 50% transmittance to over 90% transmittance in the visible range of wavelength. The difference in baking mechanisms using hotplate and convection oven will be discussed in this paper.

  7. Bioavailability of a potato chromium complex to the laboratory rat

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, H.K.

    1985-01-01

    Research objectives were to study the effect of food source, preparation method and chemical form on bioavailability of chromium. Chromium concentration in potatoes was determined and tubers labeled either intrinsically or extrinsically with radioactive chromate. A labeled chromium complexes was isolated from preparations of raw, baked or fried potatoes and chromatographed on gel permeation media. Availability of the potato chromium complex to the rat was examined in three feeding studies. Animals were dosed with radioactive extrinsically or intrinsically labeled potato extract or with chromate. A labeled chromium complex was isolated from gastrointestinal contents of rats and chromatographed. Potato pulp and peel contained 1.63 and 2.70 ..mu..g Cr/g tissue respectively. True and apparent absorption from extrinsically labeled feedings were 33.4 +/- 4.7 and 29.8 +/- 11.2% respectively, and no differences existed between absorption from raw and cooked potatoes. Absorption from the extrinsic labeled potatoes differed significantly from absorption of inorganic chromatium. Apparent absorption of raw (11.1 +/- 7.9%) and cooked (-0.7 +/- 2.8%) intrinsically labeled feedings differed significantly. Absorption of inorganic chromium was 17.8% (true) and 11.5% (apparent). Examination of the chromium complex isolated from gastrointestinal tract contents showed enlargement of the complex in the stomach after consumption.

  8. ITT Continental Baking tests electric vans

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-02-01

    ITT Continental Baking Co., operator of one of the largest truck fleets in the U.S., is studying battery power as an alternative fuel for the future. The company currently has a total of 10 lead battery-powered vans delivering bread and cake products in Sacramento, California, and Spokane, Washington. Through a cost-sharing program with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the company will operate the vehicles through at least June 30, 1985, gathering data on their performance. The joint program began in 1981.

  9. Baking the first bread in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    This Getaway Special program is a joint venture between Spar, Monarch flour and Telesat, with Telesat being responsible for the design, manufacture and implementation of the equipment. The purpose of the experiment is to investigate the behavior of bread yeast in the absence of gravity and in the presence of normal atmospheric pressure. The proposed design mixes flour, water and yeast on-orbit, allows the mixture to prove and then bakes it. This paper outlines the development history of the experiment, the various test programs and some of the problems encountered, with their solutions.

  10. BOTANY OF THE POTATO

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter, published in a revision of the Potato Association of America's Handbook entitled "Commercial Potato Production in North America, describes the taxonomy of cultivated potato in the genus Solanum. It describes the differences between wild and cultivated potatoes and the number of sp...

  11. POTATO TUBERWORM PEROMONE TRAPPING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato tuberworm is a recent but serious pest of potato in the lower Columbia Basin of Oregon and Washington, and is a threat to potato growing areas of adjacent Idaho. The sex pheromone of the tuberworm is used in traps to monitor the presence, spread, and abundance of the pest in potato fiel...

  12. Survival of Salmonella during baking of peanut butter cookies.

    PubMed

    Lathrop, Amanda A; Taylor, Tiffany; Schnepf, James

    2014-04-01

    Peanuts and peanut-based products have been the source of recent Salmonella outbreaks worldwide. Because peanut butter is commonly used as an ingredient in baked goods, such as cookies, the potential risk of Salmonella remaining in these products after baking needs to be assessed. This research examines the potential hazard of Salmonella in peanut butter cookies when it is introduced via the peanut-derived ingredient. The survival of Salmonella during the baking of peanut butter cookies was determined. Commercial, creamy-style peanut butter was artificially inoculated with a five-strain Salmonella cocktail at a target concentration of 10(8) CFU/g. The inoculated peanut butter was then used to prepare peanut butter cookie dough following a standard recipe. Cookies were baked at 350 °F (177 °C) and were sampled after 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, and 15 min. Temperature profiles of the oven and cookies were monitored during baking. The water activity and pH of the inoculated and uninoculated peanut butter, raw dough, and baked cookies were measured. Immediately after baking, cookies were cooled, and the survival of Salmonella was determined by direct plating or enrichment. After baking cookies for 10 min, the minimum reduction of Salmonella observed was 4.8 log. In cookies baked for 13 and 14 min, Salmonella was only detectable by enrichment reflecting a Salmonella reduction in the range of 5.2 to 6.2 log. Cookies baked for 15 min had no detectable Salmonella. Results of this study showed that proper baking will reduce Salmonella in peanut butter cookies by 5 log or more. PMID:24680076

  13. Germination of oat and quinoa and evaluation of the malts as gluten free baking ingredients.

    PubMed

    Mäkinen, Outi E; Zannini, Emanuele; Arendt, Elke K

    2013-03-01

    Germination can be used to improve the sensory and nutritional properties of cereal and pseudocereal grains. Oat and quinoa are rich in minerals, vitamins and fibre while quinoa also contains high amounts of protein of a high nutritional value. In this study, oat and quinoa malts were produced and incorporated in a rice and potato based gluten free formulation. Germination of oat led to a drastic increase of ?-amylase activity from 0.3 to 48 U/g, and minor increases in proteolytic and lipolytic activities. Little change was observed in quinoa except a decrease in proteolytic activity from 9.6 to 6.9 U/g. Oat malt addition decreased batter viscosities at both proofing temperature and during heating. These changes led to a decrease in bread density from 0.59 to 0.5 g/ml and the formation of a more open crumb, but overdosing of oat malt deteriorated the product as a result of excessive amylolysis during baking. Quinoa malt had no significant effect on the baking properties due to low ?-amylase activity. Despite showing a very different impact on the bread quality, both malts influenced the electrophoretic patterns of rice flour protein similarly. This suggests that malt induced proteolysis does not influence the technological properties of a complex gluten free formulation. PMID:23386201

  14. [Effect of soybean lipoxygenae on baking properties of wheat flour].

    PubMed

    Permiakova, M D; Trufanov, V A

    2011-01-01

    Changes in bread-baking properties of wheat flour caused by soybean lipoxygenase and polyunsaturated fatty acids were studied. A positive effect of soybean flour added during dough kneading in an amount of 2% was demonstrated. A method for dough fermentation increasing the loaf volume and improving organoleptic characteristics and total bread-baking estimate is recommended. PMID:21790037

  15. Bar Fight Bar

    E-print Network

    Hacker, Randi; Tsutsui, William

    2006-11-29

    Broadcast Transcript: Annoyed with your boss? Got a bone to pick with your spouse? Angry at that sales clerk who ignored you? Come on down to The Rising Sun Anger Release Bar and beat those suckers up. Well, not those ...

  16. Thermodynamics of bread baking: A two-state model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zürcher, Ulrich

    2014-03-01

    Bread baking can be viewed as a complex physico-chemical process. It is governed by transport of heat and is accompanied by changes such as gelation of starch, the expansion of air cells within dough, and others. We focus on the thermodynamics of baking and investigate the heat flow through dough and find that the evaporation of excess water in dough is the rate-limiting step. We consider a simplified one-dimensional model of bread, treating the excess water content as a two-state variable that is zero for baked bread and a fixed constant for unbaked dough. We arrive at a system of coupled, nonlinear ordinary differential equations, which are solved using a standard Runge-Kutta integration method. The calculated baking times are consistent with common baking experience.

  17. Kinetics of the crust thickness development of bread during baking.

    PubMed

    Soleimani Pour-Damanab, Alireza; Jafary, A; Rafiee, Sh

    2014-11-01

    The development of crust thickness of bread during baking is an important aspect of bread quality and shelf-life. Computer vision system was used for measuring the crust thickness via colorimetric properties of bread surface during baking process. Crust thickness had a negative and positive relationship with Lightness (L (*) ) and total color change (E (*) ) of bread surface, respectively. A linear negative trend was found between crust thickness and moisture ratio of bread samples. A simple mathematical model was proposed to predict the development of crust thickness of bread during baking, where the crust thickness was depended on moisture ratio that was described by the Page moisture losing model. The independent variables of the model were baking conditions, i.e. oven temperature and air velocity, and baking time. Consequently, the proposed model had well prediction ability, as the mean absolute estimation error of the model was 7.93 %. PMID:26396343

  18. Relationship between Processing Method and the Glycemic Indices of Ten Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas) Cultivars Commonly Consumed in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Bahado-Singh, Perceval S; Riley, Cliff K; Wheatley, Andrew O; Lowe, Henry I C

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of different traditional cooking methods on glycemic index (GI) and glycemic response of ten Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) cultivars commonly eaten in Jamaica. Matured tubers were cooked by roasting, baking, frying, or boiling then immediately consumed by the ten nondiabetic test subjects (5 males and 5 females; mean age of 27 ± 2 years). The GI varied between 41 ± 5-93 ± 5 for the tubers studied. Samples prepared by boiling had the lowest GI (41 ± 5-50 ± 3), while those processed by baking (82 ± 3-94 ± 3) and roasting (79 ± 4-93 ± 2) had the highest GI values. The study indicates that the glycemic index of Jamaican sweet potatoes varies significantly with the method of preparation and to a lesser extent on intravarietal differences. Consumption of boiled sweet potatoes could minimize postprandial blood glucose spikes and therefore, may prove to be more efficacious in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:22132322

  19. Baking Performance of Phosphorylated Cross-Linked Resistant Starch in Low-Moisture Bakery Goods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorylated cross-linked resistant starch (RS) is a type 4 RS, which can be used for enhancing the benefits of dietary fiber. The baking performance of the RS was explored using wire-cut cookie baking and benchtop chemically-leavened cracker baking methods to produce low-moisture baked goods (coo...

  20. POTATO DISEASE RESISTANCE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potential to use systemic acquired resistance for disease control in potato is discussed. The mechanism of how SAR works in plants is described. Potato was found to have high salicylic acid levels in all tissues examined. The defense gene PR-1 was constitutively expressed in potato, in contrast ...

  1. Colorado potato beetle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Colorado potato beetle (CPB) shifted to the potato crop from native solanaceous weeds in the American West in 1859, and has been a serious pest ever since. CPB is a highly fecund leaf-feeder on potato and eggplant, and often tomatoes, with one to several generations per year. It is the most importa...

  2. 2008 Volunteer Potato Outlook

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato tubers left in the ground following a potato harvest often over winter in regions with mild winter temperatures resulting in a serious and difficult to manage weed problem in the ensuing crop rotation. Potatoes normally are killed when they reach temperatures below 28° F. Winter soil tempera...

  3. Honorary Edition Potato Research

    E-print Network

    Douches, David S.

    2002 Volume 34 Honorary Edition Michigan Potato Research Report Only a few persons have the wisdom single person has done so much for the potato industry. His vision and attention to detail have helped gratitude once more. I am pleased to dedicate the 2002 Michigan Potato Industry Commission Research Report

  4. 89. BAKE SHOP AFT LOOKING FORWARD SHOWING KNEADING TABLE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    89. BAKE SHOP - AFT LOOKING FORWARD SHOWING KNEADING TABLE, OVENS, DOUGH MIXER, BREAD RACKS AND RISING CABINETS. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  5. Domestic cooking methods affect the phytochemical composition and antioxidant activity of purple-fleshed potatoes.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jinhu; Chen, Jianle; Lv, Feiyan; Chen, Shiguo; Chen, Jianchu; Liu, Donghong; Ye, Xingqian

    2016-04-15

    The effects of domestic cooking methods (boiling, baking, steaming, microwaving, frying, and stir-frying) and a new cooking method (air-frying) on the composition of phytochemicals (phenolics, anthocyanins, and carotenoids) and the antioxidant activity in purple-fleshed potatoes were investigated. Compared with raw potatoes, reductions of 23.59-90.42%, 7.09-72.44%, 7.45-83.15%, and 20.15-76.16% in the vitamin C, total phenolic, anthocyanin and carotenoid contents, respectively, was observed after cooking. Decreases of 7.88%, 21.55%, 22.48, 6.31%, and 61.38% in DPPH radical-scavenging activity was also observed after boiling, steaming, baking, microwaving and stir-frying, respectively, whereas an increase of 30.52% was noted after air-frying. A correlation analysis revealed that the antioxidant activity was in accordance with the total phenolic content and that this activity showed the lowest correlation with the vitamin C content. Among all of the cooking methods investigated in this study, stir-frying retained only slight levels of the phytochemicals and antioxidant activity observed in raw potatoes, whereas steaming and microwaving were able to retain most of the health-promoting compounds found in raw potatoes and may thus be suitable methods for cooking potatoes. PMID:26675866

  6. Conjugate heat transfer analysis of 300-mm bake station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanan, Natarajan; Liang, Frank F.; Sims, James B.

    1999-06-01

    An exhaustive heat-transfer analysis of 200-mm and 300-mm bake equipment has been conducted to infer the temperature uniformity on the wafer from the time it is set on the plate until the end of the bake process. The objective of the analysis was to gain insight into the heat transport to the wafer and improve the thermal uniformity of the wafer. During the soft, hard and post-exposure bake processes, the temperatures to which the wafer is heated can range from 50 degrees to 250 degrees C. The influence of the variables that contribute to the temperature nonuniformity, namely the height of the proximity pins, wafer warp and bow, heater thickness, insulation of the bake plate, and lid material, have been analyzed. The analysis has been carried out using computational fluid dynamics packages, FLUENT/UNS and FIDAP. The accuracy of the numerical simulations has been verified through analytical solution is presented which provides a closed-form expression for the temperature of the wafer in terms of Biot number, a dimensionless parameter. The temperature rise of the wafer based on this simple expression compares very favorably with the detailed axisymmetric numerical solution that was carried out using variable material properties and the complex boundary conditions for the geometry of a 200-mm bake plate. The radial temperature variation on the wafer after 100 seconds on the bake plate also matches very well with the measurements. Based on the success of the modeling results with the 200-mm bake plates, a 300-mm bake plate analysis was conducted to determine if the temperature uniformity would be within specifications. The analysis revealed some key factors that caused temperature nonuniformity and the design was then altered to improve the temperature uniformity. Subsequent measurements confirmed the improvement of the temperature uniformity.

  7. spicy-pumpkin-bars

    E-print Network

    ... flour 1 tablespoon baking powder 1 teaspoon baking soda 1/2 teaspoon salt 1 tablespoon ground ... pumpkin and egg, blend til smooth Mix into dry ingredients add nuts if you will put into baking pan, ... Cool to room temp, then refrigerate.

  8. Sourdough products for convenient use in baking.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Markus J

    2007-04-01

    Sourdough fermentations require a specific knowledge on the effects of process parameters, raw materials and micro-organisms in order to obtain a specific, reproducible sourdough and bread quality. This knowledge is not necessarily available in bakeries. Sourdough starter cultures, either active sourdoughs (Reinzuchtsauerteig) or freeze-dried micro-organisms are used to start sourdough fermentation with the required micro-flora. As sourdough fermentation is a labour-intensive and a time-consuming process, a growing demand for convenient products arised early. First organic acids (lactic acid, acetic acid, citric acid) and mixtures thereof came in use. These agents were used directly without or in combination with a sourdough; however, flavour and taste of the resulting breads were unsatisfactory. Based on modified and optimized traditional sourdough processes, dried, pasty and liquid sourdoughs were developed. Companies which produce such ready-to-use products, claim for a convenient, direct production of baked goods in constant quality, in combination with all advantages of a biological sourdough fermentation, e.g. flavour and taste, fresh keeping and prolonged microbial shelf-life. Currently, a broad variety of sourdough products with different fermented cereals is available on the market. In order to obtain a stable product, it is a necessity to inactivate the sourdough micro-biota by e.g. pasteurization, drying or autosterilization. PMID:17008160

  9. Low-acrylamide French fries and potato chips

    PubMed Central

    Rommens, Caius M; Yan, Hua; Swords, Kathy; Richael, Craig; Ye, Jingsong

    2008-01-01

    Acrylamide is produced in starchy foods that are baked, roasted or fried at high temperatures. Concerns about the potential health issues associated with the dietary intake of this reactive compound led us to reduce the accumulation of asparagine, one of its main precursors, in the tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosum). This metabolic change was accomplished by silencing two asparagine synthetase genes through ‘all-native DNA’ transformation. Glasshouse-grown tubers of the transformed intragenic plants contained up to 20-fold reduced levels of free asparagine. This metabolic change coincided with a small increase in the formation of glutamine and did not affect tuber shape or yield. Heat-processed products derived from the low-asparagine tubers were also indistinguishable from their untransformed counterparts in terms of sensory characteristics. However, both French fries and potato chips accumulated as little as 5% of the acrylamide present in wild-type controls. Given the important role of processed potato products in the modern Western diet, a replacement of current varieties with intragenic potatoes could reduce the average daily intake of acrylamide by almost one-third. PMID:18662372

  10. Bioavailability of zinc from sweet potato roots and leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Baiden, H.N.; Ercanli-Huffman, F.G.

    1986-03-05

    Bioavailability of zinc from sweet potato (SP) roots and leaves were determined, by extrinsic labeling technique, in rats fed control and zinc deficient diets. Weanling male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats (60-75g) were divided into 4 groups, and fed laboratory chow, a control diet (ad libitum and pair fed) and a zinc deficient diet, for 4 weeks. Each group then was divided into at least 2 sub groups, containing 6 rats, which were intubated with one of 3 tubing solutions extrinsically labeled with /sup 65/Zn; baked sweet potato roots (BSPR), raw sweet potato leaves (RSPL) and cooked sweet potato leaves (CSPL). Five hours after intubation the rats were sacrificed, blood, liver, testes, spleen, heart, brain, thymus and lungs were removed. Feces, urine, and GI tract contents were collected and their /sup 65/Zn activity was determined in a gamma counter. In all treatment groups zinc bioavailability from BSPR, RSPL or CSPL were not significantly different. Zinc deficient rats absorbed significantly more (P < 0.01) /sup 65/Zn (86-90% of the dose), regardless of type of tubing solution than the pairfed or control animals (35-58% of the dose). The highest retention of /sup 65/Zn was found in the liver (12-20% of absorbed dose), GI tract (6-17% of absorbed dose), kidney (2-8% of absorbed dose), and blood (1-5% of absorbed dose). The lowest retention was found in the brain, heart, thymus and testes. (< 1% of absorbed dose).

  11. The Sweet Potato Borer. 

    E-print Network

    Conradi, Albert F. (Albert Frederick)

    1907-01-01

    STATIONS. -- -- -- - -- - - - - - - -. -- - - - - -- - - -- BULLETIN NO. 93. THE SWEET POTATO BORER BY ALBERT F. CONRAD1 Entomologist A Hill of Sweet Potatoes Infested by the Borer. (Photo by E. C. Green) POSTOFFICE COLLEGE STATION, BRAZOS... zs located on the grounds of the Agricrd- turn1 and MeeAanical College, in Brazos County. The Postoflee address is College Station. Texrr?. Reports and Lullelins arc sent f7 or upon np- plic~tibrl to t:lc DII eclor. THE SWEET POTATO ROOT BORER...

  12. Sweet Potatoes for Profit. 

    E-print Network

    Kyle, E. J.

    1915-01-01

    AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS- AUGUST, 1915. EXTENSION SERVICE BULLETIN B 6 SWEET POTATOES FOR PROFIT Simple Di rect ions f o r Bank ing and S to r ing Sweet Potatoes to Prevent Loss in Marke t i ng Address Clarence Ousley, Director Extension Service... storing heavy losses in the marketing of sweet potatoes. As a rule in the early fall potatoes are forced upon the market at prices varying from 35 cents to 75 cents a bushel. By winter prices usually advance to 75 cents or $1.00 and by spring often...

  13. Dietary baked-milk accelerates resolution of cow's milk allergy in children

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jennifer S.; Nowak-W?grzyn, Anna; Sicherer, Scott H.; Noone, Sally; Moshier, Erin L.; Sampson, Hugh A.

    2011-01-01

    Background The majority (?75%) of cow's milk-allergic children tolerate extensively heated-(baked-) milk products. Long-term effects of inclusion of dietary baked-milk have not been reported. Objective We report on the outcomes of children who incorporated baked-milk products into their diets. Methods Children evaluated for tolerance to baked-milk (muffin) underwent sequential food challenges to baked-cheese (pizza) followed by unheated-milk. Immunologic parameters were measured at challenge visits. The comparison group were matched to active subjects (using age, sex, and baseline milk-specific IgE) to evaluate the natural history of tolerance development. Results Over a median of 37 months (range 8-75 months), 88 children underwent challenges at varying intervals (range 6-54 months). Among 65 subjects initially tolerant to baked-milk, 39 (60%) now tolerate unheated-milk, 18 (28%) tolerate baked-milk/baked-cheese and 8 (12%) chose to avoid milk strictly. Among the baked-milk-reactive subgroup (n=23), 2 (9%) tolerate unheated-milk, 3 (13%) tolerate baked-milk/baked-cheese, while the majority (78%) avoid milk strictly. Subjects who were initially tolerant to baked-milk were 28 times more likely to become unheated-milk-tolerant compared to baked-milk-reactive subjects (P<.001). Subjects who incorporated dietary baked-milk were 16 times more likely than the comparison group to become unheated-milk-tolerant (P<.001). Median casein IgG4 levels in the baked-milk-tolerant group increased significantly (P<.001); median milk IgE values did not change significantly. Conclusions Tolerance of baked-milk is a marker of transient IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy whereas reactivity to baked-milk portends a more persistent phenotype. The addition of baked-milk to the diet of children tolerating such foods appears to accelerate development of unheated-milk tolerance compared to strict avoidance. Clinical implications Addition of dietary baked-milk is safe, convenient, and well-accepted by patients. Prescribing baked-milk products to milk-allergic children represents an important shift in the treatment paradigm for milk allergy. Capsule summary The majority of cow's milk-allergic children tolerate extensively baked-milk products, which is a marker of transient IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy. Dietary baked-milk appears to accelerate development of unheated-milk tolerance compared to strict avoidance. PMID:21601913

  14. THE POTATO SYSTEMS PLANNER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Developing profitable crop rotations is a top research priority for the potato industry. An interdisciplinary team of ARS scientists from the New England Plant, Soil, & Water Laboratory evaluated 14 rotations for their impacts on potato yield and quality, nutrient availability, plant diseases, soil ...

  15. TOMATO AND POTATO LATE BLIGHT

    E-print Network

    Douches, David S.

    TOMATO AND POTATO LATE BLIGHT ALERT WHAT EVERY GROWER NEEDS TO KNOW ABOUT TOMATO AND POTATO LATE.potatodiseases.org #12;This year the disease known as late blight has affected many tomato and potato crops throughout days. The disease can spread from tomato to potato plants and to surrounding gardens and commercial

  16. 34. DESPATCH CORE OVENS, GREY IRON FOUNDRY CORE ROOM, BAKES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. DESPATCH CORE OVENS, GREY IRON FOUNDRY CORE ROOM, BAKES CORES THAT ARE NOT MADE ON HEATED OR COLD BOX CORE MACHINES, TO SET BINDING AGENTS MIXED WITH THE SAND CREATING CORES HARD ENOUGH TO WITHSTAND THE FLOW OF MOLTEN IRON INSIDE A MOLD. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  17. Video Dejittering by Bake and Shake Sung Ha Kang a

    E-print Network

    Ferguson, Thomas S.

    Video Dejittering by Bake and Shake Sung Ha Kang a and Jianhong Shen b,1,2 a, University of Minnesota, 206 Church St. SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 Abstract Video jittering occurs when the horizontal lines of video image frames are randomly displaced due to the corruption of synchronization

  18. Milling and Baking Quality of Low Phytic Acid Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low phytic acid (LPA) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one approach to improving nutritional quality of wheat by reducing the major storage form of phosphorus and increasing the level of inorganic phosphorus, which is more readily absorbed by humans and other monogastric animals. Milling and baking ...

  19. Thermal degradation of deoxynivalenol during maize bread baking.

    PubMed

    Numanoglu, E; Gökmen, V; Uygun, U; Koksel, H

    2012-01-01

    The thermal degradation of deoxynivalenol (DON) was determined at isothermal baking conditions within the temperature range of 100-250°C, using a crust-like model, which was prepared with naturally contaminated maize flour. No degradation was observed at 100°C. For the temperatures of 150, 200 and 250°C, thermal degradation rate constants (k) were calculated and temperature dependence of DON degradation was observed by using Arrhenius equation. The degradation of DON obeyed Arrhenius law with a regression coefficient of 0.95. A classical bread baking operation was also performed at 250°C for 70?min and the rate of DON degradation in the bread was estimated by using the kinetic data derived from the model study. The crust and crumb temperatures recorded during bread baking were used to calculate the thermal degradation rate constants (k) and partial DON degradations at certain time intervals. Using these data, total degradation at the end of the entire baking process was predicted for both crust and crumb. This DON degradation was consistent with the experimental degradation data, confirming the accuracy of kinetic constants determined by means of the crust-like model. PMID:22264215

  20. Effect of chia seed meal on baking quality of cakes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chia seed is a good source of dietary fiber and complete proteins; chia seeds contain many health-promoting compounds and can be incorporated into baking goods for high-protein, high-fiber diet. Food grade chia seeds were obtained from a local grocery store and ground into meal using Retsch Model VD...

  1. Union County 4-H Holiday Bake Off and

    E-print Network

    Jawitz, James W.

    Union County 4-H Holiday Bake Off and Chili Cook Off Summary Name of a unit of some ingredient; example: a bag of flour might cost $3.00 or a dozen eggs might cost $1 eggs. *** Value of Amount Used-If a bag of flour costs $3.00 and contains 12 cups but you only used 4

  2. Effect of corn bran substitution on baking quality of cakes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food-grade corn bran from the grain milling industry is good source of dietary fiber and can be incorporated into baking goods for low calorie, high-fiber diet. Food grade corn bran was obtained from ICM (St. Joseph, MO) and purified from endosperm and germ fragments using a Kice Multi-Aspirator. ...

  3. Computational fluid dynamics modeling of bun baking process under different oven load conditions.

    PubMed

    Tank, A; Chhanwal, N; Indrani, D; Anandharamakrishnan, C

    2014-09-01

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed to study the temperature profile of the bun during baking process. Evaporation-condensation mechanism and effect of the latent heat during phase change of water was incorporated in this model to represent actual bun baking process. Simulation results were validated with experimental measurements of bun temperature at two different positions. Baking process is completed within 20 min, after the temperature of crumb become stable at 98 °C. Further, this study was extended to investigate the effect of partially (two baking trays) loaded and fully loaded (eight baking trays) oven on temperature profile of bun. Velocity and temperature profile differs in partially loaded and fully loaded oven. Bun placed in top rack showed rapid baking while bun placed in bottom rack showed slower baking due to uneven temperature distribution in the oven. Hence, placement of bun inside the oven affects temperature of bun and consequently, the quality of the product. PMID:25190860

  4. Potato Operation: automatic detection of potato diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefebvre, Marc; Zimmerman, Thierry; Baur, Charles; Guegerli, Paul; Pun, Thierry

    1995-01-01

    The Potato Operation is a collaborative, multidisciplinary project in the domain of destructive testing of agricultural products. It aims at automatizing pulp sampling of potatoes in order to detect possible viral diseases. Such viruses can decrease fields productivity by a factor of up to ten. A machine, composed of three conveyor belts, a vision system, a robotic arm and controlled by a PC has been built. Potatoes are brought one by one from a bulk to the vision system, where they are seized by a rotating holding device. The sprouts, where the viral activity is maximum, are then detected by an active vision process operating on multiple views. The 3D coordinates of the sampling point are communicated to the robot arm holding a drill. Some flesh is then sampled by the drill, then deposited into an Elisa plate. After sampling, the robot arm washes the drill in order to prevent any contamination. The PC computer simultaneously controls these processes, the conveying of the potatoes, the vision algorithms and the sampling procedure. The master process, that is the vision procedure, makes use of three methods to achieve the sprouts detection. A profile analysis first locates the sprouts as protuberances. Two frontal analyses, respectively based on fluorescence and local variance, confirm the previous detection and provide the 3D coordinate of the sampling zone. The other two processes work by interruption of the master process.

  5. Jail Bars

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-22

    ... This effect is greatest when the spacecraft is on the night side of the planet. On February 12, 2000, before the instrument cover ... Jail Bars location:  First Light Images region:  Before the covers were opened ...

  6. Genetic and phenotypic characteristics of baker's yeast: relevance to baking.

    PubMed

    Randez-Gil, Francisca; Córcoles-Sáez, Isaac; Prieto, José A

    2013-01-01

    Yeasts rarely encounter ideal physiological conditions during their industrial life span; therefore, their ability to adapt to changing conditions determines their usefulness and applicability. This is especially true for baking strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The success of this yeast in the ancient art of bread making is based on its capacity to rapidly transform carbohydrates into CO2 rather than its unusual resistance to environmental stresses. Moreover, baker's yeast must exhibit efficient respiratory metabolism during yeast manufacturing, which determines biomass yield. However, optimal growth conditions often have negative consequences in other commercially important aspects, such as fermentative power or stress tolerance. This article reviews the genetic and physiological characteristics of baking yeast strains, emphasizing the activation of regulatory mechanisms in response to carbon source and stress signaling and their importance in defining targets for strain selection and improvement. PMID:23464571

  7. Optimized Baking of the DIII-D Vessel

    SciTech Connect

    P.M. Anderson; A.G. Kellman

    1999-11-01

    The DIII-D tokamak vacuum vessel baking system is used to heat the vessel walls and internal hardware to an average temperature of 350 C to allow rapid conditioning of the vacuum surfaces. The system combines inductive heating and a circulating hot air system to provide rapid heating with temperature uniformity required by stress considerations. In recent years, the time to reach 350 C had increased from 9 hrs to 14 hrs. To understand and remedy this sluggish heating rate, an evaluation of the baking system was recently performed. The evaluation indicated that the mass of additional in-vessel hardware (50% increase in mass) was primarily responsible. This paper reports on this analysis and the results of the addition of an electric air heater and procedural changes that have been implemented. Preliminary results indicate that the time to 350 C has been decreased to 4.5 hours and the temperature uniformity has improved.

  8. [Accidents affecting potato harvesters].

    PubMed

    Hansen, J U

    1993-09-27

    During industrialization in agriculture, many farming machines have been introduced. It is well-known that farming is a dangerous workplace and that farm machinery cause many serious accidents every year. Four cases of accidents with potato harvesters are discussed. In three of four cases the farmers were injured while cleaning the machine without stopping it, which probably was the main cause of the accidents. Farmers are in general not careful enough when using farm machinery. Every year, farmers in Denmark are severely invalided in accidents with potato harvesters. A strategy to lower the accidents is proposed: 1. Information of farmers, farmer schools, machine constructors and importers about mechanisms of injury. 2. A better education of farmers in using potato harvesters (and other farming machines). 3. Better fencing of the potato harvesters. 4. If possibly constructional changes in the potato harvesters so things will not get stuck, or so that the machine will stop if things stuck. 5. Installation of switches on potato harvesters, which can be reached from all positions, stopping the machines immediately, or a remote switch control carried by the farmer. PMID:8212405

  9. Effects of domestic cooking methods on polyphenols and antioxidant activity of sweet potato leaves.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hongnan; Mu, Taihua; Xi, Lisha; Song, Zhen

    2014-09-10

    In this study, effects of boiling, steaming, microwaving, baking, and frying on proximate composition, total and individual polyphenol contents, and antioxidant activity of sweet potato leaves were investigated. An increase of 9.44% in total polyphenol content was observed after steaming, whereas decreases of 30.51, 25.70, and 15.73% were noted after boiling, microwaving, and frying, respectively. Decreases of 63.82 and 32.35% in antioxidant activity were observed after boiling and microwaving, respectively, whereas increases of 81.40, 30.09, and 85.82% in antioxidant activity were observed after steaming, baking, and frying, respectively. Eight phenolic compounds were identified in sweet potato leaves. The correlation analysis between content of individual phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity suggested that antioxidant activity could be mainly attributed to 4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 3,4-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, and 3,4,5-tri-O-caffeoylquinic acid. It was suggested that steaming is a preferred method to maintain polyphenols and antioxidant activity of sweet potato leaves. PMID:25152015

  10. Modelling thermal degradation of zearalenone in maize bread during baking.

    PubMed

    Numanoglu, E; Yener, S; Gökmen, V; Uygun, U; Koksel, H

    2013-01-01

    The thermal degradation of zearalenone (ZEA) was investigated using a crust-like model, representing maize bread, which was prepared with naturally contaminated maize flour. Model samples were heated under isothermal conditions at the temperature range of 100-250°C. No reduction was observed at 100°C. Thermal degradation rate constants (k) were calculated as 0.0017, 0.0143 and 0.0216 min(-1) for 150, 200 and 250°C, respectively. Maize bread baked at 250°C for 70 min was used to test the capability of model kinetic data for the prediction of ZEA reduction. The time-temperature history in the crust and crumb parts was recorded separately. Partial degradation of ZEA at each time interval was calculated by means of the corresponding k-values obtained by using the Arrhenius equation, and the total reduction occurring at the end of the entire baking process was predicted. The reduction in the crumb and crust of bread was also experimentally determined and found to be consistent with the predicted values. It was concluded that the kinetic constants determined by means of the crust-like model could be used to predict the ZEA reduction occurring during baking of maize bread. PMID:23256902

  11. Resistance of potato germplasm to the potato tuberworm (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The evaluation of potato accessions for resistance to potato tuberworm Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) is a valuable component of integrated pest management; however, few attempts have been made to identify natural genetic tuber resistance to tuberworm on potato germplasm. The objective of this stu...

