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1

Baked Potato Primavera Ingredients  

E-print Network

Baked Potato Primavera Ingredients: 4 medium potatoes 2 cups frozen mixed vegetables 8 ounces. Pierce each potato several times with a fork. Microwave on high until tender, about 3-4 minutes per potato. When done, take potatoes out of microwave oven, place in bowl and cover in towel to keep warm. 2

Liskiewicz, Maciej

2

Baked Apple and Sweet Potato Casserole Ingredients  

E-print Network

Baked Apple and Sweet Potato Casserole Ingredients: Non-stick cooking spray 5 sweet potatoes 4 apples, diced 1/2 cup brown sugar 1/4 cup margarine, melted 1 teaspoon nutmeg 1/4 cup hot water 2 into potato into small pieces. Add to large baking dish. 3. Cut apples down the center and in half again, down

Liskiewicz, Maciej

3

Oven Baked Sweet Potato Fries Ingredients  

E-print Network

Oven Baked Sweet Potato Fries Ingredients: Vegetable cooking spray 1 1/2 pounds sweet potato (about spray a 10 x 14 cookie sheet with non-stick cooking spray. 2. Scrub potatoes under tap water with a vegetable brush. With a knife remove any bad spots or defects on the potato. Do not peel. 3. On a cutting

Liskiewicz, Maciej

4

Changes in sugar composition during baking and their effects on sensory attributes of baked sweet potatoes.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of sugar composition on the sensory attributes of seven baked sweet potatoes. The sugar composition was analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography. Results showed that the total sugar content of baked sweet potatoes increased significantly because of the formation of maltose. The maltose content dramatically increased after baking, and became the major sugar component of baked sweet potatoes. On the other hand, baked sweet potatoes were evaluated on a 7-point hedonic scale for sensory analysis. Overall acceptability results showed that the panelists preferred baked CYY95-26 and TNG66 over the other baked varieties. Because the correlation between overall acceptability and sweetness was the highest (r?=?0.69, p?baked sweet potatoes. Although sugar composition changed on baking, the overall acceptability of baked sweet potatoes was highly associated with the sucrose content. PMID:25477683

Chan, Chin-Feng; Chiang, Chih-Ming; Lai, Yung-Chang; Huang, Che-Lun; Kao, Shu-Chen; Liao, Wayne C

2014-12-01

5

Effects of baking and boiling on the nutritional and antioxidant properties of sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] cultivars.  

PubMed

The effects of baking and boiling on the nutritional and antioxidant properties of three sweet potato cultivars (Beniazuma, Koganesengan, Kotobuki) cultivated in Turkey were investigated. The samples were analyzed for proximate composition, total phenolic content, ascorbic acid, ?-carotene, antiradical activity, and free sugars. The dry matter, protein, and starch contents of the sweet potatoes were significantly changed by the treatments while the ash and crude fiber contents did not differ as significantly. The ?-carotene contents of baked and boiled sweet potatoes were lower than those of fresh sweet potatoes; however, the total phenolic and ascorbic acid contents of the baked and boiled sweet potatoes were higher than those of the fresh samples. Generally, the antiradical activity of the sweet potatoes increased with the treatments. Sucrose, glucose, and fructose were quantified as free sugars in all fresh sweet potatoes; however, maltose was determined in the treated samples. In terms of the analyzed parameters, there were no explicit differences among the sweet potato cultivars. PMID:22101780

Dincer, Cuneyt; Karaoglan, Mert; Erden, Fidan; Tetik, Nedim; Topuz, Ayhan; Ozdemir, Feramuz

2011-11-01

6

Sweet Potato Salad Ingredients  

E-print Network

Sweet Potato Salad Ingredients: Non stick cooking spray 1 sweet potato 2 baking potatoes 2. Wash potatoes and set on cutting board. Cut potatoes in half lengthwise, and lay on cutting board. Cut in half again and cut into bite size chunks. 3. Layer potatoes evenly on pan and spray with cooking spray

Liskiewicz, Maciej

7

B: Pancakes, Turkey Baked Apples, Milk  

E-print Network

B: Pancakes, Turkey Sausage, Baked Apples, Milk L: Hamburger, Potato Wedges, Mixed Fruit, Milk S: Oranges B: Toast, Turkey Sausage, Pears, Milk L: Turkey Breast, Iceberg Lettuce, Tomato, Baked Apples Fruit, Bread, Milk S: Yogurt B: Waffles, Turkey Sausage Baked Apples, Milk L: Salisbury Steak, Mashed

O'Toole, Alice J.

8

Modern Baking  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Baking is an art, a science, and a field that many people (especially young students) wish to learn more about. Visitors to this site can learn about the hands-on details of baking, along with gaining insights into business trends within the baking world. Modern Baking contains classified ads for those bakers looking to pick up some new equipment (or a new job), and a section of up-to-date industry news as well. The content is divided into eight sections: Formulas & Techniques, Cake Decorating, Supermarket Baking, Retail Baking, Specialty Wholesale Baking, Foodservice Baking, Bread & Pastry, and Bakery Management. Visitors would do well to try the formula in the Formulas & Techniques section for chestnut and cognac brioche, as it brings together two flavors that are truly divine.

2006-11-16

9

Exploring Baking Powder  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners examine baking powder, a combination of three powders: baking soda, cream of tartar, and cornstarch. Learners use their data from the previous activity (see related resource) to identify these three powders as possible ingredients. Then, they test combinations of these powders to determine the active ingredients in baking powder.

Kessler, James H.; Galvan, Patricia M.

2007-01-01

10

Selected Baking Formulas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is designed to help baking students learn to use formulas in the preparation of baking products. Tested and proven formulas are, for the most part, standard ones with only slight modifications. The recipes are taken mainly from bakery product manufacturers and are presented in quantities suitable for school-shop use. Each recipe…

Bogdany, Melvin

11

Baking Soda Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the basic principles of baking soda chemistry including the chemical composition of baking soda, its acid-base properties, the reaction of bicarbonate solution with calcium ions, and a description of some general types of chemical reactions. Includes a science activity that involves removing calcium ions from water. (LZ)

Science Activities, 1994

1994-01-01

12

Antibacterial activity of baking soda.  

PubMed

The antibacterial activity of baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) was assessed using three different experimental approaches. Standard minimum inhibitory concentration analyses revealed substantial inhibitory activity against Streptococcus mutans that was not due to ionic strength or high osmolarity. Short-term exposure assays showed significant killing of bacterial suspensions when baking soda was combined with the detergent sodium dodecylsulfate. Multiple, brief exposures of sucrose-colonized S mutans to baking soda and sodium dodecylsulfate caused statistically significant decreases in numbers of viable cells. Use of oral health care products with high concentrations of baking soda could conceivably result in decreased levels of cariogenic S mutans in saliva and plaque. PMID:11524862

Drake, D

1996-01-01

13

Antibacterial activity of baking soda.  

PubMed

The antibacterial activity of baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) was assessed using three different experimental approaches. Standard minimum inhibitory concentration analyses revealed substantial inhibitory activity against Streptococcus mutans that was not due to ionic strength or high osmolarity. Short-term exposure assays showed significant killing of bacterial suspensions when baking soda was combined with the detergent sodium dodecylsulfate. Multiple, brief exposures of sucrose-colonized S mutans to baking soda and sodium dodecylsulfate caused statistically significant decreases in numbers of viable cells. Use of oral health care products with high concentrations of baking soda could conceivably result in decreased levels of cariogenic S mutans in saliva and plaque. PMID:12017929

Drake, D

1997-01-01

14

6.NS Baking Cookies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Alice, Raul, and Maria are baking cookies together. They need $\\frac34$ cup of flour and $\\frac13$ cup of butter to make a dozen cookies. They each bro...

15

6.NS Bake Sale  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Lindy is having a bake sale. She has 48 chocolate chip cookies to put in bags. How many bags can she fill if she puts the same number in each bag and u...

16

Baked Apple Oatmeal Casserole Ingredients  

E-print Network

Baked Apple Oatmeal Casserole Ingredients: Non stick cooking spray 2 apples 2 cups rolled oats 1 to the core. Set aside. 2. Mix oats, baking powder, cinnamon, raisins and brown sugar in a medium size mixing, melted margarine and vanilla to bowl with egg and margarine. Pour milk mixture into oats and apple

Liskiewicz, Maciej

17

Potato Types and Characteristics: Laboratory Exercises.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a number of simple exercises that demonstrate potato tuber characteristics and are designed for high school biology students and teachers. Exercises include Typing, Grading, Shape, Eye Characteristics, Defects, Specific Gravity, Dry Matter Content, Glucose Content, Baking, Frying/Chipping, and Taste Testing. (JRH)

Pavlista, Alexander D.

1997-01-01

18

Collection Development: Hitting the Sweet Spot (Baking)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Baking can be intimidating. Just ask all those contestants on "Top Chef" who would rather prepare Beef Wellington than bake a cake. But libraries can take the fear factor out of baking by putting together a solid collection of cookbooks that can help anyone master the sweeter side of the culinary arts or even serve as delicious armchair reading…

Charles, John

2010-01-01

19

Baked Lentils with Cheese Ingredients  

E-print Network

Baked Lentils with Cheese Ingredients: 1 onion 4 carrots 1 cup lentils 2 cups water 1/4 teaspoon cooking spray. 2. Cut the ends off of the onion, and peel off the brown layers. Cut the onion in half lengthwise, and place the flat side on the cutting board. Slice across the onion, from one side to the other

Liskiewicz, Maciej

20

Old Fashioned Baked Apples Ingredients  

E-print Network

Old Fashioned Baked Apples Ingredients: 8 large apples, washed & cored 1/3 cup old fashioned oats 1, grated 2 tablespoons lemon juice 1/2 cup honey 1 cup apple juice 4 tablespoons butter whipping cream, chilled or softly whipped Directions: Peel off one strip around the center of each apple. Slice a thin

Bashir, Rashid

21

Starch-Lignin Baked Foams  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Starch-kraft lignin foams were prepared by a baking process. Replacing up to 20% of the starch with lignin has no effect on foam density or overall morphology. At 10% replacement, lignin marginally increases water resistance and modulus of elasticity but decreases strain at maximum stress. At 20% re...

22

Potato with growth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Potatoes are grown in the ground. Potatoes can be eaten by humans and animals and they can also grow more potatoes. Potatoes sprout things called eyes. The eyes are from where both the roots and potatoes develop.

Peggy Greb (USDA;ARS)

2006-05-23

23

Baking soda: a potentially fatal home remedy.  

PubMed

We present a case of a six-week-old infant who developed life-threatening complications after unintentional sodium bicarbonate intoxication. Baking soda was being used by the mother as a home remedy to "help the baby burp." A review of the literature regarding the use (or misuse) of baking soda follows. Our patient, along with the other noted case reports, emphasizes the need for warnings on baking soda products whose labels recommend its use as an antacid. Poisonings must be high in the differential diagnosis of any patient, regardless of age, who presents with altered mental status or status epilepticus. PMID:7596870

Nichols, M H; Wason, S; Gonzalez del Rey, J; Benfield, M

1995-04-01

24

Potato Float  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How can a potato wedge be made to hover in the center of a glass of liquid? This material is part of a series of hands-on science activities designed to arouse student interest. Here students investigate density using potato wedges and water and sugar water solutions. The activity includes a description, a list of science process skills and complex reasoning strategies being used, and a compilation of applicable national science standards for grades K-12. Also provided are content topics, a list of necessary supplies, instructions to perform the activity, and presentation techniques. The activity's content is explained, and assessment suggestions are provided.

Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning (McREL); Jacobs, Steve

2004-01-01

25

Introduction to Potato  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This is an introductory chapter on potatoes which gives a brief history of the potato, potato morphology, taxonomy, production statistics, nutritional content, and future prospects for potato research and production. It will appear in a new book entitled Genetics, Genomics, and Breeding of Potato ...

26

Potato Power  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use potatoes to light an LED clock (or light bulb) as they learn how a battery works in a simple circuit and how chemical energy changes to electrical energy. As they learn more about electrical energy, they better understand the concepts of voltage, current and resistance.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

27

Sweet Potato  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. (Convolvulaceae, Dicotyledons) produces storage roots rich in carbohydrates and ?-carotene, a precursor of vitamin\\u000a A, and its leaves are rich in proteins. The roots also contain vitamins C, B complex, and E as well as potassium, calcium,\\u000a and iron. Purple-fleshed ones contain antioxidants such as anthocyanins. In world crop statistics, the sweet potato is ranked\\u000a seventh,

Vincent Lebot

28

DIETARY BAKED EGG ACCELERATES RESOLUTION OF EGG ALLERGY IN CHILDREN  

PubMed Central

Background Baked egg is tolerated by a majority of egg-allergic children. Objective To characterize immunologic changes associated with ingestion of baked egg and evaluate the role that baked egg diets plays in the development of tolerance to regular egg. Methods Egg-allergic subjects who tolerated baked egg challenge incorporated baked egg into their diet. Immunologic parameters were measured at follow-up visits. A comparison group strictly avoiding egg was used to evaluate the natural history of the development of tolerance. Results Of the 79 subjects in the intent-to-treat group followed for a median of 37.8 months, 89% now tolerate baked egg and 53% now tolerate regular egg. Of 23 initial baked egg-reactive subjects, 14 (61%) subsequently tolerated baked egg and 6 (26%) now tolerate regular egg. Within the initially baked egg-reactive group, subjects with persistent reactivity to baked egg had higher median baseline egg white (EW)-specific IgE levels (13.5 kUA/L) than those who subsequently tolerated baked egg (4.4 kUA/L; P=0.04) and regular egg (3.1 kUA/L, P=0.05). In subjects ingesting baked egg, EW-induced SPT wheal diameter and EW-, ovalbumin-, and ovomucoid-specific IgE levels decreased significantly, while ovalbumin- and ovomucoid-specific IgG4 levels increased significantly. Subjects in the per-protocol group were 14.6 times more likely to develop regular egg tolerance than subjects in the comparison group (P < 0.0001), and they developed tolerance earlier (median 50.0 versus 78.7 months; P<0.0001). Conclusion Initiation of a baked egg diet accelerates the development of regular egg tolerance compared to strict avoidance. Higher serum EW-specific IgE level is associated with persistent baked and regular egg reactivity, while initial baked egg reactivity is not. PMID:22846751

Leonard, Stephanie A.; Sampson, Hugh A.; Sicherer, Scott H.; Noone, Sally; Moshier, Erin L.; Godbold, James; Nowak-W?grzyn, Anna

2012-01-01

29

Curried Potatoes Ingredients  

E-print Network

Curried Potatoes Ingredients: 4 potatoes 1 tablespoon margarine 1 small onion 3/4 cup low sodium chicken broth 1/2 tablespoon curry powder 1/2 tablespoon lemon juice Directions 1. Wash potatoes and cut the same size. 2. Put potato cubes in saucepan and cover with cool water. Put on stove and turn on high

Liskiewicz, Maciej

30

Herb Potato Salad Ingredients  

E-print Network

Herb Potato Salad Ingredients: 1 pound potatoes 1/2 cup radishes 3 tablespoons plain yogurt, non/4 teaspoon dried thyme 1/4 teaspoon onion powder 1/2 teaspoon garlic powder Directions 1. Scrub potatoes, reduce heat and simmer 20 minutes or until potatoes are done. Drain. Add to medium bowl. 4. Wash radishes

Liskiewicz, Maciej

31

Potato Corn Chowder Ingredients  

E-print Network

Potato Corn Chowder Ingredients: 2 potatoes, peeled and diced 15 ounces sweet corn, drained 2 potatoes, cut into bite size pieces. Place in microwave safe bowl with lid. Add 1/4 cup of water and cover to remove sodium. 4. While potatoes are cooking, melt margarine in saucepan over medium heat and add flour

Liskiewicz, Maciej

32

Mashed Potatoes Ingredients  

E-print Network

Mashed Potatoes Ingredients: 2 pounds potatoes 1 cup skim milk 3 tablespoons margarine 1 teaspoon salt 1/2 teaspoon ground pepper Directions 1. Peel the potatoes, and cut them into chunks. 2. Put the potatoes in a medium saucepan with enough cool water to cover them. 3. Cover. Bring to a boil and cook

Liskiewicz, Maciej

33

Potatoes and Human Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber follows only rice and wheat in world importance as a food crop for human consumption. Cultivated potatoes have spread from the Andes of South America where they originated to 160 countries around the world. Consumption of fresh potatoes has declined while processed products have increased in popularity. As the potato becomes a staple in

Mary Ellen Camire; Stan Kubow; Danielle J. Donnelly

2009-01-01

34

Influence of resist-baking on the pattern quality of thick photoresists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interest in thick photoresist applications is steadily growing. Besides the bump fabrication and wire interconnect technology, the process of patterning thick layer photoresists by UV lithography is specially qualified for applications in microelectro-mechanical-systems (MEMS). Specialized equipment and new photoresists have been developed or are under development to cope with the new challenges in the field of preparing extremely thick photoresist layers, the process of patterning these thick resists, and to deal with the difficulties of the following galvanoplating step. As one of the most critical steps in thick photoresists processing, the baking procedure was investigated. Two positive tone photoresists were processed by means of three different baking methods: air-forced oven, ramped hotplate, and IR radiation. Furthermore, combinations between the methods were tested. It could be shown that IR baking is advantageous compared to the other methods with respect to process duration and energy consumption. Compared to edge steepness, resolution, edge loss, and surface roughness, all methods deliver nearly same results. A minimum width of 2-3 micrometers for the resist bars was found to be necessary to withstand the fabrication process of lines and spaces in about 15 micrometers thick resist. For thicker layers high aspect ratios of more than 10 as well as steep edges of more than 88 degrees could be fabricated. The resist patterns can be molded by using electroplating.

Loechel, Bernd; Rothe, Martina; Fehlberg, Simone; Gruetzner, Gabi; Bleidiessel, Gerhard

1996-09-01

35

Relationship between Processing Method and the Glycemic Indices of Ten Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas) Cultivars Commonly Consumed in Jamaica  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the effect of different traditional cooking methods on glycemic index (GI) and glycemic response of ten Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) cultivars commonly eaten in Jamaica. Matured tubers were cooked by roasting, baking, frying, or boiling then immediately consumed by the ten nondiabetic test subjects (5 males and 5 females; mean age of 27 ± 2 years). The GI varied between 41 ± 5–93 ± 5 for the tubers studied. Samples prepared by boiling had the lowest GI (41 ± 5–50 ± 3), while those processed by baking (82 ± 3–94 ± 3) and roasting (79 ± 4–93 ± 2) had the highest GI values. The study indicates that the glycemic index of Jamaican sweet potatoes varies significantly with the method of preparation and to a lesser extent on intravarietal differences. Consumption of boiled sweet potatoes could minimize postprandial blood glucose spikes and therefore, may prove to be more efficacious in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:22132322

Bahado-Singh, Perceval S.; Riley, Cliff K.; Wheatley, Andrew O.; Lowe, Henry I. C.

2011-01-01

36

Germination of oat and quinoa and evaluation of the malts as gluten free baking ingredients.  

PubMed

Germination can be used to improve the sensory and nutritional properties of cereal and pseudocereal grains. Oat and quinoa are rich in minerals, vitamins and fibre while quinoa also contains high amounts of protein of a high nutritional value. In this study, oat and quinoa malts were produced and incorporated in a rice and potato based gluten free formulation. Germination of oat led to a drastic increase of ?-amylase activity from 0.3 to 48 U/g, and minor increases in proteolytic and lipolytic activities. Little change was observed in quinoa except a decrease in proteolytic activity from 9.6 to 6.9 U/g. Oat malt addition decreased batter viscosities at both proofing temperature and during heating. These changes led to a decrease in bread density from 0.59 to 0.5 g/ml and the formation of a more open crumb, but overdosing of oat malt deteriorated the product as a result of excessive amylolysis during baking. Quinoa malt had no significant effect on the baking properties due to low ?-amylase activity. Despite showing a very different impact on the bread quality, both malts influenced the electrophoretic patterns of rice flour protein similarly. This suggests that malt induced proteolysis does not influence the technological properties of a complex gluten free formulation. PMID:23386201

Mäkinen, Outi E; Zannini, Emanuele; Arendt, Elke K

2013-03-01

37

POTATO DISEASE RESISTANCE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The potential to use systemic acquired resistance for disease control in potato is discussed. The mechanism of how SAR works in plants is described. Potato was found to have high salicylic acid levels in all tissues examined. The defense gene PR-1 was constitutively expressed in potato, in contrast ...

38

Impingement Heat Transfer Effects on Baking of Flat Bread  

Microsoft Academic Search

An impingement oven designed for flat breads baking was instrumented to monitor the processing conditions and record variables responsible for changes in dough characteristics. Image processing was used to monitor the volume and surface color changes during baking. Fluctuations of oven temperature and jet velocity were minimized using electronic controllers, leading to better repeatability and accuracy. Impingement heat transfer distribution

S. Banooni; S. M. Hosseinalipour; A. S. Mujumdar; E. Taheran; M. Mashaiekhi

2008-01-01

39

Clean Label Mold Inhibitors for Baking Rene Albers-Nelson  

E-print Network

, 2008). Clean Label Mold Inhibitors Breads, muffins, rolls, cookies, hamburger and hot- dog buns, bagels (or more) of mold-free shelf life to these bakery products. Sour dough bread is an exception173-1 Clean Label Mold Inhibitors for Baking Renée Albers-Nelson FAPC Milling and Baking Specialist

Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

40

Thermodynamics of bread baking: A two-state model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bread baking can be viewed as a complex physico-chemical process. It is governed by transport of heat and is accompanied by changes such as gelation of starch, the expansion of air cells within dough, and others. We focus on the thermodynamics of baking and investigate the heat flow through dough and find that the evaporation of excess water in dough is the rate-limiting step. We consider a simplified one-dimensional model of bread, treating the excess water content as a two-state variable that is zero for baked bread and a fixed constant for unbaked dough. We arrive at a system of coupled, nonlinear ordinary differential equations, which are solved using a standard Runge-Kutta integration method. The calculated baking times are consistent with common baking experience.

Zürcher, Ulrich

2014-03-01

41

Bake-Out Mobile Controls for Large Vacuum Systems  

E-print Network

Large vacuum systems at CERN (Large Hadron Collider - LHC, Low Energy Ion Rings - LEIR...) require bake-out to achieve ultra-high vacuum specifications. The bake-out cycle is used to decrease the outgassing rate of the vacuum vessel and to activate the Non-Evaporable Getter (NEG) thin film. Bake-out control is a Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) regulation with complex recipes, interlocks and troubleshooting management and remote control. It is based on mobile Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) cabinets, fieldbus network and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) application. The CERN vacuum installations include more than 7 km of baked vessels; using mobile cabinets reduces considerably the cost of the control system. The cabinets are installed close to the vacuum vessels during the time of the bake-out cycle. Mobile cabinets can be used in any of the CERN vacuum facilities. Remote control is provided through a fieldbus network and a SCADA application

Blanchard, S; Gomes, P; Pereira, H; Kopylov, L; Merker, S; Mikheev, M

2014-01-01

42

Mainestay: A high-yielding, round white potato variety for fresh market  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mainestay potato variety is high-yielding and late-maturing producing attractive, round, white-skinned, white-fleshed\\u000a tubers with medium-shallow eyes. Its major use is expected to be as a maincrop tablestock variety. Mainestay appearance ratings\\u000a are similar to those of Katahdin, and greening in Mainestay tubers is less than in Kennebec. Most boil and bake qualities\\u000a were rated equal to Katahdin in at

A. F. Reeves; G. A. Porter; T. M. Work; D. H. Lambert; A. A. Davis; E. S. Plissey

1997-01-01

43

Bar Graph  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This bar graph application allows the learner to interpret one of three sets of pre-existing data or to input their own data and create their own bar graph. The display can be altered to increase or descrease the interval on the y-axis or to increase or descrease the width of the bars on the x-axis.

2012-01-01

44

Acute toxicity from baking soda ingestion.  

PubMed

Sodium bicarbonate is an extremely well-known agent that historically has been used for a variety of medical conditions. Despite the widespread use of oral bicarbonate, little documented toxicity has occurred, and the emergency medicine literature contains no reports of toxicity caused by the ingestion of baking soda. Risks of acute and chronic oral bicarbonate ingestion include metabolic alkalosis, hypernatremia, hypertension, gastric rupture, hyporeninemia, hypokalemia, hypochloremia, intravascular volume depletion, and urinary alkalinization. Abrupt cessation of chronic excessive bicarbonate ingestion may result in hyperkalemia, hypoaldosteronism, volume contraction, and disruption of calcium and phosphorus metabolism. The case of a patient with three hospital admissions in 4 months, all the result of excessive oral intake of bicarbonate for symptomatic relief of dyspepsia is reported. Evaluation and treatment of patients with acute bicarbonate ingestion is discussed. PMID:8285975

Thomas, S H; Stone, C K

1994-01-01

45

Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).  

PubMed

Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is the most common method for the incorporation of foreign genes into the genome of potato as well as many other species in the Solanaceae family. This chapter describes protocols for the genetic transformation of three species of potato: Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum (Desiréé), S. tuberosum subsp. andigenum (Blue potato), and S. tuberosum subsp. andigena using internodal segments as explants. PMID:25416251

Chetty, Venkateswari J; Narváez-Vásquez, Javier; Orozco-Cárdenas, Martha L

2015-01-01

46

The Sweet Potato Borer.  

E-print Network

of other species of the sweet potato family, we are led to believe that the sweet potato is an ac- quired food plant. Experiments made in this department, show that in the absence of sureet potatoes the insect can lire on the common species of Ipomoea... develop successfully in the large suczulent roots of Ipomoea cr rncrning glory vines. PREVENTIVE AND REMEDIAL MEASURES. Owing to its well protected habits the sweet potato weevil is one of the most difficult insects to combat. It is impossible...

Conradi, Albert F. (Albert Frederick)

1907-01-01

47

Flat as a Pancake? Exploring Rising in Baked Goods.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an activity that can be used for acid-base chemistry, everyday chemistry, or food chemistry. Investigates the rising in baked goods. Includes both instructor information and student activity sheets. (YDS)

Journal of Chemical Education, 2000

2000-01-01

48

Development of Gluten-Free Baking Methods Utilizing Sorghum Flour  

E-print Network

DEVELOPMENT OF GLUTEN-FREE BREAD BAKING METHODS UTILIZING SORGHUM FLOUR A Thesis by SARA ELIZABETH BOSWELL Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2010 Major Subject: Food Science and Technology Development of Gluten-Free Bread Baking Methods Utilizing Sorghum Flour Copyright 2010 Sara...

Boswell, Sara Elizabeth

2012-02-14

49

Effects of Baking Temperature on Crumb-Staling Kinetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 74(6):710-714 This study evaluated the effects of bread baking temperature on the staling kinetics of crumb. Bread dough was leavened and baked in sealed molds. Cooking trials were performed at various temperatures ranging from 90 to 110°C. The crumb samples were then stored at 20°C at con- stant moisture, and staling was evaluated by measuring crumb elastic modulus

Gabriella Giovanelli; Claudio Peri; Valeria Borri

1997-01-01

50

Impact of the Baking Duration on Bread Staling Kinetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a study on the impact of the duration of the baking plateau on staling kinetics in the case of bread crumb\\u000a made of sourdough; it follows Le-Bail et al. Journal of Cereal Science 50:235–240, (2009)a previous study proposed by Le-Bail et al. Journal of Cereal Science 50:235–240, (2009) on the impact of heating rate during baking on

Alain Le-Bail; Soumya Agrane; Delphine Queveau

51

Solanum tuberosum (Potato)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potato is the fourth most important food crop worldwide, with high value as a balanced and nutritious food. It is one of the world’s most productive crops. Wild potatoes are native from the southwestern United States to south-central Chile, with centers of species diversity in central Mexico and in ...

52

Potato plant poisoning - green tubers and sprouts  

MedlinePLUS

Potato plant poisoning occurs when someone eats the green tubers or new sprouts of the potato plant. ... is found throughout the plant, but especially in green potatoes and new sprouts. Never eat potatoes that ...

53

7 CFR 948.5 - Potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 948.5 Section 948.5 Agriculture...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means and...

2010-01-01

54

7 CFR 946.5 - Potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 946.5 Section 946.5 ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating...Handling Definitions § 946.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all...

2010-01-01

55

7 CFR 953.5 - Potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 953.5 Section 953.5 Agriculture...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order...Handling Definitions § 953.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties...

2010-01-01

56

7 CFR 945.5 - Potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 945.5 Section 945.5 Agriculture...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED COUNTIES...Handling Definitions § 945.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties...

2010-01-01

57

Potato Operation: automatic detection of potato diseases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Potato Operation is a collaborative, multidisciplinary project in the domain of destructive testing of agricultural products. It aims at automatizing pulp sampling of potatoes in order to detect possible viral diseases. Such viruses can decrease fields productivity by a factor of up to ten. A machine, composed of three conveyor belts, a vision system, a robotic arm and controlled by a PC has been built. Potatoes are brought one by one from a bulk to the vision system, where they are seized by a rotating holding device. The sprouts, where the viral activity is maximum, are then detected by an active vision process operating on multiple views. The 3D coordinates of the sampling point are communicated to the robot arm holding a drill. Some flesh is then sampled by the drill, then deposited into an Elisa plate. After sampling, the robot arm washes the drill in order to prevent any contamination. The PC computer simultaneously controls these processes, the conveying of the potatoes, the vision algorithms and the sampling procedure. The master process, that is the vision procedure, makes use of three methods to achieve the sprouts detection. A profile analysis first locates the sprouts as protuberances. Two frontal analyses, respectively based on fluorescence and local variance, confirm the previous detection and provide the 3D coordinate of the sampling zone. The other two processes work by interruption of the master process.

Lefebvre, Marc; Zimmerman, Thierry; Baur, Charles; Guegerli, Paul; Pun, Thierry

1995-01-01

58

NewLeaf Plus® Russet Burbank potatoes: replicase-mediated resistance to potato leafroll virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potato leafroll poleovirus and the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say)) are major pests of potato in the USA. The US Department of Agriculture estimates that over 50% of annual insecticide use on potato is applied to control the Colorado potato beetle and aphids that transmit potato leafroll virus (PLRV). To address this issue, Russet Burbank potatoes have been genetically

E. C. Lawson; J. D. Weiss; P. E. Thomas; W. K. Kaniewski

2001-01-01

59

International Potato Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With headquarters in La Molina, Peru, the International Potato Center seeks to reduce poverty and achieve food security through research activities on not only the potato, but also on the sweet potato, and other root and tuber crops. The Center has a staff of scientists from 25 countries working on these pressing topics, and visitors with like-minded interests will appreciate the diversity of materials offered on the site. The site has a number of sections, and those dedicated to the potato and the sweet potato are most deserving of a visit. Within each of these sections, visitors can learn about each crop, its conservation, the pests and diseases that threaten each one, and a wide array of related statistics. It should be noted that the homepage itself is a great source of updated news reports on these plants, and recent items have included information on new growing techniques for potatoes (such as aeroponics, which involves suspending tubers) and the nutritional benefits of these plants.

60

Microbiological Characteristics of Part-Baked White Pan Bread During Storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, white pan breads part-baked 10, 15, and 20 min with and without added calcium propionate were stored at 20°C (room temperature) for 3, 5, and 7 days and at 4°C (refrigerator temperature) for 7, 14, and 21 days. After storage, the baking time of part-baked breads was completed to the baking time of control breads (25 min).

M. Murat Karaoglu; H. Gürbüz Kotancilar; Mustafa Gurses

2005-01-01

61

Quality and microbial stability of partially baked bread during refrigerated storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Partially baked bread was prepared and stored at 1°C or 7°C for 28 days. Periodically, this product was subjected to moisture, hardness, and microbiological analyses. After storage, the baking process of part-baked bread was completed and product evaluated according to microbiological, physical, and sensorial tests, as well as hardness analysis. Part-baked breads stored at 7°C showed mold growth at day

Elizabeth Lainez; Fidel Vergara; María E. Bárcenas

2008-01-01

62

First report of Potato virus Y in potato in Tajikistan  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is widely grown as a staple food and cash crop in Tajikistan and is an important food security crop in the country. In June 2011, we conducted a survey of potatoes in farmers’ fields in Buston and Dushanbe regions of Tajikistan. Potato plants with stunted growth and lea...

63

Cake baking in tunnel type multi-zone industrial ovens Part II. Evaluation of quality parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

In addition to characterization of baking conditions during industrial cake baking, some important quality parameters, such as texture, color, density and viscosity of the cake batter were evaluated during baking in two different multi-zone industrial scale ovens: gas fired band oven and electric powered mold oven. The flow behavior of all batters was pseudo-plastic with a yield stress. The average

O. D Baik; M Marcotte; F Castaigne

2000-01-01

64

Potato Green Bean Salad Ingredients  

E-print Network

Potato Green Bean Salad Ingredients: 6 potatoes 15 ounces green beans, canned 1 small red onion 3. Rinse under water to remove sodium. 5. While potatoes are cooking, cut the ends off of the onion, and peel off the papery layers. Run under water to remove any dirt. Cut the onion in half lengthwise

Liskiewicz, Maciej

65

Sweet Potato Weevils in Jamaica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sweet potato weevils (Cylas formicarius and Euscepes postfasciatus) have probably been in Jamaica for as long as sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) has been cultivated. Yet, farmers have been unqilling to adopt cultural control measures, one of which has been known for 300 years. The social and economic aspects of growing sweet potato and the implications for control of the

William J. Fielding; L. Van Crowder Jr

1995-01-01

66

Milling and Baking Quality of Low Phytic Acid Wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low phytic acid (LPA) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one ap- proach to improving nutritional quality of wheat by reducing the major storage form of phosphorus and increasing the level of inorganic phosphorus, which is more readily absorbed by humans and other monogastric animals. Milling and baking quality evaluations were con- ducted on hard red, hard white, and soft white

M. J. Guttieri; K. M. Peterson; E. J. Souza

2006-01-01

67

Effect of corn bran substitution on baking quality of cakes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Food-grade corn bran from the grain milling industry is good source of dietary fiber and can be incorporated into baking goods for low calorie, high-fiber diet. Food grade corn bran was obtained from ICM (St. Joseph, MO) and purified from endosperm and germ fragments using a Kice Multi-Aspirator. ...

68

34. DESPATCH CORE OVENS, GREY IRON FOUNDRY CORE ROOM, BAKES ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

34. DESPATCH CORE OVENS, GREY IRON FOUNDRY CORE ROOM, BAKES CORES THAT ARE NOT MADE ON HEATED OR COLD BOX CORE MACHINES, TO SET BINDING AGENTS MIXED WITH THE SAND CREATING CORES HARD ENOUGH TO WITHSTAND THE FLOW OF MOLTEN IRON INSIDE A MOLD. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

69

15. 110 SANSOM STREET, BAKE OVEN IN CELLAR (Above the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. 110 SANSOM STREET, BAKE OVEN IN CELLAR (Above the chamber is the entrance to the squirrel tail flue. Below and to the right at floor level is a wood storage compartment.) - James McCrea Houses, 108-110 Sansom Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

70

10 Tips for Parents: How to Get Kids to Eat More Complex Carbohydrates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers 10 suggestions to help parents encourage their children to eat more complex carbohydrates. Suggestions include microwaving baked potatoes; baking whole-grain breads; snacking on gingersnaps, fig bars, pretzels, or vegetable sticks; mixing cereal into low-fat yogurt; and making soup containing beans, rice, pasta, or potatoes. (SM)

PTA Today, 1991

1991-01-01

71

Computational fluid dynamics modeling of bun baking process under different oven load conditions.  

PubMed

A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed to study the temperature profile of the bun during baking process. Evaporation-condensation mechanism and effect of the latent heat during phase change of water was incorporated in this model to represent actual bun baking process. Simulation results were validated with experimental measurements of bun temperature at two different positions. Baking process is completed within 20 min, after the temperature of crumb become stable at 98 °C. Further, this study was extended to investigate the effect of partially (two baking trays) loaded and fully loaded (eight baking trays) oven on temperature profile of bun. Velocity and temperature profile differs in partially loaded and fully loaded oven. Bun placed in top rack showed rapid baking while bun placed in bottom rack showed slower baking due to uneven temperature distribution in the oven. Hence, placement of bun inside the oven affects temperature of bun and consequently, the quality of the product. PMID:25190860

Tank, A; Chhanwal, N; Indrani, D; Anandharamakrishnan, C

2014-09-01

72

Application Bar  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a When you’re ready to program your Windows Phone 7 application in Visual Studio, you’ll know what general features your application\\u000a will provide. Each of the major application features will need to be accessible via a shortcut or some form of a navigation\\u000a menu. For Windows Phone 7 applications, Microsoft recommends that you use a standard Windows Phone 7 Application Bar

Henry Lee; Eugene Chuvyrov

73

Potato tuber dormancy  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The date that potato tubers begin to sprout must be carefully managed to maximize crop value. Spouting of fresh, chip and fry processing tubers during storage can decrease crop value, increase water loss and pressure bruising, and may promote pathogen entry. A lack of uniform sprouting in seed potat...

74

Mapping Potato Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students construct a topographic map of model terrain using a potato as their model. After making the map, they should be able to explain what contour lines are and what they represent. A materials list, instructions, and background information are provided. National content standards and links to additional information are also included.

75

Genetic and phenotypic characteristics of baker's yeast: relevance to baking.  

PubMed

Yeasts rarely encounter ideal physiological conditions during their industrial life span; therefore, their ability to adapt to changing conditions determines their usefulness and applicability. This is especially true for baking strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The success of this yeast in the ancient art of bread making is based on its capacity to rapidly transform carbohydrates into CO2 rather than its unusual resistance to environmental stresses. Moreover, baker's yeast must exhibit efficient respiratory metabolism during yeast manufacturing, which determines biomass yield. However, optimal growth conditions often have negative consequences in other commercially important aspects, such as fermentative power or stress tolerance. This article reviews the genetic and physiological characteristics of baking yeast strains, emphasizing the activation of regulatory mechanisms in response to carbon source and stress signaling and their importance in defining targets for strain selection and improvement. PMID:23464571

Randez-Gil, Francisca; Córcoles-Sáez, Isaac; Prieto, José A

2013-01-01

76

Kinetics of acrylamide formation in potato chips  

E-print Network

frying times. The effect of potato components was studied by infusing leached potato slices with predetermined amounts of glucose and asparagine. Increasing glucose and asparagine content in the slices increased the acrylamide content in the potato chips...

Granda, Claudia Esthela

2006-08-16

77

7 CFR 1207.306 - Potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 1207.306 Section 1207.306 Agriculture...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions...

2010-01-01

78

Homespun remedy, homespun toxicity: baking soda ingestion for dyspepsia.  

PubMed

A 68-year-old man presented to the Emergency Department with a severe metabolic alkalosis after ingesting large quantities of baking soda to treat his dyspepsia. His underlying pulmonary disease and a progressively worsening mental status necessitated intubation for respiratory failure. Laboratory studies revealed a hyponatremic, hypochloremic, hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis. The patient was successfully treated after cessation of the oral bicarbonate, initiation of intravenous hydration, and correction of electrolyte abnormalities. PMID:18164162

Ajbani, Keyur; Chansky, Michael E; Baumann, Brigitte M

2011-04-01

79

Sushi Bar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An innovative website where customers order from a realistic sushi bar menu to learn about international fisheries resources and impacts. Select shrimp, tuna, squid, octopus, or sea urchin to learn where resources are harvested, current fisheries methods, population status and concerns. This on-line activity also demonstrates how global our use of resources has become, with a single country dependent on seafood imports from around the world. The site also contains lesson plans on natural resources and resource management. Appropriate for grades 6 and up.

2010-12-02

80

Easy Gardening.....Irish Potatoes  

E-print Network

This publication explains all aspects of growing Irish potatoes in a home garden. Topics include: site selection, soil preparation, varieties, planting, fertilizing, watering, harvesting, insects, diseases and serving....

