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1

Pre-Cooked Baking Potatoes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pre-cooked baking potatoes are prepared by a process wherein raw potatoes are cooked under controlled conditions. The potatoes are cooked to their centers without damage to their surface tissue. An important feature of the cooking is that the temperature ...

K. C. Ng M. L. Weaver M. Nonaka R. N. Sayre

1977-01-01

2

Precooked Baking Potatoes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application discloses a process wherein raw potatoes are cooked under controlled conditions. The potatoes are cooked to their centers without damage to their surface tissue. An important feature of the cooking is that the temperature thereof fo...

K. C. Ng M. L. Weaver M. Nonaka R. N. Sayre

1978-01-01

3

Mohawk: A new baking potato  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The Mohawk variety of potatoes (U. S. D. A. Seedling 46,000) originated in Maine from a cross between Green Mountain and Katahdin.\\u000a Since 1935 it has been tested for yield and quality under various sets of environmental conditions. Results have been promising\\u000a in New York, especially in sections favorable for Green Mountain and Houma. Mohawk combines the high market quality

E. V. Hardenburg; F. J. Stevenson

1943-01-01

4

Quality of baked potatoes as influenced by baking and holding methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Russet Burbank potatoes baked with and without wrapping were held at different temperatures to determine the effect of the\\u000a procedures on cooking quality. Unwrapped and foil-wrapped tubers did not differ in mealiness, color, and extent of off-flavor\\u000a devlopment when judged at the time of doneness.\\u000a \\u000a A holding period of 1 hr for both treatments resulted in a marked deterioration of

Helen H. Cunningham; Mary V. Zaehringer

1972-01-01

5

Utilization of fresh cassava and sweet potato pulps in baking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cassava and Sweet Potato fresh pulps were characterized for their physico?chemical properties and were tested in cake making with the addition of little or no wheat flour. The pulps consisted of water (64.3, 69.13), starch (21.18, 18.57), sugars (6.08, 7.14) and ash (0.72, 0.62)% respectively. They had less than 2% of either crude protein or fibre. Baking reduced the hydrocyanic

E. W. Wanjekeche; E. L. Keya

1995-01-01

6

Studies of sugar composition and starch morphology of baked sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam).  

PubMed

Sugar composition of seven sweet potato cultivars was successfully analyzed. Fresh CYY95-26 sweet potatoes had the highest (8.41%) total sugar content while TNG73 had the lowest (4.5%). For these fresh sweet potatoes, maltose content was very low (0?~?0.39%). Because 49.92?~?92.43% of total sugars were sucrose, sucrose was the major sugar composition of fresh sweet potatoes. After the baking treatment, the total sugar content of baked sweet potatoes was dramatically increased due to the formation of maltose. The maltose content significantly increased from 0?~?0.39% to 8.81?~?13.97% on dry weight basis. Therefore, maltose should be included in calculating the total sugar content. Electronic micrographs of fresh sweet potato samples showed that the size of starch granules was generally less than 20 ?m. After the baking treatment, starch granules completely gelatinized. PMID:24426034

Lai, Yung-Chang; Huang, Che-Lun; Chan, Chin-Feng; Lien, Ching-Yi; Liao, Wayne C

2013-12-01

7

Volatile flavour components of baked potato flesh. A comparison of eleven potato cultivars.  

PubMed

Tubers of eleven cultivars of potato were baked and the flavour compounds from the flesh were isolated by headspace adsorption onto Tenax and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Lipid degradation and the Maillard reaction were the main sources of flavour compounds, accounting for 22-69% and 28-77%, respectively, of the total yields. Various sulfur compounds, methoxypyrazines and terpenes were also identified at lower levels. Relative aroma impact values (RAVs) were calculated by dividing compound yields by the odour threshold value. Compounds contributing most to aroma (RAV > 10,000 in at least one cultivar) were 2-isobutyl-3-methoxypyrazine, 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine, beta-damascenone, dimethyl trisulfide, decanal and 3-methylbutanal. The observed differences in yields and RAVs for compounds among cultivars would be expected to result in differences in perceived flavour. PMID:11715342

Duckham, S C; Dodson, A T; Bakker, J; Ames, J M

2001-10-01

8

Detection threshold of sensory panels for mealiiness of baked potatoes as related to specific gravity differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Thresholds of mealiness detection in baked potatoes were demonstrated in three series of tests each representing three specific\\u000a gavity levels within a broad range of 1.096 to 1.056.\\u000a \\u000a Only one of 15 contrasts of 0.002 differences in specific gravity was detected significantly by 29-member panels in three\\u000a 6-sample tests of stored Russet Burbank potatoes.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a With comparable potatoes differing by 0.004

Elizabeth F. Murphy; Ruth H. True; John M. Hogan

1967-01-01

9

The determination of a mid-scale reference standard for baked potato mealiness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eleven sensory tests (six with Kennebecs and five with Russet Burbank) of five to seven baked potato samples varying in specific\\u000a gravity by 0.004 were conducted to relate the mid-scale mealiness rating by sensory panels to a characteristic specific gravity\\u000a (raw) and total solids (cooked).\\u000a \\u000a The means for specific gravity values associated with the midpoint mealiness rating as estimated from

Elizabeth F. Murphy; Ruth H. True; John M. Hogan

1969-01-01

10

Multigeneration reproductive and developmental toxicity study of bar gene inserted into genetically modified potato on rats.  

PubMed

Each specific protein has an individual gene encoding it, and a foreign gene introduced to a plant can be used to synthesize a new protein. The identification of potential reproductive and developmental toxicity from novel proteins produced by genetically modified (GM) crops is a difficult task. A science-based risk assessment is needed in order to use GM crops as a conventional foodstuff. In this study, the specific characteristics of GM food and low-level chronic exposure were examined using a five-generation animal study. In each generation, rats were fed a solid pellet containing 5% GM potato and non-GM potato for 10 wk prior to mating in order to assess the potential reproductive and developmental toxic effects. In the multigeneration animal study, there were no GM potato-related changes in body weight, food consumption, reproductive performance, and organ weight. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was carried out using extracted genomic DNA to examine the possibility of gene persistence in the organ tissues after a long-term exposure to low levels of GM feed. In each generation, the gene responsible for bar was not found in any of the reproductive organs of the GM potato-treated male and female rats, and the litter-related indexes did not show any genetically modified organism (GMO)-related changes. The results suggest that genetically modified crops have no adverse effects on the multigeneration reproductive-developmental ability. PMID:16326439

Rhee, Gyu Seek; Cho, Dae Hyun; Won, Yong Hyuck; Seok, Ji Hyun; Kim, Soon Sun; Kwack, Seung Jun; Lee, Rhee Da; Chae, Soo Yeong; Kim, Jae Woo; Lee, Byung Mu; Park, Kui Lea; Choi, Kwang Sik

2005-12-10

11

Modern Baking  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Baking is an art, a science, and a field that many people (especially young students) wish to learn more about. Visitors to this site can learn about the hands-on details of baking, along with gaining insights into business trends within the baking world. Modern Baking contains classified ads for those bakers looking to pick up some new equipment (or a new job), and a section of up-to-date industry news as well. The content is divided into eight sections: Formulas & Techniques, Cake Decorating, Supermarket Baking, Retail Baking, Specialty Wholesale Baking, Foodservice Baking, Bread & Pastry, and Bakery Management. Visitors would do well to try the formula in the Formulas & Techniques section for chestnut and cognac brioche, as it brings together two flavors that are truly divine.

2006-11-16

12

Potato Flavor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potato is one of the most popular vegetables worldwide and is the most important vegetable crop in the United States,\\u000a accounting for nearly one-third of per-capita vegetable consumption. Potatoes can be prepared in many ways, including baking,\\u000a boiling, roasting, frying, steaming, and microwaving, allowing for a diversity of uses. Most people find potatoes to be an\\u000a agreeable food and

Shelley H. Jansky

2010-01-01

13

Structure and morphology of baked starch foams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Baked starch foams were characterized by several physical methods in order to better understand the relationship between process parameters and starch foam structure. In this process, a thin-walled object such as a plate is formed by heating a starch batter inside a closed mould. Normal corn and potato starches are gelatinized by this treatment but some swollen granules remain. The

R. L Shogren; J. W Lawton; W. M Doane; K. F Tiefenbacher

1998-01-01

14

Exploring Baking Powder  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners examine baking powder, a combination of three powders: baking soda, cream of tartar, and cornstarch. Learners use their data from the previous activity (see related resource) to identify these three powders as possible ingredients. Then, they test combinations of these powders to determine the active ingredients in baking powder.

Kessler, James H.; Galvan, Patricia M.

2007-01-01

15

Baking Soda Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the basic principles of baking soda chemistry including the chemical composition of baking soda, its acid-base properties, the reaction of bicarbonate solution with calcium ions, and a description of some general types of chemical reactions. Includes a science activity that involves removing calcium ions from water. (LZ)

Science Activities, 1994

1994-01-01

16

Vinegar and baking soda  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Vinegar is an acid. An acid has a pH less than 7. When baking soda is added to vinegar, bubbles are produced and gas is released. Fizzing, bubbling, and change in smell are all evidence of a chemical reaction. The amount of gas produced using baking soda as an indicator tells you the relative concentration of the acid.

N/A N/A (None;)

2008-03-09

17

Baking in the Backwoods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Baking in the woods can be a lot of fun and can help to make a good trip an amazing one. It does take some time, planning, and preparation, and chosen recipes should be tested in the oven at home before trying them out with friends on a 10-day trip. Outdoor baking requires a different set of rules and equipment than those one uses at home and a…

Turner, Steve

2008-01-01

18

Baking Soda & Vinegar Bag  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, create an endothermic reaction by dropping a tissue filled with baking soda in a bag of vinegar. Learners will enjoy the popping sounds they hear as the acids and bases in the bag neutralize each other and create carbon dioxide. This activity guide includes a step-by-step instructional video.

Center, Saint L.

2013-01-17

19

Antibacterial activity of baking soda.  

PubMed

The antibacterial activity of baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) was assessed using three different experimental approaches. Standard minimum inhibitory concentration analyses revealed substantial inhibitory activity against Streptococcus mutans that was not due to ionic strength or high osmolarity. Short-term exposure assays showed significant killing of bacterial suspensions when baking soda was combined with the detergent sodium dodecylsulfate. Multiple, brief exposures of sucrose-colonized S mutans to baking soda and sodium dodecylsulfate caused statistically significant decreases in numbers of viable cells. Use of oral health care products with high concentrations of baking soda could conceivably result in decreased levels of cariogenic S mutans in saliva and plaque. PMID:12017929

Drake, D

1997-01-01

20

Antibacterial activity of baking soda.  

PubMed

The antibacterial activity of baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) was assessed using three different experimental approaches. Standard minimum inhibitory concentration analyses revealed substantial inhibitory activity against Streptococcus mutans that was not due to ionic strength or high osmolarity. Short-term exposure assays showed significant killing of bacterial suspensions when baking soda was combined with the detergent sodium dodecylsulfate. Multiple, brief exposures of sucrose-colonized S mutans to baking soda and sodium dodecylsulfate caused statistically significant decreases in numbers of viable cells. Use of oral health care products with high concentrations of baking soda could conceivably result in decreased levels of cariogenic S mutans in saliva and plaque. PMID:11524862

Drake, D

1996-01-01

21

Baking Soda and Vinegar Rockets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rocket experiments demonstrating conservation of momentum will never fail to generate enthusiasm in undergraduate physics laboratories. In this paper, we describe tests on rockets from two vendors1,2 that combine baking soda and vinegar for propulsion. The experiment compared two analytical approximations for the maximum rocket height to the experimentally measured rocket height. Baking soda and vinegar rockets present fewer safety

James R. Claycomb; Christopher Zachary; Quoc Tran

2009-01-01

22

Baking powder pica mimicking preeclampsia.  

PubMed

We report a case of baking powder pica during pregnancy that was associated with maternal hypertension, hypokalemia, and elevated liver function tests. After discontinuation of baking powder ingestion and correction of electrolyte abnormalities, the blood pressure and the liver function tests normalized. PMID:1442966

Barton, J R; Riely, C A; Sibai, B M

1992-07-01

23

Potato Types and Characteristics: Laboratory Exercises.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a number of simple exercises that demonstrate potato tuber characteristics and are designed for high school biology students and teachers. Exercises include Typing, Grading, Shape, Eye Characteristics, Defects, Specific Gravity, Dry Matter Content, Glucose Content, Baking, Frying/Chipping, and Taste Testing. (JRH)

Pavlista, Alexander D.

1997-01-01

24

Baking Soda and Vinegar Rockets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rocket experiments demonstrating conservation of momentum will never fail to generate enthusiasm in undergraduate physics laboratories. In this paper, we describe tests on rockets from two vendors1,2 that combine baking soda and vinegar for propulsion. The experiment compared two analytical approximations for the maximum rocket height to the experimentally measured rocket height. Baking soda and vinegar rockets present fewer safety concerns and require a smaller launch area than rapid combustion chemical rockets. Both kits were of nearly identical design, costing ~$20. The rockets required roughly 30 minutes of assembly time consisting of mostly taping the soft plastic fuselage to the Styrofoam nose cone.

Claycomb, James R.; Zachary, Christopher; Tran, Quoc

2009-02-01

25

Collection Development: Hitting the Sweet Spot (Baking)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Baking can be intimidating. Just ask all those contestants on "Top Chef" who would rather prepare Beef Wellington than bake a cake. But libraries can take the fear factor out of baking by putting together a solid collection of cookbooks that can help anyone master the sweeter side of the culinary arts or even serve as delicious armchair reading…

Charles, John

2010-01-01

26

Baking Soda and Vinegar Rockets  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rocket experiments demonstrating conservation of momentum will never fail to generate enthusiasm in undergraduate physics laboratories. In this paper, we describe tests on rockets from two vendors that combine baking soda and vinegar for propulsion. The experiment compared two analytical approximations for the maximum rocket height to the…

Claycomb, James R.; Zachary, Christopher; Tran, Quoc

2009-01-01

27

Denali: A high dry matter potato with wide adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Denali is a smooth, white-skinned potato bred and selected for high dry matter content early in tuber development at the Matanuska\\u000a Research Farm. Its flavor is distinctive and pleasant as a baked potato. Chip quality has been excellent directly following\\u000a harvest or from warm storage. In Michigan trials, Denali consistently has had the highest specific gravity and has been one

Curtis H. Dearborn

1979-01-01

28

Quinoa flour in baked products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of quinoa-wheat flour blends (5\\/95, 10\\/90, 20\\/80, 30\\/70) were evaluated in breads, cakes and cookies. Breads baked with 5% and 10% quinoa flour were of good quality. Loaf volume decreased, crumb grain became more open and the texture slightly harsh at higher usage levels of quinoa flour. A bitter aftertaste was noted at the 30% level. Cake quality

K. Lorenz; L. Coulter

1991-01-01

29

Control of Fusarium oxysporum by baking soda  

Microsoft Academic Search

Baking soda (NaHCO3) or KHCO3 was found capable of significantly reducing the mycelial growth of Fusarium species. In Czapek Dox broth with baking soda or KHCO3 at as low as 0.2g\\/100mL, for example, the mycelial growth of Fusarium oxysporum 950 was inhibited by greater than 95%. The bicarbonate component of baking soda was responsible for the inhibitory effect.

Y. D. Hang; E. E. Woodams

2003-01-01

30

Potato with growth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Potatoes are grown in the ground. Potatoes can be eaten by humans and animals and they can also grow more potatoes. Potatoes sprout things called eyes. The eyes are from where both the roots and potatoes develop.

Peggy Greb (USDA;ARS)

2006-05-23

31

An Analysis of the Baking Occupation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The general purpose of the occupational analysis is to provide workable, basic information dealing with the many and varied duties performed in the baking occupation. Such tasks as choosing ingredients and the actual baking process are logical primary concerns, but also explored are the safety and sanitation factors and management problems in a…

Boyadjid, Thomas A; Paoletti, Donald J.

32

Baking soda: a potentially fatal home remedy.  

PubMed

We present a case of a six-week-old infant who developed life-threatening complications after unintentional sodium bicarbonate intoxication. Baking soda was being used by the mother as a home remedy to "help the baby burp." A review of the literature regarding the use (or misuse) of baking soda follows. Our patient, along with the other noted case reports, emphasizes the need for warnings on baking soda products whose labels recommend its use as an antacid. Poisonings must be high in the differential diagnosis of any patient, regardless of age, who presents with altered mental status or status epilepticus. PMID:7596870

Nichols, M H; Wason, S; Gonzalez del Rey, J; Benfield, M

1995-04-01

33

The contribution of heavy metals in potato peel to dietary intake.  

PubMed

For potatoes grown in soil contaminated by Pb/Zn smelter smoke it was observed that Cd and Pb accumulated in the peel. When potatoes are baked both skin and tuber may be eaten. From an investigation of the relative contributions of peel and tuber to diet it was concluded that normally when both are eaten together there is no risk to health from ingesting excess of toxic metals. PMID:6648513

Davies, B E; Crews, H M

1983-09-01

34

Bar Graphs!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mrs. Kohlar has been working with you on bar graphs. Here are a couple of games for you to play to help you practice using them. Catch all the Bugs in the system and put them in the correct column of the bar graph. Answer the questions about the bugs in the graph. You can play the game twice if you wish. Do these bar graph activities and have some bar graph fun! Don\\'t worry about the last question, just answer ...

Pocock, Mrs.

2006-10-26

35

Infrared Baking of Positive Photoresist for Hybrid Microcircuit Fabrication.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of infrared heating to bake Shipley AZ1350 positive photoresist before exposure was investigated as an integral part of a cost-effective hybrid microcircuit photolithographic procedure. The baking parameters which affected the substrate temperatur...

L. E. Schantz

1976-01-01

36

Potato Power  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use potatoes to light an LED clock (or light bulb) as they learn how a battery works in a simple circuit and how chemical energy changes to electrical energy. As they learn more about electrical energy, they better understand the concepts of voltage, current and resistance.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

37

U.S. Milling and Baking Industries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

U.S. per capita flour consumption reached 128 pounds in 1987, the highest mark since the early 1950's and 4 pounds over the 1986 level. This strong demand has been accompanied in the milling and baking industries by larger output per plant, improved produ...

J. L. Harwood M. N. Leath W. G. Heid

1989-01-01

38

Metrics for Food Preparation, Baking, Meat Cutting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to meet the job-related metric measurement needs of food preparation, baking, meat cutting students, this instructional package is one of five for the home economics occupations cluster, part of a set of 55 packages for metric instruction in different occupations. The package is intended for students who already know the occupational…

Cooper, Gloria S., Ed.; Magisos, Joel H., Ed.

39

Baking a magnetic-field display  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Copy machine developer powder is an alternative for creating permanent displays of magnetic fields. A thin layer of developer powder on a sheet of paper placed over a magnet can be baked in the oven, producing a lasting image of a magnetic field.

Cavanaugh, Terence; Cavanaugh, Catherine

1998-02-01

40

Bioavailability of a potato chromium complex to the laboratory rat  

SciTech Connect

Research objectives were to study the effect of food source, preparation method and chemical form on bioavailability of chromium. Chromium concentration in potatoes was determined and tubers labeled either intrinsically or extrinsically with radioactive chromate. A labeled chromium complexes was isolated from preparations of raw, baked or fried potatoes and chromatographed on gel permeation media. Availability of the potato chromium complex to the rat was examined in three feeding studies. Animals were dosed with radioactive extrinsically or intrinsically labeled potato extract or with chromate. A labeled chromium complex was isolated from gastrointestinal contents of rats and chromatographed. Potato pulp and peel contained 1.63 and 2.70 ..mu..g Cr/g tissue respectively. True and apparent absorption from extrinsically labeled feedings were 33.4 +/- 4.7 and 29.8 +/- 11.2% respectively, and no differences existed between absorption from raw and cooked potatoes. Absorption from the extrinsic labeled potatoes differed significantly from absorption of inorganic chromatium. Apparent absorption of raw (11.1 +/- 7.9%) and cooked (-0.7 +/- 2.8%) intrinsically labeled feedings differed significantly. Absorption of inorganic chromium was 17.8% (true) and 11.5% (apparent). Examination of the chromium complex isolated from gastrointestinal tract contents showed enlargement of the complex in the stomach after consumption.

Gilbert, H.K.

1985-01-01

41

Potato Straw  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this physics demonstration, learners are challenged to insert a straw the furthest into a potato. After learners explore different techniques, the demonstrator can show them how to hold the straw firmly about 2/3 of the way up and use a sharp thrusting movement. Use this activity to explore force and surface area. This activity guide includes a helpful video that demonstrates each step of the demonstration.

Physics, Institute O.

2012-07-12

42

Potatoes and Human Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber follows only rice and wheat in world importance as a food crop for human consumption. Cultivated potatoes have spread from the Andes of South America where they originated to 160 countries around the world. Consumption of fresh potatoes has declined while processed products have increased in popularity. As the potato becomes a staple in

Mary Ellen Camire; Stan Kubow; Danielle J. Donnelly

2009-01-01

43

Bar Graph  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students use preset data or input their own data to be represented by a bar graph. This activity allows students to explore bar graphs and how changing scales will alter how their data is represented. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

2010-01-01

44

Baking the first bread in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Getaway Special program is a joint venture between Spar, Monarch flour and Telesat, with Telesat being responsible for the design, manufacture and implementation of the equipment. The purpose of the experiment is to investigate the behavior of bread yeast in the absence of gravity and in the presence of normal atmospheric pressure. The proposed design mixes flour, water and yeast on-orbit, allows the mixture to prove and then bakes it. This paper outlines the development history of the experiment, the various test programs and some of the problems encountered, with their solutions.

1987-01-01

45

Survival of Salmonella during baking of peanut butter cookies.  

PubMed

Peanuts and peanut-based products have been the source of recent Salmonella outbreaks worldwide. Because peanut butter is commonly used as an ingredient in baked goods, such as cookies, the potential risk of Salmonella remaining in these products after baking needs to be assessed. This research examines the potential hazard of Salmonella in peanut butter cookies when it is introduced via the peanut-derived ingredient. The survival of Salmonella during the baking of peanut butter cookies was determined. Commercial, creamy-style peanut butter was artificially inoculated with a five-strain Salmonella cocktail at a target concentration of 10(8) CFU/g. The inoculated peanut butter was then used to prepare peanut butter cookie dough following a standard recipe. Cookies were baked at 350 °F (177 °C) and were sampled after 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, and 15 min. Temperature profiles of the oven and cookies were monitored during baking. The water activity and pH of the inoculated and uninoculated peanut butter, raw dough, and baked cookies were measured. Immediately after baking, cookies were cooled, and the survival of Salmonella was determined by direct plating or enrichment. After baking cookies for 10 min, the minimum reduction of Salmonella observed was 4.8 log. In cookies baked for 13 and 14 min, Salmonella was only detectable by enrichment reflecting a Salmonella reduction in the range of 5.2 to 6.2 log. Cookies baked for 15 min had no detectable Salmonella. Results of this study showed that proper baking will reduce Salmonella in peanut butter cookies by 5 log or more. PMID:24680076

Lathrop, Amanda A; Taylor, Tiffany; Schnepf, James

2014-04-01

46

Relationship between Processing Method and the Glycemic Indices of Ten Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas) Cultivars Commonly Consumed in Jamaica  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the effect of different traditional cooking methods on glycemic index (GI) and glycemic response of ten Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) cultivars commonly eaten in Jamaica. Matured tubers were cooked by roasting, baking, frying, or boiling then immediately consumed by the ten nondiabetic test subjects (5 males and 5 females; mean age of 27 ± 2 years). The GI varied between 41 ± 5–93 ± 5 for the tubers studied. Samples prepared by boiling had the lowest GI (41 ± 5–50 ± 3), while those processed by baking (82 ± 3–94 ± 3) and roasting (79 ± 4–93 ± 2) had the highest GI values. The study indicates that the glycemic index of Jamaican sweet potatoes varies significantly with the method of preparation and to a lesser extent on intravarietal differences. Consumption of boiled sweet potatoes could minimize postprandial blood glucose spikes and therefore, may prove to be more efficacious in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Bahado-Singh, Perceval S.; Riley, Cliff K.; Wheatley, Andrew O.; Lowe, Henry I. C.

2011-01-01

47

Evolution of bubble size distribution in baked foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model to predict the bubble size distribution in baked foods and the oven rise during baking process is presented, and the effect of changing various model parameters on the model output is studied. The model incorporates a population balance equation for the formation and expansion of bubbles coupled with reaction kinetics and heat and mass transfer equations. Nucleation and

Prashant Deshlahra; Anurag Mehra; Debjani Ghosal

2009-01-01

48

Thermodynamics of bread baking: A two-state model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bread baking can be viewed as a complex physico-chemical process. It is governed by transport of heat and is accompanied by changes such as gelation of starch, the expansion of air cells within dough, and others. We focus on the thermodynamics of baking and investigate the heat flow through dough and find that the evaporation of excess water in dough is the rate-limiting step. We consider a simplified one-dimensional model of bread, treating the excess water content as a two-state variable that is zero for baked bread and a fixed constant for unbaked dough. We arrive at a system of coupled, nonlinear ordinary differential equations, which are solved using a standard Runge-Kutta integration method. The calculated baking times are consistent with common baking experience.

Zürcher, Ulrich

2014-03-01

49

Precooked Potato Products.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This invention relates to and has among its objects the provision of novel potato products and novel processes for making them. It is a particular object of the invention to provide a precooked, non-par-fried potato piece, such as a French-fried potato, s...

M. L. Weaver K. C. Ng

1979-01-01

50

Paranoid potato  

PubMed Central

Phytophthora is the most devastating pathogen of dicot plants. There is a need for resistance sources with different modes of action to counteract the fast evolution of this pathogen. In order to better understand mechanisms of defense against P. infestans, we analyzed several clones of potato. Two of the genotypes tested, Sarpo Mira and SW93-1015, exhibited strong resistance against P. infestans in field trials, whole plant assays and detached leaf assays. The resistant genotypes developed different sizes of hypersensitive response (HR)-related lesions. HR lesions in SW93-1015 were restricted to very small areas, whereas those in Sarpo Mira were similar to those in Solanum demissum, the main source of classical resistance genes. SW93-1015 can be characterized as a cpr (constitutive expressor of PR genes) genotype without spontaneous microscopic or macroscopic HR lesions. This is indicated by constitutive hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production and PR1 (pathogenesis-related protein 1) secretion. SW93-1015 is one of the first plants identified as having classical protein-based induced defense expressed constitutively without any obvious metabolic costs or spontaneous cell death lesions.

Ali, Ashfaq; Moushib, Laith Ibrahim; Lenman, Marit; Levander, Fredrik; Olsson, Kerstin; Carlson-Nilson, Ulrika; Zoteyeva, Nadezhda; Liljeroth, Erland; Andreasson, Erik

2012-01-01

51

Acute toxicity from baking soda ingestion.  

PubMed

Sodium bicarbonate is an extremely well-known agent that historically has been used for a variety of medical conditions. Despite the widespread use of oral bicarbonate, little documented toxicity has occurred, and the emergency medicine literature contains no reports of toxicity caused by the ingestion of baking soda. Risks of acute and chronic oral bicarbonate ingestion include metabolic alkalosis, hypernatremia, hypertension, gastric rupture, hyporeninemia, hypokalemia, hypochloremia, intravascular volume depletion, and urinary alkalinization. Abrupt cessation of chronic excessive bicarbonate ingestion may result in hyperkalemia, hypoaldosteronism, volume contraction, and disruption of calcium and phosphorus metabolism. The case of a patient with three hospital admissions in 4 months, all the result of excessive oral intake of bicarbonate for symptomatic relief of dyspepsia is reported. Evaluation and treatment of patients with acute bicarbonate ingestion is discussed. PMID:8285975

Thomas, S H; Stone, C K

1994-01-01

52

Conestoga: A new early potato cultivar with very good table and chipping qualities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conestoga is an early, white-skinned potato with very vigorous early growth. It has very good boiling, baking and chipping\\u000a qualities. Yield is comparable to that of Superior, with chip colour and specific gravity slightly higher than Norchip’s.\\u000a Conestoga is moderately resistant to virus leafroll, net necrosis, early blight, and common scab and moderately susceptible\\u000a to mild and rugose mosaic.

G. R. Johnston; R. G. Rowberry; J. F. Alex

1983-01-01

53

Identification of potent odorants formed during the preparation of extruded potato snacks.  

PubMed

Extrusion cooking processing followed by air-drying has been applied to obtain low-fat potato snacks. Optimal parameters were developed for a dough recipe. Dough contained apart from potato granules 7% of canola oil, 1% of salt, 1% of baking powder, 5% of maltodextrin, and 15% of wheat flour. After the extrusion process, snacks were dried at 85 degrees C for 15 min followed by 130 degrees C for 45 min. The potent odorants of extruded potato snacks were identified using aroma extract dilution analysis and gas chromatography-olfactometry. Among the characteristic compounds, methional with boiled potato flavor, benzenemethanethiol with pepper-seed flavor, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline with popcorn flavor, benzacetaldehyde with strong flowery flavor, butanal with rancid flavor, and 2-acetylpyrazine with roasty flavor were considered to be the main contributors to the aroma of extruded potato snacks. Several compounds were concluded to be developed during extrusion cooking, such as ethanol, 3-methylbutanal, (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one with geranium flavor, and unknown ones with the flavor of boiled potato, cumin, candy, or parsley root. Compounds such as methanethiol, 2,3-pentanedione, limonene, 2-acetylpyrazine, 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone, 2-methyl-3,5-diethylpyrazine, 5-methyl-2,3-diethylpyrazine, and (E)-beta-damascenone were probably developed during air-drying of the potato extrudate. PMID:16076130

Majcher, Ma?gorzata A; Jele?, Henryk H

2005-08-10

54

Usage of enzymes in a novel baking process.  