  12. First report of Potato virus Y in potato in Tajikistan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is widely grown as a staple food and cash crop in Tajikistan and is an important food security crop in the country. In June 2011, we conducted a survey of potatoes in farmers’ fields in Buston and Dushanbe regions of Tajikistan. Potato plants with stunted growth and lea...

  13. Peeling Meshed Potatoes Boris Aronov

    E-print Network

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    Peeling Meshed Potatoes Boris Aronov Marc van Kreveld Maarten L¨offler Rodrigo I. Silveira Sciences Utrecht University P.O. Box 80.089 3508 TB Utrecht The Netherlands #12;Peeling Meshed Potatoes of the potato peeling problem on meshed (triangulated) polygons. Given a polygon with holes, and a triangular

  14. 10 Tips for Parents: How to Get Kids to Eat More Complex Carbohydrates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PTA Today, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Offers 10 suggestions to help parents encourage their children to eat more complex carbohydrates. Suggestions include microwaving baked potatoes; baking whole-grain breads; snacking on gingersnaps, fig bars, pretzels, or vegetable sticks; mixing cereal into low-fat yogurt; and making soup containing beans, rice, pasta, or potatoes. (SM)

  15. Baked Milk and Egg Diets for Milk and Egg Allergy Management.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Stephanie A; Nowak-W?grzyn, Anna H

    2016-02-01

    In baked form, cow's milk and egg are less allergenic and are tolerated by most milk- and egg-allergic children. Not only may including baked milk and egg in the diets of children who are tolerant improve nutrition and promote more social inclusion but there is also evidence that inclusion may accelerate the resolution of unheated milk and egg allergy. Further research is needed on biomarkers that can predict baked milk or egg reactivity; however, data suggest casein- and ovomucoid-specific immunoglobulin E levels may be useful. Physician-supervised introduction of baked milk and egg is recommended because anaphylaxis has occurred. PMID:26617232

  16. Potato genetics, genomics, and applications

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Potato has a variety of reproductive uniquenesses besides its clonal propagation by tubers. These traits are controlled by a different kind of genetic control. The reproductive information has been applied to enable interspecific hybridization to enhance valuable traits, such as disease and pest resistances, from the tuber-bearing Solanum gene pool. While progress has been made in potato breeding, many resources have been invested due to the requirements of large populations and long time frame. This is not only due to the general pitfalls in plant breeding, but also due to the complexity of polyploid genetics. Tetraploid genetics is the most prominent aspect associated with potato breeding. Genetic maps and markers have contributed to potato breeding, and genome information further elucidates questions in potato evolution and supports comprehensive potato breeding. Challenges yet remain on recognizing intellectual property rights to breeding and germplasm, and also on regulatory aspects to incorporate modern biotechnology for increasing genetic variation in potato breeding. PMID:25931980

  17. Evaluations of Transgenic Potatoes for Resistance to Potato Tuberworm in the Laboratory and Field

    E-print Network

    Douches, David S.

    Evaluations of Transgenic Potatoes for Resistance to Potato Tuberworm in the Laboratory and Field online: 7 October 2010 # Potato Association of America 2010 Abstract The potato variety `Spunta to potato tuberworm (Phthorimaea operculella Zeller). Because potato tuberworm is becoming a serious pest

  18. Biological control of potato insect pest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A variety of pest insects attack the potato crop and reduce yields. This book chapter reviews the known insect natural enemies for major potato pests around the world: Coleoptera (beetles) including Colorado potato beetle, 28-spotted lady beetle, and Andean potato weevil complex; potato tuber moths,...

  19. 7 CFR 946.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Potatoes. 946.5 Section 946.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown...

  20. 7 CFR 1207.306 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 1207.306 Section 1207.306 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.306 Potatoes. Potatoes means any or all...

  1. 7 CFR 1207.306 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Potatoes. 1207.306 Section 1207.306 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.306 Potatoes. Potatoes means any or all...

  2. 7 CFR 946.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Potatoes. 946.5 Section 946.5 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown...

  3. 7 CFR 1207.306 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Potatoes. 1207.306 Section 1207.306 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.306 Potatoes. Potatoes means any or all...

  4. 7 CFR 946.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Potatoes. 946.5 Section 946.5 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown...

  5. 7 CFR 947.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Potatoes. 947.5 Section 947.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU... Definitions § 947.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown within the...

  6. 7 CFR 947.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Potatoes. 947.5 Section 947.5 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU... Definitions § 947.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown within the...

  7. 7 CFR 1207.306 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Potatoes. 1207.306 Section 1207.306 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.306 Potatoes. Potatoes means any or all...

  8. 7 CFR 947.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Potatoes. 947.5 Section 947.5 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU... Definitions § 947.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown within the...

  9. 7 CFR 947.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 947.5 Section 947.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU... Definitions § 947.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown within the...

  10. 7 CFR 946.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 946.5 Section 946.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown...

  11. 7 CFR 947.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Potatoes. 947.5 Section 947.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU... Definitions § 947.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown within the...

  12. 7 CFR 946.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Potatoes. 946.5 Section 946.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown...

  13. 7 CFR 1207.306 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Potatoes. 1207.306 Section 1207.306 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.306 Potatoes. Potatoes means any or all...

  14. The name butternut sounds good -like candy (Butter Nut candy bars of the 1950s made by Hollywood Candy Co.),

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    in the fall. The oily butternuts were used in baking and candy making, especially maple-butternut candy in NewThe name butternut sounds good - like candy (Butter Nut candy bars of the 1950s made by Hollywood Candy Co.), or pretty - a soft yellow-orange color for clothes. So it is sad to learn that butternut

  15. Potato tuber dormancy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The date that potato tubers begin to sprout must be carefully managed to maximize crop value. Spouting of fresh, chip and fry processing tubers during storage can decrease crop value, increase water loss and pressure bruising, and may promote pathogen entry. A lack of uniform sprouting in seed potat...

  16. Navy bean flour particle size and protein content affect cake baking and batter quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a great demand for wheat alternatives in foods, particularly baked goods, as gluten sensitivity increases. Baked goods such as cakes have wheat flour as a major ingredient, which is rich in gluten protein. Bean proteins do not have gluten, and are a good source of soluble fiber, B-vitamins,...

  17. BAKE-OUT OF A PORTION OF A NEW HIGH-RISE OFFICE BUILDING

    EPA Science Inventory

    A partial building bake-out was performed in U.S. EPA's new Region IX Headquarters' Building in San Francisco, California in July, 1990. The intent of the bake-out was to reduce indoor air contaminant concentrations associated with residual volatile organic compounds (VOCs) found...

  18. INFLUENCE OF ASPEN FIBER ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF BAKED CORNSTARCH FOAMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foamed articles, such as disposable plates and meat packaging trays, can be prepared from starch by a baking procedure. Starch foams are formed by heating a starch batter inside a closed mold. Previous data shows that baked starch foam trays prepared from a 33% solids cornstarch batter produce bri...

  19. Effects of quenching and tempering on the microstructure and bake hardening behavior of ferrite and dual phase steels

    E-print Network

    Volinsky, Alex A.

    Effects of quenching and tempering on the microstructure and bake hardening behavior of ferrite online 3 July 2014 Keywords: Bake hardening Quenching Tempering Dual phase steel a b s t r a c t The effects of quenching and tempering on the microstructure evolution and bake hardening (BH) behavior

  20. Texas Crop Profile: Sweet Potatoes 

    E-print Network

    Hall, Kent D.; Holloway, Rodney L.; Smith, Dudley

    2000-04-12

    available. Postharvest control practices: Postharvest control practices include the proper storage and curing of roots. Nematodes Frequency of occurrence: Most of Texas sweet potato acreage has a problem with nematodes; usually the pest is the root knot... nematode. Damage caused: Root knot nematodes cause galls on roots, blemishes on mature potatoes and often a general stunting of vines. Percent acres affected: A total of 80 percent of sweet potato acreage is affected by nematodes. Pest life cycles: The life...

  1. HIGH FIELD Q-SLOPE AND THE BAKING EFFECT

    SciTech Connect

    Ciovati, Gianluigi

    2009-11-01

    The performance of SRF cavities made of bulk Nb at high fields (peak surface magnetic field greater than about 90 mT) is characterized by exponentially increasing RF losses (high-field Q-slope), in the absence of field emission, which are often mitigated by a low temperature (100-140 °C, 12-48h) baking. In this contribution, recent experimental results and phenomenological models to explain this effect will be briefly reviewed. New experimental results on the high-field Q-slope will be presented for cavities that had been heat treated at high temperature in the presence of a small partial pressure of nitrogen. Improvement of the cavity performances have been obtained, while surface analysis measurements on Nb samples treated with the cavities revealed significantly lower hydrogen concentration than for samples that followed standard cavity treatments.

  2. Cooking with Dried Potatoes 

    E-print Network

    Anding, Jenna

    2008-12-09

    1 small onion, chopped ? cup chopped celery (if you like) 4 cups milk 8-ounce can whole kernel corn (if you like) 1 cup potato flakes Salt and pepper (to taste...) How to make it 1. Wash your hands; make sure your cooking area is clean. 2. Melt the butter or margarine in a large saucepan. 3. Add the onion and celery, cook them until they are soft. 4. Add the milk and whole kernel corn and stir. 5. Heat the milk...

  3. Influence of cooking on the levels of bioactive compounds in Purple Majesty potato observed via chemical and spectroscopic means.

    PubMed

    Lemos, M Adília; Aliyu, Maryam M; Hungerford, Graham

    2015-04-15

    Tubers rich in phytochemicals can exhibit a potential health benefit. This work aims at studying the relative effect of different domestic cooking techniques by monitoring the level of total phenolic compounds (TP), total anthocyanins (TA) and anti-oxidant activity (AOA) on a variety of pigmented potatoes. Raw purple potatoes are a good source of anthocyanins (219 mg/kg FW) and the level of these compounds increased using different cooking techniques, with the exception of baking. However, the levels of phenolic compounds (originally 209 mg GAE/100 g FW) decreased in the cooked potatoes. Although potatoes contain different antioxidants in this work the antioxidant activity seems to be related to the levels of phenolic compounds present in the pigmented potato. The fact that some of the compounds present fluoresce enabled both steady state and time-resolved fluorescence techniques to be assessed as a non destructive means of monitoring. This elucidated the presence of different components (via spectral deconvolution and time-resolved emission spectra). Their relative contribution to the fluorescence emission was found to be affected by the different cooking process, with a longer wavelength emission appearing to relate to reflect the presence of anthocyanins. PMID:25466046

  4. The naming of Potato virus Y strains infecting potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato virus Y (PVY) strain groups are based on host-response and resistance-gene interactions. The strain groups PVYO, PVYC and PVYN are well-established for the isolates infecting potato in the field. A switch in the emphasis from host response to nucleotide sequence differences in the virus genom...

  5. The contribution of traditional potato breeding to scientific potato improvement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conventional potato breeding refers to development of new cultivars from sexual crosses followed by clonal propagation and selection. Nearly all new varieties of potato still emerge from this process free from modern technologies of gene insertion. Conventional breeding remains the most important ...

  6. Susceptibility of selected potato varieties to zebra chip potato disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zebra chip (ZC), an emerging and serious disease of potato has caused millions of dollars in losses to the potato industry in the United States, Mexico, Central America, and New Zealand. The disease has recently been associated with a previously undescribed species of liberibacter tentatively named ...

  7. Influence of electrical and hybrid heating on bread quality during baking.

    PubMed

    Chhanwal, N; Ezhilarasi, P N; Indrani, D; Anandharamakrishnan, C

    2015-07-01

    Energy efficiency and product quality are the key factors for any food processing industry. The aim of the study was to develop energy and time efficient baking process. The hybrid heating (Infrared + Electrical) oven was designed and fabricated using two infrared lamps and electric heating coils. The developed oven can be operated in serial or combined heating modes. The standardized baking conditions were 18 min at 220°C to produce the bread from hybrid heating oven. Effect of baking with hybrid heating mode (H-1 and H-2, hybrid oven) on the quality characteristics of bread as against conventional heating mode (C-1, pilot scale oven; C-2, hybrid oven) was studied. The results showed that breads baked in hybrid heating mode (H-2) had higher moisture content (28.87%), higher volume (670 cm(3)), lower crumb firmness value (374.6 g), and overall quality score (67.0) comparable to conventional baking process (68.5). Moreover, bread baked in hybrid heating mode showed 28% reduction in baking time. PMID:26139913

  8. 21 CFR 102.41 - Potato chips made from dried potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potato chips made from dried potatoes. 102.41... Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.41 Potato chips made from dried potatoes. (a) The common or usual name of the food product that resembles and is of the same composition as potato chips, except that it...

  9. 21 CFR 102.41 - Potato chips made from dried potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potato chips made from dried potatoes. 102.41... Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.41 Potato chips made from dried potatoes. (a) The common or usual name of the food product that resembles and is of the same composition as potato chips, except that it...

  10. 21 CFR 102.41 - Potato chips made from dried potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potato chips made from dried potatoes. 102.41... Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.41 Potato chips made from dried potatoes. (a) The common or usual name of the food product that resembles and is of the same composition as potato chips, except that it...

  11. 21 CFR 102.41 - Potato chips made from dried potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potato chips made from dried potatoes. 102.41... Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.41 Potato chips made from dried potatoes. (a) The common or usual name of the food product that resembles and is of the same composition as potato chips, except that it...

  12. 21 CFR 102.41 - Potato chips made from dried potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potato chips made from dried potatoes. 102.41... Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.41 Potato chips made from dried potatoes. (a) The common or usual name of the food product that resembles and is of the same composition as potato chips, except that it...

  13. Potato Phytonutrient Analysis and Engineering

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potatoes have the highest per capita consumption of any vegetable, a fact which emphasizes their potential to be a key dietary source of health-promoting compounds. Only a fraction of the genetic diversity available in potato wild-species has been incorporated into modern cultivars. LCMS analysis of...

  14. "RESPONSE OF POTATO APHID (HOMOPTERA: APHIDIDAE) TO NATURAL POTATO ODOR AND SYNTHETIC POTATO-DERIVED COLORADO POTATO BEETLE KAIROMONE"

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A recently synthesized kairomone blend, based on the volatiles produced by potato plants, has been demonstrated to be attractive to both adult and larval stages of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say). It was subsequently formulated in a viscous inert carrier for field applic...

  15. The Irish Potato (second report). 

    E-print Network

    Price, R. H; Ness, H.

    1899-01-01

    Vacuum frying was used as an alternative technique to develop low oil content potato chips. The effect of oil temperature (118, 132, 144?C) and vacuum pressure (84.66, 91.43, 98.20 kPa) on the drying rate and oil absorption of potato chips...

  16. Usual Intake of White potatoes

    Cancer.gov

    Usual Intake of White potatoes Table A13. White potatoes: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.2 (0.01) 0.1

  17. 7 CFR 946.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 946.12 Section 946.12 Agriculture... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes all... supervision of the official seed potato certifying agency of the State of Washington or other...

  18. 7 CFR 947.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 947.12 Section 947.12 Agriculture... Definitions § 947.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified and tagged, marked or otherwise appropriately identified under the supervision of the official seed...

  19. 7 CFR 947.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 947.12 Section 947.12 Agriculture... Definitions § 947.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified and tagged, marked or otherwise appropriately identified under the supervision of the official seed...

  20. 7 CFR 948.6 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 948.6 Section 948.6 Agriculture... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.6 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes or seed means any potatoes which have been certified by the official seed certification agency of the State of Colorado and...

  1. 7 CFR 948.6 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 948.6 Section 948.6 Agriculture... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.6 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes or seed means any potatoes which have been certified by the official seed certification agency of the State of Colorado and...

  2. 7 CFR 946.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 946.12 Section 946.12 Agriculture... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes all... supervision of the official seed potato certifying agency of the State of Washington or other...

  3. 7 CFR 948.6 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 948.6 Section 948.6 Agriculture... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.6 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes or seed means any potatoes which have been certified by the official seed certification agency of the State of Colorado and...

  4. 7 CFR 947.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 947.12 Section 947.12 Agriculture... Definitions § 947.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified and tagged, marked or otherwise appropriately identified under the supervision of the official seed...

  5. 7 CFR 946.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 946.12 Section 946.12 Agriculture... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes all... supervision of the official seed potato certifying agency of the State of Washington or other...

  6. 7 CFR 946.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 946.12 Section 946.12 Agriculture... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes all... supervision of the official seed potato certifying agency of the State of Washington or other...

  7. 7 CFR 948.6 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 948.6 Section 948.6 Agriculture... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.6 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes or seed means any potatoes which have been certified by the official seed certification agency of the State of Colorado and...

  8. 7 CFR 947.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 947.12 Section 947.12 Agriculture... Definitions § 947.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified and tagged, marked or otherwise appropriately identified under the supervision of the official seed...

  9. 7 CFR 946.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 946.12 Section 946.12 Agriculture... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes all... supervision of the official seed potato certifying agency of the State of Washington or other...

  10. 7 CFR 948.6 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 948.6 Section 948.6 Agriculture... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.6 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes or seed means any potatoes which have been certified by the official seed certification agency of the State of Colorado and...

  11. 7 CFR 947.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 947.12 Section 947.12 Agriculture... Definitions § 947.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified and tagged, marked or otherwise appropriately identified under the supervision of the official seed...

  12. Leafhopper and psyllid pests of potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leafhoppers and psyllids are important pests of potato worldwide. These insects cause damage to potato by direct feeding or by acting as vectors of potato pathogens. Economically important leafhoppers that attack potato include Empoasca fabae, Macrosteles fascifrons, and Circulifer tenellus. E. faba...

  13. Acoustic Measurement of Potato Cannon Velocity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtney, Michael; Courtney, Amy

    2007-01-01

    Potato cannon velocity can be measured with a digitized microphone signal. A microphone is attached to the potato cannon muzzle, and a potato is fired at an aluminum target about 10 m away. Flight time can be determined from the acoustic waveform by subtracting the time in the barrel and time for sound to return from the target. The potato

  14. Growing Potatoes in Your Home Garden

    E-print Network

    Douches, David S.

    in potatoes, it is not recommended to add manure to the soil. Fertilizer and compost are advised. How. Douches Ph.D. Potato Breeding and Genetics Program Michigan State University Why grow potatoes in your, they are not certified and may have been treated to prevent sprouting. * Potatoes grow on a wide range of soils

  15. VOLUNTEER POTATO MANAGEMENT AND OUTLOOK FOR 2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato tubers left in the ground following a potato harvest often over winter in regions with mild winter temperatures resulting in a serious and difficult to manage weed problem in the ensuing crop rotation. Potatoes normally are killed when they reach temperatures below 28° F. Many potato tuber...

  16. Application and evaluation of entomopathogens in potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    More than 290 million metric tons of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) are produced throughout the world annually. Potato production ranks fourth among agricultural crops, after wheat, maize, and rice. A large number of insect pests affect potatoes. Worldwide, the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa ...

  17. 7 CFR 953.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Potatoes. 953.5 Section 953.5 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 953.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish...

  18. 7 CFR 953.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 953.5 Section 953.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 953.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish...

  19. 7 CFR 953.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Potatoes. 953.5 Section 953.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 953.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish...

  20. 7 CFR 948.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Potatoes. 948.5 Section 948.5 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means and includes all varieties of Irish...

  1. 7 CFR 953.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Potatoes. 953.5 Section 953.5 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 953.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish...

  2. 7 CFR 948.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Potatoes. 948.5 Section 948.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means and includes all varieties of Irish...

  3. 7 CFR 948.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Potatoes. 948.5 Section 948.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means and includes all varieties of Irish...

  4. 7 CFR 948.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Potatoes. 948.5 Section 948.5 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means and includes all varieties of Irish...

  5. 7 CFR 953.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Potatoes. 953.5 Section 953.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 953.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish...

  6. 7 CFR 948.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 948.5 Section 948.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means and includes all varieties of Irish...

  7. The impact of baking time and bread storage temperature on bread crumb properties.

    PubMed

    Bosmans, Geertrui M; Lagrain, Bert; Fierens, Ellen; Delcour, Jan A

    2013-12-15

    Two baking times (9 and 24 min) and storage temperatures (4 and 25 °C) were used to explore the impact of heat exposure during bread baking and subsequent storage on amylopectin retrogradation, water mobility, and bread crumb firming. Shorter baking resulted in less retrogradation, a less extended starch network and smaller changes in crumb firmness and elasticity. A lower storage temperature resulted in faster retrogradation, a more rigid starch network with more water inclusion and larger changes in crumb firmness and elasticity. Crumb to crust moisture migration was lower for breads baked shorter and stored at lower temperature, resulting in better plasticized biopolymer networks in crumb. Network stiffening, therefore, contributed less to crumb firmness. A negative relation was found between proton mobilities of water and biopolymers in the crumb gel network and crumb firmness. The slope of this linear function was indicative for the strength of the starch network. PMID:23993485

  8. Modelling heat and mass transfer in bread baking with mechanical deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolas, V.; Salagnac, P.; Glouannec, P.; Ploteau, J.-P.; Jury, V.; Boillereaux, L.

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, the thermo-hydric behaviour of bread during baking is studied. A numerical model has been developed with Comsol Multiphysics© software. The model takes into account the heat and mass transfers in the bread and the phenomenon of swelling. This model predicts the evolution of temperature, moisture, gas pressure and deformation in French "baguette" during baking. Local deformation is included in equations using solid phase conservation and, global deformation is calculated using a viscous mechanic model. Boundary conditions are specified with the sole temperature model and vapour pressure estimation of the oven during baking. The model results are compared with experimental data for a classic baking. Then, the model is analysed according to physical properties of bread and solicitations for a better understanding of the interactions between different mechanisms within the porous matrix.

  9. Critical dimension sensitivity to post-exposure bake temperaturevariation in EUV photoresists

    SciTech Connect

    Cain, Jason P.; Naulleau, Patrick; Spanos, Costas J.

    2005-01-11

    Chemically amplified resists depend upon the post-exposure bake (PEB) process to drive the deprotection reactions (in positive resists) that lead to proper resist development. For this reason they often exhibit critical dimension (CD) sensitivity to PEB temperature variation. In this work the effects of variation in different aspects of the PEB step on post-develop CD are studied for two extreme ultraviolet (EUV) photoresists. The spatial and temporal temperature uniformity of the PEB plate is measured using a wireless sensor wafer. Programmed variations in the bake plate temperature set point are then used to measure the CD sensitivity to steady state temperature variation. In addition, the initial temperature ramp time is modified using a thin sheet of polyimide film between the wafer and the bake plate. This allows for measurement of the CD sensitivity to transient temperature variation. Finally, the bake time is adjusted to measure the CD sensitivity to this parameter.

  10. Acoustic measurement of potato cannon velocity

    E-print Network

    Courtney, M; Courtney, Amy; Courtney, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This article describes measurement of potato cannon velocity with a digitized microphone signal. A microphone is attached to the potato cannon muzzle and a potato is fired at an aluminum target about 10 m away. The potato's flight time can be determined from the acoustic waveform by subtracting the time in the barrel and time for sound to return from the target. The potato velocity is simply the flight distance divided by the flight time.

  11. Potatoes in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Astroculture is a suite of technologies used to produce and maintain a closed controlled environment for plant growth. The two most recent missions supported growth of potato, dwarf wheat, and mustard plants and provided scientists with the first opportunity to conduct true plant research in space. Light emitting diodes have particular usefulness for plant growth lighting because they emit a much smaller amount of radiant heat than do conventional lighting sources and because they have potential of directing a higher percentage of the emitted light onto plants surfaces. Furthermore, the high output LED's have emissions in the 600-700 nm waveband, which is of highest efficiency for photosynthesis by plants.

  12. High coercivity remanence in baked clay materials used in archeomagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntosh, Gregg; Kovacheva, Mary; Catanzariti, Gianluca; Donadini, Fabio; Lopez, Maria Luisa Osete

    2011-02-01

    A study of the high coercivity remanence in archeological baked clays has been carried out. More than 150 specimens from 46 sites across Europe have been analyzed, selected on the basis of the presence of a fraction of their natural remanence that was resistant to alternating field demagnetization to 100 mT. The study was based on the stability of isothermal remanence to alternating field and thermal demagnetization and its variation on cooling to liquid nitrogen temperature. Results indicate that the high coercivity remanence may be carried by magnetite, hematite, and in isolated cases partially oxidized magnetite and goethite. In addition, a high coercivity, thermally stable, low unblocking temperature phase has been identified. The unblocking temperatures of both the isothermal remanence and the alternating field resistant natural remanence exhibit similar unblocking temperatures, suggesting that the same phases carry both signals. The high coercivity, low unblocking temperature phase contributes to the natural remanence, sometimes carrying a stable direction and behaving ideally during palaeointensity experiments and sometimes not. An unambiguous mineralogical identification of this phase is lacking, although likely candidates include hemoilmentite, related to clay source lithology, and substituted hematite or magnetic ferri-cristabolite, both possible products of thermal transformation of iron-bearing clays.

  13. A comparison of UV cross-linking and vacuum baking for nucleic acid immobilization and retention

    SciTech Connect

    Nierzwicki-Bauer, S.A.; Gebhardt, J.S.; Linkkila, L.; Walsh, K. )

    1990-10-01

    The effectiveness of UV cross-linking and in vacuo baking for the immobilization and retention of DNA to various solid supports was investigated. Optimal immobilization treatments for supported and unsupported nitrocellulose and nylon membranes were: UV cross-linking at 254 nm with an exposure of 120 milliJoules/cm{sup 2}, or baking in vacuo for two hours at 80{degrees}C. UV-immobilized nitrocellulose-based membranes showed no increase in sensitivity when compared to baked membranes. An increase in sensitivity was observed for UV-immobilized nylon membranes as compared with baked nylon membranes in some instances, although this varied within lots of the membranes tested. Repeated strippings and heterologous reprobings resulted in loss of target DNA from UV-immobilized nylon membranes as compared to baked nylon membranes. Loss of target DNA from UV-immobilized nitrocellulose-based membranes due to repeated strippings and reprobings was even more pronounced. In vacuo baking of supported and unsupported nitrocellulose and nylon membranes was more effective for immobilization, and more importantly, for retention of target DNA through many reprobings of the same blot.

  14. Effect of strain rate on bake hardening response of BH220 steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Anindya; Tarafder, Soumitro; Sivaprasad, S.; Chakrabarti, Debalay

    2015-09-01

    This study aims at understanding the bake hardening ability of ultra low carbon BH220 steel at different strain rates. The as-received material has been pre-strained to four different levels and then deformed in tension under (a) as pre-strained state and (b) after baking at 170°C for 20 minutes, at three different strain rates of 0.001, 0.1 and 100/s. In both the conditions, yield stress increased with pre-strain and strain rate, but bake hardening ability was found to decrease when strain rate was increased. The strain rate sensitivity of the material was also found to decrease with bake hardening. Generation of dislocation forests and their subsequent immobility during baking treatment enables them to act as long range obstacles during further deformation. At higher strain rates, less amount of dislocations are produced which can interact with themselves and produce hardening, because of which bake hardening ability and the strain rate drops. A dislocation based strengthening model, as proposed by Larour et al. 2011 [7], was used to predict the yield stress values obtained at different conditions. The equation produced excellent co-relation with the experimental data.

  15. Carotenoid profile and retention in yellow-, purple- and red-fleshed potatoes after thermal processing.

    PubMed

    Kotíková, Zora; Šulc, Miloslav; Lachman, Jaromír; Pivec, Vladimír; Orsák, Matyáš; Hamouz, Karel

    2016-04-15

    This research aimed to investigate the effect of thermal processing on carotenoid profile, quantity and stability in 22 colour-fleshed potato cultivars grown in the Czech Republic. The total of nine carotenoids was analysed by HPLC using a C30 column and PDA detection. The total carotenoid content for all cultivars ranged from 1.44 to 40.13?g/g DM. Yellow cultivars showed a much higher average total carotenoid content (26.22?g/g DM) when compared to red/purple-fleshed potatoes (5.69?g/g DM). Yellow cultivars were dominated by antheraxanthin, whereas neoxanthin was the main carotenoid in red/purple cultivars. Thermal processing significantly impacted all potato cultivars. Boiling decreased the total carotenoids by 92% compared to baking (88%). Lutein was the most stable carotenoid against thermal processing (decreased by 24-43%) followed by ?-carotene (decreased by 78-83%); other carotenoids were degraded nearly completely. Increased formation of (Z)-isomers by thermal processing has not been confirmed. PMID:26617045

  16. Growing and Storing Sweet Potatoes

    E-print Network

    Potts, A. T.; Olsen, J. C.

    1916-01-01

    Sweet Potatoes By A. T. Potts, Associate Professor of Horticulture Agricultural and Mechanical College and J. C. Olsen, Agricultural Engineer, Extension Service Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas. SELECTION OF SOIL. Most tuberous plants develop... best in a loose, pliable soil that will readily permit the formation of a smooth, uniform product. For this reason a sandy loam soil is considered best for sweet potatoes. Such land, if properly fertilized, will give more satisfactory crops than heavier...

  17. Soft-Bake Purification of SWCNTs Produced by Pulsed Laser Vaporization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yowell, Leonard; Nikolaev, Pavel; Gorelik, Olga; Allada, Rama Kumar; Sosa, Edward; Arepalli, Sivaram

    2013-01-01

    The "soft-bake" method is a simple and reliable initial purification step first proposed by researchers at Rice University for single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) produced by high-pressure carbon mon oxide disproportionation (HiPco). Soft-baking consists of annealing as-produced (raw) SWCNT, at low temperatures in humid air, in order to degrade the heavy graphitic shells that surround metal particle impurities. Once these shells are cracked open by the expansion and slow oxidation of the metal particles, the metal impurities can be digested through treatment with hydrochloric acid. The soft-baking of SWCNT produced by pulsed-laser vaporization (PLV) is not straightforward, because the larger average SWCNT diameters (.1.4 nm) and heavier graphitic shells surrounding metal particles call for increased temperatures during soft-bake. A part of the technology development focused on optimizing the temperature so that effective cracking of the graphitic shells is balanced with maintaining a reasonable yield, which was a critical aspect of this study. Once the ideal temperature was determined, a number of samples of raw SWCNT were purified using the soft-bake method. An important benefit to this process is the reduced time and effort required for soft-bake versus the standard purification route for SWCNT. The total time spent purifying samples by soft-bake is one week per batch, which equates to a factor of three reduction in the time required for purification as compared to the standard acid purification method. Reduction of the number of steps also appears to be an important factor in improving reproducibility of yield and purity of SWCNT, as small deviations are likely to get amplified over the course of a complicated multi-step purification process.

  18. Baking Reduces Prostaglandin, Resolvin, and Hydroxy-Fatty Acid Content of Farm-Raised Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar)

    PubMed Central

    Raatz, Susan K.; Golovko, Mikhail Y.; Brose, Stephen A.; Rosenberger, Thad A.; Burr, Gary S.; Wolters, William R.; Picklo, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    Consumption of seafood enriched in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease. Several n-3 oxidation products from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) have known protective effects in the vasculature. It is not known whether consumption of cooked seafood enriched in n-3 PUFA causes appreciable consumption of lipid oxidation products. We tested the hypothesis that baking Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) increases the level of n-3 and n-6 PUFA oxidation products over raw salmon. We measured the content of several monohydroxy-fatty acids (MHFA), prostanoids, and resolvins. Our data demonstrate that baking did not change the overall total levels of MHFA. However, baking resulted in selective regio-isomeric loss of hydroxy fatty acids from arachidonic acid (20:4n-6), and EPA while significantly increasing hydroxyl-linoleic acid levels. The content of prostanoids and resolvins were reduced several-fold with baking. The inclusion of coating upon the salmon prior to baking reduced the loss of some MHFA but had no effect upon prostanoid losses incurred by baking. Baking did not decrease n-3 PUFA content indicating that baking of salmon is an acceptable means of preparation that does not alter the potential health benefits of high n-3 seafood consumption. The extent to which the levels of MHFA, prostanoids and resolvins in the raw or baked fish have physiologic consequence for humans needs to be determined. PMID:21919483

  19. Integration of Two Diploid Potato Linkage Maps with the Potato Genome Sequence

    E-print Network

    Douches, David S.

    Integration of Two Diploid Potato Linkage Maps with the Potato Genome Sequence Kimberly J. Felcher1, Blacksburg, Virginia, United States of America Abstract To facilitate genome-guided breeding in potato, we developed an 8303 Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) marker array using potato genome and transcriptome

  20. Introduction The Colorado potato beetle became a pest when settlers brought potatoes into the Rocky

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    16 Introduction The Colorado potato beetle became a pest when settlers brought potatoes into the Rocky Mountain area, the native habitat of this beetle. The beetle preferred the potato to its host weed, and now is a serious pest throughout the U.S. and Eastern Canada. The Colorado potato beetle feeds

  1. PLANT RESISTANCE Field and Storage Testing Bt Potatoes for Resistance to Potato

    E-print Network

    Douches, David S.