McGraw, Dean; Masabni, Joseph

2009-05-17

81

Sweet Potato Pie Ingredients  

E-print Network

, beaten 1/4 cup sugar 1/4 cup brown sugar 1/2 teaspoon salt 1/4 teaspoon nutmeg 1/4 cup evaporated skim potatoes and place in saucepan. Cover with water and bring to a boil. Reduce heat and cook until tender brown sugar, use a 1/4 cup measuring cup, and add brown sugar and pack in cup until sugar is level

Liskiewicz, Maciej

82

Potato Chip Classification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity introduces the structure and function of a dichotomous key, in preparation for student identification of plant and animal specimens. It also reinforces the idea that there are many possible answers in science. Students will be able to classify specimens (in this case, potato chips) according to observable characteristics, prepare a key showing their classification system, use their key to identify a specimen, and recognize the validity of classmates' classification systems.

1998-01-01

83

Ovomucoid Is Not Superior to Egg White Testing in Predicting Tolerance to Baked Egg  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Children with egg allergy may tolerate baked egg products. Ovomucoid specific IgE (sIgE) antibody levels have been suggested to predict outcomes of baked egg challenges. OBJECTIVE We determined the relationship of ovomucoid and egg white sIgE levels and egg white skin prick test (SPT) wheal size with baked egg challenge outcome. METHODS Retrospective review of 1186 patients who underwent ovomucoid sIgE blood testing. Subset analysis was of 169 patients who underwent baked egg food challenges. RESULTS Egg white sIgE, ovomucoid sIgE, and egg white SPT were different among those eating regular egg, eating baked egg only, or avoiding all egg (P < .001 for all). One hundred forty-two of 169 patients (84.0%) passed baked egg challenges. We were able to establish >90% predictive values for passing baked egg challenge for egg white sIgE, ovomucoid sIgE, and egg white SPT. No patient with egg white SPT wheal <3 mm failed a baked egg challenge. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis of egg white sIgE, ovomucoid sIgE, and egg white SPT showed areas under the curve of 0.721, 0.645, and 0.624, respectively. No significant difference was observed among these immunologic parameters in their abilities to predict baked egg challenge outcome (P = .301). CONCLUSION Most children with egg allergy in this study passed baked egg challenges. Ovomucoid sIgE, although a useful clinical predictor of baked egg tolerance, was not superior to egg white SPT or sIgE in predicting outcome of baked egg challenge. PMID:24013255

Bartnikas, Lisa M.; Sheehan, William J.; Larabee, Katherine S.; Petty, Carter; Schneider, Lynda C.; Phipatanakul, Wanda

2013-01-01

84

Evaluation of a Two-Step Baking Procedure for Convenience Sponge Cakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 76(2):303-307 Typical examples of convenience foods in the bakery section include partially baked bread, rolls, croissants, and crumpets. The effects of proces- sing variables on sponge cake characteristics were studied in a two-step baking procedure. A fractional two-factorial design was applied to describe the effects of the predictor variables on product properties. Flour type, oven type, and baking

H. Grau; K. Wehrle; E. K. Arendt

1999-01-01

85

Baked milk- and egg-containing diet in the management of milk and egg allergy.  

PubMed

Cow's milk (CM) and hen's egg allergies are among the most common food allergies in children. With evidence of increasing food allergy prevalence and more persistent disease, it has become vital to improve the management of CM and egg allergies. The ability to tolerate baked milk or egg, such as in a cake or muffin, has been associated with an increased chance of tolerance development. Studies report that about 70% of CM- and egg-allergic children can tolerate baked milk or egg and that incorporating baked milk or egg into the diet is well tolerated. Being able to add baked milk or egg into the diet can also increase quality of life by expanding the diet, boosting nutrition, and promoting inclusion in social activities. There is some debate over how baked milk and egg should be introduced, at home or in a supervised setting. Anaphylaxis and treatment with epinephrine during baked milk or egg challenges have been reported. Study of potential biomarkers to predict tolerability of baked milk and egg, such as serum specific IgE levels and skin prick test wheal diameters, is ongoing. Many parents can reliably report that their CM- or egg-allergic child is already consuming baked goods without symptoms. However, for those who cannot report such tolerance, the most prudent approach is to perform a supervised oral food challenge to determine the tolerability of baked milk and egg. The purpose of this article was to review the pathophysiology, clinical data, and safety of baked milk and egg and provide a practical guide to managing CM allergy and/or egg allergy. Recipes for baked milk and egg challenges and guidance on how to add baked milk and egg if tolerated to the child's regular diet are provided. PMID:25577613

Leonard, Stephanie A; Caubet, Jean-Christoph; Kim, Jennifer S; Groetch, Marion; Nowak-W?grzyn, Anna

2015-01-01

86

Influence of cooking on the levels of bioactive compounds in Purple Majesty potato observed via chemical and spectroscopic means.  

PubMed

Tubers rich in phytochemicals can exhibit a potential health benefit. This work aims at studying the relative effect of different domestic cooking techniques by monitoring the level of total phenolic compounds (TP), total anthocyanins (TA) and anti-oxidant activity (AOA) on a variety of pigmented potatoes. Raw purple potatoes are a good source of anthocyanins (219 mg/kg FW) and the level of these compounds increased using different cooking techniques, with the exception of baking. However, the levels of phenolic compounds (originally 209 mg GAE/100 g FW) decreased in the cooked potatoes. Although potatoes contain different antioxidants in this work the antioxidant activity seems to be related to the levels of phenolic compounds present in the pigmented potato. The fact that some of the compounds present fluoresce enabled both steady state and time-resolved fluorescence techniques to be assessed as a non destructive means of monitoring. This elucidated the presence of different components (via spectral deconvolution and time-resolved emission spectra). Their relative contribution to the fluorescence emission was found to be affected by the different cooking process, with a longer wavelength emission appearing to relate to reflect the presence of anthocyanins. PMID:25466046

Lemos, M Adília; Aliyu, Maryam M; Hungerford, Graham

2015-04-15

87

THE CAMPUS BAR AS A "BASTARD INSTITUTION"  

E-print Network

is a beer bar with. only one kind of beer on tap. Different kinds of canned beer and soft drinks and sometimes coffee are available. but if you are hungry you must settle for potato chips, a hot dog, or "boneless chicken" -a hardboiled egg... such attractions as pinball, foosball, pool tables, and 'various other electronic games. Patrons tend to come alone or .in groups (typically' all male) and combine their, drinking (usually beer) with these various mechanical and electronic pursuits.This variety...

Willsie, Deborah A.; Riemer, Jeffrey W.

1980-04-01

88

Hybrid origins of cultivated potatoes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wild and cultivated potatoes, Solanum section Petota, is taxonomically difficult, partly because of interspecific hybridization at both the diploid and polyploid levels. The taxonomy of cultivated potatoes is particularly controversial. With DNA sequence data of the GBSSI (waxy) gene we here infer r...

89

The Irish Potato (second report).  

E-print Network

THE IRISH POTATO. POSTOFFICE: COLLEGE STATION, BEEAZOS COUNTY, TEXAS. .J. J. PAnlumran PRINTING c% LITHO. CO., IIOUSTON, I 899. IS, TEXAS AClRlGULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS. OFFICERS- GOVERNING BOARD. C... to the Director. 11081 THE IRISH POTATO. BY R. H. PRICE AND H. NESS.* PAGE Test of Varieties. ............................................... 109 Northern and Southern Seed. .................................. 11 1 Different Sized Pieces for Planting...

Price, R. H; Ness, H.

1899-01-01

90

"RESPONSE OF POTATO APHID (HOMOPTERA: APHIDIDAE) TO NATURAL POTATO ODOR AND SYNTHETIC POTATO-DERIVED COLORADO POTATO BEETLE KAIROMONE"  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A recently synthesized kairomone blend, based on the volatiles produced by potato plants, has been demonstrated to be attractive to both adult and larval stages of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say). It was subsequently formulated in a viscous inert carrier for field applic...

91

Acrylamide in processed potato products  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Trace amounts of acrylamide are found in many foods cooked at high temperatures. Acrylamide in processed potato products is formed from reducing sugars and asparagine and is a product of the Maillard reaction. Processed potato products including fries and chips are relatively high in acrylamide comp...

92

Usual Intake of White potatoes  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of White potatoes Table A13. White potatoes: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.2 (0.01) 0.1

93

Application and evaluation of entomopathogens in potato  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

More than 290 million metric tons of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) are produced throughout the world annually. Potato production ranks fourth among agricultural crops, after wheat, maize, and rice. A large number of insect pests affect potatoes. Worldwide, the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa ...

94

7 CFR 946.12 - Seed potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 946.12 Section 946.12 Agriculture...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and...

2010-01-01

95

7 CFR 947.12 - Seed potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 947.12 Section 947.12 Agriculture...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU COUNTIES...Handling Definitions § 947.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and...

2010-01-01

96

Acoustic Measurement of Potato Cannon Velocity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Potato cannon velocity can be measured with a digitized microphone signal. A microphone is attached to the potato cannon muzzle, and a potato is fired at an aluminum target about 10 m away. Flight time can be determined from the acoustic waveform by subtracting the time in the barrel and time for sound to return from the target. The potato

Courtney, Michael; Courtney, Amy

2007-01-01

97

7 CFR 947.5 - Potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 947.5 Section 947.5 Agriculture...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU COUNTIES...Handling Definitions § 947.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties...

2010-01-01

98

7 CFR 948.6 - Seed potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 948.6 Section 948.6 Agriculture...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.6 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes or seed means...

2010-01-01

99

Continuous and emerging challenges of Potato virus Y in potato.  

PubMed

Potato virus Y (PVY) is one of the oldest known plant viruses, and yet in the past 20 years it emerged in the United States as a relatively new and very serious problem in potato. The virus exists as a complex of strains that induce a wide variety of foliar and tuber symptoms in potato, leading to yield reduction and loss of tuber quality. PVY has displayed a distinct ability to evolve through accumulation of mutations and more rapidly through recombination between different strains, adapting to new potato cultivars across different environments. Factors behind PVY emergence as a serious potato threat are not clear at the moment, and here an attempt is made to analyze various properties of the virus and its interactions with potato resistance genes and with aphid vectors to explain this recent PVY spread in potato production areas. Recent advances in PVY resistance identification and mapping of corresponding genes are described. An updated classification is proposed for PVY strains that takes into account the most current information on virus molecular genetics, serology, and host reactivity. PMID:23915135

Karasev, Alexander V; Gray, Stewart M

2013-01-01

100

78 FR 30737 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Reestablishment of Membership on the Colorado Potato...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...AMS-FV-12-0044; FV12-948-2 FR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Reestablishment of Membership on the Colorado Potato Administrative Committee, Area No...reestablishes the membership on the Colorado Potato Administrative Committee, Area...

2013-05-23

101

78 FR 9629 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Reestablishment of Membership on the Colorado Potato...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...AMS-FV-12-0044; FV12-948-2 PR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Reestablishment of Membership on the Colorado Potato Administrative Committee, Area No...reestablishing the membership on the Colorado Potato Administrative Committee, Area...

2013-02-11

102

Potatoes in Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astroculture is a suite of technologies used to produce and maintain a closed controlled environment for plant growth. The two most recent missions supported growth of potato, dwarf wheat, and mustard plants and provided scientists with the first opportunity to conduct true plant research in space. Light emitting diodes have particular usefulness for plant growth lighting because they emit a much smaller amount of radiant heat than do conventional lighting sources and because they have potential of directing a higher percentage of the emitted light onto plants surfaces. Furthermore, the high output LED's have emissions in the 600-700 nm waveband, which is of highest efficiency for photosynthesis by plants.

2004-01-01

103

Effects of baking-soda-containing dentifrices on oral malodor.  

PubMed

Oral malodor, also known as bad breath or halitosis, is an extremely common problem. Bad breath can arise from many sources in the body, but most frequently is produced in the mouth by the action of gram-negative anaerobic bacteria on sulfur-containing proteinaceous substrates in the saliva, such as debris and plaque. The primary molecules responsible for oral malodor are volatile sulfur compounds (VSC), such as hydrogen sulfide and methylmercaptan. Increased malodor production is related to greater bacterial numbers, reducing conditions, availability of protein substrates, and a pH above neutral. Bad breath is more common in the elderly, as well as those with unhygienic mouths, gingivitis, and periodontitis, but bad breath can also be found in some individuals who are periodontally healthy. The major source of oral malodor is the tongue. Approaches to controlling malodor have included masking, oral hygiene, antibacterial agents, conversion of VSC to nonodorous forms, oxidizing agents, and traditional approaches, including the use of baking soda. Results of controlled double-blind crossover studies, using both organoleptic (sensory) and gas chromatographic analysis of mouth air VSC, indicate that two dentifrices with high baking-soda concentrations, Arm & Hammer Dental Care and Arm & Hammer PeroxiCare, reduce oral malodor. PMID:11524864

Brunette, D M

1996-01-01

104

Effects of Production by Microwave Heating After Conventional Baking on Moisture Gradient and Product Quality of Biscuits (Cookies) 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 75(5):606-611 After conventional (forced-convection heating) baking at 240°C for 4 min, biscuits (cookies) were baked further in a microwave oven at medium and high settings (617.3 and 745.5 W, respectively) to study the effects of microwave baking on the moisture gradient and overall quality of the cookies. Microwave baking significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the moisture gradient and

A. L. M. Bernussi; Y. K. Chang; F. Martínez-Bustos

1998-01-01

105

7 CFR 945.7 - Certified seed potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Certified seed potatoes. 945.7 Section 945.7 Agriculture...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED COUNTIES...Definitions § 945.7 Certified seed potatoes. Certified seed potatoes means...

2010-01-01

106

Reading Bar Graphs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bar graphs are simple ways to display data. Taking numbers and creating a bar graph makes it easier to read and draw conclusions. From bar graphs, you can easily compare data from more than one source. In this lesson, students will read two temperature bar graphs of data from Africa using authentic NASA data. They will identify major parts of bar graphs and make a generalization statement based on graphed data.

107

Potato Tuber Callus  

PubMed Central

Callus was initiated from explants of tubers of the Norchip cultivar of Solanum tuberosum L. and grown on medium with a single carbon source and without addition of coconut milk, protein hydrolysate, or amino acid. Callus samples were harvested at intervals and compared to mature tubers for which there was good biochemical knowledge. The amino acid spectrum, the glycoalkaloid content, and the properties of the isolated invertase and sucrose synthetase were similar in callus and in tuber. Significantly the level of sucrose synthetase varied with the age of the developing callus just as it did with the age of the developing tuber. Of greater significance, levels of reducing sugars and invertase varied with the age of developing callus and also with time and temperature of storage after the callus has ceased growth. Similar changes occur in intact tubers. Callus and tuber biochemistry differed in the amount of deposited starch and in the absence of potato invertase inhibitor. PMID:16659698

Shaw, Roy; Varns, Jerry L.; Miller, Karon A.; Talley, Eugene A.

1976-01-01

108

21 CFR 102.41 - Potato chips made from dried potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potato chips made from dried potatoes. 102.41 Section 102.41 Food and Drugs...for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.41 Potato chips made from dried potatoes. (a)...

2010-04-01

109

WEED MANAGEMENT IN POTATOES WITH SPARTAN HERBICIDE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Spartan (sulfentrazone) is a new herbicide for weed management in potatoes. Sulfentrazone applied preemergence controls hairy and black nightshade, redroot pigweed, common lambsquarters, and kochia in potatoes. Spartan may be tank mixed with metribuzin, s-metolachlor, rimsulfuron, pendimethalin, o...

110

Effects of plastic mulch on potato growth  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Northern China is a major potato production region, and water-saving measures that can enhance both potato yield and quality play an important role in this region due to general water shortages. Plastic mulch has been used as an effective water-saving measure for potato cultivation in China. This ch...

111

Italian Herb Red Potato Salad Ingredients  

E-print Network

. Carefully stir in bell peppers and onions. 6. Cover and chill until ready to serve. Equipment: Cutting boardItalian Herb Red Potato Salad Ingredients: 1 1/2 pounds red potatoes 1 green pepper 1 red onion 1/4 teaspoon garlic powder 1/4 teaspoon ground black pepper Directions 1. Wash potatoes, and cut into quarters

Liskiewicz, Maciej

112

Potato Types: Their Characteristics and Uses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents material for a talk and demonstration about the relationship of potato types to their different uses by consumers and processors. Includes background information for the instructor and discussions to accompany classroom exercises. Discusses the history of the potato, potato types and external characteristics, and internal characteristics…

Pavlista, Alexander D.

1997-01-01

113

Modelling heat and mass transfer in bread baking with mechanical deformation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the thermo-hydric behaviour of bread during baking is studied. A numerical model has been developed with Comsol Multiphysics© software. The model takes into account the heat and mass transfers in the bread and the phenomenon of swelling. This model predicts the evolution of temperature, moisture, gas pressure and deformation in French "baguette" during baking. Local deformation is included in equations using solid phase conservation and, global deformation is calculated using a viscous mechanic model. Boundary conditions are specified with the sole temperature model and vapour pressure estimation of the oven during baking. The model results are compared with experimental data for a classic baking. Then, the model is analysed according to physical properties of bread and solicitations for a better understanding of the interactions between different mechanisms within the porous matrix.

Nicolas, V.; Salagnac, P.; Glouannec, P.; Ploteau, J.-P.; Jury, V.; Boillereaux, L.

2012-11-01

114

Critical dimension sensitivity to post-exposure bake temperaturevariation in EUV photoresists  

SciTech Connect

Chemically amplified resists depend upon the post-exposure bake (PEB) process to drive the deprotection reactions (in positive resists) that lead to proper resist development. For this reason they often exhibit critical dimension (CD) sensitivity to PEB temperature variation. In this work the effects of variation in different aspects of the PEB step on post-develop CD are studied for two extreme ultraviolet (EUV) photoresists. The spatial and temporal temperature uniformity of the PEB plate is measured using a wireless sensor wafer. Programmed variations in the bake plate temperature set point are then used to measure the CD sensitivity to steady state temperature variation. In addition, the initial temperature ramp time is modified using a thin sheet of polyimide film between the wafer and the bake plate. This allows for measurement of the CD sensitivity to transient temperature variation. Finally, the bake time is adjusted to measure the CD sensitivity to this parameter.

Cain, Jason P.; Naulleau, Patrick; Spanos, Costas J.

2005-01-11

115

The FlashBake oven: Lightwave oven delivers high-quality, quick cooking  

SciTech Connect

The FlashBake oven is a well-publicized new electrotechnology that over 40 utilities are promoting for commercial food service applications, but is it worth its high price? E Source research shows that this $5,000 to $8,500 lightwave oven can increase sales and profitability in a number of applications, thus paying for itself within months to a year or two. The FlashBake does so by cooking foods less than two inches thick in two minutes or less, as quickly as microwave ovens do, but with quality equal to or greater than that of conventional gas and electric ovens. The FlashBake makes sense for restaurants and kiosks that offer quick-order menus, as well as for full-menu restaurants that can use the FlashBake during slow periods (instead of larger ovens) and during busy periods (for extra capacity). In these target market applications, the FlashBake is likely to use less energy due to its extremely low idle energy use. It is not well suited to banquet and institutional kitchens that require large numbers of the same item to be cooked and ready simultaneously. The FlashBake has only one tray, so cooking large volumes may take longer, require more labor, and use more energy than a conventional oven that has multiple cooking racks. Energy use is rarely a major concern of those who buy FlashBake ovens, since energy for cooking represents a small fraction of a restaurant`s overall operating costs. The main selling point of the FlashBake is menu and productivity enhancement.

Gregerson, J.

1995-06-01

116

White potatoes, including french fries, contribute shortfall nutrients to children's and adolescents' diets.  

PubMed

To test the hypothesis that white potatoes (WP), oven-baked fries (OBF), and french fries (FF) contribute important nutrients within energy needs to children's and adolescents' diets, secondary analysis of 24-hour dietary recall data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006 was conducted. Potato content of survey foods was determined using US Department of Agriculture recipe databases (Standard Reference (SR)-Link files). Nutrient content of potatoes was determined by linking SR codes to US Department of Agriculture food composition data. Daily nutrient intakes from potatoes were determined by applying the composition database to respondent's recall data. Sample-weighted data were analyzed; t tests assessed differences between age and sex groups. Results indicated that approximately 35% of children and adolescents consumed WP + FF + OBF; 18% consumed FF. Intakes were lower in children compared with adolescents (P < .01). Among adolescents, more boys than girls consumed FF (P < .05); boys ate larger amounts of WP + FF + OBF (134 g/d) and FF (100 g/d) (P < .01). Both WP + FF + OBF and FF provided 9% to 12% of total daily energy (but was within energy requirements in the highest consumers); 8% to 15% of daily fat (>75% monounsaturated fatty acids + polyunsaturated fatty acids); ? 10% dietary fiber, vitamin B(6), and potassium; 5% or greater thiamin, niacin, vitamin K, phosphorus, magnesium, and copper; and less than 5% sodium intake, for all sex -age groups. The combination WP + FF + OBF provided 5% or greater vitamin C for all sex-age groups and 5% or greater vitamin E and iron for most groups; FF provided 5% or greater vitamin E intakes for all. These cross-sectional data show that WP, including FF, provided shortfall nutrients within energy requirements to children and adolescents and, when consumed in moderate amounts, can be part of healthful diets. PMID:21530800

Freedman, Marjorie R; Keast, Debra R

2011-04-01

117

Controlling Potato Blight: Past, Present, and Future  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Potato late blight, Phytophthora infestans, has an infamous past, yet it continues to present a challenge to modern day farmers. Historical scenarios in the LateBlight simulation help us define the impact of this disease before the interactions between this microbe and the potato were understood. Modern scenarios enable us to investigate current strategies to control this pathogen from the management of cull piles to the use of genetically engineered potatoes. A life cycle model, Potato Late Blight, provides an additional method for exploring microbial interactions. * make a profit or lose the farm as you investigate the economic consequences of using chemical control approaches to managing late blight in potatoes

Ethel D. Stanley (Beloit College;Biology)

2006-05-20

118

Solid matrix and liquid culture procedures for growth of potatoes.  

PubMed

This report discusses the advantages and limitations of several different procedures for growth of potatoes for CELSS. Solution culture, in which roots and stolons are submerged, and aeroponic culture were not found useful for potatoes because stolons did not produce tubers unless a severe stress was applied to the plants. In detailed comparison studies, three selected culture systems were compared, nutrient film technique (NFT), NFT with shallow media, and pot culture with deep media. For the NFT and NFT plus shallow media, plants were grown in 0.3 m2 trays and for the deep medium culture, in 20 liter pots. A 1 cm depth of arcillite, a baked montmorillonite clay, was used as shallow media (NFT-arc). Peat-vermiculite mixture was used to fill the pots for the deep media. Nutrient solution, modified half-strength Hoagland's, was recirculated among the tray culture plants with pH automatically controlled at 5.5, and conductivity maintained at approximately 1100 microS cm-1 by adding stock nutrients or renewing the solution. A separate nutrient solution was used to water the pot plants four times daily to excess and the excess was discarded. Plants of Norland cv. were utilized and transplanted from sterile-propagated stem cutting plantlets. The plants were grown for 66 days under 12 h photoperiod in a first study and grown for 54 days under 24 h photoperiod in a second study. Under both photoperiods, total plant growth was greater in NFT-arc than in either NFT or pot culture. Under 12 h photoperiod, tuber dry weight was 30% higher with NFT-arc, but 50% lower with NFT, than with pot culture. Under 24 h photoperiod, however, tuber dry weight in both NFT and NFT-arc was only 20% of that in pot culture. The NFT and NFT-arc produced a greater shoot growth and larger number of small tubers than pot culture, especially with 24 h photoperiod. It is concluded that there are serious limitations to the use of NFT alone for growth of potatoes in a CELSS system. These limitations can be minimized by using a modified NFT with a shallow layer of media, such as arcillite, yet additional work is needed to ensure high tuber production with this system under long photoperiods. PMID:11540216

Tibbitts, T W; Cao, W

1994-11-01

119

Solid matrix and liquid culture procedures for growth of potatoes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report discusses the advantages and limitations of several different procedures for growth of potatoes for CELSS. Solution culture, in which roots and stolons are submerged, and aeroponic culture were not found useful for potatoes because stolons did not produce tubers unless a severe stress was applied to the plants. In detailed comparison studies, three selected culture systems were compared, nutrient film technique (NFT), NFT with shallow media, and pot culture with deep media. For the NFT and NFT plus shallow media, plants were grown in 0.3 m2 trays and for the deep medium culture, in 20 liter pots. A 1 cm depth of arcillite, a baked montmorillonite clay, was used as shallow media (NFT-arc). Peatvermiculite mixture was used to fill the pots for the deep media. Nutrient solution, modified half-strength Hoagland's was recirculated among the tray culture plants with pH automatically controlled at 5.5, and conductivity maintained ~ 1100 ?S cm-1 by adding stock nutrients or renewing the solution. A separate nutrient solution was used to water the pot plants four times daily to excess and the excess was discarded. Plants of Norland cv. were utilized and transplanted from sterile-propagated stem cutting plantlets. The plants were grown for 66 days under 12 h photoperiod in a first study and grown for 54 days under 24 h photoperiod in a second study. Under both photoperiods, total plant growth was greater in NFT-arc than in either NFT or pot culture. Under 12 h photoperiod, tuber dry weight was 30% higher with NFT-arc, but 50% lower with NFT, than with pot culture. Under 24 h photoperiod, however, tuber dry weight in both NFT and NFT-arc was only 20% of that in pot culture. The NFT and NFT-arc produced a greater shoot growth and larger number of small tubers than pot culture, especially with 24 h photoperiod. It is concluded that there are serious limitations to the use of NFT alone for growth of potatoes in a CELSS system. These limitations can be minimized by using a modified NFT with a shallow layer of media, such as arcillite, yet additional work is needed to ensure high tuber production with this system under long photoperiods.

Tibbitts, T. W.; Cao, W.

1994-11-01

120

Effects of baking-soda-containing dentifrices on oral malodor.  

PubMed

Oral malodor, also known as bad breath or halitosis, is an extremely common problem. Bad breath can arise from many sources in the body, but most frequently is produced in the mouth by the action of gram-negative anaerobic bacteria on sulfur-containing proteinaceous substrates in the saliva, such as debris and plaque. The primary molecules responsible for oral malodor are volatile sulfur compounds (VSC), such as hydrogen sulfide and methylmercaptan. Increased malodor production is related to greater bacterial numbers, reducing conditions, availability of protein substrates, and a pH above neutral. Bad breath is more common in the elderly, as well as those with unhygienic mouths, gingivitis, and periodontitis, but bad breath can also be found in some individuals who are periodontally healthy. The major source of oral malodor is the tongue. Approaches to controlling malodor have included masking, oral hygiene, antibacterial agents, conversion of VSC to nonodorous forms, oxidizing agents, and traditional approaches, including the use of backing soda. Results of controlled double-blind crossover studies, using both organoleptic (sensory) and gas chromatographic analysis of mouth air VSC, indicate that two dentifrices with high baking-soda concentrations, Arm & Hammer Dental Care and Arm & Hammer PeroxiCare, reduce oral malodor. PMID:12017931

Brunette, D M

1997-01-01

121

Soft-Bake Purification of SWCNTs Produced by Pulsed Laser Vaporization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The "soft-bake" method is a simple and reliable initial purification step first proposed by researchers at Rice University for single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) produced by high-pressure carbon mon oxide disproportionation (HiPco). Soft-baking consists of annealing as-produced (raw) SWCNT, at low temperatures in humid air, in order to degrade the heavy graphitic shells that surround metal particle impurities. Once these shells are cracked open by the expansion and slow oxidation of the metal particles, the metal impurities can be digested through treatment with hydrochloric acid. The soft-baking of SWCNT produced by pulsed-laser vaporization (PLV) is not straightforward, because the larger average SWCNT diameters (.1.4 nm) and heavier graphitic shells surrounding metal particles call for increased temperatures during soft-bake. A part of the technology development focused on optimizing the temperature so that effective cracking of the graphitic shells is balanced with maintaining a reasonable yield, which was a critical aspect of this study. Once the ideal temperature was determined, a number of samples of raw SWCNT were purified using the soft-bake method. An important benefit to this process is the reduced time and effort required for soft-bake versus the standard purification route for SWCNT. The total time spent purifying samples by soft-bake is one week per batch, which equates to a factor of three reduction in the time required for purification as compared to the standard acid purification method. Reduction of the number of steps also appears to be an important factor in improving reproducibility of yield and purity of SWCNT, as small deviations are likely to get amplified over the course of a complicated multi-step purification process.

Yowell, Leonard; Nikolaev, Pavel; Gorelik, Olga; Allada, Rama Kumar; Sosa, Edward; Arepalli, Sivaram

2013-01-01

122

Potato Nitrogen and Water Management  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potato tuber yields and quality are extremely sensitive to adequate availability of water and nitrogen, particularly at some growth stages. Irrigation to replenish 70% of evapotranspiration (ET) as compared to that of full ET, resulted in about 18% reduction in tuber yield. However, 20% deficit irri...

123

VOLUNTEER POTATO INTERFERENCE IN CARROT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Weed management systems in carrot are limited in part by lack of a fundamental understanding of crop/weed interactions. Irrigated field studies were conducted to quantify the effect of volunteer potato density and duration of interference on carrot yield and determine relationships among weed densi...

124

Leafhoppers and potatoes in Alaska  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Research conducted from 2004 to 2006 in the main potato production areas of Alaska resulted in the identification of 41 leafhopper species associated with agricultural settings. Two species, Davisonia snowi (Dorst) and Macrosteles fascifrons (Stål), made up approximately 60% of the total number of i...

125

Number Line Bars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teachers and students can use this interactive Java applet to model and carry out arithmetic operations on the number line. Users manipulate the size, position, and direction of color bars to represent addition, subtraction, multiplication and division with whole numbers, integers and fractions. Options include the ability to zoom in and out, change the colors of the bars, and adjust the step size of the bars and number line increments.

2000-01-01

126

The International Year of the Potato  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The potato has been around for some 8000 years, and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations has created this site to promote 2008 as the International Year of the Potato. The intent of the site is to promote the role of the potato as a way to alleviate world hunger and to help achieve a number of internationally agreed upon development objectives, including the Millennium Development Goals. On the right-side of the homepage, visitors can read fact sheets on the potato, learn about world potato production, and even view a photo gallery of potatoes from around the world. Along the top of the site, visitors will find the "Potato World" section. Here they can learn about world potato production over the past two decades via a set of statistics and a nice map. Clicking on each region of the world will reveal even more detailed country-level statistics, including acres in potato production and consumption rates. The site even has information about a world potato photography contest, and most of the information on the site is available in Russian, English, French, Spanish, and Chinese.

2008-01-01

127

Interactive WSN-Bar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the concept of ambient intelligence, we utilized wireless sensor network (WSN) and vision-based tracking technologies to create an interactive WSN-Bar. WSN-Bar is an interactive and innovative creation which has two modules: Garden of Light and Vivacious Bushes. It refers the variety of natural environmental factors and focuses on the relationship between human and nature. WSN-Bar can also detect the changes of brightness, temperature, CO2 density outdoors and the movement of people inside the building. Besides, WSN-Bar is an interactive installation art which creates the opportunity to reduce the estranged gape among the participants.

Lin, Jiun-Shian; Hsu, Su-Chu; Chen, Ying-Chung

128

Bar Code Labels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

American Bar Codes, Inc. developed special bar code labels for inventory control of space shuttle parts and other space system components. ABC labels are made in a company-developed anodizing aluminum process and consecutively marketed with bar code symbology and human readable numbers. They offer extreme abrasion resistance and indefinite resistance to ultraviolet radiation, capable of withstanding 700 degree temperatures without deterioration and up to 1400 degrees with special designs. They offer high resistance to salt spray, cleaning fluids and mild acids. ABC is now producing these bar code labels commercially or industrial customers who also need labels to resist harsh environments.

1988-01-01

129

7 CFR 318.13-25 - Sweet potatoes from Hawaii.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sweet potatoes from Hawaii. 318.13-25 Section 318...and the Territories § 318.13-25 Sweet potatoes from Hawaii. (a) Sweet potatoes may be moved interstate from Hawaii in...

2010-01-01

130

7 CFR 1207.514 - Exemption for organic potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Exemption for organic potatoes. 1207.514 Section 1207.514 ...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Rules and... § 1207.514 Exemption for organic potatoes. (a) A producer who...

2010-01-01

131

7 CFR 948.151 - Colorado Potato Committee membership.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee membership. 948.151 ...Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Rules and Regulations...Requirements § 948.151 Colorado Potato Committee membership. The...

2010-01-01

132

7 CFR 948.51 - Colorado Potato Committee.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee. 948.51 Section 948...Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Committees § 948.51 Colorado Potato Committee. The Colorado...

2010-01-01

133

Cooperative Fertilizer Experiments with Cotton, Corn, Sweet Potatoes and Irish Potatoes, 1908-1917.  

E-print Network

A350-918-1 Om 1 TEXAS AGRlCUlTURAl EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN NO. 235 SEPTEMBER, 191 8 --- DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY Cooperative Fertilizer Experiments With Cot- ton, Corn, Sweet Potatoes and Irish I Potatoes, 1908- 19 17 R. YOUNGBTAOOT), DI... .......................... Results of the experiments with corn 15 .................. Results of the experiments with Irish potatoes 17 ................. Results of the experiments with sweet potatoes 19 ................................... ~fiscellaneous experiments 20...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

1918-01-01

134

Emerging diversity in Potato virus Y poses new challenges for the U.S. potato industry  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Until recently tobacco and potato tuber necrotic strains of Potato virus Y (PVY) were considered to be absent from the U.S., and seed certification programs were able to limit PVY incidence in seed potatoes. PVY has become more problematic in recent years and beginning in 2002, necrotic strains of P...

135

Impact of Different Potato Psyllid Populations on Zebra Chip Disease Incidence, Severity, and Potato Yield  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Zebra chip (ZC) is an emerging and damaging potato disease that is causing millions of dollars in losses to the potato industry in the southwestern United States, Mexico, and Central America. ZC plant symptoms resemble those caused by potato purple top and psyllid yellows diseases. Tubers produced b...

136

Potato virus Y: an evolving concern for potato crops in the United States and Canada  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potato virus Y (PVY) is the type member of the Potyviridae and the most economically important disease problem in seed potatoes in many areas of the world. The virus is responsible for decreases in yield and quality, but the main issue in seed potato production is a requirement for strict virus tole...

137

Bar v4.0  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bar provided the script author with a simple two-color bar graph with an optional numeric output field located below the bar. It is usually used as a data listener in conjunction with other Physlets. Its series in the data connection is ignored since Bar supports only a single bar.

Christian, Wolfgang; Belloni, Mario

2008-02-01

138

Multi Bar Graph  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students enter in data to be represented in a double bar graph. Multi bar graphs allow the student to compare multiple characteristics of different subjects like population for different continents over time. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

2010-01-01

139

Bar Graph Sorter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students make bar graphs by sorting shapes either by shape or by color. This activity allows students to explore how to sort data to make bar graphs. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

2010-01-01

140

Investigation of dielectric properties of different cake formulations during microwave and infrared-microwave combination baking.  

PubMed

Dielectric properties can be used to understand the behavior of food materials during microwave processing. Dielectric properties influence the level of interaction between food and high frequency electromagnetic energy. Dielectric properties are, therefore, important in the design of foods intended for microwave preparation. In this study, it was aimed to determine the variation of dielectric properties of different cake formulations during baking in microwave and infrared-microwave combination oven. In addition, the effects of formulation and temperature on dielectric properties of cake batter were examined. Dielectric constant and loss factor of cake samples were shown to be dependent on formulation, baking time, and temperature. The increase in baking time and temperature decreased dielectric constant and loss factor of all formulations. Fat content was shown to increase dielectric constant and loss factor of cakes. PMID:17995773

Sakiyan, Ozge; Sumnu, Gulum; Sahin, Serpil; Meda, Venkatesh

2007-05-01

141

Efficacy of FIT produce wash and chlorine dioxide on pathogen control in fresh potatoes.  

PubMed

A commercial fresh pack potato operation was used as a model to evaluate FIT fruit and vegetable wash effectiveness in reducing levels of microorganisms on potatoes and in flume water. Fresh potatoes were washed in flume water with or without FIT, or treated with a spray bar utilizing either FIT, 9 ppm chlorine dioxide (CIO2), or a water control. Both flume treatments were also evaluated for APC and Gram-negatives. There were no significant differences in reduction of these microorganisms on treated or control potatoes. However, levels of Gram-negative bacteria in FIT-amended flume water were reduced by 5.95 log CFU/g, and the APC was reduced by 1.43 log CFU/g. To validate plant trial findings, this test was repeated using solutions of sterile potato flume water from the fresh pack operation, containing a typical level of dissolved and suspended solids. Treatment solutions prepared with flume water or deionized water containing FIT, 9 ppm CIO2, or a water control were inoculated with E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, or Pectobacterium carotovorumssp. carotovorum. FIT and ClO2 prepared with deionized water reduced levels of microorganisms by >6.1 to 6.6 log CFU/g to below the detection limit. FIT prepared with flume water reduced levels of all organisms by >6.0 to 6.4 log CFU/g to below the detection limit, whereas ClO2 prepared from flume water reduced bacterial levels of all organisms by only 0.7 to 1.4 log CFU/g. Neither FIT nor ClO2 was particularly efficacious against E. coli O157:H7, S. Typhimurium, APC, yeasts, or molds on potato surfaces. PMID:19241558

Park, E J; Gray, P M; Oh, S W; Kronenberg, J; Kang, D H

2008-08-01

142

Thermal Analysis of the Divertor Primary Heat Transfer System Piping During the Gas Baking Process  

SciTech Connect

A preliminary analysis has been performed examining the temperature distribution in the Divertor Primary Heat Transfer System (PHTS) piping and the divertor itself during the gas baking process. During gas baking, it is required that the divertor reach a temperature of 350 C. Thermal losses in the piping and from the divertor itself require that the gas supply temperature be maintained above that temperature in order to ensure that all of the divertor components reach the required temperature. The analysis described in this report was conducted in order to estimate the required supply temperature from the gas heater.

Yoder Jr, Graydon L [ORNL; Harvey, Karen [ORNL; Ferrada, Juan J [ORNL

2011-02-01

143

Effects of quenching and tempering on the microstructure and bake hardening behavior of ferrite and dual phase steels  

E-print Network

Effects of quenching and tempering on the microstructure and bake hardening behavior of ferrite of both ferrite and dual phase steels were investigated. The C­Mn steels were heated to the soaking. The ferrite aging and the martensite tempering played key roles in the bake hardening behavior during

Volinsky, Alex A.

144

Influence of yeast and vegetable shortening on physical and textural parameters of frozen part baked French bread  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this project was to study the influence of yeast and vegetable shortening on physical and textural parameters of frozen part baked French bread stored for 28 days and to produce a frozen part baked bread with physical and textural characteristics similar to those of the fresh one. Four formulations were used with different quantities of yeast and

L. G Carr; C. C Tadini

2003-01-01

145

Regulation of potato tuber sprouting.  

PubMed

Following tuber induction, potato tubers undergo a period of dormancy during which visible bud growth is inhibited. The length of the dormancy period is under environmental, physiological and hormonal control. Sucrose availability is one prerequisite for bud break. In the absence of sucrose, no bud break occurs. Thus, sucrose is likely to serve as nutrient and signal molecule at the same time. The mode of sucrose sensing is only vaguely understood, but most likely involves trehalose-6-phosphate and SnRK1 signalling networks. This conclusion is supported by the observation that ectopically manipulation of trehalose-6-phosphate levels influences the length of the dormancy period. Once physiological competence is achieved, sprouting is controlled by the level of phytohormones. Two phytohormones, ABA and ethylene, are supposed to suppress tuber sprouting; however, the exact role of ethylene remains to be elucidated. Cytokinins and gibberellins are required for bud break and sprout growth, respectively. The fifth classical phytohormone, auxin, seems to play a role in vascular development. During the dormancy period, buds are symplastically isolated, which changes during bud break. In parallel to the establishment of symplastic connectivity, vascular tissue develops below the growing bud most likely to support the outgrowing sprout with assimilates mobilised in parenchyma cells. Sprouting leads to major quality losses of stored potato tubers. Therefore, control of tuber sprouting is a major objective in potato breeding. Although comparative transcriptome analysis revealed a large number of genes differentially expressed in growing versus dormant buds, no master-regulator of potato tuber sprouting has been identified so far. PMID:24100410

Sonnewald, Sophia; Sonnewald, Uwe

2014-01-01

146

Effects of a Baking Soda Gum on extrinsic dental stain: results of a longitudinal 4-week assessment.  