PubMed

In this study, the effects of different enzymes (alpha-amylase, xylanase, lipase, protease) on quality of breads baked in different ovens (microwave, halogen lamp-microwave combination and conventional oven) were investigated. It was also aimed to reduce the quality problems of breads baked in microwave ovens with the usage of enzymes. As a control, bread dough containing no enzyme was used. Specific volume, firmness and color of the breads were measured as quality parameters. All of the enzymes were found to be effective in reducing the initial firmness and increasing the specific volume of breads baked in microwave and halogen lamp-microwave combination ovens. However, in conventional baking, the effects of enzymes on crumb firmness were seen mostly during storage. The color of protease enzyme added breads were found to be significantly different from that of the no enzyme and the other enzyme added breads in the case of all type of ovens. PMID:15146975

Keskin, Semin Ozge; Sumnu, Gülüm; Sahin, Serpil

2004-04-01

55

Characteristic coloring curve for white bread during baking.  

PubMed

The effect of heating conditions on the crust color formation was investigated during the baking of white bread. The surface temperatures were monitored with thermocouples attached to the inside surface of the loaf pan cover. The trace of the surface color in the L(*)a(*)b(*) color coordinate system is defined as the characteristic coloring curve. The overall baking process was classified into the following four stages based on the characteristic coloring curve: i) pre-heating (surface temperature < 110 °C), ii) Maillard reaction (110-150 °C), iii) caramelization (150-200 °C), and iv) over-baking (surface temperature>200 °C). A linear relationship was observed between the L(*) decrease and the increase in weight loss of a sample at each oven air temperature. The L(*) value appeared to be suitable as an indicator to control the surface color by baking conditions. PMID:21307578

Onishi, Masanobu; Inoue, Michiko; Araki, Tetsuya; Iwabuchi, Hisakatsu; Sagara, Yasuyuki

2011-01-01

56

Flat as a Pancake? Exploring Rising in Baked Goods.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an activity that can be used for acid-base chemistry, everyday chemistry, or food chemistry. Investigates the rising in baked goods. Includes both instructor information and student activity sheets. (YDS)

Journal of Chemical Education, 2000

2000-01-01

57

Method for Vacuum Baking Indium In-situ.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention concerns itself with a method for synthesizing highly pure, polycrystalline, indium phosphide materials for semiconductor applications. The method includes the in-situ vacuum baking of raw indium prior to using the indium as a reacti...

J. A. Adamski

1983-01-01

58

Sourdough products for convenient use in baking.  

PubMed

Sourdough fermentations require a specific knowledge on the effects of process parameters, raw materials and micro-organisms in order to obtain a specific, reproducible sourdough and bread quality. This knowledge is not necessarily available in bakeries. Sourdough starter cultures, either active sourdoughs (Reinzuchtsauerteig) or freeze-dried micro-organisms are used to start sourdough fermentation with the required micro-flora. As sourdough fermentation is a labour-intensive and a time-consuming process, a growing demand for convenient products arised early. First organic acids (lactic acid, acetic acid, citric acid) and mixtures thereof came in use. These agents were used directly without or in combination with a sourdough; however, flavour and taste of the resulting breads were unsatisfactory. Based on modified and optimized traditional sourdough processes, dried, pasty and liquid sourdoughs were developed. Companies which produce such ready-to-use products, claim for a convenient, direct production of baked goods in constant quality, in combination with all advantages of a biological sourdough fermentation, e.g. flavour and taste, fresh keeping and prolonged microbial shelf-life. Currently, a broad variety of sourdough products with different fermented cereals is available on the market. In order to obtain a stable product, it is a necessity to inactivate the sourdough micro-biota by e.g. pasteurization, drying or autosterilization. PMID:17008160

Brandt, Markus J

2007-04-01

59

Potato wart in America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Potato wart is still confined to restricted areas in Pennsylvania, from which state it was first reported. Its spread has\\u000a been controlled by temperature and moisture relationships, by immune varieties, and by strict regulations that have been applied\\u000a to the importation of foreign potatoes, as well as those governing the growing of potatoes in the infested area. Recently\\u000a the problem

R. E. Hartman; R. V. Akeley

1944-01-01

60

Partial-Baking Process on Gluten-Free Bread: Impact of Hydrocolloid Addition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this work were to assess the impact of partial-baking process on gluten-free bread, and to study how carboxymethylcellulose\\u000a (CMC) and xanthan gum addition affected this process. As different from the conventional baking which involves only one baking\\u000a step (40 min), the part-baking process consisted in an initial-baking step (25 min), storage (7 days, 4°C), and final-baking\\u000a step (15 min). Bread-specific volume

Lorena Susana Sciarini; Gabriela Teresa Pérez; Marie de Lamballerie; Alberto Edel León; Pablo Daniel Ribotta

61

Engineered resistance in potato against potato leafroll virus, potato virus A and potato virus Y.  

PubMed

Transgenic potato plants of Solanum tuberosum cultivar Vales Sovereign were generated that expressed fused, tandem, 200 bp segments derived from the capsid protein coding sequences of potato virus Y (PVY strain O) and potato leafroll virus (PLRV), as well as the cylindrical inclusion body coding sequences of potato virus A (PVA), as inverted repeat double-stranded RNAs, separated by an intron. The orientation of the expressed double-stranded RNAs was either sense-intron-antisense or antisense-intron-sense RNAs, and the double-stranded RNAs were processed into small RNAs. Four lines of such transgenic potato plants were assessed for resistance to infection by PVY-O, PLRV, or PVA, all transmitted by a natural vector, the green-peach aphid, Myzus persicae. Resistance was assessed by the absence of detectable virus accumulation in the foliage. All four transgenic potato lines tested showed 100% resistance to infection by either PVY-O or PVA, but variable resistance to infection by PLRV, ranging from 72 to 96% in different lines. This was regardless of the orientation of the viral inserts in the construct used to generate the transgenic plants and the gene copy number of the transgene. This demonstrates the potential for using tandem, fused viral segments and the inverted-repeat expression system to achieve multiple virus resistance to viruses transmitted by aphids in potato. PMID:23526159

Chung, Bong Nam; Yoon, Ju-Yeon; Palukaitis, Peter

2013-08-01

62

CAMBIOS EN EL VALOR NUTRITIVO DE PATATAS DURANTE DISTINTOS TRATAMIENTOS CULINARIOS CHANGES IN THE NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF POTATOES DURING DIFFERENT CULINARY PROCESSES CAMBIOS NO VALOR NUTRITIVO DE PATACAS DURANTE DISTINTOS TRATAMENTOS CULINARIOS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contents of moisture, ash, protein, fat, starch and ascorbic acid present in Cara potatoes, before and after to apply the following culinary processes: fried, boiled, baked and wrinkled («arrugado»), were determined in order to know the real contribution of these nutrients for its consumption. The frying is the culinary treatment that produces a higher water loss, being replaced partly

P. Suárez Hernández; E. M. Rodríguez Rodríguez; C. Díaz Romero

2004-01-01

63

Removal of Hydrogen from Cadmium Plated High Strength Steel by Baking - A Statistically Designed Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Statistically designed screening experiments were conducted to determine the significance of various parameters on the hydrogen content of bright and dull cadmium plated 4340 steel after baking. It was shown that the baking time was essentially the only s...

D. A. Berman

1982-01-01

64

Dietary baked-milk accelerates resolution of cow's milk allergy in children  

PubMed Central

Background The majority (?75%) of cow's milk-allergic children tolerate extensively heated-(baked-) milk products. Long-term effects of inclusion of dietary baked-milk have not been reported. Objective We report on the outcomes of children who incorporated baked-milk products into their diets. Methods Children evaluated for tolerance to baked-milk (muffin) underwent sequential food challenges to baked-cheese (pizza) followed by unheated-milk. Immunologic parameters were measured at challenge visits. The comparison group were matched to active subjects (using age, sex, and baseline milk-specific IgE) to evaluate the natural history of tolerance development. Results Over a median of 37 months (range 8-75 months), 88 children underwent challenges at varying intervals (range 6-54 months). Among 65 subjects initially tolerant to baked-milk, 39 (60%) now tolerate unheated-milk, 18 (28%) tolerate baked-milk/baked-cheese and 8 (12%) chose to avoid milk strictly. Among the baked-milk-reactive subgroup (n=23), 2 (9%) tolerate unheated-milk, 3 (13%) tolerate baked-milk/baked-cheese, while the majority (78%) avoid milk strictly. Subjects who were initially tolerant to baked-milk were 28 times more likely to become unheated-milk-tolerant compared to baked-milk-reactive subjects (P<.001). Subjects who incorporated dietary baked-milk were 16 times more likely than the comparison group to become unheated-milk-tolerant (P<.001). Median casein IgG4 levels in the baked-milk-tolerant group increased significantly (P<.001); median milk IgE values did not change significantly. Conclusions Tolerance of baked-milk is a marker of transient IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy whereas reactivity to baked-milk portends a more persistent phenotype. The addition of baked-milk to the diet of children tolerating such foods appears to accelerate development of unheated-milk tolerance compared to strict avoidance. Clinical implications Addition of dietary baked-milk is safe, convenient, and well-accepted by patients. Prescribing baked-milk products to milk-allergic children represents an important shift in the treatment paradigm for milk allergy. Capsule summary The majority of cow's milk-allergic children tolerate extensively baked-milk products, which is a marker of transient IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy. Dietary baked-milk appears to accelerate development of unheated-milk tolerance compared to strict avoidance.

Kim, Jennifer S.; Nowak-Wegrzyn, Anna; Sicherer, Scott H.; Noone, Sally; Moshier, Erin L.; Sampson, Hugh A.

2011-01-01

65

Continuous monitoring of dough fermentation and bread baking by magnetic resonance microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The consumer quality of baked products is closely related with dough structure properties. These are developed during dough fermentation and finalized during its baking. In this study, magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) was employed in a study of dough fermentation and baking. A small hot air oven was installed inside a 2.35-T horizontal bore superconducting magnet. Four different samples of commercial

Franci Bajd; Igor Serša

2011-01-01

66

Modeling of Simultaneous Heat and Water Transport in the Baking Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the recent past, several experimental and mathematical studies have been conducted to understand the basic mechanism of heat and water transport involved in the baking process. The experimental studies have helped in developing phenomenological hypotheses for the baking of bread and biscuit. The experimental studies on baking of bread showed that the major transport mechanism involved was evaporation-condensation of

S. S. Sablani; M. Marcotte; O. D. Baik; F. Castaigne

1998-01-01

67

[Accidents affecting potato harvesters].  

PubMed

During industrialization in agriculture, many farming machines have been introduced. It is well-known that farming is a dangerous workplace and that farm machinery cause many serious accidents every year. Four cases of accidents with potato harvesters are discussed. In three of four cases the farmers were injured while cleaning the machine without stopping it, which probably was the main cause of the accidents. Farmers are in general not careful enough when using farm machinery. Every year, farmers in Denmark are severely invalided in accidents with potato harvesters. A strategy to lower the accidents is proposed: 1. Information of farmers, farmer schools, machine constructors and importers about mechanisms of injury. 2. A better education of farmers in using potato harvesters (and other farming machines). 3. Better fencing of the potato harvesters. 4. If possibly constructional changes in the potato harvesters so things will not get stuck, or so that the machine will stop if things stuck. 5. Installation of switches on potato harvesters, which can be reached from all positions, stopping the machines immediately, or a remote switch control carried by the farmer. PMID:8212405

Hansen, J U

1993-09-27

68

Homespun Remedy, Homespun Toxicity: Baking Soda Ingestion for Dyspepsia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 68-year-old man presented to the Emergency Department with a severe metabolic alkalosis after ingesting large quantities of baking soda to treat his dyspepsia. His underlying pulmonary disease and a progressively worsening mental status necessitated intubation for respiratory failure. Laboratory studies revealed a hyponatremic, hypochloremic, hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis. The patient was successfully treated after cessation of the oral bicarbonate, initiation

Keyur Ajbani; Michael E. Chansky; Brigitte M. Baumann

2011-01-01

69

Thermal degradation of deoxynivalenol during maize bread baking.  

PubMed

The thermal degradation of deoxynivalenol (DON) was determined at isothermal baking conditions within the temperature range of 100-250°C, using a crust-like model, which was prepared with naturally contaminated maize flour. No degradation was observed at 100°C. For the temperatures of 150, 200 and 250°C, thermal degradation rate constants (k) were calculated and temperature dependence of DON degradation was observed by using Arrhenius equation. The degradation of DON obeyed Arrhenius law with a regression coefficient of 0.95. A classical bread baking operation was also performed at 250°C for 70?min and the rate of DON degradation in the bread was estimated by using the kinetic data derived from the model study. The crust and crumb temperatures recorded during bread baking were used to calculate the thermal degradation rate constants (k) and partial DON degradations at certain time intervals. Using these data, total degradation at the end of the entire baking process was predicted for both crust and crumb. This DON degradation was consistent with the experimental degradation data, confirming the accuracy of kinetic constants determined by means of the crust-like model. PMID:22264215

Numanoglu, E; Gökmen, V; Uygun, U; Koksel, H

2012-01-01

70

[Temporary disability among workers in bread-baking plants].  

PubMed

A study of the impact of sanitary and hygienic, curative and preventive measures on the morbidity associated with temporary disability was conducted. Bread-baking plants N degrees 1 and N degrees 2 of the city of Vinnitsa were inspected, the number of workers there being 385 and 486, respectively, during 4 years. At the bread-baking plant N degrees 2, where general reconstruction of the production process had been carried out and special curative and preventive measures were being carried out, temporary disability was compared with analogous indicators in persons working at the bread-baking plant N degrees 1, where working conditions and the type of medical care remained unchanged. It was found out that the improvement of working conditions at the bread-baking plants and the carrying-out of special curative and preventive measures among workers resulted in reduction of morbidity especially in respect to the number of disability days. This association was mostly often found in cases of influenza, acute respiratory infections and chronic forms of broncho-pulmonary conditions. PMID:2333573

Anshukov, V K; Golovtsev, Iu N; Kucherenko, E M; Malirchuk, Z T

1990-01-01

71

Bake hardening of nanograin AA7075 aluminum alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work, the bake hardening of nanostructured AA7075 aluminum alloy was compared with that of its coarse-grain counterpart. Surface severe plastic deformation (SSPD) was used to produce nanograin layers on both surfaces of workpieces. The nanostructured layers were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. The thickness of nanostructured layer, having the grains

Kamran Dehghani

72

34. DESPATCH CORE OVENS, GREY IRON FOUNDRY CORE ROOM, BAKES ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

34. DESPATCH CORE OVENS, GREY IRON FOUNDRY CORE ROOM, BAKES CORES THAT ARE NOT MADE ON HEATED OR COLD BOX CORE MACHINES, TO SET BINDING AGENTS MIXED WITH THE SAND CREATING CORES HARD ENOUGH TO WITHSTAND THE FLOW OF MOLTEN IRON INSIDE A MOLD. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

73

Genetically improved potatoes: protection from damage by Colorado potato beetles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Russet Burbank potato plants have been genetically improved to resist insect attack and damage by Colorado potato beetles (Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say)) by the insertion of a cryIIIA gene encoding the insect control protein of Bacillus thuringiensis var. tenebrionis. A modified gene that dramatically improved plant expression of this protein was utilized. Its expression in Russet Burbank potato plants resulted in

Frederick J. Perlak; Terry B. Stone; Yvonne M. Muskopf; Lisa J. Petersen; Gregory B. Parker; Sylvia A. McPherson; Jeff Wyman; Stephen Love; Gary Reed; Duane Biever; David A. Fischhoff

1993-01-01

74

The effects of boiling and leaching on the content of potassium and other minerals in potatoes.  

PubMed

The white potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is a valuable source of potassium in the human diet. While most consumers benefit from high levels of potassium in potato tubers, individuals with compromised kidney function must minimize their potassium intake. This study was undertaken to determine the effects of leaching and boiling on levels of potassium and other minerals in potato tubers. Leaching alone did not significantly reduce levels of potassium or other minerals in tubers. Boiling tuber cubes and shredded tubers decreased potassium levels by 50% and 75%, respectively. Reductions in mineral amounts following boiling were observed for phosphorus, magnesium, sulfur, zinc, manganese, and iron. There was no difference between the leaching and boiling treatment and the boiling treatment. In addition, mineral levels in tubers of 6 North American potato cultivars are reported. Significant differences in mineral levels were detected among cultivars, but they were too small to be nutritionally important. Individuals wishing to maximize the mineral nutrition benefits of consuming potatoes should boil them whole or bake, roast, or microwave them. Those who must reduce potassium uptake should boil small pieces before consuming them. PMID:18576999

Bethke, P C; Jansky, S H

2008-06-01

75

10 Tips for Parents: How to Get Kids to Eat More Complex Carbohydrates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers 10 suggestions to help parents encourage their children to eat more complex carbohydrates. Suggestions include microwaving baked potatoes; baking whole-grain breads; snacking on gingersnaps, fig bars, pretzels, or vegetable sticks; mixing cereal into low-fat yogurt; and making soup containing beans, rice, pasta, or potatoes. (SM)

PTA Today, 1991

1991-01-01

76

Active thermography for potato characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the design of a semi-automated heating and scanning system and analytic method for potato characterization. Potatoes are heated using lamps in a heating chamber and then transferred on a movable fixture to an imaging chamber. A non-linear model was designed to predict which potatoes have excessive sugar defects and the model was evaluated with good results. Results from this research will benefit potato growers and manufacturers/producers of potato-based products such as chips and fries.

Hsieh, Sheng-Jen; Sun, Chih-Chen

2008-03-01

77

Bars and Sexual Boundaries  

MedlinePLUS

... Pages Alcohol Sexual Health Women's Health Transcript Sexual aggression against young women in bars is the subject ... and Experimental Research analyzed more than 1,050 aggressive incidents in bars across Toronto, Canada between 2000 ...

78

Thermal degradation of deoxynivalenol during maize bread baking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal degradation of deoxynivalenol (DON) was determined at isothermal baking conditions within the temperature range of 100–250°C, using a crust-like model, which was prepared with naturally contaminated maize flour. No degradation was observed at 100°C. For the temperatures of 150, 200 and 250°C, thermal degradation rate constants (k) were calculated and temperature dependence of DON degradation was observed by

E. Numanoglu; V. Gökmen; U. Uygun; H. Koksel

2012-01-01

79

Studies on the baking properties of wheat: Pigeonpea flour blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pigeonpea flour was substituted at levels of 0, 5, 10, 15,20, 25% to wheat flour and whole wheat meal for bread andChapatti making, respectively. Blends were prepared up to50% for cookie making. Increasing levels of pigeonpeas inthe blends significantly increased the protein and mineralcontent of the baked products. The bread from 10%pigeonpea flour blend with 2–3% vital gluten and 0.5%SSL

K. Harinder; B. Kaur; S. Sharma

1999-01-01

80

Homespun remedy, homespun toxicity: baking soda ingestion for dyspepsia.  

PubMed

A 68-year-old man presented to the Emergency Department with a severe metabolic alkalosis after ingesting large quantities of baking soda to treat his dyspepsia. His underlying pulmonary disease and a progressively worsening mental status necessitated intubation for respiratory failure. Laboratory studies revealed a hyponatremic, hypochloremic, hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis. The patient was successfully treated after cessation of the oral bicarbonate, initiation of intravenous hydration, and correction of electrolyte abnormalities. PMID:18164162

Ajbani, Keyur; Chansky, Michael E; Baumann, Brigitte M

2011-04-01

81

Bar Graph Mania  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Use these activities to build and interpret data on bar graphs. Catch all the bugs in the system and put them in the correct column of the bar graph. Answer the questions about the bugs in the graph. Catch bugs in six rooms. Bugs in the system Do these bar graphing activities. You don\\'t have to do the last question ...

Thurlow, Ms.

2005-10-26

82

Modelling thermal degradation of zearalenone in maize bread during baking.  

PubMed

The thermal degradation of zearalenone (ZEA) was investigated using a crust-like model, representing maize bread, which was prepared with naturally contaminated maize flour. Model samples were heated under isothermal conditions at the temperature range of 100-250°C. No reduction was observed at 100°C. Thermal degradation rate constants (k) were calculated as 0.0017, 0.0143 and 0.0216 min(-1) for 150, 200 and 250°C, respectively. Maize bread baked at 250°C for 70 min was used to test the capability of model kinetic data for the prediction of ZEA reduction. The time-temperature history in the crust and crumb parts was recorded separately. Partial degradation of ZEA at each time interval was calculated by means of the corresponding k-values obtained by using the Arrhenius equation, and the total reduction occurring at the end of the entire baking process was predicted. The reduction in the crumb and crust of bread was also experimentally determined and found to be consistent with the predicted values. It was concluded that the kinetic constants determined by means of the crust-like model could be used to predict the ZEA reduction occurring during baking of maize bread. PMID:23256902

Numanoglu, E; Yener, S; Gökmen, V; Uygun, U; Koksel, H

2013-01-01

83

Fate of trichothecene mycotoxins during the processing: milling and baking.  

PubMed

Toxic secondary metabolites produced by fungi representing Fusarium genus are common contaminants in cereals worldwide. To estimate the dietary intake of these trichothecene mycotoxins, information on their fate during cereal processing is needed. Up-to-date techniques such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used for the analysis of seven trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, HT-2 toxin, T-2 toxin, 15- and 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, and fusarenon-X) in bread production chain (wheat grains, intermediate products collected during milling and baking process, breads). Regardless of whether the grains were naturally infected or artificially inoculated by Fusarium spp. in the field, the fractions obtained from the grain-cleaning procedure contained the highest mycotoxin levels. During milling the highest concentrations of deoxynivalenol were found in the bran, the lowest in the reduction flours. Baking at 210 degrees C for 14 min had no significant effect on deoxynivalenol levels. The rheological properties of dough measured by fermentograph, maturograph, oven rise recorder, and laboratory baking test were carried out, and based on the obtained results the influence of mycotoxin content on rheological behaviour was investigated. PMID:18473219

Lancova, K; Hajslova, J; Kostelanska, M; Kohoutkova, J; Nedelnik, J; Moravcova, H; Vanova, M

2008-05-01

84

Gas Me Up, or, A Baking Powder Diver  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this procedure, a pipet that repeatedly submerges and rises to the surface in a tub of water is produced from a beral pipet and baking powder. The diver uses the same principles as the "submarine" or "frogman" that were obtained with cereal box tops in the 1950s. More recently, various "sharks" using this chemistry have accompanied a candy product of the same name. A weighted plastic pipet, with its tip sealed and the majority of its bulb end removed, is packed with baking powder and placed in water. In the presence of the water, carbon dioxide is formed from the baking powder, changing the buoyancy of the diver. The buoyancy of the diver oscillates between positive and negative as the amount of gas attached increases and then decreases at the surface of the water. The procedure works well in outreach activities with children aged 4 to 40 and beyond. It was used with great success in a mall outreach program during National Chemistry Week. Visitors to the chemistry area were able to make-and-take a diver after testing it in a tub of water.

Derr, Henry R.; Lewis, Tricia; Derr, Bretton J.

2000-02-01

85

Late Blight of Potato.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Epiphytotic development of late blight of potatoes (Phytophthora infestans D.B.) has been registered in the Far Eastern zone and here and there in the Non-Chernozem zones, as well as in Western Siberia and in the Urals. Foci of intensive affection have be...

A. E. Chumakov, T. A. Guseva

1968-01-01

86

7 CFR 1207.306 - Potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 1207.306 Section 1207.306 Agriculture...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions...

2010-01-01

87

7 CFR 1207.306 - Potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...10 2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Potatoes. 1207.306 Section 1207.306 Agriculture...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions...

2009-01-01

88

Ovomucoid Is Not Superior to Egg White Testing in Predicting Tolerance to Baked Egg  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Children with egg allergy may tolerate baked egg products. Ovomucoid specific IgE (sIgE) antibody levels have been suggested to predict outcomes of baked egg challenges. OBJECTIVE We determined the relationship of ovomucoid and egg white sIgE levels and egg white skin prick test (SPT) wheal size with baked egg challenge outcome. METHODS Retrospective review of 1186 patients who underwent ovomucoid sIgE blood testing. Subset analysis was of 169 patients who underwent baked egg food challenges. RESULTS Egg white sIgE, ovomucoid sIgE, and egg white SPT were different among those eating regular egg, eating baked egg only, or avoiding all egg (P < .001 for all). One hundred forty-two of 169 patients (84.0%) passed baked egg challenges. We were able to establish >90% predictive values for passing baked egg challenge for egg white sIgE, ovomucoid sIgE, and egg white SPT. No patient with egg white SPT wheal <3 mm failed a baked egg challenge. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis of egg white sIgE, ovomucoid sIgE, and egg white SPT showed areas under the curve of 0.721, 0.645, and 0.624, respectively. No significant difference was observed among these immunologic parameters in their abilities to predict baked egg challenge outcome (P = .301). CONCLUSION Most children with egg allergy in this study passed baked egg challenges. Ovomucoid sIgE, although a useful clinical predictor of baked egg tolerance, was not superior to egg white SPT or sIgE in predicting outcome of baked egg challenge.

Bartnikas, Lisa M.; Sheehan, William J.; Larabee, Katherine S.; Petty, Carter; Schneider, Lynda C.; Phipatanakul, Wanda

2013-01-01

89

A Study on Degree of Starch Gelatinization in Cakes Baked in Three Different Ovens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of the study was to determine the effects of different baking ovens and different cake formulations on\\u000a the degree of starch gelatinization during cake baking. Baking was performed in microwave, infrared–microwave combination,\\u000a and conventional ovens. Starch gelatinization levels of fat free, 25% fat, and 25% Simplesse™-containing cake samples were\\u000a examined using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and rapid

Ozge Sakiyan; Gulum Sumnu; Serpil Sahin; Venkatesh Meda; Hamit Koksel; Peter Chang

90

Bar Code Labels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

American Bar Codes, Inc. developed special bar code labels for inventory control of space shuttle parts and other space system components. ABC labels are made in a company-developed anodizing aluminum process and consecutively marketed with bar code symbology and human readable numbers. They offer extreme abrasion resistance and indefinite resistance to ultraviolet radiation, capable of withstanding 700 degree temperatures without deterioration and up to 1400 degrees with special designs. They offer high resistance to salt spray, cleaning fluids and mild acids. ABC is now producing these bar code labels commercially or industrial customers who also need labels to resist harsh environments.

1988-01-01

91

Effects of baking-soda-containing dentifrices on oral malodor.  

PubMed

Oral malodor, also known as bad breath or halitosis, is an extremely common problem. Bad breath can arise from many sources in the body, but most frequently is produced in the mouth by the action of gram-negative anaerobic bacteria on sulfur-containing proteinaceous substrates in the saliva, such as debris and plaque. The primary molecules responsible for oral malodor are volatile sulfur compounds (VSC), such as hydrogen sulfide and methylmercaptan. Increased malodor production is related to greater bacterial numbers, reducing conditions, availability of protein substrates, and a pH above neutral. Bad breath is more common in the elderly, as well as those with unhygienic mouths, gingivitis, and periodontitis, but bad breath can also be found in some individuals who are periodontally healthy. The major source of oral malodor is the tongue. Approaches to controlling malodor have included masking, oral hygiene, antibacterial agents, conversion of VSC to nonodorous forms, oxidizing agents, and traditional approaches, including the use of baking soda. Results of controlled double-blind crossover studies, using both organoleptic (sensory) and gas chromatographic analysis of mouth air VSC, indicate that two dentifrices with high baking-soda concentrations, Arm & Hammer Dental Care and Arm & Hammer PeroxiCare, reduce oral malodor. PMID:11524864

Brunette, D M

1996-01-01

92

Ring Bar Grizzly.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application relates to a ring bar grizzly used as a materials handling device to enable the jam-free transfer of loose rocks or other materials at the discharge end of a generally horizontal conveyor. Normally, this ring bar grizzly is used in ...

A. T. Fisk

1980-01-01

93

Multi Bar Graph  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students enter in data to be represented in a double bar graph. Multi bar graphs allow the student to compare multiple characteristics of different subjects like population for different continents over time. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

Shodor

2012-04-02

94

Building Brilliant Bar Graphs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this series of three lesson plans, students create bar graphs, double bar graphs, and determine appropriate intervals for scale. Each lesson incorporates teacher modeling, student practice (students have an opportunity to label and create the scale for their own graphs), assessment (including rubrics), and reteaching or extension options.

