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Sample records for baked potato bar

  1. Changes in sugar composition during baking and their effects on sensory attributes of baked sweet potatoes.

    PubMed

    Chan, Chin-Feng; Chiang, Chih-Ming; Lai, Yung-Chang; Huang, Che-Lun; Kao, Shu-Chen; Liao, Wayne C

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of sugar composition on the sensory attributes of seven baked sweet potatoes. The sugar composition was analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography. Results showed that the total sugar content of baked sweet potatoes increased significantly because of the formation of maltose. The maltose content dramatically increased after baking, and became the major sugar component of baked sweet potatoes. On the other hand, baked sweet potatoes were evaluated on a 7-point hedonic scale for sensory analysis. Overall acceptability results showed that the panelists preferred baked CYY95-26 and TNG66 over the other baked varieties. Because the correlation between overall acceptability and sweetness was the highest (r = 0.69, p < 0.01), sweetness was determined as the most important factor determining the overall acceptability of baked sweet potatoes. Although sugar composition changed on baking, the overall acceptability of baked sweet potatoes was highly associated with the sucrose content. PMID:25477683

  2. CHARACTERIZATION OF GENOTYPIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTRIBUTIONS TO BAKED POTATO FLAVOR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato clones vary for components of flavor (taste, texture, and aroma), but breeders in the U.S. do not typically select for these traits. The development of potato varieties with enhanced or unique flavors may help to increase fresh market potato consumption. This research project represents the...

  3. Studies of sugar composition and starch morphology of baked sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam).

    PubMed

    Lai, Yung-Chang; Huang, Che-Lun; Chan, Chin-Feng; Lien, Ching-Yi; Liao, Wayne C

    2013-12-01

    Sugar composition of seven sweet potato cultivars was successfully analyzed. Fresh CYY95-26 sweet potatoes had the highest (8.41%) total sugar content while TNG73 had the lowest (4.5%). For these fresh sweet potatoes, maltose content was very low (0 ~ 0.39%). Because 49.92 ~ 92.43% of total sugars were sucrose, sucrose was the major sugar composition of fresh sweet potatoes. After the baking treatment, the total sugar content of baked sweet potatoes was dramatically increased due to the formation of maltose. The maltose content significantly increased from 0 ~ 0.39% to 8.81 ~ 13.97% on dry weight basis. Therefore, maltose should be included in calculating the total sugar content. Electronic micrographs of fresh sweet potato samples showed that the size of starch granules was generally less than 20 μm. After the baking treatment, starch granules completely gelatinized. PMID:24426034

  4. Effects of baking and boiling on the nutritional and antioxidant properties of sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] cultivars.

    PubMed

    Dincer, Cuneyt; Karaoglan, Mert; Erden, Fidan; Tetik, Nedim; Topuz, Ayhan; Ozdemir, Feramuz

    2011-11-01

    The effects of baking and boiling on the nutritional and antioxidant properties of three sweet potato cultivars (Beniazuma, Koganesengan, Kotobuki) cultivated in Turkey were investigated. The samples were analyzed for proximate composition, total phenolic content, ascorbic acid, β-carotene, antiradical activity, and free sugars. The dry matter, protein, and starch contents of the sweet potatoes were significantly changed by the treatments while the ash and crude fiber contents did not differ as significantly. The β-carotene contents of baked and boiled sweet potatoes were lower than those of fresh sweet potatoes; however, the total phenolic and ascorbic acid contents of the baked and boiled sweet potatoes were higher than those of the fresh samples. Generally, the antiradical activity of the sweet potatoes increased with the treatments. Sucrose, glucose, and fructose were quantified as free sugars in all fresh sweet potatoes; however, maltose was determined in the treated samples. In terms of the analyzed parameters, there were no explicit differences among the sweet potato cultivars. PMID:22101780

  5. Effect of ingredients on rheological, nutritional and quality characteristics of fibre and protein enriched baked energy bars.

    PubMed

    Rawat, Neelam; Darappa, Indrani

    2015-05-01

    Effect of substitution of brown flour (BF) with fiber rich ingredient mixture, FRIM (banana flour, psyllium husk, partially defatted coconut flour and oats) and protein rich ingredient mixture, PRIM (chickpea flour, sesame, soya protein isolate and whey protein concentrate) at the levels of 25, 50 and 75% on the rheological, nutritional and quality characteristics of baked energy bars (BEB) were studied. Use of increasing amount of FRIM increased farinograph water absorption and amylograph peak viscosity while PRIM decreased the aforementioned parameters. Addition of FRIM or PRIM increased the bar dough hardness and decreased cohesiveness and springiness. The overall quality score of BEB increased only up to the substitution of 50% of BF with FRIM or PRIM. The BEB with 50% FRIM and PRIM remained chemically stable during storage up to 3months and showed 9 times increase in dietary fiber content and about 2 times increase in protein content respectively. PMID:25892802

  6. Multigeneration reproductive and developmental toxicity study of bar gene inserted into genetically modified potato on rats.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Gyu Seek; Cho, Dae Hyun; Won, Yong Hyuck; Seok, Ji Hyun; Kim, Soon Sun; Kwack, Seung Jun; Lee, Rhee Da; Chae, Soo Yeong; Kim, Jae Woo; Lee, Byung Mu; Park, Kui Lea; Choi, Kwang Sik

    2005-12-10

    Each specific protein has an individual gene encoding it, and a foreign gene introduced to a plant can be used to synthesize a new protein. The identification of potential reproductive and developmental toxicity from novel proteins produced by genetically modified (GM) crops is a difficult task. A science-based risk assessment is needed in order to use GM crops as a conventional foodstuff. In this study, the specific characteristics of GM food and low-level chronic exposure were examined using a five-generation animal study. In each generation, rats were fed a solid pellet containing 5% GM potato and non-GM potato for 10 wk prior to mating in order to assess the potential reproductive and developmental toxic effects. In the multigeneration animal study, there were no GM potato-related changes in body weight, food consumption, reproductive performance, and organ weight. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was carried out using extracted genomic DNA to examine the possibility of gene persistence in the organ tissues after a long-term exposure to low levels of GM feed. In each generation, the gene responsible for bar was not found in any of the reproductive organs of the GM potato-treated male and female rats, and the litter-related indexes did not show any genetically modified organism (GMO)-related changes. The results suggest that genetically modified crops have no adverse effects on the multigeneration reproductive-developmental ability. PMID:16326439

  7. Potato Flavor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato is one of the most popular vegetables worldwide and is the most important vegetable crop in the United States, accounting for nearly one-third of per-capita vegetable consumption. Potatoes can be prepared in many ways, including baking, boiling, roasting, frying, and microwaving, allowin...

  8. Pastry Baking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    Developed as part of the Marine Corps Institute (MCI) correspondence training program, this course on pastry baking is designed to provide a source of study materials on the preparation of pastry items within central pastry shops throughout the Marine Corps; it is adaptable for nonmilitary instruction. Introductory materials include specific…

  9. Baking soda overdose

    MedlinePLUS

    Soda loading ... Baking soda contains sodium bicarbonate. ... Symptoms of baking soda overdose include: Constipation Convulsions Diarrhea Feeling of being full Frequent urination Irritability Muscle spasms Muscle weakness Vomiting

  10. Baking Soda Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Activities, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the basic principles of baking soda chemistry including the chemical composition of baking soda, its acid-base properties, the reaction of bicarbonate solution with calcium ions, and a description of some general types of chemical reactions. Includes a science activity that involves removing calcium ions from water. (LZ)

  11. Selected Baking Formulas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogdany, Melvin

    This manual is designed to help baking students learn to use formulas in the preparation of baking products. Tested and proven formulas are, for the most part, standard ones with only slight modifications. The recipes are taken mainly from bakery product manufacturers and are presented in quantities suitable for school-shop use. Each recipe

  12. Selected Baking Formulas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogdany, Melvin

    This manual is designed to help baking students learn to use formulas in the preparation of baking products. Tested and proven formulas are, for the most part, standard ones with only slight modifications. The recipes are taken mainly from bakery product manufacturers and are presented in quantities suitable for school-shop use. Each recipe…

  13. Baking in the Backwoods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Steve

    2008-01-01

    Baking in the woods can be a lot of fun and can help to make a good trip an amazing one. It does take some time, planning, and preparation, and chosen recipes should be tested in the oven at home before trying them out with friends on a 10-day trip. Outdoor baking requires a different set of rules and equipment than those one uses at home and a…

  14. Commercial Baking. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Nancy

    A project filmed three commercial baking videotapes for use by secondary and adult students in food service programs. The three topics were basic dinner rolls, bread making, and hard breads and rolls. Quick-rise dough recipes were developed, written down, and explained for use with the videotapes. A pretest, posttest, and student guide were

  15. Bread Baking Contest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchette, Amy; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes a classroom project in which elementary students bake homemade bread to learn about the settlement period in Canadian history and the early history of the students' community. Maintains that students learn to compare the lifestyle of the past with the present. (CFR)

  16. Commercial Baking. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Nancy

    A project filmed three commercial baking videotapes for use by secondary and adult students in food service programs. The three topics were basic dinner rolls, bread making, and hard breads and rolls. Quick-rise dough recipes were developed, written down, and explained for use with the videotapes. A pretest, posttest, and student guide were…

  17. Storage performance of Taiwanese sweet potato cultivars.

    PubMed

    Huang, Che-Lun; Liao, Wayne C; Chan, Chin-Feng; Lai, Yung-Chang

    2014-12-01

    Three sweet potato cultivars (TNG57, TNG66, and TNG73), provided by the Taiwanese Agricultural Research Institute (TARI), were stored at either 15 °C or under ambient conditions (23.8 ~ 28.4 °C and 77.1 ~ 81.0 % of relative humidity). Sweet potato roots were randomly chosen from each replicate and evaluated for measurement of weight loss, sugar content analysis, and sprouting after 0, 14, 24, 48, 56, 70, 84, and 98 days of storage. Fresh sweet potato roots were baked at 200 °C for 60 min then samples were taken for sugar analysis. After 14 days of ambient condition storage, the sprouting percentages for TNG57, TNG66, and TNG73 were 100, 85, and 95 % respectively. When sweet potatoes were stored at 15 °C, the weight loss became less and no sweet potato root sprouted after 14 days of storage. Because manufacturers can store sweet potatoes at 15 °C for almost 2 month without other treatments, the supply capacity shortage in July and September can be reduced. The total sugar content slowly increased along with increasing the storage time. After baking, the total sugar content of sweet potatoes significantly increased due to the formation of maltose. Maltose became the major sugar of baked sweet potatoes. Raw sweet potatoes stored at 15 °C had higher total sugar contents after baking than those stored under ambient conditions. Raw sweet potatoes were recommended to be stored at 15 °C before baking. PMID:25477675

  18. Antibacterial activity of baking soda.

    PubMed

    Drake, D

    1997-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) was assessed using three different experimental approaches. Standard minimum inhibitory concentration analyses revealed substantial inhibitory activity against Streptococcus mutans that was not due to ionic strength or high osmolarity. Short-term exposure assays showed significant killing of bacterial suspensions when baking soda was combined with the detergent sodium dodecylsulfate. Multiple, brief exposures of sucrose-colonized S mutans to baking soda and sodium dodecylsulfate caused statistically significant decreases in numbers of viable cells. Use of oral health care products with high concentrations of baking soda could conceivably result in decreased levels of cariogenic S mutans in saliva and plaque. PMID:12017929

  19. Antibacterial activity of baking soda.

    PubMed

    Drake, D

    1996-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) was assessed using three different experimental approaches. Standard minimum inhibitory concentration analyses revealed substantial inhibitory activity against Streptococcus mutans that was not due to ionic strength or high osmolarity. Short-term exposure assays showed significant killing of bacterial suspensions when baking soda was combined with the detergent sodium dodecylsulfate. Multiple, brief exposures of sucrose-colonized S mutans to baking soda and sodium dodecylsulfate caused statistically significant decreases in numbers of viable cells. Use of oral health care products with high concentrations of baking soda could conceivably result in decreased levels of cariogenic S mutans in saliva and plaque. PMID:11524862

  20. Potato Types and Characteristics: Laboratory Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlista, Alexander D.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a number of simple exercises that demonstrate potato tuber characteristics and are designed for high school biology students and teachers. Exercises include Typing, Grading, Shape, Eye Characteristics, Defects, Specific Gravity, Dry Matter Content, Glucose Content, Baking, Frying/Chipping, and Taste Testing. (JRH)

  1. Effect of the intensity of cooking methods on the nutritional and physical properties of potato tubers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yali; Achaerandio, Isabel; Pujolà, Montserrat

    2016-04-15

    The different intensities of common culinary techniques (boiling, baking and microwaving) produce several changes that reduce the nutritional and physical properties of potatoes. This study evaluated the effect of those cooking methods on the quality of commercial potato tubers (Agata, Kennebec, Caesar and Red Pontiac). The higher weight losses were obtained for baking, but the potato softening depended on the cultivar. Color losses were independent of the intensity of the treatment; however, microwaving promoted a prompt starch gelatinization with respect to the other methods. The resistant starch retention of baking and microwaving was higher than that of boiling, and the maximum retention of bioactive compounds was obtained with the lower core temperature during boiling, as well as higher temperature and shorter baking time and the lower power and longer microwaving time. Principal component analysis revealed significant relationships between the instrumental and functional properties of cooked potatoes. PMID:26675872

  2. Baking Soda and Vinegar Rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claycomb, James R.; Zachary, Christopher; Tran, Quoc

    2009-02-01

    Rocket experiments demonstrating conservation of momentum will never fail to generate enthusiasm in undergraduate physics laboratories. In this paper, we describe tests on rockets from two vendors1,2 that combine baking soda and vinegar for propulsion. The experiment compared two analytical approximations for the maximum rocket height to the experimentally measured rocket height. Baking soda and vinegar rockets present fewer safety concerns and require a smaller launch area than rapid combustion chemical rockets. Both kits were of nearly identical design, costing ˜20. The rockets required roughly 30 minutes of assembly time consisting of mostly taping the soft plastic fuselage to the Styrofoam nose cone.

  3. Starch-Lignin Baked Foams

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Starch-kraft lignin foams were prepared by a baking process. Replacing up to 20% of the starch with lignin has no effect on foam density or overall morphology. At 10% replacement, lignin marginally increases water resistance and modulus of elasticity but decreases strain at maximum stress. At 20% re...

  4. Baking Soda and Vinegar Rockets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claycomb, James R.; Zachary, Christopher; Tran, Quoc

    2009-01-01

    Rocket experiments demonstrating conservation of momentum will never fail to generate enthusiasm in undergraduate physics laboratories. In this paper, we describe tests on rockets from two vendors that combine baking soda and vinegar for propulsion. The experiment compared two analytical approximations for the maximum rocket height to the

  5. Baking Soda and Vinegar Rockets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claycomb, James R.; Zachary, Christopher; Tran, Quoc

    2009-01-01

    Rocket experiments demonstrating conservation of momentum will never fail to generate enthusiasm in undergraduate physics laboratories. In this paper, we describe tests on rockets from two vendors that combine baking soda and vinegar for propulsion. The experiment compared two analytical approximations for the maximum rocket height to the…

  6. Collection Development: Hitting the Sweet Spot (Baking)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, John

    2010-01-01

    Baking can be intimidating. Just ask all those contestants on "Top Chef" who would rather prepare Beef Wellington than bake a cake. But libraries can take the fear factor out of baking by putting together a solid collection of cookbooks that can help anyone master the sweeter side of the culinary arts or even serve as delicious armchair reading…

  7. Collection Development: Hitting the Sweet Spot (Baking)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, John

    2010-01-01

    Baking can be intimidating. Just ask all those contestants on "Top Chef" who would rather prepare Beef Wellington than bake a cake. But libraries can take the fear factor out of baking by putting together a solid collection of cookbooks that can help anyone master the sweeter side of the culinary arts or even serve as delicious armchair reading

  8. Thermal modeling of photomask precision baking system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsubara, Koji; Kobayashi, Mutsuo; Rack, Simon; Miyazaki, Shinsuke; Ikeda, Toshiya

    2006-10-01

    Baking processes are widely acknowledged as being crucial steps in Photomask manufacture, and in particular, the Post-Exposure Bake (PEB) is regarded as the most critical. For 45nm-node Photomasks, and subsequent technology generations, the performance requirements for baking systems significantly exceed those of currently-available equipment. In comparison with Silicon Wafers, Photomask substrates, (typically 6inch square quartz), exhibit markedly different thermal properties. These differences conspire to make Photomask precision baking far more difficult than is the case for wafers. Multi-zone heating systems have been developed, and in principle offer a practical tuning method allowing better surface temperature uniformity of Photomasks during critical bake steps to be achieved. The best of these systems compensate, to some extent, for multiple causes of temperature non-uniformity within the baking system. Generally however, the root causes of temperature non-uniformity in the baking process have not all been identified, still less eliminated, and thus there remains a limit to the degree of control of Photomask surface temperature which can be achieved. In this study, we devised a "Thermal model" of the Photomask baking process. This model has enabled us to identify root causes of non-uniformity of Photomask surface temperatures, as well as providing a quantitative way of assessing how Photomask baking systems may be improved. We present simulation results from the model, as well as actual test data measured by sensor array plate.

  9. An Analysis of the Baking Occupation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyadjid, Thomas A; Paoletti, Donald J.

    The general purpose of the occupational analysis is to provide workable, basic information dealing with the many and varied duties performed in the baking occupation. Such tasks as choosing ingredients and the actual baking process are logical primary concerns, but also explored are the safety and sanitation factors and management problems in a…

  10. Vacuum Baking To Remove Volatile Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscari, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Outgassing reduced in some but not all nonmetallic materials. Eleven polymeric materials tested by determining outgassing species as temperature of conditioned and unconditioned materials raised to 300 degrees C. Conditioning process consisted of vacuum bake for 24 hours at 80 degrees C in addition to usual cure. Baking did not change residual gas percentage of water molecules.

  11. Baking soda: a potentially fatal home remedy.

    PubMed

    Nichols, M H; Wason, S; Gonzalez del Rey, J; Benfield, M

    1995-04-01

    We present a case of a six-week-old infant who developed life-threatening complications after unintentional sodium bicarbonate intoxication. Baking soda was being used by the mother as a home remedy to "help the baby burp." A review of the literature regarding the use (or misuse) of baking soda follows. Our patient, along with the other noted case reports, emphasizes the need for warnings on baking soda products whose labels recommend its use as an antacid. Poisonings must be high in the differential diagnosis of any patient, regardless of age, who presents with altered mental status or status epilepticus. PMID:7596870

  12. Microbial ecology of muffins baked from cassava and other nonwheat flours.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, S; Lindsay, D; Rey, M E; van Holy, A

    2001-01-01

    Cassava flour was evaluated as a partial substitute for wheat flour in gluten-free muffins. Four replicate test bakes were carried out to evaluate the microbial ecology of two muffin mixes, made with different combinations of cassava, soya, sorghum, sago, and potato flour. The muffins were baked at 180 degrees C for 25 min, stored at 30 degrees C and analysed microbiologically for up to 10 days post-baking. Raw materials were similarly analysed microbiologically on the day of baking. Characterization of predominant bacterial and mould isolates from the raw materials and the muffins was carried out. The rope-free and minimum mould-free shelf life of both muffin types were approximately 1 day and approximately 3 days, respectively. The predominant bacterial isolates from the raw materials and muffins were Bacillus species (83 and 99%, respectively). The moulds predominating in the raw materials were Gloeosporium (42%), Penicillium (13%) and Mucorales (13%), and from muffins Penicillium (37%) and Aspergillus (37%). PMID:11368089

  13. Influence of final baking technologies in partially baked frozen gluten-free bread quality.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Nria; Albanell, Elena; Miarro, Begoa; Gallardo, Joan; Capellas, Marta

    2015-03-01

    The effect of final baking in convection oven (FBC), microwave oven (FBM), and microwave oven with susceptor packaging material (FBMS) on partially baked (PB) frozen gluten-free bread characteristics was investigated. Specific volume and crust color of loaves were measured at day 0. Bread moisture, water activity, and crumb and crust texture (at 15, 45, and 90 min after baking) were analyzed at day 0 and after 28 d of frozen storage (-18C). Volatile compounds from breads baked in convection oven or microwave oven with susceptor packaging material were also evaluated. Bread finally baked in convection oven or in microwave oven with susceptor packaging increased crust browning. Crumb and roll hardness increased with time after final baking (measured at 15, 45, 90 min) and after 28 d of frozen storage. Bread finally baked in microwave oven was the hardest, due to high water losses. At day 0, bread finally baked in convection oven had softer crumb than bread finally baked in microwave oven with susceptor packaging but, after 28 d of frozen storage, there were no differences between them. Moreover, FBC and FBMS rendered gluten-free breads that could not be distinguished in a triangular test and had the same volatile compounds profile. In conclusion, FBMS could be an alternative to FBC. PMID:25656390

  14. Competitive position of natural gas: Industrial baking

    SciTech Connect

    Minsker, B.S.; Salama, S.Y.

    1988-01-01

    Industrial baking is one of the largest natural gas consumers in the food industry. In 1985, bread, rolls, cookies, and crackers accounted for over 82 percent of all baked goods production. Bread accounting for 46 percent of all production. The baking industry consumed approximately 16 trillion Btu in 1985. About 93 percent was natural gas, while distillate fuel oil accounted for seven percent, and electricity accounted for much less than one percent. The three main types of baking ovens are the single lap, tunnel, and Lanham ovens. In the single lap oven, trays carry the product back and forth through the baking chamber once. The single lap oven is the most common type of oven and is popular due to its long horizontal runs, extensive steam zone, and simple construction. The tunnel oven is slightly more efficient and more expensive that the single lap oven. IN the tunnel oven, the hearth is a motorized conveyor which passes in a straight line through a series of heating zones, with loading and unloading occurring at opposite ends of the oven. The advantages of the tunnel oven include flexibility with respect to pan size and simple, accurate top and bottom heat control. The tunnel oven is used exclusively in the cookie and cracker baking, with the product being deposited directly on the oven band. The most recently developed type of oven is the Lanham oven. The Lanham oven is the most efficient type of oven, with a per pound energy consumption approaching the practical minimum for baking bread. Between one--half and two--thirds of all new industrial baking ovens are Lanham ovens. In the Lanham oven, the product enters the oven near the top of the chamber, spirals down through a series of heating zones, and exits near the bottom of the oven. The oven is gas--fired directly by ribbon burners. 31 refs.

  15. DOUBLE-BAKED, SELF-CHANNELLING ELECTRODE

    DOEpatents

    Piper, R.D.; Leifield, R.F.

    1963-03-12

    A method is given for making an electrode for use in the electrolytic reduction of uranium oxides to uranium metal in a fused salt electrolyte. Uranlum oxide such as UO/sub 2/ is mixed with somewhat less than the stoichiometric amount of carbon needed for the reduction, and the mixture is baked and crushed to make a nonspherical material. The latter is then mixed with a carbon binder sufficient to satisfy stoichiometry, pressed into a shape such as a cylinder, and baked. (AEC)

  16. 25. DETAIL OF INSCRIPTION ON BAKE OVEN WHICH READS: PREMIUM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. DETAIL OF INSCRIPTION ON BAKE OVEN WHICH READS: PREMIUM PATENT BAKE OVEN ROASTER BY ALFRED H. REIP NO. 337 BALT. STREET BALTIMORE - Hazelwood, 18611 Queen Anne Road, Upper Marlboro, Prince George's County, MD

  17. Development of a Benchtop Baking Method for Chemically Leavened Crackers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traditionally, the baking performance of soft wheat flours has been evaluated by well-established benchtop cookie-baking methods. In contrast, a benchtop cracker-baking method has not been widely explored or implemented as an official method, due to hurdles including the difficulty in finding ideal...

  18. Introduction to Potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is an introductory chapter on potatoes which gives a brief history of the potato, potato morphology, taxonomy, production statistics, nutritional content, and future prospects for potato research and production. It will appear in a new book entitled Genetics, Genomics, and Breeding of Potato ...

  19. Energy consumption for baking and characteristics of baked product in relation to type of oven and baking procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Nee, Y.

    1982-01-01

    Data were obtained and analyzed on 1) energy consumption when a test food was baked with four types of electric ovens (electric range oven, table model conventional oven, table model forced convection oven, and table model broiler/toaster oven) with three cooking procedures (participant's own procedure, preheated procedure, and cold start procedure); 2) patterns of energy consumption in 10-minute intervals; and 3) the characteristics of the finished food. Twenty participants from households in Columbus, Ohio, baked loaves of quick bread in a laboratory in the four types of ovens with three cooking procedures. Statistical analyses of data included analyses of variance, Tukey test, and Duncan's multiple range test. Significantly more energy was used with the participants' own procedures than with either the preheated or the cold start procedure (p < .01). There was no consistency in total energy consumption between the preheated and the cold start procedures in the four types of ovens. The electric range oven consumed significantly more energy than the other three types of ovens in the first 10-minute interval; however, the table model forced convection oven consumed significantly more energy than other ovens in the second and third 10-minute intervals. No consistent patterns were observed for volume and weight loss of breads baked with the three cooking procedures, but use of the table model forced convection oven always resulted in larger volume than with other ovens.

  20. Bioavailability of a potato chromium complex to the laboratory rat

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, H.K.

    1985-01-01

    Research objectives were to study the effect of food source, preparation method and chemical form on bioavailability of chromium. Chromium concentration in potatoes was determined and tubers labeled either intrinsically or extrinsically with radioactive chromate. A labeled chromium complexes was isolated from preparations of raw, baked or fried potatoes and chromatographed on gel permeation media. Availability of the potato chromium complex to the rat was examined in three feeding studies. Animals were dosed with radioactive extrinsically or intrinsically labeled potato extract or with chromate. A labeled chromium complex was isolated from gastrointestinal contents of rats and chromatographed. Potato pulp and peel contained 1.63 and 2.70 ..mu..g Cr/g tissue respectively. True and apparent absorption from extrinsically labeled feedings were 33.4 +/- 4.7 and 29.8 +/- 11.2% respectively, and no differences existed between absorption from raw and cooked potatoes. Absorption from the extrinsic labeled potatoes differed significantly from absorption of inorganic chromatium. Apparent absorption of raw (11.1 +/- 7.9%) and cooked (-0.7 +/- 2.8%) intrinsically labeled feedings differed significantly. Absorption of inorganic chromium was 17.8% (true) and 11.5% (apparent). Examination of the chromium complex isolated from gastrointestinal tract contents showed enlargement of the complex in the stomach after consumption.

  1. Influence of baking method and baking temperature on the optical properties of ZnO thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, Zi-Neng; Chan, Kah-Yoong

    2015-04-24

    In this work, sol-gel spin coating technique was utilised to coat ZnO thin films on glass substrates. During the intermediate 3 minutes baking process, either hotplate or convection oven was employed to bake the samples. The temperature for the baking process was varied from 150°C to 300°C for both instruments. Avantes Optical Spectrophotometer was used to characterise the optical property. The optical transmittances of hotplate-baked and oven-baked samples showed different trends with increasing baking temperatures, ranging from below 50% transmittance to over 90% transmittance in the visible range of wavelength. The difference in baking mechanisms using hotplate and convection oven will be discussed in this paper.

  2. Microbiological, Nutritional, and Sensory Quality of Bread Produced from Wheat and Potato Flour Blends.

    PubMed

    Ijah, Udeme Joshua Josiah; Auta, Helen Shnada; Aduloju, Mercy Oluwayemisi; Aransiola, Sesan Abiodun

    2014-01-01

    Dehydrated uncooked potato (Irish and sweet) flour was blended by weight with commercial wheat flour at 0 to 10% levels of substitution to make bread. Comparative study of the microbial and nutritional qualities of the bread was undertaken. The total aerobic bacterial counts ranged from 3.0 10(5)?cfu/g to 1.09 10(6)?cfu/g while the fungal counts ranged from 8.0 10(1)?cfu/g to 1.20 10(3)?cfu/g of the sample. Coliforms were not detected in the bread. Bacteria isolated were species of Bacillus, Staphylococcus, and Micrococcus while fungi isolates were species of Aspergillus, Penicillium, Rhizopus, and Mucor. The mean sensory scores (color, aroma, taste, texture, and general acceptability) were evaluated. The color of the bread baked from WF/IPF2 (wheat/Irish potato flour, 95?:?5%) blend was preferred to WF (wheat flour, 100%) while WF/SPF1 (wheat/sweet potato flour, 100%) and WF/IPF1 (wheat/Irish potato flour, 90?:?10%) aroma were preferred to WF. However, the bread baked from WF, WF/IPF2 (wheat flour/Irish potato flour, 95?:?5%), and WF/SPF2 (wheat/sweet potato flour, 95?:?5%) was more acceptable than other blends. The use of hydrated potato flour in bread making is advantageous due to increased nutritional value, higher bread yield, and reduced rate of staling. PMID:26904642

  3. POTATO TUBERWORM PEROMONE TRAPPING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato tuberworm is a recent but serious pest of potato in the lower Columbia Basin of Oregon and Washington, and is a threat to potato growing areas of adjacent Idaho. The sex pheromone of the tuberworm is used in traps to monitor the presence, spread, and abundance of the pest in potato fiel...

  4. Baked Egg and Milk Exposure as Immunotherapy in Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Stephanie A

    2016-04-01

    Baked milk and egg have the potential to act as a form of oral immunotherapy (OIT). Clinical studies have shown that a majority of milk- and egg-allergic children can tolerate these allergens modified in baked form, and immunologic changes reported in subjects ingesting baked milk and egg mirror those seen in food allergy OIT trials. In addition, several studies have indicated that resolution of milk and egg allergies occur sooner in populations regularly ingesting baked milk and egg. Oral food challenges remain the best method for determining tolerability of baked milk and egg since baseline characteristics and diagnostic testing have not been reliable predictors. In this review, we explore the tolerability of baked milk and egg and their potential as OIT treatment for milk and egg allergy. PMID:27002516

  5. 11. HISTORIC AMERICAN BUILDINGS SURVEY George Neuschafer, photographer. INTERIOR: BAKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. HISTORIC AMERICAN BUILDINGS SURVEY George Neuschafer, photographer. INTERIOR: BAKE OVEN IN CELLAR FIREPLACE IN FIRST ADDITION - American House Hotel, Union Street & Moravian Alley, Hope, Warren County, NJ

  6. ITT Continental Baking tests electric vans

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-02-01

    ITT Continental Baking Co., operator of one of the largest truck fleets in the U.S., is studying battery power as an alternative fuel for the future. The company currently has a total of 10 lead battery-powered vans delivering bread and cake products in Sacramento, California, and Spokane, Washington. Through a cost-sharing program with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the company will operate the vehicles through at least June 30, 1985, gathering data on their performance. The joint program began in 1981.

  7. Baking the first bread in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    This Getaway Special program is a joint venture between Spar, Monarch flour and Telesat, with Telesat being responsible for the design, manufacture and implementation of the equipment. The purpose of the experiment is to investigate the behavior of bread yeast in the absence of gravity and in the presence of normal atmospheric pressure. The proposed design mixes flour, water and yeast on-orbit, allows the mixture to prove and then bakes it. This paper outlines the development history of the experiment, the various test programs and some of the problems encountered, with their solutions.

  8. Survival of Salmonella during baking of peanut butter cookies.

    PubMed

    Lathrop, Amanda A; Taylor, Tiffany; Schnepf, James

    2014-04-01

    Peanuts and peanut-based products have been the source of recent Salmonella outbreaks worldwide. Because peanut butter is commonly used as an ingredient in baked goods, such as cookies, the potential risk of Salmonella remaining in these products after baking needs to be assessed. This research examines the potential hazard of Salmonella in peanut butter cookies when it is introduced via the peanut-derived ingredient. The survival of Salmonella during the baking of peanut butter cookies was determined. Commercial, creamy-style peanut butter was artificially inoculated with a five-strain Salmonella cocktail at a target concentration of 10(8) CFU/g. The inoculated peanut butter was then used to prepare peanut butter cookie dough following a standard recipe. Cookies were baked at 350 °F (177 °C) and were sampled after 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, and 15 min. Temperature profiles of the oven and cookies were monitored during baking. The water activity and pH of the inoculated and uninoculated peanut butter, raw dough, and baked cookies were measured. Immediately after baking, cookies were cooled, and the survival of Salmonella was determined by direct plating or enrichment. After baking cookies for 10 min, the minimum reduction of Salmonella observed was 4.8 log. In cookies baked for 13 and 14 min, Salmonella was only detectable by enrichment reflecting a Salmonella reduction in the range of 5.2 to 6.2 log. Cookies baked for 15 min had no detectable Salmonella. Results of this study showed that proper baking will reduce Salmonella in peanut butter cookies by 5 log or more. PMID:24680076

  9. Germination of oat and quinoa and evaluation of the malts as gluten free baking ingredients.

    PubMed

    Mkinen, Outi E; Zannini, Emanuele; Arendt, Elke K

    2013-03-01

    Germination can be used to improve the sensory and nutritional properties of cereal and pseudocereal grains. Oat and quinoa are rich in minerals, vitamins and fibre while quinoa also contains high amounts of protein of a high nutritional value. In this study, oat and quinoa malts were produced and incorporated in a rice and potato based gluten free formulation. Germination of oat led to a drastic increase of ?-amylase activity from 0.3 to 48 U/g, and minor increases in proteolytic and lipolytic activities. Little change was observed in quinoa except a decrease in proteolytic activity from 9.6 to 6.9 U/g. Oat malt addition decreased batter viscosities at both proofing temperature and during heating. These changes led to a decrease in bread density from 0.59 to 0.5g/ml and the formation of a more open crumb, but overdosing of oat malt deteriorated the product as a result of excessive amylolysis during baking. Quinoa malt had no significant effect on the baking properties due to low ?-amylase activity. Despite showing a very different impact on the bread quality, both malts influenced the electrophoretic patterns of rice flour protein similarly. This suggests that malt induced proteolysis does not influence the technological properties of a complex gluten free formulation. PMID:23386201

  10. [Effect of soybean lipoxygenae on baking properties of wheat flour].

    PubMed

    Permiakova, M D; Trufanov, V A

    2011-01-01

    Changes in bread-baking properties of wheat flour caused by soybean lipoxygenase and polyunsaturated fatty acids were studied. A positive effect of soybean flour added during dough kneading in an amount of 2% was demonstrated. A method for dough fermentation increasing the loaf volume and improving organoleptic characteristics and total bread-baking estimate is recommended. PMID:21790037

  11. Kinetics of the crust thickness development of bread during baking.

    PubMed

    Soleimani Pour-Damanab, Alireza; Jafary, A; Rafiee, Sh

    2014-11-01

    The development of crust thickness of bread during baking is an important aspect of bread quality and shelf-life. Computer vision system was used for measuring the crust thickness via colorimetric properties of bread surface during baking process. Crust thickness had a negative and positive relationship with Lightness (L (*) ) and total color change (E (*) ) of bread surface, respectively. A linear negative trend was found between crust thickness and moisture ratio of bread samples. A simple mathematical model was proposed to predict the development of crust thickness of bread during baking, where the crust thickness was depended on moisture ratio that was described by the Page moisture losing model. The independent variables of the model were baking conditions, i.e. oven temperature and air velocity, and baking time. Consequently, the proposed model had well prediction ability, as the mean absolute estimation error of the model was 7.93%. PMID:26396343

  12. Methods for determining the degree of baking in anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, C.P.

    1996-10-01

    Anode baking temperature is recognized as a critical factor in determining anode quality and performance. It is difficult and costly to measure directly and an indirect method, the coke L{sub c} technique, is often used. In this technique, baking temperature is estimated from the average crystallite size in the c direction (L{sub c}) of a coke sample placed in the anode stubhole. The paper details the results of a large statistically designed experimental program in which coke L{sub c} results were compared to anode properties routinely measured by smelters. Anode thermal conductivity and air and carboxy reactivity were found to correlate well with baking temperature. A direct anode L{sub c} measurement technique was also strongly associated with temperature, particularly at high baking temperatures. Recommendations are given on the usefulness and simplicity of traditional anode property measurements for assessing baking temperatures as alternatives to the coke L{sub c} method.

  13. Thermodynamics of bread baking: A two-state model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zürcher, Ulrich

    2014-03-01

    Bread baking can be viewed as a complex physico-chemical process. It is governed by transport of heat and is accompanied by changes such as gelation of starch, the expansion of air cells within dough, and others. We focus on the thermodynamics of baking and investigate the heat flow through dough and find that the evaporation of excess water in dough is the rate-limiting step. We consider a simplified one-dimensional model of bread, treating the excess water content as a two-state variable that is zero for baked bread and a fixed constant for unbaked dough. We arrive at a system of coupled, nonlinear ordinary differential equations, which are solved using a standard Runge-Kutta integration method. The calculated baking times are consistent with common baking experience.

  14. 7 CFR 946.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions 946.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown...

  15. Relationship between Processing Method and the Glycemic Indices of Ten Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas) Cultivars Commonly Consumed in Jamaica

    PubMed Central

    Bahado-Singh, Perceval S.; Riley, Cliff K.; Wheatley, Andrew O.; Lowe, Henry I. C.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of different traditional cooking methods on glycemic index (GI) and glycemic response of ten Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) cultivars commonly eaten in Jamaica. Matured tubers were cooked by roasting, baking, frying, or boiling then immediately consumed by the ten nondiabetic test subjects (5 males and 5 females; mean age of 27 2 years). The GI varied between 41 593 5 for the tubers studied. Samples prepared by boiling had the lowest GI (41 550 3), while those processed by baking (82 394 3) and roasting (79 493 2) had the highest GI values. The study indicates that the glycemic index of Jamaican sweet potatoes varies significantly with the method of preparation and to a lesser extent on intravarietal differences. Consumption of boiled sweet potatoes could minimize postprandial blood glucose spikes and therefore, may prove to be more efficacious in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:22132322

  16. Relationship between Processing Method and the Glycemic Indices of Ten Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas) Cultivars Commonly Consumed in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Bahado-Singh, Perceval S; Riley, Cliff K; Wheatley, Andrew O; Lowe, Henry I C

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of different traditional cooking methods on glycemic index (GI) and glycemic response of ten Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) cultivars commonly eaten in Jamaica. Matured tubers were cooked by roasting, baking, frying, or boiling then immediately consumed by the ten nondiabetic test subjects (5 males and 5 females; mean age of 27 2 years). The GI varied between 41 5-93 5 for the tubers studied. Samples prepared by boiling had the lowest GI (41 5-50 3), while those processed by baking (82 3-94 3) and roasting (79 4-93 2) had the highest GI values. The study indicates that the glycemic index of Jamaican sweet potatoes varies significantly with the method of preparation and to a lesser extent on intravarietal differences. Consumption of boiled sweet potatoes could minimize postprandial blood glucose spikes and therefore, may prove to be more efficacious in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:22132322

  17. Potato production in Thailand

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato production has increased dramatically in recent years in Thailand. Consumer demand for fresh and processed potatoes has driven this trend. Most potatoes are produced in northern Thailand in either double cropping highland zones or as a single winter crop following rice in lowland regions. Maj...

  18. POTATO DISEASE RESISTANCE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potential to use systemic acquired resistance for disease control in potato is discussed. The mechanism of how SAR works in plants is described. Potato was found to have high salicylic acid levels in all tissues examined. The defense gene PR-1 was constitutively expressed in potato, in contrast ...

  19. 2008 Volunteer Potato Outlook

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato tubers left in the ground following a potato harvest often over winter in regions with mild winter temperatures resulting in a serious and difficult to manage weed problem in the ensuing crop rotation. Potatoes normally are killed when they reach temperatures below 28° F. Winter soil tempera...

  20. Colorado potato beetle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Colorado potato beetle (CPB) shifted to the potato crop from native solanaceous weeds in the American West in 1859, and has been a serious pest ever since. CPB is a highly fecund leaf-feeder on potato and eggplant, and often tomatoes, with one to several generations per year. It is the most importa...

  1. Domestic cooking methods affect the phytochemical composition and antioxidant activity of purple-fleshed potatoes.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jinhu; Chen, Jianle; Lv, Feiyan; Chen, Shiguo; Chen, Jianchu; Liu, Donghong; Ye, Xingqian

    2016-04-15

    The effects of domestic cooking methods (boiling, baking, steaming, microwaving, frying, and stir-frying) and a new cooking method (air-frying) on the composition of phytochemicals (phenolics, anthocyanins, and carotenoids) and the antioxidant activity in purple-fleshed potatoes were investigated. Compared with raw potatoes, reductions of 23.59-90.42%, 7.09-72.44%, 7.45-83.15%, and 20.15-76.16% in the vitamin C, total phenolic, anthocyanin and carotenoid contents, respectively, was observed after cooking. Decreases of 7.88%, 21.55%, 22.48, 6.31%, and 61.38% in DPPH radical-scavenging activity was also observed after boiling, steaming, baking, microwaving and stir-frying, respectively, whereas an increase of 30.52% was noted after air-frying. A correlation analysis revealed that the antioxidant activity was in accordance with the total phenolic content and that this activity showed the lowest correlation with the vitamin C content. Among all of the cooking methods investigated in this study, stir-frying retained only slight levels of the phytochemicals and antioxidant activity observed in raw potatoes, whereas steaming and microwaving were able to retain most of the health-promoting compounds found in raw potatoes and may thus be suitable methods for cooking potatoes. PMID:26675866

  2. Baking Performance of Phosphorylated Cross-Linked Resistant Starch in Low-Moisture Bakery Goods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorylated cross-linked resistant starch (RS) is a type 4 RS, which can be used for enhancing the benefits of dietary fiber. The baking performance of the RS was explored using wire-cut cookie baking and benchtop chemically-leavened cracker baking methods to produce low-moisture baked goods (coo...

  3. 89. BAKE SHOP AFT LOOKING FORWARD SHOWING KNEADING TABLE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    89. BAKE SHOP - AFT LOOKING FORWARD SHOWING KNEADING TABLE, OVENS, DOUGH MIXER, BREAD RACKS AND RISING CABINETS. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  4. 23. VIEW OF COOKING FIREPLACE AND BAKE OVEN IN KITCHEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. VIEW OF COOKING FIREPLACE AND BAKE OVEN IN KITCHEN OF SOUTH (ORIGINAL) SECTION, SOUTHEAST ROOM, SOUTH WALL, WITH OVEN DOOR OPEN - Hazelwood, 18611 Queen Anne Road, Upper Marlboro, Prince George's County, MD

  5. 24. VIEW OF COOKING FIREPLACE AND BAKE OVEN IN KITCHEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. VIEW OF COOKING FIREPLACE AND BAKE OVEN IN KITCHEN OF SOUTH (ORIGINAL) SECTION, SOUTHEAST ROOM, SOUTH WALL, WITH OVEN DOOR CLOSED - Hazelwood, 18611 Queen Anne Road, Upper Marlboro, Prince George's County, MD

  6. Ingesting Baked Egg May Help Children Outgrow Egg Allergy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Ingesting baked egg may help children outgrow egg allergy Published: August 1, 2012 Recent studies report that an increasing number of children are retaining egg allergy into their teenage years. Yet we are also ...