PubMed

An evaluation of the effects of ARM & HAMMER DENTAL CARE The Baking Soda Gum (AHDC) on extrinsic dental stain was made in 48 subjects presenting with measurable extrinsic stain. The subjects were randomized to use either the baking soda gum or a non-baking soda placebo gum for 20 minutes twice daily after lunch and dinner while brushing once daily. The procedure of limited brushing was chosen to simulate the level of hygiene normally practiced by participants entering a clinical study. After 4 weeks, the reduction in measurable extrinsic stain in the baking soda gum group was statistically significant (P = .0044) relative to baseline. Statistical analysis of the placebo gum group revealed no significant change in extrinsic stain from baseline. The magnitude of the unadjusted longitudinal reduction in extrinsic stain in the baking soda gum group was 29.7% at 4 weeks. PMID:11913306

Soparkar, P; Newman, M B

2001-07-01

147

Detection of Multiple Potato Viruses in the Field Suggests Synergistic Interactions among Potato Viruses in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Viral diseases have been a major limiting factor threating sustainable potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) production in Pakistan. Surveys were conducted to serologically quantify the incidence of RNA viruses infecting potato; Potato virus X (PVX), Potato virus Y (PVY), Potato virus S (PVS), Potato virus A (PVA), Potato virus M (PVM) and Potato leaf roll virus (PLRV) in two major potato cultivars (Desiree and Cardinal). The results suggest the prevalence of multiple viruses in all surveyed areas with PVY, PVS and PVX dominantly widespread with infection levels of up to 50% in some regions. Co-infections were detected with the highest incidence (15.5%) for PVX and PVS. Additionally the data showed a positive correlation between co-infecting viruses with significant increase in absorbance value (virus titre) for at least one of the virus in an infected plant and suggested a synergistic interaction. To test this hypothesis, glasshouse grown potato plants were challenged with multiple viruses and analyzed for systemic infections and symptomology studies. The results obtained conclude that multiple viral infections dramatically increase disease epidemics as compared to single infection and an effective resistance strategy in targeting multiple RNA viruses is required to save potato crop. PMID:25506305

Hameed, Amir; Iqbal, Zafar; Asad, Shaheen; Mansoor, Shahid

2014-01-01

148

Detection of Multiple Potato Viruses in the Field Suggests Synergistic Interactions among Potato Viruses in Pakistan.  

PubMed

Viral diseases have been a major limiting factor threating sustainable potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) production in Pakistan. Surveys were conducted to serologically quantify the incidence of RNA viruses infecting potato; Potato virus X (PVX), Potato virus Y (PVY), Potato virus S (PVS), Potato virus A (PVA), Potato virus M (PVM) and Potato leaf roll virus (PLRV) in two major potato cultivars (Desiree and Cardinal). The results suggest the prevalence of multiple viruses in all surveyed areas with PVY, PVS and PVX dominantly widespread with infection levels of up to 50% in some regions. Co-infections were detected with the highest incidence (15.5%) for PVX and PVS. Additionally the data showed a positive correlation between co-infecting viruses with significant increase in absorbance value (virus titre) for at least one of the virus in an infected plant and suggested a synergistic interaction. To test this hypothesis, glasshouse grown potato plants were challenged with multiple viruses and analyzed for systemic infections and symptomology studies. The results obtained conclude that multiple viral infections dramatically increase disease epidemics as compared to single infection and an effective resistance strategy in targeting multiple RNA viruses is required to save potato crop. PMID:25506305

Hameed, Amir; Iqbal, Zafar; Asad, Shaheen; Mansoor, Shahid

2014-12-01

149

Introduction to Bar Graphs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to introduce students to bar graphs as a way to represent categorical data. Caution should be used not to use bar graph and histogram interchangeably when using this lesson. This lesson provides links to discussions and activities related to bar graphs as well as suggested ways to integrate them into the lesson. Finally, the lesson provides links to follow-up lessons designed for use in succession with the current one. Note, reading level is not indicated because the lesson does not include student reading material.

2011-05-24

150

Identifying and reducing constraints to potato productivity  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potato yield in Maine has remained relatively constant for over 50 years, despite increased inputs of pesticides, nutrients, and water. Research is needed to identify and reduce the constraints to potato productivity. We evaluated Status Quo, Soil Conserving, Soil Improving, and Disease Suppressive ...

151

Turkey and Sweet Potato Dinner Ingredients  

E-print Network

Turkey and Sweet Potato Dinner Ingredients: 1 pound ground turkey 4 sweet potatoes 15 ounces green to 350ºF. 2. Heat skillet to medium. Place ground turkey in skillet and use a spatula to break turkey. Once it is done, put browned turkey on a plate covered with several layers of paper towels to absorb

Liskiewicz, Maciej

152

Sweet potato in gluten-free pancakes.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Gluten-free pancakes were prepared using rice flour, and rice flour replaced with various amounts, at 10, 20, and 40% of sweet potato flour. At 40% sweet potato, the apparent viscosity became comparable to that of the traditional wheat pancake batter. Texture properties of the cooked pancakes, such...

153

Resistance to Powdery Scab in Potato  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Powdery scab is a serious disease of potato that is among the most damaging emerging potato pathogens throughout the world. Twenty years ago it was rarity in the Columbia Basin but today it is widespread, damaging and a threat to the profitability of the industry. Flagellated zoospores which swim ...

154

Bar Graph Investigations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson plan students conduct a survey of ten students, collect data in a tally chart, and then display and analyze the results in a bar graph. In the analysis students must compare numbers, add, and subtract using the data in the bar graph to generate questions as well as answer them. The lesson plan includes a graph template, a link to an interactive graphing tool, extension questions, and a fact family sheet to show the related facts from their graph analysis.

Burton, Grace M.

2008-01-01

155

Histograms and Bar Graphs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to introduce students to histograms and bar graphs as graphical representations of data. The lesson also covers the distinction between histograms and bar graphs and the concepts of class intervals and scale. The lesson provides links to discussions and activities related to these topics as well as worksheets for further practice. Finally, the lesson provides links to follow-up lessons designed for use in succession with this one.

2010-01-01

156

ORGANIC EMISSIONS EVALUATION OF A PAINT BAKE OVEN WITH CATALYTIC INCINERATION  

EPA Science Inventory

This report describes a test program conducted at a paint bake oven facility. The purpose was to measure total hydrocarbon (THC) concentrations at the inlet and outlet of an incinerator with heat recovery used to reduce organic solvent emissions. Data were also collected to evalu...

157

Nutritious Meal Planning; Commercial Cooking and Baking I: 9193.02.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 90 clock hour course has been prepared as a guide for the tenth grade student in commercial cooking and baking or food management, production and services. It has been divided into six blocks of instruction (menu planning, recipes, condiments and their uses, introduction to cooking, food cost and accounting), and a Quinmester post-test. As a…

Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

158

Cloning and Characterization of a Weissella confusa Dextransucrase and Its Application in High Fibre Baking  

PubMed Central

Wheat bran offers health benefits as a baking ingredient, but is detrimental to bread textural quality. Dextran production by microbial fermentation improves sourdough bread volume and freshness, but extensive acid production during fermentation may negate this effect. Enzymatic production of dextran in wheat bran was tested to determine if dextran-containing bran could be used in baking without disrupting bread texture. The Weissella confusa VTT E-90392 dextransucrase gene was sequenced and His-tagged dextransucrase Wc392-rDSR was produced in Lactococcus lactis. Purified enzyme was characterized using 14C-sucrose radioisotope and reducing value-based assays, the former yielding Km and Vmax values of 14.7 mM and 8.2 ?mol/(mg?min), respectively, at the pH optimum of 5.4. The structure and size of in vitro dextran product was similar to dextran produced in vivo. Dextran (8.1% dry weight) was produced in wheat bran in 6 h using Wc392-rDSR. Bran with and without dextran was used in wheat baking at 20% supplementation level. Dextran presence improved bread softness and neutralized bran-induced volume loss, clearly demonstrating the potential of using dextransucrases in bran bioprocessing for use in baking. PMID:25603169

Kajala, Ilkka; Shi, Qiao; Nyyssölä, Antti; Maina, Ndegwa Henry; Hou, Yaxi; Katina, Kati; Tenkanen, Maija; Juvonen, Riikka

2015-01-01

159

Improvement in melting and baking properties of low-fat Mozzarella cheese.  

PubMed

Low-fat cheeses dehydrate too quickly when baked in a forced air convection oven, preventing proper melting on a pizza. To overcome this problem, low-fat Mozzarella cheese was developed in which fat is released onto the cheese surface during baking to prevent excessive dehydration. Low-fat Mozzarella cheese curd was made with target fat contents of 15, 30, 45, and 60 g/kg using direct acidification of the milk to pH 5.9 before renneting. The 4 portions of cheese curd were comminuted and then mixed with sufficient glucono-?-lactone and melted butter (45, 30, 15, or 0 g/kg, respectively), then pressed into blocks to produce low-fat Mozzarella cheese with about 6% fat and pH 5.2. The cheeses were analyzed after 15, 30, 60, and 120 d of storage at 5°C for melting characteristics, texture, free oil content, dehydration performance, and stretch when baked on a pizza at 250°C for 6 min in a convection oven. Cheeses made with added butter had higher stretchability compared with the control cheese. Melting characteristics also improved in contrast to the control cheese, which remained in the form of shreds during baking and lacked proper melting. The cheeses made with added butter had higher free oil content, which correlated (R2?0.92) to the amount of butterfat added, and less hardness and gumminess compared with the control low fat cheese. PMID:21426959

Wadhwani, R; McManus, W R; McMahon, D J

2011-04-01

160

Pesticide residues, PCBs and PAHs in baked, charbroiled, salt boiled and smoked Great Lakes lake trout  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skin-off lean lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush namaycush) from Lakes Huron, Michigan and Ontario as well as siscowets (fat lake trout) (Salvelinus namaycush siscowet) from Lake Superior were cooked by baking and charbroiling to determine the potential of processing\\/cooking on reducing the levels of pesticides and total PCBs in fish at the dinner table. Lake trout from Lakes Michigan and Superior

Mary E Zabik; Al Booren; Matthew J Zabik; Robert Welch; Harold Humphrey

1996-01-01

161

Flour, dough, and baking quality attributes of hard red spring wheat cultivars grown in North Dakota  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The State of North Dakota is number one in the production of hard red spring wheat (HRSW) with approximately 7 million acres devoted to this crop. HRSW has superior characteristics for bread baking, and is used in blends with other wheat to improve the quality of the final flour. Nineteen different ...

162

Wheat cultivated with organic fertilizers and urea: Baking performance and dough properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data describing white flour composition, dough properties and baking performance of both spring and winter wheat treated with different fertilizer strategies including meat bone meal, slurry manure and urea, were analyzed by principal component analysis and variance analysis. No significant differences in the analyzed variables were found between flour from wheat fertilized with organic fertilizers or urea at different N

Helena Fredriksson; Lennart Salomonsson

1997-01-01

163

Recipes for Baking Black Forest Databases Building and Querying Black Hole Merger Trees from  

E-print Network

Recipes for Baking Black Forest Databases Building and Querying Black Hole Merger Trees from-100 of billions, to realistically model phenomena such as the formation of galaxies. Among these particles, black holes play a dominant role on the forma- tion of these structure. The properties of the black holes need

164

Bran characteristics and bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Varietal variations in physical and compositional characteristics of bran and their associations with bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour (WWF) were investigated using bran obtained from roller milling of 18 wheat varieties. Bran was characterized for composition including protein, fat, ...

165

A microbiological and clinical study of the safety and efficacy of baking-soda dentifrices.  

PubMed

This article reports the results of a study that examined the clinical and microbiological changes associated with regular use of baking-soda dentifrices. Two dentifrice formulations were examined in a 6-month longitudinal study of 101 adult subjects with assessments for plaque, gingival inflammation, and stain at baseline and 3 and 6 months during the active phase of the study, and at 3 months after cessation of product use. One dentifrice contained 52% baking soda and 3% sodium percarbonate (Arm & Hammer PeroxiCare) while the other dentifrice contained 65% baking soda (Arm & Hammer Dental Care). Both dentifrices resulted in statistically significant reductions in dental plaque, gingival inflammation, and stain at all time periods compared to baseline. Dental plaque and buccal soft-tissue samples were obtained for microbiological analysis from a 50-subject subset. Microbiological assays, including bacterial culture, phase-contrast microscopy, and immunofluorescence microscopy, confirmed the safety of both formulations. Beneficial alterations in dental plaque bacteria were noted, including significant reductions in the levels of Actinomyces species. The data from this study indicate that dentifrices containing high levels of baking soda are clinically effective and microbiologically safe. PMID:11524866

Zambon, J J; Mather, M L; Gonzales, Y

1996-01-01

166

Detection of Baking Soda in Flat Bread by Direct pH Metery and Alkalinity Measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this study is evaluation of direct pH metery and alkalinity measurement methods for determination of baking soda in lavash bread (a kind of flat bread) in order to introduce and recommend a good practice of control. For running the experiments, various samples of lavash bread having different concentrations of baking soda were prepared. Ten grams of each sample were mixed with distilled water and then the prepared solutions were filtrated. The filtrates were then analyzed for pH and total alkalinity according to the distractions described in Standard Methods. Results show a significant correlation between the pH values of bread samples and the amount of baking soda. Also, a positive correlation has been observed between the alkalinity of bread samples and used baking soda. By comparing the R2-values specified for these two methods it could be concluded that the direct pH metery method is more reasonable. Furthermore, by this simple method it is possible to accelerate the detection of minute amounts of this chemical in bread.

Jahed Khaniki, G. H. R.; Vaezi, F.; Yunesian, M.; Nabizadeh, R.; Paseban, G. H. A.

167

A microbiological and clinical study of the safety and efficacy of baking-soda dentifrices.  

PubMed

This article reports the results of a study that examined the clinical and microbiological changes associated with regular use of baking-soda dentifrices. Two dentifrice formulations were examined in a 6-month longitudinal study of 101 adult subjects with assessments for plaque, gingival inflammation, and stain at baseline and 3 and 6 months during the active phase of the study, and at 3 months after cessation of product use. One dentifrice contained 52% baking soda and 3% sodium percarbonate (Arm & Hammer PeroxiCare) while the other dentifrice contained 65% baking soda (Arm & Hammer Dental Care). Both dentifrices resulted in statistically significant reductions in dental plaque, gingival inflammation, and stain at all time periods compared to baseline. Dental plaque and buccal soft-tissue samples were obtained for microbiological analysis from a 50-subject subset. Microbiological assays, including bacterial culture, phase-contrast microscopy, and immunofluorescence microscopy, confirmed the safety of both formulations. Beneficial alterations in dental plaque bacteria were noted, including significant reductions in the levels of Actinomyces species. The data from this study indicate that dentifrices containing high levels of baking soda are clinically effective and microbiologically safe. PMID:12017933

Zambon, J J; Mather, M L; Gonzales, Y

1997-01-01

168

Cloning and Characterization of a Weissella confusa Dextransucrase and Its Application in High Fibre Baking.  

PubMed

Wheat bran offers health benefits as a baking ingredient, but is detrimental to bread textural quality. Dextran production by microbial fermentation improves sourdough bread volume and freshness, but extensive acid production during fermentation may negate this effect. Enzymatic production of dextran in wheat bran was tested to determine if dextran-containing bran could be used in baking without disrupting bread texture. The Weissella confusa VTT E-90392 dextransucrase gene was sequenced and His-tagged dextransucrase Wc392-rDSR was produced in Lactococcus lactis. Purified enzyme was characterized using 14C-sucrose radioisotope and reducing value-based assays, the former yielding Km and Vmax values of 14.7 mM and 8.2 ?mol/(mg?min), respectively, at the pH optimum of 5.4. The structure and size of in vitro dextran product was similar to dextran produced in vivo. Dextran (8.1% dry weight) was produced in wheat bran in 6 h using Wc392-rDSR. Bran with and without dextran was used in wheat baking at 20% supplementation level. Dextran presence improved bread softness and neutralized bran-induced volume loss, clearly demonstrating the potential of using dextransucrases in bran bioprocessing for use in baking. PMID:25603169

Kajala, Ilkka; Shi, Qiao; Nyyssölä, Antti; Maina, Ndegwa Henry; Hou, Yaxi; Katina, Kati; Tenkanen, Maija; Juvonen, Riikka

2015-01-01

169

Soil phosphorus changes impacted by potato cropping management  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potato crops generally require high amounts of phosphorus (P) fertilizer to reach economically acceptable yields as the low root density of potato plants makes mobilization and acquisition of phosphate a key factor in potato plant growth. In this work, we evaluated soil P changes in 10 potato fields...

170

A Brief History of the Potato in Ireland.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides historical information on the potato in Ireland focusing on how the potato arrived in Ireland and the advantages and disadvantages of the potato as a food crop. Discusses the Irish potato famine in Ireland, effects of the famine, and the government's laissez-faire response. Includes a list of questions. (CMK)

Social Education, 2000

2000-01-01

171

7 CFR 51.1578 - Off-Grade potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Off-Grade potatoes. 51.1578 Section 51.1578 Agriculture... United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Off-Grade § 51.1578 Off-Grade potatoes. Potatoes which fail to meet the...

2010-01-01

172

Frying of Potatoes: Physical, Chemical, and Microstructural Changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frying is one of the oldest unit operations and is used not only in industry but also at home. The most commonly fried vegetable is potato, for important commercial products such as potato chips, par-fried potatoes, and french fries. Quality parameters of interest for fried potatoes include physical and chemical properties such as color, mechanical properties (e.g., crispness, hardness, etc.),

Franco Pedreschi

2012-01-01

173

Synergistic Interaction of Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus ( Crinivirus ) with Carla-, Cucumo-, Ipomo-, and Potyviruses Infecting Sweet Potato  

Microsoft Academic Search

Untiveros, M., Fuentes, S., and Salazar, L. F. 2007. Synergistic interaction of Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (Crinivirus) with carla-, cucumo-, ipomo-, and potyviruses infecting sweet potato. Plant Dis. 91:669-676. Co-infection of Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV, genus Crinivirus) with Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV, genus Potyvirus) results in sweet potato virus disease (SPVD), a synergistic disease that

Milton Untiveros; Segundo Fuentes; Luis F. Salazar

2007-01-01

174

Control of sweet potato virus diseases.  

PubMed

Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is ranked seventh in global food crop production and is the third most important root crop after potato and cassava. Sweet potatoes are vegetative propagated from vines, root slips (sprouts), or tubers. Therefore, virus diseases can be a major constrain, reducing yields markedly, often more than 50%. The main viruses worldwide are Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV) and Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV). Effects on yields by SPFMV or SPCSV alone are minor, or but in complex infection by the two or other viruses yield losses of 50%. The orthodox way of controlling viruses in vegetative propagated crops is by supplying the growers with virus-tested planting material. High-yielding plants are tested for freedom of viruses by PCR, serology, and grafting to sweet potato virus indicator plants. After this, meristem tips are taken from those plants that reacted negative. The meristems were grown into plants which were kept under insect-proof conditions and away from other sweet potato material for distribution to farmers after another cycle of reproduction. PMID:25591876

Loebenstein, Gad

2015-01-01

175

77 FR 67862 - Public Notice for Waiver of Aeronautical Land-Use Assurance; J. Douglas Bake Memorial Airport...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Notice for Waiver of Aeronautical Land-Use Assurance; J. Douglas Bake Memorial...assurances and assure compatible land use. It would also remove the liability...Register 30 days before modifying the land-use assurance that requires the...

2012-11-14

176

Potato virus Y infection hinders potato defence response and renders plants more vulnerable to Colorado potato beetle attack  

PubMed Central

In the field, plants are challenged by more than one biotic stressor at the same time. In this study, the molecular interactions between potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say; CPB) and Potato virus YNTN (PVYNTN) were investigated through analyses of gene expression in the potato leaves and the gut of the CPB larvae, and of the release of potato volatile compounds. CPB larval growth was enhanced when reared on secondary PVYNTN-infected plants, which was linked to decreased accumulation of transcripts associated with the antinutritional properties of potato. In PVYNTN-infected plants, ethylene signalling pathway induction and induction of auxin response transcription factors were attenuated, while no differences were observed in jasmonic acid (JA) signalling pathway. Similarly to rearing on virus-infected plants, CPB larvae gained more weight when reared on plants silenced in JA receptor gene (coi1). Although herbivore-induced defence mechanism is regulated predominantly by JA, response in coi1-silenced plants only partially corresponded to the one observed in PVYNTN-infected plants, confirming the role of other plant hormones in modulating this response. The release of ?-barbatene and benzyl alcohol was different in healthy and PVYNTN-infected plants before CPB larvae infestation, implicating the importance of PVYNTN infection in plant communication with its environment. This was reflected in gene expression profiles of neighbouring plants showing different degree of defence response. This study thus contributes to our understanding of plant responses in agro-ecosystems. PMID:25251011

Petek, Marko; Rotter, Ana; Kogovšek, Polona; Baebler, Špela; Mithöfer, Axel; Gruden, Kristina

2014-01-01

177

Bahasa Indonesia Kfir Bar  

E-print Network

Bahasa Indonesia Kfir Bar #12;Malay Archipelago · During Islam era: Malay) · Dutch and Portuguese traders arrived during the 15th century · Indonesia became a Dutch colony · Indonesia independent - 1945 #12;#12;Indonesian · Formed ­ 15th

Dershowitz, Nachum

178

Permanent Bar Magnets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about the basic properties of magnets and magnetism. Learners explore concepts such as magnetic fields and polarity, which form the basic ingredients of a study of Earth's magnetic field and the technology of magnetometers. Materials needed include bar magnets and paper clips. This is Activity 1 of Exploring Magnetism: A Teacher's Magnetism Activity Guide.

179

Changes in potato phenylpropanoids during tuber development  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phenylpropanoid metabolite and transcript expression during different developmental stages were examined in field grown potatoes. Carbohydrate and shikimic acid metabolism was assessed to determine how tuber primary metabolism influences phenylpropanoid metabolism. Phenylpropanoid concentrations wer...

180

What Time Did The Potato Die?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Spreadsheets Across the Curriculum module. Simulating a forensic calculation, students build spreadsheets and create graphs to find the time of death of a potato victim from temperature vs. time data.

Sunderman, Rebecca

181

Determination of suitable drying curve model for bread moisture loss during baking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents mathematical modelling of bread moisture loss or drying during baking in a conventional bread baking process. In order to estimate and select the appropriate moisture loss curve equation, 11 different models, semi-theoretical and empirical, were applied to the experimental data and compared according to their correlation coefficients, chi-squared test and root mean square error which were predicted by nonlinear regression analysis. Consequently, of all the drying models, a Page model was selected as the best one, according to the correlation coefficients, chi-squared test, and root mean square error values and its simplicity. Mean absolute estimation error of the proposed model by linear regression analysis for natural and forced convection modes was 2.43, 4.74%, respectively.

Soleimani Pour-Damanab, A. R.; Jafary, A.; Rafiee, S.

2013-03-01

182

Preliminary observation on the effect of baking soda volume on controlling odour from discarded organic waste.  

PubMed

Food wastes with high moisture and organic matter content are likely to emit odours as a result of the decomposition process. The management of odour from decomposing wastes is needed to sustain the interest of residents and local councils in the source separation of kitchen wastes. This study investigated the potential of baking soda (at 50 g, 75 g and 100g per kg food waste) to control odour from seven days stored food waste. It was found that 50 g of baking soda, spread at the bottom of 8l food wastes bin, can reduce the odour by about 70%. A higher amount (above 100g) is not advised as a pH higher than 9.0 may be induced leading to the volatilization of odorous ammonia. This research finding is expected to benefit the waste management sector, food processing industries as well as the local authorities where malodour from waste storage is a pressing issue. PMID:25445259

Qamaruz-Zaman, N; Kun, Y; Rosli, R-N

2015-01-01

183

Engineering resistance against potato virus Y  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potato virus Y is the type species of the potyvirus genus, the largest genus of the plant virus family Potyviridae. The virus causes serious problems in the cultivation of several Solanaceous crops and although certain poly- and monogenic resistances are available, these can not always be employed, e.g. R y<\\/sub> genes in potato cv. 'Bintje'. The aim of the research

Vlugt van der R. A. A

1993-01-01

184

Making a Battery from a Potato  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this electrochemistry activity, young learners and adult helpers create a battery from a potato to run a clock. This resource includes background information about electricity, electronics, and chemical reactions. Learners can also test this experiment with other fruits and vegetables in place of the potato. This activity was written to be part of a kit that could be checked out of a library, though the kit is not required.

Shaw, Maisie; Gomez, Maria

2010-01-01

185

Optimization of Baking of Rice Cakes in Infrared–Microwave Combination Oven by Response Surface Methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, response surface methodology was used to design gluten-free cakes made from rice flour to be baked in infrared-microwave\\u000a combination oven. Two types of cake formulations containing different types of gums were used in the experiments, which were\\u000a xanthan gum and xanthan–guar gum blend. The independent variables were emulsifier content (0, 3, and 6% of flour weight),\\u000a upper

Elif Turabi; Gulum Sumnu; Serpil Sahin

2008-01-01

186

Molecular properties of cassava starch modified with different UV irradiations to enhance baking expansion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial cassava starch was modified with 1% (w\\/w) lactic acid solution and irradiated with ultraviolet radiation: UVBA (280–420nm), UVB (310–330nm) and UVC (254nm) for 7–15h. Thermal properties and molecular size distributions of the cassava starch molecules were investigated to explain structural changes responsible for baking expansion ability. The acidified starches irradiated with UVB or UVC for 7 and 9h achieved

N. Vatanasuchart; O. Naivikul; S. Charoenrein; K. Sriroth

2005-01-01

187

Aging and baking effects on the radiation hardness of MOS capacitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A decrease in the oxide-charge trapping efficiency of Al- and TaSi-Al-gate MOS capacitors with oxide thicknesses ranging from 33 to 100 nm was observed after more than 14 years of room-temperature storage. The decrease in trapping efficiency can be reduced or even eliminated in Al-gate (and to a lesser degree TaSi-Al) devices by baking them at temperatures up to ~200

A. P. Karmarkar; B. K. Choi; R. D. Schrimpf; D. M. Fleetwood

2001-01-01

188

The effect of baking soda when applied to bleached enamel prior to restorative treatment.  

PubMed

This in vitro study evaluated the effect of 10% baking soda solution and sodium bicarbonate powder (applied with jets) when applied to bleached enamel prior to restorative treatment. The surfaces of 40 bovine incisors were flattened and divided into 5 groups (n = 8): Group B (bleached and restored, negative control), Group W (bleached, stored in distilled water for 7 days, and restored), Group BSJ (bleached, abraded with baking soda jet for 1 min, and restored), Group BSS (bleached, application of 10% baking soda solution for 5 min, and restored), and Group R (restored, without bleaching, positive control). The samples were bleached in 1 session with 3 applications of 35% HP-based gel and activated with a LED appliance for 9 min each. Resin composite cylinders (2 mm height and 0.8 mm diameter) were made on the enamel surface after the acid etching and a conventional 1-step single vial adhesive application was performed. After storage in distilled water (37 ± 1°C, 24 hr), the microshear bond test was performed (1 mm/min). ANOVA and Tukey tests were applied to compare the results. The mean results of these tests showed that Groups W, BBS, and R were not statistically different. These groups also indicated a higher bond strength when compared with Groups B and BSJ. The application of 10% baking soda solution for 5 min may be an alternative pre-restorative treatment for bleached enamel, but further studies are needed to consider whether or not this treatment may be effectively used in clinical practice. PMID:23928450

Tostes, Bhenya Ottoni; Mondelli, Rafael Francisco Lia; Lima-Arsati, Ynara Bosco de Oliveira; Rodrigues, Jose Augusto; Costa, Leonardo Cesar

2013-08-01

189

Impact of the H 2 bake temperature on the structural properties of tensily strained Si layers on SiGe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied the impact of various H 2 bakes (in-between 750 and 850 °C, this for durations in-between 15 and 120 s) on the structural properties of 16 nm thick sSi layers grown on top of polished Si 0.7Ge 0.3 and Si 0.6Ge 0.4 virtual substrates (VSs) after an "HF-last" wet cleaning. Those stacks have been characterized afterwards thanks to tapping mode—atomic force microscopy (AFM), surface light scattering (haze measurements), secondary ions mass spectrometry and Secco defect revelation. A definite oxygen contamination peak at the sSi/SiGe interface was associated to 750 °C, 120 s H 2 bakes. The resulting sSi layers were heavily defected and rough. By contrast, temperatures superior or equal to 800 °C yielded contamination-free interfaces. No clear impact of the H 2 bake temperature (?800 °C) and/or duration on the threading dislocation density and the "line" defect linear density was evidenced. Higher temperatures and longer bakes yielded rougher surfaces, however. The best compromise seemed to be {850 °C, 15 s} H 2 bakes. For such bakes, the surface root mean square surface roughness was in-between 0.1 and 0.2 nm only (10 ?m×10 ?m AFM images).

Hartmann, J. M.; Bogumilowciz, Y.; Abbadie, A.; Fillot, F.; Billon, T.

2008-05-01

190

Marker-Assisted Selection for Recognizing Wheat Mutant Genotypes Carrying HMW Glutenin Alleles Related to Baking Quality  

PubMed Central

Allelic diversity of HMW glutenin loci in several studies revealed that allelic combinations affect dough quality. Dx5 + Dy10 subunits are related to good baking quality and Dx2 + Dy12 are related to undesirable baking quality. One of the most regular methods to evaluate the baking quality is SDS-PAGE which is used to improve baking quality labs. Marker-assisted selection is the method which can recognize the alleles related to baking quality and this method is based on polymerase chain reaction. 10 pairs of specific primers related to Dx2, Dx2.1, Dx5, Dy10, and Dy12 subunits were used for recognizing baking quality of some wheat varieties and some mutant genotypes. Only 5 pairs of them could show the specific bands. All subunits were recognized by the primers except Dx2.1. Some of the primers were extracted from previous studies and the others were designed based on D genome subunits of wheat. SDS-PAGE method accomplished having confidence in these marker's results. To realize the effect of mutation, seed storage proteins were measured. It showed that mutation had effect on the amount of seed storage protein on the mutant seeds (which showed polymorphism). PMID:24883389

Zamani, Mohammad Javad; Bihamta, Mohammad Reza; Naserian Khiabani, Behnam; Tahernezhad, Zahra; Hallajian, Mohammad Taher; Shamsi, Marzieh Varasteh

2014-01-01

191

Par-Baked Bread Technology: Formulation and Process Studies to Improve Quality.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Extending the shelf-life of bakery products has been an important requirement resulting from the mechanization of this industry and the need to increase the distance for the distribution of final products, caused by the increase in production and consumer demand. Technologies based on the interruption of the breadmaking process represent an alternative to overcome product staling and microbiological deterioration. The production of par-baked breads is one of these technologies. It consists of baking the bread in two stages, and due to the possibility of retarding the second stage, it can be said that the bread can always be offered fresh to the consumer. The technology inserts logistics as part of the production process and creates the "hot point" concept, these being the locations where the bread is finalized, such as in the consumers' homes or sales locations. In this work, a review of the papers published on this subject was carried out, and aspects related to both the formulation and the process were considered. This technology still faces a few challenges, such as solving bread quality problems that appear due to process modifications, and these will also be considered. The market for these breads has grown rapidly and the bakery industry searches innovations related to par-baked bread technology. PMID:25000472

Almeida, Eveline Lopes; Steel, Caroline Joy; Chang, Yoon Kil

2014-07-01

192

Efficacy of baking soda-containing chewing gum in removing natural tooth stain.  

PubMed

A 14-week, double-blind, randomized clinical trial was conducted with 126 healthy volunteers to compare the efficacy of twice-daily use of 3 baking soda-containing chewing gums in removing natural tooth stain when used in conjunction with a program of regular oral hygiene. All 3 chewing gums significantly reduced extrinsic stain (P < .0001) and improved the whitened appearance of teeth (P < .0001) at both the 2-week interim and the final 4-week evaluations. ARM & HAMMER DENTAL CARE The Baking Soda Gum (AHDC) reduced dental stain by 70.8%, compared to reductions of 71.9% and 65.3%, after use of 2 experimental gum formulations. Whitened appearance improved by 1.73 shade tabs using AHDC gum, and up to 2.49 shade tabs with the experimental formulations. These results suggest that the use of baking soda-containing gum after meals, in conjunction with good oral hygiene, can improve both extrinsic dental staining and the whitened appearance of teeth. PMID:11913307

Mankodi, S M; Conforti, N; Berkowitz, H

2001-07-01

193

Ethanol production from potato peel waste (PPW).  

PubMed

Considerable concern is caused by the problem of potato peel waste (PPW) to potato industries in Europe. An integrated, environmentally-friendly solution is yet to be found and is currently undergoing investigation. Potato peel is a zero value waste produced by potato processing plants. However, bio-ethanol produced from potato wastes has a large potential market. If Federal Government regulations are adopted in light of the Kyoto agreement, the mandatory blending of bio-ethanol with traditional gasoline in amounts up to 10% will result in a demand for large quantities of bio-ethanol. PPW contain sufficient quantities of starch, cellulose, hemicellulose and fermentable sugars to warrant use as an ethanol feedstock. In the present study, a number of batches of PPW were hydrolyzed with various enzymes and/or acid, and fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisae var. bayanus to determine fermentability and ethanol production. Enzymatic hydrolysis with a combination of three enzymes, released 18.5 g L(-1) reducing sugar and produced 7.6 g L(-1) of ethanol after fermentation. The results demonstrate that PPW, a by-product of the potato industry features a high potential for ethanol production. PMID:20471817

Arapoglou, D; Varzakas, Th; Vlyssides, A; Israilides, C

2010-10-01

194

Retention of Provitamin A Carotenoids in Staple Crops Targeted for Biofortification in Africa: Cassava, Maize and Sweet Potato.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT The HarvestPlus Challenge Program uses conventional plant breeding techniques to develop staple food crops that are rich in micronutrients, a food-based approach to reduce micronutrient malnutrition known as biofortification. The nutritional breeding targets are established based on the food intake of target populations, nutrient losses during storage and processing and bioavailability. This review collates the evidence on the retention of provitamin A carotenoid (pVAC) after processing, cooking and storing of the staple crops targeted for pVAC biofortification: cassava, maize and sweet potato. Sun drying was more detrimental to the pVAC levels (27-56% retention) in cassava than shade (59%) or oven (55%-91%) drying, while the pVAC retention levels (66-96%) in sweet potato were not significantly different among the various drying methods. Overall, boiling and steaming had higher pVAC retention (80-98%) compared to baking (30%-70%) and frying (18%-54%). Gari, the most popular cassava dish consumed in West Africa had the lowest pVAC retention (10%-30%). The pVAC retention of staple crops during storage reached levels as low as 20% after 1-4 months of storage and was highly dependent on genotype. Therefore, we recommend that an evaluation of the pVAC degradation rate among different genotypes be performed before a high pVAC crop is promoted. PMID:24915386

De Moura, Fabiana F; Miloff, Alexander; Boy, Erick

2013-08-01

195

Impact of potato psyllid (Hemiptera: Triozide) feeding on free amino acid composition in potato  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Foliage feeding impacts of potato psyllid (Bactericera cockerelli) on the free amino acids (FAAs) composition in potato leaf and tuber were determined under the greenhouse conditions. The free amino acids in plant extracts were separated by HPLC, and in both leaf and tuber samples, at least, 17 FAAs...

196

Measurements of vertical bar Vcb vertical bar and vertical bar Vub vertical bar at BaBar  

SciTech Connect

We report results from the BABAR Collaboration on the semileptonic B decays, highlighting the measurements of the magnitude of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements Vub and Vcb. We describe the techniques used to obtain the matrix element |Vcb| using the measurement of the inclusive B {yields} Xclv process and a large sample of exclusive B {yields} D*lv decays. The vertical bar Vub vertical bar matrix elements has been measured studying different kinematic variables of the B {yields} Xulv process, and also with the exclusive reconstruction of B {yields} {pi}({rho})lv decays.

Rotondo, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica Galileo Galilei, Via Marzolo 8, Padova 35131 (Italy)

2005-10-12

197

Modeling and characterization of potato quality by active thermography  

E-print Network

This research focuses on characterizing a potato with extra sugar content and identifying the location and depth of the extra sugar content using the active thermography imaging technique. The extra sugar content of the potato is an important...

Sun, Chih-Chen

2009-05-15

198

Breeding for apomixis in potato: Pursuing a utopian scheme  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apomictic propagation in potato holds a great promise for the new technology of growing potatoes from botanical seeds in stead of tubers. It is explained that apomixis results from the combination of abnormal meiosis, abnormal fertilization and parthenogenesis.

J. G. Th. Hermsen

1980-01-01

199

White Potatoes, Human Health, and Dietary Guidance12  

PubMed Central

The white potato is a concentrated source of carbohydrate, dietary fiber, and resistant starch and continues to be the staple food of choice for many cultures. The white potato is also a concentrated source of vitamin C and potassium. Two of the nutrients in white potatoes, dietary fiber and potassium, have been designated as nutrients of concern in the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Potatoes are often maligned in nutrition circles because of their suspected link to obesity, and popular potato foods often contain more fat calories than carbohydrate calories. Some food guides do not include potatoes in the vegetable group because of their association with high-fat diets. However, potatoes should be included in the vegetable group because they contribute critical nutrients. All white vegetables, including white potatoes, provide nutrients needed in the diet and deserve a prominent position in food guides. PMID:23674809

King, Janet C.; Slavin, Joanne L.

2013-01-01

200

33 CFR 117.167 - Little Potato Slough.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Little Potato Slough. 117.167 Section 117.167 Navigation and Navigable... Specific Requirements California § 117.167 Little Potato Slough. The draw of the California Department of...

2010-07-01

201

Host plant preference in Colorado potato beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Field and laboratory-choice tests were conducted to better understand host plant preference by the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), in Virginia. In laboratory olfactometer studies, L. decemlineata preferred potato over both tomato and eggplant foli...

202

Production of low oil content potato chips using vacuum frying  

E-print Network

temperature and vacuum pressure had a significant effect on the drying rate and oil absorption rate of potato chips. However, these two parameters had no significant effect on the final moisture and oil content of potato chips. Potato chips fried at lower...

Garayo, Jagoba

2001-01-01

203

Genetic analysis of root-knot nematode resistance in potato  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of potato varieties with resistance towards the potato cyst nematode, allowed a dramatic decrease of the use of nematicides. Subsequently the population of the free living nematodes and the root-knot nematodes ( Meloidogyne spp.) has increased. Among the root-knot nematodes, three Meloidogyne species are important in the potato cultivation in The Netherlands: M. hapla , M. chitwoodi and

J. Draaistra

2006-01-01

204

MICROBIAL CONTROL OF THE POTATO TUBER MOTH (LEPIDOPTERA: GELECHIIDAE)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potato tuber moth (PTM) is a serious pest of stored potato in most countries where potatoes are grown. Pathogens that are specific to insects offer promise as alternatives to broad spectrum insecticides for management of this pest. A diverse spectrum of microscopic and multicellular organisms (bact...

205

Potato utilization in relation to variety (Heredity) and environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potato utilization is a subject that is freely discussed especially in years of surplus. Utilization in its broadest sense includes the use made of potatoes whether consumed in the fresh state, processed before they reach the ultimate consumer, fed to live stock, used for seed, or exported, and regardless of the way in which potatoes are utilized, variety, and the

F. J. Stevenson; R. V. Akeley; John G. McLean

1954-01-01

206

Taxonomy of cultivated potatoes (solanum section petota: solanaceae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Solanum tuberosum, the cultivated potato of world commerce, is a primary food crop worldwide. Wild and cultivated potatoes form the germplasm base for international breeding efforts to improve potato in the face of variety of disease, environmental, and agronomic constraints. A series of national an...

207

Economic assessments of potato production systems in Maine  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Using an integrated enterprise and whole-farm budget model for a 324-ha medium-sized potato farm, the profitability of potatoes grown in combination with fifteen common potato rotation crops in Maine are evaluated. Enterprise budgets for all sixteen crops are calculated while a whole-farm budget syn...