    PLANT RESISTANCE Field and Storage Testing Bt Potatoes for Resistance to Potato Tuberworm Lansing, MI 48824 J. Econ. Entomol. 97(4): 1425Ð1431 (2004) ABSTRACT Potato tuberworm, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller), is the most serious insect pest of potatoes worldwide. The introduction of the Bacillus

  2. Introduction Potato Types and Uses The potato is native to the Andean region of South Potato varieties vary according to shape, flesh color

    E-print Network

    Douches, David S.

    Introduction Potato Types and Uses The potato is native to the Andean region of South Potato, tuber type similar to the following examples: potatoes are the fourth most important food crop are planted each year for commercial production. The LongIWhite Skin: White Rose, Shepody potato is a member

  3. Storage of parbaked bread affects shelf life of fully baked end product: a ¹H NMR study.

    PubMed

    Bosmans, Geertrui M; Lagrain, Bert; Ooms, Nand; Fierens, Ellen; Delcour, Jan A

    2014-12-15

    Full baking of earlier partially baked (parbaked) bread can supply fresh bread to the consumer at any time of the day. When parbaked bread loaves were stored at -25, 4 or 23°C, the extent of crumb to crust moisture migration and amylopectin retrogradation differed with storage temperature, and the firming rate was evidently lowest during frozen storage. The extent of crumb to crust moisture migration during parbaked bread storage largely determined the mass of the fresh finished bread, and its crumb and crust moisture contents. Initial NMR proton mobility, initial resilience, the extent of amylopectin retrogradation and changes in firmness and resilience during storage of fully baked bread were affected by its crumb moisture content. The lowest firming rate was observed for finished bread resulting from parbaked bread stored at -25°C, while the highest firming rate was observed for finished bread from parbaked bread stored at 23°C. PMID:25038661

  4. Impact of cooking, proving, and baking on the (poly)phenol content of wild blueberry.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Mateos, Ana; Cifuentes-Gomez, Tania; George, Trevor W; Spencer, Jeremy P E

    2014-05-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that diets rich in (poly)phenols may have positive effects on human health. Currently there is limited information regarding the effects of processing on the (poly)phenolic content of berries, in particular in processes related to the baking industry. This study investigated the impact of cooking, proving, and baking on the anthocyanin, procyanidin, flavonol, and phenolic acid contents of wild blueberry using HPLC with UV and fluorescence detection. Anthocyanin levels decreased during cooking, proving, and baking, whereas no significant changes were observed for total procyanidins. However, lower molecular weight procyanidins increased and high molecular weight oligomers decreased during the process. Quercetin and ferulic and caffeic acid levels remained constant, whereas increases were found for chlorogenic acid. Due to their possible health benefits, a better understanding of the impact of processing is important to maximize the retention of these phytochemicals in berry-containing products. PMID:24083619

  5. Effects of plastic mulch on potato growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Northern China is a major potato production region, and water-saving measures that can enhance both potato yield and quality play an important role in this region due to general water shortages. Plastic mulch has been used as an effective water-saving measure for potato cultivation in China. This ch...

  6. Maximizing the nutritional potential of potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As the most eaten vegetable in the United States, potatoes have tremendous potential to be a valuable source of vitamins and phytonutrients in the diet. Potato is the only tuber amongst all the world’s major food crops, most of which are grains or roots. Potatoes are already known to be a good sour...

  7. Field and Greenhouse Performance of Potato Sprouts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of potato sprouts as a seed source is an innovative idea that has gained international recognition in recent years. The potato industry in Alaska currently relies on freshpack for the majority of sales. A low level of disease pressure on potato seed production in Alaska suggests high quality...

  8. Irrigation Water Management on Potatoes Howard Neibling

    E-print Network

    O'Laughlin, Jay

    Irrigation Water Management on Potatoes Howard Neibling Extension Water Management Engineer University of Idaho Correct irrigation water management on potatoes is important for both crop yield and quality. Because both over and under-irrigation can cause problems for a potato crop, irrigation water

  9. POTATOES AS A SOURCE OF DIETARY NUTRIENTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potatoes are the most eaten vegetable, with the average American consuming about 140 pounds a year. Given this high consumption, potatoes have considerable potential to be a source of dietary phytonutrients. Developing and positioning potato as a “functional food,” (i.e., a food that provides health...

  10. Potato production in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potatoes have been a staple in the American diet for almost 250 years. The United States is the world's fifth biggest producer, behind China, India, the Russian Federation, and the Ukraine. Potatoes in the United States are grown in nearly every state. Idaho produces approximately 1/3 of all potatoe...

  11. Sustainable potato production: global case studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is grown in over 100 countries throughout the world. As a staple food, potato is the fourth most important crop after rice, wheat, and maize, and has historically contributed to food and nutrition security in the world. Global interest in potato increased sharply in 200...

  12. The potato psyllid and its associated pathogens

    E-print Network

    Hill, Jeffrey E.

    The potato psyllid and its associated pathogens #12;Overview This presentation will discuss the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc). ­ Host plants ­ Life cycle ­ Distribution ­ Recognition is a potato psyllid? · Occur in North and Central America. · Feed by sucking juices from plants. · Infest

  13. Potato Types: Their Characteristics and Uses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlista, Alexander D.

    1997-01-01

    Presents material for a talk and demonstration about the relationship of potato types to their different uses by consumers and processors. Includes background information for the instructor and discussions to accompany classroom exercises. Discusses the history of the potato, potato types and external characteristics, and internal characteristics…

  14. INVESTIGATION Retrospective View of North American Potato

    E-print Network

    Douches, David S.

    INVESTIGATION Retrospective View of North American Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Breeding in the 20, Madison, Wisconsin, 53706 ABSTRACT Cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), a vegetatively propagated explore the effects of potato breeding at the genome level, we used 8303 single-nucleotide polymorphism

  15. Existing potato markers and marker conversions

    E-print Network

    Douches, David S.

    Existing potato markers and marker conversions Walter De Jong PAA Workshop August 2009 1 #12;What of us will continue to use agarose gels for years to come #12;Example of a potato marker 4 PVY (Ryadg) ­ Kasai et al. 2000 Genome 43:1-8 allele specific amplification of a diagnostic product - potatoes

  16. ELECTROPHORETIC CHARACTERIZATION OF NORTH AMERICAN POTATO CULTIVARSl

    E-print Network

    Douches, David S.

    1991) 767 ELECTROPHORETIC CHARACTERIZATION OF NORTH AMERICAN POTATO CULTIVARSl D. S. Douches identify potato cultivars. Both leafand tuber tissue were sampled in thirteen enzyme systems. Two buffer means to discriminate sexually-derived potato cultivars. Compendio Se analizaron un total de 112

  17. Diversity of potato genetic resources.

    PubMed

    Machida-Hirano, Ryoko

    2015-03-01

    A considerable number of highly diverse species exist in genus Solanum. Because they can adapt to a broad range of habitats, potato wild relatives are promising sources of desirable agricultural traits. Potato taxonomy is quite complex because of introgression, interspecific hybridization, auto- and allopolyploidy, sexual compatibility among many species, a mixture of sexual and asexual reproduction, possible recent species divergence, phenotypic plasticity, and the consequent high morphological similarity among species. Recent researchers using molecular tools have contributed to the identification of genes controlling several types of resistance as well as to the revision of taxonomical relationships among potato species. Historically, primitive forms of cultivated potato and its wild relatives have been used in breeding programs and there is still an enormous and unimaginable potential for discovering desirable characteristics, particularly in wild species Different methods have been developed to incorporate useful alleles from these wild species into the improved cultivars. Potato germplasm comprising of useful alleles for different breeding objectives is preserved in various gene banks worldwide. These materials, with their invaluable information, are accessible for research and breeding purposes. Precise identification of species base on the new taxonomy is essential for effective use of the germplasm collection. PMID:25931978

  18. Diversity of potato genetic resources

    PubMed Central

    Machida-Hirano, Ryoko

    2015-01-01

    A considerable number of highly diverse species exist in genus Solanum. Because they can adapt to a broad range of habitats, potato wild relatives are promising sources of desirable agricultural traits. Potato taxonomy is quite complex because of introgression, interspecific hybridization, auto- and allopolyploidy, sexual compatibility among many species, a mixture of sexual and asexual reproduction, possible recent species divergence, phenotypic plasticity, and the consequent high morphological similarity among species. Recent researchers using molecular tools have contributed to the identification of genes controlling several types of resistance as well as to the revision of taxonomical relationships among potato species. Historically, primitive forms of cultivated potato and its wild relatives have been used in breeding programs and there is still an enormous and unimaginable potential for discovering desirable characteristics, particularly in wild species Different methods have been developed to incorporate useful alleles from these wild species into the improved cultivars. Potato germplasm comprising of useful alleles for different breeding objectives is preserved in various gene banks worldwide. These materials, with their invaluable information, are accessible for research and breeding purposes. Precise identification of species base on the new taxonomy is essential for effective use of the germplasm collection. PMID:25931978

  19. Thermal Analysis of the Divertor Primary Heat Transfer System Piping During the Gas Baking Process

    SciTech Connect

    Yoder Jr, Graydon L; Harvey, Karen; Ferrada, Juan J

    2011-02-01

    A preliminary analysis has been performed examining the temperature distribution in the Divertor Primary Heat Transfer System (PHTS) piping and the divertor itself during the gas baking process. During gas baking, it is required that the divertor reach a temperature of 350 C. Thermal losses in the piping and from the divertor itself require that the gas supply temperature be maintained above that temperature in order to ensure that all of the divertor components reach the required temperature. The analysis described in this report was conducted in order to estimate the required supply temperature from the gas heater.

  20. On the Decomposition of Martensite During Bake Hardening of Thermomechanically Processed TRIP Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Pereloma, E. V.; Miller, Michael K; Timokhina, I. B.

    2008-01-01

    Thermomechanically processed (TMP) CMnSi transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) steels with and without additions of Nb, Mo, or Al were subjected to prestraining and bake hardening. Atom probe tomography (APT) revealed the presence of fine C-rich clusters in the martensite of all studied steels after the thermomechanical processing. After bake hardening, the formation of iron carbides, containing from 25 to 90 at. pct C, was observed. The evolution of iron carbide compositions was independent of steel composition and was a function of carbide size.

  1. Bake condition effect on hybrid lithography process for negative-tone chemically amplified resists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pain, Laurent; Sala, F.; Higgins, C.; Dal'zotto, B.; Tedesco, Serge V.

    2000-06-01

    This paper presents the process optimization study of negative tone Chemically Amplified Resists (CAR) under E-Beam exposure. The importance of post apply bake temperature choice on resolution is underlined. The process study determines the process window in which optimal conditions of both post apply and post exposure bake steps are defined and present a method to define more precisely the thermal cross-linking onset. Finally lithographic performances of CARs are studied and we show that resolution can be pushed down to 40 nm.

  2. Formation of heterocyclic amines in salami and ham pizza toppings during baking of frozen pizza.

    PubMed

    Gibis, Monika; Weiss, Jochen

    2013-06-01

    Heterocyclic amines (HAs) are formed as Maillard reaction products in the crust of meat products during heating processes. Two typical pizza toppings--salami and cooked ham--were analyzed for the presence of HAs after baking frozen pizzas at top and bottom temperatures of 250 and 230 °C, respectively. After baking pizza slices for 12 min, MeIQx (2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline; 0.2 ng/g), 4,8-DiMeIQx (2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline; 0.5 ng/g), PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine; 0.2 ng/g), norharman (4.5 ng/g), and harman (2.5 ng/g) were found in the ham toppings, whereas only the comutagenic norharman (107.4 ng/g) and harman (11.4 ng/g) were found in the salami toppings. The content of MeIQx and 4,8-DiMeIQx in ham increased from 0.3 to 1.8 ng/g and 0.8 to 1.6 ng/g, respectively, when the recommended baking time was increased from 15 min (manufacturer's specification) to 18 min at 230 °C. MeIQx was formed in salami when the heating time was extended to 18 min. Moreover, higher concentrations of PhIP in salami or ham slices were found when baking temperatures were 250 °C rather than 230 °C (baking time of 12 min). However, sensory tests showed that panelists preferred longer-baked pizzas due to an increased crispiness. Thus, results show that a substantial formation of HAs may occur in pizza toppings such as ham and salami, with ham being particularly susceptible when compared to salami. Formation of HAs increases with increasing baking time and temperature. The occurrence of the cupping of ham or salami slices during baking may also increase the formation of HAs. PMID:23600962

  3. Vendor Category Products Allens Hill Farm Food, Agriculture, Specialty Baking Mixes, granola, syrups, herbs, vegetables, eggs, and rabbit

    E-print Network

    Vegetable burgers and meat alternatives Growing Family Farms Agriculture Vegetables The Happy Pickle Food Pickles Jon Johns Bakery Food Baked goods Kirby's Cider Mill Agriculture Fruit Lakestone Family FarmVendor Category Products Allens Hill Farm Food, Agriculture, Specialty Baking Mixes, granola

  4. Seed potato production system in Japan, starting from foundation seed of potato

    PubMed Central

    Kawakami, Tsukasa; Oohori, Hidemiki; Tajima, Kazuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Potato is one of the staple crops cultivated in upland farming in Japan and is propagated vegetatively by means of tubers. However once infected with diseases, potato yield decreases significantly. And one seed potato can produce approximately only 10 potato tubers. To improve the production system of seed potatoes in Japan, Japanese government established a three-stage propagation system for the production and distribution of healthy and disease-free seed potatoes. The National Center for Seeds and Seedlings (NCSS) has a role for the production of foundation seed potatoes and strictly manages the production in isolated fields that are treated thoroughly to control pests and diseases. Recently though the distribution of foundation seed potatoes is decreasing, the number of varieties of foundation seed potatoes has increased steadily. And new varieties of potato adapted various requirements, including resistance of the golden potato cyst nematode, have been increasing. Therefore, NCSS is introducing a new method of producing minitubers (MnTs) by using hydroponic cultivation greenhouse to increase the efficiency of propagation and to rapidly disseminate these new potato varieties. In this review, we describe a seed potato production system in Japan and the production of foundation seed potatoes as an important role of NCSS. PMID:25931977

  5. Seed potato production system in Japan, starting from foundation seed of potato.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Tsukasa; Oohori, Hidemiki; Tajima, Kazuyuki

    2015-03-01

    Potato is one of the staple crops cultivated in upland farming in Japan and is propagated vegetatively by means of tubers. However once infected with diseases, potato yield decreases significantly. And one seed potato can produce approximately only 10 potato tubers. To improve the production system of seed potatoes in Japan, Japanese government established a three-stage propagation system for the production and distribution of healthy and disease-free seed potatoes. The National Center for Seeds and Seedlings (NCSS) has a role for the production of foundation seed potatoes and strictly manages the production in isolated fields that are treated thoroughly to control pests and diseases. Recently though the distribution of foundation seed potatoes is decreasing, the number of varieties of foundation seed potatoes has increased steadily. And new varieties of potato adapted various requirements, including resistance of the golden potato cyst nematode, have been increasing. Therefore, NCSS is introducing a new method of producing minitubers (MnTs) by using hydroponic cultivation greenhouse to increase the efficiency of propagation and to rapidly disseminate these new potato varieties. In this review, we describe a seed potato production system in Japan and the production of foundation seed potatoes as an important role of NCSS. PMID:25931977

  6. Degradation of pentachlorophenol by potato polyphenol oxidase.

    PubMed

    Hou, Mei-Fang; Tang, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Wei-De; Liao, Lin; Wan, Hong-Fu

    2011-11-01

    In this study, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was extracted from commercial potatoes. Degradation of pentachlorophenol by potato PPO was investigated. The experimental results show that potato PPO is more active in weak acid than in basic condition and that the optimum pH for the reaction is 5.0. The degradation of pentachlorophenol by potato PPO reaches a maximum at 298 K. After reaction for 1 h, the removal of both pentachlorophenol and total organic carbon is >70% with 6.0 units/mL potato PPO at pH 5.0 and 298 K. Pentachlorophenol can be degraded through dechlorination and ring-opening by potato PPO. The work demonstrates that pentachlorophenol can be effectively eliminated by crude potato PPO. PMID:21967325

  7. Flavouring compounds in Indian potato snacks.

    PubMed

    Raigond, Pinky; Singh, Brajesh; Dhulia, Akshita; Chopra, Shelly; Dutt, Som

    2015-12-01

    Market for processed potato products is rising day by day. Flavour plays important role in decision making by consumers due to their preferences for better tasting food. In potato and potato products, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, guanosine 5'-monophosphate (GMP) and adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) are the major umami compounds which contribute towards flavour. Therefore, umami 5' nucleotides (AMP+GMP) were estimated from local potato products available as common fried products in the Indian markets and processed potato products being sold by the retailers. The analysis was also carried in raw, microwaved and pressure cooked tubers of forty seven Indian potato cultivars. Umami 5' nucleotide content ranged from 2.63 (Aloo seekh) to 8.26 ?g/g FW (fried lachcha) in local potato products. In processed potato products, the content ranged from 2.72 ?g/g FW (Smiles) to 14.75 ?g/g FW (Aloo Bhujia). Along with aloo bhujia, umami 5' nucleotides were also high in dehydrated aloo lachcha (11.14 ?g/g FW) and dehydrated potato chips (10.13 ?g/g FW) and low in Smiles (2.72 ?g/g FW) and Potato Shortz (3.40 ?g/g FW). The study suggests that the potato products prepared solely from potato contained higher levels of umami 5' nucleotides compared to other products prepared by mixing potato with other cereals and vegetables. In Indian potato cultivars overall there was 14 % increase on microwave cooking and 31 % increase in flavouring compounds on pressure cooking. This type of study enabled in identifying better tasting cultivars for further product development and also to develop products with less addition of salt. PMID:26604408

  8. Recipes for Baking Black Forest Databases Building and Querying Black Hole Merger Trees from Cosmological

    E-print Network

    Recipes for Baking Black Forest Databases Building and Querying Black Hole Merger Trees from Moore Foundation, in the eScience project; and the support of the companies of the Parallel Data. The properties of the black holes need to be assembled in merger tree histories to model the process where two

  9. Cloning and characterization of a Weissella confusa dextransucrase and its application in high fibre baking.

    PubMed

    Kajala, Ilkka; Shi, Qiao; Nyyssölä, Antti; Maina, Ndegwa Henry; Hou, Yaxi; Katina, Kati; Tenkanen, Maija; Juvonen, Riikka

    2015-01-01

    Wheat bran offers health benefits as a baking ingredient, but is detrimental to bread textural quality. Dextran production by microbial fermentation improves sourdough bread volume and freshness, but extensive acid production during fermentation may negate this effect. Enzymatic production of dextran in wheat bran was tested to determine if dextran-containing bran could be used in baking without disrupting bread texture. The Weissella confusa VTT E-90392 dextransucrase gene was sequenced and His-tagged dextransucrase Wc392-rDSR was produced in Lactococcus lactis. Purified enzyme was characterized using (14)C-sucrose radioisotope and reducing value-based assays, the former yielding K(m) and V(max) values of 14.7 mM and 8.2 ?mol/(mg ? min), respectively, at the pH optimum of 5.4. The structure and size of in vitro dextran product was similar to dextran produced in vivo. Dextran (8.1% dry weight) was produced in wheat bran in 6 h using Wc392-rDSR. Bran with and without dextran was used in wheat baking at 20% supplementation level. Dextran presence improved bread softness and neutralized bran-induced volume loss, clearly demonstrating the potential of using dextransucrases in bran bioprocessing for use in baking. PMID:25603169

  10. Identification of milling and baking quality QTL in multiple soft wheat mapping populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat derived food products require a range of characteristics. Identification and understanding of the genetic components controlling end-use quality of wheat is important for crop improvement. We assessed the underlying genetics controlling specific milling and baking quality parameters of soft wh...

  11. Characterization of lipids and their oxidation products in baked or fried breaded shrimp products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two breaded shrimp products were examined for the changes in cholesterol, phytosterols, and fatty acids that occurred during cooking. The products were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) in the raw, baked, and fried states after separation into breading and shrimp components. Cholesterol, campest...

  12. How the sourdough may affect the functional features of leavened baked goods.

    PubMed

    Gobbetti, Marco; Rizzello, Carlo G; Di Cagno, Raffaella; De Angelis, Maria

    2014-02-01

    Sourdough fermentation is one of the oldest food biotechnologies, which has been studied and recently rediscovered for its effect on the sensory, structural, nutritional and shelf life properties of leavened baked goods. Acidification, proteolysis and activation of a number of enzymes as well as the synthesis of microbial metabolites cause several changes during sourdough fermentation, which affect the dough and baked good matrix, and influence the nutritional/functional quality. Currently, the literature is particularly rich of results, which show how the sourdough fermentation may affect the functional features of leavened baked goods. In the form of pre-treating raw materials, fermentation through sourdough may stabilize or to increase the functional value of bran fractions and wheat germ. Sourdough fermentation may decrease the glycaemic response of baked goods, improve the properties and bioavailability of dietary fibre complex and phytochemicals, and may increase the uptake of minerals. Microbial metabolism during sourdough fermentation may also produce new nutritionally active compounds, such as peptides and amino acid derivatives (e.g., ?-amino butyric acid) with various functionalities, and potentially prebiotic exo-polysaccharides. The wheat flour digested via fungal proteases and selected sourdough lactobacilli has been demonstrated to be probably safe for celiac patients. PMID:24230470

  13. Cloning and Characterization of a Weissella confusa Dextransucrase and Its Application in High Fibre Baking

    PubMed Central

    Kajala, Ilkka; Shi, Qiao; Nyyssölä, Antti; Maina, Ndegwa Henry; Hou, Yaxi; Katina, Kati; Tenkanen, Maija; Juvonen, Riikka

    2015-01-01

    Wheat bran offers health benefits as a baking ingredient, but is detrimental to bread textural quality. Dextran production by microbial fermentation improves sourdough bread volume and freshness, but extensive acid production during fermentation may negate this effect. Enzymatic production of dextran in wheat bran was tested to determine if dextran-containing bran could be used in baking without disrupting bread texture. The Weissella confusa VTT E-90392 dextransucrase gene was sequenced and His-tagged dextransucrase Wc392-rDSR was produced in Lactococcus lactis. Purified enzyme was characterized using 14C-sucrose radioisotope and reducing value-based assays, the former yielding Km and Vmax values of 14.7 mM and 8.2 ?mol/(mg?min), respectively, at the pH optimum of 5.4. The structure and size of in vitro dextran product was similar to dextran produced in vivo. Dextran (8.1% dry weight) was produced in wheat bran in 6 h using Wc392-rDSR. Bran with and without dextran was used in wheat baking at 20% supplementation level. Dextran presence improved bread softness and neutralized bran-induced volume loss, clearly demonstrating the potential of using dextransucrases in bran bioprocessing for use in baking. PMID:25603169

  14. ORGANIC EMISSIONS EVALUATION OF A PAINT BAKE OVEN WITH CATALYTIC INCINERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes a test program conducted at a paint bake oven facility. The purpose was to measure total hydrocarbon (THC) concentrations at the inlet and outlet of an incinerator with heat recovery used to reduce organic solvent emissions. Data were also collected to evalu...

  15. Microwave palaeointensities from a recent Mexican lava ow, baked sediments and reheated pottery

    E-print Network

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    Microwave palaeointensities from a recent Mexican lava £ow, baked sediments and reheated pottery H form 10 June 2003; accepted 10 June 2003 Abstract Microwave palaeointensity (PI) estimates have been to overestimate the correct values. In addition to lava samples, microwave PIs were also determined from pottery

  16. Home-Made Breads [and] Home-Baked Breads for Busy People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, John

    This packet contains two lesson plans for a class on making bread to be taught in an adult literacy program. Developed by a teacher who has taught the classes to 175 people, the lesson plans each contain complete directions for working with students while baking bread. One lesson plan is for experienced home bakers, and the other is a simpler…

  17. Detection of Baking Soda in Flat Bread by Direct pH Metery and Alkalinity Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahed Khaniki, G. H. R.; Vaezi, F.; Yunesian, M.; Nabizadeh, R.; Paseban, G. H. A.

    The objective of this study is evaluation of direct pH metery and alkalinity measurement methods for determination of baking soda in lavash bread (a kind of flat bread) in order to introduce and recommend a good practice of control. For running the experiments, various samples of lavash bread having different concentrations of baking soda were prepared. Ten grams of each sample were mixed with distilled water and then the prepared solutions were filtrated. The filtrates were then analyzed for pH and total alkalinity according to the distractions described in Standard Methods. Results show a significant correlation between the pH values of bread samples and the amount of baking soda. Also, a positive correlation has been observed between the alkalinity of bread samples and used baking soda. By comparing the R2-values specified for these two methods it could be concluded that the direct pH metery method is more reasonable. Furthermore, by this simple method it is possible to accelerate the detection of minute amounts of this chemical in bread.

  18. Lipid oxidation in baked products: impact of formula and process on the generation of volatile compounds.

    PubMed

    Maire, Murielle; Rega, Barbara; Cuvelier, Marie-Elisabeth; Soto, Paola; Giampaoli, Pierre

    2013-12-15

    This paper investigates the effect of ingredients on the reactions occurring during the making of sponge cake and leading to the generation of volatile compounds related to flavour quality. To obtain systems sensitive to lipid oxidation (LO), a formulation design was applied varying the composition of fatty matter and eggs. Oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and formation of related volatile compounds were followed at the different steps of cake-making. Optimised dynamic Solid Phase Micro Extraction was applied to selectively extract either volatile or semi-volatile compounds directly from the baking vapours. We show for the first time that in the case of alveolar baked products, lipid oxidation occurs very early during the step of dough preparation and to a minor extent during the baking process. The generation of lipid oxidation compounds depends on PUFA content and on the presence of endogenous antioxidants in the raw matter. Egg yolk seemed to play a double role on reactivity: protecting unsaturated lipids from oxidation and being necessary to generate a broad class of compounds of the Maillard reaction during baking and linked to the typical flavour of sponge cake. PMID:23993514

  19. Bran hydration and physical treatments improve the bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fine and coarse bran particles of a hard red and a hard white wheat were used to study the influences of bran hydration and physical treatments such as autoclaving and freezing as well as their combinations on the dough properties and bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour (WWF). For both h...

  20. Bran characteristics and bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Varietal variations in physical and compositional characteristics of bran and their associations with bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour (WWF) were investigated using bran obtained from roller milling of 18 wheat varieties. Bran was characterized for composition including protein, fat, ...

  1. Impingement drying of potato chips 

    E-print Network

    Caixeta, Aline Teixeira

    2001-01-01

    Superheated steam impingement drying was used as an alternative technique to develop nutritious fat-free potato chips. The effect of superheated steam temperature (115, 130, and 145° C) and convective heat transfer coefficient (100 and 160 W/m² °C...

  2. Addressing Constraints to Potato Productivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are a number of factors that limit potato productivity in Maine and the northeast U.S., including crop fertility, soil-borne diseases and other crop pests, water availability, and degradation of soil resources. We established a long-term field experiment in Presque Isle in 2004, to establish ...

  3. Leafhoppers and potatoes in Alaska

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research conducted from 2004 to 2006 in the main potato production areas of Alaska resulted in the identification of 41 leafhopper species associated with agricultural settings. Two species, Davisonia snowi (Dorst) and Macrosteles fascifrons (Stål), made up approximately 60% of the total number of i...

  4. Satsumaimo, the Japanese Sweet Potato

    E-print Network

    Hacker, Randi

    2013-12-11

    sweet potato. Back in the mid-18th century, rice crops failed which was bad. Then a man named Aoko Konyo began cultivating satsumaimo plants. They quickly became wildly popular. From the 1920s to the 1980s, the Showa period, peddlers sold roasted sweet...

  5. Growth of potatoes for CELSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tibbitts, T. W.; Cao, W.; Wheeler, R. M.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes research on the utilization of white potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) for space life support systems at the University of Wisconsin-Madison over the period of 1984 to 1993. At full maturity the tuber productivity was 37.5 gm(exp -2) d(exp -1), equating to a growing area requirement for one human (2800 kcal d(exp -1)) of 10.1 m(exp -2). A recirculating nutrient system using slanted trays produced best potato growth and tuber yields when a 2-3 cm layer of gravel or arcillite media was utilized. Potato production was close to maximum under lighting levels of 400 micromol m(exp -2) s(exp -1) of photosynthetic photo flux (PPF) for 24 hours or 800 micromol m(exp -2) s(exp -1) for 12 hours, alternating diurnal temperatures of 22 C and 14 C, relative humidity of 85 percent, and a carbon dioxide level of 1000 micromol m(exp -1). The range of effective concentrations of each separate nutrient is reported. The extensive studies with potatoes in this project have demonstrated that this crop has high productivity of nutritous tubers with a high harvest index in controlled environments, and can fulfill a significant portion of the energy and protein requirements for humans in space.

  6. Bar Code Labels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    American Bar Codes, Inc. developed special bar code labels for inventory control of space shuttle parts and other space system components. ABC labels are made in a company-developed anodizing aluminum process and consecutively marketed with bar code symbology and human readable numbers. They offer extreme abrasion resistance and indefinite resistance to ultraviolet radiation, capable of withstanding 700 degree temperatures without deterioration and up to 1400 degrees with special designs. They offer high resistance to salt spray, cleaning fluids and mild acids. ABC is now producing these bar code labels commercially or industrial customers who also need labels to resist harsh environments.

  7. HORTICULTURAL ENTOMOLOGY Potato Aphid, Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas), in Tomatoes

    E-print Network

    Underwood, Nora

    HORTICULTURAL ENTOMOLOGY Potato Aphid, Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas), in Tomatoes: Plant Canopy) ABSTRACT A binomial sampling method for the potato aphid, Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas), on processing esculentum, sampling, distribution THE POTATO APHID, Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas), is commonly found

  8. Single nucleotide polymorphism discovery in elite north american potato germplasm

    E-print Network

    Douches, David S.

    Single nucleotide polymorphism discovery in elite north american potato germplasm Hamilton et al;RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Single nucleotide polymorphism discovery in elite north american potato breeding approaches in potato rely almost entirely on phenotypic evaluations; molecular markers

  9. Sweet potatoes as a basic component in developing a medium for the cultivation of lactobacilli.

    PubMed

    Hayek, Saeed A; Shahbazi, Aboghasem; Awaisheh, Saddam S; Shah, Nagendra P; Ibrahim, Salam A

    2013-01-01

    A sweet potato medium (SPM) was formed with extract from baked sweet potatoes supplemented with 0, 4, or 8 g/L of each nitrogen source (beef extract, yeast extract, and proteose peptone #3) to form SPM1, SPM2, and SPM3 respectively. Lactobacilli MRS was used as control medium. Ten Lactobacillus strains containing an average of 2.34 ± 0.29 log CFU/mL were inoculated individually into batches of MRS, SPM1, SPM2, and SPM3. The growth patterns for the tested Lactobacillus strains growing in SPM2 and SPM3 were found to be similar to that in MRS. The average final population after 24 h of incubation in MRS, SPM2, and SPM3 reached 10.41 ± 0.35, 10.59 ± 0.27, and 10.72 ± 0.19 log CFU/mL respectively. SPM2 and SPM3 maintained higher pH values throughout the incubation period than MRS. These findings indicate that SPM2 can be a suitable medium for the growth of Lactobacillus and can provide an alternative at low-cost. PMID:24200801

  10. Characterisation and stability of anthocyanins in purple-fleshed sweet potato P40.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jianteng; Su, Xiaoyu; Lim, Soyoung; Griffin, Jason; Carey, Edward; Katz, Benjamin; Tomich, John; Smith, J Scott; Wang, Weiqun

    2015-11-01

    Purple-fleshed sweet potato P40 has been shown to prevent colorectal cancer in a murine model. This study is to identify anthocyanins by using HPLC/MS-MS and assess the stability during various cooking conditions. P40 possesses a high content of anthocyanins up to 14 mg/g dry matter. Total 12 acylated anthocyanins are identified. Top three anthocyanins, e.g., cyanidin 3-caffeoyl-p-hydroxybenzoyl sophoroside-5-glucoside, peonidin 3-caffeoyl sophoroside-5-glucoside, and cyanidin 3-(6"-caffeoyl-6"-feruloylsophoroside)-5-glucoside, account for half of the anthocyanin contents. Over 80% of anthocyanins measured by acid hydrolysis were cyanidin derivatives, indicating P40 is unique when compared with other purple-fleshed sweet potatoes that usually contain more peonidin than cyanidin. Steaming, pressure cooking, microwaving, and frying but not baking significantly reduced 8-16% of total anthocyanin contents. Mono-acylated anthocyanins showed a higher resistance against heat than di- and non-acylated. Among of which, cyanidin 3-p-hydroxybenzoylsophoroside-5-glucoside exhibited the best thermal stability. The stable acylated and cyanidin-predominated anthocyanins in P40 may provide extra benefits for cancer prevention. PMID:25976796

  11. Examining the molecular interaction between potato (Solanum tuberosum) and Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Colorado potato beetle (CPB) is a leading pest of solanaceous plants; however, little is known about its molecular interaction with the potato plant. Using the 11,421 EST array solanaceae microarray profiling services at TIGR, we have identified genes that are differentially expressed in potato leav...