  7. Flat as a Pancake? Exploring Rising in Baked Goods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Presents an activity that can be used for acid-base chemistry, everyday chemistry, or food chemistry. Investigates the rising in baked goods. Includes both instructor information and student activity sheets. (YDS)

  8. 9 CFR 381.163 - (Kind) baked or (Kind) roasted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... Composition 381.163 (Kind) baked or (Kind) roasted. Such product consists of ready-to-cook poultry...

  9. Conjugate heat transfer analysis of 300-mm bake station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanan, Natarajan; Liang, Frank F.; Sims, James B.

    1999-06-01

    An exhaustive heat-transfer analysis of 200-mm and 300-mm bake equipment has been conducted to infer the temperature uniformity on the wafer from the time it is set on the plate until the end of the bake process. The objective of the analysis was to gain insight into the heat transport to the wafer and improve the thermal uniformity of the wafer. During the soft, hard and post-exposure bake processes, the temperatures to which the wafer is heated can range from 50 degrees to 250 degrees C. The influence of the variables that contribute to the temperature nonuniformity, namely the height of the proximity pins, wafer warp and bow, heater thickness, insulation of the bake plate, and lid material, have been analyzed. The analysis has been carried out using computational fluid dynamics packages, FLUENT/UNS and FIDAP. The accuracy of the numerical simulations has been verified through analytical solution is presented which provides a closed-form expression for the temperature of the wafer in terms of Biot number, a dimensionless parameter. The temperature rise of the wafer based on this simple expression compares very favorably with the detailed axisymmetric numerical solution that was carried out using variable material properties and the complex boundary conditions for the geometry of a 200-mm bake plate. The radial temperature variation on the wafer after 100 seconds on the bake plate also matches very well with the measurements. Based on the success of the modeling results with the 200-mm bake plates, a 300-mm bake plate analysis was conducted to determine if the temperature uniformity would be within specifications. The analysis revealed some key factors that caused temperature nonuniformity and the design was then altered to improve the temperature uniformity. Subsequent measurements confirmed the improvement of the temperature uniformity.

  10. Potatoes and human health.

    PubMed

    Camire, Mary Ellen; Kubow, Stan; Donnelly, Danielle J

    2009-11-01

    The potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber follows only rice and wheat in world importance as a food crop for human consumption. Cultivated potatoes have spread from the Andes of South America where they originated to 160 countries around the world. Consumption of fresh potatoes has declined while processed products have increased in popularity. As the potato becomes a staple in the diets of an increasing number of humans, small differences in potato nutritional composition will have major impacts on population health. The potato is a carbohydrate-rich, energy-providing food with little fat. Potato protein content is fairly low but has an excellent biological value of 90-100. Potatoes are particularly high in vitamin C and are a good source of several B vitamins and potassium. The skins provide substantial dietary fiber. Many compounds in potatoes contribute to antioxidant activity and interest in cultivars with pigmented flesh is growing. This review will examine the nutrient and bioactive compounds in potatoes and their impact on human health. PMID:19960391

  11. Composition of sulfited potatoes: comparison with fresh and frozen potatoes.

    PubMed

    Chalom, S; Elrezzi, E; Pea, P; Astiarsarn, I; Bello, J

    1995-02-01

    The content in moisture, fat, protein, carbohydrate, fibre and vitamin C was analyzed in three commercial types of potatoes: sulfited (treated with E223), frozen potatoes (pre-fried) and fresh potatoes (not processed). The composition of sulfited potatoes does not usually appear in food composition tables. Our results showed significant differences in the content of carbohydrates and fibre between sulfited and fresh potatoes. The content of vitamin C in sulfited potatoes, which is similar to that of frozen potatoes, was shown to be approximately half of that found in fresh potatoes. PMID:7792261

  12. Identification of potent odorants formed during the preparation of extruded potato snacks.

    PubMed

    Majcher, Ma?gorzata A; Jele?, Henryk H

    2005-08-10

    Extrusion cooking processing followed by air-drying has been applied to obtain low-fat potato snacks. Optimal parameters were developed for a dough recipe. Dough contained apart from potato granules 7% of canola oil, 1% of salt, 1% of baking powder, 5% of maltodextrin, and 15% of wheat flour. After the extrusion process, snacks were dried at 85 degrees C for 15 min followed by 130 degrees C for 45 min. The potent odorants of extruded potato snacks were identified using aroma extract dilution analysis and gas chromatography-olfactometry. Among the characteristic compounds, methional with boiled potato flavor, benzenemethanethiol with pepper-seed flavor, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline with popcorn flavor, benzacetaldehyde with strong flowery flavor, butanal with rancid flavor, and 2-acetylpyrazine with roasty flavor were considered to be the main contributors to the aroma of extruded potato snacks. Several compounds were concluded to be developed during extrusion cooking, such as ethanol, 3-methylbutanal, (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one with geranium flavor, and unknown ones with the flavor of boiled potato, cumin, candy, or parsley root. Compounds such as methanethiol, 2,3-pentanedione, limonene, 2-acetylpyrazine, 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone, 2-methyl-3,5-diethylpyrazine, 5-methyl-2,3-diethylpyrazine, and (E)-beta-damascenone were probably developed during air-drying of the potato extrudate. PMID:16076130

  13. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    PubMed

    Chetty, Venkateswari J; Narvez-Vsquez, Javier; Orozco-Crdenas, Martha L

    2015-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is the most common method for the incorporation of foreign genes into the genome of potato as well as many other species in the Solanaceae family. This chapter describes protocols for the genetic transformation of three species of potato: Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum (Desir), S. tuberosum subsp. andigenum (Blue potato), and S. tuberosum subsp. andigena using internodal segments as explants. PMID:25416251

  14. Microbiological, Nutritional, and Sensory Quality of Bread Produced from Wheat and Potato Flour Blends

    PubMed Central

    Ijah, Udeme Joshua Josiah; Aduloju, Mercy Oluwayemisi; Aransiola, Sesan Abiodun

    2014-01-01

    Dehydrated uncooked potato (Irish and sweet) flour was blended by weight with commercial wheat flour at 0 to 10% levels of substitution to make bread. Comparative study of the microbial and nutritional qualities of the bread was undertaken. The total aerobic bacterial counts ranged from 3.0 × 105 cfu/g to 1.09 × 106 cfu/g while the fungal counts ranged from 8.0 × 101 cfu/g to 1.20 × 103 cfu/g of the sample. Coliforms were not detected in the bread. Bacteria isolated were species of Bacillus, Staphylococcus, and Micrococcus while fungi isolates were species of Aspergillus, Penicillium, Rhizopus, and Mucor. The mean sensory scores (color, aroma, taste, texture, and general acceptability) were evaluated. The color of the bread baked from WF/IPF2 (wheat/Irish potato flour, 95 : 5%) blend was preferred to WF (wheat flour, 100%) while WF/SPF1 (wheat/sweet potato flour, 100%) and WF/IPF1 (wheat/Irish potato flour, 90 : 10%) aroma were preferred to WF. However, the bread baked from WF, WF/IPF2 (wheat flour/Irish potato flour, 95 : 5%), and WF/SPF2 (wheat/sweet potato flour, 95 : 5%) was more acceptable than other blends. The use of hydrated potato flour in bread making is advantageous due to increased nutritional value, higher bread yield, and reduced rate of staling. PMID:26904642

  15. Bioavailability of zinc from sweet potato roots and leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Baiden, H.N.; Ercanli-Huffman, F.G.

    1986-03-05

    Bioavailability of zinc from sweet potato (SP) roots and leaves were determined, by extrinsic labeling technique, in rats fed control and zinc deficient diets. Weanling male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats (60-75g) were divided into 4 groups, and fed laboratory chow, a control diet (ad libitum and pair fed) and a zinc deficient diet, for 4 weeks. Each group then was divided into at least 2 sub groups, containing 6 rats, which were intubated with one of 3 tubing solutions extrinsically labeled with /sup 65/Zn; baked sweet potato roots (BSPR), raw sweet potato leaves (RSPL) and cooked sweet potato leaves (CSPL). Five hours after intubation the rats were sacrificed, blood, liver, testes, spleen, heart, brain, thymus and lungs were removed. Feces, urine, and GI tract contents were collected and their /sup 65/Zn activity was determined in a gamma counter. In all treatment groups zinc bioavailability from BSPR, RSPL or CSPL were not significantly different. Zinc deficient rats absorbed significantly more (P < 0.01) /sup 65/Zn (86-90% of the dose), regardless of type of tubing solution than the pairfed or control animals (35-58% of the dose). The highest retention of /sup 65/Zn was found in the liver (12-20% of absorbed dose), GI tract (6-17% of absorbed dose), kidney (2-8% of absorbed dose), and blood (1-5% of absorbed dose). The lowest retention was found in the brain, heart, thymus and testes. (< 1% of absorbed dose).

  16. Low-acrylamide French fries and potato chips

    PubMed Central

    Rommens, Caius M; Yan, Hua; Swords, Kathy; Richael, Craig; Ye, Jingsong

    2008-01-01

    Acrylamide is produced in starchy foods that are baked, roasted or fried at high temperatures. Concerns about the potential health issues associated with the dietary intake of this reactive compound led us to reduce the accumulation of asparagine, one of its main precursors, in the tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosum). This metabolic change was accomplished by silencing two asparagine synthetase genes through all-native DNA transformation. Glasshouse-grown tubers of the transformed intragenic plants contained up to 20-fold reduced levels of free asparagine. This metabolic change coincided with a small increase in the formation of glutamine and did not affect tuber shape or yield. Heat-processed products derived from the low-asparagine tubers were also indistinguishable from their untransformed counterparts in terms of sensory characteristics. However, both French fries and potato chips accumulated as little as 5% of the acrylamide present in wild-type controls. Given the important role of processed potato products in the modern Western diet, a replacement of current varieties with intragenic potatoes could reduce the average daily intake of acrylamide by almost one-third. PMID:18662372

  17. Solanum tuberosum (Potato)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato is the fourth most important food crop worldwide, with high value as a balanced and nutritious food. It is one of the world’s most productive crops. Wild potatoes are native from the southwestern United States to south-central Chile, with centers of species diversity in central Mexico and in ...

  18. THE POTATO SYSTEMS PLANNER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Developing profitable crop rotations is a top research priority for the potato industry. An interdisciplinary team of ARS scientists from the New England Plant, Soil, & Water Laboratory evaluated 14 rotations for their impacts on potato yield and quality, nutrient availability, plant diseases, soil ...

  19. New baking system for the RFX vacuum vessel

    SciTech Connect

    Collarin, P.; Luchetta, A.; Sonato, P.; Toigo, V.; Zaccaria, P.; Zollino, G.

    1996-12-31

    A heating system based on eddy currents has been developed for the vacuum vessel of the RFX Reversed Field Pinch device. After a testing phase, carried out at low power, the final power supply system has been designed and installed. It has been used during last year to bake out the vessel and the graphite first wall up to 320{degree}C. Recently the heating system has been completed with a control system that allows for baking sessions with an automatic control of the vacuum vessel temperature and for pulse sessions with a heated first wall. After the description of the preliminary analyses and tests, and of the main characteristics of the power supply and control systems, the experimental results of the baking sessions performed during last year are presented. 6 refs., 7 figs.

  20. 7 CFR 945.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED.... Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown within the aforesaid production area....

  1. Dietary baked-milk accelerates resolution of cow's milk allergy in children

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jennifer S.; Nowak-W?grzyn, Anna; Sicherer, Scott H.; Noone, Sally; Moshier, Erin L.; Sampson, Hugh A.

    2011-01-01

    Background The majority (?75%) of cow's milk-allergic children tolerate extensively heated-(baked-) milk products. Long-term effects of inclusion of dietary baked-milk have not been reported. Objective We report on the outcomes of children who incorporated baked-milk products into their diets. Methods Children evaluated for tolerance to baked-milk (muffin) underwent sequential food challenges to baked-cheese (pizza) followed by unheated-milk. Immunologic parameters were measured at challenge visits. The comparison group were matched to active subjects (using age, sex, and baseline milk-specific IgE) to evaluate the natural history of tolerance development. Results Over a median of 37 months (range 8-75 months), 88 children underwent challenges at varying intervals (range 6-54 months). Among 65 subjects initially tolerant to baked-milk, 39 (60%) now tolerate unheated-milk, 18 (28%) tolerate baked-milk/baked-cheese and 8 (12%) chose to avoid milk strictly. Among the baked-milk-reactive subgroup (n=23), 2 (9%) tolerate unheated-milk, 3 (13%) tolerate baked-milk/baked-cheese, while the majority (78%) avoid milk strictly. Subjects who were initially tolerant to baked-milk were 28 times more likely to become unheated-milk-tolerant compared to baked-milk-reactive subjects (P<.001). Subjects who incorporated dietary baked-milk were 16 times more likely than the comparison group to become unheated-milk-tolerant (P<.001). Median casein IgG4 levels in the baked-milk-tolerant group increased significantly (P<.001); median milk IgE values did not change significantly. Conclusions Tolerance of baked-milk is a marker of transient IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy whereas reactivity to baked-milk portends a more persistent phenotype. The addition of baked-milk to the diet of children tolerating such foods appears to accelerate development of unheated-milk tolerance compared to strict avoidance. Clinical implications Addition of dietary baked-milk is safe, convenient, and well-accepted by patients. Prescribing baked-milk products to milk-allergic children represents an important shift in the treatment paradigm for milk allergy. Capsule summary The majority of cow's milk-allergic children tolerate extensively baked-milk products, which is a marker of transient IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy. Dietary baked-milk appears to accelerate development of unheated-milk tolerance compared to strict avoidance. PMID:21601913

  2. Potato Operation: automatic detection of potato diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefebvre, Marc; Zimmerman, Thierry; Baur, Charles; Guegerli, Paul; Pun, Thierry

    1995-01-01

    The Potato Operation is a collaborative, multidisciplinary project in the domain of destructive testing of agricultural products. It aims at automatizing pulp sampling of potatoes in order to detect possible viral diseases. Such viruses can decrease fields productivity by a factor of up to ten. A machine, composed of three conveyor belts, a vision system, a robotic arm and controlled by a PC has been built. Potatoes are brought one by one from a bulk to the vision system, where they are seized by a rotating holding device. The sprouts, where the viral activity is maximum, are then detected by an active vision process operating on multiple views. The 3D coordinates of the sampling point are communicated to the robot arm holding a drill. Some flesh is then sampled by the drill, then deposited into an Elisa plate. After sampling, the robot arm washes the drill in order to prevent any contamination. The PC computer simultaneously controls these processes, the conveying of the potatoes, the vision algorithms and the sampling procedure. The master process, that is the vision procedure, makes use of three methods to achieve the sprouts detection. A profile analysis first locates the sprouts as protuberances. Two frontal analyses, respectively based on fluorescence and local variance, confirm the previous detection and provide the 3D coordinate of the sampling zone. The other two processes work by interruption of the master process.

  3. Effect of low temperature baking on niobium cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Kneisel; Ganapati Myneni; William Lanford; Gianluigi Ciovati

    2003-09-01

    A low temperature (100 C-150 C) ''in situ'' baking under ultra-high vacuum has been successfully applied as final preparation of niobium RF cavities by several laboratories over the last few years. The benefits reported consist mainly of an improvement of the cavity quality factor and a recovery from the so-called ''Q-drop'' without field emission at high field. A series of experiments with a CEBAF single cell cavity have been carried out at Jefferson Lab to carefully investigate the effect of baking at progressively higher temperatures for a fixed time on all the relevant material parameters. Measurements of the cavity quality factor in the temperature range 1.37K-280K and resonant frequency shift between 6K-9.3K provide information about the surface resistance, energy gap, penetration depth and mean free path. The experimental data have been analyzed with the complete BCS theory of superconductivity using a modified version of the computer code originally written by J. Halbritter [1] . Small niobium samples inserted in the cavity during its surface preparation were analyzed with respect to their hydrogen content with a Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA). The single cell cavity has been tested at three different temperatures before and after baking to gain some insight on thermal conductivity and Kapitza resistance and the data are compared with different models. This paper describes the results from these experiments and comments on the existing models to explain the effect of baking on the performance of niobium RF cavities.

  4. Effect of chia seed meal on baking quality of cakes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chia seed is a good source of dietary fiber and complete proteins; chia seeds contain many health-promoting compounds and can be incorporated into baking goods for high-protein, high-fiber diet. Food grade chia seeds were obtained from a local grocery store and ground into meal using Retsch Model VD...

  5. Milling and Baking Qualities of Weathered Soft Wheats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of weathered/pre-harvested sprouted soft wheats on milling and baking qualities were explored with 12 soft wheat cultivars. Weathered/pre-harvested sprouted wheats increased break flour yield, but significantly decreased test weight. The relationships between falling number and a-amylas...

  6. Milling and Baking Quality of Low Phytic Acid Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low phytic acid (LPA) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one approach to improving nutritional quality of wheat by reducing the major storage form of phosphorus and increasing the level of inorganic phosphorus, which is more readily absorbed by humans and other monogastric animals. Milling and baking ...

  7. 34. DESPATCH CORE OVENS, GREY IRON FOUNDRY CORE ROOM, BAKES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. DESPATCH CORE OVENS, GREY IRON FOUNDRY CORE ROOM, BAKES CORES THAT ARE NOT MADE ON HEATED OR COLD BOX CORE MACHINES, TO SET BINDING AGENTS MIXED WITH THE SAND CREATING CORES HARD ENOUGH TO WITHSTAND THE FLOW OF MOLTEN IRON INSIDE A MOLD. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  8. Food Production, Management, and Services. Baking. Teacher Edition. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, LeRoy

    These instructional materials are intended for a course on food production, management, and services involved in baking. The following introductory information is included: use of this publication; competency profile; instructional/task analysis; related academic and workplace skills list; tools, materials, and equipment list; 13 references; and a

  9. Food Production, Management, and Services. Baking. Teacher Edition. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, LeRoy

    These instructional materials are intended for a course on food production, management, and services involved in baking. The following introductory information is included: use of this publication; competency profile; instructional/task analysis; related academic and workplace skills list; tools, materials, and equipment list; 13 references; and a…

  10. A Database Approach for Predicting and Monitoring Baked Anode Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauzon-Gauthier, Julien; Duchesne, Carl; Tessier, Jayson

    2012-11-01

    The baked anode quality control strategy currently used by most carbon plants based on testing anode core samples in the laboratory is inadequate for facing increased raw material variability. The low core sampling rate limited by lab capacity and the common practice of reporting averaged properties based on some anode population mask a significant amount of individual anode variability. In addition, lab results are typically available a few weeks after production and the anodes are often already set in the reduction cells preventing early remedial actions when necessary. A database approach is proposed in this work to develop a soft-sensor for predicting individual baked anode properties at the end of baking cycle. A large historical database including raw material properties, process operating parameters and anode core data was collected from a modern Alcoa plant. A multivariate latent variable PLS regression method was used for analyzing the large database and building the soft-sensor model. It is shown that the general low frequency trends in most anode physical and mechanical properties driven by raw material changes are very well captured by the model. Improvements in the data infrastructure (instrumentation, sampling frequency and location) will be necessary for predicting higher frequency variations in individual baked anode properties. This paper also demonstrates how multivariate latent variable models can be interpreted against process knowledge and used for real-time process monitoring of carbon plants, and detection of faults and abnormal operation.

  11. Effect of corn bran substitution on baking quality of cakes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food-grade corn bran from the grain milling industry is good source of dietary fiber and can be incorporated into baking goods for low calorie, high-fiber diet. Food grade corn bran was obtained from ICM (St. Joseph, MO) and purified from endosperm and germ fragments using a Kice Multi-Aspirator. ...

  12. Baking of SST-1 vacuum vessel modules and sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathan, Firozkhan S.; Khan, Ziauddin; Yuvakiran, Paravastu; George, Siju; Ramesh, Gattu; Manthena, Himabindu; Shah, Virendrakumar; Raval, Dilip C.; Thankey, Prashant L.; Dhanani, Kalpesh R.; Pradhan, Subrata

    2012-11-01

    SST-1 Tokamak is a steady state super-conducting tokamak for plasma discharge of 1000 sec duration. The plasma discharge of such long time duration can be obtained by reducing the impurities level, which will be possible only when SST-1 vacuum chamber is pumped to ultra high vacuum. In order to achieve UHV inside the chamber, the baking of complete vacuum chamber has to be carried out during pumping. For this purpose the C-channels are welded inside the vacuum vessel. During baking of vacuum vessel, these welded channels should be helium leak tight. Further, these U-channels will be in accessible under operational condition of SST-1. So, it will not possible to repair if any leak is developed during experiment. To avoid such circumstances, a dedicated high vacuum chamber is used for baking of the individual vacuum modules and sectors before assembly so that any fault during welding of the channels will be obtained and repaired. This paper represents the baking of vacuum vessel modules and sectors and their temperature distribution along the entire surface before assembly.

  13. Arabinoxylan content and characterisation throughout the bread-baking process

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    End-use quality of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is influenced in a variety of ways by non-starch polysaccharides, especially arabinoxylans (AX). The assessment of AX content and structural properties is often performed on flour and extrapolated to predict the role that AX may play in baked products....

  14. Potato plant poisoning - green tubers and sprouts

    MedlinePLUS

    Potato plant poisoning occurs when someone eats the green tubers or new sprouts of the potato plant. ... is found throughout the plant, but especially in green potatoes and new sprouts. Never eat potatoes that ...

  15. Prolonged frozen storage of partially-baked wheat bread increases in vitro slowly digestible starch after final bake.

    PubMed

    Ronda, Felicidad; Gomez, Manuel; Quilez, Joan

    2010-09-01

    We have studied the effect of the frozen storage time of industrially produced partially-baked wheat bread on starch digestibility, as the conventional production process is substantially modified for this type of bread, and alterations in its nutritional characteristics are therefore possible. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of frozen storage on in vitro starch digestibility of partially-baked bread after final bake, with the Englyst analytical method. The rapidly digestible starch, expressed as percentage of dry matter +/- 95% confidence interval, fell significantly at 63 days, from 51.9 +/- 2.9 to 42.7 +/- 2.9 whereas the slowly digestible starch increased over this period, from 18.8 +/- 5.5 to 29.9 +/- 2.7 (P < 0.05). During the frozen storage, changes occur in the composition and structure of partially-baked bread, modifying the in vitro starch digestibility, with a significant reduction in rapidly digestible starch, which is associated with a lower glycaemic response. PMID:20345329

  16. Resistance of potato germplasm to the potato tuberworm (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The evaluation of potato accessions for resistance to potato tuberworm Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) is a valuable component of integrated pest management; however, few attempts have been made to identify natural genetic tuber resistance to tuberworm on potato germplasm. The objective of this stu...

  17. Potato Science for the Poor, International Potato Center

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cultivated potato of world commerce, Solanum tuberosum, is one of the primary crops worldwide, forming a basic food and source of primary income for many societies. Wild and cultivated potatoes form the germplasm base for international breeding efforts to improve potato in the face of variety o...

  18. First report of Potato virus Y in potato in Tajikistan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is widely grown as a staple food and cash crop in Tajikistan and is an important food security crop in the country. In June 2011, we conducted a survey of potatoes in farmers fields in Buston and Dushanbe regions of Tajikistan. Potato plants with stunted growth and lea...

  19. The Bar Revue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Student Lawyer, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Listed are six organizations that offer bar review courses, and the addresses of state bar examiners and other pertinent information (application filing, exam dates and locations, and fees and residency requirements) for taking examinations. Available Law Student Division, American Bar Association, 1155 E. 60th St., Chicago, IL 60637; $1.00. (MSE)

  20. Effects of domestic cooking methods on polyphenols and antioxidant activity of sweet potato leaves.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hongnan; Mu, Taihua; Xi, Lisha; Song, Zhen

    2014-09-10

    In this study, effects of boiling, steaming, microwaving, baking, and frying on proximate composition, total and individual polyphenol contents, and antioxidant activity of sweet potato leaves were investigated. An increase of 9.44% in total polyphenol content was observed after steaming, whereas decreases of 30.51, 25.70, and 15.73% were noted after boiling, microwaving, and frying, respectively. Decreases of 63.82 and 32.35% in antioxidant activity were observed after boiling and microwaving, respectively, whereas increases of 81.40, 30.09, and 85.82% in antioxidant activity were observed after steaming, baking, and frying, respectively. Eight phenolic compounds were identified in sweet potato leaves. The correlation analysis between content of individual phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity suggested that antioxidant activity could be mainly attributed to 4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 3,4-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, and 3,4,5-tri-O-caffeoylquinic acid. It was suggested that steaming is a preferred method to maintain polyphenols and antioxidant activity of sweet potato leaves. PMID:25152015

  1. Optimized Baking of the DIII-D Vessel

    SciTech Connect

    P.M. Anderson; A.G. Kellman

    1999-11-01

    The DIII-D tokamak vacuum vessel baking system is used to heat the vessel walls and internal hardware to an average temperature of 350 C to allow rapid conditioning of the vacuum surfaces. The system combines inductive heating and a circulating hot air system to provide rapid heating with temperature uniformity required by stress considerations. In recent years, the time to reach 350 C had increased from 9 hrs to 14 hrs. To understand and remedy this sluggish heating rate, an evaluation of the baking system was recently performed. The evaluation indicated that the mass of additional in-vessel hardware (50% increase in mass) was primarily responsible. This paper reports on this analysis and the results of the addition of an electric air heater and procedural changes that have been implemented. Preliminary results indicate that the time to 350 C has been decreased to 4.5 hours and the temperature uniformity has improved.

  2. Genetic and phenotypic characteristics of baker's yeast: relevance to baking.

    PubMed

    Randez-Gil, Francisca; Crcoles-Sez, Isaac; Prieto, Jos A

    2013-01-01

    Yeasts rarely encounter ideal physiological conditions during their industrial life span; therefore, their ability to adapt to changing conditions determines their usefulness and applicability. This is especially true for baking strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The success of this yeast in the ancient art of bread making is based on its capacity to rapidly transform carbohydrates into CO2 rather than its unusual resistance to environmental stresses. Moreover, baker's yeast must exhibit efficient respiratory metabolism during yeast manufacturing, which determines biomass yield. However, optimal growth conditions often have negative consequences in other commercially important aspects, such as fermentative power or stress tolerance. This article reviews the genetic and physiological characteristics of baking yeast strains, emphasizing the activation of regulatory mechanisms in response to carbon source and stress signaling and their importance in defining targets for strain selection and improvement. PMID:23464571

  3. Evaluation of iodine content and stability in recipes prepared with biofortified potatoes.

    PubMed

    Cerretani, Lorenzo; Comandini, Patrizia; Fumanelli, Davide; Scazzina, Francesca; Chiavaro, Emma

    2014-11-01

    Iodine is an essential micronutrient of the human diet. Deficiency of iodine is diffused in many areas of the world and mild deficiency is present also in developed countries around Europe. Biofortification of vegetables could represent a better strategy with respect to iodized salt in order to increase iodine intake. The aim of this study was evaluating the stability of iodine, derived from biofortified potatoes, in the preparation process of three Italian typical dishes: dumplings, vegetable pie, and focaccia bread. The obtained results showed a good stability of iodine in cooking processes, in particular, during baking of focaccia bread. Significant losses of iodine were detected during boiling of dumplings and baking of vegetable pie. Although the different stability during the cooking processes, the three dishes maintained a good final content of iodine, ranging from the 33.3% to 52.7% of daily recommended intake in adults for individual serving size. PMID:24828007

  4. Homespun remedy, homespun toxicity: baking soda ingestion for dyspepsia.

    PubMed

    Ajbani, Keyur; Chansky, Michael E; Baumann, Brigitte M

    2011-04-01

    A 68-year-old man presented to the Emergency Department with a severe metabolic alkalosis after ingesting large quantities of baking soda to treat his dyspepsia. His underlying pulmonary disease and a progressively worsening mental status necessitated intubation for respiratory failure. Laboratory studies revealed a hyponatremic, hypochloremic, hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis. The patient was successfully treated after cessation of the oral bicarbonate, initiation of intravenous hydration, and correction of electrolyte abnormalities. PMID:18164162

  5. The potato psyllid genome project

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato psyllid (Bactericera cockerelli) is a Hemipteran pest of solanaceous plants and limits potato and tomato production by the transmission of Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum. Genomic information on the potato psyllid is limited but is vital in developing appropriate management strategi...

  6. Managing deficit irrigation for potatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inadequate water availability, particularly at certain growth stages, has negative impact on the yield and quality of potato tubers. Tuber quality is important for processing potatoes to meet the marketability standards. The Pacific Northwest (PNW) of the US is a major potato production region of pr...

  7. Modelling thermal degradation of zearalenone in maize bread during baking.

    PubMed

    Numanoglu, E; Yener, S; Gökmen, V; Uygun, U; Koksel, H

    2013-01-01

    The thermal degradation of zearalenone (ZEA) was investigated using a crust-like model, representing maize bread, which was prepared with naturally contaminated maize flour. Model samples were heated under isothermal conditions at the temperature range of 100-250°C. No reduction was observed at 100°C. Thermal degradation rate constants (k) were calculated as 0.0017, 0.0143 and 0.0216 min(-1) for 150, 200 and 250°C, respectively. Maize bread baked at 250°C for 70 min was used to test the capability of model kinetic data for the prediction of ZEA reduction. The time-temperature history in the crust and crumb parts was recorded separately. Partial degradation of ZEA at each time interval was calculated by means of the corresponding k-values obtained by using the Arrhenius equation, and the total reduction occurring at the end of the entire baking process was predicted. The reduction in the crumb and crust of bread was also experimentally determined and found to be consistent with the predicted values. It was concluded that the kinetic constants determined by means of the crust-like model could be used to predict the ZEA reduction occurring during baking of maize bread. PMID:23256902

  8. 10 Tips for Parents: How to Get Kids to Eat More Complex Carbohydrates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PTA Today, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Offers 10 suggestions to help parents encourage their children to eat more complex carbohydrates. Suggestions include microwaving baked potatoes; baking whole-grain breads; snacking on gingersnaps, fig bars, pretzels, or vegetable sticks; mixing cereal into low-fat yogurt; and making soup containing beans, rice, pasta, or potatoes. (SM)

  9. Potato genetics, genomics, and applications

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Potato has a variety of reproductive uniquenesses besides its clonal propagation by tubers. These traits are controlled by a different kind of genetic control. The reproductive information has been applied to enable interspecific hybridization to enhance valuable traits, such as disease and pest resistances, from the tuber-bearing Solanum gene pool. While progress has been made in potato breeding, many resources have been invested due to the requirements of large populations and long time frame. This is not only due to the general pitfalls in plant breeding, but also due to the complexity of polyploid genetics. Tetraploid genetics is the most prominent aspect associated with potato breeding. Genetic maps and markers have contributed to potato breeding, and genome information further elucidates questions in potato evolution and supports comprehensive potato breeding. Challenges yet remain on recognizing intellectual property rights to breeding and germplasm, and also on regulatory aspects to incorporate modern biotechnology for increasing genetic variation in potato breeding. PMID:25931980

  10. 7 CFR 947.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Potatoes. 947.5 Section 947.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU... Definitions 947.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown within the...

  11. 7 CFR 947.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 947.12 Section 947.12 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND... Definitions 947.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified...

  12. 7 CFR 1207.306 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 1207.306 Section 1207.306 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions 1207.306 Potatoes. Potatoes means any or all...

  13. 7 CFR 947.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 947.12 Section 947.12 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND... Definitions 947.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified...

  14. 7 CFR 946.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Potatoes. 946.5 Section 946.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions 946.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown...

  15. 7 CFR 946.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Potatoes. 946.5 Section 946.5 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions 946.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown...

  16. 7 CFR 947.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 947.12 Section 947.12 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND... Definitions 947.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified...

  17. 7 CFR 1207.306 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Potatoes. 1207.306 Section 1207.306 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions 1207.306 Potatoes. Potatoes means any or all...

  18. 7 CFR 947.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Potatoes. 947.5 Section 947.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU... Definitions 947.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown within the...

  19. 7 CFR 1207.306 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Potatoes. 1207.306 Section 1207.306 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions 1207.306 Potatoes. Potatoes means any or all...

  20. 7 CFR 1207.306 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Potatoes. 1207.306 Section 1207.306 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions 1207.306 Potatoes. Potatoes means any or all...

  1. 7 CFR 947.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Potatoes. 947.5 Section 947.5 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU... Definitions 947.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown within the...

  2. 7 CFR 947.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 947.5 Section 947.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU... Definitions 947.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown within the...

  3. 7 CFR 946.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Potatoes. 946.5 Section 946.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions 946.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown...

  4. 7 CFR 946.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Potatoes. 946.5 Section 946.5 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions 946.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown...

  5. 7 CFR 947.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 947.12 Section 947.12 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND... Definitions 947.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified...

  6. 7 CFR 947.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 947.12 Section 947.12 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND... Definitions 947.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified...

  7. 7 CFR 947.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Potatoes. 947.5 Section 947.5 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU... Definitions 947.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown within the...

  8. 7 CFR 1207.306 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Potatoes. 1207.306 Section 1207.306 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions 1207.306 Potatoes. Potatoes means any or all...

  9. Biological control of potato insect pest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A variety of pest insects attack the potato crop and reduce yields. This book chapter reviews the known insect natural enemies for major potato pests around the world: Coleoptera (beetles) including Colorado potato beetle, 28-spotted lady beetle, and Andean potato weevil complex; potato tuber moths,...

  10. Potato tuber dormancy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The date that potato tubers begin to sprout must be carefully managed to maximize crop value. Spouting of fresh, chip and fry processing tubers during storage can decrease crop value, increase water loss and pressure bruising, and may promote pathogen entry. A lack of uniform sprouting in seed potat...

  11. Composite carrier bar device

    SciTech Connect

    Felder, D.W.

    1981-09-01

    A composite carrier bar is disclosed for oil well pumping units that utilize sucker rod to operate bottom hole pumps. The bar includes a recessed cavity for receiving a hydraulic ram to operate as a polish rod jack and also a secondary carrier bar for receiving a secondary polish rod clamp for use in respacing bottom hole pumps and serve as a safety clamp during operation.

  12. Ovomucoid Is Not Superior to Egg White Testing in Predicting Tolerance to Baked Egg

    PubMed Central

    Bartnikas, Lisa M.; Sheehan, William J.; Larabee, Katherine S.; Petty, Carter; Schneider, Lynda C.; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Children with egg allergy may tolerate baked egg products. Ovomucoid specific IgE (sIgE) antibody levels have been suggested to predict outcomes of baked egg challenges. OBJECTIVE We determined the relationship of ovomucoid and egg white sIgE levels and egg white skin prick test (SPT) wheal size with baked egg challenge outcome. METHODS Retrospective review of 1186 patients who underwent ovomucoid sIgE blood testing. Subset analysis was of 169 patients who underwent baked egg food challenges. RESULTS Egg white sIgE, ovomucoid sIgE, and egg white SPT were different among those eating regular egg, eating baked egg only, or avoiding all egg (P < .001 for all). One hundred forty-two of 169 patients (84.0%) passed baked egg challenges. We were able to establish >90% predictive values for passing baked egg challenge for egg white sIgE, ovomucoid sIgE, and egg white SPT. No patient with egg white SPT wheal <3 mm failed a baked egg challenge. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis of egg white sIgE, ovomucoid sIgE, and egg white SPT showed areas under the curve of 0.721, 0.645, and 0.624, respectively. No significant difference was observed among these immunologic parameters in their abilities to predict baked egg challenge outcome (P = .301). CONCLUSION Most children with egg allergy in this study passed baked egg challenges. Ovomucoid sIgE, although a useful clinical predictor of baked egg tolerance, was not superior to egg white SPT or sIgE in predicting outcome of baked egg challenge. PMID:24013255

  13. Baked milk- and egg-containing diet in the management of milk and egg allergy.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Stephanie A; Caubet, Jean-Christoph; Kim, Jennifer S; Groetch, Marion; Nowak-W?grzyn, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Cow's milk (CM) and hen's egg allergies are among the most common food allergies in children. With evidence of increasing food allergy prevalence and more persistent disease, it has become vital to improve the management of CM and egg allergies. The ability to tolerate baked milk or egg, such as in a cake or muffin, has been associated with an increased chance of tolerance development. Studies report that about 70% of CM- and egg-allergic children can tolerate baked milk or egg and that incorporating baked milk or egg into the diet is well tolerated. Being able to add baked milk or egg into the diet can also increase quality of life by expanding the diet, boosting nutrition, and promoting inclusion in social activities. There is some debate over how baked milk and egg should be introduced, at home or in a supervised setting. Anaphylaxis and treatment with epinephrine during baked milk or egg challenges have been reported. Study of potential biomarkers to predict tolerability of baked milk and egg, such as serum specific IgE levels and skin prick test wheal diameters, is ongoing. Many parents can reliably report that their CM- or egg-allergic child is already consuming baked goods without symptoms. However, for those who cannot report such tolerance, the most prudent approach is to perform a supervised oral food challenge to determine the tolerability of baked milk and egg. The purpose of this article was to review the pathophysiology, clinical data, and safety of baked milk and egg and provide a practical guide to managing CM allergy and/or egg allergy. Recipes for baked milk and egg challenges and guidance on how to add baked milk and egg if tolerated to the child's regular diet are provided. PMID:25577613

  14. Interactive WSN-Bar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jiun-Shian; Hsu, Su-Chu; Chen, Ying-Chung

    Based on the concept of ambient intelligence, we utilized wireless sensor network (WSN) and vision-based tracking technologies to create an interactive WSN-Bar. WSN-Bar is an interactive and innovative creation which has two modules: Garden of Light and Vivacious Bushes. It refers the variety of natural environmental factors and focuses on the relationship between human and nature. WSN-Bar can also detect the changes of brightness, temperature, CO2 density outdoors and the movement of people inside the building. Besides, WSN-Bar is an interactive installation art which creates the opportunity to reduce the estranged gape among the participants.

  15. Bar Code Labels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    American Bar Codes, Inc. developed special bar code labels for inventory control of space shuttle parts and other space system components. ABC labels are made in a company-developed anodizing aluminum process and consecutively marketed with bar code symbology and human readable numbers. They offer extreme abrasion resistance and indefinite resistance to ultraviolet radiation, capable of withstanding 700 degree temperatures without deterioration and up to 1400 degrees with special designs. They offer high resistance to salt spray, cleaning fluids and mild acids. ABC is now producing these bar code labels commercially or industrial customers who also need labels to resist harsh environments.

  16. Baked Milk and Egg Diets for Milk and Egg Allergy Management.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Stephanie A; Nowak-W?grzyn, Anna H

    2016-02-01

    In baked form, cow's milk and egg are less allergenic and are tolerated by most milk- and egg-allergic children. Not only may including baked milk and egg in the diets of children who are tolerant improve nutrition and promote more social inclusion but there is also evidence that inclusion may accelerate the resolution of unheated milk and egg allergy. Further research is needed on biomarkers that can predict baked milk or egg reactivity; however, data suggest casein- and ovomucoid-specific immunoglobulin E levels may be useful. Physician-supervised introduction of baked milk and egg is recommended because anaphylaxis has occurred. PMID:26617232

  17. Baking soda induced severe metabolic alkalosis in a haemodialysis patient.

    PubMed

    Solak, Yalcin; Turkmen, Kultigin; Atalay, Huseyin; Turk, Suleyman

    2009-08-01

    Metabolic alkalosis is a rare occurence in hemodialysis population compared to metabolic acidosis unless some precipitating factors such as nasogastric suction, vomiting and alkali ingestion or infusion are present. When metabolic alkalosis develops, it may cause serious clinical consequences among them are sleep apnea, resistent hypertension, dysrhythmia and seizures. Here, we present a 54-year-old female hemodialysis patient who developed a severe metabolic alkalosis due to baking soda ingestion to relieve dyspepsia. She had sleep apnea, volume overload and uncontrolled hypertension due to metabolic alkalosis. Metabolic alkalosis was corrected and the patient's clinical condition was relieved with negative-bicarbonate hemodialysis. PMID:25984015

  18. Post exposure bake tuning for 32nm photomasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zweber, A. E.; Komizo, T.; Levin, J.; Whang, J.; Nemoto, S.; Kondo, S.

    2009-10-01

    In optimizing e-beam resist process conditions for photomask lithography, the primary performance measurements for optimization are resolution, critical dimension uniformity (CDU), line edge roughness (LER), and linearity. Through technology nodes, one parameter that has consistently shown a critical impact on these factors is the post exposure bake (PEB) condition. With 32nm e-beam resist technologies having reduced temperature sensitivity, this paper investigates the current impact of PEB conditions. The PEB assessment will summarize the influence of PEB temperature, duration and environment flow on 32 nm positive tone resists by reporting and analyzing two of the primary performance measurements: CDU and LER.

  19. Bar Codes for Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahn, Erwin

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the evolution of standards for bar codes (series of printed lines and spaces that represent numbers, symbols, and/or letters of alphabet) and describes the two types most frequently adopted by libraries--Code-A-Bar and CODE 39. Format of the codes is illustrated. Six references and definitions of terminology are appended. (EJS)

  20. The Bar Revue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Student Lawyer, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Major companies that offer streamlined, standardized bar review courses available in various media are listed, and state bar associations and licensing procedures are outlined for each state. (Journal availability: 1155 E. 60th St., Chicago, IL 60637, $1.00.) (MSE)

  1. [Influence of stir-baked with sand on active ingredients, diarrhea and hepatoprotection of Herpetospermum caudigerum].

    PubMed

    Li, Juan-juan; Shen, Gang; Yin, Rong-li; Shen, Cheng-ying; Cheng, Ling; Qiu, Ling; Han, Jin; Yuan, Hai-long

    2015-01-01

    To study the influence of stir-baked with sand on active ingredients, diarrhea and hepatoprotection of Herpetospermum caudigerum, the contents of herperione and herpetin in H. caudigerum before and after stir-baking with sand were analyzed by HPLC. The effect of stir-baked with sand on diarrhea of H. caudigerum TL was evaluated using the mean stool rate (MSR) and mean diarrheal index ( MDI) and the influence of stir-baked with sand on hepatoprotective effect of H. caudigerum TL was examined using a mouse model of CCl4-induced liver injury based on the analysis of serum ALT and AST activities. The results of HPLC analysis showed the content of herperione in H. caudigerum after stir-baking with sand decreased by 40.9% (P < 0.01) and the content of herpetin had no change. Pharmacodynamic results showed that the MSR and MDI of high-dose and middle-dose group of H. caudigerum TL after stir-baking with sand were significantly lower than that of high-dose and middle-dose group of H. caudigerum TL without stir-baking with sand; The high-dose and middle-dose of H. caudigerum TL with/without stir-baking with sand significantly alleviated liver injury as indicated by the decreased levels of serum ALT and AST, but the ALT and AST levels of high-dose and middle-dose group of H. caudigerum TL after stir-baking with sand were higher than that of H. caudigerum TL without stir-baking with sand. The results revealed that the stir-baking with sand could effectively relieve diarrhea effect of H. caudigerum TL, while it also reduces the hepatoprotection of H. caudigerum TL. PMID:26080551

  2. Preliminary Experience with ''In-Site'' Baking of Niobium Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    P. Kneisel

    2000-01-01

    In a series of experiments several single cell and multi-cell niobium cavities made from reactor grade and high RRR niobium (frequencies were 700 MHz, 1300 MHz and 1497 MHz) have been baked--after initial testing--in-situ around 145 C for up to 90 hours prior to being recooled. Surprisingly, all cavities showed significant improvements in Q-values between 4.2 and 1.6K. The BCS surface resistance was lowered by nearly a factor of two. This cannot be explained by solely a reduction of dielectric losses caused by adsorbates at the surface or by a decrease of the mean free path due to possibly diffusion of oxygen into the surface layer. In several experiments also the high field behavior of the cavity improved after the in-situ baking procedure. The observed effect opens the possibility for the CEBAF upgrade cavities, which in turn will permit to run the cavities at higher gradients if field emission loading can be prevented. Utilizing this effect can possibly translate into sizeable cost savings since fewer modules are needed for the upgrade program.