208

A POTATO A DAY KEEPS THE DOCTOR AWAY?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potato tubers were found to have high levels of salicylic acid relative to most other plants. Salicylic acid is thought to be the active ingredient of aspirin in the human body. The high levels of SA in potato could potentially be a nutritionally desirable aspect of potato....

209

76 FR 16323 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Continuance Referendum  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...AMS-FV-11-0010; FV11-946-1 CR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Continuance Referendum...be conducted among eligible Washington potato growers to determine whether they favor...order regulating the handling of Irish potatoes grown in Washington. DATES: The...

2011-03-23

210

7 CFR 980.1 - Import regulations; Irish potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Import regulations; Irish potatoes. 980.1 Section 980.1 Agriculture...980.1 Import regulations; Irish potatoes. Link to an amendment published at...determinations with respect to imports of Irish potatoes. (1) Pursuant to section 8e...

2010-01-01

211

75 FR 14491 - Potato Research and Promotion Plan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...AMS-FV-09-0024; FV-09-706C] Potato Research and Promotion Plan AGENCY: Agricultural...Marketing Service is making corrections to its Potato Research and Promotion plan regulations...Harmonized Tariff Schedule for imported potatoes by U.S. Customs and Border...

2010-03-26

212

Integration of Two Diploid Potato Linkage Maps with the Potato Genome Sequence  

PubMed Central

To facilitate genome-guided breeding in potato, we developed an 8303 Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) marker array using potato genome and transcriptome resources. To validate the Infinium 8303 Potato Array, we developed linkage maps from two diploid populations (DRH and D84) and compared these maps with the assembled potato genome sequence. Both populations used the doubled monoploid reference genotype DM1-3 516 R44 as the female parent but had different heterozygous diploid male parents (RH89-039-16 and 84SD22). Over 4,400 markers were mapped (1,960 in DRH and 2,454 in D84, 787 in common) resulting in map sizes of 965 (DRH) and 792 (D84) cM, covering 87% (DRH) and 88% (D84) of genome sequence length. Of the mapped markers, 33.5% were in candidate genes selected for the array, 4.5% were markers from existing genetic maps, and 61% were selected based on distribution across the genome. Markers with distorted segregation ratios occurred in blocks in both linkage maps, accounting for 4% (DRH) and 9% (D84) of mapped markers. Markers with distorted segregation ratios were unique to each population with blocks on chromosomes 9 and 12 in DRH and 3, 4, 6 and 8 in D84. Chromosome assignment of markers based on linkage mapping differed from sequence alignment with the Potato Genome Sequencing Consortium (PGSC) pseudomolecules for 1% of the mapped markers with some disconcordant markers attributable to paralogs. In total, 126 (DRH) and 226 (D84) mapped markers were not anchored to the pseudomolecules and provide new scaffold anchoring data to improve the potato genome assembly. The high degree of concordance between the linkage maps and the pseudomolecules demonstrates both the quality of the potato genome sequence and the functionality of the Infinium 8303 Potato Array. The broad genome coverage of the Infinium 8303 Potato Array compared to other marker sets will enable numerous downstream applications. PMID:22558443

Felcher, Kimberly J.; Coombs, Joseph J.; Massa, Alicia N.; Hansey, Candice N.; Hamilton, John P.; Veilleux, Richard E.; Buell, C. Robin; Douches, David S.

2012-01-01

213

Involvement of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) MKK6 in Response to Potato virus Y  

PubMed Central

Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades have crucial roles in the regulation of plant development and in plant responses to stress. Plant recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns or pathogen-derived effector proteins has been shown to trigger activation of several MAPKs. This then controls defence responses, including synthesis and/or signalling of defence hormones and activation of defence related genes. The MAPK cascade genes are highly complex and interconnected, and thus the precise signalling mechanisms in specific plant–pathogen interactions are still not known. Here we investigated the MAPK signalling network involved in immune responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) to Potato virus Y, an important potato pathogen worldwide. Sequence analysis was performed to identify the complete MAPK kinase (MKK) family in potato, and to identify those regulated in the hypersensitive resistance response to Potato virus Y infection. Arabidopsis has 10 MKK family members, of which we identified five in potato and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), and eight in Nicotiana benthamiana. Among these, StMKK6 is the most strongly regulated gene in response to Potato virus Y. The salicylic acid treatment revealed that StMKK6 is regulated by the hormone that is in agreement with the salicylic acid-regulated domains found in the StMKK6 promoter. The involvement of StMKK6 in potato defence response was confirmed by localisation studies, where StMKK6 accumulated strongly only in Potato-virus-Y-infected plants, and predominantly in the cell nucleus. Using a yeast two-hybrid method, we identified three StMKK6 targets downstream in the MAPK cascade: StMAPK4_2, StMAPK6 and StMAPK13. These data together provide further insight into the StMKK6 signalling module and its involvement in plant defence. PMID:25111695

Lazar, Ana; Coll, Anna; Dobnik, David; Baebler, Špela; Bedina-Zavec, Apolonija; Žel, Jana; Gruden, Kristina

2014-01-01

214

In vivo antioxidant, hypoglycemic, and anti-tumor activities of anthocyanin extracts from purple sweet potato.  

PubMed

Anthocyanin from purple sweet potato (PSP) extracted by microwave baking (MB) and acidified electrolyzed water (AEW) exhibited antioxidant activity. After further purification by macroporous AB-8 resin, the color value of PSP anthocyanin (PSPA) reached 30.15 with a total flavonoid concentration of 932.5 mg/g. The purified extracts had more potent antioxidant activities than the crude extracts. After continuously administering the PSP extracts to 12-mo-old mice for 1 mo, the anti-aging index of the experimental group was not significantly different from that of 5-mo-old mice. To a certain degree, PSPA was also effective for controlling plasma glucose levels in male Streptozocin (STZ)-treated diabetic mice. In addition, the extracts inhibited Sarcoma S180 cell growth in ICR mice. Mice consuming the PSP extracts formed significantly fewer and smaller sarcomas than mice consuming the control diets. The highest inhibition rate was 69.03%. These results suggest that anthocyanin extracts from PSP not only exert strong antioxidant effects in vitro, but also had anti-aging, anti-hyperglycemic, and anti-tumor activities. PMID:24133614

Zhao, Jin-Ge; Yan, Qian-Qian; Lu, Li-Zhen; Zhang, Yu-Qing

2013-10-01

215

In vivo antioxidant, hypoglycemic, and anti-tumor activities of anthocyanin extracts from purple sweet potato  

PubMed Central

Anthocyanin from purple sweet potato (PSP) extracted by microwave baking (MB) and acidified electrolyzed water (AEW) exhibited antioxidant activity. After further purification by macroporous AB-8 resin, the color value of PSP anthocyanin (PSPA) reached 30.15 with a total flavonoid concentration of 932.5 mg/g. The purified extracts had more potent antioxidant activities than the crude extracts. After continuously administering the PSP extracts to 12-mo-old mice for 1 mo, the anti-aging index of the experimental group was not significantly different from that of 5-mo-old mice. To a certain degree, PSPA was also effective for controlling plasma glucose levels in male Streptozocin (STZ)-treated diabetic mice. In addition, the extracts inhibited Sarcoma S180 cell growth in ICR mice. Mice consuming the PSP extracts formed significantly fewer and smaller sarcomas than mice consuming the control diets. The highest inhibition rate was 69.03%. These results suggest that anthocyanin extracts from PSP not only exert strong antioxidant effects in vitro, but also had anti-aging, anti-hyperglycemic, and anti-tumor activities. PMID:24133614

Zhao, Jin-Ge; Yan, Qian-Qian; Lu, Li-Zhen

2013-01-01

216

HBr/O2 plasma treatment followed by a bake for photoresist linewidth roughness smoothing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the decrease of CMOS device dimensions, the linewidth roughness (LWR) of transistor gates is being recognized as a major concern. In integrated circuit manufacturing, an HBr plasma treatment has been used so far to reduce the LWR of photoresist (PR) lines printed by 193 nm lithography before transfer into the gate stack by plasma etching. In this article, a more efficient treatment based on HBr/O2 plasma exposure followed by a bake is developed, and the plasma conditions are optimized. We show that by controlling the dose of vacuum ultra violet (VUV) light emitted by the HBr/O2 plasma, the PR bulk can be either softened (photolysis) or strengthened (crosslinking). Moreover, the PR surface properties can be controlled by the O2 content of the plasma. The surface and bulk properties of the PR line after plasma treatment determine the LWR behavior during the subsequent thermal cure treatment. A soft resist bulk combined with a thin surface carbon layer is the ideal case to get the best LWR smoothing effect during the subsequent bake without reflowing. By optimizing both the plasma oxygen content and the VUV dose, we obtained a 59% LWR decrease (from 7.3 nm to 3.0 nm) using an HBr/O2 plasma treatment followed by a bake. The detailed study on the impact of the VUV dose during the plasma treatment permitted to determine the sidewall smoothing mechanisms involved. During both the plasma and the thermal treatments, the outgassing of the products of photolysis or deprotection reactions followed by the re-densification of the polymer material is shown to be the main sidewall smoothing enabler.

Fouchier, M.; Pargon, E.

2014-02-01

217

Effect of baking and frying on the in vivo toxicity to rats of cornmeal containing fumonisins.  

PubMed

Fumonisins are mycotoxins produced by Fusarium verticillioides (=F. moniliforme) and other Fusarium species. They are found in corn and corn-based foods. Cooking decreases fumonisin concentrations in food products under some conditions; however, little is known about how cooking effects biological activity. Baked cornbread, pan-fried corncakes, and deep-fried fritters were made from cornmeal that was spiked with 5% w/w F. verticillioides culture material (CM). The cooked materials and the uncooked CM-spiked cornmeal were fed to male rats (n = 5/group) for 2 weeks at high (20% w/w spiked cornmeal equivalents) or low (2% w/w spiked cornmeal equivalents) doses. A control group was fed a diet containing 20% w/w unspiked cornmeal. Toxic response to the uncooked CM-spiked cornmeal and the cooked products included decreased body weight gain (high-dose only), decreased kidney weight, and microscopic kidney and liver lesions of the type caused by fumonisins. Fumonisin concentration, as determined by HPLC analysis, in the 20% w/w pan-fried corncake diet [92.2 ppm of fumonisin B(1) (FB(1))] was slightly, but not statistically significantly, lower than those of the 20% w/w baked cornbread (132.2 ppm of FB(1)), deep-fried fritter (120.2 ppm of FB(1)) and CM-spiked cornmeal (130.5 of ppm FB(1)) diets. Therefore, baking and frying had no significant effect on the biological activity or concentration of fumonisins in these corn-based products, and the results provided no evidence for the formation of novel toxins or "hidden" fumonisins during cooking. PMID:12926912

Voss, Kenneth A; Meredith, Filmore I; Bacon, Charles W

2003-08-27

218

Expression of alternansucrase in potato plants  

PubMed Central

Alternan, which consists of alternating ?-(1?3)/?-(1?6)-linked glucosyl residues, was produced in potato tubers by expressing a mature alternansucrase (Asr) gene from Leuconostoc mesenteroides NRRL B-1355 in potato. Detection of alternan was performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in tuber juices, revealing a concentration between 0.3 and 1.2 mg g-1 fresh wt. The Asr transcript levels correlated well with alternan accumulation in tuber juices. It appeared that the expression of sucrose-regulated starch-synthesizing genes (ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase subunit S and granule-bound starch synthase I) was down-regulated. Despite this, the physico-chemical properties of the transgenic starches were unaltered. These results are compared to those obtained with other transgenic potato plants producing mutan [?-(1?3)-linked glucosyl residues] and dextran [?-(1?6)-linked glucosyl residues]. PMID:17380272

Kok-Jacon, Géraldine A.; Vincken, Jean-Paul; Suurs, Luc C. J. M.; Wang, Denong; Liu, Shaoyi

2007-01-01

219

Expression of alternansucrase in potato plants.  

PubMed

Alternan, which consists of alternating alpha-(1-->3)/alpha-(1-->6)-linked glucosyl residues, was produced in potato tubers by expressing a mature alternansucrase (Asr) gene from Leuconostoc mesenteroides NRRL B-1355 in potato. Detection of alternan was performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in tuber juices, revealing a concentration between 0.3 and 1.2 mg g(-1) fresh wt. The Asr transcript levels correlated well with alternan accumulation in tuber juices. It appeared that the expression of sucrose-regulated starch-synthesizing genes (ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase subunit S and granule-bound starch synthase I) was down-regulated. Despite this, the physico-chemical properties of the transgenic starches were unaltered. These results are compared to those obtained with other transgenic potato plants producing mutan [alpha-(1-->3)-linked glucosyl residues] and dextran [alpha-(1-->6)-linked glucosyl residues]. PMID:17380272

Kok-Jacon, Géraldine A; Vincken, Jean-Paul; Suurs, Luc C J M; Wang, Denong; Liu, Shaoyi; Visser, Richard G F

2007-07-01

220

Partial self-reversal of TRM in baked soils and ceramics from Ecuador  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Partial self-reversed thermoremanent magnetizations (SRTRM) have been found in samples of baked soils and hearths from the Rumipamba archeological site near Quito and ceramics from sites near the town of Esmeraldas (Ecuador). The SRTRMs were recognized during thermal demagnetization and in the course of paleointensity determination with the Thellier method where the SRTRM was acquired in the opposed field direction. The SRTRM is often concealed by a stronger normal polarity magnetization on most samples but cooling the samples in liquid nitrogen enhanced the intensity of the SRTRM. The SRTRM at 77°K is often as strong or stronger than the normal component and measurements of the magnetization at 77°K enables the rapid detection of the SRTRM in most samples. AF demagnetization of the SRTRM carried by the baked clays indicate median destructive field (MDF) of the order of 50 mT and thermal demagnetization give principal unblocking temperatures between 280 and 380°C while the normal component of magnetization has higher unblocking temperatures up to 580°C. Anisotropy tensors of SRTRM were determined on eight samples. The high anisotropy degree (>2) observed when the total magnetization is the sum of a normal TRM and a SRTRM is likely amplified because the anisotropy carried by the SRTRM is larger than the one carried by the normal component. Ti-poor titanomagnetite is the main magnetic carrier identified by magnetic measurement in strong field or susceptibility measurements versus temperature. The magnetic carriers of the SRTRM are stable to heating in air or in vacuum up to 600°C suggesting that they are likely not maghemite or titanomaghemite. The baked clays and ceramics from Ecuador carrying the SRTRM share similar magnetic properties (MDF values, unblocking temperatures) with those reported by Bina et al. (1999, Geophys. J. Int. 138, 159-178) for the Pinatubo pumices of the 1991 eruption. In order to test the hypothesis that the SRTRM could be carried by ilmeno-hematite grains, the magnetization of one sample of the self reversed Pinatubo pumices was also measured during warming from liquid nitrogen temperature to room temperature. The similarities in magnetic properties between the SRTRM carried by the baked clays and the self-reversed Pinatubo pumices support the interpretation that detrital hemoilmenite originating from the recent activity of the numerous Ecuadorian volcanoes may be the main carrier of the SRTRM in the archeological samples. A component of SRTRM may be hidden in various types of rock or archeological materials and this may affect the determination of paleointensity of the Earth magnetic field especially when non thermal method are used.

Roperch, P.; Chauvin, A.; Valdez, F.

2011-12-01

221

Secular Evolution in Barred Galaxies  

E-print Network

A strong bar rotating within a massive halo should lose angular momentum to the halo through dynamical friction, as predicted by Weinberg. We have conducted fully self-consistent, numerical simulations of barred galaxy models with a live halo population and find that bars are indeed braked very rapidly. Specifically, we find that the bar slows sufficiently within a few rotation periods that the distance from the centre to co-rotation is more than twice the semi-major axis of the bar. Observational evidence (meagre) for bar pattern speeds seems to suggest that this ratio typically lies between 1.2 to 1.5 in real galaxies. We consider, a number of possible explanations for this discrepancy between theoretical prediction and observation, and conclude that no conventional alternative seems able to account for it.

J. A. Sellwood; Victor P. Debattista

1996-02-06

222

Beyond Hopkinson's bar.  

PubMed

In order to perform experimental identification of high strain rate material models, engineers have only a very limited toolbox based on test procedures developed decades ago. The best example is the so-called split Hopkinson pressure bar based on the bar concept introduced 100 years ago by Bertram Hopkinson to measure blast pulses. The recent advent of full-field deformation measurements using imaging techniques has allowed novel approaches to be developed and exciting new testing procedures to be imagined for the first time. One can use this full-field information in conjunction with efficient numerical inverse identification tools such as the virtual fields method (VFM) to identify material parameters at high rates. The underpinning novelty is to exploit the inertial effects developed in high strain rate loading. This paper presents results from a new inertial impact test to obtain stress-strain curves at high strain rates (here, up to 3000?s(-1)). A quasi-isotropic composite specimen is equipped with a grid and images are recorded with the new HPV-X camera from Shimadzu at 5?Mfps and the SIMX16 camera from Specialised Imaging at 1?Mfps. Deformation, strain and acceleration fields are then input into the VFM to identify the stiffness parameters with unprecedented quality. PMID:25071232

Pierron, F; Zhu, H; Siviour, C

2014-08-28

223

Structure, processing, and properties of potatoes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this experiment and lesson intended for high school students in an engineering or materials science course or college freshmen is to demonstrate the relation between processing, structure, and thermodynamic and physical properties. The specific objectives are to show the effect of structure and structural changes on thermodynamic properties (specific heat) and physical properties (compressive strength); to illustrate the first law of thermodynamics; to compare boiling a potato in water with cooking it in a microwave in terms of the rate of structural change and the energy consumed to 'process' the potato; and to demonstrate compression testing.

Lloyd, Isabel K.; Kolos, Kimberly R.; Menegaux, Edmond C.; Luo, Huy; McCuen, Richard H.; Regan, Thomas M.

1992-06-01

224

Structure, processing, and properties of potatoes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this experiment and lesson intended for high school students in an engineering or materials science course or college freshmen is to demonstrate the relation between processing, structure, and thermodynamic and physical properties. The specific objectives are to show the effect of structure and structural changes on thermodynamic properties (specific heat) and physical properties (compressive strength); to illustrate the first law of thermodynamics; to compare boiling a potato in water with cooking it in a microwave in terms of the rate of structural change and the energy consumed to 'process' the potato; and to demonstrate compression testing.

Lloyd, Isabel K.; Kolos, Kimberly R.; Menegaux, Edmond C.; Luo, Huy; Mccuen, Richard H.; Regan, Thomas M.

1992-01-01

225

Effect of Blanching on Structural Quality of Dried Potato Slices.  

PubMed

Mechanical properties of potato slices were monitored during blanching, as indicators of structural changes. As expected, blanching resulted in weakening of potato structure. Gelatinization, which occurred during the first 2 min, did not promote an immediate weakening of the potato tissue. More than 80% of the changes in mechanical properties occurred during the first 30 min of blanching. Potato slices blanched for 2 and 30 min as well as unblanched ones were dried in a convective air drier at 48 degrees C. Bulk and true density, porosity, and shrinkage were monitored with time. Blanched potatoes resulted in a significantly more compact, less porous product with lower effective water diffusivity than unblanched potatoes. The results indicated that changes that occurred during the first 2 min of blanching had a much greater influence on structural quality of dried potatoes than changes that occurred from 2 to 30 min of blanching. PMID:10554298

Maté; Quartaert; Meerdink; van't Riet K

1998-02-16

226

Effect of tuber skin on the thermal properties of whole tubers of potato and sweet potato  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperature-dependent thermal coefficients of mathematical models of the postharvest storage process play an important role in determining the models accuracy. Thermal properties of tubers under storage available in literature are generally of those in semi processed form (skinless) such as those having undergone peeling, dicing and cutting actions. This study investigates the effect of tuber skin on the thermal properties of whole tubers of potato and sweet potato. A direct approach was used to measure the tubers' density and thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity by the transient heat transfer method. Indirect approach was used to measure the tubers' specific heat. Experimental data were used to develop empirical models of the thermal coefficients as a function of temperature. Results of the study should find great use in the modeling of potato and sweet potato storage process.

Oluwo, A. A.; Khan, R. M.; Salami, M. J. E.

2013-12-01

227

A freeze-dried diet to test pathogens of Colorado potato beetle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Colorado potato beetle is an important pest on potato, eggplant, and tomato. Because Colorado potato beetles develop resistance to insecticides quickly, new methods are needed for control. Bacillus thuringiensis is the only bacterium to successfully control Colorado potato beetle. Until recently, one of the drawbacks to testing bacteria against the Colorado potato beetle has been the lack of an

Phyllis A. W. Martin

2004-01-01

228

Preliminary survey of potato virus Y (PVy) strains in potato samples from Kurdistan (Iran).  

PubMed

Potato virus Y (PVY) is the type species in the potyvirus genus of the family potyviridae. This plant pathogenic virus is transmitted through plant sap inoculation by stem and core grafting and by at least 25 aphid species in a non-persistent manner. According to potato specialists in most parts of the world, PVY is currently considered as the most harmful virus in cultivated potatoes. This is also the case for potato production in Iran. In this project we investigated potato leaves that were collected in the Kurdistan province in Iran for the presence of PVY with use of different biochemical/molecular techniques as ELISA, RT-PCR and qPCR. The different PVY strains, including PVY-O, PVY-N, PVYN-TN, PVY-NWi, were determined by using a triplex RT-PCR. In conclusion, the results demonstrated the presence of PVY-NWi strains in the potato leaf samples from Kurdistan (Iran). The data are discussed in relation to prevalence of PVY strains in Iran. PMID:21534491

Bahrami-Kamangar, S; De Jonghe, K; Kamangar, S; Maes, M; Smagghe, G

2010-01-01

229

Effects of potato psyllid-vectored 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' infection on potato leaf and stem physiology.  

PubMed

The bacterium 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' (Lso) is associated with zebra chip (ZC) disease, a threat to potato production in North America and New Zealand. It is vectored by potato psyllids. Previous studies observed that Lso infection causes potato tubers to undergo ZC-symptom associated shifts in physiology, such as increased levels of amino acids, sugars, and phenolics. However, little is known about how Lso infections caused by psyllid vector feeding may affect metabolism in potato foliage and stems. This study compared metabolism in potatoes fed upon by Lso-positive psyllids with potato plants not exposed to psyllids. Foliar levels of asparagine, aspartic acid, glutamine, fructose, glucose, sucrose, a ferulic acid derivative, and quinic acid were lower in Lso-inoculated than non-infected plants. However, foliar levels of proline, serine, four phenolic compounds, and most terpenoids were greater in Lso-inoculated than non-infected plants. Upper stem levels of asparagine and aspartic acid, upper and lower stem levels of ellagitannins and most monoterpenoids, and lower stem level of sesquiterpenoids were greater in Lso-inoculated than non-infected plants. These results suggest that many defense-related terpenoid compounds might increase in plants which had psyllids inoculate Lso. This could impact progression and spread of ZC. PMID:25469656

Wallis, Christopher; Rashed, Arash; Chen, Jianchi; Paetzold, Li; Workneh, Fekede; Rush, Charles M

2014-12-01

230

Deprotection blue in extreme ultraviolet photoresists: influence of base loading and post-exposure bake temperture  

SciTech Connect

The deprotection blur of Rohm and Haas XP 5435, XP 5271, and XP5496 extreme ultraviolet photoresists has been determined as their base weight percent is varied. They have also determined the deprotection blur of TOK EUVR P1123 photoresist as the post-exposure bake temperature is varied from 80 C to 120 C. In Rohm and Haas XP 5435 and XP5271 resists 7x and 3x (respective) increases in base weight percent reduce the size of successfully patterned 1:1 line-space features by 16 nm and 8 nm with corresponding reductions in deprotection blur of 7 nm and 4 nm. In XP 5496 a 7x increase in base weight percent reduces the size of successfully patterned 1:1 line-space features from 48 nm to 38 nm without changing deprotection blur. In TOK EUVR P1123 resist, a reduction in post-exposure bake temperature from 100 C to 80 C reduces deprotection blur from 21 nm to 10 nm and reduces patterned LER from 4.8 nm to 4.1 nm.

Anderson, Christopher N.; Naulleau, Patrick P.

2008-06-02

231

Significance of Wheat Flour Dough Rheology to Gas Cell Structure Development in Bread and Other Baked Products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss which rheological material functions of wheat flour dough are most relevant for structure development in baked products under common processing conditions. We consider the growth of gas cells during dough proofing (driven by yeast) and during baking, where the growth is driven by a combination of CO2 desorption, water and ethanol evaporation, and thermal expansion of gas. Attention is given to upper limits on biaxial extension rate and stress and the consequences for the required rheological material functions. The applicability of the "Considère criterion" to predict the probability of coalescence between gas cells and its effect on loaf aeration is briefly discussed.

Engmann, Jan

2008-07-01

232

MODELING LEAF GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT IN POTATO  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Appearance, expansion, and duration of individual leaves are critical determinants of plant canopy growth and development. Accurate modeling of these processes has an impact on estimating canopy light interception, photosynthesis, and accumulation of dry matter and yield. Most potato models use a ...

233

Identifying Constraints to Potato System Sustainability: Soils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potato yield in the Northeast U.S. has remained constant for over 50 years, despite increased inputs of pesticides, nutrients, and water. We established Status Quo, Soil Conserving, Soil Improving, and Disease Suppressive cropping systems under both irrigated and rainfed management to identify and q...

234

Verticillium wilt of potato: Importance and control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of Verticillium wilt of potato and its control are discussed. Among the factors considered in controlling the\\u000a disease are the role of seed tubers in disseminating the pathogen, the interaction of nematodes and fungus, chemical eradication,\\u000a the use of tolerant or resistant cultivars, and integrated control measures.

J. Krikun; D. Orion

1979-01-01

235

Breeding for Phytonutrient Enhancement in Potato  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tubers of 38 native potato cultivars of different taxonomic groups from South America were analyzed to determine The total anthocyanins, total carotenoids and antioxidant values of several groups of breeding clones and varieties were analyzed. Total anthocyanins and an Hydrophilic Oxygen Radical Ab...

236

EVALUATION OF SYSTEMIC ACQUIRED RESISTANCE IN POTATO  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is a natural plant defense mechanism shown to be effective against a broad range of pathogens and has been best characterized in tobacco and Arabidopsis. As a step towards evaluating the potential to use SAR for disease control in potato, the effectiveness of diff...

237

Sources of Federal Funding for Potato Research  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Starting in the mid-eighties, pressure for Federal Funding of potato research resulted in special appropriations available nationwide from two sources. The Cooperative State Resesarch Education and Extension System (CSREES) is a branch of the USDA that funds Land Grant State Universities to do rese...

238

Sustainable potato production and global food security  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The potato (Solanum spp.) is currently the leading non-grain commodity in the global food system with production exceeding 329 million metric tonnes in 2009. The extraordinary adaptive range of this species complex combined with ease of cultivation and high nutritional content have promoted steady i...

239

Ground Turkey and Potato Plate Ingredients  

E-print Network

Ground Turkey and Potato Plate Ingredients: 1 onion 1/2 pound ground turkey 1 cup ketchup, low, brown ground turkey and onion together over medium heat 8 to 10 minutes or until turkey is no longer. Return turkey to skillet. 3. Add ketchup to skillet; cover and simmer over medium-low heat 10 minutes. 4

Liskiewicz, Maciej

240

Internal Ballistics of a Pneumatic Potato Cannon  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Basic laws of thermodynamics and mechanics are used to analyse an air gun. Such devices are often employed in outdoor physics demonstrations to launch potatoes using compressed gas that is here assumed to expand reversibly and adiabatically. Reasonable agreement is found with reported muzzle speeds for such homebuilt cannons. The treatment is…

Mungan, Carl E.

2009-01-01

241

Light-colored, Low Acrylamide Potato Chips  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potato tubers are stored at cold temperatures to prevent sprouting, minimize disease losses and increase the marketing window. Cold storage also causes an accumulation of reducing sugars, a phenomenon referred to as cold-induced sweetening. Unacceptable, dark colored chips and fries are formed durin...

242

Avi Bar Massada Curriculum Vitae  

E-print Network

units in a Mediterranean landscape. International Journal of Remote Sensing, in press. Bar Massada, A 2007 ­ 2008 Teaching assistant - Remote sensing and GIS applications in Ecology and Environment in the wildland-urban interface. International Journal of Wildland Fire 20:59-68. Bar Massada, A., Kent, R., Blank

Mladenoff, David

243

Implementation of viscoelastic Hopkinson bars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge of the properties of soft, viscoelastic materials at high strain rates are important in furthering our understanding of their role during blast or impact events. Testing these low impedance materials using a metallic split Hopkinson pressure bar setup results in poor signal to noise ratios due to impedance mismatching. These difficulties are overcome by using polymeric Hopkinson bars. Conventional Hopkinson bar analysis cannot be used on the polymeric bars due to the viscoelastic nature of the bar material. Implementing polymeric Hopkinson bars requires characterization of the viscoelastic properties of the material used. In this paper, 30 mm diameter Polymethyl Methacrylate bars are used as Hopkinson pressure bars. This testing technique is applied to polymeric foam called Divinycell H80 and H200. Although there is a large body of of literature containing compressive data, this rarely deals with strain rates above 250s-1 which becomes increasingly important when looking at the design of composite structures where energy absorption during impact events is high on the list of priorities. Testing of polymeric foams at high strain rates allows for the development of better constitutive models.

Curry, R.; Cloete, T.; Govender, R.

2012-08-01

244

GASEOUS STRUCTURES IN BARRED GALAXIES: EFFECTS OF THE BAR STRENGTH  

SciTech Connect

Using hydrodynamic simulations, we investigate the physical properties of gaseous substructures in barred galaxies and their relationships with the bar strength. The gaseous medium is assumed to be isothermal and unmagnetized. The bar potential is modeled as a Ferrers prolate with index n. To explore situations with differing bar strength, we vary the bar mass f{sub bar} relative to the spheroidal component as well as its aspect ratio R. We derive expressions as functions of f{sub bar} and R for the bar strength Q{sub b} and the radius r(Q{sub b} ) where the maximum bar torque occurs. When applied to observations, these expressions suggest that bars in real galaxies are most likely to have f{sub bar} {approx} 0.25-0.50 and n {approx}< 1. Dust lanes approximately follow one of the x{sub 1}-orbits and tend to be straighter under a stronger and more elongated bar, but are insensitive to the presence of self-gravity. A nuclear ring of a conventional x{sub 2} type forms only when the bar is not so massive or elongated. The radius of an x{sub 2}-type ring is generally smaller than the inner Lindblad resonance, decreases systematically with increasing Q{sub b} , and is slightly larger when self-gravity is included. This is evidence that the ring position is not determined by the resonance, but instead by the amount of angular momentum loss at dust-lane shocks. Nuclear spirals exist only when the ring is of the x{sub 2} type and is sufficiently large in size. Unlike the other features, nuclear spirals are transient in that they start out being tightly wound and weak, and then, due to the nonlinear effect, unwind and become stronger until they turn into shocks, with an unwinding rate that is higher for larger Q{sub b} . The mass inflow rate to the galaxy center is found to be less than 0.01 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} for models with Q{sub b} {approx}< 0.2, while becoming larger than 0.1 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} when Q{sub b} {approx}> 0.2 and self-gravity is included.

Kim, Woong-Tae; Seo, Woo-Young; Kim, Yonghwi, E-mail: wkim@astro.snu.ac.kr [Center for the Exploration of the Origin of the Universe (CEOU), Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-10-10

245

Utilization of potatoes for life support in space. V. Evaluation of cultivars in response to continuous light and high temperature  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Twenty-four potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars from different regions of the world were evaluated in terms of their responses to continuous light (24 h photoperiod) and to high temperature (30 C) in two separate experiments under controlled environments. In each experiment, a first evaluation of the cultivars was made at day 35 after transplanting, at which time 12 cultivars exhibiting best growth and tuber initiation were selected. A final evaluation of the 12 cultivars was made after an additional 21 days of growth, at which time plant height, total dry weight, tuber dry weight, and tuber number were determined. In the continuous light evaluation, the 12 selected cultivars were Alaska 114, Atlantic, Bintje, Denali, Desiree, Haig, New York 81, Ottar, Rutt, Snogg, Snowchip, and Troll. In the high temperature evaluation, the 12 selected cultivars were Alpha, Atlantic, Bake King, Denali, Desiree, Haig, Kennebec, Norland, Russet Burbank, Rutt, Superior, and Troll. Among the cultivars selected under continuous irradiation, Desiree, Ottar, Haig, Rutt, Denali and Alaska showed the best potential for high productivity whereas New York 81 and Bintje showed the least production capability. Among the cultivars selected under high temperature, Rutt, Haig, Troll and Bake King had best performance whereas Atlantic, Alpha, Kennebec and Russet Burbank exhibited the least production potential. Thus, Haig and Rutt were the two cultivars that performed well under continuous irradiation and high temperature conditions, and could have maximum potential for adaptation to varying stress environments. These two cultivars may have the best potential for use in future space farming in which continuous light and/or high temperature conditions may exist. However, cultivar responses under combined conditions of continuous light and high temperature remains for further validation.

Tibbitts, T. W.; Cao, W.; Bennett, S. M.

1992-01-01

246

Development of a model to measure market potential for Texas produce--onions and potatoes  

E-print Network

constant amount iv respective of pv ice change. Processed potatoes& however& ave quite vesponsive to price changes. Furthermore, consumption of fresh potatoes responds to changes in processed potato pv icesv increasing . 34 pevcent fov each 1-pev cent...

Huie, Evelyn Melissa

2012-06-07

247

78 FR 38846 - Potato Research and Promotion Plan; Amend the Administrative Committee Structure and Delete the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Document Number AMS-FV-13-0027] Potato Research and Promotion Plan; Amend...Committee (Committee) of the U.S. Potato Board (Board) and deleting the Board's mailing address from the Potato Research and Promotion Plan. The...

2013-06-28

248

7 CFR 947.134 - Establishment of list of manufacturers of potato products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Establishment of list of manufacturers of potato products. 947.134 Section 947...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU COUNTIES...Establishment of list of manufacturers of potato products. (a) The committee...

2010-01-01

249

78 FR 52080 - Potato Research and Promotion Plan; Amend the Administrative Committee Structure and Delete the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Document Number AMS-FV-13-0027] Potato Research and Promotion Plan; Amend the...Committee (Committee) of the U.S. Potato Board (Board) and deletes the Board's mailing address from the Potato Research and Promotion Plan. The...

2013-08-22

250

7 CFR 457.147 - Central and Southern potato crop insurance provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Central and Southern potato crop insurance provisions. 457.147...REGULATIONS § 457.147 Central and Southern potato crop insurance provisions. The Central and Southern Potato Crop Insurance Provisions for the...

2010-01-01

251

7 CFR 457.145 - Potato crop insurance-certified seed endorsement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potato crop insurance-certified seed endorsement...CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.145 Potato crop insurance—certified seed endorsement. The Potato Crop Insurance Certified Seed...

2010-01-01

252

40 CFR 407.40 - Applicability; description of the frozen potato products subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the frozen potato products subcategory. 407.40 Section...PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Frozen Potato Products Subcategory § 407.40 Applicability; description of the frozen potato products subcategory. The...

2010-07-01

253

40 CFR 407.50 - Applicability; description of the dehydrated potato products subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the dehydrated potato products subcategory. 407.50 Section...PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Dehydrated Potato Products Subcategory § 407.50 Applicability; description of the dehydrated potato products subcategory. The...

2010-07-01

254

76 FR 71022 - Dicloran; Cancellation Order for Amendment To Terminate Use on Potatoes  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Order for Amendment To Terminate Use on Potatoes AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...for the amendment to terminate use on potatoes, voluntarily requested by the registrant...voluntarily amend to terminate DCNA use on potatoes for these product registrations....

2011-11-16

255

7 CFR 457.143 - Northern potato crop insurance-quality endorsement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance-quality endorsement...INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.143 Northern potato crop insurance—quality endorsement. The Northern Potato Crop Insurance Quality Endorsement...

2010-01-01

256

19 CFR 10.57 - Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. 10.57 ...REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Potatoes, Corn, Or Maize § 10.57 Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. Claim...

2010-04-01

257

7 CFR 457.144 - Northern potato crop insurance-processing quality endorsement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance-processing quality endorsement...REGULATIONS § 457.144 Northern potato crop insurance—processing quality endorsement. The Northern Potato Crop Insurance Processing Quality...

2010-01-01

258

75 FR 43042 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Temporary Change to the Handling Regulations and Reporting...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...AMS-FV-10-0052; FV10-946-1 IR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Temporary Change to the...requirements currently prescribed for russet potato varieties under the Washington potato marketing order. The marketing order...

2010-07-23

259

7 CFR 457.146 - Northern potato crop insurance-storage coverage endorsement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance-storage coverage endorsement...INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.146 Northern potato crop insurance—storage coverage endorsement. The Northern Potato Crop Insurance Storage Coverage...

2010-01-01

260

7 CFR 946.140 - Handling potatoes for commercial processing into products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handling potatoes for commercial processing into products...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations...Requirements § 946.140 Handling potatoes for commercial processing into...

2010-01-01

261

VisBAR Wave Batch 1 VisBAR wave batch 1  

E-print Network

README VisBAR_wave _batch[*] Python VisBAR_wave _batch VisBAR (VisBAR=Visualization tool with Ball, Arrow.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 3.1.1 Python . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 3 ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 ii #12;1 VisBAR wave batch 1.1 VisBAR wave batch Python[1] Input GaussianCube ( Cube ) Cube Cube

Hoshi, Takeo

262

Simultaneous detection and differentiation of four closely related sweet potato potyviruses by a multiplex one-step RT-PCR  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Four closely related potyviruses, Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV), Sweet potato virus C (SPVC), Sweet potato virus G (SPVG) and/or Sweet potato virus 2 (SPV2), are involved in Sweet Potato Viral Disease, the most devastating disease of sweet potato worldwide. Identification and detection ...

263

Effects of Potato-cyst Nematodes (Globodera pallida) and Soil pH on Root Growth, Nutrient Uptake and Crop Growth of Potato  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potato-cyst nematodes (Globodera pallida) cause severe yield losses in potato. Plants infected with potato-cyst nematodes generally have reduced concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in the foliage. This study investigated whether reduced growth of nematode-infected potato is caused by nutrient limitation.

F. J. De Ruijter; A. J. Haverkort

1999-01-01

264

Effect of Baking Process on Added Folic Acid and Endogenous Folates Stability in Wheat and Rye Breads  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Poland bread as a staple food both made from wheat and rye flour can be a potential product for future fortification with folic acid. The objective of the study was to examine the effect of fermentation and baking on added folic acid and some endogenous folates stability during breadmaking of rye and wheat breads. Breads were produced using the

El?bieta Gujska; Katarzyna Majewska

2005-01-01

265

Development of a benchtop baking method for chemically leavened crackers. I. Identification of a diagnostic formula and procedure  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A benchtop baking method has been developed to predict the contribution of gluten functionality to overall flour performance for chemically leavened crackers. In order to identify a diagnostic cracker formula, the effects of leavening system (sodium bicarbonate, monocalcium phosphate, and ammonium b...

266

Effects of Purified Endo-?-xylanase and Endo-?-glucanase on the Structural and Baking Characteristics of Rye Doughs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of arabinoxylans and b-glucans in rye baking was studied by depolymerizing these cell wall polysaccharides in situ with purified xylanase and ?-glucanase. Two different rye cultivars, Danko (from Sweden) and Muskate (from Canada), were used. The most marked effect of the enzymes was the reduction in proofing time, with xylanase having the greater effect. Xylanase addition made the

K. Autio; H. Härkönen; T. Parkkonen; T. Frigård; K. Poutanen; M. Siika-aho; P. Åman

1996-01-01

267

Anesthetic Management of a Patient with Sustained Severe Metabolic Alkalosis and Electrolyte Abnormalities Caused by Ingestion of Baking Soda  

PubMed Central

The use of alternative medicine is prevalent worldwide. However, its effect on intraoperative anesthetic care is underreported. We report the anesthetic management of a patient who underwent an extensive head and neck cancer surgery and presented with a severe intraoperative metabolic alkalosis from the long term ingestion of baking soda and other herbal remedies. PMID:25180100

Lim, Jeffrey

2014-01-01

268

Improvement of fermentation ability under baking-associated stress conditions by altering the POG1 gene expression in baker's yeast.  

