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1

Changes in sugar composition during baking and their effects on sensory attributes of baked sweet potatoes.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of sugar composition on the sensory attributes of seven baked sweet potatoes. The sugar composition was analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography. Results showed that the total sugar content of baked sweet potatoes increased significantly because of the formation of maltose. The maltose content dramatically increased after baking, and became the major sugar component of baked sweet potatoes. On the other hand, baked sweet potatoes were evaluated on a 7-point hedonic scale for sensory analysis. Overall acceptability results showed that the panelists preferred baked CYY95-26 and TNG66 over the other baked varieties. Because the correlation between overall acceptability and sweetness was the highest (r?=?0.69, p?baked sweet potatoes. Although sugar composition changed on baking, the overall acceptability of baked sweet potatoes was highly associated with the sucrose content. PMID:25477683

Chan, Chin-Feng; Chiang, Chih-Ming; Lai, Yung-Chang; Huang, Che-Lun; Kao, Shu-Chen; Liao, Wayne C

2014-12-01

2

Genotypic and environmental contributions to baked potato flavor  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study was carried out to determine the relative contributions of genotype and environment to baked potato flavor variation in standard potato cultivars. In addition, relationships between individual flavor components and overall acceptability scores were determined. The study was carried out ...

3

Baked Potato Primavera Ingredients  

E-print Network

nonfat sour cream 1/2 teaspoon dried oregano 1/2 teaspoon dried basil Black pepper to taste Directions 1. While vegetables are cooking, mix the sour cream with the herbs and pepper. Set aside. 4. Split

Liskiewicz, Maciej

4

Modern Baking  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Baking is an art, a science, and a field that many people (especially young students) wish to learn more about. Visitors to this site can learn about the hands-on details of baking, along with gaining insights into business trends within the baking world. Modern Baking contains classified ads for those bakers looking to pick up some new equipment (or a new job), and a section of up-to-date industry news as well. The content is divided into eight sections: Formulas & Techniques, Cake Decorating, Supermarket Baking, Retail Baking, Specialty Wholesale Baking, Foodservice Baking, Bread & Pastry, and Bakery Management. Visitors would do well to try the formula in the Formulas & Techniques section for chestnut and cognac brioche, as it brings together two flavors that are truly divine.

5

B: Pancakes, Turkey Baked Apples, Milk  

E-print Network

, Sweet Potato Fries, Mixed Fruit, Milk S: Goldfish B: Egg Omelet Bread, Oranges, Milk L: Hamburger, Baked: Goldfish B: Cereal, Toast, Bananas, Milk L: Fish Shapes, Corn, Pears, Bread, Milk S: Animal Crackers B

O'Toole, Alice J.

6

Potato Flavor  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The potato is one of the most popular vegetables worldwide and is the most important vegetable crop in the United States, accounting for nearly one-third of per-capita vegetable consumption. Potatoes can be prepared in many ways, including baking, boiling, roasting, frying, and microwaving, allowin...

7

Baking Soda Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the basic principles of baking soda chemistry including the chemical composition of baking soda, its acid-base properties, the reaction of bicarbonate solution with calcium ions, and a description of some general types of chemical reactions. Includes a science activity that involves removing calcium ions from water. (LZ)

Science Activities, 1994

1994-01-01

8

Vinegar and baking soda  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Vinegar is an acid. An acid has a pH less than 7. When baking soda is added to vinegar, bubbles are produced and gas is released. Fizzing, bubbling, and change in smell are all evidence of a chemical reaction. The amount of gas produced using baking soda as an indicator tells you the relative concentration of the acid.

N/A N/A (None; )

2008-03-09

9

Baking in the Backwoods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Baking in the woods can be a lot of fun and can help to make a good trip an amazing one. It does take some time, planning, and preparation, and chosen recipes should be tested in the oven at home before trying them out with friends on a 10-day trip. Outdoor baking requires a different set of rules and equipment than those one uses at home and a…

Turner, Steve

2008-01-01

10

FOOD PRESERVATION SERIES types of potatoes  

E-print Network

a baked potato with salsa, chili, fat-free sour cream or yogurt and chives, mixed vegetables, low- fat Seasoning suggestions: 2 cloves garlic, finely chopped, or Italian seasoning spice mix, or chili powder, or paprika with a tiny bit of cayenne pepper. Preheat oven to 400 oF. Scrub potatoes and pat dry with paper

11

Ziploc bags (10+) Baking Soda  

E-print Network

Bomb Bags Materials · Ziploc bags (10+) · Vinegar · Baking Soda · Paper Towels · Food Coloring mixing colors? 5. Why do we not want to mix the baking soda and vinegar right away? 6. Why do we move and review color mixing from last week 3. Wrap baking soda in paper towel and fold into a square 4. Hold

Benitez-Nelson, Claudia

12

Commercial Baking. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A project filmed three commercial baking videotapes for use by secondary and adult students in food service programs. The three topics were basic dinner rolls, bread making, and hard breads and rolls. Quick-rise dough recipes were developed, written down, and explained for use with the videotapes. A pretest, posttest, and student guide were…

Booth, Nancy

13

Baking Soda and Vinegar Rockets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rocket experiments demonstrating conservation of momentum will never fail to generate enthusiasm in undergraduate physics laboratories. In this paper, we describe tests on rockets from two vendors1,2 that combine baking soda and vinegar for propulsion. The experiment compared two analytical approximations for the maximum rocket height to the experimentally measured rocket height. Baking soda and vinegar rockets present fewer safety

James R. Claycomb; Christopher Zachary; Quoc Tran

2009-01-01

14

Protein and starch digestibilities and mineral availability of products developed from potato, soy and corn flour.  

PubMed

A technique for development of potato flour was standardized. Five products viz. cake, biscuit, weaning food, panjiri and ladoo were prepared incorporating potato flour, defatted soy flour and corn flour. Baking and roasting were the major processing techniques employed for the development of these products. Protein, ash and fat contents of potato flour were almost similar to those of raw potatoes. Significant differences in protein, ash and fat contents of all the products were observed. Protein and starch digestibility of potato flour was significantly higher than that of raw potatoes. Protein digestibility increased by 12 to 17 percent on baking or roasting of products. Processed products had significantly higher starch digestibility and mineral availability compared to raw products. Thus, it can be concluded that roasting and baking are effective means of improving starch and protein digestibility and mineral availability of products. PMID:9839814

Gahlawat, P; Sehgal, S

1998-01-01

15

Baking Soda and Vinegar Rockets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rocket experiments demonstrating conservation of momentum will never fail to generate enthusiasm in undergraduate physics laboratories. In this paper, we describe tests on rockets from two vendors1,2 that combine baking soda and vinegar for propulsion. The experiment compared two analytical approximations for the maximum rocket height to the experimentally measured rocket height. Baking soda and vinegar rockets present fewer safety concerns and require a smaller launch area than rapid combustion chemical rockets. Both kits were of nearly identical design, costing ˜20. The rockets required roughly 30 minutes of assembly time consisting of mostly taping the soft plastic fuselage to the Styrofoam nose cone.

Claycomb, James R.; Zachary, Christopher; Tran, Quoc

2009-02-01

16

Collection Development: Hitting the Sweet Spot (Baking)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Baking can be intimidating. Just ask all those contestants on "Top Chef" who would rather prepare Beef Wellington than bake a cake. But libraries can take the fear factor out of baking by putting together a solid collection of cookbooks that can help anyone master the sweeter side of the culinary arts or even serve as delicious armchair reading…

Charles, John

2010-01-01

17

Kitchen Korner! EASY APPLE BAKE  

E-print Network

Kitchen Korner! EASY APPLE BAKE 4 apples Cinnamon (to taste) 1/2 cup sugar 1/2 cup flour 1/2 cup them a sense of pride and accomplishment. You may be surprised at how many things kids can do usually taste better...your little ones may be more likely to try them and like them!) Help your children

Goodman, Robert M.

18

Baking Soda and Vinegar Rockets  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rocket experiments demonstrating conservation of momentum will never fail to generate enthusiasm in undergraduate physics laboratories. In this paper, we describe tests on rockets from two vendors that combine baking soda and vinegar for propulsion. The experiment compared two analytical approximations for the maximum rocket height to the…

Claycomb, James R.; Zachary, Christopher; Tran, Quoc

2009-01-01

19

Combined effects of storage and processing on the bioactive compounds and pro-apoptotic properties of color-fleshed potatoes in human colon cancer cells.  

PubMed

Potatoes can be stored for up to 1 year before being processed and consumed. The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which fresh and stored color-fleshed potatoes retain their anticancer properties after baking and chipping compared with unprocessed potatoes. We utilized white-, yellow-, and purple-fleshed potato clones and tested their phenolic and anthocyanin content, antioxidant activity, metabolite profile, and antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic properties. When compared with unprocessed samples, baking or chipping led to significant losses in the phenolic and anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity of the potatoes. However, with storage, total phenolic and anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity increased in baked samples while in the chipped samples they remained constant. Ethanolic extracts of baked and chipped samples suppressed proliferation and elevated apoptosis (p < 0.05) in HCT-116 (p53 wild-type; ras mutated) and HT-29 (p53 mutated; ras wild-type) human colon cancer cell lines. Antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic properties of baked potatoes were similar to that of fresh potatoes, while chipping caused a significant suppression. Phenolic content and antioxidant activity of purple-fleshed potatoes, after baking, were comparable with those of anthocyanin-rich berries. Hence, purple-fleshed potatoes can be a healthier choice for consumers as they possess greater levels of bioactive compounds and anticancer properties even after processing as compared with their white- and yellow-fleshed counterparts. PMID:23039105

Madiwale, Gaurav P; Reddivari, Lavanya; Stone, Martha; Holm, David G; Vanamala, Jairam

2012-11-01

20

Post apply bake optimization for 6025 masks  

Microsoft Academic Search

While mask lithography tool critical dimension (CD) performance continues to improve, CD performance on the mask has not improved comparably. CD nonuniformity analyses reported earlier indicate that a major source of error is likely to be due to post apply bake (PAB) nonuniformity. Modeling of hotplate baking of 6' by 6' by 0.25' (6025) mask blanks predicts the temperature range

Peter D. Buck; Robert A. Holmstrom

1997-01-01

21

Quinoa flour in baked products.  

PubMed

The performance of quinoa-wheat flour blends (5/95, 10/90, 20/80, 30/70) were evaluated in breads, cakes and cookies. Breads baked with 5% and 10% quinoa flour were of good quality. Loaf volume decreased, crumb grain became more open and the texture slightly harsh at higher usage levels of quinoa flour. A bitter after taste was noted at the 30% level. Cake quality was acceptable with 5% and 10% of quinoa flour. Cake grain became more open and the texture less silky as the level of quinoa substitution increased. Cake taste improved with either 5% or 10% quinoa flour in the blend. Cookie spread and top grain scores decreased with increasing levels of quinoa flour blended with high-spread cookie flour. Flavor improved up to 20% quinoa flour in the blend. Cookie spread and cookie appearance was improved with a quinoa/low-spread flour blend by using 2% lecithin. PMID:1924185

Lorenz, K; Coulter, L

1991-07-01

22

Changes in nutritional composition of Russet Burbank potatoes by different processing methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Russet Burbank potatoes from the same storage lot, were processed by commercial technology and prepared for consumption as\\u000a done institutionally and in the home. Products were chosen to include most of the processing or preparation steps that will\\u000a influence nutrient losses, namely, boiling, baking, frying, and drying. Products were evaluated on an as-served-basis for\\u000a potato solids, starch, total and reducing

Merle L. Weaver; Herman Timm; Hawkins Ng

1983-01-01

23

STONE BAKED PIZZAS 10" GOURMET SANDWICHES  

E-print Network

STONE BAKED PIZZAS 10" BIG PLATES GOURMET SANDWICHES ALL OUR PIZZA BASES ARE HOMEMADE AND TOPPED and kidney beans Spicy Chicken £4.00 Tender pieces of chicken breast in a spicy arrabiata sauce. Five Bean Chilli (v) £4.00 Chick peas, kidney beans, borlotti beans, cannellini beans, butter beans, peppers

Oakley, Jeremy

24

Metrics for Food Preparation, Baking, Meat Cutting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to meet the job-related metric measurement needs of food preparation, baking, meat cutting students, this instructional package is one of five for the home economics occupations cluster, part of a set of 55 packages for metric instruction in different occupations. The package is intended for students who already know the occupational…

Cooper, Gloria S., Ed.; Magisos, Joel H., Ed.

25

Impossible Bean Burrito Bake Yield: 6 servings  

E-print Network

Impossible Bean Burrito Bake Yield: 6 servings 1- 16 ounce can refried beans 1 cup MASTER MIX ¼ cup over medium heat, brown ground meat. Drain fat. Remove from heat. 3. Mix refried beans, MASTER MIX and water in a mixing bowl. Spread mixture in bottom and halfway up sides of pie pan. 4. On top of bean

Florida, University of

26

DIETARY BAKED EGG ACCELERATES RESOLUTION OF EGG ALLERGY IN CHILDREN  

PubMed Central

Background Baked egg is tolerated by a majority of egg-allergic children. Objective To characterize immunologic changes associated with ingestion of baked egg and evaluate the role that baked egg diets plays in the development of tolerance to regular egg. Methods Egg-allergic subjects who tolerated baked egg challenge incorporated baked egg into their diet. Immunologic parameters were measured at follow-up visits. A comparison group strictly avoiding egg was used to evaluate the natural history of the development of tolerance. Results Of the 79 subjects in the intent-to-treat group followed for a median of 37.8 months, 89% now tolerate baked egg and 53% now tolerate regular egg. Of 23 initial baked egg-reactive subjects, 14 (61%) subsequently tolerated baked egg and 6 (26%) now tolerate regular egg. Within the initially baked egg-reactive group, subjects with persistent reactivity to baked egg had higher median baseline egg white (EW)-specific IgE levels (13.5 kUA/L) than those who subsequently tolerated baked egg (4.4 kUA/L; P=0.04) and regular egg (3.1 kUA/L, P=0.05). In subjects ingesting baked egg, EW-induced SPT wheal diameter and EW-, ovalbumin-, and ovomucoid-specific IgE levels decreased significantly, while ovalbumin- and ovomucoid-specific IgG4 levels increased significantly. Subjects in the per-protocol group were 14.6 times more likely to develop regular egg tolerance than subjects in the comparison group (P < 0.0001), and they developed tolerance earlier (median 50.0 versus 78.7 months; P<0.0001). Conclusion Initiation of a baked egg diet accelerates the development of regular egg tolerance compared to strict avoidance. Higher serum EW-specific IgE level is associated with persistent baked and regular egg reactivity, while initial baked egg reactivity is not. PMID:22846751

Leonard, Stephanie A.; Sampson, Hugh A.; Sicherer, Scott H.; Noone, Sally; Moshier, Erin L.; Godbold, James; Nowak-W?grzyn, Anna

2012-01-01

27

Potato Float  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How can a potato wedge be made to hover in the center of a glass of liquid? This material is part of a series of hands-on science activities designed to arouse student interest. Here students investigate density using potato wedges and water and sugar water solutions. The activity includes a description, a list of science process skills and complex reasoning strategies being used, and a compilation of applicable national science standards for grades K-12. Also provided are content topics, a list of necessary supplies, instructions to perform the activity, and presentation techniques. The activity's content is explained, and assessment suggestions are provided.

Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning (McREL)

2004-01-01

28

Effect of Irish potato starch, yeast and sprouted soybean flour on the quality of acha bread  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to report on a study to produce wheatless bread from acha\\/fonio (Digitaria exilis) flour with sprouted soybean flour (SSF) using Irish potato starch (IPS) as gluten replacer and determine the sensory qualities of the product. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Acha bread (AB) was baked from acha flour with varying quantities of yeast and IPS

Victoria Adaora Jideani; Rosemary Aina Salami; Israel Afam Jideani

2008-01-01

29

Introduction to Potato  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This is an introductory chapter on potatoes which gives a brief history of the potato, potato morphology, taxonomy, production statistics, nutritional content, and future prospects for potato research and production. It will appear in a new book entitled Genetics, Genomics, and Breeding of Potato ...

30

Post apply bake optimization for 6025 masks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While mask lithography tool critical dimension (CD) performance continues to improve, CD performance on the mask has not improved comparably. CD nonuniformity analyses reported earlier indicate that a major source of error is likely to be due to post apply bake (PAB) nonuniformity. Modeling of hotplate baking of 6' by 6' by 0.25' (6025) mask blanks predicts the temperature range within a 132-mm square area to be 4 degrees Celsius. Several strategies have been proposed to improve CD errors related to PAB. One is to utilize a resist with reduced CD sensitivity to PAB temperature, which would minimize the effect of PAB temperature nonuniformity. Another is to modify the bake procedure and equipment to obtain improved temperature uniformity across the mask surface. In this paper, we report on progress form work performed to evaluate both of these methods. The performance and implementation of a temperature metrology tool consisting of a 6025 mask blank instrumented with an array of calibrated RTD sensors to characterize PAB temperature uniformity are described.

Buck, Peter D.; Holmstrom, Robert A.

1997-07-01

31

Potato Straw  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this physics demonstration, learners are challenged to insert a straw the furthest into a potato. After learners explore different techniques, the demonstrator can show them how to hold the straw firmly about 2/3 of the way up and use a sharp thrusting movement. Use this activity to explore force and surface area. This activity guide includes a helpful video that demonstrates each step of the demonstration.

2012-07-12

32

Potatoes and Human Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber follows only rice and wheat in world importance as a food crop for human consumption. Cultivated potatoes have spread from the Andes of South America where they originated to 160 countries around the world. Consumption of fresh potatoes has declined while processed products have increased in popularity. As the potato becomes a staple in

Mary Ellen Camire; Stan Kubow; Danielle J. Donnelly

2009-01-01

33

Baking the first bread in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Getaway Special program is a joint venture between Spar, Monarch flour and Telesat, with Telesat being responsible for the design, manufacture and implementation of the equipment. The purpose of the experiment is to investigate the behavior of bread yeast in the absence of gravity and in the presence of normal atmospheric pressure. The proposed design mixes flour, water and yeast on-orbit, allows the mixture to prove and then bakes it. This paper outlines the development history of the experiment, the various test programs and some of the problems encountered, with their solutions.

1987-01-01

34

Sweet Potatoes.  

E-print Network

for stock and espgiallg for dairy cattle. This 'is true. ip particular of the tops of the Vineless, which remain green during very severe drouths when grass usually is scorched and killed by a burning am and dry winds. Since they grow in bunches and smd... ............................................................... 57 27 SWEET POTATOES. Bunch Yarn .................. fg~cg~K~zx $~rn ha m N ~ar:y~uuch~am ......... 1. a $ 3 * v, - 0 - N P- g N b. m Z"o22rnO N ~auiem>:13 m-r-mo ................. Red Nose .............................. sg gz+ 8 Vineless...

Price, R. H.

1893-01-01

35

Air Pollution Control in the Carbon Baking Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon baking process involves evolution of fumes containing hydrocarbons and soot particles which cannot be discharged directly into the atmosphere. An incinerator can be used to clean these fumes. However, length of the baking cycle, nature of the fumes and variations in fume volume and temperature may result in excessive auxiliary fuel usage and inefficient incineration, if the incinerator is

Klaus H. Hemsath; Arvind C. Thekdi

1974-01-01

36

Using Easy-Bake Ovens to Teach Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

After participating in an internship at the American Institute of Baking, the author developed an innovative way for students to explore basic chemistry concepts through bakery science. An Easy-Bake Oven is a quick and safe oven that is perfect for the classroom. Two activity series are described, one exploring chemical and physical changes, and one exploring pH.

Christine Herald

2004-02-01

37

Thermodynamics of bread baking: A two-state model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bread baking can be viewed as a complex physico-chemical process. It is governed by transport of heat and is accompanied by changes such as gelation of starch, the expansion of air cells within dough, and others. We focus on the thermodynamics of baking and investigate the heat flow through dough and find that the evaporation of excess water in dough is the rate-limiting step. We consider a simplified one-dimensional model of bread, treating the excess water content as a two-state variable that is zero for baked bread and a fixed constant for unbaked dough. We arrive at a system of coupled, nonlinear ordinary differential equations, which are solved using a standard Runge-Kutta integration method. The calculated baking times are consistent with common baking experience.

Zürcher, Ulrich

2014-03-01

38

Cooking with Dried Potatoes  

E-print Network

E-89 12/08 Cooking with Dried Potatoes Dried potatoes are uncooked potatoes with most of the water removed. They are a great source of vitamin C, which we need to stay healthy. A serving size of cooked potatoes is ? cup. Uses Cooked potatoes... make a tasty vegetable dish. For added flavor, you can add salt and pepper along with small amounts of grated cheese, margarine or butter. Be careful: Adding large amounts of cheese, butter or margarine can turn a low-fat vegetable, such as potatoes...

Anding, Jenna

2008-12-09

39

POTATO DISEASE RESISTANCE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The potential to use systemic acquired resistance for disease control in potato is discussed. The mechanism of how SAR works in plants is described. Potato was found to have high salicylic acid levels in all tissues examined. The defense gene PR-1 was constitutively expressed in potato, in contrast ...

40

Colorado potato beetle  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Colorado potato beetle (CPB) shifted to the potato crop from native solanaceous weeds in the American West in 1859, and has been a serious pest ever since. CPB is a highly fecund leaf-feeder on potato and eggplant, and often tomatoes, with one to several generations per year. It is the most importa...

41

Paranoid potato  

PubMed Central

Phytophthora is the most devastating pathogen of dicot plants. There is a need for resistance sources with different modes of action to counteract the fast evolution of this pathogen. In order to better understand mechanisms of defense against P. infestans, we analyzed several clones of potato. Two of the genotypes tested, Sarpo Mira and SW93-1015, exhibited strong resistance against P. infestans in field trials, whole plant assays and detached leaf assays. The resistant genotypes developed different sizes of hypersensitive response (HR)-related lesions. HR lesions in SW93-1015 were restricted to very small areas, whereas those in Sarpo Mira were similar to those in Solanum demissum, the main source of classical resistance genes. SW93-1015 can be characterized as a cpr (constitutive expressor of PR genes) genotype without spontaneous microscopic or macroscopic HR lesions. This is indicated by constitutive hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production and PR1 (pathogenesis-related protein 1) secretion. SW93-1015 is one of the first plants identified as having classical protein-based induced defense expressed constitutively without any obvious metabolic costs or spontaneous cell death lesions. PMID:22476463

Ali, Ashfaq; Moushib, Laith Ibrahim; Lenman, Marit; Levander, Fredrik; Olsson, Kerstin; Carlson-Nilson, Ulrika; Zoteyeva, Nadezhda; Liljeroth, Erland; Andreasson, Erik

2012-01-01

42

Bar Graphs!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mrs. Kohlar has been working with you on bar graphs. Here are a couple of games for you to play to help you practice using them. Catch all the Bugs in the system and put them in the correct column of the bar graph. Answer the questions about the bugs in the graph. You can play the game twice if you wish. Do these bar graph activities and have some bar graph fun! Don\\'t worry about the last question, just answer ...

Mrs. Pocock

2006-10-26

43

Tramline Virtual Field Trips: Baking Bread Field Trip  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Do you enjoy the smell of freshly baked bread? Featured as part of the Tramline Virtual Field Trip series, this website, created by educator Eduardo Peirano, treats students to a Baking Bread Field Trip. This educational field trip "utilizes Internet resources to introduce the principles, tools, and techniques of bread making. It is designed for elementary school children in grades 4-6 but is appropriate for students of many ages." Field Trip Stops connect to different websites providing information on Wheat, Milling, Facts About Bread, Baking Ingredients, and more. This site also offers a Teacher's Resources page that contains additional internet resource links and information for bread baking activities, cooking conversion tables, nutrition activities, and more. Site visitors can link to other Tramline field trips from this site as well. (Note: The link to the Wild Yeast? AKA Sourdough Stop is not operational at present.)

Peirano, Eduardo

44

89. BAKE SHOP AFT LOOKING FORWARD SHOWING KNEADING TABLE, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

89. BAKE SHOP - AFT LOOKING FORWARD SHOWING KNEADING TABLE, OVENS, DOUGH MIXER, BREAD RACKS AND RISING CABINETS. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

45

The Sweet Potato Borer.  

E-print Network

or otherwise, as much as possible. When this is impossible they might be poisoned in and about a potato field. Farmers should co-operate in controlIing the pest. THE SWEET POTATO WEEVIL. (Cylas formicarius, Fab. ) The Sweet Potato Borer, the worst of all... any insecticide discovered that will control the sweet potato beetle? They are doing very serious damage here." "By today's mail I am sending you some sweet potatoes that are full of some insects which have ruined the crop in this vicinity. As far...

Conradi, Albert F. (Albert Frederick)

1907-01-01

46

Bar Graph  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to give students experience creating and reading bar graphs. The lesson provides links to a practice data set and the bar graph activity so that students can practice making bar graphs and check their work using the activity. Finally, the lesson provides a suggested follow-up to this lesson.

Shodor

2012-04-02

47

Clean Label Mold Inhibitors for Baking Rene Albers-Nelson  

E-print Network

173-1 Clean Label Mold Inhibitors for Baking Renée Albers-Nelson FAPC Milling and Baking Specialist, 2008). Clean Label Mold Inhibitors Breads, muffins, rolls, cookies, hamburger and hot- dog buns, bagels's Percent Flour 60.0 100% Water 37.2 62% Yeast 1.8 Salt 1.2 Sugar 2.4 Fat 1.8 MSNF (milk solids nonfat) 1

Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

48

From Baking a Cake to Solving the Schrodinger Equation  

E-print Network

The primary emphasis of this study has been to explain how modifying a cake recipe by changing either the dimensions of the cake or the amount of cake batter alters the baking time. Restricting our consideration to the genoise, one of the basic cakes of classic French cuisine, we have obtained a semi-empirical formula for its baking time as a function of oven temperature, initial temperature of the cake batter, and dimensions of the unbaked cake. The formula, which is based on the Diffusion equation, has three adjustable parameters whose values are estimated from data obtained by baking genoises in cylindrical pans of various diameters. The resulting formula for the baking time exhibits the scaling behavior typical of diffusion processes, i.e. the baking time is proportional to the (characteristic length scale)^2 of the cake. It also takes account of evaporation of moisture at the top surface of the cake, which appears to be a dominant factor affecting the baking time of a cake. In solving this problem we hav...

Olszewski, E A

2005-01-01

49

Effect of Baking Procedure and Storage on the Pasting Properties and Staling of Part-Baked and Rebaked White Pan Bread Crumb  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this investigation, the white pan breads were part-baked for 10, 15, 20 minutes at 230°C with and without calcium propionate (0.2%), were stored at room temperature (20°C) for 3, 5, 7 days wrapped with two polyethylene bags. After storage, baking time of part-baked breads was completed to the baking time of control breads (25 minutes). Breads were subjected to

M. Murat Karaoglu

2006-01-01

50

Partial-Baking Process on Gluten-Free Bread: Impact of Hydrocolloid Addition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this work were to assess the impact of partial-baking process on gluten-free bread, and to study how carboxymethylcellulose\\u000a (CMC) and xanthan gum addition affected this process. As different from the conventional baking which involves only one baking\\u000a step (40 min), the part-baking process consisted in an initial-baking step (25 min), storage (7 days, 4°C), and final-baking\\u000a step (15 min). Bread-specific volume

Lorena Susana Sciarini; Gabriela Teresa Pérez; Marie de Lamballerie; Alberto Edel León; Pablo Daniel Ribotta

51

Put plain, fat-free yogurt on baked potatoes instead of sour cream.  

E-print Network

, and vegetables. MILK MATTERS Put a SMILE on Your Kids' Lips With MILK! Milk Know-How Age Daily Need 2-3 years 2 programs and employment are open to all, regardless of race, color, national origin, sex, religion, age! Eat smart to play hard! Quench your kids' thirst with a cold glass of fat-free or low-fat (1%) milk

Liskiewicz, Maciej

52

From Baking a Cake to Solving the Schrodinger Equation  

E-print Network

The primary emphasis of this study has been to explain how modifying a cake recipe by changing either the dimensions of the cake or the amount of cake batter alters the baking time. Restricting our consideration to the genoise, one of the basic cakes of classic French cuisine, we have obtained a semi-empirical formula for its baking time as a function of oven temperature, initial temperature of the cake batter, and dimensions of the unbaked cake. The formula, which is based on the Diffusion equation, has three adjustable parameters whose values are estimated from data obtained by baking genoises in cylindrical pans of various diameters. The resulting formula for the baking time exhibits the scaling behavior typical of diffusion processes, i.e. the baking time is proportional to the (characteristic length scale)^2 of the cake. It also takes account of evaporation of moisture at the top surface of the cake, which appears to be a dominant factor affecting the baking time of a cake. In solving this problem we have obtained solutions of the Diffusion equation which are interpreted naturally and straightforwardly in the context of heat transfer; however, when interpreted in the context of the Schrodinger equation, they are somewhat peculiar. The solutions describe a system whose mass assumes different values in two different regions of space. Furthermore, the solutions exhibit characteristics similar to the evanescent modes associated with light waves propagating in a wave guide. When we consider the Schrodinger equation as a non-relativistic limit of the Klein-Gordon equation so that it includes a mass term, these are no longer solutions.

Edward A. Olszewski

2005-11-14

53

Potato Germplasm Enhancement  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is the leading vegetable crop produced in the United States. It is a high value crop that requires substantial inputs to maintain yield and quality. Potato breeding efforts focus on disease resistance, fresh market and processing quality, and storability. While g...

54

Effects of pre-strain and baking parameters on the microstructure and bake-hardening behavior of dual-phase steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a typical process, C-Mn steel was annealed at 800°C for 180 s, and then cooled rapidly to obtain the ferrite-martensite microstructure. After pre-straining, the specimens were baked and the corresponding bake-hardening (BH) values were determined as a function of pre-strain, baking temperature, and baking time. The influences of pre-strain, baking temperature and baking time on the microstructure evolution and bake-hardening behavior of the dual-phase steel were investigated systematically. It was found that the BH value apparently increased with an increase in pre-strain in the range from 0 to 1%; however, increasing pre-strain from 1% to 8% led to a decrease in the BH value. Furthermore, an increase in baking temperature favored a gradual improvement in the BH value because of the formation of Cottrell atmosphere and the precipitation of carbides in both the ferrite and martensite phases. The BH value reached a maximum of 110 MPa at a baking temperature of 300°C. Moreover, the BH value enhanced significantly with increasing baking time from 10 to 100 min.

Kuang, Chun-fu; Zhang, Shen-gen; Li, Jun; Wang, Jian; Liu, Hua-fei

2014-08-01

55

Microbiological Characteristics of Part-Baked White Pan Bread During Storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, white pan breads part-baked 10, 15, and 20 min with and without added calcium propionate were stored at 20°C (room temperature) for 3, 5, and 7 days and at 4°C (refrigerator temperature) for 7, 14, and 21 days. After storage, the baking time of part-baked breads was completed to the baking time of control breads (25 min).

M. Murat Karaoglu; H. Gürbüz Kotancilar; Mustafa Gurses

2005-01-01

56

Blow up Balloon with Baking Soda One small empty plastic soda or water bottle  

E-print Network

Blow up Balloon with Baking Soda One small empty plastic soda or water bottle 1/2 cup of vinegar Small balloon Baking soda Funnel or piece of paper 1. Carefully pour the vinegar into the bottle. 2 the balloon into the bottle and mixes with the vinegar. Watch the fizz-inflator at work! The baking soda

Benitez-Nelson, Claudia

57

Ambient Obscurance Baking on the GPU Peter-Pike Sloan  

E-print Network

Ambient Obscurance Baking on the GPU Peter-Pike Sloan NVIDIA/Activision Jason Tranchida Bungie Hao Chen Bungie Ladislav Kavan University of Pennsylvania Figure 1: Ambient Obscurance (left) and a final as the character moves thanks to our new dynamic Ambient Obscurance model. c Bungie Abstract Ambient Occlusion

Plotkin, Joshua B.

58

34. DESPATCH CORE OVENS, GREY IRON FOUNDRY CORE ROOM, BAKES ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

34. DESPATCH CORE OVENS, GREY IRON FOUNDRY CORE ROOM, BAKES CORES THAT ARE NOT MADE ON HEATED OR COLD BOX CORE MACHINES, TO SET BINDING AGENTS MIXED WITH THE SAND CREATING CORES HARD ENOUGH TO WITHSTAND THE FLOW OF MOLTEN IRON INSIDE A MOLD. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

59

Find the Fizz: Discover the Secret of Baking Powder  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity on page 4 of the PDF, learners investigate ingredients that combine to produce gas bubbles. Learners mix together various ingredients to observe chemical reactions that produce a gas. Learners use the scientific method to determine what baking powder is made of.