  12. Impact of Different Potato Psyllid Populations on Zebra Chip Disease Incidence, Severity, and Potato Yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zebra chip (ZC) is an emerging and damaging potato disease that is causing millions of dollars in losses to the potato industry in the southwestern United States, Mexico, and Central America. ZC plant symptoms resemble those caused by potato purple top and psyllid yellows diseases. Tubers produced b...

  13. Emerging diversity in Potato virus Y poses new challenges for the U.S. potato industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Until recently tobacco and potato tuber necrotic strains of Potato virus Y (PVY) were considered to be absent from the U.S., and seed certification programs were able to limit PVY incidence in seed potatoes. PVY has become more problematic in recent years and beginning in 2002, necrotic strains of P...

  14. Evaluation of genetically modified potatoes against the potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea

    E-print Network

    Douches, David S.

    13 Evaluation of genetically modified potatoes against the potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea, Durbanville, 7550, South Africa Introduction The potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller moth is regarded as a serious post harvest pest problem for both the commercial and the small scale

  15. REACTION OF POTATO VARIETIES TO POTATO MOP-TOP VIRUS INFECTION IN THE ANDES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The unexpected detection in 2002 of Potato mop-top virus (PMTV) in potatoes growing at several locations in the U.S. and Canada has led to the realization that this soil-borne virus is actually wide-spread throughout the potato-producing regions of both countries. The lack of information concerning...

  16. Potato virus Y: an evolving concern for potato crops in the United States and Canada

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato virus Y (PVY) is the type member of the Potyviridae and the most economically important disease problem in seed potatoes in many areas of the world. The virus is responsible for decreases in yield and quality, but the main issue in seed potato production is a requirement for strict virus tole...

  17. Case study: Healthy grown potatoes and sustainability of Wisconsin potato production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Wisconsin Eco-Potato collaboration developed after several meetings between the Wisconsin Potato and Vegetable Growers Association (WPVGA) and World Wildlife Fund (WWF). Representatives met at the National Potato Council meeting and identified a common interest in development of environmentally ...

  18. The canon of potato science. . . 50 topics in potato science that every potato scientist should know: 1) Genetic diversity and gene banks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is a compilation of invited reviews on 50 key potato science topics to celebrate the 50 anniversary of the journal Potato Research published by the European Potato Association. The article in question reviews potato genetic diversity and gene banks. It presents basic aspects of the mission an...

  19. Bar-biting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bar biting is regarded as a stereotypic behavior in which the animal carries out repetitive mouthing and biting of the metal bars in its environmental enclosure. It is commonly seen in sows housed in close confinement, in barren environments, and with restricted access to food. However, it has also ...

  20. Elk's Lodge All buffet menu requests for guest counts less than 20, will have a $25.00 below minimum fee ap-

    E-print Network

    Deng, Baolin

    Baked Red Potato Bar with Gourmet Topping to Include Sour Cream, Shredded Cheese, Chives, Bacon Bits with Hot Honey Mustard Sauce 1 Platter serves 100 pieces - $125.00 Mini Pork Egg Rolls with Sweet & Sour.00 Homemade Potato Chips and French Onion Dip 1 Platter serves 50 Guests - $125.00 Salsa and Tortilla Chips 1

  1. Crop rotation impacts on potato protein.

    PubMed

    Honeycutt, C W

    1998-01-01

    The impact of nitrogen (N) fertilization on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) protein yield and nutritional quality is well documented but of little benefit to growers with limited access to fertilizer or capital (e.g. in lesser developed countries). This study was conducted 1) to evaluate the extent which crude protein yield in potatoes can be influenced by crop rotation with no N fertilizer and 2) to determine if crop rotation and minimal application of N fertilizer can meet the total protein yield of potatoes achieved with recommended quantities of N fertilizer. A field study was conducted in which potatoes followed previous crops of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. 'Nitro'), hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth), white lupin (Lupinus albus L. 'Ultra'), oats (Avena sativa 'Astro'), and potatoes. Tuber protein yield following alfalfa with no N fertilizer was about 50 kg/ha greater than when following potatoes or oats in one study year. In another year, tuber protein yield was greatest following vetch, achieving 149 kg protein/ha with no N fertilizer. These results were directly linked to the N contributions of rotation crop residues and were reflected in the plant-available N levels measured in soil. Applying one-half the recommended rate of N fertilizer resulted in protein yields comparable to a well-fertilized potato-potato rotation in a relatively dry year, but not in a year with more favorable precipitation. Particular crops grown in rotation with potatoes can make significant contributions to the total protein harvested in tubers. PMID:10426115

  2. Determination of suitable drying curve model for bread moisture loss during baking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soleimani Pour-Damanab, A. R.; Jafary, A.; Rafiee, S.

    2013-03-01

    This study presents mathematical modelling of bread moisture loss or drying during baking in a conventional bread baking process. In order to estimate and select the appropriate moisture loss curve equation, 11 different models, semi-theoretical and empirical, were applied to the experimental data and compared according to their correlation coefficients, chi-squared test and root mean square error which were predicted by nonlinear regression analysis. Consequently, of all the drying models, a Page model was selected as the best one, according to the correlation coefficients, chi-squared test, and root mean square error values and its simplicity. Mean absolute estimation error of the proposed model by linear regression analysis for natural and forced convection modes was 2.43, 4.74%, respectively.

  3. Nearshore oblique sand bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribas, F.; FalquéS, A.; Montoto, A.

    2003-04-01

    The coupling between hydrodynamics and the evolving topography in the surf zone has been theoretically examined for oblique wave incidence. It is shown that positive feedback can lead to the initial growth of several types of rhythmic systems of sand bars. The bars can be down-current oriented or up-current oriented, which means that the offshore end of the bar is shifted down-current or up-current with respect to the shore attachment. In the limit of strong current compared to wave orbital motion, very oblique down-current oriented b ars are obtained with a spacing of several times the surf zone width. When wave orbital motions are dominant, systems of up-current oriented bars and crescentic/down-current oriented bars appear with spacings of the order of the surf zone width. The latter feature consists of alternating shoals and troughs at both sides of the break line with the inner shoals being bar-shaped and oblique to the coast. The growth (e-folding) time of the bars ranges from a few hours to a few days and it is favored by constant wave conditions. The range of model parameters leading to growth corresponds to intermediate beach states in between the fully dissipative and the fully reflective situations. Preliminary comparison with field observations shows qualitative agreement.

  4. Detection of Multiple Potato Viruses in the Field Suggests Synergistic Interactions among Potato Viruses in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Hameed, Amir; Iqbal, Zafar; Asad, Shaheen; Mansoor, Shahid

    2014-01-01

    Viral diseases have been a major limiting factor threating sustainable potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) production in Pakistan. Surveys were conducted to serologically quantify the incidence of RNA viruses infecting potato; Potato virus X (PVX), Potato virus Y (PVY), Potato virus S (PVS), Potato virus A (PVA), Potato virus M (PVM) and Potato leaf roll virus (PLRV) in two major potato cultivars (Desiree and Cardinal). The results suggest the prevalence of multiple viruses in all surveyed areas with PVY, PVS and PVX dominantly widespread with infection levels of up to 50% in some regions. Co-infections were detected with the highest incidence (15.5%) for PVX and PVS. Additionally the data showed a positive correlation between co-infecting viruses with significant increase in absorbance value (virus titre) for at least one of the virus in an infected plant and suggested a synergistic interaction. To test this hypothesis, glasshouse grown potato plants were challenged with multiple viruses and analyzed for systemic infections and symptomology studies. The results obtained conclude that multiple viral infections dramatically increase disease epidemics as compared to single infection and an effective resistance strategy in targeting multiple RNA viruses is required to save potato crop. PMID:25506305

  5. Par-baked Bread Technology: Formulation and Process Studies to Improve Quality.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Eveline Lopes; Steel, Caroline Joy; Chang, Yoon Kil

    2016-01-01

    Extending the shelf-life of bakery products has been an important requirement resulting from the mechanization of this industry and the need to increase the distance for the distribution of final products, caused by the increase in production and consumer demand. Technologies based on the interruption of the breadmaking process represent an alternative to overcome product staling and microbiological deterioration. The production of par-baked breads is one of these technologies. It consists of baking the bread in two stages, and due to the possibility of retarding the second stage, it can be said that the bread can always be offered fresh to the consumer. The technology inserts logistics as part of the production process and creates the "hot point" concept, these being the locations where the bread is finalized, such as in the consumers' homes or sales locations. In this work, a review of the papers published on this subject was carried out, and aspects related to both the formulation and the process were considered. This technology still faces a few challenges, such as solving bread quality problems that appear due to process modifications, and these will also be considered. The market for these breads has grown rapidly and the bakery industry searches innovations related to par-baked bread technology. PMID:25000472

  6. Minimizing wafer defectivity during high-temperature baking of organic films in 193nm lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randall, Mai; Longstaff, Christopher; Ueda, Kenichi; Nicholson, Jim; Winter, Thomas

    2006-03-01

    Demands for continued defect reduction in 300mm IC manufacturing is driving process engineers to examine all aspects of the apply process for improvement. Process engineers, and their respective tool sets, are required to process films at temperatures above the boiling point of the casting solvents. This can potentially lead to the sublimation of the film chemical components. The current methods used to minimize wafer defectivity due to bake residues include frequent cleaning of bake plate modules and surrounding equipment, process optimization, and hardware improvements until more robust chemistries are available. IBM has evaluated the Tokyo Electron CLEAN TRACK TM ACT TM 12 high exhaust high temperature hotplate (HHP) lid to minimize wafer level contamination due to the outgasing of a bottom anti-reflective coating (BARC) films during the high temperature bake process. Goal was to minimize airborne contamination (particles in free space), reduce hotplate contamination build up, and ultimately reduce defects on the wafer. This evaluation was performed on a 193nm BARC material. Evaluation data included visual hardware inspections, airborne particle counting, relative thickness build up measurements on hotplate lids, wafer level defect measurements, and electrical open fail rate. Film coat thickness mean and uniformity were also checked to compare the high exhaust HHP with the standard HHP lid. Chemical analysis of the HHP module residue was performed to identify the source material. The work will quantify potential cost savings achieved by reducing added wafer defects during processing and extending PM frequency for equipment cleaning.

  7. Analysis of modes of heat transfer in baking Indian rice pan cake (Dosa,) a breakfast food.

    PubMed

    Venkateshmurthy, K; Raghavarao, K S M S

    2015-08-01

    Heat transfer by individual modes is estimated during baking of rice (Oryza sativa) pan cake (Dosa), a traditional food. The mathematical expressions proposed could be used to modify the baking oven for controlling the individual modes of heat transfer to obtain the desired product texture, colour and flavour. Conduction from the rotating hot plate is found to be the most prominent mode of heat transfer and is critical for obtaining the desired product characteristics such as texture and flavour. Temperature profiles along the thickness of Dosa are obtained and compared with those obtained experimentally. Heat transfer parameters such as thermal conductivity and emissivity of Dosa are determined (0.42 W/m K and 0.31, respectively). The effect of material of construction of the hot plate such as alloy steel, teflon coated aluminum, cast iron and stainless steel on product texture was studied and stainless steel was found to give good surface finish to the product, which was confirmed by scanning electron microscope. Sensory evaluation was carried out to evaluate the product acceptability. The thermal efficiency of the baking oven was 51.5%. PMID:26243966

  8. Molecular characterization of potato leafroll virus, potato virus A, and potato virus X isolates from potatoes in Alaskan cities and villages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercialized potatoes in Alaska are mainly grown in the Matanuska Valley, Tanana Valley and Delta Junction, and are routinely monitored for viruses and pests. In contrast, non-commercial potato production sites occurring throughout Alaska are rarely scrutinized for diseases. In addition, virtually...

  9. Potato defense against Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say): microarray gene expression profiling of potato (Solanum tuberosum) by Colorado potato beetle infestation and regurgitant treatment of

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Colorado potato beetle is the leading pest of solanaceous plants, however little is known about the interaction of this beetle with the potato plant. Using the 11,421 EST solanaceae microarry profiling services at TIGR we have begun investigating the genes that are differentially expressed by infest...

  10. SOIL NUTRIENT ACCUMULATION IN AMENDED POTATO SYSTEMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the Northeast U.S. and Atlantic Canada, potatoes are usually grown in rotation with either other vegetable crops or with grain or green manure crops. These short rotations, coupled with the intensive tillage associated with potato management (primary tillage, secondary tillage, cultivation, hill...

  11. Resistance to Powdery Scab in Potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Powdery scab is a serious disease of potato that is among the most damaging emerging potato pathogens throughout the world. Twenty years ago it was rarity in the Columbia Basin but today it is widespread, damaging and a threat to the profitability of the industry. Flagellated zoospores which swim ...

  12. Identifying Constraints to Potato Cropping System Sustainability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato yield in the Northeast U.S. has remained constant for over 50 years, despite increased inputs of pesticides, nutrients, and water. Consequently, a key question is: What is limiting potato system sustainability? We established Status Quo, Soil Conserving, Soil Improving, and Disease Suppressiv...

  13. The changing face of Potato virus Y

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This presentation will help growers, seed certification and regulatory officials, consultants, and other practitioners in the United States understand how and why Potato virus Y (PVY) is affecting the seed potato crop and if left unchecked why it will become a major disease issue for the food sector...

  14. Sweet potato in gluten-free pancakes.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gluten-free pancakes were prepared using rice flour, and rice flour replaced with various amounts, at 10, 20, and 40% of sweet potato flour. At 40% sweet potato, the apparent viscosity became comparable to that of the traditional wheat pancake batter. Texture properties of the cooked pancakes, such...

  15. Potato zebra chip disease: a phytopathological tale

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato zebra chip (ZC) disease is a relative newcomer to the world of important potato diseases. First reported in Mexico in the 1990s, by 2004-2005 the disease was causing serious economic damage in parts of Texas. ZC is now widespread in the western United States, Mexico, Central America, and wa...

  16. Potato cyst nematodes: pests of national importance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato cyst nematodes (PCN; G. rostochiensis and G. pallida) are internationally-recognized quarantine pests and considered the most devastating pests of potatoes due to annual worldwide yield losses estimated at 12.2%. PCNs continue to spread throughout North America and were recently detected in I...

  17. Breeding for Phytonutrient Enhancement of Potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato is a vegetable that develops underground as a stem. It is a propagule in the sense that the potato itself is used as seed for the following crop. As a food it is a rich source of nutrients. Focusing on just a few categories of metabolites, it is has varying contents of carotenoids, all...

  18. Future Directions in Potato Variety Development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato is often seen as a one-theme type of food. Its calorie-rich nature has become less appealing to a US consumer population that is less involved in physical labor than in previous times. The large percentage of the population that is battling being overweight also fears the potato due to medi...

  19. Reduced Tillage in an Irrigated Potato Rotation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato production in irrigated regions typically occurs on soils low in organic matter that are highly susceptible to agri-chemical leaching under poor irrigation scheduling, and wind erosion when soils are left bare. Reduced tillage has had limited testing in potato production. The objective of thi...

  20. 7 CFR 945.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Potatoes. 945.5 Section 945.5 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 945.5...

  1. 7 CFR 945.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Potatoes. 945.5 Section 945.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 945.5...

  2. 7 CFR 945.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Potatoes. 945.5 Section 945.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 945.5...

  3. 7 CFR 945.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 945.5 Section 945.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 945.5...

  4. 7 CFR 945.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Potatoes. 945.5 Section 945.5 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 945.5...

  5. 7 CFR 945.7 - Certified seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Certified seed potatoes. 945.7 Section 945.7... Certified seed potatoes. Certified seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified and tagged, marked, or otherwise appropriately identified, under the supervision of the official seed...

  6. 7 CFR 945.7 - Certified seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Certified seed potatoes. 945.7 Section 945.7... Certified seed potatoes. Certified seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified and tagged, marked, or otherwise appropriately identified, under the supervision of the official seed...

  7. 7 CFR 945.7 - Certified seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certified seed potatoes. 945.7 Section 945.7... Certified seed potatoes. Certified seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified and tagged, marked, or otherwise appropriately identified, under the supervision of the official seed...

  8. 7 CFR 945.7 - Certified seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Certified seed potatoes. 945.7 Section 945.7... Certified seed potatoes. Certified seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified and tagged, marked, or otherwise appropriately identified, under the supervision of the official seed...

  9. 7 CFR 945.7 - Certified seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Certified seed potatoes. 945.7 Section 945.7... Certified seed potatoes. Certified seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified and tagged, marked, or otherwise appropriately identified, under the supervision of the official seed...

  10. 7 CFR 948.151 - Colorado Potato Committee membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee membership. 948.151 Section... POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Rules and Regulations Modification of Inspection Requirements § 948.151 Colorado Potato Committee membership. The Colorado Potato Committee shall be comprised of six members...

  11. A Brief History of the Potato in Ireland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Education, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Provides historical information on the potato in Ireland focusing on how the potato arrived in Ireland and the advantages and disadvantages of the potato as a food crop. Discusses the Irish potato famine in Ireland, effects of the famine, and the government's laissez-faire response. Includes a list of questions. (CMK)

  12. 7 CFR 51.1578 - Off-Grade potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Off-Grade potatoes. 51.1578 Section 51.1578... STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Off-Grade § 51.1578 Off-Grade potatoes. Potatoes which fail to meet the requirements of any of the foregoing grades shall be Off-Grade...

  13. 7 CFR 948.151 - Colorado Potato Committee membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee membership. 948.151 Section... POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Rules and Regulations Modification of Inspection Requirements § 948.151 Colorado Potato Committee membership. The Colorado Potato Committee shall be comprised of six members...

  14. 7 CFR 51.1578 - Off-Grade potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Off-Grade potatoes. 51.1578 Section 51.1578... STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Off-Grade § 51.1578 Off-Grade potatoes. Potatoes which fail to meet the requirements of any of the foregoing grades shall be Off-Grade...

  15. 7 CFR 948.151 - Colorado Potato Committee membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee membership. 948.151 Section... POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Rules and Regulations Modification of Inspection Requirements § 948.151 Colorado Potato Committee membership. The Colorado Potato Committee shall be comprised of six members...

  16. 7 CFR 948.151 - Colorado Potato Committee membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee membership. 948.151 Section... POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Rules and Regulations Modification of Inspection Requirements § 948.151 Colorado Potato Committee membership. The Colorado Potato Committee shall be comprised of six members...

  17. 7 CFR 948.51 - Colorado Potato Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee. 948.51 Section 948.51... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Committees § 948.51 Colorado Potato Committee. The Colorado Potato...

  18. 7 CFR 948.51 - Colorado Potato Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee. 948.51 Section 948.51... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Committees § 948.51 Colorado Potato Committee. The Colorado Potato...

  19. 7 CFR 51.1578 - Off-Grade potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Off-Grade potatoes. 51.1578 Section 51.1578... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Off-Grade § 51.1578 Off-Grade potatoes. Potatoes which fail to meet the requirements of any of the foregoing grades...

  20. Potato Soil Fumigation A Field Guide to Fumigant

    E-print Network

    Isaacs, Rufus

    Potato Soil Fumigation A Field Guide to Fumigant Management Plans: With Special Reference to Potato................................3 Potato Early-Die........................................4 Early-Die Management History ********** Potato Soil Fumigation was developed at Michigan State University through a USDA Specialty Crop Block

  1. 7 CFR 948.51 - Colorado Potato Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee. 948.51 Section 948.51... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Committees § 948.51 Colorado Potato Committee. The Colorado Potato...

  2. 7 CFR 948.151 - Colorado Potato Committee membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee membership. 948.151 Section... POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Rules and Regulations Modification of Inspection Requirements § 948.151 Colorado Potato Committee membership. The Colorado Potato Committee shall be comprised of six members...

  3. 7 CFR 51.1578 - Off-Grade potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Off-Grade potatoes. 51.1578 Section 51.1578... STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Off-Grade § 51.1578 Off-Grade potatoes. Potatoes which fail to meet the requirements of any of the foregoing grades shall be Off-Grade...

  4. HORTSCIENCE 42(5):13061311. 2007. Potato Tuberworm (Lepidoptera

    E-print Network

    Douches, David S.

    HORTSCIENCE 42(5):1306­1311. 2007. Potato Tuberworm (Lepidoptera: Gelichiidae) Resistance in Potato resistance, glycoalkaloids Abstract. The potato tuberworm [Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller)] is one of the most destructive insect pests to potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) in tropical and subtropical regions

  5. 7 CFR 51.1578 - Off-Grade potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Off-Grade potatoes. 51.1578 Section 51.1578... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Off-Grade § 51.1578 Off-Grade potatoes. Potatoes which fail to meet the requirements of any of the foregoing grades...

  6. Funding: Fed. Grant/MPIC 2006 POTATO VARIETY EVALUATIONS

    E-print Network

    Douches, David S.

    Funding: Fed. Grant/MPIC 2006 POTATO VARIETY EVALUATIONS D.S. Douches, J. Coombs, J. Driscoll, J of variety trials to assess advanced potato selections from the Michigan State University and other potato on new potato ground that was in corn the previous year. The round white tuber types were divided

  7. Deterministic Many-to-Many Hot Potato Routing Allan Borodin

    E-print Network

    Borodin, Allan

    Deterministic Many-to-Many Hot Potato Routing Allan Borodin Yuval Rabani Baruch Schieber Abstract We consider algorithms for many-to-many hot potato routing. In hot potato (deflection) routing in each time step. We consider a form of routing known as hot potato routing or deflection routing [1, 5

  8. Whitefly transmission of sweet potato viruses.

    PubMed

    Valverde, Rodrigo A; Sim, Jeonggu; Lotrakul, Pongtharin

    2004-03-01

    Three genera of plant viruses, Begomovirus (Geminiviridae), Crinivirus (Closteroviridae) and Ipomovirus (Potyviridae), contain members that infect sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) and are transmitted by whiteflies. The begomoviruses, Sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV) and Ipomoea leaf curl virus (ILCV), and the ipomovirus Sweet potato mild mottle virus are transmitted by Bemisia tabaci, the sweet potato whitefly. The crinivirus, Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV), is transmitted by B. tabaci and Trialeurodes abutilonea, the bandedwinged whitefly. Transmission experiments were done with three of these viruses using laboratory-reared whiteflies and 2-day acquisition and transmission feeding periods. SPLCV and ILCV were transmitted from single and double infections by B. tabaci at rates of 5-10%. Transmission rates for SPLCV by B. tabaci were 15-20%. T. abutilonea transmitted SPCSV at a rate of ca. 3% but did not transmit ILCV or SPLCV. PMID:15036843

  9. CHANGES IN THE GENE EXPRESSION PROFILE OF POTATO IN RESPONSE TO INFECTION BY POTATO WITCHES'-BROOM PHYTOPLASMA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato is one of the most important food crops cultivated in the United States. Recently, potato production from Texas to Washington State has been devastated by new disease epidemics caused by phloem-inhabiting, cell wall-less bacteria known as potato witches’ broom and potato purple top phytoplas...

  10. Standardized RT-PCR conditions for detection and identification of eleven viruses of potato and Potato spindle tuber viroid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Standardized RT-PCR procedures were developed and validated for detection of Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), Impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV), Tobacco rattle virus (TRV), Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), Potato leaf roll virus (PLRV), Potato mop top virus (PMTV), Potato virus A (PVA), Potato viru...

  11. Arner J of Potato Res (1999) 76:103-119 103 Wild Potato Collecting Expedition in Southern Peru

    E-print Network

    Spooner, David

    1999-01-01

    A Arner J of Potato Res (1999) 76:103-119 103 Wild Potato Collecting Expedition in Southern Peru@facstaff.wisc.edu) 'International Potato Center (CIP), Apartado 1558, La Molina, Lima 12, Peru. ABSTRACT Peruhas 103 taxa of wild potatoes (species, sub- species, varieties, and forms) according to Hawkes (1990; modified by us

  12. Air Potato Leaf Feeding Beetle (Lilioceris cheni) Request Form/ Air Potato Vine (Dioscorea bulbifera) Infestation Site Record

    E-print Network

    Hill, Jeffrey E.

    Air Potato Leaf Feeding Beetle (Lilioceris cheni) Request Form/ Air Potato Vine: Longitude: Size/Density Approximate total size of the air potato vine infestation: Percent of the total area (above) covered by air potato vines (0100%): Other remarks: Please send data sheets to

  13. Detection of sweet potato virus C, sweet potato virus 2 and sweet potato feathery mottle virus in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Varanda, Carla M R; Santos, Susana J; Oliveira, Mônica D M; Clara, Maria Ivone E; Félix, Maria Rosário F

    2015-06-01

    Field sweet potato plants showing virus-like symptoms, as stunting, leaf distortion, mosaic and chlorosis, were collected in southwest Portugal and tested for the presence of four potyviruses, sweet potato virus C (SPVC), sweet potato virus 2 (SPV2), sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV), sweet potato virus G (SPVG), and the crinivirus sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV). DsRNA fractions were extracted from symptomatic leaves and used as templates in single and multiplex RT-PCR assays using previously described specific primers for each analyzed virus. The amplified reaction products for SPVC, SPV2 and SPFMV were of expected size, and direct sequencing of PCR products revealed that they correspond to the coat protein gene (CP) and showed 98%, 99% and 99% identity, respectively, to those viruses. Comparison of the CP genomic and amino acid sequences of the Portuguese viral isolates recovered here with those of ten other sequences of isolates obtained in different countries retrieved from the GenBank showed very few differences. The application of the RT-PCR assays revealed for the first time the presence of SPVC and SPFMV in the sweet potato crop in Portugal, the absence of SPVG and SPCSV in tested plants, as well as the occurrence of triple virus infections under field conditions. PMID:26104336

  14. Thermal release of D2 from new Be-D co-deposits on previously baked co-deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, M. J.; Doerner, R. P.

    2015-12-01

    Past experiments and modeling with the TMAP code in [1, 2] indicated that Be-D co-deposited layers are less (time-wise) efficiently desorbed of retained D in a fixed low-temperature bake, as the layer grows in thickness. In ITER, beryllium rich co-deposited layers will grow in thickness over the life of the machine. Although, compared with the analyses in [1, 2], ITER presents a slightly different bake efficiency problem because of instances of prior tritium recover/control baking. More relevant to ITER, is the thermal release from a new and saturated co-deposit layer in contact with a thickness of previously-baked, less-saturated, co-deposit. Experiments that examine the desorption of saturated co-deposited over-layers in contact with previously baked under-layers are reported and comparison is made to layers of the same combined thickness. Deposition temperatures of ?323 K and ?373 K are explored. It is found that an instance of prior bake leads to a subtle effect on the under-layer. The effect causes the thermal desorption of the new saturated over-layer to deviate from the prediction of the validated TMAP model in [2]. Instead of the D thermal release reflecting the combined thickness and levels of D saturation in the over and under layer, experiment differs in that, i) the desorption is a fractional superposition of desorption from the saturated over-layer, with ii) that of the combined over and under -layer thickness. The result is not easily modeled by TMAP without the incorporation of a thin BeO inter-layer which is confirmed experimentally on baked Be-D co-deposits using X-ray micro-analysis.

  15. Control of sweet potato virus diseases.

    PubMed

    Loebenstein, Gad

    2015-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is ranked seventh in global food crop production and is the third most important root crop after potato and cassava. Sweet potatoes are vegetative propagated from vines, root slips (sprouts), or tubers. Therefore, virus diseases can be a major constrain, reducing yields markedly, often more than 50%. The main viruses worldwide are Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV) and Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV). Effects on yields by SPFMV or SPCSV alone are minor, or but in complex infection by the two or other viruses yield losses of 50%. The orthodox way of controlling viruses in vegetative propagated crops is by supplying the growers with virus-tested planting material. High-yielding plants are tested for freedom of viruses by PCR, serology, and grafting to sweet potato virus indicator plants. After this, meristem tips are taken from those plants that reacted negative. The meristems were grown into plants which were kept under insect-proof conditions and away from other sweet potato material for distribution to farmers after another cycle of reproduction. PMID:25591876

  16. In vitro starch digestibility and expected glycemic index of pound cakes baked in two-cycle microwave-toaster and conventional oven.

    PubMed

    García-zaragoza, Francisco J; Sánchez-Pardo, María E; Ortiz-Moreno, Alicia; Bello-Pérez, Luis A

    2010-11-01

    Bread baking technology has an important effect on starch digestibility measured as its predicted glycemic index tested in vitro. The aim of this work was to evaluate the changes in predicted glycemic index of pound cake baked in a two-cycle microwave toaster and a conventional oven. The glycemic index was calculated from hydrolysis index values by the Granfeldt method. Non-significant differences (P > 0.05) were found in hydrolysis index (60.67 ± 3.96 for the product baked in microwave oven and 65.94 ± 4.09 for the product baked in conventional oven) and predicted glycemic index content (60.5 for product baked in microwave oven and 65 for the product baked in conventional oven) in freshly-baked samples. Results clearly demonstrate that the baking pound cake conventional process could be replicated using a two-cycle multifunction microwave oven, reducing the traditional baking time. Further research is required in order to achieve pound cake crumb uniformity. PMID:20367217

  17. Multi-allergen Quantitation and the Impact of Thermal Treatment in Industry-Processed Baked Goods by ELISA and Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Parker, Christine H; Khuda, Sefat E; Pereira, Marion; Ross, Mark M; Fu, Tong-Jen; Fan, Xuebin; Wu, Yan; Williams, Kristina M; DeVries, Jonathan; Pulvermacher, Brian; Bedford, Binaifer; Zhang, Xi; Jackson, Lauren S

    2015-12-16

    Undeclared food allergens account for 30-40% of food recalls in the United States. Compliance with ingredient labeling regulations and the implementation of effective manufacturing allergen control plans require the use of reliable methods for allergen detection and quantitation in complex food products. The objectives of this work were to (1) produce industry-processed model foods incurred with egg, milk, and peanut allergens, (2) compare analytical method performance for allergen quantitation in thermally processed bakery products, and (3) determine the effects of thermal treatment on allergen detection. Control and allergen-incurred cereal bars and muffins were formulated in a pilot-scale industry processing facility. Quantitation of egg, milk, and peanut in incurred baked goods was compared at various processing stages using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits and a novel multi-allergen liquid chromatography (LC)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) method. Thermal processing was determined to negatively affect the recovery and quantitation of egg, milk, and peanut to different extents depending on the allergen, matrix, and analytical test method. The Morinaga ELISA and LC-MS/MS quantitative methods reported the highest recovery across all monitored allergens, whereas the ELISA Systems, Neogen BioKits, Neogen Veratox, and R-Biopharm ELISA Kits underperformed in the determination of allergen content of industry-processed bakery products. PMID:26595064

  18. Further studies on the problems of geomagnetic field intensity determination from archaeological baked clay materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostadinova-Avramova, M.; Kovacheva, M.

    2015-10-01

    Archaeological baked clay remains provide valuable information about the geomagnetic field in historical past, but determination of the geomagnetic field characteristics, especially intensity, is often a difficult task. This study was undertaken to elucidate the reasons for unsuccessful intensity determination experiments obtained from two different Bulgarian archaeological sites (Nessebar - Early Byzantine period and Malenovo - Early Iron Age). With this aim, artificial clay samples were formed in the laboratory and investigated. The clay used for the artificial samples preparation differs according to its initial state. Nessebar clay was baked in the antiquity, but Malenovo clay was raw, taken from the clay deposit near the site. The obtained artificial samples were repeatedly heated eight times in known magnetic field to 700 °C. X-ray diffraction analyses and rock-magnetic experiments were performed to obtain information about the mineralogical content and magnetic properties of the initial and laboratory heated clays. Two different protocols were applied for the intensity determination-Coe version of Thellier and Thellier method and multispecimen parallel differential pTRM protocol. Various combinations of laboratory fields and mutual positions of the directions of laboratory field and carried thermoremanence were used in the performed Coe experiment. The obtained results indicate that the failure of this experiment is probably related to unfavourable grain sizes of the prevailing magnetic carriers combined with the chosen experimental conditions. The multispecimen parallel differential pTRM protocol in its original form gives excellent results for the artificial samples, but failed for the real samples (samples coming from previously studied kilns of Nessebar and Malenovo sites). Obviously the strong dependence of this method on the homogeneity of the used subsamples hinders its implementation in its original form for archaeomaterials. The latter are often heterogeneous due to variable heating conditions in the different parts of the archaeological structures. The study draws attention to the importance of multiple heating for the stabilization of grain size distribution in baked clay materials and the need of elucidation of this question.

