Sample records for baked potato bar

  1. Baked Apple and Sweet Potato Casserole Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Baked Apple and Sweet Potato Casserole Ingredients: Non-stick cooking spray 5 sweet potatoes 4 apples, diced 1/2 cup brown sugar 1/4 cup margarine, melted 1 teaspoon nutmeg 1/4 cup hot water 2 into potato into small pieces. Add to large baking dish. 3. Cut apples down the center and in half again, down

  2. Effect of ingredients on rheological, nutritional and quality characteristics of fibre and protein enriched baked energy bars.

    PubMed

    Rawat, Neelam; Darappa, Indrani

    2015-05-01

    Effect of substitution of brown flour (BF) with fiber rich ingredient mixture, FRIM (banana flour, psyllium husk, partially defatted coconut flour and oats) and protein rich ingredient mixture, PRIM (chickpea flour, sesame, soya protein isolate and whey protein concentrate) at the levels of 25, 50 and 75 % on the rheological, nutritional and quality characteristics of baked energy bars (BEB) were studied. Use of increasing amount of FRIM increased farinograph water absorption and amylograph peak viscosity while PRIM decreased the aforementioned parameters. Addition of FRIM or PRIM increased the bar dough hardness and decreased cohesiveness and springiness. The overall quality score of BEB increased only up to the substitution of 50 % of BF with FRIM or PRIM. The BEB with 50 % FRIM and PRIM remained chemically stable during storage up to 3 months and showed 9 times increase in dietary fiber content and about 2 times increase in protein content respectively. PMID:25892802

  3. B: Pancakes, Turkey Baked Apples, Milk

    E-print Network

    O'Toole, Alice J.

    B: Pancakes, Turkey Sausage, Baked Apples, Milk L: Hamburger, Potato Wedges, Mixed Fruit, Milk S: Oranges B: Toast, Turkey Sausage, Pears, Milk L: Turkey Breast, Iceberg Lettuce, Tomato, Baked Apples, Bread, Milk S: Cheese Crackers B: Cereal, Toast, Bananas, Milk L: Chicken Tomato Bake, Broccoli, Mixed

  4. Potato Flavor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato is one of the most popular vegetables worldwide and is the most important vegetable crop in the United States, accounting for nearly one-third of per-capita vegetable consumption. Potatoes can be prepared in many ways, including baking, boiling, roasting, frying, and microwaving, allowin...

  5. Potato

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jens Lübeck

    \\u000a \\u000a During the past 20 years, since potato\\u000a became transformable, potato transgenic research mainly focused on fundamental aspects of plant molecular physiology or molecular\\u000a genetics using the potato as a model system. But there are also striking achievements with regard to commercially relevant\\u000a and useful traits. This chapter highlights some examples of how genetic engineering has been used to address the

  6. Potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato is the most important vegetable crop in the U.S. It is produced throughout the country and across all seasons, although production is concentrated on the fall crop in the Pacific Northwest. In 2012, 21 million metric tons of potatoes were produced on 1.14 million acres, with an average yield ...

  7. Salsa Baked Chicken Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Salsa Baked Chicken Ingredients: 4 skinless, boneless chicken breasts 1 cup salsa Directions 1. Preheat oven to 400ºF. 2. Place chicken breasts in a medium bowl. Add salsa an allow to marinate for 20 minutes in refrigerator. 3. Spray baking dish with non stick spray. Place chicken in baking dish and pour

  8. Baking loss of bread with special emphasis on increasing water holding capacity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Kotoki; S. C. Deka

    2010-01-01

    Potato flour (PF), hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and honey were used as baking agents and their effects on baking loss\\u000a and sensory quality were studied. PF at 1, 2 and 4% levels decreased baking loss followed by HPMC and honey. Water absorption\\u000a was substantially high with the HPMC (70.8–80.8%) and PF (61.7–71.7%) compared to honey and normal standard bread. PF incorporation

  9. Baked Lentils with Cheese Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Baked Lentils with Cheese Ingredients: 1 onion 4 carrots 1 cup lentils 2 cups water 1/4 teaspoon into thin slices. Add to the baking dish. 4. Add lentils, water, pepper, onion, garlic, carrots, celery and tomatoes in a baking dish. 5. Cover tightly and bake at 375ºF for one hour and 15 minutes. 6. While lentils

  10. Baking in the Backwoods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Steve

    2008-01-01

    Baking in the woods can be a lot of fun and can help to make a good trip an amazing one. It does take some time, planning, and preparation, and chosen recipes should be tested in the oven at home before trying them out with friends on a 10-day trip. Outdoor baking requires a different set of rules and equipment than those one uses at home and a…

  11. 6.NS Bake Sale

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-05-01

    This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Lindy is having a bake sale. She has 48 chocolate chip cookies to put in bags. How many bags can she fill if she puts the same number in each bag and u...

  12. Potato Types and Characteristics: Laboratory Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlista, Alexander D.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a number of simple exercises that demonstrate potato tuber characteristics and are designed for high school biology students and teachers. Exercises include Typing, Grading, Shape, Eye Characteristics, Defects, Specific Gravity, Dry Matter Content, Glucose Content, Baking, Frying/Chipping, and Taste Testing. (JRH)

  13. Baking Soda and Vinegar Rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claycomb, James R.; Zachary, Christopher; Tran, Quoc

    2009-02-01

    Rocket experiments demonstrating conservation of momentum will never fail to generate enthusiasm in undergraduate physics laboratories. In this paper, we describe tests on rockets from two vendors1,2 that combine baking soda and vinegar for propulsion. The experiment compared two analytical approximations for the maximum rocket height to the experimentally measured rocket height. Baking soda and vinegar rockets present fewer safety concerns and require a smaller launch area than rapid combustion chemical rockets. Both kits were of nearly identical design, costing ˜20. The rockets required roughly 30 minutes of assembly time consisting of mostly taping the soft plastic fuselage to the Styrofoam nose cone.

  14. Collection Development: Hitting the Sweet Spot (Baking)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, John

    2010-01-01

    Baking can be intimidating. Just ask all those contestants on "Top Chef" who would rather prepare Beef Wellington than bake a cake. But libraries can take the fear factor out of baking by putting together a solid collection of cookbooks that can help anyone master the sweeter side of the culinary arts or even serve as delicious armchair reading…

  15. Baked Apple Oatmeal Casserole Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    bowl. Set aside. Add shredded apples to mixture, stir. 3. Melt margarine. Crack egg into a cup teaspoon baking powder 1 tablespoon ground cinnamon 1/2 cup raisins 2 tablespoons brown sugar 1 egg 2 cups, melted margarine and vanilla to bowl with egg and margarine. Pour milk mixture into oats and apple

  16. Old Fashioned Baked Apples Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Bashir, Rashid

    Old Fashioned Baked Apples Ingredients: 8 large apples, washed & cored 1/3 cup old fashioned oats 1, grated 2 tablespoons lemon juice 1/2 cup honey 1 cup apple juice 4 tablespoons butter whipping cream, chilled or softly whipped Directions: Peel off one strip around the center of each apple. Slice a thin

  17. Baking Soda and Vinegar Rockets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claycomb, James R.; Zachary, Christopher; Tran, Quoc

    2009-01-01

    Rocket experiments demonstrating conservation of momentum will never fail to generate enthusiasm in undergraduate physics laboratories. In this paper, we describe tests on rockets from two vendors that combine baking soda and vinegar for propulsion. The experiment compared two analytical approximations for the maximum rocket height to the…

  18. A Large Outbreak of Botulism: The Hazardous Baked Potato

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frederick J. Angulo; Jonathan Getz; Jeffery P. Taylor; Katherine A. Hendricks; Charles L. Hatheway; Suzanne S. Barth; Haim M. Solomon; Ann E. Larson; Eric A. Johnson; Laurance N. Nickey; Allen A. Ries

    1998-01-01

    In April 1994, the largest outbreak of botulism in the United States since 1978 occurred in El Paso, Texas. Thirty persons were affected; 4 required mechanical ventilation. All ate food from a Greek restaurant. The attack rate among persons who ate a potatobased dip was 86% (19\\/22) compared with 6% (11\\/176) among persons who did not eat the dip (relative

  19. A method to determine ingredient functionality in baked tortilla chips

    E-print Network

    Quintero-Fuentes, Ximena

    1997-01-01

    An air impingement oven was used to evaluate the structures developed by different ingredients in baked corn chips and baked tortilla chips. Dry masa flour (DMF) was hydrated into masa, sheeted and cut. Masa triangles were baked in an air...

  20. An Analysis of the Baking Occupation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyadjid, Thomas A; Paoletti, Donald J.

    The general purpose of the occupational analysis is to provide workable, basic information dealing with the many and varied duties performed in the baking occupation. Such tasks as choosing ingredients and the actual baking process are logical primary concerns, but also explored are the safety and sanitation factors and management problems in a…

  1. Potato with growth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Peggy Greb (USDA; ARS)

    2006-05-23

    Potatoes are grown in the ground. Potatoes can be eaten by humans and animals and they can also grow more potatoes. Potatoes sprout things called eyes. The eyes are from where both the roots and potatoes develop.

  2. Baking soda: a potentially fatal home remedy.

    PubMed

    Nichols, M H; Wason, S; Gonzalez del Rey, J; Benfield, M

    1995-04-01

    We present a case of a six-week-old infant who developed life-threatening complications after unintentional sodium bicarbonate intoxication. Baking soda was being used by the mother as a home remedy to "help the baby burp." A review of the literature regarding the use (or misuse) of baking soda follows. Our patient, along with the other noted case reports, emphasizes the need for warnings on baking soda products whose labels recommend its use as an antacid. Poisonings must be high in the differential diagnosis of any patient, regardless of age, who presents with altered mental status or status epilepticus. PMID:7596870

  3. Bread baking in halogen lamp–microwave combination oven

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Semin Ozge Keskin; Gulum Sumnu; Serpil Sahin

    2004-01-01

    The main objective of the study was to compare the effects of halogen lamp–microwave combination baking on quality of breads with other baking methods (conventional, microwave and halogen lamp baking). It was also aimed to improve the quality of microwave baked breads by using combination oven. Weight loss, specific volume, firmness and color of the breads were measured as quality

  4. Influence of final baking technologies in partially baked frozen gluten-free bread quality.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Núria; Albanell, Elena; Miñarro, Begoña; Gallardo, Joan; Capellas, Marta

    2015-03-01

    The effect of final baking in convection oven (FBC), microwave oven (FBM), and microwave oven with susceptor packaging material (FBMS) on partially baked (PB) frozen gluten-free bread characteristics was investigated. Specific volume and crust color of loaves were measured at day 0. Bread moisture, water activity, and crumb and crust texture (at 15, 45, and 90 min after baking) were analyzed at day 0 and after 28 d of frozen storage (-18 °C). Volatile compounds from breads baked in convection oven or microwave oven with susceptor packaging material were also evaluated. Bread finally baked in convection oven or in microwave oven with susceptor packaging increased crust browning. Crumb and roll hardness increased with time after final baking (measured at 15, 45, 90 min) and after 28 d of frozen storage. Bread finally baked in microwave oven was the hardest, due to high water losses. At day 0, bread finally baked in convection oven had softer crumb than bread finally baked in microwave oven with susceptor packaging but, after 28 d of frozen storage, there were no differences between them. Moreover, FBC and FBMS rendered gluten-free breads that could not be distinguished in a triangular test and had the same volatile compounds profile. In conclusion, FBMS could be an alternative to FBC. PMID:25656390

  5. Competitive position of natural gas: Industrial baking

    SciTech Connect

    Minsker, B.S.; Salama, S.Y.

    1988-01-01

    Industrial baking is one of the largest natural gas consumers in the food industry. In 1985, bread, rolls, cookies, and crackers accounted for over 82 percent of all baked goods production. Bread accounting for 46 percent of all production. The baking industry consumed approximately 16 trillion Btu in 1985. About 93 percent was natural gas, while distillate fuel oil accounted for seven percent, and electricity accounted for much less than one percent. The three main types of baking ovens are the single lap, tunnel, and Lanham ovens. In the single lap oven, trays carry the product back and forth through the baking chamber once. The single lap oven is the most common type of oven and is popular due to its long horizontal runs, extensive steam zone, and simple construction. The tunnel oven is slightly more efficient and more expensive that the single lap oven. IN the tunnel oven, the hearth is a motorized conveyor which passes in a straight line through a series of heating zones, with loading and unloading occurring at opposite ends of the oven. The advantages of the tunnel oven include flexibility with respect to pan size and simple, accurate top and bottom heat control. The tunnel oven is used exclusively in the cookie and cracker baking, with the product being deposited directly on the oven band. The most recently developed type of oven is the Lanham oven. The Lanham oven is the most efficient type of oven, with a per pound energy consumption approaching the practical minimum for baking bread. Between one--half and two--thirds of all new industrial baking ovens are Lanham ovens. In the Lanham oven, the product enters the oven near the top of the chamber, spirals down through a series of heating zones, and exits near the bottom of the oven. The oven is gas--fired directly by ribbon burners. 31 refs.

  6. Flavor Control in Baked Cereal Products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Pozo-Bayón; E. Guichard; N. Cayot

    2006-01-01

    Baked cereal products represent one of the most consumed foodstuffs in the world. Extensive scientific research has been focused on the volatile composition of these types of products. It has been shown that in spite of the great number of compounds identified, only a small number of them are responsible for the aroma. Many factors can affect the aroma composition

  7. Potato Float

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning (McREL)

    2004-01-01

    How can a potato wedge be made to hover in the center of a glass of liquid? This material is part of a series of hands-on science activities designed to arouse student interest. Here students investigate density using potato wedges and water and sugar water solutions. The activity includes a description, a list of science process skills and complex reasoning strategies being used, and a compilation of applicable national science standards for grades K-12. Also provided are content topics, a list of necessary supplies, instructions to perform the activity, and presentation techniques. The activity's content is explained, and assessment suggestions are provided.

  8. Introduction to Potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is an introductory chapter on potatoes which gives a brief history of the potato, potato morphology, taxonomy, production statistics, nutritional content, and future prospects for potato research and production. It will appear in a new book entitled Genetics, Genomics, and Breeding of Potato ...

  9. Energy consumption for baking and characteristics of baked product in relation to type of oven and baking procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Nee, Y.

    1982-01-01

    Data were obtained and analyzed on 1) energy consumption when a test food was baked with four types of electric ovens (electric range oven, table model conventional oven, table model forced convection oven, and table model broiler/toaster oven) with three cooking procedures (participant's own procedure, preheated procedure, and cold start procedure); 2) patterns of energy consumption in 10-minute intervals; and 3) the characteristics of the finished food. Twenty participants from households in Columbus, Ohio, baked loaves of quick bread in a laboratory in the four types of ovens with three cooking procedures. Statistical analyses of data included analyses of variance, Tukey test, and Duncan's multiple range test. Significantly more energy was used with the participants' own procedures than with either the preheated or the cold start procedure (p < .01). There was no consistency in total energy consumption between the preheated and the cold start procedures in the four types of ovens. The electric range oven consumed significantly more energy than the other three types of ovens in the first 10-minute interval; however, the table model forced convection oven consumed significantly more energy than other ovens in the second and third 10-minute intervals. No consistent patterns were observed for volume and weight loss of breads baked with the three cooking procedures, but use of the table model forced convection oven always resulted in larger volume than with other ovens.

  10. Potato Straw

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-07-12

    In this physics demonstration, learners are challenged to insert a straw the furthest into a potato. After learners explore different techniques, the demonstrator can show them how to hold the straw firmly about 2/3 of the way up and use a sharp thrusting movement. Use this activity to explore force and surface area. This activity guide includes a helpful video that demonstrates each step of the demonstration.

  11. BOTANY OF THE POTATO

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter, published in a revision of the Potato Association of America's Handbook entitled "Commercial Potato Production in North America, describes the taxonomy of cultivated potato in the genus Solanum. It describes the differences between wild and cultivated potatoes and the number of sp...

  12. Potatoes and Human Health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary Ellen Camire; Stan Kubow; Danielle J. Donnelly

    2009-01-01

    The potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber follows only rice and wheat in world importance as a food crop for human consumption. Cultivated potatoes have spread from the Andes of South America where they originated to 160 countries around the world. Consumption of fresh potatoes has declined while processed products have increased in popularity. As the potato becomes a staple in

  13. Germination of oat and quinoa and evaluation of the malts as gluten free baking ingredients.

    PubMed

    Mäkinen, Outi E; Zannini, Emanuele; Arendt, Elke K

    2013-03-01

    Germination can be used to improve the sensory and nutritional properties of cereal and pseudocereal grains. Oat and quinoa are rich in minerals, vitamins and fibre while quinoa also contains high amounts of protein of a high nutritional value. In this study, oat and quinoa malts were produced and incorporated in a rice and potato based gluten free formulation. Germination of oat led to a drastic increase of ?-amylase activity from 0.3 to 48 U/g, and minor increases in proteolytic and lipolytic activities. Little change was observed in quinoa except a decrease in proteolytic activity from 9.6 to 6.9 U/g. Oat malt addition decreased batter viscosities at both proofing temperature and during heating. These changes led to a decrease in bread density from 0.59 to 0.5 g/ml and the formation of a more open crumb, but overdosing of oat malt deteriorated the product as a result of excessive amylolysis during baking. Quinoa malt had no significant effect on the baking properties due to low ?-amylase activity. Despite showing a very different impact on the bread quality, both malts influenced the electrophoretic patterns of rice flour protein similarly. This suggests that malt induced proteolysis does not influence the technological properties of a complex gluten free formulation. PMID:23386201

  14. Optimizing Shake-and-Bake for proteins.

    PubMed

    Weeks, C M; Miller, R

    1999-02-01

    Shake-and-Bake is a direct-methods procedure which has provided ab initio solutions for protein structures containing as many as 1000 independent non-H atoms. This algorithm extends the range of conventional direct methods by repetitively, unconditionally and automatically alternating reciprocal-space phase refinement with filtering in real space to impose constraints. The application of SnB to protein-sized molecules is significantly affected by the choice made for certain critical parameters, including the number of peaks used for density modification, the choice of phase-refinement method and the number of refinement cycles. The effects of parameter variation have been studied for six protein structures, all of which are solvable by Shake-and-Bake using data at 1.1 A or higher resolution. Solvability in the resolution range 1.2-1.4 A appears to be enhanced by the presence of heavier atoms (S, Cl). Furthermore, it appears that in this range the ratio of refinement cycles and triplet phase invariants to atoms in the structure must be increased. Large structures lacking atoms of any element heavier than oxygen also require non-traditional parameter values. PMID:10089361

  15. IMPROVED QUALITY OF BAKED PRODUCTS BY RICE BRAN OIL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kamran Sharif; Masood S. Butt; Faqir M. Anjum; Muhammad Nasir

    Baking is a developing industry in Pakistan, which is growing in size. The people are becoming more conscious about their health and nutrition. Foods that are convenient, with good taste, reasonably priced and superior in quality are in great demand. Rice bran oil (RBO) was applied into baked products such as cookies at various levels i.e. 0, 25, 50, 75

  16. Thermodynamics of bread baking: A two-state model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zürcher, Ulrich

    2014-03-01

    Bread baking can be viewed as a complex physico-chemical process. It is governed by transport of heat and is accompanied by changes such as gelation of starch, the expansion of air cells within dough, and others. We focus on the thermodynamics of baking and investigate the heat flow through dough and find that the evaporation of excess water in dough is the rate-limiting step. We consider a simplified one-dimensional model of bread, treating the excess water content as a two-state variable that is zero for baked bread and a fixed constant for unbaked dough. We arrive at a system of coupled, nonlinear ordinary differential equations, which are solved using a standard Runge-Kutta integration method. The calculated baking times are consistent with common baking experience.

  17. Texas Crop Profile: Potatoes 

    E-print Network

    Hall, Kent D.; Holloway, Rodney L.; Smith, Dudley

    2000-04-12

    decemlin- eata), potato aphid (Macrosiphum euphorbiae), leafhopper (E. fabae and E . abrupta), grasshop- pers, spider mite, potato psyllid (Paratrioza cockerelli), false cinch bug (Nysius raphanus), cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni), and tomato hornworm...

  18. Texas Crop Profile: Potatoes

    E-print Network

    Hall, Kent D.; Holloway, Rodney L.; Smith, Dudley

    2000-04-12

    in the Winter Garden; and July through October in the High Plains. Pest Information Pests of potatoes include numerous foliar feed- ing insects, several soil insects, diseases, nema- todes and weeds. Foliar feeding insects Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa... (Manduca quinquemaculata) Frequency of occurrence: Every year these insects will appear in some part of the state and cause problems in potatoes. In the High Plains, psyllids and grasshoppers are a problem every year. Damage caused: Colorado potato beetle...

  19. Colorado potato beetle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Colorado potato beetle (CPB) shifted to the potato crop from native solanaceous weeds in the American West in 1859, and has been a serious pest ever since. CPB is a highly fecund leaf-feeder on potato and eggplant, and often tomatoes, with one to several generations per year. It is the most importa...

  20. POTATO DISEASE RESISTANCE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potential to use systemic acquired resistance for disease control in potato is discussed. The mechanism of how SAR works in plants is described. Potato was found to have high salicylic acid levels in all tissues examined. The defense gene PR-1 was constitutively expressed in potato, in contrast ...

  1. Development of Gluten-Free Baking Methods Utilizing Sorghum Flour 

    E-print Network

    Boswell, Sara Elizabeth

    2012-02-14

    Increasing diagnosis and awareness of celiac disease and gluten intolerance has created a need for developing improved quality gluten-free sandwich breads. Sorghum is a naturally gluten-free grain with ideal baking qualities that is underutilized...

  2. A method to determine ingredient functionality in baked tortilla chips 

    E-print Network

    Quintero-Fuentes, Ximena

    1997-01-01

    be expected when different ingredients are added to mesa in an effort to improve baked chip texture. DEDICATION To Rosenda, Armando, and Armando Quintero, and to Igor Rikalo fortheirlove, encouragement, and support. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank...

  3. Usage of enzymes in a novel baking process.

    PubMed

    Keskin, Semin Ozge; Sumnu, Gülüm; Sahin, Serpil

    2004-04-01

    In this study, the effects of different enzymes (alpha-amylase, xylanase, lipase, protease) on quality of breads baked in different ovens (microwave, halogen lamp-microwave combination and conventional oven) were investigated. It was also aimed to reduce the quality problems of breads baked in microwave ovens with the usage of enzymes. As a control, bread dough containing no enzyme was used. Specific volume, firmness and color of the breads were measured as quality parameters. All of the enzymes were found to be effective in reducing the initial firmness and increasing the specific volume of breads baked in microwave and halogen lamp-microwave combination ovens. However, in conventional baking, the effects of enzymes on crumb firmness were seen mostly during storage. The color of protease enzyme added breads were found to be significantly different from that of the no enzyme and the other enzyme added breads in the case of all type of ovens. PMID:15146975

  4. Exponential Shake-and-Bake: theoretical basis and applications.

    PubMed

    Hauptman, H A; Xu, H; Weeks, C M; Miller, R

    1999-09-01

    The simple cosine function used in the formulation of the traditional minimal principle and the related Shake-and-Bake algorithm is here replaced by a function of exponential type and its expected value and variance are derived. These lead to the corresponding exponential minimal principle and its associated Exponential Shake-and-Bake algorithm. Recent applications of the exponential function to several protein structures within the Shake-and-Bake framework suggest that this function leads, in general, to significant improvements in the success rate (percentage of trial structures yielding solution) of the Shake-and-Bake procedure. However, only in space group P1 is it presently possible to assign optimal values a priori for the exponential-function parameters. PMID:10500992

  5. Tramline Virtual Field Trips: Baking Bread Field Trip

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Peirano, Eduardo

    Do you enjoy the smell of freshly baked bread? Featured as part of the Tramline Virtual Field Trip series, this website, created by educator Eduardo Peirano, treats students to a Baking Bread Field Trip. This educational field trip "utilizes Internet resources to introduce the principles, tools, and techniques of bread making. It is designed for elementary school children in grades 4-6 but is appropriate for students of many ages." Field Trip Stops connect to different websites providing information on Wheat, Milling, Facts About Bread, Baking Ingredients, and more. This site also offers a Teacher's Resources page that contains additional internet resource links and information for bread baking activities, cooking conversion tables, nutrition activities, and more. Site visitors can link to other Tramline field trips from this site as well. (Note: The link to the Wild Yeast? AKA Sourdough Stop is not operational at present.)

  6. Characteristic coloring curve for white bread during baking.

    PubMed

    Onishi, Masanobu; Inoue, Michiko; Araki, Tetsuya; Iwabuchi, Hisakatsu; Sagara, Yasuyuki

    2011-01-01

    The effect of heating conditions on the crust color formation was investigated during the baking of white bread. The surface temperatures were monitored with thermocouples attached to the inside surface of the loaf pan cover. The trace of the surface color in the L(*)a(*)b(*) color coordinate system is defined as the characteristic coloring curve. The overall baking process was classified into the following four stages based on the characteristic coloring curve: i) pre-heating (surface temperature < 110 °C), ii) Maillard reaction (110-150 °C), iii) caramelization (150-200 °C), and iv) over-baking (surface temperature>200 °C). A linear relationship was observed between the L(*) decrease and the increase in weight loss of a sample at each oven air temperature. The L(*) value appeared to be suitable as an indicator to control the surface color by baking conditions. PMID:21307578

  7. Effects of Baking Temperature on Crumb-Staling Kinetics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabriella Giovanelli; Claudio Peri; Valeria Borri

    1997-01-01

    Cereal Chem. 74(6):710-714 This study evaluated the effects of bread baking temperature on the staling kinetics of crumb. Bread dough was leavened and baked in sealed molds. Cooking trials were performed at various temperatures ranging from 90 to 110°C. The crumb samples were then stored at 20°C at con- stant moisture, and staling was evaluated by measuring crumb elastic modulus

  8. Measurement and modeling thermal conductivity of baked products 

    E-print Network

    Islas Rubio, Alma Rosa

    1990-01-01

    MEASUREMENT AND MODELING THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF BAKED PRODUCTS A Thesis by ALMA ROSA ISLAS RUBIO Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies ot' Iexas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1990 Major Subject: Agricultural Engineering MEASUREMENT AND MODELING THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF BAKED PRODUCTS A Thesis bv ALMA ROSA ISLAS RLBIO Approved as to style and content by: Vincent E. Sweat (Chair of Committee) Albert...

  9. Impact of the Baking Duration on Bread Staling Kinetics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alain Le-Bail; Soumya Agrane; Delphine Queveau

    This paper presents a study on the impact of the duration of the baking plateau on staling kinetics in the case of bread crumb\\u000a made of sourdough; it follows Le-Bail et al. Journal of Cereal Science 50:235–240, (2009)a previous study proposed by Le-Bail et al. Journal of Cereal Science 50:235–240, (2009) on the impact of heating rate during baking on

  10. Effect of Baking Procedure and Storage on the Pasting Properties and Staling of Part-Baked and Rebaked White Pan Bread Crumb

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Murat Karaoglu

    2006-01-01

    In this investigation, the white pan breads were part-baked for 10, 15, 20 minutes at 230°C with and without calcium propionate (0.2%), were stored at room temperature (20°C) for 3, 5, 7 days wrapped with two polyethylene bags. After storage, baking time of part-baked breads was completed to the baking time of control breads (25 minutes). Breads were subjected to

  11. Composition of sulfited potatoes: comparison with fresh and frozen potatoes.

    PubMed

    Chalom, S; Elrezzi, E; Peña, P; Astiarsarán, I; Bello, J

    1995-02-01

    The content in moisture, fat, protein, carbohydrate, fibre and vitamin C was analyzed in three commercial types of potatoes: sulfited (treated with E223), frozen potatoes (pre-fried) and fresh potatoes (not processed). The composition of sulfited potatoes does not usually appear in food composition tables. Our results showed significant differences in the content of carbohydrates and fibre between sulfited and fresh potatoes. The content of vitamin C in sulfited potatoes, which is similar to that of frozen potatoes, was shown to be approximately half of that found in fresh potatoes. PMID:7792261

  12. Bar Graph

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    This lesson is designed to give students experience creating and reading bar graphs. The lesson provides links to a practice data set and the bar graph activity so that students can practice making bar graphs and check their work using the activity. Finally, the lesson provides a suggested follow-up to this lesson.

  13. Quality enhancement of chicken baked without skin using honey marinades.

    PubMed

    Hashim, I B; McWatters, K H; Hung, Y C

    1999-12-01

    Chicken (bone-in, skinless, split breast) injected with lemon-pepper poultry pump marinade containing 20 or 30% honey was compared with chicken (with and without skin) marinated without honey. The objectives were to 1) determine moisture and fat contents and instrumental color and texture measurements, 2) characterize the sensory profiles of marinated chicken baked with and without skin, and 3) investigate the effect of honey marinades on the sensory characteristics of chicken baked without skin. Chicken was roasted at 177 C for one h to an internal temperature of 80 C. A trained panel (n = 13) evaluated the roasted chicken. Results showed that skin could be removed from premarinated chicken breast before baking without significantly affecting the amount of marinade uptake, moisture content, fat content, texture (force required to shear), or most instrumental measurements of color. With regard to sensory characteristics, skin removal before baking resulted in a less glossy and moist appearance, less brown color, and more intense pepper flavor in the roasted product than when the skin was not removed. Addition of honey to the marinade restored, to some extent, the intensities of moist and glossy appearance and brown color that were reduced by removal of the skin before baking. PMID:10626657

  14. Partial-Baking Process on Gluten-Free Bread: Impact of Hydrocolloid Addition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lorena Susana Sciarini; Gabriela Teresa Pérez; Marie de Lamballerie; Alberto Edel León; Pablo Daniel Ribotta

    The objectives of this work were to assess the impact of partial-baking process on gluten-free bread, and to study how carboxymethylcellulose\\u000a (CMC) and xanthan gum addition affected this process. As different from the conventional baking which involves only one baking\\u000a step (40 min), the part-baking process consisted in an initial-baking step (25 min), storage (7 days, 4°C), and final-baking\\u000a step (15 min). Bread-specific volume

  15. The Sweet Potato Borer.

    E-print Network

    Conradi, Albert F. (Albert Frederick)

    1907-01-01

    ," however, are exceptional in the climate of Texa~. HISTORICAL. This insect was described as early. as 1798 by Fabricius. We have no record of it as a sweet potato enemy until IS57 when Nietner recorded it as attacking sweet potatoes in the island...

  16. Sweet Potato Pie Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    , save rest for other uses. Set aside. 4. Tap egg on side on a hard surface to crack. Pull apartSweet Potato Pie Ingredients: 3 cups sweet potatoes, cooked, skin removed and mashed 3 large eggs and empty into a small bowl. Check for freshness. if it is OK, add to bowl. Repeat for remaining eggs. Beat

  17. Solanum tuberosum (Potato)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato is the fourth most important food crop worldwide, with high value as a balanced and nutritious food. It is one of the world’s most productive crops. Wild potatoes are native from the southwestern United States to south-central Chile, with centers of species diversity in central Mexico and in ...

  18. Microbiological Characteristics of Part-Baked White Pan Bread During Storage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Murat Karaoglu; H. Gürbüz Kotancilar; Mustafa Gurses

    2005-01-01

    In this study, white pan breads part-baked 10, 15, and 20 min with and without added calcium propionate were stored at 20°C (room temperature) for 3, 5, and 7 days and at 4°C (refrigerator temperature) for 7, 14, and 21 days. After storage, the baking time of part-baked breads was completed to the baking time of control breads (25 min).

  19. Different approaches for increasing the shelf life of partially baked bread: Low temperatures and hydrocolloid addition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    María Eugenia Bárcenas; Cristina M. Rosell

    2007-01-01

    Partially baked bread is a product with short shelf life that requires sub-zero temperatures for extending it. The storage of par-baked bread at low temperatures and the addition of bread improvers with antistaling effects, such as hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC), are very attractive alternatives for extending the shelf life of these products. In this study, staling during storage of partially baked bread

  20. The Ampersand 1 October 2002 HCAB Bake Sale

    E-print Network

    Ben-Arie, Jezekiel

    The Ampersand 1 October 2002 Oct. 25 HCAB Bake Sale (9:00 a.m.) HCAB Halloween Social (3:30-5:00 p'sspecialguest"MangoTribe," a renownedAsian/Pacific IslanderAmerican (APIA) women's performance collec- tive comprised of 22APIAwomen

  1. Baking of SST-1 vacuum vessel modules and sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathan, Firozkhan S.; Khan, Ziauddin; Yuvakiran, Paravastu; George, Siju; Ramesh, Gattu; Manthena, Himabindu; Shah, Virendrakumar; Raval, Dilip C.; Thankey, Prashant L.; Dhanani, Kalpesh R.; Pradhan, Subrata

    2012-11-01

    SST-1 Tokamak is a steady state super-conducting tokamak for plasma discharge of 1000 sec duration. The plasma discharge of such long time duration can be obtained by reducing the impurities level, which will be possible only when SST-1 vacuum chamber is pumped to ultra high vacuum. In order to achieve UHV inside the chamber, the baking of complete vacuum chamber has to be carried out during pumping. For this purpose the C-channels are welded inside the vacuum vessel. During baking of vacuum vessel, these welded channels should be helium leak tight. Further, these U-channels will be in accessible under operational condition of SST-1. So, it will not possible to repair if any leak is developed during experiment. To avoid such circumstances, a dedicated high vacuum chamber is used for baking of the individual vacuum modules and sectors before assembly so that any fault during welding of the channels will be obtained and repaired. This paper represents the baking of vacuum vessel modules and sectors and their temperature distribution along the entire surface before assembly.

  2. 34. DESPATCH CORE OVENS, GREY IRON FOUNDRY CORE ROOM, BAKES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. DESPATCH CORE OVENS, GREY IRON FOUNDRY CORE ROOM, BAKES CORES THAT ARE NOT MADE ON HEATED OR COLD BOX CORE MACHINES, TO SET BINDING AGENTS MIXED WITH THE SAND CREATING CORES HARD ENOUGH TO WITHSTAND THE FLOW OF MOLTEN IRON INSIDE A MOLD. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  3. Milling and Baking Quality of Low Phytic Acid Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low phytic acid (LPA) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one approach to improving nutritional quality of wheat by reducing the major storage form of phosphorus and increasing the level of inorganic phosphorus, which is more readily absorbed by humans and other monogastric animals. Milling and baking ...

  4. Allvivo Vascular, Inc. 20914 Bake Parkway, Suite 100

    E-print Network

    Dyer, Bill

    Allvivo Vascular, Inc. 20914 Bake Parkway, Suite 100 Lake Forest, CA 92630 Phone: 949 of antimicrobial coatings and treatment formulations. · Conduct cell based assays using fibroblasts and keratinocytes. · Develop assays and use existing methods to measuring effects of actives and formulations

  5. Find the Fizz: Discover the Secret of Baking Powder

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    American Chemical Society

    2000-01-01

    In this activity on page 4 of the PDF, learners investigate ingredients that combine to produce gas bubbles. Learners mix together various ingredients to observe chemical reactions that produce a gas. Learners use the scientific method to determine what baking powder is made of.

  6. 7 CFR 946.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 946.5 Section 946.5 ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating...Handling Definitions § 946.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all...

  7. 7 CFR 945.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Potatoes. 945.5 Section 945.5 Agriculture...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED COUNTIES...Handling Definitions § 945.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties...

  8. 7 CFR 953.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 953.5 Section 953.5 Agriculture...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order...Handling Definitions § 953.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties...

  9. 7 CFR 945.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 945.5 Section 945.5 Agriculture...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED COUNTIES...Handling Definitions § 945.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties...

  10. 7 CFR 953.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Potatoes. 953.5 Section 953.5 Agriculture...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order...Handling Definitions § 953.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties...

  11. 7 CFR 948.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 948.5 Section 948.5 Agriculture...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means and...

  12. 7 CFR 946.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Potatoes. 946.5 Section 946.5 ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating...Handling Definitions § 946.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all...

  13. 7 CFR 948.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Potatoes. 948.5 Section 948.5 Agriculture...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means and...

  14. 7 CFR 948.6 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 948.6 Section 948.6 Agriculture...Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.6 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes or seed means any potatoes which...

  15. 7 CFR 948.6 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 948.6 Section 948.6 Agriculture...Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.6 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes or seed means any potatoes which...

  16. 7 CFR 946.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 946.12 Section 946.12 Agriculture...Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes...

  17. 7 CFR 947.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 947.12 Section 947.12 Agriculture...Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 947.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes...

  18. 7 CFR 947.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 947.12 Section 947.12 Agriculture...Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 947.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes...

  19. 7 CFR 946.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 946.12 Section 946.12 Agriculture...Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes...

  20. 7 CFR 948.6 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 948.6 Section 948.6 Agriculture...Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.6 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes or seed means any potatoes which...

  1. 7 CFR 947.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 947.12 Section 947.12 Agriculture...Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 947.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes...

  2. 7 CFR 946.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 946.12 Section 946.12 Agriculture...Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes...

  3. Growing Potatoes in Your Home Garden

    E-print Network

    Douches, David S.

    Growing Potatoes in Your Home Garden A Guide to Growing Potatoes In Your Home Garden Yes potatoes immigrants brought the potato with them to the New World. Have you ever grown potatoes in your garden? Growing potatoes is fun and not that hard! Home gardeners can grow unique varieties that are not sold

  4. Computational fluid dynamics modeling of bun baking process under different oven load conditions.

    PubMed

    Tank, A; Chhanwal, N; Indrani, D; Anandharamakrishnan, C

    2014-09-01

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed to study the temperature profile of the bun during baking process. Evaporation-condensation mechanism and effect of the latent heat during phase change of water was incorporated in this model to represent actual bun baking process. Simulation results were validated with experimental measurements of bun temperature at two different positions. Baking process is completed within 20 min, after the temperature of crumb become stable at 98 °C. Further, this study was extended to investigate the effect of partially (two baking trays) loaded and fully loaded (eight baking trays) oven on temperature profile of bun. Velocity and temperature profile differs in partially loaded and fully loaded oven. Bun placed in top rack showed rapid baking while bun placed in bottom rack showed slower baking due to uneven temperature distribution in the oven. Hence, placement of bun inside the oven affects temperature of bun and consequently, the quality of the product. PMID:25190860

  5. Antioxidants in potato

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. R. Brown

    2005-01-01

    The content of compounds in potato that may act as antioxidants in the human diet is not widely appreciated. Carotenoids are\\u000a present in the flesh of all potatoes. The contents mentioned in the literature range from 50 to 100 ?g per 100 g fresh weight\\u000a (FW) in white-fleshed varieties to 2000 ?g per 100 g FW in deeply yellow to

  6. International Potato Center

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    With headquarters in La Molina, Peru, the International Potato Center seeks to reduce poverty and achieve food security through research activities on not only the potato, but also on the sweet potato, and other root and tuber crops. The Center has a staff of scientists from 25 countries working on these pressing topics, and visitors with like-minded interests will appreciate the diversity of materials offered on the site. The site has a number of sections, and those dedicated to the potato and the sweet potato are most deserving of a visit. Within each of these sections, visitors can learn about each crop, its conservation, the pests and diseases that threaten each one, and a wide array of related statistics. It should be noted that the homepage itself is a great source of updated news reports on these plants, and recent items have included information on new growing techniques for potatoes (such as aeroponics, which involves suspending tubers) and the nutritional benefits of these plants.