2013-07-08

60

Moisture Transport and Diffusive Instability during Bread Baking  

E-print Network

is a combination of conduction/radiation from band or tins to the dough surface, convection Department was determined by equations including heat supply by convection, conductive heat transfer towards the inside@nus.edu.sg 1 #12;from air to the dough surface in the absence of baking tins, conduction in the continuous

Lin, Ping

61

Effect of chia seed meal on baking quality of cakes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Chia seed is a good source of dietary fiber and complete proteins; chia seeds contain many health-promoting compounds and can be incorporated into baking goods for high-protein, high-fiber diet. Food grade chia seeds were obtained from a local grocery store and ground into meal using Retsch Model VD...

62

Food Production, Management, and Services. Baking. Teacher Edition. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These instructional materials are intended for a course on food production, management, and services involved in baking. The following introductory information is included: use of this publication; competency profile; instructional/task analysis; related academic and workplace skills list; tools, materials, and equipment list; 13 references; and a…

Gibson, LeRoy

63

Effect of corn bran substitution on baking quality of cakes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Food-grade corn bran from the grain milling industry is good source of dietary fiber and can be incorporated into baking goods for low calorie, high-fiber diet. Food grade corn bran was obtained from ICM (St. Joseph, MO) and purified from endosperm and germ fragments using a Kice Multi-Aspirator. ...

64

Milling and Baking Quality of Low Phytic Acid Wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low phytic acid (LPA) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one ap- proach to improving nutritional quality of wheat by reducing the major storage form of phosphorus and increasing the level of inorganic phosphorus, which is more readily absorbed by humans and other monogastric animals. Milling and baking quality evaluations were con- ducted on hard red, hard white, and soft white

M. J. Guttieri; K. M. Peterson; E. J. Souza

2006-01-01

65

Milling and Baking Quality of Low Phytic Acid Wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Low phytic acid (LPA) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one approach to improving nutritional quality of wheat by reducing the major storage form of phosphorus and increasing the level of inorganic phosphorus, which is more readily absorbed by humans and other monogastric animals. Milling and baking ...

66

Moisture Transport and Diffusive Instability during Bread Baking  

E-print Network

transfer in dough is Department of Mathematics and Statistics, York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M band or tins to the dough surface, convection from air to the dough surface in the absence of baking tins, conduction in the continuous liquid/solid phase of the dough, and evaporation

Huang, Huaxiong

67

GUIDELINES FOR HOLDING A BAKE SALE I. Introduction  

E-print Network

; and "hazardous food" includes food that contains raw eggs such as salads and custards; dairy products comply with applicable laws in holding a bake sale, including but not limited to the Health Protection the premises from where the food originated have been inspected by a public health inspector; and g. create

68

OBJECTIVE BAKE ASSESSMENT USING IMAGE ANALYSIS AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE  

E-print Network

assessment to one or more expert bake assessors. The process of training the system for a particular product (Almela et al, 1995) and peanut butter (Pattee, Giesbrecht and Young, 1991) and to study the colour rapidly monitor the change in colour during processing is needed. Colour machine vision is the technique

Hamey, Len

69

Bar Graph  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students use preset data or input their own data to be represented by a bar graph. This activity allows students to explore bar graphs and how changing scales will alter how their data is represented. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

2010-01-01

70

CAMBIOS EN EL VALOR NUTRITIVO DE PATATAS DURANTE DISTINTOS TRATAMIENTOS CULINARIOS CHANGES IN THE NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF POTATOES DURING DIFFERENT CULINARY PROCESSES CAMBIOS NO VALOR NUTRITIVO DE PATACAS DURANTE DISTINTOS TRATAMENTOS CULINARIOS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contents of moisture, ash, protein, fat, starch and ascorbic acid present in Cara potatoes, before and after to apply the following culinary processes: fried, boiled, baked and wrinkled («arrugado»), were determined in order to know the real contribution of these nutrients for its consumption. The frying is the culinary treatment that produces a higher water loss, being replaced partly

P. Suárez Hernández; E. M. Rodríguez Rodríguez; C. Díaz Romero

2004-01-01

71

Sweet Potato Salad Ingredients  

E-print Network

cumin 1/2 teaspoon pepper Directions 1. Preheat oven to 450ºF. Spray baking pan with cooking spray. 2, honey, vinegar, garlic powder, salt, cumin and pepper in a jar with lid. Put lid on jar and shake to mix

Liskiewicz, Maciej

72

7 CFR 947.5 - Potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU COUNTIES, CALIF...Handling Definitions § 947.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown within the aforesaid production...

2013-01-01

73

7 CFR 946.12 - Seed potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 946.12 Section 946.12...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating...Definitions § 946.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and...

2013-01-01

74

7 CFR 947.5 - Potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU COUNTIES, CALIF...Handling Definitions § 947.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown within the aforesaid production...

2010-01-01

75

7 CFR 946.5 - Potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown within the State of...

2010-01-01

76

7 CFR 947.12 - Seed potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 947.12 Section 947.12...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU COUNTIES...Definitions § 947.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and...

2014-01-01

77

7 CFR 945.5 - Potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO...Handling Definitions § 945.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown within the aforesaid production...

2013-01-01

78

7 CFR 1207.306 - Potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.306 Potatoes. Potatoes means any or all varieties of Irish potatoes grown by producers in the 50 states of the United States and grown in foreign...

2014-01-01

79

7 CFR 948.5 - Potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means and includes all varieties of Irish potatoes grown within any of the aforesaid...

2012-01-01

80

7 CFR 946.12 - Seed potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 946.12 Section 946.12...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating...Definitions § 946.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and...

2010-01-01

81

7 CFR 947.5 - Potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU COUNTIES, CALIF...Handling Definitions § 947.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown within the aforesaid production...

2011-01-01

82

7 CFR 947.12 - Seed potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 947.12 Section 947.12...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU COUNTIES...Definitions § 947.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and...

2010-01-01

83

7 CFR 946.5 - Potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown within the State of...

2014-01-01

84

7 CFR 1207.306 - Potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.306 Potatoes. Potatoes means any or all varieties of Irish potatoes grown by producers in the 50 states of the United States and grown in foreign...

2012-01-01

85

7 CFR 946.12 - Seed potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 946.12 Section 946.12...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating...Definitions § 946.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and...

2014-01-01

86

7 CFR 946.5 - Potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown within the State of...

2012-01-01

87

7 CFR 1207.306 - Potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.306 Potatoes. Potatoes means any or all varieties of Irish potatoes grown by producers in the 50 states of the United States and grown in foreign...

2011-01-01

88

7 CFR 1207.306 - Potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.306 Potatoes. Potatoes means any or all varieties of Irish potatoes grown by producers in the 50 states of the United States and grown in foreign...

2010-01-01

89

7 CFR 947.5 - Potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU COUNTIES, CALIF...Handling Definitions § 947.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown within the aforesaid production...

2014-01-01

90

7 CFR 953.5 - Potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order Regulating...Handling Definitions § 953.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown in the production...

2013-01-01

91

7 CFR 947.5 - Potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU COUNTIES, CALIF...Handling Definitions § 947.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown within the aforesaid production...

2012-01-01

92

7 CFR 947.12 - Seed potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 947.12 Section 947.12...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU COUNTIES...Definitions § 947.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and...

2012-01-01

93

7 CFR 948.5 - Potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means and includes all varieties of Irish potatoes grown within any of the aforesaid...

2014-01-01

94

7 CFR 945.5 - Potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO...Handling Definitions § 945.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown within the aforesaid production...

2012-01-01

95

7 CFR 953.5 - Potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order Regulating...Handling Definitions § 953.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown in the production...

2012-01-01

96

7 CFR 948.5 - Potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means and includes all varieties of Irish potatoes grown within any of the aforesaid...

2010-01-01

97

7 CFR 945.5 - Potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO...Handling Definitions § 945.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown within the aforesaid production...

2010-01-01

98

7 CFR 947.12 - Seed potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 947.12 Section 947.12...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU COUNTIES...Definitions § 947.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and...

2013-01-01

99

7 CFR 953.5 - Potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order Regulating...Handling Definitions § 953.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown in the production...

2014-01-01

100

7 CFR 948.5 - Potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means and includes all varieties of Irish potatoes grown within any of the aforesaid...

2011-01-01

101

7 CFR 945.5 - Potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO...Handling Definitions § 945.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown within the aforesaid production...

2014-01-01

102

7 CFR 946.12 - Seed potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 946.12 Section 946.12...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating...Definitions § 946.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and...

2011-01-01

103

7 CFR 953.5 - Potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order Regulating...Handling Definitions § 953.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown in the production...

2011-01-01

104

7 CFR 946.5 - Potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown within the State of...

2013-01-01

105

7 CFR 946.5 - Potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown within the State of...

2011-01-01

106

7 CFR 953.5 - Potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order Regulating...Handling Definitions § 953.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown in the production...

2010-01-01

107

7 CFR 947.12 - Seed potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 947.12 Section 947.12...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU COUNTIES...Definitions § 947.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and...

2011-01-01

108

7 CFR 1207.306 - Potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.306 Potatoes. Potatoes means any or all varieties of Irish potatoes grown by producers in the 50 states of the United States and grown in foreign...

2013-01-01

109

7 CFR 946.12 - Seed potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 946.12 Section 946.12...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating...Definitions § 946.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and...

2012-01-01

110

7 CFR 948.5 - Potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means and includes all varieties of Irish potatoes grown within any of the aforesaid...

2013-01-01

111

Irish Potato Fertilizer Experiments.  

E-print Network

was sc Be Irish Potato Fl nents W. S. Hotchkiss and E. J. Kyle. e fertilizer work with the Irish potato at Troupe was first planned fall of 1902. The results which were gotten upon harvesting the the spring of 1903 were so opposed, especially.... " 37. " three-fourths larger than check. " 39. " nearly twice larger than check. " 41. " slightly larger than check. On June 24th, the tops were mature and the crop was harvested. Harvest Record-Irish Potato Fertilizers at Troupe. Plat No. Yield...

Hotchkiss, W.S.; Kyle, E. J. (Edwin Jackson)

1908-01-01

112

Computational fluid dynamics modeling of bun baking process under different oven load conditions.  

PubMed

A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed to study the temperature profile of the bun during baking process. Evaporation-condensation mechanism and effect of the latent heat during phase change of water was incorporated in this model to represent actual bun baking process. Simulation results were validated with experimental measurements of bun temperature at two different positions. Baking process is completed within 20 min, after the temperature of crumb become stable at 98 °C. Further, this study was extended to investigate the effect of partially (two baking trays) loaded and fully loaded (eight baking trays) oven on temperature profile of bun. Velocity and temperature profile differs in partially loaded and fully loaded oven. Bun placed in top rack showed rapid baking while bun placed in bottom rack showed slower baking due to uneven temperature distribution in the oven. Hence, placement of bun inside the oven affects temperature of bun and consequently, the quality of the product. PMID:25190860

Tank, A; Chhanwal, N; Indrani, D; Anandharamakrishnan, C

2014-09-01

113

Colorado potato beetle resistance management strategies for transgenic potatoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

NewLeaf potatoes could provide substantial ecological and economic benefits to potato growers. A concern with NewLeaf potatoes,\\u000a however, is that Colorado potato beetle may develop resistance to the Bt endotoxin because of the intense selection pressure\\u000a imposed by its constant presence in the transgenic crop. Before these cultivars were released, however, entomologists throughout\\u000a North America conducted biological research needed for

Casey W. Hoy

1999-01-01

114

Utilisation of the Commonwealth Potato Collection in potato breeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The use of the Commonwealth Potato Collection in potato breeding is set in the context of the evolution of the crop and the\\u000a need to widen its genetic base by introgression and base broadening. The introduction of the potato to Europe and its subsequent\\u000a worldwide spread is described. An introduction is given to the world's major potato genebanks, and the

John E. Bradshaw; Gavin Ramsay

2005-01-01

115

Effect of low temperature baking on niobium cavities  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low temperature (100 C-150 C) ''in situ'' baking under ultra-high vacuum has been successfully applied as final preparation of niobium RF cavities by several laboratories over the last few years. The benefits reported consist mainly of an improvement of the cavity quality factor and a recovery from the so-called ''Q-drop'' without field emission at high field. A series of

Peter Kneisel; Ganapati Myneni; William Lanford; Gianluigi Ciovati

2003-01-01

116

First report of Potato virus Y in potato in Tajikistan  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is widely grown as a staple food and cash crop in Tajikistan and is an important food security crop in the country. In June 2011, we conducted a survey of potatoes in farmers’ fields in Buston and Dushanbe regions of Tajikistan. Potato plants with stunted growth and lea...

117

TOMATO AND POTATO LATE BLIGHT  

E-print Network

TOMATO AND POTATO LATE BLIGHT ALERT WHAT EVERY GROWER NEEDS TO KNOW ABOUT TOMATO AND POTATO LATE.potatodiseases.org #12;This year the disease known as late blight has affected many tomato and potato crops throughout the northern states. The disease is thought to have started in tomato transplants. Once the disease has taken

Douches, David S.

118

Genetically improved potatoes: protection from damage by Colorado potato beetles.  

PubMed

Russet Burbank potato plants have been genetically improved to resist insect attack and damage by Colorado potato beetles (Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say)) by the insertion of a cryIIIA gene encoding the insect control protein of Bacillus thuringiensis var. tenebrionis. A modified gene that dramatically improved plant expression of this protein was utilized. Its expression in Russet Burbank potato plants resulted in protection from damage by all insect stages in the laboratory and in dramatic levels of protection at multiple field locations. Analysis of these genetically modified potatoes indicated that they conform to the standards for Russet Burbank potatoes in terms of agronomic and quality characteristics including taste. PMID:8507832

Perlak, F J; Stone, T B; Muskopf, Y M; Petersen, L J; Parker, G B; McPherson, S A; Wyman, J; Love, S; Reed, G; Biever, D

1993-05-01

119

Fraction Bars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This virtual manipulative is a Java applet that allows students to explore concepts in whole number operations and fractions, just as they would with a physical manipulative such as Cuisinaire Rods. The user can add bars of length 1 to 10 to the workspace, change their color, and move, duplicate, or remove them. Instructions for using the applet and teaching ideas for parents/teachers are available through the links at the top of the page.

2005-01-01

120

Temperature and weight loss profiles of model cakes baked in the microwave oven.  

PubMed

Model cake systems were formulated with wheat and rice starches at hydration levels of 112.5% and 137.5% (flour weight basis) and baked in a microwave oven at power levels of 80% and 100%. Temperature profiles and weight loss profiles of the cakes baked in the microwave oven were compared with those of the cakes baked conventionally. One cake was baked at a time, and three replications of each treatment were used. Center and edge temperatures of microwave cakes increased significantly with increasing moisture content of the batter and oven power. Weight loss of the cakes was dependent on oven power, starch type and hydration levels. Cakes baked in the microwave oven had greater weight loss than the cakes baked in convection mode. Wheat starch cakes had greater volumes than rice starch cakes. Rice starch cakes were more tender than wheat starch cakes. PMID:10687154

Sumnu, G; Ndife, M K; Bayindirli, L

1999-01-01

121

Baked milk- and egg-containing diet in the management of milk and egg allergy.  

PubMed

Cow's milk (CM) and hen's egg allergies are among the most common food allergies in children. With evidence of increasing food allergy prevalence and more persistent disease, it has become vital to improve the management of CM and egg allergies. The ability to tolerate baked milk or egg, such as in a cake or muffin, has been associated with an increased chance of tolerance development. Studies report that about 70% of CM- and egg-allergic children can tolerate baked milk or egg and that incorporating baked milk or egg into the diet is well tolerated. Being able to add baked milk or egg into the diet can also increase quality of life by expanding the diet, boosting nutrition, and promoting inclusion in social activities. There is some debate over how baked milk and egg should be introduced, at home or in a supervised setting. Anaphylaxis and treatment with epinephrine during baked milk or egg challenges have been reported. Study of potential biomarkers to predict tolerability of baked milk and egg, such as serum specific IgE levels and skin prick test wheal diameters, is ongoing. Many parents can reliably report that their CM- or egg-allergic child is already consuming baked goods without symptoms. However, for those who cannot report such tolerance, the most prudent approach is to perform a supervised oral food challenge to determine the tolerability of baked milk and egg. The purpose of this article was to review the pathophysiology, clinical data, and safety of baked milk and egg and provide a practical guide to managing CM allergy and/or egg allergy. Recipes for baked milk and egg challenges and guidance on how to add baked milk and egg if tolerated to the child's regular diet are provided. PMID:25577613

Leonard, Stephanie A; Caubet, Jean-Christoph; Kim, Jennifer S; Groetch, Marion; Nowak-W?grzyn, Anna

2015-01-01

122

The Sweet Potato Weevil.  

E-print Network

in the genus CyZas of the family Brenihidae. Pierce (15) in the most recent ac- count of the systematic status of the species places it in the family A aiomidae. Figure 2. Map of Texas~showing~he distribution of the sweet potato weevil. Shaded a... appropriate nanie of "sweet potato weevil". The insect prefers feeding on the root or tuber*, but does not confine its attack to that portion of the plant. In fact, it can pass successfully a complete life cycle in the portion of the plant above ground...

Reinhard, H. J. (Henry Jonathan)

1923-01-01

123

Attraction of Colorado Potato Beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) to Damaged and Chemically Induced Potato Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unmated adult female Colorado potato beetles, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), were attracted to damaged and chemically treated potato plants in an olfactometer. Significantly more beetles moved upwind to potato plants with damage from larval Colorado potato beetle compared with undamaged plants. More beetles moved upwind toward potato plants treated with regurgitant from Colorado potato beetle larvae or cabbage looper larvae, Trichoplusia

PETER J. LANDOLT; J. H. TUMLINSON; D. H. ALBORN

124

Biological control of potato insect pest  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A variety of pest insects attack the potato crop and reduce yields. This book chapter reviews the known insect natural enemies for major potato pests around the world: Coleoptera (beetles) including Colorado potato beetle, 28-spotted lady beetle, and Andean potato weevil complex; potato tuber moths,...

125

Sushi Bar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An innovative website where customers order from a realistic sushi bar menu to learn about international fisheries resources and impacts. Select shrimp, tuna, squid, octopus, or sea urchin to learn where resources are harvested, current fisheries methods, population status and concerns. This on-line activity also demonstrates how global our use of resources has become, with a single country dependent on seafood imports from around the world. The site also contains lesson plans on natural resources and resource management. Appropriate for grades 6 and up.

126

Spicy Chipotle Roasted Potatoes  

E-print Network

paprika · ½ teaspoon salt · ¼ teaspoon garlic powder · ¼ teaspoon ground chipotle pepper, or ½ teaspoon chili powder Preparation: 1. Position rack in lower third of oven; preheat oven to 450°F 2. Combine oil, paprika, salt, garlic powder and ground chipotle (or chili powder) in a large bowl.Add potatoes; toss

McConnell, Terry

127

Mapping Potato Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students construct a topographic map of model terrain using a potato as their model. After making the map, they should be able to explain what contour lines are and what they represent. A materials list, instructions, and background information are provided. National content standards and links to additional information are also included.

128

Potato tuber dormancy  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The date that potato tubers begin to sprout must be carefully managed to maximize crop value. Spouting of fresh, chip and fry processing tubers during storage can decrease crop value, increase water loss and pressure bruising, and may promote pathogen entry. A lack of uniform sprouting in seed potat...

129

Paleointensities From a Baked Contact: a Multi-Method Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The baked contact test is traditionally used to prove the origin of a NRM in old rocks. It consists in the comparison of the NRM from an igneous rock with that of the rock which has been reheated by that igneous rock. In the vicinity of the City of Queretaro (Mexico) such a situation is given by an upper Tertiary lava flow which has reheated profoundly underlying lake/alluvial sediments. This situation was deemed to be ideal for testing different PI methods, as the lava flow and baked sediments are thought to have different rock magnetic properties, but should have recorded the same paleointensity. As the success of paleointensity experiments is often dependent on the rock magnetic properties, such a situation may provide information about the conditions that may be responsible for the success or failure in a particular PI method. The PI methods applied to the lava and sediment rocks are: Thellier-Coe, microwave, multi-specimen pTRM, LTD-DHT Shaw.

Bohnel, H.; Herrero-Bervera, E.; Hill, M. J.; Yamamoto, Y.

2011-12-01

130

7 CFR 945.5 - Potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 945.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all...

2011-01-01

131

BAKE-OUT OF A PORTION OF A NEW HIGH-RISE OFFICE BUILDING  

EPA Science Inventory

A partial building bake-out was performed in U.S. EPA's new Region IX Headquarters' Building in San Francisco, California in July, 1990. The intent of the bake-out was to reduce indoor air contaminant concentrations associated with residual volatile organic compounds (VOCs) found...

132

Study of sponge cake batter baking process. II. Modeling and parameter estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 1D model for heat and mass transfer within a sponge cake batter during a baking process, based on the qualitative analysis of the transfer mechanisms reported in part I of this paper, is presented. With respect to previous literature reports concerning cake baking modeling, the model takes additionally into account the gas phase internal convective flux, the vapo-condensation heat

Mathieu Lostie; Roman Peczalski; Julien Andrieu; Michel Laurent

2002-01-01

133

From baking a cake to solving the diffusion equation Edward A. Olszewskia  

E-print Network

From baking a cake to solving the diffusion equation Edward A. Olszewskia Department of Physics; accepted 10 February 2006 We explain how modifying a cake recipe by changing either the dimensions of the cake or the amount of cake batter alters the baking time. We restrict our consideration to the génoise

Olszewski Jr., Edward A.

134

Exploration of functionality of low glycemic impact sugars and polyols using DSC, RVA, and cookie baking  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Consumers' interest in healthy cookies is increasing, including expectations for prebiotic nutritional benefits and low glycemic impact. Plasticization of flour polymers is critical to mixing and baking for baked goods. However, concentrated sugar solutions act as anti-plasticizers compared to wat...

135

Detection of Baking Soda in Flat Bread by Direct pH Metery and Alkalinity Measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is evaluation of direct pH metery and alkalinity measurement methods for determination of baking soda in lavash bread (a kind of flat bread) in order to introduce and recommend a good practice of control. For running the experiments, various samples of lavash bread having different concentrations of baking soda were prepared. Ten grams of each

G. H. R. Jahed Khaniki; F. Vaezi; M. Yunesian; R. Nabizadeh; G. H. A. Paseban

2007-01-01

136

Optimization of outgassing bake-out temperatures and duration of space systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Satellite components, e.g., solar panels, were subjected to bake-out tests to model outgassing characteristics and to identify methods for minimizing the bake-out time. Bake-out removes gases and particulates that are trapped at the surfaces of components during manufacture, storage, transit and handling. The tests covered temperatures from 45-85 C for up to 200 hr. Measurements of the mass loss rates were used to model the process as a function of the temperature, time and mass. Data sampling with a quartz crystal microbalance was found to be an effective means for ascertaining the mass loss rate and the activation energy of the release. The tests showed that the duration of the bake-out depends on the amount of material which must be removed and the type of outgassing which occurs. Materials which are resistant to high temperatures can be baked at the highest feasible temperatures to accelerate the outgassing process.

Scialdone, J. J.

1986-01-01

137

Easy Gardening.....Irish Potatoes  

E-print Network

This publication explains all aspects of growing Irish potatoes in a home garden. Topics include: site selection, soil preparation, varieties, planting, fertilizing, watering, harvesting, insects, diseases and serving....

McGraw, Dean; Masabni, Joseph

2009-05-17

138

Urea nitrogen for potatoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary and Conclusions  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1. \\u000a \\u000a The source of nitrogen influenced the total yield of potato tubers, the nutrient concentrations in the potato petiole and\\u000a the appearance of growing plants, especially in fields of low available phosphorus.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2. \\u000a \\u000a Urea resulted in higher nitrate-nitrogen, calcium, and magnesium concentrations in the plant petiole, but in lower phosphate-phosphorus\\u000a concentrations as compared with ammonium sulfate.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 3. 

K. B. Tyler; O. A. Lorenz; F. H. Takatori; J. C. Bishop

1962-01-01

139

Sweet Potato Pie Ingredients  

E-print Network

, beaten 1/4 cup sugar 1/4 cup brown sugar 1/2 teaspoon salt 1/4 teaspoon nutmeg 1/4 cup evaporated skim potatoes and place in saucepan. Cover with water and bring to a boil. Reduce heat and cook until tender brown sugar, use a 1/4 cup measuring cup, and add brown sugar and pack in cup until sugar is level

Liskiewicz, Maciej

140

Texas Crop Profile: Potatoes  

E-print Network

larvae and adults devour the foliage. Potato aphids suck plant juices and curl leaves. They transmit viral pathogens that cause more damage than actual feeding damage. Leafhopper feeding causes curl- ing, stunting and dwarfing, accompanied by a yel... of crops and weeds. The eggs hatch in the spring, and after one or more generations on the overwintering host plant, winged aphids are produced and migrate to a variety of other hosts, including pota- toes. Females can reproduce without mating with males...

Hall, Kent D.; Holloway, Rodney L.; Smith, Dudley

2000-04-12

141

Potato Chip Classification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity introduces the structure and function of a dichotomous key, in preparation for student identification of plant and animal specimens. It also reinforces the idea that there are many possible answers in science. Students will be able to classify specimens (in this case, potato chips) according to observable characteristics, prepare a key showing their classification system, use their key to identify a specimen, and recognize the validity of classmates' classification systems.

1998-01-01

142

Micro-Sugar-Snap and -Wire-Cut Cookie Baking with Trans- and Zero-Trans-Fat Shortenings  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The effect of trans- and zero-trans-fat shortenings on cookie-baking performance was evaluated, using the two AACC micro-cookie-baking methods. Regardless of fat type, sugar-snap cookies made with a given flour were larger in diameter, smaller in height, and greater in weight loss during baking tha...

143

77 FR 67862 - Public Notice for Waiver of Aeronautical Land-Use Assurance; J. Douglas Bake Memorial Airport...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Land-Use Assurance; J. Douglas Bake Memorial Airport (OCQ) Oconto, WI AGENCY...Parcel No. 18) at the J. Douglas Bake Memorial Airport, Oconto, WI. Parcel No. 18...to be released at the J. Douglas Bake Memorial Airport in Oconto, Wisconsin:...

2012-11-14

144

Three experiments on logical metonymy Logical metonymies (The baker began the cake baking the cake) have been assumed  

E-print Network

Three experiments on logical metonymy Logical metonymies (The baker began the cake baking the cake interpretation with complex lexical entries containing event information (cake agentive quale: baking; telic the range of possible ones on the basis of context such as the agent (The baker began the cake baking

Reyle, Uwe

145

Influence of cooking on the levels of bioactive compounds in Purple Majesty potato observed via chemical and spectroscopic means.  

PubMed

Tubers rich in phytochemicals can exhibit a potential health benefit. This work aims at studying the relative effect of different domestic cooking techniques by monitoring the level of total phenolic compounds (TP), total anthocyanins (TA) and anti-oxidant activity (AOA) on a variety of pigmented potatoes. Raw purple potatoes are a good source of anthocyanins (219 mg/kg FW) and the level of these compounds increased using different cooking techniques, with the exception of baking. However, the levels of phenolic compounds (originally 209 mg GAE/100 g FW) decreased in the cooked potatoes. Although potatoes contain different antioxidants in this work the antioxidant activity seems to be related to the levels of phenolic compounds present in the pigmented potato. The fact that some of the compounds present fluoresce enabled both steady state and time-resolved fluorescence techniques to be assessed as a non destructive means of monitoring. This elucidated the presence of different components (via spectral deconvolution and time-resolved emission spectra). Their relative contribution to the fluorescence emission was found to be affected by the different cooking process, with a longer wavelength emission appearing to relate to reflect the presence of anthocyanins. PMID:25466046

Lemos, M Adília; Aliyu, Maryam M; Hungerford, Graham

2015-04-15

146

HIGH FIELD Q-SLOPE AND THE BAKING EFFECT  

SciTech Connect

The performance of SRF cavities made of bulk Nb at high fields (peak surface magnetic field greater than about 90 mT) is characterized by exponentially increasing RF losses (high-field Q-slope), in the absence of field emission, which are often mitigated by a low temperature (100-140 °C, 12-48h) baking. In this contribution, recent experimental results and phenomenological models to explain this effect will be briefly reviewed. New experimental results on the high-field Q-slope will be presented for cavities that had been heat treated at high temperature in the presence of a small partial pressure of nitrogen. Improvement of the cavity performances have been obtained, while surface analysis measurements on Nb samples treated with the cavities revealed significantly lower hydrogen concentration than for samples that followed standard cavity treatments.

Ciovati, Gianluigi [JLAB

2009-11-01

147

Habitat manipulation in potato affects colorado potato beetle dispersal  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Increased vegetational diversity in agricultural fields may alter the movement of pests into or within a field. Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlienata) is a devastating pest of potatoes world-wide that has developed resistance to insecticides, creating a need for alternate management stra...

148

The contribution of traditional potato breeding to scientific potato improvement  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Conventional potato breeding refers to development of new cultivars from sexual crosses followed by clonal propagation and selection. Nearly all new varieties of potato still emerge from this process free from modern technologies of gene insertion. Conventional breeding remains the most important ...

149

Susceptibility of selected potato varieties to zebra chip potato disease  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Zebra chip (ZC), an emerging and serious disease of potato has caused millions of dollars in losses to the potato industry in the United States, Mexico, Central America, and New Zealand. The disease has recently been associated with a previously undescribed species of liberibacter tentatively named ...

150

Usual Intake of White potatoes  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of White potatoes Table A13. White potatoes: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.2 (0.01) 0.1

151

The Irish Potato (second report).  

E-print Network

THE IRISH POTATO. POSTOFFICE: COLLEGE STATION, BEEAZOS COUNTY, TEXAS. .J. J. PAnlumran PRINTING c% LITHO. CO., IIOUSTON, I 899. IS, TEXAS AClRlGULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS. OFFICERS- GOVERNING BOARD. C... to the Director. 11081 THE IRISH POTATO. BY R. H. PRICE AND H. NESS.* PAGE Test of Varieties. ............................................... 109 Northern and Southern Seed. .................................. 11 1 Different Sized Pieces for Planting...

Price, R. H; Ness, H.

1899-01-01

152

OVERCOMING HYBRIDIZATION BARRIERS IN POTATO  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The cultivated potato is a major crop worldwide. It is a high input crop with complex quality requirements at harvest and during storage. Potato breeders are fortunate to have access to a very diverse and accessible germplasm resource. Wild Solanum relatives provide genetic diversity as well as g...

153

"RESPONSE OF POTATO APHID (HOMOPTERA: APHIDIDAE) TO NATURAL POTATO ODOR AND SYNTHETIC POTATO-DERIVED COLORADO POTATO BEETLE KAIROMONE"  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A recently synthesized kairomone blend, based on the volatiles produced by potato plants, has been demonstrated to be attractive to both adult and larval stages of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say). It was subsequently formulated in a viscous inert carrier for field applic...

154

Potato Phytonutrient Analysis and Engineering  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potatoes have the highest per capita consumption of any vegetable, a fact which emphasizes their potential to be a key dietary source of health-promoting compounds. Only a fraction of the genetic diversity available in potato wild-species has been incorporated into modern cultivars. LCMS analysis of...

155

Breeding for Potato Nutrition Enhancement  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potato is a starchy tuber. This simple statement hides the fact that potato also is rich in phytonutrients. Variation in chemical composition and concentration is quite broad in the natural diversity available in the germplasm. Some of these phytonutrients are visually very dramatic. Anthocyanin...

156

Potato Green Bean Salad Ingredients  

E-print Network

tablespoons honey mustard 2 tablespoons rice vinegar 2 tablespoons vegetable oil Salt Freshly ground blackPotato Green Bean Salad Ingredients: 6 potatoes 15 ounces green beans, canned 1 small red onion 3, vinegar, and oil until thoroughly blended and smooth. 10. Serve warm or at room temperature. Equipment

Liskiewicz, Maciej

157

VOLUNTEER POTATO MANAGEMENT AND OUTLOOK FOR 2006  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potato tubers left in the ground following a potato harvest often over winter in regions with mild winter temperatures resulting in a serious and difficult to manage weed problem in the ensuing crop rotation. Potatoes normally are killed when they reach temperatures below 28° F. Many potato tuber...

158

Acoustic Measurement of Potato Cannon Velocity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Potato cannon velocity can be measured with a digitized microphone signal. A microphone is attached to the potato cannon muzzle, and a potato is fired at an aluminum target about 10 m away. Flight time can be determined from the acoustic waveform by subtracting the time in the barrel and time for sound to return from the target. The potato…

Courtney, Michael; Courtney, Amy

2007-01-01

159

71 FR 55356 - Potatoes; Grade Standards  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...When any of the potato and hole in a potato 2\\1/2\\ removal...aggregate length potato. of all holes is more than 2 inches, or correspondingly shorter or longer holes in smaller or larger potatoes. INTERNAL BLACK SPOT Damage: Maximum...