  19. Effect of baking and frying on the in vivo toxicity to rats of cornmeal containing fumonisins.

    PubMed

    Voss, Kenneth A; Meredith, Filmore I; Bacon, Charles W

    2003-08-27

    Fumonisins are mycotoxins produced by Fusarium verticillioides (=F. moniliforme) and other Fusarium species. They are found in corn and corn-based foods. Cooking decreases fumonisin concentrations in food products under some conditions; however, little is known about how cooking effects biological activity. Baked cornbread, pan-fried corncakes, and deep-fried fritters were made from cornmeal that was spiked with 5% w/w F. verticillioides culture material (CM). The cooked materials and the uncooked CM-spiked cornmeal were fed to male rats (n = 5/group) for 2 weeks at high (20% w/w spiked cornmeal equivalents) or low (2% w/w spiked cornmeal equivalents) doses. A control group was fed a diet containing 20% w/w unspiked cornmeal. Toxic response to the uncooked CM-spiked cornmeal and the cooked products included decreased body weight gain (high-dose only), decreased kidney weight, and microscopic kidney and liver lesions of the type caused by fumonisins. Fumonisin concentration, as determined by HPLC analysis, in the 20% w/w pan-fried corncake diet [92.2 ppm of fumonisin B(1) (FB(1))] was slightly, but not statistically significantly, lower than those of the 20% w/w baked cornbread (132.2 ppm of FB(1)), deep-fried fritter (120.2 ppm of FB(1)) and CM-spiked cornmeal (130.5 of ppm FB(1)) diets. Therefore, baking and frying had no significant effect on the biological activity or concentration of fumonisins in these corn-based products, and the results provided no evidence for the formation of novel toxins or "hidden" fumonisins during cooking. PMID:12926912

  20. 76 FR 3076 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Air Potato

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ...the control of air potato (Dioscorea bulbifera). The EA considers the effects...the severity of air potato (Dioscorea bulbifera) infestations. Air potato...Biological Control of Air Potato, Dioscorea bulbifera (Dioscoreaceae), in...

  1. Enhanced Resistance to Control Potato Tuberworm by Combining Engineered Resistance, Avidin, and Natural

    E-print Network

    Douches, David S.

    Enhanced Resistance to Control Potato Tuberworm by Combining Engineered Resistance, Avidin & Edward J. Grafius Published online: 15 November 2008 # Potato Association of America 2008 Abstract Potato tuberworm, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller), is a destructive insect pest of potato, Solanum tuberosum (L

  2. Quantification of pizza baking properties of different cheeses, and their correlation with cheese functionality.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xixiu; Balaban, Murat O; Zhang, Lu; Emanuelsson-Patterson, Emma A C; James, Bryony

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study is to quantify the pizza baking properties and performance of different cheeses, including the browning and blistering, and to investigate the correlation to cheese properties (rheology, free oil, transition temperature, and water activity). The color, and color uniformity, of different cheeses (Mozzarella, Cheddar, Colby, Edam, Emmental, Gruyere, and Provolone) were quantified, using a machine vision system and image analysis techniques. The correlations between cheese appearance and attributes were also evaluated, to find that cheese properties including elasticity, free oil, and transition temperature influence the color uniformity of cheeses. PMID:25048865

  3. Partial self-reversal of TRM in baked soils and ceramics from Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roperch, P.; Chauvin, A.; Valdez, F.

    2011-12-01

    Partial self-reversed thermoremanent magnetizations (SRTRM) have been found in samples of baked soils and hearths from the Rumipamba archeological site near Quito and ceramics from sites near the town of Esmeraldas (Ecuador). The SRTRMs were recognized during thermal demagnetization and in the course of paleointensity determination with the Thellier method where the SRTRM was acquired in the opposed field direction. The SRTRM is often concealed by a stronger normal polarity magnetization on most samples but cooling the samples in liquid nitrogen enhanced the intensity of the SRTRM. The SRTRM at 77°K is often as strong or stronger than the normal component and measurements of the magnetization at 77°K enables the rapid detection of the SRTRM in most samples. AF demagnetization of the SRTRM carried by the baked clays indicate median destructive field (MDF) of the order of 50 mT and thermal demagnetization give principal unblocking temperatures between 280 and 380°C while the normal component of magnetization has higher unblocking temperatures up to 580°C. Anisotropy tensors of SRTRM were determined on eight samples. The high anisotropy degree (>2) observed when the total magnetization is the sum of a normal TRM and a SRTRM is likely amplified because the anisotropy carried by the SRTRM is larger than the one carried by the normal component. Ti-poor titanomagnetite is the main magnetic carrier identified by magnetic measurement in strong field or susceptibility measurements versus temperature. The magnetic carriers of the SRTRM are stable to heating in air or in vacuum up to 600°C suggesting that they are likely not maghemite or titanomaghemite. The baked clays and ceramics from Ecuador carrying the SRTRM share similar magnetic properties (MDF values, unblocking temperatures) with those reported by Bina et al. (1999, Geophys. J. Int. 138, 159-178) for the Pinatubo pumices of the 1991 eruption. In order to test the hypothesis that the SRTRM could be carried by ilmeno-hematite grains, the magnetization of one sample of the self reversed Pinatubo pumices was also measured during warming from liquid nitrogen temperature to room temperature. The similarities in magnetic properties between the SRTRM carried by the baked clays and the self-reversed Pinatubo pumices support the interpretation that detrital hemoilmenite originating from the recent activity of the numerous Ecuadorian volcanoes may be the main carrier of the SRTRM in the archeological samples. A component of SRTRM may be hidden in various types of rock or archeological materials and this may affect the determination of paleointensity of the Earth magnetic field especially when non thermal method are used.

  4. Partial self-reversal of TRM in baked soils and ceramics from Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roperch, Pierrick; Chauvin, Annick; Valdez, Francisco

    2012-11-01

    Partial self-reversed thermoremanent magnetizations (SRTRMs) were observed in samples of baked soils, hearths and ceramics from the Rumipamba archeological site near Quito (Ecuador) and ceramics from sites near the town of Esmeraldas (Ecuador). The SRTRMs were recognized at room temperature on few samples but cooling the samples in liquid nitrogen enhanced the intensity of the SRTRM and measurement at 77°K enables its rapid detection in many samples from these sites. Alternating field demagnetization of the SRTRM indicate median destructive field of the order of 50 mT and thermal demagnetization give unblocking temperatures in the temperature range 280-380 °C. The magnetic carriers of the SRTRM are stable to heating in air or in vacuum up to 600 °C suggesting that titanomaghemite should not be the magnetic carrier of the SRTRM. The studied baked clays and ceramics contain detrital material of mainly volcanic origin. Ti-poor titanomagnetite is the main magnetic carrier identified by strong field data or susceptibility measurements versus temperature. Ilmeno-hematite grains were recognized with microscope observations under reflected light. Scanning electron microscope observations with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry indicate a Ti/Fe ratio corresponding to an ilmenite content of ˜0.55. We also compared the magnetic properties of the partially self-reversed baked clays with those of the self-reversed Pinatubo pumices. The SRTRMs were measured upon cooling from room temperature to 20°K with the MPMS. Upon cooling to 20°K the SRTRM show a nearly tenfold increase in intensity with respect to the room temperature measurement. The baked clay and ceramics from Ecuador carrying the SRTRM share similar magnetic properties with the Pinatubo pumices (unblocking temperatures, low temperature behavior) supporting the interpretation that detrital hemoilmenite originating from the Holocene activity of the numerous Ecuadorian volcanoes is the main carrier of the SRTRM in the archeological samples. In some samples, anisotropy tensors of SRTRM show large anisotropy degree (>2). The high anisotropy observed when the total magnetization is the sum of a normal thermoremanent magnetization (TRM) and a SRTRM is likely amplified because the anisotropy carried by the SRTRM is larger than the one carried by the normal component. A component of SRTRM may be hidden in archeological materials containing detrital hemoilmenites related to dacitic/andesitic volcanism and this may affect the determination of paleointensity of the earth magnetic field especially when non thermal method are used.

  5. Multiple bars and secular evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Juntai

    2015-03-01

    Bars are the most important driver of secular evolution. A significant fraction of barred galaxies also harbor small secondary bars. Secondary bars are visible even in near-infrared images, so they are not just dusty and blue, but stellar features (Erwin & Sparke 2002). Since they are quite common, secondary bars are probably long-lived stellar features. The random relative orientation of the two bars indicates that they are dynamically decoupled with different pattern speeds (Buta & Crocker 1993). Corsini et al. (2003) presented conclusive direct kinematic evidence for a decoupled secondary bar in NGC 2950. Dynamically decoupled secondary bars have long been hypothesized to be a mechanism to drive gas past the ILR of primary bars to feed active galactic nuclei (Shlosman et al. 1989). However, the dynamics of secondary bars are still not well understood, and it is still unclear what role secondary bars play in the AGN fueling process. Numerical simulations offer the best approach to understanding double-barred systems. Decoupled secondary bar in the earlier gaseous simulations only last a short time (< 1 Gyr, e.g. Friedli & Martinet 1993). Orbital studies of double-barred systems discovered a family of loop orbits that may be building blocks of long-lived nuclear stellar bars (Maciejewski & Sparke 1997, 2000). To complement orbital studies, which are not fully self-consistent, N-body simulations are preferred to further our understanding of double-barred systems. Debattista & Shen (2007) and Shen & Debattista (2009) managed to form long-lived double-barred systems with purely collisionless simulations, where a pre-existing rotating pseudo-bulge is introduced initially. The shape and size of secondary bars in the models are comparable to observed ones. They found that the rotation of the two bars is not rigid. The amplitude and pattern speed of the secondary bars oscillate as they rotate through their primary counterparts. Although the secondary bar rotates faster than the primary bar in this model, the stellar velocity field in the central region only shows a weakly twisted kinematic minor axis. Recently more simulations of double-barred galaxies with simpler initial conditions are explored (Du, Shen & Debattista 2014). We expect that the new models can be used to cross-check with the kinematic properties of double-barred galaxies from IFU observations such as SAURON and Atlas3D.

  6. Changes in potato phenylpropanoids during tuber development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenylpropanoid metabolite and transcript expression during different developmental stages were examined in field grown potatoes. Carbohydrate and shikimic acid metabolism was assessed to determine how tuber primary metabolism influences phenylpropanoid metabolism. Phenylpropanoid concentrations wer...

  7. Potato Glycoalkaloids, Past Present and Future

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The steroidal glycoalkaloids of the potato are naturally occurring specialty metabolites of questionable desirability. Although undoubtedly originating under selection as antifeedants against herbivorous pests, glycoalkaloids no longer function as the primary feeding deterrent. However, due to the...

  8. ORIGINAL PAPER Hybrid origins of cultivated potatoes

    E-print Network

    Spooner, David

    de Tecnologi´a Agropecuaria (INTA), C.C. 276, 7620 Balcarce, Argentina 123 Theor Appl Genet (2010. Introduction Solanum tuberosum, the major cultivated potato of world commerce, has tremendous diversity of use

  9. Development of molecular resistance in potato against potato leaf roll virus and potato virus Y through Agrobacterium-mediated double transgenesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) and potato virus Y (PVY) are the two major viral problems for the potato production all over the world. Transgenic approaches involving the expression of viral genes are being developed to provide protection for plants against viral diseases. The purpose of this study w...

  10. An Assessment of Recycled Refractory Material Performance After Two Years of Service in a Carbon Bake Furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Schubert, N.; Bennett, J.P.; Kwong, K.S.

    1999-10-27

    Material removed from carbon bake furnaces used to manufacture anodes for the production of aluminum metal has historically been disposed by landfill. This material is composed primarily of 50% alumina refractory. in 1997, Alcoa completed a highly successful program to reuse the spent refractories in castables for carbon bake furnace headwalls and flooring, as roadbed aggregate, and in other internal applications. This program recycled/reused 11,000 metric tons of used refractory material (99% of the material removed from the carbon bake furnace) and saved Alcoa over 3.8 of the 9.6 million dollar projected furnace rebuild costs. As assessment is made of the performance of the recycled refractory components after two years of service.

  11. Toll Bar on Sea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Dave

    2008-01-01

    In the summer of 2007 the United Kingdom experienced some of the heaviest rainfall since records began. Toll Bar in South Yorkshire featured prominently in media coverage as the village and the homes surrounding it began to flood. Many people lost everything: their homes, their furniture, their possessions. In an effort to come to terms with what…

  12. Role of specific IgE and skin-prick testing in predicting food challenge results to baked egg

    PubMed Central

    Cortot, Catherine F.; Sheehan, William J.; Permaul, Perdita; Friedlander, James L.; Baxi, Sachin N.; Gaffin, Jonathan M.; Dioun, Anahita F.; Hoffman, Elaine B.; Schneider, Lynda C.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that children with egg allergy may be able to tolerate baked egg. Reliable predictors of a successful baked egg challenge are not well established. We examined egg white–specific IgE levels, skin-prick test (SPT) results, and age as predictors of baked egg oral food challenge (OFC) outcomes. We conducted a retrospective chart review of children, aged 2–18 years, receiving an egg white–specific IgE level, SPT, and OFC to baked egg from 2008 to 2010. Fifty-two oral baked egg challenges were conducted. Of the 52 challenges, 83% (n = 43) passed and 17% (n = 9) failed, including 2 having anaphylaxis. Median SPT wheal size was 12 mm (range, 0–35 mm) for passed challenges and 17 mm (range, 10–30 mm) for failed challenges (p = 0.091). The negative predictive value for passing the OFC was 100% (9 of 9) if SPT wheal size was <10 mm. Median egg white–specific IgE was 2.02 kU/L (range, <0.35–13.00 kU/L) for passed challenges and 1.52 kU/L (range, 0.51–6.10 kU/L) for failed challenges (p = 0.660). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis for SPT revealed an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.64. ROC curve analysis for egg white–specific IgE revealed an AUC of 0.63. There was no significant difference in age between patients who failed and those who passed (median = 8.8 years versus 7.0 years; p = 0.721). Based on our sample, SPT, egg white–specific IgE and age are not good predictors of passing a baked egg challenge. However, there was a trend for more predictability with SPT wheal size. PMID:22584194

  13. Survival of Penicillium spp. conidia during deep-frying and baking steps of frozen chicken nuggets processing.

    PubMed

    Wigmann, Évelin Francine; Moreira, Rafael Chelala; Alvarenga, Verônica Ortiz; Sant'Ana, Anderson S; Copetti, Marina Venturini

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed at determining whether Penicillium spp. strains could survive through the heat treatment applied during the processing of frozen chicken nuggets. Firstly, it was found that the conidia of Penicillium were not able to survive the heat shock in phosphate buffer at pH 7.2 in thermal death tubes (TDT) at 80 °C/30 min. Subsequently, each Penicillium strain was inoculated in frozen chicken nuggets, which were subjected to the following treatments: i) only deep frying (frying oil at 195-200 °C), ii) only baking (120-130 °C until the internal temperature reached 70 °C) and iii) deep frying followed by baking (frying oil temperature of 195-200 °C and baking temperature of 120-130 °C, until the internal temperature reached 70 °C). The results indicated that Penicillium polonicum NGT 23/12, Penicillium commune NGT 16/12, Penicillium solitum NGT 30/12 and Penicillium crustosum NGT 51/12 were able to survive after the combined treatment (deep frying followed by baking) when inoculated in chicken nuggets. P. polonicum NGT 23/12 was the most resistant strain to the combined treatment (deep frying and baking), as its population was reduced by 3 log cycles CFU/g, when the internal temperature reached 78 °C after 10 min and 30 s of baking. The present data show that if Penicillium spp. is present in high numbers in raw materials, such as breading flours, it will survive the thermal processing applied during chicken nuggets production. PMID:26742610

  14. A novel post exposure bake technique to improve CD uniformity over product wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeishi, Tomoyuki; Hayasaki, K.; Shibata, Tsuyoshi

    2005-05-01

    The impact of wafer warpage on critical dimension (CD) control is getting larger in ArF lithography. The product wafers with stacked films are warped due to the stress caused by the difference in the film stack structure between the top side and the back side of the wafers. A typical warpage of the product wafers is of convex shape, and the amount of the warpage is larger than 50 ?m for 200mm wafer. On the other hand, proximity bake method is widely used in the Post Exposure Bake (PEB). When the warped wafer is placed on the hot plate, the gap between the wafer and the hot plate varies across the wafer. That is, the temperature of the wafer center is lower than that of wafer edge. Such a temperature variation affects CD uniformity within wafer. In particular the fact is obvious in ArF chemical amplified resist because PEB sensitivity of ArF resist is larger than 5nm/degree. In this study we optimize PEB zone temperature within wafer to suit the wafer warpage. This method is based on controlling zone temperature of the PEB hot plate with concentrically divided heaters. We carry out that the CD uniformity for the warped wafer is improved by 70% compared with the conventional process.

  15. Evaluation of rheological, bioactives and baking characteristics of mango ginger (curcuma amada) enriched soup sticks.

    PubMed

    Crassina, K; Sudha, M L

    2015-09-01

    Wheat flour was replaced with mango ginger powder (MGP) at 0, 5, 10 and 15 %. Influence of MGP on rheological and baking characteristics was studied. Farinograph was used to study the mixing profile of wheat flour-MGP blend. Pasting profile of the blends namely gelatinization and retrogradation were carried out using micro-visco-amylograph. Test baking was done to obtain the optimum level of replacement and processing conditions. Sensory attributes consisting texture, taste, overall quality and breaking strength were assessed. Nutritional characterization of the soup sticks in terms of protein and starch in vitro digestibility, dietary fiber, minerals, polyphenols and antioxidant activity were determined using standard methods. With the increasing levels of MGP from 0 to 15 %, the farinograph water absorption increased from 60 to 66.7 %. A marginal increase in the gelatinization temperature from 65.4 to 66.2 °C was observed. Retrogradation of gelatinized starch granules decreased with the addition of MGP. The results indicated that the soup stick with 10 % MG had acceptable sensory attributes. The soup stick showed further improvement in terms of texture and breaking strength with the addition of gluten powder, potassium bromate and glycerol monostearate. The total dietary fiber and antioxidant activity of the soup sticks having 10 % MGP increased from 3.31 to 8.64 % and 26.83 to 48.06 % respectively as compared to the control soup sticks. MGP in soup sticks improved the nutritional profile. PMID:26345009

  16. Deprotection blue in extreme ultraviolet photoresists: influence of base loading and post-exposure bake temperture

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Christopher N.; Naulleau, Patrick P.

    2008-06-02

    The deprotection blur of Rohm and Haas XP 5435, XP 5271, and XP5496 extreme ultraviolet photoresists has been determined as their base weight percent is varied. They have also determined the deprotection blur of TOK EUVR P1123 photoresist as the post-exposure bake temperature is varied from 80 C to 120 C. In Rohm and Haas XP 5435 and XP5271 resists 7x and 3x (respective) increases in base weight percent reduce the size of successfully patterned 1:1 line-space features by 16 nm and 8 nm with corresponding reductions in deprotection blur of 7 nm and 4 nm. In XP 5496 a 7x increase in base weight percent reduces the size of successfully patterned 1:1 line-space features from 48 nm to 38 nm without changing deprotection blur. In TOK EUVR P1123 resist, a reduction in post-exposure bake temperature from 100 C to 80 C reduces deprotection blur from 21 nm to 10 nm and reduces patterned LER from 4.8 nm to 4.1 nm.

  17. Resonances in barred galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceverino, D.; Klypin, A.

    2007-08-01

    The inner parts of many spiral galaxies are dominated by bars. These are strong non-axisymmetric features which significantly affect orbits of stars and dark matter particles. One of the main effects is the dynamical resonances between galactic material and the bar. We detect and characterize these resonances in N-body models of barred galaxies by measuring angular and radial frequencies of individual orbits. We found narrow peaks in the distribution of orbital frequencies with each peak corresponding to a specific resonance. We found five different resonances in the stellar disc and two in the dark matter. The corotation resonance (CR) and the inner and outer Lindblad resonances are the most populated. The spatial distributions of particles near resonances are wide. For example, the inner Lindblad resonance is not localized at a given radius. Particles near this resonance are mainly distributed along the bar and span a wide range of radii. On the other hand, particles near the CR are distributed in two broad areas around the two stable Lagrange points. The distribution resembles a wide ring at the corotation radius. Resonances capture disc and halo material in near-resonant orbits. Our analysis of orbits in both N-body simulations and simple analytical models indicates that resonances tend to prevent the dynamical evolution of this trapped material. Only if the bar evolves as a whole, resonances drift through the phase space. In this case particles anchored near resonant orbits track the resonance shift and evolve. The criteria to ensure a correct resonant behaviour discussed by Weinberg and Katz can be achieved with few millions particles because the regions of trapped orbits near resonances are large and evolving.

  18. Ethanol production from potato peel waste (PPW).

    PubMed

    Arapoglou, D; Varzakas, Th; Vlyssides, A; Israilides, C

    2010-10-01

    Considerable concern is caused by the problem of potato peel waste (PPW) to potato industries in Europe. An integrated, environmentally-friendly solution is yet to be found and is currently undergoing investigation. Potato peel is a zero value waste produced by potato processing plants. However, bio-ethanol produced from potato wastes has a large potential market. If Federal Government regulations are adopted in light of the Kyoto agreement, the mandatory blending of bio-ethanol with traditional gasoline in amounts up to 10% will result in a demand for large quantities of bio-ethanol. PPW contain sufficient quantities of starch, cellulose, hemicellulose and fermentable sugars to warrant use as an ethanol feedstock. In the present study, a number of batches of PPW were hydrolyzed with various enzymes and/or acid, and fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisae var. bayanus to determine fermentability and ethanol production. Enzymatic hydrolysis with a combination of three enzymes, released 18.5 g L(-1) reducing sugar and produced 7.6 g L(-1) of ethanol after fermentation. The results demonstrate that PPW, a by-product of the potato industry features a high potential for ethanol production. PMID:20471817

  19. Impact of Potato virus Y on long term storage of potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years, Potato virus Y has reemerged as a serious disease problem in many potato production areas in the northern United States and eastern Canada. In Wisconsin, two widely grown cultivars, Russet Norkotah and Silverton, express mild or no symptoms when infected with PVY. The lack of sympto...

  20. Evaluations of transgenic potatoes for resistance to potato tuberworm in the laboratory and field

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato variety ‘Spunta’ was previously transformed to constitutively express the cry1Ia1 gene from Bacillus thuringiensis from which three transgenic lines (Spunta G2, Spunta G3 and Spunta 6a3) were chosen to evaluate for resistance to potato tuberworm (Phthorimaea operculella Zeller). Because ...

  1. Impact of potato psyllid (Hemiptera: Triozide) feeding on free amino acid composition in potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foliage feeding impacts of potato psyllid (Bactericera cockerelli) on the free amino acids (FAAs) composition in potato leaf and tuber were determined under the greenhouse conditions. The free amino acids in plant extracts were separated by HPLC, and in both leaf and tuber samples, at least, 17 FAAs...

  2. Use and costs of insecticdes to control potato psyllids and zebra chip on potatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zebra chip disease in potatoes has become a serious problem in North America. Researchers in Texas developed a sampling and reporting program for cooperating growers in three states. Data from this project enabled us to document insecticide use and costs for ZC control in commercial potato fields...

  3. Recovery of four novel Potato spindle tuber viroid sequence variants from Russian seed potatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Symptoms of potato “gothic” disease resemble those of Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd), but its limited distribution in European Russia made the disease of little economic significance in European Russia until the early 1970’s when meristem tip culture was widely adopted throughout the former USS...

  4. Breeding for improved potato nutrition: High amylose starch potatoes show promise as fiber source

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato starch is composed of approximately 75% amylopectin and 25% amylose. We are interested in breeding for higher amylose content, which would increase the fiber content of potato and decrease glycemic index. In order to make progress in a breeding program, we have developed a high throughput ass...

  5. 78 FR 9629 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Reestablishment of Membership on the Colorado Potato...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ... approximately 180 producers in the regulated production area. Small agricultural service firms are defined by...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 948 Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Reestablishment of Membership on the Colorado Potato Administrative Committee, Area No. 2 AGENCY:...

  6. Resistance of selected potato genotypes to the potato psyllid (Hemiptera: Triozidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The characterization of resistance of selected potato, Solanum tuberosum L., breeding clones to the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) was investigated. Antixenosis was assessed in choice tests in which a single plant of each genotype was placed inside a rearing cag...

  7. Incidence, transmission and molecular characterization of Potato virus S from selected potato cultivars in Washington State

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Washington State Potato Seed Lot Trials annually evaluates seed lots from several states for the incidence of various potato viruses and other growth compromising factors. During the 2005 and 2006 seasons, many plants within seed lots of cv. Defender displayed necrotic lesions, leaf malformati...

  8. Kolsky Bar Impact Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Contreras, P.; Montoya, J.

    1998-12-31

    Testing for the Kolsky Bar is conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico. The Kolsky bar is operated by the Dynamic testing team of NMT-11, (Nuclear Material Technology Division) to enable measurements of stress-strain characteristics for the MST-8 (Material Science and Technology) personnel. The Kolsky Bar is located at the Plutonium Facility at TA-55 (Tech Area).

  9. Measurements of vertical bar Vcb vertical bar and vertical bar Vub vertical bar at BaBar

    SciTech Connect

    Rotondo, M.

    2005-10-12

    We report results from the BABAR Collaboration on the semileptonic B decays, highlighting the measurements of the magnitude of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements Vub and Vcb. We describe the techniques used to obtain the matrix element |Vcb| using the measurement of the inclusive B {yields} Xclv process and a large sample of exclusive B {yields} D*lv decays. The vertical bar Vub vertical bar matrix elements has been measured studying different kinematic variables of the B {yields} Xulv process, and also with the exclusive reconstruction of B {yields} {pi}({rho})lv decays.

  10. Retention of Provitamin A Carotenoids in Staple Crops Targeted for Biofortification in Africa: Cassava, Maize and Sweet Potato

    PubMed Central

    De Moura, Fabiana F.; Miloff, Alexander; Boy, Erick

    2015-01-01

    HarvestPlus, part of the Consultative Group on Internation Agriculture research (CGIAR) Program on Agriculture for Nutrition and Health (A4NH) uses conventional plant breeding techniques to develop staple food crops that are rich in micronutrients, a food-based approach to reduce micronutrient malnutrition known as biofortification. The nutritional breeding targets are established based on the food intake of target populations, nutrient losses during storage and processing and bioavailability. This review collates the evidence on the retention of provitamin A carotenoid (pVAC) after processing, cooking, and storing of the staple crops targeted for pVAC biofortification: cassava, maize, and sweet potato. Sun drying was more detrimental to the pVAC levels (27–56% retention) in cassava than shade (59%) or oven (55–91%) drying, while the pVAC retention levels (66–96%) in sweet potato were not significantly different among the various drying methods. Overall, boiling and steaming had higher pVAC retention (80–98%) compared to baking (30–70%) and frying (18–54%). Gari, the most frequently consumed form of cassava in West Africa had the lowest pVAC retention (10–30%). The pVAC retention of maize grain and cassava and sweet potato flour reached levels as low as 20% after 1–4 months of storage and was highly dependent on genotype. Therefore, we recommend that an evaluation of the pVAC degradation rate among different genotypes be performed before a high pVAC crop is promoted. PMID:24915386

  11. Retention of provitamin a carotenoids in staple crops targeted for biofortification in Africa: cassava, maize and sweet potato.

    PubMed

    De Moura, Fabiana F; Miloff, Alexander; Boy, Erick

    2015-01-01

    HarvestPlus, part of the Consultative Group on Internation Agriculture research (CGIAR) Program on Agriculture for Nutrition and Health (A4NH) uses conventional plant breeding techniques to develop staple food crops that are rich in micronutrients, a food-based approach to reduce micronutrient malnutrition known as biofortification. The nutritional breeding targets are established based on the food intake of target populations, nutrient losses during storage and processing and bioavailability. This review collates the evidence on the retention of provitamin A carotenoid (pVAC) after processing, cooking, and storing of the staple crops targeted for pVAC biofortification: cassava, maize, and sweet potato. Sun drying was more detrimental to the pVAC levels (27-56% retention) in cassava than shade (59%) or oven (55-91%) drying, while the pVAC retention levels (66-96%) in sweet potato were not significantly different among the various drying methods. Overall, boiling and steaming had higher pVAC retention (80-98%) compared to baking (30-70%) and frying (18-54%). Gari, the most frequently consumed form of cassava in West Africa had the lowest pVAC retention (10-30%). The pVAC retention of maize grain and cassava and sweet potato flour reached levels as low as 20% after 1-4 months of storage and was highly dependent on genotype. Therefore, we recommend that an evaluation of the pVAC degradation rate among different genotypes be performed before a high pVAC crop is promoted. PMID:24915386

  12. Idaho is the nation's largest producer, packer, and processor of potatoes. Idaho has been the number one potato-producing state for the past 50 years. The

    E-print Network

    O'Laughlin, Jay

    HIGHLIGHTS Idaho is the nation's largest producer, packer, and processor of potatoes. Idaho has been the number one potato-producing state for the past 50 years. The state's growers produce about 30% of the U.S. potato crop, but the Idaho potato industry is more than potato fields. Idaho frozen

  13. Growing Potatoes Soil Potatoes are adapted to a wide range of soil types, though a deep, well-drained sandy loam is ideal.

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    Growing Potatoes Soil Potatoes are adapted to a wide range of soil types, though a deep, well to plant earlier. If irrigation is available, sandy soil will produce a good potato crop. Poorly drained contribute to tuber rot. Grow potatoes in soils with a pH of 5.2 to 5.5 to prevent potato scab. If the level

  14. Modeling and characterization of potato quality by active thermography 

    E-print Network

    Sun, Chih-Chen

    2009-05-15

    This research focuses on characterizing a potato with extra sugar content and identifying the location and depth of the extra sugar content using the active thermography imaging technique. The extra sugar content of the potato is an important...

  15. 7 CFR 1207.514 - Exemption for organic potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Exemption for organic potatoes. 1207.514 Section 1207...Assessments § 1207.514 Exemption for organic potatoes. (a) A producer who operates under an approved National Organic Program (NOP) (7 CFR part...

  16. 7 CFR 980.1 - Import regulations; Irish potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...includes canning, freezing, dehydration, chips, shoestrings, starch and flour. Processing does not include potatoes that are only...includes canning, freezing, dehydration, chips, shoestrings, starch and flour. Processing does not include potatoes that are...

  17. White Potatoes, Human Health, and Dietary Guidance12

    PubMed Central

    King, Janet C.; Slavin, Joanne L.

    2013-01-01

    The white potato is a concentrated source of carbohydrate, dietary fiber, and resistant starch and continues to be the staple food of choice for many cultures. The white potato is also a concentrated source of vitamin C and potassium. Two of the nutrients in white potatoes, dietary fiber and potassium, have been designated as nutrients of concern in the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Potatoes are often maligned in nutrition circles because of their suspected link to obesity, and popular potato foods often contain more fat calories than carbohydrate calories. Some food guides do not include potatoes in the vegetable group because of their association with high-fat diets. However, potatoes should be included in the vegetable group because they contribute critical nutrients. All white vegetables, including white potatoes, provide nutrients needed in the diet and deserve a prominent position in food guides. PMID:23674809

  18. Host plant preference in Colorado potato beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field and laboratory-choice tests were conducted to better understand host plant preference by the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), in Virginia. In laboratory olfactometer studies, L. decemlineata preferred potato over both tomato and eggplant foli...

  19. MANAGING INSECT PESTS OF POTATO Ricky E. Foster, Extension Entomologist

    E-print Network

    Pittendrigh, Barry

    in the potato family, such as tomato, potato, pepper, eggplant, tobacco, and weeds, such as buffalo bur of potatoandrelatedplants(tomato,eggplant),themostdamage is caused by the third and fourth instar larvae. These larvae

  20. Galactic Bars in Cosmological Context

    E-print Network

    Isaac Shlosman

    2008-12-03

    Galactic disks can form in asymmetric potentials of the assembling dark matter (DM) halos, giving rise to the first generation of gas-rich bars. Properties of these bars differ from canonical bars analyzed so far. Moreover, rapid disk growth is associated with the influx of clumpy DM and baryons along the large-scale filaments. Subsequent interactions between this substructure and the disk can trigger generations of bars, which can explain their ubiquity in the Universe. I provide a brief summary of such bar properties and argue that they fit naturally within the broad cosmological context of a hierarchical buildup of structure in the universe.

  1. Bar coded retroreflective target

    DOEpatents

    Vann, Charles S. (Fremont, CA)

    2000-01-01

    This small, inexpensive, non-contact laser sensor can detect the location of a retroreflective target in a relatively large volume and up to six degrees of position. The tracker's laser beam is formed into a plane of light which is swept across the space of interest. When the beam illuminates the retroreflector, some of the light returns to the tracker. The intensity, angle, and time of the return beam is measured to calculate the three dimensional location of the target. With three retroreflectors on the target, the locations of three points on the target are measured, enabling the calculation of all six degrees of target position. Until now, devices for three-dimensional tracking of objects in a large volume have been heavy, large, and very expensive. Because of the simplicity and unique characteristics of this tracker, it is capable of three-dimensional tracking of one to several objects in a large volume, yet it is compact, light-weight, and relatively inexpensive. Alternatively, a tracker produces a diverging laser beam which is directed towards a fixed position, and senses when a retroreflective target enters the fixed field of view. An optically bar coded target can be read by the tracker to provide information about the target. The target can be formed of a ball lens with a bar code on one end. As the target moves through the field, the ball lens causes the laser beam to scan across the bar code.

  2. Sweet Potato Fertilizer Experiments at Substation No. 2, Troup. 

    E-print Network

    Hotchkiss, W. S.

    1921-01-01

    STATION AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS W. B. BIZZELL, President BULLETIN NO. 277 MARCH, 1921 SWEET POTATO FERTILIZER EXPERIMENTS AT SUBSTATION NO. 2; TROUP B. YOUNGBLOOD, DIRECTOR tmLLIU)E BTATION, BRAZOS COUNTY, STATION STAFFt.... **In cooperat~on wlth Unlted States Department of Agrrculture. SWEET POTATO FERTILIZER EXPERIMENTS AT SUBSTATION NO. 2, TROUP SWEET POTATO FERTILIZER EXPERIMENTS This bulletin reports the results of fertilizer experiments with sweet, potatoes which...