Bower, Briana; Miller, Mary

2005-01-01

95

Bar Graph Sorter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students make bar graphs by sorting shapes either by shape or by color. This activity allows students to explore how to sort data to make bar graphs. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

2010-01-01

96

Usual Intake of White potatoes  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of White potatoes Table A13. White potatoes: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.2 (0.01) 0.1

97

Detection of Baking Soda in Flat Bread by Direct pH Metery and Alkalinity Measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is evaluation of direct pH metery and alkalinity measurement methods for determination of baking soda in lavash bread (a kind of flat bread) in order to introduce and recommend a good practice of control. For running the experiments, various samples of lavash bread having different concentrations of baking soda were prepared. Ten grams of each

G. H. R. Jahed Khaniki; F. Vaezi; M. Yunesian; R. Nabizadeh; G. H. A. Paseban

2007-01-01

98

PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED WHILE USING BAKING SODA SOLUTIONS FOR RINSING SALMON EGGS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pre-rinsing unfertilized eggs with a baking soda solution is an effective way of countering the harmful effects of ruptured egg material on fertilization rates but there are problems when using this procedure in large scale fish culture. With large batches of eggs it is difficult to thoroughly decant the final rinse solution so precise control of the amount of baking

W. E. McLean; J. O. T. Jensen

99

Energibesparelser ved hurtigkoeling af bagte levnedsmidler. (Energy conservation in relation to fast cooling of baked foods).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aim was to select the most effective method for fast cooling of baked foods in order to promote the conservation of energy. The investigation was based on a survey of relevant literature and experimentation. The overall time used in the baking process...

P. Gry

1989-01-01

100

In vitro starch digestibility and predicted glycemic index of microwaved and conventionally baked pound cake.  

PubMed

The present study compares the effect of baking process (microwave vs conventional oven) on starch bioavailability in fresh pound cake crumbs and in crumbs from pound cake stored for 8 days. Proximal chemical analysis, resistant starch (RS), retrograded starch (RS3) and starch hydrolysis index (HI) were evaluated. The empirical formula suggested by Granfeldt was used to determine the predicted glycemic index (pGI). Pound cake, one of Mexico's major bread products, was selected for analysis because the quality defects often associated with microwave baking might be reduced with the use of high-fat, high-moisture, batted dough. Differences in product moisture, RS and RS3 were observed in fresh microwave-baked and conventionally baked pound cake. RS3 increased significantly in conventionally baked products stored for 8 days at room temperature, whereas no significantly changes in RS3 were observed in the microwaved product. HI values for freshly baked and stored microwaved product were 59 and 62%, respectively (P > 0.05), whereas the HI value for the conventionally baked product decreased significantly after 8 days of storage. A pound cake with the desired HI and GI characteristics might be obtained by adjusting the microwave baking process. PMID:17661177

Sánchez-Pardo, María Elena; Ortiz-Moreno, Alicia; Mora-Escobedo, Rosalva; Necoechea-Mondragón, Hugo

2007-09-01

101

Study of sponge cake batter baking process. II. Modeling and parameter estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 1D model for heat and mass transfer within a sponge cake batter during a baking process, based on the qualitative analysis of the transfer mechanisms reported in part I of this paper, is presented. With respect to previous literature reports concerning cake baking modeling, the model takes additionally into account the gas phase internal convective flux, the vapo-condensation heat

Mathieu Lostie; Roman Peczalski; Julien Andrieu; Michel Laurent

2002-01-01

102

Environmental Influences on Flour Composition, Dough Rheology, and Baking Quality of Spring Wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 77(4):507-511 The highly variable environmental conditions across the Pacific North- west (PNW) influence the milling and baking quality of wheat grain produced in this region. This study was conducted to compare the flour composition, dough rheology, and baking quality of soft and hard spring wheat grain produced in diverse environments. Thirteen soft and five hard spring wheat cultivars

G. G. Mikhaylenko; Z. Czuchajowska; B.-K. Baik; K. K. Kidwell

2000-01-01

103

CD uniformity improvement through elimination of hardware influences on post-exposure bake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The acceptable tolerance level for CD signatures induced by any process step in the mask manufacturing process has been dramatically reduced with each technology node. Chemical amplified resists (CAR) are used extensively for first layer mask imaging. Therefor a post exposure bake (PEB) process is required after resist exposure, adding yet another potential source of CD signatures. Consequentially, the thermal imprint of the bake process must be further reduced to meet the requirements of future technology nodes. The influence of the measurement devices (wireless and wired sensor arrays) used to optimize the hotplate, on the performance of the Post Exposure Bake (PEB) process is discussed in [1,2]. A concept of utilizing two wired sensor arrays, with wire connections attached in opposite locations on the sensor array surface, called "Mirror Bake" is introduced. Based on the individual hotplate optimization for each of those two sensor arrays, a combined bake recipe for the multi-zone hotplate is calculated. This method eliminates the systematic temperature non-uniformity introduced by the sensor array hardware, when optimizing the recipes with only one sensor array. In this paper the "mirror bake" concept is validated by comparing the CD uniformity data of masks manufactured with a PEB process, optimized using a single standard sensor array vs. the "mirror bake" concept. The "mirror bake" concept achieved a CD uniformity improvement of up to 30% (CD range). During this work additional hardware influences from the sensor arrays were identified.

Lim, Jong Hoon; Woo, Sung Ha; Park, Eui-Sang; Kim, Sang Pyo; Yim, Dong Gyu; Katada, Osamu; Wähler, Tobias; Dress, Peter; Dietze, Uwe

2012-11-01

104

7 CFR 947.12 - Seed potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 947.12 Section 947.12 Agriculture...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU COUNTIES...Handling Definitions § 947.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and...

2009-01-01

105

Acoustic Measurement of Potato Cannon Velocity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Potato cannon velocity can be measured with a digitized microphone signal. A microphone is attached to the potato cannon muzzle, and a potato is fired at an aluminum target about 10 m away. Flight time can be determined from the acoustic waveform by subtracting the time in the barrel and time for sound to return from the target. The potato

Courtney, Michael; Courtney, Amy

2007-01-01

106

77 FR 67862 - Public Notice for Waiver of Aeronautical Land-Use Assurance; J. Douglas Bake Memorial Airport...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Assurance; J. Douglas Bake Memorial Airport (OCQ) Oconto, WI AGENCY: Federal...authorize the release of 0.32 acres of airport property (Parcel No. 18) at the J. Douglas Bake Memorial Airport, Oconto, WI. Parcel No. 18 is...

2012-11-14

107

Continuous and emerging challenges of Potato virus Y in potato.  

PubMed

Potato virus Y (PVY) is one of the oldest known plant viruses, and yet in the past 20 years it emerged in the United States as a relatively new and very serious problem in potato. The virus exists as a complex of strains that induce a wide variety of foliar and tuber symptoms in potato, leading to yield reduction and loss of tuber quality. PVY has displayed a distinct ability to evolve through accumulation of mutations and more rapidly through recombination between different strains, adapting to new potato cultivars across different environments. Factors behind PVY emergence as a serious potato threat are not clear at the moment, and here an attempt is made to analyze various properties of the virus and its interactions with potato resistance genes and with aphid vectors to explain this recent PVY spread in potato production areas. Recent advances in PVY resistance identification and mapping of corresponding genes are described. An updated classification is proposed for PVY strains that takes into account the most current information on virus molecular genetics, serology, and host reactivity. PMID:23915135

Karasev, Alexander V; Gray, Stewart M

2013-01-01

108

Aphid resistance in potatoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The foregoing report on aphid resistance in potatoes considers the problem in the following manner:\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1. \\u000a \\u000a Reference is made to previous studies on insect resistance in plants which have some bearing on aphid resistance in theSolanum genus.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2. \\u000a \\u000a The procedure and results of experiments carried on over the period of 1939–'45 to test aphid reactions critically in approximately\\u000a 20 varieties

Jean Burnham Adams

1946-01-01

109

HIGH FIELD Q-SLOPE AND THE BAKING EFFECT  

SciTech Connect

The performance of SRF cavities made of bulk Nb at high fields (peak surface magnetic field greater than about 90 mT) is characterized by exponentially increasing RF losses (high-field Q-slope), in the absence of field emission, which are often mitigated by a low temperature (100-140 °C, 12-48h) baking. In this contribution, recent experimental results and phenomenological models to explain this effect will be briefly reviewed. New experimental results on the high-field Q-slope will be presented for cavities that had been heat treated at high temperature in the presence of a small partial pressure of nitrogen. Improvement of the cavity performances have been obtained, while surface analysis measurements on Nb samples treated with the cavities revealed significantly lower hydrogen concentration than for samples that followed standard cavity treatments.

Ciovati, Gianluigi [JLAB

2009-11-01

110

Resveratrol in raw and baked blueberries and bilberries.  

PubMed

Resveratrol in the fruits of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), the lowbush "wild" blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton), the rabbiteye blueberry (Vaccinium ashei Reade), and the highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) were measured using a new assay based on high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The LC-MS/MS assay provided lower limits of detection than previous methods for resveratrol measurement, 90 fmol of trans-resveratrol injected on-column, and a linear standard curve spanning >3 orders of magnitude. The recoveries of resveratrol from blueberries spiked with 1.8, 3.6, or 36 ng/g were 91.5 +/- 4.5, 95.6 +/- 6.5, and 88.0 +/- 3.6%, respectively. trans-Resveratrol but not cis-resveratrol was detected in both blueberry and bilberry samples. The highest levels of trans-resvertatrol in these specimens were 140.0 +/- 29.9 pmol/g in highbush blueberries from Michigan and 71.0 +/- 15.0 pmol/g in bilberries from Poland. However, considerable regional variation was observed; highbush blueberries from British Columbia contained no detectable resveratrol. Because blueberries and bilberries are often consumed after cooking, the effect of baking on resveratrol content was investigated. After 18 min of heating at 190 degrees C, between 17 and 46% of the resveratrol had degraded in the various Vaccinium species. Therefore, the resveratrol content of baked or heat-processed blueberries or bilberries should be expected to be lower than in the raw fruit. Although blueberries and bilberries were found to contain resveratrol, the level of this chemoprotective compound in these fruits was <10% that reported for grapes. Furthermore, cooking or heat processing of these berries will contribute to the degradation of resveratrol. PMID:13129286

Lyons, Mary M; Yu, Chongwoo; Toma, R B; Cho, Sool Yeon; Reiboldt, Wendy; Lee, Jacqueline; van Breemen, Richard B

2003-09-24

111

Repeatable Release Holdback Bar.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A holdback bar is described for restraining an aircraft temporarily prior to catapult assisted launch. It uses a ball and piston unloader valve to insure rapid, positive release of a pressurized hydraulic fluid. Compensator chambers each have a resilient ...

W. H. Hickle

1977-01-01

112

Histograms and Bar Graphs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to introduce students to histograms and bar graphs as graphical representations of data. The lesson also covers the distinction between histograms and bar graphs and the concepts of class intervals and scale. The lesson provides links to discussions and activities related to these topics as well as worksheets for further practice. Finally, the lesson provides links to follow-up lessons designed for use in succession with this one.

2010-01-01

113

7 CFR 945.7 - Certified seed potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Certified seed potatoes. 945.7 Section 945.7 Agriculture...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED COUNTIES...Definitions § 945.7 Certified seed potatoes. Certified seed potatoes means...

2009-01-01

114

Magnetic Bar Field Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EJS Magnetic Bar Field Model shows the field of a bar magnet and has a movable compass that reports the magnetic field values. The bar magnet model is built by placing a group of magnetic dipoles along the bar magnet. You can modify this simulation if you have Ejs installed by right-clicking within the plot and selecting âOpen Ejs Modelâ from the pop-up menu item. The Magnetic Bar Field model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_em_MagneticBarField.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. Ejs is a part of the Open Source Physics Project and is designed to make it easier to access, modify, and generate computer models. Additional Ejs models are available. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or Ejs.

Christian, Wolfgang; Franciscouembre; Cox, Anne

2009-09-18

115

Characterization of next-generation bake plate requirements for 193-nm lithography tools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we have characterized a bake process for a 193nm poly process. We used a wafer dynamic sensor plate, which uses embedded thin film platinum RTDs (resistance temperature detector) from SensArray to capture temperature information across the hot plate and throughout the baking process. Our goal is to see whether we can use current hot plates and bake processes to meet the requirements set by the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductor (ITRS). Two different types of hot plates from Tokyo Electron are being evaluated, LHP (low temperature hot plate) and PCH (precision chill plate).

Do, Phong T.; Kang, Ann; Pender, Joseph; Lehmann, Thomas; McArdle, Leo; Quli, Farhat; Pascale, James

2004-05-01

116

Fracture in potatoes and apples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of generalized fracture mechanics to whole potatoes and apples under slow and fast compression is reported. The energy dissipative mechanisms are defined in terms of the hysteresis ratioß, the elastic recovery ratioa, and the fracture toughness. For potatoes, 0.75 of the input energy is dissipated by hysteresis, 0.17 to 0.19 is recovered elastically and the remainder is dissipated

J. E. Holt; D. Schoorl

1983-01-01

117

Fishbone mode in ``potato'' regime  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The resonance destabilization of the m=1/n=1 internal kink by trapped energetic ions executing potato orbits is considered. Abrupt stabilization is found for ?p?>rs, with ?p? being the potato width at injection energy and rs the radius of the q=1 surface. The magnetic well in spherical tokamaks stabilizes fishbones even with the finite orbit width effect included, increasing threshold by a factor ~?, with ?>>1 being the magnetic well curvature parameter.

Marchenko, V. S.

2002-06-01

118

Potato Tuber Callus  

PubMed Central

Callus was initiated from explants of tubers of the Norchip cultivar of Solanum tuberosum L. and grown on medium with a single carbon source and without addition of coconut milk, protein hydrolysate, or amino acid. Callus samples were harvested at intervals and compared to mature tubers for which there was good biochemical knowledge. The amino acid spectrum, the glycoalkaloid content, and the properties of the isolated invertase and sucrose synthetase were similar in callus and in tuber. Significantly the level of sucrose synthetase varied with the age of the developing callus just as it did with the age of the developing tuber. Of greater significance, levels of reducing sugars and invertase varied with the age of developing callus and also with time and temperature of storage after the callus has ceased growth. Similar changes occur in intact tubers. Callus and tuber biochemistry differed in the amount of deposited starch and in the absence of potato invertase inhibitor.

Shaw, Roy; Varns, Jerry L.; Miller, Karon A.; Talley, Eugene A.

1976-01-01

119

Modelling heat and mass transfer in bread baking with mechanical deformation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the thermo-hydric behaviour of bread during baking is studied. A numerical model has been developed with Comsol Multiphysics© software. The model takes into account the heat and mass transfers in the bread and the phenomenon of swelling. This model predicts the evolution of temperature, moisture, gas pressure and deformation in French "baguette" during baking. Local deformation is included in equations using solid phase conservation and, global deformation is calculated using a viscous mechanic model. Boundary conditions are specified with the sole temperature model and vapour pressure estimation of the oven during baking. The model results are compared with experimental data for a classic baking. Then, the model is analysed according to physical properties of bread and solicitations for a better understanding of the interactions between different mechanisms within the porous matrix.

Nicolas, V.; Salagnac, P.; Glouannec, P.; Ploteau, J.-P.; Jury, V.; Boillereaux, L.

2012-11-01

120

Critical dimension sensitivity to post-exposure bake temperaturevariation in EUV photoresists  

SciTech Connect

Chemically amplified resists depend upon the post-exposure bake (PEB) process to drive the deprotection reactions (in positive resists) that lead to proper resist development. For this reason they often exhibit critical dimension (CD) sensitivity to PEB temperature variation. In this work the effects of variation in different aspects of the PEB step on post-develop CD are studied for two extreme ultraviolet (EUV) photoresists. The spatial and temporal temperature uniformity of the PEB plate is measured using a wireless sensor wafer. Programmed variations in the bake plate temperature set point are then used to measure the CD sensitivity to steady state temperature variation. In addition, the initial temperature ramp time is modified using a thin sheet of polyimide film between the wafer and the bake plate. This allows for measurement of the CD sensitivity to transient temperature variation. Finally, the bake time is adjusted to measure the CD sensitivity to this parameter.

Cain, Jason P.; Naulleau, Patrick; Spanos, Costas J.

2005-01-11

121

The impact of baking time and bread storage temperature on bread crumb properties.  

PubMed

Two baking times (9 and 24 min) and storage temperatures (4 and 25 °C) were used to explore the impact of heat exposure during bread baking and subsequent storage on amylopectin retrogradation, water mobility, and bread crumb firming. Shorter baking resulted in less retrogradation, a less extended starch network and smaller changes in crumb firmness and elasticity. A lower storage temperature resulted in faster retrogradation, a more rigid starch network with more water inclusion and larger changes in crumb firmness and elasticity. Crumb to crust moisture migration was lower for breads baked shorter and stored at lower temperature, resulting in better plasticized biopolymer networks in crumb. Network stiffening, therefore, contributed less to crumb firmness. A negative relation was found between proton mobilities of water and biopolymers in the crumb gel network and crumb firmness. The slope of this linear function was indicative for the strength of the starch network. PMID:23993485

Bosmans, Geertrui M; Lagrain, Bert; Fierens, Ellen; Delcour, Jan A

2013-12-15

122

Potato virus Y induced changes in the gene expression of potato ( Solanum tuberosum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tuber necrotic strain of Potato virus Y (PVYNTN) causes potato tuber necrotic ringspot disease in sensitive potato cultivars. Gene expression in the disease response of the susceptible potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivar Igor was investigated at different times after infection, using subtractive hybridization, cDNA microarrays and real-time PCR. The most pronounced change in the expression pattern of functionally diverse

Maruša Pompe-Novak; Kristina Gruden; Špela Baebler; Hana Kre?i?-Stres; Maja Kova?; Maarten Jongsma; Maja Ravnikar

2005-01-01

123

Optimization of bread baking in a halogen lamp–microwave combination oven by response surface methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this study was to optimize the baking conditions of bread in a halogen lamp–microwave combination oven. Independent variables were the baking time (4, 4.5, 5, 5.5, and 6 min), the power of the microwaves (20, 30, 40, 50, and 60%), and the power of the upper and lower halogen lamps (40, 50, 60, 70, and 80%). The

P?nar Demirekler; Gülüm Sumnu; Serpil Sahin

2004-01-01

124

Preaging to improve bake hardening in a twin-roll cast Al–Mg–Si alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat-treatable Al–Mg–Si aluminum alloys are increasingly used for automotive body panel applications. They are shipped and formed in T4 temper while still formable and are subsequently given a bake cycle to increase strength by age hardening while the paint is cured. The industrial paint-bake treatment, however, is too short to fully exploit the age hardening potential of these alloys. Hence,

Yucel Birol

2005-01-01

125

Shake-and-Bake, a recent advance in the direct methods of X-ray crystallography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phase problem is formulated as one of constrained global minimization which leads to the so-called minimal principle. This principle is the theoretical basis of Shake-and-Bake, an algorithm for the automatic solution of the phase problem, ab initio. The distinguishing feature of Shake-and-Bake is that it alternates phase refinement in reciprocal space, via the minimal principle, with density modification in real space.

Hauptman, Herbert A.

1998-10-01

126

Baking properties and microstructure of pseudocereal flours in gluten-free bread formulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, the baking properties of the pseudocereals amaranth, quinoa and buckwheat as potential healthy and high-quality\\u000a ingredients in gluten-free breads were investigated. Scanning electron micrographs were taken of each of the flours. The pasting\\u000a properties of these flours were assessed using a rapid visco analyser. Standard baking tests and texture profile analysis\\u000a were performed on the gluten-free

Laura Alvarez-Jubete; Mark Auty; Elke K. Arendt; Eimear Gallagher

2010-01-01

127

Effects of baking-soda-containing dentifrices on oral malodor.  

PubMed

Oral malodor, also known as bad breath or halitosis, is an extremely common problem. Bad breath can arise from many sources in the body, but most frequently is produced in the mouth by the action of gram-negative anaerobic bacteria on sulfur-containing proteinaceous substrates in the saliva, such as debris and plaque. The primary molecules responsible for oral malodor are volatile sulfur compounds (VSC), such as hydrogen sulfide and methylmercaptan. Increased malodor production is related to greater bacterial numbers, reducing conditions, availability of protein substrates, and a pH above neutral. Bad breath is more common in the elderly, as well as those with unhygienic mouths, gingivitis, and periodontitis, but bad breath can also be found in some individuals who are periodontally healthy. The major source of oral malodor is the tongue. Approaches to controlling malodor have included masking, oral hygiene, antibacterial agents, conversion of VSC to nonodorous forms, oxidizing agents, and traditional approaches, including the use of backing soda. Results of controlled double-blind crossover studies, using both organoleptic (sensory) and gas chromatographic analysis of mouth air VSC, indicate that two dentifrices with high baking-soda concentrations, Arm & Hammer Dental Care and Arm & Hammer PeroxiCare, reduce oral malodor. PMID:12017931

Brunette, D M

1997-01-01

128

Effect of cleaning, milling, and baking on deoxynivalenol in wheat.  

PubMed Central

Samples of wheat naturally infected by Fusarium graminearum Schwabe were obtained from mills in Oklahoma, Missouri, Kansas, and Minnesota and fields in Nebraska and Kansas in 1982; they were analyzed for deoxynivalenol (DON). The wheat was milled, and DON was found throughout all the milling fractions (bran, shorts, reduction flour, and break flour). The DON recoveries for each mill run ranged from 90 to 98%. These samples, regardless of DON concentration, also gave similar fractional distributions of DON. The greatest (21 ppm [21 micrograms/g]) concentration of DON was found in the bran, and the smallest (1 ppm) was found in the break flour. Cleaning and milling were not effective in removing DON; DON was not destroyed in the bread baked from the naturally contaminated whole wheat flour, but the effect on its concentration in the samples analyzed varied, the reduction ranging from 19 to 69%. The percent reduction found in the cleaned wheat ranged from 6 to 19%. DON concentrations in the following commercially made breads, caraway rye, seedless rye, and pumpernickel, were 45 ppb (ng/g), 39 ppb, and 0 ppb, respectively. The limits of detection by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-pressure liquid chromatography for DON were 0.5 and 10 ng, respectively.

Abbas, H K; Mirocha, C J; Pawlosky, R J; Pusch, D J

1985-01-01

129

Potato Genes for Resistance to Late Blight.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Resistance genes and their encoded proteins from the wild potato, Solanum bulbocastanum, are disclosed. The genes and proteins are useful for conferring disease resistance to plants, particularly solanaceous species such as potato and tomato. In particula...

J. Jiang J. Song J. P. Helgeson S. Austin-Phillips S. K. Naess

2004-01-01

130

Continuous monitoring of dough fermentation and bread baking by magnetic resonance microscopy.  

PubMed

The consumer quality of baked products is closely related with dough structure properties. These are developed during dough fermentation and finalized during its baking. In this study, magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) was employed in a study of dough fermentation and baking. A small hot air oven was installed inside a 2.35-T horizontal bore superconducting magnet. Four different samples of commercial bread mixes for home baking were used to prepare small samples of dough that were inserted in the oven and allowed to rise at 33 °C for 112 min; this was followed by baking at 180 °C for 49 min. The entire process was followed by dynamic T(1)-weighted 3D magnetic resonance imaging with 7 min of temporal resolution and 0.23×0.23×1.5 mm(3) of spatial resolution. Acquired images were analyzed to determine time courses of dough pore distribution, dough volume and bread crust thickness. Image analysis showed that both the number of dough pores and the normalized dough volume increased in a sigmoid-like fashion during fermentation and decreased during baking due to the bread crust formation. The presented magnetic resonance method was found to be efficient in analysis of dough structure properties and in discrimination between different dough types. PMID:21237606

Bajd, Franci; Serša, Igor

2011-04-01

131

Influences of pretreatment and hard baking on the mechanical reliability of SU-8 microstructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the influences of pretreatment and hard baking on the mechanical characteristics of SU-8 microstructures are described. Four types of samples with different combinations of O2 plasma ashing, primer coating and hard baking were prepared for shear strength tests and uniaxial tensile tests. Specially developed shear test equipment was used to experimentally measure the shear adhesion strength of SU-8 micro posts on a glass substrate. The adhesiveness was strengthened by hard baking at 200 °C for 60 min, whereas other pretreatment processes hardly affected the strength. The pretreatment and hard baking effects on the adhesive strength were compared with those on the fracture strength measured by uniaxial tensile testing. There were no influences of O2 plasma ashing on both the strengths, and primer coating affected only tensile strength. The primer coating effect as well as the hard baking effect on stress relaxation phenomena in uniaxial tension was observed as well. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy demonstrated that surface degradation and epoxide-ring opening polymerization would have given rise to the primer coating effect and the hard baking effect on the mechanical characteristics, respectively.

Morikaku, Toshiyuki; Kaibara, Yoshinori; Inoue, Masatoshi; Miura, Takuya; Suzuki, Takaaki; Oohira, Fumikazu; Inoue, Shozo; Namazu, Takahiro

2013-10-01

132

Toll Bar on Sea  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the summer of 2007 the United Kingdom experienced some of the heaviest rainfall since records began. Toll Bar in South Yorkshire featured prominently in media coverage as the village and the homes surrounding it began to flood. Many people lost everything: their homes, their furniture, their possessions. In an effort to come to terms with what…

Hunter, Dave

2008-01-01

133

Bend That Bar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners play the role of materials engineers as they test the flexibility of different materials. They determine the strength-to-weight ratio of bars of these materials (e.g., steel, aluminum, wood, etc.) and discuss the advantages to using each in different scenarios. This activity can serve as a demonstration for younger students.

Rutkowski, Tom; Conner, Alex; Hill, Geoffrey; Zarske, Malinda S.; Yowell, Janet

2004-01-01

134

Permanent Bar Magnets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about the basic properties of magnets and magnetism. Learners explore concepts such as magnetic fields and polarity, which form the basic ingredients of a study of Earth's magnetic field and the technology of magnetometers. Materials needed include bar magnets and paper clips. This is Activity 1 of Exploring Magnetism: A Teacher's Magnetism Activity Guide.

135

Farming in South Africa: Potato Series.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This book is a compilation of all available pamphlets of the South African Department of Agriculture and Fisheries on the potato. The individual pamphlets are entitled: Where Does the Potato Come From; Nutritive value of Potatoes; The Canning of New Potat...

1980-01-01

136

Potato Stocks (Released March 12, 2009).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 13 major potato States held 151 million cwt of potatoes in storage March 1, 2009, down 8 percent from a year ago and 5 percent below March 1, 2007. Potatoes in storage accounted for 41 percent of the 2008 fall storage States' production, slightly belo...

2009-01-01

137

Environmental biosafety and transgenic potato in a centre of diversity for this crop.  

PubMed

The Nuffield Council on Bioethics suggests that introgression of genetic material into related species in centres of crop biodiversity is an insufficient justification to bar the use of genetically modified crops in the developing world. They consider that a precautionary approach to forgo the possible benefits invokes the fallacy of thinking that doing nothing is itself without risk to the poor. Here we report findings relevant to this and other aspects of environmental biosafety for genetically modified potato in its main centre of biodiversity, the central Andes. We studied genetically modified potato clones that provide resistance to nematodes, principal pests of Andean potato crops. We show that there is no harm to many non-target organisms, but gene flow occurs to wild relatives growing near potato crops. If stable introgression were to result, the fitness of these wild species could be altered. We therefore transformed the male sterile cultivar Revolucion to provide a genetically modified nematode-resistant potato to evaluate the benefits that this provides until the possibility of stable introgression to wild relatives is determined. Thus, scientific progress is possible without compromise to the precautionary principle. PMID:15538370

Celis, Carolina; Scurrah, Maria; Cowgill, Sue; Chumbiauca, Susana; Green, Jayne; Franco, Javier; Main, Gladys; Kiezebrink, Daan; Visser, Richard G F; Atkinson, Howard J

2004-11-11

138

Soft-Bake Purification of SWCNTs Produced by Pulsed Laser Vaporization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The "soft-bake" method is a simple and reliable initial purification step first proposed by researchers at Rice University for single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) produced by high-pressure carbon mon oxide disproportionation (HiPco). Soft-baking consists of annealing as-produced (raw) SWCNT, at low temperatures in humid air, in order to degrade the heavy graphitic shells that surround metal particle impurities. Once these shells are cracked open by the expansion and slow oxidation of the metal particles, the metal impurities can be digested through treatment with hydrochloric acid. The soft-baking of SWCNT produced by pulsed-laser vaporization (PLV) is not straightforward, because the larger average SWCNT diameters (.1.4 nm) and heavier graphitic shells surrounding metal particles call for increased temperatures during soft-bake. A part of the technology development focused on optimizing the temperature so that effective cracking of the graphitic shells is balanced with maintaining a reasonable yield, which was a critical aspect of this study. Once the ideal temperature was determined, a number of samples of raw SWCNT were purified using the soft-bake method. An important benefit to this process is the reduced time and effort required for soft-bake versus the standard purification route for SWCNT. The total time spent purifying samples by soft-bake is one week per batch, which equates to a factor of three reduction in the time required for purification as compared to the standard acid purification method. Reduction of the number of steps also appears to be an important factor in improving reproducibility of yield and purity of SWCNT, as small deviations are likely to get amplified over the course of a complicated multi-step purification process.