2006-09-22

160

Leafhopper and psyllid pests of potato  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Leafhoppers and psyllids are important pests of potato worldwide. These insects cause damage to potato by direct feeding or by acting as vectors of potato pathogens. Economically important leafhoppers that attack potato include Empoasca fabae, Macrosteles fascifrons, and Circulifer tenellus. E. faba...

161

Growing Potatoes in Your Home Garden  

E-print Network

Growing Potatoes in Your Home Garden Grow Potatoes in Your Home Garden! Kelly A. Zarka and David S home garden? *Growing potatoes produces a bountiful harvest....depending on which variety your choose, 60lbs in just 10 sq ft of garden space! *Potatoes come in all different shapes, sizes and colors

Douches, David S.

162

7 CFR 948.6 - Seed potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 948.6 Section 948.6 Agriculture...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.6 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes or seed means...

2010-01-01

163

Vitamin a added to fats as related to stability during baking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Various types of baked goods prepared from fats fortified with vitamin A have been assayed for the vitamin by the Carr-Price\\u000a color reaction and by U.S.P. bio-assays.\\u000a \\u000a In products such as bread, biscuits, and cake, which are baked under moderate conditions, it appears that 80 to 100 per cent\\u000a of the vitamin survives the baking process.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a In pie crust, which

E. E. Rice; H. C. Black; G. T. Carlin; H. E. Robinson

1942-01-01

164

Vitamin A added to fats as related to stability during baking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Various types of baked goods prepared from fats fortified with vitamin A have been assayed for the vitamin by the Carr-Price\\u000a color reaction and by U.S.P. bio-assays.\\u000a \\u000a In products such as bread, biscuits, and cake, which are baked under moderate conditions, it appears that 80 to 100 per cent\\u000a of the vitamin survives the baking process.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a In pie crust, which

E. E. Rice; H. C. Black; G. T. Carlin; H. E. Robinson

1941-01-01

165

Potatoes in Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astroculture is a suite of technologies used to produce and maintain a closed controlled environment for plant growth. The two most recent missions supported growth of potato, dwarf wheat, and mustard plants and provided scientists with the first opportunity to conduct true plant research in space. Light emitting diodes have particular usefulness for plant growth lighting because they emit a much smaller amount of radiant heat than do conventional lighting sources and because they have potential of directing a higher percentage of the emitted light onto plants surfaces. Furthermore, the high output LED's have emissions in the 600-700 nm waveband, which is of highest efficiency for photosynthesis by plants.

2004-01-01

166

The Irish Potato.  

E-print Network

extent in this State may be stated to be the difficulty in keeping the tubers in storage, the injury done by insects and fungus diseases, and the costliness of seed to plant in the spring. It is a well known fact that a large per cent, of the crop...? were rejected. They were planted March 5th to 11th. Dirt was thrown on the pieces by a broad sweep run once between the rows, to cover them. This operation left a ridge above each row of potatoes. These ridges were left until the pota? toes began...

Price, R. H.

1987-01-01

167

Moisture distribution during conventional or electrical resistance oven baking of bread dough and subsequent storage.  

PubMed

Electrical resistance oven (ERO) baking processes bread dough with little temperature gradient in the baking dough. Heating of the dough by means of an ERO is based on the principles of Joule's first law and Ohm's law. This study compared the changes in moisture distribution and physical changes in starch of breads conventionally baked or using an ERO. The moisture contents in fresh ERO breads are generally lower than those in conventional breads. During storage of conventionally baked breads, water migrates from the crumb to the crust and moisture contents decrease throughout the bread crumb. Evidently, less moisture redistribution occurs in ERO breads. Also, the protons of ERO bread constituents were less mobile than their counterparts in conventional bread. Starch retrogradation occurs to similar extents in conventional and ERO bread. As a result, the changes in proton mobility cannot be attributed to differences in levels of retrograded starch and seem to be primarily determined by the overall lower moisture content. PMID:24949810

Derde, Liesbeth J; Gomand, Sara V; Courtin, Christophe M; Delcour, Jan A

2014-07-01

168

Effect of baking on reduction of free and hidden fumonisins in gluten-free bread.  

PubMed

The aim of the present work was to assess the influence of the baking process on the fumonisin content in gluten-free bread. The dough was made using two methods: without sourdough and with sourdough. Fumonisins were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography with ion-trap mass spectrometry. This study showed that the bread baking process caused a statistically significant drop in the mean concentration of free fumonisins: the reduction levels were 30 and 32% for the direct and sourdough-based methods, respectively. The lower reduction after baking was observed for hidden fumonisins: 19 and 10%, respectively. The presence of some compounds (such as proteins or starch) capable of stabilizing fumonisins during the baking process might be responsible for the observed increase in the hidden-to-free ratio from an initial 0.72 in flour to 0.83 in bread made from sourdough and to 0.95 in sourdough-free bread. PMID:25265293

Bry?a, Marcin; Roszko, Marek; Szymczyk, Krystyna; J?drzejczak, Renata; S?owik, El?bieta; Obiedzi?ski, Mieczys?aw W

2014-10-22

169

Modelling heat and mass transfer in bread baking with mechanical deformation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the thermo-hydric behaviour of bread during baking is studied. A numerical model has been developed with Comsol Multiphysics© software. The model takes into account the heat and mass transfers in the bread and the phenomenon of swelling. This model predicts the evolution of temperature, moisture, gas pressure and deformation in French "baguette" during baking. Local deformation is included in equations using solid phase conservation and, global deformation is calculated using a viscous mechanic model. Boundary conditions are specified with the sole temperature model and vapour pressure estimation of the oven during baking. The model results are compared with experimental data for a classic baking. Then, the model is analysed according to physical properties of bread and solicitations for a better understanding of the interactions between different mechanisms within the porous matrix.

Nicolas, V.; Salagnac, P.; Glouannec, P.; Ploteau, J.-P.; Jury, V.; Boillereaux, L.

2012-11-01

170

Use of oil in baked products—Part I: Background and bread  

Microsoft Academic Search

The benefits of fat systems in yeast-raised and chemically leavened baked goods are reviewed. The effects of rising ingredient\\u000a costs and competition on ingredient technology are described, leading to a discussion concerning the trend in the United States\\u000a to switch from the standard shortenings—lard and partially hydrogenated vegetable shortening—to oil in baked products. Problems\\u000a associated with the incorporation of oil

D. I. Hartnett; W. G. Thalheimer

1979-01-01

171

The bake-out of an office building: A case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

To reduce concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOC) emitted by building materials and furnishings, it has been suggested that new buildings undergo a bake-out. This paper reports the results of the bake-out of a newly renovated office building at temperatures ranging from 32 to 39°C for 24 hours at a ventilation rate of 1.59 h⁻¹. Based upon the 14 VOC

J. R. Girman; L. E. Alevantis; G. C. Kulasingam; M. X. Petreas; L. M. Webber

1989-01-01

172

Bake-out of a portion of a new high-rise office building. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A partial building bake-out was performed in U.S. EPA's new Region IX Headquarters' Building in San Francisco, California in July, 1990. The intent of the bake-out was to reduce indoor air contaminant concentrations associated with residual volatile organic compounds (VOCs) found in a variety of common building materials and finishing agents. Four nearly identical floors from the 21 story office

A. B. Lindstrom; R. M. Taft; L. C. Michael; M. C. Oberg

1991-01-01

173

7 CFR 945.7 - Certified seed potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Certified seed potatoes. 945.7 Section 945.7...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED COUNTIES...Definitions § 945.7 Certified seed potatoes. Certified seed potatoes...

2010-01-01

174

7 CFR 945.7 - Certified seed potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Certified seed potatoes. 945.7 Section 945.7...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED COUNTIES...Definitions § 945.7 Certified seed potatoes. Certified seed potatoes...

2014-01-01

175

7 CFR 945.7 - Certified seed potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Certified seed potatoes. 945.7 Section 945.7...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED COUNTIES...Definitions § 945.7 Certified seed potatoes. Certified seed potatoes...

2012-01-01

176

7 CFR 945.7 - Certified seed potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Certified seed potatoes. 945.7 Section 945.7...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED COUNTIES...Definitions § 945.7 Certified seed potatoes. Certified seed potatoes...

2013-01-01

177

Effect of cleaning, milling, and baking on deoxynivalenol in wheat.  

PubMed Central

Samples of wheat naturally infected by Fusarium graminearum Schwabe were obtained from mills in Oklahoma, Missouri, Kansas, and Minnesota and fields in Nebraska and Kansas in 1982; they were analyzed for deoxynivalenol (DON). The wheat was milled, and DON was found throughout all the milling fractions (bran, shorts, reduction flour, and break flour). The DON recoveries for each mill run ranged from 90 to 98%. These samples, regardless of DON concentration, also gave similar fractional distributions of DON. The greatest (21 ppm [21 micrograms/g]) concentration of DON was found in the bran, and the smallest (1 ppm) was found in the break flour. Cleaning and milling were not effective in removing DON; DON was not destroyed in the bread baked from the naturally contaminated whole wheat flour, but the effect on its concentration in the samples analyzed varied, the reduction ranging from 19 to 69%. The percent reduction found in the cleaned wheat ranged from 6 to 19%. DON concentrations in the following commercially made breads, caraway rye, seedless rye, and pumpernickel, were 45 ppb (ng/g), 39 ppb, and 0 ppb, respectively. The limits of detection by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-pressure liquid chromatography for DON were 0.5 and 10 ng, respectively. PMID:4051489

Abbas, H K; Mirocha, C J; Pawlosky, R J; Pusch, D J

1985-01-01

178

Potentials of biodegraded cashew pomace for cake baking.  

PubMed

The use of biodegraded cashew pomace processed into flour for cake baking was investigated. The physico-chemical changes during the submerged fermentation of the pomace and the organoleptic qualities of the composite cake were also monitored. There was an increase of about 50% in protein content of the pomace after 96 h of fermentation. However, a reduction of about 61% in the total microbial count after 24 h was due to the toxic effect of the organic acids on the microbial cells during fermentation. The cashew flour had high crude fibre (ca. 20-33%) and carbohydrate (ca. 16-47%) values. The composite cake made from a 10:90 combination of 96 h-degraded cashew flour/wheat flour respectively was the most accepted. The cake which had a specific volume of 0.53 ml/g lost 11.1% moisture when 38 g of its batter was exposed to 190 degrees C for 10 minutes. This cake had a calorie value of 293.8/100 g and may be useful in feeding diabetic patients who require low carbohydrate foods. PMID:1315432

Aderiye, B I; Igbedioh, S O; Caurie, S A

1992-04-01

179

A comparison of UV cross-linking and vacuum baking for nucleic acid immobilization and retention  

SciTech Connect

The effectiveness of UV cross-linking and in vacuo baking for the immobilization and retention of DNA to various solid supports was investigated. Optimal immobilization treatments for supported and unsupported nitrocellulose and nylon membranes were: UV cross-linking at 254 nm with an exposure of 120 milliJoules/cm{sup 2}, or baking in vacuo for two hours at 80{degrees}C. UV-immobilized nitrocellulose-based membranes showed no increase in sensitivity when compared to baked membranes. An increase in sensitivity was observed for UV-immobilized nylon membranes as compared with baked nylon membranes in some instances, although this varied within lots of the membranes tested. Repeated strippings and heterologous reprobings resulted in loss of target DNA from UV-immobilized nylon membranes as compared to baked nylon membranes. Loss of target DNA from UV-immobilized nitrocellulose-based membranes due to repeated strippings and reprobings was even more pronounced. In vacuo baking of supported and unsupported nitrocellulose and nylon membranes was more effective for immobilization, and more importantly, for retention of target DNA through many reprobings of the same blot.

Nierzwicki-Bauer, S.A.; Gebhardt, J.S.; Linkkila, L.; Walsh, K. (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (USA))

1990-10-01

180

Impingement drying of potato chips  

E-print Network

coefficient. They presented lower values of hardness and lower vitamin C content. A higher rate of evaporation during the falling rate period was obtained when superheated steam was used as compared to air impingement drying. Potato chips produced using...

Caixeta, Aline Teixeira

2001-01-01

181

Did you know? We have a Gluten Free Menu, just ask at the bar!  

E-print Network

- Friday 11am -9pm Saturday 12 noon - 9pm Sunday Bar 9.30am - 11pm Monday - Thursday 9.30am - midnight Friday 11am - midnight Saturday 12noon - 11pm Sunday Find us on Level Two of the Students' Union Main, drizzled with basil oil. Served hot with potato wedges, salad and your choice of soured cream, barbecue

Oakley, Jeremy

182

Vacuum frying of potato chips  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vacuum frying was tested as an alternative technique to develop low oil content potato chips. The effect of oil temperature (118, 132, 144 °C) and vacuum pressure (16.661, 9.888, and 3.115 kPa) on the drying rate and oil absorption of potato chips and on the product quality attributes such as shrinkage, color, and texture was investigated. Furthermore, the characteristics of

Jagoba Garayo; Rosana Moreira

2002-01-01

183

Bar Graph Mania  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Use these activities to build and interpret data on bar graphs. Catch all the bugs in the system and put them in the correct column of the bar graph. Answer the questions about the bugs in the graph. Catch bugs in six rooms. Bugs in the system Do these bar graphing activities. You don\\'t have to do the last question ...

Ms. Thurlow

2005-10-26

184

Soft-Bake Purification of SWCNTs Produced by Pulsed Laser Vaporization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The "soft-bake" method is a simple and reliable initial purification step first proposed by researchers at Rice University for single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) produced by high-pressure carbon mon oxide disproportionation (HiPco). Soft-baking consists of annealing as-produced (raw) SWCNT, at low temperatures in humid air, in order to degrade the heavy graphitic shells that surround metal particle impurities. Once these shells are cracked open by the expansion and slow oxidation of the metal particles, the metal impurities can be digested through treatment with hydrochloric acid. The soft-baking of SWCNT produced by pulsed-laser vaporization (PLV) is not straightforward, because the larger average SWCNT diameters (.1.4 nm) and heavier graphitic shells surrounding metal particles call for increased temperatures during soft-bake. A part of the technology development focused on optimizing the temperature so that effective cracking of the graphitic shells is balanced with maintaining a reasonable yield, which was a critical aspect of this study. Once the ideal temperature was determined, a number of samples of raw SWCNT were purified using the soft-bake method. An important benefit to this process is the reduced time and effort required for soft-bake versus the standard purification route for SWCNT. The total time spent purifying samples by soft-bake is one week per batch, which equates to a factor of three reduction in the time required for purification as compared to the standard acid purification method. Reduction of the number of steps also appears to be an important factor in improving reproducibility of yield and purity of SWCNT, as small deviations are likely to get amplified over the course of a complicated multi-step purification process.

Yowell, Leonard; Nikolaev, Pavel; Gorelik, Olga; Allada, Rama Kumar; Sosa, Edward; Arepalli, Sivaram

2013-01-01

185

T. Pun et al The Potato Operation 1 The Potato Operation  

E-print Network

T. Pun et al The Potato Operation 1 The Potato Operation: Computer vision for agricultural robotics Thierry Pun 1 , Marc Lefebvre 1 , Sylvia Gil 1 , Denis Brunet 1 Jean­Daniel Dessimoz 2 , Paul Gugerli 3 1, Nov. 10­15, 1991. #12; T. Pun et al The Potato Operation 2 starting from bunches of potatoes that have

Genève, Université de

186

T. Pun et al The Potato Operation 1 The Potato Operation  

E-print Network

T. Pun et al The Potato Operation 1 The Potato Operation: Computer vision for agricultural robotics Thierry Pun1 , Marc Lefebvre1 , Sylvia Gil1 , Denis Brunet1 Jean-Daniel Dessimoz2 , Paul Gugerli3 1, Nov. 10-15, 1991. #12;T. Pun et al The Potato Operation 2 starting from bunches of potatoes that have

Genève, Université de

187

Introduction The Colorado potato beetle became a pest when settlers brought potatoes into the Rocky  

E-print Network

16 Introduction The Colorado potato beetle became a pest when settlers brought potatoes, and now is a serious pest throughout the U.S. and Eastern Canada. The Colorado potato beetle feeds size. Description The larvae of the Colorado potato beetle are up to 1/2" long, hump- backed and shaped

New Hampshire, University of

188

PLANT RESISTANCE Field and Storage Testing Bt Potatoes for Resistance to Potato  

E-print Network

PLANT RESISTANCE Field and Storage Testing Bt Potatoes for Resistance to Potato Tuberworm thuringiensis (Bt) toxin gene through genetic engineering offers host plant resistance for the management of potato tuberworm. We report on the Þeld and storage studies to evaluate Bt-cry5 potato lines

Douches, David S.

189

21 CFR 102.41 - Potato chips made from dried potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potato chips made from dried potatoes. 102.41 Section 102.41 Food and Drugs...for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.41 Potato chips made from dried potatoes. (a)...

2010-04-01

190

Baking of Flat Bread in an Impingement Oven: An Experimental Study of Heat Transfer and Quality Aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new impingement oven was designed and tested for its thermal and quality performance for baking of thin flat bread. The test facility was instrumented to monitor and record during the baking process. Bread temperature and weight loss were recorded on-line during baking at oven temperatures of 150, 175, 200, 225, and 250°C and 1, 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 m\\/s

S. Banooni; S. M. Hosseinalipour; A. S. Mujumdar; E. Taheran; M. Bahiraei; P. Taherkhani

2008-01-01

191

WEED MANAGEMENT IN POTATOES WITH SPARTAN HERBICIDE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Spartan (sulfentrazone) is a new herbicide for weed management in potatoes. Sulfentrazone applied preemergence controls hairy and black nightshade, redroot pigweed, common lambsquarters, and kochia in potatoes. Spartan may be tank mixed with metribuzin, s-metolachlor, rimsulfuron, pendimethalin, o...

192

Baking Reduces Prostaglandin, Resolvin, and Hydroxy-Fatty Acid Content of Farm-Raised Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar)  

PubMed Central

Consumption of seafood enriched in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease. Several n-3 oxidation products from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) have known protective effects in the vasculature. It is not known whether consumption of cooked seafood enriched in n-3 PUFA causes appreciable consumption of lipid oxidation products. We tested the hypothesis that baking Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) increases the level of n-3 and n-6 PUFA oxidation products over raw salmon. We measured the content of several monohydroxy-fatty acids (MHFA), prostanoids, and resolvins. Our data demonstrate that baking did not change the overall total levels of MHFA. However, baking resulted in selective regio-isomeric loss of hydroxy fatty acids from arachidonic acid (20:4n-6), and EPA while significantly increasing hydroxyl-linoleic acid levels. The content of prostanoids and resolvins were reduced several-fold with baking. The inclusion of coating upon the salmon prior to baking reduced the loss of some MHFA but had no effect upon prostanoid losses incurred by baking. Baking did not decrease n-3 PUFA content indicating that baking of salmon is an acceptable means of preparation that does not alter the potential health benefits of high n-3 seafood consumption. The extent to which the levels of MHFA, prostanoids and resolvins in the raw or baked fish have physiologic consequence for humans needs to be determined. PMID:21919483

Raatz, Susan K.; Golovko, Mikhail Y.; Brose, Stephen A.; Rosenberger, Thad A.; Burr, Gary S.; Wolters, William R.; Picklo, Matthew J.

2011-01-01

193

A 3D mathematical model for the horizontal anode baking furnace  

SciTech Connect

In the aluminum industry, carbon anodes are baked in large horizontal or vertical ring-type furnaces. The anode quality depends strongly on the baking conditions (heating rate, soaking time and final anode temperature). A three-dimensional mathematical model has been developed for a horizontal anode baking furnace to assess the effects of different parameters on the baking process and to improve the furnace operation and design at Noranda Aluminum Smelter in New Madrid, Missouri. The commercial CFD code CFDS-FLOW3D is used to solve the governing differential equations. The model gives the temperature, velocity and concentration distributions in the flue, and the variation of the temperature distribution with time in the pit. In this paper, a description of the 3D model for the horizontal anode baking furnace will be given. Some of the results from a case study will also be presented. The results show clearly the importance of flue geometry on the gas flow distribution in the flue and the heat transfer to the anodes.

Kocaefe, Y.S.; Dernedde, E.; Kocaefe, D. [Univ. of Quebec, Chicoutimi, Quebec (Canada). Dept. of Applied Sciences; Ouellet, R.; Jiao, Q. [Noranda Technology Centre, Pointe Claire, Quebec (Canada); Crowell, W.F. [Noranda Aluminum Inc., New Madrid, MO (United States)

1996-10-01

194

Maximizing the nutritional potential of potato  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

As the most eaten vegetable in the United States, potatoes have tremendous potential to be a valuable source of vitamins and phytonutrients in the diet. Potato is the only tuber amongst all the world’s major food crops, most of which are grains or roots. Potatoes are already known to be a good sour...

195

Effects of plastic mulch on potato growth  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Northern China is a major potato production region, and water-saving measures that can enhance both potato yield and quality play an important role in this region due to general water shortages. Plastic mulch has been used as an effective water-saving measure for potato cultivation in China. This ch...

196

Potato production in the United States  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potatoes have been a staple in the American diet for almost 250 years. The United States is the world's fifth biggest producer, behind China, India, the Russian Federation, and the Ukraine. Potatoes in the United States are grown in nearly every state. Idaho produces approximately 1/3 of all potatoe...

197

Italian Herb Red Potato Salad Ingredients  

E-print Network

. Carefully stir in bell peppers and onions. 6. Cover and chill until ready to serve. Equipment: Cutting boardItalian Herb Red Potato Salad Ingredients: 1 1/2 pounds red potatoes 1 green pepper 1 red onion 1/4 teaspoon garlic powder 1/4 teaspoon ground black pepper Directions 1. Wash potatoes, and cut into quarters

Liskiewicz, Maciej

198

POTATOES AS A SOURCE OF DIETARY NUTRIENTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potatoes are the most eaten vegetable, with the average American consuming about 140 pounds a year. Given this high consumption, potatoes have considerable potential to be a source of dietary phytonutrients. Developing and positioning potato as a “functional food,” (i.e., a food that provides health...

199

Genetic diversity of potato virus Y complex  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potato virus Y (PVY) has re-emerged as a significant problem in all potato-producing areas, including North America. PVY exists as a complex of strains producing a range of disease symptoms in various potato cultivars leading to yield reduction, and some of these strains are known to affect tuber qu...

200

Field and Greenhouse Performance of Potato Sprouts  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The use of potato sprouts as a seed source is an innovative idea that has gained international recognition in recent years. The potato industry in Alaska currently relies on freshpack for the majority of sales. A low level of disease pressure on potato seed production in Alaska suggests high quality...

201

Potato Types: Their Characteristics and Uses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents material for a talk and demonstration about the relationship of potato types to their different uses by consumers and processors. Includes background information for the instructor and discussions to accompany classroom exercises. Discusses the history of the potato, potato types and external characteristics, and internal characteristics…

Pavlista, Alexander D.

1997-01-01

202

Sustainable potato production: global case studies  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is grown in over 100 countries throughout the world. As a staple food, potato is the fourth most important crop after rice, wheat, and maize, and has historically contributed to food and nutrition security in the world. Global interest in potato increased sharply in 200...

203

Baking impact on photoelectrochemical cells performance of electrodeposited CdSe films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cadmium selenide (CdSe) nanocrystalline thin films in the form of upright nanocones, perpendicular to substrate surface, are grown electrochemically onto a conducting and transparent indium-tin-oxide substrate at room temperature and impact of baking under oxygen flow on their structure, morphology, optical absorbance and dark-light photoelectrochemical cell performance is explored. Crystallinity improvement followed by enhancement in the surface roughness 11-19 nm and reduction in water contact angle from 60° to 22° (±0.2)° due to baking impact showed increase in crystallite size from 25 to 100 Å. Increase in current density from 0.07 to 5.61 mA/cm 2 after baking under oxygen flow has promoted the conversion efficiency to 0.5% from 0.007%.

Shaikh, Arif V.; Mane, Rajaram S.; Joo, Oh-Shim; Pawar, B. N.; Lee, Joong Kee; Han, Sung-Hwan

2011-10-01

204

Production of herbicide-resistant transgenic sweet potato plants through Agrobacterium tumefaciens method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transgenic herbicide-resistant sweet potato plants [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] were produced through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system. Embryogenic calli derived from shoot apical meristems were infected with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 harboring the pCAMBIA3301 vector containing the bar gene encoding phosphinothricin N-acetyltransferase (PAT) and the gusA gene encoding ?-glucuronidase (GUS). The PPT-resistant calli and plants were selected with 5 and 2.5 mg l?1 PPT,

Hye Jin Choi; Thummala Chandrasekhar; Hyo-Yeon Lee; Kyung-Moon Kim

2007-01-01

205

Genotype-independent leaf disc transformation of potato ( Solanum tuberosum ) using Agrobacterium tumefaciens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaves of the in vitro grown potato cultivars ‘Bintje’, ‘Berolina’, ‘Desiree’, and ‘Russet Burbank’ were wounded and co-cultivated with Agrobacterium strains having chimeric bar and nptII genes on a disarmed T-DNA. Each leaf from these cultivars formed numerous calli on kanamycin-containing medium, and almost all calli regenerated shoots. For ‘Russet Burbank’, it was necessary to include AgNO3 in the medium

M. Block

1988-01-01

206

SENSORY ANALYSIS OF THE FLESH OF TWO BAKED RUSSET CULTIVARS: RUSSET BURBANK AND RUSSET NORKOTAH.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potato growers and breeders are interested in evaluating flavor of new potato varieties. Flavor can be analyzed using sensory evaluations or biochemical analyses. We are interested in using both types of analyses to evaluate the effect of both environment and genetics on flavor. We conducted a senso...

207

Controlling Potato Blight: Past, Present, and Future  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Potato late blight, Phytophthora infestans, has an infamous past, yet it continues to present a challenge to modern day farmers. Historical scenarios in the LateBlight simulation help us define the impact of this disease before the interactions between this microbe and the potato were understood. Modern scenarios enable us to investigate current strategies to control this pathogen from the management of cull piles to the use of genetically engineered potatoes. A life cycle model, Potato Late Blight, provides an additional method for exploring microbial interactions. * make a profit or lose the farm as you investigate the economic consequences of using chemical control approaches to managing late blight in potatoes

Ethel D. Stanley (Beloit College; Biology)

2006-05-20

208

Determination of bake time and temperature of painted plastic using mathematical morphology and neural networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses a new automated image analysis technique for inspecting and monitoring changes in plastic bumper surfaces during the paint-baking process. This new technique produces excellent performance, and is appropriate for on-line production monitoring as well as laboratory analysis. The objective of this work was to develop an accurate method for determining the paint bake time and temperature at which parts had been treated. This task was accomplished using mathematical morphology to extract differentiating features from samples collected at three magnifications and sending these feature-vectors to a back-propagation neural network for classification.

Lougheed, Robert M.; Mikulec, Michelle; Trenkle, John M.; McCubbrey, David L.

1997-09-01

209

On the Decomposition of Martensite During Bake Hardening of Thermomechanically Processed TRIP Steels  

SciTech Connect

Thermomechanically processed (TMP) CMnSi transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) steels with and without additions of Nb, Mo, or Al were subjected to prestraining and bake hardening. Atom probe tomography (APT) revealed the presence of fine C-rich clusters in the martensite of all studied steels after the thermomechanical processing. After bake hardening, the formation of iron carbides, containing from 25 to 90 at. pct C, was observed. The evolution of iron carbide compositions was independent of steel composition and was a function of carbide size.

Pereloma, E. V. [University of Wollongong, Wollongong, Australia; Miller, Michael K [ORNL; Timokhina, I. B. [Monash University, Australia

2008-01-01

210

Bake condition effect on hybrid lithography process for negative-tone chemically amplified resists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the process optimization study of negative tone Chemically Amplified Resists (CAR) under E-Beam exposure. The importance of post apply bake temperature choice on resolution is underlined. The process study determines the process window in which optimal conditions of both post apply and post exposure bake steps are defined and present a method to define more precisely the thermal cross-linking onset. Finally lithographic performances of CARs are studied and we show that resolution can be pushed down to 40 nm.

Pain, Laurent; Sala, F.; Higgins, C.; Dal'zotto, B.; Tedesco, Serge V.

2000-06-01

211

Rapid baking characteristics and energy efficiency of an impingement air oven compared to a reel oven  

E-print Network

products independently or in corn bi na t ion with microwave energy. There is however, no scientific published documents t ion of i t s a bi 1 i ty to bake products and accomplish the baking faster and with less energy. This research proposes... and cooking or reheat ing was ace om pl i shed by a computer controlled microwave and ?Jet Sweep" heating combination. Applicat ion of the "Jet Sweep" impingement air i n this case was used only to accomplish crisping by drying of the surface of certain...

Smith, Lloyd Hobart

1983-01-01

212

Thermal Analysis of the Divertor Primary Heat Transfer System Piping During the Gas Baking Process  

SciTech Connect

A preliminary analysis has been performed examining the temperature distribution in the Divertor Primary Heat Transfer System (PHTS) piping and the divertor itself during the gas baking process. During gas baking, it is required that the divertor reach a temperature of 350 C. Thermal losses in the piping and from the divertor itself require that the gas supply temperature be maintained above that temperature in order to ensure that all of the divertor components reach the required temperature. The analysis described in this report was conducted in order to estimate the required supply temperature from the gas heater.

Yoder Jr, Graydon L [ORNL; Harvey, Karen [ORNL; Ferrada, Juan J [ORNL

2011-02-01

213

Number Line Bars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teachers and students can use this interactive Java applet to model and carry out arithmetic operations on the number line. Users manipulate the size, position, and direction of color bars to represent addition, subtraction, multiplication and division with whole numbers, integers and fractions. Options include the ability to zoom in and out, change the colors of the bars, and adjust the step size of the bars and number line increments.

2000-01-01

214

Degradation of pentachlorophenol by potato polyphenol oxidase.  

PubMed

In this study, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was extracted from commercial potatoes. Degradation of pentachlorophenol by potato PPO was investigated. The experimental results show that potato PPO is more active in weak acid than in basic condition and that the optimum pH for the reaction is 5.0. The degradation of pentachlorophenol by potato PPO reaches a maximum at 298 K. After reaction for 1 h, the removal of both pentachlorophenol and total organic carbon is >70% with 6.0 units/mL potato PPO at pH 5.0 and 298 K. Pentachlorophenol can be degraded through dechlorination and ring-opening by potato PPO. The work demonstrates that pentachlorophenol can be effectively eliminated by crude potato PPO. PMID:21967325

Hou, Mei-Fang; Tang, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Wei-De; Liao, Lin; Wan, Hong-Fu

2011-11-01

215

Adaptive fuzzy control based on variable universe and its application to humidity control in tobacco first baking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The control of humidity in process of tobacco first baking is non-linear time-variant and inertial, it is disturbed by some factors in production. It is difficult to achieve a good control effects by traditional control methods. Adaptive fuzzy control based on variable universe has advantages such as high precision, fast response and strong flexibility. Because humidity control in first baking

Guolin Che; Hua Lai

2010-01-01

216

Influence of yeast and vegetable shortening on physical and textural parameters of frozen part baked French bread  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this project was to study the influence of yeast and vegetable shortening on physical and textural parameters of frozen part baked French bread stored for 28 days and to produce a frozen part baked bread with physical and textural characteristics similar to those of the fresh one. Four formulations were used with different quantities of yeast and

L. G Carr; C. C Tadini

2003-01-01

217

Products cooked in preheated versus non-preheated ovens. Baking times, calculated energy consumption, and product quality compared.  

PubMed

Plain muffins, yellow cake, baked custard, apple pie, tuna casserole, frozen tuna casserole, cheese soufflé, and meat loaf were baked in preheated and non-preheated standard gas, continuous-clean gas, standard electric, and self-cleaning electric ovens. Products generally required 5 min. or less extra baking time when cooked in non-preheated rather than in preheated ovens. The variability in baking times often was less between preheated and non-preheated ovens than among oven types. Calculated energy consumption values showed that usually less energy was required to bake products in non-preheated than in preheated ovens; savings averaged about 10 percent. Few significant differences were found in physical measurements or eating quality either between preheated and non-preheated ovens or among oven types. Overall, for the products tested, findings confirmed that preheating the oven is not essential for good product quality and, therefore, is an unnecessary use of energy. PMID:7108076

Odland, D; Davis, C

1982-08-01

218

VOLUNTEER POTATO INTERFERENCE IN CARROT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Weed management systems in carrot are limited in part by lack of a fundamental understanding of crop/weed interactions. Irrigated field studies were conducted to quantify the effect of volunteer potato density and duration of interference on carrot yield and determine relationships among weed densi...

219

A dual web potato harvester  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using information gathered from trials with a dual web potato digger, a single-row, power take-off driven harvester was manufactured. The machine has dual rod-link webs running one within the other. The outer web rods are spaced 51 mm apart and the inner web rods 32 mm apart.

J. Carruthers

1977-01-01

220

Storage Management of Alturas Potatoes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Alturas is a multi-purpose potato variety released by the Agricultural Research Service and the agricultural experiment stations of Idaho, Oregon, and Washington in 2002. Originally developed for use by the dehydration industry, Alturas has since been adopted for use in the production of frozen pot...