  7. Evaluation of iodine content and stability in recipes prepared with biofortified potatoes.

    PubMed

    Cerretani, Lorenzo; Comandini, Patrizia; Fumanelli, Davide; Scazzina, Francesca; Chiavaro, Emma

    2014-11-01

    Iodine is an essential micronutrient of the human diet. Deficiency of iodine is diffused in many areas of the world and mild deficiency is present also in developed countries around Europe. Biofortification of vegetables could represent a better strategy with respect to iodized salt in order to increase iodine intake. The aim of this study was evaluating the stability of iodine, derived from biofortified potatoes, in the preparation process of three Italian typical dishes: dumplings, vegetable pie, and focaccia bread. The obtained results showed a good stability of iodine in cooking processes, in particular, during baking of focaccia bread. Significant losses of iodine were detected during boiling of dumplings and baking of vegetable pie. Although the different stability during the cooking processes, the three dishes maintained a good final content of iodine, ranging from the 33.3% to 52.7% of daily recommended intake in adults for individual serving size. PMID:24828007

  8. Colorado potato beetle resistance management strategies for transgenic potatoes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Casey W. Hoy

    1999-01-01

    NewLeaf potatoes could provide substantial ecological and economic benefits to potato growers. A concern with NewLeaf potatoes,\\u000a however, is that Colorado potato beetle may develop resistance to the Bt endotoxin because of the intense selection pressure\\u000a imposed by its constant presence in the transgenic crop. Before these cultivars were released, however, entomologists throughout\\u000a North America conducted biological research needed for

  9. Resistance of potato germplasm to the potato tuberworm (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The evaluation of potato accessions for resistance to potato tuberworm Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) is a valuable component of integrated pest management; however, few attempts have been made to identify natural genetic tuber resistance to tuberworm on potato germplasm. The objective of this stu...

  10. Organic potato production – seed potato production and participatory variety trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potatoes are vegetatively propagated, thus many pathogens can be transmitted in seed potatoes and affect the subsequent crop. Certified seed potatoes, which are inspected to ensure that pathogen levels are below a specified threshold, provide effective control of most tuber-borne diseases. Organic g...

  11. Genetic and phenotypic characteristics of baker's yeast: relevance to baking.

    PubMed

    Randez-Gil, Francisca; Córcoles-Sáez, Isaac; Prieto, José A

    2013-01-01

    Yeasts rarely encounter ideal physiological conditions during their industrial life span; therefore, their ability to adapt to changing conditions determines their usefulness and applicability. This is especially true for baking strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The success of this yeast in the ancient art of bread making is based on its capacity to rapidly transform carbohydrates into CO2 rather than its unusual resistance to environmental stresses. Moreover, baker's yeast must exhibit efficient respiratory metabolism during yeast manufacturing, which determines biomass yield. However, optimal growth conditions often have negative consequences in other commercially important aspects, such as fermentative power or stress tolerance. This article reviews the genetic and physiological characteristics of baking yeast strains, emphasizing the activation of regulatory mechanisms in response to carbon source and stress signaling and their importance in defining targets for strain selection and improvement. PMID:23464571

  12. Rapid and automated substructure solution by Shake-and-Bake.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hongliang; Weeks, Charles M

    2008-02-01

    Direct methods of phase determination have played an important role in determining heavy-atom substructures from difference amplitudes of native-derivative crystal pairs or crystals containing anomalously scattering atoms. The minimal principle-based Shake-and-Bake procedure is one of the most successful direct methods for heavy-atom substructure determination. The computer program SnB, which implements the Shake-and-Bake procedure and is part of the protein structure-determination package BnP, has recently been optimized for rapid and automated substructure determination. Specifically, SnB has been upgraded with (i) a newly developed statistical minimal function for higher success rates, (ii) an optimal FFT grid size for dramatic cost-effectiveness improvement, (iii) a dynamic figure of merit for automatic substructure-solution detection and (iv) a strategy of alternation of anomalous differences with isomorphous dispersive differences for virtually guaranteed substructure solution. PMID:18219117

  13. Easy Gardening.....Irish Potatoes

    E-print Network

    McGraw, Dean; Masabni, Joseph

    2009-05-17

    Easy Gardening Joseph Masabni, Assistant Professor and Extension Horticulturist, The Texas A&M University System IRISH POTATOES ? IRISH POTATOES ? IRISH POTA - -1- I rishpotatoesareoneofAmerica?smost popularvegetables?theaverageAmeri- caneatsabout...

  14. Microbiology of potatoes and potato products: a review.

    PubMed

    Doan, C H; Davidson, P M

    2000-05-01

    Many types of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms exist on fresh, minimally processed, and fully processed potato products. Potatoes are processed into many products including frozen, dried, ready-to-eat, and minimally processed. The microbiological quality of finished potato products is influenced by the natural microflora, processing, handling, and human contact. The natural microflora of potatoes are influenced by soil and airborne inocula, agricultural practices, harvesting methods, and storage conditions. The microflora of processed products are influenced by all of the factors and conditions affecting the natural microflora as well as the processes applied to the product. Increased consumer demand for new and existing potato products highlights the importance of ensuring their microbiological safety. This review considers the sources of microorganisms, microflora, foodborne disease pathogens, and outbreaks associated with, and selected microbiological research involving, potatoes and potato products. PMID:10826729

  15. Potato transformation and potato cyst nematode infection on potato plantlets in tissue culture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    These two protocols describe the methods for generating transgenic potato plants and for evaluating potato cyst nematode (Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida) infection on potato plantlets in tissue culture. These methods are useful tools that can be used in the study of the interactions between ...

  16. Attraction of Colorado Potato Beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) to Damaged and Chemically Induced Potato Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PETER J. LANDOLT; J. H. TUMLINSON; D. H. ALBORN

    Unmated adult female Colorado potato beetles, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), were attracted to damaged and chemically treated potato plants in an olfactometer. Significantly more beetles moved upwind to potato plants with damage from larval Colorado potato beetle compared with undamaged plants. More beetles moved upwind toward potato plants treated with regurgitant from Colorado potato beetle larvae or cabbage looper larvae, Trichoplusia

  17. Novel apparatus for the uniform heating of substrates during post expose bake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillman, Gary; Infelta, Pierre

    2003-06-01

    It is well known that the use of Chemically Activated Resists (CAR) or Chemically Enhanced Resists (CER) require that the Post Exposure Bake be extremely uniform at temperature ramp and at the steady state as Critical Dimension control is strongly dependent upon bake temperature. A novel, simple and robust method of obtaining near perfect bake temperature uniformity and the enhanced results obtained thereby are discussed.

  18. CD performance of CA-resits with dynamically controlled multi-zone bake system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shiho Sasaki; Masa-aki Kurihara; Hiroshi Mohri; Naoya Hayashi; Peter Dress; Andreas Noering; Thomas M. Gairing

    2002-01-01

    CD-uniformity data of chemically amplified (CA) resists have been generated, by using a dynamically controlled multi-zone hotplate system, APB5000. The optimized baking procedure of the APB5000 system for Post Coat Bake (PCB) and Post Exposure Bake (PEB) is characterized by a maximum in the total temperature range on a 6025 mask substrate surface of 0.5 degree(s)C during the heat-up ramping

  19. Potato genetics, genomics, and applications

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Potato has a variety of reproductive uniquenesses besides its clonal propagation by tubers. These traits are controlled by a different kind of genetic control. The reproductive information has been applied to enable interspecific hybridization to enhance valuable traits, such as disease and pest resistances, from the tuber-bearing Solanum gene pool. While progress has been made in potato breeding, many resources have been invested due to the requirements of large populations and long time frame. This is not only due to the general pitfalls in plant breeding, but also due to the complexity of polyploid genetics. Tetraploid genetics is the most prominent aspect associated with potato breeding. Genetic maps and markers have contributed to potato breeding, and genome information further elucidates questions in potato evolution and supports comprehensive potato breeding. Challenges yet remain on recognizing intellectual property rights to breeding and germplasm, and also on regulatory aspects to incorporate modern biotechnology for increasing genetic variation in potato breeding. PMID:25931980

  20. The Sweet Potato Borer. 

    E-print Network

    Conradi, Albert F. (Albert Frederick)

    1907-01-01

    and burned. Tuber traps may be used to advantage if carefully manipulated. . Gatheling volunteer slips from tubers left in the ground from the last crop as well as selecting home grown seed from infested farms is dangerous. Adults can be easily killed... any insecticide discovered that will control the sweet potato beetle? They are doing very serious damage here." "By today's mail I am sending you some sweet potatoes that are full of some insects which have ruined the crop in this vicinity. As far...

  1. Ethanol production from potato peel waste (PPW)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Arapoglou; Th. Varzakas; A. Vlyssides; C. Israilides

    2010-01-01

    Considerable concern is caused by the problem of potato peel waste (PPW) to potato industries in Europe. An integrated, environmentally-friendly solution is yet to be found and is currently undergoing investigation. Potato peel is a zero value waste produced by potato processing plants. However, bio-ethanol produced from potato wastes has a large potential market. If Federal Government regulations are adopted

  2. Mapping Potato Island

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this activity, students construct a topographic map of model terrain using a potato as their model. After making the map, they should be able to explain what contour lines are and what they represent. A materials list, instructions, and background information are provided. National content standards and links to additional information are also included.

  3. Potato tuber dormancy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The date that potato tubers begin to sprout must be carefully managed to maximize crop value. Spouting of fresh, chip and fry processing tubers during storage can decrease crop value, increase water loss and pressure bruising, and may promote pathogen entry. A lack of uniform sprouting in seed potat...

  4. 7 CFR 1207.306 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 1207.306 Section 1207.306 Agriculture...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions...

  5. 7 CFR 1207.306 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Potatoes. 1207.306 Section 1207.306 Agriculture...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions...

  6. Application Bar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henry Lee; Eugene Chuvyrov

    \\u000a When you’re ready to program your Windows Phone 7 application in Visual Studio, you’ll know what general features your application\\u000a will provide. Each of the major application features will need to be accessible via a shortcut or some form of a navigation\\u000a menu. For Windows Phone 7 applications, Microsoft recommends that you use a standard Windows Phone 7 Application Bar

  7. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Ll of... - Anode Bake Furnace Limits for Emission Averaging

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Anode Bake Furnace Limits for Emission Averaging 3 Table...3 to Subpart LL of Part 63—Anode Bake Furnace Limits for Emission Averaging Number of furnaces Emission limit (lb/ton of anode)...

  8. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Ll of... - Anode Bake Furnace Limits for Emission Averaging

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Anode Bake Furnace Limits for Emission Averaging 3 Table...3 to Subpart LL of Part 63—Anode Bake Furnace Limits for Emission Averaging Number of furnaces Emission limit (lb/ton of anode)...

  9. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Ll of... - Anode Bake Furnace Limits for Emission Averaging

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Anode Bake Furnace Limits for Emission Averaging 3 Table...3 to Subpart LL of Part 63—Anode Bake Furnace Limits for Emission Averaging Number of furnaces Emission limit (lb/ton of anode)...

  10. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Ll of... - Anode Bake Furnace Limits for Emission Averaging

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Anode Bake Furnace Limits for Emission Averaging 3 Table...3 to Subpart LL of Part 63—Anode Bake Furnace Limits for Emission Averaging Number of furnaces Emission limit (lb/ton of anode)...

  11. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Ll of... - Anode Bake Furnace Limits for Emission Averaging

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Anode Bake Furnace Limits for Emission Averaging 3 Table...3 to Subpart LL of Part 63—Anode Bake Furnace Limits for Emission Averaging Number of furnaces Emission limit (lb/ton of anode)...

  12. Now we're cooking: new successes for shake-and-bake.

    PubMed

    Ealick, S E

    1997-04-15

    Shake-and-bake is an automatic procedure for phase determination developed for large molecules. The procedure is based on a minimal function which is optimized through alternate cycles of reciprocal space phase refinement and real-space filtering. The shake-and-bake technique has now been used to determine the structures of several small proteins. PMID:9115447

  13. Exploration of functionality of low glycemic impact sugars and polyols using DSC, RVA, and cookie baking

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumers' interest in healthy cookies is increasing, including expectations for prebiotic nutritional benefits and low glycemic impact. Plasticization of flour polymers is critical to mixing and baking for baked goods. However, concentrated sugar solutions act as anti-plasticizers compared to wat...

  14. Identification and characterization of yeasts causing chalk mould defects on par-baked bread

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Deschuyffeleer; K. Audenaert; S. Samapundo; S. Ameye; M. Eeckhout; F. Devlieghere

    2011-01-01

    Pichia anomala, Hyphopichia burtonii and Saccharomycopsis fibuligera are spoilage yeasts causing chalk mould defects on par-baked breads packaged under modified atmosphere. The first objective of this study was to identify yeasts isolated from spoiled par-baked breads by means of a RAPD protocol and to determine the dominant spoilers amongst identified strains. The second objective was to determine the effects of

  15. Texas Crop Profile: Sweet Potatoes

    E-print Network

    Hall, Kent D.; Holloway, Rodney L.; Smith, Dudley

    2000-04-12

    of alternative hosts are impor- tant postharvest control measures. Soil pests Frequency of occurrence: Sweet potato dam- age from soil insects generally is expected if no soil insecticide is applied at planting. The soil insect complex includes flea beetle larvae..., wireworms, the white grubs of June beetles and white fringe beetles. Damage caused: Soil inhabiting insects that feed on sweet potato roots and tubers cause quality and yield losses. Percent acres affected: Approximately 85 per- cent of sweet potato acreage...

  16. Potato Chip Classification

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1998-01-01

    This activity introduces the structure and function of a dichotomous key, in preparation for student identification of plant and animal specimens. It also reinforces the idea that there are many possible answers in science. Students will be able to classify specimens (in this case, potato chips) according to observable characteristics, prepare a key showing their classification system, use their key to identify a specimen, and recognize the validity of classmates' classification systems.

  17. Cooking with Dried Potatoes

    E-print Network

    Anding, Jenna

    2008-12-09

    tablespoons butter or margarine 1 small onion, chopped ? cup chopped celery (if you like) 4 cups milk 8-ounce can whole kernel corn (if you like) 1 cup potato flakes Salt... and pepper (to taste) How to make it 1. Wash your hands; make sure your cooking area is clean. 2. Melt the butter or margarine in a large saucepan. 3. Add the onion and celery, cook them until they are soft. 4. Add the milk...

  18. The naming of Potato virus Y strains infecting potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato virus Y (PVY) strain groups are based on host-response and resistance-gene interactions. The strain groups PVYO, PVYC and PVYN are well-established for the isolates infecting potato in the field. A switch in the emphasis from host response to nucleotide sequence differences in the virus genom...

  19. Susceptibility of selected potato varieties to zebra chip potato disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zebra chip (ZC), an emerging and serious disease of potato has caused millions of dollars in losses to the potato industry in the United States, Mexico, Central America, and New Zealand. The disease has recently been associated with a previously undescribed species of liberibacter tentatively named ...

  20. Habitat manipulation in potato affects colorado potato beetle dispersal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased vegetational diversity in agricultural fields may alter the movement of pests into or within a field. Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlienata) is a devastating pest of potatoes world-wide that has developed resistance to insecticides, creating a need for alternate management stra...

  1. The contribution of traditional potato breeding to scientific potato improvement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conventional potato breeding refers to development of new cultivars from sexual crosses followed by clonal propagation and selection. Nearly all new varieties of potato still emerge from this process free from modern technologies of gene insertion. Conventional breeding remains the most important ...

  2. The Shake-and-Bake structure determination of triclinic lysozyme.

    PubMed

    Deacon, A M; Weeks, C M; Miller, R; Ealick, S E

    1998-08-01

    The crystal structure of triclinic lysozyme, comprised of 1,001 non-H protein atoms and approximately 200 bound water molecules, has been determined ab initio (using native data alone) by the "Shake-and-Bake" method by using the computer program SnB. This is the largest structure determined so far by the SnB program. Initial experiments, using default SnB parameters derived from studies of smaller molecules, were unsuccessful. In fact, such experiments produced electron density maps dominated by a single large peak. This problem was overcome by considering the choice of protocol used during the parameter-shift phase refinement. When each phase was subjected to a single shift of +/-157.5 degrees during each SnB cycle, an unusually high percentage of random trials (approximately 22%) yielded correct solutions within 750 cycles. This success rate is higher than that typically observed, even for much smaller structures. PMID:9689072

  3. P1 Shake-and-Bake: can success be guaranteed?

    PubMed

    Xu, H; Hauptman, H A; Weeks, C M; Miller, R

    2000-02-01

    The multi-trial direct-methods procedure known as Shake-and-Bake has been applied to three small proteins (alpha-1 peptide, vancomycin and lysozyme) that crystallize in space group P1. Phase refinement was accomplished through parameter-shift optimization using both the cosine and exponential forms of the minimal function. By extending error-free data to sufficiently high resolution, 100% convergence of trial structures to solution could be achieved in all three cases by using the exponential minimal function and a shift angle in the range 130-150 degrees. These results suggest optimum parameters for other P1 structures and emphasize the importance of collecting data to the highest possible resolution. PMID:10666616

  4. The Shake-and-Bake structure determination of triclinic lysozyme

    PubMed Central

    Deacon, Ashley M.; Weeks, Charles M.; Miller, Russ; Ealick, Steven E.

    1998-01-01

    The crystal structure of triclinic lysozyme, comprised of 1,001 non-H protein atoms and ?200 bound water molecules, has been determined ab initio (using native data alone) by the “Shake-and-Bake” method by using the computer program SnB. This is the largest structure determined so far by the SnB program. Initial experiments, using default SnB parameters derived from studies of smaller molecules, were unsuccessful. In fact, such experiments produced electron density maps dominated by a single large peak. This problem was overcome by considering the choice of protocol used during the parameter-shift phase refinement. When each phase was subjected to a single shift of ±157.5° during each SnB cycle, an unusually high percentage of random trials (?22%) yielded correct solutions within 750 cycles. This success rate is higher than that typically observed, even for much smaller structures. PMID:9689072

  5. Acrylamide in processed potato products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trace amounts of acrylamide are found in many foods cooked at high temperatures. Acrylamide in processed potato products is formed from reducing sugars and asparagine and is a product of the Maillard reaction. Processed potato products including fries and chips are relatively high in acrylamide comp...

  6. Breeding for Potato Nutrition Enhancement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato is a starchy tuber. This simple statement hides the fact that potato also is rich in phytonutrients. Variation in chemical composition and concentration is quite broad in the natural diversity available in the germplasm. Some of these phytonutrients are visually very dramatic. Anthocyanin...

  7. Hybrid origins of cultivated potatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild and cultivated potatoes, Solanum section Petota, is taxonomically difficult, partly because of interspecific hybridization at both the diploid and polyploid levels. The taxonomy of cultivated potatoes is particularly controversial. With DNA sequence data of the GBSSI (waxy) gene we here infer r...

  8. Potato Phytonutrient Analysis and Engineering

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potatoes have the highest per capita consumption of any vegetable, a fact which emphasizes their potential to be a key dietary source of health-promoting compounds. Only a fraction of the genetic diversity available in potato wild-species has been incorporated into modern cultivars. LCMS analysis of...

  9. 7 CFR 946.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 946.12 Section 946.12 Agriculture...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and...

  10. 7 CFR 946.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 946.12 Section 946.12 Agriculture...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and...

  11. 7 CFR 947.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 947.12 Section 947.12 Agriculture...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU COUNTIES...Handling Definitions § 947.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and...

  12. 7 CFR 947.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 947.12 Section 947.12 Agriculture...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU COUNTIES...Handling Definitions § 947.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and...

  13. 7 CFR 948.6 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 948.6 Section 948.6 Agriculture...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.6 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes or seed means...

  14. Acoustic Measurement of Potato Cannon Velocity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtney, Michael; Courtney, Amy

    2007-01-01

    Potato cannon velocity can be measured with a digitized microphone signal. A microphone is attached to the potato cannon muzzle, and a potato is fired at an aluminum target about 10 m away. Flight time can be determined from the acoustic waveform by subtracting the time in the barrel and time for sound to return from the target. The potato

  15. 7 CFR 948.6 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 948.6 Section 948.6 Agriculture...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.6 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes or seed means...

  16. 7 CFR 947.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 947.5 Section 947.5 Agriculture...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU COUNTIES...Handling Definitions § 947.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties...

  17. 7 CFR 947.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Potatoes. 947.5 Section 947.5 Agriculture...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU COUNTIES...Handling Definitions § 947.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties...

  18. Growing Potatoes in Your Home Garden

    E-print Network

    Douches, David S.

    Growing Potatoes in Your Home Garden Grow Potatoes in Your Home Garden! Kelly A. Zarka and David S home garden? *Growing potatoes produces a bountiful harvest....depending on which variety your choose, 60lbs in just 10 sq ft of garden space! *Potatoes come in all different shapes, sizes and colors

  19. 78 FR 30737 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Reestablishment of Membership on the Colorado Potato...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ...AMS-FV-12-0044; FV12-948-2 FR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Reestablishment of Membership on the Colorado Potato Administrative Committee, Area No...reestablishes the membership on the Colorado Potato Administrative Committee, Area...

  20. 78 FR 9629 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Reestablishment of Membership on the Colorado Potato...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ...AMS-FV-12-0044; FV12-948-2 PR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Reestablishment of Membership on the Colorado Potato Administrative Committee, Area No...reestablishing the membership on the Colorado Potato Administrative Committee, Area...

  1. Rapid baking characteristics and energy efficiency of an impingement air oven compared to a reel oven 

    E-print Network

    Smith, Lloyd Hobart

    1983-01-01

    . Lorenz et al [1973] found that sensory panels pre fer re d whole wheat bread baked in a convection oven compared to microwave. The texture of the bread baked in the micr owave oven was described as being slightly tough and rubbery. Water content... sugar Cake Shor tening Milk Powder 60 22 Saic Baking Powder Corn Syrup C ake Flour 50 Vanilla Water 20 12 Egg Whi tes 33 12 Water 17 Mix ing Procedure: The dry ingredi ent s were sifted together and the water and corn syrup were added...

  2. The Irish Potato

    E-print Network

    Price, R. H.

    1987-01-01

    , New York City, N. Y. tNot tested. 91G TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIM ENT STATION. EARLY VARIETIES. The following brief notes on the varieties may be of value: Beauty o f Hebron.? Oblong;, smooth; color dull white; vine grew three feet high, affected... beautiful potato, but it has not made a large }deld. Originated b3r F. B. Van Orman, Iowa. Ideal.?Oblong, a little rough; color light red; vines grew four feet high; keeps well, but it is not promising for a second crop. Irish Daisy.?Round, small, smooth...

  3. intro, 2 bars main riff, 4 bars

    E-print Network

    Reiners, Peter W.

    intro, 2 bars main riff, 4 bars verse riff 1: G G if you like to gamble, I tell you I'm your man G G you win some, loose some, it's all the same to me main riff with fill 1, 4 bars verse riff 2: D C the pleasure is to play it makes no difference what you say main riff with fill 1, 2 bars verse riff 2: D C I

  4. 7 CFR 945.7 - Certified seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Certified seed potatoes. 945.7 Section 945.7 Agriculture...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED COUNTIES...Definitions § 945.7 Certified seed potatoes. Certified seed potatoes means...

  5. 7 CFR 945.7 - Certified seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Certified seed potatoes. 945.7 Section 945.7 Agriculture...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED COUNTIES...Definitions § 945.7 Certified seed potatoes. Certified seed potatoes means...

  6. 7 CFR 945.7 - Certified seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Certified seed potatoes. 945.7 Section 945.7 Agriculture...Regulating Handling Definitions § 945.7 Certified seed potatoes. Certified seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes...

  7. 7 CFR 945.7 - Certified seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Certified seed potatoes. 945.7 Section 945.7 Agriculture...Regulating Handling Definitions § 945.7 Certified seed potatoes. Certified seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes...

  8. 7 CFR 945.7 - Certified seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Certified seed potatoes. 945.7 Section 945.7 Agriculture...Regulating Handling Definitions § 945.7 Certified seed potatoes. Certified seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes...

  9. Moisture distribution during conventional or electrical resistance oven baking of bread dough and subsequent storage.

    PubMed

    Derde, Liesbeth J; Gomand, Sara V; Courtin, Christophe M; Delcour, Jan A

    2014-07-01

    Electrical resistance oven (ERO) baking processes bread dough with little temperature gradient in the baking dough. Heating of the dough by means of an ERO is based on the principles of Joule's first law and Ohm's law. This study compared the changes in moisture distribution and physical changes in starch of breads conventionally baked or using an ERO. The moisture contents in fresh ERO breads are generally lower than those in conventional breads. During storage of conventionally baked breads, water migrates from the crumb to the crust and moisture contents decrease throughout the bread crumb. Evidently, less moisture redistribution occurs in ERO breads. Also, the protons of ERO bread constituents were less mobile than their counterparts in conventional bread. Starch retrogradation occurs to similar extents in conventional and ERO bread. As a result, the changes in proton mobility cannot be attributed to differences in levels of retrograded starch and seem to be primarily determined by the overall lower moisture content. PMID:24949810

  10. Fortification of baked and fried tortilla chips with mechanically expelled soy flour 

    E-print Network

    De La Torre Pineda, Monica

    2009-05-15

    The effects of the fortification of tortilla chips with mechanically expelled soy flour as well as baking and frying processes on the properties of tortilla chips were evaluated. Sensory characteristics, texture, thickness, color, protein and oil...

  11. Optimization of bread baking in a halogen lamp–microwave combination oven by response surface methodology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P?nar Demirekler; Gülüm Sumnu; Serpil Sahin

    2004-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to optimize the baking conditions of bread in a halogen lamp–microwave combination oven. Independent variables were the baking time (4, 4.5, 5, 5.5, and 6 min), the power of the microwaves (20, 30, 40, 50, and 60%), and the power of the upper and lower halogen lamps (40, 50, 60, 70, and 80%). The

  12. Shake-and-Bake, a recent advance in the direct methods of X-ray crystallography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauptman, Herbert A.

    1998-10-01

    The phase problem is formulated as one of constrained global minimization which leads to the so-called minimal principle. This principle is the theoretical basis of Shake-and-Bake, an algorithm for the automatic solution of the phase problem, ab initio. The distinguishing feature of Shake-and-Bake is that it alternates phase refinement in reciprocal space, via the minimal principle, with density modification in real space.

  13. Starch affecting anti-staling agents and their function in freestanding and pan-baked bread

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeanette K. Purhagen; Malin E. Sjöö; Ann-Charlotte Eliasson

    2011-01-01

    Anti-staling agents with different mechanisms were added to a normal white wheat bread to investigate the relation between bread staling, amylopectin retrogradation and water-related properties (i.e. water content and distribution between crumb and crust). Bread was baked both as pan-baked and freestanding loaves. The anti-staling agents maltogenic ?-amylase, distilled monoglyceride and lipase had a direct influence on starch retrogradation, whereas

  14. A comparison of UV cross-linking and vacuum baking for nucleic acid immobilization and retention

    SciTech Connect

    Nierzwicki-Bauer, S.A.; Gebhardt, J.S.; Linkkila, L.; Walsh, K. (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (USA))

    1990-10-01

    The effectiveness of UV cross-linking and in vacuo baking for the immobilization and retention of DNA to various solid supports was investigated. Optimal immobilization treatments for supported and unsupported nitrocellulose and nylon membranes were: UV cross-linking at 254 nm with an exposure of 120 milliJoules/cm{sup 2}, or baking in vacuo for two hours at 80{degrees}C. UV-immobilized nitrocellulose-based membranes showed no increase in sensitivity when compared to baked membranes. An increase in sensitivity was observed for UV-immobilized nylon membranes as compared with baked nylon membranes in some instances, although this varied within lots of the membranes tested. Repeated strippings and heterologous reprobings resulted in loss of target DNA from UV-immobilized nylon membranes as compared to baked nylon membranes. Loss of target DNA from UV-immobilized nitrocellulose-based membranes due to repeated strippings and reprobings was even more pronounced. In vacuo baking of supported and unsupported nitrocellulose and nylon membranes was more effective for immobilization, and more importantly, for retention of target DNA through many reprobings of the same blot.

  15. Effect of cleaning, milling, and baking on deoxynivalenol in wheat.

    PubMed Central

    Abbas, H K; Mirocha, C J; Pawlosky, R J; Pusch, D J

    1985-01-01

    Samples of wheat naturally infected by Fusarium graminearum Schwabe were obtained from mills in Oklahoma, Missouri, Kansas, and Minnesota and fields in Nebraska and Kansas in 1982; they were analyzed for deoxynivalenol (DON). The wheat was milled, and DON was found throughout all the milling fractions (bran, shorts, reduction flour, and break flour). The DON recoveries for each mill run ranged from 90 to 98%. These samples, regardless of DON concentration, also gave similar fractional distributions of DON. The greatest (21 ppm [21 micrograms/g]) concentration of DON was found in the bran, and the smallest (1 ppm) was found in the break flour. Cleaning and milling were not effective in removing DON; DON was not destroyed in the bread baked from the naturally contaminated whole wheat flour, but the effect on its concentration in the samples analyzed varied, the reduction ranging from 19 to 69%. The percent reduction found in the cleaned wheat ranged from 6 to 19%. DON concentrations in the following commercially made breads, caraway rye, seedless rye, and pumpernickel, were 45 ppb (ng/g), 39 ppb, and 0 ppb, respectively. The limits of detection by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-pressure liquid chromatography for DON were 0.5 and 10 ng, respectively. PMID:4051489

  16. [Comparison of chemical composition between raw and vinegar-baked Paeoniae Radix Alba using NMR based metabolomic approach].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen-Yu; Fan, Ma-Li; Qin, Xue-Mei

    2015-02-01

    To compare the chemical change of Paeoniae Radix Alba (PRA) after vinegar-baking processing, as well as the effect of vinegar types exerted on the processing, 1H NMR-based metabolomic approach combined with multivariate statistical analysis was used to investigate the different metabolites between the raw and two vinegar-baked PRA. More than thirty metabolites were identified in the 1H NMR spectrum of PRA, and the multivariate statistical analysis showed that raw and two vinegar-baked PRA could be separated obviously. After vinegar-baking, the contents of isoleucine, lactate, alanine, arginine, albiflorin, and 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (5-HMF) elevated, while those of sucrose, paeoniflorin and its analogues (calculated by benzoate) decreased. The chemical compositions of two vinegar-baked PRA were also different. Shanxi vinegar- baked PRA showed higher levels of leucine, isoleucine, valine, and albiflorin, while rice vinegar-baked PRA contained more sucrose and paeoniflorin's analogues (calculated by benzoate). And the chemical changes in Shanxi vinegar-baked PRA were greater than those of rice vinegar-baked PRA. The results revealed the chemical differences between raw and vinegar-baked PRA, as well as the influence of vinegar type on processing, in a holistic manner, the results obtained suggested that the correlations between the chemical change and the drug action after processing, as well as the vinegar type used in processing, should be further studied. PMID:25975031

  17. Vascular anatomy of the fleshy root of the sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Poir, as influenced by mineral nutrition

    E-print Network

    Speights, Durwood E

    1965-01-01

    LtJ V) iD D IU 90 80 70 60 50 0 ~ C Ps44 PsO ~ 4 , pc ~-- P 22. 0 0-- PsO 0 100 0 50 POUNDS NITROGEN PE R 4 C R E Figure 3. Effects of N and P on yield of number 1 and number 2 grade sweet potatoes, Vertical bar indicates mean...

  18. 21 CFR 102.41 - Potato chips made from dried potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potato chips made from dried potatoes. 102.41 Section 102.41 Food and Drugs...for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.41 Potato chips made from dried potatoes. (a)...

  19. 21 CFR 102.41 - Potato chips made from dried potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potato chips made from dried potatoes. 102.41 Section 102.41 Food and Drugs...for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.41 Potato chips made from dried potatoes. (a)...

  20. Diversity Among Potato virus Y Isolates Obtained from Potatoes Grown in the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. M. Piche; R. P. Singh; X. Nie; N. C. Gudmestad

    2004-01-01

    Piche, L. M., Singh, R. P., Nie, X., and Gudmestad, N. C. 2004. Diversity among Potato virus Y isolates obtained from potatoes grown in the United States. Phytopathology 94:1368-1375. Potato field isolates (Solanum tuberosum) of Potato virus Y (PVY) collected from the midwestern and western United States were charac- terized using serological, molecular, and biological assays. PVY field isolates were

  1. Introduction The Colorado potato beetle became a pest when settlers brought potatoes into the Rocky

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    16 Introduction The Colorado potato beetle became a pest when settlers brought potatoes, and now is a serious pest throughout the U.S. and Eastern Canada. The Colorado potato beetle feeds size. Description The larvae of the Colorado potato beetle are up to 1/2" long, hump- backed and shaped

  2. Cookie- versus cracker-baking--what's the difference? Flour functionality requirements explored by SRC and alveography.

    PubMed

    Kweon, Meera; Slade, Louise; Levine, Harry; Gannon, Diane

    2014-01-01

    The many differences between cookie- and cracker-baking are discussed and described in terms of the functionality, and functional requirements, of the major biscuit ingredients--flour and sugar. Both types of products are similar in their major ingredients, but different in their formulas and processes. One of the most important and consequential differences between traditional cracker and cookie formulas is sugar (i.e., sucrose) concentration: usually lower than 30% in a typical cracker formula and higher than 30% in a typical cookie formula. Gluten development is facilitated in lower-sugar cracker doughs during mixing and sheeting; this is a critical factor linked to baked-cracker quality. Therefore, soft wheat flours with greater gluten quality and strength are typically preferred for cracker production. In contrast, the concentrated aqueous sugar solutions existing in high-sugar cookie doughs generally act as an antiplasticizer, compared with water alone, so gluten development during dough mixing and starch gelatinization/pasting during baking are delayed or prevented in most cookie systems. Traditional cookies and crackers are low-moisture baked goods, which are desirably made from flours with low water absorption [low water-holding capacity (WHC)], and low levels of damaged starch and water-soluble pentosans (i.e., water-accessible arabinoxylans). Rheological (e.g., alveography) and baking tests are often used to evaluate flour quality for baked-goods applications, but the solvent retention capacity (SRC) method (AACC 56-11) is a better diagnostic tool for predicting the functional contribution of each individual flour functional component, as well as the overall functionality of flours for cookie- and/or cracker-baking. PMID:24188236

  3. Soft-Bake Purification of SWCNTs Produced by Pulsed Laser Vaporization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yowell, Leonard; Nikolaev, Pavel; Gorelik, Olga; Allada, Rama Kumar; Sosa, Edward; Arepalli, Sivaram

    2013-01-01

    The "soft-bake" method is a simple and reliable initial purification step first proposed by researchers at Rice University for single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) produced by high-pressure carbon mon oxide disproportionation (HiPco). Soft-baking consists of annealing as-produced (raw) SWCNT, at low temperatures in humid air, in order to degrade the heavy graphitic shells that surround metal particle impurities. Once these shells are cracked open by the expansion and slow oxidation of the metal particles, the metal impurities can be digested through treatment with hydrochloric acid. The soft-baking of SWCNT produced by pulsed-laser vaporization (PLV) is not straightforward, because the larger average SWCNT diameters (.1.4 nm) and heavier graphitic shells surrounding metal particles call for increased temperatures during soft-bake. A part of the technology development focused on optimizing the temperature so that effective cracking of the graphitic shells is balanced with maintaining a reasonable yield, which was a critical aspect of this study. Once the ideal temperature was determined, a number of samples of raw SWCNT were purified using the soft-bake method. An important benefit to this process is the reduced time and effort required for soft-bake versus the standard purification route for SWCNT. The total time spent purifying samples by soft-bake is one week per batch, which equates to a factor of three reduction in the time required for purification as compared to the standard acid purification method. Reduction of the number of steps also appears to be an important factor in improving reproducibility of yield and purity of SWCNT, as small deviations are likely to get amplified over the course of a complicated multi-step purification process.

  4. A polyuronan blend giving novel synergistic effects and bake-stable functionality to high soluble solids fruit fillings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Niall W. G Young; Grethe Kappel; Tove Bladt

    2003-01-01

    The effects of High M alginate, LE pectin and a combination, GRINDSTED® FB 850 Stabiliser System (FB 850), giving bake-stable functionality in real, high soluble solids (72%) fruit fillings, are studied as a function of pH, fruit type, syneresis, and gel strength above the accepted bake-stable index of 80%.For acceptable bake stability, alginate showed a broad fruit, and thereby calcium

  5. Baking of Flat Bread in an Impingement Oven: An Experimental Study of Heat Transfer and Quality Aspects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Banooni; S. M. Hosseinalipour; A. S. Mujumdar; E. Taheran; M. Bahiraei; P. Taherkhani

    2008-01-01

    A new impingement oven was designed and tested for its thermal and quality performance for baking of thin flat bread. The test facility was instrumented to monitor and record during the baking process. Bread temperature and weight loss were recorded on-line during baking at oven temperatures of 150, 175, 200, 225, and 250°C and 1, 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 m\\/s

  6. WEED MANAGEMENT IN POTATOES WITH SPARTAN HERBICIDE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spartan (sulfentrazone) is a new herbicide for weed management in potatoes. Sulfentrazone applied preemergence controls hairy and black nightshade, redroot pigweed, common lambsquarters, and kochia in potatoes. Spartan may be tank mixed with metribuzin, s-metolachlor, rimsulfuron, pendimethalin, o...