  3. Improvement of fermentation ability under baking-associated stress conditions by altering the POG1 gene expression in baker's yeast.

    PubMed

    Sasano, Yu; Haitani, Yutaka; Hashida, Keisuke; Oshiro, Satoshi; Shima, Jun; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2013-08-01

    During the bread-making process, yeast cells are exposed to many types of baking-associated stress. There is thus a demand within the baking industry for yeast strains with high fermentation abilities under these stress conditions. The POG1 gene, encoding a putative transcription factor involved in cell cycle regulation, is a multicopy suppressor of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae E3 ubiquitin ligase Rsp5 mutant. The pog1 mutant is sensitive to various stresses. Our results suggested that the POG1 gene is involved in stress tolerance in yeast cells. In this study, we showed that overexpression of the POG1 gene in baker's yeast conferred increased fermentation ability in high-sucrose-containing dough, which is used for sweet dough baking. Furthermore, deletion of the POG1 gene drastically increased the fermentation ability in bread dough after freeze-thaw stress, which would be a useful characteristic for frozen dough baking. Thus, the engineering of yeast strains to control the POG1 gene expression level would be a novel method for molecular breeding of baker's yeast. PMID:23800735

  4. Exploration of Sugar Functionality in Sugar-Snap and Wire-Cut Cookie Baking: Implications for Sucrose Reduction or Replacement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugars are plasticizers of the biopolymers of wheat flour, but concentrated sugar solutions act as anti-plasticizers, compared to water alone. As a result, gluten development during dough mixing and starch gelatinization/pasting during cookie baking are delayed or prevented. In great excess, aqueou...

  5. Analysis of thin baked-on silicone layers by FTIR and 3D-Laser Scanning Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Funke, Stefanie; Matilainen, Julia; Nalenz, Heiko; Bechtold-Peters, Karoline; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Friess, Wolfgang

    2015-10-01

    Pre-filled syringes (PFS) and auto-injection devices with cartridges are increasingly used for parenteral administration. To assure functionality, silicone oil is applied to the inner surface of the glass barrel. Silicone oil migration into the product can be minimized by applying a thin but sufficient layer of silicone oil emulsion followed by thermal bake-on versus spraying-on silicone oil. Silicone layers thicker than 100nm resulting from regular spray-on siliconization can be characterized using interferometric profilometers. However, the analysis of thin silicone layers generated by bake-on siliconization is more challenging. In this paper, we have evaluated Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy after solvent extraction and a new 3D-Laser Scanning Microscopy (3D-LSM) to overcome this challenge. A multi-step solvent extraction and subsequent FTIR spectroscopy enabled to quantify baked-on silicone levels as low as 21-325?g per 5mL cartridge. 3D-LSM was successfully established to visualize and measure baked-on silicone layers as thin as 10nm. 3D-LSM was additionally used to analyze the silicone oil distribution within cartridges at such low levels. Both methods provided new, highly valuable insights to characterize the siliconization after processing, in order to achieve functionality. PMID:26316044

  6. Development of a benchtop baking method for chemically leavened crackers. I. Identification of a diagnostic formula and procedure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A benchtop baking method has been developed to predict the contribution of gluten functionality to overall flour performance for chemically leavened crackers. In order to identify a diagnostic cracker formula, the effects of leavening system (sodium bicarbonate, monocalcium phosphate, and ammonium b...

  7. BREAD BAKING DOES NOT ALTER THE BIOAVAILABILITY OF HYDROGEN-REDUCED IRON POWDER ADDED TO REFINED WHEAT FLOUR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elemental iron powders are widely used to fortify flour and cereal products. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that baking enhances the bioavailability of elemental iron powders by oxidizing Fe0 to Fe2+ or Fe3+. In the present study we used an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell culture model an...

  8. Anesthetic Management of a Patient with Sustained Severe Metabolic Alkalosis and Electrolyte Abnormalities Caused by Ingestion of Baking Soda

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    The use of alternative medicine is prevalent worldwide. However, its effect on intraoperative anesthetic care is underreported. We report the anesthetic management of a patient who underwent an extensive head and neck cancer surgery and presented with a severe intraoperative metabolic alkalosis from the long term ingestion of baking soda and other herbal remedies. PMID:25180100

  9. In vivo antioxidant, hypoglycemic, and anti-tumor activities of anthocyanin extracts from purple sweet potato.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jin-Ge; Yan, Qian-Qian; Lu, Li-Zhen; Zhang, Yu-Qing

    2013-10-01

    Anthocyanin from purple sweet potato (PSP) extracted by microwave baking (MB) and acidified electrolyzed water (AEW) exhibited antioxidant activity. After further purification by macroporous AB-8 resin, the color value of PSP anthocyanin (PSPA) reached 30.15 with a total flavonoid concentration of 932.5 mg/g. The purified extracts had more potent antioxidant activities than the crude extracts. After continuously administering the PSP extracts to 12-mo-old mice for 1 mo, the anti-aging index of the experimental group was not significantly different from that of 5-mo-old mice. To a certain degree, PSPA was also effective for controlling plasma glucose levels in male Streptozocin (STZ)-treated diabetic mice. In addition, the extracts inhibited Sarcoma S180 cell growth in ICR mice. Mice consuming the PSP extracts formed significantly fewer and smaller sarcomas than mice consuming the control diets. The highest inhibition rate was 69.03%. These results suggest that anthocyanin extracts from PSP not only exert strong antioxidant effects in vitro, but also had anti-aging, anti-hyperglycemic, and anti-tumor activities. PMID:24133614

  10. In vivo antioxidant, hypoglycemic, and anti-tumor activities of anthocyanin extracts from purple sweet potato

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jin-Ge; Yan, Qian-Qian; Lu, Li-Zhen

    2013-01-01

    Anthocyanin from purple sweet potato (PSP) extracted by microwave baking (MB) and acidified electrolyzed water (AEW) exhibited antioxidant activity. After further purification by macroporous AB-8 resin, the color value of PSP anthocyanin (PSPA) reached 30.15 with a total flavonoid concentration of 932.5 mg/g. The purified extracts had more potent antioxidant activities than the crude extracts. After continuously administering the PSP extracts to 12-mo-old mice for 1 mo, the anti-aging index of the experimental group was not significantly different from that of 5-mo-old mice. To a certain degree, PSPA was also effective for controlling plasma glucose levels in male Streptozocin (STZ)-treated diabetic mice. In addition, the extracts inhibited Sarcoma S180 cell growth in ICR mice. Mice consuming the PSP extracts formed significantly fewer and smaller sarcomas than mice consuming the control diets. The highest inhibition rate was 69.03%. These results suggest that anthocyanin extracts from PSP not only exert strong antioxidant effects in vitro, but also had anti-aging, anti-hyperglycemic, and anti-tumor activities. PMID:24133614

  11. A POTATO A DAY KEEPS THE DOCTOR AWAY?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato tubers were found to have high levels of salicylic acid relative to most other plants. Salicylic acid is thought to be the active ingredient of aspirin in the human body. The high levels of SA in potato could potentially be a nutritionally desirable aspect of potato....

  12. Taxonomy of Cultivated Potatoes (Solanum section Petota: Solanaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solanum tuberosum, the cultivated potato of world commerce, is a primary food crop worldwide. Wild and cultivated potatoes form the germplasm base for international breeding efforts to improve potato in the face of variety of disease, environmental, and agronomic constraints. A series of national an...

  13. 7 CFR 948.51 - Colorado Potato Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee. 948.51 Section 948.51... Order Regulating Handling Committees § 948.51 Colorado Potato Committee. The Colorado Potato Committee... selected from each area committee. Committeemen shall be selected by the Secretary from nominations of...

  14. 7 CFR 948.51 - Colorado Potato Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee. 948.51 Section 948.51... Order Regulating Handling Committees § 948.51 Colorado Potato Committee. The Colorado Potato Committee... selected from each area committee. Committeemen shall be selected by the Secretary from nominations of...

  15. 7 CFR 980.1 - Import regulations; Irish potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) Therefore it is hereby determined that: (i) Imports of red-skinned, round type potatoes during each month of...), applicable to potatoes of the red-skinned, round type shall be the respective grade, size, quality, and maturity requirements for all imported red-skinned, round type potatoes. (2) Through the entire year,...

  16. 7 CFR 980.1 - Import regulations; Irish potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) Therefore it is hereby determined that: (i) Imports of red-skinned, round type potatoes during each month of...), applicable to potatoes of the red-skinned, round type shall be the respective grade, size, quality, and maturity requirements for all imported red-skinned, round type potatoes. (2) Through the entire year,...

  17. 7 CFR 980.1 - Import regulations; Irish potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) Therefore it is hereby determined that: (i) Imports of red-skinned, round type potatoes during each month of...), applicable to potatoes of the red-skinned, round type shall be the respective grade, size, quality, and maturity requirements for all imported red-skinned, round type potatoes. (2) Through the entire year,...

  18. Sensory evaluation of pigmented flesh potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pigmented potato cultivars were ranked by a consumer panel for overall acceptance, and acceptance of aroma, appear- ance, and flavor. Potatoes were analyzed for total phenolics, anthocyanins and carotenoids. Concentrations of total phenolics in yellow and purple potato cultivars were 2-fold greate...

  19. Taxonomy of cultivated potatoes (solanum section petota: solanaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solanum tuberosum, the cultivated potato of world commerce, is a primary food crop worldwide. Wild and cultivated potatoes form the germplasm base for international breeding efforts to improve potato in the face of variety of disease, environmental, and agronomic constraints. A series of national an...

  20. VOLUNTEER POTATO UPDATE FOR THE COLUMBIA BASIN 2002

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to forecast volunteer potato severity for the upcoming growing seasson, soil temperature at several depths and volunteer potato tuber viability is being monitored at three locations in the Columbia Basin potato growing region of Washington during the 2001-02 winter months. Minimum soil tem...

  1. Exudation of mesotrione from potato roots injures neighboring plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mesotrione is an effective herbicide for volunteer potato control but is not selective in several crops, including onion and carrot. Studies were conducted in 2006 to evaluate the effectiveness of wiper applied mesotrione for control of volunteer potato in a potato crop. Surprisingly, nontreated pot...

  2. Screening for resistance to potato tuberworm in Oregon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2006 and 2007, over hundred potato varieties were screened for potato tuberworm Phthorimaea operculella Zeller resistance under field and laboratory conditions. At harvest, potato tubers were graded to select approximately similar size (6-8 oz) tubers. Tubers harvested were stored at room tempera...

  3. 7 CFR 980.1 - Import regulations; Irish potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... most direct competition with the marketing of the same type potatoes produced in Area 2, Colorado (San... July through September, the marketing of the same type of potatoes is in most direct competition with...). (iii) Imports of long type potatoes during each month of the marketing year are in most...

  4. 76 FR 31787 - United States Standards for Grades of Potatoes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ...characteristic requirement to allow mixed colors and/ or types of potatoes when designated...characteristic requirement to allow mixed colors and/or types of potatoes when designated...commenter also suggested only allowing mixed colors and not mixed types of potatoes....

  5. 75 FR 22707 - United States Standards for Grades of Potatoes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ...characteristic requirement to allow mixed colors and/or types of potatoes when designated...language into the standard to allow mixed colors and/or types of potatoes when designated...the proposed standard to allow for mixed colors and/or types of potatoes when...

  6. Genomic origins of potato polyploids: GBSSI gene sequencing data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The common potato of world commerce, Solanum tuberosum, has a rich genepool of about 190 wild and cultivated species (Solanum section Petota) that are of great importance in potato improvement. About 70% of the wild potato species are diploid at 2n = 2x = 24, and the rest form a polyploid series of ...

  7. INHERITANCE OF RESISTANCE TO FUSARIUM TUBER ROT IN POTATOES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    FUSARIUM TUBER ROT OF POTATO IS ONE OF THE MOST ECONOMICALLY IMPORTATNT DISEASES OF STORED POTATOES. THE OBJECTIVE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO DETERMINE THE INHERITANCE OF RESISTANCE TO FUSARIUM TUBER ROT. A HIGHLY RESISTANT (B0172-22) AND A HIGHLY SUSCEPTIBLE (B0178-34) POTATO CLONE WERE CROSSED AS FEMA...

  8. Zebra chip disease of potato: biology, epidemiology, and management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zebra chip (ZC), a new and economically important disease of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), has been documented to occur in commercial potato fields in the United States, Mexico, Central America, and New Zealand. This disease has caused millions of dollars in losses to the potato industry. Whole cro...

  9. 7 CFR 980.1 - Import regulations; Irish potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the marketing year are in most direct competition with potatoes of the same type produced in the area... potatoes during each month of the marketing year are in most direct competition with potatoes of the same....1 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL...

  10. Economic assessments of potato production systems in Maine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using an integrated enterprise and whole-farm budget model for a 324-ha medium-sized potato farm, the profitability of potatoes grown in combination with fifteen common potato rotation crops in Maine are evaluated. Enterprise budgets for all sixteen crops are calculated while a whole-farm budget syn...

  11. ORIGINAL PAPER Accumulation of vitamin E in potato (Solanum tuberosum)

    E-print Network

    Douches, David S.

    ORIGINAL PAPER Accumulation of vitamin E in potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers Elizabeth F. Crowell of tocopherols can be accumulated in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers through metabolic engineering. Two transgenes were constitutively over-expressed in potato: Arabid- opsis thaliana p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxy

  12. ORIGINAL PAPER Treatment of potato tubers with the synthetic

    E-print Network

    Douches, David S.

    ORIGINAL PAPER Treatment of potato tubers with the synthetic cytokinin 1-(-ethylbenzyl)-3 associated with the natural ces- sation of endodormancy in potato tuber meristems and in endodormant tubers endodormant and non-dormant tuber meristems. Endodormant potato tubers were treated with the synthetic

  13. Funding: Fed. Grant/MPIC 2007 POTATO VARIETY EVALUATIONS

    E-print Network

    Douches, David S.

    Funding: Fed. Grant/MPIC 2007 POTATO VARIETY EVALUATIONS D.S. Douches, J. Coombs, J. Estelle, D Pathology Michigan State University East Lansing, MI 48824 INTRODUCTION Each year, the MSU potato breeding and genetics team conducts a series of variety trials to assess advanced potato selections from the Michigan

  14. Funding: Fed. Grant/MPIC 2012 POTATO VARIETY EVALUATIONS

    E-print Network

    Douches, David S.

    Funding: Fed. Grant/MPIC 2012 POTATO VARIETY EVALUATIONS D.S. Douches, J. Coombs, K. Zarka, G Sciences Michigan State University East Lansing, MI 48824 INTRODUCTION Each year, the MSU potato breeding and genetics team conducts a series of variety trials to assess advanced potato selections from the Michigan

  15. An extreme cytoplasmic bottleneck in the modern European cultivated potato

    E-print Network

    Provan, Jim

    An extreme cytoplasmic bottleneck in the modern European cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum and nuclear diversity in the gene pool of the European cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum ssp. tuberosum to amplify polymorphic products in a range of potato cultivars. Combining the data from seven polymorphic cp

  16. CORNELL POTATO VARIETIES COMPARISON CHART www.ctl.cornell.edu

    E-print Network

    Chen, Tsuhan

    CORNELL POTATO VARIETIES COMPARISON CHART www.ctl.cornell.edu Contact: Jessica Lyga, Plant Chipstock Maturity Market Features Licensing* Exclusive Non-Exclusive Potato `Marcy' Early Mid Late High and golden nematode (Ro1). Potato `Waneta' Early Mid Late Very good chip color from cold storage D4729: Late

  17. OptimizingResourceUtilizationandTestability Using Hot Potato Techniques

    E-print Network

    Potkonjak, Miodrag

    OptimizingResourceUtilizationandTestability Using Hot Potato Techniques Miodrag Potkonjak Sujit Dey C&C Research Laboratories, NEC USA, Princeton, NJ 08540 ABSTRACT This paper introduces hot potato reduced using new technique. It is also dem- onstrated how hot potato techniques can be effectively used

  18. Beyond Couch Potatoes: From Consumers to Designers Gerhard Fischer

    E-print Network

    Fischer, Gerhard

    Beyond ÒCouch PotatoesÓ: From Consumers to Designers Gerhard Fischer Center for LifeLong Learning and behavior [44] and contributes to the degeneration of humans into Òcouch potatoes,Ó for whom a remote control is the most important instrument of their cognitive activities. (A Òcouch potatoÓ is a colloquial

  19. Bake stability of long-wavelength infrared HgCdTe photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mestechkin, A.; Lee, D. L.; Cunningham, B. T.; Leod, B. D. Mac

    1995-09-01

    The bake stability was examined for HgCdTe wafers and photodiodes with CdTe surface passivation deposited by thermal evaporation. Electrical and electrooptical measurements were performed on various long-wavelength infrared HgCdTe photodiodes prior to and after a ten-day vacuum bakeout at 80°C, similar to conditions used for preparation of tactical dewar assemblies. It was found that the bakeout process generated additional defects at the CdTe/ HgCdTe interface and degraded photodiode parameters such as zero bias impedance, dark current, and photocurrent. Annealing at 220°C under a Hg vapor pressure following the CdTe deposition suppressed the interface defect generation process during bakeout and stabilized HgCdTe photodiode performance.

  20. Development of baked and extruded functional foods from metabolic syndrome specific ingredient mix.

    PubMed

    Miglani, Neetu; Bains, Kiran; Kaur, Harpreet

    2015-09-01

    The study was aimed to develop baked and extruded functional foods from Metabolic Syndrome (MS) specific designed ingredient mixes with optimum amino acid makeup using key food ingredients with functional properties such as whole cereals, legumes, skimmed milk powder, along with flaxseeds and fenugreek seeds. Two cereals viz. barley and oats and four pulses viz. mung bean, cowpea, bengal gram and soybean were blended in different proportions in order to balance the limiting amino acid lysine in the wheat flour. Three products namely bread, extruded snack and noodles prepared from twenty five ingredient mixes. Six ingredient mixes of breads and four ingredient mixes each of extruded snack and noodles specifically designed for MS patients were organoleptically at par with control wheat flour products. The acceptable products had significantly (p???0.05) higher lysine, crude protein, ash and fibre and low carbohydrates in compare control whole wheat flour products, hence appropriate for MS patients. PMID:26345000

  1. Properties of baked foams from citric acid modified cassava starch and native cassava starch blends.

    PubMed

    Pornsuksomboon, Kanlaya; Holló, Berta Barta; Szécsényi, Katalin Mészáros; Kaewtatip, Kaewta

    2016-01-20

    Starch foams from native cassava starch (NS) and citric acid modified cassava starch (CNS) were prepared using baking processes with blend ratios of 80/20, 60/40, 50/50, 40/60 and 20/80. The density, thickness, morphology, thermal stability and water absorption of the NS, CNS and blended starch foams were determined. The ratio of the two starch components had a significant influence on the density and thickness of the blended starch foams. All blended starch foams showed good water resistance. Moreover, the morphology of the blended starch foam with the NS/CNS ratio of 50/50 showed a more ordered distribution of cell sizes with thicker cell walls than for the NS and CNS foams. The thermal stability of the blended starch foams was somewhat lower than the stability of the NS foam but not to the extent that it affected any potential practical applications. PMID:26572335

  2. Formation of melatonin and its isomer during bread dough fermentation and effect of baking.

    PubMed

    Y?lmaz, Cemile; Kocada?l?, Tolgahan; Gökmen, Vural

    2014-04-01

    Melatonin is produced mainly by the pineal gland in vertebrates. Also, melatonin and its isomer are found in foods. Investigating the formation of melatonin and its isomer is of importance during bread dough fermentation and its degradation during baking since bread is widely consumed in high amounts. Formation of melatonin was not significant during dough fermentation. The melatonin isomer content of nonfermented dough was found to be 4.02 ng/g and increased up to 16.71 ng/g during fermentation. Lower amounts of isomer in crumb and crust than dough showed that the thermal process caused a remarkable degree of degradation in melatonin isomer. At the end of the 180 min fermentation Trp decreased by 58%. The results revealed for the first time the formation of a melatonin isomer in bread dough during yeast fermentation. PMID:24611648

  3. Acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural formation during baking of biscuits: Part I: Effects of sugar type.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Ha T; Van der Fels-Klerx, H J Ine; Peters, Ruud J B; Van Boekel, Martinus A J S

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of sugar type on the reaction mechanism for formation of acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) during the baking of biscuits at 200°C using multiresponse modelling. Four types of biscuits were prepared: (1) with sucrose, (2) with glucose and fructose, (3) with fructose only and (4) with glucose only. Experimental data showed that HMF concentration was highest in biscuits with glucose and fructose, whereas acrylamide concentration was highest in biscuits with glucose, also having the highest asparagine concentration. Proposed mechanistic models suggested that HMF is formed via caramelisation and that acrylamide formation follows the specific amino acid route, i.e., reducing sugars react with asparagine to form the Schiff base before decarboxylation, to generate acrylamide without the Amadori rearrangement product and sugar fragmentation. Study results contribute to understanding chemical reaction pathways in real food products. PMID:26304386

  4. Strong Meissner screening change in superconducting radio frequency cavities due to mild baking

    SciTech Connect

    Romanenko, A. Grassellino, A.; Barkov, F.; Suter, A.; Salman, Z.; Prokscha, T.

    2014-02-17

    We investigate “hot” regions with anomalous high field dissipation in bulk niobium superconducting radio frequency cavities for particle accelerators by using low energy muon spin rotation (LE-?SR) on corresponding cavity cutouts. We demonstrate that superconducting properties at the hot region are well described by the non-local Pippard/BCS model for niobium in the clean limit with a London penetration depth ?{sub L}=23±2 nm. In contrast, a cutout sample from the 120??C baked cavity shows a much larger ?>100?nm and a depth dependent mean free path, likely due to gradient in vacancy concentration. We suggest that these vacancies can efficiently trap hydrogen and hence prevent the formation of hydrides responsible for rf losses in hot regions.

  5. Multi-disciplinary dating of a baked clay kiln excavated at Chieri, Northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tema, Evdokia; Fantino, Fulvio; Ferrara, Enzo; Lo Giudice, Alessandro; Re, Alessandro; Barello, Federico; Vella, Silvia; Cirillo, Luigi; Gulmini, Monica

    2014-05-01

    A combined archaeological, archaeomagnetic and thermoluminescence study has been carried out on a rescue excavation kiln, discovered at Chieri, Northern Italy. Rock magnetic experiments indicate the dominance of a low coercivity magnetic phase, such as magnetite and/or Ti-magnetite as the main carrier of the remanent magnetization. Stepwise thermal demagnetization experiments generally show a stable characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM). The mean archaeomagnetic direction, calculated from 17 independently oriented samples, is D=18.2o, I=66.8o with ?95=2.6o and k=184. Archaeomagnetic dating of the kiln has been obtained after comparison of the kiln's ChRM direction with the reference curves produced by the SHA.DIF.3K European regional geomagnetic field model. Independent dating of the kiln has also been obtained from thermoluminescence (TL) study of two baked clay samples coming from the kiln's walls. The environmental dose has been measured in situ using field dosimeters. Accurate TL procedures have been followed for the calculation of annual dose and eventually the TL age. The combination of the archaeological evidence, archaeomagnetic and TL datings suggest that the last usage of the kiln occurred around the 17th century AD. Comparison of the results obtained from the different methods shows the relevant potential of these techniques on dating of baked clay artefacts; yet it also highlights the range of uncertainty sources affecting measurements, related to the samples and/or to the environment, and the utility of dating cross-checking for obtaining reliable dates.

  6. Involvement of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) MKK6 in Response to Potato virus Y

    PubMed Central

    Lazar, Ana; Coll, Anna; Dobnik, David; Baebler, Špela; Bedina-Zavec, Apolonija; Žel, Jana; Gruden, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades have crucial roles in the regulation of plant development and in plant responses to stress. Plant recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns or pathogen-derived effector proteins has been shown to trigger activation of several MAPKs. This then controls defence responses, including synthesis and/or signalling of defence hormones and activation of defence related genes. The MAPK cascade genes are highly complex and interconnected, and thus the precise signalling mechanisms in specific plant–pathogen interactions are still not known. Here we investigated the MAPK signalling network involved in immune responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) to Potato virus Y, an important potato pathogen worldwide. Sequence analysis was performed to identify the complete MAPK kinase (MKK) family in potato, and to identify those regulated in the hypersensitive resistance response to Potato virus Y infection. Arabidopsis has 10 MKK family members, of which we identified five in potato and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), and eight in Nicotiana benthamiana. Among these, StMKK6 is the most strongly regulated gene in response to Potato virus Y. The salicylic acid treatment revealed that StMKK6 is regulated by the hormone that is in agreement with the salicylic acid-regulated domains found in the StMKK6 promoter. The involvement of StMKK6 in potato defence response was confirmed by localisation studies, where StMKK6 accumulated strongly only in Potato-virus-Y-infected plants, and predominantly in the cell nucleus. Using a yeast two-hybrid method, we identified three StMKK6 targets downstream in the MAPK cascade: StMAPK4_2, StMAPK6 and StMAPK13. These data together provide further insight into the StMKK6 signalling module and its involvement in plant defence. PMID:25111695

  7. Multi-$\\bar{K}$ hypernuclei

    E-print Network

    D. Gazda; E. Friedman; A. Gal; J. Mares

    2009-10-20

    Relativistic mean field calculations of multi-$\\bar{K}$ hypernuclei are performed by adding $K^-$ mesons to particle-stable configurations of nucleons, $\\Lambda$ and $\\Xi$ hyperons. For a given hypernuclear core, the calculated $\\bar{K}$ separation energy $B_{\\bar{K}}$ saturates with the number of $\\bar{K}$ mesons for more than roughly 10 mesons, with $B_{\\bar{K}}$ bounded from above by 200 MeV. The associated baryonic densities saturate at values 2-3 times nuclear-matter density within a small region where the $\\bar{K}$-meson densities peak, similarly to what was found for multi-$\\bar{K}$ nuclei. The calculations demonstrate that particle-stable multistrange $\\{N,\\Lambda,\\Xi \\}$ configurations are stable against strong-interaction conversions $\\Lambda \\to N \\bar{K}$ and $\\Xi \\to N \\bar{K} \\bar{K}$, confirming and strengthening the conclusion that kaon condensation is unlikely to occur in strong-interaction self-bound strange hadronic matter.

  8. Protein synthesis inhibitor from potato tuber

    SciTech Connect

    Romaen, R. )

    1989-04-01

    A protein fraction capable of inhibit in vitro protein synthesis was found in potato tubers in fresh and wounded tissue. Inhibitor activity from fresh tissue decays with wounding. Inhibition activity was detected absorbed to ribsomal fraction and cytosol of potato tuber tissue by a partially reconstituted in vitro system from potato tuber and wheat germ. Adsorbed ribosomal fraction was more suitable of purification. This fraction was washed from ribosomes with 0.3M KCl, concentrated with ammonium sulfate precipitation and purified through sephadex G100 and sephadex G-75 columns chromatography. After 61 fold purification adsorbed protein fraction can inhibit germination of maize, wheat and sesame seeds, as well as {sup 3}H-leucine incorporation into protein by imbibed maize embryos. Inhibition activity was lost by temperature, alkali and protease-K hydrolysis. Preliminar analysis could not show presence of reductor sugars. Physiological role of this inhibitor in relation to rest and active tissue remains to be studied.

  9. Thermodynamic Analysis of the Cu-As-S-(O) System Relevant to Sulfuric Acid Baking of Enargite at 473 K (200 °C)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safarzadeh, M. Sadegh; Miller, Jan D.; Huang, Hsin H.

    2014-04-01

    While the growing demand for copper has compelled the industry to adapt new technologies for the treatment of copper-arsenic (enargite) concentrates, the refractory nature of such concentrates combined with the troublesome presence of arsenic has created a major metallurgical and environmental challenge. Preliminary results of the acid bake-leach process at the University of Utah have shown some potential advantages for the treatment of enargite concentrates. While the transformation of enargite to copper sulfate, arsenolite, and elemental sulfur has already been established experimentally, thermodynamic evaluation of the sulfuric acid baking process provides further understanding which should be useful. In this article, the available thermodynamic data for the species involved in the Cu-As-S-O system are compiled. These data were used to calculate the phase stability (Kellogg) diagrams as well as equilibrium compositions at 473 K (200 °C) using the STABCAL and HSC Chemistry® 5.1 software packages. The equilibrium composition calculations indicate that enargite can transform to copper sulfate either directly or through chalcocite and/or covellite. The major gaseous species during baking were found to be SO2 and H2O. The results of the thermodynamic calculations were further compared with two confirmatory baking experiments involving a high-quality enargite sample. The condensed reaction products from sulfuric acid baking based on XRD results include CuSO4, As2O3, CuO·CuSO4, and S8 under both neutral and oxidative conditions. While all these compounds were predicted through equilibrium calculations, some of the predicted compounds were not detected in the sulfuric acid-baked enargite. None of the calculations indicated any appreciable amounts of arsenic-bearing gases at the baking temperature of 473 K (200 °C). Consistent with thermodynamic predictions, no H2S gas was detected during the sulfuric acid baking experiment. Approximately, 80 pct of the baked enargite samples were leached in water.

  10. Structure, processing, and properties of potatoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lloyd, Isabel K.; Kolos, Kimberly R.; Menegaux, Edmond C.; Luo, Huy; Mccuen, Richard H.; Regan, Thomas M.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this experiment and lesson intended for high school students in an engineering or materials science course or college freshmen is to demonstrate the relation between processing, structure, and thermodynamic and physical properties. The specific objectives are to show the effect of structure and structural changes on thermodynamic properties (specific heat) and physical properties (compressive strength); to illustrate the first law of thermodynamics; to compare boiling a potato in water with cooking it in a microwave in terms of the rate of structural change and the energy consumed to 'process' the potato; and to demonstrate compression testing.

  11. Bar-Code-Scribing Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badinger, Michael A.; Drouant, George J.

    1991-01-01

    Proposed hand-held tool applies indelible bar code to small parts. Possible to identify parts for management of inventory without tags or labels. Microprocessor supplies bar-code data to impact-printer-like device. Device drives replaceable scribe, which cuts bar code on surface of part. Used to mark serially controlled parts for military and aerospace equipment. Also adapts for discrete marking of bulk items used in food and pharmaceutical processing.

  12. Bars in a cosmological context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martig, Marie; Kraljic, Katarina; Bournaud, Frédéric

    2015-03-01

    We study the properties of bars in a series of zoom cosmological simulations (Martig et al. 2012, Kraljic et al. 2012). We find that bars are almost absent from galaxies at z>1, and if they form they tend to be quickly destroyed by mergers and instabilities. On the contrary, at z<1 bars are long-lived, and the fraction of barred galaxies rises steadily. Bars are eventually found in ~ 80% of z=0 spiral galaxies. This redshift evolution is quantitatively consistent with existing data from the COSMOS survey (Sheth et al. 2008), although the detectability of bars is presently limited to z<0.8 because of band-shifting and resolution effects. We predict later bar formation in lower-mass galaxies, also in agreement with existing data (e.g., Sheth et al. 2012). We actually find that the characteristic epoch of bar formation is the epoch of massive thin disk formation, corresponding to the transition between an early violent phase at z > 1 and a later secular phase. Bar formation thus traces the emergence of the disk-dominated morphology of today's spirals.

  13. Cooperative Fertilizer Experiments with Cotton, Corn, Sweet Potatoes and Irish Potatoes, 1908-1917. 

    E-print Network

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1918-01-01

    to high temperature processing. However, in vacuum frying the product should be pre-treated before frying to obtain a better texture. The kinetics of oil absorption and oil distribution in sweet potato chips (total, internal, and surface oil content...

  14. Effect of tuber skin on the thermal properties of whole tubers of potato and sweet potato

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oluwo, A. A.; Khan, R. M.; Salami, M. J. E.

    2013-12-01

    Temperature-dependent thermal coefficients of mathematical models of the postharvest storage process play an important role in determining the models accuracy. Thermal properties of tubers under storage available in literature are generally of those in semi processed form (skinless) such as those having undergone peeling, dicing and cutting actions. This study investigates the effect of tuber skin on the thermal properties of whole tubers of potato and sweet potato. A direct approach was used to measure the tubers' density and thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity by the transient heat transfer method. Indirect approach was used to measure the tubers' specific heat. Experimental data were used to develop empirical models of the thermal coefficients as a function of temperature. Results of the study should find great use in the modeling of potato and sweet potato storage process.

  15. 7 CFR 318.13-24 - Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) The sweet potatoes must be inspected by an inspector and found to be free of the sweet potato scarabee... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico. 318.13-24 Section 318... Articles From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-24 Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico. Sweet potatoes...

  16. The Potato Radius: a Lower Minimum Size for Dwarf Planets Charles H. Lineweaver & Marc Norman

    E-print Network

    Lineweaver, Charles H.