  3. Effects of baking-soda-containing dentifrices on oral malodor.

    PubMed

    Brunette, D M

    1996-01-01

    Oral malodor, also known as bad breath or halitosis, is an extremely common problem. Bad breath can arise from many sources in the body, but most frequently is produced in the mouth by the action of gram-negative anaerobic bacteria on sulfur-containing proteinaceous substrates in the saliva, such as debris and plaque. The primary molecules responsible for oral malodor are volatile sulfur compounds (VSC), such as hydrogen sulfide and methylmercaptan. Increased malodor production is related to greater bacterial numbers, reducing conditions, availability of protein substrates, and a pH above neutral. Bad breath is more common in the elderly, as well as those with unhygienic mouths, gingivitis, and periodontitis, but bad breath can also be found in some individuals who are periodontally healthy. The major source of oral malodor is the tongue. Approaches to controlling malodor have included masking, oral hygiene, antibacterial agents, conversion of VSC to nonodorous forms, oxidizing agents, and traditional approaches, including the use of baking soda. Results of controlled double-blind crossover studies, using both organoleptic (sensory) and gas chromatographic analysis of mouth air VSC, indicate that two dentifrices with high baking-soda concentrations, Arm & Hammer Dental Care and Arm & Hammer PeroxiCare, reduce oral malodor. PMID:11524864

  4. Formation of Plant Sterol Oxidation Products in Foods during Baking and Cooking Using Margarine without and with Added Plant Sterol Esters.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuguang; Knol, Diny; Menéndez-Carreño, María; Blom, Wendy A M; Matthee, Joep; Janssen, Hans-Gerd; Trautwein, Elke A

    2016-01-27

    Plant sterols (PS) in foods are subject to thermal oxidation to form PS oxidation products (POP). This study measured POP contents of 19 foods prepared by typical household baking and cooking methods using margarines without (control) and with 7.5% added PS (as 12.5% PS-esters, PS-margarine). Median POP contents per portion size of cooked foods were 0.57 mg (range 0.05-1.11 mg) with control margarine versus 1.42 mg (range 0.08-20.5 mg) with PS-margarine. The oxidation rate of PS (ORP) was 0.50% (median) with the PS-margarine and 3.66% with the control margarine. Using the PS-margarine, microwave-cooked codfish had the lowest POP content, with 0.08 mg per portion, while shallow-fried potatoes had the highest POP content, 20.5 mg per portion. Median POP contents in cookies, muffins, banana bread, and sponge cake baked with the control or PS-margarine were 0.12 mg (range 0.11-0.21 mg) and 0.24 mg (range 0.19-0.60 mg) per portion, with a corresponding ORP of 1.38% and 0.06%, respectively. POP contents in all the cooked and baked foods did not exceed 20.5 mg per typical portion size. A wide variation in the distribution of individual POP among different foods existed, with 7-keto-PS and 5,6-epoxy-PS being the major oxidation products. PMID:26697919

  5. Navy bean flour particle size and protein content affect cake baking and batter quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a great demand for wheat alternatives in foods, particularly baked goods, as gluten sensitivity increases. Baked goods such as cakes have wheat flour as a major ingredient, which is rich in gluten protein. Bean proteins do not have gluten, and are a good source of soluble fiber, B-vitamins,...

  6. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Ll of... - Anode Bake Furnace Limits for Emission Averaging

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Anode Bake Furnace Limits for Emission Averaging 3 Table 3 to Subpart LL of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Reduction Plants Pt. 63, Subpt. LL, Table 3 Table 3 to Subpart LL of Part 63—Anode Bake Furnace Limits...

  7. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Ll of... - Anode Bake Furnace Limits for Emission Averaging

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Anode Bake Furnace Limits for Emission Averaging 3 Table 3 to Subpart LL of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Reduction Plants Pt. 63, Subpt. LL, Table 3 Table 3 to Subpart LL of Part 63—Anode Bake Furnace Limits...

  8. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Ll of... - Anode Bake Furnace Limits for Emission Averaging

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Anode Bake Furnace Limits for Emission Averaging 3 Table 3 to Subpart LL of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Reduction Plants Pt. 63, Subpt. LL, Table 3 Table 3 to Subpart LL of Part 63—Anode Bake Furnace Limits...

  9. Impact of wheat grain selenium content variation on milling and bread baking

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selenium (Se) is an essential nutrient associated with reduced cancer risk. High levels of Se can accumulate in wheat grain, but it is not clear if this impacts milling or baking. Low and high Se hard red winter wheat grain from the same cultivar was milled and used for bread-baking studies and Se a...

  10. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Ll of... - Anode Bake Furnace Limits for Emission Averaging

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Anode Bake Furnace Limits for Emission Averaging 3 Table 3 to Subpart LL of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Reduction Plants Pt. 63, Subpt. LL, Table 3 Table 3 to Subpart LL of Part 63—Anode Bake Furnace Limits...

  11. CD uniformity improvement through elimination of hardware influences on post-exposure bake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Jong Hoon; Woo, Sung Ha; Park, Eui-Sang; Kim, Sang Pyo; Yim, Dong Gyu; Katada, Osamu; Whler, Tobias; Dress, Peter; Dietze, Uwe

    2012-11-01

    The acceptable tolerance level for CD signatures induced by any process step in the mask manufacturing process has been dramatically reduced with each technology node. Chemical amplified resists (CAR) are used extensively for first layer mask imaging. Therefor a post exposure bake (PEB) process is required after resist exposure, adding yet another potential source of CD signatures. Consequentially, the thermal imprint of the bake process must be further reduced to meet the requirements of future technology nodes. The influence of the measurement devices (wireless and wired sensor arrays) used to optimize the hotplate, on the performance of the Post Exposure Bake (PEB) process is discussed in [1,2]. A concept of utilizing two wired sensor arrays, with wire connections attached in opposite locations on the sensor array surface, called "Mirror Bake" is introduced. Based on the individual hotplate optimization for each of those two sensor arrays, a combined bake recipe for the multi-zone hotplate is calculated. This method eliminates the systematic temperature non-uniformity introduced by the sensor array hardware, when optimizing the recipes with only one sensor array. In this paper the "mirror bake" concept is validated by comparing the CD uniformity data of masks manufactured with a PEB process, optimized using a single standard sensor array vs. the "mirror bake" concept. The "mirror bake" concept achieved a CD uniformity improvement of up to 30% (CD range). During this work additional hardware influences from the sensor arrays were identified.

  12. BAKE-OUT OF A PORTION OF A NEW HIGH-RISE OFFICE BUILDING

    EPA Science Inventory

    A partial building bake-out was performed in U.S. EPA's new Region IX Headquarters' Building in San Francisco, California in July, 1990. The intent of the bake-out was to reduce indoor air contaminant concentrations associated with residual volatile organic compounds (VOCs) found...

  13. Exploration of functionality of low glycemic impact sugars and polyols using DSC, RVA, and cookie baking

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumers' interest in healthy cookies is increasing, including expectations for prebiotic nutritional benefits and low glycemic impact. Plasticization of flour polymers is critical to mixing and baking for baked goods. However, concentrated sugar solutions act as anti-plasticizers compared to wat...

  14. Nearshore oblique sand bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribas, F.; FalquS, A.; Montoto, A.

    2003-04-01

    The coupling between hydrodynamics and the evolving topography in the surf zone has been theoretically examined for oblique wave incidence. It is shown that positive feedback can lead to the initial growth of several types of rhythmic systems of sand bars. The bars can be down-current oriented or up-current oriented, which means that the offshore end of the bar is shifted down-current or up-current with respect to the shore attachment. In the limit of strong current compared to wave orbital motion, very oblique down-current oriented b ars are obtained with a spacing of several times the surf zone width. When wave orbital motions are dominant, systems of up-current oriented bars and crescentic/down-current oriented bars appear with spacings of the order of the surf zone width. The latter feature consists of alternating shoals and troughs at both sides of the break line with the inner shoals being bar-shaped and oblique to the coast. The growth (e-folding) time of the bars ranges from a few hours to a few days and it is favored by constant wave conditions. The range of model parameters leading to growth corresponds to intermediate beach states in between the fully dissipative and the fully reflective situations. Preliminary comparison with field observations shows qualitative agreement.

  15. Susceptibility of selected potato varieties to zebra chip potato disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zebra chip (ZC), an emerging and serious disease of potato has caused millions of dollars in losses to the potato industry in the United States, Mexico, Central America, and New Zealand. The disease has recently been associated with a previously undescribed species of liberibacter tentatively named ...

  16. The naming of Potato virus Y strains infecting potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato virus Y (PVY) strain groups are based on host-response and resistance-gene interactions. The strain groups PVYO, PVYC and PVYN are well-established for the isolates infecting potato in the field. A switch in the emphasis from host response to nucleotide sequence differences in the virus genom...

  17. Habitat manipulation in potato affects colorado potato beetle dispersal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased vegetational diversity in agricultural fields may alter the movement of pests into or within a field. Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlienata) is a devastating pest of potatoes world-wide that has developed resistance to insecticides, creating a need for alternate management stra...

  18. Optimization of outgassing bake-out temperatures and duration of space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scialdone, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    Satellite components, e.g., solar panels, were subjected to bake-out tests to model outgassing characteristics and to identify methods for minimizing the bake-out time. Bake-out removes gases and particulates that are trapped at the surfaces of components during manufacture, storage, transit and handling. The tests covered temperatures from 45-85 C for up to 200 hr. Measurements of the mass loss rates were used to model the process as a function of the temperature, time and mass. Data sampling with a quartz crystal microbalance was found to be an effective means for ascertaining the mass loss rate and the activation energy of the release. The tests showed that the duration of the bake-out depends on the amount of material which must be removed and the type of outgassing which occurs. Materials which are resistant to high temperatures can be baked at the highest feasible temperatures to accelerate the outgassing process.

  19. Debates in allergy medicine: baked milk and egg ingestion accelerates resolution of milk and egg allergy.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Stephanie A

    2016-01-01

    Cow's milk and hen's egg are ubiquitous in diets around the world and can be important sources of protein in young children. Unfortunately, milk and egg allergies are also some of the most common food allergies in childhood. Less allergenic forms of milk and egg due to heating and interactions with a food matrix, as in baked goods, are tolerated by a majority of milk- and egg-allergic patients. Adding baked milk and egg into the diets of milk- and egg-allergic children can broaden diets, increase nutrition, and improve quality of life. Most important, regular ingestion of baked milk and egg can help children outgrow their allergies to milk and egg. This article will review our current understanding of baked milk and egg tolerance and outline how these baked forms accelerates tolerance to regular milk and egg. PMID:26839628

  20. Improved baking of photomasks by a dynamically zone-controlled process approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dress, Peter; Gairing, Thomas M.; Saule, Werner; Dietze, Uwe U.; Szekeresch, Jakob

    2001-09-01

    A new type of bake system for photomasks, APB5000, has been developed, using a dynamic and multiple zone approach, to enable more precise Post Exposure Bake (PEB) and Post Coat Bake (PCB) of conventional and chemically amplified resists (CAR). The principal equipment concept and the optimization strategies are presented. The baking performance of the APB5000 is demonstrated for several surface temperatures between 90 degree(s)C and 150 degree(s)C. The temperature uniformity ranges achieved at the resist plane are better than 0.25 degree(s)C after stabilization at the final temperature and better than 1.5 degree(s)C during the ramping period. The repeatability of the bake temperature is better than +/- 0.07 degree(s)C for the setpoint temperature.

  1. 21 CFR 102.41 - Potato chips made from dried potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potato chips made from dried potatoes. 102.41... Specific Nonstandardized Foods 102.41 Potato chips made from dried potatoes. (a) The common or usual name of the food product that resembles and is of the same composition as potato chips, except that it...

  2. 21 CFR 102.41 - Potato chips made from dried potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potato chips made from dried potatoes. 102.41... Specific Nonstandardized Foods 102.41 Potato chips made from dried potatoes. (a) The common or usual name of the food product that resembles and is of the same composition as potato chips, except that it...

  3. 21 CFR 102.41 - Potato chips made from dried potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potato chips made from dried potatoes. 102.41... Specific Nonstandardized Foods 102.41 Potato chips made from dried potatoes. (a) The common or usual name of the food product that resembles and is of the same composition as potato chips, except that it...

  4. 21 CFR 102.41 - Potato chips made from dried potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potato chips made from dried potatoes. 102.41... Specific Nonstandardized Foods 102.41 Potato chips made from dried potatoes. (a) The common or usual name of the food product that resembles and is of the same composition as potato chips, except that it...

  5. 21 CFR 102.41 - Potato chips made from dried potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potato chips made from dried potatoes. 102.41... Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.41 Potato chips made from dried potatoes. (a) The common or usual name of the food product that resembles and is of the same composition as potato chips, except that it...

  6. Influence of cooking on the levels of bioactive compounds in Purple Majesty potato observed via chemical and spectroscopic means.

    PubMed

    Lemos, M Adília; Aliyu, Maryam M; Hungerford, Graham

    2015-04-15

    Tubers rich in phytochemicals can exhibit a potential health benefit. This work aims at studying the relative effect of different domestic cooking techniques by monitoring the level of total phenolic compounds (TP), total anthocyanins (TA) and anti-oxidant activity (AOA) on a variety of pigmented potatoes. Raw purple potatoes are a good source of anthocyanins (219 mg/kg FW) and the level of these compounds increased using different cooking techniques, with the exception of baking. However, the levels of phenolic compounds (originally 209 mg GAE/100 g FW) decreased in the cooked potatoes. Although potatoes contain different antioxidants in this work the antioxidant activity seems to be related to the levels of phenolic compounds present in the pigmented potato. The fact that some of the compounds present fluoresce enabled both steady state and time-resolved fluorescence techniques to be assessed as a non destructive means of monitoring. This elucidated the presence of different components (via spectral deconvolution and time-resolved emission spectra). Their relative contribution to the fluorescence emission was found to be affected by the different cooking process, with a longer wavelength emission appearing to relate to reflect the presence of anthocyanins. PMID:25466046

  7. Mass modeling for bars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Thomas G.

    1987-01-01

    Methods of modeling mass for bars are surveyed. A method for extending John Archer's concept of consistent mass beyond just translational inertia effects is included. Recommendations are given for various types of modeling situations.

  8. Russet Burbank, no ordinary potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Russet Burbank potato variety currently occupies first place in acreage planted in North America and is worth in the United States 1.4 billion dollars annually. It is a sport of the Burbank potato which was selected by Luther Burbank in 1873. The ancestry of Burbank stems from a plant introduc...

  9. Breeding for Potato Nutrition Enhancement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato is a starchy tuber. This simple statement hides the fact that potato also is rich in phytonutrients. Variation in chemical composition and concentration is quite broad in the natural diversity available in the germplasm. Some of these phytonutrients are visually very dramatic. Anthocyanin...

  10. Hybrid origins of cultivated potatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild and cultivated potatoes, Solanum section Petota, is taxonomically difficult, partly because of interspecific hybridization at both the diploid and polyploid levels. The taxonomy of cultivated potatoes is particularly controversial. With DNA sequence data of the GBSSI (waxy) gene we here infer r...

  11. HIGH FIELD Q-SLOPE AND THE BAKING EFFECT

    SciTech Connect

    Ciovati, Gianluigi

    2009-11-01

    The performance of SRF cavities made of bulk Nb at high fields (peak surface magnetic field greater than about 90 mT) is characterized by exponentially increasing RF losses (high-field Q-slope), in the absence of field emission, which are often mitigated by a low temperature (100-140 °C, 12-48h) baking. In this contribution, recent experimental results and phenomenological models to explain this effect will be briefly reviewed. New experimental results on the high-field Q-slope will be presented for cavities that had been heat treated at high temperature in the presence of a small partial pressure of nitrogen. Improvement of the cavity performances have been obtained, while surface analysis measurements on Nb samples treated with the cavities revealed significantly lower hydrogen concentration than for samples that followed standard cavity treatments.

  12. Rising dough and baking bread at the Australian synchrotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayo, S. C.; McCann, T.; Day, L.; Favaro, J.; Tuhumury, H.; Thompson, D.; Maksimenko, A.

    2016-01-01

    Wheat protein quality and the amount of common salt added in dough formulation can have a significant effect on the microstructure and loaf volume of bread. High-speed synchrotron micro-CT provides an ideal tool for observing the three dimensional structure of bread dough in situ during proving (rising) and baking. In this work, the synchrotron micro-CT technique was used to observe the structure and time evolution of doughs made from high and low protein flour and three different salt additives. These experiments showed that, as expected, high protein flour produces a higher volume loaf compared to low protein flour regardless of salt additives. Furthermore the results show that KCl in particular has a very negative effect on dough properties resulting in much reduced porosity. The hundreds of datasets produced and analysed during this experiment also provided a valuable test case for handling large quantities of data using tools on the Australian Synchrotron's MASSIVE cluster.

  13. Micro-Sugar-Snap and -Wire-Cut Cookie Baking with Trans- and Zero-Trans-Fat Shortenings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of trans- and zero-trans-fat shortenings on cookie-baking performance was evaluated, using the two AACC micro-cookie-baking methods. Regardless of fat type, sugar-snap cookies made with a given flour were larger in diameter, smaller in height, and greater in weight loss during baking tha...

  14. Enzyme exposure and enzyme sensitisation in the baking industry.

    PubMed Central

    Vanhanen, M; Tuomi, T; Hokkanen, H; Tupasela, O; Tuomainen, A; Holmberg, P C; Leisola, M; Nordman, H

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the exposure to enzymes and prevalence of enzyme sensitisation in the baking industry. METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted in four bakeries, one flour mill, and one crispbread factory. Sensitisation to enzymes, flours, and storage mites was examined by skin prick and radioallergosorbent (RAST) tests. 365 workers were tested. The workers were interviewed for work related respiratory and skin symptoms. Total dust concentrations were measured by a gravimetric method, and the concentration of alpha-amylase in air was measured by a catalytic method. An immunochemical method was used for measuring cellulase and xylanase in air. RESULTS: Total measured dust concentrations were from 0.1 to 18 mg/m3, with highest values in dough making areas of bakeries. The alpha-amylase concentrations generally followed the total dust concentrations and reached the highest values < 6.6 micrograms/m3 in the same areas. Cellulase and xylanase varied with concentrations < 180 ng/m3 and < 40 ng/m3, respectively, in the flour mill and the crispbread factory. No cellulase, but concentrations of 1-200 ng/m3 xylanase, were found in the bakeries, probably indicating the natural xylanase activity of wheat. 12 workers (8%) in the bakeries, three (5%) in the flour mill, and four (3%) in the crispbread factory were skin prick positive to enzymes. The corresponding percentages of positive reactions to flours were 12%, 5%, and 8%. CONCLUSIONS: The study confirmed that industrial enzymes in baking used as additives in a powdered form pose a risk of sensitisation. The no effect air concentrations for industrial enzymes are not known. Based on present knowledge, however, lowering exposures and eliminating short and high peaks by technical measures would lower the risk of sensitisation. This would be most effectively accomplished by shifting to non-dusty products. PMID:8943831

  15. 7 CFR 948.6 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 948.6 Section 948.6 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions 948.6 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes or seed means any...

  16. 7 CFR 948.6 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 948.6 Section 948.6 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions 948.6 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes or seed means any...

  17. 7 CFR 948.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Potatoes. 948.5 Section 948.5 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions 948.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means and includes all varieties of Irish...

  18. 7 CFR 948.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 948.5 Section 948.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions 948.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means and includes all varieties of Irish...

  19. 7 CFR 946.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 946.12 Section 946.12 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions 946.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes...

  20. 7 CFR 946.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 946.12 Section 946.12 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions 946.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes...

  1. 7 CFR 948.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Potatoes. 948.5 Section 948.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions 948.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means and includes all varieties of Irish...

  2. 7 CFR 948.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Potatoes. 948.5 Section 948.5 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions 948.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means and includes all varieties of Irish...

  3. 7 CFR 948.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Potatoes. 948.5 Section 948.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions 948.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means and includes all varieties of Irish...

  4. Acoustic Measurement of Potato Cannon Velocity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtney, Michael; Courtney, Amy

    2007-01-01

    Potato cannon velocity can be measured with a digitized microphone signal. A microphone is attached to the potato cannon muzzle, and a potato is fired at an aluminum target about 10 m away. Flight time can be determined from the acoustic waveform by subtracting the time in the barrel and time for sound to return from the target. The potato

  5. 7 CFR 953.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Potatoes. 953.5 Section 953.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order Regulating Handling Definitions 953.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish...

  6. 7 CFR 948.6 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 948.6 Section 948.6 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions 948.6 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes or seed means any...

  7. 7 CFR 946.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 946.12 Section 946.12 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions 946.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes...

  8. 7 CFR 953.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Potatoes. 953.5 Section 953.5 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order Regulating Handling Definitions 953.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish...

  9. 7 CFR 953.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 953.5 Section 953.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order Regulating Handling Definitions 953.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish...

  10. 7 CFR 948.6 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 948.6 Section 948.6 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions 948.6 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes or seed means any...

  11. 7 CFR 953.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Potatoes. 953.5 Section 953.5 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order Regulating Handling Definitions 953.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish...

  12. 7 CFR 948.6 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 948.6 Section 948.6 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions 948.6 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes or seed means any...

  13. 7 CFR 953.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Potatoes. 953.5 Section 953.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order Regulating Handling Definitions 953.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish...

  14. 7 CFR 946.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 946.12 Section 946.12 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions 946.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes...

  15. Leafhopper and psyllid pests of potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leafhoppers and psyllids are important pests of potato worldwide. These insects cause damage to potato by direct feeding or by acting as vectors of potato pathogens. Economically important leafhoppers that attack potato include Empoasca fabae, Macrosteles fascifrons, and Circulifer tenellus. E. faba...

  16. Application and evaluation of entomopathogens in potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    More than 290 million metric tons of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) are produced throughout the world annually. Potato production ranks fourth among agricultural crops, after wheat, maize, and rice. A large number of insect pests affect potatoes. Worldwide, the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa ...

  17. VOLUNTEER POTATO MANAGEMENT AND OUTLOOK FOR 2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato tubers left in the ground following a potato harvest often over winter in regions with mild winter temperatures resulting in a serious and difficult to manage weed problem in the ensuing crop rotation. Potatoes normally are killed when they reach temperatures below 28° F. Many potato tuber...

  18. Continuous and emerging challenges of Potato virus Y in potato.

    PubMed

    Karasev, Alexander V; Gray, Stewart M

    2013-01-01

    Potato virus Y (PVY) is one of the oldest known plant viruses, and yet in the past 20 years it emerged in the United States as a relatively new and very serious problem in potato. The virus exists as a complex of strains that induce a wide variety of foliar and tuber symptoms in potato, leading to yield reduction and loss of tuber quality. PVY has displayed a distinct ability to evolve through accumulation of mutations and more rapidly through recombination between different strains, adapting to new potato cultivars across different environments. Factors behind PVY emergence as a serious potato threat are not clear at the moment, and here an attempt is made to analyze various properties of the virus and its interactions with potato resistance genes and with aphid vectors to explain this recent PVY spread in potato production areas. Recent advances in PVY resistance identification and mapping of corresponding genes are described. An updated classification is proposed for PVY strains that takes into account the most current information on virus molecular genetics, serology, and host reactivity. PMID:23915135

  19. Potatoes in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Astroculture is a suite of technologies used to produce and maintain a closed controlled environment for plant growth. The two most recent missions supported growth of potato, dwarf wheat, and mustard plants and provided scientists with the first opportunity to conduct true plant research in space. Light emitting diodes have particular usefulness for plant growth lighting because they emit a much smaller amount of radiant heat than do conventional lighting sources and because they have potential of directing a higher percentage of the emitted light onto plants surfaces. Furthermore, the high output LED's have emissions in the 600-700 nm waveband, which is of highest efficiency for photosynthesis by plants.

  20. Influence of electrical and hybrid heating on bread quality during baking.

    PubMed

    Chhanwal, N; Ezhilarasi, P N; Indrani, D; Anandharamakrishnan, C

    2015-07-01

    Energy efficiency and product quality are the key factors for any food processing industry. The aim of the study was to develop energy and time efficient baking process. The hybrid heating (Infrared + Electrical) oven was designed and fabricated using two infrared lamps and electric heating coils. The developed oven can be operated in serial or combined heating modes. The standardized baking conditions were 18 min at 220C to produce the bread from hybrid heating oven. Effect of baking with hybrid heating mode (H-1 and H-2, hybrid oven) on the quality characteristics of bread as against conventional heating mode (C-1, pilot scale oven; C-2, hybrid oven) was studied. The results showed that breads baked in hybrid heating mode (H-2) had higher moisture content (28.87%), higher volume (670 cm(3)), lower crumb firmness value (374.6 g), and overall quality score (67.0) comparable to conventional baking process (68.5). Moreover, bread baked in hybrid heating mode showed 28% reduction in baking time. PMID:26139913

  1. Computational fluid dynamics modeling of bun baking process under different oven load conditions.

    PubMed

    Tank, A; Chhanwal, N; Indrani, D; Anandharamakrishnan, C

    2014-09-01

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed to study the temperature profile of the bun during baking process. Evaporation-condensation mechanism and effect of the latent heat during phase change of water was incorporated in this model to represent actual bun baking process. Simulation results were validated with experimental measurements of bun temperature at two different positions. Baking process is completed within 20 min, after the temperature of crumb become stable at 98 °C. Further, this study was extended to investigate the effect of partially (two baking trays) loaded and fully loaded (eight baking trays) oven on temperature profile of bun. Velocity and temperature profile differs in partially loaded and fully loaded oven. Bun placed in top rack showed rapid baking while bun placed in bottom rack showed slower baking due to uneven temperature distribution in the oven. Hence, placement of bun inside the oven affects temperature of bun and consequently, the quality of the product. PMID:25190860

  2. Competitive position of natural gas: industrial baking. Topical report, December 1986-January 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Minsker, B.S.; Salama, S.Y.

    1988-01-01

    To quantify the competitive position of natural gas in industrial baking, market profiles were developed to define current technologies (single lap, tunnel, and Lanham ovens are predominant) and to characterize the applications and use of each technology in industrial baking. Important cost and performance parameters were identified and validated through interviews with industry representatives. Two areas of research that could improve technologies' effectiveness are advanced burner controls activated based on oven load that could reduce product loss, the largest coast associated with the oven, and cogeneration, which could penetrate the baking market if the high capital costs associated with existing equipment could be reduced.

  3. Modelling heat and mass transfer in bread baking with mechanical deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolas, V.; Salagnac, P.; Glouannec, P.; Ploteau, J.-P.; Jury, V.; Boillereaux, L.

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, the thermo-hydric behaviour of bread during baking is studied. A numerical model has been developed with Comsol Multiphysics software. The model takes into account the heat and mass transfers in the bread and the phenomenon of swelling. This model predicts the evolution of temperature, moisture, gas pressure and deformation in French "baguette" during baking. Local deformation is included in equations using solid phase conservation and, global deformation is calculated using a viscous mechanic model. Boundary conditions are specified with the sole temperature model and vapour pressure estimation of the oven during baking. The model results are compared with experimental data for a classic baking. Then, the model is analysed according to physical properties of bread and solicitations for a better understanding of the interactions between different mechanisms within the porous matrix.

  4. Moisture distribution during conventional or electrical resistance oven baking of bread dough and subsequent storage.

    PubMed

    Derde, Liesbeth J; Gomand, Sara V; Courtin, Christophe M; Delcour, Jan A

    2014-07-01

    Electrical resistance oven (ERO) baking processes bread dough with little temperature gradient in the baking dough. Heating of the dough by means of an ERO is based on the principles of Joule's first law and Ohm's law. This study compared the changes in moisture distribution and physical changes in starch of breads conventionally baked or using an ERO. The moisture contents in fresh ERO breads are generally lower than those in conventional breads. During storage of conventionally baked breads, water migrates from the crumb to the crust and moisture contents decrease throughout the bread crumb. Evidently, less moisture redistribution occurs in ERO breads. Also, the protons of ERO bread constituents were less mobile than their counterparts in conventional bread. Starch retrogradation occurs to similar extents in conventional and ERO bread. As a result, the changes in proton mobility cannot be attributed to differences in levels of retrograded starch and seem to be primarily determined by the overall lower moisture content. PMID:24949810

  5. Effect of baking on reduction of free and hidden fumonisins in gluten-free bread.

    PubMed

    Bryła, Marcin; Roszko, Marek; Szymczyk, Krystyna; Jędrzejczak, Renata; Słowik, Elżbieta; Obiedziński, Mieczysław W

    2014-10-22

    The aim of the present work was to assess the influence of the baking process on the fumonisin content in gluten-free bread. The dough was made using two methods: without sourdough and with sourdough. Fumonisins were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography with ion-trap mass spectrometry. This study showed that the bread baking process caused a statistically significant drop in the mean concentration of free fumonisins: the reduction levels were 30 and 32% for the direct and sourdough-based methods, respectively. The lower reduction after baking was observed for hidden fumonisins: 19 and 10%, respectively. The presence of some compounds (such as proteins or starch) capable of stabilizing fumonisins during the baking process might be responsible for the observed increase in the hidden-to-free ratio from an initial 0.72 in flour to 0.83 in bread made from sourdough and to 0.95 in sourdough-free bread. PMID:25265293

  6. Critical dimension sensitivity to post-exposure bake temperaturevariation in EUV photoresists

    SciTech Connect

    Cain, Jason P.; Naulleau, Patrick; Spanos, Costas J.

    2005-01-11

    Chemically amplified resists depend upon the post-exposure bake (PEB) process to drive the deprotection reactions (in positive resists) that lead to proper resist development. For this reason they often exhibit critical dimension (CD) sensitivity to PEB temperature variation. In this work the effects of variation in different aspects of the PEB step on post-develop CD are studied for two extreme ultraviolet (EUV) photoresists. The spatial and temporal temperature uniformity of the PEB plate is measured using a wireless sensor wafer. Programmed variations in the bake plate temperature set point are then used to measure the CD sensitivity to steady state temperature variation. In addition, the initial temperature ramp time is modified using a thin sheet of polyimide film between the wafer and the bake plate. This allows for measurement of the CD sensitivity to transient temperature variation. Finally, the bake time is adjusted to measure the CD sensitivity to this parameter.

  7. Effects of baking-soda-containing dentifrices on oral malodor.

    PubMed

    Brunette, D M

    1997-01-01

    Oral malodor, also known as bad breath or halitosis, is an extremely common problem. Bad breath can arise from many sources in the body, but most frequently is produced in the mouth by the action of gram-negative anaerobic bacteria on sulfur-containing proteinaceous substrates in the saliva, such as debris and plaque. The primary molecules responsible for oral malodor are volatile sulfur compounds (VSC), such as hydrogen sulfide and methylmercaptan. Increased malodor production is related to greater bacterial numbers, reducing conditions, availability of protein substrates, and a pH above neutral. Bad breath is more common in the elderly, as well as those with unhygienic mouths, gingivitis, and periodontitis, but bad breath can also be found in some individuals who are periodontally healthy. The major source of oral malodor is the tongue. Approaches to controlling malodor have included masking, oral hygiene, antibacterial agents, conversion of VSC to nonodorous forms, oxidizing agents, and traditional approaches, including the use of backing soda. Results of controlled double-blind crossover studies, using both organoleptic (sensory) and gas chromatographic analysis of mouth air VSC, indicate that two dentifrices with high baking-soda concentrations, Arm & Hammer Dental Care and Arm & Hammer PeroxiCare, reduce oral malodor. PMID:12017931

  8. High coercivity remanence in baked clay materials used in archeomagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntosh, Gregg; Kovacheva, Mary; Catanzariti, Gianluca; Donadini, Fabio; Lopez, Maria Luisa Osete

    2011-02-01

    A study of the high coercivity remanence in archeological baked clays has been carried out. More than 150 specimens from 46 sites across Europe have been analyzed, selected on the basis of the presence of a fraction of their natural remanence that was resistant to alternating field demagnetization to 100 mT. The study was based on the stability of isothermal remanence to alternating field and thermal demagnetization and its variation on cooling to liquid nitrogen temperature. Results indicate that the high coercivity remanence may be carried by magnetite, hematite, and in isolated cases partially oxidized magnetite and goethite. In addition, a high coercivity, thermally stable, low unblocking temperature phase has been identified. The unblocking temperatures of both the isothermal remanence and the alternating field resistant natural remanence exhibit similar unblocking temperatures, suggesting that the same phases carry both signals. The high coercivity, low unblocking temperature phase contributes to the natural remanence, sometimes carrying a stable direction and behaving ideally during palaeointensity experiments and sometimes not. An unambiguous mineralogical identification of this phase is lacking, although likely candidates include hemoilmentite, related to clay source lithology, and substituted hematite or magnetic ferri-cristabolite, both possible products of thermal transformation of iron-bearing clays.

  9. Effect of cleaning, milling, and baking on deoxynivalenol in wheat.

    PubMed Central

    Abbas, H K; Mirocha, C J; Pawlosky, R J; Pusch, D J

    1985-01-01

    Samples of wheat naturally infected by Fusarium graminearum Schwabe were obtained from mills in Oklahoma, Missouri, Kansas, and Minnesota and fields in Nebraska and Kansas in 1982; they were analyzed for deoxynivalenol (DON). The wheat was milled, and DON was found throughout all the milling fractions (bran, shorts, reduction flour, and break flour). The DON recoveries for each mill run ranged from 90 to 98%. These samples, regardless of DON concentration, also gave similar fractional distributions of DON. The greatest (21 ppm [21 micrograms/g]) concentration of DON was found in the bran, and the smallest (1 ppm) was found in the break flour. Cleaning and milling were not effective in removing DON; DON was not destroyed in the bread baked from the naturally contaminated whole wheat flour, but the effect on its concentration in the samples analyzed varied, the reduction ranging from 19 to 69%. The percent reduction found in the cleaned wheat ranged from 6 to 19%. DON concentrations in the following commercially made breads, caraway rye, seedless rye, and pumpernickel, were 45 ppb (ng/g), 39 ppb, and 0 ppb, respectively. The limits of detection by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-pressure liquid chromatography for DON were 0.5 and 10 ng, respectively. PMID:4051489

  10. Toll Bar on Sea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Dave

    2008-01-01

    In the summer of 2007 the United Kingdom experienced some of the heaviest rainfall since records began. Toll Bar in South Yorkshire featured prominently in media coverage as the village and the homes surrounding it began to flood. Many people lost everything: their homes, their furniture, their possessions. In an effort to come to terms with what…

  11. Toll Bar on Sea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Dave

    2008-01-01

    In the summer of 2007 the United Kingdom experienced some of the heaviest rainfall since records began. Toll Bar in South Yorkshire featured prominently in media coverage as the village and the homes surrounding it began to flood. Many people lost everything: their homes, their furniture, their possessions. In an effort to come to terms with what

  12. Competitive position of natural gas: Industrial baking and frying. May 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    The summary of reports GRI-88/0020 and GRI-88/0042 provides the results of studies performed to determine the status of natural gas technologies in the industrial baking and frying markets and to identify R D to enhance the performance of these technologies. The studies indicate that natural gas will continue to be the most economical energy source for industrial baking and frying.

  13. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Ll of... - Anode Bake Furnace Limits for Emission Averaging

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Anode Bake Furnace Limits for Emission... Reduction Plants Pt. 63, Subpt. LL, Table 3 Table 3 to Subpart LL of Part 63Anode Bake Furnace Limits for Emission Averaging Number of furnaces Emission limit (lb/ton of anode) TF POM 2 0.11 0.17 3 0.090 0.17 4...

  14. The FlashBake oven: Lightwave oven delivers high-quality, quick cooking

    SciTech Connect

    Gregerson, J.

    1995-06-01

    The FlashBake oven is a well-publicized new electrotechnology that over 40 utilities are promoting for commercial food service applications, but is it worth its high price? E Source research shows that this $5,000 to $8,500 lightwave oven can increase sales and profitability in a number of applications, thus paying for itself within months to a year or two. The FlashBake does so by cooking foods less than two inches thick in two minutes or less, as quickly as microwave ovens do, but with quality equal to or greater than that of conventional gas and electric ovens. The FlashBake makes sense for restaurants and kiosks that offer quick-order menus, as well as for full-menu restaurants that can use the FlashBake during slow periods (instead of larger ovens) and during busy periods (for extra capacity). In these target market applications, the FlashBake is likely to use less energy due to its extremely low idle energy use. It is not well suited to banquet and institutional kitchens that require large numbers of the same item to be cooked and ready simultaneously. The FlashBake has only one tray, so cooking large volumes may take longer, require more labor, and use more energy than a conventional oven that has multiple cooking racks. Energy use is rarely a major concern of those who buy FlashBake ovens, since energy for cooking represents a small fraction of a restaurant`s overall operating costs. The main selling point of the FlashBake is menu and productivity enhancement.

  15. Multiple bars and secular evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Juntai

    2015-03-01

    Bars are the most important driver of secular evolution. A significant fraction of barred galaxies also harbor small secondary bars. Secondary bars are visible even in near-infrared images, so they are not just dusty and blue, but stellar features (Erwin & Sparke 2002). Since they are quite common, secondary bars are probably long-lived stellar features. The random relative orientation of the two bars indicates that they are dynamically decoupled with different pattern speeds (Buta & Crocker 1993). Corsini et al. (2003) presented conclusive direct kinematic evidence for a decoupled secondary bar in NGC 2950. Dynamically decoupled secondary bars have long been hypothesized to be a mechanism to drive gas past the ILR of primary bars to feed active galactic nuclei (Shlosman et al. 1989). However, the dynamics of secondary bars are still not well understood, and it is still unclear what role secondary bars play in the AGN fueling process. Numerical simulations offer the best approach to understanding double-barred systems. Decoupled secondary bar in the earlier gaseous simulations only last a short time (< 1 Gyr, e.g. Friedli & Martinet 1993). Orbital studies of double-barred systems discovered a family of loop orbits that may be building blocks of long-lived nuclear stellar bars (Maciejewski & Sparke 1997, 2000). To complement orbital studies, which are not fully self-consistent, N-body simulations are preferred to further our understanding of double-barred systems. Debattista & Shen (2007) and Shen & Debattista (2009) managed to form long-lived double-barred systems with purely collisionless simulations, where a pre-existing rotating pseudo-bulge is introduced initially. The shape and size of secondary bars in the models are comparable to observed ones. They found that the rotation of the two bars is not rigid. The amplitude and pattern speed of the secondary bars oscillate as they rotate through their primary counterparts. Although the secondary bar rotates faster than the primary bar in this model, the stellar velocity field in the central region only shows a weakly twisted kinematic minor axis. Recently more simulations of double-barred galaxies with simpler initial conditions are explored (Du, Shen & Debattista 2014). We expect that the new models can be used to cross-check with the kinematic properties of double-barred galaxies from IFU observations such as SAURON and Atlas3D.

  16. Resonances in barred galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceverino, D.; Klypin, A.

    2007-08-01

    The inner parts of many spiral galaxies are dominated by bars. These are strong non-axisymmetric features which significantly affect orbits of stars and dark matter particles. One of the main effects is the dynamical resonances between galactic material and the bar. We detect and characterize these resonances in N-body models of barred galaxies by measuring angular and radial frequencies of individual orbits. We found narrow peaks in the distribution of orbital frequencies with each peak corresponding to a specific resonance. We found five different resonances in the stellar disc and two in the dark matter. The corotation resonance (CR) and the inner and outer Lindblad resonances are the most populated. The spatial distributions of particles near resonances are wide. For example, the inner Lindblad resonance is not localized at a given radius. Particles near this resonance are mainly distributed along the bar and span a wide range of radii. On the other hand, particles near the CR are distributed in two broad areas around the two stable Lagrange points. The distribution resembles a wide ring at the corotation radius. Resonances capture disc and halo material in near-resonant orbits. Our analysis of orbits in both N-body simulations and simple analytical models indicates that resonances tend to prevent the dynamical evolution of this trapped material. Only if the bar evolves as a whole, resonances drift through the phase space. In this case particles anchored near resonant orbits track the resonance shift and evolve. The criteria to ensure a correct resonant behaviour discussed by Weinberg and Katz can be achieved with few millions particles because the regions of trapped orbits near resonances are large and evolving.

  17. A comparison of UV cross-linking and vacuum baking for nucleic acid immobilization and retention

    SciTech Connect

    Nierzwicki-Bauer, S.A.; Gebhardt, J.S.; Linkkila, L.; Walsh, K. )

    1990-10-01

    The effectiveness of UV cross-linking and in vacuo baking for the immobilization and retention of DNA to various solid supports was investigated. Optimal immobilization treatments for supported and unsupported nitrocellulose and nylon membranes were: UV cross-linking at 254 nm with an exposure of 120 milliJoules/cm{sup 2}, or baking in vacuo for two hours at 80{degrees}C. UV-immobilized nitrocellulose-based membranes showed no increase in sensitivity when compared to baked membranes. An increase in sensitivity was observed for UV-immobilized nylon membranes as compared with baked nylon membranes in some instances, although this varied within lots of the membranes tested. Repeated strippings and heterologous reprobings resulted in loss of target DNA from UV-immobilized nylon membranes as compared to baked nylon membranes. Loss of target DNA from UV-immobilized nitrocellulose-based membranes due to repeated strippings and reprobings was even more pronounced. In vacuo baking of supported and unsupported nitrocellulose and nylon membranes was more effective for immobilization, and more importantly, for retention of target DNA through many reprobings of the same blot.