  7. The effect of different formulations on physical properties of cakes baked with microwave and near infrared-microwave combinations.

    PubMed

    Sakiyan, Ozge; Sumnu, Gulum; Sahin, Serpil; Meda, Venkatesh

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different formulations on color and textural characteristics of different cakes during baking in microwave and near infrared-microwave combination ovens. For comparison, cakes were also baked in conventional ovens. Color and hardness for both types of baking schemes were found to be dependent on formulation. Cakes containing Simplesse, a fat replacer consisting mostly of whey protein, baked in microwave and near infrared-microwave combination ovens were found to be the firmest cakes. PMID:18161413

  8. Potato Types: Their Characteristics and Uses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlista, Alexander D.

    1997-01-01

    Presents material for a talk and demonstration about the relationship of potato types to their different uses by consumers and processors. Includes background information for the instructor and discussions to accompany classroom exercises. Discusses the history of the potato, potato types and external characteristics, and internal characteristics…

  9. Italian Herb Red Potato Salad Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    . Carefully stir in bell peppers and onions. 6. Cover and chill until ready to serve. Equipment: Cutting boardItalian Herb Red Potato Salad Ingredients: 1 1/2 pounds red potatoes 1 green pepper 1 red onion 1/4 teaspoon garlic powder 1/4 teaspoon ground black pepper Directions 1. Wash potatoes, and cut into quarters

  10. Potato production in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potatoes have been a staple in the American diet for almost 250 years. The United States is the world's fifth biggest producer, behind China, India, the Russian Federation, and the Ukraine. Potatoes in the United States are grown in nearly every state. Idaho produces approximately 1/3 of all potatoe...

  11. Maximizing the Phytonutrient Content of Potatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We are exploring to what extent the rich genetic diversity of potatoes can be used to maximize the nutritional potential of potatoes. Metabolic profiling is being used to screen potatoes for genotypes with elevated amounts of vitamins and phytonutrients. Substantial differences in phytonutrients am...

  12. Air Potato Management in Your Backyard

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    sure you are using a herbicide that is approved for aquatic applications. Always follow the label them to the buried potatoes. Dig out the buried potatoes. SUMMER - Cut or spray vines with herbicide herbicide will set back that year's potato production. - Follow vines to their source and dig out

  13. Diversity of potato genetic resources.

    PubMed

    Machida-Hirano, Ryoko

    2015-03-01

    A considerable number of highly diverse species exist in genus Solanum. Because they can adapt to a broad range of habitats, potato wild relatives are promising sources of desirable agricultural traits. Potato taxonomy is quite complex because of introgression, interspecific hybridization, auto- and allopolyploidy, sexual compatibility among many species, a mixture of sexual and asexual reproduction, possible recent species divergence, phenotypic plasticity, and the consequent high morphological similarity among species. Recent researchers using molecular tools have contributed to the identification of genes controlling several types of resistance as well as to the revision of taxonomical relationships among potato species. Historically, primitive forms of cultivated potato and its wild relatives have been used in breeding programs and there is still an enormous and unimaginable potential for discovering desirable characteristics, particularly in wild species Different methods have been developed to incorporate useful alleles from these wild species into the improved cultivars. Potato germplasm comprising of useful alleles for different breeding objectives is preserved in various gene banks worldwide. These materials, with their invaluable information, are accessible for research and breeding purposes. Precise identification of species base on the new taxonomy is essential for effective use of the germplasm collection. PMID:25931978

  14. Production of herbicide-resistant transgenic sweet potato plants through Agrobacterium tumefaciens method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hye Jin Choi; Thummala Chandrasekhar; Hyo-Yeon Lee; Kyung-Moon Kim

    2007-01-01

    Transgenic herbicide-resistant sweet potato plants [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] were produced through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system. Embryogenic calli derived from shoot apical meristems were infected with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 harboring the pCAMBIA3301 vector containing the bar gene encoding phosphinothricin N-acetyltransferase (PAT) and the gusA gene encoding ?-glucuronidase (GUS). The PPT-resistant calli and plants were selected with 5 and 2.5 mg l?1 PPT,

  15. Controlling Potato Blight: Past, Present, and Future

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ethel D. Stanley (Beloit College; Biology)

    2006-05-20

    Potato late blight, Phytophthora infestans, has an infamous past, yet it continues to present a challenge to modern day farmers. Historical scenarios in the LateBlight simulation help us define the impact of this disease before the interactions between this microbe and the potato were understood. Modern scenarios enable us to investigate current strategies to control this pathogen from the management of cull piles to the use of genetically engineered potatoes. A life cycle model, Potato Late Blight, provides an additional method for exploring microbial interactions. * make a profit or lose the farm as you investigate the economic consequences of using chemical control approaches to managing late blight in potatoes

  16. Optimizing statistical Shake-and-Bake for Se-atom substructure determination.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hongliang; Weeks, Charles M; Hauptman, Herbert A

    2005-07-01

    A novel statistical approach to the phase problem in X-ray crystallography was introduced in a recent paper [Xu & Hauptman (2004), Acta Cryst. A60, 153-157]. In this approach, a new minimal function based on the statistical distribution of structure-invariant values serves as the foundation of an optimization procedure called statistical Shake-and-Bake. Favorable application of this procedure to Se-atom substructure determination depends on the choice of the statistical interval over which the function is defined. The effects of interval variation have been studied for 19 Se-atom substructures ranging in size from five to 70 Se atoms in the asymmetric unit and the results have shown an overall improvement in success rate relative to traditional Shake-and-Bake. Statistical Shake-and-Bake is being incorporated as the default optimization procedure in newly distributed versions of the SnB and BnP computer programs. PMID:15983421

  17. Seed potato production system in Japan, starting from foundation seed of potato

    PubMed Central

    Kawakami, Tsukasa; Oohori, Hidemiki; Tajima, Kazuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Potato is one of the staple crops cultivated in upland farming in Japan and is propagated vegetatively by means of tubers. However once infected with diseases, potato yield decreases significantly. And one seed potato can produce approximately only 10 potato tubers. To improve the production system of seed potatoes in Japan, Japanese government established a three-stage propagation system for the production and distribution of healthy and disease-free seed potatoes. The National Center for Seeds and Seedlings (NCSS) has a role for the production of foundation seed potatoes and strictly manages the production in isolated fields that are treated thoroughly to control pests and diseases. Recently though the distribution of foundation seed potatoes is decreasing, the number of varieties of foundation seed potatoes has increased steadily. And new varieties of potato adapted various requirements, including resistance of the golden potato cyst nematode, have been increasing. Therefore, NCSS is introducing a new method of producing minitubers (MnTs) by using hydroponic cultivation greenhouse to increase the efficiency of propagation and to rapidly disseminate these new potato varieties. In this review, we describe a seed potato production system in Japan and the production of foundation seed potatoes as an important role of NCSS. PMID:25931977

  18. Texas Crop Profile: Sweet Potatoes 

    E-print Network

    Hall, Kent D.; Holloway, Rodney L.; Smith, Dudley

    2000-04-12

    predominately to friends and from roadside stands. Cultural Practices Texas sweet potato seed beds are usually established in early April using certi- fied or on-farm grown seed. One acre of bedded seed will usually produce enough transplants, or ?slips...,? for 100 acres of potatoes. Transplants are moved to the field mid-May to late June, preferably into deep sandy loam, fine sandy loam or loamy fine sand soils. In many cases, pesticide applications will be made at this time (planting). Fertilization is at a...

  19. Bake condition effect on hybrid lithography process for negative-tone chemically amplified resists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pain, Laurent; Sala, F.; Higgins, C.; Dal'zotto, B.; Tedesco, Serge V.

    2000-06-01

    This paper presents the process optimization study of negative tone Chemically Amplified Resists (CAR) under E-Beam exposure. The importance of post apply bake temperature choice on resolution is underlined. The process study determines the process window in which optimal conditions of both post apply and post exposure bake steps are defined and present a method to define more precisely the thermal cross-linking onset. Finally lithographic performances of CARs are studied and we show that resolution can be pushed down to 40 nm.

  20. Bar-Halo Interaction and Bar Growth

    E-print Network

    E. Athanassoula

    2002-03-21

    I show that strong bars can grow in galactic discs, even when the latter are immersed in haloes whose mass within the disc radius is comparable to, or larger than, the mass of the disc. I argue that this is due to the response of the halo and in particular to the destabilising influence of the halo resonant stars. Via this instability mechanism the halo can stimulate, rather than restrain, the growth of the bar.

  1. Growth of potatoes for CELSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tibbitts, T. W.; Cao, W.; Wheeler, R. M.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes research on the utilization of white potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) for space life support systems at the University of Wisconsin-Madison over the period of 1984 to 1993. At full maturity the tuber productivity was 37.5 gm(exp -2) d(exp -1), equating to a growing area requirement for one human (2800 kcal d(exp -1)) of 10.1 m(exp -2). A recirculating nutrient system using slanted trays produced best potato growth and tuber yields when a 2-3 cm layer of gravel or arcillite media was utilized. Potato production was close to maximum under lighting levels of 400 micromol m(exp -2) s(exp -1) of photosynthetic photo flux (PPF) for 24 hours or 800 micromol m(exp -2) s(exp -1) for 12 hours, alternating diurnal temperatures of 22 C and 14 C, relative humidity of 85 percent, and a carbon dioxide level of 1000 micromol m(exp -1). The range of effective concentrations of each separate nutrient is reported. The extensive studies with potatoes in this project have demonstrated that this crop has high productivity of nutritous tubers with a high harvest index in controlled environments, and can fulfill a significant portion of the energy and protein requirements for humans in space.

  2. The International Year of the Potato

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-01-01

    The potato has been around for some 8000 years, and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations has created this site to promote 2008 as the International Year of the Potato. The intent of the site is to promote the role of the potato as a way to alleviate world hunger and to help achieve a number of internationally agreed upon development objectives, including the Millennium Development Goals. On the right-side of the homepage, visitors can read fact sheets on the potato, learn about world potato production, and even view a photo gallery of potatoes from around the world. Along the top of the site, visitors will find the "Potato World" section. Here they can learn about world potato production over the past two decades via a set of statistics and a nice map. Clicking on each region of the world will reveal even more detailed country-level statistics, including acres in potato production and consumption rates. The site even has information about a world potato photography contest, and most of the information on the site is available in Russian, English, French, Spanish, and Chinese.

  3. Different approaches for improving the quality and extending the shelf life of the partially baked bread: low temperatures and HPMC addition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    María Eugenia Bárcenas; Cristina M. Rosell

    2006-01-01

    The use of refrigeration or positive temperature storage as an alternative to frozen storage for extending the shelf life of partially baked bread is described. In addition, the effect of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) on the baking performance of those products is detailed. With this purpose, the quality and shelf life of the bread from partially baked bread stored at frozen temperatures

  4. 7 CFR 948.51 - Colorado Potato Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee. 948.51 Section 948...Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Committees § 948.51 Colorado Potato Committee. The Colorado...

  5. 7 CFR 948.151 - Colorado Potato Committee membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee membership. 948.151 ...Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Rules and Regulations...Requirements § 948.151 Colorado Potato Committee membership. The...

  6. 7 CFR 948.151 - Colorado Potato Committee membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee membership. 948.151 ...Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Rules and Regulations...Requirements § 948.151 Colorado Potato Committee membership. The...

  7. 7 CFR 948.51 - Colorado Potato Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee. 948.51 Section 948...Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Committees § 948.51 Colorado Potato Committee. The Colorado...

  8. 7 CFR 980.1 - Import regulations; Irish potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...false Import regulations; Irish potatoes. 980.1 Section 980.1 Agriculture...1 Import regulations; Irish potatoes. (a) Findings and determinations with respect to imports of Irish potatoes. (1) Pursuant to...

  9. 7 CFR 457.142 - Northern potato crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance provisions. 457.142 ...INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.142 Northern potato crop insurance provisions. The Northern Potato Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2008...

  10. Two-dimensional CFD modelling and simulation of an industrial continuous bread baking oven

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nantawan Therdthai; Weibiao Zhou; Thomas Adamczak

    2003-01-01

    In an industrial continuous bread baking oven, dough\\/bread is travelling inside the oven chamber and it is the oven temperature distribution in this whole travelling period that dominates the product quality variations. To establish a model covering the temperature distribution of the whole oven chamber, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) may be the most effective method. This paper presents the results

  11. BAKE: A Balanced Kautz Tree Structure for Peer-to-Peer Networks

    E-print Network

    Liu, Yunhao

    architecture with smaller diameter and constant peer degree even the number of peers is an arbitrary valueBAKE: A Balanced Kautz Tree Structure for Peer-to-Peer Networks Deke Guo, Yunhao Liu, and Xiangyang--In order to improve scalability and reduce mainte- nance overhead for structured Peer-to-Peer systems

  12. BAKE: A Balanced Kautz Tree Structure for Peer-to-Peer Networks

    E-print Network

    Li, Xiang-Yang

    architecture with smaller diameter and constant peer degree even the number of peers is an arbitrary valueBAKE: A Balanced Kautz Tree Structure for Peer-to-Peer Networks Deke Guo, Honghui Chen, Yunhao Liu--In order to improve scalability and reduce mainte- nance overhead for structured Peer-to-Peer systems

  13. Optimal temperature pro les for post-exposure bake of photo-resist

    E-print Network

    in optimization complexity, and it agrees with common industrial practice. Keywords: Photo-Resist, Baking, Temperature-Pro le, Linear Programming, Critical Dimensions 1. INTRODUCTION In manufacturing of wafers. By considering uniformity speci cations in this parameter it is shown that good performance can be achieved

  14. Cloning and characterization of a Weissella confusa dextransucrase and its application in high fibre baking.

    PubMed

    Kajala, Ilkka; Shi, Qiao; Nyyssölä, Antti; Maina, Ndegwa Henry; Hou, Yaxi; Katina, Kati; Tenkanen, Maija; Juvonen, Riikka

    2015-01-01

    Wheat bran offers health benefits as a baking ingredient, but is detrimental to bread textural quality. Dextran production by microbial fermentation improves sourdough bread volume and freshness, but extensive acid production during fermentation may negate this effect. Enzymatic production of dextran in wheat bran was tested to determine if dextran-containing bran could be used in baking without disrupting bread texture. The Weissella confusa VTT E-90392 dextransucrase gene was sequenced and His-tagged dextransucrase Wc392-rDSR was produced in Lactococcus lactis. Purified enzyme was characterized using (14)C-sucrose radioisotope and reducing value-based assays, the former yielding K(m) and V(max) values of 14.7 mM and 8.2 ?mol/(mg ? min), respectively, at the pH optimum of 5.4. The structure and size of in vitro dextran product was similar to dextran produced in vivo. Dextran (8.1% dry weight) was produced in wheat bran in 6 h using Wc392-rDSR. Bran with and without dextran was used in wheat baking at 20% supplementation level. Dextran presence improved bread softness and neutralized bran-induced volume loss, clearly demonstrating the potential of using dextransucrases in bran bioprocessing for use in baking. PMID:25603169

  15. Cloning and Characterization of a Weissella confusa Dextransucrase and Its Application in High Fibre Baking

    PubMed Central

    Kajala, Ilkka; Shi, Qiao; Nyyssölä, Antti; Maina, Ndegwa Henry; Hou, Yaxi; Katina, Kati; Tenkanen, Maija; Juvonen, Riikka

    2015-01-01

    Wheat bran offers health benefits as a baking ingredient, but is detrimental to bread textural quality. Dextran production by microbial fermentation improves sourdough bread volume and freshness, but extensive acid production during fermentation may negate this effect. Enzymatic production of dextran in wheat bran was tested to determine if dextran-containing bran could be used in baking without disrupting bread texture. The Weissella confusa VTT E-90392 dextransucrase gene was sequenced and His-tagged dextransucrase Wc392-rDSR was produced in Lactococcus lactis. Purified enzyme was characterized using 14C-sucrose radioisotope and reducing value-based assays, the former yielding Km and Vmax values of 14.7 mM and 8.2 ?mol/(mg?min), respectively, at the pH optimum of 5.4. The structure and size of in vitro dextran product was similar to dextran produced in vivo. Dextran (8.1% dry weight) was produced in wheat bran in 6 h using Wc392-rDSR. Bran with and without dextran was used in wheat baking at 20% supplementation level. Dextran presence improved bread softness and neutralized bran-induced volume loss, clearly demonstrating the potential of using dextransucrases in bran bioprocessing for use in baking. PMID:25603169

  16. Use of hydrocolloids as bread improvers in interrupted baking process with frozen storage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mar??a Eugenia Bárcenas; Carmen Benedito; Cristina M Rosell

    2004-01-01

    Hydrocolloids are widely used in the food industry due to their capacity to control both the rheology and texture of aqueous systems. Hydrocolloids have also been very useful as bread improvers in breadmaking due to their antistaling effect. Nevertheless, the effect of these compounds on partially baked frozen bread has not been studied. The purpose of this work was to

  17. The potential of genetic engineering for improving brewing, wine-making and baking yeasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Dequin

    2001-01-01

    The end of the twentieth century was marked by major advances in life technology, particularly in areas related to genetics and more recently genomics. Considerable progress was made in the development of genetically improved yeast strains for the wine, brewing and baking industries. In the last decade, recombinant DNA technology widened the possibilities for introducing new properties. The most remarkable

  18. From baking a cake to solving the diffusion equation Edward A. Olszewskia

    E-print Network

    Olszewski Jr., Edward A.

    in cylindrical pans of various diameters. The relation takes into account the evaporation of moisture at the top is specifically related to bread baking.5,6 A no- table exception is the work of Lostie and collaborators.7 was heated only from the top, with the sides and bottom of the pan thermally insulated. Based

  19. Formation of monochloropropane-1,2-diol and its esters in biscuits during baking.

    PubMed

    Mogol, Burçe Ataç; Pye, Céline; Anderson, Warwick; Crews, Colin; Gökmen, Vural

    2014-07-23

    The formation of free monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD and 2-MCPD) and its esters (bound-MCPD) was investigated in biscuits baked with various time and temperature combinations. The effect of salt as a source of chloride on the formation of these processing contaminants was also determined. Kinetic examination of the data indicated that an increasing baking temperature led to an increase in the reaction rate constants for 3-MCPD, 2-MCPD, and bound-MCPD. The activation energies of formation of 3-MCPD and 2-MCPD were found to be 29 kJ mol(-1). Eliminating salt from the recipe decreased 3-MCPD and 2-MCPD formation rate constants in biscuits by 57.5 and 85.4%, respectively. In addition, there was no formation of bound-MCPD in biscuits during baking without salt. Therefore, lowering the thermal load or limiting the chloride concentration should be considered a means of reducing or eliminating the formation of these contaminants in biscuits. Different refined oils were also used in the recipe to test their effect on the occurrence of free MCPD and its esters in biscuits. Besides the baking process, the results also confirmed the role of refined oil in the final concentration of these contaminants in biscuits. PMID:25004252

  20. Nutritious Meal Planning; Commercial Cooking and Baking I: 9193.02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This 90 clock hour course has been prepared as a guide for the tenth grade student in commercial cooking and baking or food management, production and services. It has been divided into six blocks of instruction (menu planning, recipes, condiments and their uses, introduction to cooking, food cost and accounting), and a Quinmester post-test. As a…

  1. Integration of Two Diploid Potato Linkage Maps with the Potato Genome Sequence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kimberly J. Felcher; Joseph J. Coombs; Alicia N. Massa; Candice N. Hansey; John P. Hamilton; Richard E. Veilleux; C. Robin Buell; David S. Douches

    2012-01-01

    To facilitate genome-guided breeding in potato, we developed an 8303 Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) marker array using potato genome and transcriptome resources. To validate the Infinium 8303 Potato Array, we developed linkage maps from two diploid populations (DRH and D84) and compared these maps with the assembled potato genome sequence. Both populations used the doubled monoploid reference genotype DM1-3 516

  2. Shelf life extension of pre-baked buns by an ACTIVE PACKAGING ethanol emitter.

    PubMed

    Franke, I; Wijma, E; Bouma, K

    2002-03-01

    The paper reports the influence of an ethanol emitter (Ethicap) on the microbiological condition and the shelf life extension of a bakery product. Pre-baked buns, with a water activity of 0.95, were packaged with different amounts of Ethicap and stored at room temperature. Yeasts and moulds remained largely absent from the core of the pre-baked bun (< 10(2) cfu g(-1)) during storage, independent of the presence of ethanol. The total mesophilic count was low at the beginning of the storage experiment (< 10(2) cfu g(-1)), but increased without ethanol within 1 week to an unacceptable level. In the presence of ethanol, the total mesophilic count stabilizes at a consumable level of 10(5)-10(6) cfu g(-1). The increase of total mesophilic count was caused by growth of a Bacillus spp., probably B. subtilis. Mould growth on the outer surface is limiting for shelf life extension. On the pre-baked buns, the following moulds were present: Penicillium solitum, P. commune, P. corylophilum, Cladosporium sphaerospermum and C. herbarum. These started to grow within 4-6 days. Mould growth can be delayed for 13 days by adding Ethicap. The ethanol probably has to be absorbed by the pre-baked bun to be effective in growth suppression of the Bacillus spp. the moulds. The pre-baked buns absorb most of the ethanol from the package headspace, and the ethanol content of the products is approximately 0.8 weight% after 21 days. This largely exceeds the overall migration limit of 60 mg kg(-1) food (0.006 weight%). PMID:11834079

  3. Case study: Healthy grown potatoes and sustainability of Wisconsin potato production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Wisconsin Eco-Potato collaboration developed after several meetings between the Wisconsin Potato and Vegetable Growers Association (WPVGA) and World Wildlife Fund (WWF). Representatives met at the National Potato Council meeting and identified a common interest in development of environmentally ...

  4. BREEDING FOR RESISTANCES TO POTATO VIRUS Y AND POTATO VIRUS A

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The most important potyvirus of potato is potato virus Y (PVY). PVY is a transitory virus transmitted by aphid vectors, but also easily mechanically transmitted. It appears as two major groups: PVY-O, or the common strain, which is severe in potato, but produces a mild mosaic in tobacco; and 2) P...

  5. Effects of rice cystatin I expression in transgenic potato on Colorado potato beetle larvae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne Lecardonnel; Laura Chauvin; Lise Jouanin; Antony Beaujean; Geneviève Prévost; Brigitte Sangwan-Norreel

    1999-01-01

    The impact of OCI (Oryzacystatin I) expressing transgenic potato on Colorado potato beetle (CPB) larvae development was investigated. Transgenic potatoes, resistant to kanamycin and expressing the OCI cysteine protease inhibitor (PI), were obtained via Agrobacterium tumefaciens genetic transformation. Four independent transgenic lines were shown by molecular analysis to exhibit a high level of OCI expression. Larvae of CPB were independently

  6. Cytological responses of susceptible and extremely resistant potato plants to inoculation with potato virus Y

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. HINRICHS-BERGER; M. HARFOLD; S. BERGER; H. BUCHENAUER

    1999-01-01

    Mechanical inoculation of extremely resistant potato plants bearing the Rystogene with potato virus Y (PVY) induced distinct necrotic streaks along the veins of the abaxial surface of the inoculated leaflets. The number of necrotic vein lesions was related to the inoculum concentration. Vein necrosis was also observed after PVY infection of susceptible potato cultivars, but it developed considerably later compared

  7. Composite carrier bar device

    SciTech Connect

    Felder, D.W.

    1981-09-01

    A composite carrier bar is disclosed for oil well pumping units that utilize sucker rod to operate bottom hole pumps. The bar includes a recessed cavity for receiving a hydraulic ram to operate as a polish rod jack and also a secondary carrier bar for receiving a secondary polish rod clamp for use in respacing bottom hole pumps and serve as a safety clamp during operation.

  8. Bar Code Labels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    American Bar Codes, Inc. developed special bar code labels for inventory control of space shuttle parts and other space system components. ABC labels are made in a company-developed anodizing aluminum process and consecutively marketed with bar code symbology and human readable numbers. They offer extreme abrasion resistance and indefinite resistance to ultraviolet radiation, capable of withstanding 700 degree temperatures without deterioration and up to 1400 degrees with special designs. They offer high resistance to salt spray, cleaning fluids and mild acids. ABC is now producing these bar code labels commercially or industrial customers who also need labels to resist harsh environments.

  9. Effect of radio frequency postdrying of partially baked cookies on acrylamide content, texture, and color of the final product.

    PubMed

    Koray Palazo?lu, T; Co?kun, Yunus; Kocada?l?, Tolga; Gökmen, Vural

    2012-05-01

    Effect of radio frequency (RF) postdrying of partially baked cookies on acrylamide content, texture, and color of the final product was investigated in this study. Control cookies were prepared by baking in a conventional oven at 205 °C for 11 min. Cookies partially baked for 8 and 9 min were postdried in a 27.12 MHz RF tunnel oven until attainment of the moisture content of control cookies. Internal temperature of cookies was monitored during the experiments to better explain the results. Cookies were analyzed for acrylamide content using a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method. Texture measurements were performed using a Texture Analyzer, while digital image analysis was used for color measurement. The results showed that RF postdrying of partially baked cookies resulted in lower acrylamide levels (107.3 ng/g for control cookies, 74.6 ng/g upon RF postdrying of cookies partially baked for 9 min, 51.1 ng/g upon RF postdrying of cookies partially baked for 8 min). Instrumental texture analysis showed no significant difference among the texture of cookies, whereas RF postdried samples had a lower degree of browning. According to sensory evaluation results, control had a more crumbly texture, and RF postdried sample that was conventionally baked for 8 min had a slightly uncooked flavor. PMID:22490203

  10. Kinetics of acrylamide formation in potato chips

    E-print Network

    Granda, Claudia Esthela

    2006-08-16

    after different frying times................................................87 3-28. Effect of frying method and time on acrylamide content in potato chips...............90 3-29. Effect of temperature on the rate constant k for acrylamide formation...)..................................97 3-31. Effect of temperature on the rate constant k for acrylamide formation in potato chips fried under vacuum (10 Torr). ........................................................98 4-1. Beakers with potato slices placed...

  11. Multi Bar Graph

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-05-27

    In this activity, students enter in data to be represented in a double bar graph. Multi bar graphs allow the student to compare multiple characteristics of different subjects like population for different continents over time. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

  12. Building Brilliant Bar Graphs

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Briana Bower

    2005-01-01

    In this series of three lesson plans, students create bar graphs, double bar graphs, and determine appropriate intervals for scale. Each lesson incorporates teacher modeling, student practice (students have an opportunity to label and create the scale for their own graphs), assessment (including rubrics), and reteaching or extension options.

  13. Bar Graph Sorter

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-03-09

    In this activity, students make bar graphs by sorting shapes either by shape or by color. This activity allows students to explore how to sort data to make bar graphs. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

  14. Detection of Multiple Potato Viruses in the Field Suggests Synergistic Interactions among Potato Viruses in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Hameed, Amir; Iqbal, Zafar; Asad, Shaheen; Mansoor, Shahid

    2014-01-01

    Viral diseases have been a major limiting factor threating sustainable potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) production in Pakistan. Surveys were conducted to serologically quantify the incidence of RNA viruses infecting potato; Potato virus X (PVX), Potato virus Y (PVY), Potato virus S (PVS), Potato virus A (PVA), Potato virus M (PVM) and Potato leaf roll virus (PLRV) in two major potato cultivars (Desiree and Cardinal). The results suggest the prevalence of multiple viruses in all surveyed areas with PVY, PVS and PVX dominantly widespread with infection levels of up to 50% in some regions. Co-infections were detected with the highest incidence (15.5%) for PVX and PVS. Additionally the data showed a positive correlation between co-infecting viruses with significant increase in absorbance value (virus titre) for at least one of the virus in an infected plant and suggested a synergistic interaction. To test this hypothesis, glasshouse grown potato plants were challenged with multiple viruses and analyzed for systemic infections and symptomology studies. The results obtained conclude that multiple viral infections dramatically increase disease epidemics as compared to single infection and an effective resistance strategy in targeting multiple RNA viruses is required to save potato crop. PMID:25506305

  15. 77 FR 67862 - Public Notice for Waiver of Aeronautical Land-Use Assurance; J. Douglas Bake Memorial Airport...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-14

    ...Notice for Waiver of Aeronautical Land-Use Assurance; J. Douglas Bake Memorial...assurances and assure compatible land use. It would also remove the liability...Register 30 days before modifying the land-use assurance that requires the...

  16. PCR detection of potato cyst nematode.

    PubMed

    Reid, Alex

    2009-01-01

    Potato cyst nematode (PCN) is responsible for losses in potato production totalling millions of euros every year in the EC. It is important for growers to know which species is present in their land as this determines its subsequent use. The two species Globodera pallida and Globodera rostochiensis can be differentiated using an allele-specific PCR. PMID:19301763

  17. Identifying and reducing constraints to potato productivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato yield in Maine has remained relatively constant for over 50 years, despite increased inputs of pesticides, nutrients, and water. Research is needed to identify and reduce the constraints to potato productivity. We evaluated Status Quo, Soil Conserving, Soil Improving, and Disease Suppressive ...

  18. Natural diversity of potato (Solanum tuberosum) invertases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Astrid M Draffehn; Sebastian Meller; Li Li; Christiane Gebhardt

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Invertases are ubiquitous enzymes that irreversibly cleave sucrose into fructose and glucose. Plant invertases play important roles in carbohydrate metabolism, plant development, and biotic and abiotic stress responses. In potato (Solanum tuberosum), invertases are involved in 'cold-induced sweetening' of tubers, an adaptive response to cold stress, which negatively affects the quality of potato chips and French fries. Linkage and

  19. The changing face of Potato virus Y

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This presentation will help growers, seed certification and regulatory officials, consultants, and other practitioners in the United States understand how and why Potato virus Y (PVY) is affecting the seed potato crop and if left unchecked why it will become a major disease issue for the food sector...

  20. Assessing reproduction of potato psyllid haplotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae), is a serious pest of solanaceous crops in North and Central America and New Zealand. This insect vectors the bacterium “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum” that causes zebra chip disease of potato. So far, four distinct genetic ...

  1. Sweet potato in gluten-free pancakes.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gluten-free pancakes were prepared using rice flour, and rice flour replaced with various amounts, at 10, 20, and 40% of sweet potato flour. At 40% sweet potato, the apparent viscosity became comparable to that of the traditional wheat pancake batter. Texture properties of the cooked pancakes, such...

  2. Potato defense against Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say): microarray gene expression profiling of potato (Solanum tuberosum) by Colorado potato beetle infestation and regurgitant treatment of

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Colorado potato beetle is the leading pest of solanaceous plants, however little is known about the interaction of this beetle with the potato plant. Using the 11,421 EST solanaceae microarry profiling services at TIGR we have begun investigating the genes that are differentially expressed by infest...

  3. ATTRACTING VOLTILES FOR THE COLORADO POTATO BEETLE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chemicals responsible for attraction of the Colorado potato beetle (CPB) Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) to its host plant and conspecifics have long been sought, since Mc Indoo in 1926 [1] demonstrated the general attractiveness of potato plant volatiles to adult CP...

  4. Preliminary observation on the effect of baking soda volume on controlling odour from discarded organic waste.

    PubMed

    Qamaruz-Zaman, N; Kun, Y; Rosli, R-N

    2015-01-01

    Food wastes with high moisture and organic matter content are likely to emit odours as a result of the decomposition process. The management of odour from decomposing wastes is needed to sustain the interest of residents and local councils in the source separation of kitchen wastes. This study investigated the potential of baking soda (at 50 g, 75 g and 100g per kg food waste) to control odour from seven days stored food waste. It was found that 50 g of baking soda, spread at the bottom of 8l food wastes bin, can reduce the odour by about 70%. A higher amount (above 100g) is not advised as a pH higher than 9.0 may be induced leading to the volatilization of odorous ammonia. This research finding is expected to benefit the waste management sector, food processing industries as well as the local authorities where malodour from waste storage is a pressing issue. PMID:25445259

  5. A Brief History of the Potato in Ireland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Education, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Provides historical information on the potato in Ireland focusing on how the potato arrived in Ireland and the advantages and disadvantages of the potato as a food crop. Discusses the Irish potato famine in Ireland, effects of the famine, and the government's laissez-faire response. Includes a list of questions. (CMK)

  6. 7 CFR 51.1578 - Off-Grade potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Off-Grade potatoes. 51.1578 Section 51.1578 Agriculture... United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Off-Grade § 51.1578 Off-Grade potatoes. Potatoes which fail to meet the...

  7. 7 CFR 51.1578 - Off-Grade potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Off-Grade potatoes. 51.1578 Section 51.1578 Agriculture... United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Off-Grade § 51.1578 Off-Grade potatoes. Potatoes which fail to meet the...

  8. MANAGING INSECT PESTS OF POTATO Ricky E. Foster, Extension Entomologist

    E-print Network

    Ginzel, Matthew

    Vegetable Insects E-96-W PURDUE EXTENSION Colorado potato beetle (l) larva and (r) adult (Photo Credit: J BEETLE The most devastating pest of potato in Indiana is the Colorado potato beetle (CPB). The adult tolerate more than 6-8% defoliation. Colorado potato beetle damage (Photo Credit: W. Cranshaw) #12

  9. Soil phosphorus changes impacted by potato cropping management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato crops generally require high amounts of phosphorus (P) fertilizer to reach economically acceptable yields as the low root density of potato plants makes mobilization and acquisition of phosphate a key factor in potato plant growth. In this work, we evaluated soil P changes in 10 potato fields...

  10. Effect of Tempering and Baking on the Charpy Impact Energy of Hydrogen-Charged 4340 Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, K.; Lee, E. W.; Frazier, W. E.; Niji, K.; Battel, G.; Tran, A.; Iriarte, E.; Perez, O.; Ruiz, H.; Choi, T.; Stoyanov, P.; Ogren, J.; Alrashaid, J.; Es-Said, O. S.

    2015-01-01

    Tempered AISI 4340 steel was hydrogen charged and tested for impact energy. It was found that samples tempered above 468 °C (875 °F) and subjected to hydrogen charging exhibited lower impact energy values when compared to uncharged samples. No significant difference between charged and uncharged samples tempered below 468 °C (875 °F) was observed. Neither exposure nor bake time had any significant effect on impact energy within the tested ranges.

  11. STABILIZATION AND PROCESSING CONCEPT FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULC STEEL SHEET WITH BAKE HARDENABILITY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lydia Storojeva; Christine Escher; Rolf Bode; Klaus Hulka

    Ultra low carbon steels with under- to over-stoichiometric atomic ratios of Ti\\/N and Nb\\/C were industrially produced as hot and cold rolled sheet. Continuous annealing cycles were simulated, using parameters typical for industrial processing routes. Microstructure, solute carbon content, mechanical properties, as well as bake hardening and aging behaviour were studied. It turned out that the best property combination with

  12. The effects of gums on macro and micro-structure of breads baked in different ovens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Semin Ozge Ozkoc; Gulum Sumnu; Serpil Sahin

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the effects of gums on macro and micro-structure of breads baked in different ovens (infrared (IR)-microwave combination and conventional) were investigated by the help of image and SEM analysis, respectively. The gums used were xanthan, guar, ?-carrageenan and xanthan-guar blend. The gums were added to the formulation at 0.5% concentration. As a control, no gum added formulations

  13. Prolongation of the microbial shelf life of wrapped part baked baguettes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Doulia; G. Katsinis; B. Mougin

    2000-01-01

    The effect of some factors, such as ethanol content, type of modified atmosphere packaging and UV radiation dose, on the mould free shelf life of wrapped part?baked baguettes has been investigated in comparison with the conventional chemical preservatives as calcium propionate and potassium sorbate. Ethanol content, ranging between 0.5?15% by weight, can cause a significant increase in the mould free

  14. Fortification of baked and fried tortilla chips with mechanically expelled soy flour

    E-print Network

    De La Torre Pineda, Monica

    2009-05-15

    desirable functionalities in fabricated foods with lower costs (Amudha Senthil 2002). Soy has been researched when incorporated in cookies, bread, extruded puffs, pasta (Buck et al. 1987) or in combination with rice (Payumo et al.1982) or with corn.... Thousands of types of chips, fruit snacks, cookies, and anything our hearts desire are available. (McCarthy 2001). Now the industry seeks healthier foods for snacking. People want low sodium, low oil and low calorie. Companies are baking chips...

  15. [Effects of steaming and baking on content of alkaloids in Aconite Lateralis Radix (Fuzi)].