Yowell, Leonard; Nikolaev, Pavel; Gorelik, Olga; Allada, Rama Kumar; Sosa, Edward; Arepalli, Sivaram

2013-01-01

139

Controlling Potato Blight: Past, Present, and Future  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Potato late blight, Phytophthora infestans, has an infamous past, yet it continues to present a challenge to modern day farmers. Historical scenarios in the LateBlight simulation help us define the impact of this disease before the interactions between this microbe and the potato were understood. Modern scenarios enable us to investigate current strategies to control this pathogen from the management of cull piles to the use of genetically engineered potatoes. A life cycle model, Potato Late Blight, provides an additional method for exploring microbial interactions. * make a profit or lose the farm as you investigate the economic consequences of using chemical control approaches to managing late blight in potatoes

Ethel D. Stanley (Beloit College;Biology)

2006-05-20

140

Kolsky Bar Impact Test Facility  

SciTech Connect

Testing for the Kolsky Bar is conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico. The Kolsky bar is operated by the Dynamic testing team of NMT-11, (Nuclear Material Technology Division) to enable measurements of stress-strain characteristics for the MST-8 (Material Science and Technology) personnel. The Kolsky Bar is located at the Plutonium Facility at TA-55 (Tech Area).

Contreras, P.; Montoya, J.

1998-12-31

141

Bar Waves Applet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet simulates a bar or a stiff string which can be shaped with the mouse, or have a static force applied. It can be hinged, free, attached to a wall or clamped. Phases, phase cosines and modes can be displayed. The simulation speed, damping, base frequency, stiffness of the string and amplitude of the normal modes are adjustable. Sound is an option. A link is included to a page on 'Waves in Solids.'

Falstad, Paul

2004-07-13

142

Water under the BAR  

PubMed Central

Many cellular processes require the generation of highly curved regions of cell membranes by interfacial membrane proteins. A number of such proteins are now known, and several mechanisms of curvature generation have been suggested, but so far a quantitative understanding of the importance of the various potential mechanisms remains elusive. Following previous theoretical work, we consider the electrostatic attraction that underlies the scaffold mechanism of membrane bending in the context of the N-BAR domain of amphiphysin. Analysis of atomistic molecular dynamics simulations reveals considerable water between the membrane and the positively charged concave face of the BAR, even when it is tightly bound to highly curved membranes. This results in significant screening of electrostatic interactions, suggesting that electrostatic attraction is not the main driving force behind curvature sensing, supporting recent experimental work. These results also emphasize the need for care when building coarse-grained models of protein-membrane interactions. These results are emphasized by simulations of oligomerized amphiphysin N-BARs at the atomistic and coarse-grained level. In the coarse-grained simulations, we find a strong dependence of the induced curvature on the dielectric screening.

Lyman, Edward; Cui, Haosheng; Voth, Gregory A.

2010-01-01

143

Bar coded retroreflective target  

DOEpatents

This small, inexpensive, non-contact laser sensor can detect the location of a retroreflective target in a relatively large volume and up to six degrees of position. The tracker's laser beam is formed into a plane of light which is swept across the space of interest. When the beam illuminates the retroreflector, some of the light returns to the tracker. The intensity, angle, and time of the return beam is measured to calculate the three dimensional location of the target. With three retroreflectors on the target, the locations of three points on the target are measured, enabling the calculation of all six degrees of target position. Until now, devices for three-dimensional tracking of objects in a large volume have been heavy, large, and very expensive. Because of the simplicity and unique characteristics of this tracker, it is capable of three-dimensional tracking of one to several objects in a large volume, yet it is compact, light-weight, and relatively inexpensive. Alternatively, a tracker produces a diverging laser beam which is directed towards a fixed position, and senses when a retroreflective target enters the fixed field of view. An optically bar coded target can be read by the tracker to provide information about the target. The target can be formed of a ball lens with a bar code on one end. As the target moves through the field, the ball lens causes the laser beam to scan across the bar code.

Vann, Charles S. (Fremont, CA)

2000-01-01

144

Control of final moisture content of food products baked in continuous tunnel ovens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are well-known difficulties in making measurements of the moisture content of baked goods (such as bread, buns, biscuits, crackers and cake) during baking or at the oven exit; in this paper several sensing methods are discussed, but none of them are able to provide direct measurement with sufficient precision. An alternative is to use indirect inferential methods. Some of these methods involve dynamic modelling, with incorporation of thermal properties and using techniques familiar in computational fluid dynamics (CFD); a method of this class that has been used for the modelling of heat and mass transfer in one direction during baking is summarized, which may be extended to model transport of moisture within the product and also within the surrounding atmosphere. The concept of injecting heat during the baking process proportional to the calculated heat load on the oven has been implemented in a control scheme based on heat balance zone by zone through a continuous baking oven, taking advantage of the high latent heat of evaporation of water. Tests on biscuit production ovens are reported, with results that support a claim that the scheme gives more reproducible water distribution in the final product than conventional closed loop control of zone ambient temperatures, thus enabling water content to be held more closely within tolerance.

McFarlane, Ian

2006-02-01

145

Performance evaluation and analysis of a novel 300-mm combination bake-chill station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

DUV resists are extremely sensitive to temperature variations on the wafer during bake and chill cycles. In resist-processing tracks today, the wafer is moved by a robot or transfer arm, from the bake to chill plate. During this move, since the resist is still above the activation temperature, the wafer temperature is uncontrolled until it is placed on a chill plate. In the new station design presented here, the wafer is heated to the desired bake temperature and chilled back to room temperature before being moved by the robot, resulting in a tight temperature control of the wafer, throughout the process. Two models, axi-symmetric and three-dimensional (geometrically similar to the new station), are generated for analyzing the thermal performance of the above station. The numerical simulations, solving the momentum and energy equations in the computational domain, are performed using the commercial CFD software Fluent. The simulated temporal evolution of temperature from the beginning to the end of the bake-chill process is verified with the experimental data as measured by a 42-point OnWafer temperature sensor wafer on the new station. Methods to improve wafer surface temperature uniformity, in light of bake-chill-station mechanical and thermal design losses are discussed. Higher throughput of the cluster, a major productivity improvement contribution of this new design, is also highlighted.

Narasimhan, Arunn; Ramanan, Natarajan R.; Williams, Daniel J.

2003-06-01

146

Growth of potatoes for CELSS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report summarizes research on the utilization of white potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) for space life support systems at the University of Wisconsin-Madison over the period of 1984 to 1993. At full maturity the tuber productivity was 37.5 gm(exp -2) d(exp -1), equating to a growing area requirement for one human (2800 kcal d(exp -1)) of 10.1 m(exp -2). A recirculating nutrient system using slanted trays produced best potato growth and tuber yields when a 2-3 cm layer of gravel or arcillite media was utilized. Potato production was close to maximum under lighting levels of 400 micromol m(exp -2) s(exp -1) of photosynthetic photo flux (PPF) for 24 hours or 800 micromol m(exp -2) s(exp -1) for 12 hours, alternating diurnal temperatures of 22 C and 14 C, relative humidity of 85 percent, and a carbon dioxide level of 1000 micromol m(exp -1). The range of effective concentrations of each separate nutrient is reported. The extensive studies with potatoes in this project have demonstrated that this crop has high productivity of nutritous tubers with a high harvest index in controlled environments, and can fulfill a significant portion of the energy and protein requirements for humans in space.

Tibbitts, T. W.; Cao, W.; Wheeler, R. M.

1994-01-01

147

Growth of Potatoes for CELSS.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes research on the utilization of white potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) for space life support systems at the University of Wisconsin-Madison over the period of 1984 to 1993. At full maturity the tuber productivity was 37.5 gm(exp -2) ...

T. W. Tibbitts W. Cao R. M. Wheeler

1994-01-01

148

Baking impact on photoelectrochemical cells performance of electrodeposited CdSe films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cadmium selenide (CdSe) nanocrystalline thin films in the form of upright nanocones, perpendicular to substrate surface, are grown electrochemically onto a conducting and transparent indium-tin-oxide substrate at room temperature and impact of baking under oxygen flow on their structure, morphology, optical absorbance and dark-light photoelectrochemical cell performance is explored. Crystallinity improvement followed by enhancement in the surface roughness 11-19 nm and reduction in water contact angle from 60° to 22° (±0.2)° due to baking impact showed increase in crystallite size from 25 to 100 Å. Increase in current density from 0.07 to 5.61 mA/cm 2 after baking under oxygen flow has promoted the conversion efficiency to 0.5% from 0.007%.

Shaikh, Arif V.; Mane, Rajaram S.; Joo, Oh-Shim; Pawar, B. N.; Lee, Joong Kee; Han, Sung-Hwan

2011-10-01

149

The International Year of the Potato  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The potato has been around for some 8000 years, and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations has created this site to promote 2008 as the International Year of the Potato. The intent of the site is to promote the role of the potato as a way to alleviate world hunger and to help achieve a number of internationally agreed upon development objectives, including the Millennium Development Goals. On the right-side of the homepage, visitors can read fact sheets on the potato, learn about world potato production, and even view a photo gallery of potatoes from around the world. Along the top of the site, visitors will find the "Potato World" section. Here they can learn about world potato production over the past two decades via a set of statistics and a nice map. Clicking on each region of the world will reveal even more detailed country-level statistics, including acres in potato production and consumption rates. The site even has information about a world potato photography contest, and most of the information on the site is available in Russian, English, French, Spanish, and Chinese.

2008-01-01

150

The Present and Future Role of Insect-Resistant Genetically Modified Potato Cultivars in IPM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potato, Solanum tuberosum L., is one of the world’s principal food crops. Important potato insect pests include Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say, potato tuberworm, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller), and aphids, especially as they transmit potato leafroll virus and potato virus Y. Management of insect pests of\\u000a potato relies almost entirely on chemical insecticides. Potato breeding is complicated by the potato’s

Edward J. Grafius; David S. Douches

151

7 CFR 1207.514 - Exemption for organic potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Exemption for organic potatoes. 1207.514 Section 1207.514 ...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Rules and... § 1207.514 Exemption for organic potatoes. (a) A producer who...

2009-01-01

152

7 CFR 1207.514 - Exemption for organic potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Exemption for organic potatoes. 1207.514 Section 1207.514 ...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Rules and... § 1207.514 Exemption for organic potatoes. (a) A producer who...

2010-01-01

153

On the Decomposition of Martensite During Bake Hardening of Thermomechanically Processed TRIP Steels  

SciTech Connect

Thermomechanically processed (TMP) CMnSi transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) steels with and without additions of Nb, Mo, or Al were subjected to prestraining and bake hardening. Atom probe tomography (APT) revealed the presence of fine C-rich clusters in the martensite of all studied steels after the thermomechanical processing. After bake hardening, the formation of iron carbides, containing from 25 to 90 at. pct C, was observed. The evolution of iron carbide compositions was independent of steel composition and was a function of carbide size.

Pereloma, E. V. [University of Wollongong, Wollongong, Australia; Miller, Michael K [ORNL; Timokhina, I. B. [Monash University, Australia

2008-01-01

154

Bake condition effect on hybrid lithography process for negative-tone chemically amplified resists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the process optimization study of negative tone Chemically Amplified Resists (CAR) under E-Beam exposure. The importance of post apply bake temperature choice on resolution is underlined. The process study determines the process window in which optimal conditions of both post apply and post exposure bake steps are defined and present a method to define more precisely the thermal cross-linking onset. Finally lithographic performances of CARs are studied and we show that resolution can be pushed down to 40 nm.

Pain, Laurent; Sala, F.; Higgins, C.; Dal'zotto, B.; Tedesco, Serge V.

2000-06-01

155

[Analysis of allelic content of genes responsible for baking properties in allocytoplasmic wheat hybrids].  

PubMed

A collection comprised of allocytoplasmic hybrids of mild wheat (ACPH) was screened for the allelic state of genes responsible for baking properties (high-molecular glutenins, puroindolines, and Waxy). The possibility of the introgression of the Waxy gene of T. timopheevii into the mild wheat genome was demonstrated in several ACPH samples using the set of molecular markers. Allelic gene variants responsible for the baking properties were revealed for 22 ACPH samples, which make it possible to detect the most challenging samples for both molecular-genetic research and applied science. PMID:24159803

Klimushina, M V; Divashuk, M G; Mukhammed, T A K; Semenov, O G; Karlov, G I

2013-05-01

156

Thermal Analysis of the Divertor Primary Heat Transfer System Piping During the Gas Baking Process  

SciTech Connect

A preliminary analysis has been performed examining the temperature distribution in the Divertor Primary Heat Transfer System (PHTS) piping and the divertor itself during the gas baking process. During gas baking, it is required that the divertor reach a temperature of 350 C. Thermal losses in the piping and from the divertor itself require that the gas supply temperature be maintained above that temperature in order to ensure that all of the divertor components reach the required temperature. The analysis described in this report was conducted in order to estimate the required supply temperature from the gas heater.

Yoder Jr, Graydon L [ORNL; Harvey, Karen [ORNL; Ferrada, Juan J [ORNL

2011-02-01

157

Flight take-off performance of Colorado potato beetle in relation to potato phenology.  

PubMed

The flight take-off frequency of adult Colorado potato beetles, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), from potato plants, Solanum tuberosum L. 'Red Pontiac' at the bloom stage of development was 2.2-2.5-fold that of Colorado potato beetle from plants at the vegetative stage. Tests were conducted in a flight chamber over a period of 3 h. Prefeeding Colorado potato beetles for 48 h on potato plants at the bloom or at the vegetative stage before placing them into the flight chamber resulted in the same significantly higher flight take-off frequency from potato plants at the bloom stage than from plants at the vegetative stage. These results demonstrate that the factor in potato plants in bloom that stimulates the flight take-off of the Colorado potato beetle is independent of the feeding history of the beetles and begins acting only when the beetles are in the presence of the plant. According to these results, the dispersal of adult Colorado potato beetles from potato fields in bloom to younger potato fields with plants at the vegetative stage, previously reported in the literature, is at least partly explained by the effect of plant phenology on the frequency of flight take-off. Results confirm the value of planting potato fields of similar phenology over as wide an area as possible to reduce Colorado potato beetle dispersal between fields. Results also imply that staggering the planting dates of conventional potato refuge areas near Colorado potato beetle transgenic or conventionally resistant potato fields is a sound management practice, because it promotes the movement of wild beetles over to the adjacent younger resistant crops. PMID:18330116

Mbungu, Nsitu T; Boiteau, Gilles

2008-02-01

158

Preliminary investigation of concentrations of minerals and nitrogen in wheat grain, and their relationship with baking quality and grain weight  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between the mineral composition of grain and its baking quality was examined in 35 samples of wheat. Positive relationships were found between bake score and the nitrogen (N) and sulphur concentrations in the grain, and negative relationships with potassium (K) and molybdenum. Phosphorus and magnesium also gave significant, though weak, negative relationships. These individual nutrient relationships were unaffected

J. A. Douglas; C. B. Dyson

1985-01-01

159

[Determination of acrylamide content in potato products using GC-MS/MS and LC-MS/MS methods].  

PubMed

The aim of our study was to check a useful of GCQ-MS/MS and LC-MS/MS methods to determination of acrylamide in foodstuffs and determined acrylamide content in potato products randomly collected in Poland in 2007-2008. As a result of validation of these methods we found the both using methods were characterized by low quantification limit and well precision. The highest acrylamide level was in potato crisps--770 microg/kg (113 divided by 1890 microg/kg), but the lowest--was in French fries collected from bars and restaurants--401 microg/kg (134 divided by 679 microg/kg). Acrylamide content analyzed in 2008 in potato crisp and French fries ready to eat was higher than in 2007. The difference was not statistically significant. In French fries fried in laboratory from pre-cooked French fries in 2008 acrylamide level was lower that in these products analyzed in 2007. PMID:21365857

Mojska, Hanna; Gieleci?ska, Iwona; Ma?ecka, Katarzyna

2010-01-01

160

Barred disks in dense environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the properties of bright barred and unbarred disks in the Abell 901/902 cluster system at z˜ 0.165 with the STAGES HST ACS survey. We find that the global optical bar fraction in the clusters is ˜ 30% regardless of the method of disk selection. Within a given absolute magnitude bin, the bar fraction increases for galaxies with no significant bulge component. Within each morphological type bin, the bar fraction increases for brighter galaxies. We find no strong trend for the bar fraction with local density within the cluster between the core and virial radius. We discuss the implications of our results for the evolution of bars and disks in dense environments.

Marinova, I.; Jogee, S.; Heiderman, A.; Barazza, F. D.; Gray, M. E.; Barden, M.; Wolf, C.; Peng, C. Y.; Bacon, D.; Balogh, M.; Bell, E. F.; Böhm, A.; Caldwell, J. A. R.; Häußler, B.; Heymans, C.; Jahnke, K.; van Kampen, E.; Lane, K.; McIntosh, D. H.; Meisenheimer, K.; Sánchez, S. F.; Somerville, R.; Taylor, A.; Wisotzki, L.; Zheng, X.

161

Potato chromosomes IX and XI carry genes for resistance to potato virus M  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new loci for resistance to potato virus M (PVM), Gm and Rm, have been mapped in potato. The gene Gm was derived from Solanum gourlayi, whereas, Solanum megistacrolobum is the source of the gene Rm. Gm confers resistance to PVM infection after mechanical inoculation. Rm induces a hypersensitive response in potato plants. Two diploid populations segregating for Gm and

W. Marczewski; D. Strzelczyk-?yta; J. Hennig; K. Witek; C. Gebhardt

2006-01-01

162

The Canon of Potato Science: 35. Seed and Ware Potato Storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

What is it? Potatoes will sustain losses during their post-harvest life as they are living organisms with an active metabolism. Depending on storage conditions potato tubers will – to a lesser or greater extent – respire and transpire and thus lose fresh weight. Maintenance and metabolic processes require energy, and potato tubers use part of their dry matter (mainly starch)

R. Wustman; P. C. Struik

2007-01-01

163

Effects of a Baking Soda Gum on extrinsic dental stain: results of a longitudinal 4-week assessment.  

PubMed

An evaluation of the effects of ARM & HAMMER DENTAL CARE The Baking Soda Gum (AHDC) on extrinsic dental stain was made in 48 subjects presenting with measurable extrinsic stain. The subjects were randomized to use either the baking soda gum or a non-baking soda placebo gum for 20 minutes twice daily after lunch and dinner while brushing once daily. The procedure of limited brushing was chosen to simulate the level of hygiene normally practiced by participants entering a clinical study. After 4 weeks, the reduction in measurable extrinsic stain in the baking soda gum group was statistically significant (P = .0044) relative to baseline. Statistical analysis of the placebo gum group revealed no significant change in extrinsic stain from baseline. The magnitude of the unadjusted longitudinal reduction in extrinsic stain in the baking soda gum group was 29.7% at 4 weeks. PMID:11913306

Soparkar, P; Newman, M B

2001-07-01

164

Confined Alumina Bar-on-Bar Impact Experiments  

SciTech Connect

In an earlier study on unconfined alumina bar-on-bar impact measured velocity history (using VISAR) data at an impact velocity of 100 m/s showed that the material response is elastic. At higher impact velocities of 220 m/s and 300 m/s, the data suggested the material behavior is inelastic. This study is extended to confined alumina bars. Alumina bars (12.7-mm diameter) were shrunk fit into 3.17 mm thick steel sleeves to provide confinement stress. Axial velocity histories at the far end of the confined AD998 target bar are measured at nominal impact speeds of 200 m/s, 300 m/s, and 500 m/s. Lateral expansion of the confinement sleeve around the impactor and target bars during impact is photographed using a high-speed (Imacon) camera. Peak axial velocities increase from 0.135 mm/{mu}s for unconfined bars to 0.170 mm/{mu}s for confined bars at a nominal impact velocity of 200 m/s. At an impact velocity of {approx}300 m/s peak axial velocity of confined bar increase to 0.200 mm/{mu}s from 0.170 mm/{mu}s for unconfined bar. At {approx}500 m/s the confinement shatters on impact and peak axial velocity is measured to be almost same as that for {approx}200 m/s. These results show that the confinement provided by a 3.17-mm thick steel sleeve to alumina bar enhances its impact response for impact velocities to {approx}300 m/s and confined alumina behaves as inelastic at the lowest impact velocity of 200 m/s.

Brar, N. S. [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering and Research Institute, University of Dayton, OH 45469-0182 (United States); Rajendran, A. M. [US Army Research Office, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States)

2006-07-28

165

The technology of potato granule manufacture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of potato granules, a dehydrated mashed potato product, is in line with a growing trend in the processing of\\u000a foods toward concentration and improved convenience for use. Several methods for producing potato granules have been developed\\u000a during the past 30 years. The only one of these methods currently in commercial use in this country is the “add-back” process.

R. L. Olson; W. O. Harrington

1955-01-01

166

Physicochemical and functional properties of potato proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Key words:<\\/strong> potato proteins, patatin, protease inhibitors, solubility, structure, pH, temperature, ethanol, ionic strength, phenolic compounds, foams, emulsionsIn potato starch manufacture an aqueous byproduct remains that is called potato fruit juice (PFJ). On a dry matter basis PFJ contains about 20-25 % protein and amino acids, 15 % sugars, 20 % minerals, 14 % organic acids and other components, such

Koningsveld van G

2001-01-01

167

Effects of glycerolmonostearate on reconstituted potato granules  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The texture of reconstituted potato granules can be altered to give a more mealy product by the use of glycerolmonostearate.\\u000a GMS can be added either during production by blending or as a powder or mix at time of reconstitution. The quality of the\\u000a original potato granules is the greatest factor in producing a good reconstituted mashed potato product, with or

W. O. Harrington; R. L. Olson; Marvel-Dare Nutting

1960-01-01

168

Identity Preservation Systems for Genetically Modified Potatoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spite of benefits to growers, processors, consumers and the environment, genetically modified (GM) potatoes were a market\\u000a failure in North America. Contributing to the failure was the lack of an identity preservation (IP) system that could have\\u000a prevented unapproved GM potato products from entering export markets. We interviewed 26 industry experts to identify recommended\\u000a practices for GM potato IP

Elliot A. Toevs; Joseph F. Guenthner; Aaron J. Johnson; Christopher S. McIntosh; Michael K. Thornton

169

Sweet potatoes as a basic component in developing a medium for the cultivation of lactobacilli.  

PubMed

A sweet potato medium (SPM) was formed with extract from baked sweet potatoes supplemented with 0, 4, or 8 g/L of each nitrogen source (beef extract, yeast extract, and proteose peptone #3) to form SPM1, SPM2, and SPM3 respectively. Lactobacilli MRS was used as control medium. Ten Lactobacillus strains containing an average of 2.34 ± 0.29 log CFU/mL were inoculated individually into batches of MRS, SPM1, SPM2, and SPM3. The growth patterns for the tested Lactobacillus strains growing in SPM2 and SPM3 were found to be similar to that in MRS. The average final population after 24 h of incubation in MRS, SPM2, and SPM3 reached 10.41 ± 0.35, 10.59 ± 0.27, and 10.72 ± 0.19 log CFU/mL respectively. SPM2 and SPM3 maintained higher pH values throughout the incubation period than MRS. These findings indicate that SPM2 can be a suitable medium for the growth of Lactobacillus and can provide an alternative at low-cost. PMID:24200801

Hayek, Saeed A; Shahbazi, Aboghasem; Awaisheh, Saddam S; Shah, Nagendra P; Ibrahim, Salam A

2013-01-01

170

Chapter 7 The Present and Future Role of Insect-Resistant Genetically Modified Potato Cultivars in IPM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potato, Solanum tuberosum L., is one of the world's principal food crops. Important potato insect pests include Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say, potato tuberworm, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller), and aphids, especially as they transmit potato leafroll virus and potato virus Y. Management of insect pests of potato relies almost entirely on chemical insecticides. Potato breeding is complicated by the potato's

Edward J. Grafius; David S. Douches

171

The carry-through of residues of thiabendazole, tecnazene and chlorpropham from potatoes following manufacture into potato crisps and jacket potato crisps.  

PubMed

Potatoes, commercially treated with thiabendazole, tecnazene and chlorpropham, were processed into potato crisps and jacket potato crisps at a crisp factory using standard manufacturing conditions. A multi-residue method based on gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection was developed and used to determine pesticide residue levels in the potatoes and potato crisps. Results showed that the residues of all three pesticides were significantly reduced to less than 2% and less than 10% of the maximum theoretical residue carry-through level for potato crisps and jacket potato crisps respectively. PMID:9064247

Lewis, D J; Thorpe, S A; Reynolds, S L

1996-01-01

172

Different approaches for improving the quality and extending the shelf life of the partially baked bread: low temperatures and HPMC addition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of refrigeration or positive temperature storage as an alternative to frozen storage for extending the shelf life of partially baked bread is described. In addition, the effect of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) on the baking performance of those products is detailed. With this purpose, the quality and shelf life of the bread from partially baked bread stored at frozen temperatures

María Eugenia Bárcenas; Cristina M. Rosell

2006-01-01

173

The potential of genetic engineering for improving brewing, wine-making and baking yeasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The end of the twentieth century was marked by major advances in life technology, particularly in areas related to genetics and more recently genomics. Considerable progress was made in the development of genetically improved yeast strains for the wine, brewing and baking industries. In the last decade, recombinant DNA technology widened the possibilities for introducing new properties. The most remarkable

S. Dequin

2001-01-01

174

AFM investigation of thin post-baked photoresistive films for microsystem technology application  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we discuss the application of photoresist films as the sacrificial layers for 'bridge' working elements in microsystem technology. Different regimes and conditions of post-baking and plasma chemical etching processes for the formation of sacrificial layers with precise thickness and roughness are investigated. The photoresist surface morphology was observed with the help of atomic force and scanning electron microscopy.

Alexandrov, S. E.; Speshilova, A. B., E-mail: stya@film.spbstu.ru; Soloviev, Y. V.; Ermeychik, O. I. [St. Petersburg State Polytechnical University (Russian Federation)

2007-04-15

175

Milling and Baking Quality of Soft White Wheat Genotypes Subjected to Preharvest Sprouting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Damage due to preharvest sprouting can cause major economic losses in regions where precipitation occurs frequently at harvest time. This research was conducted to evaluate the effects of preharvest sprouting on milling and baking characteristics of resistant and susceptible soft white wheat genotypes subjected to conditions inducing preharvest sprouting. Three sprinkler irrigation treatments were applied for durations of 5 hr

M. E. SORRELLS; A. H. PATERSON; P. L. FINNEY

176

Optimization of halogen lamp–microwave combination baking of cakes: a response surface methodology study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this study was to optimize processing conditions during halogen lamp–microwave combination baking of cake by using response surface methodology. The independent variables were the power of the upper halogen lamp (50, 60, and 70%), the power of the lower halogen lamp (50, 60, and 70%), the power of the microwaves (30, 40, and 50%), and the

K. Melike Sevimli; Gülüm Sumnu; Serpil Sahin

2005-01-01

177

Baked-Bean Waste: a Potential Substrate for Producing Fungal Amylases  

PubMed Central

Baked-bean waste was found to be a favorable substrate for amylase production by Aspergillus foetidus NRRL 337. Under optimum conditions, the yields of ?-amylase (EC 3.2.1.1) and glucoamylase (EC 3.2.1.3) were 47 and 226 U, respectively, per ml of the waste fermented.

Hang, Y. D.; Woodams, E. E.

1977-01-01

178

Detection of Baking Soda in Flat Bread by Direct pH Metery and Alkalinity Measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this study is evaluation of direct pH metery and alkalinity measurement methods for determination of baking soda in lavash bread (a kind of flat bread) in order to introduce and recommend a good practice of control. For running the experiments, various samples of lavash bread having different concentrations of baking soda were prepared. Ten grams of each sample were mixed with distilled water and then the prepared solutions were filtrated. The filtrates were then analyzed for pH and total alkalinity according to the distractions described in Standard Methods. Results show a significant correlation between the pH values of bread samples and the amount of baking soda. Also, a positive correlation has been observed between the alkalinity of bread samples and used baking soda. By comparing the R2-values specified for these two methods it could be concluded that the direct pH metery method is more reasonable. Furthermore, by this simple method it is possible to accelerate the detection of minute amounts of this chemical in bread.

Jahed Khaniki, G. H. R.; Vaezi, F.; Yunesian, M.; Nabizadeh, R.; Paseban, G. H. A.

179

A microbiological and clinical study of the safety and efficacy of baking-soda dentifrices.  

PubMed

This article reports the results of a study that examined the clinical and microbiological changes associated with regular use of baking-soda dentifrices. Two dentifrice formulations were examined in a 6-month longitudinal study of 101 adult subjects with assessments for plaque, gingival inflammation, and stain at baseline and 3 and 6 months during the active phase of the study, and at 3 months after cessation of product use. One dentifrice contained 52% baking soda and 3% sodium percarbonate (Arm & Hammer PeroxiCare) while the other dentifrice contained 65% baking soda (Arm & Hammer Dental Care). Both dentifrices resulted in statistically significant reductions in dental plaque, gingival inflammation, and stain at all time periods compared to baseline. Dental plaque and buccal soft-tissue samples were obtained for microbiological analysis from a 50-subject subset. Microbiological assays, including bacterial culture, phase-contrast microscopy, and immunofluorescence microscopy, confirmed the safety of both formulations. Beneficial alterations in dental plaque bacteria were noted, including significant reductions in the levels of Actinomyces species. The data from this study indicate that dentifrices containing high levels of baking soda are clinically effective and microbiologically safe. PMID:12017933

Zambon, J J; Mather, M L; Gonzales, Y

1997-01-01

180

A microbiological and clinical study of the safety and efficacy of baking-soda dentifrices.  