    The Potato Radius: a Lower Minimum Size for Dwarf Planets Charles H. Lineweaver & Marc Norman a rounded potato shape to a sphere. We derive this potato-to-sphere transition radius -- or "potato radius" -- from first principles. Using the empirical potato radii of asteroids and icy moons, we derive

  17. Amer J of Potato Res (2001) 78:319-322 319 Short Communication

    E-print Network

    Douches, David S.

    2001-01-01

    Amer J of Potato Res (2001) 78:319-322 319 Short Communication Susceptibility of Potato (Solanum:kirkw@msu.edu ABSTRACT Late blight is an important disease of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) worldwide, and therefore, many potato-breeding programs have prioritized the develop- ment of late blight-resistant potato

  18. Utilization of potatoes for life support in space. V. Evaluation of cultivars in response to continuous light and high temperature.

    PubMed

    Tibbitts, T W; Cao, W; Bennett, S M

    1992-01-01

    Twenty-four potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars from different regions of the world were evaluated in terms of their responses to continuous light (24 h photoperiod) and to high temperature (30 C) in two separate experiments under controlled environments. In each experiment, a first evaluation of the cultivars was made at day 35 after transplanting, at which time 12 cultivars exhibiting best growth and tuber initiation were selected. A final evaluation of the 12 cultivars was made after an additional 21 days of growth, at which time plant height, total dry weight, tuber dry weight, and tuber number were determined. In the continuous light evaluation, the 12 selected cultivars were Alaska 114, Atlantic, Bintje, Denali, Desiree, Haig, New York 81, Ottar, Rutt, Snogg, Snowchip, and Troll. In the high temperature evaluation, the 12 selected cultivars were Alpha, Atlantic, Bake King, Denali, Desiree, Haig, Kennebec, Norland, Russet Burbank, Rutt, Superior, and Troll. Among the cultivars selected under continuous irradiation, Desiree, Ottar, Haig, Rutt, Denali and Alaska showed the best potential for high productivity whereas New York 81 and Bintje showed the least production capability. Among the cultivars selected under high temperature, Rutt, Haig, Troll and Bake King had best performance whereas Atlantic, Alpha, Kennebec and Russet Burbank exhibited the least production potential. Thus, Haig and Rutt were the two cultivars that performed well under continuous irradiation and high temperature conditions, and could have maximum potential for adaptation to varying stress environments. These two cultivars may have the best potential for use in future space farming in which continuous light and/or high temperature conditions may exist. However, cultivar responses under combined conditions of continuous light and high temperature remains for further validation. PMID:11537668

  19. Utilization of potatoes for life support in space. V. Evaluation of cultivars in response to continuous light and high temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tibbitts, T. W.; Cao, W.; Bennett, S. M.

    1992-01-01

    Twenty-four potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars from different regions of the world were evaluated in terms of their responses to continuous light (24 h photoperiod) and to high temperature (30 C) in two separate experiments under controlled environments. In each experiment, a first evaluation of the cultivars was made at day 35 after transplanting, at which time 12 cultivars exhibiting best growth and tuber initiation were selected. A final evaluation of the 12 cultivars was made after an additional 21 days of growth, at which time plant height, total dry weight, tuber dry weight, and tuber number were determined. In the continuous light evaluation, the 12 selected cultivars were Alaska 114, Atlantic, Bintje, Denali, Desiree, Haig, New York 81, Ottar, Rutt, Snogg, Snowchip, and Troll. In the high temperature evaluation, the 12 selected cultivars were Alpha, Atlantic, Bake King, Denali, Desiree, Haig, Kennebec, Norland, Russet Burbank, Rutt, Superior, and Troll. Among the cultivars selected under continuous irradiation, Desiree, Ottar, Haig, Rutt, Denali and Alaska showed the best potential for high productivity whereas New York 81 and Bintje showed the least production capability. Among the cultivars selected under high temperature, Rutt, Haig, Troll and Bake King had best performance whereas Atlantic, Alpha, Kennebec and Russet Burbank exhibited the least production potential. Thus, Haig and Rutt were the two cultivars that performed well under continuous irradiation and high temperature conditions, and could have maximum potential for adaptation to varying stress environments. These two cultivars may have the best potential for use in future space farming in which continuous light and/or high temperature conditions may exist. However, cultivar responses under combined conditions of continuous light and high temperature remains for further validation.

  20. Potato Nematodes A Farm Guide to Nematode

    E-print Network

    Isaacs, Rufus

    - ment recommendations. 7. #12;6 Nematode Types: Plant parasitic nematodes feed as sedentaryPotato Nematodes A Farm Guide to Nematode Diagnostics and Management Appendix B. Figure 1. #12;2 Table of Contents Farm Guide Overview................................3 Nematode Problem Identification

  1. LOW WASTEWATER POTATO STARCH/PROTEIN PRODUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    While potato starch has been an item of commerce for many years, traditional processing methods have incurred large volumes of high BOD effluents. The research summarized by this report has lead to a modified process which upgrades the soluble components formerly discarded in the...

  2. Resistance to Black Dot in Potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Black dot fungus can colonize tubers on the surface, in the stolon end, or in a combination of both.On the surface the fungus is prevalent as sclerotia, and in the stolon end the fungus colonizes the vascular tissuesas hyphae. The fungus is introduced to non-infested soils mostly by infected potato ...

  3. Sources of Federal Funding for Potato Research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Starting in the mid-eighties, pressure for Federal Funding of potato research resulted in special appropriations available nationwide from two sources. The Cooperative State Resesarch Education and Extension System (CSREES) is a branch of the USDA that funds Land Grant State Universities to do rese...

  4. Using the Potato Genome Sequence! Robin Buell!

    E-print Network

    Douches, David S.

    Using the Potato Genome Sequence! Robin Buell! Michigan State University! Department of Plant;· RHPOTKEY BAC library (78000 clones; 9-10 g.e.) · Library clones fingerprintedGen Sequencing? 10 #12;Initial Strategy heterozygous clone (RH89-039-16) Contig assembly

  5. Light-colored, Low Acrylamide Potato Chips

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato tubers are stored at cold temperatures to prevent sprouting, minimize disease losses and increase the marketing window. Cold storage also causes an accumulation of reducing sugars, a phenomenon referred to as cold-induced sweetening. Unacceptable, dark colored chips and fries are formed durin...

  6. Sustainable potato production and global food security

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato (Solanum spp.) is currently the leading non-grain commodity in the global food system with production exceeding 329 million metric tonnes in 2009. The extraordinary adaptive range of this species complex combined with ease of cultivation and high nutritional content have promoted steady i...

  7. Potato Processing from Low Temperature Storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Everyone who grows or stores potatoes for chips or fries knows how challenging it is to deliver tubers that consistently produce light-colored fried products that meet processor and consumer expectations. Many factors contribute to dark color formation, including heat and water stress during tuber d...

  8. Breeding for Phytonutrient Enhancement in Potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tubers of 38 native potato cultivars of different taxonomic groups from South America were analyzed to determine The total anthocyanins, total carotenoids and antioxidant values of several groups of breeding clones and varieties were analyzed. Total anthocyanins and an Hydrophilic Oxygen Radical Ab...

  9. Identifying Constraints to Potato System Sustainability: Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato yield in the Northeast U.S. has remained constant for over 50 years, despite increased inputs of pesticides, nutrients, and water. We established Status Quo, Soil Conserving, Soil Improving, and Disease Suppressive cropping systems under both irrigated and rainfed management to identify and q...

  10. Potato cultivar response to seasonal drought patterns

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability to minimize potato yield and quality losses due to drought can be greatly improved by understanding the relative responses of different cultivars to seasonal variations in water supply. To address this need, we initiated a two year field experiment to determine the responses of the six p...

  11. Hormone Metabolism During Potato Tuber Dormancy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    At harvest and for an indeterminate period thereafter potato tubers will not sprout and are physiologically dormant. The length of tuber dormancy is dependent on cultivar and pre- and postharvest environmental conditions. Plant hormones have been shown to be involved in all phases of dormancy prog...

  12. Alcohol production from fermentation of sweet potatoes

    SciTech Connect

    Egg, R.P.; Coble, C.G.; O'Neal, H.P.; Sweeten, J.M.

    1982-12-01

    A study was conducted to determine the ethanol production characteristics of sweet potatoes. Ethanol yields were as high as 137 liters per tonne of feedstock using procedures developed for grain. Major problems encountered were low ethanol concentrations in the beer and poor stillage dewatering properties.

  13. Studies of Amylose Content in Potato Starch

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato starch is typically low in amylose (~20-25%), but high amylose starch has superior nutritional qualities. The ratio between amylose and amylopectin is the most important property influencing the physical properties of starch. There is a strong case to be made for the development of food crops...

  14. Potato Response to Tillage and Nitrogen Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato responses to different rates of pre-plant and in-season N management are evaluated under reduced and conventional tillage under center pivot irrigation. Tuber yield, tuber size distribution, and tuber specific gravity were largely similar across different tillage and N management practices. P...

  15. Internal Ballistics of a Pneumatic Potato Cannon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mungan, Carl E.

    2009-01-01

    Basic laws of thermodynamics and mechanics are used to analyse an air gun. Such devices are often employed in outdoor physics demonstrations to launch potatoes using compressed gas that is here assumed to expand reversibly and adiabatically. Reasonable agreement is found with reported muzzle speeds for such homebuilt cannons. The treatment is…

  16. VARIATION FOR TUBER ACIDITY AMONG POTATO SPECIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While the use of acidity by plants for defense against disease is widespread and well known (e.g., acidic fruits), little appears to be known about the range of variation in tissue acidity in potato or its implications. We collected tuber samples in sealable plastic “sandwich” bags, froze them in a ...

  17. The influence of hard-baking temperature applied for SU8 sensor layer on the sensitivity of capacitive chemical sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klanjšek Gunde, Marta; Hauptman, Nina; Ma?ek, Marijan; Kunaver, Matjaž

    2009-06-01

    SU8, the near-UV photosensitive epoxy-based polymer was used as a sensor layer in the capacitive chemical sensor, ready for integration with a generic double-metal CMOS technology. It was observed that the response of the sensor slowly increases with the temperature applied in hard-baking process as long as it remains below 300°C. At this temperature the response of the sensor abruptly increases and becomes almost threefold. It was shown that fully crosslinked structure of the sensor layer becomes opened and disordered when the sensor is hard-baked at temperatures between 300°C and 320°C, that is, still well below the degradation temperature of the polymer. These changes in chemical structure were analyzed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The temperature-dependent changes of the sensor layer structure enable one to prepare a combination of capacitive chemical sensors with good discrimination between some volatile organic compounds.

  18. Line width roughness reduction by rational design of photoacid generator for sub-millisecond laser post-exposure bake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jing; Thompson, Michael O.; Ober, Christopher K.

    2014-03-01

    Sub-millisecond laser post-exposure bake (PEB) is an alternative technology to address the excessive acid diffusion for chemically amplified photoresist systems. By rationally designing the resist, laser post-exposure bake is able to improve the resolution and reduce the line width roughness (LWR) compared to patterns exposed under the same conditions but using conventional hotplate PEB. It was found that only the resist with high deprotection activation energy and low diffusion activation energy showed improved performance using laser PEB. Accordingly, a PAG was designed to have low acid diffusivity by binding the counter ions to a molecular glass core while keeping photophysical properties and processing conditions similar to a conventional PAG. By reducing the diffusivity of the counter ions, the PAG was able to further reduce LWR by 60% using laser PEB.

  19. Conservation Research and Development/ New Ultra-Low Carbon High Strength Steels with Improved Bake Hardenability for Enhanced Stretch Formability and Dent Resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony J. DeArdo; C. Isaac Garcia

    2003-12-15

    Conservation Research and Development/New Ultra-Low Carbon High Strength Steels with Improved Bake Hardenability for Enhanced Stretch Formability and Dent Resistance. The experimental work can be divided into four phases. In each phase, the materials were received or designed, processed and tested, to evaluate the BH increment or response, as a function of compositions and processing conditions. Microstructural characterization by various techniques was performed in order to gain insights into the mechanisms of flow stress increment by bake hardening.

  20. Galaxy Zoo: CANDELS barred discs and bar fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, B. D.; Melvin, Thomas; Lintott, Chris; Masters, Karen L.; Willett, Kyle W.; Keel, William C.; Smethurst, R. J.; Cheung, Edmond; Nichol, Robert C.; Schawinski, Kevin; Rutkowski, Michael; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; Bell, Eric F.; Casteels, Kevin R. V.; Conselice, Christopher J.; Almaini, Omar; Ferguson, Henry C.; Fortson, Lucy; Hartley, William; Kocevski, Dale; Koekemoer, Anton M.; McIntosh, Daniel H.; Mortlock, Alice; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Ownsworth, Jamie; Bamford, Steven; Dahlen, Tomas; Faber, Sandra M.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Fontana, Adriano; Galametz, Audrey; Grogin, N. A.; Grützbauch, Ruth; Guo, Yicheng; Häußler, Boris; Jek, Kian J.; Kaviraj, Sugata; Lucas, Ray A.; Peth, Michael; Salvato, Mara; Wiklind, Tommy; Wuyts, Stijn

    2014-12-01

    The formation of bars in disc galaxies is a tracer of the dynamical maturity of the population. Previous studies have found that the incidence of bars in discs decreases from the local Universe to z ˜ 1, and by z > 1 simulations predict that bar features in dynamically mature discs should be extremely rare. Here, we report the discovery of strong barred structures in massive disc galaxies at z ˜ 1.5 in deep rest-frame optical images from the Cosmic Assembly Near-Infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey. From within a sample of 876 disc galaxies identified by visual classification in Galaxy Zoo, we identify 123 barred galaxies. Selecting a subsample within the same region of the evolving galaxy luminosity function (brighter than L*), we find that the bar fraction across the redshift range 0.5 ? z ? 2 ( f_{bar} = 10.7^{+6.3}_{-3.5} per cent after correcting for incompleteness) does not significantly evolve. We discuss the implications of this discovery in the context of existing simulations and our current understanding of the way disc galaxies have evolved over the last 11 billion years.

  1. 19 CFR 10.57 - Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...false Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. 10.57 Section 10.57...ETC. General Provisions Potatoes, Corn, Or Maize § 10.57 Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. Claim for classification...

  2. 19 CFR 10.57 - Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...false Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. 10.57 Section 10.57...ETC. General Provisions Potatoes, Corn, Or Maize § 10.57 Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. Claim for classification...

  3. 19 CFR 10.57 - Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...false Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. 10.57 Section 10.57...ETC. General Provisions Potatoes, Corn, Or Maize § 10.57 Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. Claim for classification...

  4. 19 CFR 10.57 - Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...false Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. 10.57 Section 10.57...ETC. General Provisions Potatoes, Corn, Or Maize § 10.57 Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. Claim for classification...

  5. 19 CFR 10.57 - Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...false Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. 10.57 Section 10.57...ETC. General Provisions Potatoes, Corn, Or Maize § 10.57 Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. Claim for classification...

  6. Developmental effects on phenolic, flavonol, anthocyanin, and carotenoid metabolites and gene expression in potatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato phytonutrients include phenolic acids, flavonols, anthocyanins and carotenoids. Developmental effects on phytonutrient concentrations and gene expression was studied in white, yellow and purple potatoes. Purple potatoes contained the most total phenolics, which decreased during development (1...

  7. 40 CFR 407.40 - Applicability; description of the frozen potato products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...true Applicability; description of the frozen potato products subcategory. 407...VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Frozen Potato Products Subcategory § 407.40 Applicability; description of the frozen potato products subcategory....

  8. 40 CFR 407.40 - Applicability; description of the frozen potato products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...true Applicability; description of the frozen potato products subcategory. 407...VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Frozen Potato Products Subcategory § 407.40 Applicability; description of the frozen potato products subcategory....

  9. For Immediate Release --Friday, July 11, 2014 Potato Growers of Alberta and industry partners to

    E-print Network

    Morris, Joy

    For Immediate Release -- Friday, July 11, 2014 Potato Growers Research capacity in Alberta's potato industry will be significantly enhanced due years from the Potato Growers of Alberta (PGA), McCain Foods, ConAgra Lamb

  10. Comparison of Volatile Components between Raw and Vinegar Baked Radix Bupleuri by GC-MS Based Metabolic Fingerprinting Approach

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Jie; Sun, Hui-Min; Li, Zhen-Yu; Qin, Xue-Mei

    2015-01-01

    Radix Bupleuri (RB), also named Chaihu in Chinese, is a commonly used herbal drug in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), and the processing of RB with vinegar to prepare vinegar-baked Radix Bupleuri (VBRB) has a long history in the clinic of TCM. In the present study, GC-MS coupled with multivariate data analysis was applied to compare the volatile components between crude and two vinegar processed RBs. After vinegar baking, the oil yields were decreased significantly, and the chemical compositions were also changed greatly. The chemical changes included the disappearance or appearance, as well as the content increase or decrease of some volatile compounds. The oil yields of two different VBRBs showed no significant difference but differed markedly in their chemical compositions, suggesting that the type of vinegar exerted great impacts on the vinegar-baking process. Thus, the effect of different vinegars on processing should be further investigated to ensure the therapeutic effect and safety of VBRB in clinic. PMID:26265925

  11. Rheological, thermo-mechanical, and baking properties of wheat-millet flour blends.

    PubMed

    Aprodu, Iuliana; Banu, Iuliana

    2015-07-01

    Millet has long been known as a good source of fiber and antioxidants, but only lately started to be exploited by food scientists and food industry as a consequence of increased consumer awareness. In this study, doughs and breads were produced using millet flour in different ratios (10, 20, 30, 40, and 50%) to white, dark, and whole wheat flour. The flour blends were evaluated in terms of rheological and thermo-mechanical properties. Fundamental rheological measurements revealed that the viscosity of the flour formulations increases with wheat flour-extraction rate and decreases with the addition of millet flour. Doughs behavior during mixing, overmixing, pasting, and gelling was established using the Mixolab device. The results of this bread-making process simulation indicate that dough properties become critical for the flour blends with millet levels higher than 30%. The breads were evaluated for volume, texture, and crumb-grain characteristics. The baking test and sensory evaluation results indicated that substitution levels of up to 30% millet flour could be used in composite bread flour. High levels of millet flour (40 and 50%) negatively influenced the loaf volume, crumb texture, and taste. PMID:24837596

  12. Baked shale and slag formed by the burning of coal beds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rogers, G. Sherburne

    1918-01-01

    The baking and reddening of large masses of strata caused by the burning of coal beds is a striking feature of the landscape in most of the great western coal-bearing areas. The general character and broader effects of the burning have been described by many writers, but the fact that in places enough heat is generated to fuse and thoroughly recrystallize the overlying shale and sandstone has received less attention. Some of the natural slags thus formed simulate somewhat abnormal igneous rocks, but others consist largely of rare and little known minerals. A wide range in the mineral composition of such slags is to be expected, depending on the composition of the original sediment and the conditions of fusion and cooling. These products of purely thermal metamorphism offer a fertile field for petrologic investigation. The writer has observed the effects produced by the burning of coal beds in several localities in Montana, particularly along upper Tongue River in the southern part of the State, in the district lying southeast of the mouth of Bighorn River, and in the Little Sheep Mountain coal field north of Miles City. A number of specimens of the rock formed have been examined under the microscope, though time has not been available for a systematic examination. The writer is greatly indebted to Mr. E. S. Larsen for assistance in the study of some of the minerals.

  13. Post exposure bake unit equipped with wafer-shape compensation technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Shigehiro; Morita, Akihiko; Oyama, Kenichi; Hori, Shimpei; Matsuchika, Keiji; Taniguchi, Hideyuki

    2007-03-01

    In 193nm lithography, it is well known that Critical Dimension Uniformity (CDU) within wafer is especially influenced by temperature variation during Post Exposure Bake (PEB) process. This temperature variation has been considered to be caused by the hot plate unit, and improvement of temperature uniformity within hot plate itself has been focused to achieve higher CDU. However, we have found that the impact of the wafer shape on temperature uniformity within wafer can not be ignored when the conventional PEB processing system is applied to an advanced resist technology. There are two factors concerned with the wafer shape. First, gravity force of the wafer itself generates wafer shape bending because wafer is simply supported by a few proximity gaps on the conventional hot plate. Next, through the semiconductor manufacturing process, wafer is gradually warped due to the difference of the surface stress between silicon and deposited film layers (Ex. Si-Oxide, Si-Nitride). Therefore, the variation of the clearance between wafer backside and hot plate surface leads to non-uniform thermal conductivity within wafer during PEB processing, and eventually impacts on the CDU within wafer. To overcome this problem concerned with wafer shape during PEB processing, we have developed the new hot plate equipped with the wafer shape compensation technology. As a result of evaluation, we have confirmed that this new PEB system has an advantage not only for warped wafer but also for flat (bare) wafer.

  14. Effect of baking improvers on the quality of whole cassava biscuits.

    PubMed

    Obadina, A O; Oyewole, O B; Olaniyi, G

    2014-10-01

    Improving agents such as ascorbic acid, sodium metabisulphite, sorbic acid and soyflour were used in the production of whole cassava biscuits. Cassava flour and small amount of soyflour were produced. Bulk density, water binding capacity and amylograph viscosity of cassava flour were determined. Mixing and dough extrusion time were recorded for each sample of biscuit dough developed with addition of improvers. Length, width and thickness of cut-out dough were measured before and after baking to evaluate biscuits flow. Proximate and sensory analysis of the biscuits samples was also determined. The result showed that, there was a slight decrease in mixing time, extrusion time, length and width of the biscuits samples prepared with improvers. However, there was a considerable increase in biscuits thickness. Amylograph result showed an improvement in flour stability and low retrogadation tendency, most especially flour with inclusion of ascorbic acid. Crude protein and fat increased with sample contained soyflour. Sensory evaluation result indicated no significant difference among the samples except the texture of the biscuits. PMID:25328229

  15. Application of cross-linked and hydrolyzed arabinoxylans in baking of model rye bread.

    PubMed

    Buksa, Krzysztof; Nowotna, Anna; Ziobro, Rafa?

    2016-02-01

    The role of water extractable arabinoxylan with varying molar mass and structure (cross-linked vs. hydrolyzed) in the structure formation of rye bread was examined using a model bread. Instead of the normal flour, the dough contained starch, arabinoxylan and protein, which were isolated from rye wholemeal. It was observed that the applied mixes of these constituents result in a product closely resembling typical rye bread, even if arabinoxylan was modified (by cross-linking or hydrolysis). The levels of arabinoxylan required for bread preparation depended on its modification and mix composition. At 3% protein, the maximum applicable level of poorly soluble cross-linked arabinoxylan was 3%, as higher amounts of this preparation resulted in an extensively viscous dough and diminished bread volume. On the other hand highly soluble, hydrolyzed arabinoxylan could be used at a higher level (6%) together with larger amounts of rye protein (3% or 6%). Further addition of arabinoxylan leads to excessive water absorption, resulting in a decreased viscosity of the dough during baking and insufficient gas retention. PMID:26304439

  16. The genetic control of milling yield, dough rheology and baking quality of wheat.

    PubMed

    Kuchel, H; Langridge, P; Mosionek, L; Williams, K; Jefferies, S P

    2006-05-01

    Improving the end-use quality of wheat is a key target for many breeding programmes. With the exception of the relationship between glutenin alleles and some dough rheological characters, knowledge concerning the genetic control of wheat quality traits is somewhat limited. A doubled haploid population produced from a cross between two Australian cultivars 'Trident' and 'Molineux' has been used to construct a linkage map based largely on microsatellite molecular makers. 'Molineux' is superior to 'Trident' for a number of milling, dough rheology and baking quality characteristics, although by international standards 'Trident' would still be regarded as possessing moderately good end-use quality. This population was therefore deemed useful for investigation of wheat end-use quality. A number of significant QTL identified for dough rheological traits mapped to HMW and LMW glutenin loci on chromosomes 1A and 1B. However, QTL associated with dough strength and loaf volume were also identified on chromosome 2A and a significant QTL associated with loaf volume and crumb quality was identified on chromosome 3A. A QTL for flour protein content and milling yield was identified on chromosome 6A and a QTL associated with flour colour reported previously on chromosome 7B was confirmed in this population. The detection of loci affecting dough strength, loaf volume and flour protein content may provide fresh opportunities for the application of marker-assisted selection to improve bread-making quality. PMID:16550398

  17. High Temperature Baking as a Means of Controlling Solid-state Nanopore Fabrication and Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Nathan; Tita, Denis; Nandivada, Santoshi; Rollings, Ryan; Li, Jiali

    2013-03-01

    Solid-state nanopores have been of interest in single biomolecule analysis due to their ability to be tunable in dimension and robust nature. The ability to withstand wide variations in temperature, salt, denaturing agent, and pH while maintaining pore stability has made it a promising technology in detecting biomolecules at the single molecule level. One of the current methods for fabricating these solid-state nanopores uses a low energy ion beam, ~ 3 keV, incident on a 100nm diameter hole in a silicon nitride membrane to close it to a smaller diameter. Because of individual variability in between samples, the time taken for pore closure can vary from a matter of seconds to a few hours. Because the error in the measured final diameter of the nanopore is proportional to the closure rate, this causes a wide variability in final nanopore diameter. In addition, the variations in stability and electrical noise level of these nanopores at experimental solution condition have also been observed. Here we use a tube furnace to investigate adventitious carbon and its effects on the closure rate. We also use the tube furnace to bake the silicon nitride nanopores after fabrication and investigate the effects on the stability of the pore and electrical noise in solution.

  18. Ultrasonic cure and temperature monitoring of photoresist during the pre-exposure bake process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, Susan L.; Degertekin, F. Levent; Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T.

    1998-06-01

    A system of in situ ultrasonic sensors has been developed that can be used to monitor the photoresist prebake process. A high frequency phase measurement monitors the resist film properties while a lower frequency time of flight measurement monitors the corresponding wafer temperature. The high frequency measurement involves calculating the phase of an ultrasound signal as it is reflected from the silicon/photoresist interface. As the photoresist film changes in thickness and viscoelastic properties, the phase of the reflected signal will change. In this way, it is possible to follow how the photoresist film changes as it bakes; the solvent evaporates from the resist, decreasing the thickness and increasing the density. Results indicate that there is a phase minimum at a repeatable temperature, believed to be the softening or glass transition temperature (Tg). The lower frequency (200 kHz) time of flight measurement employs PZT-5H piezoelectric transducers bonded to a quartz buffer rod. The transducer generates a Lamb wave in the wafer which is then detected at another location by an identical transducer. The time of flight of the Lamb wave through the wafer depends linearly on temperature. Using these two sensors, we can measure the wafer temperature and the photoresist properties during prebake; providing us with the information necessary for in situ process control.

  19. Simultaneous detection and differentiation of four closely related sweet potato potyviruses by a multiplex one-step RT-PCR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four closely related potyviruses, Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV), Sweet potato virus C (SPVC), Sweet potato virus G (SPVG) and/or Sweet potato virus 2 (SPV2), are involved in Sweet Potato Viral Disease, the most devastating disease of sweet potato worldwide. Identification and detection ...

  20. Phylogenetic relationships of closely related potyviruses infecting sweet potato determined by genomic characterizaiton of Sweet potato virus G and Sweet potato virus 2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Complete nucleotide sequences of Sweet potato virus G (SPVG) and Sweet potato virus 2 (SPV2) were determined to be 10,800 and 10,731 nucleotides, respectively, excluding the 3’-poly(A) tail in this study. Their genomic organization is typical of potyviruses, encoding a polyprotein which is likely cl...

  1. Photometric Decomposition of Barred Galaxies

    E-print Network

    A. S. Reese; T. B. Williams; J. A. Sellwood; Eric I. Barnes; Brian A. Powell

    2007-02-27

    We present a non-parametric method for decomposition of the light of disk galaxies into disk, bulge and bar components. We have developed and tested the method on a sample of 68 disk galaxies for which we have acquired I-band photometry. The separation of disk and bar light relies on the single assumption that the bar is a straight feature with a different ellipticity and position angle from that of the projected disk. We here present the basic method, but recognise that it can be significantly refined. We identify bars in only 47% of the more nearly face-on galaxies in our sample. The fraction of light in the bar has a broad range from 1.3% to 40% of the total galaxy light. If low-luminosity galaxies have more dominant halos, and if halos contribute to bar stability, the luminosity functions of barred and unbarred galaxies should differ markedly; while our sample is small, we find only a slight difference of low significance.

  2. Energy consumption evaluation of fuel bioethanol production from sweet potato.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Mario Daniel; Guigou, Mairan; Lareo, Claudia

    2013-05-01

    The energy consumption for different operative conditions and configurations of the bioethanol production industrial process from an experimental variety of sweet potato (Ipomea batatas) K 9807.1 was evaluated. A process simulation model was developed using SuperPro Designer® software. The model was based on experimental data gathered from our laboratory experiments and technology and equipment suppliers. The effects of the dry matter ratio of sweet potato to water, the fermentation efficiency, and sweet potato sugar content, on the energy consumption (steam and electricity) were respectively evaluated. All factors were significant. The best ratio of dry matter to total water to work with fresh sweet potato was 0.2 kg dry sweet potato/kg water, as for greater ratios was not found a significant reduction in energy consumption. Also, the drying of the sweet potato previous its processing was studied. It presented an energy consumption greater than the energetic content of the bioethanol produced. PMID:23567705

  3. Studies on Sweet Potato Production Methods in Texas. 

    E-print Network

    Wright, R. E.

    1945-01-01

    of Horticulture [Blank Page in Original Bulletin] Successful sweet. potato pro,duction is largely the result of care in following methods known to give god results. These incIude the selection of roots to secure potentially productive seed of high quality... ................................................. Acknowledgment -14 I .............................................. Selected References -15 STUDIES ON SWEET POTATO PRODUCTOX METHODS IN TEXAS By R. E. Wright, Horticulturist* *In Charge of Sweet Potato Investigations Laboratory. Gilmer, Texas. Acreage...

  4. Triple bar, high efficiency mechanical sealer

    DOEpatents

    Pak, Donald J.; Hawkins, Samantha A.; Young, John E.

    2013-03-19

    A clamp with a bottom clamp bar that has a planar upper surface is provided. The clamp may also include a top clamp bar connected to the bottom clamp bar, and a pressure distribution bar between the top clamp bar and the bottom clamp bar. The pressure distribution bar may have a planar lower surface in facing relation to the upper surface of the bottom clamp bar. An object is capable of being disposed in a clamping region between the upper surface and the lower surface. The width of the planar lower surface may be less than the width of the upper surface within the clamping region. Also, the pressure distribution bar may be capable of being urged away from the top clamp bar and towards the bottom clamp bar.

  5. Cryopreservation for preservation of potato genetic resources

    PubMed Central

    Niino, Takao; Arizaga, Miriam Valle

    2015-01-01

    Cryopreservation is becoming a very important tool for the long-term storage of plant genetic resources and efficient cryopreservation protocols have been developed for a large number of plant species. Practical procedures, developed using in vitro tissue culture, can be a simple and reliable preservation option of potato genetic resources rather than maintaining by vegetative propagation in genebanks due their allogamous nature. Cryopreserved materials insure a long-term backup of field collections against loss of plant germplasm. Occurrence of genetic variation, in tissue culture cells during prolonged subcultures, can be avoided with suitable cryopreservation protocols that provide high regrowth, leading and facilitating a systematic and strategic cryo-banking of plant genetic resources. Cryopreservation protocols for potato reviewed here, can efficiently complement field and in vitro conservation, providing for preservation of genotypes difficult to preserve by other methods, wild types and other species decided as priority collections. PMID:25931979

  6. The BaBar Mini

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, David N.

    2003-07-11

    BaBar has recently deployed a new event data format referred to as the Mini. The mini uses efficient packing and aggressive noise suppression to represent the average reconstructed BaBar event in under 7 KBytes. The Mini packs detector information into simple transient data objects, which are then aggregated into roughly 10 composite persistent objects per event. The Mini currently uses Objectivity persistence, and it is being ported to use Root persistence. The Mini contains enough information to support detailed detector studies, while remaining small and fast enough to be used directly in physics analysis. Mini output is customizable, allowing users to both truncate unnecessary content or add content, depending on their needs. The Mini has now replaced three older formats as the primary output of BaBar event reconstruction. A reduced form of the Mini will soon replace the physics analysis format as well, giving BaBar a single, flexible event data format covering all its needs.

  7. Property Control through Bar Coding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingma, Gerben J.

    1984-01-01

    A public utility company uses laser wands to read bar-coded labels on furniture and equipment. The system allows an 80 percent savings of the time required to create reports for inventory control. (MLF)

  8. Potato growth in response to relative humidity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Tibbitts, T. W.; Fitzpatrick, A. H.

    1989-01-01

    Potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L. cvs. Russet Burbank, Norland, and Denali) were grown for 56 days in controlled-environment rooms under continuous light at 20C and 50% or 85% RH. No significant differences in total plant dry weight were measured between the humidity treatments, but plants grown under 85% RH produced higher tuber yields. Leaf areas were greater under 50% RH and leaves tended to be larger and darker green than at 85% RH.

  9. Electron transport fluxes in potato plateau regime

    SciTech Connect

    Shaing, K.C.; Hazeltine, R.D.