    PubMed

    Yang, Chang-lin; Huang, Zhi-fang; Zhang, Yi-han; Liu, Yu-hong; Liu, Yun-huan; Chen, Yan; Yi, Jin-hai

    2014-12-01

    To study the effect of steaming and baking process on contents of alkaloids in Aconite Lateralis Radix (Fuzi), 13 alkaloids were analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS equipped with ESI ion source in MRM mode. In steaming process, the contents of diester-diterpenoid alkaloids decreased rapidly, the contents of monoester-diterpenoid alkaloids firstly increased, reached the peak at 40 min, and then deceased gradually. The contents of aconine alkaloids (mesaconine, aconine and hypaconine) increased all the time during processing, while the contents of fuziline, songorine, karacoline, salsolionl were stable or slightly decreased. In baking process, dynamic variations of alkaloids were different from that in the steaming process. Diester-diterpenoid alkaloids were degraded slightly slower than in steaming process. Monoester-diterpenoid alkaloids, aconine alkaloids and the total alkaloids had been destroyed at different degrees, their contents were significantly lower than the ones in steaming Fuzi at the same processing time. This experiment revealed the dynamic variations of alkaloids in the course of steaming and baking. Two processing methods which can both effectively remove the toxic ingredients and retain the active ingredients are simple and controllable, and are valuable for popularization and application. PMID:25898581

  16. Effects of repeated baking on the mechanical and physical properties of metal-ceramic systems.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Sakae; Yoshida, Takamitsu; Mizoguchi, Toshihide; Terashima, Nobuyoshi; Kamijyo, Kuni; Ito, Michio; Oshida, Yoshiki

    2004-06-01

    This study evaluates effects of repeated baking processes on the mechanical and physical properties of single and triple applications of opaque, body and enamel porcelains fused to three different metal substrates (precious metal, semi-precious metal and non-precious metal). The vintage halo porcelain system was employed and fused to metals. Fused samples were subjected to three-point bend tests to evaluate bend strength and modulus of elasticity. It was found that, by increasing repeated baking cycles, (1) body and enamel porcelains increased bend strengths but opaque porcelain did not show any changes, (2) all triple-layered porcelains fired to metals increased bend strengths, and (3) all three porcelains and metal substrates did not exhibit changes in thermal expansion percentage. It was concluded that repeating baking procedures up to 10 cycles did not exhibit any adverse effects on the final properties of porcelain-fired to metals, rather it was noticed that mechanical strengths increased by increasing cycles. PMID:15287559

  17. Marker-Assisted Selection for Recognizing Wheat Mutant Genotypes Carrying HMW Glutenin Alleles Related to Baking Quality

    PubMed Central

    Zamani, Mohammad Javad; Bihamta, Mohammad Reza; Naserian Khiabani, Behnam; Tahernezhad, Zahra; Hallajian, Mohammad Taher; Shamsi, Marzieh Varasteh

    2014-01-01

    Allelic diversity of HMW glutenin loci in several studies revealed that allelic combinations affect dough quality. Dx5 + Dy10 subunits are related to good baking quality and Dx2 + Dy12 are related to undesirable baking quality. One of the most regular methods to evaluate the baking quality is SDS-PAGE which is used to improve baking quality labs. Marker-assisted selection is the method which can recognize the alleles related to baking quality and this method is based on polymerase chain reaction. 10 pairs of specific primers related to Dx2, Dx2.1, Dx5, Dy10, and Dy12 subunits were used for recognizing baking quality of some wheat varieties and some mutant genotypes. Only 5 pairs of them could show the specific bands. All subunits were recognized by the primers except Dx2.1. Some of the primers were extracted from previous studies and the others were designed based on D genome subunits of wheat. SDS-PAGE method accomplished having confidence in these marker's results. To realize the effect of mutation, seed storage proteins were measured. It showed that mutation had effect on the amount of seed storage protein on the mutant seeds (which showed polymorphism). PMID:24883389

  18. Non-potato host plants of potato psyllid in the Pacific Northwest: a year-round complication?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Managing zebra chip disease in the potato growing regions of Washington, Oregon, and Idaho is complicated by confusion about the source of the insect vector (potato psyllid) as it colonizes potato fields in these growing regions. Not knowing where the psyllid is before arriving in Washington potato...

  19. Air Potato Leaf Feeding Beetle (Lilioceris cheni) Request Form/ Air Potato Vine (Dioscorea bulbifera) Infestation Site Record

    E-print Network

    Florida, University of

    Air Potato Leaf Feeding Beetle (Lilioceris cheni) Request Form/ Air Potato Vine: Longitude: Size/Density Approximate total size of the air potato vine infestation: Percent of the total area (above) covered by air potato vines (0100%): Other remarks: Please send data sheets to

  20. Development of molecular markers for introgression of potato leafroll virus resistance from S. etuberosum into cultivated potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) is a major virus pathogen of potato. Infection of potato can result in substantial reductions in yield as well as tuber quality via the expression of net necrosis. Solanum etuberosum, a wild relative of cultivated potato, is highly resistant to PLRV as well as other po...

  1. Bahasa Indonesia Kfir Bar

    E-print Network

    Dershowitz, Nachum

    Bahasa Indonesia Kfir Bar #12;Malay Archipelago · During Islam era: Malay) · Dutch and Portuguese traders arrived during the 15th century · Indonesia became a Dutch colony · Indonesia independent - 1945 #12;#12;Indonesian · Formed ­ 15th

  2. Control of sweet potato virus diseases.

    PubMed

    Loebenstein, Gad

    2015-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is ranked seventh in global food crop production and is the third most important root crop after potato and cassava. Sweet potatoes are vegetative propagated from vines, root slips (sprouts), or tubers. Therefore, virus diseases can be a major constrain, reducing yields markedly, often more than 50%. The main viruses worldwide are Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV) and Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV). Effects on yields by SPFMV or SPCSV alone are minor, or but in complex infection by the two or other viruses yield losses of 50%. The orthodox way of controlling viruses in vegetative propagated crops is by supplying the growers with virus-tested planting material. High-yielding plants are tested for freedom of viruses by PCR, serology, and grafting to sweet potato virus indicator plants. After this, meristem tips are taken from those plants that reacted negative. The meristems were grown into plants which were kept under insect-proof conditions and away from other sweet potato material for distribution to farmers after another cycle of reproduction. PMID:25591876

  3. Gas flow in barred galaxies

    E-print Network

    E. Athanassoula

    2000-06-28

    I briefly review the properties of the gas flow in and around the region of the bar in a disc galaxy and discuss the corresponding inflow and the loci of star formation. I then review the flow of gas in barred galaxies which have an additional secondary bar. Finally I discuss the signatures of bars in edge-on galaxies.

  4. Bar code scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bravman, Richard

    1990-05-01

    Good afternoon. And thanks, Gary very much again for giving ne a chance to come and spend some time with you. Again, ray name is Richard Bravman, vice president of marketing with Symbol Technologies. For those of you who may not be familiar with the bar coding market, I'll give just a brief word on Symbol. Symbol is today, we find our selves the leader in that business. Our original activity in bar coding went all the way back to the business of creating the film images that are the genesis point for the placement of bar codes on all the consumer items. That was what we did back in mid l970s, moved through several stages, in 1980, we made a significant breakthrough inventing the first laser based bar code scanning device that was portable enough that you could hold it in your hand. That development proved to be the engine of some very significant growth over the last eight or nine years. During the period of the last six years, we've had our compound average growth for our company at something in the range of 80% or so. So we've been fortunate enough to have seen some real growth. Today our businesses included bar code scanning, and as a result of an acquisition we did last year, portable data capture devices, which are handheld computers that are specifically used for remote data capture.

  5. Potato processing: Past, present and future

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miles Willard

    1993-01-01

    From the time of the Incas, man has dehydrated potatoes to alleviate famine and feed its warriors. After the Spaniards brought\\u000a potatoes to Europe, the same became true there. During the Industrial Revolution, drying processes emerged in Germany and\\u000a England for dried pieces, extruded mash filaments and, finally, thin layers of mash on heated surfaces. During the 19th century,\\u000a fermentation

  6. Potato Shoot Tip Cryopreservation. A Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anja Kaczmarczyk; Veli-Matti Rokka; E. R. Joachim Keller

    2011-01-01

    Potato is one of the most important crops worldwide. Genetic resources of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. ssp. tuberosum) and related cultivated species are conserved through storage of tubers, in vitro plants and in cryopreservation. Cryopreservation,\\u000a storage in or above liquid nitrogen, is the best option to maintain vegetatively propagated plants in the long term. The present\\u000a review gives comprehensive information

  7. Growing More Potatoes with Less Water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roland Schafleitner

    2009-01-01

    Demand for potato is steadily rising in developing countries, where actual per-hectare production levels reach mere fractions\\u000a of the yields achieved in Europe or North America. Improving abiotic stress tolerance, e.g., against drought, could increase\\u000a these low potato yields and thus help to satisfy the growing demand for this crop. Hypotheses about genes and traits that\\u000a could mitigate yield decreases

  8. Partial self-reversal of TRM in baked soils and ceramics from Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roperch, Pierrick; Chauvin, Annick; Valdez, Francisco

    2012-11-01

    Partial self-reversed thermoremanent magnetizations (SRTRMs) were observed in samples of baked soils, hearths and ceramics from the Rumipamba archeological site near Quito (Ecuador) and ceramics from sites near the town of Esmeraldas (Ecuador). The SRTRMs were recognized at room temperature on few samples but cooling the samples in liquid nitrogen enhanced the intensity of the SRTRM and measurement at 77°K enables its rapid detection in many samples from these sites. Alternating field demagnetization of the SRTRM indicate median destructive field of the order of 50 mT and thermal demagnetization give unblocking temperatures in the temperature range 280-380 °C. The magnetic carriers of the SRTRM are stable to heating in air or in vacuum up to 600 °C suggesting that titanomaghemite should not be the magnetic carrier of the SRTRM. The studied baked clays and ceramics contain detrital material of mainly volcanic origin. Ti-poor titanomagnetite is the main magnetic carrier identified by strong field data or susceptibility measurements versus temperature. Ilmeno-hematite grains were recognized with microscope observations under reflected light. Scanning electron microscope observations with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry indicate a Ti/Fe ratio corresponding to an ilmenite content of ˜0.55. We also compared the magnetic properties of the partially self-reversed baked clays with those of the self-reversed Pinatubo pumices. The SRTRMs were measured upon cooling from room temperature to 20°K with the MPMS. Upon cooling to 20°K the SRTRM show a nearly tenfold increase in intensity with respect to the room temperature measurement. The baked clay and ceramics from Ecuador carrying the SRTRM share similar magnetic properties with the Pinatubo pumices (unblocking temperatures, low temperature behavior) supporting the interpretation that detrital hemoilmenite originating from the Holocene activity of the numerous Ecuadorian volcanoes is the main carrier of the SRTRM in the archeological samples. In some samples, anisotropy tensors of SRTRM show large anisotropy degree (>2). The high anisotropy observed when the total magnetization is the sum of a normal thermoremanent magnetization (TRM) and a SRTRM is likely amplified because the anisotropy carried by the SRTRM is larger than the one carried by the normal component. A component of SRTRM may be hidden in archeological materials containing detrital hemoilmenites related to dacitic/andesitic volcanism and this may affect the determination of paleointensity of the earth magnetic field especially when non thermal method are used.

  9. Partial self-reversal of TRM in baked soils and ceramics from Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roperch, P.; Chauvin, A.; Valdez, F.

    2011-12-01

    Partial self-reversed thermoremanent magnetizations (SRTRM) have been found in samples of baked soils and hearths from the Rumipamba archeological site near Quito and ceramics from sites near the town of Esmeraldas (Ecuador). The SRTRMs were recognized during thermal demagnetization and in the course of paleointensity determination with the Thellier method where the SRTRM was acquired in the opposed field direction. The SRTRM is often concealed by a stronger normal polarity magnetization on most samples but cooling the samples in liquid nitrogen enhanced the intensity of the SRTRM. The SRTRM at 77°K is often as strong or stronger than the normal component and measurements of the magnetization at 77°K enables the rapid detection of the SRTRM in most samples. AF demagnetization of the SRTRM carried by the baked clays indicate median destructive field (MDF) of the order of 50 mT and thermal demagnetization give principal unblocking temperatures between 280 and 380°C while the normal component of magnetization has higher unblocking temperatures up to 580°C. Anisotropy tensors of SRTRM were determined on eight samples. The high anisotropy degree (>2) observed when the total magnetization is the sum of a normal TRM and a SRTRM is likely amplified because the anisotropy carried by the SRTRM is larger than the one carried by the normal component. Ti-poor titanomagnetite is the main magnetic carrier identified by magnetic measurement in strong field or susceptibility measurements versus temperature. The magnetic carriers of the SRTRM are stable to heating in air or in vacuum up to 600°C suggesting that they are likely not maghemite or titanomaghemite. The baked clays and ceramics from Ecuador carrying the SRTRM share similar magnetic properties (MDF values, unblocking temperatures) with those reported by Bina et al. (1999, Geophys. J. Int. 138, 159-178) for the Pinatubo pumices of the 1991 eruption. In order to test the hypothesis that the SRTRM could be carried by ilmeno-hematite grains, the magnetization of one sample of the self reversed Pinatubo pumices was also measured during warming from liquid nitrogen temperature to room temperature. The similarities in magnetic properties between the SRTRM carried by the baked clays and the self-reversed Pinatubo pumices support the interpretation that detrital hemoilmenite originating from the recent activity of the numerous Ecuadorian volcanoes may be the main carrier of the SRTRM in the archeological samples. A component of SRTRM may be hidden in various types of rock or archeological materials and this may affect the determination of paleointensity of the Earth magnetic field especially when non thermal method are used.

  10. Multiple bars and secular evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Juntai

    2015-03-01

    Bars are the most important driver of secular evolution. A significant fraction of barred galaxies also harbor small secondary bars. Secondary bars are visible even in near-infrared images, so they are not just dusty and blue, but stellar features (Erwin & Sparke 2002). Since they are quite common, secondary bars are probably long-lived stellar features. The random relative orientation of the two bars indicates that they are dynamically decoupled with different pattern speeds (Buta & Crocker 1993). Corsini et al. (2003) presented conclusive direct kinematic evidence for a decoupled secondary bar in NGC 2950. Dynamically decoupled secondary bars have long been hypothesized to be a mechanism to drive gas past the ILR of primary bars to feed active galactic nuclei (Shlosman et al. 1989). However, the dynamics of secondary bars are still not well understood, and it is still unclear what role secondary bars play in the AGN fueling process. Numerical simulations offer the best approach to understanding double-barred systems. Decoupled secondary bar in the earlier gaseous simulations only last a short time (< 1 Gyr, e.g. Friedli & Martinet 1993). Orbital studies of double-barred systems discovered a family of loop orbits that may be building blocks of long-lived nuclear stellar bars (Maciejewski & Sparke 1997, 2000). To complement orbital studies, which are not fully self-consistent, N-body simulations are preferred to further our understanding of double-barred systems. Debattista & Shen (2007) and Shen & Debattista (2009) managed to form long-lived double-barred systems with purely collisionless simulations, where a pre-existing rotating pseudo-bulge is introduced initially. The shape and size of secondary bars in the models are comparable to observed ones. They found that the rotation of the two bars is not rigid. The amplitude and pattern speed of the secondary bars oscillate as they rotate through their primary counterparts. Although the secondary bar rotates faster than the primary bar in this model, the stellar velocity field in the central region only shows a weakly twisted kinematic minor axis. Recently more simulations of double-barred galaxies with simpler initial conditions are explored (Du, Shen & Debattista 2014). We expect that the new models can be used to cross-check with the kinematic properties of double-barred galaxies from IFU observations such as SAURON and Atlas3D.

  11. Infection of potato plants with potato leafroll virus changes attraction and feeding behaviour of Myzus persicae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. E. Alvarez; E. Garzo; M. Verbeek; B. Vosman; M. Dicke; W. F. Tjallingii

    2007-01-01

    Potato leafroll virus (PLRV; genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae) is a persistently transmitted circulative virus that depends on aphids for spreading. The primary vector of PLRV is the aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Homoptera: Aphididae). Solanum tuberosum L. potato cv. Kardal (Solanaceae) has a certain degree of resistance to M. persicae: young leaves seem to be resistant, whereas senescent leaves are susceptible.

  12. Seasonal dispersal of the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli, into potato crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli, vectors the bacterium associated with the devastating zebra chip disease of potato in the United States, Mexico, Central America, and New Zealand. A seasonal pattern of appearance of this psyllid in crops from southern to northern regions in the United States ...

  13. Colorado potato beetles ( leptinotarsa decemlineata) adapt to proteinase inhibitors induced in potato leaves by methyl jasmonate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caroline J. Bolter; Maarten A. Jongsma

    1995-01-01

    Potato plants were treated with gaseous methyl jasmonate (MJ) to obtain leaves with high induced levels of cysteine and aspartic proteinase inhibitors. Induced papain inhibitor activity was estimated at 4% of total protein. Other conditions produced leaves with low and moderate levels of this inhibitor. Development of Colorado potato beetle larvae was similar when they were reared on leaves containing

  14. Impact of potato psyllid (Hemiptera: Triozide) feeding on free amino acid composition in potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foliage feeding impacts of potato psyllid (Bactericera cockerelli) on the free amino acids (FAAs) composition in potato leaf and tuber were determined under the greenhouse conditions. The free amino acids in plant extracts were separated by HPLC, and in both leaf and tuber samples, at least, 17 FAAs...

  15. Resistance of selected potato genotypes to the potato psyllid (Hemiptera: Triozidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The characterization of resistance of selected potato, Solanum tuberosum L., breeding clones to the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) was investigated. Antixenosis was assessed in choice tests in which a single plant of each genotype was placed inside a rearing cag...

  16. Incidence, transmission and molecular characterization of Potato virus S from selected potato cultivars in Washington State

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Washington State Potato Seed Lot Trials annually evaluates seed lots from several states for the incidence of various potato viruses and other growth compromising factors. During the 2005 and 2006 seasons, many plants within seed lots of cv. Defender displayed necrotic lesions, leaf malformati...

  17. Toll Bar on Sea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Dave

    2008-01-01

    In the summer of 2007 the United Kingdom experienced some of the heaviest rainfall since records began. Toll Bar in South Yorkshire featured prominently in media coverage as the village and the homes surrounding it began to flood. Many people lost everything: their homes, their furniture, their possessions. In an effort to come to terms with what…

  18. Permanent Bar Magnets

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-03

    This is an activity about the basic properties of magnets and magnetism. Learners explore concepts such as magnetic fields and polarity, which form the basic ingredients of a study of Earth's magnetic field and the technology of magnetometers. Materials needed include bar magnets and paper clips. This is Activity 1 of Exploring Magnetism: A Teacher's Magnetism Activity Guide.

  19. Retention of provitamin a carotenoids in staple crops targeted for biofortification in Africa: cassava, maize and sweet potato.

    PubMed

    De Moura, Fabiana F; Miloff, Alexander; Boy, Erick

    2015-01-01

    HarvestPlus, part of the Consultative Group on Internation Agriculture research (CGIAR) Program on Agriculture for Nutrition and Health (A4NH) uses conventional plant breeding techniques to develop staple food crops that are rich in micronutrients, a food-based approach to reduce micronutrient malnutrition known as biofortification. The nutritional breeding targets are established based on the food intake of target populations, nutrient losses during storage and processing and bioavailability. This review collates the evidence on the retention of provitamin A carotenoid (pVAC) after processing, cooking, and storing of the staple crops targeted for pVAC biofortification: cassava, maize, and sweet potato. Sun drying was more detrimental to the pVAC levels (27-56% retention) in cassava than shade (59%) or oven (55-91%) drying, while the pVAC retention levels (66-96%) in sweet potato were not significantly different among the various drying methods. Overall, boiling and steaming had higher pVAC retention (80-98%) compared to baking (30-70%) and frying (18-54%). Gari, the most frequently consumed form of cassava in West Africa had the lowest pVAC retention (10-30%). The pVAC retention of maize grain and cassava and sweet potato flour reached levels as low as 20% after 1-4 months of storage and was highly dependent on genotype. Therefore, we recommend that an evaluation of the pVAC degradation rate among different genotypes be performed before a high pVAC crop is promoted. PMID:24915386

  20. 33 CFR 117.167 - Little Potato Slough.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Little Potato Slough. 117.167 Section 117.167 Navigation and Navigable... Specific Requirements California § 117.167 Little Potato Slough. The draw of the California Department of...

  1. 33 CFR 117.167 - Little Potato Slough.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Little Potato Slough. 117.167 Section 117.167 Navigation and Navigable... Specific Requirements California § 117.167 Little Potato Slough. The draw of the California Department of...

  2. White Potatoes, Human Health, and Dietary Guidance12

    PubMed Central

    King, Janet C.; Slavin, Joanne L.

    2013-01-01

    The white potato is a concentrated source of carbohydrate, dietary fiber, and resistant starch and continues to be the staple food of choice for many cultures. The white potato is also a concentrated source of vitamin C and potassium. Two of the nutrients in white potatoes, dietary fiber and potassium, have been designated as nutrients of concern in the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Potatoes are often maligned in nutrition circles because of their suspected link to obesity, and popular potato foods often contain more fat calories than carbohydrate calories. Some food guides do not include potatoes in the vegetable group because of their association with high-fat diets. However, potatoes should be included in the vegetable group because they contribute critical nutrients. All white vegetables, including white potatoes, provide nutrients needed in the diet and deserve a prominent position in food guides. PMID:23674809

  3. Breeding for apomixis in potato: Pursuing a utopian scheme

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. G. Th. Hermsen

    1980-01-01

    Apomictic propagation in potato holds a great promise for the new technology of growing potatoes from botanical seeds in stead of tubers. It is explained that apomixis results from the combination of abnormal meiosis, abnormal fertilization and parthenogenesis.

  4. Control strategies for sweet potato virus disease in Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard W. Gibson; Valentine Aritua; Emmanuel Byamukama; Isaac Mpembe; James Kayongo

    2004-01-01

    Sweet potato virus disease (SPVD), caused by dual infection with the whitefly-borne Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV) and the aphid-borne Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV), is the most serious disease of sweet potato in Africa. SPVD has been known there since at least the 1940s, although it took several decades to elucidate its aetiology. It occurs throughout Africa

  5. Natural diversity of potato (Solanum tuberosum) invertases

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Invertases are ubiquitous enzymes that irreversibly cleave sucrose into fructose and glucose. Plant invertases play important roles in carbohydrate metabolism, plant development, and biotic and abiotic stress responses. In potato (Solanum tuberosum), invertases are involved in 'cold-induced sweetening' of tubers, an adaptive response to cold stress, which negatively affects the quality of potato chips and French fries. Linkage and association studies have identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) for tuber sugar content and chip quality that colocalize with three independent potato invertase loci, which together encode five invertase genes. The role of natural allelic variation of these genes in controlling the variation of tuber sugar content in different genotypes is unknown. Results For functional studies on natural variants of five potato invertase genes we cloned and sequenced 193 full-length cDNAs from six heterozygous individuals (three tetraploid and three diploid). Eleven, thirteen, ten, twelve and nine different cDNA alleles were obtained for the genes Pain-1, InvGE, InvGF, InvCD141 and InvCD111, respectively. Allelic cDNA sequences differed from each other by 4 to 9%, and most were genotype specific. Additional variation was identified by single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis in an association-mapping population of 219 tetraploid individuals. Haplotype modeling revealed two to three major haplotypes besides a larger number of minor frequency haplotypes. cDNA alleles associated with chip quality, tuber starch content and starch yield were identified. Conclusions Very high natural allelic variation was uncovered in a set of five potato invertase genes. This variability is a consequence of the cultivated potato's reproductive biology. Some of the structural variation found might underlie functional variation that influences important agronomic traits such as tuber sugar content. The associations found between specific invertase alleles and chip quality, tuber starch content and starch yield will facilitate the selection of superior potato genotypes in breeding programs. PMID:21143910

  6. Zebra chip disease of potato: biology, epidemiology, and management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zebra chip (ZC), a new and economically important disease of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), has been documented to occur in commercial potato fields in the United States, Mexico, Central America, and New Zealand. This disease has caused millions of dollars in losses to the potato industry. Whole cro...

  7. 76 FR 16323 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Continuance Referendum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ...AMS-FV-11-0010; FV11-946-1 CR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Continuance Referendum...be conducted among eligible Washington potato growers to determine whether they favor...order regulating the handling of Irish potatoes grown in Washington. DATES: The...

  8. Taxonomy of Cultivated Potatoes (Solanum section Petota: Solanaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solanum tuberosum, the cultivated potato of world commerce, is a primary food crop worldwide. Wild and cultivated potatoes form the germplasm base for international breeding efforts to improve potato in the face of variety of disease, environmental, and agronomic constraints. A series of national an...

  9. ENERGY LOSSES FROM POTATO PROCESSING WASTE DURING LABORATORY STORAGE 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. A. Sauter; D. D. Hinman; A. D. Howes

    Summary Two experiments were conducted to deter- mine the amount of starch loss during labora- tory storage of potato processing waste. Two types of potato waste, dry peel and filter cake, were collected from each of three potato processing plants with 10 replications per plant per type of waste. Samples of mixtures of dry peel and filter cake were also

  10. BIOCOMPOSITES REINFORCED WITH CELLULOSE NANOCRYSTALS DERIVED FROM POTATO PEEL WASTE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dan Chen

    2012-01-01

    Cellulose is the most abundant biopolymer on earth, derived from a variety of living species. An attractive source to obtain cellulose is from agriculture wastes, for instance, potato peel. Potato is one of the most important crops for human consumption, but in recent years its consumption in raw form has decreased, especially in developed countries. Many potatoes are processed into

  11. MICROBIAL CONTROL OF THE POTATO TUBER MOTH (LEPIDOPTERA: GELECHIIDAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato tuber moth (PTM) is a serious pest of stored potato in most countries where potatoes are grown. Pathogens that are specific to insects offer promise as alternatives to broad spectrum insecticides for management of this pest. A diverse spectrum of microscopic and multicellular organisms (bact...

  12. Exudation of mesotrione from potato roots injures neighboring plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mesotrione is an effective herbicide for volunteer potato control but is not selective in several crops, including onion and carrot. Studies were conducted in 2006 to evaluate the effectiveness of wiper applied mesotrione for control of volunteer potato in a potato crop. Surprisingly, nontreated pot...

  13. Production of low oil content potato chips using vacuum frying

    E-print Network

    Garayo, Jagoba

    2001-01-01

    temperature and vacuum pressure had a significant effect on the drying rate and oil absorption rate of potato chips. However, these two parameters had no significant effect on the final moisture and oil content of potato chips. Potato chips fried at lower...

  14. Economic assessments of potato production systems in Maine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using an integrated enterprise and whole-farm budget model for a 324-ha medium-sized potato farm, the profitability of potatoes grown in combination with fifteen common potato rotation crops in Maine are evaluated. Enterprise budgets for all sixteen crops are calculated while a whole-farm budget syn...

  15. A POTATO A DAY KEEPS THE DOCTOR AWAY?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato tubers were found to have high levels of salicylic acid relative to most other plants. Salicylic acid is thought to be the active ingredient of aspirin in the human body. The high levels of SA in potato could potentially be a nutritionally desirable aspect of potato....

  16. INHERITANCE OF RESISTANCE TO FUSARIUM TUBER ROT IN POTATOES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    FUSARIUM TUBER ROT OF POTATO IS ONE OF THE MOST ECONOMICALLY IMPORTATNT DISEASES OF STORED POTATOES. THE OBJECTIVE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO DETERMINE THE INHERITANCE OF RESISTANCE TO FUSARIUM TUBER ROT. A HIGHLY RESISTANT (B0172-22) AND A HIGHLY SUSCEPTIBLE (B0178-34) POTATO CLONE WERE CROSSED AS FEMA...

  17. VOLUNTEER POTATO UPDATE FOR THE COLUMBIA BASIN 2002

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to forecast volunteer potato severity for the upcoming growing seasson, soil temperature at several depths and volunteer potato tuber viability is being monitored at three locations in the Columbia Basin potato growing region of Washington during the 2001-02 winter months. Minimum soil tem...

  18. Sensory evaluation of pigmented flesh potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pigmented potato cultivars were ranked by a consumer panel for overall acceptance, and acceptance of aroma, appear- ance, and flavor. Potatoes were analyzed for total phenolics, anthocyanins and carotenoids. Concentrations of total phenolics in yellow and purple potato cultivars were 2-fold greate...

  19. Potato utilization in relation to variety (Heredity) and environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. J. Stevenson; R. V. Akeley; John G. McLean

    1954-01-01

    Potato utilization is a subject that is freely discussed especially in years of surplus. Utilization in its broadest sense includes the use made of potatoes whether consumed in the fresh state, processed before they reach the ultimate consumer, fed to live stock, used for seed, or exported, and regardless of the way in which potatoes are utilized, variety, and the

  20. Taxonomy of cultivated potatoes (solanum section petota: solanaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solanum tuberosum, the cultivated potato of world commerce, is a primary food crop worldwide. Wild and cultivated potatoes form the germplasm base for international breeding efforts to improve potato in the face of variety of disease, environmental, and agronomic constraints. A series of national an...

  1. Genetic Resistances to Potato Leafroll Virus, Potato Virus Y, and Green Peach Aphid in Progeny of Solanum etuberosum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. G. Novy; A. Nasruddin; D. W. Ragsdale; E. B. Radcliffe

    2002-01-01

    Increasing prevalence of potato leafroll virus (PLRV) and potato virus Y (PVY) has been reported in seed and commercial potato\\u000a production, resulting in the rejection of potatoes for certification and processing. Host plant resistance to PLRV and PVY\\u000a and their primary vector, green peach aphid,Myzus persicae, could limit the spread of these viruses. Host plant resistance to PLRV, PVY, and

  2. Breaking through the Bar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Katti

    2011-01-01

    Howard University School of Law had a problem, and school officials knew it. Over a 20-year period, 40 percent of its graduates who took the Maryland bar exam failed it on their first try. During the next 24 months--the time frame required to determine its "eventual pass rate"--almost 90 percent of the students did pass. What they did not know was…

  3. Bar coded retroreflective target

    SciTech Connect

    Vann, C.S.

    2000-01-25

    This small, inexpensive, non-contact laser sensor can detect the location of a retroreflective target in a relatively large volume and up to six degrees of position. The tracker's laser beam is formed into a plane of light which is swept across the space of interest. When the beam illuminates the retroreflector, some of the light returns to the tracker. The intensity, angle, and time of the return beam is measured to calculate the three dimensional location of the target. With three retroreflectors on the target, the locations of three points on the target are measured, enabling the calculation of all six degrees of target position. Until now, devices for three-dimensional tracking of objects in a large volume have been heavy, large, and very expensive. Because of the simplicity and unique characteristics of this tracker, it is capable of three-dimensional tracking of one to several objects in a large volume, yet it is compact, light-weight, and relatively inexpensive. Alternatively, a tracker produces a diverging laser beam which is directed towards a fixed position, and senses when a retroreflective target enters the fixed field of view. An optically bar coded target can be read by the tracker to provide information about the target. The target can be formed of a ball lens with a bar code on one end. As the target moves through the field, the ball lens causes the laser beam to scan across the bar code.

  4. Mapping of resistance to the potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis from the wild potato species Solanum vernei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeanne M. E. Jacobs; Herman J. Eck; Karin Horsman; Paul F. P. Arens; Brigitte Verkerk-Bakker; Evert Jacobsen; Andy Pereira; Willem J. Stiekema

    1996-01-01

    A population of diploid potato (Solanum tuberosum) was used for the genetic analysis and mapping of a locus for resistance to the potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis, introgressed from the wild potato species Solanum vernei. Resistance tests of 108 genotypes of a F1 population revealed the presence of a single locus with a dominant allele for resistance to G. rostochiensis

  5. Spread of potato virus Y NTN in potato cultivars ( Solanum tuberosum L.) with different levels of sensitivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nataša Mehle; Maja Kova?; Nataša Petrovi?; Maruša Pompe Novak; Špela Baebler; Hana Kre?i? Stres; Kristina Gruden; Maja Ravnikar

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this work was to correlate the appearance of the symptoms, multiplication and spread of virus after mechanical inoculation of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars showing different levels of susceptibility and sensitivity to Potato virus YNTN (PVYNTN). The potato cultivars used were the resistant cultivar Sante and susceptible cultivars Igor, Pentland squire and Désirée. The spread of the

  6. Resistance to potato leaf roll virus and potato virus Y in somatic hybrids between dihaploid Solanum tuberosum and S. brevidens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. W. Gibson; M. G. K. Jones; N. Fish

    1988-01-01

    Many somatic fusion hybrids have been produced between a dihaploid potato Solanum tuberosum and the sexually-incompatible wild species S. brevidens using both chemical and electrical fusion techniques. S. brevidens was resistant to both potato leaf roll virus (PLRV) and potato virus Y (PVY), the viruses being either at low (PLRV) or undetectable (PVY) concentrations as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

  7. Involvement of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) MKK6 in response to potato virus Y.

    PubMed

    Lazar, Ana; Coll, Anna; Dobnik, David; Baebler, Spela; Bedina-Zavec, Apolonija; Zel, Jana; Gruden, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades have crucial roles in the regulation of plant development and in plant responses to stress. Plant recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns or pathogen-derived effector proteins has been shown to trigger activation of several MAPKs. This then controls defence responses, including synthesis and/or signalling of defence hormones and activation of defence related genes. The MAPK cascade genes are highly complex and interconnected, and thus the precise signalling mechanisms in specific plant-pathogen interactions are still not known. Here we investigated the MAPK signalling network involved in immune responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) to Potato virus Y, an important potato pathogen worldwide. Sequence analysis was performed to identify the complete MAPK kinase (MKK) family in potato, and to identify those regulated in the hypersensitive resistance response to Potato virus Y infection. Arabidopsis has 10 MKK family members, of which we identified five in potato and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), and eight in Nicotiana benthamiana. Among these, StMKK6 is the most strongly regulated gene in response to Potato virus Y. The salicylic acid treatment revealed that StMKK6 is regulated by the hormone that is in agreement with the salicylic acid-regulated domains found in the StMKK6 promoter. The involvement of StMKK6 in potato defence response was confirmed by localisation studies, where StMKK6 accumulated strongly only in Potato-virus-Y-infected plants, and predominantly in the cell nucleus. Using a yeast two-hybrid method, we identified three StMKK6 targets downstream in the MAPK cascade: StMAPK4_2, StMAPK6 and StMAPK13. These data together provide further insight into the StMKK6 signalling module and its involvement in plant defence. PMID:25111695

  8. Potato virus Y infection hinders potato defence response and renders plants more vulnerable to Colorado potato beetle attack.

    PubMed

    Petek, Marko; Rotter, Ana; Kogovšek, Polona; Baebler, Spela; Mithöfer, Axel; Gruden, Kristina

    2014-11-01

    In the field, plants are challenged by more than one biotic stressor at the same time. In this study, the molecular interactions between potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say; CPB) and Potato virus Y(NTN) (PVY(NTN) ) were investigated through analyses of gene expression in the potato leaves and the gut of the CPB larvae, and of the release of potato volatile compounds. CPB larval growth was enhanced when reared on secondary PVY(NTN) -infected plants, which was linked to decreased accumulation of transcripts associated with the antinutritional properties of potato. In PVY(NTN) -infected plants, ethylene signalling pathway induction and induction of auxin response transcription factors were attenuated, while no differences were observed in jasmonic acid (JA) signalling pathway. Similarly to rearing on virus-infected plants, CPB larvae gained more weight when reared on plants silenced in JA receptor gene (coi1). Although herbivore-induced defence mechanism is regulated predominantly by JA, response in coi1-silenced plants only partially corresponded to the one observed in PVY(NTN) -infected plants, confirming the role of other plant hormones in modulating this response. The release of ?-barbatene and benzyl alcohol was different in healthy and PVY(NTN) -infected plants before CPB larvae infestation, implicating the importance of PVY(NTN) infection in plant communication with its environment. This was reflected in gene expression profiles of neighbouring plants showing different degree of defence response. This study thus contributes to our understanding of plant responses in agro-ecosystems. PMID:25251011

  9. Baking Industry. Grade 2. One in a Series of Career Development Curriculum Units for the Elementary Classroom. (Second Edition).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barret, Jennifer; And Others

    Focusing on the occupational clusters of natural resources and manufacturing, this unit entitled "Baking Industry" is one of four grade 2 units which are part of a total set of twenty-seven career development curriculum units for grades K-6. This unit is organized into four sections. Section 1 identifies one career development-centered curriculum…

  10. Strain Limit of Extra Galvannealed Interstitial-Free and Bake Hardened Steel Sheets Under Different Stress Conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R Narayanasamy; NL Parthasarathi; R Ravindran; C Sathiya Narayanan

    2008-01-01

    The formability of bake hardened steel (thickness 0.82 mm), and the extra galvannealed IF steel (thickness 0.82 mm) have been studied. The suitability of the above steels for forming applications has been critically examined. The microstructure, tensile properties, and formability parameters of the above sheet metals were determined. The manufacturing process of the steels and the significance with reference to

  11. Development of a benchtop baking method for chemically leavened crackers. I. Identification of a diagnostic formula and procedure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A benchtop baking method has been developed to predict the contribution of gluten functionality to overall flour performance for chemically leavened crackers. In order to identify a diagnostic cracker formula, the effects of leavening system (sodium bicarbonate, monocalcium phosphate, and ammonium b...

  12. Exploration of Sugar Functionality in Sugar-Snap and Wire-Cut Cookie Baking: Implications for Sucrose Reduction or Replacement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugars are plasticizers of the biopolymers of wheat flour, but concentrated sugar solutions act as anti-plasticizers, compared to water alone. As a result, gluten development during dough mixing and starch gelatinization/pasting during cookie baking are delayed or prevented. In great excess, aqueou...

  13. Sensory qualities of plain white pan bread: Influence of farming system, year of harvest and baking technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iwona Kihlberg; Åsa Öström; Lisbeth Johansson; Einar Risvik

    2006-01-01

    The sensory qualities of products from sustainable production systems are not well known, but important for development of such systems. To understand how wheat growing systems and baking processes influence white bread quality, six samples of wheat (Triticum aestivum, var.Ebi) from field trials harvested in two consecutive years, three grown in conventional farming systems and three in organic farming systems

  14. Interrelationships of Protein Composition, Protein Level, Baking Process and the Characteristics of Hearth Bread and Pan Bread

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. M. Færgestad; E. L. Molteberg; E. M. Magnus

    2000-01-01

    Baking performance of hearth bread and pan bread were investigated using 10 wheat varieties with variable protein quality. For most varieties, samples were selected at two protein levels, approximately 11 and 13% (d.m.). The effects of flour quality on loaf characteristics were different for hearth bread compared to pan bread, where both protein quality and protein content affect loaf volume

  15. Thermal stability and kinetics of degradation of deoxynivalenol, deoxynivalenol conjugates and ochratoxin A during baking of wheat bakery products.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Arnau; Sanchis, Vicente; Ramos, Antonio J; Marín, Sonia

    2015-07-01

    The stability of deoxynivalenol (DON), deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (DON-3-glucoside), 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON), de-epoxy-deoxynivalenol (DOM-1) and ochratoxin A (OTA) during thermal processing has been studied. Baking temperature, time and initial mycotoxin concentration in the raw materials were assayed as factors. An improved UPLC-MS/MS method to detect DON, DON-3-glucoside, 3-ADON, 15-ADON and DOM-1 in wheat baked products was developed in the present assay. The results highlighted the importance of temperature and time in mycotoxin stability in heat treatments. OTA is more stable than DON in a baking treatment. Interestingly, the DON-3-glucoside concentrations increased (>300%) under mild baking conditions. On the other hand, it was rapidly reduced under harsh conditions. The 3-ADON decreased during the heat treatment; while DOM-1 increased after the heating process. Finally, the data followed first order kinetics for analysed mycotoxins and thermal constant rates (k) were calculated. This parameter can be a useful tool for prediction of mycotoxin levels. PMID:25704712

  16. Development of High vacuum facility for baking and cool down experiments for SST-1 Tokamak components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Ziauddin; Pathan, Firozkhan S.; Yuvakiran, Paravastu; George, Siju; Manthena, Himabindu; Raval, Dilip C.; Thankey, Prashant L.; Dhanani, Kalpesh R.; Gupta, Manoj Kumar; Pradhan, Subrata

    2012-11-01

    SST-1 Tokamak, a steady state super-conducting device, is under refurbishment to demonstrate the plasma discharge for the duration of 1000 second. The major fabricated components of SST-1 like vacuum vessel, thermal shields, superconducting magnets etc have to be tested for their functional parameters. During machine operation, vacuum vessel will be baked at 150 °C, thermal shields will be operated at 85 K and magnet system will be operated at 4.5 K. All these components must have helium leak tightness under these conditions so far as the machine operation is concerned. In order to validate the helium leak tightness of these components, in-house high vacuum chamber is fabricated. This paper describes the analysis, design and fabrication of high vacuum chamber to demonstrate these functionalities. Also some results will be presented.