  18. Continuous monitoring of dough fermentation and bread baking by magnetic resonance microscopy.

    PubMed

    Bajd, Franci; Sera, Igor

    2011-04-01

    The consumer quality of baked products is closely related with dough structure properties. These are developed during dough fermentation and finalized during its baking. In this study, magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) was employed in a study of dough fermentation and baking. A small hot air oven was installed inside a 2.35-T horizontal bore superconducting magnet. Four different samples of commercial bread mixes for home baking were used to prepare small samples of dough that were inserted in the oven and allowed to rise at 33 C for 112 min; this was followed by baking at 180 C for 49 min. The entire process was followed by dynamic T(1)-weighted 3D magnetic resonance imaging with 7 min of temporal resolution and 0.230.231.5 mm(3) of spatial resolution. Acquired images were analyzed to determine time courses of dough pore distribution, dough volume and bread crust thickness. Image analysis showed that both the number of dough pores and the normalized dough volume increased in a sigmoid-like fashion during fermentation and decreased during baking due to the bread crust formation. The presented magnetic resonance method was found to be efficient in analysis of dough structure properties and in discrimination between different dough types. PMID:21237606

  19. Microstructure, Mechanical Properties, and Toughening Mechanisms of a New Hot Stamping-Bake Toughening Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Tao; Song, Hong-Wu; Zhang, Shi-Hong; Cheng, Ming; Liu, Wei-Jie; Chen, Yun

    2015-09-01

    In this article, the hot stamping-bake toughening process has been proposed following the well-known concept of bake hardening. The influences of the bake time on the microstructure and the mechanical properties of the hot stamped-baked part were studied by means of scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and mechanical tests at room temperature. The results show that the amount of the retained austenite was nearly not changed by the bake process. Also observed were spherical Cu-rich precipitates of about 15 nm in martensite laths. According to the Orowan mechanism, their contribution of the Cu-rich precipitates to the strength is approximately 245 MPa. With the increase of the bake time, the tensile strength of the part was decreased, whereas both the ductility and the product of the tensile strength and ductility were increased then decreased. The tensile strength and ductility product and the tensile strength are as high as 21.9 GPa pct, 2086 MPa, respectively. The excellent combined properties are due to the transformation-induced plasticity effect caused by retained austenite.

  20. Effect of strain rate on bake hardening response of BH220 steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Anindya; Tarafder, Soumitro; Sivaprasad, S.; Chakrabarti, Debalay

    2015-09-01

    This study aims at understanding the bake hardening ability of ultra low carbon BH220 steel at different strain rates. The as-received material has been pre-strained to four different levels and then deformed in tension under (a) as pre-strained state and (b) after baking at 170 ∘C for 20 minutes, at three different strain rates of 0.001, 0.1 and 100/s. In both the conditions, yield stress increased with pre-strain and strain rate, but bake hardening ability was found to decrease when strain rate was increased. The strain rate sensitivity of the material was also found to decrease with bake hardening. Generation of dislocation forests and their subsequent immobility during baking treatment enables them to act as long range obstacles during further deformation. At higher strain rates, less amount of dislocations are produced which can interact with themselves and produce hardening, because of which bake hardening ability and the strain rate drops. A dislocation based strengthening model, as proposed by Larour et al. 2011 [7], was used to predict the yield stress values obtained at different conditions. The equation produced excellent co-relation with the experimental data.

  1. CD performance of CA-resits with dynamically controlled multizone bake system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Shiho; Kurihara, Masa-aki; Mohri, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Naoya; Dress, Peter; Noering, Andreas; Gairing, Thomas M.

    2002-08-01

    CD-uniformity data of chemically amplified (CA) resists have been generated, by using a dynamically controlled multi-zone hotplate system, APB5000. The optimized baking procedure of the APB5000 system for Post Coat Bake (PCB) and Post Exposure Bake (PEB) is characterized by a maximum in the total temperature range on a 6025 mask substrate surface of 0.5 degree(s)C during the heat-up ramping and smaller than 0.2 degree(s)C at the set-point temperature of 90 degree(s)C. In this experiment CD-uniformity for isolated lines was improved to 7.8nm, compared to 13nm when using conventional baking systems. Additionally, a compensation method based on the baking processes is presented to further decrease the CD- uniformity range of CA-resists. Derived from CD-uniformity data measurements, a local temperature variation from the optimized baking strategy of the APB5000 system is used to compensate CD-errors caused by other process steps. In this experiment the result of such a measure showed a 40% improvement of the CD-uniformity range for dense lines from 14.2nm to 8.0nm.

  2. Influences of pretreatment and hard baking on the mechanical reliability of SU-8 microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morikaku, Toshiyuki; Kaibara, Yoshinori; Inoue, Masatoshi; Miura, Takuya; Suzuki, Takaaki; Oohira, Fumikazu; Inoue, Shozo; Namazu, Takahiro

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, the influences of pretreatment and hard baking on the mechanical characteristics of SU-8 microstructures are described. Four types of samples with different combinations of O2 plasma ashing, primer coating and hard baking were prepared for shear strength tests and uniaxial tensile tests. Specially developed shear test equipment was used to experimentally measure the shear adhesion strength of SU-8 micro posts on a glass substrate. The adhesiveness was strengthened by hard baking at 200 C for 60 min, whereas other pretreatment processes hardly affected the strength. The pretreatment and hard baking effects on the adhesive strength were compared with those on the fracture strength measured by uniaxial tensile testing. There were no influences of O2 plasma ashing on both the strengths, and primer coating affected only tensile strength. The primer coating effect as well as the hard baking effect on stress relaxation phenomena in uniaxial tension was observed as well. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy demonstrated that surface degradation and epoxide-ring opening polymerization would have given rise to the primer coating effect and the hard baking effect on the mechanical characteristics, respectively.

  3. Carotenoid profile and retention in yellow-, purple- and red-fleshed potatoes after thermal processing.

    PubMed

    Kotíková, Zora; Šulc, Miloslav; Lachman, Jaromír; Pivec, Vladimír; Orsák, Matyáš; Hamouz, Karel

    2016-04-15

    This research aimed to investigate the effect of thermal processing on carotenoid profile, quantity and stability in 22 colour-fleshed potato cultivars grown in the Czech Republic. The total of nine carotenoids was analysed by HPLC using a C30 column and PDA detection. The total carotenoid content for all cultivars ranged from 1.44 to 40.13 μg/g DM. Yellow cultivars showed a much higher average total carotenoid content (26.22 μg/g DM) when compared to red/purple-fleshed potatoes (5.69 μg/g DM). Yellow cultivars were dominated by antheraxanthin, whereas neoxanthin was the main carotenoid in red/purple cultivars. Thermal processing significantly impacted all potato cultivars. Boiling decreased the total carotenoids by 92% compared to baking (88%). Lutein was the most stable carotenoid against thermal processing (decreased by 24-43%) followed by β-carotene (decreased by 78-83%); other carotenoids were degraded nearly completely. Increased formation of (Z)-isomers by thermal processing has not been confirmed. PMID:26617045

  4. [Comparison of chemical composition between raw and vinegar-baked Paeoniae Radix Alba using NMR based metabolomic approach].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen-Yu; Fan, Ma-Li; Qin, Xue-Mei

    2015-02-01

    To compare the chemical change of Paeoniae Radix Alba (PRA) after vinegar-baking processing, as well as the effect of vinegar types exerted on the processing, 1H NMR-based metabolomic approach combined with multivariate statistical analysis was used to investigate the different metabolites between the raw and two vinegar-baked PRA. More than thirty metabolites were identified in the 1H NMR spectrum of PRA, and the multivariate statistical analysis showed that raw and two vinegar-baked PRA could be separated obviously. After vinegar-baking, the contents of isoleucine, lactate, alanine, arginine, albiflorin, and 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (5-HMF) elevated, while those of sucrose, paeoniflorin and its analogues (calculated by benzoate) decreased. The chemical compositions of two vinegar-baked PRA were also different. Shanxi vinegar- baked PRA showed higher levels of leucine, isoleucine, valine, and albiflorin, while rice vinegar-baked PRA contained more sucrose and paeoniflorin's analogues (calculated by benzoate). And the chemical changes in Shanxi vinegar-baked PRA were greater than those of rice vinegar-baked PRA. The results revealed the chemical differences between raw and vinegar-baked PRA, as well as the influence of vinegar type on processing, in a holistic manner, the results obtained suggested that the correlations between the chemical change and the drug action after processing, as well as the vinegar type used in processing, should be further studied. PMID:25975031

  5. Measurements of vertical bar Vcb vertical bar and vertical bar Vub vertical bar at BaBar

    SciTech Connect

    Rotondo, M.

    2005-10-12

    We report results from the BABAR Collaboration on the semileptonic B decays, highlighting the measurements of the magnitude of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements Vub and Vcb. We describe the techniques used to obtain the matrix element |Vcb| using the measurement of the inclusive B {yields} Xclv process and a large sample of exclusive B {yields} D*lv decays. The vertical bar Vub vertical bar matrix elements has been measured studying different kinematic variables of the B {yields} Xulv process, and also with the exclusive reconstruction of B {yields} {pi}({rho})lv decays.

  6. Determination of caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline in standard reference material 2384, baking chocolate, using reversed-phase liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jeanice Brown; Yen, James H; Schantz, Michele M; Porter, Barbara J; Sharpless, Katherine E

    2004-06-01

    A rapid and selective isocratic reversed-phase liquid chromatographic method has been developed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology to simultaneously measure caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline in a food-matrix standard reference material (SRM) 2384, Baking Chocolate. The method uses isocratic elution with a mobile phase composition (volume fractions) of 10% acetronitrile/90% water (pH adjusted to 2.5 using acetic acid) at a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min with ultraviolet absorbance detection (274 nm). Total elution time for these analytes is less than 15 min. Concentration levels of caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline were measured in single 1-g samples taken from each of eight bars of chocolate over an eight-day period. Samples were defatted with hexane, and beta-hydroxyethyltheophylline was added as the internal standard. The repeatability for the caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline measurements was 5.1, 2.3, and 1.9%, respectively. The limit of quantitation for all analytes was <100 ng/mL. The measurements from this method were used in the value-assignment of caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline in SRM 2384. PMID:15161179

  7. Breaking through the Bar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Katti

    2011-01-01

    Howard University School of Law had a problem, and school officials knew it. Over a 20-year period, 40 percent of its graduates who took the Maryland bar exam failed it on their first try. During the next 24 months--the time frame required to determine its "eventual pass rate"--almost 90 percent of the students did pass. What they did not know was…

  8. Breaking through the Bar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Katti

    2011-01-01

    Howard University School of Law had a problem, and school officials knew it. Over a 20-year period, 40 percent of its graduates who took the Maryland bar exam failed it on their first try. During the next 24 months--the time frame required to determine its "eventual pass rate"--almost 90 percent of the students did pass. What they did not know was

  9. Gas inflow in barred galaxies - effects of secondary bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciejewski, Witold; Teuben, Peter J.; Sparke, Linda S.; Stone, James M.

    2002-01-01

    We report results of high-resolution hydrodynamical simulations of gas flows in barred galaxies, with a focus on gas dynamics in the central kiloparsec. In a single bar with an inner Lindblad resonance, we find either near-circular motion of gas in the nuclear ring, or a spiral shock extending towards the galaxy centre, depending on the sound speed in the gas. From a simple model of a dynamically possible doubly barred galaxy with resonant coupling, we infer that the secondary bar is likely to end well inside its corotation. Such a bar cannot create shocks in the gas flow, and therefore will not reveal itself in colour maps through straight dust lanes: the gas flows induced by it are different from those caused by the rapidly rotating main bars. In particular, we find that secondary stellar bars are unlikely to increase the mass inflow rate into the galactic nucleus.

  10. Bar coded retroreflective target

    DOEpatents

    Vann, Charles S.

    2000-01-01

    This small, inexpensive, non-contact laser sensor can detect the location of a retroreflective target in a relatively large volume and up to six degrees of position. The tracker's laser beam is formed into a plane of light which is swept across the space of interest. When the beam illuminates the retroreflector, some of the light returns to the tracker. The intensity, angle, and time of the return beam is measured to calculate the three dimensional location of the target. With three retroreflectors on the target, the locations of three points on the target are measured, enabling the calculation of all six degrees of target position. Until now, devices for three-dimensional tracking of objects in a large volume have been heavy, large, and very expensive. Because of the simplicity and unique characteristics of this tracker, it is capable of three-dimensional tracking of one to several objects in a large volume, yet it is compact, light-weight, and relatively inexpensive. Alternatively, a tracker produces a diverging laser beam which is directed towards a fixed position, and senses when a retroreflective target enters the fixed field of view. An optically bar coded target can be read by the tracker to provide information about the target. The target can be formed of a ball lens with a bar code on one end. As the target moves through the field, the ball lens causes the laser beam to scan across the bar code.

  11. Cookie- versus cracker-baking--what's the difference? Flour functionality requirements explored by SRC and alveography.

    PubMed

    Kweon, Meera; Slade, Louise; Levine, Harry; Gannon, Diane

    2014-01-01

    The many differences between cookie- and cracker-baking are discussed and described in terms of the functionality, and functional requirements, of the major biscuit ingredients--flour and sugar. Both types of products are similar in their major ingredients, but different in their formulas and processes. One of the most important and consequential differences between traditional cracker and cookie formulas is sugar (i.e., sucrose) concentration: usually lower than 30% in a typical cracker formula and higher than 30% in a typical cookie formula. Gluten development is facilitated in lower-sugar cracker doughs during mixing and sheeting; this is a critical factor linked to baked-cracker quality. Therefore, soft wheat flours with greater gluten quality and strength are typically preferred for cracker production. In contrast, the concentrated aqueous sugar solutions existing in high-sugar cookie doughs generally act as an antiplasticizer, compared with water alone, so gluten development during dough mixing and starch gelatinization/pasting during baking are delayed or prevented in most cookie systems. Traditional cookies and crackers are low-moisture baked goods, which are desirably made from flours with low water absorption [low water-holding capacity (WHC)], and low levels of damaged starch and water-soluble pentosans (i.e., water-accessible arabinoxylans). Rheological (e.g., alveography) and baking tests are often used to evaluate flour quality for baked-goods applications, but the solvent retention capacity (SRC) method (AACC 56-11) is a better diagnostic tool for predicting the functional contribution of each individual flour functional component, as well as the overall functionality of flours for cookie- and/or cracker-baking. PMID:24188236

  12. Soft-Bake Purification of SWCNTs Produced by Pulsed Laser Vaporization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yowell, Leonard; Nikolaev, Pavel; Gorelik, Olga; Allada, Rama Kumar; Sosa, Edward; Arepalli, Sivaram

    2013-01-01

    The "soft-bake" method is a simple and reliable initial purification step first proposed by researchers at Rice University for single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) produced by high-pressure carbon mon oxide disproportionation (HiPco). Soft-baking consists of annealing as-produced (raw) SWCNT, at low temperatures in humid air, in order to degrade the heavy graphitic shells that surround metal particle impurities. Once these shells are cracked open by the expansion and slow oxidation of the metal particles, the metal impurities can be digested through treatment with hydrochloric acid. The soft-baking of SWCNT produced by pulsed-laser vaporization (PLV) is not straightforward, because the larger average SWCNT diameters (.1.4 nm) and heavier graphitic shells surrounding metal particles call for increased temperatures during soft-bake. A part of the technology development focused on optimizing the temperature so that effective cracking of the graphitic shells is balanced with maintaining a reasonable yield, which was a critical aspect of this study. Once the ideal temperature was determined, a number of samples of raw SWCNT were purified using the soft-bake method. An important benefit to this process is the reduced time and effort required for soft-bake versus the standard purification route for SWCNT. The total time spent purifying samples by soft-bake is one week per batch, which equates to a factor of three reduction in the time required for purification as compared to the standard acid purification method. Reduction of the number of steps also appears to be an important factor in improving reproducibility of yield and purity of SWCNT, as small deviations are likely to get amplified over the course of a complicated multi-step purification process.

  13. Acoustic Measurement of Potato Cannon Velocity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtney, Michael; Courtney, Amy

    2007-01-01

    Potato cannon velocity can be measured with a digitized microphone signal. A microphone is attached to the potato cannon muzzle, and a potato is fired at an aluminum target about 10 m away. Flight time can be determined from the acoustic waveform by subtracting the time in the barrel and time for sound to return from the target. The potato…

  14. Potato psyllid genome and metagenome project

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato psyllid (Bactericera cockerelli) is a Hemipteran pest of solanaceous plants and limits potato and tomato production by the transmission of Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum. Genomic information on the potato psyllid is limited but is vital in developing appropriate management strategi...

  15. Potato Types: Their Characteristics and Uses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlista, Alexander D.

    1997-01-01

    Presents material for a talk and demonstration about the relationship of potato types to their different uses by consumers and processors. Includes background information for the instructor and discussions to accompany classroom exercises. Discusses the history of the potato, potato types and external characteristics, and internal characteristics

  16. Sustainable potato production: global case studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is grown in over 100 countries throughout the world. As a staple food, potato is the fourth most important crop after rice, wheat, and maize, and has historically contributed to food and nutrition security in the world. Global interest in potato increased sharply in 200...

  17. Maximizing the Phytonutrient Content of Potatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We are exploring to what extent the rich genetic diversity of potatoes can be used to maximize the nutritional potential of potatoes. Metabolic profiling is being used to screen potatoes for genotypes with elevated amounts of vitamins and phytonutrients. Substantial differences in phytonutrients am...

  18. Field and Greenhouse Performance of Potato Sprouts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of potato sprouts as a seed source is an innovative idea that has gained international recognition in recent years. The potato industry in Alaska currently relies on freshpack for the majority of sales. A low level of disease pressure on potato seed production in Alaska suggests high quality...

  19. Maximizing the nutritional potential of potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As the most eaten vegetable in the United States, potatoes have tremendous potential to be a valuable source of vitamins and phytonutrients in the diet. Potato is the only tuber amongst all the world’s major food crops, most of which are grains or roots. Potatoes are already known to be a good sour...

  20. Effects of plastic mulch on potato growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Northern China is a major potato production region, and water-saving measures that can enhance both potato yield and quality play an important role in this region due to general water shortages. Plastic mulch has been used as an effective water-saving measure for potato cultivation in China. This ch...

  1. Liberibacter transmission efficiency among potato psyllid haplotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (ulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae), is a vector of the phloem-limited bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum (Lso), the putative causal agent of zebra chip disease of potato. Little is known on the mechanisms by which the potato psyllid transmits Lso t...

  2. Potato production in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potatoes have been a staple in the American diet for almost 250 years. The United States is the world's fifth biggest producer, behind China, India, the Russian Federation, and the Ukraine. Potatoes in the United States are grown in nearly every state. Idaho produces approximately 1/3 of all potatoe...

  3. Diversity of potato genetic resources.

    PubMed

    Machida-Hirano, Ryoko

    2015-03-01

    A considerable number of highly diverse species exist in genus Solanum. Because they can adapt to a broad range of habitats, potato wild relatives are promising sources of desirable agricultural traits. Potato taxonomy is quite complex because of introgression, interspecific hybridization, auto- and allopolyploidy, sexual compatibility among many species, a mixture of sexual and asexual reproduction, possible recent species divergence, phenotypic plasticity, and the consequent high morphological similarity among species. Recent researchers using molecular tools have contributed to the identification of genes controlling several types of resistance as well as to the revision of taxonomical relationships among potato species. Historically, primitive forms of cultivated potato and its wild relatives have been used in breeding programs and there is still an enormous and unimaginable potential for discovering desirable characteristics, particularly in wild species Different methods have been developed to incorporate useful alleles from these wild species into the improved cultivars. Potato germplasm comprising of useful alleles for different breeding objectives is preserved in various gene banks worldwide. These materials, with their invaluable information, are accessible for research and breeding purposes. Precise identification of species base on the new taxonomy is essential for effective use of the germplasm collection. PMID:25931978

  4. Diversity of potato genetic resources

    PubMed Central

    Machida-Hirano, Ryoko

    2015-01-01

    A considerable number of highly diverse species exist in genus Solanum. Because they can adapt to a broad range of habitats, potato wild relatives are promising sources of desirable agricultural traits. Potato taxonomy is quite complex because of introgression, interspecific hybridization, auto- and allopolyploidy, sexual compatibility among many species, a mixture of sexual and asexual reproduction, possible recent species divergence, phenotypic plasticity, and the consequent high morphological similarity among species. Recent researchers using molecular tools have contributed to the identification of genes controlling several types of resistance as well as to the revision of taxonomical relationships among potato species. Historically, primitive forms of cultivated potato and its wild relatives have been used in breeding programs and there is still an enormous and unimaginable potential for discovering desirable characteristics, particularly in wild species Different methods have been developed to incorporate useful alleles from these wild species into the improved cultivars. Potato germplasm comprising of useful alleles for different breeding objectives is preserved in various gene banks worldwide. These materials, with their invaluable information, are accessible for research and breeding purposes. Precise identification of species base on the new taxonomy is essential for effective use of the germplasm collection. PMID:25931978

  5. The effect of different formulations on physical properties of cakes baked with microwave and near infrared-microwave combinations.

    PubMed

    Sakiyan, Ozge; Sumnu, Gulum; Sahin, Serpil; Meda, Venkatesh

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different formulations on color and textural characteristics of different cakes during baking in microwave and near infrared-microwave combination ovens. For comparison, cakes were also baked in conventional ovens. Color and hardness for both types of baking schemes were found to be dependent on formulation. Cakes containing Simplesse, a fat replacer consisting mostly of whey protein, baked in microwave and near infrared-microwave combination ovens were found to be the firmest cakes. PMID:18161413

  6. Control of final moisture content of food products baked in continuous tunnel ovens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFarlane, Ian

    2006-02-01

    There are well-known difficulties in making measurements of the moisture content of baked goods (such as bread, buns, biscuits, crackers and cake) during baking or at the oven exit; in this paper several sensing methods are discussed, but none of them are able to provide direct measurement with sufficient precision. An alternative is to use indirect inferential methods. Some of these methods involve dynamic modelling, with incorporation of thermal properties and using techniques familiar in computational fluid dynamics (CFD); a method of this class that has been used for the modelling of heat and mass transfer in one direction during baking is summarized, which may be extended to model transport of moisture within the product and also within the surrounding atmosphere. The concept of injecting heat during the baking process proportional to the calculated heat load on the oven has been implemented in a control scheme based on heat balance zone by zone through a continuous baking oven, taking advantage of the high latent heat of evaporation of water. Tests on biscuit production ovens are reported, with results that support a claim that the scheme gives more reproducible water distribution in the final product than conventional closed loop control of zone ambient temperatures, thus enabling water content to be held more closely within tolerance.

  7. A 3D mathematical model for the horizontal anode baking furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Kocaefe, Y.S.; Dernedde, E.; Kocaefe, D.; Ouellet, R.; Jiao, Q.; Crowell, W.F.

    1996-10-01

    In the aluminum industry, carbon anodes are baked in large horizontal or vertical ring-type furnaces. The anode quality depends strongly on the baking conditions (heating rate, soaking time and final anode temperature). A three-dimensional mathematical model has been developed for a horizontal anode baking furnace to assess the effects of different parameters on the baking process and to improve the furnace operation and design at Noranda Aluminum Smelter in New Madrid, Missouri. The commercial CFD code CFDS-FLOW3D is used to solve the governing differential equations. The model gives the temperature, velocity and concentration distributions in the flue, and the variation of the temperature distribution with time in the pit. In this paper, a description of the 3D model for the horizontal anode baking furnace will be given. Some of the results from a case study will also be presented. The results show clearly the importance of flue geometry on the gas flow distribution in the flue and the heat transfer to the anodes.

  8. Improving the bulk laser-damage resistance of KDP by baking and pulsed-laser irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Swain, J.E.; Stokowski, S.E.; Milam, D.; Rainer, F.

    1981-09-16

    Isolated bulk damage centers are produced when KDP crystals are irradiated by 1-ns 1064-nm pulses. We have tested about 100 samples and find the median threshold to be 7 J/cm/sup 2/ when the samples are irradiated only once at each test volume (1-on-1 tests). The median threshold increased to 11 J/cm/sup 2/ when the test volumes were first subjected to subthreshold laser irradiation (n-on-1 tests). We baked several crystals at temperatures from 110 to 165/sup 0/C and remeasured their thresholds. Baking increased thresholds in some crystals, but did not change thresholds of others. The median threshold of baked crystals ranged from 8 to 10 J/cm/sup 2/ depending on the baking temperature. In crystals that had been baked, subthreshold irradiation produced a large change in the bulk damage threshold, and reduced the volume density of damage centers relative to the density observed in unbaked crystals. The data are summarized in the table.

  9. Solid matrix and liquid culture procedures for growth of potatoes.

    PubMed

    Tibbitts, T W; Cao, W

    1994-11-01

    This report discusses the advantages and limitations of several different procedures for growth of potatoes for CELSS. Solution culture, in which roots and stolons are submerged, and aeroponic culture were not found useful for potatoes because stolons did not produce tubers unless a severe stress was applied to the plants. In detailed comparison studies, three selected culture systems were compared, nutrient film technique (NFT), NFT with shallow media, and pot culture with deep media. For the NFT and NFT plus shallow media, plants were grown in 0.3 m2 trays and for the deep medium culture, in 20 liter pots. A 1 cm depth of arcillite, a baked montmorillonite clay, was used as shallow media (NFT-arc). Peat-vermiculite mixture was used to fill the pots for the deep media. Nutrient solution, modified half-strength Hoagland's, was recirculated among the tray culture plants with pH automatically controlled at 5.5, and conductivity maintained at approximately 1100 microS cm-1 by adding stock nutrients or renewing the solution. A separate nutrient solution was used to water the pot plants four times daily to excess and the excess was discarded. Plants of Norland cv. were utilized and transplanted from sterile-propagated stem cutting plantlets. The plants were grown for 66 days under 12 h photoperiod in a first study and grown for 54 days under 24 h photoperiod in a second study. Under both photoperiods, total plant growth was greater in NFT-arc than in either NFT or pot culture. Under 12 h photoperiod, tuber dry weight was 30% higher with NFT-arc, but 50% lower with NFT, than with pot culture. Under 24 h photoperiod, however, tuber dry weight in both NFT and NFT-arc was only 20% of that in pot culture. The NFT and NFT-arc produced a greater shoot growth and larger number of small tubers than pot culture, especially with 24 h photoperiod. It is concluded that there are serious limitations to the use of NFT alone for growth of potatoes in a CELSS system. These limitations can be minimized by using a modified NFT with a shallow layer of media, such as arcillite, yet additional work is needed to ensure high tuber production with this system under long photoperiods. PMID:11540216

  10. Solid matrix and liquid culture procedures for growth of potatoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tibbitts, T. W.; Cao, W.

    1994-11-01

    This report discusses the advantages and limitations of several different procedures for growth of potatoes for CELSS. Solution culture, in which roots and stolons are submerged, and aeroponic culture were not found useful for potatoes because stolons did not produce tubers unless a severe stress was applied to the plants. In detailed comparison studies, three selected culture systems were compared, nutrient film technique (NFT), NFT with shallow media, and pot culture with deep media. For the NFT and NFT plus shallow media, plants were grown in 0.3 m2 trays and for the deep medium culture, in 20 liter pots. A 1 cm depth of arcillite, a baked montmorillonite clay, was used as shallow media (NFT-arc). Peatvermiculite mixture was used to fill the pots for the deep media. Nutrient solution, modified half-strength Hoagland's was recirculated among the tray culture plants with pH automatically controlled at 5.5, and conductivity maintained ~ 1100 ?S cm-1 by adding stock nutrients or renewing the solution. A separate nutrient solution was used to water the pot plants four times daily to excess and the excess was discarded. Plants of Norland cv. were utilized and transplanted from sterile-propagated stem cutting plantlets. The plants were grown for 66 days under 12 h photoperiod in a first study and grown for 54 days under 24 h photoperiod in a second study. Under both photoperiods, total plant growth was greater in NFT-arc than in either NFT or pot culture. Under 12 h photoperiod, tuber dry weight was 30% higher with NFT-arc, but 50% lower with NFT, than with pot culture. Under 24 h photoperiod, however, tuber dry weight in both NFT and NFT-arc was only 20% of that in pot culture. The NFT and NFT-arc produced a greater shoot growth and larger number of small tubers than pot culture, especially with 24 h photoperiod. It is concluded that there are serious limitations to the use of NFT alone for growth of potatoes in a CELSS system. These limitations can be minimized by using a modified NFT with a shallow layer of media, such as arcillite, yet additional work is needed to ensure high tuber production with this system under long photoperiods.

  11. Seed potato production system in Japan, starting from foundation seed of potato.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Tsukasa; Oohori, Hidemiki; Tajima, Kazuyuki

    2015-03-01

    Potato is one of the staple crops cultivated in upland farming in Japan and is propagated vegetatively by means of tubers. However once infected with diseases, potato yield decreases significantly. And one seed potato can produce approximately only 10 potato tubers. To improve the production system of seed potatoes in Japan, Japanese government established a three-stage propagation system for the production and distribution of healthy and disease-free seed potatoes. The National Center for Seeds and Seedlings (NCSS) has a role for the production of foundation seed potatoes and strictly manages the production in isolated fields that are treated thoroughly to control pests and diseases. Recently though the distribution of foundation seed potatoes is decreasing, the number of varieties of foundation seed potatoes has increased steadily. And new varieties of potato adapted various requirements, including resistance of the golden potato cyst nematode, have been increasing. Therefore, NCSS is introducing a new method of producing minitubers (MnTs) by using hydroponic cultivation greenhouse to increase the efficiency of propagation and to rapidly disseminate these new potato varieties. In this review, we describe a seed potato production system in Japan and the production of foundation seed potatoes as an important role of NCSS. PMID:25931977

  12. Seed potato production system in Japan, starting from foundation seed of potato

    PubMed Central

    Kawakami, Tsukasa; Oohori, Hidemiki; Tajima, Kazuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Potato is one of the staple crops cultivated in upland farming in Japan and is propagated vegetatively by means of tubers. However once infected with diseases, potato yield decreases significantly. And one seed potato can produce approximately only 10 potato tubers. To improve the production system of seed potatoes in Japan, Japanese government established a three-stage propagation system for the production and distribution of healthy and disease-free seed potatoes. The National Center for Seeds and Seedlings (NCSS) has a role for the production of foundation seed potatoes and strictly manages the production in isolated fields that are treated thoroughly to control pests and diseases. Recently though the distribution of foundation seed potatoes is decreasing, the number of varieties of foundation seed potatoes has increased steadily. And new varieties of potato adapted various requirements, including resistance of the golden potato cyst nematode, have been increasing. Therefore, NCSS is introducing a new method of producing minitubers (MnTs) by using hydroponic cultivation greenhouse to increase the efficiency of propagation and to rapidly disseminate these new potato varieties. In this review, we describe a seed potato production system in Japan and the production of foundation seed potatoes as an important role of NCSS. PMID:25931977

  13. Degradation of pentachlorophenol by potato polyphenol oxidase.

    PubMed

    Hou, Mei-Fang; Tang, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Wei-De; Liao, Lin; Wan, Hong-Fu

    2011-11-01

    In this study, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was extracted from commercial potatoes. Degradation of pentachlorophenol by potato PPO was investigated. The experimental results show that potato PPO is more active in weak acid than in basic condition and that the optimum pH for the reaction is 5.0. The degradation of pentachlorophenol by potato PPO reaches a maximum at 298 K. After reaction for 1 h, the removal of both pentachlorophenol and total organic carbon is >70% with 6.0 units/mL potato PPO at pH 5.0 and 298 K. Pentachlorophenol can be degraded through dechlorination and ring-opening by potato PPO. The work demonstrates that pentachlorophenol can be effectively eliminated by crude potato PPO. PMID:21967325

  14. Impact of cooking, proving, and baking on the (poly)phenol content of wild blueberry.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Mateos, Ana; Cifuentes-Gomez, Tania; George, Trevor W; Spencer, Jeremy P E

    2014-05-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that diets rich in (poly)phenols may have positive effects on human health. Currently there is limited information regarding the effects of processing on the (poly)phenolic content of berries, in particular in processes related to the baking industry. This study investigated the impact of cooking, proving, and baking on the anthocyanin, procyanidin, flavonol, and phenolic acid contents of wild blueberry using HPLC with UV and fluorescence detection. Anthocyanin levels decreased during cooking, proving, and baking, whereas no significant changes were observed for total procyanidins. However, lower molecular weight procyanidins increased and high molecular weight oligomers decreased during the process. Quercetin and ferulic and caffeic acid levels remained constant, whereas increases were found for chlorogenic acid. Due to their possible health benefits, a better understanding of the impact of processing is important to maximize the retention of these phytochemicals in berry-containing products. PMID:24083619

  15. Bar piezoelectric ceramic transformers.

    PubMed

    Erhart, Ji?; Pulpan, P?lpn; Rusin, Lubo

    2013-07-01

    Bar-shaped piezoelectric ceramic transformers (PTs) working in the longitudinal vibration mode (k31 mode) were studied. Two types of the transformer were designed--one with the electrode divided into two segments of different length, and one with the electrodes divided into three symmetrical segments. Parameters of studied transformers such as efficiency, transformation ratio, and input and output impedances were measured. An analytical model was developed for PT parameter calculation for both two- and three-segment PTs. Neither type of bar PT exhibited very high efficiency (maximum 72% for three-segment PT design) at a relatively high transformation ratio (it is 4 for two-segment PT and 2 for three-segment PT at the fundamental resonance mode). The optimum resistive loads were 20 and 10 k? for two- and three-segment PT designs for the fundamental resonance, respectively, and about one order of magnitude smaller for the higher overtone (i.e., 2 k? and 500 ?, respectively). The no-load transformation ratio was less than 27 (maximum for two-segment electrode PT design). The optimum input electrode aspect ratios (0.48 for three-segment PT and 0.63 for two-segment PT) were calculated numerically under no-load conditions. PMID:25004515

  16. Beyond Hopkinson's bar.

    PubMed

    Pierron, F; Zhu, H; Siviour, C

    2014-08-28

    In order to perform experimental identification of high strain rate material models, engineers have only a very limited toolbox based on test procedures developed decades ago. The best example is the so-called split Hopkinson pressure bar based on the bar concept introduced 100 years ago by Bertram Hopkinson to measure blast pulses. The recent advent of full-field deformation measurements using imaging techniques has allowed novel approaches to be developed and exciting new testing procedures to be imagined for the first time. One can use this full-field information in conjunction with efficient numerical inverse identification tools such as the virtual fields method (VFM) to identify material parameters at high rates. The underpinning novelty is to exploit the inertial effects developed in high strain rate loading. This paper presents results from a new inertial impact test to obtain stress-strain curves at high strain rates (here, up to 3000?s(-1)). A quasi-isotropic composite specimen is equipped with a grid and images are recorded with the new HPV-X camera from Shimadzu at 5?Mfps and the SIMX16 camera from Specialised Imaging at 1?Mfps. Deformation, strain and acceleration fields are then input into the VFM to identify the stiffness parameters with unprecedented quality. PMID:25071232

  17. Flavouring compounds in Indian potato snacks.

    PubMed

    Raigond, Pinky; Singh, Brajesh; Dhulia, Akshita; Chopra, Shelly; Dutt, Som

    2015-12-01

    Market for processed potato products is rising day by day. Flavour plays important role in decision making by consumers due to their preferences for better tasting food. In potato and potato products, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, guanosine 5'-monophosphate (GMP) and adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) are the major umami compounds which contribute towards flavour. Therefore, umami 5' nucleotides (AMP+GMP) were estimated from local potato products available as common fried products in the Indian markets and processed potato products being sold by the retailers. The analysis was also carried in raw, microwaved and pressure cooked tubers of forty seven Indian potato cultivars. Umami 5' nucleotide content ranged from 2.63 (Aloo seekh) to 8.26 μg/g FW (fried lachcha) in local potato products. In processed potato products, the content ranged from 2.72 μg/g FW (Smiles) to 14.75 μg/g FW (Aloo Bhujia). Along with aloo bhujia, umami 5' nucleotides were also high in dehydrated aloo lachcha (11.14 μg/g FW) and dehydrated potato chips (10.13 μg/g FW) and low in Smiles (2.72 μg/g FW) and Potato Shortz (3.40 μg/g FW). The study suggests that the potato products prepared solely from potato contained higher levels of umami 5' nucleotides compared to other products prepared by mixing potato with other cereals and vegetables. In Indian potato cultivars overall there was 14 % increase on microwave cooking and 31 % increase in flavouring compounds on pressure cooking. This type of study enabled in identifying better tasting cultivars for further product development and also to develop products with less addition of salt. PMID:26604408

  18. 7 CFR 945.7 - Certified seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Certified seed potatoes. 945.7 Section 945.7... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN... Certified seed potatoes. Certified seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified...

  19. 7 CFR 945.7 - Certified seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Certified seed potatoes. 945.7 Section 945.7... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN... Certified seed potatoes. Certified seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified...

  20. 7 CFR 945.7 - Certified seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Certified seed potatoes. 945.7 Section 945.7... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN... Certified seed potatoes. Certified seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified...

  1. 7 CFR 945.7 - Certified seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Certified seed potatoes. 945.7 Section 945.7... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN... Certified seed potatoes. Certified seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified...

  2. Bar-Code-Scribing Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badinger, Michael A.; Drouant, George J.

    1991-01-01

    Proposed hand-held tool applies indelible bar code to small parts. Possible to identify parts for management of inventory without tags or labels. Microprocessor supplies bar-code data to impact-printer-like device. Device drives replaceable scribe, which cuts bar code on surface of part. Used to mark serially controlled parts for military and aerospace equipment. Also adapts for discrete marking of bulk items used in food and pharmaceutical processing.

  3. Thermal Analysis of the Divertor Primary Heat Transfer System Piping During the Gas Baking Process

    SciTech Connect

    Yoder Jr, Graydon L; Harvey, Karen; Ferrada, Juan J

    2011-02-01

    A preliminary analysis has been performed examining the temperature distribution in the Divertor Primary Heat Transfer System (PHTS) piping and the divertor itself during the gas baking process. During gas baking, it is required that the divertor reach a temperature of 350 C. Thermal losses in the piping and from the divertor itself require that the gas supply temperature be maintained above that temperature in order to ensure that all of the divertor components reach the required temperature. The analysis described in this report was conducted in order to estimate the required supply temperature from the gas heater.

  4. Bake condition effect on hybrid lithography process for negative-tone chemically amplified resists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pain, Laurent; Sala, F.; Higgins, C.; Dal'zotto, B.; Tedesco, Serge V.

    2000-06-01

    This paper presents the process optimization study of negative tone Chemically Amplified Resists (CAR) under E-Beam exposure. The importance of post apply bake temperature choice on resolution is underlined. The process study determines the process window in which optimal conditions of both post apply and post exposure bake steps are defined and present a method to define more precisely the thermal cross-linking onset. Finally lithographic performances of CARs are studied and we show that resolution can be pushed down to 40 nm.

  5. On the Decomposition of Martensite During Bake Hardening of Thermomechanically Processed TRIP Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Pereloma, E. V.; Miller, Michael K; Timokhina, I. B.

    2008-01-01

    Thermomechanically processed (TMP) CMnSi transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) steels with and without additions of Nb, Mo, or Al were subjected to prestraining and bake hardening. Atom probe tomography (APT) revealed the presence of fine C-rich clusters in the martensite of all studied steels after the thermomechanical processing. After bake hardening, the formation of iron carbides, containing from 25 to 90 at. pct C, was observed. The evolution of iron carbide compositions was independent of steel composition and was a function of carbide size.

  6. Addressing Constraints to Potato Productivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are a number of factors that limit potato productivity in Maine and the northeast U.S., including crop fertility, soil-borne diseases and other crop pests, water availability, and degradation of soil resources. We established a long-term field experiment in Presque Isle in 2004, to establish ...

  7. Growth of potatoes for CELSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tibbitts, T. W.; Cao, W.; Wheeler, R. M.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes research on the utilization of white potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) for space life support systems at the University of Wisconsin-Madison over the period of 1984 to 1993. At full maturity the tuber productivity was 37.5 gm(exp -2) d(exp -1), equating to a growing area requirement for one human (2800 kcal d(exp -1)) of 10.1 m(exp -2). A recirculating nutrient system using slanted trays produced best potato growth and tuber yields when a 2-3 cm layer of gravel or arcillite media was utilized. Potato production was close to maximum under lighting levels of 400 micromol m(exp -2) s(exp -1) of photosynthetic photo flux (PPF) for 24 hours or 800 micromol m(exp -2) s(exp -1) for 12 hours, alternating diurnal temperatures of 22 C and 14 C, relative humidity of 85 percent, and a carbon dioxide level of 1000 micromol m(exp -1). The range of effective concentrations of each separate nutrient is reported. The extensive studies with potatoes in this project have demonstrated that this crop has high productivity of nutritous tubers with a high harvest index in controlled environments, and can fulfill a significant portion of the energy and protein requirements for humans in space.

  8. Leafhoppers and potatoes in Alaska

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research conducted from 2004 to 2006 in the main potato production areas of Alaska resulted in the identification of 41 leafhopper species associated with agricultural settings. Two species, Davisonia snowi (Dorst) and Macrosteles fascifrons (Stl), made up approximately 60% of the total number of i...

  9. Potato Nitrogen and Water Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato tuber yields and quality are extremely sensitive to adequate availability of water and nitrogen, particularly at some growth stages. Irrigation to replenish 70% of evapotranspiration (ET) as compared to that of full ET, resulted in about 18% reduction in tuber yield. However, 20% deficit irri...

  10. Bars in a cosmological context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martig, Marie; Kraljic, Katarina; Bournaud, Frédéric

    2015-03-01

    We study the properties of bars in a series of zoom cosmological simulations (Martig et al. 2012, Kraljic et al. 2012). We find that bars are almost absent from galaxies at z>1, and if they form they tend to be quickly destroyed by mergers and instabilities. On the contrary, at z<1 bars are long-lived, and the fraction of barred galaxies rises steadily. Bars are eventually found in ~ 80% of z=0 spiral galaxies. This redshift evolution is quantitatively consistent with existing data from the COSMOS survey (Sheth et al. 2008), although the detectability of bars is presently limited to z<0.8 because of band-shifting and resolution effects. We predict later bar formation in lower-mass galaxies, also in agreement with existing data (e.g., Sheth et al. 2012). We actually find that the characteristic epoch of bar formation is the epoch of massive thin disk formation, corresponding to the transition between an early violent phase at z > 1 and a later secular phase. Bar formation thus traces the emergence of the disk-dominated morphology of today's spirals.

  11. D0-bar D0 mixing at BaBar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, J.

    2008-05-01

    This article reviews the recent measurement of D0-bar D0 mixing with the D0 ? K? decay channel from the BaBar experiment at the PEP-II B-Factory. Averages from the Heavy Flavor Averaging Group between this result and a previous result from BELLE are also presented.

  12. Effects of Magnetic Fields on Bar Substructures in Barred Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Woong-Tae

    2015-03-01

    To study the effects of magnetic fields on the properties of bar substructures, we run two-dimensional, ideal MHD simulations of barred galaxies under the influence of a non-axisymmetric bar potential. In the bar regions, magnetic fields reduce density compression in the dust-lane shocks, while removing angular momentum further from the gas at the shocks. This evidently results in a smaller and more distributed ring, and a larger mass inflows rate to the galaxy center in models with stronger magnetic fields. In the outer regions, an MHD dynamo due to the combined action of the bar potential and background shear operates, amplifying magnetic fields near the corotation resonance. In the absence of spiral arms, the amplified fields naturally shape into trailing magnetic arms with strong fields and low density. The reader is refereed to Kim & Stone (2012) for a detailed presentation of the simulation outcomes.