PubMed

This article reports the results of a study that examined the clinical and microbiological changes associated with regular use of baking-soda dentifrices. Two dentifrice formulations were examined in a 6-month longitudinal study of 101 adult subjects with assessments for plaque, gingival inflammation, and stain at baseline and 3 and 6 months during the active phase of the study, and at 3 months after cessation of product use. One dentifrice contained 52% baking soda and 3% sodium percarbonate (Arm & Hammer PeroxiCare) while the other dentifrice contained 65% baking soda (Arm & Hammer Dental Care). Both dentifrices resulted in statistically significant reductions in dental plaque, gingival inflammation, and stain at all time periods compared to baseline. Dental plaque and buccal soft-tissue samples were obtained for microbiological analysis from a 50-subject subset. Microbiological assays, including bacterial culture, phase-contrast microscopy, and immunofluorescence microscopy, confirmed the safety of both formulations. Beneficial alterations in dental plaque bacteria were noted, including significant reductions in the levels of Actinomyces species. The data from this study indicate that dentifrices containing high levels of baking soda are clinically effective and microbiologically safe. PMID:11524866

Zambon, J J; Mather, M L; Gonzales, Y

1996-01-01

181

Liver targeting effect of vinegar-baked Radix Bupleuri on rhein in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vinegar-baked Radix Bupleuri (VBRB) is usually used to focus other drugs effect on liver in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). However, no sufficient scientific data are available to support this concept. In this paper, the liver targeting enhancing effect of VBRB on rhein was investigated.432 of rats were divided into two large groups according to the dose of rhein, low dose

Rui Zhi Zhao; Dong Yuan; Shao Jun Liu; You Jun Chen; Li Juan Liu; Ying Zhao

2010-01-01

182

Modeling Thermal Effects for Simulation of Post Exposure Baking (PEB) Process in Positive Photoresist  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the thermal effects in a positive photoresist during post exposure baking (PEB). Infrared analysis and the reduced dissolution rate in the exposed resist suggest that the carboxylic acid is decreased and\\/or that ECA solvent evaporates. In order to simulate the effects, we assume that the concentration of the alkali-soluble material (carboxylic acid) decreases equivalently. Our model explains PEB

Satoru Asai; Isamu Hanyu; Mitsuji Nunokawa; Masayuki Abe

1991-01-01

183

Changes in Starch Microstructure on Baking and Staling of Wheat Bread  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microstructure of starch in dough and in fresh and aged bread crumb was studied by light microscopy. The samples were cryosectioned and stained with Light Green and iodine to localize protein and starch, respectively. In dough a partial segregation of starch from the protein phase is observed. On baking, starch was gelatinized and led to the formation of a

Susanna Hug-Iten; Stephan Handschin; Béatrice Conde-Petit; Felix Escher

1999-01-01

184

Gold ball-bond mechanical reliability at 40?m pitch: squash height and bake temperature effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gold ball-bonding is still used for manufacturing over 90% of the worlds of electronics packages and has moved towards finer pitch in response to increasing demands for more I\\/O's in smaller spaces. However, as commonly observed when reducing the size of components or features in semiconductor assemblies, reliability decreases. Wirebonding behaves similarly in terms of isothermal bake testing and it

J. Beleran; F. Wulff; C. D. Breach

2004-01-01

185

Formation of Monochloropropane-1,2-diol and Its Esters in Biscuits during Baking.  

PubMed

The formation of free monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD and 2-MCPD) and its esters (bound-MCPD) was investigated in biscuits baked with various time and temperature combinations. The effect of salt as a source of chloride on the formation of these processing contaminants was also determined. Kinetic examination of the data indicated that an increasing baking temperature led to an increase in the reaction rate constants for 3-MCPD, 2-MCPD, and bound-MCPD. The activation energies of formation of 3-MCPD and 2-MCPD were found to be 29 kJ mol(-1). Eliminating salt from the recipe decreased 3-MCPD and 2-MCPD formation rate constants in biscuits by 57.5 and 85.4%, respectively. In addition, there was no formation of bound-MCPD in biscuits during baking without salt. Therefore, lowering the thermal load or limiting the chloride concentration should be considered a means of reducing or eliminating the formation of these contaminants in biscuits. Different refined oils were also used in the recipe to test their effect on the occurrence of free MCPD and its esters in biscuits. Besides the baking process, the results also confirmed the role of refined oil in the final concentration of these contaminants in biscuits. PMID:25004252

Mogol, Burçe Ataç; Pye, Céline; Anderson, Warwick; Crews, Colin; Gökmen, Vural

2014-07-23

186

Analytical Techniques for Evaluation of Oxidation Catalysts for the Abatement of Paint Bake Oven Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The abatement of paint bake oven emissions using oxidation catalysts operated at low temperature (500°-600°F) offers significant energy savings relative to traditional incineration. Pilot testing in the field offers the advantage that the actual vapor stream is utilized to evaluate the catalyst. To this end, four low temperature catalysts based on three different substrates have been evaluated onsite for hydrocarbon

S. P. Levine; D. Schuetzle; R. T. Stordeur; J. S. Hammond; C. M. Stordeur

1981-01-01

187

Home-Made Breads [and] Home-Baked Breads for Busy People.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This packet contains two lesson plans for a class on making bread to be taught in an adult literacy program. Developed by a teacher who has taught the classes to 175 people, the lesson plans each contain complete directions for working with students while baking bread. One lesson plan is for experienced home bakers, and the other is a simpler…

Kirk, John

188

[Exploration on baking conditions for Atractylodes macrocephala Kloidz in qiweibaizhusan bags].  

PubMed

This paper is concerned with a comprehensive study on the conditions required for baking pieces and grains of Atractylodes macrocephala Kloidz. through the determination of the relative content of atractylone and moisture content in the rhizome. Optimum roasting temperature and time before pulverizing have been determined, thus providing reliable basis for devising the suitable technological process. PMID:2512945

Yang, Y H; Yang, D H

1989-05-01

189

Regulation of potato tuber sprouting.  

PubMed

Following tuber induction, potato tubers undergo a period of dormancy during which visible bud growth is inhibited. The length of the dormancy period is under environmental, physiological and hormonal control. Sucrose availability is one prerequisite for bud break. In the absence of sucrose, no bud break occurs. Thus, sucrose is likely to serve as nutrient and signal molecule at the same time. The mode of sucrose sensing is only vaguely understood, but most likely involves trehalose-6-phosphate and SnRK1 signalling networks. This conclusion is supported by the observation that ectopically manipulation of trehalose-6-phosphate levels influences the length of the dormancy period. Once physiological competence is achieved, sprouting is controlled by the level of phytohormones. Two phytohormones, ABA and ethylene, are supposed to suppress tuber sprouting; however, the exact role of ethylene remains to be elucidated. Cytokinins and gibberellins are required for bud break and sprout growth, respectively. The fifth classical phytohormone, auxin, seems to play a role in vascular development. During the dormancy period, buds are symplastically isolated, which changes during bud break. In parallel to the establishment of symplastic connectivity, vascular tissue develops below the growing bud most likely to support the outgrowing sprout with assimilates mobilised in parenchyma cells. Sprouting leads to major quality losses of stored potato tubers. Therefore, control of tuber sprouting is a major objective in potato breeding. Although comparative transcriptome analysis revealed a large number of genes differentially expressed in growing versus dormant buds, no master-regulator of potato tuber sprouting has been identified so far. PMID:24100410

Sonnewald, Sophia; Sonnewald, Uwe

2014-01-01

190

The role of potatoes and potato components in cardiometabolic health: a review.  

PubMed

Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) are an important food crop worldwide and contribute key nutrients to the diet, including vitamin C, potassium, and dietary fiber. Potatoes and potato components have been shown to have favorable impacts on several measures of cardiometabolic health in animals and humans, including lowering blood pressure, improving lipid profiles, and decreasing markers of inflammation. A range of glycemic index (GI) values have been reported for potatoes, and data are sparse regarding the impact of potato consumption on the postprandial glycemic response, especially when potatoes are consumed with other foods. There is a lack of clinical trial data regarding the impact of potatoes on weight management. A small number of human cohort studies have reported beneficial associations between potato consumption as part of a healthy lifestyle and cardiometabolic health. Another small number of human population studies have included potatoes as part of a dietary pattern with other calorie-dense foods and have not reported cardiometabolic benefits. The epidemiological literature should be interpreted with caution due to lack of consistency in both defining dietary patterns that include potatoes and in control for potential confounding variables. Controlled clinical trials are needed to define the impact of potatoes on cardiometabolic health. PMID:23855880

McGill, Carla R; Kurilich, Anne C; Davignon, Jean

2013-11-01

191

Deformation of a Peridynamic Bar  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deformation of an infinite bar subjected to a self-equilibrated load distribution is investigated using the peridynamic formulation of elasticity theory. The peridynamic theory differs from the classical theory and other nonlocal theories in that it does not involve spatial derivatives of the displacement field. The bar problem is formulated as a linear Fredholm integral equation and solved using Fourier

S. A. Silling; M. Zimmermann; R. Abeyaratne

2003-01-01

192

The influence of dehydrated potatoes processing on the glycoalkaloids content in coloured-fleshed potato.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different temperatures of blanching and pre-drying used in the laboratory production of dried potato dice on the content of glycoalkaloids in red and blue fleshed potato varieties. Studied potatoes of coloured fleshed varieties were characterised by a low glycoalkaloids content at 5.47 mg 100 g(-1). The production of dehydrated potato dice influenced on the decrease in glycoalkaloids content in potato products. The majority of these compounds were removed during the peeling (70%) and blanching process (29%). Potato dice blanched at the highest temperature (85 °C) and pre-dried at 120 °C was characterised by the lowest quantity of glycoalkaloids content, whereas the highest content of these compounds was found in dice blanched potato at the lowest temperature (65 °C) and pre-dried at 120 °C. The blanching process much influenced on the decrease in glycoalkaloids content than pre-drying process. PMID:23870986

Rytel, El?bieta; Tajner-Czopek, Agnieszka; Anio?owska, Magda; Hamouz, Karel

2013-12-01

193

GASEOUS STRUCTURES IN BARRED GALAXIES: EFFECTS OF THE BAR STRENGTH  

SciTech Connect

Using hydrodynamic simulations, we investigate the physical properties of gaseous substructures in barred galaxies and their relationships with the bar strength. The gaseous medium is assumed to be isothermal and unmagnetized. The bar potential is modeled as a Ferrers prolate with index n. To explore situations with differing bar strength, we vary the bar mass f{sub bar} relative to the spheroidal component as well as its aspect ratio R. We derive expressions as functions of f{sub bar} and R for the bar strength Q{sub b} and the radius r(Q{sub b} ) where the maximum bar torque occurs. When applied to observations, these expressions suggest that bars in real galaxies are most likely to have f{sub bar} {approx} 0.25-0.50 and n {approx}< 1. Dust lanes approximately follow one of the x{sub 1}-orbits and tend to be straighter under a stronger and more elongated bar, but are insensitive to the presence of self-gravity. A nuclear ring of a conventional x{sub 2} type forms only when the bar is not so massive or elongated. The radius of an x{sub 2}-type ring is generally smaller than the inner Lindblad resonance, decreases systematically with increasing Q{sub b} , and is slightly larger when self-gravity is included. This is evidence that the ring position is not determined by the resonance, but instead by the amount of angular momentum loss at dust-lane shocks. Nuclear spirals exist only when the ring is of the x{sub 2} type and is sufficiently large in size. Unlike the other features, nuclear spirals are transient in that they start out being tightly wound and weak, and then, due to the nonlinear effect, unwind and become stronger until they turn into shocks, with an unwinding rate that is higher for larger Q{sub b} . The mass inflow rate to the galaxy center is found to be less than 0.01 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} for models with Q{sub b} {approx}< 0.2, while becoming larger than 0.1 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} when Q{sub b} {approx}> 0.2 and self-gravity is included.

Kim, Woong-Tae; Seo, Woo-Young; Kim, Yonghwi, E-mail: wkim@astro.snu.ac.kr [Center for the Exploration of the Origin of the Universe (CEOU), Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-10-10

194

Thickness of Bar 1Visibility Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bar k-visibility graphs are graphs admitting a representation in which the vertices correspond to horizontal line segments, called bars, and the edges correspond to vertical lines of sight which can traverse up to k bars. These graphs were introduced by Dean et al. (3) who conjec- tured that bar 1-visibility graphs have thickness at most 2. We construct a bar

Stefan Felsner; Mareike Massow

2006-01-01

195

Parameters of Bar k-Visibility Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bar k-visibility graphs are graphs admitting a representation in which the vertices correspond to horizontal line segments, called bars, and the edges correspond to vertical lines of sight which can traverse up to k bars. These graphs were introduced by Dean et al. (4) who conjectured that bar 1-visibility graphs have thickness at most 2. We construct a bar 1-visibility

Stefan Felsner; Mareike Massow

2008-01-01

196

Resistance in wild potatoes to attack by the potato leafhopper and the potato flea beetle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a Solanum polyadenium was found to be highly resistant, if not immune, to attack by the potato leafhopper. Three closely related species,S. chacoense, S. commersonii, andS.caldasii also were highly resistant to the leafhopper.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a S. bulbocastanum showed fair resistance to flea beetle attack.S. polyadenium was highly immune to attack. Only slight feeding by the adult flea beetles occurred on this species

J. P Sleesman

1940-01-01

197

Analysis of usability of potato pulp as solid fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes an attempt to analyse the usability of potato pulp as a future ecological solid fuel. The analysis of potato pulp, carried out within the framework of the study, comprised the following aspects: assessing energetic values of potato pulp, assessing the effects of burning solid fuel in the form of pellets made of potato pulp, assessing energy expenditures

S?awomir Obidzi?ski

198

A Brief History of the Potato in Ireland.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides historical information on the potato in Ireland focusing on how the potato arrived in Ireland and the advantages and disadvantages of the potato as a food crop. Discusses the Irish potato famine in Ireland, effects of the famine, and the government's laissez-faire response. Includes a list of questions. (CMK)

Social Education, 2000

2000-01-01

199

Molecular biology of resistance to potato virus X in potato.  

PubMed

It has been proposed that plants express resistance to pathogens when the product of a resistance gene interacts with an elicitor molecule produced by the pathogen. Although there is one instance with tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) in which virus resistance is known to act through the same type of mechanism, it is not known whether this model accounts generally for resistance interactions with plant viruses. To address this issue the interactions of resistance genes in potato with potato virus X (PVX) have been analysed at the molecular level. PVX is an RNA virus that is affected by three different types of resistance locus in various potato cultivars. By using recombinant isolates of PVX, incorporating components of strains or mutant viruses able to overcome or avoid the effects of the resistance loci, we have identified different regions of the viral genome that determine the outcome of the resistance interaction. This information has allowed us to investigate the resistance in detail. For example, with the resistance specified by the Rx locus, it has been shown that the coat protein is an avirulence determinant and elicitor of an induced resistance. This resistance acts by reducing virus accumulation in the inoculated cell. Although the recognition component of the resistance is highly specific, the induced response is apparently non-specific and is effective against viruses unrelated to PVX in cells doubly inoculated with PVX and a second virus. The recognition function of Rx is also expressed in Gomphrena globosa which is a non-host plant of PVX. Based on these data, we propose that virus resistance fits the paradigm of resistance to fungal and bacterial pathogens and that there are similarities between the mechanism of cultivar specific resistance and non-host resistance to pathogen attack. Further analysis of the mechanism of the non-specific response phase may ultimately allow genetic engineering of broad-spectrum virus resistance in crop plants. PMID:7639780

Baulcombe, D; Gilbert, J; Goulden, M; Köhm, B; Cruz, S S

1994-01-01

200

Potato Processing for the Consumer: Developments and Future Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

In merely half a century industrial processing of potatoes into consumer products has developed into a major activity in the\\u000a potato world. Yearly about 30 million MT of potatoes or almost 10% of the global potato crop are converted into consumer products,\\u000a mainly in the EU and North America where one to two thirds of the daily potato consumption is

M. J. H. Keijbets

2008-01-01

201

Property Control through Bar Coding.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A public utility company uses laser wands to read bar-coded labels on furniture and equipment. The system allows an 80 percent savings of the time required to create reports for inventory control. (MLF)

Kingma, Gerben J.

1984-01-01

202

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of potato viruses A and Y in potato leaves and sprouts  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) potato virus A (PVA) could be detected reliably in potato sprouts, especially\\u000a when these were young and sappy. The detection of this virus in leaves of glasshouse-grown potato plants was less reliable.\\u000a \\u000a The tobacco veinal necrosis strain of potato virus Y (PVYN) was readily demonstrated in foliage of glass-house-grown potato plants using an antiserum

D. Z. Maat; J. A. De Bokx

1978-01-01

203

Potato chromosomes IX and XI carry genes for resistance to potato virus M.  

PubMed

Two new loci for resistance to potato virus M (PVM), Gm and Rm, have been mapped in potato. The gene Gm was derived from Solanum gourlayi, whereas, Solanum megistacrolobum is the source of the gene Rm. Gm confers resistance to PVM infection after mechanical inoculation. Rm induces a hypersensitive response in potato plants. Two diploid populations segregating for Gm and Rm, bulked segregant analysis (BSA) using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR), and available potato molecular maps were instrumental for mapping the resistance loci. The novel locus Gm was mapped to a central region on potato chromosome IX. The locus Rm was placed on the short arm of chromosome XI, close to the marker loci GP250 and GP283, where a hotspot for monogenic and polygenic resistance to diverse pathogens is located in the potato and tomato genome. PMID:16453130

Marczewski, W; Strzelczyk-Zyta, D; Hennig, J; Witek, K; Gebhardt, C

2006-05-01

204

Determination of suitable drying curve model for bread moisture loss during baking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents mathematical modelling of bread moisture loss or drying during baking in a conventional bread baking process. In order to estimate and select the appropriate moisture loss curve equation, 11 different models, semi-theoretical and empirical, were applied to the experimental data and compared according to their correlation coefficients, chi-squared test and root mean square error which were predicted by nonlinear regression analysis. Consequently, of all the drying models, a Page model was selected as the best one, according to the correlation coefficients, chi-squared test, and root mean square error values and its simplicity. Mean absolute estimation error of the proposed model by linear regression analysis for natural and forced convection modes was 2.43, 4.74%, respectively.

Soleimani Pour-Damanab, A. R.; Jafary, A.; Rafiee, S.

2013-03-01

205

Grocery store baking soda. A source of sodium bicarbonate in the management of chronic metabolic acidosis.  

PubMed

Oral sodium bicarbonate is used to treat metabolic acidosis in patients with renal tubular acidosis. Since infants and young children are unable to swallow tablets, those affected must ingest sodium bicarbonate in a powder or liquid form. Pharmacy-weighed sodium bicarbonate is expensive and inconvenient to obtain; some pharmacists are reluctant to provide it. We determined that the sodium bicarbonate contained in 8-oz boxes of Arm and Hammer Baking Soda was sufficiently constant in weight that, dissolved in water to a given volume, it yielded a quantitatively acceptable therapeutic solution of sodium bicarbonate at a cost of approximately 3 percent of that of pharmacy-weighed sodium bicarbonate. Grocery store baking soda can be a safe, economical, and convenient source of sodium bicarbonate for the treatment of chronic metabolic acidosis in infants and young children. PMID:6319065

Booth, B E; Gates, J; Morris, R C

1984-02-01

206

Triple bar, high efficiency mechanical sealer  

DOEpatents

A clamp with a bottom clamp bar that has a planar upper surface is provided. The clamp may also include a top clamp bar connected to the bottom clamp bar, and a pressure distribution bar between the top clamp bar and the bottom clamp bar. The pressure distribution bar may have a planar lower surface in facing relation to the upper surface of the bottom clamp bar. An object is capable of being disposed in a clamping region between the upper surface and the lower surface. The width of the planar lower surface may be less than the width of the upper surface within the clamping region. Also, the pressure distribution bar may be capable of being urged away from the top clamp bar and towards the bottom clamp bar.

Pak, Donald J.; Hawkins, Samantha A.; Young, John E.

2013-03-19

207

Baking Performance of Durum and Soft Wheat Flour in a Sponge-Dough Breadmaking Procedure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 75(6):830-835 Breadmaking properties were determined for formulations that included durum, soft, and spring wheat flour, using a pound-loaf sponge-dough baking procedure. Up to 60% durum or soft wheat flour plus 10% spring wheat flour could be incorporated at the sponge stage for optimum dough- handling properties. At remix, the dough stage required 30% spring wheat flour. Bread made

Gary A. Hareland; Dehdra P. Puhr

1998-01-01

208

Dough and Baking Properties of High-Amylose and Waxy Wheat Flours  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 79(4):491-495 The dough properties and baking qualities of a novel high-amylose wheat flour (HAWF) and a waxy wheat flour (WWF) (both Triticum aestivum L.) were investigated by comparing them with common wheat flours. HAWF and WWF had more dietary fiber than Chinese Spring flour (CSF), a nonwaxy wheat flour. Also, HAWF contained larger amounts of lipids and proteins

Naofumi Morita; Tomoko Maeda; Megumi Miyazaki; Makoto Yamamori; Hideho Miura; Ichiro Ohtsuka

2002-01-01

209

Properties of yeast free bread produced by supercritical fluid extrusion (SCFX) and vacuum baking  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel technology, supercritical fluid extrusion (SCFX), allows for continuous production of yeast-free dough leavened via incorporation of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2). In this study, an optimum dough formulation, SCFX leavened dough production and baking procedures were developed. A premixed dough was leavened by 1% (feed basis) SC-CO2 injection in a twin screw extruder at 37°C. Specific mechanical energy input

Khanitta Ruttarattanamongkol; Michael Emil Wagner; Syed S. H. Rizvi

2011-01-01

210

The effect of baking soda when applied to bleached enamel prior to restorative treatment.  

PubMed

This in vitro study evaluated the effect of 10% baking soda solution and sodium bicarbonate powder (applied with jets) when applied to bleached enamel prior to restorative treatment. The surfaces of 40 bovine incisors were flattened and divided into 5 groups (n = 8): Group B (bleached and restored, negative control), Group W (bleached, stored in distilled water for 7 days, and restored), Group BSJ (bleached, abraded with baking soda jet for 1 min, and restored), Group BSS (bleached, application of 10% baking soda solution for 5 min, and restored), and Group R (restored, without bleaching, positive control). The samples were bleached in 1 session with 3 applications of 35% HP-based gel and activated with a LED appliance for 9 min each. Resin composite cylinders (2 mm height and 0.8 mm diameter) were made on the enamel surface after the acid etching and a conventional 1-step single vial adhesive application was performed. After storage in distilled water (37 ± 1°C, 24 hr), the microshear bond test was performed (1 mm/min). ANOVA and Tukey tests were applied to compare the results. The mean results of these tests showed that Groups W, BBS, and R were not statistically different. These groups also indicated a higher bond strength when compared with Groups B and BSJ. The application of 10% baking soda solution for 5 min may be an alternative pre-restorative treatment for bleached enamel, but further studies are needed to consider whether or not this treatment may be effectively used in clinical practice. PMID:23928450

Tostes, Bhenya Ottoni; Mondelli, Rafael Francisco Lia; Lima-Arsati, Ynara Bosco de Oliveira; Rodrigues, Jose Augusto; Costa, Leonardo Cesar

2013-08-01

211

Cookie vs. Cracker-Baking—What's the Difference? Flour Functionality Requirements Explored by SRC and Alveography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The many differences between cookie- and cracker-baking are discussed, and described in terms of the functionality, and functional requirements, of the major biscuit ingredients—flour and sugar. Both types of products are similar in their major ingredients, but different in their formulas and processes. One of the most important and consequential differences between traditional cracker and cookie formulas is sugar (i.e.

Meera Kweon; Louise Slade; Harry Levine; Diane Gannon

2012-01-01

212

In vitro Starch Digestibility and Predicted Glycemic Index of Microwaved and Conventionally Baked Pound Cake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study compares the effect of baking process (microwave vs conventional oven) on starch bioavailability in fresh\\u000a pound cake crumbs and in crumbs from pound cake stored for 8 days. Proximal chemical analysis, resistant starch (RS), retrograded\\u000a starch (RS3) and starch hydrolysis index (HI) were evaluated. The empirical formula suggested by Granfeldt was used to determine\\u000a the predicted glycemic index

María Elena Sánchez-Pardo; Alicia Ortiz-Moreno; Rosalva Mora-Escobedo; Hugo Necoechea-Mondragón

2007-01-01

213

Formation of the cottrell atmosphere during strain aging of bake-hardenable steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model has been developed to describe the formation of the carbon atmosphere around dislocations during the aging of a bake-hardenable\\u000a steel, by taking into account the concurrent segregation of carbon atoms to dislocations, grain boundaries, and pre-existing\\u000a cementite particles. The effects of the segregation of carbon to grain boundaries and to pre-existing cementite particles\\u000a on the formation of the

J. Z. Zhao; A. K. De; B. C. De Cooman

2001-01-01

214

Microstructure and Properties of Ti and Ti+Nb Ultra-Low-Carbon Bake Hardened Steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hot rolling, cold rolling and continuous annealing processes of Ti bearing and Ti+Nb stabilized ultra-low-carbon bake hardened steels were experimentally studied. The microstructure and texture evolution, as well as the morphology, size and distribution of second phase precipitates during hot rolling, cold rolling and continuous annealing were also analyzed. The results showed that the size of NbC precipitates in Ti+Nb

Ji-ping CHEN; Yong-lin KANG; Ying-min HAO; Guang-ming LIU; Ai-ming XIONG

2009-01-01

215

Optimization of Baking of Rice Cakes in Infrared–Microwave Combination Oven by Response Surface Methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, response surface methodology was used to design gluten-free cakes made from rice flour to be baked in infrared-microwave\\u000a combination oven. Two types of cake formulations containing different types of gums were used in the experiments, which were\\u000a xanthan gum and xanthan–guar gum blend. The independent variables were emulsifier content (0, 3, and 6% of flour weight),\\u000a upper

Elif Turabi; Gulum Sumnu; Serpil Sahin

2008-01-01

216

Aspen fiber addition improves the mechanical properties of baked cornstarch foams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, there have been efforts to manufacture single-use articles, such as fast food packaging and containers, from biodegradable materials. Starch-based foams have been developed to replace the expanded polystyrene foam packaging currently in use. Starch-based foams are water sensitive, and thus, their mechanical properties are susceptible to changes in relative humidity. In this report, aspen fiber was added to baked

J. W Lawton; R. L Shogren; K. F Tiefenbacher

2004-01-01

217

Comparison of rheological, fermentative and baking properties of gluten-free dough formulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the fundamental rheological properties, capability of CO2 retention during proofing, and baking behaviour of gluten-free (GF) dough. Maize flour, maize starch, rice flour, and buckwheat\\u000a flour formulations are compared. Apple pectin is used as the structuring agent. Rheologically, the GF dough formulations can\\u000a be defined as physical gels of different viscoelasticity and structural networking. The curves of

Anna Pruska-K?dzior; Zenon K?dzior; Mateusz Gor?cy; Katarzyna Pietrowska; Anna Przybylska; Karolina Spychalska

2008-01-01

218

Simulation of bread making process using a direct 3D numerical method at microscale: analysis of baking step  

Microsoft Academic Search

The change of rheological and morphological properties of bread dough during the baking step is numerically studied on the\\u000a base of the model derived for the proofing step in a previous paper. Starting from the numerical foam structure obtained after\\u000a proofing, the baking step is calculated, taking into account the thermomechanical couplings and the impact of dough thermosetting.\\u000a The results

Jérôme Bikard; Thierry Coupez; Guy Della Valle; Bruno Vergnes

219

Soft Wheat Milling and Baking Quality in a Soft Red Winter X Hard Red Winter Wheat Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 66(5):378-381 A single-cross soft red winter X hard red winter wheat population and high SE and adjusted flour yield, indicating acceptable preliminary was evaluated in the F3, F4, and F5 generations for preliminary soft red soft red winter wheat milling and baking quality. Narrow sense heritability winter wheat milling and baking quality. Tests conducted included the estimates for

L. MAY; D. A. VAN SANFORD; P. L. FINNEY

220

Efficacy of baking soda-containing chewing gum in removing natural tooth stain.  

PubMed

A 14-week, double-blind, randomized clinical trial was conducted with 126 healthy volunteers to compare the efficacy of twice-daily use of 3 baking soda-containing chewing gums in removing natural tooth stain when used in conjunction with a program of regular oral hygiene. All 3 chewing gums significantly reduced extrinsic stain (P < .0001) and improved the whitened appearance of teeth (P < .0001) at both the 2-week interim and the final 4-week evaluations. ARM & HAMMER DENTAL CARE The Baking Soda Gum (AHDC) reduced dental stain by 70.8%, compared to reductions of 71.9% and 65.3%, after use of 2 experimental gum formulations. Whitened appearance improved by 1.73 shade tabs using AHDC gum, and up to 2.49 shade tabs with the experimental formulations. These results suggest that the use of baking soda-containing gum after meals, in conjunction with good oral hygiene, can improve both extrinsic dental staining and the whitened appearance of teeth. PMID:11913307

Mankodi, S M; Conforti, N; Berkowitz, H

2001-07-01

221

The motivational benefits of a dentifrice containing baking soda and hydrogen peroxide.  