  17. Ill-conditioned Shake-and-Bake: the trap of the false minimum.

    PubMed

    Xu, H; Weeks, C M; Deacon, A M; Miller, R; Hauptman, H A

    2000-03-01

    The alternation of phase refinement with the imposition of real-space constraints is the essence of the Shake-and-Bake procedure. Typically, these constraints prevent trial structures from falling into local minima. Nevertheless, P1 structures appear to migrate to false minima with significant frequency. These false minima are characterized by the presence of a large 'uranium' peak on the corresponding Fourier map. Fortunately, they can be recognized and avoided by considering the values of the minimal function both before and after the application of constraints. However, it appears that finding solutions for large P1 structures is likely also to require parameter-shift conditions different from those that have been found to work well in other space groups. In fact, these conditions often yield an unusually high percentage of solutions. PMID:10772452

  18. Strong Meissner screening change in superconducting radio frequency cavities due to mild baking

    SciTech Connect

    Romanenko, A., E-mail: aroman@fnal.gov; Grassellino, A.; Barkov, F. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States); Suter, A.; Salman, Z.; Prokscha, T. [Laboratory for Muon Spin Spectroscopy, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2014-02-17

    We investigate “hot” regions with anomalous high field dissipation in bulk niobium superconducting radio frequency cavities for particle accelerators by using low energy muon spin rotation (LE-?SR) on corresponding cavity cutouts. We demonstrate that superconducting properties at the hot region are well described by the non-local Pippard/BCS model for niobium in the clean limit with a London penetration depth ?{sub L}=23±2 nm. In contrast, a cutout sample from the 120??C baked cavity shows a much larger ?>100?nm and a depth dependent mean free path, likely due to gradient in vacancy concentration. We suggest that these vacancies can efficiently trap hydrogen and hence prevent the formation of hydrides responsible for rf losses in hot regions.

  19. The effect on human salivary fluoride concentration of consuming fluoridated salt-containing baked food items.

    PubMed

    Macpherson, L M; Stephen, K W

    2001-10-01

    Salt fluoridation is recognised world-wide as a proven and viable alternative means of consumer choice-related, community-based fluoridation where water fluoridation is either technically or politically impossible. However, as most salt consumed is contained within cooked food products, rather than sprinkled over prepared food at the table, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects on salivary fluoride concentration of consuming baked food products prepared with 250 and 350 ppm fluoridated salt (as KF). Six food items were baked with (a) normal non-fluoridated salt, (b) 250 mg F/kg salt and (c) 350 mg F/kg salt. Eleven adult volunteers consumed these foodstuffs on separate occasions and salivary samples were collected for fluoride analyses before and at various time points (1-30 min) after eating. For most foodstuffs, small but significant increases in salivary fluoride concentration occurred for at least 5 min after ingestion of the fluoridated salt-containing items. Salivary fluoride concentrations peaked 1 or 2 min after eating, with highest values for the six test foods ranging from 0.16 to 0.25 ppm F, and from 0.18 to 0.44 ppm F for the 250 and 350 mg F/kg salt products, respectively. In all cases, salivary fluoride concentrations had returned to baseline by 20 min. The clinical significance of such small, short-term increases in salivary fluoride is uncertain, but the findings suggest that a more frequent intake of foods with fluoridated salt substituted for normal salt could help sustain slightly elevated salivary fluoride concentrations for more prolonged periods of the day, and might thus potentiate the cariostatic effects of saliva on tooth mineral. PMID:11451413

  20. Identification and characterization of yeasts causing chalk mould defects on par-baked bread.

    PubMed

    Deschuyffeleer, N; Audenaert, K; Samapundo, S; Ameye, S; Eeckhout, M; Devlieghere, F

    2011-08-01

    Pichia anomala, Hyphopichia burtonii and Saccharomycopsis fibuligera are spoilage yeasts causing chalk mould defects on par-baked breads packaged under modified atmosphere. The first objective of this study was to identify yeasts isolated from spoiled par-baked breads by means of a RAPD protocol and to determine the dominant spoilers amongst identified strains. The second objective was to determine the effects of water activity (a(w)) and pH value on the growth rates and lag phase durations of P. anomala, H. burtonii and S. fibuligera. 95% of the yeasts tested were identified as P. anomala and 5% as S. fibuligera, H. burtonii was not detected. In order to investigate the effect of a(w) and pH the growth of the three yeasts was tested within an a(w) range of 0.88-0.98 and a pH range of 2.8-8.0. P. anomala was able to grow from pH 2.8 to 8 without a clear optimum. S. fibuligera and H. burtonii showed a pH optimum for growth of 5. The optimum water activity for growth was different for the three strains and varied between 0.96 and 0.98. These growth data were further used to develop secondary models that describe the relationship between a(w) and the radial or colony growth rate (g, mm/d) or the lag phase duration (?, d). The identification of the spoilage organisms and a good understanding of the effects of a(w) and pH on the growth behavior is essential for future development of adequate conservation strategies against chalk mould defects. PMID:21569947

  1. Plant regeneration from callus culture in potato

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. S. Ahloowalia

    1982-01-01

    A procedure for plant regeneration from callus culture of potato, Solanum tuberosum L. is described. Calli were induced from 1–2 mm long shoot apices of potato cultivars Cara and A25\\/19 on half-strength Murashige and Skoog's medium (half-MS) supplemented with 3.2 mg IAA (indole-3-acetic acid), 1.0 mg kinetin (6-furfurylamino)purine], and 0.5 mg 2,4-D [2,4-dichlorophenoxy)acetic acid]\\/1. Sixty percent explants produced nodular calli

  2. Influence of sulfur fertilization on the amounts of free amino acids in wheat. correlation with baking properties as well as with 3-aminopropionamide and acrylamide generation during baking.

    PubMed

    Granvogl, Michael; Wieser, Herbert; Koehler, Peter; Tucher, Sabine Von; Schieberle, Peter

    2007-05-16

    Sulfur (S) fertilization has been long-known to influence the amounts of total free amino acids in plants. To determine the impact of S deficiency in wheat on the concentration of, in particular, free asparagine, the spring wheat cultivar 'Star' was grown in a laboratory scale (5 L pot) at five different levels of S fertilization. After maturity, the kernels were milled into white flours (1-5) and analyzed for their contents of total S and total nitrogen as well as for free amino acids and glucose, fructose, maltose, and sucrose. Extremely high concentrations of free asparagine (Asn; 3.9-5.7 g/kg) were determined in flours 1 and 2 (30 and 60 mg of S), whereas much lower amounts (0.03-0.4 g/kg) were present in flours grown at higher S levels. The amounts of the reducing carbohydrates were, however, scarcely affected by S fertilization. In agreement with the high amount of Asn in flours 1 and 2, heating of both flours led to the generation of very high amounts of acrylamide (1.7-3.1 mg/kg) as well as of 3-aminopropionamide (40-76 mg/kg). Similar concentrations were measured in crispbread prepared from both flours. Application of rheological measurements on doughs prepared from each flour and a determination of the loaf volume of bread baked therefrom clearly indicated that flours 1 and 2 would be excluded from commercial bread processing due to their poor technological properties. Two commercial flours showed relatively low concentrations of acrylamide after a thermal treatment. PMID:17455956

  3. Importance and control of potato virus Y N (PVY N ) in seed potato production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. L. Weidemann

    1988-01-01

    Summary  The tobacco veinal necrosis strain of potato virus Y (PVYN) first became epidemic in several European countries in the 1950s. To prevent PVYN-infections, account must be taken of virus sources both within and without potato fields; for forecasting, the aphid vector\\u000a species, their vector efficiency, and their flight activity must all be known. Well-timed haulm destruction needs knowledges\\u000a of PVYN-translocation

  4. No Holds Barred Issue 10

    E-print Network

    Multiple Contributors

    2013-11-27

    and returned some fif teen minutes later with two huge carrier bags, one was filled with alcohol and the other with tins - soup, baked beans, macaroni cheese and pasta shapes, plus as sorted items such as salt, loo paper, washing up liquid and Daz. Just... good kids did a bit of a perish. Nasty. Jacked it in, came back, signed up properly again, Paras for a while then got sent down to the Who The Fuck Cares Who Wins mob. You ?" "I was on sabbatical from the police force when we - met," Ray stated...

  5. Thermodynamic Analysis of the Cu-As-S-(O) System Relevant to Sulfuric Acid Baking of Enargite at 473 K (200 °C)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safarzadeh, M. Sadegh; Miller, Jan D.; Huang, Hsin H.

    2014-04-01

    While the growing demand for copper has compelled the industry to adapt new technologies for the treatment of copper-arsenic (enargite) concentrates, the refractory nature of such concentrates combined with the troublesome presence of arsenic has created a major metallurgical and environmental challenge. Preliminary results of the acid bake-leach process at the University of Utah have shown some potential advantages for the treatment of enargite concentrates. While the transformation of enargite to copper sulfate, arsenolite, and elemental sulfur has already been established experimentally, thermodynamic evaluation of the sulfuric acid baking process provides further understanding which should be useful. In this article, the available thermodynamic data for the species involved in the Cu-As-S-O system are compiled. These data were used to calculate the phase stability (Kellogg) diagrams as well as equilibrium compositions at 473 K (200 °C) using the STABCAL and HSC Chemistry® 5.1 software packages. The equilibrium composition calculations indicate that enargite can transform to copper sulfate either directly or through chalcocite and/or covellite. The major gaseous species during baking were found to be SO2 and H2O. The results of the thermodynamic calculations were further compared with two confirmatory baking experiments involving a high-quality enargite sample. The condensed reaction products from sulfuric acid baking based on XRD results include CuSO4, As2O3, CuO·CuSO4, and S8 under both neutral and oxidative conditions. While all these compounds were predicted through equilibrium calculations, some of the predicted compounds were not detected in the sulfuric acid-baked enargite. None of the calculations indicated any appreciable amounts of arsenic-bearing gases at the baking temperature of 473 K (200 °C). Consistent with thermodynamic predictions, no H2S gas was detected during the sulfuric acid baking experiment. Approximately, 80 pct of the baked enargite samples were leached in water.

  6. Utilization of potatoes for life support in space. V. Evaluation of cultivars in response to continuous light and high temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tibbitts, T. W.; Cao, W.; Bennett, S. M.

    1992-01-01

    Twenty-four potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars from different regions of the world were evaluated in terms of their responses to continuous light (24 h photoperiod) and to high temperature (30 C) in two separate experiments under controlled environments. In each experiment, a first evaluation of the cultivars was made at day 35 after transplanting, at which time 12 cultivars exhibiting best growth and tuber initiation were selected. A final evaluation of the 12 cultivars was made after an additional 21 days of growth, at which time plant height, total dry weight, tuber dry weight, and tuber number were determined. In the continuous light evaluation, the 12 selected cultivars were Alaska 114, Atlantic, Bintje, Denali, Desiree, Haig, New York 81, Ottar, Rutt, Snogg, Snowchip, and Troll. In the high temperature evaluation, the 12 selected cultivars were Alpha, Atlantic, Bake King, Denali, Desiree, Haig, Kennebec, Norland, Russet Burbank, Rutt, Superior, and Troll. Among the cultivars selected under continuous irradiation, Desiree, Ottar, Haig, Rutt, Denali and Alaska showed the best potential for high productivity whereas New York 81 and Bintje showed the least production capability. Among the cultivars selected under high temperature, Rutt, Haig, Troll and Bake King had best performance whereas Atlantic, Alpha, Kennebec and Russet Burbank exhibited the least production potential. Thus, Haig and Rutt were the two cultivars that performed well under continuous irradiation and high temperature conditions, and could have maximum potential for adaptation to varying stress environments. These two cultivars may have the best potential for use in future space farming in which continuous light and/or high temperature conditions may exist. However, cultivar responses under combined conditions of continuous light and high temperature remains for further validation.

  7. Utilization of potatoes for life support in space. V. Evaluation of cultivars in response to continuous light and high temperature.

    PubMed

    Tibbitts, T W; Cao, W; Bennett, S M

    1992-01-01

    Twenty-four potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars from different regions of the world were evaluated in terms of their responses to continuous light (24 h photoperiod) and to high temperature (30 C) in two separate experiments under controlled environments. In each experiment, a first evaluation of the cultivars was made at day 35 after transplanting, at which time 12 cultivars exhibiting best growth and tuber initiation were selected. A final evaluation of the 12 cultivars was made after an additional 21 days of growth, at which time plant height, total dry weight, tuber dry weight, and tuber number were determined. In the continuous light evaluation, the 12 selected cultivars were Alaska 114, Atlantic, Bintje, Denali, Desiree, Haig, New York 81, Ottar, Rutt, Snogg, Snowchip, and Troll. In the high temperature evaluation, the 12 selected cultivars were Alpha, Atlantic, Bake King, Denali, Desiree, Haig, Kennebec, Norland, Russet Burbank, Rutt, Superior, and Troll. Among the cultivars selected under continuous irradiation, Desiree, Ottar, Haig, Rutt, Denali and Alaska showed the best potential for high productivity whereas New York 81 and Bintje showed the least production capability. Among the cultivars selected under high temperature, Rutt, Haig, Troll and Bake King had best performance whereas Atlantic, Alpha, Kennebec and Russet Burbank exhibited the least production potential. Thus, Haig and Rutt were the two cultivars that performed well under continuous irradiation and high temperature conditions, and could have maximum potential for adaptation to varying stress environments. These two cultivars may have the best potential for use in future space farming in which continuous light and/or high temperature conditions may exist. However, cultivar responses under combined conditions of continuous light and high temperature remains for further validation. PMID:11537668

  8. Buckling Bars and Boxy Bulges

    E-print Network

    Michael R. Merrifield

    1995-08-08

    It has been suggested that the peanut-shaped bulges seen in some edge-on disk galaxies are produced when bars in these galaxies buckle. This paper reviews the modelling which seeks to show how bars buckle, and I present a very simple new model which captures the essential physics of this process. I then discuss the problems in establishing observationally the connection between peanut-shaped bulges and bars: confirmation of the link has proved difficult because boxy bulges are only apparent in edge-on galaxies whereas bars are only easily detectable in more face-on systems. Finally, I present a new technique which avoids this difficulty by searching for the distinctive kinematic signature of an edge-on bar; application of this method to spectra of peanut-shaped bulges reveals that they are, indeed, associated with hidden bars.

  9. Stellar bar in NGC 1068

    SciTech Connect

    Scoville, N.Z.; Matthews, K.; Carico, D.P.; Sanders, D.B.

    1988-04-01

    High-resolution 2-micron mapping of the inner disk of NGC 1068 reveals a bar extending to + or - 16 arcsec from the nucleus at position angle 48 deg. The stellar mass distribution, presumably traced by the near-infrared light, is therefore strongly nonaxisymmetric with a contrast of approximately 3:1 between the major and minor axes of the bar. This large-scale galactic structure is probably responsible for the concentration of molecular clouds in a ring just outside the bar. The massive bar may also drive noncircular motions in the inner disk of the galaxy as possibly seen in the gaseous emission lines. 21 references.

  10. Timing characteristics of scintillator bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisov, S.; Dzierba, A.; Heinz, R.; Klimenko, A.; Samoylenko, V.; Scott, E.; Shchukin, A.; Smith, P.; Steffen, C.; Teige, S.

    2002-02-01

    The proposed Hall D detector at Jefferson Lab will have a time-of-flight detector composed of long and narrow scintillator bars. We have evaluated the time resolution of two bar prototypes in particle beams at the Institute for High Energy Physics in Protvino, Russia. The bars are 2.0 m long and have square cross-sections of size 2.5 and 5.0 cm2. In this paper, we present results on how the time resolution of each of these bars depends on the entry position of the beam into the scintillator, on the material used for scintillator wrapping and on the phototube used for the readout.

  11. MODELING LEAF GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT IN POTATO

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Appearance, expansion, and duration of individual leaves are critical determinants of plant canopy growth and development. Accurate modeling of these processes has an impact on estimating canopy light interception, photosynthesis, and accumulation of dry matter and yield. Most potato models use a ...

  12. Soil losses due to mechanized potato harvesting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Ruysschaert; J. Poesen; G. Verstraeten; G. Govers

    2006-01-01

    Soil loss due to crop harvesting (SLCH) is a soil erosion process that occurs during the harvest of crops such as sugar beet, potato, chicory root, carrot and black salsify. Soil adhering to these crops and loose soil are harvested and exported from the field together with these crops, which consequently leads to lowering of the soil profile. Some studies

  13. Identifying Constraints to Potato System Sustainability: Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato yield in the Northeast U.S. has remained constant for over 50 years, despite increased inputs of pesticides, nutrients, and water. We established Status Quo, Soil Conserving, Soil Improving, and Disease Suppressive cropping systems under both irrigated and rainfed management to identify and q...

  14. Report on potato virus diseases in 1939

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. P. Dykstra

    1940-01-01

    This report gives a review of some of the papers on potato virus diseases published during 1939 and the latter part of I938. Not all these papers were read, and in some cases only the abstracts found in the Review of Applied Mycology were used. Dennis (8) conducted studies to determine the properties of Solanum virus 4 (= virus B)

  15. Hormone Metabolism During Potato Tuber Dormancy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    At harvest and for an indeterminate period thereafter potato tubers will not sprout and are physiologically dormant. The length of tuber dormancy is dependent on cultivar and pre- and postharvest environmental conditions. Plant hormones have been shown to be involved in all phases of dormancy prog...

  16. Using the Potato Genome Sequence! Robin Buell!

    E-print Network

    Douches, David S.

    Using the Potato Genome Sequence! Robin Buell! Michigan State University! Department of Plant Biology! August 15, 2010! buell@msu.edu! 1 #12;Whole Genome Shotgun Sequencing 2 #12;New genomics & post-genomic biology genomes genera 2002 2010 3 #12;So, you say you can sequence-Now what

  17. Existing potato markers and marker conversions

    E-print Network

    Douches, David S.

    ) ­ Kasai et al. 2000 Genome 43:1-8 allele specific amplification of a diagnostic product - potatoes progeny #12;How do CAPS markers work? (CAPS = cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence) 7 1. Amplify all Eco RI reference: Konieczny A, Ausubel FM. Plant J 1993 4(2):403-410 #12;an unpublished marker linked

  18. Sources of Federal Funding for Potato Research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Starting in the mid-eighties, pressure for Federal Funding of potato research resulted in special appropriations available nationwide from two sources. The Cooperative State Resesarch Education and Extension System (CSREES) is a branch of the USDA that funds Land Grant State Universities to do rese...

  19. Sustainable potato production and global food security

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato (Solanum spp.) is currently the leading non-grain commodity in the global food system with production exceeding 329 million metric tonnes in 2009. The extraordinary adaptive range of this species complex combined with ease of cultivation and high nutritional content have promoted steady i...

  20. Evolution and classification of the cultivated potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cultivated potato is one of the most important food plants worldwide, yet knowledge of the gene pool structure of the native South American landraces remains largely uninvestigated and has long been controversial. As a result, contrasting taxonomic treatments of the landraces have continued over...

  1. Studies of Amylose Content in Potato Starch

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato starch is typically low in amylose (~20-25%), but high amylose starch has superior nutritional qualities. The ratio between amylose and amylopectin is the most important property influencing the physical properties of starch. There is a strong case to be made for the development of food crops...

  2. Genetic comparisons of gibberellin mutants in potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gibberellin deficient mutants in potato have been published as ga1 (from S. tuberosum ssp. tuberosum and andigena), pito (from the tuberosum cultivar Pito), and ga2 (from the phureja haploid inducing clone “phu-1.22”). We conducted crossing experiments to investigate genetic similarities. When the...

  3. Resistance to Black Dot in Potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Black dot fungus can colonize tubers on the surface, in the stolon end, or in a combination of both.On the surface the fungus is prevalent as sclerotia, and in the stolon end the fungus colonizes the vascular tissuesas hyphae. The fungus is introduced to non-infested soils mostly by infected potato ...

  4. LOW WASTEWATER POTATO STARCH/PROTEIN PRODUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    While potato starch has been an item of commerce for many years, traditional processing methods have incurred large volumes of high BOD effluents. The research summarized by this report has lead to a modified process which upgrades the soluble components formerly discarded in the...

  5. VARIATION FOR TUBER ACIDITY AMONG POTATO SPECIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While the use of acidity by plants for defense against disease is widespread and well known (e.g., acidic fruits), little appears to be known about the range of variation in tissue acidity in potato or its implications. We collected tuber samples in sealable plastic “sandwich” bags, froze them in a ...

  6. Potato Processing from Low Temperature Storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Everyone who grows or stores potatoes for chips or fries knows how challenging it is to deliver tubers that consistently produce light-colored fried products that meet processor and consumer expectations. Many factors contribute to dark color formation, including heat and water stress during tuber d...

  7. Potato Response to Tillage and Nitrogen Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato responses to different rates of pre-plant and in-season N management are evaluated under reduced and conventional tillage under center pivot irrigation. Tuber yield, tuber size distribution, and tuber specific gravity were largely similar across different tillage and N management practices. P...

  8. The Canon of Potato Science: 41. Sprouting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. J. Daniels-Lake; R. K. Prange

    2007-01-01

    What is it? Sprouting is the visible growth of shoot meristem tissue in the “eyes” of potato tubers which occurs after dormancy has ended. It is the major visible milestone in determining tuber physiological age. The earliest observable stage of sprouting, when only small white buds are visible, is often termed “pipping” or “peeping”. Sprouts have multiple nodes, with meristematic

  9. Breeding potato at the diploid level

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In most regions of the world, potato cultivars are tetraploid. However, complexities due to tetraploid genetics have slowed breeding progress and limited the implementation of breeding strategies commonly used in other major crops. We are developing diploid genetics resources, including partially in...

  10. Internal Ballistics of a Pneumatic Potato Cannon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mungan, Carl E.

    2009-01-01

    Basic laws of thermodynamics and mechanics are used to analyse an air gun. Such devices are often employed in outdoor physics demonstrations to launch potatoes using compressed gas that is here assumed to expand reversibly and adiabatically. Reasonable agreement is found with reported muzzle speeds for such homebuilt cannons. The treatment is…

  11. Zinc enrichment of whole potato tuber by vacuum impregnation.

    PubMed

    Erihemu; Hironaka, Kazunori; Koaze, Hiroshi; Oda, Yuji; Shimada, Kenichiro

    2015-04-01

    Zinc is a nutritionally essential truce element, and thus zinc deficiency (ZD) severely affects human health. More than 25% of the world's population is at risk of ZD. This study was initiated to examine the use of the vacuum impregnation (VI) technique for enriching zinc content of whole potatoes; the effect of vacuum time, restoration time, steam-cooking and storage at 4 °C on the zinc content of VI whole potatoes was evaluated. Whole potato tubers were immersed in a 9 g/100 g zinc (zinc gluconate) solution. Vacuum pressure of 1,000 Pa was applied for 0-120 min, and atmospheric pressure restoration for 0-4 h. Experimental results showed that the zinc content of VI potatoes increased with vacuum and restoration time. Moreover, VI-cooked unpeeled or peeled potatoes had 63-94 times and 47-75 times higher zinc contents than un-VI-cooked unpeeled or peeled potatoes, respectively. The world daily potato consumption (86 g) of the VI-cooked unpeeled and peeled potatoes provided adult men with 130-148% and 100-135% of the recommended daily allowance (RDA) of zinc, respectively. Also, the daily potato consumption of the unpeeled and peeled potatoes supplied adult women with 178-203% and 137-185% of the RDA level, respectively. In addition, the VI potatoes had 40 times higher zinc contents through 30 days of storage at 4 °C, compared with un-VI-treated potatoes. This study indicated that VI treatment of whole potatoes was useful for enriching the zinc content. PMID:25829619

  12. Transformer bar connector and pedestal bar connector cover

    SciTech Connect

    McGrane, E. W.

    1985-10-15

    A protective cover is provided for a standard rectangular transformer connector bar and for pedestal bar connector having ports for cable installation and threaded boreholes in adjacent ninety degree planes. The cover comprises a translucent housing open at one end and closed at the other when used with the transformer bar connector, and closed at both ends when used as a pedestal bar connector. The cover has a plurality of internal aligning ribs having apertures therein which allow longitudinal passage of the connector bar therethrough. A plurality of parallel access ports through the housing extend longitudinally and are spaced from each other ninety degrees so as to be alignable with the installation ports and boreholes of the bar connector. Opposed flexible tines extend across each of the access ports from the edges thereof. The apertures in the ribs are geometrically configured so as to align the access ports with the installation ports and boreholes of the transformer connector bar for either a right-hand or left-hand installation of the connector bar on the transformer stud.

  13. 7 CFR 457.143 - Northern potato crop insurance-quality endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance-quality endorsement...INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.143 Northern potato crop insurance—quality endorsement. The Northern Potato Crop Insurance Quality Endorsement...

  14. 7 CFR 457.145 - Potato crop insurance-certified seed endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Potato crop insurance-certified seed endorsement...CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.145 Potato crop insurance—certified seed endorsement. The Potato Crop Insurance Certified Seed...

  15. 7 CFR 457.143 - Northern potato crop insurance-quality endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance-quality endorsement...INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.143 Northern potato crop insurance—quality endorsement. The Northern Potato Crop Insurance Quality Endorsement...

  16. 7 CFR 457.146 - Northern potato crop insurance-storage coverage endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance-storage coverage endorsement...INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.146 Northern potato crop insurance—storage coverage endorsement. The Northern Potato Crop Insurance Storage Coverage...

  17. 7 CFR 457.144 - Northern potato crop insurance-processing quality endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance-processing quality endorsement...REGULATIONS § 457.144 Northern potato crop insurance—processing quality endorsement. The Northern Potato Crop Insurance Processing Quality...

  18. 75 FR 1269 - Vegetable Import Regulations; Modification of Potato Import Regulations; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    ...Vegetable Import Regulations; Modification of Potato Import Regulations; Correction AGENCY...modified the import regulations for Irish potatoes and made minor administrative changes to the potato, onion, and tomato import regulations...

  19. 7 CFR 946.140 - Handling potatoes for commercial processing into products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Handling potatoes for commercial processing into products...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations...Requirements § 946.140 Handling potatoes for commercial processing into...

  20. 7 CFR 457.145 - Potato crop insurance-certified seed endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potato crop insurance-certified seed endorsement...CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.145 Potato crop insurance—certified seed endorsement. The Potato Crop Insurance Certified Seed...

  1. 40 CFR 407.40 - Applicability; description of the frozen potato products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the frozen potato products subcategory. 407.40 Section...PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Frozen Potato Products Subcategory § 407.40 Applicability; description of the frozen potato products subcategory. The...

  2. 76 FR 71022 - Dicloran; Cancellation Order for Amendment To Terminate Use on Potatoes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ...Order for Amendment To Terminate Use on Potatoes AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...for the amendment to terminate use on potatoes, voluntarily requested by the registrant...voluntarily amend to terminate DCNA use on potatoes for these product registrations....

  3. 40 CFR 407.50 - Applicability; description of the dehydrated potato products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the dehydrated potato products subcategory. 407.50 Section...PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Dehydrated Potato Products Subcategory § 407.50 Applicability; description of the dehydrated potato products subcategory. The...

  4. 7 CFR 946.140 - Handling potatoes for commercial processing into products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handling potatoes for commercial processing into products...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations...Requirements § 946.140 Handling potatoes for commercial processing into...

  5. 40 CFR 407.50 - Applicability; description of the dehydrated potato products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the dehydrated potato products subcategory. 407.50 Section...PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Dehydrated Potato Products Subcategory § 407.50 Applicability; description of the dehydrated potato products subcategory. The...

  6. 7 CFR 947.134 - Establishment of list of manufacturers of potato products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Establishment of list of manufacturers of potato products. 947.134 Section 947...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU COUNTIES...Establishment of list of manufacturers of potato products. (a) The committee...

  7. 7 CFR 947.134 - Establishment of list of manufacturers of potato products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Establishment of list of manufacturers of potato products. 947.134 Section 947...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU COUNTIES...Establishment of list of manufacturers of potato products. (a) The committee...

  8. 7 CFR 457.144 - Northern potato crop insurance-processing quality endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance-processing quality endorsement...REGULATIONS § 457.144 Northern potato crop insurance—processing quality endorsement. The Northern Potato Crop Insurance Processing Quality...

  9. 40 CFR 407.40 - Applicability; description of the frozen potato products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the frozen potato products subcategory. 407.40 Section...PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Frozen Potato Products Subcategory § 407.40 Applicability; description of the frozen potato products subcategory. The...

  10. 7 CFR 457.146 - Northern potato crop insurance-storage coverage endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance-storage coverage endorsement...INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.146 Northern potato crop insurance—storage coverage endorsement. The Northern Potato Crop Insurance Storage Coverage...

  11. 7 CFR 457.145 - Potato crop insurance-certified seed endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... false Potato crop insurance-certified seed endorsement. 457.145 Section 457...145 Potato crop insurance—certified seed endorsement. The Potato Crop Insurance Certified Seed Endorsement Provisions for the 2008 and...

  12. 7 CFR 457.145 - Potato crop insurance-certified seed endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... false Potato crop insurance-certified seed endorsement. 457.145 Section 457...145 Potato crop insurance—certified seed endorsement. The Potato Crop Insurance Certified Seed Endorsement Provisions for the 2008 and...

  13. 7 CFR 457.145 - Potato crop insurance-certified seed endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... false Potato crop insurance-certified seed endorsement. 457.145 Section 457...145 Potato crop insurance—certified seed endorsement. The Potato Crop Insurance Certified Seed Endorsement Provisions for the 2008 and...

  14. Efficacy of mineral oil combined with insecticides for the control of aphid virus vectors to reduce potato virus Y infections in seed potatoes (Solanum tuberosum)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lars M. Hansen; Steen L. Nielsen

    2011-01-01

    Aphids are major vectors of plant viruses. Potato virus Y (PVY) is the most important aphid-transmitted virus affecting potato crops in Denmark. Because of a changed seed potato growing strategy, the seed potato area in Denmark is changing from regions with a low average temperature to regions with a higher average temperature. This means that the aphids may infest the

  15. Efficacy of mineral oil combined with insecticides for the control of aphid virus vectors to reduce potato virus Y infections in seed potatoes (Solanum tuberosum)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lars M. Hansen; Steen L. Nielsen

    2012-01-01

    Aphids are major vectors of plant viruses. Potato virus Y (PVY) is the most important aphid-transmitted virus affecting potato crops in Denmark. Because of a changed seed potato growing strategy, the seed potato area in Denmark is changing from regions with a low average temperature to regions with a higher average temperature. This means that the aphids may infest the

  16. The cysteine protease activity of Colorado potato beetle ( Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say) guts, which is insensitive to potato protease inhibitors, is inhibited by thyroglobulin type-1 domain inhibitors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristina Gruden; Borut Štrukelj; Tatjana Popovi?; Brigita Lenar?i?; Tadeja Bevec; Jože Brzin; Igor Kregar; Jana Herzog-Velikonja; Willem J Stiekema; Dirk Bosch; Maarten A Jongsma

    1998-01-01

    High levels of protease inhibitors are induced in potato leaves by wounding. These inhibitors, when ingested by Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say) larvae, induce expression of specific proteolytic activities in the gut. Induced protease activities cannot be inhibited by potato inhibitors and thus enable the insects to overcome this defence mechanism of potato plants. The induced aminopeptidase and endoproteolytic

  17. Production and characterization of chitosan obtained from Rhizopus oryzae grown on potato chip processing waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thanyaporn Kleekayai; Worapot Suntornsuk

    2011-01-01

    Potato chip processing waste of trimmed potato, potato peel and substandard (low-quality) potato chips, obtained from a potato\\u000a chip processing plant, were used as substrates for chitosan production from Rhizopus oryzae. It was cultured on each waste product at 30 ± 2°C and 70% moisture content for 21 days. Fermented potato peel had the highest\\u000a yield after 5 days of fermentation. The cultivation condition

  18. Dynamical Evolution of Barred Galaxies

    E-print Network

    E. Athanassoula

    2005-01-11

    Angular momentum redistribution within barred galaxies drives their dynamical evolution. Angular momentum is emitted mainly by near-resonant material in the bar region and absorbed by resonant material mainly in the outer disc and in the halo. This exchange determines the strength of the bar, the decrease of its pattern speed, as well as its morphology. If the galaxy has also a gaseous component and/or a companion or satellite, then these also take part in the angular momentum exchange. During the evolution a bar structure forms in the inner parts of the halo as well. This bar is shorter and fatter than the disc bar and stays so all through the simulation, although its length grows considerably with time. Viewed edge-on, the bar in the disc component acquires a boxy or peanut shape. I describe the families of periodic orbits that explain such structures and review the observations showing that boxy/peanut `bulges' are in fact just bars seen edge-on.

  19. Bar Dissolution in Prolate Halos.

    PubMed

    Ideta; Hozumi

    2000-06-01

    The time evolution of barred structures is examined under the influence of the external forces exerted by a spherical halo and by prolate halos. In particular, galaxy disks are placed in the plane including the major axis of prolate halos, whose configuration is often found in cosmological simulations. N-body disks in fixed external halo fields are simulated, so that bars are formed via dynamical instability. In the subsequent evolution, the bars in prolate halos dissolve gradually with time, while the bar pattern in a spherical halo remains almost unchanged to the end of the simulation. The decay times of the bars suggest that they can be destroyed in a time smaller than a Hubble time. Our results indicate that this dissolution process could occur in real barred galaxies, if they are surrounded by massive dark prolate halos, and the configuration adopted here is not unusual from the viewpoint of galaxy formation. For a prolate halo model, an additional simulation that is restricted to two-dimensional in-plane motions has also ended up with similar bar dissolution. This means that the vertical motions of disk stars do not play an essential role in the bar dissolution demonstrated here. PMID:10835306

  20. GASEOUS STRUCTURES IN BARRED GALAXIES: EFFECTS OF THE BAR STRENGTH

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Woong-Tae; Seo, Woo-Young; Kim, Yonghwi, E-mail: wkim@astro.snu.ac.kr [Center for the Exploration of the Origin of the Universe (CEOU), Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-10

    Using hydrodynamic simulations, we investigate the physical properties of gaseous substructures in barred galaxies and their relationships with the bar strength. The gaseous medium is assumed to be isothermal and unmagnetized. The bar potential is modeled as a Ferrers prolate with index n. To explore situations with differing bar strength, we vary the bar mass f{sub bar} relative to the spheroidal component as well as its aspect ratio R. We derive expressions as functions of f{sub bar} and R for the bar strength Q{sub b} and the radius r(Q{sub b} ) where the maximum bar torque occurs. When applied to observations, these expressions suggest that bars in real galaxies are most likely to have f{sub bar} {approx} 0.25-0.50 and n {approx}< 1. Dust lanes approximately follow one of the x{sub 1}-orbits and tend to be straighter under a stronger and more elongated bar, but are insensitive to the presence of self-gravity. A nuclear ring of a conventional x{sub 2} type forms only when the bar is not so massive or elongated. The radius of an x{sub 2}-type ring is generally smaller than the inner Lindblad resonance, decreases systematically with increasing Q{sub b} , and is slightly larger when self-gravity is included. This is evidence that the ring position is not determined by the resonance, but instead by the amount of angular momentum loss at dust-lane shocks. Nuclear spirals exist only when the ring is of the x{sub 2} type and is sufficiently large in size. Unlike the other features, nuclear spirals are transient in that they start out being tightly wound and weak, and then, due to the nonlinear effect, unwind and become stronger until they turn into shocks, with an unwinding rate that is higher for larger Q{sub b} . The mass inflow rate to the galaxy center is found to be less than 0.01 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} for models with Q{sub b} {approx}< 0.2, while becoming larger than 0.1 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} when Q{sub b} {approx}> 0.2 and self-gravity is included.

  1. Gaseous Structures in Barred Galaxies: Effects of the Bar Strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Woong-Tae; Seo, Woo-Young; Kim, Yonghwi

    2012-10-01

    Using hydrodynamic simulations, we investigate the physical properties of gaseous substructures in barred galaxies and their relationships with the bar strength. The gaseous medium is assumed to be isothermal and unmagnetized. The bar potential is modeled as a Ferrers prolate with index n. To explore situations with differing bar strength, we vary the bar mass f bar relative to the spheroidal component as well as its aspect ratio { R}. We derive expressions as functions of f bar and { R} for the bar strength Qb and the radius r(Qb ) where the maximum bar torque occurs. When applied to observations, these expressions suggest that bars in real galaxies are most likely to have f bar ~ 0.25-0.50 and n <~ 1. Dust lanes approximately follow one of the x 1-orbits and tend to be straighter under a stronger and more elongated bar, but are insensitive to the presence of self-gravity. A nuclear ring of a conventional x 2 type forms only when the bar is not so massive or elongated. The radius of an x 2-type ring is generally smaller than the inner Lindblad resonance, decreases systematically with increasing Qb , and is slightly larger when self-gravity is included. This is evidence that the ring position is not determined by the resonance, but instead by the amount of angular momentum loss at dust-lane shocks. Nuclear spirals exist only when the ring is of the x 2 type and is sufficiently large in size. Unlike the other features, nuclear spirals are transient in that they start out being tightly wound and weak, and then, due to the nonlinear effect, unwind and become stronger until they turn into shocks, with an unwinding rate that is higher for larger Qb . The mass inflow rate to the galaxy center is found to be less than 0.01 M ? yr-1 for models with Qb <~ 0.2, while becoming larger than 0.1 M ? yr-1 when Qb >~ 0.2 and self-gravity is included.