  13. Effects of a Baking Soda Gum on extrinsic dental stain: results of a longitudinal 4-week assessment.

    PubMed

    Soparkar, P; Newman, M B

    2001-07-01

    An evaluation of the effects of ARM & HAMMER DENTAL CARE The Baking Soda Gum (AHDC) on extrinsic dental stain was made in 48 subjects presenting with measurable extrinsic stain. The subjects were randomized to use either the baking soda gum or a non-baking soda placebo gum for 20 minutes twice daily after lunch and dinner while brushing once daily. The procedure of limited brushing was chosen to simulate the level of hygiene normally practiced by participants entering a clinical study. After 4 weeks, the reduction in measurable extrinsic stain in the baking soda gum group was statistically significant (P = .0044) relative to baseline. Statistical analysis of the placebo gum group revealed no significant change in extrinsic stain from baseline. The magnitude of the unadjusted longitudinal reduction in extrinsic stain in the baking soda gum group was 29.7% at 4 weeks. PMID:11913306

  14. Products cooked in preheated versus non-preheated ovens. Baking times, calculated energy consumption, and product quality compared.

    PubMed

    Odland, D; Davis, C

    1982-08-01

    Plain muffins, yellow cake, baked custard, apple pie, tuna casserole, frozen tuna casserole, cheese souffl, and meat loaf were baked in preheated and non-preheated standard gas, continuous-clean gas, standard electric, and self-cleaning electric ovens. Products generally required 5 min. or less extra baking time when cooked in non-preheated rather than in preheated ovens. The variability in baking times often was less between preheated and non-preheated ovens than among oven types. Calculated energy consumption values showed that usually less energy was required to bake products in non-preheated than in preheated ovens; savings averaged about 10 percent. Few significant differences were found in physical measurements or eating quality either between preheated and non-preheated ovens or among oven types. Overall, for the products tested, findings confirmed that preheating the oven is not essential for good product quality and, therefore, is an unnecessary use of energy. PMID:7108076

  15. Flight take-off performance of Colorado potato beetle in relation to potato phenology.

    PubMed

    Mbungu, Nsitu T; Boiteau, Gilles

    2008-02-01

    The flight take-off frequency of adult Colorado potato beetles, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), from potato plants, Solanum tuberosum L. 'Red Pontiac' at the bloom stage of development was 2.2-2.5-fold that of Colorado potato beetle from plants at the vegetative stage. Tests were conducted in a flight chamber over a period of 3 h. Prefeeding Colorado potato beetles for 48 h on potato plants at the bloom or at the vegetative stage before placing them into the flight chamber resulted in the same significantly higher flight take-off frequency from potato plants at the bloom stage than from plants at the vegetative stage. These results demonstrate that the factor in potato plants in bloom that stimulates the flight take-off of the Colorado potato beetle is independent of the feeding history of the beetles and begins acting only when the beetles are in the presence of the plant. According to these results, the dispersal of adult Colorado potato beetles from potato fields in bloom to younger potato fields with plants at the vegetative stage, previously reported in the literature, is at least partly explained by the effect of plant phenology on the frequency of flight take-off. Results confirm the value of planting potato fields of similar phenology over as wide an area as possible to reduce Colorado potato beetle dispersal between fields. Results also imply that staggering the planting dates of conventional potato refuge areas near Colorado potato beetle transgenic or conventionally resistant potato fields is a sound management practice, because it promotes the movement of wild beetles over to the adjacent younger resistant crops. PMID:18330116

  16. Home-Made Breads [and] Home-Baked Breads for Busy People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, John

    This packet contains two lesson plans for a class on making bread to be taught in an adult literacy program. Developed by a teacher who has taught the classes to 175 people, the lesson plans each contain complete directions for working with students while baking bread. One lesson plan is for experienced home bakers, and the other is a simpler…

  17. Nutritious Meal Planning; Commercial Cooking and Baking I: 9193.02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This 90 clock hour course has been prepared as a guide for the tenth grade student in commercial cooking and baking or food management, production and services. It has been divided into six blocks of instruction (menu planning, recipes, condiments and their uses, introduction to cooking, food cost and accounting), and a Quinmester post-test. As a…

  18. Awaken to the World of Food Service; Commercial Cooking and Baking--Basic: 9193.01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This course outline has been prepared as a guide for the tenth grade student in commercial cooking and baking or food management, production, and services. It provides basic experiences in the field of commercial food service, the hotel and restaurant industry and types of food service establishments. The course consists of 90 clock hours, covered…

  19. AFM investigation of thin post-baked photoresistive films for microsystem technology application

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandrov, S. E.; Speshilova, A. B. Soloviev, Y. V.; Ermeychik, O. I.

    2007-04-15

    In this paper, we discuss the application of photoresist films as the sacrificial layers for 'bridge' working elements in microsystem technology. Different regimes and conditions of post-baking and plasma chemical etching processes for the formation of sacrificial layers with precise thickness and roughness are investigated. The photoresist surface morphology was observed with the help of atomic force and scanning electron microscopy.

  20. Cooking Can Be Profitable; Commercial Cooking and Baking 1:9193.03.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The course outline is prepared as a guide for the 10th grade student in Commercial Cooking and Baking or Food Management Production and Service. The course introduces the student to effective production of high quality foods and develops an understanding of high standards in quality food service. Totaling 90 hours of instruction, nine blocks of…

  1. Formation of monochloropropane-1,2-diol and its esters in biscuits during baking.

    PubMed

    Mogol, Burçe Ataç; Pye, Céline; Anderson, Warwick; Crews, Colin; Gökmen, Vural

    2014-07-23

    The formation of free monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD and 2-MCPD) and its esters (bound-MCPD) was investigated in biscuits baked with various time and temperature combinations. The effect of salt as a source of chloride on the formation of these processing contaminants was also determined. Kinetic examination of the data indicated that an increasing baking temperature led to an increase in the reaction rate constants for 3-MCPD, 2-MCPD, and bound-MCPD. The activation energies of formation of 3-MCPD and 2-MCPD were found to be 29 kJ mol(-1). Eliminating salt from the recipe decreased 3-MCPD and 2-MCPD formation rate constants in biscuits by 57.5 and 85.4%, respectively. In addition, there was no formation of bound-MCPD in biscuits during baking without salt. Therefore, lowering the thermal load or limiting the chloride concentration should be considered a means of reducing or eliminating the formation of these contaminants in biscuits. Different refined oils were also used in the recipe to test their effect on the occurrence of free MCPD and its esters in biscuits. Besides the baking process, the results also confirmed the role of refined oil in the final concentration of these contaminants in biscuits. PMID:25004252

  2. On residual gas analysis during high temperature baking of graphite tiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, A. A.; Chaudhuri, P.; Khirwadkar, S.; Chauhan, N.; Raole, P. M.; Reddy, D. Chenna; Saxena, Y. C.

    2008-05-01

    Steady-state Super-conducting Tokamak-1 (SST-1) is a medium size tokamak with major radius of 1.1 m and minor radius of 0.20 m. It is designed for plasma discharge duration of 1000 seconds to obtain fully steady-state plasma operation. Plasma Facing Components (PFC), consisting of divertors, passive stabilizers, baffles and poloidal limiters are also designed to be UHV compatible for steady state operation. All PFC are made up of graphite tiles mechanically attached to the copper alloy substrate. Graphite is one of the preferred first wall armour material in present day tokamaks. High thermal shock resistance and low atomic number of carbon are the most important properties of graphite for this application. High temperature vacuum baking of graphite tiles is the standard process to remove the impurities. Residual Gas Analyzer (RGA) has been used for qualitative and quantitative measurements of released gases from graphite tiles during baking. Surface Analysis of graphite tiles has also been done before and after baking. This paper describes the residual gas analysis during baking and surface analysis of graphite tiles.

  3. How the sourdough may affect the functional features of leavened baked goods.

    PubMed

    Gobbetti, Marco; Rizzello, Carlo G; Di Cagno, Raffaella; De Angelis, Maria

    2014-02-01

    Sourdough fermentation is one of the oldest food biotechnologies, which has been studied and recently rediscovered for its effect on the sensory, structural, nutritional and shelf life properties of leavened baked goods. Acidification, proteolysis and activation of a number of enzymes as well as the synthesis of microbial metabolites cause several changes during sourdough fermentation, which affect the dough and baked good matrix, and influence the nutritional/functional quality. Currently, the literature is particularly rich of results, which show how the sourdough fermentation may affect the functional features of leavened baked goods. In the form of pre-treating raw materials, fermentation through sourdough may stabilize or to increase the functional value of bran fractions and wheat germ. Sourdough fermentation may decrease the glycaemic response of baked goods, improve the properties and bioavailability of dietary fibre complex and phytochemicals, and may increase the uptake of minerals. Microbial metabolism during sourdough fermentation may also produce new nutritionally active compounds, such as peptides and amino acid derivatives (e.g., γ-amino butyric acid) with various functionalities, and potentially prebiotic exo-polysaccharides. The wheat flour digested via fungal proteases and selected sourdough lactobacilli has been demonstrated to be probably safe for celiac patients. PMID:24230470

  4. Cloning and Characterization of a Weissella confusa Dextransucrase and Its Application in High Fibre Baking

    PubMed Central

    Kajala, Ilkka; Shi, Qiao; Nyyssölä, Antti; Maina, Ndegwa Henry; Hou, Yaxi; Katina, Kati; Tenkanen, Maija; Juvonen, Riikka

    2015-01-01

    Wheat bran offers health benefits as a baking ingredient, but is detrimental to bread textural quality. Dextran production by microbial fermentation improves sourdough bread volume and freshness, but extensive acid production during fermentation may negate this effect. Enzymatic production of dextran in wheat bran was tested to determine if dextran-containing bran could be used in baking without disrupting bread texture. The Weissella confusa VTT E-90392 dextransucrase gene was sequenced and His-tagged dextransucrase Wc392-rDSR was produced in Lactococcus lactis. Purified enzyme was characterized using 14C-sucrose radioisotope and reducing value-based assays, the former yielding Km and Vmax values of 14.7 mM and 8.2 μmol/(mg∙min), respectively, at the pH optimum of 5.4. The structure and size of in vitro dextran product was similar to dextran produced in vivo. Dextran (8.1% dry weight) was produced in wheat bran in 6 h using Wc392-rDSR. Bran with and without dextran was used in wheat baking at 20% supplementation level. Dextran presence improved bread softness and neutralized bran-induced volume loss, clearly demonstrating the potential of using dextransucrases in bran bioprocessing for use in baking. PMID:25603169

  5. In-situ real-time temperature control of baking systems in lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuheng; Chua, Hui-Tong; Tay, Arthur

    2008-03-01

    We proposed an in-situ method to control the wafer spatial temperature uniformity during thermal cycling of silicon substrate in the lithography sequence. These thermal steps are usually conducted by the placement of the substrate on the heating plate for a given period of time. We have previously proposed an approach for controling the steady-state wafer temperature uniformity in steady-state. In this paper, we extend the approach by considering the dynamic properties of the system. A detailed physical model of the thermal system is first developed by considering energy balances on the system. Next, by monitoring the bake-plate temperature and fitting the data into the model, the temperature of the wafer can be estimated and controlled in real-time. This is useful as production wafers usually do not have temperature sensors embedded on it, these bake-plates are usually calibrated based on test wafers with embedded sensors. However, as processes are subjected to process drifts, disturbances, and wafer warpages, real-time correction of the bake-plate temperatures to achieve uniform wafer temperature is not possible in current baking systems. Any correction is done based on run-to-run control techniques which depends on the sampling frequency of the wafers. Our approach is real-time and can correct for any variations in the desired wafer temperature performance during both transient and steady state. Experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of the approach.

  6. Identification of milling and baking quality QTL in multiple soft wheat mapping populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat derived food products require a range of characteristics. Identification and understanding of the genetic components controlling end-use quality of wheat is important for crop improvement. We assessed the underlying genetics controlling specific milling and baking quality parameters of soft wh...

  7. Cloning and characterization of a Weissella confusa dextransucrase and its application in high fibre baking.

    PubMed

    Kajala, Ilkka; Shi, Qiao; Nyyssölä, Antti; Maina, Ndegwa Henry; Hou, Yaxi; Katina, Kati; Tenkanen, Maija; Juvonen, Riikka

    2015-01-01

    Wheat bran offers health benefits as a baking ingredient, but is detrimental to bread textural quality. Dextran production by microbial fermentation improves sourdough bread volume and freshness, but extensive acid production during fermentation may negate this effect. Enzymatic production of dextran in wheat bran was tested to determine if dextran-containing bran could be used in baking without disrupting bread texture. The Weissella confusa VTT E-90392 dextransucrase gene was sequenced and His-tagged dextransucrase Wc392-rDSR was produced in Lactococcus lactis. Purified enzyme was characterized using (14)C-sucrose radioisotope and reducing value-based assays, the former yielding K(m) and V(max) values of 14.7 mM and 8.2 μmol/(mg ∙ min), respectively, at the pH optimum of 5.4. The structure and size of in vitro dextran product was similar to dextran produced in vivo. Dextran (8.1% dry weight) was produced in wheat bran in 6 h using Wc392-rDSR. Bran with and without dextran was used in wheat baking at 20% supplementation level. Dextran presence improved bread softness and neutralized bran-induced volume loss, clearly demonstrating the potential of using dextransucrases in bran bioprocessing for use in baking. PMID:25603169

  8. Development of a benchtop baking method for chemically leavened crackers. II. Validation of the method

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A benchtop baking method has been developed to predict the contribution of gluten functionality to overall flour performance for chemically leavened crackers. Using a diagnostic formula and procedure, dough rheology was analyzed to evaluate the extent of gluten development during mixing and machinin...

  9. A microbiological and clinical study of the safety and efficacy of baking-soda dentifrices.

    PubMed

    Zambon, J J; Mather, M L; Gonzales, Y

    1997-01-01

    This article reports the results of a study that examined the clinical and microbiological changes associated with regular use of baking-soda dentifrices. Two dentifrice formulations were examined in a 6-month longitudinal study of 101 adult subjects with assessments for plaque, gingival inflammation, and stain at baseline and 3 and 6 months during the active phase of the study, and at 3 months after cessation of product use. One dentifrice contained 52% baking soda and 3% sodium percarbonate (Arm & Hammer PeroxiCare) while the other dentifrice contained 65% baking soda (Arm & Hammer Dental Care). Both dentifrices resulted in statistically significant reductions in dental plaque, gingival inflammation, and stain at all time periods compared to baseline. Dental plaque and buccal soft-tissue samples were obtained for microbiological analysis from a 50-subject subset. Microbiological assays, including bacterial culture, phase-contrast microscopy, and immunofluorescence microscopy, confirmed the safety of both formulations. Beneficial alterations in dental plaque bacteria were noted, including significant reductions in the levels of Actinomyces species. The data from this study indicate that dentifrices containing high levels of baking soda are clinically effective and microbiologically safe. PMID:12017933

  10. A microbiological and clinical study of the safety and efficacy of baking-soda dentifrices.

    PubMed

    Zambon, J J; Mather, M L; Gonzales, Y

    1996-01-01

    This article reports the results of a study that examined the clinical and microbiological changes associated with regular use of baking-soda dentifrices. Two dentifrice formulations were examined in a 6-month longitudinal study of 101 adult subjects with assessments for plaque, gingival inflammation, and stain at baseline and 3 and 6 months during the active phase of the study, and at 3 months after cessation of product use. One dentifrice contained 52% baking soda and 3% sodium percarbonate (Arm & Hammer PeroxiCare) while the other dentifrice contained 65% baking soda (Arm & Hammer Dental Care). Both dentifrices resulted in statistically significant reductions in dental plaque, gingival inflammation, and stain at all time periods compared to baseline. Dental plaque and buccal soft-tissue samples were obtained for microbiological analysis from a 50-subject subset. Microbiological assays, including bacterial culture, phase-contrast microscopy, and immunofluorescence microscopy, confirmed the safety of both formulations. Beneficial alterations in dental plaque bacteria were noted, including significant reductions in the levels of Actinomyces species. The data from this study indicate that dentifrices containing high levels of baking soda are clinically effective and microbiologically safe. PMID:11524866

  11. Bran hydration and physical treatments improve the bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fine and coarse bran particles of a hard red and a hard white wheat were used to study the influences of bran hydration and physical treatments such as autoclaving and freezing as well as their combinations on the dough properties and bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour (WWF). For both h...

  12. Baking enables McLeod gauge to measure in ultrahigh vacuum range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreisman, W. S.

    1965-01-01

    Accurate measurements in the ultrahigh vacuum range by a conventional McLeod gage requires degassing of the gage's glass walls. A closed system, in which mercury is forced into the gage by gravity alone, and in which the gage components are baked out for long periods, is used to achieve this degassing.

  13. Baked-Bean Waste: a Potential Substrate for Producing Fungal Amylases

    PubMed Central

    Hang, Y. D.; Woodams, E. E.

    1977-01-01

    Baked-bean waste was found to be a favorable substrate for amylase production by Aspergillus foetidus NRRL 337. Under optimum conditions, the yields of ?-amylase (EC 3.2.1.1) and glucoamylase (EC 3.2.1.3) were 47 and 226 U, respectively, per ml of the waste fermented. PMID:16345247

  14. ORGANIC EMISSIONS EVALUATION OF A PAINT BAKE OVEN WITH CATALYTIC INCINERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes a test program conducted at a paint bake oven facility. The purpose was to measure total hydrocarbon (THC) concentrations at the inlet and outlet of an incinerator with heat recovery used to reduce organic solvent emissions. Data were also collected to evalu...

  15. Characterization of lipids and their oxidation products in baked or fried breaded shrimp products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two breaded shrimp products were examined for the changes in cholesterol, phytosterols, and fatty acids that occurred during cooking. The products were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) in the raw, baked, and fried states after separation into breading and shrimp components. Cholesterol, campest...

  16. Effect of baking and storage on the fatty acid composition of cookies with chia seed meal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed is an ancient crop of the Aztecs that has recently gained interest as a functional food. Chia seeds are a good source of polyphenolic compounds with antioxidant activity. However, the effect of baking and storage on the antioxidant properties of chia seed meal is not ...

  17. Detection of Baking Soda in Flat Bread by Direct pH Metery and Alkalinity Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahed Khaniki, G. H. R.; Vaezi, F.; Yunesian, M.; Nabizadeh, R.; Paseban, G. H. A.

    The objective of this study is evaluation of direct pH metery and alkalinity measurement methods for determination of baking soda in lavash bread (a kind of flat bread) in order to introduce and recommend a good practice of control. For running the experiments, various samples of lavash bread having different concentrations of baking soda were prepared. Ten grams of each sample were mixed with distilled water and then the prepared solutions were filtrated. The filtrates were then analyzed for pH and total alkalinity according to the distractions described in Standard Methods. Results show a significant correlation between the pH values of bread samples and the amount of baking soda. Also, a positive correlation has been observed between the alkalinity of bread samples and used baking soda. By comparing the R2-values specified for these two methods it could be concluded that the direct pH metery method is more reasonable. Furthermore, by this simple method it is possible to accelerate the detection of minute amounts of this chemical in bread.

  18. Improvement in melting and baking properties of low-fat Mozzarella cheese.

    PubMed

    Wadhwani, R; McManus, W R; McMahon, D J

    2011-04-01

    Low-fat cheeses dehydrate too quickly when baked in a forced air convection oven, preventing proper melting on a pizza. To overcome this problem, low-fat Mozzarella cheese was developed in which fat is released onto the cheese surface during baking to prevent excessive dehydration. Low-fat Mozzarella cheese curd was made with target fat contents of 15, 30, 45, and 60 g/kg using direct acidification of the milk to pH 5.9 before renneting. The 4 portions of cheese curd were comminuted and then mixed with sufficient glucono-?-lactone and melted butter (45, 30, 15, or 0 g/kg, respectively), then pressed into blocks to produce low-fat Mozzarella cheese with about 6% fat and pH 5.2. The cheeses were analyzed after 15, 30, 60, and 120 d of storage at 5C for melting characteristics, texture, free oil content, dehydration performance, and stretch when baked on a pizza at 250C for 6 min in a convection oven. Cheeses made with added butter had higher stretchability compared with the control cheese. Melting characteristics also improved in contrast to the control cheese, which remained in the form of shreds during baking and lacked proper melting. The cheeses made with added butter had higher free oil content, which correlated (R2?0.92) to the amount of butterfat added, and less hardness and gumminess compared with the control low fat cheese. PMID:21426959

  19. Effect of grilling and baking on physicochemical and textural properties of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fish burger.

    PubMed

    Bainy, Eduarda Molardi; Bertan, Larissa Canhadas; Corazza, Marcos Lucio; Lenzi, Marcelo Kaminski

    2015-08-01

    The influence of two common cooking methods, grilling and baking, on chemical composition, water retention, fat retention, cooking yield, diameter reduction, expressible water, color and mechanical texture of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fish burgers was investigated. Texture analyses were performed using a Warner-Bratzler test. The fish burger had a softer texture with a lower shear force than other meat products reported in the literature. There were no significant differences in proximate composition, diameter reduction, fat retention and expressible water between the grilled and oven-baked fish burgers. Cooking methods did not affect the cooking times and cooking rates. Warner-Bratzler parameters and color were significantly influenced by the cooking method. Grilling contributed to a shear force and work of shearing increase due to the lower cooking yield and water retention. Raw burgers had the highest L* (69.13 ± 0.96) and lowest b* (17.50 ± 0.75) values. Results indicated that baking yielded a product with better cooking characteristics, such as a desired softer texture with lower shear values (4.01 ± 0.54) and increased water retention (95.82 ± 0.77). Additionally, the baked fish burgers were lighter (higher L*) and less red (lower a*) than the grilled ones. PMID:26243932

  20. Lipid oxidation in baked products: impact of formula and process on the generation of volatile compounds.

    PubMed

    Maire, Murielle; Rega, Barbara; Cuvelier, Marie-Elisabeth; Soto, Paola; Giampaoli, Pierre

    2013-12-15

    This paper investigates the effect of ingredients on the reactions occurring during the making of sponge cake and leading to the generation of volatile compounds related to flavour quality. To obtain systems sensitive to lipid oxidation (LO), a formulation design was applied varying the composition of fatty matter and eggs. Oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and formation of related volatile compounds were followed at the different steps of cake-making. Optimised dynamic Solid Phase Micro Extraction was applied to selectively extract either volatile or semi-volatile compounds directly from the baking vapours. We show for the first time that in the case of alveolar baked products, lipid oxidation occurs very early during the step of dough preparation and to a minor extent during the baking process. The generation of lipid oxidation compounds depends on PUFA content and on the presence of endogenous antioxidants in the raw matter. Egg yolk seemed to play a double role on reactivity: protecting unsaturated lipids from oxidation and being necessary to generate a broad class of compounds of the Maillard reaction during baking and linked to the typical flavour of sponge cake. PMID:23993514

  1. Impact of Different Potato Psyllid Populations on Zebra Chip Disease Incidence, Severity, and Potato Yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zebra chip (ZC) is an emerging and damaging potato disease that is causing millions of dollars in losses to the potato industry in the southwestern United States, Mexico, and Central America. ZC plant symptoms resemble those caused by potato purple top and psyllid yellows diseases. Tubers produced b...

  2. Case study: Healthy grown potatoes and sustainability of Wisconsin potato production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Wisconsin Eco-Potato collaboration developed after several meetings between the Wisconsin Potato and Vegetable Growers Association (WPVGA) and World Wildlife Fund (WWF). Representatives met at the National Potato Council meeting and identified a common interest in development of environmentally ...

  3. Emerging diversity in Potato virus Y poses new challenges for the U.S. potato industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Until recently tobacco and potato tuber necrotic strains of Potato virus Y (PVY) were considered to be absent from the U.S., and seed certification programs were able to limit PVY incidence in seed potatoes. PVY has become more problematic in recent years and beginning in 2002, necrotic strains of P...

  4. REACTION OF POTATO VARIETIES TO POTATO MOP-TOP VIRUS INFECTION IN THE ANDES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The unexpected detection in 2002 of Potato mop-top virus (PMTV) in potatoes growing at several locations in the U.S. and Canada has led to the realization that this soil-borne virus is actually wide-spread throughout the potato-producing regions of both countries. The lack of information concerning...

  5. Potato virus Y: an evolving concern for potato crops in the United States and Canada

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato virus Y (PVY) is the type member of the Potyviridae and the most economically important disease problem in seed potatoes in many areas of the world. The virus is responsible for decreases in yield and quality, but the main issue in seed potato production is a requirement for strict virus tole...

  6. Examining the molecular interaction between potato (Solanum tuberosum) and Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Colorado potato beetle (CPB) is a leading pest of solanaceous plants; however, little is known about its molecular interaction with the potato plant. Using the 11,421 EST array solanaceae microarray profiling services at TIGR, we have identified genes that are differentially expressed in potato leav...

  7. Assessing potato psyllid haplotypes in potato crops in the Pacific Northwestern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (ulc), is a vector of the bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum (Lso) that has been linked to the economically devastating zebra chip disease of potato. To date, four haplotypes of the potato psyllid have been identified and include Central, We...

  8. Organic potato production – seed potato production and participatory variety trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potatoes are vegetatively propagated, thus many pathogens can be transmitted in seed potatoes and affect the subsequent crop. Certified seed potatoes, which are inspected to ensure that pathogen levels are below a specified threshold, provide effective control of most tuber-borne diseases. Organic g...

  9. What is the source of potato psyllids colonizing Washington, Oregon, and Idaho potato fields?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Managing zebra chip disease in the potato growing regions of Washington, Oregon, and Idaho is complicated by confusion about the geographic source of the insect vector (potato psyllid) as it colonizes potato fields in these growing regions. Not knowing the source of the vector makes it difficult fo...

  10. Galaxy Zoo: CANDELS barred discs and bar fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, B. D.; Melvin, Thomas; Lintott, Chris; Masters, Karen L.; Willett, Kyle W.; Keel, William C.; Smethurst, R. J.; Cheung, Edmond; Nichol, Robert C.; Schawinski, Kevin; Rutkowski, Michael; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; Bell, Eric F.; Casteels, Kevin R. V.; Conselice, Christopher J.; Almaini, Omar; Ferguson, Henry C.; Fortson, Lucy; Hartley, William; Kocevski, Dale; Koekemoer, Anton M.; McIntosh, Daniel H.; Mortlock, Alice; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Ownsworth, Jamie; Bamford, Steven; Dahlen, Tomas; Faber, Sandra M.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Fontana, Adriano; Galametz, Audrey; Grogin, N. A.; Grützbauch, Ruth; Guo, Yicheng; Häußler, Boris; Jek, Kian J.; Kaviraj, Sugata; Lucas, Ray A.; Peth, Michael; Salvato, Mara; Wiklind, Tommy; Wuyts, Stijn

    2014-12-01

    The formation of bars in disc galaxies is a tracer of the dynamical maturity of the population. Previous studies have found that the incidence of bars in discs decreases from the local Universe to z ˜ 1, and by z > 1 simulations predict that bar features in dynamically mature discs should be extremely rare. Here, we report the discovery of strong barred structures in massive disc galaxies at z ˜ 1.5 in deep rest-frame optical images from the Cosmic Assembly Near-Infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey. From within a sample of 876 disc galaxies identified by visual classification in Galaxy Zoo, we identify 123 barred galaxies. Selecting a subsample within the same region of the evolving galaxy luminosity function (brighter than L*), we find that the bar fraction across the redshift range 0.5 ≤ z ≤ 2 ( f_{bar} = 10.7^{+6.3}_{-3.5} per cent after correcting for incompleteness) does not significantly evolve. We discuss the implications of this discovery in the context of existing simulations and our current understanding of the way disc galaxies have evolved over the last 11 billion years.

  11. The canon of potato science. . . 50 topics in potato science that every potato scientist should know: 1) Genetic diversity and gene banks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is a compilation of invited reviews on 50 key potato science topics to celebrate the 50 anniversary of the journal Potato Research published by the European Potato Association. The article in question reviews potato genetic diversity and gene banks. It presents basic aspects of the mission an...

  12. Sweet potatoes as a basic component in developing a medium for the cultivation of lactobacilli.

    PubMed

    Hayek, Saeed A; Shahbazi, Aboghasem; Awaisheh, Saddam S; Shah, Nagendra P; Ibrahim, Salam A

    2013-01-01

    A sweet potato medium (SPM) was formed with extract from baked sweet potatoes supplemented with 0, 4, or 8 g/L of each nitrogen source (beef extract, yeast extract, and proteose peptone #3) to form SPM1, SPM2, and SPM3 respectively. Lactobacilli MRS was used as control medium. Ten Lactobacillus strains containing an average of 2.34 ± 0.29 log CFU/mL were inoculated individually into batches of MRS, SPM1, SPM2, and SPM3. The growth patterns for the tested Lactobacillus strains growing in SPM2 and SPM3 were found to be similar to that in MRS. The average final population after 24 h of incubation in MRS, SPM2, and SPM3 reached 10.41 ± 0.35, 10.59 ± 0.27, and 10.72 ± 0.19 log CFU/mL respectively. SPM2 and SPM3 maintained higher pH values throughout the incubation period than MRS. These findings indicate that SPM2 can be a suitable medium for the growth of Lactobacillus and can provide an alternative at low-cost. PMID:24200801

  13. Characterisation and stability of anthocyanins in purple-fleshed sweet potato P40.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jianteng; Su, Xiaoyu; Lim, Soyoung; Griffin, Jason; Carey, Edward; Katz, Benjamin; Tomich, John; Smith, J Scott; Wang, Weiqun

    2015-11-01

    Purple-fleshed sweet potato P40 has been shown to prevent colorectal cancer in a murine model. This study is to identify anthocyanins by using HPLC/MS-MS and assess the stability during various cooking conditions. P40 possesses a high content of anthocyanins up to 14 mg/g dry matter. Total 12 acylated anthocyanins are identified. Top three anthocyanins, e.g., cyanidin 3-caffeoyl-p-hydroxybenzoyl sophoroside-5-glucoside, peonidin 3-caffeoyl sophoroside-5-glucoside, and cyanidin 3-(6"-caffeoyl-6"-feruloylsophoroside)-5-glucoside, account for half of the anthocyanin contents. Over 80% of anthocyanins measured by acid hydrolysis were cyanidin derivatives, indicating P40 is unique when compared with other purple-fleshed sweet potatoes that usually contain more peonidin than cyanidin. Steaming, pressure cooking, microwaving, and frying but not baking significantly reduced 8-16% of total anthocyanin contents. Mono-acylated anthocyanins showed a higher resistance against heat than di- and non-acylated. Among of which, cyanidin 3-p-hydroxybenzoylsophoroside-5-glucoside exhibited the best thermal stability. The stable acylated and cyanidin-predominated anthocyanins in P40 may provide extra benefits for cancer prevention. PMID:25976796

  14. The carry-through of residues of thiabendazole, tecnazene and chlorpropham from potatoes following manufacture into potato crisps and jacket potato crisps.

    PubMed

    Lewis, D J; Thorpe, S A; Reynolds, S L

    1996-01-01

    Potatoes, commercially treated with thiabendazole, tecnazene and chlorpropham, were processed into potato crisps and jacket potato crisps at a crisp factory using standard manufacturing conditions. A multi-residue method based on gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection was developed and used to determine pesticide residue levels in the potatoes and potato crisps. Results showed that the residues of all three pesticides were significantly reduced to less than 2% and less than 10% of the maximum theoretical residue carry-through level for potato crisps and jacket potato crisps respectively. PMID:9064247

  15. 'Light bar' attitude indicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enevoldson, E. K.; Horton, V. W.

    1982-01-01

    The development and evaluation of a light bar attitude indicator to help maintain proper aircraft attitude during high altitude night flying is described. A standard four-inch ADI was modified to project an artificial horizon across the instrument panel for pitch and roll information. A light bulb was put in the center of the ADI and a thin slit cut on the horizon, resulting in a thin horizontal sheet of light projecting from the instrument. The intensity of the projected beam is such that it can only be seen in a darkened room or at night. The beam on the instrument panel of the T-37 jet trainer is shown, depicting various attitudes. The favorable comments of about 50 pilots who evaluated the instrument are summarized, including recommendations for improving the instrument. Possible uses for the instrument to ease the pilot task are listed. Two potential problems in using the device are the development of pilot complacency and an upright-inverted ambiguity in the instrument.

  16. Regulation of potato tuber sprouting.

    PubMed

    Sonnewald, Sophia; Sonnewald, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    Following tuber induction, potato tubers undergo a period of dormancy during which visible bud growth is inhibited. The length of the dormancy period is under environmental, physiological and hormonal control. Sucrose availability is one prerequisite for bud break. In the absence of sucrose, no bud break occurs. Thus, sucrose is likely to serve as nutrient and signal molecule at the same time. The mode of sucrose sensing is only vaguely understood, but most likely involves trehalose-6-phosphate and SnRK1 signalling networks. This conclusion is supported by the observation that ectopically manipulation of trehalose-6-phosphate levels influences the length of the dormancy period. Once physiological competence is achieved, sprouting is controlled by the level of phytohormones. Two phytohormones, ABA and ethylene, are supposed to suppress tuber sprouting; however, the exact role of ethylene remains to be elucidated. Cytokinins and gibberellins are required for bud break and sprout growth, respectively. The fifth classical phytohormone, auxin, seems to play a role in vascular development. During the dormancy period, buds are symplastically isolated, which changes during bud break. In parallel to the establishment of symplastic connectivity, vascular tissue develops below the growing bud most likely to support the outgrowing sprout with assimilates mobilised in parenchyma cells. Sprouting leads to major quality losses of stored potato tubers. Therefore, control of tuber sprouting is a major objective in potato breeding. Although comparative transcriptome analysis revealed a large number of genes differentially expressed in growing versus dormant buds, no master-regulator of potato tuber sprouting has been identified so far. PMID:24100410

  17. Detection of Multiple Potato Viruses in the Field Suggests Synergistic Interactions among Potato Viruses in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Hameed, Amir; Iqbal, Zafar; Asad, Shaheen; Mansoor, Shahid

    2014-01-01

    Viral diseases have been a major limiting factor threating sustainable potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) production in Pakistan. Surveys were conducted to serologically quantify the incidence of RNA viruses infecting potato; Potato virus X (PVX), Potato virus Y (PVY), Potato virus S (PVS), Potato virus A (PVA), Potato virus M (PVM) and Potato leaf roll virus (PLRV) in two major potato cultivars (Desiree and Cardinal). The results suggest the prevalence of multiple viruses in all surveyed areas with PVY, PVS and PVX dominantly widespread with infection levels of up to 50% in some regions. Co-infections were detected with the highest incidence (15.5%) for PVX and PVS. Additionally the data showed a positive correlation between co-infecting viruses with significant increase in absorbance value (virus titre) for at least one of the virus in an infected plant and suggested a synergistic interaction. To test this hypothesis, glasshouse grown potato plants were challenged with multiple viruses and analyzed for systemic infections and symptomology studies. The results obtained conclude that multiple viral infections dramatically increase disease epidemics as compared to single infection and an effective resistance strategy in targeting multiple RNA viruses is required to save potato crop. PMID:25506305

  18. The role of potatoes and potato components in cardiometabolic health: a review.

    PubMed

    McGill, Carla R; Kurilich, Anne C; Davignon, Jean

    2013-11-01

    Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) are an important food crop worldwide and contribute key nutrients to the diet, including vitamin C, potassium, and dietary fiber. Potatoes and potato components have been shown to have favorable impacts on several measures of cardiometabolic health in animals and humans, including lowering blood pressure, improving lipid profiles, and decreasing markers of inflammation. A range of glycemic index (GI) values have been reported for potatoes, and data are sparse regarding the impact of potato consumption on the postprandial glycemic response, especially when potatoes are consumed with other foods. There is a lack of clinical trial data regarding the impact of potatoes on weight management. A small number of human cohort studies have reported beneficial associations between potato consumption as part of a healthy lifestyle and cardiometabolic health. Another small number of human population studies have included potatoes as part of a dietary pattern with other calorie-dense foods and have not reported cardiometabolic benefits. The epidemiological literature should be interpreted with caution due to lack of consistency in both defining dietary patterns that include potatoes and in control for potential confounding variables. Controlled clinical trials are needed to define the impact of potatoes on cardiometabolic health. PMID:23855880

  19. Influence of high-temperature vacuum baking on the performance of microchannel plates with an ion barrier film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Delong; Li, Ye; Wu, Kui; Wang, Guozheng; Fu, Shencheng; Wang, Xin; Duanmu, Qingduo; Tian, Jingquan

    2008-02-01

    The fabrication of ion barrier film on microchannel plate (MCP) was introduced. The experimental system for high-temperature vacuum baking on MCP and technological condition were given. The measurement on the electrical properties, the dead-voltage and other parameters of MCP with an ion barrier film were shown. The changes before and after high-temperature vacuum baking were also investigated for the MCP with ion barrier film. By analysis and discussion, it was concluded that high-temperature vacuum baking caused the film's thickness changed, the dead-voltage decreased, and the electron gain decreased with the increase of the film's thickness for the MCP with an ion barrier film.

  20. Ceramic Magnets Pass the Bar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Lloyd H.

    1990-01-01

    Described is the use of ordinary ceramic magnets to replace the more expensive bar magnets commonly used. Suggestions for 11 task cards to help introduce children to the uses and principles of magnetism are provided. (CW)

  1. The BaBar Mini

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, David N.

    2003-07-11

    BaBar has recently deployed a new event data format referred to as the Mini. The mini uses efficient packing and aggressive noise suppression to represent the average reconstructed BaBar event in under 7 KBytes. The Mini packs detector information into simple transient data objects, which are then aggregated into roughly 10 composite persistent objects per event. The Mini currently uses Objectivity persistence, and it is being ported to use Root persistence. The Mini contains enough information to support detailed detector studies, while remaining small and fast enough to be used directly in physics analysis. Mini output is customizable, allowing users to both truncate unnecessary content or add content, depending on their needs. The Mini has now replaced three older formats as the primary output of BaBar event reconstruction. A reduced form of the Mini will soon replace the physics analysis format as well, giving BaBar a single, flexible event data format covering all its needs.

  2. Property Control through Bar Coding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingma, Gerben J.

    1984-01-01

    A public utility company uses laser wands to read bar-coded labels on furniture and equipment. The system allows an 80 percent savings of the time required to create reports for inventory control. (MLF)

  3. Potato zebra chip disease: a phytopathological tale

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato zebra chip (ZC) disease is a relative newcomer to the world of important potato diseases. First reported in Mexico in the 1990s, by 2004-2005 the disease was causing serious economic damage in parts of Texas. ZC is now widespread in the western United States, Mexico, Central America, and wa...

  4. Sweet potato in gluten-free pancakes.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gluten-free pancakes were prepared using rice flour, and rice flour replaced with various amounts, at 10, 20, and 40% of sweet potato flour. At 40% sweet potato, the apparent viscosity became comparable to that of the traditional wheat pancake batter. Texture properties of the cooked pancakes, such...

  5. Breeding for Phytonutrient Enhancement of Potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato is a vegetable that develops underground as a stem. It is a propagule in the sense that the potato itself is used as seed for the following crop. As a food it is a rich source of nutrients. Focusing on just a few categories of metabolites, it is has varying contents of carotenoids, all...

  6. Identifying Constraints to Potato Cropping System Sustainability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato yield in the Northeast U.S. has remained constant for over 50 years, despite increased inputs of pesticides, nutrients, and water. Consequently, a key question is: What is limiting potato system sustainability? We established Status Quo, Soil Conserving, Soil Improving, and Disease Suppressiv...

  7. ATTRACTING VOLTILES FOR THE COLORADO POTATO BEETLE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chemicals responsible for attraction of the Colorado potato beetle (CPB) Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) to its host plant and conspecifics have long been sought, since Mc Indoo in 1926 [1] demonstrated the general attractiveness of potato plant volatiles to adult CP...

  8. Improved genetic disease resistance solutions for potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Halterman Lab research program is focused on understanding the genetic basis of disease resistance in potato. Several diseases, such as late blight, early blight, potato virus Y, and verticillium wilt, are particularly problematic in Wisconsin. With the exception of early blight, major genes hav...

  9. Potato defense against Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say): microarray gene expression profiling of potato (Solanum tuberosum) by Colorado potato beetle infestation and regurgitant treatment of

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Colorado potato beetle is the leading pest of solanaceous plants, however little is known about the interaction of this beetle with the potato plant. Using the 11,421 EST solanaceae microarry profiling services at TIGR we have begun investigating the genes that are differentially expressed by infest...

  10. Rapid cycling with true potato seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rapid generation cycling via true seed production can increase the efficiency of potato breeding programs and genetics studies. This study was carried out to determine the fruit ripening and seed treatment conditions needed for generating true potato seed (TPS) with a high germination rate in a shor...

  11. 7 CFR 945.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Potatoes. 945.5 Section 945.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions 945.5...

  12. 7 CFR 945.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Potatoes. 945.5 Section 945.5 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions 945.5...

  13. 7 CFR 945.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Potatoes. 945.5 Section 945.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions 945.5...

  14. 7 CFR 945.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Potatoes. 945.5 Section 945.5 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions 945.5...

  15. Future Directions in Potato Variety Development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato is often seen as a one-theme type of food. Its calorie-rich nature has become less appealing to a US consumer population that is less involved in physical labor than in previous times. The large percentage of the population that is battling being overweight also fears the potato due to medi...

  16. Identifying Constraints to Potato System Sustainability: Diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four different potato cropping systems, designed to address specific management goals of soil conservation (SC), soil improvement (SI), disease suppression (DS), and a status quo (standard rotation) control (SQ), were evaluated for their effects on soilborne and foliar diseases of potato, as well as...

  17. Potato operation: computer vision for agricultural robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pun, Thierry; Lefebvre, Marc; Gil, Sylvia; Brunet, Denis; Dessimoz, Jean-Daniel; Guegerli, Paul

    1992-03-01

    Each year at harvest time millions of seed potatoes are checked for the presence of viruses by means of an Elisa test. The Potato Operation aims at automatizing the potato manipulation and pulp sampling procedure, starting from bunches of harvested potatoes and ending with the deposit of potato pulp into Elisa containers. Automatizing these manipulations addresses several issues, linking robotic and computer vision. The paper reports on the current status of this project. It first summarizes the robotic aspects, which consist of locating a potato in a bunch, grasping it, positioning it into the camera field of view, pumping the pulp sample and depositing it into a container. The computer vision aspects are then detailed. They concern locating particular potatoes in a bunch and finding the position of the best germ where the drill has to sample the pulp. The emphasis is put on the germ location problem. A general overview of the approach is given, which combines the processing of both frontal and silhouette views of the potato, together with movements of the robot arm (active vision). Frontal and silhouette analysis algorithms are then presented. Results are shown that confirm the feasibility of the approach.

  18. Assessing reproduction of potato psyllid haplotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (ulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae), is a serious pest of solanaceous crops in North and Central America and New Zealand. This insect vectors the bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum that causes zebra chip disease of potato. So far, four distinct genetic ...

  19. Resistance to Powdery Scab in Potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Powdery scab is a serious disease of potato that is among the most damaging emerging potato pathogens throughout the world. Twenty years ago it was rarity in the Columbia Basin but today it is widespread, damaging and a threat to the profitability of the industry. Flagellated zoospores which swim ...

  20. Reduced Tillage in an Irrigated Potato Rotation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato production in irrigated regions typically occurs on soils low in organic matter that are highly susceptible to agri-chemical leaching under poor irrigation scheduling, and wind erosion when soils are left bare. Reduced tillage has had limited testing in potato production. The objective of thi...

  1. Potato cyst nematodes: pests of national importance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato cyst nematodes (PCN; G. rostochiensis and G. pallida) are internationally-recognized quarantine pests and considered the most devastating pests of potatoes due to annual worldwide yield losses estimated at 12.2%. PCNs continue to spread throughout North America and were recently detected in I...