PubMed

Twenty-two family practice dentists, in a large metropolitan area, were recruited to act as independent examiners in a study to evaluate the compliance of their patients to accept a good oral hygiene regimen with the use of a fluoride dentifrice, containing hydrogen peroxide and baking soda, dispensed from a dual dispensing package. To evaluate compliance, the dentists attended an orientation seminar and were trained to assess gingival health using the CPITN periodontal probe. Each dentist evaluated the gingival health status of five to seven of his own patients, initially and after one and three months of product use following hygiene instruction and product assignment. One-hundred and thirty-one patients successfully completed the study. After one month of using the hydrogen peroxide/baking soda toothpaste, the mean reduction in bleeding sites was 53%; at three months the reduction was 62%. The hydrogen peroxide/baking soda dentifrice was well accepted by dentist and patient, and a discernible improvement in oral health of the patients was achieved when the product was used in a conscientious oral hygiene program. PMID:1333217

Fischman, S L; Kugel, G; Truelove, R B; Nelson, B J; Cancro, L P

1992-01-01

222

Race nonspecific resistance for potato late blight.  

PubMed

The late blight fungus (Phytophthora infestans) rots susceptible species of potato plants. None of the major varieties of potato (Solanum tuberosum) grown in the USA is resistant to US-8, the most prevalent genotype of the fungus. Now, Junqi Song, James Bradeen and colleagues have cloned the RB gene from the wild diploid potato species, Solanum bulbocastanum, using a map-based approach in combination with long-range PCR. Transgenic plants containing the gene, normally fully susceptible, displayed broad-spectrum late blight resistance. PMID:14729211

Staples, Richard C

2004-01-01

223

[A detection method for recombinant DNA from genetically modified potato (NewLeaf Y potato)].  

PubMed

A detection method using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed to detect genetically modified (GM) potato (NewLeaf Y potato; NL-Y), of which the mandatory assessment has not yet been completed in Japan. The potato sucrose synthase gene was used as an internal control. We designed a primer pair to specifically detect NL-Y without false-positive results in processed potato foods infected with the potato virus Y (PVY). The DNA introduced into NL-Y using the primer pair could be detected from potato powder samples containing 0.05% NL-Y. In addition, we designed primer pairs for recognizing the CryIIIA gene to detect the NewLeaf potato (NL), NewLeaf Plus potato (NL-P) and NL-Y and for recognizing p-FMV in order to detect NL-P and NL-Y. The proposed method was applied to the detection of NL-Y in 26 processed potato foods and NL-Y was not detected in any samples. PMID:12607929

Akiyama, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Takahiro; Wakui, Chiseko; Chiba, Yoshiko; Shibuya, Masaaki; Goda, Yukihiro; Toyoda, Masatake

2002-10-01

224

Marker-Assisted Selection for Recognizing Wheat Mutant Genotypes Carrying HMW Glutenin Alleles Related to Baking Quality  

PubMed Central

Allelic diversity of HMW glutenin loci in several studies revealed that allelic combinations affect dough quality. Dx5 + Dy10 subunits are related to good baking quality and Dx2 + Dy12 are related to undesirable baking quality. One of the most regular methods to evaluate the baking quality is SDS-PAGE which is used to improve baking quality labs. Marker-assisted selection is the method which can recognize the alleles related to baking quality and this method is based on polymerase chain reaction. 10 pairs of specific primers related to Dx2, Dx2.1, Dx5, Dy10, and Dy12 subunits were used for recognizing baking quality of some wheat varieties and some mutant genotypes. Only 5 pairs of them could show the specific bands. All subunits were recognized by the primers except Dx2.1. Some of the primers were extracted from previous studies and the others were designed based on D genome subunits of wheat. SDS-PAGE method accomplished having confidence in these marker's results. To realize the effect of mutation, seed storage proteins were measured. It showed that mutation had effect on the amount of seed storage protein on the mutant seeds (which showed polymorphism).

Zamani, Mohammad Javad; Bihamta, Mohammad Reza; Naserian Khiabani, Behnam; Tahernezhad, Zahra; Hallajian, Mohammad Taher; Shamsi, Marzieh Varasteh

2014-01-01

225

The influence of baking fuel on residues of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals in bread.  

PubMed

The influence of fuel type used to bake bread on the spectrum and concentrations of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals in baked bread was assessed. Bread samples were collected from different bakeries operated by either electricity, solar, mazot or solid waste and their residue content of PAHs and heavy metals was assessed. The total concentration of PAHs detected in mazot, solar, solid waste and electricity operated bakeries had an average of 320.6, 158.4, 317.3 and 25.5 microgkg(-1), respectively. Samples collected from mazot, solar and solid waste operated bakeries have had a wide spectrum of PAHs, in comparison to that detected in bread samples collected from electricity operated bakeries. Lead had the highest concentrations in the four groups of bread samples, followed by nickel, while the concentrations of zinc and cadmium were the least. The concentration of lead detected in bread samples produced from mazot, solar, solid waste and electricity fueled bakeries were 1375.5, 1114, 1234, and 257.3 microgkg(-1), respectively. Estimated daily intake of PAHs based on bread consumption were 48.2, 28.5, 80. 1, and 4.8 microg per person per day for bread produced in bakeries using mazot, solar, solid waste and electricity, respectively. Meanwhile, the estimated daily intake of benzo (a) pyrene were 3.69, 2.65, 8.1, and 0.81 microg per person per day for bread sample baked with mazot, solar, solid waste and electricity, respectively. The daily intake of lead, based on bread consumption was 291, 200.5, 222, and 46.31 microg per person per day for bread sample baked with mazot, solar, solid waste and electricity, respectively. The present work has indicated the comparatively high level of daily intake of benzo (a) pyrene and lead in comparison to levels reported from many other countries and those recommended by international regulatory bodies. It is probable that residues detected in bread samples are partially cereal-borne but there is strong evidence that the process of baking and the gases emitted are responsible for most of the contamination load. PMID:11080564

Ahmed, M T; Abdel Hadi el-S; el-Samahy, S; Youssof, K

2000-12-30

226

Cooking Potatoes: Experimentation and Mathematical Modeling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a laboratory activity involving a mathematical model of cooking potatoes that can be solved analytically. Highlights the microstructure aspects of the experiment. Provides the key aspects of the results, detailed background readings, laboratory procedures and data analyses. (MM)

Chen, Xiao Dong

2002-01-01

227

Irradiation processing of potatoes, onions and garlic.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this report, studies have been conducted on irradiation preservation of potatoes, onions and garlic involving different varieties, harvesting season and storage life. As a result of these investigations, optimum conditions were established for each cro...

M. Jan A. Starr M. Wahid A. Ahmad I. Khan

1992-01-01

228

Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of Barred Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic fields are pervasive in barred galaxies, especially in gaseous substructures such as dust lanes and nuclear rings. To explore the effects of magnetic fields on the formation of the substructures as well as on the mass inflow rates to the galaxy center, we run two-dimensional, ideal magnetohydrodynamic simulations. We use a modified version of the Athena code whose numerical magnetic diffusivity is shown to be of third order in space. In the bar regions, magnetic fields are compressed and abruptly bent around the dust-lane shocks. The associated magnetic stress not only reduces the peak density of the dust-lane shocks but also removes angular momentum further from the gas that is moving radially in. Nuclear rings that form at the location of centrifugal barrier rather than resonance with the bar are smaller and more radially distributed, and the mass flow rate to the galaxy center is correspondingly larger in models with stronger magnetic fields. Outside the bar regions, the bar potential and strong shear conspire to amplify the field strength near the corotation resonance. The amplified fields transport angular momentum outward, producing trailing magnetic arms with strong fields and low density. The base of the magnetic arms are found to be unstable to a tearing-mode instability of magnetic reconnection. This produces numerous magnetic islands that eventually make the outer regions highly chaotic.

Kim, W.-T.

2013-04-01

229

Making a Battery from a Potato  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this electrochemistry activity, young learners and adult helpers create a battery from a potato to run a clock. This resource includes background information about electricity, electronics, and chemical reactions. Learners can also test this experiment with other fruits and vegetables in place of the potato. This activity was written to be part of a kit that could be checked out of a library, though the kit is not required.

Shaw, Maisie; Gomez, Maria

2010-01-01

230

POTATO FOR FOOD SECURITY IN BANGLADESH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Azimuddin Md., Alam Q.M. and Baset M.A. 2009. Potato for Food Security in Bangladesh. Int. J. Sustain. Crop Prod. 4(1):94-99. A survey was conducted at Comilla and Munshiganj districts during 2008 to generate information on area, production and utilization of potato. Both primary and secondary data were used in this study. A total of 100 farmers were selected randomly. Data

Q. M. ALAM

231

Ethanol production from potato peel waste (PPW).  

PubMed

Considerable concern is caused by the problem of potato peel waste (PPW) to potato industries in Europe. An integrated, environmentally-friendly solution is yet to be found and is currently undergoing investigation. Potato peel is a zero value waste produced by potato processing plants. However, bio-ethanol produced from potato wastes has a large potential market. If Federal Government regulations are adopted in light of the Kyoto agreement, the mandatory blending of bio-ethanol with traditional gasoline in amounts up to 10% will result in a demand for large quantities of bio-ethanol. PPW contain sufficient quantities of starch, cellulose, hemicellulose and fermentable sugars to warrant use as an ethanol feedstock. In the present study, a number of batches of PPW were hydrolyzed with various enzymes and/or acid, and fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisae var. bayanus to determine fermentability and ethanol production. Enzymatic hydrolysis with a combination of three enzymes, released 18.5 g L(-1) reducing sugar and produced 7.6 g L(-1) of ethanol after fermentation. The results demonstrate that PPW, a by-product of the potato industry features a high potential for ethanol production. PMID:20471817

Arapoglou, D; Varzakas, Th; Vlyssides, A; Israilides, C

2010-10-01

232

Salt release from potato crisps.  

PubMed

The rate of salt release in-mouth from salted potato crisps was evaluated. It was hypothesised that a slow steady release of sodium would occur on chewing and hydration; to test this a crisp was chewed and held in the oral cavity without swallowing for 60 s. Sodium release was measured over the entire holding period, after 20-30 s a peak in salivary sodium levels was recorded. A similar trend was observed with sensory perceived saltiness by trained panellists. The results suggest that a significant proportion of the crisp's salt flavouring is released in a pulse-type mechanism which would not be encountered when the crisp is exposed to normal eating patterns and would result in the consumption of a large proportion of unperceived sodium. PMID:22344245

Tian, Xing; Fisk, Ian D

2012-04-01

233

Nuclear Rings in Barred Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dust lanes, nuclear rings and nuclear spirals are typical structures in the inner region of barred galaxies. Their shapes and properties are linked to the physical parameters of galaxies. To study galaxy formation and evolution revealed by these gas features, we need to understand what conditions are responsible to the gas flow patterns. Here we use high-resolution hydrodynamical simulations to study 2D gas flows in simple barred models. We find that the location and thickness of nuclear rings are tightly correlated with galactic properties, such as the pattern speed and central mass concentration, within certain ranges. Our result may have important implications for measuring the parameters of real barred galaxies observed by IFU.

Shen, Juntai

2014-05-01

234

The potato tuber mitochondrial proteome.  

PubMed

Mitochondria are called the powerhouses of the cell. To better understand the role of mitochondria in maintaining and regulating metabolism in storage tissues, highly purified mitochondria were isolated from dormant potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum 'Folva') and their proteome investigated. Proteins were resolved by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and tryptic peptides were extracted from gel slices and analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using an Orbitrap XL. Using four different search programs, a total of 1,060 nonredundant proteins were identified in a quantitative manner using normalized spectral counts including as many as 5-fold more "extreme" proteins (low mass, high isoelectric point, hydrophobic) than previous mitochondrial proteome studies. We estimate that this compendium of proteins represents a high coverage of the potato tuber mitochondrial proteome (possibly as high as 85%). The dynamic range of protein expression spanned 1,800-fold and included nearly all components of the electron transport chain, tricarboxylic acid cycle, and protein import apparatus. Additionally, we identified 71 pentatricopeptide repeat proteins, 29 membrane carriers/transporters, a number of new proteins involved in coenzyme biosynthesis and iron metabolism, the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, and a type 2C protein phosphatase that may catalyze the dephosphorylation of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. Systematic analysis of prominent posttranslational modifications revealed that more than 50% of the identified proteins harbor at least one modification. The most prominently observed class of posttranslational modifications was oxidative modifications. This study reveals approximately 500 new or previously unconfirmed plant mitochondrial proteins and outlines a facile strategy for unbiased, near-comprehensive identification of mitochondrial proteins and their modified forms. PMID:24351685

Salvato, Fernanda; Havelund, Jesper F; Chen, Mingjie; Rao, R Shyama Prasad; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Jensen, Ole N; Gang, David R; Thelen, Jay J; Møller, Ian Max

2014-02-01

235

Combining genetic engineering and traditional breeding to provide elevated resistance in potatoes to Colorado potato beetle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sustainable deployment of resistant crop varieties is a critical issue for the implementation of bio- technology in crop pest management. Feeding, biomass accumulation, and mortality were evaluated for susceptible, insecticide-resistant, and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry 3A-selected Colorado potato beetle ( Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) larvae fed on: cultivated potato, a Solanum chacoense line expressing leptine glycoalkaloids, a transformed

Susannah G. Cooper; David S. Douches; Edward J. Grafius

2004-01-01

236

Comparison of several methods for the extraction of DNA from potatoes and potato-derived products.  

PubMed

Eight methods were compared for the extraction of DNA from raw potato tubers, and nine methods were evaluated for the extraction of DNA from dehydrated potato slices, potato flakes, potato flour, potato starch, and two ready-to-eat potato snack foods. Extracts were assessed for yield using a fluorescence-based DNA quantification assay. Real-time amplification of an endogenous gene, sucrose synthase (sus), was used to assess extract and template quality. A CTAB-based method extracted the highest DNA yields from the tuber material. An in-house method, which utilized the Kingfisher magnetic particle processor, yielded the highest template quality from the tubers. For most of the tuber samples, the Kingfisher and CTAB methods recovered the highest levels of amplifiable sus. DNA yields for potato-derived foods generally decreased with the extent that the product had been processed. The methods that utilized the magnetic particle processor delivered the highest template quality from one of the snack products that was particularly high in fat. For most of the remaining processed products, the levels of amplifiable target DNA recovered were roughly correlated with total DNA recovery, indicating that overall yield had greater influence over sus amplification than template quality. The Wizard method was generally the best method for the extraction of DNA from most of the potato-derived foods. PMID:16366665

Smith, Donna S; Maxwell, Philip W; De Boer, Solke H

2005-12-28

237

Biochemical effects of potato irradiation on potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella Zeller (Lepidoptera - Gelechiidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of gamma radiation on the whole body contents of nutritional materials was investigated for potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella Zeller, fed on irradiated potato tubers. The statistical analysis of the data indicated that the quantities of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids in the whole body of the adults of Ph. operculella were affected significantly. There was a correlation with their

Iman M. Haiba; Mona F. Abd-El Aziz

2008-01-01

238

Universal precision sine bar attachment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This invention relates to an attachment for a sine bar which can be used to perform measurements during lathe operations or other types of machining operations. The attachment can be used for setting precision angles on vises, dividing heads, rotary tables and angle plates. It can also be used in the inspection of machined parts, when close tolerances are required, and in the layout of precision hardware. The novelty of the invention is believed to reside in a specific versatile sine bar attachment for measuring a variety of angles on a number of different types of equipment.

Mann, Franklin D. (inventor)

1989-01-01

239

CSERD Interactivate: Bar Graph Lesson  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This simulation-based lesson for grades 5-9 provides hands-on practice in exploring bar graphs using authentic information. It features an interactive Java graphing applet to create and read bar graphs. Students can work within parameters provided in the applet or input their own data sets. This resource includes a complete lesson plan, teaching tips, and alignment to NCTM standards. This resource is part of CSERD (Computational Science Education Reference Desk), a portal of the National Science Digital Library. The Interactivate collection contains more than 200 standards-based activities, many of which have been classroom tested.

2011-03-01

240

Bar-spheroid interaction in galaxies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

N-body simulation and linear analysis is employed to investigate the secular evolution of barred galaxies, with emphasis on the interaction between bars and spheroidal components of galaxies. This interaction is argued to drive secular transfer of angular momentum from bars to spheroids, primarily through resonant coupling. A moderately strong bar, having mass within corotation about 0.3 times the enclosed spheroid mass, is predicted to shed all its angular momentum typically in less than about 10 exp 9 yr. Even shorter depletion time scales are found for relatively more massive bars. It is suggested either that spheroids around barred galaxies are structured so as to inhibit strong coupling with bars, or that bars can form by unknown processes long after disks are established. The present models reinforce the notion that bars can drive secular evolution in galaxies.

Hernquist, Lars; Weinberg, Martin D.

1992-01-01

241

In vitro starch digestibility and expected glycemic index of pound cakes baked in two-cycle microwave-toaster and conventional oven.  

PubMed

Bread baking technology has an important effect on starch digestibility measured as its predicted glycemic index tested in vitro. The aim of this work was to evaluate the changes in predicted glycemic index of pound cake baked in a two-cycle microwave toaster and a conventional oven. The glycemic index was calculated from hydrolysis index values by the Granfeldt method. Non-significant differences (P > 0.05) were found in hydrolysis index (60.67 ± 3.96 for the product baked in microwave oven and 65.94 ± 4.09 for the product baked in conventional oven) and predicted glycemic index content (60.5 for product baked in microwave oven and 65 for the product baked in conventional oven) in freshly-baked samples. Results clearly demonstrate that the baking pound cake conventional process could be replicated using a two-cycle multifunction microwave oven, reducing the traditional baking time. Further research is required in order to achieve pound cake crumb uniformity. PMID:20367217

García-zaragoza, Francisco J; Sánchez-Pardo, María E; Ortiz-Moreno, Alicia; Bello-Pérez, Luis A

2010-11-01

242

White Potatoes, Human Health, and Dietary Guidance12  

PubMed Central

The white potato is a concentrated source of carbohydrate, dietary fiber, and resistant starch and continues to be the staple food of choice for many cultures. The white potato is also a concentrated source of vitamin C and potassium. Two of the nutrients in white potatoes, dietary fiber and potassium, have been designated as nutrients of concern in the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Potatoes are often maligned in nutrition circles because of their suspected link to obesity, and popular potato foods often contain more fat calories than carbohydrate calories. Some food guides do not include potatoes in the vegetable group because of their association with high-fat diets. However, potatoes should be included in the vegetable group because they contribute critical nutrients. All white vegetables, including white potatoes, provide nutrients needed in the diet and deserve a prominent position in food guides.

King, Janet C.; Slavin, Joanne L.

2013-01-01

243

Quality Tests of Some New and Standard Potato Varieties.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Over the period 1956-1968 262 samples of 117 varieties of potato were tested for culinary quality; successful established varieties were used as reference standards. The potatoes were provided by State departments of agriculture who, season by season, sel...

D. M. McBean G. G. Coote E. M. Christie

1973-01-01

244

Study of Foaming Process in Manufacture of Dried Mashed Potatoes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The process consists of the following basic technological operations: washing the potatoes and chopping them, cooking them until done, mashing the potatoes and adding liquid, introduction of a foam stabilizer, foaming, and drying of the foamed material.

S. A. Genin

1973-01-01

245

Effect of bread baking on the bioavailability of hydrogen-reduced iron powder added to unenriched refined wheat flour.  

PubMed

Elemental iron powders are widely used to fortify flour and other cereal products. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that baking enhances the bioavailability of elemental iron powders by oxidizing Fe(0) to Fe(2+) or Fe(3+). An in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell culture model and a piglet model were used to measure bioavailability. Bread flour, either unfortified or fortified with hydrogen-reduced (HR) iron powder or FeSO(4) (300 mg Fe/kg flour), was baked into bread. For the in vitro studies, bread samples were treated with pepsin at pH 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, or 7 and subsequently incubated with pancreatic enzymes at pH 7 in a chamber positioned above monolayers of cultured Caco-2 cells. Ferritin formation in the cells was used as an index of iron bioavailability. Ferritin formation in cells fed HR Fe bread was similar to cells fed FeSO(4) bread when the peptic digestion was conducted at a pH 2 but lower when the peptic phase was conducted at pH 3, 4, 5, 6, or 7 (P < 0.05). Pig diets containing 35% dried bread were prepared and fed to cross-bred (Hampshire x Landrace x Yorkshire) anemic pigs in two studies. The rate of increase in hemoglobin Fe over the feeding period was used to calculate relative biological value (RBV), an index of iron bioavailability. In the first pig study, RBV of HR Fe added to flour prior to baking was 47.9% when compared to FeSO(4) fortified flour (P < 0.05). In the second pig study, a third treatment consisting of unfortified bread with HR iron added during diet mixing (after bread baking) was included. RBVs of the HR Fe diet (Fe added after baking) and HR Fe diet (Fe added before baking) were 40.1% and 53.5%, respectively, compared to the FeSO(4) diet. Differences in RBV between the HR Fe (before and after baking) and FeSO(4) (before baking) treatment groups were significant, but the difference between the before and after HR treatment groups was not significant. We conclude that bread baking does not enhance the bioavailability of elemental iron powders. PMID:17032052

Maekawa, Atsushi A; Glahn, Raymond P; Lei, Xin Gen; Miller, Dennis D

2006-10-18

246

Panic bars and automatic brakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This publication illustrates the need for installation of panic bars that will permit rapid deenergization of equipment in emergencies and automatic emergency brakes on self-propelled electric face equipment used in coal mines. The publication contains drawings depicting actual fatal accidents that have occurred in underground coal mines which these safety devices could have prevented. Also included are drawings and technical

1975-01-01

247

HBr/O2 plasma treatment followed by a bake for photoresist linewidth roughness smoothing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the decrease of CMOS device dimensions, the linewidth roughness (LWR) of transistor gates is being recognized as a major concern. In integrated circuit manufacturing, an HBr plasma treatment has been used so far to reduce the LWR of photoresist (PR) lines printed by 193 nm lithography before transfer into the gate stack by plasma etching. In this article, a more efficient treatment based on HBr/O2 plasma exposure followed by a bake is developed, and the plasma conditions are optimized. We show that by controlling the dose of vacuum ultra violet (VUV) light emitted by the HBr/O2 plasma, the PR bulk can be either softened (photolysis) or strengthened (crosslinking). Moreover, the PR surface properties can be controlled by the O2 content of the plasma. The surface and bulk properties of the PR line after plasma treatment determine the LWR behavior during the subsequent thermal cure treatment. A soft resist bulk combined with a thin surface carbon layer is the ideal case to get the best LWR smoothing effect during the subsequent bake without reflowing. By optimizing both the plasma oxygen content and the VUV dose, we obtained a 59% LWR decrease (from 7.3 nm to 3.0 nm) using an HBr/O2 plasma treatment followed by a bake. The detailed study on the impact of the VUV dose during the plasma treatment permitted to determine the sidewall smoothing mechanisms involved. During both the plasma and the thermal treatments, the outgassing of the products of photolysis or deprotection reactions followed by the re-densification of the polymer material is shown to be the main sidewall smoothing enabler.

Fouchier, M.; Pargon, E.

2014-02-01

248

Heat Conduction to Photoresist on Top of Wafer during Post Exposure Bake Process: II. Application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemically amplified resists are used for 248 nm, 193 nm, immersion and extreme ultraviolet (UV) lithography. Among many process steps, post exposure bake (PEB) is the key process to make the desired small line width and critical dimension control. During PEB, the de-protection reaction and acid diffusion are determined by bake temperature and time. One of the key factors that determines the de-protection and acid diffusion is the initial temperature rising of the hot plate. The unpredictable temperature rising to the pre-set temperature is the main cause of line width variation. In order to predict the accurate PEB temperature and time dependency to the line width, the heat transfer from the hot plate to the resist on top of the silicon wafer is studied. Numerical approach is used to solve the heat conduction problem. Only the boundary temperature values are needed to solve this conduction, the information inside each layer is not required. We calculated the temperature rising characteristics of the photoresist on top of the several layers of the mask. The air conductivity, air gap, number of layers underneath the resist, thickness of the wafer, thickness of the layer including the resist, and different kind of layers are varied to see the characteristics of the bake temperature rising. We showed that there was small temperature difference at photoresist among the layer stack and thickness variation, even though it was very small. There is a strong possibility that this small PEB temperature difference would cause serious critical dimension (CD) control problem.

Oh, Hye-Keun; Kim, Do Wan; Lee, Ji-Eun

2008-11-01

249

An investigation of bread-baking process in a pilot-scale electrical heating oven using computational fluid dynamics.  

PubMed

A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed for bread-baking process in a pilot-scale baking oven to find out the effect of hot air distribution and placement of bread on temperature and starch gelatinization index of bread. In this study, product (bread) simulation was carried out with different placements of bread. Simulation results were validated with experimental measurements of bread temperature. This study showed that nonuniform air flow pattern inside the oven cavity leads to uneven temperature distribution. The study with respect to placement of bread showed that baking of bread in upper trays required shorter baking time and gelatinization index compared to those in the bottom tray. The upper tray bread center reached 100 °C at 1200 s, whereas starch gelatinization completed within 900 s, which was the minimum baking index. Moreover, the heat penetration and starch gelatinization were higher along the sides of the bread as compared to the top and bottom portions of the bread. PMID:21535595

Anishaparvin, A; Chhanwal, N; Indrani, D; Raghavarao, K S M S; Anandharamakrishnan, C

2010-01-01

250

Modification of wheat flour with bromelain and baking hypoallergenic bread with added ingredients.  

PubMed

Based on the wheat glutenin IgE-binding epitope, Gln-Gln-Gln-Pro-Pro, a practical method is proposed for the production of hypoallergenic wheat flour. Bromelain was found effective for decomposing the epitope structure. In practice, soft flour was mixed with water dissolving bromelain and the mixture was incubated at 37 degrees C for 4 h. The result of IgE-ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) suggested negative allergenicity. A mixture of bromelain-modified flour, glucose, citric, acid, a surfactant and sodium hydrogen carbonate was baked to produce hypoallergenic bread, resembling English muffins. PMID:8987541

Tanabe, S; Arai, S; Watanabe, M

1996-08-01

251

75 FR 22707 - United States Standards for Grades of Potatoes  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...less than 260 acres. Since a farm with 236 acres of potatoes falls...the proportion of small potato farms under the SBA definition is...percent of all U.S. potato farms. The effects of this rule are...remove the definition for injury, and clarify the scoring...

2010-04-30

252

78 FR 59628 - Importation of Potatoes From Mexico  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and would have to be inspected after packing for quarantine pests. The potatoes would...require that, after harvest but prior to packing, the potatoes be washed, cleaned...number. (e) After harvest but prior to packing, the potatoes must be washed,...

2013-09-27

253

75 FR 14491 - Potato Research and Promotion Plan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AMS-FV-09-0024; FV-09-706C] Potato Research and Promotion Plan AGENCY: Agricultural...Marketing Service is making corrections to its Potato Research and Promotion plan regulations...Harmonized Tariff Schedule for imported potatoes by U.S. Customs and Border...

2010-03-26

254

ENERGY LOSSES FROM POTATO PROCESSING WASTE DURING LABORATORY STORAGE 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Two experiments were conducted to deter- mine the amount of starch loss during labora- tory storage of potato processing waste. Two types of potato waste, dry peel and filter cake, were collected from each of three potato processing plants with 10 replications per plant per type of waste. Samples of mixtures of dry peel and filter cake were also

E. A. Sauter; D. D. Hinman; A. D. Howes

255

Mechanical force and subcutaneous tissue discolouration in potato  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last decades rapid developments in potato production and mechanization occurred, aiming to increase capacity and to reduce costs. Concomitantly, potatoes can be damaged more easily. Subcutaneous tissue discolouration, a major quality problem, is a result of mechanical damage and reduces the market value of potatoes considerably. This study focused on the effect of mechanical force on subcutaneous tissue

G. J. Molema

1999-01-01

256

Multigeneration Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity Study of bar Gene Inserted into Genetically Modified Potato on Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Each specific protein has an individual gene encoding it, and a foreign gene introduced to a plant can be used to synthesize a new protein. The identification of potential reproductive and developmental toxicity from novel proteins produced by genetically modified (GM) crops is a difficult task. A science-based risk assessment is needed in order to use GM crops as a

Gyu Seek Rhee; Dae Hyun Cho; Yong Hyuck Won; Ji Hyun Seok; Soon Sun Kim; Seung Jun Kwack; Rhee Da Lee; Soo Yeong Chae; Jae Woo Kim; Byung Mu Lee; Kui Lea Park; Kwang Sik Choi

2005-01-01

257

Impulse Excitation Internal Friction Study of Dislocation and Point Defect Interactions in Ultra-Low Carbon Bake-Hardenable Steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The simultaneous presence of interstitial solutes and dislocations in an ultra-low carbon bake-hardenable steel gives rise to two characteristic peaks in the internal friction (IF) spectrum: the dislocation-enhanced Snoek peak and the Snoek-Kê-Köster peak. These IF peaks were used to study the dislocation structure developed by the pre-straining and the static strain aging effect of C during the bake-hardening process. A Ti-stabilized interstitial-free steel was used to ascertain the absence of a ?-peak in the IF spectrum of the deformed ultra-low carbon steel. The analysis of the IF data shows clearly that the bake-hardening effect in ultra-low carbon steel is entirely due to atmosphere formation, with the dislocation segment length being the main parameter affecting the IF peak amplitude. Recovery annealing experiments showed that the rearrangement of the dislocation structure lead to the elimination of the C atmosphere.