  2. A method for estimating the contribution of seed potatoes, machinery and soil tare in field infestations with potato cyst nematodes on a national scale.

    PubMed

    Goeminne, M; Demeulemeester, K; Viaene, N

    2011-01-01

    In order to make a cost benefit analysis for the management of the potato cyst nematodes Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida, we developed a method to estimate the relative importance of three basic distribution channels of potato cyst nematodes: seed potatoes, machinery and soil tare. The baseline is determined by the area planted with potatoes, the area infested with potato cysts, the proportion of resistant potato cultivars and the distribution of cysts trough different channels. This quantification forms a basis for the evaluation of the effects of different control measures for potato cyst nematode on a national scale. The method can be useful as an example for application in other countries. PMID:22696943

  3. Conservation Research and Development/ New Ultra-Low Carbon High Strength Steels with Improved Bake Hardenability for Enhanced Stretch Formability and Dent Resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony J. DeArdo; C. Isaac Garcia

    2003-12-15

    Conservation Research and Development/New Ultra-Low Carbon High Strength Steels with Improved Bake Hardenability for Enhanced Stretch Formability and Dent Resistance. The experimental work can be divided into four phases. In each phase, the materials were received or designed, processed and tested, to evaluate the BH increment or response, as a function of compositions and processing conditions. Microstructural characterization by various techniques was performed in order to gain insights into the mechanisms of flow stress increment by bake hardening.

  4. Genetic control of wheat quality: interactions between chromosomal regions determining protein content and composition, dough rheology, and sponge and dough baking properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gulay Mann; Simon Diffey; Brian Cullis; Fermin Azanza; David Martin; Alison Kelly; Lynne McIntyre; Adele Schmidt; Wujun Ma; Zena Nath; Ibrahim Kutty; P. Emmett Leyne; Lynette Rampling; Ken J. Quail; Matthew K. Morell

    2009-01-01

    While the genetic control of wheat processing characteristics such as dough rheology is well understood, limited information\\u000a is available concerning the genetic control of baking parameters, particularly sponge and dough (S&D) baking. In this study,\\u000a a quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was performed using a population of doubled haploid lines derived from a cross between\\u000a Australian cultivars Kukri × Janz grown at

  5. Effects of Expanded Polytetrafluoroethylene as a Packaging Material on the Appearance and Texture of Microwave-Baked Soy Cookies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jing Wang; Daniel J. McDowell; Tae-Shik Hahm; Y. Martin Lo

    2008-01-01

    The feasibility of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) as a packaging material for microwave-baked soy cookies was investigated in comparison with polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and a susceptor incorporating elemental-metal into a receptacle (EMIR). Physical properties such as the dimensions, color, hardness, and the specific gravity of the products were measured. Soy cookies enclosed in ePTFE showed golden brown color evenly distributed with textural

  6. Wrap–bake–peel process for nanostructural transformation from ?-FeOOH nanorods to biocompatible iron oxide nanocapsules

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuanzhe Piao; Jaeyun Kim; Hyon Bin Na; Dokyoon Kim; Ji Seon Baek; Mi Kyeong Ko; Jung Hee Lee; Mohammadreza Shokouhimehr; Taeghwan Hyeon

    2008-01-01

    The thermal treatment of nanostructured materials to improve their properties generally results in undesirable aggregation and sintering. Here, we report on a novel wrap–bake–peel process, which involves silica coating, heat treatment and finally the removal of the silica layer, to transform the phases and structures of nanostructured materials while preserving their nanostructural characteristics. We demonstrate, as a proof-of-concept, the fabrication

  7. Determination of the overall migration from silicone baking moulds into simulants and food using H-NMR techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruediger Helling; Anja Mieth; Stefan Altmann; Thomas Joachim Simat

    2009-01-01

    Different silicone baking moulds (37 samples) were characterized with respect to potential migrating substances using H-NMR, RP-HPLC–UV\\/ELSD and GC techniques. In all cases cyclic organosiloxane oligomers with the formula [Si(CH3)2–O]n were identified (n = 6 … 50). Additionally, linear, partly hydroxyl-terminated organosiloxanes HO–[Si(CH3)2–O]n–H (n = 7 … 20) were found in 13 samples. No substances other than siloxanes could be

  8. Comparative analysis of baking qualities of grain of winter rye varieties with various short-stem types

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Goncharenko; N. S. Berkutova; A. S. Timoshchenko; S. A. Ermakov; A. V. Makarov; T. V. Semenova; V. N. Tochilin

    2007-01-01

    A comparative assessment of winter rye varieties with recessive polygenic and dominant monogenic short-stem types was carried\\u000a out with respect to processing and baking qualities. It is shown that dominant short-stem varieties are significantly inferior\\u000a to varieties with a recessive type in grain test weight, starch content, volume yield of pan bread, crumb porosity, and staling\\u000a rate, but are significantly

  9. Galaxy Zoo: CANDELS Barred Disks and Bar Fractions

    E-print Network

    Simmons, B D; Lintott, Chris; Masters, Karen L; Willett, Kyle W; Keel, William C; Smethurst, R J; Cheung, Edmond; Nichol, Robert C; Schawinski, Kevin; Rutkowski, Michael; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S; Bell, Eric F; Casteels, Kevin R V; Conselice, Christopher J; Almaini, Omar; Ferguson, Henry C; Fortson, Lucy; Hartley, William; Kocevski, Dale; Koekemoer, Anton M; McIntosh, Daniel H; Mortlock, Alice; Newman, Jeffrey A; Ownsworth, Jamie; Bamford, Steven; Dahlen, Tomas; Faber, Sandra M; Finkelstein, Steven L; Fontana, Adriano; Galametz, Audrey; Grogin, N A; Grutzbauch, Ruth; Guo, Yicheng; Haussler, Boris; Jek, Kian J; Kaviraj, Sugata; Lucas, Ray A; Peth, Michael; Salvato, Mara; Wiklind, Tommy; Wuyts, Stijn

    2014-01-01

    The formation of bars in disk galaxies is a tracer of the dynamical maturity of the population. Previous studies have found that the incidence of bars in disks decreases from the local Universe to z ~ 1, and by z > 1 simulations predict that bar features in dynamically mature disks should be extremely rare. Here we report the discovery of strong barred structures in massive disk galaxies at z ~ 1.5 in deep rest-frame optical images from CANDELS. From within a sample of 876 disk galaxies identified by visual classification in Galaxy Zoo, we identify 123 barred galaxies. Selecting a sub-sample within the same region of the evolving galaxy luminosity function (brighter than L*), we find that the bar fraction across the redshift range 0.5< z < 2 (f_bar = 10.7 +6.3 -3.5% after correcting for incompleteness) does not significantly evolve. We discuss the implications of this discovery in the context of existing simulations and our current understanding of the way disk galaxies have evolved over the last 11 bil...

  10. Galaxy Zoo: CANDELS barred discs and bar fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, B. D.; Melvin, Thomas; Lintott, Chris; Masters, Karen L.; Willett, Kyle W.; Keel, William C.; Smethurst, R. J.; Cheung, Edmond; Nichol, Robert C.; Schawinski, Kevin; Rutkowski, Michael; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; Bell, Eric F.; Casteels, Kevin R. V.; Conselice, Christopher J.; Almaini, Omar; Ferguson, Henry C.; Fortson, Lucy; Hartley, William; Kocevski, Dale; Koekemoer, Anton M.; McIntosh, Daniel H.; Mortlock, Alice; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Ownsworth, Jamie; Bamford, Steven; Dahlen, Tomas; Faber, Sandra M.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Fontana, Adriano; Galametz, Audrey; Grogin, N. A.; Grützbauch, Ruth; Guo, Yicheng; Häußler, Boris; Jek, Kian J.; Kaviraj, Sugata; Lucas, Ray A.; Peth, Michael; Salvato, Mara; Wiklind, Tommy; Wuyts, Stijn

    2014-12-01

    The formation of bars in disc galaxies is a tracer of the dynamical maturity of the population. Previous studies have found that the incidence of bars in discs decreases from the local Universe to z ˜ 1, and by z > 1 simulations predict that bar features in dynamically mature discs should be extremely rare. Here, we report the discovery of strong barred structures in massive disc galaxies at z ˜ 1.5 in deep rest-frame optical images from the Cosmic Assembly Near-Infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey. From within a sample of 876 disc galaxies identified by visual classification in Galaxy Zoo, we identify 123 barred galaxies. Selecting a subsample within the same region of the evolving galaxy luminosity function (brighter than L*), we find that the bar fraction across the redshift range 0.5 ? z ? 2 ( f_{bar} = 10.7^{+6.3}_{-3.5} per cent after correcting for incompleteness) does not significantly evolve. We discuss the implications of this discovery in the context of existing simulations and our current understanding of the way disc galaxies have evolved over the last 11 billion years.

  11. Development and bioassay of transgenic Chinese cabbage expressing potato proteinase inhibitor II gene.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junjie; Liu, Fan; Yao, Lei; Luo, Chen; Yin, Yue; Wang, Guixiang; Huang, Yubi

    2012-06-01

    Lepidopteran larvae are the most injurious pests of Chinese cabbage production. We attempted the development of transgenic Chinese cabbage expressing the potato proteinase inhibitor II gene (pinII) and bioassayed the pest-repelling ability of these transgenic plants. Cotyledons with petioles from aseptic seedlings were used as explants for Agrobacterium-mediated in vitro transformation. Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58 contained the binary vector pBBBasta-pinII-bar comprising pinII and bar genes. Plants showing vigorous PPT resistance were obtained by a series concentration selection for PPT resistance and subsequent regeneration of leaf explants dissected from the putative chimera. Transgenic plants were confirmed by PCR and genomic Southern blotting, which showed that the bar and pinII genes were integrated into the plant genome. Double haploid homozygous transgenic plants were obtained by microspore culture. The pinII expression was detected using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and detection of PINII protein content in the transgenic homozygous lines. Insect-feeding trials using the larvae of cabbage worm (Pieris rapae) and the larvae of the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) showed higher larval mortality, stunted larval development, and lower pupal weights, pupation rates, and eclosion rates in most of the transgenic lines in comparison with the corresponding values in the non-transformed wild-type line. PMID:23136521

  12. In situ hybridization to somatic metaphase chromosomes of potato

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. G. F. Visser; R. Hoekstra; F. R. Leij; L. P. Pijnacker; B. Witholt; W. J. Feenstra

    1988-01-01

    An in situ hybridization procedure was developed for mitotic potato chromosomes by using a potato 24S rDNA probe. This repetitive sequence hybridized to the nucleolar organizer region (NOR) of chromosome 2 in 95%–100% of the metaphase plates. Another repetitive sequence (P5), isolated from the interdihaploid potato HH578, gave a “ladderpattern” in genomic Southern's of Solanum tuberosum and Solanum phureja, but

  13. Structure and Texture Properties of Fried Potato Products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Misael L. Miranda; José M. Aguilera

    2006-01-01

    Potatoes are the fourth most important vegetable crop in the world, and in 2003, it was a 2.7 billion dollar business in the US alone. Nearly one-third of the potato production is processed into par-fried frozen potatoes and fried chips (snacks). Frying imparts desirable taste and textural properties to these products, the latter described usually by the sensorial term crispness.

  14. Artificial diets for rearing the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dale B. Gelman; Robert A. Bell; Lynda J. Liska; Jing S. Hu

    Colorado potato beetles have been reared successfully through 12 generations on artificial diets containing either 2.5% potato leaf powder or 2.5% lettuce leaf powder\\/0.75% potato leaf powder. For all but one of the treatment groups, the mean duration of each of the four larval stages was between 0.8 and 1.5 days longer than the durations exhibited by control beetles that

  15. Reduction of acrylamide formation in potato slices during frying

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Franco Pedreschi; Karl Kaack; Kit Granby

    2004-01-01

    Reduction of acrylamide formation in potato chips was investigated in relation to frying temperature and three treatments before frying. Potato slices (Tivoli variety, diameter: 37mm, width: 2.2mm) were fried at 150°C, 170°C and 190°C until reaching moisture contents of ?1.7g water\\/100g (total basis). Prior to frying, potato slices were treated in one of the following ways: (i) soaked in distilled

  16. Transgenic sweet potato expressing mammalian cytochrome P450

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nadia AnwarKazuo; Kazuo N. Watanabe; Junko A. Watanabe

    2011-01-01

    Sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam] is considered to be recalcitrant to transformation and regeneration because of its genotype-dependent in vitro\\u000a responses. The lack of a genotype-independent transformation and regeneration system limits biotechnological applications\\u000a in this plant species. To establish a transformation system for a diverse group of sweet potato genotypes, we examined sweet\\u000a potato regeneration after transformation in five

  17. Sine-enhanced Shake-and-Bake: the theoretical basis and applications to Se-atom substructures.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hongliang; Hauptman, Herbert A; Weeks, Charles M

    2002-01-01

    Shake-and-Bake is a dual-space direct-methods procedure for crystal structure determination capable of providing ab initio solutions for structures containing as many as 1200 independent non-H atoms, as well as for heavy-atom substructures containing as many as 160 Se atoms in the asymmetric unit. In traditional Shake-and-Bake, phase refinement in reciprocal space utilizes the technique of parameter shift to reduce the value of a minimal function that considers only the mean-square differences between the current values of the cosine structure invariants and their expected values. A new type of minimal function, termed the sine-enhanced minimal function, considers both cosine and sine values of the structure invariants. Exhaustive tests on six Se-atom substructures, ranging in size from 12 to 160 Se atoms in the asymmetric unit, have shown that a two- to eightfold increase in the percentage of trials that converge to solution is attainable with the technique of sine-enhanced parameter shift. The corresponding sine-enhanced Shake-and-Bake, with suitable default parameter values, is being incorporated into a new distributed version of the SnB computer program. PMID:11752782

  18. Developing a Game Plan for the Bar

    E-print Network

    Marsh, David

    · Stress management · Your likelihood of success on your bar exam will increase you with some 8me management strategies for your bar review period · Share students who pass? · A firm intent to take and pass your bar exam

  19. Addressing challenges in lithography using sub-millisecond post exposure bake of chemically amplified resists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Byungki; Ober, Christopher K.; Thompson, Michael O.; Younkin, Todd R.; Chandhok, Manish

    2011-04-01

    Chemically amplified photoresists require a post exposure bake (PEB), typically on a hot plate at 90-150°C for 30-120 seconds, to catalytically deprotect the polymer backbone. During PEB, excessive diffusion of the photo-generated acid results in loss of line edge definition, blurring of latent images and changes in the line edge roughness. Both acid diffusion and deprotection are thermally activated processes, with the relative rates affected by the time/temperature profile of the PEB. In this work, we introduce an alternate PEB method involving millisecond time frame heating over a temperature range of 300°C to 420°C using a continuous wave CO2 laser. A methodology is developed for characterizing the resist deprotection and acid diffusion kinetics under laser PEB (l-PEB) and comparing the behavior with conventional hot plate PEB. Results show that the deprotection rate sensitivity with temperature is smaller for l-PEB compared to that of hot plate PEB, suggesting a possible change in the deprotection mechanism. Acid diffusivity under l-PEB is reduced by a factor of 102-103 compared to values extrapolated from the hot plate PEB data. Under EUV exposure, patterns formed using l-PEB show significantly smoother surface roughness while requiring less than half the dose required for hot plate PEB - a direct consequence of enhanced deprotection at high PEB temperature and reduced acid diffusion in the millisecond time frame.

  20. Sub-millisecond post exposure bake of chemically amplified resists by CO2 laser heat treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Byungki; Sha, Jing; Paredes, Florencia; Ober, Christopher K.; Thompson, Michael O.; Chandhok, Manish; Younkin, Todd R.

    2010-04-01

    Chemically amplified photoresists require a post exposure bake (PEB), typically on a hot plate at 90-150°C for 30-120 seconds, to catalytically deprotect the polymer backbone. During PEB, excessive diffusion of the photo-generated acid results in loss of line edge definition, blurring of latent images and changes in the line edge roughness. Both acid diffusion and deprotection are thermally activated processes, with the relative rates affected by the time/temperature profile of the PEB. In this work, we introduce an alternate PEB method involving 500 ?s time scale heating over a temperature range of 130°C to 450°C using a continuous wave CO2 laser. A methodology is developed for characterizing this laser PEB and comparing the behavior with conventional hot plate PEB. The thermal stability of several polymer and photoacid generator (PAG) resist systems were studied and shown to be stable at these high temperatures due to the short heating duration. Sensitivity of resists under hot plate and laser PEB were measured. Under moderate temperatures, the laser PEB sensitivity can exceed that of hot plate PEB by an order of magnitude. Quantitative determination of the acid diffusion was obtained using resist bilayers (PAG loaded / PAG free). Despite the five orders of magnitude difference in PEB time, systems with l-PEB and hot-plate PEB exhibit comparable imaging quality under deep ultraviolet exposure.

  1. Ultrasonic cure and temperature monitoring of photoresist during the pre-exposure bake process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, Susan L.; Degertekin, F. Levent; Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T.

    1998-06-01

    A system of in situ ultrasonic sensors has been developed that can be used to monitor the photoresist prebake process. A high frequency phase measurement monitors the resist film properties while a lower frequency time of flight measurement monitors the corresponding wafer temperature. The high frequency measurement involves calculating the phase of an ultrasound signal as it is reflected from the silicon/photoresist interface. As the photoresist film changes in thickness and viscoelastic properties, the phase of the reflected signal will change. In this way, it is possible to follow how the photoresist film changes as it bakes; the solvent evaporates from the resist, decreasing the thickness and increasing the density. Results indicate that there is a phase minimum at a repeatable temperature, believed to be the softening or glass transition temperature (Tg). The lower frequency (200 kHz) time of flight measurement employs PZT-5H piezoelectric transducers bonded to a quartz buffer rod. The transducer generates a Lamb wave in the wafer which is then detected at another location by an identical transducer. The time of flight of the Lamb wave through the wafer depends linearly on temperature. Using these two sensors, we can measure the wafer temperature and the photoresist properties during prebake; providing us with the information necessary for in situ process control.

  2. Effect of baking improvers on the quality of whole cassava biscuits.

    PubMed

    Obadina, A O; Oyewole, O B; Olaniyi, G

    2014-10-01

    Improving agents such as ascorbic acid, sodium metabisulphite, sorbic acid and soyflour were used in the production of whole cassava biscuits. Cassava flour and small amount of soyflour were produced. Bulk density, water binding capacity and amylograph viscosity of cassava flour were determined. Mixing and dough extrusion time were recorded for each sample of biscuit dough developed with addition of improvers. Length, width and thickness of cut-out dough were measured before and after baking to evaluate biscuits flow. Proximate and sensory analysis of the biscuits samples was also determined. The result showed that, there was a slight decrease in mixing time, extrusion time, length and width of the biscuits samples prepared with improvers. However, there was a considerable increase in biscuits thickness. Amylograph result showed an improvement in flour stability and low retrogadation tendency, most especially flour with inclusion of ascorbic acid. Crude protein and fat increased with sample contained soyflour. Sensory evaluation result indicated no significant difference among the samples except the texture of the biscuits. PMID:25328229

  3. Rheological, thermo-mechanical, and baking properties of wheat-millet flour blends.

    PubMed

    Aprodu, Iuliana; Banu, Iuliana

    2015-07-01

    Millet has long been known as a good source of fiber and antioxidants, but only lately started to be exploited by food scientists and food industry as a consequence of increased consumer awareness. In this study, doughs and breads were produced using millet flour in different ratios (10, 20, 30, 40, and 50%) to white, dark, and whole wheat flour. The flour blends were evaluated in terms of rheological and thermo-mechanical properties. Fundamental rheological measurements revealed that the viscosity of the flour formulations increases with wheat flour-extraction rate and decreases with the addition of millet flour. Doughs behavior during mixing, overmixing, pasting, and gelling was established using the Mixolab device. The results of this bread-making process simulation indicate that dough properties become critical for the flour blends with millet levels higher than 30%. The breads were evaluated for volume, texture, and crumb-grain characteristics. The baking test and sensory evaluation results indicated that substitution levels of up to 30% millet flour could be used in composite bread flour. High levels of millet flour (40 and 50%) negatively influenced the loaf volume, crumb texture, and taste. PMID:24837596

  4. Substituting Normal and Waxy-Type Whole Wheat Flour on Dough and Baking Properties

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Induck; Kang, Chun-Sik; Cheong, Young-Keun; Hyun, Jong-Nae; Kim, Kee-Jong

    2012-01-01

    Normal (cv. Keumkang, KK) and waxy-type (cv. Shinmichal, SMC) whole wheat flour was substituted at 20 and 40% for white wheat flour (WF) during bread dough formulation. The flour blends were subjected to dough and baking property measurement in terms of particle size distribution, dough mixing, bread loaf volume and crumb firmness. The particle size of white wheat flour was the finest, with increasing coarseness as the level of whole wheat flour increased. Substitution of whole wheat flour decreased pasting viscosity, showing all RVA parameters were the lowest in SMC40 composite flour. Water absorption was slightly higher with 40% whole wheat flour regardless of whether the wheat was normal or waxy. An increased mixing time was observed when higher levels of KK flour were substituted, but the opposite reaction occurred when SMC flour was substituted at the same levels. Bread loaf volume was lower in breads containing a whole wheat flour substitution compared to bread containing only white wheat flour. No significant difference in bread loaf volume was observed between normal and waxy whole flour, but the bread crumb firmness was significantly lower in breads containing waxy flour. The results of these studies indicate that up to 40% whole wheat flour substitution could be considered a practical option with respect to functional qualities. Also, replacing waxy whole flour has a positive effect on bread formulation over normal whole wheat flour in terms of improving softness and glutinous texture. PMID:24471084

  5. Applications of biotechnology and genomics in potato improvement.

    PubMed

    Barrell, Philippa J; Meiyalaghan, Sathiyamoorthy; Jacobs, Jeanne M E; Conner, Anthony J

    2013-10-01

    Potato is the third most important global food crop and the most widely grown noncereal crop. As a species highly amenable to cell culture, it has a long history of biotechnology applications for crop improvement. This review begins with a historical perspective on potato improvement using biotechnology encompassing pathogen elimination, wide hybridization, ploidy manipulation and applications of cell culture. We describe the past developments and new approaches for gene transfer to potato. Transformation is highly effective for adding single genes to existing elite potato clones with no, or minimal, disturbances to their genetic background and represents the only effective way to produce isogenic lines of specific genotypes/cultivars. This is virtually impossible via traditional breeding as, due to the high heterozygosity in the tetraploid potato genome, the genetic integrity of potato clones is lost upon sexual reproduction as a result of allele segregation. These genetic attributes have also provided challenges for the development of genetic maps and applications of molecular markers and genomics in potato breeding. Various molecular approaches used to characterize loci, (candidate) genes and alleles in potato, and associating phenotype with genotype are also described. The recent determination of the potato genome sequence has presented new opportunities for genomewide assays to provide tools for gene discovery and enabling the development of robustly unique marker haplotypes spanning QTL regions. The latter will be useful in introgression breeding and whole-genome approaches such as genomic selection to improve the efficiency of selecting elite clones and enhancing genetic gain over time. PMID:23924159

  6. Genetic diversity among late blight resistant and susceptible potato genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Abou-Taleb, Eid M.; Aboshosha, Sayed M.; El-Sherif, Ebtsam M.; El-Komy, Mahmoud H.

    2010-01-01

    RAPD polymerase chain reaction analysis was used to study the genetic diversity among a wild potato variety Solanum demissum (very resistant to late blight) and six potato cultivars (Hanna, Lady-Olympia, Lady-Rosetta, Spunta, Diamant and Cara) varied in their resistance to Phytophthora infestans. Cluster analysis of six potato genotypes showed that, all tested genotypes were separated into two clusters (1 and 2). Cluster 1, included only the wild potato variety (S. demissum), whereas cluster 2 divided into two groups (G1 and G2). Late blight high resistant cultivars Hanna and Cara were grouped in G1. Group 2 included the moderate resistant cultivar Spunta and the susceptible cultivars Diamant, Lady-Rosetta and Lady-Olympia. The potato cultivars that showed highest genetic similarity to the wild potato variety were the resistant cultivars Hanna and Cara. Lowest genetic similarity was obtained with the susceptible cultivars Lady-Rosetta, Diamant and Lady-Olympia. RAPD primer K17 yielded a band with molecular weight of 936 bp found in all susceptible potato cultivars (Lady-Rosetta, Lady-Olympia and Diamant). On the other hand, band with molecular weight of 765 bp were detected in the wild potato and the resistant cultivars Hanna and Cara. Results of this study suggested that, the RAPD marker technique could be beneficial for revealing the genetic variability of different genotypes of potato varied in their resistibility to late blight. PMID:23961069

  7. Photometric Decomposition of Barred Galaxies

    E-print Network

    A. S. Reese; T. B. Williams; J. A. Sellwood; Eric I. Barnes; Brian A. Powell

    2007-02-27

    We present a non-parametric method for decomposition of the light of disk galaxies into disk, bulge and bar components. We have developed and tested the method on a sample of 68 disk galaxies for which we have acquired I-band photometry. The separation of disk and bar light relies on the single assumption that the bar is a straight feature with a different ellipticity and position angle from that of the projected disk. We here present the basic method, but recognise that it can be significantly refined. We identify bars in only 47% of the more nearly face-on galaxies in our sample. The fraction of light in the bar has a broad range from 1.3% to 40% of the total galaxy light. If low-luminosity galaxies have more dominant halos, and if halos contribute to bar stability, the luminosity functions of barred and unbarred galaxies should differ markedly; while our sample is small, we find only a slight difference of low significance.

  8. Cryopreservation for preservation of potato genetic resources

    PubMed Central

    Niino, Takao; Arizaga, Miriam Valle

    2015-01-01

    Cryopreservation is becoming a very important tool for the long-term storage of plant genetic resources and efficient cryopreservation protocols have been developed for a large number of plant species. Practical procedures, developed using in vitro tissue culture, can be a simple and reliable preservation option of potato genetic resources rather than maintaining by vegetative propagation in genebanks due their allogamous nature. Cryopreserved materials insure a long-term backup of field collections against loss of plant germplasm. Occurrence of genetic variation, in tissue culture cells during prolonged subcultures, can be avoided with suitable cryopreservation protocols that provide high regrowth, leading and facilitating a systematic and strategic cryo-banking of plant genetic resources. Cryopreservation protocols for potato reviewed here, can efficiently complement field and in vitro conservation, providing for preservation of genotypes difficult to preserve by other methods, wild types and other species decided as priority collections. PMID:25931979

  9. 101 North Grant Street, Room 160 West Lafayette, IN 47906 Phone: (765) 494-8908 Fax: (765) 494-8851 union.purdue.edu/Catering

    E-print Network

    Ginzel, Matthew

    Glazed Ham Baked Tilapia with a Creamy Parmesan Sauce Vegetarian Pot Pie salad select 1 House Salad Garlic Smashed Potatoes Sugar Snap Peas, Red Pepper, and Caramelized Pearl Onions Indiana Corn Pudding Red Pepper Hummus with Pita Chips Assorted Cookie Bars Celebration Punch $75.00 (serves 10 people

  10. Observation of $?_{c}$ decay into $?^{+}\\bar?^{-}$ and $?^{-}\\bar?^{+}$ final states

    E-print Network

    The BESIII Collaboration; M. Ablikim; M. N. Achasov; O. Albayrak; D. J. Ambrose; F. F. An; Q. An; J. Z. Bai; Y. Ban; J. Becker; J. V. Bennett; M. Bertani; J. M. Bian; E. Boger; O. Bondarenko; I. Boyko; R. A. Briere; V. Bytev; X. Cai; O. Cakir; A. Calcaterra; G. F. Cao; S. A. Cetin; J. F. Chang; G. Chelkov; G. Chen; H. S. Chen; J. C. Chen; M. L. Chen; S. J. Chen; X. Chen; Y. B. Chen; H. P. Cheng; Y. P. Chu; F. Coccetti; D. Cronin-Hennessy; H. L. Dai; J. P. Dai; D. Dedovich; Z. Y. Deng; A. Denig; I. Denysenko; M. Destefanis; W. M. Ding; Y. Ding; L. Y. Dong; M. Y. Dong; S. X. Du; J. Fang; S. S. Fang; L. Fava; F. Feldbauer; C. Q. Feng; R. B. Ferroli; C. D. Fu; J. L. Fu; Y. Gao; C. Geng; K. Goetzen; W. X. Gong; W. Gradl; M. Greco; M. H. Gu; Y. T. Gu; Y. H. Guan; A. Q. Guo; L. B. Guo; Y. P. Guo; Y. L. Han; F. A. Harris; K. L. He; M. He; Z. Y. He; T. Held; Y. K. Heng; Z. L. Hou; H. M. Hu; J. F. Hu; T. Hu; G. M. Huang; G. S. Huang; J. S. Huang; X. T. Huang; Y. P. Huang; T. Hussain; C. S. Ji; Q. Ji; Q. P. Ji; X. B. Ji; X. L. Ji; L. L. Jiang; X. S. Jiang; J. B. Jiao; Z. Jiao; D. P. Jin; S. Jin; F. F. Jing; N. Kalantar-Nayestanaki; M. Kavatsyuk; M. Kornicer; W. Kuehn; W. Lai; J. S. Lange; C. H. Li; Cheng Li; Cui Li; D. M. Li; F. Li; G. Li; H. B. Li; J. C. Li; K. Li; Lei Li; Q. J. Li; S. L. Li; W. D. Li; W. G. Li; X. L. Li; X. N. Li; X. Q. Li; X. R. Li; Z. B. Li; H. Liang; Y. F. Liang; Y. T. Liang; G. R. Liao; X. T. Liao; B. J. Liu; C. L. Liu; C. X. Liu; C. Y. Liu; F. H. Liu; Fang Liu; Feng Liu; H. Liu; H. H. Liu; H. M. Liu; H. W. Liu; J. P. Liu; K. Y. Liu; Kai Liu; P. L. Liu; Q. Liu; S. B. Liu; X. Liu; Y. B. Liu; Z. A. Liu; Zhiqiang Liu; Zhiqing Liu; H. Loehner; G. R. Lu; H. J. Lu; J. G. Lu; Q. W. Lu; X. R. Lu; Y. P. Lu; C. L. Luo; M. X. Luo; T. Luo; X. L. Luo; M. Lv; C. L. Ma; F. C. Ma; H. L. Ma; Q. M. Ma; S. Ma; T. Ma; X. Y. Ma; Y. Ma; F. E. Maas; M. Maggiora; Q. A. Malik; Y. J. Mao; Z. P. Mao; J. G. Messchendorp; J. Min; T. J. Min; R. E. Mitchell; X. H. Mo; C. Morales Morales; C. Motzko; N. Yu. Muchnoi; H. Muramatsu; Y. Nefedov; C. Nicholson; I. B. Nikolaev; Z. Ning; S. L. Olsen; Q. Ouyang; S. Pacetti; J. W. Park; M. Pelizaeus; H. P. Peng; K. Peters; J. L. Ping; R. G. Ping; R. Poling; E. Prencipe; M. Qi; S. Qian; C. F. Qiao; X. S. Qin; Y. Qin; Z. H. Qin; J. F. Qiu; K. H. Rashid; G. Rong; X. D. Ruan; A. Sarantsev; B. D. Schaefer; J. Schulze; M. Shao; C. P. Shen; X. Y. Shen; H. Y. Sheng; M. R. Shepherd; X. Y. Song; S. Spataro; B. Spruck; D. H. Sun; G. X. Sun; J. F. Sun; S. S. Sun; Y. J. Sun; Y. Z. Sun; Z. J. Sun; Z. T. Sun; C. J. Tang; X. Tang; I. Tapan; E. H. Thorndike; D. Toth; M. Ullrich; G. S. Varner; B. Wang; B. Q. Wang; D. Wang; D. Y. Wang; K. Wang; L. L. Wang; L. S. Wang; M. Wang; P. Wang; P. L. Wang; Q. Wang; Q. J. Wang; S. G. Wang; X. L. Wang; Y. D. Wang; Y. F. Wang; Y. Q. Wang; Z. Wang; Z. G. Wang; Z. Y. Wang; D. H. Wei; J. B. Wei; P. Weidenkaff; Q. G. Wen; S. P. Wen; M. Werner; U. Wiedner; L. H. Wu; N. Wu; S. X. Wu; W. Wu; Z. Wu; L. G. Xia; Z. J. Xiao; Y. G. Xie; Q. L. Xiu; G. F. Xu; G. M. Xu; H. Xu; Q. J. Xu; X. P. Xu; Z. R. Xu; F. Xue; Z. Xue; L. Yan; W. B. Yan; Y. H. Yan; H. X. Yang; Y. Yang; Y. X. Yang; H. Ye; M. Ye; M. H. Ye; B. X. Yu; C. X. Yu; H. W. Yu; J. S. Yu; S. P. Yu; C. Z. Yuan; Y. Yuan; A. A. Zafar; A. Zallo; Y. Zeng; B. X. Zhang; B. Y. Zhang; C. Zhang; C. C. Zhang; D. H. Zhang; H. H. Zhang; H. Y. Zhang; J. Q. Zhang; J. W. Zhang; J. Y. Zhang; J. Z. Zhang; S. H. Zhang; X. J. Zhang; X. Y. Zhang; Y. Zhang; Y. H. Zhang; Y. S. Zhang; Z. P. Zhang; Z. Y. Zhang; G. Zhao; H. S. Zhao; J. W. Zhao; K. X. Zhao; Lei Zhao; Ling Zhao; M. G. Zhao; Q. Zhao; Q. Z. Zhao; S. J. Zhao; T. C. Zhao; X. H. Zhao; Y. B. Zhao; Z. G. Zhao; A. Zhemchugov; B. Zheng; J. P. Zheng; Y. H. Zheng; B. Zhong; J. Zhong; Z. Zhong; L. Zhou; X. K. Zhou; X. R. Zhou; C. Zhu; K. Zhu; K. J. Zhu; S. H. Zhu; X. L. Zhu; Y. C. Zhu; Y. M. Zhu; Y. S. Zhu; Z. A. Zhu; J. Zhuang; B. S. Zou; J. H. Zou

    2012-12-19

    Using a data sample of $2.25\\times10^{8}$ $J/\\psi$ events collected with the BESIII detector, we present the first observation of the decays of $\\eta_{c}$ mesons to $\\Sigma^{+}\\bar{\\Sigma}^{-}$ and $\\Xi^{-}\\bar{\\Xi}^{+}$. The branching fractions are measured to be $(2.11\\pm0.28_{\\rm stat.}\\pm0.18_{\\rm syst.}\\pm0.50_{\\rm PDG})\\times10^{-3}$ and $(0.89\\pm0.16_{\\rm stat.}\\pm0.08_{\\rm syst.}\\pm0.21_{\\rm PDG})\\times10^{-3}$ for $\\eta_{c} \\to \\Sigma^{+}\\bar{\\Sigma}^{-}$ and $\\Xi^{-}\\bar{\\Xi}^{+}$, respectively. These branching fractions provide important information on the helicity selection rule in charmonium-decay processes.

  11. Potato germplasm resistant to corky ringspot disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. R. Brown; H. Mojtahedi; G. S. Santo; P. Hamm; J. J. Pavek; D. Corsini; S. Love; J. M. Crosslin; P. E. Thomas

    2000-01-01

    Potato germplasm was assessed for resistance to corky ringspot disease (CRS) incited by transmission of tobacco rattle virus\\u000a (TRV). TRV is transmitted by the stubby root nematode,Paratrichodorus allius, in the Pacific Northwest, and characterized by necrotic areas in the tuber. Four tests were conducted at two different problem\\u000a fields in Umatilla, OR and Pasco, WA. The fields differed in the

  12. Potato growth in response to relative humidity.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, R M; Tibbitts, T W; Fitzpatrick, A H

    1989-06-01

    Potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L. cvs. Russet Burbank, Norland, and Denali) were grown for 56 days in controlled-environment rooms under continuous light at 20C and 50% or 85% RH. No significant differences in total plant dry weight were measured between the humidity treatments, but plants grown under 85% RH produced higher tuber yields. Leaf areas were greater under 50% RH and leaves tended to be larger and darker green than at 85% RH. PMID:11540907

  13. Glycaemic and satiating properties of potato products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Leeman; E Östman; I Björck

    2008-01-01

    Objective:To investigate glycaemic and satiating properties of potato products in healthy subjects using energy-equivalent or carbohydrate-equivalent test meals, respectively.Subjects and setting:Thirteen healthy subjects volunteered for the first study, and 14 for the second. The tests were performed at Applied Nutrition and Food Chemistry, Lund University, Sweden.Experimental design and test meals:All meals were served as breakfast in random order after an

  14. High brightness laser diode bars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norbert Lichtenstein; Yvonne Manz; Jürgen Müller; Jörg Troger; Susanne Pawlik; Achim Thies; Stefan Weiss; Rainer Baettig; Christoph Harder

    2006-01-01

    Based on the most recent generation of Bookham's laser diode bars in the 9xx nm wavelength range which are able to deliver in excess of 250 W of output power from 50% filling factor 2.4 mm cavity length design, we have developed low 20% fill-factor bar devices for high brightness applications. Close to 200 W of output power has been

  15. Physical and hydraulic properties of baked ceramic aggregates used for plant growth medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, Susan L.; Kluitenberg, Gerard J.; Jones, Scott B.; Daidzic, Nihad E.; Reddi, Lakshmi N.; Xiao, Ming; Tuller, Markus; Newman, Rebecca M.; Or, Dani; Alexander, J. Iwan. D.