  2. The changing face of Potato virus Y

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This presentation will help growers, seed certification and regulatory officials, consultants, and other practitioners in the United States understand how and why Potato virus Y (PVY) is affecting the seed potato crop and if left unchecked why it will become a major disease issue for the food sector...

  3. Identifying and reducing constraints to potato productivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato yield in Maine has remained relatively constant for over 50 years, despite increased inputs of pesticides, nutrients, and water. Research is needed to identify and reduce the constraints to potato productivity. We evaluated Status Quo, Soil Conserving, Soil Improving, and Disease Suppressive ...

  4. 7 CFR 946.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 946.12 Section 946.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN...

  5. Molecular characterization of potato leafroll virus, potato virus A, and potato virus X isolates from potatoes in Alaskan cities and villages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercialized potatoes in Alaska are mainly grown in the Matanuska Valley, Tanana Valley and Delta Junction, and are routinely monitored for viruses and pests. In contrast, non-commercial potato production sites occurring throughout Alaska are rarely scrutinized for diseases. In addition, virtually...

  6. Triple bar, high efficiency mechanical sealer

    DOEpatents

    Pak, Donald J.; Hawkins, Samantha A.; Young, John E.

    2013-03-19

    A clamp with a bottom clamp bar that has a planar upper surface is provided. The clamp may also include a top clamp bar connected to the bottom clamp bar, and a pressure distribution bar between the top clamp bar and the bottom clamp bar. The pressure distribution bar may have a planar lower surface in facing relation to the upper surface of the bottom clamp bar. An object is capable of being disposed in a clamping region between the upper surface and the lower surface. The width of the planar lower surface may be less than the width of the upper surface within the clamping region. Also, the pressure distribution bar may be capable of being urged away from the top clamp bar and towards the bottom clamp bar.

  7. BAR FORMATION FROM GALAXY FLYBYS

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, Meagan; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Sinha, Manodeep E-mail: k.holley@vanderbilt.edu

    2014-08-01

    Recently, both simulations and observations have revealed that flybys—fast, one-time interactions between two galaxy halos—are surprisingly common, nearing/comparable to galaxy mergers. Since these are rapid, transient events with the closest approach well outside the galaxy disk, it is unclear if flybys can transform the galaxy in a lasting way. We conduct collisionless N-body simulations of three coplanar flyby interactions between pure-disk galaxies to take a first look at the effects flybys have on disk structure, with particular focus on stellar bar formation. We find that some flybys are capable of inciting a bar with bars forming in both galaxies during our 1:1 interaction and in the secondary during our 10:1 interaction. The bars formed have ellipticities ≳ 0.5, sizes on the order of the host disk's scale length, and persist to the end of our simulations, ∼5 Gyr after pericenter. The ability of flybys to incite bar formation implies that many processes associated with secular bar evolution may be more closely tied with interactions than previously thought.

  8. Whitefly transmission of sweet potato viruses.

    PubMed

    Valverde, Rodrigo A; Sim, Jeonggu; Lotrakul, Pongtharin

    2004-03-01

    Three genera of plant viruses, Begomovirus (Geminiviridae), Crinivirus (Closteroviridae) and Ipomovirus (Potyviridae), contain members that infect sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) and are transmitted by whiteflies. The begomoviruses, Sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV) and Ipomoea leaf curl virus (ILCV), and the ipomovirus Sweet potato mild mottle virus are transmitted by Bemisia tabaci, the sweet potato whitefly. The crinivirus, Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV), is transmitted by B. tabaci and Trialeurodes abutilonea, the bandedwinged whitefly. Transmission experiments were done with three of these viruses using laboratory-reared whiteflies and 2-day acquisition and transmission feeding periods. SPLCV and ILCV were transmitted from single and double infections by B. tabaci at rates of 5-10%. Transmission rates for SPLCV by B. tabaci were 15-20%. T. abutilonea transmitted SPCSV at a rate of ca. 3% but did not transmit ILCV or SPLCV. PMID:15036843

  9. 7 CFR 948.151 - Colorado Potato Committee membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee membership. 948.151 Section... POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Rules and Regulations Modification of Inspection Requirements 948.151 Colorado Potato Committee membership. The Colorado Potato Committee shall be comprised of six members...

  10. 7 CFR 948.51 - Colorado Potato Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee. 948.51 Section 948.51... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Committees 948.51 Colorado Potato Committee. The Colorado Potato...

  11. 7 CFR 51.1578 - Off-Grade potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Off-Grade potatoes. 51.1578 Section 51.1578... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Off-Grade 51.1578 Off-Grade potatoes. Potatoes which fail to meet the requirements of any of the foregoing grades...

  12. 7 CFR 948.151 - Colorado Potato Committee membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee membership. 948.151 Section... POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Rules and Regulations Modification of Inspection Requirements 948.151 Colorado Potato Committee membership. The Colorado Potato Committee shall be comprised of six members...

  13. 7 CFR 51.1578 - Off-Grade potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Off-Grade potatoes. 51.1578 Section 51.1578... STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Off-Grade 51.1578 Off-Grade potatoes. Potatoes which fail to meet the requirements of any of the foregoing grades shall be Off-Grade...

  14. 7 CFR 51.1578 - Off-Grade potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Off-Grade potatoes. 51.1578 Section 51.1578... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Off-Grade 51.1578 Off-Grade potatoes. Potatoes which fail to meet the requirements of any of the foregoing grades...

  15. 7 CFR 51.1578 - Off-Grade potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Off-Grade potatoes. 51.1578 Section 51.1578... STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Off-Grade 51.1578 Off-Grade potatoes. Potatoes which fail to meet the requirements of any of the foregoing grades shall be Off-Grade...

  16. 7 CFR 948.151 - Colorado Potato Committee membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee membership. 948.151 Section... POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Rules and Regulations Modification of Inspection Requirements 948.151 Colorado Potato Committee membership. The Colorado Potato Committee shall be comprised of six members...

  17. 7 CFR 948.51 - Colorado Potato Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee. 948.51 Section 948.51... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Committees 948.51 Colorado Potato Committee. The Colorado Potato...

  18. 7 CFR 948.151 - Colorado Potato Committee membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee membership. 948.151 Section... POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Rules and Regulations Modification of Inspection Requirements 948.151 Colorado Potato Committee membership. The Colorado Potato Committee shall be comprised of six members...

  19. A Brief History of the Potato in Ireland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Education, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Provides historical information on the potato in Ireland focusing on how the potato arrived in Ireland and the advantages and disadvantages of the potato as a food crop. Discusses the Irish potato famine in Ireland, effects of the famine, and the government's laissez-faire response. Includes a list of questions. (CMK)

  20. 7 CFR 948.51 - Colorado Potato Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee. 948.51 Section 948.51... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Committees 948.51 Colorado Potato Committee. The Colorado Potato...

  1. 7 CFR 51.1578 - Off-Grade potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Off-Grade potatoes. 51.1578 Section 51.1578... STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Off-Grade 51.1578 Off-Grade potatoes. Potatoes which fail to meet the requirements of any of the foregoing grades shall be Off-Grade...

  2. 7 CFR 948.151 - Colorado Potato Committee membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee membership. 948.151 Section... POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Rules and Regulations Modification of Inspection Requirements 948.151 Colorado Potato Committee membership. The Colorado Potato Committee shall be comprised of six members...

  3. Soil phosphorus changes impacted by potato cropping management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato crops generally require high amounts of phosphorus (P) fertilizer to reach economically acceptable yields as the low root density of potato plants makes mobilization and acquisition of phosphate a key factor in potato plant growth. In this work, we evaluated soil P changes in 10 potato fields...

  4. Systematics, diversity, genetics, and evolution of wild and cultivated potatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivated potato, Solanum tuberosum L., is the third most important food crop and is grown and consumed worldwide. Indigenous primitive cultivated (landrace) potatoes, and wild potatoes, all classified as Solanum section Petota, are widely used for potato improvement. Members of section Petota are ...

  5. Combinatorial process optimization for negative photo-imageable spin-on dielectrics and investigation of post-apply bake and post-exposure bake interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jihoon; Zhang, Ruzhi M.; Wolfer, Elizabeth; Patel, Bharatkumar K.; Toukhy, Medhat; Bogusz, Zachary; Nagahara, Tatsuro

    2012-03-01

    Patternable dielectric materials were developed and introduced to reduce semiconductor manufacturing complexity and cost of ownership (CoO). However, the bestowed dual functionalities of photo-imageable spin-on dielectrics (PSOD) put great challenges on the material design and development. In this work, we investigated the combinatorial process optimization for the negative-tone PSOD lithography by employing the Temperature Gradient Plate (TGP) technique which significantly reduced the numbers of wafers processed and minimized the developmental time. We demonstrated that this TGP combinatorial is very efficient at evaluating the effects and interactions of several independent variables such as post-apply bake (PAB) and post-exposure bake (PEB). Unlike most of the conventional photoresists, PAB turned out to have a great effect on the PSOD pattern profiles. Based on our extensive investigation, we observed great correlation between PAB and PEB processes. In this paper, we will discuss the variation of pattern profiles as a matrix of PAB and PEB and propose two possible cross-linking mechanisms for the PSOD materials to explain the unusual experimental results.

  6. Determination of suitable drying curve model for bread moisture loss during baking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soleimani Pour-Damanab, A. R.; Jafary, A.; Rafiee, S.

    2013-03-01

    This study presents mathematical modelling of bread moisture loss or drying during baking in a conventional bread baking process. In order to estimate and select the appropriate moisture loss curve equation, 11 different models, semi-theoretical and empirical, were applied to the experimental data and compared according to their correlation coefficients, chi-squared test and root mean square error which were predicted by nonlinear regression analysis. Consequently, of all the drying models, a Page model was selected as the best one, according to the correlation coefficients, chi-squared test, and root mean square error values and its simplicity. Mean absolute estimation error of the proposed model by linear regression analysis for natural and forced convection modes was 2.43, 4.74%, respectively.

  7. Preliminary observation on the effect of baking soda volume on controlling odour from discarded organic waste.

    PubMed

    Qamaruz-Zaman, N; Kun, Y; Rosli, R-N

    2015-01-01

    Food wastes with high moisture and organic matter content are likely to emit odours as a result of the decomposition process. The management of odour from decomposing wastes is needed to sustain the interest of residents and local councils in the source separation of kitchen wastes. This study investigated the potential of baking soda (at 50 g, 75 g and 100g per kg food waste) to control odour from seven days stored food waste. It was found that 50 g of baking soda, spread at the bottom of 8l food wastes bin, can reduce the odour by about 70%. A higher amount (above 100g) is not advised as a pH higher than 9.0 may be induced leading to the volatilization of odorous ammonia. This research finding is expected to benefit the waste management sector, food processing industries as well as the local authorities where malodour from waste storage is a pressing issue. PMID:25445259

  8. Polydimethylsiloxane extraction from silicone rubber into baked goods detected by direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gross, Jürgen H

    2015-01-01

    Flexible baking molds and other household utensils are made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), also known as silicone rubber. PDMS is prone to release oligomers upon elongated contact with fats, e.g., in the process of baking dough. Positive-ion direct analysis in real time (DART) mass spectrometry (MS) provides an efficient tool for the analysis of PDMS up to m/z 3000. Here, DART ionization is employed in combination with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance MS to detect PDMS released into muffins when baked in silicone rubber baking molds. Intensive signals caused by PDMS do occur in the m/z 700-1500 range of DART mass spectra obtained from the crusty surface of muffins after the use of such silicone rubber molds. In addition, triacylglyceroles (TAGs) present as natural ingredients of the analyzed muffins were detected as [TAG+NH(4)](+) ions. PMID:26307711

  9. The effect of baking soda when applied to bleached enamel prior to restorative treatment.

    PubMed

    Tostes, Bhenya Ottoni; Mondelli, Rafael Francisco Lia; Lima-Arsati, Ynara Bosco de Oliveira; Rodrigues, Jose Augusto; Costa, Leonardo Cesar

    2013-08-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the effect of 10% baking soda solution and sodium bicarbonate powder (applied with jets) when applied to bleached enamel prior to restorative treatment. The surfaces of 40 bovine incisors were flattened and divided into 5 groups (n = 8): Group B (bleached and restored, negative control), Group W (bleached, stored in distilled water for 7 days, and restored), Group BSJ (bleached, abraded with baking soda jet for 1 min, and restored), Group BSS (bleached, application of 10% baking soda solution for 5 min, and restored), and Group R (restored, without bleaching, positive control). The samples were bleached in 1 session with 3 applications of 35% HP-based gel and activated with a LED appliance for 9 min each. Resin composite cylinders (2 mm height and 0.8 mm diameter) were made on the enamel surface after the acid etching and a conventional 1-step single vial adhesive application was performed. After storage in distilled water (37 1C, 24 hr), the microshear bond test was performed (1 mm/min). ANOVA and Tukey tests were applied to compare the results. The mean results of these tests showed that Groups W, BBS, and R were not statistically different. These groups also indicated a higher bond strength when compared with Groups B and BSJ. The application of 10% baking soda solution for 5 min may be an alternative pre-restorative treatment for bleached enamel, but further studies are needed to consider whether or not this treatment may be effectively used in clinical practice. PMID:23928450

  10. Prebake and post-exposure bake effects on the dissolution of AZ-PF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnoperova, Azalia A.; Reilly, Michael T.; Turner, S.; Ocola, L.; Cerrina, Franco

    1993-09-01

    We have performed experiments to study the kinetics of dissolution of the positive chemically amplified resist AZ-PF (Hoechst AG). The resist dissolution in exposed regions was shown to have non-linear time dependence, with a delay time strongly dependent on prebake and post- exposure bake conditions. Effect of the presence of a low-solubility surface layer on patterning of submicron features as well as on roughness of the developed film has been demonstrated.

  11. Standardized RT-PCR conditions for detection and identification of eleven viruses of potato and Potato spindle tuber viroid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Standardized RT-PCR procedures were developed and validated for detection of Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), Impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV), Tobacco rattle virus (TRV), Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), Potato leaf roll virus (PLRV), Potato mop top virus (PMTV), Potato virus A (PVA), Potato viru...

  12. CHANGES IN THE GENE EXPRESSION PROFILE OF POTATO IN RESPONSE TO INFECTION BY POTATO WITCHES'-BROOM PHYTOPLASMA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato is one of the most important food crops cultivated in the United States. Recently, potato production from Texas to Washington State has been devastated by new disease epidemics caused by phloem-inhabiting, cell wall-less bacteria known as potato witches broom and potato purple top phytoplas...

  13. Effect of baking and pulsed laser irradiation on the bulk laser damage threshold of potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Swain, J.E.; Stokowski, S.E.; Milam, D.; Kennedy, G.C.

    1982-07-01

    We increased the bulk laser damage threshold of potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals by as much as a factor of 5 by first baking the crystals at 140 /sup 0/C for 24 h and then irradiating them with laser pulses of increasing fluence. The combination of baking and subthreshold laser irradiation was more effective in improving bulk damage thresholds than either process alone. The combined process was effective for all laser pulse durations from 1 to 20 ns.

  14. Detection of sweet potato virus C, sweet potato virus 2 and sweet potato feathery mottle virus in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Varanda, Carla M R; Santos, Susana J; Oliveira, Mnica D M; Clara, Maria Ivone E; Flix, Maria Rosrio F

    2015-06-01

    Field sweet potato plants showing virus-like symptoms, as stunting, leaf distortion, mosaic and chlorosis, were collected in southwest Portugal and tested for the presence of four potyviruses, sweet potato virus C(SPVC), sweet potato virus 2 (SPV2), sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV), sweet potato virus G(SPVG), and the crinivirus sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV). DsRNA fractions were extracted from symptomatic leaves and used as templates in single and multiplex RT-PCR assays using previously described specific primers for each analyzed virus. The amplified reaction products for SPVC, SPV2 and SPFMV were of expected size, and direct sequencing of PCR products revealed that they correspond to the coat protein gene (CP) and showed 98%, 99% and 99% identity, respectively, to those viruses. Comparison of the CP genomic and amino acid sequences of the Portuguese viral isolates recovered here with those of ten other sequences of isolates obtained in different countries retrieved from the GenBank showed very few differences. The application of the RT-PCR assays revealed for the first time the presence of SPVC and SPFMV in the sweet potato crop in Portugal, the absence of SPVG and SPCSV in tested plants, as well as the occurrence of triple virus infections under field conditions. PMID:26104336

  15. [Effects of steaming and baking on content of alkaloids in Aconite Lateralis Radix (Fuzi)].

    PubMed

    Yang, Chang-lin; Huang, Zhi-fang; Zhang, Yi-han; Liu, Yu-hong; Liu, Yun-huan; Chen, Yan; Yi, Jin-hai

    2014-12-01

    To study the effect of steaming and baking process on contents of alkaloids in Aconite Lateralis Radix (Fuzi), 13 alkaloids were analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS equipped with ESI ion source in MRM mode. In steaming process, the contents of diester-diterpenoid alkaloids decreased rapidly, the contents of monoester-diterpenoid alkaloids firstly increased, reached the peak at 40 min, and then deceased gradually. The contents of aconine alkaloids (mesaconine, aconine and hypaconine) increased all the time during processing, while the contents of fuziline, songorine, karacoline, salsolionl were stable or slightly decreased. In baking process, dynamic variations of alkaloids were different from that in the steaming process. Diester-diterpenoid alkaloids were degraded slightly slower than in steaming process. Monoester-diterpenoid alkaloids, aconine alkaloids and the total alkaloids had been destroyed at different degrees, their contents were significantly lower than the ones in steaming Fuzi at the same processing time. This experiment revealed the dynamic variations of alkaloids in the course of steaming and baking. Two processing methods which can both effectively remove the toxic ingredients and retain the active ingredients are simple and controllable, and are valuable for popularization and application. PMID:25898581

  16. Efficacy of baking soda-containing chewing gum in removing natural tooth stain.

    PubMed

    Mankodi, S M; Conforti, N; Berkowitz, H

    2001-07-01

    A 14-week, double-blind, randomized clinical trial was conducted with 126 healthy volunteers to compare the efficacy of twice-daily use of 3 baking soda-containing chewing gums in removing natural tooth stain when used in conjunction with a program of regular oral hygiene. All 3 chewing gums significantly reduced extrinsic stain (P < .0001) and improved the whitened appearance of teeth (P < .0001) at both the 2-week interim and the final 4-week evaluations. ARM & HAMMER DENTAL CARE The Baking Soda Gum (AHDC) reduced dental stain by 70.8%, compared to reductions of 71.9% and 65.3%, after use of 2 experimental gum formulations. Whitened appearance improved by 1.73 shade tabs using AHDC gum, and up to 2.49 shade tabs with the experimental formulations. These results suggest that the use of baking soda-containing gum after meals, in conjunction with good oral hygiene, can improve both extrinsic dental staining and the whitened appearance of teeth. PMID:11913307

  17. Par-baked Bread Technology: Formulation and Process Studies to Improve Quality.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Eveline Lopes; Steel, Caroline Joy; Chang, Yoon Kil

    2016-01-01

    Extending the shelf-life of bakery products has been an important requirement resulting from the mechanization of this industry and the need to increase the distance for the distribution of final products, caused by the increase in production and consumer demand. Technologies based on the interruption of the breadmaking process represent an alternative to overcome product staling and microbiological deterioration. The production of par-baked breads is one of these technologies. It consists of baking the bread in two stages, and due to the possibility of retarding the second stage, it can be said that the bread can always be offered fresh to the consumer. The technology inserts logistics as part of the production process and creates the "hot point" concept, these being the locations where the bread is finalized, such as in the consumers' homes or sales locations. In this work, a review of the papers published on this subject was carried out, and aspects related to both the formulation and the process were considered. This technology still faces a few challenges, such as solving bread quality problems that appear due to process modifications, and these will also be considered. The market for these breads has grown rapidly and the bakery industry searches innovations related to par-baked bread technology. PMID:25000472

  18. Preliminary observation on the effect of baking soda volume on controlling odour from discarded organic waste

    SciTech Connect

    Qamaruz-Zaman, N. Kun, Y.; Rosli, R.-N.

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Approximately 50 g baking soda reduced odour concentration by 70%. • Reducing volatile acid concentration reduces odour concentration. • Ammonia has less effect on odour concentration. - Abstract: Food wastes with high moisture and organic matter content are likely to emit odours as a result of the decomposition process. The management of odour from decomposing wastes is needed to sustain the interest of residents and local councils in the source separation of kitchen wastes. This study investigated the potential of baking soda (at 50 g, 75 g and 100 g per kg food waste) to control odour from seven days stored food waste. It was found that 50 g of baking soda, spread at the bottom of 8 l food wastes bin, can reduce the odour by about 70%. A higher amount (above 100 g) is not advised as a pH higher than 9.0 may be induced leading to the volatilization of odorous ammonia. This research finding is expected to benefit the waste management sector, food processing industries as well as the local authorities where malodour from waste storage is a pressing issue.

  19. Minimizing wafer defectivity during high-temperature baking of organic films in 193nm lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randall, Mai; Longstaff, Christopher; Ueda, Kenichi; Nicholson, Jim; Winter, Thomas

    2006-03-01

    Demands for continued defect reduction in 300mm IC manufacturing is driving process engineers to examine all aspects of the apply process for improvement. Process engineers, and their respective tool sets, are required to process films at temperatures above the boiling point of the casting solvents. This can potentially lead to the sublimation of the film chemical components. The current methods used to minimize wafer defectivity due to bake residues include frequent cleaning of bake plate modules and surrounding equipment, process optimization, and hardware improvements until more robust chemistries are available. IBM has evaluated the Tokyo Electron CLEAN TRACK TM ACT TM 12 high exhaust high temperature hotplate (HHP) lid to minimize wafer level contamination due to the outgasing of a bottom anti-reflective coating (BARC) films during the high temperature bake process. Goal was to minimize airborne contamination (particles in free space), reduce hotplate contamination build up, and ultimately reduce defects on the wafer. This evaluation was performed on a 193nm BARC material. Evaluation data included visual hardware inspections, airborne particle counting, relative thickness build up measurements on hotplate lids, wafer level defect measurements, and electrical open fail rate. Film coat thickness mean and uniformity were also checked to compare the high exhaust HHP with the standard HHP lid. Chemical analysis of the HHP module residue was performed to identify the source material. The work will quantify potential cost savings achieved by reducing added wafer defects during processing and extending PM frequency for equipment cleaning.

  20. Analysis of modes of heat transfer in baking Indian rice pan cake (Dosa,) a breakfast food.

    PubMed

    Venkateshmurthy, K; Raghavarao, K S M S

    2015-08-01

    Heat transfer by individual modes is estimated during baking of rice (Oryza sativa) pan cake (Dosa), a traditional food. The mathematical expressions proposed could be used to modify the baking oven for controlling the individual modes of heat transfer to obtain the desired product texture, colour and flavour. Conduction from the rotating hot plate is found to be the most prominent mode of heat transfer and is critical for obtaining the desired product characteristics such as texture and flavour. Temperature profiles along the thickness of Dosa are obtained and compared with those obtained experimentally. Heat transfer parameters such as thermal conductivity and emissivity of Dosa are determined (0.42 W/m K and 0.31, respectively). The effect of material of construction of the hot plate such as alloy steel, teflon coated aluminum, cast iron and stainless steel on product texture was studied and stainless steel was found to give good surface finish to the product, which was confirmed by scanning electron microscope. Sensory evaluation was carried out to evaluate the product acceptability. The thermal efficiency of the baking oven was 51.5%. PMID:26243966

  1. Marker-assisted selection for recognizing wheat mutant genotypes carrying HMW glutenin alleles related to baking quality.

    PubMed

    Zamani, Mohammad Javad; Bihamta, Mohammad Reza; Naserian Khiabani, Behnam; Tahernezhad, Zahra; Hallajian, Mohammad Taher; Shamsi, Marzieh Varasteh

    2014-01-01

    Allelic diversity of HMW glutenin loci in several studies revealed that allelic combinations affect dough quality. Dx5 + Dy10 subunits are related to good baking quality and Dx2 + Dy12 are related to undesirable baking quality. One of the most regular methods to evaluate the baking quality is SDS-PAGE which is used to improve baking quality labs. Marker-assisted selection is the method which can recognize the alleles related to baking quality and this method is based on polymerase chain reaction. 10 pairs of specific primers related to Dx2, Dx2.1, Dx5, Dy10, and Dy12 subunits were used for recognizing baking quality of some wheat varieties and some mutant genotypes. Only 5 pairs of them could show the specific bands. All subunits were recognized by the primers except Dx2.1. Some of the primers were extracted from previous studies and the others were designed based on D genome subunits of wheat. SDS-PAGE method accomplished having confidence in these marker's results. To realize the effect of mutation, seed storage proteins were measured. It showed that mutation had effect on the amount of seed storage protein on the mutant seeds (which showed polymorphism). PMID:24883389

  2. Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of Barred Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, W.-T.

    2013-04-01

    Magnetic fields are pervasive in barred galaxies, especially in gaseous substructures such as dust lanes and nuclear rings. To explore the effects of magnetic fields on the formation of the substructures as well as on the mass inflow rates to the galaxy center, we run two-dimensional, ideal magnetohydrodynamic simulations. We use a modified version of the Athena code whose numerical magnetic diffusivity is shown to be of third order in space. In the bar regions, magnetic fields are compressed and abruptly bent around the dust-lane shocks. The associated magnetic stress not only reduces the peak density of the dust-lane shocks but also removes angular momentum further from the gas that is moving radially in. Nuclear rings that form at the location of centrifugal barrier rather than resonance with the bar are smaller and more radially distributed, and the mass flow rate to the galaxy center is correspondingly larger in models with stronger magnetic fields. Outside the bar regions, the bar potential and strong shear conspire to amplify the field strength near the corotation resonance. The amplified fields transport angular momentum outward, producing trailing magnetic arms with strong fields and low density. The base of the magnetic arms are found to be unstable to a tearing-mode instability of magnetic reconnection. This produces numerous magnetic islands that eventually make the outer regions highly chaotic.

  3. The influence of baking fuel on residues of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals in bread.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, M T; Abdel Hadi el-S; el-Samahy, S; Youssof, K

    2000-12-30

    The influence of fuel type used to bake bread on the spectrum and concentrations of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals in baked bread was assessed. Bread samples were collected from different bakeries operated by either electricity, solar, mazot or solid waste and their residue content of PAHs and heavy metals was assessed. The total concentration of PAHs detected in mazot, solar, solid waste and electricity operated bakeries had an average of 320.6, 158.4, 317.3 and 25.5 microgkg(-1), respectively. Samples collected from mazot, solar and solid waste operated bakeries have had a wide spectrum of PAHs, in comparison to that detected in bread samples collected from electricity operated bakeries. Lead had the highest concentrations in the four groups of bread samples, followed by nickel, while the concentrations of zinc and cadmium were the least. The concentration of lead detected in bread samples produced from mazot, solar, solid waste and electricity fueled bakeries were 1375.5, 1114, 1234, and 257.3 microgkg(-1), respectively. Estimated daily intake of PAHs based on bread consumption were 48.2, 28.5, 80. 1, and 4.8 microg per person per day for bread produced in bakeries using mazot, solar, solid waste and electricity, respectively. Meanwhile, the estimated daily intake of benzo (a) pyrene were 3.69, 2.65, 8.1, and 0.81 microg per person per day for bread sample baked with mazot, solar, solid waste and electricity, respectively. The daily intake of lead, based on bread consumption was 291, 200.5, 222, and 46.31 microg per person per day for bread sample baked with mazot, solar, solid waste and electricity, respectively. The present work has indicated the comparatively high level of daily intake of benzo (a) pyrene and lead in comparison to levels reported from many other countries and those recommended by international regulatory bodies. It is probable that residues detected in bread samples are partially cereal-borne but there is strong evidence that the process of baking and the gases emitted are responsible for most of the contamination load. PMID:11080564

  4. Control of sweet potato virus diseases.

    PubMed

    Loebenstein, Gad

    2015-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is ranked seventh in global food crop production and is the third most important root crop after potato and cassava. Sweet potatoes are vegetative propagated from vines, root slips (sprouts), or tubers. Therefore, virus diseases can be a major constrain, reducing yields markedly, often more than 50%. The main viruses worldwide are Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV) and Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV). Effects on yields by SPFMV or SPCSV alone are minor, or but in complex infection by the two or other viruses yield losses of 50%. The orthodox way of controlling viruses in vegetative propagated crops is by supplying the growers with virus-tested planting material. High-yielding plants are tested for freedom of viruses by PCR, serology, and grafting to sweet potato virus indicator plants. After this, meristem tips are taken from those plants that reacted negative. The meristems were grown into plants which were kept under insect-proof conditions and away from other sweet potato material for distribution to farmers after another cycle of reproduction. PMID:25591876

  5. Potato chromosomes IX and XI carry genes for resistance to potato virus M.

    PubMed

    Marczewski, W; Strzelczyk-Zyta, D; Hennig, J; Witek, K; Gebhardt, C

    2006-05-01

    Two new loci for resistance to potato virus M (PVM), Gm and Rm, have been mapped in potato. The gene Gm was derived from Solanum gourlayi, whereas, Solanum megistacrolobum is the source of the gene Rm. Gm confers resistance to PVM infection after mechanical inoculation. Rm induces a hypersensitive response in potato plants. Two diploid populations segregating for Gm and Rm, bulked segregant analysis (BSA) using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR), and available potato molecular maps were instrumental for mapping the resistance loci. The novel locus Gm was mapped to a central region on potato chromosome IX. The locus Rm was placed on the short arm of chromosome XI, close to the marker loci GP250 and GP283, where a hotspot for monogenic and polygenic resistance to diverse pathogens is located in the potato and tomato genome. PMID:16453130

  6. [A detection method for recombinant DNA from genetically modified potato (NewLeaf Y potato)].

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Takahiro; Wakui, Chiseko; Chiba, Yoshiko; Shibuya, Masaaki; Goda, Yukihiro; Toyoda, Masatake

    2002-10-01

    A detection method using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed to detect genetically modified (GM) potato (NewLeaf Y potato; NL-Y), of which the mandatory assessment has not yet been completed in Japan. The potato sucrose synthase gene was used as an internal control. We designed a primer pair to specifically detect NL-Y without false-positive results in processed potato foods infected with the potato virus Y (PVY). The DNA introduced into NL-Y using the primer pair could be detected from potato powder samples containing 0.05% NL-Y. In addition, we designed primer pairs for recognizing the CryIIIA gene to detect the NewLeaf potato (NL), NewLeaf Plus potato (NL-P) and NL-Y and for recognizing p-FMV in order to detect NL-P and NL-Y. The proposed method was applied to the detection of NL-Y in 26 processed potato foods and NL-Y was not detected in any samples. PMID:12607929

  7. Multi-allergen Quantitation and the Impact of Thermal Treatment in Industry-Processed Baked Goods by ELISA and Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Parker, Christine H; Khuda, Sefat E; Pereira, Marion; Ross, Mark M; Fu, Tong-Jen; Fan, Xuebin; Wu, Yan; Williams, Kristina M; DeVries, Jonathan; Pulvermacher, Brian; Bedford, Binaifer; Zhang, Xi; Jackson, Lauren S

    2015-12-16

    Undeclared food allergens account for 30-40% of food recalls in the United States. Compliance with ingredient labeling regulations and the implementation of effective manufacturing allergen control plans require the use of reliable methods for allergen detection and quantitation in complex food products. The objectives of this work were to (1) produce industry-processed model foods incurred with egg, milk, and peanut allergens, (2) compare analytical method performance for allergen quantitation in thermally processed bakery products, and (3) determine the effects of thermal treatment on allergen detection. Control and allergen-incurred cereal bars and muffins were formulated in a pilot-scale industry processing facility. Quantitation of egg, milk, and peanut in incurred baked goods was compared at various processing stages using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits and a novel multi-allergen liquid chromatography (LC)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) method. Thermal processing was determined to negatively affect the recovery and quantitation of egg, milk, and peanut to different extents depending on the allergen, matrix, and analytical test method. The Morinaga ELISA and LC-MS/MS quantitative methods reported the highest recovery across all monitored allergens, whereas the ELISA Systems, Neogen BioKits, Neogen Veratox, and R-Biopharm ELISA Kits underperformed in the determination of allergen content of industry-processed bakery products. PMID:26595064

  8. Potato virus Y infection hinders potato defence response and renders plants more vulnerable to Colorado potato beetle attack

    PubMed Central

    Petek, Marko; Rotter, Ana; Kogovšek, Polona; Baebler, Špela; Mithöfer, Axel; Gruden, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    In the field, plants are challenged by more than one biotic stressor at the same time. In this study, the molecular interactions between potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say; CPB) and Potato virus YNTN (PVYNTN) were investigated through analyses of gene expression in the potato leaves and the gut of the CPB larvae, and of the release of potato volatile compounds. CPB larval growth was enhanced when reared on secondary PVYNTN-infected plants, which was linked to decreased accumulation of transcripts associated with the antinutritional properties of potato. In PVYNTN-infected plants, ethylene signalling pathway induction and induction of auxin response transcription factors were attenuated, while no differences were observed in jasmonic acid (JA) signalling pathway. Similarly to rearing on virus-infected plants, CPB larvae gained more weight when reared on plants silenced in JA receptor gene (coi1). Although herbivore-induced defence mechanism is regulated predominantly by JA, response in coi1-silenced plants only partially corresponded to the one observed in PVYNTN-infected plants, confirming the role of other plant hormones in modulating this response. The release of β-barbatene and benzyl alcohol was different in healthy and PVYNTN-infected plants before CPB larvae infestation, implicating the importance of PVYNTN infection in plant communication with its environment. This was reflected in gene expression profiles of neighbouring plants showing different degree of defence response. This study thus contributes to our understanding of plant responses in agro-ecosystems. PMID:25251011

  9. Impact of local hydrothermal treatment during bread baking on soluble amylose, firmness, amylopectin retrogradation and water mobility during bread staling.

    PubMed

    Besbes, Emna; Le Bail, Alain; Seetharaman, Koushik

    2016-01-01

    The impact of hydrothermal processing undergone by bread dough during baking on the degree of starch granule disruption, on leaching of soluble amylose, on water mobility, on firmness and on amylopectin retrogradation during staling has been investigated. Two heating rates during baking have been considered (4.67 and 6.31 °C/min) corresponding respectively to baking temperature of 220 and 240 °C. An increase in firmness and in the amount of retrogradated amylopectin accompanied by a decrease in freezable water has been observed during staling. Although a lower heating rate yielded in larger amount of retrogradated amylopectin retrogradation, it resulted in a lower firmness. Additionally, the amount of soluble amylose and the relaxation times of water measured by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance NMR (T20, T21 and T22) decreased during staling. It was demonstrated that the amount of soluble amylose was higher for bread crumb baked at lower heating rate, indicating that an increasing amount of amylose is leached outside the starch granules. This was corresponding to a greater amount of retrograded amylopectin during staling. Moreover, it was found that the degree of gelatinization differs locally in a same bread slice between the top, the centre and the bottom locations in the crumb. This was attributed to the differences in kinetics of heating, the availability of water during baking and the degree of starch granule disruption during baking. Based on first order kinetic model, it was found that staling kinetics were faster for samples baked at higher heating rate. PMID:26787950

  10. Thermal release of D2 from new Be-D co-deposits on previously baked co-deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, M. J.; Doerner, R. P.

    2015-12-01

    Past experiments and modeling with the TMAP code in [1, 2] indicated that Be-D co-deposited layers are less (time-wise) efficiently desorbed of retained D in a fixed low-temperature bake, as the layer grows in thickness. In ITER, beryllium rich co-deposited layers will grow in thickness over the life of the machine. Although, compared with the analyses in [1, 2], ITER presents a slightly different bake efficiency problem because of instances of prior tritium recover/control baking. More relevant to ITER, is the thermal release from a new and saturated co-deposit layer in contact with a thickness of previously-baked, less-saturated, co-deposit. Experiments that examine the desorption of saturated co-deposited over-layers in contact with previously baked under-layers are reported and comparison is made to layers of the same combined thickness. Deposition temperatures of ∼323 K and ∼373 K are explored. It is found that an instance of prior bake leads to a subtle effect on the under-layer. The effect causes the thermal desorption of the new saturated over-layer to deviate from the prediction of the validated TMAP model in [2]. Instead of the D thermal release reflecting the combined thickness and levels of D saturation in the over and under layer, experiment differs in that, i) the desorption is a fractional superposition of desorption from the saturated over-layer, with ii) that of the combined over and under -layer thickness. The result is not easily modeled by TMAP without the incorporation of a thin BeO inter-layer which is confirmed experimentally on baked Be-D co-deposits using X-ray micro-analysis.

  11. Potato Glycoalkaloids, Past Present and Future

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The steroidal glycoalkaloids of the potato are naturally occurring specialty metabolites of questionable desirability. Although undoubtedly originating under selection as antifeedants against herbivorous pests, glycoalkaloids no longer function as the primary feeding deterrent. However, due to the...

  12. Cooking Potatoes: Experimentation and Mathematical Modeling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xiao Dong

    2002-01-01

    Describes a laboratory activity involving a mathematical model of cooking potatoes that can be solved analytically. Highlights the microstructure aspects of the experiment. Provides the key aspects of the results, detailed background readings, laboratory procedures and data analyses. (MM)

  13. Swinging around the High Bar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiley, M. J.; Yeadon, M. R.

    2001-01-01

    Models the motion of a gymnast around the high bar first as swinging around a rigid rod, then more accurately when the rod is considered to be elastic. Also considers how the gymnast should best move his hips. (Author/ASK)

  14. Effect of hairy nightshade (Solanum sarrachoides) presence on potato nematode, disease, and insect problems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hairy nightshade (Solanum sarrachoides) is a common weed in potato rotations in the western United States. Being a close relative of potato, hairy nightshade is a host of numerous viral diseases of potato [potato virus Y (PVY), potato virus (PVA), potato leaf roll virus (PLRV), tobacco rattle virus ...

  15. Mesophyll Cell Protoplasts of Potato

    PubMed Central

    Shepard, James F.; Totten, Roger E.

    1977-01-01

    Mesophyll cell protoplasts were isolated from potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Russet Burbank) leaves and induced to proliferate in culture. Protoplast division was observed only among preparations isolated from plants previously conditioned under short periods of low intensity illumination. Sustained growth and development of protoplast-derived calli (p-calli) occurred when they were maintained on defined media at 24 C under 500 lux lighting. Shoot bud development within p-calli was controlled by a number of factors including light, temperature, basic medium composition, nature and source of phytohormones, the continued presence of an osmoticum, low concentrations of a utilizable carbohydrate, and the developmental stage of the p-callus. Images PMID:16660083

  16. Ethanol production from potato peel waste (PPW).

    PubMed

    Arapoglou, D; Varzakas, Th; Vlyssides, A; Israilides, C

    2010-10-01

    Considerable concern is caused by the problem of potato peel waste (PPW) to potato industries in Europe. An integrated, environmentally-friendly solution is yet to be found and is currently undergoing investigation. Potato peel is a zero value waste produced by potato processing plants. However, bio-ethanol produced from potato wastes has a large potential market. If Federal Government regulations are adopted in light of the Kyoto agreement, the mandatory blending of bio-ethanol with traditional gasoline in amounts up to 10% will result in a demand for large quantities of bio-ethanol. PPW contain sufficient quantities of starch, cellulose, hemicellulose and fermentable sugars to warrant use as an ethanol feedstock. In the present study, a number of batches of PPW were hydrolyzed with various enzymes and/or acid, and fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisae var. bayanus to determine fermentability and ethanol production. Enzymatic hydrolysis with a combination of three enzymes, released 18.5 g L(-1) reducing sugar and produced 7.6 g L(-1) of ethanol after fermentation. The results demonstrate that PPW, a by-product of the potato industry features a high potential for ethanol production. PMID:20471817

  17. Heat Conduction to Photoresist on Top of Wafer during Post Exposure Bake Process: II. Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Hye-Keun; Kim, Do Wan; Lee, Ji-Eun

    2008-11-01

    Chemically amplified resists are used for 248 nm, 193 nm, immersion and extreme ultraviolet (UV) lithography. Among many process steps, post exposure bake (PEB) is the key process to make the desired small line width and critical dimension control. During PEB, the de-protection reaction and acid diffusion are determined by bake temperature and time. One of the key factors that determines the de-protection and acid diffusion is the initial temperature rising of the hot plate. The unpredictable temperature rising to the pre-set temperature is the main cause of line width variation. In order to predict the accurate PEB temperature and time dependency to the line width, the heat transfer from the hot plate to the resist on top of the silicon wafer is studied. Numerical approach is used to solve the heat conduction problem. Only the boundary temperature values are needed to solve this conduction, the information inside each layer is not required. We calculated the temperature rising characteristics of the photoresist on top of the several layers of the mask. The air conductivity, air gap, number of layers underneath the resist, thickness of the wafer, thickness of the layer including the resist, and different kind of layers are varied to see the characteristics of the bake temperature rising. We showed that there was small temperature difference at photoresist among the layer stack and thickness variation, even though it was very small. There is a strong possibility that this small PEB temperature difference would cause serious critical dimension (CD) control problem.

  18. Further studies on the problems of geomagnetic field intensity determination from archaeological baked clay materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostadinova-Avramova, M.; Kovacheva, M.

    2015-10-01

    Archaeological baked clay remains provide valuable information about the geomagnetic field in historical past, but determination of the geomagnetic field characteristics, especially intensity, is often a difficult task. This study was undertaken to elucidate the reasons for unsuccessful intensity determination experiments obtained from two different Bulgarian archaeological sites (Nessebar - Early Byzantine period and Malenovo - Early Iron Age). With this aim, artificial clay samples were formed in the laboratory and investigated. The clay used for the artificial samples preparation differs according to its initial state. Nessebar clay was baked in the antiquity, but Malenovo clay was raw, taken from the clay deposit near the site. The obtained artificial samples were repeatedly heated eight times in known magnetic field to 700 °C. X-ray diffraction analyses and rock-magnetic experiments were performed to obtain information about the mineralogical content and magnetic properties of the initial and laboratory heated clays. Two different protocols were applied for the intensity determination-Coe version of Thellier and Thellier method and multispecimen parallel differential pTRM protocol. Various combinations of laboratory fields and mutual positions of the directions of laboratory field and carried thermoremanence were used in the performed Coe experiment. The obtained results indicate that the failure of this experiment is probably related to unfavourable grain sizes of the prevailing magnetic carriers combined with the chosen experimental conditions. The multispecimen parallel differential pTRM protocol in its original form gives excellent results for the artificial samples, but failed for the real samples (samples coming from previously studied kilns of Nessebar and Malenovo sites). Obviously the strong dependence of this method on the homogeneity of the used subsamples hinders its implementation in its original form for archaeomaterials. The latter are often heterogeneous due to variable heating conditions in the different parts of the archaeological structures. The study draws attention to the importance of multiple heating for the stabilization of grain size distribution in baked clay materials and the need of elucidation of this question.