221

Bar Graph Sorter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students make bar graphs by sorting shapes either by shape or by color. This activity allows students to explore how to sort data to make bar graphs. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

2011-03-09

222

Multi Bar Graph  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students enter in data to be represented in a double bar graph. Multi bar graphs allow the student to compare multiple characteristics of different subjects like population for different continents over time. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

Shodor

2012-04-02

223

Building Brilliant Bar Graphs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this series of three lesson plans, students create bar graphs, double bar graphs, and determine appropriate intervals for scale. Each lesson incorporates teacher modeling, student practice (students have an opportunity to label and create the scale for their own graphs), assessment (including rubrics), and reteaching or extension options.

Briana Bower

2005-01-01

224

Bar-biting  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bar biting is regarded as a stereotypic behavior in which the animal carries out repetitive mouthing and biting of the metal bars in its environmental enclosure. It is commonly seen in sows housed in close confinement, in barren environments, and with restricted access to food. However, it has also ...

225

Staling of frozen partly and fully baked breads. Study of the combined effect of amylopectin recrystallization and water content on bread firmness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Partly baked (PB) and fully baked (FB) breads were frozen at ?18 °C for 7, 21, 63, 92, 126 and 188 d and were analysed after its thawing (FB) or thawing and final baking (PB). The starch retrogradation, the moisture content and the firmness were measured as properties closely related to the aging of bread. The temperature of glass transition of the

Felicidad Ronda; Pedro A. Caballero; Joan Quilez; Yrjö H. Roos

2011-01-01

226

Flour, dough, and baking quality attributes of hard red spring wheat cultivars grown in North Dakota  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The State of North Dakota is number one in the production of hard red spring wheat (HRSW) with approximately 7 million acres devoted to this crop. HRSW has superior characteristics for bread baking, and is used in blends with other wheat to improve the quality of the final flour. Nineteen different ...

227

Blueback fish: Fatty acid profile in selected seasons and retention upon baking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of the catching season (either Autumn\\/Winter or Spring) on lipid content, fatty acid profile and true retention values after oven baking were determined in anchovy (Engraulis encrasicholus), sardine (Sardina pilchardus), sprat (Sprattus sprattus) and horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) from the North Adriatic sea. In the raw state, the catching season induced significant changes in the flesh lipid contents

Maurizio Pirini; Silvia Testi; Vittoria Ventrella; Alessandra Pagliarani; Anna Badiani

2010-01-01

228

Kernel, Milling and Baking Properties of Spring-Type Spelt and Einkorn Wheats  

Microsoft Academic Search

One accession of einkorn (Triticum monococcum) and five spring spelt accessions (T. aestivumsubsp.spelta) were selected and grown at five locations in 1992 and 1993 for evaluation of kernel, milling and baking properties. The high protein einkorn accession (TM23) was similar to common hard red spring (HRS) wheat in kernel size but the soft grain gave low flour yields. Einkorn flour

E. S. M. Abdel-Aal; P. Hucl; F. W. Sosulski; P. R. Bhirud

1997-01-01

229

Improvement in melting and baking properties of low-fat Mozzarella cheese.  

PubMed

Low-fat cheeses dehydrate too quickly when baked in a forced air convection oven, preventing proper melting on a pizza. To overcome this problem, low-fat Mozzarella cheese was developed in which fat is released onto the cheese surface during baking to prevent excessive dehydration. Low-fat Mozzarella cheese curd was made with target fat contents of 15, 30, 45, and 60 g/kg using direct acidification of the milk to pH 5.9 before renneting. The 4 portions of cheese curd were comminuted and then mixed with sufficient glucono-?-lactone and melted butter (45, 30, 15, or 0 g/kg, respectively), then pressed into blocks to produce low-fat Mozzarella cheese with about 6% fat and pH 5.2. The cheeses were analyzed after 15, 30, 60, and 120 d of storage at 5°C for melting characteristics, texture, free oil content, dehydration performance, and stretch when baked on a pizza at 250°C for 6 min in a convection oven. Cheeses made with added butter had higher stretchability compared with the control cheese. Melting characteristics also improved in contrast to the control cheese, which remained in the form of shreds during baking and lacked proper melting. The cheeses made with added butter had higher free oil content, which correlated (R2?0.92) to the amount of butterfat added, and less hardness and gumminess compared with the control low fat cheese. PMID:21426959

Wadhwani, R; McManus, W R; McMahon, D J

2011-04-01

230

Awaken to the World of Food Service; Commercial Cooking and Baking--Basic: 9193.01.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This course outline has been prepared as a guide for the tenth grade student in commercial cooking and baking or food management, production, and services. It provides basic experiences in the field of commercial food service, the hotel and restaurant industry and types of food service establishments. The course consists of 90 clock hours, covered…

Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

231

Cooking Can Be Profitable; Commercial Cooking and Baking 1:9193.03.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The course outline is prepared as a guide for the 10th grade student in Commercial Cooking and Baking or Food Management Production and Service. The course introduces the student to effective production of high quality foods and develops an understanding of high standards in quality food service. Totaling 90 hours of instruction, nine blocks of…

Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

232

Cloning and characterization of a Weissella confusa dextransucrase and its application in high fibre baking.  

PubMed

Wheat bran offers health benefits as a baking ingredient, but is detrimental to bread textural quality. Dextran production by microbial fermentation improves sourdough bread volume and freshness, but extensive acid production during fermentation may negate this effect. Enzymatic production of dextran in wheat bran was tested to determine if dextran-containing bran could be used in baking without disrupting bread texture. The Weissella confusa VTT E-90392 dextransucrase gene was sequenced and His-tagged dextransucrase Wc392-rDSR was produced in Lactococcus lactis. Purified enzyme was characterized using (14)C-sucrose radioisotope and reducing value-based assays, the former yielding K(m) and V(max) values of 14.7 mM and 8.2 ?mol/(mg ? min), respectively, at the pH optimum of 5.4. The structure and size of in vitro dextran product was similar to dextran produced in vivo. Dextran (8.1% dry weight) was produced in wheat bran in 6 h using Wc392-rDSR. Bran with and without dextran was used in wheat baking at 20% supplementation level. Dextran presence improved bread softness and neutralized bran-induced volume loss, clearly demonstrating the potential of using dextransucrases in bran bioprocessing for use in baking. PMID:25603169

Kajala, Ilkka; Shi, Qiao; Nyyssölä, Antti; Maina, Ndegwa Henry; Hou, Yaxi; Katina, Kati; Tenkanen, Maija; Juvonen, Riikka

2015-01-01

233

Effect of baking and storage on the fatty acid composition of cookies with chia seed meal  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed is an ancient crop of the Aztecs that has recently gained interest as a functional food. Chia seeds are a good source of polyphenolic compounds with antioxidant activity. However, the effect of baking and storage on the antioxidant properties of chia seed meal is not ...

234

Cloning and Characterization of a Weissella confusa Dextransucrase and Its Application in High Fibre Baking  

PubMed Central

Wheat bran offers health benefits as a baking ingredient, but is detrimental to bread textural quality. Dextran production by microbial fermentation improves sourdough bread volume and freshness, but extensive acid production during fermentation may negate this effect. Enzymatic production of dextran in wheat bran was tested to determine if dextran-containing bran could be used in baking without disrupting bread texture. The Weissella confusa VTT E-90392 dextransucrase gene was sequenced and His-tagged dextransucrase Wc392-rDSR was produced in Lactococcus lactis. Purified enzyme was characterized using 14C-sucrose radioisotope and reducing value-based assays, the former yielding Km and Vmax values of 14.7 mM and 8.2 ?mol/(mg?min), respectively, at the pH optimum of 5.4. The structure and size of in vitro dextran product was similar to dextran produced in vivo. Dextran (8.1% dry weight) was produced in wheat bran in 6 h using Wc392-rDSR. Bran with and without dextran was used in wheat baking at 20% supplementation level. Dextran presence improved bread softness and neutralized bran-induced volume loss, clearly demonstrating the potential of using dextransucrases in bran bioprocessing for use in baking. PMID:25603169

Kajala, Ilkka; Shi, Qiao; Nyyssölä, Antti; Maina, Ndegwa Henry; Hou, Yaxi; Katina, Kati; Tenkanen, Maija; Juvonen, Riikka

2015-01-01

235

Recipes for Baking Black Forest Databases Building and Querying Black Hole Merger Trees from  

E-print Network

to be assembled in merger tree histories to model the process where two or more black holes merge to form a largerRecipes for Baking Black Forest Databases Building and Querying Black Hole Merger Trees from holes play a dominant role on the forma- tion of these structure. The properties of the black holes need

236

Recipes for Baking Black Forest Databases Building and Querying Black Hole Merger Trees from Cosmological  

E-print Network

or more black holes merge to form a larger one. In the past this analysis has been carried out with customRecipes for Baking Black Forest Databases Building and Querying Black Hole Merger Trees from, black holes play a dominant role on the formation of these structure. Computational cosmologists

237

Pesticide residues, PCBs and PAHs in baked, charbroiled, salt boiled and smoked Great Lakes lake trout  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skin-off lean lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush namaycush) from Lakes Huron, Michigan and Ontario as well as siscowets (fat lake trout) (Salvelinus namaycush siscowet) from Lake Superior were cooked by baking and charbroiling to determine the potential of processing\\/cooking on reducing the levels of pesticides and total PCBs in fish at the dinner table. Lake trout from Lakes Michigan and Superior

Mary E Zabik; Al Booren; Matthew J Zabik; Robert Welch; Harold Humphrey

1996-01-01

238

Formation of monochloropropane-1,2-diol and its esters in biscuits during baking.  

PubMed

The formation of free monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD and 2-MCPD) and its esters (bound-MCPD) was investigated in biscuits baked with various time and temperature combinations. The effect of salt as a source of chloride on the formation of these processing contaminants was also determined. Kinetic examination of the data indicated that an increasing baking temperature led to an increase in the reaction rate constants for 3-MCPD, 2-MCPD, and bound-MCPD. The activation energies of formation of 3-MCPD and 2-MCPD were found to be 29 kJ mol(-1). Eliminating salt from the recipe decreased 3-MCPD and 2-MCPD formation rate constants in biscuits by 57.5 and 85.4%, respectively. In addition, there was no formation of bound-MCPD in biscuits during baking without salt. Therefore, lowering the thermal load or limiting the chloride concentration should be considered a means of reducing or eliminating the formation of these contaminants in biscuits. Different refined oils were also used in the recipe to test their effect on the occurrence of free MCPD and its esters in biscuits. Besides the baking process, the results also confirmed the role of refined oil in the final concentration of these contaminants in biscuits. PMID:25004252

Mogol, Burçe Ataç; Pye, Céline; Anderson, Warwick; Crews, Colin; Gökmen, Vural

2014-07-23

239

Crust formation and its role during bread baking1 Vanin, F.M.1,2  

E-print Network

on the structural elements in dough films and the porous network are discussed, highlighting the lack of data baking, heat (HT) and moisture (MT) transport take place in the dough simultaneously and interdependently vaporises at the cell/dough interface, and gases accumulated during fermentation (CO2, ethanol) or generated

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

240

How the sourdough may affect the functional features of leavened baked goods.  

PubMed

Sourdough fermentation is one of the oldest food biotechnologies, which has been studied and recently rediscovered for its effect on the sensory, structural, nutritional and shelf life properties of leavened baked goods. Acidification, proteolysis and activation of a number of enzymes as well as the synthesis of microbial metabolites cause several changes during sourdough fermentation, which affect the dough and baked good matrix, and influence the nutritional/functional quality. Currently, the literature is particularly rich of results, which show how the sourdough fermentation may affect the functional features of leavened baked goods. In the form of pre-treating raw materials, fermentation through sourdough may stabilize or to increase the functional value of bran fractions and wheat germ. Sourdough fermentation may decrease the glycaemic response of baked goods, improve the properties and bioavailability of dietary fibre complex and phytochemicals, and may increase the uptake of minerals. Microbial metabolism during sourdough fermentation may also produce new nutritionally active compounds, such as peptides and amino acid derivatives (e.g., ?-amino butyric acid) with various functionalities, and potentially prebiotic exo-polysaccharides. The wheat flour digested via fungal proteases and selected sourdough lactobacilli has been demonstrated to be probably safe for celiac patients. PMID:24230470

Gobbetti, Marco; Rizzello, Carlo G; Di Cagno, Raffaella; De Angelis, Maria

2014-02-01

241

ORGANIC EMISSIONS EVALUATION OF A PAINT BAKE OVEN WITH CATALYTIC INCINERATION  

EPA Science Inventory

This report describes a test program conducted at a paint bake oven facility. The purpose was to measure total hydrocarbon (THC) concentrations at the inlet and outlet of an incinerator with heat recovery used to reduce organic solvent emissions. Data were also collected to evalu...

242

Detection of Baking Soda in Flat Bread by Direct pH Metery and Alkalinity Measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this study is evaluation of direct pH metery and alkalinity measurement methods for determination of baking soda in lavash bread (a kind of flat bread) in order to introduce and recommend a good practice of control. For running the experiments, various samples of lavash bread having different concentrations of baking soda were prepared. Ten grams of each sample were mixed with distilled water and then the prepared solutions were filtrated. The filtrates were then analyzed for pH and total alkalinity according to the distractions described in Standard Methods. Results show a significant correlation between the pH values of bread samples and the amount of baking soda. Also, a positive correlation has been observed between the alkalinity of bread samples and used baking soda. By comparing the R2-values specified for these two methods it could be concluded that the direct pH metery method is more reasonable. Furthermore, by this simple method it is possible to accelerate the detection of minute amounts of this chemical in bread.

Jahed Khaniki, G. H. R.; Vaezi, F.; Yunesian, M.; Nabizadeh, R.; Paseban, G. H. A.

243

Resistant starch formation in bread as influenced by choice of ingredients or baking conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation of resistant starch (RS) in bread products was evaluated in vitro in relation to the processing conditions. The impact of the particular baking conditions applied to pumpernickel bread was investigated as well as the presence of malt and sourdough acids, commonly present in such bread. Also studied was the potential effect of including wholemeal barley from a high-amylose

Helena Liljeberg; Anna Åkerberg; Inger Björck

1996-01-01

244

Accurate Measurements of Temperatures in the DUV Post-Exposure Bake Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system for monitoring the dynamic temperature profile during the deep UV (DUV) post-exposure bake (PEB) is described. Platinum resistance temperature detectors (RTDs) are embedded into silicon wafers. Hardware and software convert the resistances to temperatures. The RTD calibration is National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) traceable. The wafers are tested on both a thermally uniform and stable hot

Barney Cohen; Mei Sun; Wayne Renken; Paul Miller

2003-01-01

245

HOSPITALITY Choose the culinary arts and hospitality, or baking & pastry certificate,  

E-print Network

is transferable to the bachelor's in Hospitality Management at the University of Alaska in Anchorage. As a partCULINARY ARTS & HOSPITALITY Choose the culinary arts and hospitality, or baking & pastry certificate, or the associate of applied science in culinary arts and hospitality and achieve the foundational

Ickert-Bond, Steffi

246

The International Year of the Potato  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The potato has been around for some 8000 years, and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations has created this site to promote 2008 as the International Year of the Potato. The intent of the site is to promote the role of the potato as a way to alleviate world hunger and to help achieve a number of internationally agreed upon development objectives, including the Millennium Development Goals. On the right-side of the homepage, visitors can read fact sheets on the potato, learn about world potato production, and even view a photo gallery of potatoes from around the world. Along the top of the site, visitors will find the "Potato World" section. Here they can learn about world potato production over the past two decades via a set of statistics and a nice map. Clicking on each region of the world will reveal even more detailed country-level statistics, including acres in potato production and consumption rates. The site even has information about a world potato photography contest, and most of the information on the site is available in Russian, English, French, Spanish, and Chinese.

2008-01-01

247

7 CFR 948.151 - Colorado Potato Committee membership.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee membership. 948.151...Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Rules and Regulations...Requirements § 948.151 Colorado Potato Committee membership. The...

2012-01-01

248

76 FR 16323 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Continuance Referendum  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...AMS-FV-11-0010; FV11-946-1 CR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Continuance...conducted among eligible Washington potato growers to determine whether they...order regulating the handling of Irish potatoes grown in Washington....

2011-03-23

249

7 CFR 948.51 - Colorado Potato Committee.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee. 948.51 Section...NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating...Committees § 948.51 Colorado Potato Committee. The...

2013-01-01

250

7 CFR 948.151 - Colorado Potato Committee membership.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee membership. 948.151...Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Rules and Regulations...Requirements § 948.151 Colorado Potato Committee membership. The...

2011-01-01

251

7 CFR 948.151 - Colorado Potato Committee membership.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee membership. 948.151...Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Rules and Regulations...Requirements § 948.151 Colorado Potato Committee membership. The...

2010-01-01

252

7 CFR 948.51 - Colorado Potato Committee.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee. 948.51 Section...Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating...Committees § 948.51 Colorado Potato Committee. The...

2011-01-01

253

7 CFR 948.51 - Colorado Potato Committee.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee. 948.51 Section...NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating...Committees § 948.51 Colorado Potato Committee. The...

2014-01-01

254

7 CFR 948.151 - Colorado Potato Committee membership.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee membership. 948.151...NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Rules and Regulations...Requirements § 948.151 Colorado Potato Committee membership. The...

2013-01-01

255

7 CFR 948.51 - Colorado Potato Committee.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee. 948.51 Section...Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating...Committees § 948.51 Colorado Potato Committee. The...

2010-01-01

256

7 CFR 948.51 - Colorado Potato Committee.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee. 948.51 Section...Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating...Committees § 948.51 Colorado Potato Committee. The...

2012-01-01

257

7 CFR 948.151 - Colorado Potato Committee membership.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee membership. 948.151...NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Rules and Regulations...Requirements § 948.151 Colorado Potato Committee membership. The...

2014-01-01

258

Potato Research 36 (1993) 309-316 Potato germplasm collecting expedition to the Guaitecas  

E-print Network

considered as the center of origin of the potato (Solanum tuberosum subspecies tuberosum), the strawberry-bearing wild species estimated by Hawkes (1990) to be related to the potato (Ross, 1986; Plaisted & Hoopes

Spooner, David

259

Case study: Healthy grown potatoes and sustainability of Wisconsin potato production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Wisconsin Eco-Potato collaboration developed after several meetings between the Wisconsin Potato and Vegetable Growers Association (WPVGA) and World Wildlife Fund (WWF). Representatives met at the National Potato Council meeting and identified a common interest in development of environmentally ...

260

Assessing potato psyllid haplotypes in potato crops in the Pacific Northwestern United States  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc), is a vector of the bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Lso) that has been linked to the economically devastating zebra chip disease of potato. To date, four haplotypes of the potato psyllid have been identified and include Central, We...

261

Effects of rice cystatin I expression in transgenic potato on Colorado potato beetle larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of OCI (Oryzacystatin I) expressing transgenic potato on Colorado potato beetle (CPB) larvae development was investigated. Transgenic potatoes, resistant to kanamycin and expressing the OCI cysteine protease inhibitor (PI), were obtained via Agrobacterium tumefaciens genetic transformation. Four independent transgenic lines were shown by molecular analysis to exhibit a high level of OCI expression. Larvae of CPB were independently

Anne Lecardonnel; Laura Chauvin; Lise Jouanin; Antony Beaujean; Geneviève Prévost; Brigitte Sangwan-Norreel

1999-01-01

262

What is the source of potato psyllids colonizing Washington, Oregon, and Idaho potato fields?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Managing zebra chip disease in the potato growing regions of Washington, Oregon, and Idaho is complicated by confusion about the geographic source of the insect vector (potato psyllid) as it colonizes potato fields in these growing regions. Not knowing the source of the vector makes it difficult fo...

263

Emerging diversity in Potato virus Y poses new challenges for the U.S. potato industry  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Until recently tobacco and potato tuber necrotic strains of Potato virus Y (PVY) were considered to be absent from the U.S., and seed certification programs were able to limit PVY incidence in seed potatoes. PVY has become more problematic in recent years and beginning in 2002, necrotic strains of P...

264

Examining the molecular interaction between potato (Solanum tuberosum) and Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Colorado potato beetle (CPB) is a leading pest of solanaceous plants; however, little is known about its molecular interaction with the potato plant. Using the 11,421 EST array solanaceae microarray profiling services at TIGR, we have identified genes that are differentially expressed in potato leav...

265

Introduction to Bar Graphs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to introduce students to bar graphs as a way to represent categorical data. Caution should be used not to use bar graph and histogram interchangeably when using this lesson. This lesson provides links to discussions and activities related to bar graphs as well as suggested ways to integrate them into the lesson. Finally, the lesson provides links to follow-up lessons designed for use in succession with the current one. Note, reading level is not indicated because the lesson does not include student reading material.

2011-05-24

266

The canon of potato science. . . 50 topics in potato science that every potato scientist should know: 1) Genetic diversity and gene banks  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This is a compilation of invited reviews on 50 key potato science topics to celebrate the 50 anniversary of the journal Potato Research published by the European Potato Association. The article in question reviews potato genetic diversity and gene banks. It presents basic aspects of the mission an...

267

REACTIVE EXTRUSION OF PHOSPHATE CROSSLINKED POTATO STARCH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biobased engineering materials from natural polymers such as potato starch and sisal fiber have increasingly attracted more attention compared with their petroleum counterparts due to biodegradability, environmental protection, and sustainable development. A novel biobased composite was developed based on phosphate crosslinked thermoplastic potato starch and sisal cellulose fiber aimed at improving mechanical properties and hydrophobicity.\\u000aFirst of all, potato starch

Gang Wang

2010-01-01

268

Histograms and Bar Graphs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to introduce students to histograms and bar graphs as graphical representations of data. The lesson also covers the distinction between histograms and bar graphs and the concepts of class intervals and scale. The lesson provides links to discussions and activities related to these topics as well as worksheets for further practice. Finally, the lesson provides links to follow-up lessons designed for use in succession with this one.

2011-01-18

269

Detection of Multiple Potato Viruses in the Field Suggests Synergistic Interactions among Potato Viruses in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Viral diseases have been a major limiting factor threating sustainable potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) production in Pakistan. Surveys were conducted to serologically quantify the incidence of RNA viruses infecting potato; Potato virus X (PVX), Potato virus Y (PVY), Potato virus S (PVS), Potato virus A (PVA), Potato virus M (PVM) and Potato leaf roll virus (PLRV) in two major potato cultivars (Desiree and Cardinal). The results suggest the prevalence of multiple viruses in all surveyed areas with PVY, PVS and PVX dominantly widespread with infection levels of up to 50% in some regions. Co-infections were detected with the highest incidence (15.5%) for PVX and PVS. Additionally the data showed a positive correlation between co-infecting viruses with significant increase in absorbance value (virus titre) for at least one of the virus in an infected plant and suggested a synergistic interaction. To test this hypothesis, glasshouse grown potato plants were challenged with multiple viruses and analyzed for systemic infections and symptomology studies. The results obtained conclude that multiple viral infections dramatically increase disease epidemics as compared to single infection and an effective resistance strategy in targeting multiple RNA viruses is required to save potato crop. PMID:25506305

Hameed, Amir; Iqbal, Zafar; Asad, Shaheen; Mansoor, Shahid

2014-01-01

270

Preliminary observation on the effect of baking soda volume on controlling odour from discarded organic waste.  

PubMed

Food wastes with high moisture and organic matter content are likely to emit odours as a result of the decomposition process. The management of odour from decomposing wastes is needed to sustain the interest of residents and local councils in the source separation of kitchen wastes. This study investigated the potential of baking soda (at 50 g, 75 g and 100g per kg food waste) to control odour from seven days stored food waste. It was found that 50 g of baking soda, spread at the bottom of 8l food wastes bin, can reduce the odour by about 70%. A higher amount (above 100g) is not advised as a pH higher than 9.0 may be induced leading to the volatilization of odorous ammonia. This research finding is expected to benefit the waste management sector, food processing industries as well as the local authorities where malodour from waste storage is a pressing issue. PMID:25445259

Qamaruz-Zaman, N; Kun, Y; Rosli, R-N

2015-01-01

271

Determination of suitable drying curve model for bread moisture loss during baking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents mathematical modelling of bread moisture loss or drying during baking in a conventional bread baking process. In order to estimate and select the appropriate moisture loss curve equation, 11 different models, semi-theoretical and empirical, were applied to the experimental data and compared according to their correlation coefficients, chi-squared test and root mean square error which were predicted by nonlinear regression analysis. Consequently, of all the drying models, a Page model was selected as the best one, according to the correlation coefficients, chi-squared test, and root mean square error values and its simplicity. Mean absolute estimation error of the proposed model by linear regression analysis for natural and forced convection modes was 2.43, 4.74%, respectively.

Soleimani Pour-Damanab, A. R.; Jafary, A.; Rafiee, S.

2013-03-01

272

Molecular properties of cassava starch modified with different UV irradiations to enhance baking expansion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial cassava starch was modified with 1% (w\\/w) lactic acid solution and irradiated with ultraviolet radiation: UVBA (280–420nm), UVB (310–330nm) and UVC (254nm) for 7–15h. Thermal properties and molecular size distributions of the cassava starch molecules were investigated to explain structural changes responsible for baking expansion ability. The acidified starches irradiated with UVB or UVC for 7 and 9h achieved

N. Vatanasuchart; O. Naivikul; S. Charoenrein; K. Sriroth

2005-01-01

273

Health surveillance in milling, baking and other food manufacturing operations--five years' experience.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to describe the incidence of allergic respiratory disease and its outcome in terms of symptoms and jobs, across different flour-using industries. It uses the findings of a health surveillance programme in a large food organization over a five-year period. The population under surveillance consisted of 3,450 employees with exposure to ingredient dusts, of whom 400 were in flour milling, 1,650 in bread baking, 550 in cake baking and 850 in other flour-using operations. A total of 66 employees with either asthma or rhinitis symptoms attributable to sensitization to allergens in the workplace were identified. The majority of these (48/66) had become symptomatic prior to the commencement of the health surveillance programme in 1993. The incidence rates (per million employees per year) for those who developed symptoms between 1993 and 1997 were 550 for flour milling, 1,940 for bread baking, 0 for cake baking and 235 for other flour-using operations. The agent believed to be responsible for symptoms was most commonly grain dust in flour millers and fungal amylase in bread bakers. Wheat flour appeared to have a weaker sensitizing potential than these other two substances. In terms of outcome, at follow-up 18% of symptomatically sensitized employees had left the company. Two of the ex-employees retired through ill health due to occupational asthma. Of those still in employment, 63% described an improvement in symptoms, 32% were unchanged and 4% were worse than when first diagnosed. Over half the cases still in employment were continuing to work in the same job as at the time of diagnosis. PMID:10451595

Smith, T A; Patton, J

1999-04-01

274

Addressing challenges in lithography using sub-millisecond post exposure bake of chemically amplified resists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemically amplified photoresists require a post exposure bake (PEB), typically on a hot plate at 90-150°C for 30-120 seconds, to catalytically deprotect the polymer backbone. During PEB, excessive diffusion of the photo-generated acid results in loss of line edge definition, blurring of latent images and changes in the line edge roughness. Both acid diffusion and deprotection are thermally activated processes,

Byungki Jung; Christopher K. Ober; Michael O. Thompson; Todd R. Younkin; Manish Chandhok

2011-01-01

275

Sub-millisecond post exposure bake of chemically amplified resists by CO2 laser heat treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemically amplified photoresists require a post exposure bake (PEB), typically on a hot plate at 90-150°C for 30-120 seconds, to catalytically deprotect the polymer backbone. During PEB, excessive diffusion of the photo-generated acid results in loss of line edge definition, blurring of latent images and changes in the line edge roughness. Both acid diffusion and deprotection are thermally activated processes,

Byungki Jung; Jing Sha; Florencia Paredes; Christopher K. Ober; Michael O. Thompson; Manish Chandhok; Todd R. Younkin

2010-01-01

276

Dough and Baking Properties of High-Amylose and Waxy Wheat Flours  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 79(4):491-495 The dough properties and baking qualities of a novel high-amylose wheat flour (HAWF) and a waxy wheat flour (WWF) (both Triticum aestivum L.) were investigated by comparing them with common wheat flours. HAWF and WWF had more dietary fiber than Chinese Spring flour (CSF), a nonwaxy wheat flour. Also, HAWF contained larger amounts of lipids and proteins

Naofumi Morita; Tomoko Maeda; Megumi Miyazaki; Makoto Yamamori; Hideho Miura; Ichiro Ohtsuka

2002-01-01

277

Correlations Between Empirical and Fundamental Rheology Measurements and Baking Performance of Frozen Bread Dough  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 76(3):421-425 Empirical and fundamental rheology measurements were made on fresh and frozen dough to investigate the effects of fr eezing, frozen storage, and additives. These results were compared with results of a standard baking test. Four formulations were tested: a control dough, and doughs with addi- tions of 100 ppm of ascorbic acid (AA), 0.5% sodium stearoyl lactylate

S. Kenny; K. Wehrle; T. Dennehy; E. K. Arendt

1999-01-01

278

Prolongation of the microbial shelf life of wrapped part baked baguettes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of some factors, such as ethanol content, type of modified atmosphere packaging and UV radiation dose, on the mould free shelf life of wrapped part?baked baguettes has been investigated in comparison with the conventional chemical preservatives as calcium propionate and potassium sorbate. Ethanol content, ranging between 0.5?15% by weight, can cause a significant increase in the mould free

D. Doulia; G. Katsinis; B. Mougin

2000-01-01

279

Developing the Nutritional Potential of Potato  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potatoes are the most consumed vegetable in the developed world and consumption is increasing in the developing world. Consequently, the phytonutrient content of potato can have a large impact on public health. Moreover, because of the high consumption even modest increases in tuber phytonutrient co...

280

Eating the Potato: Culture, Communication and Camaraderie  

E-print Network

Eating the Potato: Culture, Communication and Camaraderie Tuesday, May 5, 2009 2:00 pm to 5:00 pm for relationships Jenny Mandelbaum Associate Professor, Department of Communication, School of Communication' Media Center Peruvian Purple Potatoes #12;Participating Chefs New Brunswick: Ron Becker, Belarus

Hanson, Stephen José

281

Reinventing potato at the diploid level  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The outcrossing polyploidy nature of cultivated potato has hindered the use of genomics resources to dissect the genetic basis of agronomically important traits. Reversion to the diploid level allows us to apply powerful tools toward this effort. Parthenogenesis generates diploid cultivated potato, ...

282

Turkey and Sweet Potato Dinner Ingredients  

E-print Network

Turkey and Sweet Potato Dinner Ingredients: 1 pound ground turkey 4 sweet potatoes 15 ounces green to 350ºF. 2. Heat skillet to medium. Place ground turkey in skillet and use a spatula to break turkey. Once it is done, put browned turkey on a plate covered with several layers of paper towels to absorb

Liskiewicz, Maciej

283

Identifying and reducing constraints to potato productivity  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potato yield in Maine has remained relatively constant for over 50 years, despite increased inputs of pesticides, nutrients, and water. Research is needed to identify and reduce the constraints to potato productivity. We evaluated Status Quo, Soil Conserving, Soil Improving, and Disease Suppressive ...

284

The changing face of Potato virus Y  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This presentation will help growers, seed certification and regulatory officials, consultants, and other practitioners in the United States understand how and why Potato virus Y (PVY) is affecting the seed potato crop and if left unchecked why it will become a major disease issue for the food sector...

285

PCR detection of potato cyst nematode.  

PubMed

Potato cyst nematode (PCN) is responsible for losses in potato production totalling millions of euros every year in the EC. It is important for growers to know which species is present in their land as this determines its subsequent use. The two species Globodera pallida and Globodera rostochiensis can be differentiated using an allele-specific PCR. PMID:19301763

Reid, Alex

2009-01-01

286

Factors affecting potato petiole sap nitrate tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many factors can affect the nitrate?nitrogen concentration of potato petioles. They include but are not limited to the following: N?fertilizer applications, mineralizable soil N, time of sampling, position of the petiole on the plant, age of the plant, potato cultivar, time of the day when plants are sampled, and the environmental conditions prior to sampling. A better understanding of these

Maurice L. Vitosh; George H. Silva

1996-01-01

287

Potato zebra chip disease: a phytopathological tale  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potato zebra chip (ZC) disease is a relative newcomer to the world of important potato diseases. First reported in Mexico in the 1990s, by 2004-2005 the disease was causing serious economic damage in parts of Texas. ZC is now widespread in the western United States, Mexico, Central America, and wa...

288

Identifying Constraints to Potato Cropping System Sustainability  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potato yield in the Northeast U.S. has remained constant for over 50 years, despite increased inputs of pesticides, nutrients, and water. Consequently, a key question is: What is limiting potato system sustainability? We established Status Quo, Soil Conserving, Soil Improving, and Disease Suppressiv...