PubMed

During the bread-making process, yeast cells are exposed to many types of baking-associated stress. There is thus a demand within the baking industry for yeast strains with high fermentation abilities under these stress conditions. The POG1 gene, encoding a putative transcription factor involved in cell cycle regulation, is a multicopy suppressor of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae E3 ubiquitin ligase Rsp5 mutant. The pog1 mutant is sensitive to various stresses. Our results suggested that the POG1 gene is involved in stress tolerance in yeast cells. In this study, we showed that overexpression of the POG1 gene in baker's yeast conferred increased fermentation ability in high-sucrose-containing dough, which is used for sweet dough baking. Furthermore, deletion of the POG1 gene drastically increased the fermentation ability in bread dough after freeze-thaw stress, which would be a useful characteristic for frozen dough baking. Thus, the engineering of yeast strains to control the POG1 gene expression level would be a novel method for molecular breeding of baker's yeast. PMID:23800735

Sasano, Yu; Haitani, Yutaka; Hashida, Keisuke; Oshiro, Satoshi; Shima, Jun; Takagi, Hiroshi

2013-08-01

269

Anesthetic management of a patient with sustained severe metabolic alkalosis and electrolyte abnormalities caused by ingestion of baking soda.  

PubMed

The use of alternative medicine is prevalent worldwide. However, its effect on intraoperative anesthetic care is underreported. We report the anesthetic management of a patient who underwent an extensive head and neck cancer surgery and presented with a severe intraoperative metabolic alkalosis from the long term ingestion of baking soda and other herbal remedies. PMID:25180100

Soliz, Jose; Lim, Jeffrey; Zheng, Gang

2014-01-01

270

Development and bioassay of transgenic Chinese cabbage expressing potato proteinase inhibitor II gene  

PubMed Central

Lepidopteran larvae are the most injurious pests of Chinese cabbage production. We attempted the development of transgenic Chinese cabbage expressing the potato proteinase inhibitor II gene (pinII) and bioassayed the pest-repelling ability of these transgenic plants. Cotyledons with petioles from aseptic seedlings were used as explants for Agrobacterium-mediated in vitro transformation. Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58 contained the binary vector pBBBasta-pinII-bar comprising pinII and bar genes. Plants showing vigorous PPT resistance were obtained by a series concentration selection for PPT resistance and subsequent regeneration of leaf explants dissected from the putative chimera. Transgenic plants were confirmed by PCR and genomic Southern blotting, which showed that the bar and pinII genes were integrated into the plant genome. Double haploid homozygous transgenic plants were obtained by microspore culture. The pinII expression was detected using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and detection of PINII protein content in the transgenic homozygous lines. Insect-feeding trials using the larvae of cabbage worm (Pieris rapae) and the larvae of the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) showed higher larval mortality, stunted larval development, and lower pupal weights, pupation rates, and eclosion rates in most of the transgenic lines in comparison with the corresponding values in the non-transformed wild-type line. PMID:23136521

Zhang, Junjie; Liu, Fan; Yao, Lei; Luo, Chen; Yin, Yue; Wang, Guixiang; Huang, Yubi

2012-01-01

271

Artificial diets for rearing the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colorado potato beetles have been reared successfully through 12 generations on artificial diets containing either 2.5% potato leaf powder or 2.5% lettuce leaf powder\\/0.75% potato leaf powder. For all but one of the treatment groups, the mean duration of each of the four larval stages was between 0.8 and 1.5 days longer than the durations exhibited by control beetles that

Dale B. Gelman; Robert A. Bell; Lynda J. Liska; Jing S. Hu

272

Healthy Aspects of Potatoes as Part of the Human Diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potatoes are constituents of many diets. Nutritionalists identify several positive aspects but also discuss some adverse reactions.\\u000a Therefore, healthiness of potato food has to be established taking into account new knowledge about natural constituents and\\u000a food-borne substances. This paper presents data of three main areas: carbohydrates, toxins and antioxidants. The glycaemic\\u000a behaviour of prepared potatoes has discredited the general understanding

N. U. Haase

2008-01-01

273

Formation of melatonin and its isomer during bread dough fermentation and effect of baking.  

PubMed

Melatonin is produced mainly by the pineal gland in vertebrates. Also, melatonin and its isomer are found in foods. Investigating the formation of melatonin and its isomer is of importance during bread dough fermentation and its degradation during baking since bread is widely consumed in high amounts. Formation of melatonin was not significant during dough fermentation. The melatonin isomer content of nonfermented dough was found to be 4.02 ng/g and increased up to 16.71 ng/g during fermentation. Lower amounts of isomer in crumb and crust than dough showed that the thermal process caused a remarkable degree of degradation in melatonin isomer. At the end of the 180 min fermentation Trp decreased by 58%. The results revealed for the first time the formation of a melatonin isomer in bread dough during yeast fermentation. PMID:24611648

Y?lmaz, Cemile; Kocada?l?, Tolgahan; Gökmen, Vural

2014-04-01

274

Multigeneration Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity Study of bar Gene Inserted into Genetically Modified Potato on Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Each specific protein has an individual gene encoding it, and a foreign gene introduced to a plant can be used to synthesize a new protein. The identification of potential reproductive and developmental toxicity from novel proteins produced by genetically modified (GM) crops is a difficult task. A science-based risk assessment is needed in order to use GM crops as a

Gyu Seek Rhee; Dae Hyun Cho; Yong Hyuck Won; Ji Hyun Seok; Soon Sun Kim; Seung Jun Kwack; Rhee Da Lee; Soo Yeong Chae; Jae Woo Kim; Byung Mu Lee; Kui Lea Park; Kwang Sik Choi

2005-01-01

275

Genomic Resources and Tools for Gene Function Analysis in Potato  

PubMed Central

Potato, a highly heterozygous tetraploid, is undergoing an exciting phase of genomics resource development. The potato research community has established extensive genomic resources, such as large expressed sequence tag (EST) data collections, microarrays and other expression profiling platforms, and large-insert genomic libraries. Moreover, potato will now benefit from a global potato physical mapping effort, which is serving as the underlying resource for a full potato genome sequencing project, now well underway. These tools and resources are having a major impact on potato breeding and genetics. The genome sequence will provide an invaluable comparative genomics resource for cross-referencing to the other Solanaceae, notably tomato, whose sequence is also being determined. Most importantly perhaps, a potato genome sequence will pave the way for the functional analysis of the large numbers of potato genes that await discovery. Potato, being easily transformable, is highly amenable to the investigation of gene function by biotechnological approaches. Recent advances in the development of Virus Induced Gene Silencing (VIGS) and related methods will facilitate rapid progress in the analysis of gene function in this important crop. PMID:19107214

Bryan, Glenn J.; Hein, Ingo

2008-01-01

276

Applications of biotechnology and genomics in potato improvement.  

PubMed

Potato is the third most important global food crop and the most widely grown noncereal crop. As a species highly amenable to cell culture, it has a long history of biotechnology applications for crop improvement. This review begins with a historical perspective on potato improvement using biotechnology encompassing pathogen elimination, wide hybridization, ploidy manipulation and applications of cell culture. We describe the past developments and new approaches for gene transfer to potato. Transformation is highly effective for adding single genes to existing elite potato clones with no, or minimal, disturbances to their genetic background and represents the only effective way to produce isogenic lines of specific genotypes/cultivars. This is virtually impossible via traditional breeding as, due to the high heterozygosity in the tetraploid potato genome, the genetic integrity of potato clones is lost upon sexual reproduction as a result of allele segregation. These genetic attributes have also provided challenges for the development of genetic maps and applications of molecular markers and genomics in potato breeding. Various molecular approaches used to characterize loci, (candidate) genes and alleles in potato, and associating phenotype with genotype are also described. The recent determination of the potato genome sequence has presented new opportunities for genomewide assays to provide tools for gene discovery and enabling the development of robustly unique marker haplotypes spanning QTL regions. The latter will be useful in introgression breeding and whole-genome approaches such as genomic selection to improve the efficiency of selecting elite clones and enhancing genetic gain over time. PMID:23924159

Barrell, Philippa J; Meiyalaghan, Sathiyamoorthy; Jacobs, Jeanne M E; Conner, Anthony J

2013-10-01

277

Potato by-product feeding in the Pacific northwest.  

PubMed

Potato by-products are an important component of cattle feeding operations throughout the Pacific Northwest. In turn, without cattle feeding operations, potato processors would have a major disposal problem with potato waste. It is estimated that 98% of the cattle throughout the Pacific Northwest are being fed potato waste in one form or another. This inexpensive energy source allows cattle feeders in the Pacific Northwest to feed cattle at a competitive price compared with cattle feeders in the Great Plains region. PMID:12235665

Bradshaw, Lee; MacGregor, Scott; Olsen, Tom

2002-07-01

278

Triple bar, high efficiency mechanical sealer  

DOEpatents

A clamp with a bottom clamp bar that has a planar upper surface is provided. The clamp may also include a top clamp bar connected to the bottom clamp bar, and a pressure distribution bar between the top clamp bar and the bottom clamp bar. The pressure distribution bar may have a planar lower surface in facing relation to the upper surface of the bottom clamp bar. An object is capable of being disposed in a clamping region between the upper surface and the lower surface. The width of the planar lower surface may be less than the width of the upper surface within the clamping region. Also, the pressure distribution bar may be capable of being urged away from the top clamp bar and towards the bottom clamp bar.

Pak, Donald J.; Hawkins, Samantha A.; Young, John E.

2013-03-19

279

Property Control through Bar Coding.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A public utility company uses laser wands to read bar-coded labels on furniture and equipment. The system allows an 80 percent savings of the time required to create reports for inventory control. (MLF)

Kingma, Gerben J.

1984-01-01

280

Thermodynamic Analysis of the Cu-As-S-(O) System Relevant to Sulfuric Acid Baking of Enargite at 473 K (200 °C)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While the growing demand for copper has compelled the industry to adapt new technologies for the treatment of copper-arsenic (enargite) concentrates, the refractory nature of such concentrates combined with the troublesome presence of arsenic has created a major metallurgical and environmental challenge. Preliminary results of the acid bake-leach process at the University of Utah have shown some potential advantages for the treatment of enargite concentrates. While the transformation of enargite to copper sulfate, arsenolite, and elemental sulfur has already been established experimentally, thermodynamic evaluation of the sulfuric acid baking process provides further understanding which should be useful. In this article, the available thermodynamic data for the species involved in the Cu-As-S-O system are compiled. These data were used to calculate the phase stability (Kellogg) diagrams as well as equilibrium compositions at 473 K (200 °C) using the STABCAL and HSC Chemistry® 5.1 software packages. The equilibrium composition calculations indicate that enargite can transform to copper sulfate either directly or through chalcocite and/or covellite. The major gaseous species during baking were found to be SO2 and H2O. The results of the thermodynamic calculations were further compared with two confirmatory baking experiments involving a high-quality enargite sample. The condensed reaction products from sulfuric acid baking based on XRD results include CuSO4, As2O3, CuO·CuSO4, and S8 under both neutral and oxidative conditions. While all these compounds were predicted through equilibrium calculations, some of the predicted compounds were not detected in the sulfuric acid-baked enargite. None of the calculations indicated any appreciable amounts of arsenic-bearing gases at the baking temperature of 473 K (200 °C). Consistent with thermodynamic predictions, no H2S gas was detected during the sulfuric acid baking experiment. Approximately, 80 pct of the baked enargite samples were leached in water.

Safarzadeh, M. Sadegh; Miller, Jan D.; Huang, Hsin H.

2014-04-01

281

Continuous replication of potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTV) in permanent cell cultures of potato and tomato.  

PubMed

The continuous replication of potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTV) in callus cultures from PSTV-infected wild-type potato (Solanum demissum L.) and tomato (Lycopersicon peruvianum L. Mill) plants and in cell suspensions derived from potato protoplasts (Solanum tuberosum L.) inoculated in vitro is described. The persistence of PSTV replication in these cell lines through at least 14 subculture passages, which corresponds to a continuous replication over a period of more than one year, was demonstrated by infectivity assay and by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis of isolated nucleic acids. This continuous synthesis de novo of PSTV was substantiated by the incorporation of [3H]uridine and of [32P]orthophosphate into viroid RNA. PMID:7284577

Mühlbach, H P; Sänder, H L

1981-01-01

282

Volatile monoterpenes inhibit potato tuber sprouting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several volatile monoterpenes, which are among the major constituents of several easily obtainable essential oils, were phytotoxic\\u000a in the gaseous phase to emerged potato tuber sprouts. Analyses of the more phytotoxic monoterpenes were conducted using a\\u000a continuous-flow system in which the compounds were released as volatiles into the headspace surrounding the tubers. Several\\u000a of these compounds, which have low mammalian

Steven F. Vaughn; Gayland F. Spencer

1991-01-01

283

Potato growth in response to relative humidity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L. cvs. Russet Burbank, Norland, and Denali) were grown for 56 days in controlled-environment rooms under continuous light at 20C and 50% or 85% RH. No significant differences in total plant dry weight were measured between the humidity treatments, but plants grown under 85% RH produced higher tuber yields. Leaf areas were greater under 50% RH and leaves tended to be larger and darker green than at 85% RH.

Wheeler, R. M.; Tibbitts, T. W.; Fitzpatrick, A. H.

1989-01-01

284

Glycaemic and satiating properties of potato products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To investigate glycaemic and satiating properties of potato products in healthy subjects using energy-equivalent or carbohydrate-equivalent test meals, respectively.Subjects and setting:Thirteen healthy subjects volunteered for the first study, and 14 for the second. The tests were performed at Applied Nutrition and Food Chemistry, Lund University, Sweden.Experimental design and test meals:All meals were served as breakfast in random order after an

M Leeman; E Östman; I Björck

2008-01-01

285

Paclobutrazol enhances minituber production in Norland potatoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of two plant growth regulators, paclobutrazol and kinetin, on minituber yield in greenhouse-grown “Norland” potatoes\\u000a was investigated. Plants were treated with paclobutrazol at 450 mg\\/L, kinetin at 10 mg\\/L, or a combination of paclobutrazol\\u000a at 450 mg\\/L + kinetin at 10 mg\\/L as single foliar applications at early stolon initiation. A set of plants sprayed with water\\u000a served

P. M. S. Bandara; K. K. Tanino

1995-01-01

286

The potato amylase inhibitor gene SbAI regulates cold-induced sweetening in potato tubers by modulating amylase activity.  

PubMed

Potato cold-induced sweetening (CIS) is critical for the postharvest quality of potato tubers. Starch degradation is considered to be one of the key pathways in the CIS process. However, the functions of the genes that encode enzymes related to starch degradation in CIS and the activity regulation of these enzymes have received less attention. A potato amylase inhibitor gene known as SbAI was cloned from the wild potato species Solanum berthaultii. This genetic transformation confirmed that in contrast to the SbAI suppression in CIS-resistant potatoes, overexpressing SbAI in CIS-sensitive potatoes resulted in less amylase activity and a lower rate of starch degradation accompanied by a lower reducing sugar (RS) content in cold-stored tubers. This finding suggested that the SbAI gene may play crucial roles in potato CIS by modulating the amylase activity. Further investigations indicated that pairwise protein-protein interactions occurred between SbAI and ?-amylase StAmy23, ?-amylases StBAM1 and StBAM9. SbAI could inhibit the activities of both ?-amylase and ?-amylase in potato tubers primarily by repressing StAmy23 and StBAM1, respectively. These findings provide the first evidence that SbAI is a key regulator of the amylases that confer starch degradation and RS accumulation in cold-stored potato tubers. PMID:24985879

Zhang, Huiling; Liu, Jun; Hou, Juan; Yao, Ying; Lin, Yuan; Ou, Yongbin; Song, Botao; Xie, Conghua

2014-09-01

287

Studies for Somatic Embryogenesis in Sweet Potato  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this study was to improve the somatic embryo (SE) system for plant production of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L(Lam)). Explants isolated from SE-derived sweet potato plants were compared with control (non SE-derived) plants for their competency for SE production. Leaf explants were cultured on Murashige-Skoog (MS) medium with 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (0.2 mg/L) and 6-benzylaminopurine (2.5 mg/L) for 2 weeks in darkness and transferred to MS medium with abscisic acid (2.5 mg/L). Explants isolated from those plants developed through somatic embryogenesis produced new somatic embryos rapidly and in higher frequency than those isolated from control plants They also appeared to grow faster in tissue culture than the control plants. Current studies in the laboratory are examining whether plants derived from a cyclical embryogenesis system (five cycles) would have any further positive impact on the rapidity and frequency of somatic embryo development. More detailed studies using electron microscopy are expected to show the point of origin of the embryos and to allow determination of their quality throughout the cyclical process. This study may facilitate improved plant micropropagation, gene transfer and germplasm conservation in sweet potato.

Bennett, J. Rasheed; Prakash, C. S.

1997-01-01

288

Double-Barred Galaxies: I. A Catalog of Barred Galaxies with Stellar Secondary Bars and Inner Disks  

E-print Network

I present a catalog of 67 barred galaxies which contain distinct, elliptical stellar structures inside their bars. Fifty of these are double-barred galaxies: a small-scale, "inner" or "secondary" bar is embedded within a large-scale, "outer" or "primary" bar. I provide homogenized measurements of the sizes, ellipticities, and orientations of both inner and outer bars, along with with global parameters for the galaxies. The other 17 are classified as "inner-disk" galaxies, where a large-scale bar harbors an inner elliptical structure which is aligned with the galaxy's outer disk. Four of the double-barred galaxies also possess inner disks, located in between the inner and outer bars. While the inner-disk classification is ad-hoc -- and undoubtedly includes some inner bars with chance alignments (five such probable cases are identified) -- there is good evidence that inner disks form a statistically distinct population, and that at least some are indeed disks rather than bars. In addition, I list 36 galaxies which may be double-barred, but for which current observations are ambiguous or incomplete, and another 23 galaxies which have been previously suggested as potentially being double-barred, but which are probably *not*. False double-bar identifications are usually due to features such as nuclear rings and spirals being misclassified as bars; I provide some illustrated examples of how this can happen.

Peter Erwin

2003-12-14

289

A Newly Developed Kolsky Tension Bar  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Mechanical characterization of materials requires highly precise and reliable experimental facilities. At 2009 SEM conference,\\u000a we presented a newly developed Kolsky compression bar at Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA. Comparing the compression\\u000a bar, development of Kolsky tension bar is much more challenging. In this study, besides remedies for the Kolsky compression\\u000a bar design were used for the new tension bar,

Bo Song; Bonnie R. Antoun; Kevin Connelly; John Korellis; Wei-Yang Lu

2010-01-01

290

VisBAR Wave Batch 1 VisBAR wave batch 1  

E-print Network

.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 3.1.1 Python . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 3 Python[1] Input GaussianCube ( Cube ) Cube Cube README VisBAR_wave _batch[*] Python VisBAR_wave _batch VisBAR (VisBAR=Visualization tool with Ball, Arrow , Rod)[*][1] VisBAR_wave _batch [1] ( [2

Hoshi, Takeo

291

Amylose Content in Tuber Starch of Potato Cultivars  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potato tuber is mostly water and starch. Approximately 20% of fresh tuber weight is the starch and the remainder is water. Most of the starch in the tuber, approximately 75%, is amylopectin and 25% amylose, but can vary depending on the cultivar. A total of 162 American (85) and foreign (77) potato ...

292

GENETIC MANIPULATION FOR ENHANCING CALCIUM CONTENT IN POTATO TUBER  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Increased calcium (Ca) in potatoes may increase the production rate by enhancing tuber quality and storability. Additionally, increased Ca levels in important agricultural crops may help ameliorate the incidence of osteoporosis. However, the capacity to alter Ca levels in potato tubers through genet...

293

Endophytic bacteria in potato tubers affected by zebra chip disease  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potato zebra chip disease (ZCD) could drastically reduce quality and value of all market classes of potato, costing growers and processors millions of dollars in losses in North America. Endophytic bacteria colonize the internal tissue and could have both positive and negative effects on host plants...

294

78 FR 59628 - Importation of Potatoes From Mexico  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...0579-AD78 Importation of Potatoes From Mexico AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection...potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) from Mexico into the United States. As a condition...plant protection organization (NPPO) of Mexico would have to provide a bilateral...

2013-09-27

295

Delayed tillage and cover crop effects in potato systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Delayed tillage and the inclusion of cover crops can substantially reduce erosion in intensively tilled potato systems. Both of these practices can potentially impact potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)yield and quality via changes in soil temperature and soil water status, and suppression or enhancement...

296

Female fertility of potato (Solanum tuberosum ssp. tuberosum) dihaploids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of testcrosses and seed set data of the dihaploid breeding program at the Potato Research Institute in Gross Lüsewitz, Germany, indicate that the low level of female fertility could hinder success in crossing work. With the objective to reveal major components of female fertility, the behavior of 47 outstanding potato dihaploids (S. tuberosum ssp. tuberosum, 2n=2x=24) was assessed in

B. R. Trognitz

1995-01-01

297

Ecogeography of ploidy variation in cultivated potato (Solanum sect. Petota)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The taxonomy of cultivated potatoes has been highly controversial, with estimates of species numbers ranging from 3 to 17. Ploidy level has been one of the most important taxonomic characters to recognize cultivated potato species, containing diploid (2 n = 2 x = 24), triploid (2 n = 3 x = 36), tetr...

298

Ecogeography of Ploidy Variation in Cultivated Potato (Solanum Sect. Petota)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The taxonomy of cultivated potatoes has been highly controversial, with estimates of species numbers ranging from 3-18. Ploidy level has been one of the most important taxonomic characters to recognize cultivated potato species, with diploid (2n = 2x = 24), triploid (2n = 3x = 36), tetraploid (2n = ...

299

Symposium Introduction: Enhancing the Nutritional Value of Potato Tubers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The potato is the world’s fourth largest food crop and is a staple in many diets around the world. In addition to being a source of highly digestible carbohydrate and nutritionally complete protein, the potato is also an excellent source of other essential nutrients and vitamins. Limited studies hav...

300

Click beetles (Coleopter: Elateridae) associated with potatoes in Alaska  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this research was to study the species composition, seasonal biology, and geographic distribution of adult elaterids associated with potato production in Alaska. Adult elaterids were collected in the major potato producing areas of Alaska and from a subsistence farm above the arctic...

301

Potential leafhopper vectors associated with potatoes in Alaska  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Leafhopper transmitted phytoplasma diseases are an emerging problem for potato and vegetable producers in the conterminous United States of America (USA). Due to its geographical isolation and climatic constrains, Alaska is considered relatively free of diseases and insect pests. Potato growers in t...

302

MANIPULATION AND COMPENSATION OF STEROIDAL GLYCOALKALOID BIOSYNTHESIS IN POTATOES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGAs) are undesirable secondary metabolites produced in Solanaceous plants including, potato, tomato and eggplant. Two tri-glycosylated alkaloids, alpha-chaconine and alpha-solanine occur naturally in potato tubers and can accumulate to excessive levels due to mechanical, e...

303

Monitoring Soil and Petiole Nitrogen for Potato Nitrogen Management  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Monitoring petiole and soil N status has been evaluated with varying degree of success for optimal N management for potatoes. This study was conducted on Quincy fine sand using ‘Ranger Russet’ potato cultivar in a 3 year rotation. Treatments included the following pre-plant (PP) + in season (IS) N...

304

Recombinant Protein for Biocontrol of Brown Rot Disease in Potato  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Egypt, potato has an important position among all vegetable crops. Potato crop is infected with the brown rot disease producing a major problem which caused by Ralstonia. Solanacearum. Soil samples were collected from Gharbia governorate, bacterial isolation was carried out using suitable media. Many bacterial isolates were obtained and used for bioagent against R. solanacearum. One isolate among all

S. S. Kabeil; Elsayed E. Hafez; Ayman S. Daba; M. A. El-Saadani

2009-01-01

305

Amylose Content in Tuber Starch of Wild Potato Species  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Approximately 20% of potato tuber fresh weight is starch, which is composed of amylose (straight chains of glucose) and amylopectin (branched chains). Potato starch is low in amylose (~25%), but high amylose starch has superior nutritional qualities. Amylose content has been determined in tuber samp...

306

Restriction digestion method for haplotyping the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A restriction digestion method has been developed for haplotyping the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli Sulc., an economically important pest of solanaceous crops. This method differentiates the four known potato psyllid haplotypes by utilizing restriction enzyme digestion of a portion of the ...

307

NEW POTATO CLONES MAINTAIN LOW SUGARS IN COLD STORAGE.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The accumulation of reducing sugars during cold storage of potato tubers is a serious and costly problem for producers and processors. Most, but not all, currently used potato cultivars are susceptible to "cold sweetening" and are therefore stored at warmer temperatures that can accelerate disease ...

308

Storage/processing performance of advanced potato breeding clones  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The accumulation of reducing sugars during cold storage of potato tubers is a serious and costly problem for producers and processors. Most, but not all, currently used potato cultivars are susceptible to "cold sweetening" and are therefore stored at warmer temperatures that can accelerate disease ...

309

Advanced potato breeding clones: storage and processing evaluation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The accumulation of reducing sugars during cold storage of potato tubers is a serious and costly problem for producers and processors. Most, but not all, currently used potato cultivars are susceptible to Acold sweetening@ and are therefore stored at warmer temperatures that can accelerate disease ...

310

Potato Bean: Potential Forage/Dietary Supplement for Small Ruminants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potato bean (Apios americana Medikus) is a nitrogen-fixing, perennial, leguminous vine indigenous to the eastern half of the United States. This vine climbs on plants and objects making its foliage accessible to browsing animals. We have observed deer eating potato bean foliage. Both deer and goa...

311

Usual Intake of Other starchy vegetables, excluding white potatoes  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Other starchy vegetables, excluding white potatoes Table A14. Other starchy vegetables, excluding white potatoes: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10%

312

THE POTATO SYSTEMS PLANNER: A CASE OF INDUSTRY DRIVEN RESEARCH  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Developing profitable crop rotations is a top research priority for the potato industry. An interdisciplinary team of ARS scientists from the New England Plant, Soil, & Water Laboratory evaluated 14 rotations for their impacts on potato yield and quality, nutrient availability, plant diseases, soil ...

313

Microbial Control of the Potato Tuber Moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In tropical and subtropical agroecosystems, the potato tuber moth (PTM) (Phthorimaea operculella Zeller) is considered the most damaging potato pest. Larvae mine both leaves and tubers, in the field and in storage making the pest difficult to control. Over reliance on broad spectrum insecticides has...

314

Potato Late blight Update and Late Season Recommendations Willie Kirk. PLP  

E-print Network

Potato Late blight Update and Late Season Recommendations Willie Kirk. PLP Potato late blight has confirmations in potatoes have been the US-23 genotype. This was confirmed by GPI allozyme analysis. Conditions remain conducive for late blight in potato crops and the risk of tuber blight is high especially

Douches, David S.

315

Epitope mapping for monoclonal antibodies recognizing tuber necrotic isolates of Potato virus Y  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potato virus Y (PVY) is an important viral pathogen of potato responsible for reducing tuber yield and quality across the globe. The PVYN and PVYNTN strains, the latter of which induces potato tuber necrotic ringspot disease (PTNRD), are regulated for international potato trade, and have been routin...

316

Impact of food processing on the glycemic index (GI) of potato products  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potatoes are one of the most popular carbohydrate foods in industrialized and some developing countries. However, contradicting arguments and misconceptions on potatoes as a high glycemic index (GI) food is directly affecting potato consumption during the past years. Potato varieties, maturity level...

317

Phenotypic and Etiological Differences Between Psyllid Yellows and Zebra Chip Diseases of Potatoes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Both potato psyllid yellows and Zebra chip (ZC) potato diseases are associated with the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc). Aboveground plant symptoms of both diseases are similar but there is a difference in symptoms in potato tubers. ZC has recently been associated with a new species o...

318

SPONGOSPORA SUBTERRANEA AS A VECTOR OF POTATO MOP-TOP POMOVIRUS IN COSTA RICA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Spongospora subterranea f. sp. subterranea is the causal agent of potato powdery scab and vector of Potato mop-top pomovirus (PMTV). The vector and virus mainly cause blemishes on potato tubers and have been shown to affect plant growth and yield. They are recognized as important threats to potato...

319

Hairy nightshade is an alternative host of Spongospora subterranea, the potato powdery scab pathogen  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Root galls possibly caused by Spongospora subterranea were observed on hairy nightshade (Solanum sarrachoides; HNS). HNS galls and galls from potato were used to artificially inoculate potato and HNS. Eighty-three and 52% potato and HNS plants inoculated with potato inoculum had root galls, respecti...

320

INFLUENCE OF NITROGEN FERTILIZATION ON INCIDENCE OF POTATO LATE BLIGHT IN TOLUCA, MEXICO  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Nitrogen fertilization and incidence of potato late blight are two important agronomic factors in Mexican potato production. Potato late blight is a severe potato disease speculated to be influenced by the amount of nitrogen fertilizer applied to the plant. The relationship between nitrogen fertiliz...

321

Hairy Nightshade is an Alternative Host of Spongospora subterranea, the Potato Powdery Scab Pathogen  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Root galls possibly caused by Spongospora subterranea were observed on hairy nightshade (Solanum sarrachoide; HNS). HNS galls and galls from potato were used to artificially inoculate potato and HNS. Eighty-three and 52% potato and HNS plants inoculated with potato inoculum had root galls, respectiv...

322

A FREEZE-DRIED DIET TO TEST BACTERIAL PATHOGENS OF COLORADO POTATO BEETLE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Colorado potato beetle is an important pest on potato, eggplant and tomato. Because Colorado potato beetles develop resistance to insecticides quickly, new methods are needed for control. Bacillus thuringiensis is the only bacteria to successfully control Colorado potato beetle. Until recently, ...

323

BIOLOGICAL AND SEROLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF POTATO VIRUS Y ISOLATES IN NORTHEASTERN US POTATOES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A survey of six potato viruses; PVA, PVM, PVS, PVX, PVY, and PLRV was conducted in New York and Maine during 2002 and 2003. Leaf samples were tested by ELISA and PVY-positive samples were further tested to determine if PVYN or PVYNTN were present. In both years, PVY and PVS were identified in a ma...

324

Dynamics of Responses in Compatible Potato - Potato virus Y Interaction Are Modulated by Salicylic Acid  

PubMed Central

To investigate the dynamics of the potatoPotato virus Y (PVY) compatible interaction in relation to salicylic acid - controlled pathways we performed experiments using non-transgenic potato cv. Désirée, transgenic NahG-Désirée, cv. Igor and PVYNTN, the most aggressive strain of PVY. The importance of salicylic acid in viral multiplication and symptom development was confirmed by pronounced symptom development in NahG-Désirée, depleted in salicylic acid, and reversion of the effect after spraying with 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid (a salicylic acid - analogue). We have employed quantitative PCR for monitoring virus multiplication, as well as plant responses through expression of selected marker genes of photosynthetic activity, carbohydrate metabolism and the defence response. Viral multiplication was the slowest in inoculated potato of cv. Désirée, the only asymptomatic genotype in the study. The intensity of defence-related gene expression was much stronger in both sensitive genotypes (NahG-Désirée and cv. Igor) at the site of inoculation than in asymptomatic plants (cv. Désirée). Photosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolism gene expression differed between the symptomatic and asymptomatic phenotypes. The differential gene expression pattern of the two sensitive genotypes indicates that the outcome of the interaction does not rely simply on one regulatory component, but similar phenotypical features can result from distinct responses at the molecular level. PMID:22194976

Baebler, Špela; Stare, Katja; Kova?, Maja; Blejec, Andrej; Prezelj, Nina; Stare, Tjaša; Kogovšek, Polona; Pompe-Novak, Maruša; Rosahl, Sabine; Ravnikar, Maja; Gruden, Kristina

2011-01-01

325

Application of FDM and FEM in solving the simultaneous heat and moisture transfer inside bread during baking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heat and mass transfer inside bread during baking can be taken as a multiphase flow problem, involving heat, liquid water and water vapour. Among the various developed models, the one based on an evaporation-condensation mechanism well explains several unique phenomenal observations during baking, and is most promising. This paper presents the results of numerically solving the one-dimensional case of this simultaneous transfer model by applying finite difference methods (FDM) and finite element methods (FEM). In particular, various FDM and FEM schemes are applied and the sensitivity of the results to the changes within the parameters are studied. Changes in bread temperature and moisture are characterised by some critical values such as peak water level and dry-out time. Comparison between the results by FDM and FEM is made.

Zhou, Weibiao

2005-01-01

326

Conservation Research and Development/ New Ultra-Low Carbon High Strength Steels with Improved Bake Hardenability for Enhanced Stretch Formability and Dent Resistance  

SciTech Connect

Conservation Research and Development/New Ultra-Low Carbon High Strength Steels with Improved Bake Hardenability for Enhanced Stretch Formability and Dent Resistance. The experimental work can be divided into four phases. In each phase, the materials were received or designed, processed and tested, to evaluate the BH increment or response, as a function of compositions and processing conditions. Microstructural characterization by various techniques was performed in order to gain insights into the mechanisms of flow stress increment by bake hardening.

Anthony J. DeArdo; C. Isaac Garcia

2003-12-15

327

Estimating baking temperatures in a Roman pottery kiln by rock magnetic properties: implications of thermochemical alteration on archaeointensity determinations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Absolute past geomagnetic field intensity determinations requiring laboratory heating are labourious and the success rate is rather low, mostly because of induced thermochemical magnetic mineral alterations. Archaeomagnetic intensity determinations are mainly limited to displaced ceramics produced in kilns. In this study, the suitability of an in situ baked structure is investigated. Different magnetic properties of baked material taken from the combustion chamber wall and floor of a Roman pottery kiln, with variable colouring, are examined in dependence on the distance to the combustion chamber. The temperature distribution is re-constructed based on rock magnetic experiments after stepwise heating. The rock magnetic temperature estimates agree fairly well with a mathematical heat conduction model demonstrating the penetration of heat into the combustion chamber wall. The rock magnetic results show that blackish- and greyish-coloured kiln parts, that had been in close contact with the fuel, during ancient kiln operation, are not suitable for intensity determinations. Although sufficiently baked, they strongly alter during laboratory heating and new remanence-carrying minerals are formed. The brownish-coloured material at a distance 65-80 mm away from the combustion chamber seems to be most suitable as its magnetic properties remain nearly unchanged during laboratory heating. Rock magnetic and modelled temperature estimates for this material consistently indicate ancient baking temperatures of about 600°C. The model demonstrates that cooling takes longer in the inner parts of the combustion chamber wall. Retarded cooling affects the blocking temperatures and hence the strength of the thermoremanent magnetization. The variability of cooling rates should be taken into account when investigating archaeointensities of specimens cut from large samples, or of samples taken from different parts of a kiln.

Spassov, Simo; Hus, Jozef

2006-11-01

328

Polyphenol composition and in vitro antioxidant activity of amaranth, quinoa buckwheat and wheat as affected by sprouting and baking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the polyphenol composition and antioxidant properties of methanolic extracts from amaranth, quinoa, buckwheat and wheat, and evaluated how these properties were affected following two types of processing: sprouting and baking. The total phenol content amongst the seed extracts were significantly higher in buckwheat (323.4mgGAE\\/100g) and decreased in the following order: buckwheat>quinoa>wheat>amaranth. Antioxidant capacity, measured by the radical

L. Alvarez-Jubete; H. Wijngaard; E. K. Arendt; E. Gallagher

2010-01-01

329

Microbiological examination of ready-to-eat foods and ready-to-bake frozen pastries from university canteens.  

PubMed

During a 10-year inspection survey (2001-2010), a microbiological study of ready-to-eat (RTE) foods and ready-to-bake frozen pastries from 15 canteens of the university campus was undertaken to determine their microbiological quality. The cumulative study revealed that the aerobic colony counts for the RTE product groups were as follows: from 10(6) to 10(8) CFU/g for 50% of sandwiches; under the detection limit (<10 CFU/g) for 88.6% of oven baked pastries; <10(5) CFU/g for 86.5% of desserts oven baked; from 10(3) to 10(9) CFU/g for desserts with dairy cream. The highest mean Enterobacteriaceae counts were recorded for desserts with dairy cream. The highest percentages of foodborne pathogens were: 20% Listeria monocytogenes and 12.5% Staphylococcus aureus in desserts with dairy cream; 17.5% Salmonella spp. and 8.5% presumptive Escherichia coli O157 in sandwiches; 14.6% Bacillus cereus in oven baked pastries. Aerobic colony counts were in the range 10(7)-10(8) CFU/g for 48.8% of frozen pastries; whereas Enterobacteriaceae counts between 10(3) and 10(4) CFU/g were detected in 35.3%. Foodborne pathogens prevalences for frozen pastries were as follows: B. cereus, 31.8%; Salmonella spp., 28.6%; presumptive E. coli O157, 25%; S. aureus, 8.7%; L. monocytogenes, 8.7%. Improved sanitary conditions in the processing plants and precautionary measures are necessary for consumer protection. PMID:23541200

Kotzekidou, Parthena

2013-06-01

330

Severe metabolic alkalosis due to baking soda ingestion: case reports of two patients with unsuspected antacid overdose.  

PubMed

Oral ingestion of baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) has been used for decades as a home remedy for acid indigestion. Excessive bicarbonate ingestion places patients at risk for a variety of metabolic derangements including metabolic alkalosis, hypokalemia, hypernatremia, and even hypoxia. The clinical presentation is highly variable but can include seizures, dysrhythmias, and cardiopulmonary arrest. We present two cases of severe metabolic alkalosis in patients with unsuspected antacid overdose. The presentation and pathophysiology of antacid-related metabolic alkalosis is reviewed. PMID:9950389

Fitzgibbons, L J; Snoey, E R

1999-01-01

331

Processing of kansui roots stir-baked with vinegar reduces kansui-induced hepatocyte cytotoxicity by decreasing the contents of toxic terpenoids and regulating the cell apoptosis pathway.  

PubMed

Euphorbia kansui is a Traditional Chinese Medicine widely used for the treatment of oedema, ascites and asthma. However, its serious hepatotoxicity hinders its safe clinical application. The process of stir-baking with vinegar is regularly used to reduce the toxicity of kansui. Up till now, the exact mechanism of the reduction in hepatotoxicity of kansui stir-baked with vinegar has been poorly defined. In this study, decreased  contents of five diterpene and one triterpene in kansui (GS-1) after stir-baking with vinegar (GS-2) was investigated by UPLC-QTOF/MS. Flow cytometry and Hoechst staining were used to show that the stir-baking with vinegar process reduces kansui-induced cell apoptosis. Furthermore, the result also indicated that kansui stir-baked with vinegar protects LO2 cells from apoptosis by increasing the cell mitochondrial membrane potential (??m), decreasing the release of cytochrome c and inhibiting the activities of caspase-9 and caspase-3 as evidenced by means of high content screening (HCS), ELISA and western blotting. These results suggested that the stir-baking vinegar could reduce the hepatotoxicity of kansui by effectively decreasing the contents of toxic terpenoids and inhibiting the intrinsic pathway of hepatocyte cell apoptosis. In conclusion, the study provided significant data for promoting safer and better clinical use of this herb. PMID:24896263

Yan, Xiaojing; Zhang, Li; Guo, Jianming; Cao, Yudan; Shang, Erxin; Tang, Yuping; Ding, Anwei; Duan, Jin-Ao

2014-01-01

332

6.EE Chocolate Bar Sales  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Stephanie is helping her band collect money to fund a field trip. The band decided to sell boxes of chocolate bars. Each bar sells for \\$1.50 and each ...

333

Effect of baking process on added folic acid and endogenous folates stability in wheat and rye breads.  