  19. Engineering high α-amylase levels in wheat grain lowers Falling Number but improves baking properties.

    PubMed

    Ral, Jean-Philippe; Whan, Alex; Larroque, Oscar; Leyne, Emmett; Pritchard, Jeni; Dielen, Anne-Sophie; Howitt, Crispin A; Morell, Matthew K; Newberry, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Late maturity α-amylase (LMA) and preharvest sprouting (PHS) are genetic defects in wheat. They are both characterized by the expression of specific isoforms of α-amylase in particular genotypes in the grain prior to harvest. The enhanced expression of α-amylase in both LMA and PHS results in a reduction in Falling Number (FN), a test of gel viscosity, and subsequent downgrading of the grain, along with a reduced price for growers. The FN test is unable to distinguish between LMA and PHS; thus, both defects are treated similarly when grain is traded. However, in PHS-affected grains, proteases and other degradative process are activated, and this has been shown to have a negative impact on end product quality. No studies have been conducted to determine whether LMA is detrimental to end product quality. This work demonstrated that wheat in which an isoform α-amylase (TaAmy3) was overexpressed in the endosperm of developing grain to levels of up to 100-fold higher than the wild-type resulted in low FN similar to those seen in LMA- or PHS-affected grains. This increase had no detrimental effect on starch structure, flour composition and enhanced baking quality, in small-scale 10-g baking tests. In these small-scale tests, overexpression of TaAmy3 led to increased loaf volume and Maillard-related browning to levels higher than those in control flours when baking improver was added. These findings raise questions as to the validity of the assumption that (i) LMA is detrimental to end product quality and (ii) a low FN is always indicative of a reduction in quality. This work suggests the need for a better understanding of the impact of elevated expression of specific α-amylase on end product quality. PMID:26010869

  20. HBr/O2 plasma treatment followed by a bake for photoresist linewidth roughness smoothing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fouchier, M.; Pargon, E.

    2014-02-01

    With the decrease of CMOS device dimensions, the linewidth roughness (LWR) of transistor gates is being recognized as a major concern. In integrated circuit manufacturing, an HBr plasma treatment has been used so far to reduce the LWR of photoresist (PR) lines printed by 193 nm lithography before transfer into the gate stack by plasma etching. In this article, a more efficient treatment based on HBr/O2 plasma exposure followed by a bake is developed, and the plasma conditions are optimized. We show that by controlling the dose of vacuum ultra violet (VUV) light emitted by the HBr/O2 plasma, the PR bulk can be either softened (photolysis) or strengthened (crosslinking). Moreover, the PR surface properties can be controlled by the O2 content of the plasma. The surface and bulk properties of the PR line after plasma treatment determine the LWR behavior during the subsequent thermal cure treatment. A soft resist bulk combined with a thin surface carbon layer is the ideal case to get the best LWR smoothing effect during the subsequent bake without reflowing. By optimizing both the plasma oxygen content and the VUV dose, we obtained a 59% LWR decrease (from 7.3 nm to 3.0 nm) using an HBr/O2 plasma treatment followed by a bake. The detailed study on the impact of the VUV dose during the plasma treatment permitted to determine the sidewall smoothing mechanisms involved. During both the plasma and the thermal treatments, the outgassing of the products of photolysis or deprotection reactions followed by the re-densification of the polymer material is shown to be the main sidewall smoothing enabler.

  1. Effect of low temperature baking on the RF properties of niobium superconducting cavities for particle accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Gianluigi Ciovati

    2004-03-01

    Radio-frequency superconducting (SRF) cavities are widely used to accelerate a charged particle beam in particle accelerators. The performance of SRF cavities made of bulk niobium has significantly improved over the last ten years and is approaching the theoretical limit for niobium. Nevertheless, RF tests of niobium cavities are still showing some ''anomalous'' losses that require a better understanding in order to reliably obtain better performance. These losses are characterized by a marked dependence of the surface resistance on the surface electromagnetic field and can be detected by measuring the quality factor of the resonator as a function of the peak surface field. A low temperature (100 C-150 C) ''in situ'' bake under ultra-high vacuum has been successfully applied as final preparation of niobium RF cavities by several laboratories over the last few years. The benefits reported consist mainly of an improvement of the cavity quality factor at low field and a recovery from ''anomalous'' losses (so-called ''Q-drop'') without field emission at higher field. A series of experiments with a CEBAF single-cell cavity have been carried out at Jefferson Lab to carefully investigate the effect of baking at progressively higher temperatures for a fixed time on all the relevant material parameters. Measurements of the cavity quality factor in the temperature range 1.37 K-280 K and resonant frequency shift between 6 K-9.3 K provide information about the surface resistance, energy gap, penetration depth and mean free path. The experimental data have been analyzed with the complete BCS theory of superconductivity. The hydrogen content of small niobium samples inserted in the cavity during its surface preparation was analyzed with Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA). The single-cell cavity has been tested at three different temperatures before and after baking to gain some insight on thermal conductivity and Kapitza resistance and the data are compared with different models. This paper describes the results of these experiments and comments on existing models to explain the effect of baking on the performance of niobium RF cavities.

  2. Partial self-reversal of TRM in baked soils and ceramics from Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roperch, P.; Chauvin, A.; Valdez, F.

    2011-12-01

    Partial self-reversed thermoremanent magnetizations (SRTRM) have been found in samples of baked soils and hearths from the Rumipamba archeological site near Quito and ceramics from sites near the town of Esmeraldas (Ecuador). The SRTRMs were recognized during thermal demagnetization and in the course of paleointensity determination with the Thellier method where the SRTRM was acquired in the opposed field direction. The SRTRM is often concealed by a stronger normal polarity magnetization on most samples but cooling the samples in liquid nitrogen enhanced the intensity of the SRTRM. The SRTRM at 77K is often as strong or stronger than the normal component and measurements of the magnetization at 77K enables the rapid detection of the SRTRM in most samples. AF demagnetization of the SRTRM carried by the baked clays indicate median destructive field (MDF) of the order of 50 mT and thermal demagnetization give principal unblocking temperatures between 280 and 380C while the normal component of magnetization has higher unblocking temperatures up to 580C. Anisotropy tensors of SRTRM were determined on eight samples. The high anisotropy degree (>2) observed when the total magnetization is the sum of a normal TRM and a SRTRM is likely amplified because the anisotropy carried by the SRTRM is larger than the one carried by the normal component. Ti-poor titanomagnetite is the main magnetic carrier identified by magnetic measurement in strong field or susceptibility measurements versus temperature. The magnetic carriers of the SRTRM are stable to heating in air or in vacuum up to 600C suggesting that they are likely not maghemite or titanomaghemite. The baked clays and ceramics from Ecuador carrying the SRTRM share similar magnetic properties (MDF values, unblocking temperatures) with those reported by Bina et al. (1999, Geophys. J. Int. 138, 159-178) for the Pinatubo pumices of the 1991 eruption. In order to test the hypothesis that the SRTRM could be carried by ilmeno-hematite grains, the magnetization of one sample of the self reversed Pinatubo pumices was also measured during warming from liquid nitrogen temperature to room temperature. The similarities in magnetic properties between the SRTRM carried by the baked clays and the self-reversed Pinatubo pumices support the interpretation that detrital hemoilmenite originating from the recent activity of the numerous Ecuadorian volcanoes may be the main carrier of the SRTRM in the archeological samples. A component of SRTRM may be hidden in various types of rock or archeological materials and this may affect the determination of paleointensity of the Earth magnetic field especially when non thermal method are used.

  3. Partial self-reversal of TRM in baked soils and ceramics from Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roperch, Pierrick; Chauvin, Annick; Valdez, Francisco

    2012-11-01

    Partial self-reversed thermoremanent magnetizations (SRTRMs) were observed in samples of baked soils, hearths and ceramics from the Rumipamba archeological site near Quito (Ecuador) and ceramics from sites near the town of Esmeraldas (Ecuador). The SRTRMs were recognized at room temperature on few samples but cooling the samples in liquid nitrogen enhanced the intensity of the SRTRM and measurement at 77K enables its rapid detection in many samples from these sites. Alternating field demagnetization of the SRTRM indicate median destructive field of the order of 50 mT and thermal demagnetization give unblocking temperatures in the temperature range 280-380 C. The magnetic carriers of the SRTRM are stable to heating in air or in vacuum up to 600 C suggesting that titanomaghemite should not be the magnetic carrier of the SRTRM. The studied baked clays and ceramics contain detrital material of mainly volcanic origin. Ti-poor titanomagnetite is the main magnetic carrier identified by strong field data or susceptibility measurements versus temperature. Ilmeno-hematite grains were recognized with microscope observations under reflected light. Scanning electron microscope observations with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry indicate a Ti/Fe ratio corresponding to an ilmenite content of 0.55. We also compared the magnetic properties of the partially self-reversed baked clays with those of the self-reversed Pinatubo pumices. The SRTRMs were measured upon cooling from room temperature to 20K with the MPMS. Upon cooling to 20K the SRTRM show a nearly tenfold increase in intensity with respect to the room temperature measurement. The baked clay and ceramics from Ecuador carrying the SRTRM share similar magnetic properties with the Pinatubo pumices (unblocking temperatures, low temperature behavior) supporting the interpretation that detrital hemoilmenite originating from the Holocene activity of the numerous Ecuadorian volcanoes is the main carrier of the SRTRM in the archeological samples. In some samples, anisotropy tensors of SRTRM show large anisotropy degree (>2). The high anisotropy observed when the total magnetization is the sum of a normal thermoremanent magnetization (TRM) and a SRTRM is likely amplified because the anisotropy carried by the SRTRM is larger than the one carried by the normal component. A component of SRTRM may be hidden in archeological materials containing detrital hemoilmenites related to dacitic/andesitic volcanism and this may affect the determination of paleointensity of the earth magnetic field especially when non thermal method are used.

  4. Evaluations of transgenic potatoes for resistance to potato tuberworm in the laboratory and field

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato variety ‘Spunta’ was previously transformed to constitutively express the cry1Ia1 gene from Bacillus thuringiensis from which three transgenic lines (Spunta G2, Spunta G3 and Spunta 6a3) were chosen to evaluate for resistance to potato tuberworm (Phthorimaea operculella Zeller). Because ...

  5. Screening potato cultivars for new sources of resistance to Potato virus Y

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato virus Y (PVY) strains have been defined based on genetic reactions in potato indicators expressing hypersensitive reaction (HR) response due to the presence of three different N genes, and also based on genomic information. Nine strains are known currently, with five PVY strains defined biol...

  6. Relationships among wild relatives of the potato: the Potato clade of the genus Solanum (Solanaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With ca. 200 species, the informally named Potato clade represents one of the larger subgroups of the enormous genus Solanum. Because its members include the potato (Solanum tuberosum), tomato (S. lycopersicum), and pepino (S. muricatum), it is the most economically important clade in the genus. The...

  7. Impact of Potato virus Y on long term storage of potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years, Potato virus Y has reemerged as a serious disease problem in many potato production areas in the northern United States and eastern Canada. In Wisconsin, two widely grown cultivars, Russet Norkotah and Silverton, express mild or no symptoms when infected with PVY. The lack of sympto...

  8. 78 FR 9629 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Reestablishment of Membership on the Colorado Potato...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 948 Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado... Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This rule invites comments on reestablishing the... administers the marketing order regulating the handling of Irish potatoes grown in Colorado. This rule...

  9. Breeding for improved potato nutrition: High amylose starch potatoes show promise as fiber source

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato starch is composed of approximately 75% amylopectin and 25% amylose. We are interested in breeding for higher amylose content, which would increase the fiber content of potato and decrease glycemic index. In order to make progress in a breeding program, we have developed a high throughput ass...

  10. Recovery of four novel Potato spindle tuber viroid sequence variants from Russian seed potatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Symptoms of potato gothic disease resemble those of Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd), but its limited distribution in European Russia made the disease of little economic significance in European Russia until the early 1970s when meristem tip culture was widely adopted throughout the former USS...

  11. Use and costs of insecticdes to control potato psyllids and zebra chip on potatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zebra chip disease in potatoes has become a serious problem in North America. Researchers in Texas developed a sampling and reporting program for cooperating growers in three states. Data from this project enabled us to document insecticide use and costs for ZC control in commercial potato fields...

  12. Impact of potato psyllid (Hemiptera: Triozide) feeding on free amino acid composition in potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foliage feeding impacts of potato psyllid (Bactericera cockerelli) on the free amino acids (FAAs) composition in potato leaf and tuber were determined under the greenhouse conditions. The free amino acids in plant extracts were separated by HPLC, and in both leaf and tuber samples, at least, 17 FAAs...

  13. Resistance of selected potato genotypes to the potato psyllid (Hemiptera: Triozidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The characterization of resistance of selected potato, Solanum tuberosum L., breeding clones to the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) was investigated. Antixenosis was assessed in choice tests in which a single plant of each genotype was placed inside a rearing cag...

  14. Novel two-step baking process for high-aspect-ratio photolithography with conventional positive thick photoresist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Jun-Bo; Han, Chul-Hi; Yoon, Euisik; Kim, Choong-Ki

    1998-09-01

    We have developed a novel two-step baking process to achieve high-aspect-ratios in UV photolithography with a conventional positive thick photoresist. We newly report high-aspect-ratio (greater than 10:1) results in a single coated 91 micrometer- thick photoresist AZ9262, which was introduced Hoechst at SPIE in 1996. From extensive experiments, we improved the aspect ratio by minimum exposure, diluted development, reabsorption of sufficient water before exposure, and especially by extended and effective soft bake in two steps. In the optimum two-step baking, first the baking is performed at an intermediate temperature in a forced convection oven for hours to evaporate large amounts of solvent. Second, the photoresist is heat-treated at an elevated temperature on an air-gapped hotplate with cover for minutes to enhance aspect ratios. The reason for this improvement has been studied based on the photochemical process of the DNQ/novolac-type positive photoresist. Using this two-step baking, we have obtained lines of 4.4 micrometer-wide bottom in a single coated 91 micrometer-thick photoresist (aspect ratio: 20). The line width in the mask was 8.9 micrometer, and hence 2.2 micrometer undercut was observed.

  15. Adventures of a tidally induced bar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ?okas, E. L.; Athanassoula, E.; Debattista, V. P.; Valluri, M.; Pino, A. del; Semczuk, M.; Gajda, G.; Kowalczyk, K.

    2014-12-01

    Using N-body simulations, we study the properties of a bar induced in a discy dwarf galaxy as a result of tidal interaction with the Milky Way. The bar forms at the first pericentre passage and survives until the end of the evolution at 10 Gyr. Fourier decomposition of the bar reveals that only even modes are significant and preserve a hierarchy so that the bar mode is always the strongest. They show a characteristic profile with a maximum, similar to simulated bars forming in isolated galaxies and observed bars in real galaxies. We adopt the maximum of the bar mode as a measure of the bar strength and we estimate the bar length by comparing the density profiles along the bar and perpendicular to it. The bar strength and the bar length decrease with time, mainly at pericentres, as a result of tidal torques acting at those times and not to secular evolution. The pattern speed of the bar varies significantly on a time-scale of 1 Gyr and is controlled by the orientation of the tidal torque from the Milky Way. The bar is never tidally locked, but we discover a hint of a 5/2 orbital resonance between the third and fourth pericentre passage. The speed of the bar decreases in the long run so that the bar changes from initially rather fast to slow in the later stages. The boxy/peanut shape is present for some time and its occurrence is preceded by a short period of buckling instability.

  16. Bars and Cold Dark Matter Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coln, Pedro; Valenzuela, O.; Klypin, A.

    2006-06-01

    The central part of a dark matter halo reacts to the presence and evolution of a bar. Not only does the halo absorb angular momentum from the disk, it can also be compressed and have its shape modified. We study these issues in a series of cosmologically motivated, highly resolved N-body simulations of barred galaxies run under different initial conditions. In all models we find that the inner halo's central density increases. We model this density increase using the standard adiabatic approximation and the modified formula by Gnedin et al., and we find that halo mass profiles are better reproduced by the latter. In models with a strong bar, the dark matter in the central region forms a barlike structure (``dark matter bar''), which rotates together with the normal bar formed by the stellar component (``stellar bar''). The minor-to-major axial ratio of a halo bar changes with radius with a typical value 0.7 in the central disk region. Dark matter bar amplitude is mostly a function of the stellar bar strength. For models in which the bar amplitude increases or stays roughly constant with time, initially large (40-60) misalignment between the halo and disk bars quickly decreases with time as the bar grows. The halo bar is nearly aligned with the stellar bar (~10 lag for the halo) after ~2 Gyr. The torque, which the halo bar exerts on the stellar bar, can serve as a mechanism to regulate the angular momentum transfer from the disk to the halo.

  17. ARL Explosive Blast Bar Gauge Response Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, Gerrit; Boyle, Vincent; Benjamin, Richard

    2013-06-01

    Simulations allow us to optimize the design of a bar gauge. The incident blast wave imparts a wave that travels down the metal bar. Strain gauges positioned along the bar measure the strain produced by the bar wave, allowing determination of pressure and impulse at the bar face. The measured pressure history depends on the arrangement of the bar gauge. If a large metal plate surrounds the bar face, a reflected blast pressure is measured. If a metal fixture that forms a nozzle surrounds the bar face, the initial pressure will be the same as above. In time, release waves emanating from the nozzle edge will decrease the pressure at the bar face. The bar diameter and size of strain gauges control the time response or gauge bandwidth. CTH hydrocode simulations allow optimization of bar gauge features for various size explosive charges. The simulations predicted the response of the metal plate arrangement to a blast from a spherical composition C4 charge. The simulations predicted the proper metal plate diameter for a reflected pressure measurement. Other simulations compared the response of the bar gauge for both configurations (nozzle or plate surround) when subjected to the same blast loading. Pressure histories from simulations were compared to those from experiment and those predicted by the CONWEP blast code. The initial experimental and CONWEP pressures were in reasonable agreement.

  18. Bar code instrumentation for nuclear safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Bieber, A.M. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents a brief overview of the basic principles of bar codes and the equipment used to make and to read bar code labels, and a summary of some of the more important factors that need to be considered in integrating bar codes into an information system.

  19. Bar-holding prosthetic limb

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vest, Thomas W. (Inventor); Norton, William E. (Inventor); Belcher, Jewell G. (Inventor); Carden, James R. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A prosthetic device for below-the-elbow amputees is disclosed. The device has a removable effector, which is attached to the end of an arm cuff. The effector is comprised of a pair of C-shaped members that are oriented so as to face each other. Working in concert, the C-shaped members are able to hold a bar such as a chainsaw handle. A flat spring is fitted around the C-shaped members to hold them together.

  20. Differential effects of environment on potato phenylpropanoid and carotenoid expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The extent of environmental effects on tuber phytonutrients is unclear, as is whether environment significantly influences potato nutritional quality. Potatoes grown in environmentally diverse locations in North America (Alaska, Texas and Florida) were profiled for over forty tuber phenylpropanoids ...

  1. Host plant preference in Colorado potato beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field and laboratory-choice tests were conducted to better understand host plant preference by the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), in Virginia. In laboratory olfactometer studies, L. decemlineata preferred potato over both tomato and eggplant foli...

  2. White Potatoes, Human Health, and Dietary Guidance12

    PubMed Central

    King, Janet C.; Slavin, Joanne L.

    2013-01-01

    The white potato is a concentrated source of carbohydrate, dietary fiber, and resistant starch and continues to be the staple food of choice for many cultures. The white potato is also a concentrated source of vitamin C and potassium. Two of the nutrients in white potatoes, dietary fiber and potassium, have been designated as nutrients of concern in the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Potatoes are often maligned in nutrition circles because of their suspected link to obesity, and popular potato foods often contain more fat calories than carbohydrate calories. Some food guides do not include potatoes in the vegetable group because of their association with high-fat diets. However, potatoes should be included in the vegetable group because they contribute critical nutrients. All white vegetables, including white potatoes, provide nutrients needed in the diet and deserve a prominent position in food guides. PMID:23674809

  3. An Assessment of Recycled Refractory Material Performance After Two Years of Service in a Carbon Bake Furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Schubert, N.; Bennett, J.P.; Kwong, K.S.

    1999-10-27

    Material removed from carbon bake furnaces used to manufacture anodes for the production of aluminum metal has historically been disposed by landfill. This material is composed primarily of 50% alumina refractory. in 1997, Alcoa completed a highly successful program to reuse the spent refractories in castables for carbon bake furnace headwalls and flooring, as roadbed aggregate, and in other internal applications. This program recycled/reused 11,000 metric tons of used refractory material (99% of the material removed from the carbon bake furnace) and saved Alcoa over 3.8 of the 9.6 million dollar projected furnace rebuild costs. As assessment is made of the performance of the recycled refractory components after two years of service.

  4. Storage of parbaked bread affects shelf life of fully baked end product: a ¹H NMR study.

    PubMed

    Bosmans, Geertrui M; Lagrain, Bert; Ooms, Nand; Fierens, Ellen; Delcour, Jan A

    2014-12-15

    Full baking of earlier partially baked (parbaked) bread can supply fresh bread to the consumer at any time of the day. When parbaked bread loaves were stored at -25, 4 or 23°C, the extent of crumb to crust moisture migration and amylopectin retrogradation differed with storage temperature, and the firming rate was evidently lowest during frozen storage. The extent of crumb to crust moisture migration during parbaked bread storage largely determined the mass of the fresh finished bread, and its crumb and crust moisture contents. Initial NMR proton mobility, initial resilience, the extent of amylopectin retrogradation and changes in firmness and resilience during storage of fully baked bread were affected by its crumb moisture content. The lowest firming rate was observed for finished bread resulting from parbaked bread stored at -25°C, while the highest firming rate was observed for finished bread from parbaked bread stored at 23°C. PMID:25038661

  5. ORBITAL SUPPORT OF FAST AND SLOW INNER BARS IN DOUBLE-BARRED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Maciejewski, Witold; Small, Emma E.

    2010-08-10

    We analyze how the orbital support of the inner bar in a double-barred galaxy (nested bars) depends on the angular velocity (i.e., pattern speed) of this bar. We study orbits in seven models of double bars using the method of invariant loops. The range of pattern speed is covered exhaustively. We find that not all pattern speeds are allowed when the inner bar rotates in the same direction as the outer bar. Below a certain minimum pattern speed orbital support for the inner bar abruptly disappears, while at high values of this speed the orbits indicate an increasingly round bar that looks more like a twist in the nuclear isophotes than a dynamically independent component. For values between these two extremes, orbits supporting the inner bar extend further out as the bar's pattern speed decreases, their corresponding loops become more eccentric, pulsate more, and their rotation becomes increasingly non-uniform, as they speed up and slow down in their motion. Lower pattern speeds also lead to a less coherent bar, as the pulsation and acceleration increasingly varies among the loops supporting the inner bar. The morphologies of fast and slow inner bars expected from the orbital structure studied here have been recently recovered observationally by decomposition of double-barred galaxies. Our findings allow us to link the observed morphology to the dynamics of the inner bar.

  6. The effect of baking treatments on E9018-B3 manual metal arc welding consumables

    SciTech Connect

    Fazackerley, W.; Gee, R.

    1996-12-31

    For the comparison and assessment of steel welding consumables, standard tests involving small model welds are widely used to determine diffusible hydrogen contents. The lowest scale normally quoted is less than 5 ml/100 g deposited metal (e.g., BS5135:1984 Scale D). However, due to industry`s demands for lower hydrogen levels for critical applications, it is now proposed to sub-divide this scale at around 2--3 ml/100 g. This has led to further development by consumable manufacturers in order to meet the new specification. Traditionally, reductions in potential hydrogen levels in manual metal arc welding consumables have been achieved by improved flux formulations and silicate binder systems. However, there is little published work on the effect of electrode baking treatments. A development program has been employed to study the effect of baking treatments on E9018-B3 type manual metal arc welding consumables. This type of welding consumable is used extensively in the initial fabrication and in the repair and maintenance of power generation plant, where significant risk of HAZ hydrogen cracking exists. These treatments have been assessed using standard tests for weld metal hydrogen content and weld metal composition.

  7. A novel post exposure bake technique to improve CD uniformity over product wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeishi, Tomoyuki; Hayasaki, K.; Shibata, Tsuyoshi

    2005-05-01

    The impact of wafer warpage on critical dimension (CD) control is getting larger in ArF lithography. The product wafers with stacked films are warped due to the stress caused by the difference in the film stack structure between the top side and the back side of the wafers. A typical warpage of the product wafers is of convex shape, and the amount of the warpage is larger than 50 ?m for 200mm wafer. On the other hand, proximity bake method is widely used in the Post Exposure Bake (PEB). When the warped wafer is placed on the hot plate, the gap between the wafer and the hot plate varies across the wafer. That is, the temperature of the wafer center is lower than that of wafer edge. Such a temperature variation affects CD uniformity within wafer. In particular the fact is obvious in ArF chemical amplified resist because PEB sensitivity of ArF resist is larger than 5nm/degree. In this study we optimize PEB zone temperature within wafer to suit the wafer warpage. This method is based on controlling zone temperature of the PEB hot plate with concentrically divided heaters. We carry out that the CD uniformity for the warped wafer is improved by 70% compared with the conventional process.

  8. Effect of Hydrocolloids and Emulsifiers on Baking Quality of Composite Cassava-Maize-Wheat Breads

    PubMed Central

    Eduardo, Maria; Ahrné, Lilia

    2014-01-01

    Cassava is widely available worldwide but bread quality is impaired when cassava is used in the bread formulation. To overcome this problem, different improvers were tested in the preparation of composite cassava-maize-wheat (CMW) breads. Emulsifiers, diacetyl tartic acid ester of monoglycerides (DATEM), sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate (SSL), and lecithin (LC); and hydrocolloids, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and high-methylated pectin (HM pectin) were added during dough preparation of the composite flours (cassava-maize-wheat, 40 : 10 : 50). Each emulsifier was tested in combination with the hydrocolloids at levels of 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5% while hydrocolloids were used at a level of 3%. Bread quality attributes such as specific loaf volume, crust colour, crumb moisture, and firmness were measured. The specific volume of the fresh breads significantly improved with the addition of hydrocolloids (7.5 and 13%) and in combination with emulsifiers (from 7.9 to 27%) compared with bread produced without improvers. A significant improvement of brownness index and firmness of the composite flours breads was achieved with the addition of hydrocolloids and emulsifiers. The results show that emulsifiers and hydrocolloids can significantly improve the baking quality of CMW breads and thereby enhance the potential for using locally produced flours in bread baking. PMID:26904634

  9. Production of crude xylanase from Thermoascus aurantiacus CBMAI 756 aiming the baking process.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Denise S; Meherb-Dini, Carolina; Franco, Clia M L; Gomes, Eleni; Da-Silva, Roberto

    2010-09-01

    In recent years, the baking industry has focused its attention on substituting several chemical compounds with enzymes. Enzymes that hydrolyze nonstarch polysaccharides, such as xylanase, lead to the improvement of rheological properties of dough, loaf specific volume, and crumb firmness. The purpose of this study was to find a better solid-state fermentation substrate to produce high levels of xylanase and low levels of protease and amylase, which are enzymes involved in bread quality, from Thermoascus aurantiacus CBMAI 756. Wheat bran, corncob, and corn straw were used as energy sources. The enzyme extract of corncob showed high xylanase activity (130 U/mL) and low amylase and protease activity (<1 and 15 U/mL, respectively). This enzyme profile may be more profitable for the baking industry, because it results in a slower degradation of gluten. Our results confirm this finding, because the enzyme obtained by fermentation in corncob resulted in a gluten with a higher specific volume than all the other substrates that were tested. The crude xylanase presented maximum activity at a pH of 5, and the optimum temperature was 75 C. It was stable up to 70 C for an hour and at a pH range from 4 to 10. PMID:21535524

  10. Deprotection blue in extreme ultraviolet photoresists: influence of base loading and post-exposure bake temperture

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Christopher N.; Naulleau, Patrick P.

    2008-06-02

    The deprotection blur of Rohm and Haas XP 5435, XP 5271, and XP5496 extreme ultraviolet photoresists has been determined as their base weight percent is varied. They have also determined the deprotection blur of TOK EUVR P1123 photoresist as the post-exposure bake temperature is varied from 80 C to 120 C. In Rohm and Haas XP 5435 and XP5271 resists 7x and 3x (respective) increases in base weight percent reduce the size of successfully patterned 1:1 line-space features by 16 nm and 8 nm with corresponding reductions in deprotection blur of 7 nm and 4 nm. In XP 5496 a 7x increase in base weight percent reduces the size of successfully patterned 1:1 line-space features from 48 nm to 38 nm without changing deprotection blur. In TOK EUVR P1123 resist, a reduction in post-exposure bake temperature from 100 C to 80 C reduces deprotection blur from 21 nm to 10 nm and reduces patterned LER from 4.8 nm to 4.1 nm.

  11. Evaluation of rheological, bioactives and baking characteristics of mango ginger (curcuma amada) enriched soup sticks.

    PubMed

    Crassina, K; Sudha, M L

    2015-09-01

    Wheat flour was replaced with mango ginger powder (MGP) at 0, 5, 10 and 15 %. Influence of MGP on rheological and baking characteristics was studied. Farinograph was used to study the mixing profile of wheat flour-MGP blend. Pasting profile of the blends namely gelatinization and retrogradation were carried out using micro-visco-amylograph. Test baking was done to obtain the optimum level of replacement and processing conditions. Sensory attributes consisting texture, taste, overall quality and breaking strength were assessed. Nutritional characterization of the soup sticks in terms of protein and starch in vitro digestibility, dietary fiber, minerals, polyphenols and antioxidant activity were determined using standard methods. With the increasing levels of MGP from 0 to 15 %, the farinograph water absorption increased from 60 to 66.7 %. A marginal increase in the gelatinization temperature from 65.4 to 66.2 °C was observed. Retrogradation of gelatinized starch granules decreased with the addition of MGP. The results indicated that the soup stick with 10 % MG had acceptable sensory attributes. The soup stick showed further improvement in terms of texture and breaking strength with the addition of gluten powder, potassium bromate and glycerol monostearate. The total dietary fiber and antioxidant activity of the soup sticks having 10 % MGP increased from 3.31 to 8.64 % and 26.83 to 48.06 % respectively as compared to the control soup sticks. MGP in soup sticks improved the nutritional profile. PMID:26345009

  12. Effect of temper rolling on the bake-hardening behavior of low carbon steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, Chun-fu; Zhang, Shen-gen; Li, Jun; Wang, Jian; Li, Pei

    2015-01-01

    In a typical process, low carbon steel was annealed at two different temperatures (660C and 750C), and then was temper rolled to improve the mechanical properties. Pre-straining and baking treatments were subsequently carried out to measure the bake-hardening (BH) values. The influences of annealing temperature and temper rolling on the BH behavior of the steel were investigated. The results indicated that the microstructure evolution during temper rolling was related to carbon atoms and dislocations. After an apparent increase, the BH value of the steel significantly decreased when the temper rolling reduction was increased from 0% to 5%. This was attributed to the increase in solute carbon concentration and dislocation density. The maximum BH values of the steel annealed at 660C and 750C were 80 MPa and 89 MPa at the reductions of 3% and 4%, respectively. Moreover, increasing the annealing temperature from 660 to 750C resulted in an obvious increase in the BH value due to carbide dissolution.

  13. Survival of Penicillium spp. conidia during deep-frying and baking steps of frozen chicken nuggets processing.

    PubMed

    Wigmann, Évelin Francine; Moreira, Rafael Chelala; Alvarenga, Verônica Ortiz; Sant'Ana, Anderson S; Copetti, Marina Venturini

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed at determining whether Penicillium spp. strains could survive through the heat treatment applied during the processing of frozen chicken nuggets. Firstly, it was found that the conidia of Penicillium were not able to survive the heat shock in phosphate buffer at pH 7.2 in thermal death tubes (TDT) at 80 °C/30 min. Subsequently, each Penicillium strain was inoculated in frozen chicken nuggets, which were subjected to the following treatments: i) only deep frying (frying oil at 195-200 °C), ii) only baking (120-130 °C until the internal temperature reached 70 °C) and iii) deep frying followed by baking (frying oil temperature of 195-200 °C and baking temperature of 120-130 °C, until the internal temperature reached 70 °C). The results indicated that Penicillium polonicum NGT 23/12, Penicillium commune NGT 16/12, Penicillium solitum NGT 30/12 and Penicillium crustosum NGT 51/12 were able to survive after the combined treatment (deep frying followed by baking) when inoculated in chicken nuggets. P. polonicum NGT 23/12 was the most resistant strain to the combined treatment (deep frying and baking), as its population was reduced by 3 log cycles CFU/g, when the internal temperature reached 78 °C after 10 min and 30 s of baking. The present data show that if Penicillium spp. is present in high numbers in raw materials, such as breading flours, it will survive the thermal processing applied during chicken nuggets production. PMID:26742610

  14. Galaxy Zoo: Observing secular evolution through bars

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, Edmond; Faber, S. M.; Koo, David C.; Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, A.; Masters, Karen L.; Nichol, Robert C.; Melvin, Thomas; Bell, Eric F.; Lintott, Chris; Schawinski, Kevin; Skibba, Ramin A.; Willett, Kyle W.

    2013-12-20

    In this paper, we use the Galaxy Zoo 2 data set to study the behavior of bars in disk galaxies as a function of specific star formation rate (SSFR) and bulge prominence. Our sample consists of 13,295 disk galaxies, with an overall (strong) bar fraction of 23.6% ± 0.4%, of which 1154 barred galaxies also have bar length (BL) measurements. These samples are the largest ever used to study the role of bars in galaxy evolution. We find that the likelihood of a galaxy hosting a bar is anticorrelated with SSFR, regardless of stellar mass or bulge prominence. We find that the trends of bar likelihood and BL with bulge prominence are bimodal with SSFR. We interpret these observations using state-of-the-art simulations of bar evolution that include live halos and the effects of gas and star formation. We suggest our observed trends of bar likelihood with SSFR are driven by the gas fraction of the disks, a factor demonstrated to significantly retard both bar formation and evolution in models. We interpret the bimodal relationship between bulge prominence and bar properties as being due to the complicated effects of classical bulges and central mass concentrations on bar evolution and also to the growth of disky pseudobulges by bar evolution. These results represent empirical evidence for secular evolution driven by bars in disk galaxies. This work suggests that bars are not stagnant structures within disk galaxies but are a critical evolutionary driver of their host galaxies in the local universe (z < 1).

  15. Retention of provitamin a carotenoids in staple crops targeted for biofortification in Africa: cassava, maize and sweet potato.

    PubMed

    De Moura, Fabiana F; Miloff, Alexander; Boy, Erick

    2015-01-01

    HarvestPlus, part of the Consultative Group on Internation Agriculture research (CGIAR) Program on Agriculture for Nutrition and Health (A4NH) uses conventional plant breeding techniques to develop staple food crops that are rich in micronutrients, a food-based approach to reduce micronutrient malnutrition known as biofortification. The nutritional breeding targets are established based on the food intake of target populations, nutrient losses during storage and processing and bioavailability. This review collates the evidence on the retention of provitamin A carotenoid (pVAC) after processing, cooking, and storing of the staple crops targeted for pVAC biofortification: cassava, maize, and sweet potato. Sun drying was more detrimental to the pVAC levels (27-56% retention) in cassava than shade (59%) or oven (55-91%) drying, while the pVAC retention levels (66-96%) in sweet potato were not significantly different among the various drying methods. Overall, boiling and steaming had higher pVAC retention (80-98%) compared to baking (30-70%) and frying (18-54%). Gari, the most frequently consumed form of cassava in West Africa had the lowest pVAC retention (10-30%). The pVAC retention of maize grain and cassava and sweet potato flour reached levels as low as 20% after 1-4 months of storage and was highly dependent on genotype. Therefore, we recommend that an evaluation of the pVAC degradation rate among different genotypes be performed before a high pVAC crop is promoted. PMID:24915386

  16. Retention of Provitamin A Carotenoids in Staple Crops Targeted for Biofortification in Africa: Cassava, Maize and Sweet Potato

    PubMed Central

    De Moura, Fabiana F.; Miloff, Alexander; Boy, Erick

    2015-01-01

    HarvestPlus, part of the Consultative Group on Internation Agriculture research (CGIAR) Program on Agriculture for Nutrition and Health (A4NH) uses conventional plant breeding techniques to develop staple food crops that are rich in micronutrients, a food-based approach to reduce micronutrient malnutrition known as biofortification. The nutritional breeding targets are established based on the food intake of target populations, nutrient losses during storage and processing and bioavailability. This review collates the evidence on the retention of provitamin A carotenoid (pVAC) after processing, cooking, and storing of the staple crops targeted for pVAC biofortification: cassava, maize, and sweet potato. Sun drying was more detrimental to the pVAC levels (27–56% retention) in cassava than shade (59%) or oven (55–91%) drying, while the pVAC retention levels (66–96%) in sweet potato were not significantly different among the various drying methods. Overall, boiling and steaming had higher pVAC retention (80–98%) compared to baking (30–70%) and frying (18–54%). Gari, the most frequently consumed form of cassava in West Africa had the lowest pVAC retention (10–30%). The pVAC retention of maize grain and cassava and sweet potato flour reached levels as low as 20% after 1–4 months of storage and was highly dependent on genotype. Therefore, we recommend that an evaluation of the pVAC degradation rate among different genotypes be performed before a high pVAC crop is promoted. PMID:24915386

  17. Bar Coding and Tracking in Pathology.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Matthew G; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2016-03-01

    Bar coding and specimen tracking are intricately linked to pathology workflow and efficiency. In the pathology laboratory, bar coding facilitates many laboratory practices, including specimen tracking, automation, and quality management. Data obtained from bar coding can be used to identify, locate, standardize, and audit specimens to achieve maximal laboratory efficiency and patient safety. Variables that need to be considered when implementing and maintaining a bar coding and tracking system include assets to be labeled, bar code symbologies, hardware, software, workflow, and laboratory and information technology infrastructure as well as interoperability with the laboratory information system. This article addresses these issues, primarily focusing on surgical pathology. PMID:26851661

  18. Bar Coding and Tracking in Pathology.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Matthew G; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2015-06-01

    Bar coding and specimen tracking are intricately linked to pathology workflow and efficiency. In the pathology laboratory, bar coding facilitates many laboratory practices, including specimen tracking, automation, and quality management. Data obtained from bar coding can be used to identify, locate, standardize, and audit specimens to achieve maximal laboratory efficiency and patient safety. Variables that need to be considered when implementing and maintaining a bar coding and tracking system include assets to be labeled, bar code symbologies, hardware, software, workflow, and laboratory and information technology infrastructure as well as interoperability with the laboratory information system. This article addresses these issues, primarily focusing on surgical pathology. PMID:26065787

  19. Significance of Wheat Flour Dough Rheology to Gas Cell Structure Development in Bread and Other Baked Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engmann, Jan

    2008-07-01

    We discuss which rheological material functions of wheat flour dough are most relevant for structure development in baked products under common processing conditions. We consider the growth of gas cells during dough proofing (driven by yeast) and during baking, where the growth is driven by a combination of CO2 desorption, water and ethanol evaporation, and thermal expansion of gas. Attention is given to upper limits on biaxial extension rate and stress and the consequences for the required rheological material functions. The applicability of the "Considère criterion" to predict the probability of coalescence between gas cells and its effect on loaf aeration is briefly discussed.

  20. Economic assessments of potato production systems in Maine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using an integrated enterprise and whole-farm budget model for a 324-ha medium-sized potato farm, the profitability of potatoes grown in combination with fifteen common potato rotation crops in Maine are evaluated. Enterprise budgets for all sixteen crops are calculated while a whole-farm budget syn...

  1. Exudation of mesotrione from potato roots injures neighboring plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mesotrione is an effective herbicide for volunteer potato control but is not selective in several crops, including onion and carrot. Studies were conducted in 2006 to evaluate the effectiveness of wiper applied mesotrione for control of volunteer potato in a potato crop. Surprisingly, nontreated pot...

  2. Genotype x environment interactions for potato tuber carotenoid content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumption of carotenoid-containing foods can help promote human health. Although yellow-fleshed potatoes have a higher carotenoid content than white-fleshed potatoes, little is known about how growing environments may affect individual and total carotenoid content in different potato clones. The ...

  3. Taxonomy of cultivated potatoes (solanum section petota: solanaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solanum tuberosum, the cultivated potato of world commerce, is a primary food crop worldwide. Wild and cultivated potatoes form the germplasm base for international breeding efforts to improve potato in the face of variety of disease, environmental, and agronomic constraints. A series of national an...

  4. Amylose content decreases during tuber development in potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato starch is composed of amylopectin and amylose in an approximately three to one ratio. Amylose is considered to be nutritionally desirable, so there is interest in finding strategies to increase the amylose content of potatoes. There is also interest in marketing “baby” potatoes, which are har...

  5. Supplemental irrigation and cultivar effects on potato tuber diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Supplemental irrigation can improve potato growth and tuber yield under deficit rainfall conditions, but may also impact potato tuber diseases. The comparative effects of irrigation on tuber disease incidence were quantified on four cultivars, in long-term potato cropping systems experiments. Surfac...

  6. 7 CFR 980.1 - Import regulations; Irish potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) Therefore it is hereby determined that: (i) Imports of red-skinned, round type potatoes during each month of...), applicable to potatoes of the red-skinned, round type shall be the respective grade, size, quality, and maturity requirements for all imported red-skinned, round type potatoes. (2) Through the entire year,...

  7. 7 CFR 980.1 - Import regulations; Irish potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) Therefore it is hereby determined that: (i) Imports of red-skinned, round type potatoes during each month of...), applicable to potatoes of the red-skinned, round type shall be the respective grade, size, quality, and maturity requirements for all imported red-skinned, round type potatoes. (2) Through the entire year,...

  8. 7 CFR 980.1 - Import regulations; Irish potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) Therefore it is hereby determined that: (i) Imports of red-skinned, round type potatoes during each month of...), applicable to potatoes of the red-skinned, round type shall be the respective grade, size, quality, and maturity requirements for all imported red-skinned, round type potatoes. (2) Through the entire year,...

  9. 7 CFR 980.1 - Import regulations; Irish potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) Therefore it is hereby determined that: (i) Imports of red-skinned, round type potatoes during each month of...), applicable to potatoes of the red-skinned, round type shall be the respective grade, size, quality, and maturity requirements for all imported red-skinned, round type potatoes. (2) Through the entire year,...

  10. INHERITANCE OF RESISTANCE TO FUSARIUM TUBER ROT IN POTATOES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    FUSARIUM TUBER ROT OF POTATO IS ONE OF THE MOST ECONOMICALLY IMPORTATNT DISEASES OF STORED POTATOES. THE OBJECTIVE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO DETERMINE THE INHERITANCE OF RESISTANCE TO FUSARIUM TUBER ROT. A HIGHLY RESISTANT (B0172-22) AND A HIGHLY SUSCEPTIBLE (B0178-34) POTATO CLONE WERE CROSSED AS FEMA...

  11. VOLUNTEER POTATO UPDATE FOR THE COLUMBIA BASIN 2002

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to forecast volunteer potato severity for the upcoming growing seasson, soil temperature at several depths and volunteer potato tuber viability is being monitored at three locations in the Columbia Basin potato growing region of Washington during the 2001-02 winter months. Minimum soil tem...