Jung, Il-Chan; Kang, Deok-Gu; De Cooman, Bruno C.

2014-04-01

258

Impact of mixing time and sodium stearoyl lactylate on gluten polymerization during baking of wheat flour dough.  

PubMed

The impact of differences in dough transient gluten network on gluten cross-linking during baking is insufficiently understood. We varied dough mixing times and/or added sodium stearoyl lactylate (SSL; 1.0% on flour dry matter basis) to the recipe and studied the effect on subsequent gluten polymerization during heating. The level of proteins extractable in sodium dodecyl sulfate containing media was fitted using first order kinetics. The extent and rate of gluten polymerization were lower when mixing for 8 min than when mixing for 2 min. This effect was even more outspoken in the presence of SSL. The present observations were explained as resulting from less gliadin incorporation in the polymer gluten network and from interaction of SSL with the gluten proteins. Finally, a higher degree of gluten polymerization during baking increased the firmness of the baked products. PMID:23993603

Van Steertegem, Bénédicte; Pareyt, Bram; Brijs, Kristof; Delcour, Jan A

2013-12-15

259

Storage of parbaked bread affects shelf life of fully baked end product: A (1)H NMR study.  

PubMed

Full baking of earlier partially baked (parbaked) bread can supply fresh bread to the consumer at any time of the day. When parbaked bread loaves were stored at -25, 4 or 23°C, the extent of crumb to crust moisture migration and amylopectin retrogradation differed with storage temperature, and the firming rate was evidently lowest during frozen storage. The extent of crumb to crust moisture migration during parbaked bread storage largely determined the mass of the fresh finished bread, and its crumb and crust moisture contents. Initial NMR proton mobility, initial resilience, the extent of amylopectin retrogradation and changes in firmness and resilience during storage of fully baked bread were affected by its crumb moisture content. The lowest firming rate was observed for finished bread resulting from parbaked bread stored at -25°C, while the highest firming rate was observed for finished bread from parbaked bread stored at 23°C. PMID:25038661

Bosmans, Geertrui M; Lagrain, Bert; Ooms, Nand; Fierens, Ellen; Delcour, Jan A

2014-12-15

260

Plant odor analysis of potato: response of guatemalan moth to above- and belowground potato volatiles.  

PubMed

The Guatemalan moth Tecia solanivora is an invasive pest of potato in Central and South America. The larvae infest potato tubers in the field as well as in storage facilities. The headspace of potato foliage and potato tubers was studied with regard to volatiles that mediate host-finding and oviposition in the Guatemalan moth. Foliage of three phenological stages, from sprouting to tuberization and flowering, released more than 30 sesquiterpenes. The main compounds were beta-caryophyllene, germacrene-D-4-ol, germacrene-D, kunzeaol, and (E,E)-alpha-farnesene. Sesquiterpenes accounted for >90% of the headspace of green plants, whereas fresh potato tubers emitted only trace amounts of a few sesquiterpenes. Screening of headspace collections with antennae of Guatemalan moth females showed a strong response to several sesquiterpenes and monoterpenes that were emitted from foliage only. In addition, antennae responded to methyl phenylacetate, a floral fragrance that was released in large amounts from flowering plants and that was also present in tuber headspace. Female and male moths were attracted to methyl phenylacetate; this compound may accordingly contribute to female attraction to tuber-bearing potato plants in the field as well as to potato tubers in storage. Oviposition tests showed that females lay eggs near mature flowering plants. Eggs were laid in soil close to the plant and not on potato stems and foliage, which may be due to avoidance of terpenoid compounds released from green plant parts at close range. The results support the concept that potato volatiles mediate host-finding and oviposition behavior and that these compounds may become useful tools for management of the Guatemalan moth. PMID:19496533

Karlsson, Miriam Frida; Birgersson, Göran; Cotes Prado, Alba Marina; Bosa, Felipe; Bengtsson, Marie; Witzgall, Peter

2009-07-01

261

Effects of the Discharge of Potato Pulp on Farmland Soil Fertility: Farmland Soil Contaminated by Potato Pulp  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the rapid development of the starch industry, the discharge of potato pulp—an industrial waste produced during extraction of starch from potatoes—has increased each year and has become an environmental pollution problem that cannot be neglected. In order to realize the comprehensive utilization of potato pulp and protect field ecological environment, it is necessary to illuminate the effects of the

Tuo-yi Wang; Shuai Shi; Yu-wei Gao; Cheng-ying Jiang; Yang Zhang; Shan Tang; Qiu-ju Lu; Yun-hong Wu

2011-01-01

262

Resistance to potato leaf roll virus and potato virus Y in somatic hybrids between dihaploid Solanum tuberosum and S. brevidens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many somatic fusion hybrids have been produced between a dihaploid potato Solanum tuberosum and the sexually-incompatible wild species S. brevidens using both chemical and electrical fusion techniques. S. brevidens was resistant to both potato leaf roll virus (PLRV) and potato virus Y (PVY), the viruses being either at low (PLRV) or undetectable (PVY) concentrations as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

R. W. Gibson; M. G. K. Jones; N. Fish

1988-01-01

263

Microwave drying characteristics of potato and the effect of different microwave powers on the dried quality of potato  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little detailed information is available on the microwave drying characteristics of potato and the use of different microwave powers to dry food products. Experiments were conducted to study the microwave drying characteristics and the dried quality of potato. The study focuses on describing the microwave drying characteristics of potato and discussing the effect of sample thickness, drying power and mass.

Jun Wang; Yong-Sen Xiong; Yong Yu

2004-01-01

264

In vivo antioxidant, hypoglycemic, and anti-tumor activities of anthocyanin extracts from purple sweet potato  

PubMed Central

Anthocyanin from purple sweet potato (PSP) extracted by microwave baking (MB) and acidified electrolyzed water (AEW) exhibited antioxidant activity. After further purification by macroporous AB-8 resin, the color value of PSP anthocyanin (PSPA) reached 30.15 with a total flavonoid concentration of 932.5 mg/g. The purified extracts had more potent antioxidant activities than the crude extracts. After continuously administering the PSP extracts to 12-mo-old mice for 1 mo, the anti-aging index of the experimental group was not significantly different from that of 5-mo-old mice. To a certain degree, PSPA was also effective for controlling plasma glucose levels in male Streptozocin (STZ)-treated diabetic mice. In addition, the extracts inhibited Sarcoma S180 cell growth in ICR mice. Mice consuming the PSP extracts formed significantly fewer and smaller sarcomas than mice consuming the control diets. The highest inhibition rate was 69.03%. These results suggest that anthocyanin extracts from PSP not only exert strong antioxidant effects in vitro, but also had anti-aging, anti-hyperglycemic, and anti-tumor activities.

Zhao, Jin-Ge; Yan, Qian-Qian; Lu, Li-Zhen

2013-01-01

265

Dressing wounds with potato peel.  

PubMed

The use of boiled potato peel (PP) in dressing of various skin conditions was studied. A total of 11 patients were selected, which included resistant wounds of pemphigus, bullous pemphigoid and leg ulcers. An autoclaved PP dressing with a thin layer of antiseptic cream was applied at 25 sites. It was covered with multilayered gauze and the dressing was secured firmly with either a roller bandage or with an adhesive tape. Complete epithelization was seen at 20 sites (80%), near complete epithelization at one site. There was no satisfactory response at three sites and at one site the result could not be evaluated. The mean duration of healing was one week for superficial wounds and three weeks for deep wounds. The PP dressing facilitates the wound and three weeks for deep wounds. The PP dressing facilitates the wound healing process by providing and maintaining a moist environment. The PP dressing is easy to prepare, apply as well as remove. It is a comfortable dressing and is also cost effective. PMID:20948091

Patange, V S; Fernandez, R J; Motla, M U; Mahajan, S A

1996-01-01

266

The laboratory and clinical safety evaluation of a dentifrice containing hydrogen peroxide and baking soda.  

PubMed

This study reports the laboratory, clinical, and microbiological finding of the safety testing and daily use of a dentifrice delivering 0.75% hydrogen peroxide and 5% baking soda. Laboratory studies using Ca45 labeled teeth and biologically stained teeth confirmed that the dentifrice did not decalcify enamel or bleach teeth. Over the course of a six-month period, 62 subjects using a hydrogen peroxide-baking soda dentifrice and 21 subjects using a control dentifrice were examined for oral soft tissue change and hard tissue alterations. No soft tissue changes attributable to the use of either dentifrice were noted. Experienced clinicians using Trubyte shade guide teeth observed no significant changes to the subjects' anterior teeth following 6 months use of the test dentifrice. Paired discrimination tests revealed that the examiners could distinguish color differences in the shade guide teeth at 0.7%. Microbiological monitoring of the subjects for six months use of their assigned dentifrice and for the following months on the control dentifrice, revealed neither an increased incidence of candida nor increased candida counts. PMID:1339125

Fischman, S L; Truelove, R B; Hart, R; Cancro, L P

1992-01-01

267

Production of crude xylanase from Thermoascus aurantiacus CBMAI 756 aiming the baking process.  

PubMed

In recent years, the baking industry has focused its attention on substituting several chemical compounds with enzymes. Enzymes that hydrolyze nonstarch polysaccharides, such as xylanase, lead to the improvement of rheological properties of dough, loaf specific volume, and crumb firmness. The purpose of this study was to find a better solid-state fermentation substrate to produce high levels of xylanase and low levels of protease and amylase, which are enzymes involved in bread quality, from Thermoascus aurantiacus CBMAI 756. Wheat bran, corncob, and corn straw were used as energy sources. The enzyme extract of corncob showed high xylanase activity (130 U/mL) and low amylase and protease activity (<1 and 15 U/mL, respectively). This enzyme profile may be more profitable for the baking industry, because it results in a slower degradation of gluten. Our results confirm this finding, because the enzyme obtained by fermentation in corncob resulted in a gluten with a higher specific volume than all the other substrates that were tested. The crude xylanase presented maximum activity at a pH of 5, and the optimum temperature was 75 °C. It was stable up to 70 °C for an hour and at a pH range from 4 to 10. PMID:21535524

Oliveira, Denise S; Meherb-Dini, Carolina; Franco, Célia M L; Gomes, Eleni; Da-Silva, Roberto

2010-09-01

268

Improved bread-baking process using Saccharomyces cerevisiae displayed with engineered cyclodextrin glucanotransferase.  

PubMed

A bread-baking process was developed using a potential novel enzyme, cyclodextrin glucanotransferase[3-18] (CGTase[3-18]), that had previously been engineered to have enhanced hydrolyzing activity with little cyclodextrin (CD) formation activity toward starch. CGTase[3-18] was primarily manipulated to be displayed on the cell surface of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. S. cerevisiae carrying pdeltaCGT integrated into the chromosome exhibited starch-hydrolyzing activity at the same optimal pH and temperature as the free enzyme. Volumes of the bread loaves and rice cakes prepared using S. cerevisiae/pdeltaCGT increased by 20% and 45%, respectively, with no detectable CD. Retrogradation rates of the bread and rice cakes decreased significantly during storage. In comparison to the wild type, S. cerevisiae/pdeltaCGT showed improved viability during four freeze-thaw cycles. The results indicated that CGTase[3-18] displayed on the surface of yeast hydrolyzed starch to glucose and maltose that can be used more efficiently for yeast fermentation. Therefore, display of an antistaling enzyme on the cell surface of yeast has potential for enhancing the baking process. PMID:17488117

Shim, Jae-Hoon; Seo, Nam-Seok; Roh, Sun-Ah; Kim, Jung-Wan; Cha, Hyunju; Park, Kwan-Hwa

2007-06-13

269

Deprotection blue in extreme ultraviolet photoresists: influence of base loading and post-exposure bake temperture  

SciTech Connect

The deprotection blur of Rohm and Haas XP 5435, XP 5271, and XP5496 extreme ultraviolet photoresists has been determined as their base weight percent is varied. They have also determined the deprotection blur of TOK EUVR P1123 photoresist as the post-exposure bake temperature is varied from 80 C to 120 C. In Rohm and Haas XP 5435 and XP5271 resists 7x and 3x (respective) increases in base weight percent reduce the size of successfully patterned 1:1 line-space features by 16 nm and 8 nm with corresponding reductions in deprotection blur of 7 nm and 4 nm. In XP 5496 a 7x increase in base weight percent reduces the size of successfully patterned 1:1 line-space features from 48 nm to 38 nm without changing deprotection blur. In TOK EUVR P1123 resist, a reduction in post-exposure bake temperature from 100 C to 80 C reduces deprotection blur from 21 nm to 10 nm and reduces patterned LER from 4.8 nm to 4.1 nm.

Anderson, Christopher N.; Naulleau, Patrick P.

2008-06-02

270

Square and Rectangular Electroacoustic Bender Bar Transducer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The transducer's active elements are a plurality of thin, narrow, piezoelectric bars bonded side-by-side to a flexible plate. Electrically, a circuit is coupled across the thickness of each bar or strip to include the bars as a plurality of parallel capac...

J. D. Bullock

1977-01-01

271

[Occurrence of chlorogenic acids in potatoes].  

PubMed

Ten varieties of potato cultivated under the same conditions were analyzed for the occurrence of chlorogenic acids by high performance liquid chromatography. 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid (n-chlorogenic acid) is the predominant compound with 22-71 ppm, (on average of 41 ppm) depending on variety. 4-O-caffeoylquinic acid (phi 11 ppm), 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (phi 7 ppm), 3,4-dicaffeoylquine acid (phi 3 ppm), and at times 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (in traces) were also demonstrated. Caffeic acid compounds are not distributed uniformly in the potato tuber. They occur in strongly decreasing concentration from the outer sections to the inner ones. About 50% of these compounds are located in the potato peel and the adjoining tissue. PMID:6720089

Brandl, W; Herrmann, K

1984-01-01

272

Significance of Wheat Flour Dough Rheology to Gas Cell Structure Development in Bread and Other Baked Products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss which rheological material functions of wheat flour dough are most relevant for structure development in baked products under common processing conditions. We consider the growth of gas cells during dough proofing (driven by yeast) and during baking, where the growth is driven by a combination of CO2 desorption, water and ethanol evaporation, and thermal expansion of gas. Attention is given to upper limits on biaxial extension rate and stress and the consequences for the required rheological material functions. The applicability of the ``Considère criterion'' to predict the probability of coalescence between gas cells and its effect on loaf aeration is briefly discussed.

Engmann, Jan

2008-07-01

273

ORBITAL SUPPORT OF FAST AND SLOW INNER BARS IN DOUBLE-BARRED GALAXIES  

SciTech Connect

We analyze how the orbital support of the inner bar in a double-barred galaxy (nested bars) depends on the angular velocity (i.e., pattern speed) of this bar. We study orbits in seven models of double bars using the method of invariant loops. The range of pattern speed is covered exhaustively. We find that not all pattern speeds are allowed when the inner bar rotates in the same direction as the outer bar. Below a certain minimum pattern speed orbital support for the inner bar abruptly disappears, while at high values of this speed the orbits indicate an increasingly round bar that looks more like a twist in the nuclear isophotes than a dynamically independent component. For values between these two extremes, orbits supporting the inner bar extend further out as the bar's pattern speed decreases, their corresponding loops become more eccentric, pulsate more, and their rotation becomes increasingly non-uniform, as they speed up and slow down in their motion. Lower pattern speeds also lead to a less coherent bar, as the pulsation and acceleration increasingly varies among the loops supporting the inner bar. The morphologies of fast and slow inner bars expected from the orbital structure studied here have been recently recovered observationally by decomposition of double-barred galaxies. Our findings allow us to link the observed morphology to the dynamics of the inner bar.

Maciejewski, Witold; Small, Emma E., E-mail: wxm@astro.livjm.ac.u [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Twelve Quays House, Egerton Wharf, Birkenhead, CH41 1LD (United Kingdom)

2010-08-10

274

Structure, processing, and properties of potatoes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this experiment and lesson intended for high school students in an engineering or materials science course or college freshmen is to demonstrate the relation between processing, structure, and thermodynamic and physical properties. The specific objectives are to show the effect of structure and structural changes on thermodynamic properties (specific heat) and physical properties (compressive strength); to illustrate the first law of thermodynamics; to compare boiling a potato in water with cooking it in a microwave in terms of the rate of structural change and the energy consumed to 'process' the potato; and to demonstrate compression testing.

Lloyd, Isabel K.; Kolos, Kimberly R.; Menegaux, Edmond C.; Luo, Huy; Mccuen, Richard H.; Regan, Thomas M.

1992-01-01

275

Structure, processing, and properties of potatoes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this experiment and lesson intended for high school students in an engineering or materials science course or college freshmen is to demonstrate the relation between processing, structure, and thermodynamic and physical properties. The specific objectives are to show the effect of structure and structural changes on thermodynamic properties (specific heat) and physical properties (compressive strength); to illustrate the first law of thermodynamics; to compare boiling a potato in water with cooking it in a microwave in terms of the rate of structural change and the energy consumed to 'process' the potato; and to demonstrate compression testing.

Lloyd, Isabel K.; Kolos, Kimberly R.; Menegaux, Edmond C.; Luo, Huy; McCuen, Richard H.; Regan, Thomas M.

1992-06-01

276

?_c {\\bar D} AND ?_c {\\bar D} States in a Chiral Quark Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report our recent work on a dynamical investigation of the ? c \\bar D and ? c \\bar D states in a chiral quark model. Our results show that the ? c-{\\bar D} interaction is attractive, which consequently results in a ? c \\bar D bound state with the binding energy of about 5-42 MeV, unlike the case of ? c \\bar D state, which has a repulsive interaction and thus is unbound.

Wang, W. L.; Huang, F.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zou, B. S.

2014-01-01

277

Getting High Yields of the Potato: Potato Production and the Control of Its Diseases and Pests.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document includes four booklets concerned with potato production. Topics covered include crop rotation, planting, watering, intercultivation, fertilizer, late blight, early blight, black scurf, charcoal rot, powdery scab, wart, brown rot, viral diseas...

1977-01-01

278

RFLP maps of potato and their alignment with the homoeologous tomato genome  

Microsoft Academic Search

An RFLP linkage map of the potato is presented which comprises 304 loci derived from 230 DNA probes and one morphological marker (tuber skin color). The self-incompatibility locus of potato was mapped to chromosome I, which is homoeologous to tomato chromosome I. By mapping chromosome-specific tomato RFLP markers in potato and, vice versa, potato markers in tomato, the different potato

C. Gebhardt; E. Ritter; A. Barone; T. Debener; B. Walkemeier; U. Schachtschabel; H. Kaufmann; R. D. Thompson; M. W. Bonierbale; M. W. Ganal; S. D. Tanksley; F. Salamini

1991-01-01

279

Colonic fermentation of potato starch after a freeze-thaw cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

To estimate colonic carbohydrate fermentation following a potato meal, 13 healthy volunteers consumed 375 g potatoes containing 60 g starch on three different occasions in random order: (A) potatoes boiled and consumed fresh at 60° C; (B) potatoes boiled, frozen, thawed and consumed at 20° C; and (C) potatoes boiled, frozen, thawed, reheated to 90° C, and consumed at 60°

Wolfgang Scheppach; Matthias Bach; Peter Bartram; Stefan Christl; Wolfgang Bergthaller; Heinrich Kasper

1991-01-01

280

Marker-assisted sampling of the cultivated Andean potato Solanum phureja collection using RAPD markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potato crop originated in the Andean highlands where numerous farmer's varieties and non-cultivated wild species exist. An Andean potato collection is held in trust at the International Potato Center (CIP) to preserve the biodiversity of this crop and ensure the supply of germplasm for potato improvement worldwide. A core collection representing the biodiversity of the Andean potato germplasm is

Marc Ghislain; Dapeng Zhang; Diego Fajardo; Zósimo Huamán; Robert J. Hijmans

1999-01-01

281

Research of technical crops (potato and flax) genetic resources in Lithuania  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research of potato accessions preserved in Lithuanian potato gene bank genetic diversity research was carried out at the Voke branch of Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture in years 1990-2006. Research was provided with potato collection covering 200 varieties and hybrids from the main potato origin and growing regions and selection material bred in Lithuania. Potato varieties varied in accordance of

A. Razukas; Z. Jankauskiene; J. Jundulas; R. Asakaviciute

2009-01-01

282

Salicylic acid enhances heat tolerance and potato virus X (PVX) elimination during thermotherapy of potato microplants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modification of the standard thermotherapy used to eliminate virus from potato virus X (PVX)-infectedSolanum tuberosum microplants of the Mexican National Potato Program is described here. Microplants were cultured with or without 10-5 M salicylic acid (SA) for 4 wk, then subcultured without SA and exposed to 42 C for 30 days. Survival was more consistent\\u000a in SA-treated microplants: among

H. López-Delgado; M. E. Mora-Herrera; H. A. Zavaleta-Mancera; M. Cadena-Hinojosa; I. M. Scott

2004-01-01

283

Severe metabolic alkalosis due to baking soda ingestion: case reports of two patients with unsuspected antacid overdose  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral ingestion of baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) has been used for decades as a home remedy for acid indigestion. Excessive bicarbonate ingestion places patients at risk for a variety of metabolic derangements including metabolic alkalosis, hypokalemia, hypernatremia, and even hypoxia. The clinical presentation is highly variable but can include seizures, dysrhythmias, and cardiopulmonary arrest. We present two cases of severe

Leslie J. Fitzgibbons; Eric R. Snoey

1999-01-01

284

Changes in ochratoxin A and type B trichothecenes contained in wheat flour during dough fermentation and bread-baking.  

PubMed

Ochratoxin A (OTA) and type B trichothecenes are mycotoxins that occur frequently in cereals and thus can be found in cereal by-products such as bread. The aim of this work was to study the variation of the levels of OTA, deoxynivalenol (DON), 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON) and nivalenol (NIV) during the bread-making process. This was done by using wheat flour spiked with different levels of toxins. Mycotoxin levels were controlled after fermentation of the dough with yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and after further baking at different temperature-time combinations. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the results showed a significant reduction in OTA level (p < 0.05) during fermentation of the dough. The reduction ranged between 29.8% and 33.5%, depending on the initial concentration of toxin in the flour. During this period, the level of the other mycotoxins studied was not modified. By contrast, in the baking phase there were significant changes in the levels of the four mycotoxins, although the reduction was similar under all the baking conditions. Considering all the temperature-time conditions tested, it can be concluded that during the baking period the average reduction of OTA, NIV, 3-ADON, and DON was 32.9%, 76.9%, 65.6%, and 47.9%, respectively. PMID:19680965

Valle-Algarra, F M; Mateo, E M; Medina, A; Mateo, F; Gimeno-Adelantado, J V; Jimenez, M

2009-06-01

285

Improvement of fermentation ability under baking-associated stress conditions by altering the POG1 gene expression in baker's yeast.  

PubMed

During the bread-making process, yeast cells are exposed to many types of baking-associated stress. There is thus a demand within the baking industry for yeast strains with high fermentation abilities under these stress conditions. The POG1 gene, encoding a putative transcription factor involved in cell cycle regulation, is a multicopy suppressor of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae E3 ubiquitin ligase Rsp5 mutant. The pog1 mutant is sensitive to various stresses. Our results suggested that the POG1 gene is involved in stress tolerance in yeast cells. In this study, we showed that overexpression of the POG1 gene in baker's yeast conferred increased fermentation ability in high-sucrose-containing dough, which is used for sweet dough baking. Furthermore, deletion of the POG1 gene drastically increased the fermentation ability in bread dough after freeze-thaw stress, which would be a useful characteristic for frozen dough baking. Thus, the engineering of yeast strains to control the POG1 gene expression level would be a novel method for molecular breeding of baker's yeast. PMID:23800735

Sasano, Yu; Haitani, Yutaka; Hashida, Keisuke; Oshiro, Satoshi; Shima, Jun; Takagi, Hiroshi

2013-08-01

286

Effect of frozen storage and freeze–thaw cycles on the rheological and baking properties of frozen doughs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of prolonged frozen storage and repeated partial freeze–thaw cycles on the rheological and baking properties of nine commercial wheat cultivars were evaluated. The gluten strength of the cultivars ranged from medium to high, whereas the starch swelling characteristics were similar for most cultivars, except Parshall, which exhibited exceptionally high swelling properties. The doughs were subjected to frozen storage

Monisha Bhattacharya; Tami M Langstaff; William A Berzonsky

2003-01-01

287

Kinetics of strain aging in bake hardening ultra low carbon steel---a comparison with low carbon steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kinetics of the static strain aging process have been analyzed in a vacuum-degassed ultra low carbon bake hardenable (ULC BH) steel with a total carbon content of 20 wt.ppm through measurement of the strength properties. The influence of prestrain and free interstitial carbon content has been studied. The kinetic results were compared with those of a BH low carbon

A. K. de; B. C. de Cooman; S. Vandeputte

2001-01-01

288

Scanning electron microscopic and electrophoretic studies of the baking process of south Indian parotta—an unleavened flat bread  

Microsoft Academic Search

The changes that take place in starch and protein molecules during processing of parotta, starting from wheat flour to baked parotta, were followed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electrophoresis. The microstructure of wheat flour showed that the protein matrix was broken up into aggregates and starch granules were embedded in it. At the processing stage of parotta dough into

P Prabhasankar; D Indrani; Jyotsna Rajiv; G Venkateswara Rao

2003-01-01

289

Physical characteristics of dehydrated potatoes — Part I  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the drying process food systems undergo several simultaneous physical and structural modifications, undesirable from the viewpoint of material enduse. The physical attributes pertaining to convective drying were explored within an experimental air tunnel drying system. Cylindrical potato samples (Solanum tuberosum) were utilized as the test media, providing simulants for piece-form high-moisture content food systems. Moisture removal was accompanied by

W. A. M. McMinn; T. R. A. Magee

1997-01-01

290

Leaf wetness distribution within a potato crop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Netherlands has a mild maritime climate and therefore the major interest in leaf wetness is associated with foliar plant diseases. During moist micrometeorological conditions (i.e. dew, fog, rain), foliar fungal diseases may develop quickly and thereby destroy a crop quickly. Potato crop monocultures covering several hectares are especially vulnerable to such diseases. Therefore understanding and predicting leaf wetness in potato crops is crucial in crop disease control strategies. A field experiment was carried out in a large homogeneous potato crop in the Netherlands during the growing season of 2008. Two innovative sensor networks were installed as a 3 by 3 grid at 3 heights covering an area of about 2 hectares within two larger potato crops. One crop was located on a sandy soil and one crop on a sandy peat soil. In most cases leaf wetting starts in the top layer and then progresses downward. Leaf drying takes place in the same order after sunrise. A canopy dew simulation model was applied to simulate spatial leaf wetness distribution. The dew model is based on an energy balance model. The model can be run using information on the above-canopy wind speed, air temperature, humidity, net radiation and within canopy air temperature, humidity and soil moisture content and temperature conditions. Rainfall was accounted for by applying an interception model. The results of the dew model agreed well with the leaf wetness sensors if all local conditions were considered. The measurements show that the spatial correlation of leaf wetness decreases downward.

Heusinkveld, B. G.

2010-07-01

291

Preservation of Potatoes by gamma Irradiation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In Algeria, potatoes are a major food item in nutrition habits. Because of lack of cold storage facilities, losses can reach up to 40% of the total output of summer harvest. This paper describes the first experiments on the application of gamma irradiatio...

A. Nouani A. Boussaha

1987-01-01

292

Alcohol production from fermentation of sweet potatoes  

SciTech Connect

A study was conducted to determine the ethanol production characteristics of sweet potatoes. Ethanol yields were as high as 137 liters per tonne of feedstock using procedures developed for grain. Major problems encountered were low ethanol concentrations in the beer and poor stillage dewatering properties.

Egg, R.P.; Coble, C.G.; O'Neal, H.P.; Sweeten, J.M.

1982-12-01

293

Inhibition of Potato Sprouting Using Volatile Monoterpenes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For many centuries, the Incas of South America and their descendants have buried potato tubers in pits that are layered with soil and the leaves of Muna plants that belong to the mint family Lamiaceae, and the genera Minthostachys and Satureja. The treatm...

S. F. Vaughn G. F. Spencer R. G. Powell

1990-01-01

294

Internal ballistics of a pneumatic potato cannon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Basic laws of thermodynamics and mechanics are used to analyse an air gun. Such devices are often employed in outdoor physics demonstrations to launch potatoes using compressed gas that is here assumed to expand reversibly and adiabatically. Reasonable agreement is found with reported muzzle speeds for such homebuilt cannons. The treatment is accessible to undergraduate students who have taken calculus-based introductory physics.

Mungan, Carl E.

2009-05-01

295

Internal Ballistics of a Pneumatic Potato Cannon  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Basic laws of thermodynamics and mechanics are used to analyse an air gun. Such devices are often employed in outdoor physics demonstrations to launch potatoes using compressed gas that is here assumed to expand reversibly and adiabatically. Reasonable agreement is found with reported muzzle speeds for such homebuilt cannons. The treatment is…

Mungan, Carl E.