PubMed

In Poland bread as a staple food both made from wheat and rye flour can be a potential product for future fortification with folic acid. The objective of the study was to examine the effect of fermentation and baking on added folic acid and some endogenous folates stability during breadmaking of rye and wheat breads. Breads were produced using the formulation containing enriched flour with 0.2 mg folic acid/100 g product, baker's yeast and additionally ascorbic acid for wheat bread and lactic acid for rye bread. Folates were extracted with Hepes/Ches buffer (pH = 7.85) followed by destruction of matrix by amylase and protease and deconjugation with rat serum conjugase. Affinity chromatography (FBP bovine milk) was used to purify and concentrate samples. The folates were separated by HPLC with C18 column and with a combination of fluorescence and UV detection. For both rye and wheat breads there was a decrease of folic acid from flour to bread stage. The total losses depend on baking process and ranged from 12 to 21%. Some changes in the level of different native folate forms during the stage of baking process were also observed. PMID:16021829

Gujska, Elzbieta; Majewska, Katarzyna

2005-06-01

334

Effect of dentifrice containing fluoride and/or baking soda on enamel demineralization/remineralization: an in situ study.  

PubMed

The additive effect of baking soda on the anticariogenic effect of fluoride dentifrice is not well established. To evaluate it, a crossover in situ study was done in three phases of 28 days. Volunteers, using acrylic palatal appliances containing four human enamel blocks, two sound (to evaluate demineralization) and two with artificial caries lesions (to evaluate remineralization), took part in this study. During each phase, 10% sucrose solution was dripped (3 times a day) only onto the sound blocks. After 10 min, a slurry of placebo, fluoride (F) or fluoride and baking soda (F+NaHCO(3)) dentifrice was dripped onto all enamel blocks. The results showed a higher F concentration in dental plaque formed during treatment with F+NaHCO(3) than placebo (p<0.05), but the difference related to F dentifrice was not significant. The enamel demineralization was lower, and remineralization was greater, after treatment with F+NaHCO(3) than placebo (p<0.05), but the difference related to F dentifrice was not significant. The data suggest that baking soda neither improves nor impairs the effect of F dentifrice on reduction of demineralization and enhancement of remineralization of enamel. PMID:11275669

Cury, J A; Hashizume, L N; Del Bel Cury, A A; Tabchoury, C P

2001-01-01

335

Cultural systems for growing potatoes in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Higher plants are being evaluated for life support to provide needed food, oxygen and water as well as removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The successful utilization of plants in space will require the development of not only highly productive growing systems but also highly efficient bioregenerative systems. It will be necessary to recycle all inedible plant parts and all human wastes so that the entire complement of elemental compounds can be reused. Potatoes have been proposed as one of the desirable crops because they are 1) extremely productive, yielding more than 100 metric tons per hectare from field plantings, 2) the edible tubers are high in digestible starch (70%) and protein (10%) on a dry weight basis, 3) up to 80% of the total plant production is in tubers and thus edible, 4) the plants are easily propagated either from tubers or from tissue culture plantlets, 5) the tubers can be utilized with a minimum of processing, and 6) potatoes can be prepared in a variety of different forms for the human diet (Tibbitts et al., 1982). However potatoes have a growth pattern that complicates the development of growing the plants in controlled systems. Tubers are borne on underground stems that are botanically termed 'rhizomes', but in common usage termed 'stolons'. The stolons must be maintained in a dark, moist area with sufficient provision for enlargement of tubers. Stems rapidly terminate in flowers forcing extensive branching and spreading of plants so that individual plants will cover 0.2 m2 or more area. Thus the growing system must be developed to provide an area that is darkened for tuber and root growth and of sufficient size for plant spread. A system developed for growing potatoes, or any plants, in space will have certain requirements that must be met to make them a useful part of a life support system. The system must 1) be constructed of materials, and involve media, that can be reused for many successive cycles of plant growth, 2) involve a minimum quantity of media, 3) contain media that is essentially inert and not oxidize or degrade with use, 4) utilize a recirculating nutrient solution to permit regulation of pH and nutrient concentrations, and 5) be capable of complete automation of all planting, maintenance and harvesting procedures.

Tibbitts, T.; Bula, R.; Corey, R.; Morrow, R.

1988-01-01

336

Mechanisms and Modeling of Bake-Hardening Steels: Part II. Complex Loading Paths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The strain-path dependence of yield strength and mechanical behavior of bake hardening (BH) steels have been investigated. In addition to standard BH tensile tests, samples have been prestrained in plane tension, equibiaxial tension, and shear. After aging at 170 °C for 20 minutes, tensile and shear tests have been carried out to examine the strain-path dependence of the mechanical behavior. A polycrystalline self-consistent model was introduced to model the strain-path dependence of the BH effect. The aging treatment was simulated by an additional hardening term in the model. Simulations were performed for various strain paths, and the influence of aging on yield strength was examined. Results showed that yield strength increase follows a master curve in agreement with experiments and literature. Strain-path dependence of BH was then modeled by a macroscopic hardening term in order to carry out computations with a finite element (FE) method code. Simulations of the dent test were performed and compared with experiments for aged or unaged BH steels.

Ballarin, V.; Perlade, A.; Lemoine, X.; Bouaziz, O.; Forest, S.

2009-06-01

337

Substituting Normal and Waxy-Type Whole Wheat Flour on Dough and Baking Properties  

PubMed Central

Normal (cv. Keumkang, KK) and waxy-type (cv. Shinmichal, SMC) whole wheat flour was substituted at 20 and 40% for white wheat flour (WF) during bread dough formulation. The flour blends were subjected to dough and baking property measurement in terms of particle size distribution, dough mixing, bread loaf volume and crumb firmness. The particle size of white wheat flour was the finest, with increasing coarseness as the level of whole wheat flour increased. Substitution of whole wheat flour decreased pasting viscosity, showing all RVA parameters were the lowest in SMC40 composite flour. Water absorption was slightly higher with 40% whole wheat flour regardless of whether the wheat was normal or waxy. An increased mixing time was observed when higher levels of KK flour were substituted, but the opposite reaction occurred when SMC flour was substituted at the same levels. Bread loaf volume was lower in breads containing a whole wheat flour substitution compared to bread containing only white wheat flour. No significant difference in bread loaf volume was observed between normal and waxy whole flour, but the bread crumb firmness was significantly lower in breads containing waxy flour. The results of these studies indicate that up to 40% whole wheat flour substitution could be considered a practical option with respect to functional qualities. Also, replacing waxy whole flour has a positive effect on bread formulation over normal whole wheat flour in terms of improving softness and glutinous texture. PMID:24471084

Choi, Induck; Kang, Chun-Sik; Cheong, Young-Keun; Hyun, Jong-Nae; Kim, Kee-Jong

2012-01-01

338

Mechanisms and Modeling of Bake-Hardening Steels: Part I. Uniaxial Tension  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A physically based model for bake-hardening (BH) steels is developed suitable to predict the BH as well as the macroscopic behavior of strain-aged steels in tensile tests, such as the lower yield stress and the yield point elongation or Lüders strain. A description of the strain aging kinetics is given by considering two aging steps: Cottrell atmospheres formation and precipitation of coherent carbides. The modeling includes the effect of solute carbon content, aging time, temperature, and prestrain. Then, a numerical approach of Lüders phenomenon using finite element (FE) method codes is conducted. The strain aging model is eventually coupled with the previous numerical study thanks to a local mechanical behavior that schematically describes the local dislocation behavior. Simulations of tensile tests are performed and agree well with experiments carried out on aluminum-killed (AlK) and ULC BH steels, in terms of lower yield stress and yield point elongation. Effects of aging treatment, grain size, and strain rate on the macroscopic behavior are particularly enlightened.

Ballarin, V.; Soler, M.; Perlade, A.; Lemoine, X.; Forest, S.

2009-06-01

339

Effect of baking improvers on the quality of whole cassava biscuits.  

PubMed

Improving agents such as ascorbic acid, sodium metabisulphite, sorbic acid and soyflour were used in the production of whole cassava biscuits. Cassava flour and small amount of soyflour were produced. Bulk density, water binding capacity and amylograph viscosity of cassava flour were determined. Mixing and dough extrusion time were recorded for each sample of biscuit dough developed with addition of improvers. Length, width and thickness of cut-out dough were measured before and after baking to evaluate biscuits flow. Proximate and sensory analysis of the biscuits samples was also determined. The result showed that, there was a slight decrease in mixing time, extrusion time, length and width of the biscuits samples prepared with improvers. However, there was a considerable increase in biscuits thickness. Amylograph result showed an improvement in flour stability and low retrogadation tendency, most especially flour with inclusion of ascorbic acid. Crude protein and fat increased with sample contained soyflour. Sensory evaluation result indicated no significant difference among the samples except the texture of the biscuits. PMID:25328229

Obadina, A O; Oyewole, O B; Olaniyi, G

2014-10-01

340

Vertical capacitive SiBARs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work introduces high frequency, vertical silicon bulk acoustic resonators (SiBAR). A combination of the new resonator structures with much larger transduction area and the HARPSS fabrication process is used to demonstrate high frequency capacitive resonators with significantly lower impedances compared to the previous capacitive resonators. Impedances as low as a few kilo-Ohms and quality factors in the range of

Siavash Pourkamali; Gavin K. Ho; Farrokh Ayazi

2005-01-01

341

Glycaemic index values for commercially available potatoes in Great Britain.  

PubMed

The glycaemic response to eight potato varieties commercially available in Great Britain was compared against a glucose standard in a non-blind, randomised, repeated measure, crossover design trial. Seventeen healthy subjects (three males, fourteen females), mean age 32 (sd 13) years and mean BMI 22.3 (sd 3.6) kg/m2, were recruited to the study. Subjects were served portions of eight potato varieties and a standard food (glucose), on separate occasions, each containing 50 g carbohydrate. Capillary blood glucose was measured from finger-prick samples in fasted subjects (0 min) and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min after the consumption of each test food. For each potato variety, the glycaemic index (GI) value was calculated geometrically by expressing the incremental area under the blood glucose curve (IAUC) as a percentage of each subject's average IAUC for the standard food. The eight potato varieties exhibited a wide range in GI values from 56 to 94. A trend was seen whereby potatoes with waxy textures produced medium GI values, whilst floury potatoes had high GI values. Considering the widespread consumption of potatoes in Great Britain (933-1086 g per person per week), this information could be used to help lower the overall GI and glycaemic load of the diets of the British population. PMID:16351768

Henry, C Jeya K; Lightowler, Helen J; Strik, Caroline M; Storey, Michael

2005-12-01

342

Isolation of Bacillus cytotoxicus from various commercial potato products.  

PubMed

Bacillus (B.) cytotoxicus is a newly described thermotolerant member of the Bacillus cereus group. This potential foodborne pathogen had so far only been isolated from vegetable products, including mashed potatoes. Here we report the detection of B. cytotoxicus in a variety of potato products taken on retail level or from catering establishments (n=151). Identification of isolates as B. cytotoxicus was performed after enrichment at 50°C, followed by differentiation using Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy and detection of the specific cytK-1 gene by PCR. Thirty-five percent of all samples were positive for B. cytotoxicus. Highest prevalence was found in dehydrated potato products (44/62=71%) such as powder for mashed potatoes and products made thereof. B. cytotoxicus was not detected in products that were evidently made directly from potatoes (n=24) but in one sample of raw potatoes (n=10; 10%). The high prevalence of this thermotolerant pathogen in potato products could pose a risk for consumers, especially if prepared foods are held at improper holding temperatures. PMID:24440535

Contzen, Matthias; Hailer, Mandy; Rau, Jörg

2014-03-17

343

Copy number variation in potato - an asexually propagated autotetraploid species.  

PubMed

Copy number variation (CNV) has been revealed as a significant contributor to the genetic variation in humans. Although CNV has been reported in several model animal and plant species, the presence of CNV and its biological impact in polyploid species has not yet been documented. We conducted a fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)-based CNV survey in potato, a vegetatively propagated autotetraploid species (2n = 4x = 48). We conducted FISH analysis using 18 randomly selected potato bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones in a set of 16 potato cultivars with diverse breeding backgrounds. Six BACs (33%) with insert sizes of 137-145 kb were found to be associated with large CNV events detectable at the cytological level. We demonstrate that the large CNVs associated with two specific BACs (RH102I10 and RH83C08) were widespread among potato cultivars developed in North America and Europe. We measured the transcript abundance of four genes associated with the CNV spanned by BAC RH102I10. All four genes displayed a dosage effect in transcription. Although potato is vegetatively propagated, we observed that female gametes lacking the RH102I10-associated CNV were inferior to those with at least one copy of this CNV, indicating that the RH102I10-associated CNV can impact on the growth and development of the potato plants. Our results show that CNV is highly abundant in the potato genome and may play a significant role in genetic variation of this important food crop. PMID:23573982

Iovene, Marina; Zhang, Tao; Lou, Qunfeng; Buell, C Robin; Jiang, Jiming

2013-07-01

344

Microbial Control of Potato Tuberworm in Potato Plants and Tuber Storage with Emphasis on Research Conducted in the Pacific Northwest of the United States  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Several natural enemies are reported from potato tuberworm (PTW) including insects (parasitoids and predators) and pathogens. Naturally occurring insect specific pathogens and inundatively applied biopesticides can significantly contribute to control of the potato tuberworm (PTW). The most researche...

345

Involvement of ethylene in potato microtuber dormancy  

PubMed

Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) single-node explants undergoing in vitro tuberization produced detectable amounts of ethylene throughout tuber development, and the resulting microtubers were completely dormant (endodormant) for at least 12 to 15 weeks. The rate of ethylene production by tuberizing explants was highest during the initial 2 weeks of in vitro culture and declined thereafter. Continuous exposure of developing microtubers to the noncompetitive ethylene antagonist AgNO3 via the culture medium resulted in a dose-dependent increase in precocious sprouting. The effect of AgNO3 on the premature loss of microtuber endodormancy was observed after 3 weeks of culture. Similarly, continuous exposure of developing microtubers to the competitive ethylene antagonist 2, 5-norbornadiene (NBD) at concentrations of 2 mL/L (gas phase) or greater also resulted in a dose-dependent increase in premature sprouting. Exogenous ethylene reversed this response and inhibited the precocious sprouting of NBD-treated microtubers. NBD treatment was effective only when it was begun within 7 d of the start of in vitro explant culture. These results indicate that endogenous ethylene is essential for the full expression of potato microtuber endodormancy, and that its involvement may be restricted to the initial period of endodormancy development. PMID:9808728

Suttle

1998-11-01

346

Analysis of Iranian Potato virus S isolates.  

PubMed

Two hundred forty potato samples with one or more symptoms of leaf mosaic, distortion, mottling and yellowing were collected between 2005 and 2008 from seven Iranian provinces. Forty-four of these samples tested positive with double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (DAS-ELISA) using a Potato virus S (PVS) polyclonal antibody. Of these 12 isolates of PVS were selected based on the geographical location for biological and molecular characterization. The full coat protein (CP) and 11K genes from 12 PVS isolates were PCR amplified, cloned and sequenced. All 12 PVS isolates showed mosaic symptoms on Nicotiana debneyii and N. tabacum cv. Whiteburly and local lesion on Chenopodium amaranticolor, C. quinoa and C. album. The Iranian isolates share between 93 and 100% pairwise nucleotide identity with other PVS(O) isolates. Based on maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis coupled with pairwise identity analysis, we propose 15 genotypes for the PVS(O) strain and 3 genotypes for the PVS(A) strain. PMID:21567245

Salari, Khadijeh; Massumi, Hossein; Heydarnejad, Jahangir; Hosseini Pour, Akbar; Varsani, Arvind

2011-10-01

347

In Vitro Conservation of Sweet Potato Genotypes  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to develop a protocol for the in vitro conservation of sweet potato genotypes using the slow growth technique. The first experiment was conducted in a 4 × 5 × 2 factorial scheme, testing four genotypes (IPB-007, IPB-052, IPB-072, and IPB-137), five concentrations of abscisic acid (ABA) (0.0, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 8.0?mg·L?1), and two temperatures (18 and 25°C). The second experiment was conducted in a 4 × 3 × 3 factorial scheme at 18°C, testing four genotypes (IPB-007, IPB-052, IPB-072, and IPB-137), three variations of MS salts (50, 75, and 100%), and three concentrations of sucrose (10, 20, and 30?g·L?1). Every three months, we evaluated the survival (%), shoot height, and shoot viability. In vitro conservation of the sweet potato genotypes IPB-052 and IPB-007 was obtained over three and six months, respectively, using MS medium plus 2.0?mg·L?1 of ABA at either 18 or 25°C. Genotypes IPB-072 and IPB-137 can be kept for three and six months, respectively, in MS medium without ABA at 18°C. It is possible to store IPB-052 and IPB-072 for six months and IPB-007 and IPB-137 for nine months using 30?g·L?1 of sucrose and 50% MS salts. PMID:24563627

Arrigoni-Blank, Maria de Fátima; Tavares, Fernanda Ferreira; dos Santos, Maria Clézia; Menezes, Thays Saynara Alves; de Santana, Aléa Dayane Dantas

2014-01-01

348

Field Diseases of the Sweet Potato in Texas.  

E-print Network

is lnade at the season of maximum growth. Many of the feeding rootlets will be totally destroyed, while others will have numerous brownisll, water-soaked spots at various intervals. Pox also attacks the larger edible roots, in which case numerous dark..., Jour. Agr. Research, 13 : 437-450, 191 8. FIELD DISEASES OF THE SWEET POTATO IN TEXAS. 13 \\ resulting in a deformed potato (Fig. 23). Pox does not worli very deep in the larger roots and does not affect the edible quality of the potato, hence...

Taubenhaus, J. J. (Jacob Joseph)

1919-01-01

349

Microstructural, Cooking and Textural Characteristics of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L) Tubers in Relation to Physicochemical and Functional Properties of their Flours  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Relationship between structural, cooking, and texture properties of potatoes; and thermal, pasting, and textural properties of potato meal was studied for six indian potato cultivars. Particular consideration was given to the association between mealiness of cooked potatoes and functional propertie...

350

Membrane Curvature: How BAR Domains Bend Bilayers  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important new structure suggests the BAR domain is a membrane-binding module that can both produce and sense membrane curvature. BAR resembles a banana that binds membranes electrostatically through its positively charged, concave surface.

Joshua Zimmerberg; Stuart McLaughlin

2004-01-01

351

Signaling behind bars: a role for bar domains  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this thesis we describe several novel components of growth factor receptor and RhoGTPase activation and signaling. We have demonstrated that the F-BAR protein PACSIN2 is an important regulator of Rac1 output and, as a consequence, cell spreading and migration. This study further established the importance of traffic in the regulation of RhoGTPase function. In addition, we identified HMHA1 as

Kreuk de B.-J

2012-01-01

352

The Current Incidence of Viral Disease in Korean Sweet Potatoes and Development of Multiplex RT-PCR Assays for Simultaneous Detection of Eight Sweet Potato Viruses  

PubMed Central

Sweet potato is grown extensively from tropical to temperate regions and is an important food crop worldwide. In this study, we established detection methods for 17 major sweet potato viruses using single and multiplex RT-PCR assays. To investigate the current incidence of viral diseases, we collected 154 samples of various sweet potato cultivars showing virus-like symptoms from 40 fields in 10 Korean regions, and analyzed them by RT-PCR using specific primers for each of the 17 viruses. Of the 17 possible viruses, we detected eight in our samples. Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV) and sweet potato virus C (SPVC) were most commonly detected, infecting approximately 87% and 85% of samples, respectively. Furthermore, Sweet potato symptomless virus 1 (SPSMV-1), Sweet potato virus G (SPVG), Sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV), Sweet potato virus 2 ( SPV2), Sweet potato chlorotic fleck virus (SPCFV), and Sweet potato latent virus (SPLV) were detected in 67%, 58%, 47%, 41%, 31%, and 20% of samples, respectively. This study presents the first documented occurrence of four viruses (SPVC, SPV2, SPCFV, and SPSMV-1) in Korea. Based on the results of our survey, we developed multiplex RT-PCR assays for simple and simultaneous detection of the eight sweet potato viruses we recorded. PMID:25506306

Kwak, Hae-Ryun; Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Shin, Jun-Chul; Lee, Ye-Ji; Seo, Jang-Kyun; Lee, Hyeong-Un; Jung, Mi-Nam; Kim, Sun-Hyung; Choi, Hong-Soo

2014-01-01

353

Content of polyphenols in coloured and yellow fleshed potatoes during dices processing.  

PubMed

The purpose of the research was to examine the effect of the laboratory production of dried potato dice on the content of phenolic compounds in one yellow-fleshed potato variety and four blue-fleshed potatoes varieties. Coloured-flesh potato varieties were characterised by about three times higher amount of total phenolic content than traditional yellow-fleshed ones. The predominating phenolic acids in potato were chlorogenic acid and its isomers, which account about 90% of total phenolic content in tubers. The phenolic acid content decreased by 80% after peeling the blue-fleshed potatoes and by 60% after peeling the yellow variety. The dried potato dice obtained from yellow-fleshed potatoes had no content of phenolic acids but produced from colour-fleshed potatoes contained about 4% of the original phenolic content of the raw material. Chlorogenic acid amounted about 97% of total phenolic acid content, and the rest was neochlorogenic acid. PMID:24837944

Rytel, E; Tajner-Czopek, A; Kita, A; Anio?owska, M; Kucharska, A Z; Sokó?-??towska, A; Hamouz, K

2014-10-15

354

Membrane Curvature: How BAR Domains Bend Bilayers  

E-print Network

Membrane Curvature: How BAR Domains Bend Bilayers Dispatch Joshua Zimmerberg1 and Stuart McLaughlin2 An important new structure suggests the BAR domain is a membrane-binding module that can both of the BAR domain, apparently in the absence of any substantial hydrophobic insertion into the membrane

McMahon, Harvey

355

Algorithms: Sorting Amotz Bar-Noy  

E-print Network

Algorithms: Sorting Amotz Bar-Noy CUNY Spring 2012 Amotz Bar-Noy (CUNY) Algorithms: Sorting Spring 2012 1 / 51 #12;The Sorting Problem Keys: Entities from a well ordered domain. Comparison: For 2 keys K keys. Amotz Bar-Noy (CUNY) Algorithms: Sorting Spring 2012 2 / 51 #12;Complexity of the Sorting Problem

Bar-Noy, Amotz

356

Measurement of the semileptonic decays B-bar-->D tau - nu -bar tau and B-bar-->D* tau - nu -bar tau  

E-print Network

We present measurements of the semileptonic decays B--->D0?-?[over-bar] ?, B--->D*0?-?[over-bar] ?, B? 0-->D+?-?? ?, and B? 0-->D*+?-?[over-bar] ?, which are sensitive to non-standard model amplitudes in certain scenarios. ...

Fisher, Peter H.

357

Increasing the efficiency of agronomy experiments in potato using INFOCROP-POTATO model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  This paper reports adaptations of a generic crop model IN FOCROP for potato and its application in increasing the efficiency\\u000a of agronomic experiments in tropical environments. A dataset of 13 experiments consisting of 153 treatments was assembled\\u000a from an extensive literature search. These experiments were conducted over the period 1976-1999 in diverse Indian locations\\u000a from 31 °N 75 ° E

J. P. Singh; P. M. Govindakrishnan; S. S. Lal; P. K. Aggarwal

2005-01-01

358

Physical and hydraulic properties of baked ceramic aggregates used for plant growth medium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Baked ceramic aggregates (fritted clay, arcillite) have been used for plant research both on the ground and in microgravity. Optimal control of water and air within the root zone in any gravity environment depends on physical and hydraulic properties of the aggregate, which were evaluated for 0.25-1-mm and 1-2-mm particle size distributions. The maximum bulk densities obtained by any packing technique were 0.68 and 0.64 g cm-3 for 0.25-1-mm and 1-2-mm particles, respectively. Wettable porosity obtained by infiltration with water was approximately 65%, substantially lower than total porosity of approximately 74%. Aggregate of both particle sizes exhibited a bimodal pore size distribution consisting of inter-aggregate macropores and intra-aggregate micropores, with the transition from macro- to microporosity beginning at volumetric water content of approximately 36% to 39%. For inter-aggregate water contents that support optimal plant growth there is 45% change in water content that occurs over a relatively small matric suction range of 0-20 cm H2O for 0.25-1-mm and 0 to -10 cm H2O for 1-2-mm aggregate. Hysteresis is substantial between draining and wetting aggregate, which results in as much as a approximately 10% to 20% difference in volumetric water content for a given matric potential. Hydraulic conductivity was approximately an order of magnitude higher for 1-2-mm than for 0.25-1-mm aggregate until significant drainage of the inter-aggregate pore space occurred. The large change in water content for a relatively small change in matric potential suggests that significant differences in water retention may be observed in microgravity as compared to earth.

Steinberg, Susan L.; Kluitenberg, Gerard J.; Jones, Scott B.; Daidzic, Nihad E.; Reddi, Lakshmi N.; Xiao, Ming; Tuller, Markus; Newman, Rebecca M.; Or, Dani; Alexander, J. Iwan. D.

2005-01-01

359

Researchers develop world's fastest bar code reader Researchers develop world's fastest bar code reader  

E-print Network

that is reflected by the bar code while the signal is still in the optical domain. This technique preventsResearchers develop world's fastest bar code reader Researchers develop world's fastest bar code breakthroughs in ultrafast analog-to-digital conversion, UCLA engineers have designed a bar code reader

Jalali. Bahram

360

RED MOUNTAIN BAR PUMPED STOR AGE PR OJEC T Red Mountain Bar Pumped Storage Project  

E-print Network

RED MOUNTAIN BAR PUMPED STOR AGE PR OJEC T Red Mountain Bar Pumped Storage Project Continuing a pumped storage project to generate electricity during peak demand. The proposed Red Mountain Bar Pumped for irrigation water storage, flood control, power production and recreation, the Red Mountain Bar Pumped Storage

Laughlin, Robert B.

361

Guidelines for Stadium Application to Potato Tubers Willie Kirk (PSMS, MSU), David Ross (Syngenta crop Protection), Phillip Wharton  

E-print Network

Guidelines for Stadium Application to Potato Tubers Willie Kirk (PSMS, MSU), David Ross (Syngenta crop Protection), Phillip Wharton and Nora Olsen (University of Idaho) Potatoes are susceptible leak (Pythium ultimum) and black dot (Colletotrichum coccodes). Current recommendations for potato

Douches, David S.

362

7 CFR 980.501 - Safeguard procedures for potatoes, onions, and tomatoes exempt from grade, size, quality, and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Safeguard procedures for potatoes, onions, and tomatoes exempt from grade, size... Safeguard procedures for potatoes, onions, and tomatoes exempt from grade, size...person who imports: (1) Potatoes, onions or tomatoes for consumption by...

2013-01-01

363

7 CFR 980.501 - Safeguard procedures for potatoes, onions, and tomatoes exempt from grade, size, quality, and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Safeguard procedures for potatoes, onions, and tomatoes exempt from grade, size... Safeguard procedures for potatoes, onions, and tomatoes exempt from grade, size...person who imports: (1) Potatoes, onions or tomatoes for consumption by...

2014-01-01

364

7 CFR 980.501 - Safeguard procedures for potatoes, onions, and tomatoes exempt from grade, size, quality, and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Safeguard procedures for potatoes, onions, and tomatoes exempt from grade, size... Safeguard procedures for potatoes, onions, and tomatoes exempt from grade, size...person who imports: (1) Potatoes, onions or tomatoes for consumption by...

2012-01-01

365

7 CFR 980.501 - Safeguard procedures for potatoes, onions, and tomatoes exempt from grade, size, quality, and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Safeguard procedures for potatoes, onions, and tomatoes exempt from grade, size... Safeguard procedures for potatoes, onions, and tomatoes exempt from grade, size...person who imports: (1) Potatoes, onions or tomatoes for consumption by...

2010-01-01

366

7 CFR 980.501 - Safeguard procedures for potatoes, onions, and tomatoes exempt from grade, size, quality, and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Safeguard procedures for potatoes, onions, and tomatoes exempt from grade, size... Safeguard procedures for potatoes, onions, and tomatoes exempt from grade, size...person who imports: (1) Potatoes, onions or tomatoes for consumption by...

2011-01-01

367

76 FR 80211 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Modification of the Handling Regulation for Area No. 3  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...AMS-FV-11-0051; FV11-948-1 FR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Modification of the Handling...SUMMARY: This rule revises the size requirements for potatoes under the Colorado potato marketing order (order). The order...

2011-12-23

368

No Holds Barred Issue 26  

E-print Network

1| (BUI lips rw^ (HSU raw NO HOLDS BARRED Issue No. TWENTY-SIX This issue features... BLAKE'S 7 WARNING: This fanzine contains same-sex, aduit-oriented material. It will not knowingly... relaxant?" Avon paused, both hands resting lightly on Toreth's thigh. This time the smile was an odd half-curve of the lips, which didn't bring any warmth to his eyes. "System flexibility. We don't have the luxury of assuming all our potential clients...

Multiple Contributors

2013-11-27

369

Advances in Functional Genomics and Genetic Modification of Potato  

Microsoft Academic Search

The challenges facing potato breeding have actually changed very little over the years with resistance to pests and pathogens\\u000a remaining high on the agenda together with improvements in storability, reduction in blemishes, and novelty and consistency\\u000a in cooking\\/processing qualities. The need to expand the range of targets for potato improvement is being driven by requirements\\u000a for reduced agrochemical usage and

Howard Davies; Glenn J. Bryan; Mark Taylor

2008-01-01

370

Simulation Models for Potato Late Blight Management and Ecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Late blight of potato has been one of the most widely studied diseases and particular attention has been given to the mathematical\\u000a description of disease development. Several process based simulation models have been developed and this paper focuses primarily\\u000a on several versions developed at Cornell University, and later through collaboration between that University, the International\\u000a Potato Center and the Volcani

G. A. Forbes; W. E. Fry; J. L. Andrade-Piedra; D. Shtienberg

371

Delayed Tillage and Cover Crop Effects in Potato Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Delayed tillage and the inclusion of cover crops can substantially reduce erosion in intensively tilled potato systems. Both\\u000a of these practices can potentially impact potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) yield and quality via changes in soil temperature and soil water status, and suppression or enhancement of soil-borne\\u000a diseases. Research was conducted over six rotation cycles at two Maine locations to evaluate

Timothy S. Griffin; Robert P. Larkin; C. W. Honeycutt

2009-01-01

372

A potato seedling that chips from cold storage without conditioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A potato seedling, F5208, that produced good-colored chips from tubers removed directly from cold storage is discussed. This\\u000a seedling yielded well, accumulated negligible quantities of reducing sugars in cold storage and had a high specific gravity\\u000a resulting in substantial yields of chips. The performance of this seedling suggests that it will be possible to develop potato\\u000a varieties that do not

R. B. Hyde; C. Walkof

1962-01-01

373

Subcellular membrane curvature mediated by the BAR domain superfamily proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs167 (BAR) domain superfamily consists of proteins containing the BAR domain, the extended FCH (EFC)\\/FCH-BAR (F-BAR) domain, or the IRSp53-MIM homology domain (IMD)\\/inverse BAR (I-BAR) domain. These domains bind membranes through electrostatic interactions between the negative charges of the membranes and the positive charges on the structural surface of homo-dimeric BAR domain superfamily members. Some BAR superfamily members have

Shiro Suetsugu; Kiminori Toyooka; Yosuke Senju

2010-01-01

374

Genetic modification of respiratory capacity in potato.  

PubMed Central

Mitochondrial respiration was altered in transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum) lines by overexpression of the alternative oxidase Aox1 gene. Overexpressing lines showed higher levels of Aox1 mRNA, increased levels of alternative oxidase protein(s), and an unusual higher molecular weight polypeptide, which may be a normal processing/modification intermediate. Evidence suggests that the alternative oxidase protein is further processed/modified beyond removal of the transit peptide. Addition of pyruvate to mitochondria oxidizing succinate or NADH increased the alternative pathway capacity but did not eliminate the difference in the capacity between these two substrates. Induction of alternative pathway capacity by aging of tubers appeared to be more dependent on increased levels of alternative oxidase protein than changes in its oxidation state. In leaf and tuber mitochondria, overexpressing lines possessed higher alternative pathway capacity than the control line, which suggests that changing the alternative oxidase protein level by genetic engineering can effectively change alternative pathway capacity. PMID:8587988

Hiser, C; Kapranov, P; McIntosh, L

1996-01-01

375

Potato virus X coat protein: a glycoprotein.  

PubMed

The coat protein (CP) genes of all the strains of potato virus X (PVX) code for a protein of 25 kDa. Analysis of the CP by SDS-PAGE shows a migration mobility of 27 to 29 kDa, depending of the strain. Amino acid identity between some strains is too high to explain such abnormal migration by differences in primary structure of the protein. Periodate oxidation demonstrated the presence of carbohydrate moieties in purified CP of six PVX strains (cp, CP4, HB, MS, DX, CS35), and trifluoromethanesulfonic acid treatment identified glycosylated and nonglycosylated bands in SDS-PAGE complex patterns of CP and in Western blots. Digestion with glycosidases, recognition by lectins, and mild alkali treatment (beta-elimination) of PVX CP indicated the presence of an O-linked sugar. PMID:8030230

Tozzini, A C; Ek, B; Palva, E T; Hopp, H E

1994-08-01

376

Rheological behaviour of heated potato starch dispersions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study was designed to investigate the rheological properties of heated potato starch dispersions. Water suspensions of starch were heated at 65, 80 or 95°C for 5, 15, 30 or 60 min. The dispersions obtained were examined for granule size distribution and rheology. It was found that the starch dispersions significantly differed in both respects. The mean diameters of starch granules were largest for the dispersion heated at 65°C and smallest for that heated at 95°C. As the heating temperature was raised, the yield stresses and consistency coefficients decreased, while the flow behaviour indexes and Casson plastic viscosities increased. There were also differences in the viscoelastic properties of the dispersions: for those heated at 65°C the storage and loss moduli increased with heating time whereas for those heated at 80°C both moduli decreased.

Juszczak, L.; Witczak, M.; Ziêba, T.; Fortuna, T.

2012-10-01

377

Mathematical modeling of laser based potato cutting and peeling.  

PubMed

A mathematical model is developed and validated to predict the depth of cut in potato tuber slabs as a function of laser power and travel speed. The model considers laser processing parameters such as input power, spot size and exposure time as well as the properties of the material being cut such as specific heat, thermal conductivity, surface reflectance, etc. The model also considers the phase change of water in potato and the ignition temperature of the solid portion. The composition of the potato tuber is assumed to be of water and solid. The model also assumes that the ablation process is accomplished through ejection of liquid water, debris and water vapour, and combustion of solid. A CO(2) laser operating in c.w. mode was chosen for the experimental work because water absorbs laser energy highly at 10.6 microm, and CO(2) laser units with relatively high output power are available. Slabs of potato tuber were chosen to be laser processed since potato contains high moisture and large amounts of relatively homogeneous tissue. The results of the preliminary calculations and experiments concluded that the model is able to predict the depth of cut in potato tuber parenchyma when subjected to a CO(2) laser beam. PMID:17324500

Ferraz, A Carlos O; Mittal, Gauri S; Bilanski, Walter K; Abdullah, Hussein A

2007-01-01

378

Novel in vitro inhibitory functions of potato tuber proteinaceous inhibitors.  

PubMed

Plant protease inhibitors are a structurally highly diverse and ubiquitous class of small proteins, which play various roles in plant development and defense against pests and pathogens. Particular isoforms inhibit in vitro proteases and other enzymes that are not their natural substrates, for example proteases that have roles in human diseases. Mature potato tubers are a rich source of several protease inhibitor families. Different cultivars have different inhibitor profiles. With the objective to explore the functional diversity of the natural diversity of potato protease inhibitors, we randomly selected and sequenced 9,600 cDNA clones originated from mature tubers of ten potato cultivars. Among these, 120 unique inhibitor cDNA clones were identified by homology searches. Eighty-eight inhibitors represented novel sequence variants of known plant protease inhibitor families. Most frequent were Kunitz-type inhibitors (KTI), potato protease inhibitors I and II (PIN), pectin methylesterase inhibitors, metallocarboxypeptidase inhibitors and defensins. Twenty-three inhibitors were functionally characterized after heterologous expression in the yeast Pichia pastoris. The purified recombinant proteins were tested for inhibitory activity on trypsin, eleven pharmacological relevant proteases and the non-proteolytic enzyme 5-lipoxygenase. Members of the KTI and PIN families inhibited pig pancreas elastase, ?-Secretase, Cathepsin K, HIV-1 protease and potato 5-lipoxygenase. Our results demonstrate in vitro inhibitory diversity of small potato tuber proteins commonly known as protease inhibitors, which might have biotechnological or medical applications. PMID:25260821

Fischer, Matthias; Kuckenberg, Markus; Kastilan, Robin; Muth, Jost; Gebhardt, Christiane

2015-02-01

379

Insertional Mutagenesis Using Tnt1 Retrotransposon in Potato1[OPEN  

PubMed Central

Insertional mutagenesis using transfer DNA or transposable elements, which is an important tool in functional genomics and is well established in several crops, has not been developed in potato (Solanum tuberosum). Here, we report the application of the tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) Tnt1 retrotransposon as an insertional mutagen in potato. The Tnt1 retrotransposon was introduced into a highly homozygous and self-compatible clone, 523-3, of the diploid wild potato species Solanum chacoense. Transposition of the Tnt1 elements introduced into 523-3 can be efficiently induced by tissue culture. Tnt1 preferentially inserted into genic regions in the potato genome and the insertions were stable during sexual reproduction, making Tnt1 an ideal mutagen in potato. Several distinct phenotypes associated with plant stature and leaf morphology were discovered in mutation screening from a total of 38 families derived from Tnt1-containing lines. We demonstrate that the insertional mutagenesis system based on Tnt1 and the 523-3 clone can be expanded to the genome-wide level to potentially tag every gene in the potato genome. PMID:23898040

Duangpan, Saowapa; Zhang, Wenli; Wu, Yufang; Jansky, Shelley H.; Jiang, Jiming

2013-01-01

380

Full Reconstruction of barB arrow D^(*) barD^(*) barK Decays.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the exclusive reconstruction of B decays to final states with two D mesons using data taken at the ?(4s). This represents the first exclusive reconstruction of ``upper-vertex'' (wrong-sign) charm. It further demonstrates that the previously observed B arrow D^(*) barD^(*) X decays (from Z-pole data) are often of the form X=K, consistent with an underlying b arrow cbarcs process.

Briere, Roy A.

1997-04-01

381

Construction of Reference Chromosome-Scale Pseudomolecules for Potato: Integrating the Potato Genome with Genetic and Physical Maps  

PubMed Central

The genome of potato, a major global food crop, was recently sequenced. The work presented here details the integration of the potato reference genome (DM) with a new sequence-tagged site marker?based linkage map and other physical and genetic maps of potato and the closely related species tomato. Primary anchoring of the DM genome assembly was accomplished by the use of a diploid segregating population, which was genotyped with several types of molecular genetic markers to construct a new ~936 cM linkage map comprising 2469 marker loci. In silico anchoring approaches used genetic and physical maps from the diploid potato genotype RH89-039-16 (RH) and tomato. This combined approach has allowed 951 superscaffolds to be ordered into pseudomolecules corresponding to the 12 potato chromosomes. These pseudomolecules represent 674 Mb (~93%) of the 723 Mb genome assembly and 37,482 (~96%) of the 39,031 predicted genes. The superscaffold order and orientation within the pseudomolecules are closely collinear with independently constructed high density linkage maps. Comparisons between marker distribution and physical location reveal regions of greater and lesser recombination, as well as regions exhibiting significant segregation distortion. The work presented here has led to a greatly improved ordering of the potato reference genome superscaffolds into chromosomal “pseudomolecules”. PMID:24062527

Sharma, Sanjeev Kumar; Bolser, Daniel; de Boer, Jan; Sønderkær, Mads; Amoros, Walter; Carboni, Martin Federico; D’Ambrosio, Juan Martín; de la Cruz, German; Di Genova, Alex; Douches, David S.; Eguiluz, Maria; Guo, Xiao; Guzman, Frank; Hackett, Christine A.; Hamilton, John P.; Li, Guangcun; Li, Ying; Lozano, Roberto; Maass, Alejandro; Marshall, David; Martinez, Diana; McLean, Karen; Mejía, Nilo; Milne, Linda; Munive, Susan; Nagy, Istvan; Ponce, Olga; Ramirez, Manuel; Simon, Reinhard; Thomson, Susan J.; Torres, Yerisf; Waugh, Robbie; Zhang, Zhonghua; Huang, Sanwen; Visser, Richard G. F.; Bachem, Christian W. B.; Sagredo, Boris; Feingold, Sergio E.; Orjeda, Gisella; Veilleux, Richard E.; Bonierbale, Merideth; Jacobs, Jeanne M. E.; Milbourne, Dan; Martin, David Michael Alan; Bryan, Glenn J.