    2005-01-01

    Baked ceramic aggregates (fritted clay, arcillite) have been used for plant research both on the ground and in microgravity. Optimal control of water and air within the root zone in any gravity environment depends on physical and hydraulic properties of the aggregate, which were evaluated for 0.25-1-mm and 1-2-mm particle size distributions. The maximum bulk densities obtained by any packing technique were 0.68 and 0.64 g cm-3 for 0.25-1-mm and 1-2-mm particles, respectively. Wettable porosity obtained by infiltration with water was approximately 65%, substantially lower than total porosity of approximately 74%. Aggregate of both particle sizes exhibited a bimodal pore size distribution consisting of inter-aggregate macropores and intra-aggregate micropores, with the transition from macro- to microporosity beginning at volumetric water content of approximately 36% to 39%. For inter-aggregate water contents that support optimal plant growth there is 45% change in water content that occurs over a relatively small matric suction range of 0-20 cm H2O for 0.25-1-mm and 0 to -10 cm H2O for 1-2-mm aggregate. Hysteresis is substantial between draining and wetting aggregate, which results in as much as a approximately 10% to 20% difference in volumetric water content for a given matric potential. Hydraulic conductivity was approximately an order of magnitude higher for 1-2-mm than for 0.25-1-mm aggregate until significant drainage of the inter-aggregate pore space occurred. The large change in water content for a relatively small change in matric potential suggests that significant differences in water retention may be observed in microgravity as compared to earth.

  16. Effect of saikosaponins and extracts of vinegar-baked Bupleuri Radix on the activity of ?-glucuronidase.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xianzhi; Yu, Tongya; Chen, Zhenxing; Zhao, Ruizhi; Mao, Shirui

    2014-09-01

    In Traditional Chinese Medicine, liver targeting is usually achieved by coadministration with Vinegar-baked Radix Bupleuri (VBRB), but the mechanism is unclear. In this paper, the influence of VBRB on the activity of ?-glucuronidase was investigated and compared with that of saikosaponins. The activity of ?-glucuronidase was measured by microplate reader using a 4-nitrophenyl-?-d-glucuronide substrate. The change of 4-nitrophenol content was used to characterize the activity of ?-glucuronidase. Bupleurum chinenes were found to be the inhibitor of ?-glucuronidase. The inhibition rate of Bupleurum chinenes extracts BC1 (high molecular weight polysaccharides), BC2 (ethanol soluble/water insoluble component), BC3 (extracted by n-butanol, soluble in water), and BC4 (low molecular weight water soluble parts) on the activity of ?-glucuronidase was found to be 45.15%, 33.94%, 24.94%, and 34.54%, respectively, after 1?h incubation, with BC1 showing the highest inhibition rate. In contrast, the saikosaponins were demonstrated to be the promoter of ?-glucuronidase, with promotion rates of 333.56%, 217.04%, 247.87%, 149.75%, and 92.50% for saikosaponin standard samples A, B, B2, C, and D, respectively, (p<0.05). In conclusion, inhibiting the activity of ?-glucuronidase might be one of the reasons why VBRB could influence drug distribution upon its coadministration with other drugs. Since saikosaponins and VBRB extracts have opposite effect, more attention should be paid to the content of saikosaponins in the extracts upon its application. PMID:24641105

  17. Ecogeography of ploidy variation in cultivated potato (Solanum sect. Petota)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The taxonomy of cultivated potatoes has been highly controversial, with estimates of species numbers ranging from 3 to 17. Ploidy level has been one of the most important taxonomic characters to recognize cultivated potato species, containing diploid (2 n = 2 x = 24), triploid (2 n = 3 x = 36), tetr...

  18. Effectiveness and Efficacy of Soil Conservation Practices in Potato Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato production systems in the Northeast U.S. are characterized by intensive tillage, minimal ground cover, low crop residue return, and steep slopes. Soil conservation can be especially challenging after potato harvest. We used rainfall simulators in the greenhouse and field to assess sediment ...

  19. Effective transgenic resistance to Globodera pallida in potato field trials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter E. Urwin; Kevin M. Troth; Elena I. Zubko; Howard J. Atkinson

    2001-01-01

    A cysteine proteinase inhibitor expressed in potato plants provides the first demonstration that transgenic resistance to nematodes such as the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida can be effective under field conditions. The highest level of resistance obtained in the field for one of the four transformed lines of the normally fully susceptible Solanum tuberosum tuberosum cv. Désirée was 70±9%. The

  20. Insertional mutagenesis using Tnt1 retrotransposon in potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato is the third most important food crop in the world. However, genetics and genomics research of potato has lagged behind many major crop species due to its autotetraploidy and a highly heterogeneous genome. Insertional mutagenesis using T-DNA or transposable elements, which is available in sev...

  1. Examination of potential measures of vine maturity in potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant maturity is a complex physiological trait. The criteria used to characterize plant maturity are not universal among crop plants. In potato, vine characteristics are typically used to estimate plant maturity. This study investigates several reported measures of vine maturity in potato cultivars...

  2. Two previously undescribed potato viruses from South America

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. F. Salazar; B. D. Harrison

    1977-01-01

    THE proneness of potatoes (Solanum spp.) to virus diseases is well known, and about 20 viruses are recorded in naturally infected potatoes in Europe and North America1,2. Many of these viruses also occur in the Andean region of South America. For example, in Peru several well known viruses were detected3 in `basic seed' stocks by inoculating sap to a range

  3. EFFECT OF FUMIGATION ON VOLUNTEER POTATO (SOLANUM TUBERSOUM) TUBER VIABILITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Management of volunteer potato requires an integrated approach and soil fumigation is one tactic known to reduce population densities of certain weeds. The effect of 1,3-D and metham sodium on potato tuber viability were tested in sealed glass jars at various doses, incubation temperatures, and tim...

  4. SCREENING ADVANCED POTATO BREEDING CLONES FOR STORAGE PERFORMANCE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maintenance of postharvest market quality during storage is a critical aspect of successful potato production. Consumers and processors have come to demand high product quality year-round. Any new potato cultivar destined for the U.S. market must meet industry standards for processing and market q...

  5. GENETIC MANIPULATION FOR ENHANCING CALCIUM CONTENT IN POTATO TUBER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased calcium (Ca) in potatoes may increase the production rate by enhancing tuber quality and storability. Additionally, increased Ca levels in important agricultural crops may help ameliorate the incidence of osteoporosis. However, the capacity to alter Ca levels in potato tubers through genet...

  6. SOME FUNDAMENTAL ATTRIBUTES OF FAR INFRARED RADIATION DRYING OF POTATO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. M. Afzal; T. Abe

    1999-01-01

    Drying experiments were carried out using a far infrared heater to examine the drying characteristics of potato slices. The effect of several parameters e.g. radiation intensity, inlet air velocity and relative humidity on moisture and temperature history are presented. FIR drying of potato was observed to be a falling rate process. Drying rates were negatively correlated with air velocity. Relative

  7. Endophytic bacteria in potato tubers affected by zebra chip disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato zebra chip disease (ZCD) could drastically reduce quality and value of all market classes of potato, costing growers and processors millions of dollars in losses in North America. Endophytic bacteria colonize the internal tissue and could have both positive and negative effects on host plants...

  8. Potato Early Dying: Molecular Perspectives on Pathogenicity and Host Resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato early dying has not received the reputation of being a particularly devastating disease of potato. However, the interaction between the vascular fungus Verticillium dahliae and the root lesion nematode Pratylenchus penetrans to form the early dying complex makes studying this disease very in...

  9. In vitro technology at the US Potato Genebank

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The US Potato Genebank at Sturgeon Bay, WI, is the active national germplasm collection for the world's most important vegetable crop. It contains 6,000 accessions of 100 species of tuber-bearing relatives of Solanum tuberosum. The potato of commerce is a clonal crop susceptible to many systemic pa...

  10. Vitamin B9 is Higher in Developmentally Younger Potato Tubers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Folate (Vitamin B9) deficiency is a global nutritional problem and is problematic even in the developed world. Several studies have shown that because of their large consumption potatoes are an important source of dietary folate. New or baby potatoes constitute a valuable niche market th...

  11. Effects of zebra chip disease on potato postharvest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zebra Chip (ZC), an emerging and economically important disease of potato in the United States, Mexico, Central America, and New Zealand, is causing losses of millions of dollars to the potato industry, occasionally leading to abandonment of entire fields. The disease is associated with the bacteriu...

  12. Color changes and acrylamide formation in fried potato slices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Franco Pedreschi; Pedro Moyano; Karl Kaack; Kit Granby

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the kinetics of browning during deep-fat frying of blanched and unblanched potato chips by using the dynamic method and to find a relationship between browning development and acrylamide formation. Prior to frying, potato slices were blanched in hot water at 85 °C for 3.5 min. Unblanched slices were used as the control.

  13. QTL mapping of internal heat necrosis in tetraploid potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Internal heat necrosis (IHN) is a physiological disorder of potato tubers. We developed a linkage map of tetraploid potato using AFLP and SSR markers, and mapped QTL for mean severity and percent incidence of IHN. Phentypic data indicated that the distribution of IHN is skewed toward resistance. Lat...

  14. MICROSATELLITE ANALYSIS OF THE TAXONOMY OF POTATO LANDRACES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contrasting views on the gene pool structure and taxonomy of cultivated potatoes have continued over last century, with anywhere from one-twenty cultivated potato species recognized, classified as Linnean species or as Cultivar Groups (groups of properly named cultivars, based on user-defined criter...

  15. Ecogeography of Ploidy Variation in Cultivated Potato (Solanum Sect. Petota)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The taxonomy of cultivated potatoes has been highly controversial, with estimates of species numbers ranging from 3-18. Ploidy level has been one of the most important taxonomic characters to recognize cultivated potato species, with diploid (2n = 2x = 24), triploid (2n = 3x = 36), tetraploid (2n = ...

  16. Resource concentration dilutes a key pest in indigenous potato agriculture.

    PubMed

    Parsa, Soroush; Ccanto, Raul; Rosenheim, Jay A

    2011-03-01

    Modern restructuring of agricultural landscapes, due to the expansion of monocultures and the resulting elimination of non-crop habitat, is routinely blamed for rising populations of agricultural insect pests. However, landscape studies demonstrating a positive correlation between pest densities and the spatial extent of crop monocultures are rare. We test this hypothesis with a data set from 140 subsistence farms in the Andes and find the inverse correlation. Infestations by the Andean potato weevil (Premnotrypes spp.), the most important pest in Andean potato agriculture, decrease with increasing amounts of potato in the landscape. A statistical model predicts that aggregating potato fields may outperform the management of Andean potato weevils by IPM and chemical control. We speculate that the strong pest suppression generated by aggregating potato fields may partly explain why indigenous potato farmers cluster their potato fields under a traditional rotation system common in Andean agriculture (i.e., "sectoral fallow"). Our results suggest that some agricultural pests may also respond negatively to the expansion of monocultures, and that manipulating the spatial arrangement of host crops may offer an important tool for some IPM programs. PMID:21563583

  17. Causes of stem end chip defect in chipping potatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stem-end chip defect (SECD) is a serious tuber quality concern that affects chipping potatoes. This defect is characterized by dark-colored vascular tissues and adjacent cortical tissues at the tuber stem-end of potato chips after frying. Chips with SECD are unappealing to consumers and raw product ...

  18. MOLECULAR GENETIC ANALYSIS OF A LARGE POTATO GENEBANK

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We performed a comprehensive molecular genetic analysis of the Commonwealth Potato Collection (CPC), as well as material from a USDA potato collection. This analysis, one of the first to include an entire germplasm collection, has involved the deployment of six AFLP primer combinations (four PstI/Ms...

  19. Genetic diversity of wild potato of the USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato of commerce has two wild relatives in the USA, Solanum jamesii (jam) and S. fendleri (fen). The authors have collected samples at the natural habitats since 1992 (new), greatly increasing the geographic coverage and number of populations compared to what was in the US Potato Genebank avai...

  20. INHERITANCE OF RESISTANCE TO FUSARIUM TUBER ROT IN TETRAPLOID POTATOES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium tuber rot of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is one of the most economically important diseases of stored potatoes. Dry rot is caused by several species of Fusaria, particularly Fusarium sambucinum in North America. The objective of this study was to determine the inheritance of resistance...

  1. Potato germplasm: In vitro storage and virus reduction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. J. Fletcher; J. D. Fletcher; R. J. Cross

    1998-01-01

    An efficient protocol for in vitro long?term storage of a potato (Solanum tuberosum) germplasm collection has been devised. Potato explants were prepared for tissue culture and then underwent chemical (using the antiviral chemical, ribavirin) and heat therapy. It combines previously reported protocols of in vitro virus elimination, micro tuber induction, and long?term storage and is especially suitable for conserving a

  2. Advanced Potato Breeding Clones: Storage and Processing Evaluation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The accumulation of reducing sugars during cold storage of potato tubers is a serious and costly problem for producers and processors. Most, but not all, currently used potato cultivars are susceptible to Acold sweetening@ and are therefore stored at warmer temperatures that can accelerate disease ...

  3. Colorado potato beetle [ Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say)] resistance to organophosphates and carbamates in Serbia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Stankovi?; A. Zabel; M. Kostic; B. Manojlovic; S. Rajkovic

    2004-01-01

    Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), the Colorado potato beetle (potato beetle), is the most destructive potato pest in Serbia. Up to four pesticide treatments are necessary for its control. Insecticide resistance of the potato beetle in Serbia is well-investigated and documented, especially to organophosphates and carbamates. Toxicity of chlorpyriphos (organophosphates) and carbosulfan (carbamates) was investigated by topical application, using adults of the

  4. The Potato Systems Planner: Cropping System Impacts on Profitability, Income Variability, and Economic Risk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) producers recognize the benefits of crop rotation; however, the economics of producing a high value crop, such as potato, create incentives for continuous potato production. Our USDA-ARS interdisciplinary team evaluated cropping systems of potato in two and three year ...

  5. Performance evaluation of an automated detection and control system for volunteer potatoes in sugar beet fields

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. T. Nieuwenhuizen; J. W. Hofstee; E. J. van Henten

    2010-01-01

    Incomplete control of volunteer potato plants causes a high environmental load through increased crop protection chemical usage in potato cropping. A joint effort of industry, policy makers and science initiated a four year scientific project on detection and control of volunteer potato plants. A proof-of-principle machine for automated detection and control of volunteer potato plants in sugar beet fields has

  6. PLANT RESISTANCE A Test of Taxonomic Predictivity: Resistance to the Colorado Potato

    E-print Network

    Spooner, David

    PLANT RESISTANCE A Test of Taxonomic Predictivity: Resistance to the Colorado Potato Beetle in Wild by Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say, larvae was evaluated in 156 accessions of 41 wild of Colorado potato beetle resistance in wild potato species to biogeographic data. Resistance was con

  7. FREEZING BEHAVIOR OF POTATO (SOLANUM TUBEROSUM), CULTIVAR 'RUSSET BURBANK' TUBERS IN SOIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Volunteer potatoes are a major weed problem in potato rotations in regions with mild winter soil temperatures. Laboratory and field experiments were conducted to determine cold temperatures required to kill potato tubers in soil. Potato tubers in air dried soil columns exposed to decreasing temper...

  8. Detection of sweet potato viruses in Yunnan and genetic diversity analysis of the common viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two hundred seventy-nine samples with virus-like symptoms collected from 16 regions in Yunnan Province were tested by RT-PCR/PCR using virus-specific primers for 8 sweet potato viruses. Six viruses, Sweet potato chlorotic fleck virus (SPCFV), Sweet Potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV), Sweet potato ...

  9. A FREEZE-DRIED DIET TO TEST BACTERIAL PATHOGENS OF COLORADO POTATO BEETLE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Colorado potato beetle is an important pest on potato, eggplant and tomato. Because Colorado potato beetles develop resistance to insecticides quickly, new methods are needed for control. Bacillus thuringiensis is the only bacteria to successfully control Colorado potato beetle. Until recently, ...

  10. UPDATE ON THE POTATO PURPLE TOP DISEASE IN THE COLUMBIA BASIN J.E. MUNYANEZA1

    E-print Network

    Pappu, Hanu R.

    Washington State Potato Commission, Moses Lake, WA; 4 Oregon State University, Hermiston, OR; 5 Washington on the potato purple top disease in the Columbia Basin. In: Proceedings, 44th Annual Washington State Potato recently been the case in Mexico. A Washington State and Oregon Potato Commissions funded multi

  11. Comparative BAC end sequence analysis of tomato and potato reveals overrepresentation of specific gene families in potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The tomato genome has a higher repeat content than the potato genome, which is primarily the result of a higher amount of retrotransposons in the tomato genome. Potato has a higher abundance of simple sequence repeats than tomato, and the distribution of motifs also differs between these species. Fu...

  12. Expression of Potato virus A coat protein gene in a resistant potato cultivar disrupts the virus induced hypersensitive responses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xianzhou Nie; Rudra P. Singh; Janet E. A. Seabrook; C. Jan Zeng; Teresa A. Molen; Mathuresh Singh; Katheryn Douglass

    2008-01-01

    Graft inoculation of potato (Solanum tuberosum) ‘Shepody’ plants with Potato virus A (PVA) results in hypersensitive resistance responses (HR) in tubers with characteristic necrosis. Increasing the number of PVA-containing scions or increasing the duration of scions on the ‘Shepody’ rootstock plants resulted in an increased number of tubers showing necrosis. Transgenic ‘Shepody’ plants with a sense or an antisense copy

  13. Palisade Russet and Teton Russet: Two New Potato Cultivars from the Northwest (Tri-State) Potato Variety Development Program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Tri-State Potato Variety Development Program released two potato cultivars in 2011: Palisade Russet and Teton Russet. Palisade Russet (PR) is notable for having resistance to foliar and tuber late blight. PR is also resistant to Verticillium wilt, black dot, and pink rot, and has a moderate re...

  14. Comparative life tables of the potato tuberworm, Phthorimaea operculella, on leaves and tubers of different potato cultivars.

    PubMed

    Golizadeh, Ali; Esmaeili, Nader; Razmjou, Jabraeil; Rafiee-Dastjerdi, Hooshang

    2014-01-01

    The potato tuberworm, Phthorimaea operculella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a serious pest of the potato, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanales: Solanaceae), in both fields and stores in tropical and subtropical regions. In the present study, the susceptibility of different potato cultivars to P. operculella was evaluated by measuring life table parameters. Tests were undertaken with leaves and tubers of 10 potato cultivars in the laboratory: Agria, Agata, Almera, Arinda, Baneba, Fiana, Marfona, Ramus, Satina, and Volvox. All parameters showed significant differences among tested cultivars. The longest mean generation times were observed on Marfona and Satina cultivars in the experiments on potato leaves and tubers, respectively. The lowest reproductive rate was observed on leaves and tubers of Marfona cultivar. Correspondingly, the lowest values of intrinsic rate of increase and the lowest finite rate of increase were also obtained on Marfona cultivar in tests on potato leaves and tubers. The highest intrinsic rate of incrase values were observed on Arinda and Baneba in the tests on leaves and tubers, respectively. The intrinsic rates of increase were significantly higher on potato leaves than on potato tubers. The lower performance of P. operculella on Marfona cultivar indicated that this cultivar is relatively less susceptible this pest and could be used in integrated pest management programs of P. operculella. PMID:25373189

  15. Behavioral responses of adult potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae), to potato germplasm and transmission of Candidatus Liberibacter psyllaurous

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae), is a major pest of potatoes that can cause yield loss by direct feeding on crop plants and by vectoring a bacterial pathogen, Candidatus Liberibacter psyllaurous (a.k.a. Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum). In recent years, ...

  16. Low energy {bar p} physics at FNAL

    SciTech Connect

    Hsueh, S.Y.

    1992-12-01

    The charmonium formation experiment is the only low energy {bar p} experiment at FNAL. This paper describes the performance of the Fermilab {bar p} Accumulator during fixed target run for the experiment and the planned upgrades. We also discuss the proposal for the direct CP violation search in {bar p} + p {yields} {bar {Lambda}} + {Lambda} {yields} {bar p}{pi}{sup +} + p{pi}{sup {minus}}.

  17. Effect of low-temperature baking on the radio-frequency properties of niobium superconducting cavities for particle accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciovati, Gianluigi

    2004-08-01

    Radio-frequency superconducting (SRF) cavities are widely used to accelerate a charged particle beam in particle accelerators. The performance of SRF cavities made of bulk niobium has significantly improved over the last ten years and is approaching the theoretical limit for niobium. Nevertheless, RF tests of niobium cavities are still showing some "anomalous" losses that require a better understanding in order to reliably obtain better performance. These losses are characterized by a marked dependence of the surface resistance on the surface electromagnetic field and can be detected by measuring the quality factor of the resonator as a function of the peak surface field. A low-temperature (100-150°C) "in situ" bake under ultrahigh vacuum has been successfully applied as final preparation of niobium RF cavities by several laboratories over the last few years. The benefits reported consist mainly of an improvement of the cavity quality factor at low field and a recovery from "anomalous" losses (so-called "Q drop") without field emission at higher field. A series of experiments with a CEBAF single-cell cavity have been carried out at Jefferson Lab to carefully investigate the effect of baking at progressively higher temperatures for a fixed time on all the relevant material parameters. Measurements of the cavity quality factor in the temperature range 1.37-280K and resonant frequency shift between 6-9.3K provide information about the surface resistance, energy gap, penetration depth, and mean free path. The experimental data have been analyzed with the complete BCS theory of superconductivity. The hydrogen content of small niobium samples inserted in the cavity during its surface preparation was analyzed with nuclear reaction analysis. The single-cell cavity has been tested at three different temperatures before and after baking to gain some insight on thermal conductivity and Kapitza resistance and the data are compared with different models. This paper describes the results of these experiments and comments on existing models to explain the effect of baking on the performance of niobium RF cavities.

  18. Extreme resistance to infection by potato virus Y and potato virus X in an advanced hybrid Solanum phureja — S. Stenotomum diploid potato population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger L. Vallejo; Wanda W. Collins; Rocco D. Schiavone; Steven A. Lommel; J. B. Young

    1994-01-01

    Samples of 4285 individuals from a hybridSolanum phureja Juz. et Buk. —S. stenotomum Juz. (Phu-Stn) and 105 individuals ofSolanum phureja (Phu) diploid potato populations were twice inoculated with potato virus Y strain “o” (PVY?) using the air brush technique.\\u000a After discarding seedlings with PVY visual symptoms both in the greenhouse and in the field, 1508 seedlings were judged to\\u000a be

  19. The Ry-f sto gene from Solanum stoloniferum for extreme resistant to Potato virus Y maps to potato chromosome XII and is diagnosed by PCR marker GP122 718 in PVY resistant potato cultivars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bogdan Flis; Jacek Hennig; Danuta Strzelczyk-?yta; Christiane Gebhardt; Waldemar Marczewski

    2005-01-01

    A novel locus for extreme resistance to Potato virus Y (PVY), Ry-fsto, was identified on potato chromosome XII. The gene Ry-fsto has been introgressed from the wild potato species Solanum stoloniferum. Inheritance of Ry-fsto in the tetraploid potato population Rysto was consistent with the model of a single, dominant gene. Bulked segregant analysis identified an ISSR (inter-simple sequence repeat) marker

  20. Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of Barred Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, W.-T.

    2013-04-01

    Magnetic fields are pervasive in barred galaxies, especially in gaseous substructures such as dust lanes and nuclear rings. To explore the effects of magnetic fields on the formation of the substructures as well as on the mass inflow rates to the galaxy center, we run two-dimensional, ideal magnetohydrodynamic simulations. We use a modified version of the Athena code whose numerical magnetic diffusivity is shown to be of third order in space. In the bar regions, magnetic fields are compressed and abruptly bent around the dust-lane shocks. The associated magnetic stress not only reduces the peak density of the dust-lane shocks but also removes angular momentum further from the gas that is moving radially in. Nuclear rings that form at the location of centrifugal barrier rather than resonance with the bar are smaller and more radially distributed, and the mass flow rate to the galaxy center is correspondingly larger in models with stronger magnetic fields. Outside the bar regions, the bar potential and strong shear conspire to amplify the field strength near the corotation resonance. The amplified fields transport angular momentum outward, producing trailing magnetic arms with strong fields and low density. The base of the magnetic arms are found to be unstable to a tearing-mode instability of magnetic reconnection. This produces numerous magnetic islands that eventually make the outer regions highly chaotic.

  1. Potato tuber formation in the spaceflight environment.

    PubMed

    Brown, C S; Tibbitts, T W; Croxdale, J G; Wheeler, R M

    1997-01-01

    Five potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) leaf cuttings were flown on STS-73 in late October, 1995 as part of the 16-day USML-2 mission. Preflight studies were conducted to study tuber growth, determine carbohydrate concentrations, and examine the developing starch grains within the tuber. In these tests, tubers attained a fresh weight of 1.4 g tuber-1 after 13 days. Tuber fresh mass was significantly correlated to tuber diameter. Greater than 60% of the tuber dry mass was starch and the starch grains varied in size from 2 to 40 micrometers in the long axis. For the flight experiment, cuttings were obtained from 7-week-old Norland potato plants, kept at 5 degrees C for 12 h then planted into arcillite in the ASTROCULTURE(TM) flight hardware. The flight package was loaded on-board the orbiter 22 h prior to launch. During the mission, the flight hardware maintained an environment around the cuttings of 22 +/- 2 degrees C, 81 +/- 7% RH, and a 12-h photoperiod using red and blue light-emitting diodes at a photosynthetic photon flux of 150 micromol m-2 s-1. CO2 concentration exceeded 4000 ppm during the dark period and was controlled during the light period to approximately 400 ppm. Video downlinking of images of the plants and CO2 exchange data during the flight demonstrated plant vitality for the first 12 days of the mission followed by senescence of the leaves. The flight package was received 4 h after landing at the Kennedy Space Center and postflight processing of the samples was completed within 3 h. Four out of the five space-grown cuttings produced tubers that were similar in appearance and dimension to the ground control tubers. This is an important finding if potatoes are to be used as part of a bioregenerative life support system for long-term space exploration. PMID:11540455

  2. Cultural systems for growing potatoes in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tibbitts, T.; Bula, R.; Corey, R.; Morrow, R.

    1988-01-01

    Higher plants are being evaluated for life support to provide needed food, oxygen and water as well as removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The successful utilization of plants in space will require the development of not only highly productive growing systems but also highly efficient bioregenerative systems. It will be necessary to recycle all inedible plant parts and all human wastes so that the entire complement of elemental compounds can be reused. Potatoes have been proposed as one of the desirable crops because they are 1) extremely productive, yielding more than 100 metric tons per hectare from field plantings, 2) the edible tubers are high in digestible starch (70%) and protein (10%) on a dry weight basis, 3) up to 80% of the total plant production is in tubers and thus edible, 4) the plants are easily propagated either from tubers or from tissue culture plantlets, 5) the tubers can be utilized with a minimum of processing, and 6) potatoes can be prepared in a variety of different forms for the human diet (Tibbitts et al., 1982). However potatoes have a growth pattern that complicates the development of growing the plants in controlled systems. Tubers are borne on underground stems that are botanically termed 'rhizomes', but in common usage termed 'stolons'. The stolons must be maintained in a dark, moist area with sufficient provision for enlargement of tubers. Stems rapidly terminate in flowers forcing extensive branching and spreading of plants so that individual plants will cover 0.2 m2 or more area. Thus the growing system must be developed to provide an area that is darkened for tuber and root growth and of sufficient size for plant spread. A system developed for growing potatoes, or any plants, in space will have certain requirements that must be met to make them a useful part of a life support system. The system must 1) be constructed of materials, and involve media, that can be reused for many successive cycles of plant growth, 2) involve a minimum quantity of media, 3) contain media that is essentially inert and not oxidize or degrade with use, 4) utilize a recirculating nutrient solution to permit regulation of pH and nutrient concentrations, and 5) be capable of complete automation of all planting, maintenance and harvesting procedures.

  3. Beyond baking soda: Demonstrating the link between volcanic eruptions and viscosity to all ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smithka, I. N.; Walters, R. L.; Harpp, K. S.

    2014-12-01

    Public interest in volcanic eruptions and societal relevance of volcanic hazards provide an excellent basis for successful earth science outreach. During a museum-based earth science outreach event free and open to the public, we used two new interactive experiments to illustrate the relationship between gas content, magma viscosity, and eruption style. Learning objectives for visitors are to understand: how gas drives volcanic eruptions, the differences between effusive and explosive eruption styles, viscosity's control on gas pressure within a magma reservoir, and the role of gas pressure on eruption style. Visitors apply the scientific method by asking research questions and testing hypotheses by conducting the experiments. The demonstrations are framed with real life examples of volcanic eruptions (e.g., Mt. St. Helens eruption in 1980), providing context for the scientific concepts. The first activity demonstrates the concept of fluid viscosity and how gas interacts with fluids of different viscosities. Visitors blow bubbles into water and corn syrup. The corn syrup is so viscous that bubbles are trapped, showing how a more viscous material builds up higher gas pressure. Visitors are asked which kind of magma (high or low viscosity) will produce an explosive eruption. To demonstrate an explosive eruption, visitors add an Alka-Seltzer tablet to water in a snap-top film canister. The reaction rapidly produces carbon dioxide gas, increasing pressure in the canister until the lid pops off and the canister launches a few meters into the air (tinyurl.com/nzsgfoe). Increasing gas pressure in the canister is analogous to gas pressure building within a magma reservoir beneath a volcano. The lid represents high-viscosity magma that prevents degassing, causing gas pressure to reach explosive levels. This interactive activity is combined with a display of an effusive eruption: add vinegar to baking soda in a model volcano to produce a quick-flowing eruption. These demonstrations were implemented in March 2014 at "Can You Dig It?", a popular annual collaborative outreach event hosted by the Florida Museum of Natural History and the University of Florida Department of Geological Sciences (>1,500 visitors). These experiments were also used to illustrate volcanic processes at the VGP Exploration Station, AGU 2013.

  4. Survival of Salmonella Typhimurium in poultry-based meat preparations during grilling, frying and baking.

    PubMed

    Roccato, Anna; Uyttendaele, Mieke; Cibin, Veronica; Barrucci, Federica; Cappa, Veronica; Zavagnin, Paola; Longo, Alessandra; Ricci, Antonia

    2015-03-16

    The burden of food-borne diseases still represents a threat to public health; in 2012, the domestic setting accounted for 57.6% of strong-evidence EU food-borne Salmonella outbreaks. Next to cross-contamination, inadequate cooking procedure is considered as one of the most important factors contributing to food-borne illness. The few studies which have assessed the effect of domestic cooking on the presence and numbers of pathogens in different types of meat have shown that consumer-style cooking methods can allow bacteria to survive and that the probability of eating home-cooked poultry meat that still contains surviving bacteria after heating is higher than previously assumed. Thus, the main purpose of this study was to reproduce and assess the effect of several types of cooking treatments (according to label instructions and not following label instructions) on the presence and numbers of Salmonella Typhimurium DT 104 artificially inoculated in five types of poultry-based meat preparations (burgers, sausages, ready-to-cook-kebabs, quail roulades and extruded roulades) that are likely to be contaminated by Salmonella. Three contamination levels (10 cfu/g; 100 cfu/g and 1000 cfu/g) and three cooking techniques (grilling, frying and baking) were applied. Cooking treatments performed according to label instructions eliminated Salmonella Typhimurium (absence per 25g) for contamination levels of 10 and 100 cfu/g but not for contamination levels of 1000 cfu/g. After improper cooking, 26 out of 78 samples were Salmonella-positive, and 23 out of these 26 samples were artificially contaminated with bacterial loads between 100 and 1000 cfu/g. Nine out of 26 samples provided quantifiable results with a minimum level of 1.4MPN/g in kebabs (initial inoculum level: 100 cfu/g) after grilling and a maximum level of 170MPN/g recorded in sausages (initial inoculum level: 1000 cfu/g) after grilling. Kebabs were the most common Salmonella-positive meat product after cooking, followed by sausages, burgers and extruded roulades; in relation to the type of cooking treatment applied, Salmonella Typhimurium was detected mostly after frying. Thus, following label instructions mostly, but not always, produced safe cooked poultry-based meat preparations, while the application of inadequate cooking treatments was not able to assure complete elimination of Salmonella from the products even with a low contamination level (10cfu/g). Consequently, there is a need to develop guidelines for producers and consumers and promote a multidisciplinary educational campaign in order to provide information on safe cooking and time-temperature combinations able to maintain the organoleptic qualities of meat. PMID:25540842

  5. Microstructural, Cooking and Textural Characteristics of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L) Tubers in Relation to Physicochemical and Functional Properties of their Flours

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Relationship between structural, cooking, and texture properties of potatoes; and thermal, pasting, and textural properties of potato meal was studied for six indian potato cultivars. Particular consideration was given to the association between mealiness of cooked potatoes and functional propertie...

  6. 6.EE Chocolate Bar Sales

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-08

    This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Stephanie is helping her band collect money to fund a field trip. The band decided to sell boxes of chocolate bars. Each bar sells for \\$1.50 and each ...

  7. Universal precision sine bar attachment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mann, Franklin D. (inventor)

    1989-01-01

    This invention relates to an attachment for a sine bar which can be used to perform measurements during lathe operations or other types of machining operations. The attachment can be used for setting precision angles on vises, dividing heads, rotary tables and angle plates. It can also be used in the inspection of machined parts, when close tolerances are required, and in the layout of precision hardware. The novelty of the invention is believed to reside in a specific versatile sine bar attachment for measuring a variety of angles on a number of different types of equipment.

  8. Characterization of the expression and inheritance of potato leafroll virus (PLRV) and potato virus Y (PVY) resistance in three generations of germplasm derived from Solanum etuberosum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. G. Novy; A. M. Gillen; J. L. Whitworth

    2007-01-01

    Potato virus Y (PVY) and potato leafroll virus (PLRV) are two of the most important viral pathogens of potato. Infection of\\u000a potato by these viruses results in losses of yield and quality in commercial production and in the rejection of seed in certification\\u000a programs. Host plant resistance to these two viruses was identified in the backcross progeny of a Solanum

  9. The Use of True Potato Seed as Pro-poor Technology: The Efforts of an International Agricultural Research Institute to Innovating Potato Production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. J. M. Almekinders; E. Chujoy; G. Thiele

    2009-01-01

    The International Potato Center (CIP) and collaborating institutions implemented an intensive research programme over a period\\u000a of 25–30 years on the use of botanical seed of potato as an alternative way of growing a potato crop. The use of botanical\\u000a or ‘true’ potato seed (TPS) had many advantages over the use of seed tubers. Potentially, the use of TPS was especially

  10. In Vitro Conservation of Sweet Potato Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Arrigoni-Blank, Maria de Fátima; Tavares, Fernanda Ferreira; dos Santos, Maria Clézia; Menezes, Thays Saynara Alves; de Santana, Aléa Dayane Dantas

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a protocol for the in vitro conservation of sweet potato genotypes using the slow growth technique. The first experiment was conducted in a 4 × 5 × 2 factorial scheme, testing four genotypes (IPB-007, IPB-052, IPB-072, and IPB-137), five concentrations of abscisic acid (ABA) (0.0, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 8.0?mg·L?1), and two temperatures (18 and 25°C). The second experiment was conducted in a 4 × 3 × 3 factorial scheme at 18°C, testing four genotypes (IPB-007, IPB-052, IPB-072, and IPB-137), three variations of MS salts (50, 75, and 100%), and three concentrations of sucrose (10, 20, and 30?g·L?1). Every three months, we evaluated the survival (%), shoot height, and shoot viability. In vitro conservation of the sweet potato genotypes IPB-052 and IPB-007 was obtained over three and six months, respectively, using MS medium plus 2.0?mg·L?1 of ABA at either 18 or 25°C. Genotypes IPB-072 and IPB-137 can be kept for three and six months, respectively, in MS medium without ABA at 18°C. It is possible to store IPB-052 and IPB-072 for six months and IPB-007 and IPB-137 for nine months using 30?g·L?1 of sucrose and 50% MS salts. PMID:24563627

  11. Involvement of Ethylene in Potato Microtuber Dormancy

    PubMed Central

    Suttle, Jeffrey C.

    1998-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) single-node explants undergoing in vitro tuberization produced detectable amounts of ethylene throughout tuber development, and the resulting microtubers were completely dormant (endodormant) for at least 12 to 15 weeks. The rate of ethylene production by tuberizing explants was highest during the initial 2 weeks of in vitro culture and declined thereafter. Continuous exposure of developing microtubers to the noncompetitive ethylene antagonist AgNO3 via the culture medium resulted in a dose-dependent increase in precocious sprouting. The effect of AgNO3 on the premature loss of microtuber endodormancy was observed after 3 weeks of culture. Similarly, continuous exposure of developing microtubers to the competitive ethylene antagonist 2,5-norbornadiene (NBD) at concentrations of 2 mL/L (gas phase) or greater also resulted in a dose-dependent increase in premature sprouting. Exogenous ethylene reversed this response and inhibited the precocious sprouting of NBD-treated microtubers. NBD treatment was effective only when it was begun within 7 d of the start of in vitro explant culture. These results indicate that endogenous ethylene is essential for the full expression of potato microtuber endodormancy, and that its involvement may be restricted to the initial period of endodormancy development. PMID:9808728

  12. Involvement of ethylene in potato microtuber dormancy

    PubMed

    Suttle

    1998-11-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) single-node explants undergoing in vitro tuberization produced detectable amounts of ethylene throughout tuber development, and the resulting microtubers were completely dormant (endodormant) for at least 12 to 15 weeks. The rate of ethylene production by tuberizing explants was highest during the initial 2 weeks of in vitro culture and declined thereafter. Continuous exposure of developing microtubers to the noncompetitive ethylene antagonist AgNO3 via the culture medium resulted in a dose-dependent increase in precocious sprouting. The effect of AgNO3 on the premature loss of microtuber endodormancy was observed after 3 weeks of culture. Similarly, continuous exposure of developing microtubers to the competitive ethylene antagonist 2, 5-norbornadiene (NBD) at concentrations of 2 mL/L (gas phase) or greater also resulted in a dose-dependent increase in premature sprouting. Exogenous ethylene reversed this response and inhibited the precocious sprouting of NBD-treated microtubers. NBD treatment was effective only when it was begun within 7 d of the start of in vitro explant culture. These results indicate that endogenous ethylene is essential for the full expression of potato microtuber endodormancy, and that its involvement may be restricted to the initial period of endodormancy development. PMID:9808728

  13. Analysis of Iranian Potato virus S isolates.

    PubMed

    Salari, Khadijeh; Massumi, Hossein; Heydarnejad, Jahangir; Hosseini Pour, Akbar; Varsani, Arvind

    2011-10-01

    Two hundred forty potato samples with one or more symptoms of leaf mosaic, distortion, mottling and yellowing were collected between 2005 and 2008 from seven Iranian provinces. Forty-four of these samples tested positive with double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (DAS-ELISA) using a Potato virus S (PVS) polyclonal antibody. Of these 12 isolates of PVS were selected based on the geographical location for biological and molecular characterization. The full coat protein (CP) and 11K genes from 12 PVS isolates were PCR amplified, cloned and sequenced. All 12 PVS isolates showed mosaic symptoms on Nicotiana debneyii and N. tabacum cv. Whiteburly and local lesion on Chenopodium amaranticolor, C. quinoa and C. album. The Iranian isolates share between 93 and 100% pairwise nucleotide identity with other PVS(O) isolates. Based on maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis coupled with pairwise identity analysis, we propose 15 genotypes for the PVS(O) strain and 3 genotypes for the PVS(A) strain. PMID:21567245

  14. Total antioxidant capacity and starch digestibility of muffins baked with rice, wheat, oat, corn and barley flour.

    PubMed

    Soong, Yean Yean; Tan, Seow Peng; Leong, Lai Peng; Henry, Jeya Kumar

    2014-12-01

    Muffins are a popular snack consumed in western and emerging countries. Increased glycemic load has been implicated in the aetiology of diabetes. This study examined the starch digestibility of muffins baked with rice, wheat, corn, oat and barley flour. Rapidly digested starch (RDS) was greatest in rice (445 mg/g) and wheat (444 mg/g) muffins, followed by oat (416 mg/g), corn (402 mg/g) and barley (387 mg/g). Total phenolic content was found to be positively correlated with total antioxidative capacity and inversely related to the RDS of muffins. The phenolic content was highest in muffin baked with barley flour (1,687 ?g/g), followed by corn (1,454 ?g/g), oat (945 ?g/g), wheat (705 ?g/g), and rice (675 ?g/g) flour. Browning was shown not to correlate with free radical scavenging capacity and digestibility of muffins. The presence of high phenolic content and low RDS makes barley muffin an ideal snack to modulate glycemic response. PMID:24996358

  15. Sensory evaluation of baked chicken wrapped with antimicrobial apple and tomato edible films formulated with cinnamaldehyde and carvacrol.