289

The Potato in Irish Cuisine and Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article will discuss the introduction of the potato from its South American origin into Irish cuisine and culture. The authors will outline the stages of development from introduction to acceptance as a winter vegetable, to widespread acceptance, moving on to overdependence and leading to subsequent famine. The article will discuss the varieties of potatoes used, the methods of production

Máirtín Mac Con Iomaire; Pádraic Óg Gallagher

2009-01-01

290

Sweet potato in gluten-free pancakes.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Gluten-free pancakes were prepared using rice flour, and rice flour replaced with various amounts, at 10, 20, and 40% of sweet potato flour. At 40% sweet potato, the apparent viscosity became comparable to that of the traditional wheat pancake batter. Texture properties of the cooked pancakes, such...

291

Growing Potatoes in Your Home Garden  

E-print Network

they are a delicious addition to Potatoes are native to the Andean region of South America. European explorers are the number one nongrain food crop in the world. In the United States, over 1 million acres are planted and getting dirty is an added bonus. Figure 2. Source: U.S. Food and Drug Administration Are potatoes

Douches, David S.

292

Reduced Tillage in an Irrigated Potato Rotation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potato production in irrigated regions typically occurs on soils low in organic matter that are highly susceptible to agri-chemical leaching under poor irrigation scheduling, and wind erosion when soils are left bare. Reduced tillage has had limited testing in potato production. The objective of thi...

293

Potato defense against Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say): microarray gene expression profiling of potato (Solanum tuberosum) by Colorado potato beetle infestation and regurgitant treatment of  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Colorado potato beetle is the leading pest of solanaceous plants, however little is known about the interaction of this beetle with the potato plant. Using the 11,421 EST solanaceae microarry profiling services at TIGR we have begun investigating the genes that are differentially expressed by infest...

294

Potato Tubers and Soil Aeration1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potato plants are more sensitive to soil oxygen stress than many other common crops. Some recent literature suggests this may be due to a relatively high oxygen requirement for tuber growth, rather than a greater requirement for the roots per se. Consequently, the oxygen consumption of growing potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum cv. Russet Burbank) was measured in the field on

J. W. Cary

1985-01-01

295

ATTRACTING VOLTILES FOR THE COLORADO POTATO BEETLE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Chemicals responsible for attraction of the Colorado potato beetle (CPB) Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) to its host plant and conspecifics have long been sought, since Mc Indoo in 1926 [1] demonstrated the general attractiveness of potato plant volatiles to adult CP...

296

Potato cyst nematodes: pests of national importance  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potato cyst nematodes (PCN; G. rostochiensis and G. pallida) are internationally-recognized quarantine pests and considered the most devastating pests of potatoes due to annual worldwide yield losses estimated at 12.2%. PCNs continue to spread throughout North America and were recently detected in I...

297

Par-Baked Bread Technology: Formulation and Process Studies to Improve Quality.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Extending the shelf-life of bakery products has been an important requirement resulting from the mechanization of this industry and the need to increase the distance for the distribution of final products, caused by the increase in production and consumer demand. Technologies based on the interruption of the breadmaking process represent an alternative to overcome product staling and microbiological deterioration. The production of par-baked breads is one of these technologies. It consists of baking the bread in two stages, and due to the possibility of retarding the second stage, it can be said that the bread can always be offered fresh to the consumer. The technology inserts logistics as part of the production process and creates the "hot point" concept, these being the locations where the bread is finalized, such as in the consumers' homes or sales locations. In this work, a review of the papers published on this subject was carried out, and aspects related to both the formulation and the process were considered. This technology still faces a few challenges, such as solving bread quality problems that appear due to process modifications, and these will also be considered. The market for these breads has grown rapidly and the bakery industry searches innovations related to par-baked bread technology. PMID:25000472

Almeida, Eveline Lopes; Steel, Caroline Joy; Chang, Yoon Kil

2014-07-01

298

Measuring and simulating postexposure bake temperature effects in chemically amplified photoresists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The kinetic processes occurring during postexposure bake (PEB) were studied for different Shipley photoresists as a function of bake temperature with the aim of developing models to accurately simulate the observed temperature dependent responses. S7 193nm photoresist based on a high activation energy methacrylate platform and SL4000 248 nm photoresist based on a low activation energy acetal platform were investigated. Deprotection rate constants, Kamp, were measured directly by IR spectroscopy. Kamp was independent of PEB temperature for SL4000 and followed standard Arrhenius behavior for S7. Activation energies of deprotection determined from measurements of Kamp were 13.4 and 0.82 kcal/mol for S7 and SL4000, respectively, and of the same order of magnitude as the corresponding pseudo- Arrhenius activation energies, 10.3 and 3.2 kcal/mol, respectively, determined from E0 clearing doses as a matching experimental and simulated CDs of isolated lines as a function of PEB time and temperature. However, values of D could not be unambiguously determined because a finite bulk acid loss rate constant was required to accurately simulate the observed CD changes at high PEB temperature. The need for a blk acid loss rate constant at high bake temperatures suggests that the effects of base diffusion are significant under these conditions. CD changes in SL4000 were best simulated with a 1st order model, where the imaging chemistry occurs solely during the exposure step as in DNQ/Novolac photoresists.

Kang, Doris; Robertson, Stewart A.

2002-07-01

299

MANAGING INSECT PESTS OF POTATO Ricky E. Foster, Extension Entomologist  

E-print Network

Vegetable Insects E-96-W PURDUE EXTENSION Colorado potato beetle (l) larva and (r) adult (Photo Credit: J BEETLE The most devastating pest of potato in Indiana is the Colorado potato beetle (CPB). The adult tolerate more than 6-8% defoliation. Colorado potato beetle damage (Photo Credit: W. Cranshaw) #12

Ginzel, Matthew

300

A Brief History of the Potato in Ireland.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides historical information on the potato in Ireland focusing on how the potato arrived in Ireland and the advantages and disadvantages of the potato as a food crop. Discusses the Irish potato famine in Ireland, effects of the famine, and the government's laissez-faire response. Includes a list of questions. (CMK)

Social Education, 2000

2000-01-01

301

Systematics, diversity, genetics, and evolution of wild and cultivated potatoes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cultivated potato, Solanum tuberosum L., is the third most important food crop and is grown and consumed worldwide. Indigenous primitive cultivated (landrace) potatoes, and wild potatoes, all classified as Solanum section Petota, are widely used for potato improvement. Members of section Petota are ...

302

7 CFR 51.1578 - Off-Grade potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Off-Grade potatoes. 51.1578 Section 51.1578 Agriculture... United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Off-Grade § 51.1578 Off-Grade potatoes. Potatoes which fail to meet the...

2010-01-01

303

Development of molecular markers for introgression of potato leafroll virus resistance from S. etuberosum into cultivated potato  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) is a major virus pathogen of potato. Infection of potato can result in substantial reductions in yield as well as tuber quality via the expression of net necrosis. Solanum etuberosum, a wild relative of cultivated potato, is highly resistant to PLRV as well as other po...

304

Fate of toxic potato glycoalkaloids in a potato field.  

PubMed

The toxic glycoalkaloids, alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine, are present in all parts of the potato plant and are possibly transferred to the terrestrial environment. The amounts of glycoalkaloids in plant, soil, and groundwater were followed in a potato field to investigate their distribution and fate during the season. The amount of glycoalkaloids in the plants was up to 25 kg/ha during maturity and decreased to below 0.63 kg/ha during plant senescence. The glycoalkaloids were detected in the upper soil (up to 0.6 kg/ha); this amount accounted only for a minor fraction of the amount present in the plants. Maximum glycoalkaloid concentration of 2.8 mg/kg dry weight soil was detected in September. Dissipation during winter appeared to be slow because glycoalkaloids were still present in the soil in March. No traces of glycoalkaloids were detected in the groundwater (detection limit 0.2 microg/L). From these results, the leaching potential of the glycoalkaloids is evaluated to be small. PMID:19253952

Jensen, Pia H; Strobel, Bjarne W; Hansen, Hans Christian B; Jacobsen, Ole Stig

2009-04-01

305

Multiple bars and secular evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bars are the most important driver of secular evolution. A significant fraction of barred galaxies also harbor small secondary bars. Secondary bars are visible even in near-infrared images, so they are not just dusty and blue, but stellar features (Erwin & Sparke 2002). Since they are quite common, secondary bars are probably long-lived stellar features. The random relative orientation of the two bars indicates that they are dynamically decoupled with different pattern speeds (Buta & Crocker 1993). Corsini et al. (2003) presented conclusive direct kinematic evidence for a decoupled secondary bar in NGC 2950. Dynamically decoupled secondary bars have long been hypothesized to be a mechanism to drive gas past the ILR of primary bars to feed active galactic nuclei (Shlosman et al. 1989). However, the dynamics of secondary bars are still not well understood, and it is still unclear what role secondary bars play in the AGN fueling process. Numerical simulations offer the best approach to understanding double-barred systems. Decoupled secondary bar in the earlier gaseous simulations only last a short time (< 1 Gyr, e.g. Friedli & Martinet 1993). Orbital studies of double-barred systems discovered a family of loop orbits that may be building blocks of long-lived nuclear stellar bars (Maciejewski & Sparke 1997, 2000). To complement orbital studies, which are not fully self-consistent, N-body simulations are preferred to further our understanding of double-barred systems. Debattista & Shen (2007) and Shen & Debattista (2009) managed to form long-lived double-barred systems with purely collisionless simulations, where a pre-existing rotating pseudo-bulge is introduced initially. The shape and size of secondary bars in the models are comparable to observed ones. They found that the rotation of the two bars is not rigid. The amplitude and pattern speed of the secondary bars oscillate as they rotate through their primary counterparts. Although the secondary bar rotates faster than the primary bar in this model, the stellar velocity field in the central region only shows a weakly twisted kinematic minor axis. Recently more simulations of double-barred galaxies with simpler initial conditions are explored (Du, Shen & Debattista 2014). We expect that the new models can be used to cross-check with the kinematic properties of double-barred galaxies from IFU observations such as SAURON and Atlas3D.

Shen, Juntai

2015-03-01

306

Permanent Bar Magnets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about the basic properties of magnets and magnetism. Learners explore concepts such as magnetic fields and polarity, which form the basic ingredients of a study of Earth's magnetic field and the technology of magnetometers. Materials needed include bar magnets and paper clips. This is Activity 1 of Exploring Magnetism: A Teacher's Magnetism Activity Guide.

2012-08-03

307

Toll Bar on Sea  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the summer of 2007 the United Kingdom experienced some of the heaviest rainfall since records began. Toll Bar in South Yorkshire featured prominently in media coverage as the village and the homes surrounding it began to flood. Many people lost everything: their homes, their furniture, their possessions. In an effort to come to terms with what…

Hunter, Dave

2008-01-01

308

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of potato viruses A and Y in potato leaves and sprouts  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) potato virus A (PVA) could be detected reliably in potato sprouts, especially\\u000a when these were young and sappy. The detection of this virus in leaves of glasshouse-grown potato plants was less reliable.\\u000a \\u000a The tobacco veinal necrosis strain of potato virus Y (PVYN) was readily demonstrated in foliage of glass-house-grown potato plants using an antiserum

D. Z. Maat; J. A. De Bokx

1978-01-01

309

Measurements of vertical bar Vcb vertical bar and vertical bar Vub vertical bar at BaBar  

SciTech Connect

We report results from the BABAR Collaboration on the semileptonic B decays, highlighting the measurements of the magnitude of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements Vub and Vcb. We describe the techniques used to obtain the matrix element |Vcb| using the measurement of the inclusive B {yields} Xclv process and a large sample of exclusive B {yields} D*lv decays. The vertical bar Vub vertical bar matrix elements has been measured studying different kinematic variables of the B {yields} Xulv process, and also with the exclusive reconstruction of B {yields} {pi}({rho})lv decays.

Rotondo, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica Galileo Galilei, Via Marzolo 8, Padova 35131 (Italy)

2005-10-12

310

Kolsky Bar Impact Test Facility  

SciTech Connect

Testing for the Kolsky Bar is conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico. The Kolsky bar is operated by the Dynamic testing team of NMT-11, (Nuclear Material Technology Division) to enable measurements of stress-strain characteristics for the MST-8 (Material Science and Technology) personnel. The Kolsky Bar is located at the Plutonium Facility at TA-55 (Tech Area).

Contreras, P.; Montoya, J.

1998-12-31

311

Effect of mild baking on superconducting niobium cavities investigated by sequential nanoremoval  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The near-surface nanostructure of niobium determines the performance of superconducting microwave cavities. Subtle variations in surface nanostructure lead to yet unexplained phenomena such as the dependence of the quality factor of these resonating structures on the magnitude of rf fields—an effect known as the “Q slopes”. Understanding and controlling the Q slopes is of great practical importance for particle accelerators. Here we investigate the mild baking effect—120°C vacuum baking for 48 hours—which strongly affects the Q slopes. We used a hydrofluoric acid rinse alternating with oxidation in water as a tool for stepwise material removal of about 2nanometers/step from the surface of superconducting niobium cavities. Applying removal cycles on mild baked cavities and measuring the quality factor dependence on the rf fields after one or several such cycles allowed us to explore the distribution of lossy layers within the first several tens of nanometers from the surface. We found that a single HF rinse results in the increase of the cavity quality factor. The low field Q slope was shown to be mostly controlled by the material structure within the first six nanometers from the surface. The medium field Q slope evolution was fitted using linear (?B peak surface magnetic field) and quadratic (?B2) terms in the surface resistance and it was found that best fits do not require the quadratic term. We found that about 10 nanometers of material removal are required to bring back the high field Q slope and about 20-50 nanometers to restore the onset field to the prebaking value.

Romanenko, A.; Grassellino, A.; Barkov, F.; Ozelis, J. P.

2013-01-01

312

Potato virus Y infection hinders potato defence response and renders plants more vulnerable to Colorado potato beetle attack  

PubMed Central

In the field, plants are challenged by more than one biotic stressor at the same time. In this study, the molecular interactions between potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say; CPB) and Potato virus YNTN (PVYNTN) were investigated through analyses of gene expression in the potato leaves and the gut of the CPB larvae, and of the release of potato volatile compounds. CPB larval growth was enhanced when reared on secondary PVYNTN-infected plants, which was linked to decreased accumulation of transcripts associated with the antinutritional properties of potato. In PVYNTN-infected plants, ethylene signalling pathway induction and induction of auxin response transcription factors were attenuated, while no differences were observed in jasmonic acid (JA) signalling pathway. Similarly to rearing on virus-infected plants, CPB larvae gained more weight when reared on plants silenced in JA receptor gene (coi1). Although herbivore-induced defence mechanism is regulated predominantly by JA, response in coi1-silenced plants only partially corresponded to the one observed in PVYNTN-infected plants, confirming the role of other plant hormones in modulating this response. The release of ?-barbatene and benzyl alcohol was different in healthy and PVYNTN-infected plants before CPB larvae infestation, implicating the importance of PVYNTN infection in plant communication with its environment. This was reflected in gene expression profiles of neighbouring plants showing different degree of defence response. This study thus contributes to our understanding of plant responses in agro-ecosystems. PMID:25251011

Petek, Marko; Rotter, Ana; Kogovšek, Polona; Baebler, Špela; Mithöfer, Axel; Gruden, Kristina

2014-01-01

313

Partial self-reversal of TRM in baked soils and ceramics from Ecuador  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Partial self-reversed thermoremanent magnetizations (SRTRMs) were observed in samples of baked soils, hearths and ceramics from the Rumipamba archeological site near Quito (Ecuador) and ceramics from sites near the town of Esmeraldas (Ecuador). The SRTRMs were recognized at room temperature on few samples but cooling the samples in liquid nitrogen enhanced the intensity of the SRTRM and measurement at 77°K enables its rapid detection in many samples from these sites. Alternating field demagnetization of the SRTRM indicate median destructive field of the order of 50 mT and thermal demagnetization give unblocking temperatures in the temperature range 280-380 °C. The magnetic carriers of the SRTRM are stable to heating in air or in vacuum up to 600 °C suggesting that titanomaghemite should not be the magnetic carrier of the SRTRM. The studied baked clays and ceramics contain detrital material of mainly volcanic origin. Ti-poor titanomagnetite is the main magnetic carrier identified by strong field data or susceptibility measurements versus temperature. Ilmeno-hematite grains were recognized with microscope observations under reflected light. Scanning electron microscope observations with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry indicate a Ti/Fe ratio corresponding to an ilmenite content of ˜0.55. We also compared the magnetic properties of the partially self-reversed baked clays with those of the self-reversed Pinatubo pumices. The SRTRMs were measured upon cooling from room temperature to 20°K with the MPMS. Upon cooling to 20°K the SRTRM show a nearly tenfold increase in intensity with respect to the room temperature measurement. The baked clay and ceramics from Ecuador carrying the SRTRM share similar magnetic properties with the Pinatubo pumices (unblocking temperatures, low temperature behavior) supporting the interpretation that detrital hemoilmenite originating from the Holocene activity of the numerous Ecuadorian volcanoes is the main carrier of the SRTRM in the archeological samples. In some samples, anisotropy tensors of SRTRM show large anisotropy degree (>2). The high anisotropy observed when the total magnetization is the sum of a normal thermoremanent magnetization (TRM) and a SRTRM is likely amplified because the anisotropy carried by the SRTRM is larger than the one carried by the normal component. A component of SRTRM may be hidden in archeological materials containing detrital hemoilmenites related to dacitic/andesitic volcanism and this may affect the determination of paleointensity of the earth magnetic field especially when non thermal method are used.

Roperch, Pierrick; Chauvin, Annick; Valdez, Francisco

2012-11-01

314

Accurate Measurements of Temperatures in the DUV Post-Exposure Bake Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A system for monitoring the dynamic temperature profile during the deep UV (DUV) post-exposure bake (PEB) is described. Platinum resistance temperature detectors (RTDs) are embedded into silicon wafers. Hardware and software convert the resistances to temperatures. The RTD calibration is National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) traceable. The wafers are tested on both a thermally uniform and stable hot plate and a production PEB hot plate. The temperature profiles for the PEB are fitted to a heat transfer model allowing heating and cooling time constants to be determined. High accuracy and precision are demonstrated. Reliability through 2000 thermal cycles is shown.

Cohen, Barney; Sun, Mei; Renken, Wayne; Miller, Paul

2003-09-01

315

Cooking Potatoes: Experimentation and Mathematical Modeling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a laboratory activity involving a mathematical model of cooking potatoes that can be solved analytically. Highlights the microstructure aspects of the experiment. Provides the key aspects of the results, detailed background readings, laboratory procedures and data analyses. (MM)

Chen, Xiao Dong

2002-01-01

316

Energy Recovery from Potato Chip Fryers  

E-print Network

The design, operating characteristics, and energy savings from an energy recovery system employed on a potato chip fryer which became operational in December, 1979, is discussed. The design incorporates a modification to an odor control system which...

McKee, H. B.; Kympton, H. W.; Arnold, J. W.; Paisan, J. J.

1980-01-01

317

What Time Did The Potato Die?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Spreadsheets Across the Curriculum module. Simulating a forensic calculation, students build spreadsheets and create graphs to find the time of death of a potato victim from temperature vs. time data.

Rebecca Sunderman

318

Development of molecular resistance in potato against potato leaf roll virus and potato virus Y through Agrobacterium-mediated double transgenesis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) and potato virus Y (PVY) are the two major viral problems for the potato production all over the world. Transgenic approaches involving the expression of viral genes are being developed to provide protection for plants against viral diseases. The purpose of this study w...

319

Breaking through the Bar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Howard University School of Law had a problem, and school officials knew it. Over a 20-year period, 40 percent of its graduates who took the Maryland bar exam failed it on their first try. During the next 24 months--the time frame required to determine its "eventual pass rate"--almost 90 percent of the students did pass. What they did not know was…

Gray, Katti

2011-01-01

320

Bar coded retroreflective target  

DOEpatents

This small, inexpensive, non-contact laser sensor can detect the location of a retroreflective target in a relatively large volume and up to six degrees of position. The tracker's laser beam is formed into a plane of light which is swept across the space of interest. When the beam illuminates the retroreflector, some of the light returns to the tracker. The intensity, angle, and time of the return beam is measured to calculate the three dimensional location of the target. With three retroreflectors on the target, the locations of three points on the target are measured, enabling the calculation of all six degrees of target position. Until now, devices for three-dimensional tracking of objects in a large volume have been heavy, large, and very expensive. Because of the simplicity and unique characteristics of this tracker, it is capable of three-dimensional tracking of one to several objects in a large volume, yet it is compact, light-weight, and relatively inexpensive. Alternatively, a tracker produces a diverging laser beam which is directed towards a fixed position, and senses when a retroreflective target enters the fixed field of view. An optically bar coded target can be read by the tracker to provide information about the target. The target can be formed of a ball lens with a bar code on one end. As the target moves through the field, the ball lens causes the laser beam to scan across the bar code.

Vann, Charles S. (Fremont, CA)

2000-01-01

321

Making a Battery from a Potato  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this electrochemistry activity, young learners and adult helpers create a battery from a potato to run a clock. This resource includes background information about electricity, electronics, and chemical reactions. Learners can also test this experiment with other fruits and vegetables in place of the potato. This activity was written to be part of a kit that could be checked out of a library, though the kit is not required.

2012-06-26

322

Potato Shoot Tip Cryopreservation. A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potato is one of the most important crops worldwide. Genetic resources of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. ssp. tuberosum) and related cultivated species are conserved through storage of tubers, in vitro plants and in cryopreservation. Cryopreservation,\\u000a storage in or above liquid nitrogen, is the best option to maintain vegetatively propagated plants in the long term. The present\\u000a review gives comprehensive information

Anja Kaczmarczyk; Veli-Matti Rokka; E. R. Joachim Keller

2011-01-01

323

Potato processing: Past, present and future  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the time of the Incas, man has dehydrated potatoes to alleviate famine and feed its warriors. After the Spaniards brought\\u000a potatoes to Europe, the same became true there. During the Industrial Revolution, drying processes emerged in Germany and\\u000a England for dried pieces, extruded mash filaments and, finally, thin layers of mash on heated surfaces. During the 19th century,\\u000a fermentation

Miles Willard

1993-01-01

324

The potato tuber mitochondrial proteome.  

PubMed

Mitochondria are called the powerhouses of the cell. To better understand the role of mitochondria in maintaining and regulating metabolism in storage tissues, highly purified mitochondria were isolated from dormant potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum 'Folva') and their proteome investigated. Proteins were resolved by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and tryptic peptides were extracted from gel slices and analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using an Orbitrap XL. Using four different search programs, a total of 1,060 nonredundant proteins were identified in a quantitative manner using normalized spectral counts including as many as 5-fold more "extreme" proteins (low mass, high isoelectric point, hydrophobic) than previous mitochondrial proteome studies. We estimate that this compendium of proteins represents a high coverage of the potato tuber mitochondrial proteome (possibly as high as 85%). The dynamic range of protein expression spanned 1,800-fold and included nearly all components of the electron transport chain, tricarboxylic acid cycle, and protein import apparatus. Additionally, we identified 71 pentatricopeptide repeat proteins, 29 membrane carriers/transporters, a number of new proteins involved in coenzyme biosynthesis and iron metabolism, the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, and a type 2C protein phosphatase that may catalyze the dephosphorylation of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. Systematic analysis of prominent posttranslational modifications revealed that more than 50% of the identified proteins harbor at least one modification. The most prominently observed class of posttranslational modifications was oxidative modifications. This study reveals approximately 500 new or previously unconfirmed plant mitochondrial proteins and outlines a facile strategy for unbiased, near-comprehensive identification of mitochondrial proteins and their modified forms. PMID:24351685

Salvato, Fernanda; Havelund, Jesper F; Chen, Mingjie; Rao, R Shyama Prasad; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Jensen, Ole N; Gang, David R; Thelen, Jay J; Møller, Ian Max

2014-02-01

325

An Assessment of Recycled Refractory Material Performance After Two Years of Service in a Carbon Bake Furnace  

SciTech Connect

Material removed from carbon bake furnaces used to manufacture anodes for the production of aluminum metal has historically been disposed by landfill. This material is composed primarily of 50% alumina refractory. in 1997, Alcoa completed a highly successful program to reuse the spent refractories in castables for carbon bake furnace headwalls and flooring, as roadbed aggregate, and in other internal applications. This program recycled/reused 11,000 metric tons of used refractory material (99% of the material removed from the carbon bake furnace) and saved Alcoa over 3.8 of the 9.6 million dollar projected furnace rebuild costs. As assessment is made of the performance of the recycled refractory components after two years of service.

Schubert, N.; Bennett, J.P.; Kwong, K.S.

1999-10-27

326

Impact of Potato virus Y on long term storage of potato  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In recent years, Potato virus Y has reemerged as a serious disease problem in many potato production areas in the northern United States and eastern Canada. In Wisconsin, two widely grown cultivars, Russet Norkotah and Silverton, express mild or no symptoms when infected with PVY. The lack of sympto...

327

Impact of potato psyllid (Hemiptera: Triozide) feeding on free amino acid composition in potato  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Foliage feeding impacts of potato psyllid (Bactericera cockerelli) on the free amino acids (FAAs) composition in potato leaf and tuber were determined under the greenhouse conditions. The free amino acids in plant extracts were separated by HPLC, and in both leaf and tuber samples, at least, 17 FAAs...

328

Breeding for improved potato nutrition: High amylose starch potatoes show promise as fiber source  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potato starch is composed of approximately 75% amylopectin and 25% amylose. We are interested in breeding for higher amylose content, which would increase the fiber content of potato and decrease glycemic index. In order to make progress in a breeding program, we have developed a high throughput ass...

329

Colorado potato beetles ( leptinotarsa decemlineata) adapt to proteinase inhibitors induced in potato leaves by methyl jasmonate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potato plants were treated with gaseous methyl jasmonate (MJ) to obtain leaves with high induced levels of cysteine and aspartic proteinase inhibitors. Induced papain inhibitor activity was estimated at 4% of total protein. Other conditions produced leaves with low and moderate levels of this inhibitor. Development of Colorado potato beetle larvae was similar when they were reared on leaves containing

Caroline J. Bolter; Maarten A. Jongsma

1995-01-01

330

Resistance of selected potato genotypes to the potato psyllid (Hemiptera: Triozidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The characterization of resistance of selected potato, Solanum tuberosum L., breeding clones to the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) was investigated. Antixenosis was assessed in choice tests in which a single plant of each genotype was placed inside a rearing cag...

331

Incidence, transmission and molecular characterization of Potato virus S from selected potato cultivars in Washington State  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Washington State Potato Seed Lot Trials annually evaluates seed lots from several states for the incidence of various potato viruses and other growth compromising factors. During the 2005 and 2006 seasons, many plants within seed lots of cv. Defender displayed necrotic lesions, leaf malformati...

332

Screening potato cultivars for new sources of resistance to Potato virus Y  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potato virus Y (PVY) strains have been defined based on genetic reactions in potato indicators expressing hypersensitive reaction (HR) response due to the presence of three different N genes, and also based on genomic information. Nine strains are known currently, with five PVY strains defined biol...

333

Use and costs of insecticdes to control potato psyllids and zebra chip on potatoes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Zebra chip disease in potatoes has become a serious problem in North America. Researchers in Texas developed a sampling and reporting program for cooperating growers in three states. Data from this project enabled us to document insecticide use and costs for ZC control in commercial potato fields...

334

Deprotection blue in extreme ultraviolet photoresists: influence of base loading and post-exposure bake temperture  

SciTech Connect

The deprotection blur of Rohm and Haas XP 5435, XP 5271, and XP5496 extreme ultraviolet photoresists has been determined as their base weight percent is varied. They have also determined the deprotection blur of TOK EUVR P1123 photoresist as the post-exposure bake temperature is varied from 80 C to 120 C. In Rohm and Haas XP 5435 and XP5271 resists 7x and 3x (respective) increases in base weight percent reduce the size of successfully patterned 1:1 line-space features by 16 nm and 8 nm with corresponding reductions in deprotection blur of 7 nm and 4 nm. In XP 5496 a 7x increase in base weight percent reduces the size of successfully patterned 1:1 line-space features from 48 nm to 38 nm without changing deprotection blur. In TOK EUVR P1123 resist, a reduction in post-exposure bake temperature from 100 C to 80 C reduces deprotection blur from 21 nm to 10 nm and reduces patterned LER from 4.8 nm to 4.1 nm.

Anderson, Christopher N.; Naulleau, Patrick P.

2008-06-02

335

Effect of temper rolling on the bake-hardening behavior of low carbon steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a typical process, low carbon steel was annealed at two different temperatures (660°C and 750°C), and then was temper rolled to improve the mechanical properties. Pre-straining and baking treatments were subsequently carried out to measure the bake-hardening (BH) values. The influences of annealing temperature and temper rolling on the BH behavior of the steel were investigated. The results indicated that the microstructure evolution during temper rolling was related to carbon atoms and dislocations. After an apparent increase, the BH value of the steel significantly decreased when the temper rolling reduction was increased from 0% to 5%. This was attributed to the increase in solute carbon concentration and dislocation density. The maximum BH values of the steel annealed at 660°C and 750°C were 80 MPa and 89 MPa at the reductions of 3% and 4%, respectively. Moreover, increasing the annealing temperature from 660 to 750°C resulted in an obvious increase in the BH value due to carbide dissolution.

Kuang, Chun-fu; Zhang, Shen-gen; Li, Jun; Wang, Jian; Li, Pei

2015-01-01

336

Significance of Wheat Flour Dough Rheology to Gas Cell Structure Development in Bread and Other Baked Products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss which rheological material functions of wheat flour dough are most relevant for structure development in baked products under common processing conditions. We consider the growth of gas cells during dough proofing (driven by yeast) and during baking, where the growth is driven by a combination of CO2 desorption, water and ethanol evaporation, and thermal expansion of gas. Attention is given to upper limits on biaxial extension rate and stress and the consequences for the required rheological material functions. The applicability of the "Considère criterion" to predict the probability of coalescence between gas cells and its effect on loaf aeration is briefly discussed.

Engmann, Jan

2008-07-01

337

Idaho is the nation's largest producer, packer, and processor of potatoes. Idaho has been the number one potato-producing state for the past 50 years. The  

E-print Network

HIGHLIGHTS Idaho is the nation's largest producer, packer, and processor of potatoes. Idaho has% of the U.S. potato crop, but the Idaho potato industry is more than potato fields. Idaho frozen and dehydration processors produce 40% of U.S. processed potato products, and Idaho fresh packers provide one

O'Laughlin, Jay

338

Retention of provitamin a carotenoids in staple crops targeted for biofortification in Africa: cassava, maize and sweet potato.  

PubMed

HarvestPlus, part of the Consultative Group on Internation Agriculture research (CGIAR) Program on Agriculture for Nutrition and Health (A4NH) uses conventional plant breeding techniques to develop staple food crops that are rich in micronutrients, a food-based approach to reduce micronutrient malnutrition known as biofortification. The nutritional breeding targets are established based on the food intake of target populations, nutrient losses during storage and processing and bioavailability. This review collates the evidence on the retention of provitamin A carotenoid (pVAC) after processing, cooking, and storing of the staple crops targeted for pVAC biofortification: cassava, maize, and sweet potato. Sun drying was more detrimental to the pVAC levels (27-56% retention) in cassava than shade (59%) or oven (55-91%) drying, while the pVAC retention levels (66-96%) in sweet potato were not significantly different among the various drying methods. Overall, boiling and steaming had higher pVAC retention (80-98%) compared to baking (30-70%) and frying (18-54%). Gari, the most frequently consumed form of cassava in West Africa had the lowest pVAC retention (10-30%). The pVAC retention of maize grain and cassava and sweet potato flour reached levels as low as 20% after 1-4 months of storage and was highly dependent on genotype. Therefore, we recommend that an evaluation of the pVAC degradation rate among different genotypes be performed before a high pVAC crop is promoted. PMID:24915386

De Moura, Fabiana F; Miloff, Alexander; Boy, Erick

2015-07-29

339

Retention of Provitamin A Carotenoids in Staple Crops Targeted for Biofortification in Africa: Cassava, Maize and Sweet Potato  

PubMed Central

HarvestPlus, part of the Consultative Group on Internation Agriculture research (CGIAR) Program on Agriculture for Nutrition and Health (A4NH) uses conventional plant breeding techniques to develop staple food crops that are rich in micronutrients, a food-based approach to reduce micronutrient malnutrition known as biofortification. The nutritional breeding targets are established based on the food intake of target populations, nutrient losses during storage and processing and bioavailability. This review collates the evidence on the retention of provitamin A carotenoid (pVAC) after processing, cooking, and storing of the staple crops targeted for pVAC biofortification: cassava, maize, and sweet potato. Sun drying was more detrimental to the pVAC levels (27–56% retention) in cassava than shade (59%) or oven (55–91%) drying, while the pVAC retention levels (66–96%) in sweet potato were not significantly different among the various drying methods. Overall, boiling and steaming had higher pVAC retention (80–98%) compared to baking (30–70%) and frying (18–54%). Gari, the most frequently consumed form of cassava in West Africa had the lowest pVAC retention (10–30%). The pVAC retention of maize grain and cassava and sweet potato flour reached levels as low as 20% after 1–4 months of storage and was highly dependent on genotype. Therefore, we recommend that an evaluation of the pVAC degradation rate among different genotypes be performed before a high pVAC crop is promoted. PMID:24915386

De Moura, Fabiana F.; Miloff, Alexander; Boy, Erick

2015-01-01

340

PLANT RESISTANCE Evaluation of Potato Tuber Moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)  

E-print Network

species and cause death (Gill et al. 1992). These Bt Crystal proteins are nontoxic to humans, animals (Barton and Miller 1993). Transformation of potato with a wild type cryIA-Bt toxin gene resulted in potato

Douches, David S.