2013-01-01

382

Survival of Salmonella Typhimurium in poultry-based meat preparations during grilling, frying and baking.  

PubMed

The burden of food-borne diseases still represents a threat to public health; in 2012, the domestic setting accounted for 57.6% of strong-evidence EU food-borne Salmonella outbreaks. Next to cross-contamination, inadequate cooking procedure is considered as one of the most important factors contributing to food-borne illness. The few studies which have assessed the effect of domestic cooking on the presence and numbers of pathogens in different types of meat have shown that consumer-style cooking methods can allow bacteria to survive and that the probability of eating home-cooked poultry meat that still contains surviving bacteria after heating is higher than previously assumed. Thus, the main purpose of this study was to reproduce and assess the effect of several types of cooking treatments (according to label instructions and not following label instructions) on the presence and numbers of Salmonella Typhimurium DT 104 artificially inoculated in five types of poultry-based meat preparations (burgers, sausages, ready-to-cook-kebabs, quail roulades and extruded roulades) that are likely to be contaminated by Salmonella. Three contamination levels (10cfu/g; 100cfu/g and 1000cfu/g) and three cooking techniques (grilling, frying and baking) were applied. Cooking treatments performed according to label instructions eliminated Salmonella Typhimurium (absence per 25g) for contamination levels of 10 and 100cfu/g but not for contamination levels of 1000cfu/g. After improper cooking, 26 out of 78 samples were Salmonella-positive, and 23 out of these 26 samples were artificially contaminated with bacterial loads between 100 and 1000cfu/g. Nine out of 26 samples provided quantifiable results with a minimum level of 1.4MPN/g in kebabs (initial inoculum level: 100cfu/g) after grilling and a maximum level of 170MPN/g recorded in sausages (initial inoculum level: 1000cfu/g) after grilling. Kebabs were the most common Salmonella-positive meat product after cooking, followed by sausages, burgers and extruded roulades; in relation to the type of cooking treatment applied, Salmonella Typhimurium was detected mostly after frying. Thus, following label instructions mostly, but not always, produced safe cooked poultry-based meat preparations, while the application of inadequate cooking treatments was not able to assure complete elimination of Salmonella from the products even with a low contamination level (10cfu/g). Consequently, there is a need to develop guidelines for producers and consumers and promote a multidisciplinary educational campaign in order to provide information on safe cooking and time-temperature combinations able to maintain the organoleptic qualities of meat. PMID:25540842

Roccato, Anna; Uyttendaele, Mieke; Cibin, Veronica; Barrucci, Federica; Cappa, Veronica; Zavagnin, Paola; Longo, Alessandra; Ricci, Antonia

2015-03-16

383

75 FR 1269 - Vegetable Import Regulations; Modification of Potato Import Regulations; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...10, 2009. The rule modified the import regulations for Irish potatoes and made minor administrative changes to the potato, onion, and tomato import regulations to update informational references. This document corrects two Code of Federal Regulation...

2010-01-11

384

Introgression of Wild Species Germplasm with Resistance to Cold Sweetening into the Cultivated Potato  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potato breeders are interested in developing chipping cultivars that can be stored at cold temperatures to reduce storage losses and increase profitability for potato producers. Commercial cultivars accumulate reducing sugars during cold storage, resulting in unacceptably dark chips when processed....

385

How-To-Do-It. A Beetle, a Bur, and the Potato: An Introduction to Ecology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how the interrelation of the potato beetle, the buffalo-bur, and the potato is used as an introduction to ecology. Methods of controlling the beetle and ecological principles illustrated in the interrelationship are discussed. (JN)

Jantzen, Paul G.

1983-01-01

386

Quantification of bovine ?-casein allergen in baked foodstuffs based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The quantification of allergens in food including baked food matrices is of great interest. The aim of the present study was to describe a non-immunologic method to quantify bovine ?-casein using ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UPLC-TQ-MS/MS) in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. Eight of 10 theoretical peptides from ?-casein after tryptic digestion were compared and MRM methods were developed to determine five signature peptides. The peptide VLPVPQK was selected as the signature peptide for bovine ?-casein because of the high sensitivity. A stable isotope-labelled internal standard was designed to adjust the instability of sample pre-treatment and ionisation caused by matrix effect. Using the present suspension digestion method, the native and denatured ?-casein could be digested to release the signature peptide at the maximum extent. The UPLC-TQ-MS/MS method developed based on a tryptic signature peptide led to a reliable determination of bovine ?-casein allergen in baked food matrices at a low quantitation level down to 500 ?g kg(-1) with a satisfactory accuracy (< 8.9%) and recovery (98.8% ± 2.6% to 106.7% ± 3.0%). PMID:25413212

Chen, Qi; Zhang, Jingshun; Ke, Xing; Lai, Shiyun; Tao, Baohua; Yang, Jinchuan; Mo, Weimin; Ren, Yiping

2015-01-01

387

Study of the effect of DATEM. 1. Influence of fatty acid chain length on rheology and baking.  

PubMed

To answer the question of which fatty acid residue is the most effective, diacetyltartaric esters of monoglycerides (DATEMs) with fatty acids of chain lengths 6:0-20:0 were synthesized. The activity of synthesized DATEMs and commercial DATEM products was studied by means of rheological methods and a microscale baking test with 10 g of flour. Variation of the acyl residue from 6:0 to 22:0 showed that stearic acid (18:0) had the best effect on the baking activity of DATEM (loaf volume increased by 62%). DATEMs containing unsaturated fatty acids (18:1, 18:2) or DATEMs produced from diacylglycerols instead of monoacylglycerols showed a slight increase of the loaf volumes. A slight effect of DATEM on the rheology of dough was observed. However, much greater was the effect on the gluten isolated from doughs prepared with DATEM. The resistance of gluten to extension was increased after the addition of increasing amounts of DATEM (0.1-0.5%). Within the series of DATEMs derived from the homologous series of monoacylglycerols the product based on glycerol monostearate (18:0) showed a maximum increase of the gluten resistance. PMID:10552463

Köhler, P; Grosch, W

1999-05-01

388

Assessing the accuracy of thermoluminescence for dating baked sediments beneath late Quaternary lava flows, Snake River Plain, Idaho  

SciTech Connect

Baked sediments beneath lava flows on the Snake River Plain, Idaho, with independent age control by either {sup 14}C or K/Ar dating were analyzed to evaluate the accuracy of the thermoluminescence (TL) technique. The age of flows ranges from {approximately}2 to 100 ka and multiple TL analyses by the total bleach method yielded ages that overlap at one sigma with independent chronologic control. The TL signal of one sample of baked sediment beneath a lava flow with an inferred age of at least 641 {plus_minus} 54 ka was near saturation, perhaps reflecting a relatively high environmental dose rate, and is not datable by TL. This study underscores several major limitations of luminescence geochronology, the natural spatial and temporal variability in environmental radioactivity and the susceptibility of silicate minerals to the growth and retention of a luminescence signal. Despite these limitations, the results demonstrate the utility of luminescence geochronology to date volcanic eruptive events during the Quaternary. 39 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

Forman, S.L.; Pierson, J. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)] [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Valentine, G. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others] [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); and others

1994-08-10

389

ON THE FRACTION OF BARRED SPIRAL GALAXIES  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the stellar masses of strongly barred spiral galaxies. Our analysis is based on a sample of {approx}14,000 visually classified nearby galaxies given by Nair and Abraham. The fraction of barred spiral galaxies is found to be a strong function of stellar mass and star formation history, with a minimum near the characteristic mass at which bimodality is seen in the stellar populations of galaxies. We also find that bar fractions are very sensitive to the central concentration of galaxies below the transition mass but not above it. This suggests that whatever process is causing the creation of the red and blue sequences is either influencing, or being influenced by, structural changes which manifest themselves in the absence of bars. As a consequence of strong bar fractions being sensitive to the mass range probed, our analysis helps resolve discrepant results on the reported evolution of bar fractions with redshift.

Nair, Preethi B.; Abraham, Roberto G., E-mail: preethi.nair@oabo.inaf.i, E-mail: abraham@astro.utoronto.c [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada)

2010-05-10

390

Contribution from the Resonance K*(1950) to D0-> bar K0? , bar K0? ' Decays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the effect of the isospin 1/2, JP = 0+ resonant state K0* (1950) on the decays D0-> bar K0? and D0-> bar K0 ? ' as a function of the branching ratio sum r = Br(K0* (1950)-> bar K0 ? ) + Br(K0* (1950)-> bar K0 ? ') and coupling constants g{K_0* bar K0 ? }, g{K_0* bar K0 ? '}. We have used a factorized input for D0-> K0* (1950) weak transition through a ?K loop. We estimated both on- and off-shell contributions from the loop. Our calculation shows that the off-shell effects are significant. For r ? 30% a fit to the decay amplitude A(D0-> bar K0 ? ') was possible, but the amplitude A(D0-> bar K0? ) remained at its factorized value. For small values of r, r ? 18%, we were able to fit A(D0-> bar K0 ? ), and despite the fact that A(D0-> bar K{bar 0} ? ') could be raised by almost 100% over its factorized value, it still falls short of its experimental value. A simultaneous fit to both amplitudes A(D0-> bar K0 ? ') and A(D0-> bar K0 ? ) was not possible.

Hassaan El Aaoud, El; Kamal, A. N.

2001-04-01

391

Boric Acid Reclamation System (BARS)  

SciTech Connect

KLM Technologies' personnel have identified a Boric Acid Reclamation System (BARS) utilizing reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration to produce a recyclable grade of otherwise waste boric acid at PWRs, thus reducing a major source of low-level radwaste. The design of a prototype BARS as a compact volume reduction system was the result of KLM's Phase 1 Program, and based upon a preliminary feasibility program, which assessed the applicability of membrane technology to refurbish and recycle waste boric acid from floor and equipment drain streams. The analysis of the overall program indicated a substantial savings regarding off-site disposal costs. Today's economic scenario indicates that optimization of volume reduction operation procedures could significantly reduce waste management costs, especially where burial penalties have become more severe. As a reaction to the economic burden imposed by final disposal, many nuclear plants are currently modifying their design and operating philosophies concerning liquid radwaste processing systems to meet stricter environmental regulations, and to derive potential economic benefits by reducing the ever-increasing volumes of wastes that are produced. To effect these changes, innovative practices in waste management and more efficient processing technologies are being successfully implemented.

Kniazewycz, B.G.; Markind, J.

1986-03-01

392

Dynamic Material Property Characterization with Kolsky Bars  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Split Hopkinson pressure bars (SHPB), also called Kolsky bars, have been widely used to determine the stressstrain\\u000a response of materials in the strain-rate range 102 – 104\\/s. Unlike quasi-static testing methods for material properties, the\\u000a high-rate Kolsky bar technique does not have a closed-loop control system to monitor and adjust\\u000a testing conditions on the specimen to specified levels. There are

Weinong W. Chen

393

Exploring the binding dynamics of bar proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used a continuum model based on the Helfrich free energy to investigate the binding dynamics of a lipid bilayer to a BAR\\u000a domain surface of a crescent-like shape of positive (e.g. I-BAR shape) or negative (e.g. F-BAR shape) intrinsic curvature.\\u000a According to structural data, it has been suggested that negatively charged membrane lipids are bound to positively charged\\u000a amino

Doron Kabaso; Ekaterina Gongadze; Jernej Jorga?evski; Marko Kreft; Ursula Van Rienen; Robert Zorec; Aleš Igli?

394

{bar K}-NUCLEAR Deeply Bound States?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the prediction by Akaishi and Yamazaki of relatively narrow {bar K}-nuclear states, deeply bound by over 100 MeV where the main decay channel {bar K} N -> ? ? is closed, several experimental signals in stopped K- reactions on light nuclei have been interpreted recently as due to such states. In this talk I review (i) the evidence from K--atom data for a deep bar K-nucleus potential, as attractive as V{bar K}(? 0) ˜ -(150 - 200) MeV at nuclear matter density, that could support such states; and (ii) the theoretical arguments for a shallow potential, V{bar K}(? 0) ˜ -(40 - 60) MeV. I then review a recent work by Mareš, Friedman and Gal in which {bar K}-nuclear bound states are generated dynamically across the periodic table, using a RMF Lagrangian that couples the {bar K} to the scalar and vector meson fields mediating the nuclear interactions. The reduced phase space available for {bar K} absorption from these bound states is taken into account by adding a density- and energy-dependent imaginary term, underlying the corresponding {bar K}-nuclear level widths, with a strength constrained by K--atom fits. Substantial polarization of the core nucleus is found for light nuclei, with central nuclear densities enhanced by almost a factor of two. The binding energies and widths calculated in this dynamical model differ appreciably from those calculated for a static nucleus. These calculations provide a lower limit of ? {bar K} ˜ 50 ± 10 MeV on the width of nuclear bound states for {bar K} binding energy in the range B{bar K} = 100 - 200 MeV.

Gal, Avraham

395

Seasonal Occurrence and Abundance of the Potato Psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli, in south central Washington  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli Sulc, has recently been identified as a vector of Candidatus Liberibacter, the putative causal agent of zebra chip (ZC) potato disease. ZC is causing millions of dollars in losses to the potato industry in the United States, Mexico, Central America, and New...

396

Tuberization Response to Photoperiod in Potato Haploid-Wild Species Hybrids  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Many useful quality and disease resistance traits for potato improvement come from wild Solanum relatives. Thus, an understanding of inheritance of tuberization in hybrid populations between wild and cultivated potatoes is important for the integration of good traits from wild potatoes. Four familie...

397

The economic impacts of disease suppressive rotations in Maine potato cropping systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potato cropping systems in Maine show little growth in per acre productivity over the last five decades, especially when compared to other Fall potato producing states. This stagnant productivity has put Maine’s potato producers at a competitive disadvantage in the market place. In 2003 long-term f...

398

Developing cold-chipping potato varieties by silencing the vacuolar invertase gene  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Accumulation of reducing sugars during cold storage is a persistent and costly problem for the potato processing industry. High temperature processing of potato tubers with elevated amounts of reducing sugars results in potato chips, fries and other products that are unacceptable to consumers becaus...

399

Complete genomic sequence of a tobacco rattle virus isolate from Michigan-grown potatoes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tobacco rattle virus (TRV) causes stem mottle on potato leaves and necrotic arcs and rings in potato tubers, known as corky ringspot disease. Recently, TRV was reported in Michigan potato tubers cv. FL1879 exhibiting corky ringspot disease. Sequence analysis of the RNA-1-encoded 16 kDa gene of the...

400

Volunteer Potato Density Influences Critical Time of Weed Removal in Bulb Onion  

E-print Network

Volunteer Potato Density Influences Critical Time of Weed Removal in Bulb Onion Martin M. Williams II, Corey V. Ransom, and W. Mack Thompson* Volunteer potato is highly competitive with onion and few control tactics are effective for removing this weed from an onion crop. Both volunteer potato density

Sims, Gerald K.

401

Incidence, distribution and association of Spongospora subterranea and Potato mop-top virus in Costa Rica  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A survey was conducted in 39 potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) fields in Costa Rica to determine incidence and association of Spongospora subterranea f. sp. subterranea and Potato mop-top pomovirus (PMTV). The fields were located in Costa Rica’s two major potato production regions, and were further char...

402

Structural properties and gelatinisation characteristics of potato and cassava starches and mutants thereof  

Microsoft Academic Search

The molecular size of amylopectin (AP) and amylose (AM), AP chain length distribution, crystallinity and granular structure (morphology and granule size distribution) of five wild type potato starches (wtps), five AM free potato starches (amfps), four high-AM potato starches (haps), one wild type cassava starch (wtcs) and one AM free cassava starch (amfcs) were investigated and related to their gelatinisation

S. V. Gomand; L. Lamberts; L. J. Derde; H. Groesaert; G. E. Vandeputte; B. Goderis; R. G. F. Visser; J. A. Delcour

2010-01-01

403

Molecular diagnostics of potato cyst nematodes (PCN) from the national survey  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The potato cyst nematodes (PCN) Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida are regulated pathogens of potato, a crop worth nearly $3.9 billion in the United States. Since the initial discovery of G. pallida in Idaho in 2006, extensive surveys of the major potato growing acreage have been carried out, to...

404

Evaluation of potato anaerobic digestate as a renewable alternative to peat moss in horticultural substrates  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potato peels and other low-value wastes from potato processing are currently being used as cattle feed or fermented to produce fuel-grade ethanol. The anaerobic fermentation of food wastes, including potato processing wastes, produces biogas (principally methane), which can be used directly for heat...

405

Characterization of management and environmental factors associated with regional variations in potato zebra chip occurrence  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potato zebra chip (ZC) disease, putatively caused by the bacterial pathogen ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’, which is vectored by the potato psyllid (Bactericera cockerelli), has caused widespread damage to the US potato production ever since its first discovery in south Texas in 2000. In t...

406

CROP ROTATION AND COVER CROP EFFECTS ON SOILBORNE DISEASES OF POTATO  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Seven different 2-yr rotations, consisting of barley/clover, canola, green bean, millet/rapeseed, soybean, sweet corn, and potato, all followed by potato, were assessed over an 8-yr period for their effects on the development of soilborne potato diseases and soil microbial communities. These same ro...

407

RAPD and pedigree-based genetic diversity estimates in cultivated diploid potato hybrids  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, RAPD and pedigree data were used to investigate the genetic relationships in a group of 45 diploid hybrid potato clones used in the breeding and genetics program of the Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Potato Research Centre in Fredericton, New Brunswick, and used for the potato after-cooking darkness program at the Nova Scotia Agricultural College. These hybrids were

Genlou Sun; Gefu Wang-Pruski; Michael Mayich; Hielke De Jong

2003-01-01

408

75 FR 38698 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Relaxation of Handling Regulation for Area No. 3  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...AMS-FV-08-0115; FV09-948-2 FIR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Relaxation of Handling...requirement prescribed under the Colorado potato marketing order. The interim rule provided for the handling of all varieties of potatoes with a minimum diameter of \\3/4\\...

2010-07-06

409

76 FR 48713 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Modifications of the Rules and Regulations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...AMS-FV-11-0024; FV11-946-3 FIR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Modifications of the Rules...inspection requirements prescribed for russet potato varieties under the Washington potato marketing order for the 2011-2012 and...

2011-08-09

410

78 FR 62967 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Temporary Change to the Handling Regulations and Reporting...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...AMS-FV-13-0067; FV13-946-2 IR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Temporary Change...for Yellow Fleshed and White Types of Potatoes AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service...fleshed and white skin (white types) potatoes from minimum quality, maturity,...

2013-10-23

411

76 FR 41589 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...AMS-FV-11-0012; FV11-946-2 FIR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Decreased Assessment...established for the State of Washington Potato Committee (Committee) for the 2011-2012...0035 to $0.003 per hundredweight of potatoes handled. The Committee locally...

2011-07-15

412

78 FR 48285 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...AMS-FV-13-0010; FV13-946-1 FIR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Decreased Assessment...established for the State of Washington Potato Committee (Committee) for the 2013-2014...003 to $0.0025 per hundredweight of potatoes handled. The Committee locally...

2013-08-08

413

76 FR 27850 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Modification of the Rules and Regulations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...AMS-FV-11-0024; FV11-946-3IR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Modification of the Rules...inspection requirements prescribed for russet potato varieties under the Washington potato marketing order for the 2011-2012 and...

2011-05-13

414

78 FR 24981 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...AMS-FV-13-0010; FV13-946-1 IR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Decreased Assessment...established for the State of Washington Potato Committee (Committee) for the 2013-2014...003 to $0.0025 per hundredweight of potatoes handled. The Committee locally...

2013-04-29

415

78 FR 69985 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Decreased Assessment Rate for Area No. 2  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...AMS-FV-13-0072; FV13-948-2 IR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Decreased Assessment...assessment rate established for the Colorado Potato Administrative Committee, Area No. 2...0051 to $0.0033 per hundredweight of potatoes handled. The Committee locally...

2013-11-22

416

76 FR 4254 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Certain Designated Counties in Idaho, and Malheur County, Oregon...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...AMS-FV-10-0109; FV11-945-1] Irish Potatoes Grown in Certain Designated Counties...conducted among eligible producers of Irish potatoes in certain designated counties in Idaho...order regulating the handling of Irish potatoes grown in the production area....

2011-01-25

417

76 FR 18001 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...AMS-FV-11-0012; FV11-946-2 IR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Decreased Assessment...established for the State of Washington Potato Committee (Committee) for the 2011-2012...0035 to $0.003 per hundredweight of potatoes handled. The Committee locally...

2011-04-01

418

Robust and Highly Informative Microsatellite-Based Genetic Identity Kit for Potato  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The fingerprinting of 742 potato landraces with 51 simple sequence repeat (SSR, microsatellite) markers resulted in improving a previously constructed potato genetic identity (PGI) kit. In addition, we mapped 27 new SSR markers on at least one of three potato genetic linkage maps. All SSR marker loc...

419

IDENTIFICATION OF RB-ORTHOLOGOUS GENES FROM LATE BLIGHT RESISTANCE DIPLOID POTATO.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Late blight, caused by the oomycete pathogen, Phytophthora infestans, is a devastating disease of potatoes and tomatoes. A wild potato species indigenous to Mexico, Solanum demissum has provided the primary germplasm for breeding late blight resistance in cultivated potato. However, new virulent r...

420

Development of late blight resistant potatoes by cisgene stacking  

PubMed Central

Background Phytophthora infestans, causing late blight in potato, remains one of the most devastating pathogens in potato production and late blight resistance is a top priority in potato breeding. The introduction of multiple resistance (R) genes with different spectra from crossable species into potato varieties is required. Cisgenesis is a promising approach that introduces native genes from the crops own gene pool using GM technology, thereby retaining favourable characteristics of established varieties. Results We pursued a cisgenesis approach to introduce two broad spectrum potato late blight R genes, Rpi-sto1 and Rpi-vnt1.1 from the crossable species Solanum stoloniferum and Solanum venturii, respectively, into three different potato varieties. First, single R gene-containing transgenic plants were produced for all varieties to be used as references for the resistance levels and spectra to be expected in the respective genetic backgrounds. Next, a construct containing both cisgenic late blight R genes (Rpi-vnt1.1 and Rpi-sto1), but lacking the bacterial kanamycin resistance selection marker (NPTII) was transformed to the three selected potato varieties using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Gene transfer events were selected by PCR among regenerated shoots. Through further analyses involving morphological evaluations in the greenhouse, responsiveness to Avr genes and late blight resistance in detached leaf assays, the selection was narrowed down to eight independent events. These cisgenic events were selected because they showed broad spectrum late blight resistance due to the activity of both introduced R genes. The marker-free transformation was compared to kanamycin resistance assisted transformation in terms of T-DNA and vector backbone integration frequency. Also, differences in regeneration time and genotype dependency were evaluated. Conclusions We developed a marker-free transformation pipeline to select potato plants functionally expressing a stack of late blight R genes. Marker-free transformation is less genotype dependent and less prone to vector backbone integration as compared to marker-assisted transformation. Thereby, this study provides an important tool for the successful deployment of R genes in agriculture and contributes to the production of potentially durable late blight resistant potatoes. PMID:24885731

2014-01-01

421

TESTING THEORIES IN BARRED-SPIRAL GALAXIES  

SciTech Connect

According to one version of the recently proposed 'manifold' theory that explains the origin of spirals and rings in relation to chaotic orbits, galaxies with stronger bars should have a higher spiral arms pitch angle when compared to galaxies with weaker bars. A subsample of barred-spiral galaxies in the Ohio State University Bright Galaxy Survey was used to analyze the spiral arms pitch angle. These were compared with bar strengths taken from the literature. It was found that the galaxies in which the spiral arms maintain a logarithmic shape for more than 70 Degree-Sign seem to corroborate the predicted trend.

Martinez-Garcia, Eric E., E-mail: martinez@astroscu.unam.mx [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 70-264, Distrito Federal 04510 (Mexico)

2012-01-10

422

Pattern speed evolution and bar reformation  

E-print Network

Bars in spiral galaxies can weaken through gas inflow towards the center, and angular momentum transfer. Several bar episodes can follow one another in the life of the galaxy, if sufficient gas is accreted from the intergalactic medium to revive young disks. Pattern speeds of the successive bars are different, due to mass concentration, or increased velocity dispersion of the remaining stellar component. In the same time, the spiral galaxy evolves in morphological type. Numerical simulations are presented, trying to correlate type and bar pattern speeds.

F. Combes

2008-11-05

423

Basic physics of xylophone and marimba bars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The frequency-dependent wave velocity and nonsinusoidal spatial dependence found for transverse waves in finite vibrating bars stands in stark contrast to the solutions to the one-dimensional wave equation, for example for the idealized vibrating string. The difference is particularly important when the resulting vibrations are used to produce music. Here, the appropriate approximate equations for transverse vibrations on a uniform bar are developed and compared to measurements using wooden bars. The results are extended using a simple finite element model to provide a means to predict normal mode behavior in nonuniform wooden bars such as those used for xylophones, marimbas, and related musical instruments.

Suits, B. H.

2001-07-01

424

Dynamics of Deeply Bound {bar k} States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamical effects for {bar K} deeply bound nuclear states are explored within a relativistic mean field (RMF) model. Varying the strength of {bar K} - nucleus interaction, we cover a wide range of binding energies in order to evaluate the corresponding widths. A lower limit ? {bar K} = 50 ± 10 MeV is placed on the width expected for binding energy in the range of B{bar K} ˜ 100 - 200 MeV. Substantial polarization of the core nucleus is found in light nuclei. We discuss the results of the FINUDA experiment at DA?NE which presented evidence for deeply bound K- pp states in Li and 12C.

Mareš, Ji?i; Friedman, Eliahu; Gal, Avraham

425

Utilization of potatoes in bioregenerative life support systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data on the tuberization, harvest index, and morphology of 2 cvs of white potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) grown at 12, 16, 20, 24 and 28 C, 250, 400 and 550 micromol/s/m photosynthetic photon flux (PPF), 350, 1000 and 1600 microliter 1 sup -1 CO2 is presented. A productivity of 21.9 g/m day sup -1 of edible tubers from a solid stand of potatoes grown for 15 weeks with continuous irradiation at 400 micromol/s/m, 16 C and 1000 microliter 1 sup -1 CO2 was obtained. This equates to an area of 34.3 sq m being required to provide 2800 kcal of potatoes per day for a human diet. Separated plants receiving side lighting have produced 32.8 g/m day sup -1 which equates to an area of 23.6 sq m to provide 2800 kcal. Studies with side lighting indicate that productivities in this range should be realized from potatoes. Glycoalkaloid levels in tubers of controlled environment grown plants are within the range of levels found in tubers of field grown plants. The use and limitation of recirculating solution cultures for potato growth is discussed.

Tibbitts, T. W.; Wheeler, R. M.

1987-01-01

426

The smell of freshly baked cookies arrives in a most unlikely location  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Milk board debuts cookie-scented ads in bus sheltershttp://www.mercurynews.com/mld/mercurynews/news/local/states/california/northern_california/16163858.htmGet a whiff of the latest trend in advertisinghttp://www.jsonline.com/story/index.aspx?id=537438Hot Stuff: Smells Like Faux Cookieshttp://www.sfist.com/archives/2006/11/30/hot_stuff_smells_like_faux_cookies.phpHot on The Cookie Trailhttp://www.sfist.com/archives/2006/06/26/hot_on_the_cookie_trail.phpSmell-O-Visionhttp://www.retrofuture.com/smell-o-vision.htmlWatson and Crick. Laurel and Hardy. Sam and Dave. These are the type of duos that are seemingly inseparable, and a number of such pairings exist within the world of foodstuffs as well. When most people think about cookies, they probably think about reaching for a glass of milk. This popular pairing has been turned on its head most recently in the fair city of San Francisco, where an advertising company has recently paired cookies with an object that probably doesnâÂÂt come to mind: bus shelters. Though some would associate bus shelters with entirely different (and rather pungent) smells, the individuals behind this marketing campaign installed devices to emit the scent of freshly baked cookies in five bus shelters. Given the strong opinions that residents in that fair city tend to have about most everything, the reaction has been mixed thus far. A number of critical comments have come from animal-rights advocates who oppose the dairy industry, and even more from activists in the scent-sensitive community who are more than a bit annoyed by this most unwelcome intrusion. In the classic âÂÂman on the streetâ interview, a journalist from the San Francisco Chronicle asked local night watchman Joe Broulliette what he thought of this smell-enhanced bus shelters. His reply? A simple âÂÂIâÂÂd rather eat chocolate chip cookies than smell them.â This first link will lead to Rachel GordonâÂÂs news article from this TuesdayâÂÂs San Francisco Chronicle, where she investigates this most unusual trend in smell-based product promotion and placement. Moving along, the second link will take users to another news article on this subject from MondayâÂÂs San Jose Mercury News. The third link will take users to a piece from Jim Stingl of the Milwaukee Journal Sentinel who explores the topic of whether or not the city of Milwaukee should venture into such territory and other such marketing schemes. The fourth link leads to a nice bit of commentary on the whole cookie-scent infused bus shelters debate from Mary Ladd, who writes for SFist, a weblog dedicated to all things by the Bay. Visitors who find themselves in San Francisco and craving actual cookies will appreciate the fifth link, as it contains some expert testimony on where to find the best cookies in the city. Finally, the last link provides a bit of historical information on that ever-so brief marriage of film and piped-in smells from the 1950s that was known quite appropriately as âÂÂSmell-O-VisionâÂÂ.

Grinnell, Max

2006-01-01

427

BAR Domains as Sensors of Membrane Curvature: The Amphiphysin BAR Structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The BAR (Bin\\/amphiphysin\\/Rvs) domain is the most conserved feature in amphiphysins from yeast to human and is also found in endophilins and nadrins. We solved the structure of the Drosophila amphiphysin BAR domain. It is a crescent-shaped dimer that binds preferentially to highly curved negatively charged membranes. With its N-terminal amphipathic helix and BAR domain (N-BAR), amphiphysin can drive membrane

Brian J. Peter; Helen M. Kent; Ian G. Mills; Yvonne Vallis; P. Jonathan G. Butler; Philip R. Evans; Harvey T. McMahon

2004-01-01

428

Presence of necrotic strains of Potato virus Y in Mexican potatoes  

PubMed Central

As part of a routine screening for the possible presence of the necrotic strains of potato virus Y affecting potatoes in Mexico, five PVY isolates were submitted to biological and molecular analysis. Considering their serological properties, two belong to the common strain (O) and three to the necrotic strain (N). All the isolates induced vein necrosis in Nicotiana tabacum. To characterize the isolates, 5' NTR and P1 genes were sequenced and compared with sequences from GenBank database. Nucleotide sequence similarity ranged from 47–100% in the 5' NTR and from 63–100% in the P1 coding region. The lowest amino acid similarity between sequences of P1 gene was 55%. In phylogenetic trees of 5'NTR analysis, two PVYO Mexican isolates clustered with other PVYO isolates. In turn, the three PVYN isolates grouped with PVYN-NTN isolates. The phylogenetic analysis of P1 sequences (nucleotide and amino acid) showed two PVYO isolates grouping next to N-NTN cluster. A detailed analysis of the PVYO isolates showed two potential recombination regions in the P1 gene, in contrast to 5'NTR where no recombination was detected. PMID:19419565

Ramírez-Rodríguez, Victoriano Roberto; Aviña-Padilla, Katia; Frías-Treviño, Gustavo; Silva-Rosales, Laura; Martínez-Soriano, Juan Pablo

2009-01-01

429

Sucrose synthesis in gamma irradiated sweet potato  

SciTech Connect

Effect of ..cap alpha..-irradiation carbohydrate metabolism was examined to elucidate mechanism of sucrose accumulation in sweet potato (SP). Enzymes examined were: ..beta..-amylase, phosphorylase, phosphoglucomutase, phosphoglucose isomerase, sucrose phosphate synthetase and sucrose synthetase. Irradiated SP (Red Jewell) sucrose was synthesized to yield 10.7% after 4 d PI. Activities of sugar synthesizing enzymes in irradiated SP were enhanced to different degrees using 100-200 Krad and 3 d PI at 24/sup 0/C. Phosphorylase and phosphoglucomutases specific activities reached 2.4 and 1.8 folds, respectively compared to control SP. ..beta..-amylase, phosphoglucose isomerase, sucrose synthetase and sucrose phosphate synthetase were also affected to yield 1.2, 1.3, 1.3 and 1.2 folds, respectively compared to controls. It is believed that amylase hydrolyzed starch to glucose which is converted to fructose by phosphoglucose isomerase. Sucrose is then formed by sucrose phosphate synthetase and/or sucrose synthetase leading to its accumulation. The irradiated SP was used for alcohol fermentation leading to 500 gal. of 200 proof ethanol/acre (from 500-600 bushels tuber/acre).

Ailouni, S.; Hamdy, M.K.; Toledo, R.T.

1987-01-01

430

QTL analysis of potato tuber dormancy.  

PubMed

The potential loss of chemical sprout inhibitors because of public concern over the use of pesticides underscores the desirability of breeding for long dormancy of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses were performed in reciprocal backcrosses between S. tuberosum and S. berthaultii toward defining the complexity of dormancy. S. berthaultii is a wild Bolivian species characterized by a short-day requirement for tuberization, long tuber dormancy, and resistance to several insect pests. RFLP alleles segregating from the recurrent parents as well as from the interspecific hybrid were monitored in two segregating progenies. We detected QTLs on nine chromosomes that affected tuber dormancy, either alone or through epistatic interactions. Alleles from the wild parent promoted dormancy, with the largest effect at a QTL on chromosome 2. Long dormancy appeared to be recessive in the backcross to S. berthaultii (BCB). In BCB the additive effects of dormancy QTLs accounted for 48% of the measured phenotypic variance, and adding epistatic effects to the model explained only 4% more. In contrast, additive effects explained only 16% of the variance in the backcross to S. tuberosum (BCT), and an additional 24% was explained by the inclusion of epistatic effects. In BCB variation at all QTLs detected was associated with RFLP alleles segregating from the hybrid parent; in BCT all QTLs except for two found through epistasis were detected through RFLP alleles segregating from the recurrent parent. At least three dormancy QTLs mapped to markers previously found to be associated with tuberization in these crosses. PMID:24162286

van den Berg, J H; Ewing, E E; Plaisted, R L; McMurry, S; Bonierbale, M W

1996-08-01

431

Structure of potato tubers formed during spaceflight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Norland) explants, consisting of a leaf, axillary bud, and small stem segment, were used as a model system to study the influence of spaceflight on the formation of sessile tubers from axillary buds. The explants were flown on the space shuttle Columbia (STS-73, 20 October to 5 November 1995) in the ASTROCULTURE (TM) flight package, which provided a controlled environment for plant growth. Light and scanning electron microscopy were used to compare the precisely ordered tissues of tubers formed on Earth with those formed during spaceflight. The structure of tubers produced during spaceflight was similar to that of tubers produced in a control experiment. The size and shape of tubers, the geometry of tuber tissues, and the distribution of starch grains and proteinaceous crystals were comparable in tubers formed in both environments. The shape, surface texture, and size range of starch grains from both environments were similar, but a greater percentage of smaller starch grains formed in spaceflight than on Earth. Since explant leaves must be of given developmental age before tubers form, instructions regarding the regular shape and ordered tissue geometry of tubers may have been provided in the presence of gravity. Regardless of when the signalling occurred, gravity was not required to produce a tuber of typical structure.

Croxdale, J.; Cook, M.; Tibbitts, T. W.; Brown, C. S.; Wheeler, R. M.

1997-01-01

432

Cell orientation in potato tuber parenchyma tissue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents the results of the research of the size and shape of parenchyma tissue cells in potato tubers depending on the direction and site of sampling in tubers. An optical confocal microscope was used to observe samples in their natural state. The investigation was carried out for 1 mm thick samples cut from cylindrical samples (10x10 mm)taken in two mutually perpendicular directions of the inner and outer core of each variety. The analysis was done ten times.The methods developed for the composition and image analysis ensure obtaining a sufficient number of cells to determine tissue structure parameters (surface, shape, elongation and number of cells per 1 mm2) and decays of these parameters were obtained. Statistical analysis was performed using the ?-Kolmogorov-Smirnov compliance test.Arelationship between the direction of sampling and the size and shape of the inner core of cells was found. Greater surface area and elongation of the inner core cells for the longitudinal direction in the tuber (stolon - top) was demonstrated. There was no such a correlation for the outer core in the tubers of the cultivars examined.

Gancarz, Marek; Konstankiewicz, Krystyna; Zgórska, Kazimiera

2014-03-01

433

Swelling behaviour of cell wall and starch in potato ( Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber cells — II. Permeability and swelling in macerates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The permeability and swelling behaviour in macerates of potato tuber cells were studied, because of their role in determining the texture of potato products. Chromatography of globular proteins on a column of macerate of boiled potato cells indicated cell wall (CW) pore dimensions smaller than the protein molecular size of 600 kDa. Swelling of boiled and dried potato tuber cells,

Ilan Shomer; Rosa Vasiliver; Pinhas Lindner

1995-01-01

434

Too Much Bar and Not Enough Mitzvah? A Proposed Research Agenda on Bar/Bat Mitzvah  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Jewish educators are understandably interested in research on how bar/bat mitzvah affect Jewish education or research on what Jewish schools have done to avoid the distortions of a focus on bar/bat mitzvah. Research might also focus on the somewhat different and more ambitious topic of the role that bar/bat mitzvah play in contemporary Jewish…

Schoenfeld, Stuart

2010-01-01

435

Evolution of the Chocolate Bar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The majority of both student and faculty populations react quite favorably to chocolate and may even know something about its history. The movie Chocolat made millions, partly due to its starring actors, but also because the move drew salivating viewers to the multiple applications of chocolate. With its stimulant properties, chocolate generally makes people feel good. For purposes of this essay, chocolate also has the fortunate characteristic of appearing in many different sizes, shapes, and combinations. In this exercise, dubbed 'Evolution of the Chocolate Bar,' students build the most plausible phylogenetic tree based on identified synapomorphies of different 'species,' i.e. brands of chocolate. The exercise described below is easily assembled, works as a class demonstration or could be modified into small group projects, and also fits a variety of class timeframes. Substantial lines of inquiry could also be developed from this example.

Romi Burks (Southwestern University;); Larry Boles (Southwestern University;)

2007-04-20

436

Gas flow in barred potentials  

E-print Network

We use a Cartesian grid to simulate the flow of gas in a barred Galactic potential and investigate the effects of varying the sound speed in the gas and the resolution of the grid. For all sound speeds and resolutions, streamlines closely follow closed orbits at large and small radii. At intermediate radii shocks arise and the streamlines shift between two families of closed orbits. The point at which the shocks appear and the streamlines shift between orbit families depends strongly on sound speed and resolution. For sufficiently large values of these two parameters, the transfer happens at the cusped orbit as hypothesised by Binney et al. over two decades ago. For sufficiently high resolutions the flow downstream of the shocks becomes unsteady. If this unsteadiness is physical, as appears to be the case, it provides a promising explanation for the asymmetry in the observed distribution of CO.

Sormani, Mattia C; Magorrian, John

2015-01-01

437

Silicone antifoam performance enhancement by nonionic surfactants in potato medium.  

PubMed

The ability of a silicone antifoam to retard foaming in a liquor prepared from potatoes is enhanced by the addition of ethoxylated nonionic surfactants. The enhancement is non-linear for surfactant concentration, with all 12 surfactants tested possessing a concentration at which foam heights strongly diminish, referred to as the surfactant critical antifoaming concentration (SCAFC). SCAFCs vary between surfactants, with lower values indicating better mass efficiency of antifoaming enhancement. SCAFCs decrease with degree of ethoxylation and decrease with the hydrophilic-lipophilic balance for ethoxylated nonionic surfactants. Surfactant addition produces a mixed water-surface layer containing surfactant and surface-active components in the potato medium. Surface tension reduction does not correlate well with antifoam performance enhancement. A model is proposed where surfactant adsorption promotes desorption of surface-active potato medium components from the water surface. At the SCAFC, desorption is not complete, yet the rate of bubble rupture is sufficiently enhanced to provide excellent foam control. PMID:12545381

Christiano, Steven P; Fey, Kenneth C

2003-01-01

438

Increase of natural benzodiazepines in wheat and potato during germination.  