    PubMed

    Du, Wen-Xian; Avena-Bustillos, Roberto J; Woods, Rachelle; Breksa, Andrew P; McHugh, Tara H; Friedman, Mendel; Levin, Carol E; Mandrell, Robert

    2012-08-15

    The addition of plant essential oils to edible films and coatings has been shown to protect against bacterial pathogens and spoilage while also enhancing sensory properties of foods. This study evaluated the effect of adding 0.5 and 0.75% carvacrol (active ingredient of oregano oil) to apple- and tomato-based film-forming solutions and 0.5 and 0.75% cinnamaldehyde (active ingredient of cinnamon oil) to apple-based film-forming solutions on sensory properties of cooked chicken wrapped with these films. Paired preference tests indicated no difference between baked chicken wrapped with tomato and apple films containing 0.5% carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde compared to chicken wrapped with tomato or apple films without the plant antimicrobials. The taste panel indicated a higher preference for carvacrol-containing tomato-coated chicken over the corresponding apple coating. There was also a higher preference for cinnamaldehyde-containing apple films over corresponding carvacrol-containing wrapping. Films containing antibacterial active compounds derived from essential oils can be used to protect raw chicken pieces against bacterial contamination without adversely affecting preferences of wrapped chicken pieces after baking. PMID:22831761

  16. Assessing the accuracy of thermoluminescence for dating baked sediments beneath late Quaternary lava flows, Snake River Plain, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Forman, S.L.; Pierson, J. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)] [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Valentine, G. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others] [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); and others

    1994-08-10

    Baked sediments beneath lava flows on the Snake River Plain, Idaho, with independent age control by either {sup 14}C or K/Ar dating were analyzed to evaluate the accuracy of the thermoluminescence (TL) technique. The age of flows ranges from {approximately}2 to 100 ka and multiple TL analyses by the total bleach method yielded ages that overlap at one sigma with independent chronologic control. The TL signal of one sample of baked sediment beneath a lava flow with an inferred age of at least 641 {plus_minus} 54 ka was near saturation, perhaps reflecting a relatively high environmental dose rate, and is not datable by TL. This study underscores several major limitations of luminescence geochronology, the natural spatial and temporal variability in environmental radioactivity and the susceptibility of silicate minerals to the growth and retention of a luminescence signal. Despite these limitations, the results demonstrate the utility of luminescence geochronology to date volcanic eruptive events during the Quaternary. 39 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Study of Low Temperature Baking Effect on Field Emission on Nb Samples Treated by BEP, EP, and BCP

    SciTech Connect

    Andy Wu, Song Jin, Robert Rimmer, Xiang Yang Lu, K. Zhao, Laura MacIntyre, Robert Ike

    2010-05-01

    Field emission is still one of the major obstacles facing Nb superconducting radio frequency (SRF) community for allowing Nb SRF cavities to reach routinely accelerating gradient of 35 MV/m that is required for the international linear collider. Nowadays, the well know low temperature backing at 120 oC for 48 hours is a common procedure used in the SRF community to improve the high field Q slope. However, some cavity production data have showed that the low temperature baking may induce field emission for cavities treated by EP. On the other hand, an earlier study of field emission on Nb flat samples treated by BCP showed an opposite conclusion. In this presentation, the preliminary measurements of Nb flat samples treated by BEP, EP, and BCP via our unique home-made scanning field emission microscope before and after the low temperature baking are reported. Some correlations between surface smoothness and the number of the observed field emitters were found. The observed experimental results can be understood, at least partially, by a simple model that involves the change of the thickness of the pent-oxide layer on Nb surfaces.

  18. Resistance in Solanum brevidens to both potato virus Y and potato virus X may be associated with slow cell-to-cell spread

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. T. Valkonen; E. Pehu; M. G. K. Jones; R. W. Gibson

    1991-01-01

    A series of experiments was carried out to investigate the nature of the resistance of the wild potato species, Solanum brevidens, to potato virus X (PVX) and potato virus Y (PVY). In vitro inoculation of leaf protoplasts of S. brevidens and the virus-susceptible dihaploid S. tuberosum genotype PDH40 with PVX or PVY using polyethylene glycol showed that protoplasts of both

  19. Altered cytokinin pattern and enhanced tolerance to potato virus Y NTNin the susceptible potato cultivar ( Solanum tuberosumcv. Igor) grown in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Dermastia; M. Ravnikar

    1996-01-01

    Plants of the susceptible potato cultivar Igor systemically infected with potato virus YNTNwere grown in tissue culture. The symptoms of infection which are strongly expressed in soil-grown plants were suppressed and plantlets exhibited an enhanced tolerance to PVYNTN. Determination of nine endogenous cytokinins in virus free and infected plantlets revealed an increase in total cytokinin level in systemically infected potatoes.

  20. The Current Incidence of Viral Disease in Korean Sweet Potatoes and Development of Multiplex RT-PCR Assays for Simultaneous Detection of Eight Sweet Potato Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Hae-Ryun; Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Shin, Jun-Chul; Lee, Ye-Ji; Seo, Jang-Kyun; Lee, Hyeong-Un; Jung, Mi-Nam; Kim, Sun-Hyung; Choi, Hong-Soo

    2014-01-01

    Sweet potato is grown extensively from tropical to temperate regions and is an important food crop worldwide. In this study, we established detection methods for 17 major sweet potato viruses using single and multiplex RT-PCR assays. To investigate the current incidence of viral diseases, we collected 154 samples of various sweet potato cultivars showing virus-like symptoms from 40 fields in 10 Korean regions, and analyzed them by RT-PCR using specific primers for each of the 17 viruses. Of the 17 possible viruses, we detected eight in our samples. Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV) and sweet potato virus C (SPVC) were most commonly detected, infecting approximately 87% and 85% of samples, respectively. Furthermore, Sweet potato symptomless virus 1 (SPSMV-1), Sweet potato virus G (SPVG), Sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV), Sweet potato virus 2 ( SPV2), Sweet potato chlorotic fleck virus (SPCFV), and Sweet potato latent virus (SPLV) were detected in 67%, 58%, 47%, 41%, 31%, and 20% of samples, respectively. This study presents the first documented occurrence of four viruses (SPVC, SPV2, SPCFV, and SPSMV-1) in Korea. Based on the results of our survey, we developed multiplex RT-PCR assays for simple and simultaneous detection of the eight sweet potato viruses we recorded. PMID:25506306

  1. Development of biomarkers and a diagnostic tool for investigation of coinfections by and interactions between potato purple top and potato witches’-broom phytoplasmas in tomato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Columbia Basin potato purple top (PPT) phytoplasma and Alaska potato witches’-broom (PWB) phytoplasma are two closely-related but mutually distinct pathogenic bacteria that infect potato and other vegetable crops. Inhabiting phloem sieve elements and being transmitted by phloem-feeding insect vecto...

  2. Short communication The potential of the fungus, Muscodor albus, as a microbial control agent of potato tuber moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in stored potatoes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawrence A. Lacey; Lisa G. Neven

    Potato tuber moth (PTM), Phthorimaea operculella, is a serious pest of stored potato in most countries where potatoes are grown. Entomopathogens oVer promise as alternatives to broad spectrum insecticides for management of this pest. The fungus Muscodor albus, which produces a mixture of antimicrobial volatile organic chemicals, was tested for its insecticidal activity against PTM. Adults and neo- nate larvae

  3. Role of Nematodes, Nematicides, and Crop Rotation on the Productivity and Quality of Potato, Sweet Potato, Peanut, and Grain Sorghum

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, A. W.; Dowler, C. C.; Glaze, N. C.; Handoo, Z. A.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of fenamiphos 15G and short-cycle potato (PO)-sweet potato (SP) grown continuously and in rotation with peanut (PE)-grain sorghum (GS) on yield, crop quality, and mixed nematode population densities of Meloidogyne arenaria, M. hapla, M. incognita, and Mesocriconema ornatum. Greater root-gall indices and damage by M. hapla and M. incognita occurred on potato than other crops. Most crop yields were higher and root-gall indices lower from fenamiphos-treated plots than untreated plots. The total yield of potato in the PO-SP and PO-SP-PE-GS sequences increased from 1983 to 1985 in plots infested with M. hapla or M. arenaria and M. incognita in combination and decreased in 1986 to 1987 when root-knot nematode populations shifted to M. incognita. The total yields of sweet potato in the PO-SP-PE-GS sequence were similar in 1983 and 1985, and declined each year in the PO-SP sequence as a consequence of M. incognita population density increase in the soil. Yield of peanut from soil infested with M. hapla increased 82% in fenamiphos-treated plots compared to untreated plots. Fenamiphos treatment increased yield of grain sorghum from 5% to 45% over untreated controls. The declining yields of potato and sweet potato observed with both the PO-SP and PO-SP-PE-GS sequences indicate that these crop systems should not be used longer than 3 years in soil infested with M. incognita, M. arenaria, or M. hapla. Under these conditions, these two cropping systems promote a population shift in favor of M. incognita, which is more damaging to potato and sweet potato than M. arenaria and M. hapla. PMID:19277157

  4. 7 CFR 980.501 - Safeguard procedures for potatoes, onions, and tomatoes exempt from grade, size, quality, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Safeguard procedures for potatoes, onions, and tomatoes exempt from...980.501 Safeguard procedures for potatoes, onions, and tomatoes exempt from...a) Each person who imports: (1) Potatoes, onions or tomatoes for...

  5. Barred Owl (Strix varia)1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen Heulett; Mark E. Hostetler; Ronald F. Labisky

    Have you ever been walking in a forest and heard something that sounded like a very loud, piercing scream? Well, it's very likely that you've heard the call of the Barred Owl. The vocalization of this owl sounds like a powerful voice that says \\

  6. No Holds Barred Issue 10 

    E-print Network

    Multiple Contributors

    2013-11-27

    /artist. NO HOLDS BARRED No. 10 TABLE OF CONTENTS ON GUARD by Gloria Lancaster 1 RUNAGATE by Jane Mailander 16 YOU DANCING? YOU ASKING? by Gloria Lancaster 33 SEARCHING FOR A BODIE PLOTby Natasha Barry 33 HARLEQUIN, HARLEQUIN by Kitty Fisher 37 SOMEWHERE...

  7. Galaxy Zoo: Observing Secular Evolution Through Bars

    E-print Network

    Cheung, Edmond; Masters, Karen L; Nichol, Robert C; Bosma, A; Bell, Eric F; Faber, S M; Koo, David C; Lintott, Chris; Melvin, Thomas; Schawinski, Kevin; Skibba, Ramin A; Willett, Kyle W

    2013-01-01

    Observations have shown that there is a connection between the presence of a bar and the properties of a galaxy. In a parallel effort, simulations have shown that this connection is consistent with the theory of bar-driven secular evolution. But observational evidence of bar-driven secular evolution has been sparse. In this paper, we use the Galaxy Zoo 2 dataset to look for evidence of this secular evolution. Our sample consists of 13,295 disk galaxies, with an overall bar fraction of 23.6 +/- 0.4%, of which 1,154 barred galaxies also have bar length measurements. These samples are the largest ever used to study the role of bars in disk galaxy evolution. We characterize bars by the bar likelihood, the likelihood a bar is present in a given galaxy, and the bar length. These two bar properties show interesting correlations with the specific star formation rate and the inner central structure of galaxies. Comparing these observations to state-of-the-art simulations of bar evolution, which include live halos and ...

  8. Transgenic potato plants expressing cry3A gene confer resistance to Colorado potato beetle.

    PubMed

    Mi, Xiaoxiao; Ji, Xiangzhuo; Yang, Jiangwei; Liang, Lina; Si, Huaijun; Wu, Jiahe; Zhang, Ning; Wang, Di

    2015-07-01

    The Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say, CPB) is a fatal pest, which is a quarantine pest in China. The CPB has now invaded the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region and is constantly spreading eastward in China. In this study, we developed transgenic potato plants expressing cry3A gene. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that the cry3A gene expressed in leaves, stems and roots of the transgenic plants under the control of CaMV 35S promoter, while they expressed only in leaves and stems under the control of potato leaf and stem-specific promoter ST-LS1. The mortality of the larvae was higher (28% and 36%) on the transgenic plant line 35S1 on the 3rd and 4th days, and on ST3 (48%) on the 5th day after inoculation with instar larvae. Insect biomass accumulation on the foliage of the transgenic plant lines 35S1, 35S2 and ST3 was significantly lower (0.42%, 0.43% and 0.42%). Foliage consumption was lowest on transgenic lines 35S8 and ST2 among all plant foliage (7.47mg/larvae/day and 12.46mg/larvae/day). The different transgenic plant foliages had varied inhibition to larval growth. The survivors on the transgenic lines obviously were smaller than their original size and extremely weak. The transgenic potato plants with CPB resistance could be used to develop germplasms or varieties for controlling CPB damage and halting its spread in China. PMID:26025753

  9. Increasing the efficiency of agronomy experiments in potato using INFOCROP-POTATO model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. Singh; P. M. Govindakrishnan; S. S. Lal; P. K. Aggarwal

    2005-01-01

    Summary  This paper reports adaptations of a generic crop model IN FOCROP for potato and its application in increasing the efficiency\\u000a of agronomic experiments in tropical environments. A dataset of 13 experiments consisting of 153 treatments was assembled\\u000a from an extensive literature search. These experiments were conducted over the period 1976-1999 in diverse Indian locations\\u000a from 31 °N 75 ° E

  10. Positioning bars for large wire harnesses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glessner, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    By tying positioning bars to harness, its configuration can be preserved during transport, thus facilitating installation. Harness can also be showed temporarily by placing hanging hooks on end of bar.

  11. SPECIES CONCEPTS AND RELATIONSHIPS IN WILD AND CULTIVATED POTATOES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild and cultivated potatoes (Solanum section Petota) present challenges to taxonomists arising from lack of clearly defined morphological character differences among many species, phenotypic plasticity, a range of ploidy levels from diploid to hexaploid, and hybrid speciation and introgression. Tax...

  12. 7 CFR 318.13-25 - Sweet potatoes from Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Sweet potatoes from Hawaii. 318.13-25 Section 318.13-25...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE OF HAWAII AND TERRITORIES QUARANTINE NOTICES Regulated Articles From Hawaii and the Territories §...

  13. COMBINING ABILITY AND GENETIC VARIABILITY STUDIES IN POTATO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. HAYDAR; M. K. ALAM; E. H. KHOKAN; T. ARA; K. M. KHALEQUZZAMAN

    Haydar, A., Alam, M. K., Khokan, E. H., Ara, T., and Khalequzzaman, K. M. 2009. Combining ability and genetic variability studies in potato. J.Soil.Nature. 3 (2):01-03. Seventeen potato genotypes comprising seven parents and their ten crosses were evaluated during to November 2005 to March 2006 to study their combining ability and genetic variability. Mean squares due to GCA and SCA

  14. Resistance to potato leaf roll virus in Solanum brevidens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. C. Jones

    1979-01-01

    Summary  Plants ofSolanum brevidens graft-inoculated with potato leaf roll virus (PLRV) grew vigorously and had a normal healthy appearance. Although presence\\u000a of the virus was confirmed in all inoculated plants by graft tests to potato and\\/orDatura stramonium, recovery of PLRV fromS. brevidens PI 218228 usingPhysalis floridana and the aphidMyzus persicae was erratic and only few test seedlings became infected. Ease of

  15. Development and growth of potato tubers in microgravity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. E. Cook; J. L. Croxdale; T. W. Tibbitts; G. Goins; C. S. Brown; R. M. Wheeler

    1998-01-01

    A potato explant consisting of a leaf, its axillary bud, and a small segment of stem will develop a tuber in 10-14 days when grown on earth. The tubers develop from the axillary buds and accumulate starch derived from sugars produced through photosynthesis and\\/or mobilized from leaf tissue. Potato explants were harvested and maintained in the Astroculture^TM unit, a plant

  16. Single nucleotide polymorphism discovery in elite north american potato germplasm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John P Hamilton; Candice N Hansey; Brett R Whitty; Kevin Stoffel; Alicia N Massa; Allen Van Deynze; Walter S De Jong; David S Douches; C Robin Buell

    2011-01-01

    Background  Current breeding approaches in potato rely almost entirely on phenotypic evaluations; molecular markers, with the exception\\u000a of a few linked to disease resistance traits, are not widely used. Large-scale sequence datasets generated primarily through\\u000a Sanger Expressed Sequence Tag projects are available from a limited number of potato cultivars and access to next generation\\u000a sequencing technologies permits rapid generation of sequence

  17. Genome sequence and analysis of the tuber crop potato

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xun Xu; Shengkai Pan; Shifeng Cheng; Bo Zhang; Desheng Mu; Peixiang Ni; Gengyun Zhang; Shuang Yang; Ruiqiang Li; Jun Wang; Gisella Orjeda; Frank Guzman; Michael Torres; Roberto Lozano; Olga Ponce; Diana Martinez; Germ'an De la Cruz; S. K. Chakrabarti; Virupaksh U. Patil; Konstantin G. Skryabin; Boris B. Kuznetsov; Nikolai V. Ravin; Tatjana V. Kolganova; Alexey V. Beletsky; Andrei V. Mardanov; Alex Di Genova; Daniel M. Bolser; David M. A. Martin; Guangcun Li; Yu Yang; Hanhui Kuang; Qun Hu; Xingyao Xiong; Gerard J. Bishop; Boris Sagredo; Nilo Mej'ia; Wlodzimierz Zagorski; Robert Gromadka; Jan Gawor; Pawel Szczesny; Sanwen Huang; Zhonghua Zhang; Chunbo Liang; Jun He; Ying Li; Ying He; Jianfei Xu; Youjun Zhang; Binyan Xie; Yongchen Du; Dongyu Qu; Merideth Bonierbale; Marc Ghislain; Maria del Rosario Herrera; Giovanni Giuliano; Marco Pietrella; Gaetano Perrotta; Paolo Facella; Kimberly OBrien; Sergio E. Feingold; Leandro E. Barreiro; Gabriela A. Massa; Luis Diambra; Brett R. Whitty; Brieanne Vaillancourt; Haining Lin; Alicia N. Massa; Michael Geoffroy; Steven Lundback; Dean DellaPenna; C. Robin Buell; Sanjeev Kumar Sharma; David F. Marshall; Robbie Waugh; Glenn J. Bryan; Marialaura Destefanis; Istvan Nagy; Dan Milbourne; Susan J. Thomson; Mark Fiers; Jeanne M. E. Jacobs; Kaa re L. Nielsen; Mads So nderkae r; Marina Iovene; Giovana A. Torres; Jiming Jiang; Richard E. Veilleux; Christian W. B. Bachem; Jan de Boer; Theo Borm; Bjorn Kloosterman; Herman van Eck; Erwin Datema; Bas te Lintel Hekkert; Aska Goverse; Roeland C. H. J. van Ham; Richard G. F. Visser

    2011-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is the world’s most important non-grain food crop and is central to global food security. It is clonally propagated, highly heterozygous, autotetraploid, and suffers acute inbreeding depression. Here we use a homozygous doubled-monoploid potato clone to sequence and assemble 86% of the 844-megabase genome. We predict 39,031 protein-coding genes and present evidence for at least two

  18. Suppression of Rhizoctonia solani in potato fields. 1. Occurrence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Jager; H. Velvis

    1983-01-01

    A search was made forRhizoctonia solani-suppressive soils by establishing many small experimental plots, half of which were planted withRhizoctonia-infected seed potatoes and the other half with disinfected seed stock. The sclerotium index of the harvested tubers was compared witht that of the seed potatoes. In suppressive soils, the sclerotium index of the harvest is much lower than that of the

  19. Pasta Fortified with Potato Juice: Structure, Quality, and Consumer Acceptance.

    PubMed

    Kowalczewski, Przemys?aw; Lewandowicz, Gra?yna; Makowska, Agnieszka; Knoll, Ismena; B?aszczak, Wioletta; Bia?as, Wojciech; Kubiak, Piotr

    2015-06-01

    The potential of potato juice in relieving gastrointestinal disorders has already been proven. Work continues on implementation of this active component into products that are widely consumed. In this article, results of an attempt to fortify pasta with potato juice are presented and discussed. Fortification is performed using fresh and dried juice. The influence of the addition on culinary properties of the final product, such as cooking weight and cooking loss, as well as microstructure, color, texture, and consumer acceptance were evaluated. It was found that potato juice can be used for fortification of pasta both in its fresh and dried forms, however the effects on different responses depend on the potato juice form used. The addition of potato juice influenced the color of the product reducing its lightness and shifting color balances from green to red, yellow color saturation was decreased as well. Changes in color were more significant in the case of fresh juice addition. The firmness and microstructure of pasta was also influenced. The surface microstructure of pasta containing fresh potato juice was different from that of the other 2 products being a likely explanation of the lower cooking loss observed in its case. In contrast, the consistency of dough was strengthened by addition of dried potato juice. Principal components analysis indicated that the color change had the most pronounced effect on consumer acceptance. Other physicochemical changes were slightly less significant. Nevertheless, sensory evaluation proved that functional pasta produced with fresh potato juice finds consumer acceptance comparable with that of classic pasta. PMID:25982048

  20. Simulation Models for Potato Late Blight Management and Ecology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. A. Forbes; W. E. Fry; J. L. Andrade-Piedra; D. Shtienberg

    Late blight of potato has been one of the most widely studied diseases and particular attention has been given to the mathematical\\u000a description of disease development. Several process based simulation models have been developed and this paper focuses primarily\\u000a on several versions developed at Cornell University, and later through collaboration between that University, the International\\u000a Potato Center and the Volcani

  1. Keys to Profitable Texas Sweet Potato Production, Storage and Marketing. 

    E-print Network

    Roberts, Roland E.; Longbrake, Thomas D.; Cotner, Sam; Menges, Terry; McCraw, B. Dean; Paterson, Donald R.

    1979-01-01

    organisms which cause soft rot. Avoiding all injury is impossible during handling; however, the sweet potato has a mechanism which heals the wounds after the root has been injured. The rot organism cannot enter properly healed wounds. Correct curing... heals wounds. Factors which help the healing process during handling for shipment are the 'same as those which help the healing during curing; however, healing pro ceeds at a slower rate when a sweet potato root is handled after curing. Adequate...

  2. Nitrogen source evaluation for potato production on irrigated sandy soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. G. Bundy; R. P. Wolkowski; G. G. Weis

    1986-01-01

    Ammonium sulfate (AS), ammonium nitrate (AN), urea (U), and calcium nitrate (CN) were evaluated as supplemental N sources\\u000a for sprinkler irrigated potatoes on a loamy sand soil by determining N source effects on potato yield, quality, recovery of\\u000a applied N in tubers, and petiole NO\\u000a 3\\u000a -\\u000a concentration. At the N rate required to maximize yield (224 kg N\\/ha), 5-year

  3. QTL mapping of internal heat necrosis in tetraploid potato

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. H. McCord; B. R. Sosinski; K. G. Haynes; M. E. Clough; G. C. Yencho

    2011-01-01

    Internal heat necrosis (IHN) is a physiological disorder of potato tubers. We developed a linkage map of tetraploid potato\\u000a using AFLP and SSR markers, and mapped QTL for mean severity and percent incidence of IHN. Phenotypic data indicated that\\u000a the distribution of IHN is skewed toward resistance. Late foliage maturity was slightly but significantly correlated with\\u000a increased IHN symptoms. The

  4. Conservation Tillage in Potato Rotations in Eastern Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Carter; R. D. Peters; J. B. Sanderson

    \\u000a Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) farming systems are often associated with soil degradation due to their excessive use of tillage and production of low\\u000a levels of crop residue in the potato year. Results from a 12-year study, initiated on a fine sandy loam (Orthic Podzol) in\\u000a Prince Edward Island (eastern Canada), were evaluated to assess the use of conservation tillage (CT),

  5. Improved measurement of vertical bar V-cb vertical bar using (B)over-bar -> D(*)l(nu)over-bar decays

    E-print Network

    Ammar, Raymond G.; Besson, David Zeke; Zhao, X.

    2002-08-01

    We determine the weak coupling \\V-cb\\ between the b and c quarks using a sample of 3x10(6) B (B) over bar events in the CLEO detector at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring. We determine the yield of reconstructed (B) over bar -->D-*.(?) over bar...

  6. Bar instabilities in Coma cluster galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, L.A.

    1981-03-01

    The radial distribution of bar versus nonbar galaxies within the Coma cluster shows that a significantly larger fraction of bar galaxies are members of the cluster core. This result can be used either to estimate the time scale for the decay of bar instabilities or to argue that galaxies in the core of Coma are confined within the core.

  7. ARL Explosive Blast Bar Gauge Response Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, Gerrit; Boyle, Vincent; Benjamin, Richard

    2013-06-01

    Simulations allow us to optimize the design of a bar gauge. The incident blast wave imparts a wave that travels down the metal bar. Strain gauges positioned along the bar measure the strain produced by the bar wave, allowing determination of pressure and impulse at the bar face. The measured pressure history depends on the arrangement of the bar gauge. If a large metal plate surrounds the bar face, a reflected blast pressure is measured. If a metal fixture that forms a nozzle surrounds the bar face, the initial pressure will be the same as above. In time, release waves emanating from the nozzle edge will decrease the pressure at the bar face. The bar diameter and size of strain gauges control the time response or gauge bandwidth. CTH hydrocode simulations allow optimization of bar gauge features for various size explosive charges. The simulations predicted the response of the metal plate arrangement to a blast from a spherical composition C4 charge. The simulations predicted the proper metal plate diameter for a reflected pressure measurement. Other simulations compared the response of the bar gauge for both configurations (nozzle or plate surround) when subjected to the same blast loading. Pressure histories from simulations were compared to those from experiment and those predicted by the CONWEP blast code. The initial experimental and CONWEP pressures were in reasonable agreement.

  8. Exotic c c-bar Mesons

    E-print Network

    Eric Braaten

    2008-08-21

    A surprising number of new c c-bar mesons with masses above the D D-bar threshold have been discovered at the B factories. Some of them are ordinary charmonium states, but others are definitely exotic mesons. The current theoretical status of the new c c-bar mesons is summarized.

  9. ORBITAL SUPPORT OF FAST AND SLOW INNER BARS IN DOUBLE-BARRED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Maciejewski, Witold; Small, Emma E., E-mail: wxm@astro.livjm.ac.u [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Twelve Quays House, Egerton Wharf, Birkenhead, CH41 1LD (United Kingdom)

    2010-08-10

    We analyze how the orbital support of the inner bar in a double-barred galaxy (nested bars) depends on the angular velocity (i.e., pattern speed) of this bar. We study orbits in seven models of double bars using the method of invariant loops. The range of pattern speed is covered exhaustively. We find that not all pattern speeds are allowed when the inner bar rotates in the same direction as the outer bar. Below a certain minimum pattern speed orbital support for the inner bar abruptly disappears, while at high values of this speed the orbits indicate an increasingly round bar that looks more like a twist in the nuclear isophotes than a dynamically independent component. For values between these two extremes, orbits supporting the inner bar extend further out as the bar's pattern speed decreases, their corresponding loops become more eccentric, pulsate more, and their rotation becomes increasingly non-uniform, as they speed up and slow down in their motion. Lower pattern speeds also lead to a less coherent bar, as the pulsation and acceleration increasingly varies among the loops supporting the inner bar. The morphologies of fast and slow inner bars expected from the orbital structure studied here have been recently recovered observationally by decomposition of double-barred galaxies. Our findings allow us to link the observed morphology to the dynamics of the inner bar.

  10. Jasmonic acid inducible aspartic proteinase inhibitors from potato.

    PubMed

    Kreft, S; Ravnikar, M; Mesko, P; Pungercar, J; Umek, A; Kregar, I; Strukelj, B

    1997-03-01

    A new cDNA clone coding for an aspartic proteinase inhibitor homologue was isolated from a potato tuber cDNA library. Southern blot analysis was used to study the structural diversity of the aspartic proteinase inhibitor gene family in several species of the Solanaceae. The existence of sequence-homologous genes was confirmed in the genomic DNA of different potato cultivars (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Désirée, Pentland Squire and Igor), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), aubergine (S. melongena L.) and a wild type of bittersweet (S. dulcamara L.). Northern blot hybridization of total RNA, isolated from leaves under non-stress conditions, of different solanaceous species and of potato tubers showed that the gene transcripts encoding aspartic proteinase inhibitors occur mainly in potato tubers. The presence of several cathepsin D inhibitor isoforms has been detected at the protein level. At least four isoforms were isolated by affinity chromatography on cathepsin D-Sepharose and characterized. Additionally, exogenous treatment of potato plantlets by jasmonic acid (JA) over a wide range of concentrations (0-100 microM) was performed in a stem node culture in vitro. We demonstrated that the expression of aspartic proteinase inhibitor mRNA was drastically induced in potato shoots at concentrations of 50-100 microM JA. PMID:9055446

  11. Genetic variation for potato tuber micronutrient content and implications for biofortification of potatoes to reduce micronutrient malnutrition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Micronutrients are crucial to healthy growth and development, yet a large proportion of the world’s population suffers from micronutrient deficiencies. Biofortification of staple foods has tremendous potential to alleviate these deficiencies. Potato production in developing countries is increasing...

  12. Anthocyanins from a Norwegian potato cultivar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Torgils Fossen; Dag Olav Øvstedal; Rune Slimestad; Øyvind M. Andersen

    2003-01-01

    The main anthocyanins of purple sprouts of a Norwegian potato cultivar, Solanum tuberosum L., were isolated from a purified methanolic extract by preparative HPLC. Their structures were determined to be the novel anthocyanins, petunidin 3-O-[6-O-(4-O-E-caffeoyl-O-?-rhamnopyranosyl)-?-glucopyranoside]-5-O-?-glucopyranoside (1) (10%) and peonidin, 3-O-[6-O-(4-O-E-caffeoy1-O-?-rhamnopyranosyl)-?-glucopyranoside]-5-O-?-glucopyranoside (2) (6%) in addition to petunidin, 3-O-[6-O-(4-O-E -p-coumaroyl-O-?-rhamnopyranosyl)-?-glucopyranoside]-5-O-?-g1ucopyranoside, petanin (3) (37%) and peonidin, 3-O-[6-O-(4-O-E-p-coumaroyl-O-?-rhamnopyranosyl)-?-glucopyranoside]-5-O-?-glucopyranoside, peonanin (4) (25%). The same major

  13. Composition of oxalates in baked taro ( Colocasia esculenta var. Schott) leaves cooked alone or with additions of cows milk or coconut milk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. P. Savage; L. Mårtensson; J. R. Sedcole

    2009-01-01

    Taro (Colocasia esculenta var. Schott) is a major staple food crop in parts of Asia and the Pacific Islands and two different cultivars of taro plants Taro Tonga (C. esculenta) and Taro Futuna (Xanthosoma sagittifolium), known respectively as Maori and Japanese, are grown as a minor crop in New Zealand. The leaves are either boiled or baked before they are

  14. Apparel, Baking, Laundry and Dry Cleaning, and Textile Mill Products Industries. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on occupations in the clothing and baking industries, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include occupations in the…

  15. Study of hydroxymethylfurfural and furfural formation in cakes during baking in different ovens, using a validated multiple-stage extraction-based analytical method.

    PubMed

    Petisca, Catarina; Henriques, Ana Rita; Pérez-Palacios, Trinidad; Pinho, Olívia; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O

    2013-12-15

    A procedure for extraction of hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and furfural from cakes was validated. Higher yield was achieved by multiple step extraction with water/methanol (70/30) and clarification with Carrez I and II reagents. Oven type and baking time strongly influenced HMF, moisture and volatile profile of model cakes, whereas furfural content was not significantly affected. No correlation was found between these parameters. Baking time influenced moisture and HMF formation in cakes from traditional and microwave ovens but not in steam oven cakes. Significant moisture decrease and HMF increase (3.63, 9.32, and 41.9 mg kg(-1)dw at 20, 40 and 60 min, respectively) were observed during traditional baking. Cakes baked by microwave also presented a significant increase of HMF (up to 16.84 mg kg(-1)dw at 2.5 min). Steam oven cakes possessed the highest moisture content and no significant differences in HMF and furfural. This oven is likely to form low HMF and furfural, maintaining cake moisture and aroma compounds. PMID:23993492

  16. Identification of pathogenesis-related proteins induced in leaves of potato plants infected with potato cyst nematodes, Globodera species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Rahimi; R. N. Perry; D. J. Wright

    1996-01-01

    The activity of ?-1,3-glucanases and ?-D-glucosidases increased in the leaves of potato plants infected by species of the root parasite genusGlobodera. Enzyme assays revealed the appearance of both the extracellular and intracellularly targeted ?-1,3-glucanases. The reactions of cultivars to nematode infection differed, indicating that different pathotypes of the same species or different species of potato cyst nematode elicited the appearance

  17. Multiple hormone analysis indicates involvement of jasmonate signalling in the early defence of potato to potato virus Y NTN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Kova?; A. Müller; D. Milovanovi? Jarh; M. Milavec; P. Düchting; M. Ravnikar

    2009-01-01

    The involvement of plant hormones in the very early response of plants to virus infection was studied in potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L.) infected with potato virus YNTN (PVYNTN). Endogenous plant hormones and compounds mediating a stress response (JA-jasmonic acid, OPDA-12-oxo phytodienoic acid, SA-salicylic\\u000a acid, IAA-indole-3-acetic acid, ABA-abscisic acid) were simultaneously quantified in susceptible cv. Désirée and resistant\\u000a cv. Santé,

  18. Biological control of Rhizoctonia solani on potatoes by antagonists. 3. Inoculation of seed potatoes with different fungi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. H. J. E. Van Den Boogert; G. Jager

    1984-01-01

    Inoculation of seed potatoes withVerticillium biguttatum and three other hyperparasitic fungi, alone or in combination, resulted in statistically significant reduction of infestation of potato plants byRhizoctonia solani. Gliocladium roseum, Trichoderma hamatum andHormiactis fimicola did not show prolonged protection againstR. solani under farming conditions.H. fimicola, however, inhibited mycelial growth ofR. solani in vitro, particularly in the lower temperature range whereV. biguttatum

  19. Galaxy Zoo: Observing secular evolution through bars

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, Edmond; Faber, S. M.; Koo, David C. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 1156 High Street, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, A. [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388, Marseille (France); Masters, Karen L.; Nichol, Robert C.; Melvin, Thomas [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Dennis Sciama Building, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Bell, Eric F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Lintott, Chris [Oxford Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Schawinski, Kevin [Institute for Astronomy, Department of Physics, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Skibba, Ramin A. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, Department of Physics, 9500 Gilman Drive, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093 (United States); Willett, Kyle W., E-mail: ec2250@gmail.com [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, MN 55455 (United States)

    2013-12-20

    In this paper, we use the Galaxy Zoo 2 data set to study the behavior of bars in disk galaxies as a function of specific star formation rate (SSFR) and bulge prominence. Our sample consists of 13,295 disk galaxies, with an overall (strong) bar fraction of 23.6% ± 0.4%, of which 1154 barred galaxies also have bar length (BL) measurements. These samples are the largest ever used to study the role of bars in galaxy evolution. We find that the likelihood of a galaxy hosting a bar is anticorrelated with SSFR, regardless of stellar mass or bulge prominence. We find that the trends of bar likelihood and BL with bulge prominence are bimodal with SSFR. We interpret these observations using state-of-the-art simulations of bar evolution that include live halos and the effects of gas and star formation. We suggest our observed trends of bar likelihood with SSFR are driven by the gas fraction of the disks, a factor demonstrated to significantly retard both bar formation and evolution in models. We interpret the bimodal relationship between bulge prominence and bar properties as being due to the complicated effects of classical bulges and central mass concentrations on bar evolution and also to the growth of disky pseudobulges by bar evolution. These results represent empirical evidence for secular evolution driven by bars in disk galaxies. This work suggests that bars are not stagnant structures within disk galaxies but are a critical evolutionary driver of their host galaxies in the local universe (z < 1).

  20. Bar-holding prosthetic limb

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vest, Thomas W. (inventor); Norton, William E. (inventor); Belcher, Jewell G. (inventor); Carden, James R. (inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A prosthetic device for below-the-elbow amputees is disclosed. The device has a removable effector, which is attached to the end of an arm cuff. The effector is comprised of a pair of C-shaped members that are oriented so as to face each other. Working in concert, the C-shaped members are able to hold a bar such as a chainsaw handle. A flat spring is fitted around the C-shaped members to hold them together.