341

75 FR 14491 - Potato Research and Promotion Plan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...to its Potato Research and Promotion plan regulations to reflect...Specialist, Research and Promotion Branch, Fruit and Vegetable...Administrative practice and procedure, Advertising, Consumer information, Marketing agreements, Potatoes, Promotion, Reporting and...

2010-03-26

342

7 CFR 945.7 - Certified seed potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 945.7 Certified seed potatoes....

2011-01-01

343

Modeling and characterization of potato quality by active thermography  

E-print Network

This research focuses on characterizing a potato with extra sugar content and identifying the location and depth of the extra sugar content using the active thermography imaging technique. The extra sugar content of the potato is an important...

Sun, Chih-Chen

2009-05-15

344

Breeding for apomixis in potato: Pursuing a utopian scheme  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apomictic propagation in potato holds a great promise for the new technology of growing potatoes from botanical seeds in stead of tubers. It is explained that apomixis results from the combination of abnormal meiosis, abnormal fertilization and parthenogenesis.

J. G. Th. Hermsen

1980-01-01

345

7 CFR 980.1 - Import regulations; Irish potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... (b) Grade, size, quality, and maturity requirements...potatoes, except certified seed potatoes, shall be prohibited...the grade, size, quality, and maturity requirements...subsequently used as seed. (f) Designation...certifying the grade, size, quality, and maturity of...

2010-01-01

346

Host plant preference in Colorado potato beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Field and laboratory-choice tests were conducted to better understand host plant preference by the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), in Virginia. In laboratory olfactometer studies, L. decemlineata preferred potato over both tomato and eggplant foli...

347

33 CFR 117.167 - Little Potato Slough.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Little Potato Slough. 117.167 Section 117.167 Navigation and Navigable... Specific Requirements California § 117.167 Little Potato Slough. The draw of the California Department of...

2010-07-01

348

Engineering needs for potato production from true seed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potatoes grown from true potato seed (TPS) are generally small and nonuniform in size and shape, compared to the ones produced\\u000a conventionally from seed tubers. Potato production from TPS would be considerably less expensive than from seed tubers because\\u000a of the negligible storage and handling costs of the TPS. Potato production from TPS would therefore have the greatest potential\\u000a in

Suhas R. Ghate; Casimir A. Jaworski; Sharad C. Phatak; Ronald D. Gitaitis

1986-01-01

349

Barred disks in dense environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the properties of bright barred and unbarred disks in the Abell 901/902 cluster system at z˜ 0.165 with the STAGES HST ACS survey. We find that the global optical bar fraction in the clusters is ˜ 30% regardless of the method of disk selection. Within a given absolute magnitude bin, the bar fraction increases for galaxies with no significant bulge component. Within each morphological type bin, the bar fraction increases for brighter galaxies. We find no strong trend for the bar fraction with local density within the cluster between the core and virial radius. We discuss the implications of our results for the evolution of bars and disks in dense environments.

Marinova, I.; Jogee, S.; Heiderman, A.; Barazza, F. D.; Gray, M. E.; Barden, M.; Wolf, C.; Peng, C. Y.; Bacon, D.; Balogh, M.; Bell, E. F.; Böhm, A.; Caldwell, J. A. R.; Häußler, B.; Heymans, C.; Jahnke, K.; van Kampen, E.; Lane, K.; McIntosh, D. H.; Meisenheimer, K.; Sánchez, S. F.; Somerville, R.; Taylor, A.; Wisotzki, L.; Zheng, X.

350

Beyond Hopkinson's bar.  

PubMed

In order to perform experimental identification of high strain rate material models, engineers have only a very limited toolbox based on test procedures developed decades ago. The best example is the so-called split Hopkinson pressure bar based on the bar concept introduced 100 years ago by Bertram Hopkinson to measure blast pulses. The recent advent of full-field deformation measurements using imaging techniques has allowed novel approaches to be developed and exciting new testing procedures to be imagined for the first time. One can use this full-field information in conjunction with efficient numerical inverse identification tools such as the virtual fields method (VFM) to identify material parameters at high rates. The underpinning novelty is to exploit the inertial effects developed in high strain rate loading. This paper presents results from a new inertial impact test to obtain stress-strain curves at high strain rates (here, up to 3000?s(-1)). A quasi-isotropic composite specimen is equipped with a grid and images are recorded with the new HPV-X camera from Shimadzu at 5?Mfps and the SIMX16 camera from Specialised Imaging at 1?Mfps. Deformation, strain and acceleration fields are then input into the VFM to identify the stiffness parameters with unprecedented quality. PMID:25071232

Pierron, F; Zhu, H; Siviour, C

2014-08-28

351

Production of low oil content potato chips using vacuum frying  

E-print Network

temperature and vacuum pressure had a significant effect on the drying rate and oil absorption rate of potato chips. However, these two parameters had no significant effect on the final moisture and oil content of potato chips. Potato chips fried at lower...

Garayo, Jagoba

2001-01-01

352

Taxonomy of cultivated potatoes (solanum section petota: solanaceae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Solanum tuberosum, the cultivated potato of world commerce, is a primary food crop worldwide. Wild and cultivated potatoes form the germplasm base for international breeding efforts to improve potato in the face of variety of disease, environmental, and agronomic constraints. A series of national an...

353

7 CFR 980.1 - Import regulations; Irish potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...each month of the marketing year are in most direct competition with potatoes of the...each month of the marketing year are in most direct competition with potatoes of the...each month of the marketing year are in most direct competition with potatoes of the...and maturity requirements. On and after the effective date hereof...

2014-01-01

354

76 FR 31787 - United States Standards for Grades of Potatoes  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...characteristic requirement to allow mixed colors and/ or types of potatoes when designated...characteristic requirement to allow mixed colors and/or types of potatoes when designated...commenter also suggested only allowing mixed colors and not mixed types of potatoes....

2011-06-02

355

75 FR 22707 - United States Standards for Grades of Potatoes  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...characteristic requirement to allow mixed colors and/or types of potatoes when designated...language into the standard to allow mixed colors and/or types of potatoes when designated...the proposed standard to allow for mixed colors and/or types of potatoes when...

2010-04-30

356

A POTATO A DAY KEEPS THE DOCTOR AWAY?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potato tubers were found to have high levels of salicylic acid relative to most other plants. Salicylic acid is thought to be the active ingredient of aspirin in the human body. The high levels of SA in potato could potentially be a nutritionally desirable aspect of potato....

357

Sweet potatoes are a warm-weather vegetable  

E-print Network

Sweet potatoes are a warm- weather vegetable related to the morning glory family.Yams are a different plant species. Yams grow only in tropical climates and are related to grasses and lilies.Although Louisiana sweet potatoes are often referred to as yams, they truly are sweet potatoes. The Louisiana

358

NUTRIENT STATUS OF POTATO: ASSESSMENT OF FUTURE TRENDS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The potato is an underground stem and reflects the complex metabolism and metabolite accumulation that occurs in plant organs in general. Although composed of 80% water, the potato possesses phytonutrients that easily put it in the classification of vegetables in general. Potato possesses caroteno...

359

Storage temperature studies with Irish cobbler seed potatoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Storage temperature studies with Irish Cobbler seed potatoes are being made for the purpose of attempting to overcome certain disadvantages resulting from the use of home grown seed for the production of the early commercial potato crop on the Eastern Shore of Maryland. Northern grown and home grown seed are both used for the production of the early commercial potato

R. A. Jehle; A. Walker

1937-01-01

360

Taxonomy of Cultivated Potatoes (Solanum section Petota: Solanaceae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Solanum tuberosum, the cultivated potato of world commerce, is a primary food crop worldwide. Wild and cultivated potatoes form the germplasm base for international breeding efforts to improve potato in the face of variety of disease, environmental, and agronomic constraints. A series of national an...

361

Economic assessments of potato production systems in Maine  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Using an integrated enterprise and whole-farm budget model for a 324-ha medium-sized potato farm, the profitability of potatoes grown in combination with fifteen common potato rotation crops in Maine are evaluated. Enterprise budgets for all sixteen crops are calculated while a whole-farm budget syn...

362

Exudation of mesotrione from potato roots injures neighboring plants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mesotrione is an effective herbicide for volunteer potato control but is not selective in several crops, including onion and carrot. Studies were conducted in 2006 to evaluate the effectiveness of wiper applied mesotrione for control of volunteer potato in a potato crop. Surprisingly, nontreated pot...

363

The History of the Potato in Irish Cuisine and Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few plants have been as central to the destiny of the nation as the potato (Solanum tuberosum) has been to Ireland. Ireland was the first European country to accept the potato as a serious food crop. From its introduction in the 16th Century, the potato has held a central place in the Irish diet, and by extension, in the culture

Mairtin Mac Con Iomaire; Pádraic Óg Gallagher

2009-01-01

364

MICROBIAL CONTROL OF THE POTATO TUBER MOTH (LEPIDOPTERA: GELECHIIDAE)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potato tuber moth (PTM) is a serious pest of stored potato in most countries where potatoes are grown. Pathogens that are specific to insects offer promise as alternatives to broad spectrum insecticides for management of this pest. A diverse spectrum of microscopic and multicellular organisms (bact...

365

Zebra chip disease of potato: biology, epidemiology, and management  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Zebra chip (ZC), a new and economically important disease of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), has been documented to occur in commercial potato fields in the United States, Mexico, Central America, and New Zealand. This disease has caused millions of dollars in losses to the potato industry. Whole cro...

366

Bar-Code-Scribing Tool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed hand-held tool applies indelible bar code to small parts. Possible to identify parts for management of inventory without tags or labels. Microprocessor supplies bar-code data to impact-printer-like device. Device drives replaceable scribe, which cuts bar code on surface of part. Used to mark serially controlled parts for military and aerospace equipment. Also adapts for discrete marking of bulk items used in food and pharmaceutical processing.

Badinger, Michael A.; Drouant, George J.

1991-01-01

367

Number Line Bars--Fractions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use these virtual fraction bars to model fractional addition, subtraction, multiplication (of fractions by whole numbers), and division on a number line. Students can create bars in positive or negative fractional lengths; align, stack, or remove bars; and change the number line marks in increments between 1/2 and 1/15. Applet instructions and teaching ideas are included in the links at the top of the page.

2005-01-01

368

In vivo antioxidant, hypoglycemic, and anti-tumor activities of anthocyanin extracts from purple sweet potato  

PubMed Central

Anthocyanin from purple sweet potato (PSP) extracted by microwave baking (MB) and acidified electrolyzed water (AEW) exhibited antioxidant activity. After further purification by macroporous AB-8 resin, the color value of PSP anthocyanin (PSPA) reached 30.15 with a total flavonoid concentration of 932.5 mg/g. The purified extracts had more potent antioxidant activities than the crude extracts. After continuously administering the PSP extracts to 12-mo-old mice for 1 mo, the anti-aging index of the experimental group was not significantly different from that of 5-mo-old mice. To a certain degree, PSPA was also effective for controlling plasma glucose levels in male Streptozocin (STZ)-treated diabetic mice. In addition, the extracts inhibited Sarcoma S180 cell growth in ICR mice. Mice consuming the PSP extracts formed significantly fewer and smaller sarcomas than mice consuming the control diets. The highest inhibition rate was 69.03%. These results suggest that anthocyanin extracts from PSP not only exert strong antioxidant effects in vitro, but also had anti-aging, anti-hyperglycemic, and anti-tumor activities. PMID:24133614

Zhao, Jin-Ge; Yan, Qian-Qian; Lu, Li-Zhen

2013-01-01

369

Bars in a cosmological context  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the properties of bars in a series of zoom cosmological simulations (Martig et al. 2012, Kraljic et al. 2012). We find that bars are almost absent from galaxies at z>1, and if they form they tend to be quickly destroyed by mergers and instabilities. On the contrary, at z<1 bars are long-lived, and the fraction of barred galaxies rises steadily. Bars are eventually found in ~ 80% of z=0 spiral galaxies. This redshift evolution is quantitatively consistent with existing data from the COSMOS survey (Sheth et al. 2008), although the detectability of bars is presently limited to z<0.8 because of band-shifting and resolution effects. We predict later bar formation in lower-mass galaxies, also in agreement with existing data (e.g., Sheth et al. 2012). We actually find that the characteristic epoch of bar formation is the epoch of massive thin disk formation, corresponding to the transition between an early violent phase at z > 1 and a later secular phase. Bar formation thus traces the emergence of the disk-dominated morphology of today's spirals.

Martig, Marie; Kraljic, Katarina; Bournaud, Frédéric

2015-03-01

370

Ladder supported ring bar circuit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved slow wave circuit especially useful in backward wave oscillators includes a slow wave circuit in a waveguide. The slow wave circuit is comprised of rings disposed between and attached to respective stubs. The stubs are attached to opposing sidewalls of the waveguide. To the end that opposed, interacting magnetic fields will be established to provide a very high coupling impedance for the slow wave structure, axially orientated bars are connected between rings in alternate spaces and adjacent to the attachment points of stubs. Similarly, axial bars are connected between rings in the spaces which do not include bars and at points adjacent to the attachment of bars.

Kosmahl, H. G. (inventor)

1983-01-01

371

Orange Sweet Potato Brie Tartlet 2.5 # cooked diced Sweet potato  

E-print Network

and roll in Phyllo dough which is layered with melted butter (approx. 6 sheets). Bake at 350 deg for 20 to make filling Layer 5 sheets of Phyllo dough with mixture curry powder and brown sugar. Fill pastry bag with ricotta mixture and pipe a row (one inch wide) on Phyllo dough, roll dough around

Kim, Duck O.

372

Potato virus Y infection hinders potato defence response and renders plants more vulnerable to Colorado potato beetle attack.  

PubMed

In the field, plants are challenged by more than one biotic stressor at the same time. In this study, the molecular interactions between potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say; CPB) and Potato virus Y(NTN) (PVY(NTN) ) were investigated through analyses of gene expression in the potato leaves and the gut of the CPB larvae, and of the release of potato volatile compounds. CPB larval growth was enhanced when reared on secondary PVY(NTN) -infected plants, which was linked to decreased accumulation of transcripts associated with the antinutritional properties of potato. In PVY(NTN) -infected plants, ethylene signalling pathway induction and induction of auxin response transcription factors were attenuated, while no differences were observed in jasmonic acid (JA) signalling pathway. Similarly to rearing on virus-infected plants, CPB larvae gained more weight when reared on plants silenced in JA receptor gene (coi1). Although herbivore-induced defence mechanism is regulated predominantly by JA, response in coi1-silenced plants only partially corresponded to the one observed in PVY(NTN) -infected plants, confirming the role of other plant hormones in modulating this response. The release of ?-barbatene and benzyl alcohol was different in healthy and PVY(NTN) -infected plants before CPB larvae infestation, implicating the importance of PVY(NTN) infection in plant communication with its environment. This was reflected in gene expression profiles of neighbouring plants showing different degree of defence response. This study thus contributes to our understanding of plant responses in agro-ecosystems. PMID:25251011

Petek, Marko; Rotter, Ana; Kogovšek, Polona; Baebler, Spela; Mithöfer, Axel; Gruden, Kristina

2014-11-01

373

Involvement of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) MKK6 in Response to Potato virus Y  

PubMed Central

Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades have crucial roles in the regulation of plant development and in plant responses to stress. Plant recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns or pathogen-derived effector proteins has been shown to trigger activation of several MAPKs. This then controls defence responses, including synthesis and/or signalling of defence hormones and activation of defence related genes. The MAPK cascade genes are highly complex and interconnected, and thus the precise signalling mechanisms in specific plant–pathogen interactions are still not known. Here we investigated the MAPK signalling network involved in immune responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) to Potato virus Y, an important potato pathogen worldwide. Sequence analysis was performed to identify the complete MAPK kinase (MKK) family in potato, and to identify those regulated in the hypersensitive resistance response to Potato virus Y infection. Arabidopsis has 10 MKK family members, of which we identified five in potato and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), and eight in Nicotiana benthamiana. Among these, StMKK6 is the most strongly regulated gene in response to Potato virus Y. The salicylic acid treatment revealed that StMKK6 is regulated by the hormone that is in agreement with the salicylic acid-regulated domains found in the StMKK6 promoter. The involvement of StMKK6 in potato defence response was confirmed by localisation studies, where StMKK6 accumulated strongly only in Potato-virus-Y-infected plants, and predominantly in the cell nucleus. Using a yeast two-hybrid method, we identified three StMKK6 targets downstream in the MAPK cascade: StMAPK4_2, StMAPK6 and StMAPK13. These data together provide further insight into the StMKK6 signalling module and its involvement in plant defence. PMID:25111695

Lazar, Ana; Coll, Anna; Dobnik, David; Baebler, Špela; Bedina-Zavec, Apolonija; Žel, Jana; Gruden, Kristina

2014-01-01

374

Thermal stability and kinetics of degradation of deoxynivalenol, deoxynivalenol conjugates and ochratoxin A during baking of wheat bakery products.  

PubMed

The stability of deoxynivalenol (DON), deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (DON-3-glucoside), 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON), de-epoxy-deoxynivalenol (DOM-1) and ochratoxin A (OTA) during thermal processing has been studied. Baking temperature, time and initial mycotoxin concentration in the raw materials were assayed as factors. An improved UPLC-MS/MS method to detect DON, DON-3-glucoside, 3-ADON, 15-ADON and DOM-1 in wheat baked products was developed in the present assay. The results highlighted the importance of temperature and time in mycotoxin stability in heat treatments. OTA is more stable than DON in a baking treatment. Interestingly, the DON-3-glucoside concentrations increased (>300%) under mild baking conditions. On the other hand, it was rapidly reduced under harsh conditions. The 3-ADON decreased during the heat treatment; while DOM-1 increased after the heating process. Finally, the data followed first order kinetics for analysed mycotoxins and thermal constant rates (k) were calculated. This parameter can be a useful tool for prediction of mycotoxin levels. PMID:25704712

Vidal, Arnau; Sanchis, Vicente; Ramos, Antonio J; Marín, Sonia

2015-07-01

375

Exploration of Sugar Functionality in Sugar-Snap and Wire-Cut Cookie Baking: Implications for Sucrose Reduction or Replacement  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugars are plasticizers of the biopolymers of wheat flour, but concentrated sugar solutions act as anti-plasticizers, compared to water alone. As a result, gluten development during dough mixing and starch gelatinization/pasting during cookie baking are delayed or prevented. In great excess, aqueou...

376

Logical metonymy resolution beyond qualia roles. Sentences like The baker began the cake ( baking the cake), where an event-  

E-print Network

Logical metonymy resolution beyond qualia roles. Sentences like The baker began the cake ( baking the cake), where an event- subcategorizing verb combines with an entity-denoting object, have been often of the meaning of the entity to a related event which is not overtly realized in the sentence (e.g. the cake

Reyle, Uwe

377

BREAD BAKING DOES NOT ALTER THE BIOAVAILABILITY OF HYDROGEN-REDUCED IRON POWDER ADDED TO REFINED WHEAT FLOUR  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Elemental iron powders are widely used to fortify flour and cereal products. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that baking enhances the bioavailability of elemental iron powders by oxidizing Fe0 to Fe2+ or Fe3+. In the present study we used an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell culture model an...

378

Improvement of fermentation ability under baking-associated stress conditions by altering the POG1 gene expression in baker's yeast.  

PubMed

During the bread-making process, yeast cells are exposed to many types of baking-associated stress. There is thus a demand within the baking industry for yeast strains with high fermentation abilities under these stress conditions. The POG1 gene, encoding a putative transcription factor involved in cell cycle regulation, is a multicopy suppressor of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae E3 ubiquitin ligase Rsp5 mutant. The pog1 mutant is sensitive to various stresses. Our results suggested that the POG1 gene is involved in stress tolerance in yeast cells. In this study, we showed that overexpression of the POG1 gene in baker's yeast conferred increased fermentation ability in high-sucrose-containing dough, which is used for sweet dough baking. Furthermore, deletion of the POG1 gene drastically increased the fermentation ability in bread dough after freeze-thaw stress, which would be a useful characteristic for frozen dough baking. Thus, the engineering of yeast strains to control the POG1 gene expression level would be a novel method for molecular breeding of baker's yeast. PMID:23800735

Sasano, Yu; Haitani, Yutaka; Hashida, Keisuke; Oshiro, Satoshi; Shima, Jun; Takagi, Hiroshi

2013-08-01

379

Interrelationships of Protein Composition, Protein Level, Baking Process and the Characteristics of Hearth Bread and Pan Bread  

Microsoft Academic Search

Baking performance of hearth bread and pan bread were investigated using 10 wheat varieties with variable protein quality. For most varieties, samples were selected at two protein levels, approximately 11 and 13% (d.m.). The effects of flour quality on loaf characteristics were different for hearth bread compared to pan bread, where both protein quality and protein content affect loaf volume

E. M. Færgestad; E. L. Molteberg; E. M. Magnus

2000-01-01

380

Robustness analysis of a CFD model to the uncertainties in its physical properties for a bread baking process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the robustness of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model for bread baking to some uncertainties in the physical properties of dough\\/bread. In this model, dough\\/bread was considered as solid materials with constant density, while both heat capacity and thermal conductivity were functions varying with temperature. A full factorial experimental plan was generated. Temperature profiles at eight different

Shin Yee Wong; Weibiao Zhou; Jinsong Hua

2006-01-01

381

Effects of quenching and tempering on the microstructure and bake hardening behavior of ferrite and dual phase steels  

E-print Network

]. The quenching of the DP steel results not only in the formation of martensite, but also in the high residual steels. It is well known that the microstructure of the DP steel consists of a soft ferrite matrix and hard martensite islands [8,9]. Thus, the microstructure evolution of the DP steel during paint baking

Volinsky, Alex A.

382

Dynamic in-situ temperature profile monitoring of a deep-UV post-exposure-bake process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system for monitoring the dynamic temperature profile during the deep UV (DUV) post exposure bake (PEB) is described. Platinum resistor temperature detectors (RTDs) are embedded into silicon wafers. Hardware and software convert the resistances to temperatures. The RTD calibration is National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) traceable. The wafers are tested on both a thermally uniform hot plate

Barney M. Cohen; Wayne G. Renken; Paul Miller

2002-01-01

383

Effect of peeling and three cooking methods on the content of selected phytochemicals in potato tubers with various colour of flesh.  

PubMed

The impact of peeling and three cooking treatments (boiling, baking and microwaving) on the content of selected phytochemicals in white-, yellow-, red- and purple-fleshed potatoes was investigated. Ascorbic acid and chlorogenic acid contents were determined by HPLC-DAD, total anthocyanin content by pH-differential spectrophotometry, glycoalkaloid, ?-chaconine and ?-solanine contents by HPLC-ESI/MS/MS. All cooking treatments reduced ascorbic and chlorogenic acid contents, total glycoalkaloids, ?-chaconine and ?-solanine with the exception of total anthocyanins. The losses of ascorbic and chlorogenic acids were minimised with boiling and total anthocyanin levels retained the highest. Boiling of peeled tubers decreased contents of total glycoalkaloids (?-chaconine and ?-solanine) and appeared as the most favourable among the three tested methods. Moreover, due to higher initial levels, red- and purple-fleshed cultivars retained higher amounts of antioxidants (ascorbic acid, chlorogenic acid and total anthocyanin) after boiling and may be healthier as compared with white or yellow cultivars. PMID:23411230

Lachman, Jaromír; Hamouz, Karel; Musilová, Janette; Hejtmánková, Kate?ina; Kotíková, Zora; Pazder?, Kate?ina; Domká?ová, Jaroslava; Pivec, Vladimír; Cimr, Ji?í

2013-06-01

384

Molecular Characterization of two Potato Virus S Isolates from Late Blight Resistant Genotypes of Potato (Solanum tuberosum)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potato virus S (PVS) has a widespread distribution in the U.S. However, only two complete nucleotide sequences have been published. A recent survey of potato fields in the state of Washington confirms that PVS is widely prevalent. Late blight resistant (LBR) potato cultivars and genotypes were sho...

385

Evidence of a monogenic nature of the Nz Gene conferring resistance against Potato virus Y Strain Z (PVYZ) in potato  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Hypersensitive resistance (HR) to Potato virus Y (PVY) in potato (Solanum tuberosum) is conferred by strain-specific N genes. Two such genes have been identified in potato so far, Nytbr conferring HR to PVYo, and Nctbr conferring HR to PVYc. A third, putative gene Nztbr was proposed to confer HR aga...

386

Strong Meissner screening change in superconducting radio frequency cavities due to mild baking  

SciTech Connect

We investigate “hot” regions with anomalous high field dissipation in bulk niobium superconducting radio frequency cavities for particle accelerators by using low energy muon spin rotation (LE-?SR) on corresponding cavity cutouts. We demonstrate that superconducting properties at the hot region are well described by the non-local Pippard/BCS model for niobium in the clean limit with a London penetration depth ?{sub L}=23±2 nm. In contrast, a cutout sample from the 120??C baked cavity shows a much larger ?>100?nm and a depth dependent mean free path, likely due to gradient in vacancy concentration. We suggest that these vacancies can efficiently trap hydrogen and hence prevent the formation of hydrides responsible for rf losses in hot regions.

Romanenko, A., E-mail: aroman@fnal.gov; Grassellino, A.; Barkov, F. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States); Suter, A.; Salman, Z.; Prokscha, T. [Laboratory for Muon Spin Spectroscopy, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

2014-02-17

387

Formation of melatonin and its isomer during bread dough fermentation and effect of baking.  

PubMed

Melatonin is produced mainly by the pineal gland in vertebrates. Also, melatonin and its isomer are found in foods. Investigating the formation of melatonin and its isomer is of importance during bread dough fermentation and its degradation during baking since bread is widely consumed in high amounts. Formation of melatonin was not significant during dough fermentation. The melatonin isomer content of nonfermented dough was found to be 4.02 ng/g and increased up to 16.71 ng/g during fermentation. Lower amounts of isomer in crumb and crust than dough showed that the thermal process caused a remarkable degree of degradation in melatonin isomer. At the end of the 180 min fermentation Trp decreased by 58%. The results revealed for the first time the formation of a melatonin isomer in bread dough during yeast fermentation. PMID:24611648

Y?lmaz, Cemile; Kocada?l?, Tolgahan; Gökmen, Vural

2014-04-01

388

Numerical simulation of the baking of porous anode carbon in a vertical flue ring furnace  

SciTech Connect

The interaction of pitch pyrolysis in porous anode carbon during heating and volatiles combustion in the flue gas channel has been analyzed to gain insight in the anode baking process. A two-dimensional geometry of a flue gas channel adjacent to a porous flue gas wall, packing coke, and an anode was used for studying the effect of heating rate on temperature gradients and internal gas pressure in the anodes. The mathematical model included porous heat and mass transfer, pitch pyrolysis, combustion of volatiles, radiation, and turbulent channel flow. The mathematical model was developed through source code modification of the computational fluid dynamics code FLUENT. The model was useful for studying the effects of heating rate, geometry, and anode properties.

Jacobsen, M. [Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway). Dept. of Thermal Energy and Hydropower; Melaaen, M.C. [Telemark Inst. of Tech., Porsgrunn (Norway)

1998-11-13

389

Identification and characterization of yeasts causing chalk mould defects on par-baked bread.  

PubMed

Pichia anomala, Hyphopichia burtonii and Saccharomycopsis fibuligera are spoilage yeasts causing chalk mould defects on par-baked breads packaged under modified atmosphere. The first objective of this study was to identify yeasts isolated from spoiled par-baked breads by means of a RAPD protocol and to determine the dominant spoilers amongst identified strains. The second objective was to determine the effects of water activity (a(w)) and pH value on the growth rates and lag phase durations of P. anomala, H. burtonii and S. fibuligera. 95% of the yeasts tested were identified as P. anomala and 5% as S. fibuligera, H. burtonii was not detected. In order to investigate the effect of a(w) and pH the growth of the three yeasts was tested within an a(w) range of 0.88-0.98 and a pH range of 2.8-8.0. P. anomala was able to grow from pH 2.8 to 8 without a clear optimum. S. fibuligera and H. burtonii showed a pH optimum for growth of 5. The optimum water activity for growth was different for the three strains and varied between 0.96 and 0.98. These growth data were further used to develop secondary models that describe the relationship between a(w) and the radial or colony growth rate (g, mm/d) or the lag phase duration (?, d). The identification of the spoilage organisms and a good understanding of the effects of a(w) and pH on the growth behavior is essential for future development of adequate conservation strategies against chalk mould defects. PMID:21569947

Deschuyffeleer, N; Audenaert, K; Samapundo, S; Ameye, S; Eeckhout, M; Devlieghere, F

2011-08-01

390

Potato glycoalkaloids: true safety or false sense of security?  

PubMed

As one of the major agricultural crops, the cultivated potato is consumed each day by millions of people from diverse cultural backgrounds. A product of global importance, the potato tuber contains toxic glycoalkaloids (GAs) that cause sporadic outbreaks of poisoning in humans, as well as many livestock deaths. This article will discuss some aspects of the potato GAs, including their toxic effects and risk factors, methods of detection of GAs and biotechnological aspects of potato breeding. An attempt has been made to answer a question of vital importance - are potato GAs dangerous to humans and animals and, if so, to what extent? PMID:15036866

Korpan, Yaroslav I; Nazarenko, Elena A; Skryshevskaya, Irina V; Martelet, Claude; Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole; El'skaya, Anna V

2004-03-01

391

Implementation of viscoelastic Hopkinson bars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge of the properties of soft, viscoelastic materials at high strain rates are important in furthering our understanding of their role during blast or impact events. Testing these low impedance materials using a metallic split Hopkinson pressure bar setup results in poor signal to noise ratios due to impedance mismatching. These difficulties are overcome by using polymeric Hopkinson bars. Conventional Hopkinson bar analysis cannot be used on the polymeric bars due to the viscoelastic nature of the bar material. Implementing polymeric Hopkinson bars requires characterization of the viscoelastic properties of the material used. In this paper, 30 mm diameter Polymethyl Methacrylate bars are used as Hopkinson pressure bars. This testing technique is applied to polymeric foam called Divinycell H80 and H200. Although there is a large body of of literature containing compressive data, this rarely deals with strain rates above 250s-1 which becomes increasingly important when looking at the design of composite structures where energy absorption during impact events is high on the list of priorities. Testing of polymeric foams at high strain rates allows for the development of better constitutive models.

Curry, R.; Cloete, T.; Govender, R.

2012-08-01

392

Structure, processing, and properties of potatoes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this experiment and lesson intended for high school students in an engineering or materials science course or college freshmen is to demonstrate the relation between processing, structure, and thermodynamic and physical properties. The specific objectives are to show the effect of structure and structural changes on thermodynamic properties (specific heat) and physical properties (compressive strength); to illustrate the first law of thermodynamics; to compare boiling a potato in water with cooking it in a microwave in terms of the rate of structural change and the energy consumed to 'process' the potato; and to demonstrate compression testing.

Lloyd, Isabel K.; Kolos, Kimberly R.; Menegaux, Edmond C.; Luo, Huy; Mccuen, Richard H.; Regan, Thomas M.

1992-01-01

393

Structure, processing, and properties of potatoes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this experiment and lesson intended for high school students in an engineering or materials science course or college freshmen is to demonstrate the relation between processing, structure, and thermodynamic and physical properties. The specific objectives are to show the effect of structure and structural changes on thermodynamic properties (specific heat) and physical properties (compressive strength); to illustrate the first law of thermodynamics; to compare boiling a potato in water with cooking it in a microwave in terms of the rate of structural change and the energy consumed to 'process' the potato; and to demonstrate compression testing.

Lloyd, Isabel K.; Kolos, Kimberly R.; Menegaux, Edmond C.; Luo, Huy; McCuen, Richard H.; Regan, Thomas M.

1992-06-01

394

[Survey of glycoalkaloids content in the various potatoes].  