  12. Genomic origins of potato polyploids: GBSSI gene sequencing data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The common potato of world commerce, Solanum tuberosum, has a rich genepool of about 190 wild and cultivated species (Solanum section Petota) that are of great importance in potato improvement. About 70% of the wild potato species are diploid at 2n = 2x = 24, and the rest form a polyploid series of ...

  13. Zebra chip disease of potato: biology, epidemiology, and management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zebra chip (ZC), a new and economically important disease of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), has been documented to occur in commercial potato fields in the United States, Mexico, Central America, and New Zealand. This disease has caused millions of dollars in losses to the potato industry. Whole cro...

  14. 7 CFR 948.51 - Colorado Potato Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee. 948.51 Section 948.51... Order Regulating Handling Committees § 948.51 Colorado Potato Committee. The Colorado Potato Committee... selected from each area committee. Committeemen shall be selected by the Secretary from nominations of...

  15. 7 CFR 948.51 - Colorado Potato Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee. 948.51 Section 948.51... Order Regulating Handling Committees § 948.51 Colorado Potato Committee. The Colorado Potato Committee... selected from each area committee. Committeemen shall be selected by the Secretary from nominations of...

  16. Sensory evaluation of pigmented flesh potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pigmented potato cultivars were ranked by a consumer panel for overall acceptance, and acceptance of aroma, appear- ance, and flavor. Potatoes were analyzed for total phenolics, anthocyanins and carotenoids. Concentrations of total phenolics in yellow and purple potato cultivars were 2-fold greate...

  17. A POTATO A DAY KEEPS THE DOCTOR AWAY?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato tubers were found to have high levels of salicylic acid relative to most other plants. Salicylic acid is thought to be the active ingredient of aspirin in the human body. The high levels of SA in potato could potentially be a nutritionally desirable aspect of potato....

  18. Taxonomy of Cultivated Potatoes (Solanum section Petota: Solanaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solanum tuberosum, the cultivated potato of world commerce, is a primary food crop worldwide. Wild and cultivated potatoes form the germplasm base for international breeding efforts to improve potato in the face of variety of disease, environmental, and agronomic constraints. A series of national an...

  19. [Sensory evaluation of bread with potato flour].

    PubMed

    Gatts, V; Hiche, E; Ballester, D; Yez, E

    1983-03-01

    A sensory evaluation test was conducted in breads containing 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10% potato flour. The samples were sliced into equally sized pieces and served as coded randomized duplicates. All-wheat bread was used as a standard. The comparative preferences were rated on a 7-point hedonic scale (7 = very good, 1 = very bad) for appearance, flavor, texture and overall quality. The scores were statistically analyzed by the analysis of variance and the Chi square test. No significant differences were found in regard to flavor between the standard bread and bread containing from 2-10% potato flour. In the test of organoleptic quality, the bread containing 8% potato flour was rated as "good", as compared to "very good" for the all-wheat bread. However, this difference was not statistically significant. The values obtained in this study show that the incorporation of 6-8% potato flour in bread is perfectly feasible. This was obtained from a local food industry that in manufacturing the flour, used the Spartan variety potato produced in the southern region of Chile. PMID:6625832

  20. Memristors: Memory elements in potato tubers.

    PubMed

    Volkov, Alexander G; Nyasani, Eunice K; Blockmon, Avery L; Volkova, Maya I

    2015-01-01

    A memristor is a nonlinear element because its current-voltage characteristic is similar to that of a Lissajous pattern for nonlinear systems. This element was postulated recently and researchers are looking for it in different biosystems. We investigated electrical circuitry of red Irish potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L.). The goal was to discover if potato tubers might have a new electrical component - a resistor with memory. The analysis was based on a cyclic current-voltage characteristic where the resistor with memory should manifest itself. We found that the electrostimulation by bipolar sinusoidal or triangle periodic waves induces electrical responses in the potato tubers with fingerprints of memristors. Tetraethylammonium chloride, an inhibitor of voltage gated K(+) channels, transforms a memristor to a resistor in potato tubers. Our results demonstrate that a voltage gated K(+) channel in the excitable tissue of potato tubers has properties of a memristor. Uncoupler carbonylcyanide-4-trifluoromethoxy-phenyl hydrazone decreases the amplitude of electrical responses at low and high frequencies of bipolar periodic sinusoidal or triangle electrostimulating waves. The discovery of memristors in plants creates a new direction in the understanding of electrical phenomena in plants. PMID:26237427

  1. Potato virus Y infection hinders potato defence response and renders plants more vulnerable to Colorado potato beetle attack.

    PubMed

    Petek, Marko; Rotter, Ana; Kogovšek, Polona; Baebler, Spela; Mithöfer, Axel; Gruden, Kristina

    2014-11-01

    In the field, plants are challenged by more than one biotic stressor at the same time. In this study, the molecular interactions between potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say; CPB) and Potato virus Y(NTN) (PVY(NTN) ) were investigated through analyses of gene expression in the potato leaves and the gut of the CPB larvae, and of the release of potato volatile compounds. CPB larval growth was enhanced when reared on secondary PVY(NTN) -infected plants, which was linked to decreased accumulation of transcripts associated with the antinutritional properties of potato. In PVY(NTN) -infected plants, ethylene signalling pathway induction and induction of auxin response transcription factors were attenuated, while no differences were observed in jasmonic acid (JA) signalling pathway. Similarly to rearing on virus-infected plants, CPB larvae gained more weight when reared on plants silenced in JA receptor gene (coi1). Although herbivore-induced defence mechanism is regulated predominantly by JA, response in coi1-silenced plants only partially corresponded to the one observed in PVY(NTN) -infected plants, confirming the role of other plant hormones in modulating this response. The release of β-barbatene and benzyl alcohol was different in healthy and PVY(NTN) -infected plants before CPB larvae infestation, implicating the importance of PVY(NTN) infection in plant communication with its environment. This was reflected in gene expression profiles of neighbouring plants showing different degree of defence response. This study thus contributes to our understanding of plant responses in agro-ecosystems. PMID:25251011

  2. Integration of Two Diploid Potato Linkage Maps with the Potato Genome Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Felcher, Kimberly J.; Coombs, Joseph J.; Massa, Alicia N.; Hansey, Candice N.; Hamilton, John P.; Veilleux, Richard E.; Buell, C. Robin; Douches, David S.

    2012-01-01

    To facilitate genome-guided breeding in potato, we developed an 8303 Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) marker array using potato genome and transcriptome resources. To validate the Infinium 8303 Potato Array, we developed linkage maps from two diploid populations (DRH and D84) and compared these maps with the assembled potato genome sequence. Both populations used the doubled monoploid reference genotype DM1-3 516 R44 as the female parent but had different heterozygous diploid male parents (RH89-039-16 and 84SD22). Over 4,400 markers were mapped (1,960 in DRH and 2,454 in D84, 787 in common) resulting in map sizes of 965 (DRH) and 792 (D84) cM, covering 87% (DRH) and 88% (D84) of genome sequence length. Of the mapped markers, 33.5% were in candidate genes selected for the array, 4.5% were markers from existing genetic maps, and 61% were selected based on distribution across the genome. Markers with distorted segregation ratios occurred in blocks in both linkage maps, accounting for 4% (DRH) and 9% (D84) of mapped markers. Markers with distorted segregation ratios were unique to each population with blocks on chromosomes 9 and 12 in DRH and 3, 4, 6 and 8 in D84. Chromosome assignment of markers based on linkage mapping differed from sequence alignment with the Potato Genome Sequencing Consortium (PGSC) pseudomolecules for 1% of the mapped markers with some disconcordant markers attributable to paralogs. In total, 126 (DRH) and 226 (D84) mapped markers were not anchored to the pseudomolecules and provide new scaffold anchoring data to improve the potato genome assembly. The high degree of concordance between the linkage maps and the pseudomolecules demonstrates both the quality of the potato genome sequence and the functionality of the Infinium 8303 Potato Array. The broad genome coverage of the Infinium 8303 Potato Array compared to other marker sets will enable numerous downstream applications. PMID:22558443

  3. Involvement of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) MKK6 in Response to Potato virus Y

    PubMed Central

    Lazar, Ana; Coll, Anna; Dobnik, David; Baebler, Špela; Bedina-Zavec, Apolonija; Žel, Jana; Gruden, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades have crucial roles in the regulation of plant development and in plant responses to stress. Plant recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns or pathogen-derived effector proteins has been shown to trigger activation of several MAPKs. This then controls defence responses, including synthesis and/or signalling of defence hormones and activation of defence related genes. The MAPK cascade genes are highly complex and interconnected, and thus the precise signalling mechanisms in specific plant–pathogen interactions are still not known. Here we investigated the MAPK signalling network involved in immune responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) to Potato virus Y, an important potato pathogen worldwide. Sequence analysis was performed to identify the complete MAPK kinase (MKK) family in potato, and to identify those regulated in the hypersensitive resistance response to Potato virus Y infection. Arabidopsis has 10 MKK family members, of which we identified five in potato and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), and eight in Nicotiana benthamiana. Among these, StMKK6 is the most strongly regulated gene in response to Potato virus Y. The salicylic acid treatment revealed that StMKK6 is regulated by the hormone that is in agreement with the salicylic acid-regulated domains found in the StMKK6 promoter. The involvement of StMKK6 in potato defence response was confirmed by localisation studies, where StMKK6 accumulated strongly only in Potato-virus-Y-infected plants, and predominantly in the cell nucleus. Using a yeast two-hybrid method, we identified three StMKK6 targets downstream in the MAPK cascade: StMAPK4_2, StMAPK6 and StMAPK13. These data together provide further insight into the StMKK6 signalling module and its involvement in plant defence. PMID:25111695

  4. Molecular Characterization of two Potato Virus S Isolates from Late Blight Resistant Genotypes of Potato (Solanum tuberosum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato virus S (PVS) has a widespread distribution in the U.S. However, only two complete nucleotide sequences have been published. A recent survey of potato fields in the state of Washington confirms that PVS is widely prevalent. Late blight resistant (LBR) potato cultivars and genotypes were sho...

  5. Evidence of a monogenic nature of the Nz Gene conferring resistance against Potato virus Y Strain Z (PVYZ) in potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hypersensitive resistance (HR) to Potato virus Y (PVY) in potato (Solanum tuberosum) is conferred by strain-specific N genes. Two such genes have been identified in potato so far, Nytbr conferring HR to PVYo, and Nctbr conferring HR to PVYc. A third, putative gene Nztbr was proposed to confer HR aga...

  6. In vivo antioxidant, hypoglycemic, and anti-tumor activities of anthocyanin extracts from purple sweet potato

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jin-Ge; Yan, Qian-Qian; Lu, Li-Zhen

    2013-01-01

    Anthocyanin from purple sweet potato (PSP) extracted by microwave baking (MB) and acidified electrolyzed water (AEW) exhibited antioxidant activity. After further purification by macroporous AB-8 resin, the color value of PSP anthocyanin (PSPA) reached 30.15 with a total flavonoid concentration of 932.5 mg/g. The purified extracts had more potent antioxidant activities than the crude extracts. After continuously administering the PSP extracts to 12-mo-old mice for 1 mo, the anti-aging index of the experimental group was not significantly different from that of 5-mo-old mice. To a certain degree, PSPA was also effective for controlling plasma glucose levels in male Streptozocin (STZ)-treated diabetic mice. In addition, the extracts inhibited Sarcoma S180 cell growth in ICR mice. Mice consuming the PSP extracts formed significantly fewer and smaller sarcomas than mice consuming the control diets. The highest inhibition rate was 69.03%. These results suggest that anthocyanin extracts from PSP not only exert strong antioxidant effects in vitro, but also had anti-aging, anti-hyperglycemic, and anti-tumor activities. PMID:24133614

  7. Protein synthesis inhibitor from potato tuber

    SciTech Connect

    Romaen, R. )

    1989-04-01

    A protein fraction capable of inhibit in vitro protein synthesis was found in potato tubers in fresh and wounded tissue. Inhibitor activity from fresh tissue decays with wounding. Inhibition activity was detected absorbed to ribsomal fraction and cytosol of potato tuber tissue by a partially reconstituted in vitro system from potato tuber and wheat germ. Adsorbed ribosomal fraction was more suitable of purification. This fraction was washed from ribosomes with 0.3M KCl, concentrated with ammonium sulfate precipitation and purified through sephadex G100 and sephadex G-75 columns chromatography. After 61 fold purification adsorbed protein fraction can inhibit germination of maize, wheat and sesame seeds, as well as {sup 3}H-leucine incorporation into protein by imbibed maize embryos. Inhibition activity was lost by temperature, alkali and protease-K hydrolysis. Preliminar analysis could not show presence of reductor sugars. Physiological role of this inhibitor in relation to rest and active tissue remains to be studied.

  8. [Nutritional characteristics of cereal and peanut bars].

    PubMed

    Escobar, B; Estvez, A M; Tepper, A; Aguayo, M

    1998-06-01

    Snack with good nutritional value could play an important role in the physical and mental development of children and teenagers since they show a great preference for them. The tendency is increasing their nutritional value by supplying proteins, carbohydrates, fiber, vitamins and minerals in a balanced form. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the chemical, sensorial and nutritional quality of cereal and peanut bars. Three types of bars using different ratios of oat, wheat germ, peanut, toasted and expanded amaranthus and wheat extrudate were prepared. Bars proximate composition was determined according the AOAC methods, and their acceptability according Hedonic Scale. In the biological assays, rats fed with 10% protein diets, were used to obtain the Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) Net Protein Ratio (NPR) and Apparent Digestibility (AD). Corrected PER, relative PER, relative AD, PER and NPR values did not showed difference between bars CM1 and CM2 (PER: 2.59-2.57; NPR: 3.99-3.95 respectively); CM3 bar showed a lower quality. There were not differences among bars in relation to AD. CM1 and CM2 bars had a better biological quality of the protein being CM3 bar of lower quality. From a chemical and sensorial point of view CM1 bar shows the highest protein content (14.23%) and acceptability (6.8) and CM2 bar shows a high raw fiber content (2.27%). PMID:9830492

  9. Effect of peeling and three cooking methods on the content of selected phytochemicals in potato tubers with various colour of flesh.

    PubMed

    Lachman, Jaromr; Hamouz, Karel; Musilov, Janette; Hejtmnkov, Kate?ina; Kotkov, Zora; Pazder?, Kate?ina; Domk?ov, Jaroslava; Pivec, Vladimr; Cimr, Ji?

    2013-06-01

    The impact of peeling and three cooking treatments (boiling, baking and microwaving) on the content of selected phytochemicals in white-, yellow-, red- and purple-fleshed potatoes was investigated. Ascorbic acid and chlorogenic acid contents were determined by HPLC-DAD, total anthocyanin content by pH-differential spectrophotometry, glycoalkaloid, ?-chaconine and ?-solanine contents by HPLC-ESI/MS/MS. All cooking treatments reduced ascorbic and chlorogenic acid contents, total glycoalkaloids, ?-chaconine and ?-solanine with the exception of total anthocyanins. The losses of ascorbic and chlorogenic acids were minimised with boiling and total anthocyanin levels retained the highest. Boiling of peeled tubers decreased contents of total glycoalkaloids (?-chaconine and ?-solanine) and appeared as the most favourable among the three tested methods. Moreover, due to higher initial levels, red- and purple-fleshed cultivars retained higher amounts of antioxidants (ascorbic acid, chlorogenic acid and total anthocyanin) after boiling and may be healthier as compared with white or yellow cultivars. PMID:23411230

  10. Structure, processing, and properties of potatoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, Isabel K.; Kolos, Kimberly R.; Menegaux, Edmond C.; Luo, Huy; McCuen, Richard H.; Regan, Thomas M.

    1992-06-01

    The objective of this experiment and lesson intended for high school students in an engineering or materials science course or college freshmen is to demonstrate the relation between processing, structure, and thermodynamic and physical properties. The specific objectives are to show the effect of structure and structural changes on thermodynamic properties (specific heat) and physical properties (compressive strength); to illustrate the first law of thermodynamics; to compare boiling a potato in water with cooking it in a microwave in terms of the rate of structural change and the energy consumed to 'process' the potato; and to demonstrate compression testing.

  11. Structure, processing, and properties of potatoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lloyd, Isabel K.; Kolos, Kimberly R.; Menegaux, Edmond C.; Luo, Huy; Mccuen, Richard H.; Regan, Thomas M.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this experiment and lesson intended for high school students in an engineering or materials science course or college freshmen is to demonstrate the relation between processing, structure, and thermodynamic and physical properties. The specific objectives are to show the effect of structure and structural changes on thermodynamic properties (specific heat) and physical properties (compressive strength); to illustrate the first law of thermodynamics; to compare boiling a potato in water with cooking it in a microwave in terms of the rate of structural change and the energy consumed to 'process' the potato; and to demonstrate compression testing.

  12. Growth of Staphylococcus aureus in Cooked Potato and Potato Salad-A One-Step Kinetic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lihan

    2015-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive spherically-shaped bacterium capable of producing heat-stable enterotoxins that cause acute gastrointestinal diseases. The growth of this pathogen in food is a major threat to public health worldwide. Potato salad is a frequent vehicle for infection and food poisoning caused by S. aureus. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the growth kinetics of S. aureus in cooked potato and potato salad. Samples of potato cubes and potato salad inoculated with S. aureus were incubated at temperatures between 8 and 43 C to observe its growth for developing growth models. No growth was observed at 8 C. The experimental results showed that the growth curves did not exhibit lag phases, and can be described by a 3-parameter logistic model. A one-step kinetic analysis approach was used to simultaneously analyze all growth curves by direct construction of both the primary and secondary (Ratkowsky square root) models using nonlinear regression to minimize the global residual error. The estimated nominal minimum growth temperature of S. aureus was 6.12 C in potato cubes and 8.80 C in potato salad. The estimated maximum growth temperatures of S. aureus in potato cubes and potato salad were very close to each other (46.3 and 46.8 C, respectively). On the average, the specific growth rates of S. aureus in potato cubes were approximately 70% higher than those in potato salad. This study suggests that cooked potato and potato salad should be stored below 6 C or above 47 C to prevent the growth of S. aureus. The mathematical models and kinetic parameters can be used to accurately evaluate the effect of temperature abuse on the growth of S. aureus and conduct risk assessments of S. aureus in cooked potato and potato salad. PMID:26539902

  13. Exploration of Sugar Functionality in Sugar-Snap and Wire-Cut Cookie Baking: Implications for Sucrose Reduction or Replacement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugars are plasticizers of the biopolymers of wheat flour, but concentrated sugar solutions act as anti-plasticizers, compared to water alone. As a result, gluten development during dough mixing and starch gelatinization/pasting during cookie baking are delayed or prevented. In great excess, aqueou...

  14. Baking Industry. Grade 2. One in a Series of Career Development Curriculum Units for the Elementary Classroom. (Second Edition).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barret, Jennifer; And Others

    Focusing on the occupational clusters of natural resources and manufacturing, this unit entitled "Baking Industry" is one of four grade 2 units which are part of a total set of twenty-seven career development curriculum units for grades K-6. This unit is organized into four sections. Section 1 identifies one career development-centered curriculum…

  15. Thermal stability and kinetics of degradation of deoxynivalenol, deoxynivalenol conjugates and ochratoxin A during baking of wheat bakery products.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Arnau; Sanchis, Vicente; Ramos, Antonio J; Marín, Sonia

    2015-07-01

    The stability of deoxynivalenol (DON), deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (DON-3-glucoside), 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON), de-epoxy-deoxynivalenol (DOM-1) and ochratoxin A (OTA) during thermal processing has been studied. Baking temperature, time and initial mycotoxin concentration in the raw materials were assayed as factors. An improved UPLC-MS/MS method to detect DON, DON-3-glucoside, 3-ADON, 15-ADON and DOM-1 in wheat baked products was developed in the present assay. The results highlighted the importance of temperature and time in mycotoxin stability in heat treatments. OTA is more stable than DON in a baking treatment. Interestingly, the DON-3-glucoside concentrations increased (>300%) under mild baking conditions. On the other hand, it was rapidly reduced under harsh conditions. The 3-ADON decreased during the heat treatment; while DOM-1 increased after the heating process. Finally, the data followed first order kinetics for analysed mycotoxins and thermal constant rates (k) were calculated. This parameter can be a useful tool for prediction of mycotoxin levels. PMID:25704712

  16. Development of a benchtop baking method for chemically leavened crackers. I. Identification of a diagnostic formula and procedure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A benchtop baking method has been developed to predict the contribution of gluten functionality to overall flour performance for chemically leavened crackers. In order to identify a diagnostic cracker formula, the effects of leavening system (sodium bicarbonate, monocalcium phosphate, and ammonium b...

  17. Analysis of thin baked-on silicone layers by FTIR and 3D-Laser Scanning Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Funke, Stefanie; Matilainen, Julia; Nalenz, Heiko; Bechtold-Peters, Karoline; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Friess, Wolfgang

    2015-10-01

    Pre-filled syringes (PFS) and auto-injection devices with cartridges are increasingly used for parenteral administration. To assure functionality, silicone oil is applied to the inner surface of the glass barrel. Silicone oil migration into the product can be minimized by applying a thin but sufficient layer of silicone oil emulsion followed by thermal bake-on versus spraying-on silicone oil. Silicone layers thicker than 100nm resulting from regular spray-on siliconization can be characterized using interferometric profilometers. However, the analysis of thin silicone layers generated by bake-on siliconization is more challenging. In this paper, we have evaluated Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy after solvent extraction and a new 3D-Laser Scanning Microscopy (3D-LSM) to overcome this challenge. A multi-step solvent extraction and subsequent FTIR spectroscopy enabled to quantify baked-on silicone levels as low as 21-325?g per 5mL cartridge. 3D-LSM was successfully established to visualize and measure baked-on silicone layers as thin as 10nm. 3D-LSM was additionally used to analyze the silicone oil distribution within cartridges at such low levels. Both methods provided new, highly valuable insights to characterize the siliconization after processing, in order to achieve functionality. PMID:26316044

  18. Collaborative Study on updated Method 10-52: Baking Quality of Cookie Flour - Micro Method (Sugar-Snap Cookie)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The American Association of Cereal Chemists International (AACCI) was established in 1915 to bring consistency and order to the many methods of assessing wheat end-use quality. Over the years, many methods have been approved by the AACCI. One such method is the Baking Quality of Cookie Flour - Micro...

  19. Anesthetic management of a patient with sustained severe metabolic alkalosis and electrolyte abnormalities caused by ingestion of baking soda.

    PubMed

    Soliz, Jose; Lim, Jeffrey; Zheng, Gang

    2014-01-01

    The use of alternative medicine is prevalent worldwide. However, its effect on intraoperative anesthetic care is underreported. We report the anesthetic management of a patient who underwent an extensive head and neck cancer surgery and presented with a severe intraoperative metabolic alkalosis from the long term ingestion of baking soda and other herbal remedies. PMID:25180100

  20. BREAD BAKING DOES NOT ALTER THE BIOAVAILABILITY OF HYDROGEN-REDUCED IRON POWDER ADDED TO REFINED WHEAT FLOUR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elemental iron powders are widely used to fortify flour and cereal products. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that baking enhances the bioavailability of elemental iron powders by oxidizing Fe0 to Fe2+ or Fe3+. In the present study we used an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell culture model an...

  1. Improvement of fermentation ability under baking-associated stress conditions by altering the POG1 gene expression in baker's yeast.

    PubMed

    Sasano, Yu; Haitani, Yutaka; Hashida, Keisuke; Oshiro, Satoshi; Shima, Jun; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2013-08-01

    During the bread-making process, yeast cells are exposed to many types of baking-associated stress. There is thus a demand within the baking industry for yeast strains with high fermentation abilities under these stress conditions. The POG1 gene, encoding a putative transcription factor involved in cell cycle regulation, is a multicopy suppressor of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae E3 ubiquitin ligase Rsp5 mutant. The pog1 mutant is sensitive to various stresses. Our results suggested that the POG1 gene is involved in stress tolerance in yeast cells. In this study, we showed that overexpression of the POG1 gene in baker's yeast conferred increased fermentation ability in high-sucrose-containing dough, which is used for sweet dough baking. Furthermore, deletion of the POG1 gene drastically increased the fermentation ability in bread dough after freeze-thaw stress, which would be a useful characteristic for frozen dough baking. Thus, the engineering of yeast strains to control the POG1 gene expression level would be a novel method for molecular breeding of baker's yeast. PMID:23800735

  2. Anesthetic Management of a Patient with Sustained Severe Metabolic Alkalosis and Electrolyte Abnormalities Caused by Ingestion of Baking Soda

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    The use of alternative medicine is prevalent worldwide. However, its effect on intraoperative anesthetic care is underreported. We report the anesthetic management of a patient who underwent an extensive head and neck cancer surgery and presented with a severe intraoperative metabolic alkalosis from the long term ingestion of baking soda and other herbal remedies. PMID:25180100

  3. Baking quality, sensory properties and shelf life of bread with polyols.

    PubMed

    Bhise, Suresh; Kaur, A

    2014-09-01

    The polyols namely glycerol, sorbitol and mannitol were incorporated at 2, 4 and 6% level in flour for bread making and their effect on textural properties, bread making quality and sensory acceptability of bread was studied. The effect of incorporation revealed the increased bake absorption, bread weight and decreased specific volume. The overall acceptability scores were maximum for bread prepared with glycerol at 2% level, followed by sorbitol at 4% level and mannitol at 4% level. During storage of packed bread, moisture content and water activity were higher for bread prepared from polyols as compared to control and it was observed that moisture content was higher in bread packed in Polypropylene. Formation of free fatty acid content (% oleic acid) was observed to be higher in the breads stored at ambient condition and packed in Low density polyethylene packaging material. The overall acceptability of bread decreased with the increased storage period. PMID:25190863

  4. Strong Meissner screening change in superconducting radio frequency cavities due to mild baking

    SciTech Connect

    Romanenko, A. Grassellino, A.; Barkov, F.; Suter, A.; Salman, Z.; Prokscha, T.

    2014-02-17

    We investigate “hot” regions with anomalous high field dissipation in bulk niobium superconducting radio frequency cavities for particle accelerators by using low energy muon spin rotation (LE-μSR) on corresponding cavity cutouts. We demonstrate that superconducting properties at the hot region are well described by the non-local Pippard/BCS model for niobium in the clean limit with a London penetration depth λ{sub L}=23±2 nm. In contrast, a cutout sample from the 120 ∘C baked cavity shows a much larger λ>100 nm and a depth dependent mean free path, likely due to gradient in vacancy concentration. We suggest that these vacancies can efficiently trap hydrogen and hence prevent the formation of hydrides responsible for rf losses in hot regions.

  5. Numerical simulation of the baking of porous anode carbon in a vertical flue ring furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobsen, M.; Melaaen, M.C.

    1998-11-13

    The interaction of pitch pyrolysis in porous anode carbon during heating and volatiles combustion in the flue gas channel has been analyzed to gain insight in the anode baking process. A two-dimensional geometry of a flue gas channel adjacent to a porous flue gas wall, packing coke, and an anode was used for studying the effect of heating rate on temperature gradients and internal gas pressure in the anodes. The mathematical model included porous heat and mass transfer, pitch pyrolysis, combustion of volatiles, radiation, and turbulent channel flow. The mathematical model was developed through source code modification of the computational fluid dynamics code FLUENT. The model was useful for studying the effects of heating rate, geometry, and anode properties.

  6. Formation of melatonin and its isomer during bread dough fermentation and effect of baking.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Cemile; Kocadağlı, Tolgahan; Gökmen, Vural

    2014-04-01

    Melatonin is produced mainly by the pineal gland in vertebrates. Also, melatonin and its isomer are found in foods. Investigating the formation of melatonin and its isomer is of importance during bread dough fermentation and its degradation during baking since bread is widely consumed in high amounts. Formation of melatonin was not significant during dough fermentation. The melatonin isomer content of nonfermented dough was found to be 4.02 ng/g and increased up to 16.71 ng/g during fermentation. Lower amounts of isomer in crumb and crust than dough showed that the thermal process caused a remarkable degree of degradation in melatonin isomer. At the end of the 180 min fermentation Trp decreased by 58%. The results revealed for the first time the formation of a melatonin isomer in bread dough during yeast fermentation. PMID:24611648

  7. Application of flash-lamp post-exposure baking for EUV resist processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneyama, Koji; Itani, Toshiro

    2011-04-01

    The reduction of linewidth roughness (LWR) is considered one of the most critical issues in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) photoresists. A possible solution to the LWR issue is shortening the acid-diffusion length of the photoacid via the optimized application of post-exposure bake (PEB) processes. In this study, the development and feasibility of the flash-lamp (FL) PEB process as a replacement for the commonly used hot-plate PEB process is investigated. The results indicate that, using the FL PEB process, the acid-diffusion length is controllable and lithographic patterning results are obtained. Further detailed analysis is necessary to optimize this technology for lithographic patterning applications. However, the present results show the potential of FL PEB for applications in EUV photoresist processing.

  8. A heater plate assisted integrated bake/chill system for photoresist processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chua, Hui-Tong; Tay, Arthur; Wang, Yuheng; Wu, Xiaodong

    2007-03-01

    A thermal processing module, which consists of a dense distribution of multivariate controlled heat/chill elements, is developed to achieve temperature uniformity of a silicon wafer throughout the processing temperature cycle of ramp, hold and quench in microlithography. In the proposed unit, the bake and chill steps are conducted sequentially within the same module without any substrate movement. The unit includes two heating sources. The first is a mica heater which serves as the dominant means for heat transfer. The second is a set of thermoelectric devices (TEDs) which are used to provide a distributed amount of heat to the substrate for uniformity and transient temperature control. The TEDs also provide active cooling for chilling the substrate to a temperature suitable for subsequent processing steps. The feasibility of a practical system is demonstrated via detailed modeling and simulations based on first principle heat transfer analysis.

  9. Value assignment of nutrient concentrations in standard reference material 2384 baking chocolate.

    PubMed

    Sharpless, Katherine E; Brown Thomas, Jeanice; Nelson, Bryant C; Phinney, Curtis S; Sieber, John R; Wood, Laura J; Yen, James H; Howell, Daniel W

    2002-11-20

    Standard Reference Material (SRM) Baking Chocolate was recently issued, and the process used for value assignment of nutrient concentrations is reported herein. SRM 2384 is intended for use as a primary control material for assigning values to in-house control materials and for validation of analytical methods for the measurement of fatty acids, proximates, vitamins, and elements in chocolate and similar high-fat matrices. The Certificate of Analysis for SRM 2384 provides assigned values for concentrations of fatty acids, proximates, vitamins, elements, and total dietary fiber, for which product labeling is required by the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990, as well as for catechins, caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline. These assigned values were based on measurements by NIST and/or collaborating laboratories. PMID:12428961

  10. Properties of baked foams from citric acid modified cassava starch and native cassava starch blends.

    PubMed

    Pornsuksomboon, Kanlaya; Holló, Berta Barta; Szécsényi, Katalin Mészáros; Kaewtatip, Kaewta

    2016-01-20

    Starch foams from native cassava starch (NS) and citric acid modified cassava starch (CNS) were prepared using baking processes with blend ratios of 80/20, 60/40, 50/50, 40/60 and 20/80. The density, thickness, morphology, thermal stability and water absorption of the NS, CNS and blended starch foams were determined. The ratio of the two starch components had a significant influence on the density and thickness of the blended starch foams. All blended starch foams showed good water resistance. Moreover, the morphology of the blended starch foam with the NS/CNS ratio of 50/50 showed a more ordered distribution of cell sizes with thicker cell walls than for the NS and CNS foams. The thermal stability of the blended starch foams was somewhat lower than the stability of the NS foam but not to the extent that it affected any potential practical applications. PMID:26572335

  11. Acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural formation during baking of biscuits: Part I: Effects of sugar type.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Ha T; Van der Fels-Klerx, H J Ine; Peters, Ruud J B; Van Boekel, Martinus A J S

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of sugar type on the reaction mechanism for formation of acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) during the baking of biscuits at 200°C using multiresponse modelling. Four types of biscuits were prepared: (1) with sucrose, (2) with glucose and fructose, (3) with fructose only and (4) with glucose only. Experimental data showed that HMF concentration was highest in biscuits with glucose and fructose, whereas acrylamide concentration was highest in biscuits with glucose, also having the highest asparagine concentration. Proposed mechanistic models suggested that HMF is formed via caramelisation and that acrylamide formation follows the specific amino acid route, i.e., reducing sugars react with asparagine to form the Schiff base before decarboxylation, to generate acrylamide without the Amadori rearrangement product and sugar fragmentation. Study results contribute to understanding chemical reaction pathways in real food products. PMID:26304386

  12. The potential of genetic engineering for improving brewing, wine-making and baking yeasts.

    PubMed

    Dequin, S

    2001-09-01

    The end of the twentieth century was marked by major advances in life technology, particularly in areas related to genetics and more recently genomics. Considerable progress was made in the development of genetically improved yeast strains for the wine, brewing and baking industries. In the last decade, recombinant DNA technology widened the possibilities for introducing new properties. The most remarkable advances, which are discussed in this Mini-Review, are improved process performance, off-flavor elimination, increased formation of by-products, improved hygienic properties or extension of substrate utilization. Although the introduction of this technology into traditional industries is currently limited by public perception, the number of potential applications of genetically modified industrial yeast is likely to increase in the coming years, as our knowledge derived from genomic analyses increases. PMID:11601604

  13. Development of baked and extruded functional foods from metabolic syndrome specific ingredient mix.

    PubMed

    Miglani, Neetu; Bains, Kiran; Kaur, Harpreet

    2015-09-01

    The study was aimed to develop baked and extruded functional foods from Metabolic Syndrome (MS) specific designed ingredient mixes with optimum amino acid makeup using key food ingredients with functional properties such as whole cereals, legumes, skimmed milk powder, along with flaxseeds and fenugreek seeds. Two cereals viz. barley and oats and four pulses viz. mung bean, cowpea, bengal gram and soybean were blended in different proportions in order to balance the limiting amino acid lysine in the wheat flour. Three products namely bread, extruded snack and noodles prepared from twenty five ingredient mixes. Six ingredient mixes of breads and four ingredient mixes each of extruded snack and noodles specifically designed for MS patients were organoleptically at par with control wheat flour products. The acceptable products had significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher lysine, crude protein, ash and fibre and low carbohydrates in compare control whole wheat flour products, hence appropriate for MS patients. PMID:26345000

  14. Effect of tuber skin on the thermal properties of whole tubers of potato and sweet potato

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oluwo, A. A.; Khan, R. M.; Salami, M. J. E.

    2013-12-01

    Temperature-dependent thermal coefficients of mathematical models of the postharvest storage process play an important role in determining the models accuracy. Thermal properties of tubers under storage available in literature are generally of those in semi processed form (skinless) such as those having undergone peeling, dicing and cutting actions. This study investigates the effect of tuber skin on the thermal properties of whole tubers of potato and sweet potato. A direct approach was used to measure the tubers' density and thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity by the transient heat transfer method. Indirect approach was used to measure the tubers' specific heat. Experimental data were used to develop empirical models of the thermal coefficients as a function of temperature. Results of the study should find great use in the modeling of potato and sweet potato storage process.

  15. Boric Acid Reclamation System (BARS)

    SciTech Connect

    Kniazewycz, B.G.; Markind, J.

    1986-03-01

    KLM Technologies' personnel have identified a Boric Acid Reclamation System (BARS) utilizing reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration to produce a recyclable grade of otherwise waste boric acid at PWRs, thus reducing a major source of low-level radwaste. The design of a prototype BARS as a compact volume reduction system was the result of KLM's Phase 1 Program, and based upon a preliminary feasibility program, which assessed the applicability of membrane technology to refurbish and recycle waste boric acid from floor and equipment drain streams. The analysis of the overall program indicated a substantial savings regarding off-site disposal costs. Today's economic scenario indicates that optimization of volume reduction operation procedures could significantly reduce waste management costs, especially where burial penalties have become more severe. As a reaction to the economic burden imposed by final disposal, many nuclear plants are currently modifying their design and operating philosophies concerning liquid radwaste processing systems to meet stricter environmental regulations, and to derive potential economic benefits by reducing the ever-increasing volumes of wastes that are produced. To effect these changes, innovative practices in waste management and more efficient processing technologies are being successfully implemented.

  16. Identification and characterization of yeasts causing chalk mould defects on par-baked bread.

    PubMed

    Deschuyffeleer, N; Audenaert, K; Samapundo, S; Ameye, S; Eeckhout, M; Devlieghere, F

    2011-08-01

    Pichia anomala, Hyphopichia burtonii and Saccharomycopsis fibuligera are spoilage yeasts causing chalk mould defects on par-baked breads packaged under modified atmosphere. The first objective of this study was to identify yeasts isolated from spoiled par-baked breads by means of a RAPD protocol and to determine the dominant spoilers amongst identified strains. The second objective was to determine the effects of water activity (a(w)) and pH value on the growth rates and lag phase durations of P. anomala, H. burtonii and S. fibuligera. 95% of the yeasts tested were identified as P. anomala and 5% as S. fibuligera, H. burtonii was not detected. In order to investigate the effect of a(w) and pH the growth of the three yeasts was tested within an a(w) range of 0.88-0.98 and a pH range of 2.8-8.0. P. anomala was able to grow from pH 2.8 to 8 without a clear optimum. S. fibuligera and H. burtonii showed a pH optimum for growth of 5. The optimum water activity for growth was different for the three strains and varied between 0.96 and 0.98. These growth data were further used to develop secondary models that describe the relationship between a(w) and the radial or colony growth rate (g, mm/d) or the lag phase duration (?, d). The identification of the spoilage organisms and a good understanding of the effects of a(w) and pH on the growth behavior is essential for future development of adequate conservation strategies against chalk mould defects. PMID:21569947

  17. Multi-disciplinary dating of a baked clay kiln excavated at Chieri, Northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tema, Evdokia; Fantino, Fulvio; Ferrara, Enzo; Lo Giudice, Alessandro; Re, Alessandro; Barello, Federico; Vella, Silvia; Cirillo, Luigi; Gulmini, Monica

    2014-05-01

    A combined archaeological, archaeomagnetic and thermoluminescence study has been carried out on a rescue excavation kiln, discovered at Chieri, Northern Italy. Rock magnetic experiments indicate the dominance of a low coercivity magnetic phase, such as magnetite and/or Ti-magnetite as the main carrier of the remanent magnetization. Stepwise thermal demagnetization experiments generally show a stable characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM). The mean archaeomagnetic direction, calculated from 17 independently oriented samples, is D=18.2o, I=66.8o with ?95=2.6o and k=184. Archaeomagnetic dating of the kiln has been obtained after comparison of the kiln's ChRM direction with the reference curves produced by the SHA.DIF.3K European regional geomagnetic field model. Independent dating of the kiln has also been obtained from thermoluminescence (TL) study of two baked clay samples coming from the kiln's walls. The environmental dose has been measured in situ using field dosimeters. Accurate TL procedures have been followed for the calculation of annual dose and eventually the TL age. The combination of the archaeological evidence, archaeomagnetic and TL datings suggest that the last usage of the kiln occurred around the 17th century AD. Comparison of the results obtained from the different methods shows the relevant potential of these techniques on dating of baked clay artefacts; yet it also highlights the range of uncertainty sources affecting measurements, related to the samples and/or to the environment, and the utility of dating cross-checking for obtaining reliable dates.

  18. Field and storage testing Bt potatoes for resistance to potato tuberworm (Lepidoptera: Gelichiidae).

    PubMed

    Douches, D S; Pett, W; Santos, F; Coombs, J; Grafius, E; Li, W; Metry, E A; el-Din, T Nasr; Madkour, M

    2004-08-01

    Potato tuberworm, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller), is the most serious insect pest of potatoes worldwide. The introduction of the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin gene through genetic engineering offers host plant resistance for the management of potato tuberworm. We report on the field and storage studies to evaluate Bt-cry5 potato lines for resistance to potato tuberworm in Egypt under natural infestations and their agronomic performance in both Egypt and Michigan. From 1997 to 2001, field experiments were conducted at the International Potato Center (CIP) Research Station, Kafr El-Zyat, Egypt, and/or Agricultural Genetic Engineering Institute (AGERI), Giza, Egypt, to evaluate resistance to tuberworm. A total of 27 Bt-transgenic potato lines from six different Bt constructs were evaluated over a 5-yr period. After harvest and evaluation of the agronomic trials, storage evaluation of potato tuberworm damage was done at the CIP Research Station. The 1997 field trial was the first field test of genetically engineered crops in Egypt. Field tests to assess potato tuberworm resistance in Egypt were able to differentiate between the Bt-transgenic lines and the nontransgenic lines/cultivars in 1999, 2000, and 2001. The Bt-cry5-Spunta lines (Spunta-G2, Spunta-G3, and Spunta-6a3) were the most resistant lines in field with 99-100% of tubers free of damage. In the 2001 storage study, these lines were also over 90% free of tuberworm damage after 3 mo. NYL235-4.13, which combines glandular trichomes with the Bt-cry5/gus fusion construct, also had a high percentage of clean tubers in the field studies. In agronomic field trials in Michigan from 1997 to 2001, the Bt-transgenic lines in most instances performed similar to the nontransgenic line in the agronomic trials; however, in Egypt (1998-1999), the yields were less than one-half of those in Michigan. Expression of the Bt-cry5 gene in the potato tuber and foliage will provide the seed producer and grower a tool in which to reduce potato tuberworm damage to the tuber crop in the field and storage. PMID:15384356

  19. Cholesterol-lowering effects and utilization of protein, lipid, fiber and energy in rats fed unprocessed and baked oat bran.

    PubMed

    De Schrijver, R; Fremaut, D; Verheyen, A

    1992-06-01

    The effects of the addition of 15% or 30% non-heated oat bran or 30% baked oat bran to a purified diet on apparent digestibility of dry matter, protein, lipid and fiber were measured in balance experiments with male Wistar rats. The effects of oat bran on dietary metabolizable energy, fecal bulking capacity and transit time of the ingested food were also studied. Heat processing of oat bran occurred in conditions of moisture and temperature similar to those of bread baking. Compared with the unprocessed oat bran, the baked product had a higher content of insoluble fiber, mainly due to higher Klason lignin content and a shift from soluble to insoluble beta-glucans. Relative to the fiber-free control diet, feeding the oat bran diets increased wet and dry fecal weight and decreased the transit time of the food. Fecal bulking capacity increased proportionally with oat fiber intake. Metabolizable energy of the diets, as well as apparent digestibility of dry matter and protein decreased with oat bran supplementation; on the other hand, lipid digestibility was not significantly changed. Baking of oat brain resulted in no statistically significant effects on dietary metabolizable energy or apparent digestibility of dry matter, protein, lipid and fiber. The measured metabolizable energy of oat bran ranged between 12.7 and 13.2 MJ/kg. Total plasma cholesterol concentration diminished with oat brain intake; non-heated and baked oat bran had comparable effects on plasma cholesterol. An inverse linear relationship (r = -0.80, P less than 0.1) was found between plasma cholesterol concentration and fecal excretion of bile acids. PMID:1316958

  20. 7 CFR 318.13-24 - Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) The sweet potatoes must be inspected by an inspector and found to be free of the sweet potato scarabee... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico. 318.13-24 Section 318... Articles From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-24 Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico. Sweet potatoes...