PubMed

Aqueous acid extracts of wheat grains and potato exhibit after HPLC separation a series of compounds that are able to inhibit the binding of benzodiazepines to benzodiazepine receptors of rat brain membranes. In wheat one of the inhibiting compounds was shown to be identical to diazepam by means of HPLC characterization and gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry. In potato one of the most prominent components in terms of binding inhibiting activity was identified as lormetazepam. In wheat and potato germination increases total inhibiting activity of the whole plant extracts as well as the content of the benzodiazepines approximately by factor five. Because uptake of benzodiazepines from the surrounding was excluded these findings indicate the biosynthesis of the benzodiazepines diazepam and lormetazepam by the plants investigated. PMID:2849941

Wildmann, J

1988-12-30

439

Spectral and spectral-polarization characteristics of potato leaves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of laboratory investigations of the spectral and spectral-polarization characteristics of radiation reflected from the leaves of potato (Solanum tuberosum) of different varieties are discussed. During the vegetation season of 1997, the angular dependence of the degree and azimuth of polarization of radiation reflected from potato leaves as well as the scattering indicatrices in the range 380 1080 nm were determined by a specially developed method with the use of a laboratory goniometric setup. The relationship between the spectral polarization characteristics of radiation and biological parameters of the potato has been obtained with the help of different methods of statistical analysis and explained on the basis of the known physical mechanisms.

Belyaev, B. I.; Belyaev, Yu. V.; Chumakov, A. V.; Nekrasov, V. P.; Shuplyak, V. I.

2000-07-01

440

Phosphorylation of potato starch and its electrorheological suspension.  

PubMed

Highly substituted potato starch phosphate (HPSP) particles were synthesized via an esterification process of potato starch with a mixture of several different concentrations of disodium hydrogen phosphate and sodium hydrogen phosphate. These particles were characterized via thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscope, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. The electrorheological (ER) fluid was prepared by dispersing these HPSP particles in nonconducting silicone oil, and their ER properties were investigated. The HPSP particle-based ER fluid exhibited typical ER responses with a nonzero yield stress under an applied electric field. We examined the yield stresses for the potato starch-based anhydrous ER system by varying the degree of phosphate substitution and found that the higher polarization induced by the external electric field strength resulted in the higher values of yield stresses and shear stresses. PMID:16004461

Sung, J H; Park, D P; Park, B J; Choi, H J; Jhon, M S

2005-01-01

441

Biological response of rat fed diets with high tuber content of conventionally bred and transgenic potato resistant to necrotic strain of potato virus (PVY N) Part I. Chemical composition of tubers and nutritional value of diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

In experiments on rats, nutritional properties of a diet with high content (40%) of potato tubers obtained from conventional or genetically-modified potato were determined. The potato cultivar Irga was transformed with viral genome sequences in order to improve its resistance to a necrotic strain of potato virus Y (PVYN). Four lines of genetically-modified potato were compared with non-transgenic somaclone from

Z. Zdunczyk; S. Frejnagel; J. Fornal; M. Flis; M. C. Palacios; B. Flis; W. Zagorski-Ostoja

2005-01-01

442

Apparel, Baking, Laundry and Dry Cleaning, and Textile Mill Products Industries. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focusing on occupations in the clothing and baking industries, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include occupations in the…

Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

443

Investigation of the Effect of Hot Air Drying of Wheat Gluten on Its Viscoelasticity and Baking Performance by a Systems Analytical Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 79(5):617-623 Drying experiments were conducted with wet gluten according to a newly developed systems analytical model to describe the effect of dry- ing parameters on the viscoelasticity of wheat gluten and its baking per- formance. Gluten was extracted from two wheat flours differing in pro- tein, wet gluten content, and viscoelastic properties as determined by extensigrams and farinograms.

F. Meuser; A. Kutschbach; R. Kieffer; H. Wieser; P. Schieberle

2002-01-01

444

Study of hydroxymethylfurfural and furfural formation in cakes during baking in different ovens, using a validated multiple-stage extraction-based analytical method.  

PubMed

A procedure for extraction of hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and furfural from cakes was validated. Higher yield was achieved by multiple step extraction with water/methanol (70/30) and clarification with Carrez I and II reagents. Oven type and baking time strongly influenced HMF, moisture and volatile profile of model cakes, whereas furfural content was not significantly affected. No correlation was found between these parameters. Baking time influenced moisture and HMF formation in cakes from traditional and microwave ovens but not in steam oven cakes. Significant moisture decrease and HMF increase (3.63, 9.32, and 41.9 mg kg(-1)dw at 20, 40 and 60 min, respectively) were observed during traditional baking. Cakes baked by microwave also presented a significant increase of HMF (up to 16.84 mg kg(-1)dw at 2.5 min). Steam oven cakes possessed the highest moisture content and no significant differences in HMF and furfural. This oven is likely to form low HMF and furfural, maintaining cake moisture and aroma compounds. PMID:23993492

Petisca, Catarina; Henriques, Ana Rita; Pérez-Palacios, Trinidad; Pinho, Olívia; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O

2013-12-15

445

The effect of baking soda/hydrogen peroxide dentifrice (Mentadent) and a 0.12 percent chlorhexidine gluconate mouthrinse (Peridex) in reducing gingival bleeding.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a baking soda/hydrogen peroxide dentifrice, Mentadent, and a 0.12 percent chlorhexidine gluconate mouthrinse, Peridex, in reducing gingival bleeding. Forty subjects were divided into three groups; the baking soda group, the chlorhexidine group and the control group. All groups received oral hygiene instruction and brushed and flossed three times per day. Bleeding point scores were evaluated at baseline and at five weeks. The baking soda/hydrogen peroxide group used the supplied dentifrice as their sole toothpaste. The 0.12 percent chlorhexidine group used the mouthrinse twice per day. The control group performed oral hygiene as instructed. At five weeks, the 0.12 percent chlorhexidine mouthrinse significantly reduced gingival bleeding. The dentifrice and control groups revealed no statistically significant reductions. The results indicate that the 0.12 percent chlorhexidine mouthrinse is useful in improving oral health, whereas the baking soda/hydrogen peroxide dentifrice offered no advantages to conventional oral hygiene. PMID:8040707

Taller, S H

1993-01-01

446

Assessment of genetic diversity of sweet potato in puerto rico.  

PubMed

Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is the seventh most important food crop due to its distinct advantages, such as adaptability to different environmental conditions and high nutritional value. Assessing the genetic diversity of this important crop is necessary due to the constant increase of demand for food and the need for conservation of agricultural and genetic resources. In Puerto Rico (PR), the genetic diversity of sweet potato has been poorly understood, although it has been part of the diet since Pre-Columbus time. Thus, 137 landraces from different localities around PR were collected and subjected to a genetic diversity analysis using 23 SSR-markers. In addition, 8 accessions from a collection grown in Gurabo, PR at the Agricultural Experimental Station (GAES), 10 US commercial cultivars and 12 Puerto Rican accessions from the USDA repository collection were included in this assessment. The results of the analysis of the 23 loci showed 255 alleles in the 167 samples. Observed heterozygosity was high across populations (0.71) while measurements of total heterozygosity revealed a large genetic diversity throughout the population and within populations. UPGMA clustering method revealed two main clusters. Cluster 1 contained 12 PR accessions from the USDA repository collection, while cluster 2 consisted of PR landraces, US commercial cultivars and the PR accessions from GAES. Population structure analysis grouped PR landraces in five groups including four US commercial cultivars. Our study shows the presence of a high level of genetic diversity of sweet potato across PR which can be related to the genetic makeup of sweet potato, human intervention and out-crossing nature of the plant. The history of domestication and dispersal of sweet potato in the Caribbean and the high levels of genetic diversity found through this study makes sweet potato an invaluable resource that needs to be protected and further studied. PMID:25551388

Rodriguez-Bonilla, Lorraine; Cuevas, Hugo E; Montero-Rojas, Milly; Bird-Pico, Fernando; Luciano-Rosario, Dianiris; Siritunga, Dimuth

2014-01-01

447

Climate change and potato cropping in the Peruvian Altiplano  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential impacts of climate change on potatoes cropping in the Peruvian highlands (Altiplano) is assessed using climate projections for 2071-2100, obtained from the HadRM3P regional atmospheric model of the Hadley Centre. The atmospheric model is run under two different special report on emission scenarios: high CO2 concentration (A2) and moderate CO2 concentration (B2) for four locations situated in the surroundings of Lake Titicaca. The two main varieties of potato cultivated in the area are studied: the Andean potato ( Solanum tuberosum) and the bitter potato ( Solanum juzepczukii). A simple process-oriented model is used to quantify the climatic impacts on crops cycles and yields by combining the effects of temperature on phenology, of radiation and CO2 on maximum yield and of water balance on yield deficit. In future climates, air temperature systematically increases, precipitation tends to increase at the beginning of the rainy season and slightly decreases during the rest of the season. The direct effects of these climatic changes are earlier planting dates, less planting failures and shorter crop cycles in all the four locations and for both scenarios. Consequently, the harvesting dates occur systematically earlier: roughly in January for the Andean potato instead of March in the current situation and in February for the bitter potato instead of April. Overall, yield deficits will be higher under climate change than in the current climate. There will be a strong negative impact on yields for S. tuberosum (stronger under A2 scenario than under B2); the impact on S. juzepczukii yields, however, appears to be relatively mixed and not so negative.

Sanabria, J.; Lhomme, J. P.

2013-05-01

448

Oospore Formation by Phytophthora infestans in Potato Tubers.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT The ability of Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of potato and tomato late blight, to produce oospores in potato tuber tissue was studied in the field and under laboratory conditions. In 1998 and 2000 field experiments, the canopy of potato cvs. Alpha and Mondial, respectively, were coinoculated with A1 + A2 sporangia of the fungus, and the infected tubers collected at harvest were examined for the presence of oospores. In 1998, only 2 of 90 infected tubers had oospores, whereas none of the 90 tubers examined in 2000 had any oospores. In the latter experiment, infected tubers kept in storage up to 12 weeks after harvest had no oospores. Artificial co-inoculations of whole tubers with A1 + A2 sporangia resulted only rarely in the formation of oospores inside the tubers. Co-inoculations of potato tuber discs taken from dormant tubers 0 to 16 weeks after harvest failed to support any oospore production, whereas discs taken from sprouting tubers of >/=18 weeks after harvest allowed oospores to form. Tuber discs showed enhanced oospore formation when treated before inoculation with either sugars, amino acids, casein hydrolysate, beta-sitosterol, or chloroethylphosphonic acid. In contrast, reducing airflow into the petri dishes where potato tuber discs were incubated reduced the number of oospores produced. The number of oospores produced in tuber tissue was lower compared with that in leaf tissue regardless of the origin of isolates used. The data show that the ability of Phytophthora infestans to produce oospores in potato tuber tissue is very limited and increases with tuber aging. PMID:18943947

Levin, A; Baider, A; Rubin, E; Gisi, U; Cohen, Y

2001-06-01

449

Assessment of Genetic Diversity of Sweet Potato in Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is the seventh most important food crop due to its distinct advantages, such as adaptability to different environmental conditions and high nutritional value. Assessing the genetic diversity of this important crop is necessary due to the constant increase of demand for food and the need for conservation of agricultural and genetic resources. In Puerto Rico (PR), the genetic diversity of sweet potato has been poorly understood, although it has been part of the diet since Pre-Columbus time. Thus, 137 landraces from different localities around PR were collected and subjected to a genetic diversity analysis using 23 SSR-markers. In addition, 8 accessions from a collection grown in Gurabo, PR at the Agricultural Experimental Station (GAES), 10 US commercial cultivars and 12 Puerto Rican accessions from the USDA repository collection were included in this assessment. The results of the analysis of the 23 loci showed 255 alleles in the 167 samples. Observed heterozygosity was high across populations (0.71) while measurements of total heterozygosity revealed a large genetic diversity throughout the population and within populations. UPGMA clustering method revealed two main clusters. Cluster 1 contained 12 PR accessions from the USDA repository collection, while cluster 2 consisted of PR landraces, US commercial cultivars and the PR accessions from GAES. Population structure analysis grouped PR landraces in five groups including four US commercial cultivars. Our study shows the presence of a high level of genetic diversity of sweet potato across PR which can be related to the genetic makeup of sweet potato, human intervention and out-crossing nature of the plant. The history of domestication and dispersal of sweet potato in the Caribbean and the high levels of genetic diversity found through this study makes sweet potato an invaluable resource that needs to be protected and further studied. PMID:25551388

Rodriguez-Bonilla, Lorraine; Cuevas, Hugo E.; Montero-Rojas, Milly; Bird-Pico, Fernando; Luciano-Rosario, Dianiris; Siritunga, Dimuth

2014-01-01

450

Ultrasonic extraction of steroidal alkaloids from potato peel waste.  

PubMed

Potato processors produce large volumes of waste in the form of potato peel which is either discarded or sold at a low price. Potato peel waste is a potential source of steroidal alkaloids which are biologically active secondary metabolites which could serve as precursors to agents with apoptotic, chemopreventive and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study investigated the relative efficacy of ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) and solid liquid extraction (SLE) both using methanol, to extract steroidal alkaloids from potato peel waste and identified optimal conditions for UAE of ?-solanine, ?-chaconine, solanidine and demissidine. Using response surface methodology optimal UAE conditions were identified as an amplitude of 61 ?m and an extraction time of 17 min which resulted the recovery of 1102 ?g steroidal alkaloids/g dried potato peel (DPP). In contrast, SLE yielded 710.51 glycoalkaloid ?g/g DPP. Recoveries of individual glycoalkoids using UAE yielded 273, 542.7, 231 and 55.3 ?g/g DPP for ?-solanine, ?-chaconine, solanidine and demissidine respectively. Whereas for SLE yields were 180.3, 337.6, 160.2 and 32.4 ?g/g DPP for ?-solanine, ?-chaconine, solanidine and demissidine respectively. The predicted values from the developed second order quadratic polynomial equation were in close agreement with the experimental values with low average mean deviation (E<5%) values. Predicted models were highly significant (p<0.05) for all parameters studied. This study indicates that UAE has strong potential as an extraction method for steroidal alkaloids from potato peel waste. PMID:24582305

Hossain, Mohammad B; Tiwari, Brijesh K; Gangopadhyay, Nirupama; O'Donnell, Colm P; Brunton, Nigel P; Rai, Dilip K

2014-07-01

451

BAR Domains as Sensors of Membrane Curvature: The  

E-print Network

BAR Domains as Sensors of Membrane Curvature: The Amphiphysin BAR Structure Brian J. Peter,* Helen helix and BAR domain (N-BAR), amphiphysin can drive mem- brane curvature in vitro and in vivo predict that BAR domains are in many protein families, including sorting nexins, centaurins

McMahon, Harvey

452

The Bar Tack Machine. Module 16.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module on the bar tack machine, one in a series dealing with industrial sewing machines, their attachments, and operation, covers one topic: performing special operations on the bar tack machine. These components are provided: an introduction, directions, an objective, learning activities, student information, a student self-check, and a…

South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

453

A two-dimensional bar code reader  

Microsoft Academic Search

As an alternative to the use of laser scanners for bar code readers, we have developed a global solution based on a 2D vision system. It is composed of two main functions: bar code localization on the overall image, and the reading stage. The localization of the symbol which can be oriented in any direction is carried out with an

N. Normand; C. Viard-Gaudin

1994-01-01

454

Beryllium Pressure Bar Having Submicrosecond Risetime  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pressure bar gauge was constructed from beryllium. The active element is a PZT polarized ferroelectric disk. The gauge was subjected to step pressure loading; the time taken for the output signal to increase from 10 to 90% of its final steady value is 0.54 ?sec which is substantially faster than any other previously reported for a bar gauge.

Ieuan R. Jones

1966-01-01

455

[Activity of a proteinaceous polygalacturonase inhibitor in potato plants].  

PubMed

The activity of a protein inhibitor of polygalacturonase (PIPG) was studied in potato tubers during storage and in potato leaves and stems during vegetation. The activity of PIPG in tubers varied from between seasons. The activity of PIPG during dormancy changed depending on the storage stage and temperature. As a rule, it was higher in etiolated sprouts than in the tubers. The activity of PIPG was slightly higher in leaves of adult vegetating plants than in stems and decreased by the end of vegetation. These changes in the activity of PIPG are suggested to be associated with changes in the growth rate. PMID:10780014

Glinka, E M; Protsenko, M A

2000-01-01

456

Bar codes : can you decode a barcode?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students are shown a key to the post office conversion code and given a bar coded zip code to decipher. The activity, part of the Figure This! collection of 80 math challenges emphasizing math in the real world, introduces the bar-coding system and explains how the system enables businesses and banks to run more efficiently. The Hint suggests that students group the long and short bars into sets of five and then refer to the key to see what number is being represented. Related questions ask students to write a code using the U.S. Postal Service bar code and to decode a bar code on a piece of their own mail. Answers to all questions and links to resources are included. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM)

2002-01-01

457

Effect of processing on potato starch: in vitro availability and glycaemic index.  

PubMed

The content of digestible starch (DS) and resistant starch (RS) in processed potatoes was assessed. In addition, the effect of domestic cooking on the in vitro digestibility of starch in this tuber, which may influence the glycaemic response, was studied. Resistant starch in raw potato is high, however different RS values were obtained when processed, ranging from 1.18% in boiled potatoes to 10.38% in retrograded flour. In general, cooked potatoes have high levels of DS. Starch digestibility is improved after processing and it is affected by the cooking methods. Boiled and mashed potatoes showed the highest rate of digestion, on the contrary raw potato was hardly digested. The estimated Glycaemic Index (GI) from the degree of starch hydrolysis within 90 min was in accordance with the reported GI values, for potatoes processed in the same way. PMID:10702994

García-Alonso, A; Goñi, I

2000-02-01

458

The Use of Xylanases from Different Microbial Origin in Bread Baking and Their Effects on Bread Qualities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effects of xylanases on bread quality were examined. Enzymes used were endo-xylanase (EC 3.2.1.8) from different sources of microorganisms. Baked loaves were assessed for Loaves volume, colour and staling rate. Xylanases produced from rumen microorganisms M6 had clearly positive effects on loaf volume of bread as well as anti-firming potential. M3 (produced from Trichoderma longibrachiatum) improved crumb softness. The use of xylanase for breadmaking lowered firmness of bread crumb effectively compared with control loaf. It can be summarized that xylanases had significant positive effects on bread characteristics. In particular, they had advantage in retarding the staling rate of bread. It is recommended that the optimum dosage of enzymes, method of application in industrial scale especially with xylanase should be studied further in order to gain the great advantages of enzyme addition in breadmaking.

Al-Widyan, Omar; Khataibeh, Moayad H.; Abu-Alruz, Khaled

459

New indicator plants for potato virus X.  

PubMed

For over 2 years (2002-2004); a sever virus like disease on leaves in Pisum sativum was observed from Tehran in Iran. The identity of which was established by the following host reactions and serological and molecular assays. Collected samples were tested for the presence of the virus using the DAS-ELISA (direct double antibody sandwich-ELISA). Leaf sap of each test samples was diluted 1:10 in ELISA sample buffer. The samples reacted in ELISA with antibody against Potato virus (x)(PVX). The samples were passed through three single chlorotic local lesion transfers on Gompherena globosa, which showed chlorosis 5 to 7 days after mechanical inoculation. Finally one local was homogenized in phosphate buffer (0.05 M, pH 7.2) and rubbing the inoculums on carbourundum--dusted leaves of Nicotiana glutinosa. For host range studies extracts prepared from infected N. glutinosa leave were inoculated to the 35 species. The virus induces systemic mosaic symptoms on Petunia hybrida, Physalis floridana, Nicandera physaloides and Solanum nigrum. This has not been yet record as assay hosts for PVX. Total RNA extracted from symptomatic, plants and RNA extracted from purified virus preparations were tested using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with specific primers designed to amplify a fragment of the RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase gen. Back inoculation from different symptomatic plants, had been done to Pisum sativum and confirmed by DAS-ELISA. This is the first report of Petunia hybrida, Physalis floridana, Nicandera physaloides and Solanum nigrum as new indicator plants for PVX. PMID:17390890

Esfandiari, N; Habibi, M Kohi; Mosahebi, Gh

2006-01-01

460

Effects of landscape composition and rotation distance on Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) abundance in cultivated potato.  

PubMed

Knowledge of the Colorado potato beetle's, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), relationship to previous potato crops has contributed to the development of a pest management strategy focused upon crop rotation. Previous investigations revealed that potato rotations exceeding 0.4 km were effective in reducing colonization in current season potato. The current study examines the relationship between beetle abundance in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and distance from multiple, previous year potato fields in Wisconsin, and integrates information about the influence of natural habitats adjacent to previous season potato. Colorado potato beetle count data were collected in 1998 and 2008 and distance to previous potato, field areas, and landscape classes were estimated using maps from 1997 and 2007. Poisson regression was used to relate counts to combinations of distance and local landscape characteristics calculated for all fields within 1,500 m of sampled potato. In 1998, beetle counts measured in current season potato declined significantly with increasing distance from previous potato fields and field size did not influence these counts. However, there was no relationship between beetle abundance and distance to prior year potatoes in 2008. In both years, increased proportions of surrounding habitats, previously described as preferred for diapause sites (e.g., wooded field boundaries), did not relate significantly to counts. However, grassland habitat was negatively correlated with counts. Results indicate that distance from previous potato remains an important factor to reduce the magnitude of colonization. This analysis further suggests that certain landscape components (e.g., grassland) may influence infestation, which may be useful for refining future integrated pest management programs. PMID:23321104

Huseth, A S; Frost, K E; Knuteson, D L; Wyman, J A; Groves, R L

2012-12-01

461

32 CFR 776.66 - Bar admission and disciplinary matters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Bar admission and disciplinary matters. 776.66 Section 776.66 National...776.66 Bar admission and disciplinary matters. (a) Bar admission and disciplinary matters. A covered attorney, in...

2010-07-01

462

32 CFR 776.66 - Bar admission and disciplinary matters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Bar admission and disciplinary matters. 776.66 Section 776.66 National...776.66 Bar admission and disciplinary matters. (a) Bar admission and disciplinary matters. A covered attorney, in...

2014-07-01

463

32 CFR 776.66 - Bar admission and disciplinary matters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Bar admission and disciplinary matters. 776.66 Section 776.66 National...776.66 Bar admission and disciplinary matters. (a) Bar admission and disciplinary matters. A covered attorney, in...

2011-07-01

464

32 CFR 776.66 - Bar admission and disciplinary matters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Bar admission and disciplinary matters. 776.66 Section 776.66 National...776.66 Bar admission and disciplinary matters. (a) Bar admission and disciplinary matters. A covered attorney, in...

2013-07-01

465

32 CFR 776.66 - Bar admission and disciplinary matters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Bar admission and disciplinary matters. 776.66 Section 776.66 National...776.66 Bar admission and disciplinary matters. (a) Bar admission and disciplinary matters. A covered attorney, in...

2012-07-01

466

33 CFR 13.01-40 - Miniature medals and bars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-40 Miniature medals and bars. (a) Miniature Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals and bars are replicas of...

2013-07-01

467

33 CFR 13.01-40 - Miniature medals and bars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-40 Miniature medals and bars. (a) Miniature Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals and bars are replicas of...

2010-07-01

468

33 CFR 13.01-40 - Miniature medals and bars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-40 Miniature medals and bars. (a) Miniature Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals and bars are replicas of...

2011-07-01

469

33 CFR 13.01-40 - Miniature medals and bars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-40 Miniature medals and bars. (a) Miniature Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals and bars are replicas of...

2014-07-01

470

33 CFR 13.01-40 - Miniature medals and bars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-40 Miniature medals and bars. (a) Miniature Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals and bars are replicas of...

2012-07-01

471

Search for B^0-> p p-bar, Lambda Lambda-bar and B^+ -> p Lambda-bar at Belle  

E-print Network

We report on a new search for two-body baryonic decays of the B meson. Improved sensitivity compared to previous Belle results is obtained from 414 fb^-1 of data that corresponds to 449 million B B-bar pairs, which were taken on the Upsilon(4S) resonance and collected with the Belle detector at the KEKB e^+e^- collider. No significant signals are observed and we set the 90% confidence level upper limits: Br(B^0-> p pbar) Lambda Lambda-bar) p Lambda-bar) < 3.2X10^-7.

Y. -T. Tsai; P. Chang

2007-03-30

472

Genetic diversity of Sweet potato begomoviruses in the United States and identification of a natural recombinant between Sweet potato leaf curl virus and Sweet potato leaf curl Georgia virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In the United States, two sweetpotato begomoviruses, Sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV) and Sweet potato leaf curl Georgia virus (SPLCGV) were previously identified in Louisiana. In recent years, at least seven additional sweetpotato begomoviruses have been identified in other parts of the world....

473

Interferometry-based Kolsky bar apparatus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new experimental approach of the Kolsky bar system using optical interferometry is presented for determination of dynamic behavior of materials. Conventional measurements in the Kolsky bar system are based on recording the strain histories on the incident and transmitter bars with two strain gauges, and require good adhesion between the gauge and the bar. We suggest an alternative approach, based on measuring the actual velocities of the bars by using fiber-based velocity interferometry. Two fiber focusers illuminate the bars at a small angle and collect reflected Doppler-shifted light, which is interfered with a reference beam. Velocities are calculated from short-time Fourier transform and phase-based analysis, and the dynamic stress-strain curve is derived directly from the measured velocity traces. We demonstrate that the results coincide with those obtained by conventional strain gauge measurements. The new method is non-intervening and thus not affected by bar impacts, making it more robust and reliable than strain gauges.

Avinadav, C.; Ashuach, Y.; Kreif, R.

2011-07-01

474

A newly developed Kolsky tension bar.  

SciTech Connect

Investigation of damage and failure of materials under impact loading relies on reliable dynamic tensile experiments. A precise Kolsky tension bar is highly desirable. Based on the template of the Kolsky compression bar that we recently developed and presented at 2009 SEM conference, a new Kolsky tension bar apparatus was completed at Sandia National Laboratories, California. It is secured to the same optical table. Linear bearings with interior Frelon coating were employed to support the whole tension bar system including the bars and gun barrel. The same laser based alignment system was used to efficiently facilitate highly precise alignment of the bar system. However, the gun part was completely re-designed. One end of the gun barrel, as a part of loading device, was directly jointed to the bar system. A solid cylindrical striker is launched inside the gun barrel and then impacts on a flange attached to the other end of the gun barrel to facilitate a sudden tensile loading on the whole system. This design improves the quality of impact to easily produce a perfect stress wave and is convenient to utilize pulse shaping technique. A calibration and dynamic characterization of an aluminum specimen are presented.

Lu, Wei-Yang; Song, Bo; Antoun, Bonnie R.; Connelly, Kevin; Korellis, John S.

2010-03-01

475

Analysis of Hopkinson bar pressure gage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to fully understand the results of experiments on buried structures subjected to high intensity airblast that simulates nuclear weapons effects, an accurate measurement of the airblast pressure time-history must be made. Quite often, the peak airblast pressures in these tests are above what commercially-available air-pressure gages are capable of measuring. Hopkinson bar pressure gages remain elastic while measuring these very high airblast pressures. These bar gages also have the advantage that the sensing element of the gage is placed at a distance down the bar from the high pressure airblast. Thus the sensing element and the wires attached to it stand a much better chance of surviving the environment created by the simulator. The U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES) has developed a bar gage, designed to measure the airblast for tests in which airblast-induced ground shock is simulated. The primary objective of this study was to determine the accuracy of the WES bar gage and the possible effects the water and water seal have on the measured waveforms. Other objectives are to evaluate the differences in measured stresses between the WES and NMERI bars in the DET test, and to determine if modifications to the WES bar gage design are needed.

Baylot, James T.

1993-01-01

476

Comparative cut-bar thermal conductivity apparatus.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Construction details, error analysis, and typical data for a rapid comparative device for thermal conductivity measurements are presented. The apparatus consists of a comparative cut-bar arrangement contained in a bell-jar. The cylinder shaped specimen is placed between two ARMCO-iron meter bars of the same diameter. The upper bar is equipped with a heater, while the lower one is terminated in a heat sink. The temperature gradient along the bars is measured with a series of copper/constantan microthermocouples, spot welded to them. The assembly is held together by loading the bars to a desired pressure, via a pneumatic cylinder. Contact resistance at the boundaries between the specimen and the meter bars is minimized by using a Hg/In/Ga alloy film at the interface and sufficient loading force. The gradients determined for the meter bars then may be extrapolated to the boundaries yielding the temperature drop along the specimen. Using two different length specimens, the magnitude of the temperature drop across the interface can be computed, or the true gradient along the specimen can be obtained from the difference in overall temperature drops and lengths.

Gaal, P. S.; Span, R. M.

1972-01-01

477

SIMULATION OF POTATO CANOPY GROWTH AND GAS EXCHANGE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potato models, such as SIMPOTATO, typically use a 'big leaf' approach to simulate increases in canopy leaf area. Daily plant growth is simulated by multiplying the quantity of radiation intercepted in the plant canopy by an empirical constant, radiation use efficiency (RUE). Additional empirical r...

478

MODELING EXPANSION OF INDIVIDUAL LEAVES IN THE POTATO CANOPY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A model to simulate expansion of individual leaves in the potato (Solanum tuberosum cv. Kennebec) canopy was developed by modifying an existing growth model. Data for model development and testing were obtained from three soil-plant-atmosphere-research (SPAR) chamber experiments. The first experi...

479

An extreme cytoplasmic bottleneck in the modern European cultivated potato  

E-print Network

and nuclear diversity in the gene pool of the European cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum ssp. tuberosum of introductions (Simmonds 1979; Glendinning 1983), resulting in a low level of genetic diversity compared in the European culti- vated gene pool. Subsequent studies on chloroplast diversity using cpRFLPs (Waugh et al

Provan, Jim

480

Phasic temperature change patterns affect growth and tuberization in potatoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study determined the response of potato (Solanum tuberosum L., cv. Norland) plants to various patterns of air temperature changes over different growth periods. In each of two experiments under controlled environments, eight treatments of temperature changes were carried out in two growth rooms maintained at 17 and 22 C and a constant vapor pressure deficit of 0.60 kPa and

W. Cao; T. W. Tibbitts

1994-01-01

481

Regulatory involvement of ABA in potato tuber wound-healing  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rapid wound-healing is crucial in protecting potato tubers from infection and dehydration. Wound-induced suberization and the accumulation of hydrophobic barriers to reduce water vapor conductance/loss are principle protective wound-healing processes. However, little is known about the biological ...

482

A SINGLE DOMESTICATION FOR POTATO BASED ON MULTILOCUS AFLP GENOTYPING.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The cultivated potato, Solanum tuberosum, ultimately traces its origin to Andean and Chilean landraces developed by pre-Colombian cultivators. These Andean landraces exhibit tremendous morphological and genetic diversity, and are distributed throughout the Andes, from western Venezuela to northern A...

483

Did Francis Drake bring Chilean potatoes to the British Isles  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

R.N Salaman, in 1937, speculated that the first potatoes cultivated in Great Britain and northern Europe were obtained by Francis Drake at Cartagena, Colombia and brought to the British Isles in the 1570-80’s. Presumably S. andigenum tubers would have been brought down the 500 miles from Bogotá to C...

484

Entomopathogenic Fungi (Hypocreales) for Control of Potato Psyllid  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Laboratory and field trials of the four isolates of entomopathogenic fungi, Isaria fumosorosea and Metarhizium anisopliae were conducted to evaluate their potential for control of the potato psyllid. In the laboratory, 2 ml aqueous suspension of 107conidia/ml in a of each isolate applied in a Potte...

485

Potato spindle tuber viroid: the simplicity paradox resolved?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Taxonomy: Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) is the type species of the genus Posipiviroid, family Pospiviroidae. An absence of hammerhead ribozymes and the presence of a 'central conserved region' distinguish PSTVd and related viroids from members of a second viroid family, the Avsunviroidae. ...

486

RESISTANCE TO WIREWORM IN DIFFERENT ADVANCED POTATO SELECTIONS IN IDAHO  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wireworms (Coleoptera:Elateridae) are the most important soil-dwelling pest of potato. Wireworm can feed upon seed pieces during the spring and subsequently burrow into developing tubers in the summer resulting in crop losses of 5-25% in Idaho. Growers in the U.S. rely on a few registered organop...

487

CONTROL OF WIREWORM (ELATERIDAE) IN POTATOES WITH MICROBIAL METARHIZIUM  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Technical grade, liquid and granular formulations of Metarhizium anisopliae F52 were evaluated for wireworm control in small plots of potatoes at two sites in 2006. In-furrow treatments of three different formulations on day of planting: an emulsifiable concentrate (EC) diluted in water, a technica...

488

An Overview of Microbial Control of the Potato Tuber Moth  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Over reliance on broad spectrum insecticides has resulted in the development of resistance in potato tuber moth populations, safety risks to farm workers, the food supply, and the environment. An integrated pest management (IPM) strategy, in which natural enemies of pest arthropods and other alterna...

489

Modification of Potato SGA'S-A Lesson in Applied Metabolmics  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potatoes contain steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGAs), undesirable bitter metabolites whose accumulation is subject to environmental, physical and genetic variation. Two major triglycosylated SGAs alpha-chaconine and alpha-solanine have been the targets of genetic down regulation. Using members of the ...

490

Complex permittivity of the potato leaf during imposed drought stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complex permittivity of the potato leaf is measured over a range of expected moisture conditions in the context of relating synthetic aperture radar scattering to crop moisture status. Measurements were performed on excised leaves to determine complex relative permittivity, and leaf water relations including gravimetric moisture, relative water content, osmotic potential, water potential, and turgor pressure. Relationships between plant water

Bruce G. Colpitts; Warren K. Coleman

1997-01-01

491

Late Blight Resistance of RB Transgenic Potato Lines  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Late blight of potato, caused by Phytophthora infestans, is a devastating disease effecting tuber yield and storage. Recent work has isolated a resistance gene, RB, from the wild species Solanum bulbocastanum. Field evaluations with a RB containing somatic hybrid have reported significant levels of ...

492

Botanicals to control soft rot bacteria of potato.  

PubMed

Extracts from eleven different plant species such as jute (Corchorus capsularis L.), cheerota (Swertia chiraita Ham.), chatim (Alstonia scholaris L.), mander (Erythrina variegata), bael (Aegle marmelos L.), marigold (Tagetes erecta), onion (Allium cepa), garlic (Allium sativum L.), neem (Azadiracta indica), lime (Citrus aurantifolia), and turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) were tested for antibacterial activity against potato soft rot bacteria, E. carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc) P-138, under in vitro and storage conditions. Previously, Ecc P-138 was identified as the most aggressive soft rot bacterium in Bangladeshi potatoes. Of the 11 different plant extracts, only extracts from dried jute leaves and cheerota significantly inhibited growth of Ecc P-138 in vitro. Finally, both plant extracts were tested to control the soft rot disease of potato tuber under storage conditions. In a 22-week storage condition, the treated potatoes were significantly more protected against the soft rot infection than those of untreated samples in terms of infection rate and weight loss. The jute leaf extracts showed more pronounced inhibitory effects on Ecc-138 growth both in in vitro and storage experiments. PMID:22701096

Rahman, M M; Khan, A A; Ali, M E; Mian, I H; Akanda, A M; Abd Hamid, S B

2012-01-01

493

Preemergence herbicides forpotential use in potato (Solanum tuberosum) production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Field trials were conducted in 2009 and 2010 near Paterson, WA and Ontario, OR to evaluate weed control and potato tolerance to preemergence applied pyroxasulfone, saflufenacil, and KSU12800 herbicides. Pyroxasulfone at 0.09 to 0.15 kg ai ha-1 and saflufenacil at 0.05 to 0.07 kg ha-1 applied PRE alo...

494

Comparative analyses of potato expressed sequence tag libraries.  

PubMed

The cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum) shares similar biology with other members of the Solanaceae, yet has features unique within the family, such as modified stems (stolons) that develop into edible tubers. To better understand potato biology, we have undertaken a survey of the potato transcriptome using expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from diverse tissues. A total of 61,940 ESTs were generated from aerial tissues, below-ground tissues, and tissues challenged with the late-blight pathogen (Phytophthora infestans). Clustering and assembly of these ESTs resulted in a total of 19,892 unique sequences with 8,741 tentative consensus sequences and 11,151 singleton ESTs. We were able to identify a putative function for 43.7% of these sequences. A number of sequences (48) were expressed throughout the libraries sampled, representing constitutively expressed sequences. Other sequences (13,068, 21%) were uniquely expressed and were detected only in a single library. Using hierarchal and k means clustering of the EST sequences, we were able to correlate changes in gene expression with major physiological events in potato biology. Using pair-wise comparisons of tuber-related tissues, we were able to associate genes with tuber initiation, dormancy, and sprouting. We also were able to identify a number of characterized as well as novel sequences that were unique to the incompatible interaction of late-blight pathogen, thereby providing a foundation for further understanding the mechanism of resistance. PMID:12586867

Ronning, Catherine M; Stegalkina, Svetlana S; Ascenzi, Robert A; Bougri, Oleg; Hart, Amy L; Utterbach, Teresa R; Vanaken, Susan E; Riedmuller, Steve B; White, Joseph A; Cho, Jennifer; Pertea, Geo M; Lee, Yuandan; Karamycheva, Svetlana; Sultana, Razvan; Tsai, Jennifer; Quackenbush, John; Griffiths, Helen M; Restrepo, Silvia; Smart, Christine D; Fry, William E; Van Der Hoeven, Rutger; Tanksley, Steve; Zhang, Peifen; Jin, Hailing; Yamamoto, Miki L; Baker, Barbara J; Buell, C Robin

2003-02-01

495

Genetic Improvement of Potato for Tuber Calcium Uptake  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tuber internal quality is a major limiting factor for the U.S. potato industry. Breeders invest time and money in producing advanced selections which, in the end, often fail because of tuber internal defects, tuber bruising, or storage quality issues. In-season fertilization with calcium is known to...

496

Cyanide-resistant Respiration in Freshly Cut Potato Slices  

PubMed Central

Treating intact white potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber with ethylene in air or O2 made it possible to obtain freshly cut slices which exhibit cyanide-resistant respiration. The cyanide-resistant path requires induction in whole tubers. The data also indicate that high O2 concentration is necessary for the full development of cyanide-resistant respiration. PMID:16660359

Rychter, Anna; Janes, Harry W.; Frenkel, Chaim

1978-01-01

497

HORTICULTURAL ENTOMOLOGY Potato Aphid, Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas), in Tomatoes  

E-print Network

HORTICULTURAL ENTOMOLOGY Potato Aphid, Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas), in Tomatoes: Plant Canopy Distribution and Binomial Sampling on Processing Tomatoes in California NATALIE A. HUMMEL,1, 2 FRANK G. ZALOM,1 tomato plants,Lycopersicon esculentum(Mill), is proposed. Relationships between mean number of M

Underwood, Nora

498

Potato (Solanum tuberosum) response to simulated glyphosate drift  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Field studies were conducted in 2008 in Ontario, OR and Paterson, WA to determine the effect of simulated glyphosate drift on 'Ranger Russet' potato injury, shikimic acid accumulation, and tuber yield. Glyphosate was applied at 8.5-, 54-, 107-, 215-, and 423 g ae ha-1; which corresponds to 0.01, 0.0...

499

Response of Ranger Russet potato to simulated glyphosate drift  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Field studies were conducted in 2008 at Ontario, OR, Paterson, WA, and Aberdeen, ID to determine the effect of simulated glyphosate drift on potato. Glyphosate was applied at 10-15cm height, stolon-hooking, tuber-initiation, and bulking stage. Glyphosate was applied at 0, 8.5, 54, 107, 215, and 423g...

500

Reticulate Phylogenetics of Wild Potato Polyploids Inferred From Multilocus Analysis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There are approximately 190 wild potato (2n = 2x = 24), tetraploids (2n = 4x = 48), and hexaploids (2n = 6x = 72), as well as a few rare triploids and pentaploids. Previous studies using nuclear ortholog DNA sequences GBSSI (waxy) and nitrate reductase (NIA) indicated that the polyploids may have au...