PubMed

The content of potato glycoalkaloid (PGA) was investigated in 27 cultivars of raw potatoes and 31 potatoes in commercial foods with peel. The investigation of the 27 cultivars of potatoes showed different contents of glycoalkaloids. "May queen" and "Sherry" showed high contents of PGA (180 mg/kg and 320 mg/kg, respectively) among the raw potatoes of middle size (ca. 100 g). On the other hand, "Inca red" showed the lowest content of 21 mg/kg. Higher contents of PGA were found in smaller potatoes in this study. The content of PGA varied in the range of 48-350 mg/kg in the potatoes in commercial foods with peel. PMID:17658001

Shimoi, Toshiko; Ushiyama, Hirofumi; Kan, Kimiko; Saito, Kazuo; Kamata, Kunihiro; Hirokado, Masako

2007-06-01

395

Galaxy Zoo: CANDELS barred discs and bar fractions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation of bars in disc galaxies is a tracer of the dynamical maturity of the population. Previous studies have found that the incidence of bars in discs decreases from the local Universe to z ˜ 1, and by z > 1 simulations predict that bar features in dynamically mature discs should be extremely rare. Here, we report the discovery of strong barred structures in massive disc galaxies at z ˜ 1.5 in deep rest-frame optical images from the Cosmic Assembly Near-Infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey. From within a sample of 876 disc galaxies identified by visual classification in Galaxy Zoo, we identify 123 barred galaxies. Selecting a subsample within the same region of the evolving galaxy luminosity function (brighter than L*), we find that the bar fraction across the redshift range 0.5 ? z ? 2 ( f_{bar} = 10.7^{+6.3}_{-3.5} per cent after correcting for incompleteness) does not significantly evolve. We discuss the implications of this discovery in the context of existing simulations and our current understanding of the way disc galaxies have evolved over the last 11 billion years.

Simmons, B. D.; Melvin, Thomas; Lintott, Chris; Masters, Karen L.; Willett, Kyle W.; Keel, William C.; Smethurst, R. J.; Cheung, Edmond; Nichol, Robert C.; Schawinski, Kevin; Rutkowski, Michael; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; Bell, Eric F.; Casteels, Kevin R. V.; Conselice, Christopher J.; Almaini, Omar; Ferguson, Henry C.; Fortson, Lucy; Hartley, William; Kocevski, Dale; Koekemoer, Anton M.; McIntosh, Daniel H.; Mortlock, Alice; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Ownsworth, Jamie; Bamford, Steven; Dahlen, Tomas; Faber, Sandra M.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Fontana, Adriano; Galametz, Audrey; Grogin, N. A.; Grützbauch, Ruth; Guo, Yicheng; Häußler, Boris; Jek, Kian J.; Kaviraj, Sugata; Lucas, Ray A.; Peth, Michael; Salvato, Mara; Wiklind, Tommy; Wuyts, Stijn

2014-12-01

396

Colonic fermentation of potato starch after a freeze-thaw cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

To estimate colonic carbohydrate fermentation following a potato meal, 13 healthy volunteers consumed 375 g potatoes containing 60 g starch on three different occasions in random order: (A) potatoes boiled and consumed fresh at 60° C; (B) potatoes boiled, frozen, thawed and consumed at 20° C; and (C) potatoes boiled, frozen, thawed, reheated to 90° C, and consumed at 60°

Wolfgang Scheppach; Matthias Bach; Peter Bartram; Stefan Christl; Wolfgang Bergthaller; Heinrich Kasper

1991-01-01

397

Effect of Shoot Removal During Tuberization on Volunteer Potato (Solanum tuberosum) Tuber Production 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volunteer potato can be a host of serious pest problems in potato and could provide a source of inoculum for subsequent potato crops. Volunteer potato can also be difficult to control in many rotational crops. Potato shoots were removed once, twice, and throughout the growing season, beginning at early and late tuberization. Compared with no shoot removal, two or more

MARTIN M. WILLIAMS; RICK A. BOYDSTON

2002-01-01

398

Effect of specific gravity, storage, and conditioning on potato chip color  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of potato chips in the commercial use of potatoes is cited by Hedlund (8) who points out that potato chips account for the largest per cent of the processed portion of the crop. Nine and one-half per cent of the 1957 potato crop that was consumed as food was in the form of chips and shoestring potatoes. Commercial

Shirley Lyman; Andrea Mackey

1961-01-01

399

Thermodynamic Analysis of the Cu-As-S-(O) System Relevant to Sulfuric Acid Baking of Enargite at 473 K (200 °C)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While the growing demand for copper has compelled the industry to adapt new technologies for the treatment of copper-arsenic (enargite) concentrates, the refractory nature of such concentrates combined with the troublesome presence of arsenic has created a major metallurgical and environmental challenge. Preliminary results of the acid bake-leach process at the University of Utah have shown some potential advantages for the treatment of enargite concentrates. While the transformation of enargite to copper sulfate, arsenolite, and elemental sulfur has already been established experimentally, thermodynamic evaluation of the sulfuric acid baking process provides further understanding which should be useful. In this article, the available thermodynamic data for the species involved in the Cu-As-S-O system are compiled. These data were used to calculate the phase stability (Kellogg) diagrams as well as equilibrium compositions at 473 K (200 °C) using the STABCAL and HSC Chemistry® 5.1 software packages. The equilibrium composition calculations indicate that enargite can transform to copper sulfate either directly or through chalcocite and/or covellite. The major gaseous species during baking were found to be SO2 and H2O. The results of the thermodynamic calculations were further compared with two confirmatory baking experiments involving a high-quality enargite sample. The condensed reaction products from sulfuric acid baking based on XRD results include CuSO4, As2O3, CuO·CuSO4, and S8 under both neutral and oxidative conditions. While all these compounds were predicted through equilibrium calculations, some of the predicted compounds were not detected in the sulfuric acid-baked enargite. None of the calculations indicated any appreciable amounts of arsenic-bearing gases at the baking temperature of 473 K (200 °C). Consistent with thermodynamic predictions, no H2S gas was detected during the sulfuric acid baking experiment. Approximately, 80 pct of the baked enargite samples were leached in water.

Safarzadeh, M. Sadegh; Miller, Jan D.; Huang, Hsin H.

2014-04-01

400

Potato Cultivars Differ in Current Season Potato Virus Y (PVY) Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research plots were established in 2004, 2005, and 2006 at Hermiston, Oregon and in 2005 and 2006 in Othello, Washington to\\u000a determine if potato cultivars differ in current season PVY infection. Eight potato cultivars were used; Gem Russet, GemStar\\u000a Russet, Russet Norkotah, Shepody, Alturas, Ranger Russet, Umatilla Russet and Russet Burbank. The first four listed produce\\u000a mild symptoms due to

P. B. Hamm; D. C. Hane; M. J. Pavek; L. D. Leroux; S. L. Gieck; N. L. David

2010-01-01

401

Effects of Potato-Psyllid-Vectored 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' Infection on Potato Leaf and Stem Physiology.  

PubMed

The bacterium 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' is associated with zebra chip disease (ZC), a threat to potato production in North America and New Zealand. It is vectored by potato psyllids. Previous studies observed that 'Ca. L. solanacearum' infection causes potato tubers to undergo ZC-symptom-associated shifts in physiology, such as increased levels of amino acids, sugars, and phenolics. However, little is known about how 'Ca. L. solanacearum' infections caused by psyllid vector feeding may affect metabolism in potato foliage and stems. This study compared metabolism in potato plants fed upon by 'Ca. L. solanacearum'-positive psyllids with potato plants not exposed to psyllids. Foliar levels of asparagine, aspartic acid, glutamine, fructose, glucose, sucrose, a ferulic acid derivative, and quinic acid were lower in 'Ca. L. solanacearum'-inoculated than noninfected plants. However, foliar levels of proline, serine, four phenolic compounds, and most terpenoids were greater in 'Ca. L. solanacearum'-inoculated than noninfected plants. Upper stem levels of asparagine and aspartic acid, upper and lower stem levels of ellagitannins and most monoterpenoids, and lower stem level of sesquiterpenoids were greater in 'Ca. L. solanacearum'-inoculated than noninfected plants. These results suggest that many defense-related terpenoid compounds might increase in plants which had psyllids inoculate 'Ca. L. solanacearum'. This could impact progression and spread of ZC. PMID:25469656

Wallis, C M; Rashed, A; Chen, J; Paetzold, L; Workneh, F; Rush, C M

2015-02-01

402

Utilization of potatoes for life support in space. V. Evaluation of cultivars in response to continuous light and high temperature.  

PubMed

Twenty-four potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars from different regions of the world were evaluated in terms of their responses to continuous light (24 h photoperiod) and to high temperature (30 C) in two separate experiments under controlled environments. In each experiment, a first evaluation of the cultivars was made at day 35 after transplanting, at which time 12 cultivars exhibiting best growth and tuber initiation were selected. A final evaluation of the 12 cultivars was made after an additional 21 days of growth, at which time plant height, total dry weight, tuber dry weight, and tuber number were determined. In the continuous light evaluation, the 12 selected cultivars were Alaska 114, Atlantic, Bintje, Denali, Desiree, Haig, New York 81, Ottar, Rutt, Snogg, Snowchip, and Troll. In the high temperature evaluation, the 12 selected cultivars were Alpha, Atlantic, Bake King, Denali, Desiree, Haig, Kennebec, Norland, Russet Burbank, Rutt, Superior, and Troll. Among the cultivars selected under continuous irradiation, Desiree, Ottar, Haig, Rutt, Denali and Alaska showed the best potential for high productivity whereas New York 81 and Bintje showed the least production capability. Among the cultivars selected under high temperature, Rutt, Haig, Troll and Bake King had best performance whereas Atlantic, Alpha, Kennebec and Russet Burbank exhibited the least production potential. Thus, Haig and Rutt were the two cultivars that performed well under continuous irradiation and high temperature conditions, and could have maximum potential for adaptation to varying stress environments. These two cultivars may have the best potential for use in future space farming in which continuous light and/or high temperature conditions may exist. However, cultivar responses under combined conditions of continuous light and high temperature remains for further validation. PMID:11537668

Tibbitts, T W; Cao, W; Bennett, S M

1992-01-01

403

Photometric Decomposition of Barred Galaxies  

E-print Network

We present a non-parametric method for decomposition of the light of disk galaxies into disk, bulge and bar components. We have developed and tested the method on a sample of 68 disk galaxies for which we have acquired I-band photometry. The separation of disk and bar light relies on the single assumption that the bar is a straight feature with a different ellipticity and position angle from that of the projected disk. We here present the basic method, but recognise that it can be significantly refined. We identify bars in only 47% of the more nearly face-on galaxies in our sample. The fraction of light in the bar has a broad range from 1.3% to 40% of the total galaxy light. If low-luminosity galaxies have more dominant halos, and if halos contribute to bar stability, the luminosity functions of barred and unbarred galaxies should differ markedly; while our sample is small, we find only a slight difference of low significance.

A. S. Reese; T. B. Williams; J. A. Sellwood; Eric I. Barnes; Brian A. Powell

2007-02-27

404

Internal Ballistics of a Pneumatic Potato Cannon  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Basic laws of thermodynamics and mechanics are used to analyse an air gun. Such devices are often employed in outdoor physics demonstrations to launch potatoes using compressed gas that is here assumed to expand reversibly and adiabatically. Reasonable agreement is found with reported muzzle speeds for such homebuilt cannons. The treatment is…

Mungan, Carl E.

2009-01-01

405

VARIATION FOR TUBER ACIDITY AMONG POTATO SPECIES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

While the use of acidity by plants for defense against disease is widespread and well known (e.g., acidic fruits), little appears to be known about the range of variation in tissue acidity in potato or its implications. We collected tuber samples in sealable plastic “sandwich” bags, froze them in a ...

406

Geographic distribution of wild potato species.  

PubMed

The geographic distribution of wild potatoes (Solanaceae sect. Petota) was analyzed using a database of 6073 georeferenced observations. Wild potatoes occur in 16 countries, but 88% of the observations are from Argentina, Bolivia, Mexico, and Peru. Most species are rare and narrowly endemic: for 77 species the largest distance between two observations of the same species is <100 km. Peru has the highest number of species (93), followed by Bolivia (39). A grid of 50 × 50 km cells and a circular neighborhood with a radius of 50 km to assign points to grid cells was used to map species richness. High species richness occurs in northern Argentina, central Bolivia, central Ecuador, central Mexico, and south and north-central Peru. The highest number of species in a grid cell (22) occurs in southern Peru. To include all species at least once, 59 grid cells need to be selected (out of 1317 cells with observations). Wild potatoes occur between 38° N and 41° S, with more species in the southern hemisphere. Species richness is highest between 8° and 20° S and around 20° N. Wild potatoes typically occur between 2000 and 4000 m altitude. PMID:21669641

Hijmans, R J; Spooner, D M

2001-11-01

407

Hormone Metabolism During Potato Tuber Dormancy  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

At harvest and for an indeterminate period thereafter potato tubers will not sprout and are physiologically dormant. The length of tuber dormancy is dependent on cultivar and pre- and postharvest environmental conditions. Plant hormones have been shown to be involved in all phases of dormancy prog...

408

Breeding potato at the diploid level  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In most regions of the world, potato cultivars are tetraploid. However, complexities due to tetraploid genetics have slowed breeding progress and limited the implementation of breeding strategies commonly used in other major crops. We are developing diploid genetics resources, including partially in...

409

Sources of Federal Funding for Potato Research  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Starting in the mid-eighties, pressure for Federal Funding of potato research resulted in special appropriations available nationwide from two sources. The Cooperative State Resesarch Education and Extension System (CSREES) is a branch of the USDA that funds Land Grant State Universities to do rese...

410

Sustainable potato production and global food security  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The potato (Solanum spp.) is currently the leading non-grain commodity in the global food system with production exceeding 329 million metric tonnes in 2009. The extraordinary adaptive range of this species complex combined with ease of cultivation and high nutritional content have promoted steady i...

411

Light-colored, Low Acrylamide Potato Chips  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potato tubers are stored at cold temperatures to prevent sprouting, minimize disease losses and increase the marketing window. Cold storage also causes an accumulation of reducing sugars, a phenomenon referred to as cold-induced sweetening. Unacceptable, dark colored chips and fries are formed durin...

412

Forage potential of American potato bean  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

American potato bean (Apios americana Medikus) is a nitrogen-fixing perennial leguminous vine that is native to the eastern half of the United States. In the wild, the plant prefers moist soils near bodies of water and full sunlight for at least part of the day. It grows well in waterlogged, acidi...

413

Ground Turkey and Potato Plate Ingredients  

E-print Network

Ground Turkey and Potato Plate Ingredients: 1 onion 1/2 pound ground turkey 1 cup ketchup, low, brown ground turkey and onion together over medium heat 8 to 10 minutes or until turkey is no longer. Return turkey to skillet. 3. Add ketchup to skillet; cover and simmer over medium-low heat 10 minutes. 4

Liskiewicz, Maciej

414

Alcohol production from fermentation of sweet potatoes  

SciTech Connect

A study was conducted to determine the ethanol production characteristics of sweet potatoes. Ethanol yields were as high as 137 liters per tonne of feedstock using procedures developed for grain. Major problems encountered were low ethanol concentrations in the beer and poor stillage dewatering properties.

Egg, R.P.; Coble, C.G.; O'Neal, H.P.; Sweeten, J.M.

1982-12-01

415

Starch Phosphorylase Inhibitor from Sweet Potato 1  

PubMed Central

A protein, starch phosphorylase inhibitor, was purified from the root of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam. cv Tainon 65). It had a molecular weight of 250,000 and could be composed of five identical subunits. The isoelectric point of the inhibitor was 4.63. It was a noncompetitive inhibitor toward the sweet potato enzyme with a Ki value of 1.3 × 10?6 molar when glucose-1-P was the variable substrate. Because cross-reacting materials of rabbit antiphosphorylase inhibitor of sweet potato were found in three arbitrarily selected plant materials, viz. potato tuber, spinach leaf, and rice grain, the occurrence of this protein seemed universal in higher plants. By an immunofluorescence technique, the inhibitor was located in the amyloplast and cell wall where phosphorylase was also found. This implies that they may interact in vivo, and the inhibitor may play an unknown regulatory role against the plant enzyme. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 5 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:16664657

Chang, Tsung-Chain; Su, Jong-Ching

1986-01-01

416

Existing potato markers and marker conversions  

E-print Network

) ­ Kasai et al. 2000 Genome 43:1-8 allele specific amplification of a diagnostic product - potatoes progeny #12;How do CAPS markers work? (CAPS = cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence) 7 1. Amplify all Eco RI reference: Konieczny A, Ausubel FM. Plant J 1993 4(2):403-410 #12;an unpublished marker linked

Douches, David S.

417

Using the Potato Genome Sequence! Robin Buell!  

E-print Network

Using the Potato Genome Sequence! Robin Buell! Michigan State University! Department of Plant Biology! August 15, 2010! buell@msu.edu! 1 #12;Whole Genome Shotgun Sequencing 2 #12;New genomics & post-genomic biology genomes genera 2002 2010 3 #12;So, you say you can sequence-Now what

Douches, David S.

418

EVALUATION OF SYSTEMIC ACQUIRED RESISTANCE IN POTATO  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is a natural plant defense mechanism shown to be effective against a broad range of pathogens and has been best characterized in tobacco and Arabidopsis. As a step towards evaluating the potential to use SAR for disease control in potato, the effectiveness of diff...

419

MODELING LEAF GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT IN POTATO  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Appearance, expansion, and duration of individual leaves are critical determinants of plant canopy growth and development. Accurate modeling of these processes has an impact on estimating canopy light interception, photosynthesis, and accumulation of dry matter and yield. Most potato models use a ...

420

Royal Agricultural Society and the Potato Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE paragraph which appeared in your last week's issue is so far interesting that it amply confirms the expectations of those who have watched the well-meant efforts of the Royal Agricultural Society with respect to the potato disease. I wish to advert to it lor two reasons. In the first place, it is interesting to see the way in which

W. T. Thiselton Dyer

1874-01-01

421

LOW WASTEWATER POTATO STARCH/PROTEIN PRODUCTION  

EPA Science Inventory

While potato starch has been an item of commerce for many years, traditional processing methods have incurred large volumes of high BOD effluents. The research summarized by this report has lead to a modified process which upgrades the soluble components formerly discarded in the...

422

Aminopyralid residue impacts on potatoes and weeds  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aminopyralid is used in Alaska to control certain invasive weed species; however it appears to have an extended soil half-life in interior Alaska resulting in carry-over injury in potatoes. Field studies at three experiment stations in Delta Junction, Fairbanks, and Palmer, Alaska were established ...

423

BAR PACKAGES Standard Bar Package Price Liquor Beer/Wine  

E-print Network

Select Wine Bacardi Select Local Bar Package Price 1-2 hours $28/person North Shore Vodka ­ Lake Bluff, 3 hours $33/person North Shore Gin 6 ­ Lake Bluff, IL 4 hours $38/person Koval Lion's Pride Whiskey

Westneat, Mark W.

424

Zinc enrichment of whole potato tuber by vacuum impregnation.  

PubMed

Zinc is a nutritionally essential truce element, and thus zinc deficiency (ZD) severely affects human health. More than 25% of the world's population is at risk of ZD. This study was initiated to examine the use of the vacuum impregnation (VI) technique for enriching zinc content of whole potatoes; the effect of vacuum time, restoration time, steam-cooking and storage at 4 °C on the zinc content of VI whole potatoes was evaluated. Whole potato tubers were immersed in a 9 g/100 g zinc (zinc gluconate) solution. Vacuum pressure of 1,000 Pa was applied for 0-120 min, and atmospheric pressure restoration for 0-4 h. Experimental results showed that the zinc content of VI potatoes increased with vacuum and restoration time. Moreover, VI-cooked unpeeled or peeled potatoes had 63-94 times and 47-75 times higher zinc contents than un-VI-cooked unpeeled or peeled potatoes, respectively. The world daily potato consumption (86 g) of the VI-cooked unpeeled and peeled potatoes provided adult men with 130-148% and 100-135% of the recommended daily allowance (RDA) of zinc, respectively. Also, the daily potato consumption of the unpeeled and peeled potatoes supplied adult women with 178-203% and 137-185% of the RDA level, respectively. In addition, the VI potatoes had 40 times higher zinc contents through 30 days of storage at 4 °C, compared with un-VI-treated potatoes. This study indicated that VI treatment of whole potatoes was useful for enriching the zinc content. PMID:25829619

Erihemu; Hironaka, Kazunori; Koaze, Hiroshi; Oda, Yuji; Shimada, Kenichiro

2015-04-01

425

7 CFR 318.13-24 - Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico. 318.13-24 Section 318.13-24 ...Territories § 318.13-24 Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico. Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico may be moved interstate to Atlantic...

2012-01-01

426

7 CFR 318.13-24 - Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico. 318.13-24 Section 318.13-24 ...Territories § 318.13-24 Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico. Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico may be moved interstate to Atlantic...

2013-01-01

427

7 CFR 318.13-24 - Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico. 318.13-24 Section 318.13-24 ...Territories § 318.13-24 Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico. Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico may be moved interstate to Atlantic...

2014-01-01

428

7 CFR 457.143 - Northern potato crop insurance-quality endorsement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...potato crop insurance—quality endorsement. The Northern Potato Crop Insurance Quality Endorsement Provisions...Northern Potato Crop Insurance Quality Endorsement 1. Definitions...Any acreage grown for seed. 5. We will...

2010-01-01

429

7 CFR 947.134 - Establishment of list of manufacturers of potato products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Establishment of list of manufacturers of potato products. 947.134 Section...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU COUNTIES...Establishment of list of manufacturers of potato products. (a) The...

2014-01-01

430

78 FR 24981 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...AMS-FV-13-0010; FV13-946-1 IR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Decreased...which regulates the handling of Irish potatoes grown in Washington. Assessments...regulating the handling of Irish potatoes grown in Washington,...

2013-04-29

431

7 CFR 946.140 - Handling potatoes for commercial processing into products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Handling potatoes for commercial processing into...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Rules and...Requirements § 946.140 Handling potatoes for commercial processing...

2012-01-01

432

7 CFR 947.134 - Establishment of list of manufacturers of potato products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Establishment of list of manufacturers of potato products. 947.134 Section...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU COUNTIES...Establishment of list of manufacturers of potato products. (a) The...

2012-01-01

433

7 CFR 946.140 - Handling potatoes for commercial processing into products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Handling potatoes for commercial processing into...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Rules and...Requirements § 946.140 Handling potatoes for commercial processing...

2014-01-01

434

78 FR 48285 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...AMS-FV-13-0010; FV13-946-1 FIR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Decreased...administers the marketing order for Irish potatoes grown in Washington. Decreasing...regulating the handling of Irish potatoes grown in Washington,...

2013-08-08

435

7 CFR 946.140 - Handling potatoes for commercial processing into products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Handling potatoes for commercial processing into...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Rules and...Requirements § 946.140 Handling potatoes for commercial processing...

2011-01-01

436

7 CFR 947.134 - Establishment of list of manufacturers of potato products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Establishment of list of manufacturers of potato products. 947.134 Section...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU COUNTIES...Establishment of list of manufacturers of potato products. (a) The...

2011-01-01

437

7 CFR 946.140 - Handling potatoes for commercial processing into products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Handling potatoes for commercial processing into...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Rules and...Requirements § 946.140 Handling potatoes for commercial processing...

2013-01-01

438

7 CFR 947.134 - Establishment of list of manufacturers of potato products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Establishment of list of manufacturers of potato products. 947.134 Section...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU COUNTIES...Establishment of list of manufacturers of potato products. (a) The...

2013-01-01

439

7 CFR 946.140 - Handling potatoes for commercial processing into products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Handling potatoes for commercial processing into...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Rules and...Requirements § 946.140 Handling potatoes for commercial processing...

2010-01-01

440

76 FR 18001 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...AMS-FV-11-0012; FV11-946-2 IR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Decreased...which regulates the handling of Irish potatoes grown in Washington. Assessments...regulating the handling of Irish potatoes grown in Washington,...

2011-04-01

441

19 CFR 10.57 - Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. 10.57 Section 10.57...ETC. General Provisions Potatoes, Corn, Or Maize § 10.57 Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. Claim for classification...

2012-04-01

442

19 CFR 10.57 - Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. 10.57 Section 10.57...ETC. General Provisions Potatoes, Corn, Or Maize § 10.57 Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. Claim for classification...

2010-04-01

443

19 CFR 10.57 - Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. 10.57 Section 10.57...ETC. General Provisions Potatoes, Corn, Or Maize § 10.57 Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. Claim for classification...

2011-04-01

444

19 CFR 10.57 - Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. 10.57 Section 10.57...ETC. General Provisions Potatoes, Corn, Or Maize § 10.57 Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. Claim for classification...

2014-04-01

445

19 CFR 10.57 - Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. 10.57 Section 10.57...ETC. General Provisions Potatoes, Corn, Or Maize § 10.57 Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. Claim for classification...

2013-04-01

446

Developmental effects on phenolic, flavonol, anthocyanin, and carotenoid metabolites and gene expression in potatoes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potato phytonutrients include phenolic acids, flavonols, anthocyanins and carotenoids. Developmental effects on phytonutrient concentrations and gene expression was studied in white, yellow and purple potatoes. Purple potatoes contained the most total phenolics, which decreased during development (1...

447

40 CFR 407.40 - Applicability; description of the frozen potato products subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the frozen potato products subcategory. 407.40 Section...PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Frozen Potato Products Subcategory § 407.40 Applicability; description of the frozen potato products subcategory. The...

2010-07-01

448

76 FR 71022 - Dicloran; Cancellation Order for Amendment To Terminate Use on Potatoes  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Order for Amendment To Terminate Use on Potatoes AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...for the amendment to terminate use on potatoes, voluntarily requested by the registrant...voluntarily amend to terminate DCNA use on potatoes for these product registrations....

2011-11-16

449

40 CFR 407.50 - Applicability; description of the dehydrated potato products subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the dehydrated potato products subcategory. 407.50 Section...PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Dehydrated Potato Products Subcategory § 407.50 Applicability; description of the dehydrated potato products subcategory. The...

2010-07-01

450

Triple bar, high efficiency mechanical sealer  

DOEpatents

A clamp with a bottom clamp bar that has a planar upper surface is provided. The clamp may also include a top clamp bar connected to the bottom clamp bar, and a pressure distribution bar between the top clamp bar and the bottom clamp bar. The pressure distribution bar may have a planar lower surface in facing relation to the upper surface of the bottom clamp bar. An object is capable of being disposed in a clamping region between the upper surface and the lower surface. The width of the planar lower surface may be less than the width of the upper surface within the clamping region. Also, the pressure distribution bar may be capable of being urged away from the top clamp bar and towards the bottom clamp bar.

Pak, Donald J.; Hawkins, Samantha A.; Young, John E.

2013-03-19

451

Property Control through Bar Coding.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A public utility company uses laser wands to read bar-coded labels on furniture and equipment. The system allows an 80 percent savings of the time required to create reports for inventory control. (MLF)

Kingma, Gerben J.

1984-01-01

452

Application of FDM and FEM in solving the simultaneous heat and moisture transfer inside bread during baking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heat and mass transfer inside bread during baking can be taken as a multiphase flow problem, involving heat, liquid water and water vapour. Among the various developed models, the one based on an evaporation-condensation mechanism well explains several unique phenomenal observations during baking, and is most promising. This paper presents the results of numerically solving the one-dimensional case of this simultaneous transfer model by applying finite difference methods (FDM) and finite element methods (FEM). In particular, various FDM and FEM schemes are applied and the sensitivity of the results to the changes within the parameters are studied. Changes in bread temperature and moisture are characterised by some critical values such as peak water level and dry-out time. Comparison between the results by FDM and FEM is made.

Zhou, Weibiao

2005-01-01

453

Simultaneous detection and differentiation of four closely related sweet potato potyviruses by a multiplex one-step RT-PCR  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Four closely related potyviruses, Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV), Sweet potato virus C (SPVC), Sweet potato virus G (SPVG) and/or Sweet potato virus 2 (SPV2), are involved in Sweet Potato Viral Disease, the most devastating disease of sweet potato worldwide. Identification and detection ...

454

The cysteine protease activity of Colorado potato beetle ( Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say) guts, which is insensitive to potato protease inhibitors, is inhibited by thyroglobulin type-1 domain inhibitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

High levels of protease inhibitors are induced in potato leaves by wounding. These inhibitors, when ingested by Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say) larvae, induce expression of specific proteolytic activities in the gut. Induced protease activities cannot be inhibited by potato inhibitors and thus enable the insects to overcome this defence mechanism of potato plants. The induced aminopeptidase and endoproteolytic

Kristina Gruden; Borut Štrukelj; Tatjana Popovi?; Brigita Lenar?i?; Tadeja Bevec; Jože Brzin; Igor Kregar; Jana Herzog-Velikonja; Willem J Stiekema; Dirk Bosch; Maarten A Jongsma

1998-01-01

455

Bar Formation from Galaxy Flybys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, both simulations and observations have revealed that flybys—fast, one-time interactions between two galaxy halos—are surprisingly common, nearing/comparable to galaxy mergers. Since these are rapid, transient events with the closest approach well outside the galaxy disk, it is unclear if flybys can transform the galaxy in a lasting way. We conduct collisionless N-body simulations of three coplanar flyby interactions between pure-disk galaxies to take a first look at the effects flybys have on disk structure, with particular focus on stellar bar formation. We find that some flybys are capable of inciting a bar with bars forming in both galaxies during our 1:1 interaction and in the secondary during our 10:1 interaction. The bars formed have ellipticities >~ 0.5, sizes on the order of the host disk's scale length, and persist to the end of our simulations, ~5 Gyr after pericenter. The ability of flybys to incite bar formation implies that many processes associated with secular bar evolution may be more closely tied with interactions than previously thought.

Lang, Meagan; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Sinha, Manodeep

2014-08-01

456

Relationship between mechanical properties and microstructure in a 1.5% Mn–0.3% Mo ultra-low carbon steel with bake hardening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of annealing conditions on the mechanical properties including bake hardening, microstructure, and texture were investigated in a 1.5% Mn–0.3% Mo ultra-low carbon steel. Bainitic ferrite with high dislocation density became predominant in the microstructure when both higher annealing temperature and higher cooling rate were combined. The highly dislocated phases transformed at low temperatures enhanced both bake hardening and anti-strain

W. C. Jeong

2007-01-01

457

Conservation Research and Development/ New Ultra-Low Carbon High Strength Steels with Improved Bake Hardenability for Enhanced Stretch Formability and Dent Resistance  

SciTech Connect

Conservation Research and Development/New Ultra-Low Carbon High Strength Steels with Improved Bake Hardenability for Enhanced Stretch Formability and Dent Resistance. The experimental work can be divided into four phases. In each phase, the materials were received or designed, processed and tested, to evaluate the BH increment or response, as a function of compositions and processing conditions. Microstructural characterization by various techniques was performed in order to gain insights into the mechanisms of flow stress increment by bake hardening.

Anthony J. DeArdo; C. Isaac Garcia

2003-12-15

458

Multigeneration Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity Study of bar Gene Inserted into Genetically Modified Potato on Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Each specific protein has an individual gene encoding it, and a foreign gene introduced to a plant can be used to synthesize a new protein. The identification of potential reproductive and developmental toxicity from novel proteins produced by genetically modified (GM) crops is a difficult task. A science-based risk assessment is needed in order to use GM crops as a

Gyu Seek Rhee; Dae Hyun Cho; Yong Hyuck Won; Ji Hyun Seok; Soon Sun Kim; Seung Jun Kwack; Rhee Da Lee; Soo Yeong Chae; Jae Woo Kim; Byung Mu Lee; Kui Lea Park; Kwang Sik Choi

2005-01-01

459

Development and bioassay of transgenic Chinese cabbage expressing potato proteinase inhibitor II gene  

PubMed Central

Lepidopteran larvae are the most injurious pests of Chinese cabbage production. We attempted the development of transgenic Chinese cabbage expressing the potato proteinase inhibitor II gene (pinII) and bioassayed the pest-repelling ability of these transgenic plants. Cotyledons with petioles from aseptic seedlings were used as explants for Agrobacterium-mediated in vitro transformation. Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58 contained the binary vector pBBBasta-pinII-bar comprising pinII and bar genes. Plants showing vigorous PPT resistance were obtained by a series concentration selection for PPT resistance and subsequent regeneration of leaf explants dissected from the putative chimera. Transgenic plants were confirmed by PCR and genomic Southern blotting, which showed that the bar and pinII genes were integrated into the plant genome. Double haploid homozygous transgenic plants were obtained by microspore culture. The pinII expression was detected using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and detection of PINII protein content in the transgenic homozygous lines. Insect-feeding trials using the larvae of cabbage worm (Pieris rapae) and the larvae of the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) showed higher larval mortality, stunted larval development, and lower pupal weights, pupation rates, and eclosion rates in most of the transgenic lines in comparison with the corresponding values in the non-transformed wild-type line. PMID:23136521

Zhang, Junjie; Liu, Fan; Yao, Lei; Luo, Chen; Yin, Yue; Wang, Guixiang; Huang, Yubi

2012-01-01

460

Sorghum brewing using sweet potato enzymic flour to increase saccharification.  