    1997-12-01

    Electron transport fluxes in the potato plateau regime are calculated from the solutions of the drift kinetic equation and fluid equations. It is found that the bootstrap current density remains finite in the region close to the magnetic axis, although it decreases with increasing collision frequency. This finite amount of the bootstrap current in the relatively collisional regime is important in modeling tokamak startup with 100{percent} bootstrap current. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  10. Physical and hydraulic properties of baked ceramic aggregates used for plant growth medium.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Susan L; Kluitenberg, Gerard J; Jones, Scott B; Daidzic, Nihad E; Reddi, Lakshmi N; Xiao, Ming; Tuller, Markus; Newman, Rebecca M; Or, Dani; Alexander, J Iwan D

    2005-09-01

    Baked ceramic aggregates (fritted clay, arcillite) have been used for plant research both on the ground and in microgravity. Optimal control of water and air within the root zone in any gravity environment depends on physical and hydraulic properties of the aggregate, which were evaluated for 0.25-1-mm and 1-2-mm particle size distributions. The maximum bulk densities obtained by any packing technique were 0.68 and 0.64 g cm-3 for 0.25-1-mm and 1-2-mm particles, respectively. Wettable porosity obtained by infiltration with water was approximately 65%, substantially lower than total porosity of approximately 74%. Aggregate of both particle sizes exhibited a bimodal pore size distribution consisting of inter-aggregate macropores and intra-aggregate micropores, with the transition from macro- to microporosity beginning at volumetric water content of approximately 36% to 39%. For inter-aggregate water contents that support optimal plant growth there is 45% change in water content that occurs over a relatively small matric suction range of 0-20 cm H2O for 0.25-1-mm and 0 to -10 cm H2O for 1-2-mm aggregate. Hysteresis is substantial between draining and wetting aggregate, which results in as much as a approximately 10% to 20% difference in volumetric water content for a given matric potential. Hydraulic conductivity was approximately an order of magnitude higher for 1-2-mm than for 0.25-1-mm aggregate until significant drainage of the inter-aggregate pore space occurred. The large change in water content for a relatively small change in matric potential suggests that significant differences in water retention may be observed in microgravity as compared to earth. PMID:16173159

  11. Molecular behavior of water in a flour-water baked model system.

    PubMed

    Given, P S

    1991-01-01

    The molecular behavior of water in complex food systems, via bonding and solvation reactions with low molecular weight solutes or high molecular weight macromolecules, is intimately linked with both the palatability and storage stability of those systems. Due to the difficulty in interpreting data derived from multicomponent finished food products, water behavior in a baked flour-water "matzo" model system was studied. Water behavior was assessed from high resolution [1H] nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spin-spin relaxation studies and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) measurements of unfreezable water content. The unfreezable water capacity of "matzo" model crackers, as measured by DSC, ranged from ca. 24-30% (w/w). These results were corroborated by NMR data. Only one exponent (less than 0.46 msec greater than) is required to fit spin-echo evolution curves below a total moisture content of ca. 20% (w/w), whereas two exponents (less than 0.46 greater than and 1.6 msec) are observed when the moisture content exceeds 20% (w/w). Expert sensory texture assessments parallel unfreezable (= total) water contents between 2.9% (w/w) and 20.1% (w/w). This relationship may be explained by the known tendency for water to plasticize biological polymers, e.g. wheat starch and proteins, and to render these macromolecules incrementally more mobile with increasing water concentration. The similarities (if any) between water of plasticization, immobile water, and "bound" water are discussed, in terms of theoretical physicochemical "states" of water and the various techniques utilized to assess (define) those "states." PMID:1746345

  12. Physical and hydraulic properties of baked ceramic aggregates used for plant growth medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, Susan L.; Kluitenberg, Gerard J.; Jones, Scott B.; Daidzic, Nihad E.; Reddi, Lakshmi N.; Xiao, Ming; Tuller, Markus; Newman, Rebecca M.; Or, Dani; Alexander, J. Iwan. D.

    2005-01-01

    Baked ceramic aggregates (fritted clay, arcillite) have been used for plant research both on the ground and in microgravity. Optimal control of water and air within the root zone in any gravity environment depends on physical and hydraulic properties of the aggregate, which were evaluated for 0.25-1-mm and 1-2-mm particle size distributions. The maximum bulk densities obtained by any packing technique were 0.68 and 0.64 g cm-3 for 0.25-1-mm and 1-2-mm particles, respectively. Wettable porosity obtained by infiltration with water was approximately 65%, substantially lower than total porosity of approximately 74%. Aggregate of both particle sizes exhibited a bimodal pore size distribution consisting of inter-aggregate macropores and intra-aggregate micropores, with the transition from macro- to microporosity beginning at volumetric water content of approximately 36% to 39%. For inter-aggregate water contents that support optimal plant growth there is 45% change in water content that occurs over a relatively small matric suction range of 0-20 cm H2O for 0.25-1-mm and 0 to -10 cm H2O for 1-2-mm aggregate. Hysteresis is substantial between draining and wetting aggregate, which results in as much as a approximately 10% to 20% difference in volumetric water content for a given matric potential. Hydraulic conductivity was approximately an order of magnitude higher for 1-2-mm than for 0.25-1-mm aggregate until significant drainage of the inter-aggregate pore space occurred. The large change in water content for a relatively small change in matric potential suggests that significant differences in water retention may be observed in microgravity as compared to earth.

  13. BAR FORMATION FROM GALAXY FLYBYS

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, Meagan; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Sinha, Manodeep E-mail: k.holley@vanderbilt.edu

    2014-08-01

    Recently, both simulations and observations have revealed that flybys—fast, one-time interactions between two galaxy halos—are surprisingly common, nearing/comparable to galaxy mergers. Since these are rapid, transient events with the closest approach well outside the galaxy disk, it is unclear if flybys can transform the galaxy in a lasting way. We conduct collisionless N-body simulations of three coplanar flyby interactions between pure-disk galaxies to take a first look at the effects flybys have on disk structure, with particular focus on stellar bar formation. We find that some flybys are capable of inciting a bar with bars forming in both galaxies during our 1:1 interaction and in the secondary during our 10:1 interaction. The bars formed have ellipticities ? 0.5, sizes on the order of the host disk's scale length, and persist to the end of our simulations, ?5 Gyr after pericenter. The ability of flybys to incite bar formation implies that many processes associated with secular bar evolution may be more closely tied with interactions than previously thought.

  14. Barred disks in dense environments

    E-print Network

    Marinova, I; Heiderman, A; Barazza, F D; Gray, M E; Barden, M; Wolf, C; Peng, C Y; Bacon, D; Balogh, M; Bell, E F; Bohm, A; Caldwell, J A R; Haussler, B; Heymans, C; Jahnke, K; van Kampen, E; Koposov, S; Lane, K; McIntosh, D H; Meisenheimer, K; Rix, H -W; Sanchez, S F; Taylor, A; Wisotzki, L; Zheng, X

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the properties of bright (MV <= -18) barred and unbarred disks in the Abell 901/902 cluster system at z~0.165 with the STAGES HST ACS survey. To identify and characterize bars, we use ellipse-fitting. We use visual classification, a Sersic cut, and a color cut to select disk galaxies, and find that the latter two methods miss 31% and 51%, respectively of disk galaxies identified through visual classification. This underscores the importance of carefully selecting the disk sample in cluster environments. However, we find that the global optical bar fraction in the clusters is ~30% regardless of the method of disk selection. We study the relationship of the optical bar fraction to host galaxy properties, and find that the optical bar fraction depends strongly on the luminosity of the galaxy and whether it hosts a prominent bulge or is bulgeless. Within a given absolute magnitude bin, the optical bar fraction increases for galaxies with no significant bulge component. Within each morphological ...

  15. Studies for Somatic Embryogenesis in Sweet Potato

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, J. Rasheed; Prakash, C. S.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to improve the somatic embryo (SE) system for plant production of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L(Lam)). Explants isolated from SE-derived sweet potato plants were compared with control (non SE-derived) plants for their competency for SE production. Leaf explants were cultured on Murashige-Skoog (MS) medium with 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (0.2 mg/L) and 6-benzylaminopurine (2.5 mg/L) for 2 weeks in darkness and transferred to MS medium with abscisic acid (2.5 mg/L). Explants isolated from those plants developed through somatic embryogenesis produced new somatic embryos rapidly and in higher frequency than those isolated from control plants They also appeared to grow faster in tissue culture than the control plants. Current studies in the laboratory are examining whether plants derived from a cyclical embryogenesis system (five cycles) would have any further positive impact on the rapidity and frequency of somatic embryo development. More detailed studies using electron microscopy are expected to show the point of origin of the embryos and to allow determination of their quality throughout the cyclical process. This study may facilitate improved plant micropropagation, gene transfer and germplasm conservation in sweet potato.

  16. Guatemalan potato moth Tecia solanivora distinguish odour profiles from qualitatively different potatoes Solanum tuberosum L.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Miriam Frida; Birgersson, Göran; Witzgall, Peter; Lekfeldt, Jonas Duus Stevens; Nimal Punyasiri, P A; Bengtsson, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Guatemalan potato moth, Tecia solanivora, lay eggs in the soil nearby potato Solanum spp. and larvae feed on the tubers. We investigated the oviposition behaviour of T. solanivora females and the survival of larval offspring on healthy vs. stressed, i.e. light exposed and/or damaged potato tubers. In choice tests, females laid significantly more eggs in response to potato odour of healthy tubers and female oviposition preference correlated with higher larval survival. Survival of larvae was negatively correlated with the tuber content of the steroid glycoalkaloids ?-solanine and ?-chaconine: healthy potatoes contained lower amounts than stressed tubers, ranging from 25 to 500 ?g g?¹ and from 30 to 600 ?g g?¹, respectively. Analysis of volatile compounds emitted by potato tubers revealed that stressed tubers could clearly be distinguished from healthy tubers by the composition of their volatile profiles. Compounds that contributed to this difference were e.g. decanal, nonanal, isopropyl myristate, phenylacetaldehyde, benzothiazole, heptadecane, octadecane, myristicin, E,E-?-farnesene and verbenone. Oviposition assays, when female moths were not in contact with the tubers, clearly demonstrated that volatiles guide the females to lay fewer eggs on stressed tubers that are of inferior quality for the larvae. We propose that volatiles, such as sesquiterpenes and aldehydes, mediate oviposition behaviour and are correlated with biosynthetically related, non-volatile compounds, such as steroidal glycoalkaloids, which influence larval survival. We conclude that the oviposition response and larval survival of T. solanivora on healthy vs. stressed tubers supports the preference performance hypothesis for insect herbivores. PMID:23122773

  17. Effects of milling and baking technologies on levels of deoxynivalenol and its masked form deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside.

    PubMed

    Kostelanska, Marta; Dzuman, Zbynek; Malachova, Alexandra; Capouchova, Ivana; Prokinova, Evzenie; Skerikova, Alena; Hajslova, Jana

    2011-09-14

    The co-occurrence of the major Fusarium mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) and its conjugate deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (DON-3-Glc) has been documented in infected wheat. This study reports on the fate of this masked DON within milling and baking technologies for the first time and compares its levels with those of the free parent toxin. The fractionation of DON-3-Glc and DON in milling fractions was similar, tested white flours contained only approximately 60% of their content in unprocessed wheat grains. No substantial changes of both target analytes occurred during the dough preparation process, i.e. kneading, fermentation, and proofing. However, when bakery improvers enzymes mixtures were employed as a dough ingredient, a distinct increase up to 145% of conjugated DON-3-Glc occurred in fermented dough. Some decrease of both DON-3-Glc and DON (10 and 13%, respectively, compared to fermented dough) took place during baking. Thermal degradation products of DON, namely norDON A, B, C, D, and DON-lactone were detected in roasted wheat samples and baked bread samples by means of UPLC-Orbitrap MS. Moreover, thermal degradation products derived from DON-3-Glc were detected and tentatively identified in heat-treated contaminated wheat and bread based on accurate mass measurement performed under the ultrahigh mass resolving power. These products, originating from DON-3-Glc through de-epoxidation and other structural changes in the seskviterpene cycle, were named norDON-3-Glc A, B, C, D, and DON-3-Glc-lactone analogically to DON degradation products. Most of these compounds were located in the crust of experimental breads. PMID:21797213

  18. Follow-up of the fate of imazalil from post-harvest lemon surface treatment to a baking experiment.

    PubMed

    Vass, Andrea; Korpics, Evelin; Dernovics, Mihály

    2015-11-01

    Imazalil is one of the most widespread fungicides used for the post-harvest treatment of citrus species. The separate use of peel during food preparation and processing may hitherto concentrate most of the imazalil into food products, where specific maximum residue limits hardly exist for this fungicide. In order to monitor comprehensively the path of imazalil, our study covered the monitoring of the efficiency of several washing treatments, the comparison of operative and related sample preparation methods for the lemon samples, the validation of a sample preparation technique for a fatty cake matrix, the preparation of a model cake sample made separately either with imazalil containing lemon peel or with imazalil spiking, the monitoring of imazalil degradation into ?-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-1H-imidazole-1-ethanol because of the baking process, and finally the mass balance of imazalil throughout the washing experiments and the baking process. Quantification of imazalil was carried out with an LC-ESI-MS/MS set-up, while LC-QTOF was used for the monitoring of imazalil degradation. Concerning the washing, none of the addressed five washing protocols could remove more than 30% of imazalil from the surface of the lemon samples. The study revealed a significant difference between the extraction efficiency of imazalil by the EN 15662:2008 and AOAC 2007.1 methods, with the advantage of the former. The use of the model cake sample helped to validate a modified version of the EN 15662:2008 method that included a freeze-out step to efficiently recover imazalil (>90%) from the fatty cake matrix. The degradation of imazalil during the baking process was significantly higher when this analyte was spiked into the cake matrix than in the case of preparing the cake with imazalil-containing lemon peel (52% vs. 22%). This observation calls the attention to the careful evaluation of pesticide stability data that are based on solution spiking experiments. PMID:26365625

  19. EFFECT OF FUMIGATION ON VOLUNTEER POTATO (SOLANUM TUBERSOUM) TUBER VIABILITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Management of volunteer potato requires an integrated approach and soil fumigation is one tactic known to reduce population densities of certain weeds. The effect of 1,3-D and metham sodium on potato tuber viability were tested in sealed glass jars at various doses, incubation temperatures, and tim...

  20. THE POTATO SYSTEMS PLANNER: A CASE OF INDUSTRY DRIVEN RESEARCH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Developing profitable crop rotations is a top research priority for the potato industry. An interdisciplinary team of ARS scientists from the New England Plant, Soil, & Water Laboratory evaluated 14 rotations for their impacts on potato yield and quality, nutrient availability, plant diseases, soil ...

  1. GENETIC MANIPULATION FOR ENHANCING CALCIUM CONTENT IN POTATO TUBER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased calcium (Ca) in potatoes may increase the production rate by enhancing tuber quality and storability. Additionally, increased Ca levels in important agricultural crops may help ameliorate the incidence of osteoporosis. However, the capacity to alter Ca levels in potato tubers through genet...

  2. 75 FR 14491 - Potato Research and Promotion Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-26

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 1207 Potato Research and Promotion Plan AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA... Potato Research and Promotion plan regulations to reflect the modification of the Harmonized Tariff...: This amendment corrects 7 CFR part 1207, section 1207.510 Levy of Assessments paragraphs (b)(1)...

  3. Effectiveness and Efficacy of Soil Conservation Practices in Potato Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato production systems in the Northeast U.S. are characterized by intensive tillage, minimal ground cover, low crop residue return, and steep slopes. Soil conservation can be especially challenging after potato harvest. We used rainfall simulators in the greenhouse and field to assess sediment ...

  4. Amylose Content in Tuber Starch of Wild Potato Species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Approximately 20% of potato tuber fresh weight is starch, which is composed of amylose (straight chains of glucose) and amylopectin (branched chains). Potato starch is low in amylose (~25%), but high amylose starch has superior nutritional qualities. Amylose content has been determined in tuber samp...

  5. Examination of potential measures of vine maturity in potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant maturity is a complex physiological trait. The criteria used to characterize plant maturity are not universal among crop plants. In potato, vine characteristics are typically used to estimate plant maturity. This study investigates several reported measures of vine maturity in potato cultivars...

  6. Endophytic bacteria in potato tubers affected by zebra chip disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato zebra chip disease (ZCD) could drastically reduce quality and value of all market classes of potato, costing growers and processors millions of dollars in losses in North America. Endophytic bacteria colonize the internal tissue and could have both positive and negative effects on host plants...

  7. Potential leafhopper vectors associated with potatoes in Alaska

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leafhopper transmitted phytoplasma diseases are an emerging problem for potato and vegetable producers in the conterminous United States of America (USA). Due to its geographical isolation and climatic constrains, Alaska is considered relatively free of diseases and insect pests. Potato growers in t...

  8. MANIPULATION AND COMPENSATION OF STEROIDAL GLYCOALKALOID BIOSYNTHESIS IN POTATOES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGAs) are undesirable secondary metabolites produced in Solanaceous plants including, potato, tomato and eggplant. Two tri-glycosylated alkaloids, alpha-chaconine and alpha-solanine occur naturally in potato tubers and can accumulate to excessive levels due to mechanical, e...

  9. MICROSATELLITE ANALYSIS OF THE TAXONOMY OF POTATO LANDRACES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contrasting views on the gene pool structure and taxonomy of cultivated potatoes have continued over last century, with anywhere from one-twenty cultivated potato species recognized, classified as Linnean species or as Cultivar Groups (groups of properly named cultivars, based on user-defined criter...

  10. 78 FR 59628 - Importation of Potatoes From Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ...M. O'Brien) Mordue, a pathogenic fungus that causes potato smut. The...become apparent, as would any galling caused by T. solani. R. solanacearum race...system of host plants and causes the collapse of vascular tissue; if the vascular tissues of the potatoes have begun to collapse because of R. solanacearum race 3...

  11. Click beetles (Coleopter: Elateridae) associated with potatoes in Alaska

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to study the species composition, seasonal biology, and geographic distribution of adult elaterids associated with potato production in Alaska. Adult elaterids were collected in the major potato producing areas of Alaska and from a subsistence farm above the arctic...

  12. Delayed tillage and cover crop effects in potato systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Delayed tillage and the inclusion of cover crops can substantially reduce erosion in intensively tilled potato systems. Both of these practices can potentially impact potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)yield and quality via changes in soil temperature and soil water status, and suppression or enhancement...

  13. Restriction digestion method for haplotyping the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A restriction digestion method has been developed for haplotyping the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli Sulc., an economically important pest of solanaceous crops. This method differentiates the four known potato psyllid haplotypes by utilizing restriction enzyme digestion of a portion of the ...

  14. Temporal analysis of potato psyllid haplotypes in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae), is an economically devastating pest of potato crops across the United States, as it is known to cause psyllid yellows disease and to transmit the bacterium that causes zebra chip disease. A recent genotyping study of B. coc...

  15. Recent advances in potato production, usage, nutrition-a Review.

    PubMed

    Zaheer, Khalid; Akhtar, M Humayoun

    2014-06-12

    ABSTRACT Potato is an economically important staple crop prevailing all across the world with successful large scale production, consumption and affordability with easy availability in the open market. Potatoes provide basic nutrients such as - carbohydrates, dietary fibre (skin), several vitamins and minerals (e.g. potassium, magnesium, iron). On occasion exposures to raw and cooked potatoes impart allergic reactions. Dietary intake of potatoes, especially coloured potatoes, play an important role in the production of antioxidant defence system by providing essential nutrient antioxidants such as vitamins, ?-carotene, polyphenols and minerals. This may help lower the incidence of wide range of chronic and acute disease processes (like hypertension, heart diseases, cancer, neurodegenerative and other diseases). However retention of nutrients in potatoes is affected by various cooking and processing methods. Cooking at elevated temperature also produces acrylamide- a suspected carcinogen. Independent and/or collaborative studies have been conducted and reported on the various pathways leading to the formation of acrylamide in heat processed foods. This article reviews the latest research on potato production, consumption, nature of phytochemicals and their health benefits and allergic reactions to children. Also included is the discovery of acrylamide in processed starch rich foods including potatoes, mechanism of formation, detection methodologies, and mitigation steps to reduce acrylamide content in food. PMID:24925679

  16. PLANT RESISTANCE Evaluation of Potato Tuber Moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    E-print Network

    Douches, David S.

    PLANT RESISTANCE Evaluation of Potato Tuber Moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) Resistance in Tubers moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller), in tropical and subtropical countries, is the most destructive. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efÞcacy of a Bt-cry5 transgene to control the potato tuber moth

  17. Ecogeography of Ploidy Variation in Cultivated Potato (Solanum Sect. Petota)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The taxonomy of cultivated potatoes has been highly controversial, with estimates of species numbers ranging from 3-18. Ploidy level has been one of the most important taxonomic characters to recognize cultivated potato species, with diploid (2n = 2x = 24), triploid (2n = 3x = 36), tetraploid (2n = ...

  18. Genetic diversity and population structure of begomoviruses infecting sweet potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Begomoviruses infecting sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas) exhibit high genetic diversity, and approximately eight species including Sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV) have been described from different regions around the world. In this study, the complete genomic sequences of 17 geographically dist...

  19. Enhancing Potato System Sustainability: Project Overview, Plant Growth, and Yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato yield in the Northeast U.S. has remained constant for over 50 years, despite increased inputs of pesticides, nutrients, and water. Consequently, research is needed to quantify and reduce the constraints to potato productivity. We established Status Quo, Soil Conserving, Soil Improving, and Di...

  20. 78 FR 59628 - Importation of Potatoes From Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ... of Potatoes From Mexico AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed... vegetables to allow the importation of fresh potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) from Mexico into the United.... Finally, the national plant protection organization (NPPO) of Mexico would have to provide a...

  1. Storage/processing performance of advanced potato breeding clones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The accumulation of reducing sugars during cold storage of potato tubers is a serious and costly problem for producers and processors. Most, but not all, currently used potato cultivars are susceptible to "cold sweetening" and are therefore stored at warmer temperatures that can accelerate disease ...

  2. Insertional mutagenesis using Tnt1 retrotransposon in potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato is the third most important food crop in the world. However, genetics and genomics research of potato has lagged behind many major crop species due to its autotetraploidy and a highly heterogeneous genome. Insertional mutagenesis using T-DNA or transposable elements, which is available in sev...

  3. Achieving Phytonutrient Enhancement in Potato by Breeding for Increased Pigment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The re-discovery of color in potato has implications for the aesthetic and phytonuttient characteristics of potato as a food. Two methods of measurement of Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) adapted to hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds were applied. Total anthocyanin values varied betwee...

  4. Production of low oil content potato chips using vacuum frying 

    E-print Network

    Garayo, Jagoba

    2001-01-01

    Vacuum frying was used as an alternative technique to develop low oil content potato chips. The effect of oil temperature (118, 132, 144?C) and vacuum pressure (84.66, 91.43, 98.20 kPa) on the drying rate and oil absorption of potato chips...

  5. POTATO DISEASE, NEMATODE, AND INSECT PROBLEMS WORSENED BY HAIRY NIGHTSHADE.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hairy nightshade is a close relative of potato and therefore hosts many disease, nematode, and insect pests of potato. Hairy nightshade presence in rotation crops nullifies many of the positive effects of crop rotation. Idaho studies have shown that green peach aphids reproduce more readily on hai...

  6. Surfactant Impact on Nitrogen Utilization and Leaching in Potatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some producers face a unique problem with potato (Solanum tuberosum) production on sandy soils where a dry zone can develop in the potato hill. Surfactants have the potential to reduce this dry zone, thus enhancing water and nutrient uptake. A study was established to determine if applying a nonio...

  7. Susceptibility of Potato Cultivars to Purple Top Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since 2002, Columbia Basin potato growers in Washington and Oregon have experienced serious outbreaks of potato purple top disease that causes significant yield losses and a reduction in tuber quality. It has been determined that the beet leafhopper-transmitted virescence agent (BLTVA) phytoplasma i...

  8. 76 FR 16323 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Continuance Referendum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 946 Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Continuance Referendum AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Referendum order. SUMMARY: This document directs that a... of the marketing order regulating the handling of Irish potatoes grown in Washington. DATES:...

  9. Vitamin B9 is Higher in Developmentally Younger Potato Tubers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Folate (Vitamin B9) deficiency is a global nutritional problem and is problematic even in the developed world. Several studies have shown that because of their large consumption potatoes are an important source of dietary folate. New or baby potatoes constitute a valuable niche market th...

  10. MICROCLIMATE AND POTENTIAL FOR LATE BLIGHT DEVELOPMENT IN IRRIGATED POTATO

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Application of irrigation water can improve potato growth and tuber yield during periods of deficit rainfall. A variety of water application techniques exists; however, little is known of their relative impacts on potato late blight potential. The effects of sprinkler, sub-surface drip, and surface ...

  11. Advanced potato breeding clones: storage and processing evaluation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The accumulation of reducing sugars during cold storage of potato tubers is a serious and costly problem for producers and processors. Most, but not all, currently used potato cultivars are susceptible to Acold sweetening@ and are therefore stored at warmer temperatures that can accelerate disease ...

  12. In vitro technology at the US Potato Genebank

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The US Potato Genebank at Sturgeon Bay, WI, is the active national germplasm collection for the world's most important vegetable crop. It contains 6,000 accessions of 100 species of tuber-bearing relatives of Solanum tuberosum. The potato of commerce is a clonal crop susceptible to many systemic pa...

  13. Effects of zebra chip disease on potato postharvest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zebra Chip (ZC), an emerging and economically important disease of potato in the United States, Mexico, Central America, and New Zealand, is causing losses of millions of dollars to the potato industry, occasionally leading to abandonment of entire fields. The disease is associated with the bacteriu...

  14. Colonization of wild potato plants by Streptomyces scabies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The bacterial pathogen Streptomyces scabies produces lesions on potato tubers, reducing their marketability and profitability. M6 and 524-8 are two closely related inbred diploid lines of the wild potato species Solanum chacoense. After testing in both field and greenhouse assays, it was found that ...

  15. Strengths and Weaknesses of Two New Potato Herbicides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Outlook (dimethenamid-p) and Chateau (flumioxazin) are two new preemergence herbicides labeled for use in potatoes. Both herbicides are restricted to preemergence applications only and improve nightshade control when tank mixed with other potato herbicides. Dimethenamid-p is particularly strong on ...

  16. 33 CFR 117.167 - Little Potato Slough.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Little Potato Slough. 117.167 Section 117.167 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.167 Little Potato Slough. The draw...

  17. 33 CFR 117.167 - Little Potato Slough.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Little Potato Slough. 117.167 Section 117.167 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.167 Little Potato Slough. The draw...

  18. 33 CFR 117.167 - Little Potato Slough.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Little Potato Slough. 117.167 Section 117.167 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.167 Little Potato Slough. The draw...

  19. 33 CFR 117.167 - Little Potato Slough.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Little Potato Slough. 117.167 Section 117.167 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.167 Little Potato Slough. The draw...

  20. 33 CFR 117.167 - Little Potato Slough.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Little Potato Slough. 117.167 Section 117.167 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.167 Little Potato Slough. The draw...

  1. Usual Intake of Other starchy vegetables, excluding white potatoes

    Cancer.gov

    Usual Intake of Other starchy vegetables, excluding white potatoes Table A14. Other starchy vegetables, excluding white potatoes: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10%

  2. 19 CFR 10.57 - Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize... Provisions Potatoes, Corn, Or Maize § 10.57 Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. Claim for classification as seed potatoes under subheading 0701.10.00, as seed corn (maize) under subheading...

  3. 19 CFR 10.57 - Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize... Provisions Potatoes, Corn, Or Maize § 10.57 Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. Claim for classification as seed potatoes under subheading 0701.10.00, as seed corn (maize) under subheading...

  4. 19 CFR 10.57 - Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize... Provisions Potatoes, Corn, Or Maize § 10.57 Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. Claim for classification as seed potatoes under subheading 0701.10.00, as seed corn (maize) under subheading...

  5. 19 CFR 10.57 - Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize... Provisions Potatoes, Corn, Or Maize § 10.57 Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. Claim for classification as seed potatoes under subheading 0701.10.00, as seed corn (maize) under subheading...

  6. 19 CFR 10.57 - Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize... Provisions Potatoes, Corn, Or Maize § 10.57 Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. Claim for classification as seed potatoes under subheading 0701.10.00, as seed corn (maize) under subheading...

  7. The Potato Systems Planner: Cropping System Impacts on Profitability, Income Variability, and Economic Risk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) producers recognize the benefits of crop rotation; however, the economics of producing a high value crop, such as potato, create incentives for continuous potato production. Our USDA-ARS interdisciplinary team evaluated cropping systems of potato in two and three year ...

  8. Impact of food processing on the glycemic index (GI) of potato products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potatoes are one of the most popular carbohydrate foods in industrialized and some developing countries. However, contradicting arguments and misconceptions on potatoes as a high glycemic index (GI) food is directly affecting potato consumption during the past years. Potato varieties, maturity level...

  9. Detection of sweet potato viruses in Yunnan and genetic diversity analysis of the common viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two hundred seventy-nine samples with virus-like symptoms collected from 16 regions in Yunnan Province were tested by RT-PCR/PCR using virus-specific primers for 8 sweet potato viruses. Six viruses, Sweet potato chlorotic fleck virus (SPCFV), Sweet Potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV), Sweet potato ...

  10. Hairy nightshade is an alternative host of Spongospora subterranea, the potato powdery scab pathogen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Root galls possibly caused by Spongospora subterranea were observed on hairy nightshade (Solanum sarrachoides; HNS). HNS galls and galls from potato were used to artificially inoculate potato and HNS. Eighty-three and 52% potato and HNS plants inoculated with potato inoculum had root galls, respecti...

  11. Inferred origin of several Native American potatoes from the Pacific Northwest using SSR markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Certain Native Americans from the Pacific Northwest and Alaska of the USA have grown potatoes in their gardens for many generations. However, the origin of these potatoes was unclear. In this study, the origin of several potatoes collected from Native gardens, including two potatoes, “Ozette” (fro...

  12. 75 FR 43042 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Temporary Change to the Handling Regulations and Reporting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-23

    ...This rule suspends, for the 2010-2011 season only, the minimum quality, maturity, pack, marking, and inspection requirements currently prescribed for russet potato varieties under the Washington potato marketing order. The marketing order regulates the handling of Irish potatoes grown in Washington, and is administered locally by the State of Washington Potato Committee (Committee). During the......

  13. A FREEZE-DRIED DIET TO TEST BACTERIAL PATHOGENS OF COLORADO POTATO BEETLE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Colorado potato beetle is an important pest on potato, eggplant and tomato. Because Colorado potato beetles develop resistance to insecticides quickly, new methods are needed for control. Bacillus thuringiensis is the only bacteria to successfully control Colorado potato beetle. Until recently, ...

  14. 7 CFR 457.143 - Northern potato crop insurance-quality endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance-quality endorsement... Northern potato crop insurance—quality endorsement. The Northern Potato Crop Insurance Quality Endorsement...) Both FCIC and reinsured policies: Northern Potato Crop Insurance Quality Endorsement 1....

  15. The Irish potato famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans originated in central Mexico rather than

    E-print Network

    Grünwald, Niklaus J.

    The Irish potato famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans originated in central Mexico rather than University, Ithaca, NY 14853; f CIP China Center for Asia and the Pacific, International Potato Center the disease that triggered the Irish potato famine and remains the most costly potato pathogen to manage

  16. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Tuber Blight Development in Potato Cultivars in Response to

    E-print Network

    Douches, David S.

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Tuber Blight Development in Potato Cultivars in Response to Different Genotypes of Phytophthora infestans to a specific region imposes a different perspective for potato production. Dur- ing- nated US-22, which was isolated from tomato and potato. Potato tubers are an essential component of late

  17. 7 CFR 457.146 - Northern potato crop insurance-storage coverage endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance-storage coverage... Northern potato crop insurance—storage coverage endorsement. The Northern Potato Crop Insurance Storage... for insurance provider) Both FCIC and reinsured policies: Northern Potato Crop Insurance...

  18. Potato Late blight Update and Late Season Recommendations Willie Kirk. PLP

    E-print Network

    Douches, David S.

    Potato Late blight Update and Late Season Recommendations Willie Kirk. PLP Potato late blight has confirmations in potatoes have been the US-23 genotype. This was confirmed by GPI allozyme analysis. Conditions remain conducive for late blight in potato crops and the risk of tuber blight is high especially

  19. A review of early blight of potato J E van der Waals1,2

    E-print Network

    A review of early blight of potato J E van der Waals1,2 , L Korsten2 & T A S Aveling2 1 Gold Fields. A review of early blight of potatoes. African Plant Protection 7(2): 00­00. Early blight of potatoes, causal agent Alternaria solani, causes major yield losses in most potato growing areas of the world. Leaf

  20. UPDATE ON THE POTATO PURPLE TOP DISEASE IN THE COLUMBIA BASIN J.E. MUNYANEZA1

    E-print Network

    Pappu, Hanu R.

    UPDATE ON THE POTATO PURPLE TOP DISEASE IN THE COLUMBIA BASIN J.E. MUNYANEZA1 , J.M. CROSSLIN2 , A Washington State Potato Commission, Moses Lake, WA; 4 Oregon State University, Hermiston, OR; 5 Washington on the potato purple top disease in the Columbia Basin. In: Proceedings, 44th Annual Washington State Potato