PubMed

The diastatic activity of three sweet potato varieties was principally due to \\-amylase. Substitution of sorghum malt with sweet potato at 20% (w/v) gave a higher activity than an all-sorghum malt. Maltose in the sorghum/potato wort was 50 mg/ml, similar to that in barley malt. The free alpha amino nitrogen of the sorghum/potato worts was lower than that of the all-sorghum malt but was still within the range needed for yeast growth. Incubation of the potato enzymic extract with isolated sorghum endosperm cell walls and viscosity tests demonstrated the presence of (1?3, 1?4)-?-glucanase (limiting in sorghum) in the sweet potato. PMID:24425566

Etim, M U; Etokakpan, O U

1992-09-01

461

A method for estimating the contribution of seed potatoes, machinery and soil tare in field infestations with potato cyst nematodes on a national scale.  

PubMed

In order to make a cost benefit analysis for the management of the potato cyst nematodes Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida, we developed a method to estimate the relative importance of three basic distribution channels of potato cyst nematodes: seed potatoes, machinery and soil tare. The baseline is determined by the area planted with potatoes, the area infested with potato cysts, the proportion of resistant potato cultivars and the distribution of cysts trough different channels. This quantification forms a basis for the evaluation of the effects of different control measures for potato cyst nematode on a national scale. The method can be useful as an example for application in other countries. PMID:22696943

Goeminne, M; Demeulemeester, K; Viaene, N

2011-01-01

462

Effect of baking improvers on the quality of whole cassava biscuits.  

PubMed

Improving agents such as ascorbic acid, sodium metabisulphite, sorbic acid and soyflour were used in the production of whole cassava biscuits. Cassava flour and small amount of soyflour were produced. Bulk density, water binding capacity and amylograph viscosity of cassava flour were determined. Mixing and dough extrusion time were recorded for each sample of biscuit dough developed with addition of improvers. Length, width and thickness of cut-out dough were measured before and after baking to evaluate biscuits flow. Proximate and sensory analysis of the biscuits samples was also determined. The result showed that, there was a slight decrease in mixing time, extrusion time, length and width of the biscuits samples prepared with improvers. However, there was a considerable increase in biscuits thickness. Amylograph result showed an improvement in flour stability and low retrogadation tendency, most especially flour with inclusion of ascorbic acid. Crude protein and fat increased with sample contained soyflour. Sensory evaluation result indicated no significant difference among the samples except the texture of the biscuits. PMID:25328229

Obadina, A O; Oyewole, O B; Olaniyi, G

2014-10-01

463

Clinical and immunological responses to occupational exposure to alpha-amylase in the baking industry.  

PubMed Central

alpha-Amylase is a starch cleaving enzyme often used in the baking industry as a flour additive. It is usually of fungal origin, produced by Aspergillus oryzae. One previous report has shown IgE antibodies and positive skin prick test against alpha-amylase in asthmatic bakers. This paper describes four alpha-amylase sensitised index cases with occupational asthma or rhinitis and the results of a cross sectional study of 20 workers from the same factory who were also exposed to alpha-amylase powder. Air sampling detected airborne alpha-amylase at a concentration of 0.03 mg/m3. Significantly more work related symptoms such as rhinitis and dermatitis were found among the alpha-amylase exposed workers compared with referents. A skin prick test to alpha-amylase was positive in 30% (6/20) of the exposed workers. Most of the persons showing a positive skin prick test had work related symptoms and were also skin prick test positive to common allergens. Nasal challenge tests with amylase were performed in selected cases and validated three cases of alpha-amylase induced rhinitis. Two non-symptomatic workers had precipitins to alpha-amylase. Specific IgG antibodies were shown by two further serological techniques. The nature and relevance of these antibodies are currently being studied. It is concluded that alpha-amylase powder is a potent occupational sensitiser. Precautions should be taken when handling this allergenic enzyme. PMID:1832939

Brisman, J; Belin, L

1991-01-01

464

Modelling the effects of orange pomace using response surface design for gluten-free bread baking.  

PubMed

The development of gluten-free bread creates many challenges; producing bread that will match the properties of its wheat counterpart can be difficult. Fruit by-products are know from literature to contain a high level of dietary fibre which could improve the bread properties and fibre contents of gluten-free bread. Therefore, a mathematical design was created; three variables were identified from preliminary tests (water (85-100% flour weight, OP 0-8% flour weight and proofing time 35-100 min) as being crucial in the development of acceptable bread. Results illustrated longer proofing times (p<0.05) and lower orange pomace levels (OP) (p<0.001) produced a bread with a greater specific volume. OP had the most significant (p<0.0001) effect on hardness at 2h and 24h post-baking. The optimised formulation was calculated to contain 5.5% OP, 94.6% water and a proofing time of 49 min. Total fibre content of the control bread (2.1%) was successfully increased t o 3.9% in the OP containing bread. Substituting gluten-free flours with orange pomace flour can help improve the total dietary intake of a coeliac while not negating on the quality properties of the bread. PMID:25053049

O'Shea, N; Rößle, C; Arendt, E; Gallagher, E

2015-01-01

465

Mechanisms and Modeling of Bake-Hardening Steels: Part I. Uniaxial Tension  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A physically based model for bake-hardening (BH) steels is developed suitable to predict the BH as well as the macroscopic behavior of strain-aged steels in tensile tests, such as the lower yield stress and the yield point elongation or Lüders strain. A description of the strain aging kinetics is given by considering two aging steps: Cottrell atmospheres formation and precipitation of coherent carbides. The modeling includes the effect of solute carbon content, aging time, temperature, and prestrain. Then, a numerical approach of Lüders phenomenon using finite element (FE) method codes is conducted. The strain aging model is eventually coupled with the previous numerical study thanks to a local mechanical behavior that schematically describes the local dislocation behavior. Simulations of tensile tests are performed and agree well with experiments carried out on aluminum-killed (AlK) and ULC BH steels, in terms of lower yield stress and yield point elongation. Effects of aging treatment, grain size, and strain rate on the macroscopic behavior are particularly enlightened.

Ballarin, V.; Soler, M.; Perlade, A.; Lemoine, X.; Forest, S.

2009-06-01

466

Substituting Normal and Waxy-Type Whole Wheat Flour on Dough and Baking Properties  

PubMed Central

Normal (cv. Keumkang, KK) and waxy-type (cv. Shinmichal, SMC) whole wheat flour was substituted at 20 and 40% for white wheat flour (WF) during bread dough formulation. The flour blends were subjected to dough and baking property measurement in terms of particle size distribution, dough mixing, bread loaf volume and crumb firmness. The particle size of white wheat flour was the finest, with increasing coarseness as the level of whole wheat flour increased. Substitution of whole wheat flour decreased pasting viscosity, showing all RVA parameters were the lowest in SMC40 composite flour. Water absorption was slightly higher with 40% whole wheat flour regardless of whether the wheat was normal or waxy. An increased mixing time was observed when higher levels of KK flour were substituted, but the opposite reaction occurred when SMC flour was substituted at the same levels. Bread loaf volume was lower in breads containing a whole wheat flour substitution compared to bread containing only white wheat flour. No significant difference in bread loaf volume was observed between normal and waxy whole flour, but the bread crumb firmness was significantly lower in breads containing waxy flour. The results of these studies indicate that up to 40% whole wheat flour substitution could be considered a practical option with respect to functional qualities. Also, replacing waxy whole flour has a positive effect on bread formulation over normal whole wheat flour in terms of improving softness and glutinous texture. PMID:24471084

Choi, Induck; Kang, Chun-Sik; Cheong, Young-Keun; Hyun, Jong-Nae; Kim, Kee-Jong

2012-01-01

467

Baked shale and slag formed by the burning of coal beds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The baking and reddening of large masses of strata caused by the burning of coal beds is a striking feature of the landscape in most of the great western coal-bearing areas. The general character and broader effects of the burning have been described by many writers, but the fact that in places enough heat is generated to fuse and thoroughly recrystallize the overlying shale and sandstone has received less attention. Some of the natural slags thus formed simulate somewhat abnormal igneous rocks, but others consist largely of rare and little known minerals. A wide range in the mineral composition of such slags is to be expected, depending on the composition of the original sediment and the conditions of fusion and cooling. These products of purely thermal metamorphism offer a fertile field for petrologic investigation. The writer has observed the effects produced by the burning of coal beds in several localities in Montana, particularly along upper Tongue River in the southern part of the State, in the district lying southeast of the mouth of Bighorn River, and in the Little Sheep Mountain coal field north of Miles City. A number of specimens of the rock formed have been examined under the microscope, though time has not been available for a systematic examination. The writer is greatly indebted to Mr. E. S. Larsen for assistance in the study of some of the minerals.

Rogers, G. Sherburne

1918-01-01

468

Glycemic index and phenolics of partially-baked frozen bread with sourdough.  

PubMed

Different lactic acid bacteria starters were used to prepare sourdough to make partially-baked frozen wholemeal wheat bread. The sourdough was prepared with a pure culture of Lactobacillus plantarum or with commercial starters containing Lactobacillus brevis combined with Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. chevalieri (LV4), Lactobacillus fermentum (PL1), or Lactobacillus fermentum with phytase (PL3). We determined the acetic and lactic acid concentrations in sourdough, bread chemical composition, total phenolics content and glycemic index (GI) in vivo. Depending on the starter, the lactic to acetic acid ratio in the sourdough was significantly different. The GI of control bread without sourdough (70) was significantly higher than that of bread containing sourdough prepared with LV4 starter (50), PL1 starter (56) or PL3 starter (56), but not from bread with L. plantarum sourdough (60). The addition of 10% sourdough with a lower molar ratio of lactic to acetic acid ( ? 4) and higher total phenolics content is preferable for generating bread with medium and low GI. PMID:20715901

Novotni, Dubravka; Curi?, Duška; Bituh, Martina; Coli? Bari?, Irena; Skevin, Dubravka; Cukelj, Nikolina

2011-02-01

469

Computerized video image analysis to quantify color of potato chips  

Microsoft Academic Search

Color analysis is a critical quality evaluation procedure in the potato processing industry. This research sought to determine\\u000a whether potato chip color could be quantified by video image analysis. Russet Burbank and Shepody potatoes, stored at 8 and\\u000a 5 C, were processed into 8 mm thick chips, which were fried for three time periods. Chip color was characterised by mean

M. G. Scanlon; R. Roller; G. Mazza; M. K. Pritchard

1994-01-01

470

Expression of hepatitis B surface antigen in potato hairy roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transgenic potato plants with two different expression cassettes for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) expression were developed. These plants were used to induce hairy roots. The transgenic nature of the potato plants was confirmed by PCR and PCR-Southern analysis. A maximum expression of 19.11, 23.94 and 97.1ng\\/g F.W. was noted in potato plants, microtubers and hairy roots, respectively. HBsAg expression

G. B. Sunil Kumar; T. R. Ganapathi; L. Srinivas; C. J. Revathi; V. A. Bapat

2006-01-01

471

Artificial diets for rearing the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colorado potato beetles have been reared successfully through 12 generations on artificial diets containing either 2.5% potato leaf powder or 2.5% lettuce leaf powder\\/0.75% potato leaf powder. For all but one of the treatment groups, the mean duration of each of the four larval stages was between 0.8 and 1.5 days longer than the durations exhibited by control beetles that

Dale B. Gelman; Robert A. Bell; Lynda J. Liska; Jing S. Hu

472

Populations of aphids on named varieties of Irish potatoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Populations of the green peach aphid,Myzus persicae (Sulzer), and the potato aphid,Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas), were observed on 27 named varieties of Irish potatoes in the Yakima Valley of Washington intermittently from 1947\\u000a through 1968. The Epicure, Great Scot, and B5141-6 varieties produced relatively fewer green peach aphids than other varieties\\u000a tested; Bliss Triumph and Red Pontiac produced relatively fewer potato

B. J. Landis; D. M. Powell; Lee Fox

1972-01-01

473

Freezing behavior of potato ( Solanum tuberosum ) tubers in soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volunteer potatoes are a major weed problem in potato rotations in regions with mild winter soil temperatures. Freezing dynamics\\u000a of potato tubers in air have been previously reported, but freezing dynamics of tubers in soil may differ due to ice nucleation\\u000a sites and soil water associated with soil. Laboratory experiments conducted in hydrated and dry soil columns and field experiments

R. A. Boydston; M. D. Seymour; C. R. Brown; A. K. Alva

2006-01-01

474

Pectic substances and the texture of french fried potatoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

French fries made from low specific gravity potatoes are poor in texture and soggy in appearance. High specific gravity potatoes,\\u000a on the other hand, produce mealy, firm and good-textured french fries.\\u000a \\u000a A comparison of raw potatoes of high and low specific gravity for protopectin, the degree of esterification, water-soluble\\u000a pectins and divalent cations revealed no significant differences. Low specific gravity

A. S. Jaswal

1969-01-01

475

Self-focusing hidden bar code  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new type of diffractive optical bar code produced by computer-generated holographic technology is proposed. The message in the proposed bar code is hidden in the diffracted light of the bar code element and can be read from the first diffraction order. In contrast to the conventional hidden bar code, which needs a lens to focus the diffracted light, the

Zhiqiang Zhong; Jianping Ding; Zhou Jin; Peiying Liang; Gao Wenqi

2002-01-01

476

Double-Barred Galaxies: I. A Catalog of Barred Galaxies with Stellar Secondary Bars and Inner Disks  

E-print Network

I present a catalog of 67 barred galaxies which contain distinct, elliptical stellar structures inside their bars. Fifty of these are double-barred galaxies: a small-scale, "inner" or "secondary" bar is embedded within a large-scale, "outer" or "primary" bar. I provide homogenized measurements of the sizes, ellipticities, and orientations of both inner and outer bars, along with with global parameters for the galaxies. The other 17 are classified as "inner-disk" galaxies, where a large-scale bar harbors an inner elliptical structure which is aligned with the galaxy's outer disk. Four of the double-barred galaxies also possess inner disks, located in between the inner and outer bars. While the inner-disk classification is ad-hoc -- and undoubtedly includes some inner bars with chance alignments (five such probable cases are identified) -- there is good evidence that inner disks form a statistically distinct population, and that at least some are indeed disks rather than bars. In addition, I list 36 galaxies which may be double-barred, but for which current observations are ambiguous or incomplete, and another 23 galaxies which have been previously suggested as potentially being double-barred, but which are probably *not*. False double-bar identifications are usually due to features such as nuclear rings and spirals being misclassified as bars; I provide some illustrated examples of how this can happen.

Peter Erwin

2003-12-14

477

Impact Induced Failure Zones in Homalite Bars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Impact tests were conducted on Homalite bars. Bars were impacted at 250 m/s with various flyer plates. Bar behavior was observed with a high-speed digital camera. Homalite bars exhibited repeatable failure modalities with little effective change coming from flyer plate or bar geometry. Failure is characterized by early, late, and intermediate morphologies. Early failure exhibits a radial damage cone near the impact event. Late damage adds a catastrophic failure zone near the bar end and multiple wave front locations along the length of the bar. Intermediate time pictures indicate that catastrophic failure starts as a series of spall-like planes in the catastrophic failure zone.

Russell, Rod; Bless, Stephan J.; Beno, Tim

2002-07-01

478

The R1 gene conferring race-specific resistance to Phytophthora infestans in potato is located on potato chromosome V  

Microsoft Academic Search

Late blight in potato is caused by the fungusPhytophthora infestans and can inflict severe damage on the potato crop. Resistance toP. infestans is either based on major dominantR genes conferring vertical, race-specific resistance or on “minor” genes inducing horizontal, unspecific resistance. A dihaploid potato line was identified which carried theR1 gene, conferring vertical resistance to allP. infestans races, with the

Christiane Leonards-Schippers; Werner Gieffers; Francesco Salamini; Christiane Gebhardt

1992-01-01

479

Gratings mask bars and bars mask gratings: visual frequency response to aperiodic stimuli.  

PubMed

Gratings and bars produce unexpected mutual visual masking. A grating masks a bar much less than a bar masks a bar; and a bar masks a grating uniformly over the grating field. These effects suggest that neural populations selective for size and orientation may be involved in frequency analysis rather than in simple feature detection. PMID:5033184

Weisstein, N; Bisaha, J

1972-06-01

480

A human dietary risk assessment associated with glycoalkaloid responses of potato to Colorado potato beetle defoliation.  

PubMed

A quantitative human dietary risk assessment was conducted using the glycoalkaloid concentrations measured from tubers of plants defoliated by Colorado potato beetles and undefoliated (control). There was a significantly greater production of glycoalkaloids for defoliated plants compared to control plants for both skin and inner tissue of tubers. The dietary risk posed to different human subgroups associated with the consumption of potatoes was estimated for the 50th, 95th, and 99.9th percentile US national consumption values. Exposures were compared to a toxic threshold of 1.0mg/kg body weight. Defoliation by Colorado potato beetles increased dietary risk by approximately 48%. Glycoalkaloid concentrations within the inner tissue of tubers, including undefoliated controls, exceeded the toxic threshold for all human subgroups at less than the 99.9th percentile of exposure, but not the 95th percentile. PMID:18614268

Dinkins, Courtney L Pariera; Peterson, Robert K D

2008-08-01

481

Potato microtuber production and performance: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Almost half a century has passed sincein vitro tubers (microtubers) were first described in potato, but their adoption as a seed propagule has been uneven globally. Consensus\\u000a is lacking regarding optimal production practices for microtubers and their relative productivity in relation to other propagules\\u000a for minituber production. There is significant uncertainty regarding the utility of microtubers for evaluation of agronomic

Danielle J. Donnelly; Warren K. Coleman; Shirlyn E. Coleman

2003-01-01

482

Paclobutrazol enhances minituber production in Norland potatoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of two plant growth regulators, paclobutrazol and kinetin, on minituber yield in greenhouse-grown “Norland” potatoes\\u000a was investigated. Plants were treated with paclobutrazol at 450 mg\\/L, kinetin at 10 mg\\/L, or a combination of paclobutrazol\\u000a at 450 mg\\/L + kinetin at 10 mg\\/L as single foliar applications at early stolon initiation. A set of plants sprayed with water\\u000a served

P. M. S. Bandara; K. K. Tanino

1995-01-01

483

Fertilizer application methods for Irish potatoes compared  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted in eastern Virginia on a Sassafras fine sandy loam soil to determine whether fertilizer for Irish\\u000a potatoes could be broadcast before planting instead of band-placed at planting. Band placement is considered the most efficient\\u000a method; however, use of the broadcast method involves less labor and speeds up the planting process.\\u000a \\u000a Two rates of fertilizer were used,

E. M. Dunton

1971-01-01

484

Bacterial wilt of potatoes in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  On the basis of physical and biochemical tests plus host range studies a wilt disease of potatoes in Colombia, known as “la\\u000a dormidera,” has been determined to be caused by the bacteriumPseudomonas solanacearum E.F.S. Colombian isolates of the organism differ from those described in other regions with respect to reaction to antibiotics\\u000a and other therapeutic materials, optimum temperature for growthin

H. David Thurston

1963-01-01

485

Genetic modification of respiratory capacity in potato  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mitochondrial respiration was altered in transgenic potato (so- lanum tuberosum) lines by overexpression of the alternative oxidase Aoxl gene. Overexpressing lines showed higher levels of Aoxl mRNA, increased levels of alternative oxidase protein(s), and an ~~sual higher molecular weight PolYPePtide, which maY be a normal processing\\/modification intermediate. Evidence suggests that the alternative oxidase protein is further processed\\/modified beyond removal of

Carrie Hiser; Philipp Kapranov; Lee Mclntosh

1996-01-01

486

Variations in specific gravity of potatoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Over 20,000 tubers of 6 varieties of potatoes obtained from 10 different states were graded individually for specific gravity.\\u000a Varietal differences were noted in the specific gravity values. Katahdin showed the greatest variability and Irish Cobbler\\u000a and Chippewa the least. The variability in specific gravity as shown by the standard deviations indicates that some lots and\\u000a varieties are more adaptable

P. H. Heinze; C. C. Craft; Beatrice M. Mountjoy; Mary E. Kirkpatrick

1952-01-01

487

Couch Potato: The Antithesis of Hormesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The impact of hormesis on health can be further appreciated by consideration of the “couch potato” lifestyle. When cells in\\u000a the body and brain are not challenged, they become complacent and are therefore vulnerable to injury and disease. Lack of\\u000a physical and mental exercise, in combination with excessive food intake, results in a condition called insulin resistance\\u000a that is a

Mark P. Mattson; Alexis Stranahan; Bronwen Martin

488

Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of Barred Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic fields are pervasive in barred galaxies, especially in gaseous substructures such as dust lanes and nuclear rings. To explore the effects of magnetic fields on the formation of the substructures as well as on the mass inflow rates to the galaxy center, we run two-dimensional, ideal magnetohydrodynamic simulations. We use a modified version of the Athena code whose numerical magnetic diffusivity is shown to be of third order in space. In the bar regions, magnetic fields are compressed and abruptly bent around the dust-lane shocks. The associated magnetic stress not only reduces the peak density of the dust-lane shocks but also removes angular momentum further from the gas that is moving radially in. Nuclear rings that form at the location of centrifugal barrier rather than resonance with the bar are smaller and more radially distributed, and the mass flow rate to the galaxy center is correspondingly larger in models with stronger magnetic fields. Outside the bar regions, the bar potential and strong shear conspire to amplify the field strength near the corotation resonance. The amplified fields transport angular momentum outward, producing trailing magnetic arms with strong fields and low density. The base of the magnetic arms are found to be unstable to a tearing-mode instability of magnetic reconnection. This produces numerous magnetic islands that eventually make the outer regions highly chaotic.

Kim, W.-T.

2013-04-01

489

The potato amylase inhibitor gene SbAI regulates cold-induced sweetening in potato tubers by modulating amylase activity.  

PubMed

Potato cold-induced sweetening (CIS) is critical for the postharvest quality of potato tubers. Starch degradation is considered to be one of the key pathways in the CIS process. However, the functions of the genes that encode enzymes related to starch degradation in CIS and the activity regulation of these enzymes have received less attention. A potato amylase inhibitor gene known as SbAI was cloned from the wild potato species Solanum berthaultii. This genetic transformation confirmed that in contrast to the SbAI suppression in CIS-resistant potatoes, overexpressing SbAI in CIS-sensitive potatoes resulted in less amylase activity and a lower rate of starch degradation accompanied by a lower reducing sugar (RS) content in cold-stored tubers. This finding suggested that the SbAI gene may play crucial roles in potato CIS by modulating the amylase activity. Further investigations indicated that pairwise protein-protein interactions occurred between SbAI and ?-amylase StAmy23, ?-amylases StBAM1 and StBAM9. SbAI could inhibit the activities of both ?-amylase and ?-amylase in potato tubers primarily by repressing StAmy23 and StBAM1, respectively. These findings provide the first evidence that SbAI is a key regulator of the amylases that confer starch degradation and RS accumulation in cold-stored potato tubers. PMID:24985879

Zhang, Huiling; Liu, Jun; Hou, Juan; Yao, Ying; Lin, Yuan; Ou, Yongbin; Song, Botao; Xie, Conghua

2014-09-01

490

Complete nucleotide sequence of a potato isolate of strain group C of Potato virus Y from 1938.  

PubMed

The complete genomic sequence of an isolate (PRI-509) of the C strain of Potato virus Y (PVY(C)), which was originally isolated from potato in 1938, was elucidated. The genomic RNA of PRI-509 consists of 9699 nucleotides, with the capacity to encode a polyprotein of 3061 amino acids with a molecular mass of 337 kDa.This is the first full-length sequence of a PVY (C) isolate from potato that belongs to the C1 phylogenetic subgroup, which was previously thought to exclusively contain non-potato isolates. PMID:21076845

Dullemans, Annette M; Cuperus, Chris; Verbeek, Martin; van der Vlugt, René A A

2011-03-01

491

Genotype-independent leaf disc transformation of potato (Solanum tuberosum) using Agrobacterium tumefaciens.  

PubMed

Leaves of the in vitro grown potato cultivars 'Bintje', 'Berolina', 'Desiree', and 'Russet Burbank' were wounded and co-cultivated with Agrobacterium strains having chimeric bar and nptII genes on a disarmed T-DNA. Each leaf from these cultivars formed numerous calli on kanamycin-containing medium, and almost all calli regenerated shoots. For 'Russet Burbank', it was necessary to include AgNO3 in the medium to obtain efficient shoot regeneration. The transformed plants have one to a few copies of the T-DNA, show NPT-II and PAT activities, and are resistant to high doses of the commercial preparation of phospinotricin (glufosinate). Almost no somaclonal variation was detected in trans-genic plants. PMID:24232356

De Block, M

1988-11-01

492

BREAKFASTMenu1+3 Yourmenuwillbecorrectedaccording  

E-print Network

FieldGreens (VinegarOnly) DESSERTS:(Limit2,1mustbefruit) Cookies:OatmealRaisin,PeanutButter Sherbet(noranchdressing) (OnlyVinegar) CottageCheeseFruitPlate DeliBar~Createyourcustomsandwich Meats Cheeses Turkey Roast: BakedSweetPotato WhiteRice (Limit1Starch,1Vegetable) GreenBeansButternutSquash Carrots

Oliver, Douglas L.

493

Studies for Somatic Embryogenesis in Sweet Potato  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this study was to improve the somatic embryo (SE) system for plant production of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L(Lam)). Explants isolated from SE-derived sweet potato plants were compared with control (non SE-derived) plants for their competency for SE production. Leaf explants were cultured on Murashige-Skoog (MS) medium with 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (0.2 mg/L) and 6-benzylaminopurine (2.5 mg/L) for 2 weeks in darkness and transferred to MS medium with abscisic acid (2.5 mg/L). Explants isolated from those plants developed through somatic embryogenesis produced new somatic embryos rapidly and in higher frequency than those isolated from control plants They also appeared to grow faster in tissue culture than the control plants. Current studies in the laboratory are examining whether plants derived from a cyclical embryogenesis system (five cycles) would have any further positive impact on the rapidity and frequency of somatic embryo development. More detailed studies using electron microscopy are expected to show the point of origin of the embryos and to allow determination of their quality throughout the cyclical process. This study may facilitate improved plant micropropagation, gene transfer and germplasm conservation in sweet potato.

Bennett, J. Rasheed; Prakash, C. S.

1997-01-01

494

Guatemalan potato moth Tecia solanivora distinguish odour profiles from qualitatively different potatoes Solanum tuberosum L.  

PubMed

Guatemalan potato moth, Tecia solanivora, lay eggs in the soil nearby potato Solanum spp. and larvae feed on the tubers. We investigated the oviposition behaviour of T. solanivora females and the survival of larval offspring on healthy vs. stressed, i.e. light exposed and/or damaged potato tubers. In choice tests, females laid significantly more eggs in response to potato odour of healthy tubers and female oviposition preference correlated with higher larval survival. Survival of larvae was negatively correlated with the tuber content of the steroid glycoalkaloids ?-solanine and ?-chaconine: healthy potatoes contained lower amounts than stressed tubers, ranging from 25 to 500 ?g g?¹ and from 30 to 600 ?g g?¹, respectively. Analysis of volatile compounds emitted by potato tubers revealed that stressed tubers could clearly be distinguished from healthy tubers by the composition of their volatile profiles. Compounds that contributed to this difference were e.g. decanal, nonanal, isopropyl myristate, phenylacetaldehyde, benzothiazole, heptadecane, octadecane, myristicin, E,E-?-farnesene and verbenone. Oviposition assays, when female moths were not in contact with the tubers, clearly demonstrated that volatiles guide the females to lay fewer eggs on stressed tubers that are of inferior quality for the larvae. We propose that volatiles, such as sesquiterpenes and aldehydes, mediate oviposition behaviour and are correlated with biosynthetically related, non-volatile compounds, such as steroidal glycoalkaloids, which influence larval survival. We conclude that the oviposition response and larval survival of T. solanivora on healthy vs. stressed tubers supports the preference performance hypothesis for insect herbivores. PMID:23122773

Karlsson, Miriam Frida; Birgersson, Göran; Witzgall, Peter; Lekfeldt, Jonas Duus Stevens; Nimal Punyasiri, P A; Bengtsson, Marie

2013-01-01

495

Exclusive Initial-State-Radiation Production of the $D \\bar D$, $D \\bar D^*$, and $D^* \\bar D^*$, Systems  

E-print Network

We perform a study of the exclusive production of $D \\bar D$, $D \\bar D^*$, and $D^* \\bar D^*$ in initial-state-radiation events, from $e^+ e^-$ annihilations at a center-of-mass energy near 10.58 GeV, to search for charmonium and possible new resonances. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 384 $fb^{-1}$ and was recorded by the BaBar experiment at the PEP-II storage rings. The $D \\bar D$, $D \\bar D^*$, and $D^* \\bar D^*$ mass spectra show clear evidence of several $\\psi$ resonances. However, there is no evidence for $Y(4260) \\to D \\bar D^*$ or $Y(4260)\\to D^* \\bar D^*$.

The BABAR Collaboration; B. Aubert

2009-03-09

496

Physical and hydraulic properties of baked ceramic aggregates used for plant growth medium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Baked ceramic aggregates (fritted clay, arcillite) have been used for plant research both on the ground and in microgravity. Optimal control of water and air within the root zone in any gravity environment depends on physical and hydraulic properties of the aggregate, which were evaluated for 0.25-1-mm and 1-2-mm particle size distributions. The maximum bulk densities obtained by any packing technique were 0.68 and 0.64 g cm-3 for 0.25-1-mm and 1-2-mm particles, respectively. Wettable porosity obtained by infiltration with water was approximately 65%, substantially lower than total porosity of approximately 74%. Aggregate of both particle sizes exhibited a bimodal pore size distribution consisting of inter-aggregate macropores and intra-aggregate micropores, with the transition from macro- to microporosity beginning at volumetric water content of approximately 36% to 39%. For inter-aggregate water contents that support optimal plant growth there is 45% change in water content that occurs over a relatively small matric suction range of 0-20 cm H2O for 0.25-1-mm and 0 to -10 cm H2O for 1-2-mm aggregate. Hysteresis is substantial between draining and wetting aggregate, which results in as much as a approximately 10% to 20% difference in volumetric water content for a given matric potential. Hydraulic conductivity was approximately an order of magnitude higher for 1-2-mm than for 0.25-1-mm aggregate until significant drainage of the inter-aggregate pore space occurred. The large change in water content for a relatively small change in matric potential suggests that significant differences in water retention may be observed in microgravity as compared to earth.

Steinberg, Susan L.; Kluitenberg, Gerard J.; Jones, Scott B.; Daidzic, Nihad E.; Reddi, Lakshmi N.; Xiao, Ming; Tuller, Markus; Newman, Rebecca M.; Or, Dani; Alexander, J. Iwan. D.

2005-01-01

497

Physicochemical, nutritional, and sensory qualities of wine grape pomace fortified baked goods.  

PubMed

Wine grape pomace (WGP) as a source of antioxidant dietary fiber (DF) was used to fortify baked goods, including breads, muffins, and brownies. Pinot Noir WGP (RWGP) and Pinot Grigio WGP (WWGP) substituted wheat flour at concentration of 5%, 10%, and 15% for bread, 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25% RWGP for brownies, and 5%, 10%, and 15% RWGP or 10%, 15%, and 20% WWGP for muffins. The finished products were evaluated for total phenolic content (TPC), radical scavenging activity (RSA), and total DF, as well as physicochemical and sensory properties. WGP flour blends were also tested for solvent retention capacity (SRC). The highest TPC and RSA values for bread and muffins were achieved in 15% RWGP fortified samples with TPC and RSA values of 68.32 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/serving and 80.70 AAE mg/serving, respectively for bread, and 2164 mg GAE/serving and 1526 mg AAE/serving, respectively for muffins. Brownies fortified with 10% RWGP had the highest RSA value (115.52 mg AAE/serving) while the control had the highest TPC value (1152 mg GAE/serving). Breads and muffins with 15% RWGP and brownies with 25% RWGP had the highest amount of DF (6.33, 12.32, and 7.73 g/serving, respectively). Sensory evaluation concluded that there is no difference in overall liking of 5% and 10% RWGP breads and muffins or 15% and 20% WGP brownies compared to the controls. This study demonstrated that WGP is a viable functional ingredient in bakery goods to increase TPC, RSA, and DF in consumer's diets. PMID:25102950

Walker, Rebecca; Tseng, Angela; Cavender, George; Ross, Andrew; Zhao, Yanyun

2014-09-01

498

Usual Intake of Other starchy vegetables, excluding white potatoes  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Other starchy vegetables, excluding white potatoes Table A14. Other starchy vegetables, excluding white potatoes: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10%

499

Effectiveness and Efficacy of Soil Conservation Practices in Potato Production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potato production systems in the Northeast U.S. are characterized by intensive tillage, minimal ground cover, low crop residue return, and steep slopes. Soil conservation can be especially challenging after potato harvest. We used rainfall simulators in the greenhouse and field to assess sediment ...

500

Vitamin B9 is Higher in Developmentally Younger Potato Tubers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

BACKGROUND: Folate (Vitamin B9) deficiency is a global nutritional problem and is problematic even in the developed world. Several studies have shown that because of their large consumption potatoes are an important source of dietary folate. New or baby potatoes constitute a valuable niche market th...