2009-01-01

296

Bacterial and Fungal Diseases of Potato.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is a special treatise on potato diseases caused by fungi and bacteria in India. The author has discussed in detail the distribution of the diseases, their symptoms, sources of infection, factors affecting the diseases, host range of the pathog...

B. L. Dutt

1979-01-01

297

Chemical control of common scab of potato  

Microsoft Academic Search

An area known to be infested with Streptomyces scc&ies (Thaxt.) Wakesman & Henrici was chosen at the O.A.C. Crop Research Station, Preston in 1962. Each plot consisted of 2 rows of potatoes, 20 feet long. The treatments were replicated 4 times in a randomized complete block design, 2 plots wide and 16 plots long. Twelve hundred pounds of lime were

L. V. Busch; G. C. Ashton

1964-01-01

298

LOW WASTEWATER POTATO STARCH/PROTEIN PRODUCTION  

EPA Science Inventory

While potato starch has been an item of commerce for many years, traditional processing methods have incurred large volumes of high BOD effluents. The research summarized by this report has lead to a modified process which upgrades the soluble components formerly discarded in the...

299

Pattern interactions of post exposure bake in litho-cure-litho-etch process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Semiconductor manufacturing depends on optical lithography. The most basic parameters of the photolithography technique are the resolution and the cost. As the wavelength becomes shorter, the light source and optics become more complex and expensive. The litho-cure-litho-etch (LCLE) process, which is composed of two lithography processes (litho 1 and litho 2) and an intermediate curing step, can reduce the number of process steps and the cost compared to the litho-etch-lithoetch (LELE) process. In this research, the post-exposure bake (PEB) of the LCLE process was investigated. Advanced modeling techniques for the PEB process and the curing process are introduced to explore pattern interactions between the two lithography processes in the LCLE process. Using the simulation results, we discuss the impacts of the depletion of the acid concentration in the vicinity of cured patterns and of acid/quencher diffusion effects on the pattern formation of the LCLE process.

Kim, Sang-Kon

2012-05-01

300

Galaxy Zoo: Observing Secular Evolution Through Bars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although often seen in galaxies, the role that bars play in galaxy evolution has been largely overlooked. Observations show that bars — stellar linear-shaped structures — have been present in galaxies since z ˜ 1, about 8 billion years ago, and that more and more galaxies are becoming barred with time. This trend has continued to the present, where about two-thirds of all disk galaxies are barred. Observations have also shown that there is a connection between the presence of a bar and the properties of a galaxy, including morphology, star formation, chemical abundance gradients, and nuclear activity. These trends are consistent with the predicted effects of bars on galaxy evolution, i.e., secular evolution. Thus, observations and simulations indicate that bars are important drivers of galaxy evolution. But despite these evidence, bars are still commonly omitted in the lore of galaxy evolution. This proceeding briefly highlights work by Cheung et al. (2013), which tries to change this common omission by presenting the best evidence of bar-driven secular evolution yet. This work implies that bars are not stagnant structures within galaxies, but are instead, critical drivers of galaxy evolution.

Cheung, E.; Athanassoula, E.; Masters, K. L.; Nichol, R. C.; Bosma, A.; Bell, E. F.; Faber, S. M.; Koo, D. C.; Lintott, C.; Melvin, T.; Schawinski, K.; Skibba, R. A.; Willett, K. W.

2014-03-01

301

Fossil Nuclear Rings in Barred Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present observations and analysis of three barred S0 galaxies which contain smooth, luminous, stellar nuclear rings within their bars. These rings, which have little or no dust and are approximately the same color as surrounding bar and bulge, are probably the old remnants of bar-driven circumnuclear starburst episodes similar to those seen in many barred galaxies today. Using kinematic data from long-slit spectroscopy, we construct rotation and resonance curves and relate the relative sizes of the rings to possible bar resonances. Two of the galaxies are actually double-barred, with misaligned secondary bars inside the nuclear rings. In at least one of these (NGC 4340), the resonance curves indicate that the nuclear ring lies near or at one of the outer bar's inner Lindblad resonances; this is a plausible location for the secondary bar's corotation radius. We also discuss the difficulties inherent in detecting and identifying such rings, and show some of the surprising ways in which stellar rings can distort galaxy isophotes and ellipse fits.

Erwin, P.; Vega Beltran, J. C.; Beckman, J.

2000-12-01

302

Utilization of potatoes for life support in space. V. Evaluation of cultivars in response to continuous light and high temperature  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Twenty-four potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars from different regions of the world were evaluated in terms of their responses to continuous light (24 h photoperiod) and to high temperature (30 C) in two separate experiments under controlled environments. In each experiment, a first evaluation of the cultivars was made at day 35 after transplanting, at which time 12 cultivars exhibiting best growth and tuber initiation were selected. A final evaluation of the 12 cultivars was made after an additional 21 days of growth, at which time plant height, total dry weight, tuber dry weight, and tuber number were determined. In the continuous light evaluation, the 12 selected cultivars were Alaska 114, Atlantic, Bintje, Denali, Desiree, Haig, New York 81, Ottar, Rutt, Snogg, Snowchip, and Troll. In the high temperature evaluation, the 12 selected cultivars were Alpha, Atlantic, Bake King, Denali, Desiree, Haig, Kennebec, Norland, Russet Burbank, Rutt, Superior, and Troll. Among the cultivars selected under continuous irradiation, Desiree, Ottar, Haig, Rutt, Denali and Alaska showed the best potential for high productivity whereas New York 81 and Bintje showed the least production capability. Among the cultivars selected under high temperature, Rutt, Haig, Troll and Bake King had best performance whereas Atlantic, Alpha, Kennebec and Russet Burbank exhibited the least production potential. Thus, Haig and Rutt were the two cultivars that performed well under continuous irradiation and high temperature conditions, and could have maximum potential for adaptation to varying stress environments. These two cultivars may have the best potential for use in future space farming in which continuous light and/or high temperature conditions may exist. However, cultivar responses under combined conditions of continuous light and high temperature remains for further validation.

Tibbitts, T. W.; Cao, W.; Bennett, S. M.

1992-01-01

303

Multi-disciplinary dating of a baked clay kiln excavated at Chieri, Northern Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A combined archaeological, archaeomagnetic and thermoluminescence study has been carried out on a rescue excavation kiln, discovered at Chieri, Northern Italy. Rock magnetic experiments indicate the dominance of a low coercivity magnetic phase, such as magnetite and/or Ti-magnetite as the main carrier of the remanent magnetization. Stepwise thermal demagnetization experiments generally show a stable characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM). The mean archaeomagnetic direction, calculated from 17 independently oriented samples, is D=18.2o, I=66.8o with ?95=2.6o and k=184. Archaeomagnetic dating of the kiln has been obtained after comparison of the kiln's ChRM direction with the reference curves produced by the SHA.DIF.3K European regional geomagnetic field model. Independent dating of the kiln has also been obtained from thermoluminescence (TL) study of two baked clay samples coming from the kiln's walls. The environmental dose has been measured in situ using field dosimeters. Accurate TL procedures have been followed for the calculation of annual dose and eventually the TL age. The combination of the archaeological evidence, archaeomagnetic and TL datings suggest that the last usage of the kiln occurred around the 17th century AD. Comparison of the results obtained from the different methods shows the relevant potential of these techniques on dating of baked clay artefacts; yet it also highlights the range of uncertainty sources affecting measurements, related to the samples and/or to the environment, and the utility of dating cross-checking for obtaining reliable dates.

Tema, Evdokia; Fantino, Fulvio; Ferrara, Enzo; Lo Giudice, Alessandro; Re, Alessandro; Barello, Federico; Vella, Silvia; Cirillo, Luigi; Gulmini, Monica

2014-05-01

304

Use of gamma Radiation as a Form of Preservation of Sweet Potatoes. Quarterly Progress Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This progress report covers: harvest and conditioning following harvest; effects of gamma radiation on the sweet potato weevil, organoleptic properties of sweet potatoes, protein content of same, and sweet potato quality (vitamins, color, texture, and car...

1985-01-01

305

7 CFR 946.140 - Handling potatoes for commercial processing into products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handling potatoes for commercial processing into products...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations...Requirements § 946.140 Handling potatoes for commercial processing into...

2010-01-01

306

7 CFR 946.140 - Handling potatoes for commercial processing into products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Handling potatoes for commercial processing into products...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations...Requirements § 946.140 Handling potatoes for commercial processing into...

2009-01-01

307

7 CFR 947.134 - Establishment of list of manufacturers of potato products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Establishment of list of manufacturers of potato products. 947.134 Section 947...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU COUNTIES...Establishment of list of manufacturers of potato products. (a) The committee...

2010-01-01

308

7 CFR 947.134 - Establishment of list of manufacturers of potato products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Establishment of list of manufacturers of potato products. 947.134 Section 947...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU COUNTIES...Establishment of list of manufacturers of potato products. (a) The committee...

2009-01-01

309

Genetic diversity of sweet potato begomoviruses in the United States and identification of a natural recombinant between sweet potato leaf curl virus and sweet potato leaf curl Georgia virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the United States, two sweet potato begomoviruses, sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV) and sweet potato leaf curl Georgia\\u000a virus (SPLCGV), were previously identified in Louisiana. In recent years, at least seven additional sweet potato begomoviruses\\u000a have been identified in other parts of the world. In an effort to determine the genetic diversity and distribution of sweet\\u000a potato begomoviruses

Shuo Cheng Zhang; Kai-Shu Ling

2011-01-01

310

Effect of potato plants expressing snowdrop lectin (GNA) on the performance and colonization behaviour of the peach-potato aphid Myzus persicae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transgenic potato plants expressing snowdrop lectin (GNA potatoes) are developed to increase resistance against sap-feeding insects. When expressing GNA at relatively high levels such potatoes may have a negative effect on the fecundity and development of the first generation of the important pest, the peach-potato aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae). However, the effects on M. persicae over several generations,

Solveig Sørbu Aasen; Eline Benestad Hågvar

2011-01-01

311

Effect of potato plants expressing snowdrop lectin (GNA) on the performance and colonization behaviour of the peach-potato aphid Myzus persicae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transgenic potato plants expressing snowdrop lectin (GNA potatoes) are developed to increase resistance against sap-feeding insects. When expressing GNA at relatively high levels such potatoes may have a negative effect on the fecundity and development of the first generation of the important pest, the peach-potato aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae). However, the effects on M. persicae over several generations,

Solveig Sørbu Aasen; Eline Benestad Hågvar

2012-01-01

312

Effects of Potato-cyst Nematodes (Globodera pallida) and Soil pH on Root Growth, Nutrient Uptake and Crop Growth of Potato  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potato-cyst nematodes (Globodera pallida) cause severe yield losses in potato. Plants infected with potato-cyst nematodes generally have reduced concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in the foliage. This study investigated whether reduced growth of nematode-infected potato is caused by nutrient limitation.

F. J. De Ruijter; A. J. Haverkort

1999-01-01

313

Diode-bar-pumped planar waveguide lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diode-bar lasers have been used with great success to pump high power solid state lasers in numerous different geometries; nevertheless it remains a challenge to use the highly asymmetric diode-bar output efficiently. We describe an approach to this problem in which the solid-state gain medium is fabricated as a planar waveguide, into which the high-aspect-ratio emission from the diode-bar can

A. C. Tropper; C. L. Bonner; C. T. A. Brown; D. P. Shepherd; W. A. Clarkson; D. C. Hanna

1998-01-01

314

Sorghum brewing using sweet potato enzymic flour to increase saccharification.  

PubMed

The diastatic activity of three sweet potato varieties was principally due to \\-amylase. Substitution of sorghum malt with sweet potato at 20% (w/v) gave a higher activity than an all-sorghum malt. Maltose in the sorghum/potato wort was 50 mg/ml, similar to that in barley malt. The free alpha amino nitrogen of the sorghum/potato worts was lower than that of the all-sorghum malt but was still within the range needed for yeast growth. Incubation of the potato enzymic extract with isolated sorghum endosperm cell walls and viscosity tests demonstrated the presence of (1?3, 1?4)-?-glucanase (limiting in sorghum) in the sweet potato. PMID:24425566

Etim, M U; Etokakpan, O U

1992-09-01

315

Energy consumption evaluation of fuel bioethanol production from sweet potato.  

PubMed

The energy consumption for different operative conditions and configurations of the bioethanol production industrial process from an experimental variety of sweet potato (Ipomea batatas) K 9807.1 was evaluated. A process simulation model was developed using SuperPro Designer® software. The model was based on experimental data gathered from our laboratory experiments and technology and equipment suppliers. The effects of the dry matter ratio of sweet potato to water, the fermentation efficiency, and sweet potato sugar content, on the energy consumption (steam and electricity) were respectively evaluated. All factors were significant. The best ratio of dry matter to total water to work with fresh sweet potato was 0.2 kg dry sweet potato/kg water, as for greater ratios was not found a significant reduction in energy consumption. Also, the drying of the sweet potato previous its processing was studied. It presented an energy consumption greater than the energetic content of the bioethanol produced. PMID:23567705

Ferrari, Mario Daniel; Guigou, Mairan; Lareo, Claudia

2013-05-01

316

Potential-density pairs for bent bars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method is presented to bend a thin massive line when the curvature is small. The procedure is applied to a homogeneous thin bar with two types of curvatures. One of them mimics a galactic bar with two spiral arms at its tips. It is showed that if the bending function is a linear combination of Legendre polynomials, then the bent potential is an exact solution of the Laplace equation. A transformation is applied on the thin bent bars to generate three-dimensional potential-density pairs without singularities. The potentials of the thin bent bars are also used to generate non-axisymmetric planar distributions of matter.

Vogt, D.; Letelier, P. S.

2011-03-01

317

Properties of Bars in the Local Universe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early work on bar fractions suffered from poor sample sizes which limited the study of correlations between bar fraction and physical properties. Recent large surveys like SDSS and COSMOS have helped rectify this deficiency. Sheth et al. (2008) using a sample of 2000 galaxies from COSMOS, have shown that bar fractions decrease with redshift as claimed by Abraham et al. (1999) and van den Bergh et al. (2000) . In addition, they find the bar fraction of spiral galaxies is a strong function of stellar mass, color and bulge prominence such that more massive, redder, concentrated galaxies have a larger bar fraction than less massive, bluer, diskier galaxies. Barazza et al. (2008) using 2000 galaxies from SDSS find results counter to Sheth et al. (2008) i.e., bar fractions increase with decreasing mass and bluer colors (corresponding to late type galaxies). Using a larger sample of 15000 visually classified SDSS galaxies (which includes bar classifications) I further investigate the properties of barred galaxies in the local universe. In addition, I will describe the variation of total fine fraction (bars + rings +lenses) with physical properties and the effects of AGN on the observed fine fraction.

Nair, Preethi

2009-12-01

318

NGC 4340: Double Bar + Fossil Nuclear Ring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NGC 4340 is a double-barred SB0 galaxy in the Virgo cluster (Wozniak et al. 1995). Here, we present evidence that this galaxy also posseses a luminous stellar nuclear ring of relatively old stars with little or no gas. The ring lies just outside the inner bar, at the probable inner inner Lindblad resonance (IILR) of the outer bar. Careful inspection of the isophotes and unsharp masks shows that the two bars are slightly misaligned, which suggests they may be independently rotating.

Erwin, Peter; Vega Beltrán, Juan Carlos; Beckman, John

319

Drought-Responsive Antioxidant Enzymes in Potato ( Solanum tuberosum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is highly sensitive to soil drought and extracts less of the available water from the soil than other crops. Even a very\\u000a short period of water shortage has a negative effect on consumptive and technological properties of potato tubers. The cause\\u000a of the poorer properties of potato tubers might not only be water shortage itself but

D. Boguszewska; M. Grudkowska; B. Zagda?ska

2010-01-01

320

Cross-pathogenicity of Verticillium dahliae between potato and sunflower  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined cross-pathogenicity of the soilborne pathogen Verticillium dahliae between potato and sunflower. Four week-old potato and sunflower seedlings were inoculated with ten isolates from each of\\u000a the two host species. Potato cultivars (Kennebec, susceptible, and Ranger Russet, moderately resistant) and sunflower hybrids\\u000a (IS8048, susceptible, and 6946, moderately resistant) were assessed for disease severity and percent infection at 2 weeks,

H. Alkher; A. El Hadrami; K. Y. Rashid; L. R. Adam; F. Daayf

2009-01-01

321

Structure and Texture Properties of Fried Potato Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potatoes are the fourth most important vegetable crop in the world, and in 2003, it was a 2.7 billion dollar business in the US alone. Nearly one-third of the potato production is processed into par-fried frozen potatoes and fried chips (snacks). Frying imparts desirable taste and textural properties to these products, the latter described usually by the sensorial term crispness.

Misael L. Miranda; José M. Aguilera

2006-01-01

322

Infection of potato mesophyll protoplasts with five plant viruses.  

PubMed

Methods are described for preparing potato mesophyll protoplasts that are suitable for infection with inocula of virus nucleoprotein or RNA. The protoplasts could be infected with four sap-transmissible viruses (tobacco mosaic, tobacco rattle, tobacco ringspot and tomato black ring viruses) and with potato leafroll virus, which is not saptransmissible. No differences were observed in ability to infect protoplasts with potato leafroll virus strains differing either in virulence in intact plants or in aphid transmissibility. PMID:24257766

Barker, H; Harrison, B D

1982-12-01

323

History, Statistics and Trends of the Romanian Potato Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides some important data on the evolution of the potato crop in Romania including aspects of research and development,\\u000a differentiated on the basis of period and location. The paper also presents an analysis of the causes of the low potato yield\\u000a per hectare in Romania. An analysis of the situation of the potato industry in Romania in comparison

S. C. Chiru; Gh. Olteanu; L. E. Asanache

2008-01-01

324

Transmission of tobacco rattle virus (TRV) via seed potatoes.  

PubMed

Susceptibility of potato varieties for tobacco rattle virus (TRV) and sensitivity for spraing in potato tubers both depend on the interaction between cultivar and virus strain. Of the six potato cultivars investigated in this research, cultivar Santana was the most susceptible to TRV, the cultivars Roxy and Saturna were the least susceptible. In general, potato cultivars were most susceptible to the virus type transmitted by P. pachydermus and least for the virus type transmitted by T. primitivus. Potato cultivars showed a large difference in susceptibility for various TRV types. This was the most obvious for cultivar Wilja. Wilja showed high virus concentrations (susceptible) for a virus type transmitted by P. pachydermus but very low concentrations (resistant) for virus types transmitted by P. teres and T. primitivus. Cultivar Santana was the most sensitive for spraing, cultivar Wilja was the least sensitive. As Wilja is very susceptible to the virus strain transmitted by P. pachydermus, but is insensitive for spraing caused by this strain, this cultivar is called a "symptomless carrier" for this type of TRV. All six investigated potato cultivars can pass on TRV via seed potatoes to the next generation (secondary infection) but the degree of this virus transmission depended on potato cultivar, virus type and the interaction between cultivar and TRV and seems to be connected with the susceptibility for TRV. Transmission of the TRV type of P. pachydermus via seed potatoes was the highest in the cultivars Santana and (to a lesser degree) Santé and in cultivar Wilja. Even in the very sensitive cultivar Santana, TRV was passed on via seed potatoes. The prevailing theory that in sensitive potato cultivars TRV particles are immobilized in the necrotic 'spraing' tissue, therefore seems to be inaccurate. Since virus-vector combinations show specific interactions with cultivars, it is recommended to do potato variety research in several fields with different viruliferous trichodorid species. PMID:17390836

Hoek, J; Zoon, F C; Molendijk, L P G

2006-01-01

325

{bar d}/{bar u} asymmetry and the origin of the nucleon sea  

SciTech Connect

The Drell-Yan cross section ratios, {sigma}(p+d)/{sigma}(p+p), measured in Fermilab E866, have led to the first determination of {bar d}(x)/{bar u}(x), {bar d}(x){minus}{bar u}(x), and the integral of {bar d}(x){minus}{bar u}(x) for the proton over the range 0.02{le}x{le}0.345. The E866 results are compared with predictions based on parton distribution functions and various theoretical models. The relationship between the E866 results and the NMC measurement of the Gottfried integral is discussed. The agreement between the E866 results and models employing virtual mesons indicates that these non-perturbative processes play an important role in the origin of the {bar d},{bar u} asymmetry in the nucleon sea. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

Bush, J.D.; Isenhower, L.D.; Sadler, M.E.; Towell, R.S.; Willis, J.L.; Wise, D.K. [Abilene Christian University, Abilene, Texas 79699 (United States); Geesaman, D.F.; Kaufman, S.B.; Makins, N.; Mueller, B.A. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Brown, C.N.; Cooper, W.E. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States); He, X.C.; Lee, W.M.; Petitt, G. [Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia 30303 (United States); Kaplan, D.M. [Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois 60616 (United States); Peng, J.C.; Garvey, G.T.; Brooks, M.L.; Carey, T.A.; Lee, D.M.; Leitch, M.J.; McGaughey, P.L.; Moss, J.M.; Park, B.K.; Reimer, P.E.; Sondheim, W.E.; Thompson, T.N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Kirk, P.N.; Wang, Y.C.; Wang, Z.F. [Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States); Beddo, M.E.; Chang, T.H.; Kyle, G.; Papavassiliou, V.; Webb, J.C. [New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico 88003 (United States); Awes, T.C.; Stankus, P.W.; Young, G.R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Gagliardi, C.A.; Hawker, E.A.; Tribble, R.E.; Vasiliev, M.A. [Texas A M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Koetke, D.D.; Nord, P.M. [Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, Indiana 46383 (United States)

1998-11-01

326

Functionally Homologous Host Components Recognize Potato Virus X in Gomphrena globosa and Potato.  

PubMed

All known isolates of potato virus X (PVX), with the exception of a South American isolate PVXHB, induce an extreme resistance response on potato carrying the Rx gene and elicit the production of necrotic lesions on Gomphrena globosa: PVXHB establishes systemic infection on Rx genotypes of potato and infects the inoculated leaf of G. globosa without lesion formation. Previously, we have shown that the Rx-mediated resistance is affected by a feature of the coat protein that depends on the presence of a threonine residue at position 121 in the coat protein of PVXCP4 and that the resistance is an induced response expressed in protoplasts of potato with the Rx genotype. In this study, we provide evidence, based on the analysis of PVXCP4/PVXHB hybrids, that the elicitation of lesions on G. globosa also requires the presence of a threonine residue at position 121 of the viral coat protein. The lesion-forming phenotype was not associated with the ability of the viral isolate to accumulate in the infected plant. We therefore propose that there is a homologous component of both potato carrying Rx and G. globosa that interacts with a feature of the PVX coat protein and, following the interaction, activates an induced response in the plant cell. PMID:12271090

Goulden, M. G.; Baulcombe, D. C.

1993-08-01

327

Functionally Homologous Host Components Recognize Potato Virus X in Gomphrena globosa and Potato.  

PubMed Central

All known isolates of potato virus X (PVX), with the exception of a South American isolate PVXHB, induce an extreme resistance response on potato carrying the Rx gene and elicit the production of necrotic lesions on Gomphrena globosa: PVXHB establishes systemic infection on Rx genotypes of potato and infects the inoculated leaf of G. globosa without lesion formation. Previously, we have shown that the Rx-mediated resistance is affected by a feature of the coat protein that depends on the presence of a threonine residue at position 121 in the coat protein of PVXCP4 and that the resistance is an induced response expressed in protoplasts of potato with the Rx genotype. In this study, we provide evidence, based on the analysis of PVXCP4/PVXHB hybrids, that the elicitation of lesions on G. globosa also requires the presence of a threonine residue at position 121 of the viral coat protein. The lesion-forming phenotype was not associated with the ability of the viral isolate to accumulate in the infected plant. We therefore propose that there is a homologous component of both potato carrying Rx and G. globosa that interacts with a feature of the PVX coat protein and, following the interaction, activates an induced response in the plant cell.

Goulden, MG; Baulcombe, DC

1993-01-01

328

Diversity Among Potato virus Y Isolates Obtained from Potatoes Grown in the United States.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Potato field isolates (Solanum tuberosum) of Potato virus Y (PVY) collected from the midwestern and western United States were characterized using serological, molecular, and biological assays. PVY field isolates were grouped into the previously defined categories: PVY(O), European PVY(NTN), North American PVY(NTN), and PVY(N:O) recombinant and four previously undefined groups. Studies reported here agree with published reports from Europe and elsewhere in North America as PVY isolates capable of causing veinal necrosis in tobacco indicator plants appear in high frequency. In contrast to European experiences, PVY tuber necrosis isolates have a PVY(O) coat protein rather than that of PVY(N). Several PVY(N:O) recombinant isolates induced potato tuber necrotic ringspot disease (PTNRD) in the highly susceptible potato cv. Yukon Gold. The PTNRD symptoms produced by these PVY(N:O) recombinants were atypical compared with lesions found on the same cultivar infected with either the European or North American PVY(NTN) isolates. These PVY(N:O) isolates produced a roughly circular, sunken necrotic lesion on the surface of the tuber instead of the typical external sunken ring pattern displayed by PVY(NTN) isolates. This study establishes the complex nature of PVY populations within the U.S. potato industry and clearly demonstrates the diverse nature of PVY in the United States. PMID:18943708

Piche, L M; Singh, R P; Nie, X; Gudmestad, N C

2004-12-01

329

Study on potato virus M (PVM) occurrence in potato fields in Iran.  

PubMed

57 native potato tuber samples collected from different potato growing region of Iran, planted on single rows in Karaj College experimental station. Plant samples of each single row plus 9.25 Fresh foliage samples collected from fields under new introduced cultivars were tested for potato virus (PVM) infection during growing season. Also 78 weeds and field crops belonging to Solonacae and Leguminosae from or neighboring to potato field were tested. Results indicated that PVM was not found on any plant other than potatoes. PVM was detected on 16 samples of 57 old vars, Virus was not seen in any samples collected from fields under new varieties. Results show that PVM is limiting in this crop. PVM detecting is difficult using assay hosts. Best test plants were French bean var Red kidney, Showing pinpoint necrotic LL, also Datura metel and Nicotiana debneyi are useful for virus detection showing chlorotic local lesion. Also microprecipition and gel diffusion test can be used for virus detection but Elisa was the best method. PVM infected plant showed 11-19.5 percent yield decrease in 3 cultivars tested. PMID:16637213

Mosahebi, G; Koohi-Habibi, M; Okhovvat, S M

2005-01-01

330

Taylor impact of glass bars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Brar and Bless pioneeered the use of plate impact upon bars as a technique for investigating the 1D stress loading of glass. We wish to extend this technique by applying VISAR and embedded stress gauge measurements to a symmetrical version of the test. In this configuration two rods impact one upon the other in a symmetrical version of the Taylor test geometry in which the impact is perfectly rigid in the centre of mass frame. Previous work in the laboratory has characterised the three glass types (float, borosilicate and a high density lead glass). These experiments will identify the 1D stress failure mechanisms from high-speed photography and the stress and particle velocity histories will be interpreted in the light of these results. The differences in response of the three glasses will be highlighted.

Murray, Natalie; Bourne, Neil; Field, John

1997-07-01

331

Genomic Resources and Tools for Gene Function Analysis in Potato  

PubMed Central

Potato, a highly heterozygous tetraploid, is undergoing an exciting phase of genomics resource development. The potato research community has established extensive genomic resources, such as large expressed sequence tag (EST) data collections, microarrays and other expression profiling platforms, and large-insert genomic libraries. Moreover, potato will now benefit from a global potato physical mapping effort, which is serving as the underlying resource for a full potato genome sequencing project, now well underway. These tools and resources are having a major impact on potato breeding and genetics. The genome sequence will provide an invaluable comparative genomics resource for cross-referencing to the other Solanaceae, notably tomato, whose sequence is also being determined. Most importantly perhaps, a potato genome sequence will pave the way for the functional analysis of the large numbers of potato genes that await discovery. Potato, being easily transformable, is highly amenable to the investigation of gene function by biotechnological approaches. Recent advances in the development of Virus Induced Gene Silencing (VIGS) and related methods will facilitate rapid progress in the analysis of gene function in this important crop.

Bryan, Glenn J.; Hein, Ingo

2008-01-01

332

Effect of gamma irradiation on quality of dried potato  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objectives of this study were to obtain the effect of gamma irradiation on the quality of dried potato. Experiments were conducted to study the influence of different doses, air temperatures, slice thickness of potatoes on the dehydration rate, appearance quality ( L-values), vitamin C content, and the rehydration ratio of dried potatoes. The greater the dose, the higher the dehydration rate, the lesser the vitamin C content, and the lower the rehydration ratio. The L-values for low-dose irradiation was greater than that for non-irradiated potatoes.

Wang, J.; Chao, Y.

2003-03-01

333

New qualitative detection methods of genetically modified potatoes.  

PubMed

In Japan, 8 lines of genetically modified (GM) potato (2 lines of NewLeaf potato; NL, 3 lines of NewLeaf Plus potato; NLP, and 3 lines of NewLeaf Y potato; NLY) have already been authorized as safe for use in foods and feeds. We have developed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods for the qualitative detection of the GM potatoes for the screening and the identification of NL, NLP and NLY. The gene encoding uridine diphosphate (UDP)-glucose pyrophosphorylase (UGPase) was used as a taxon specific gene. We designed the primer pair to detect the cryIIIA genes as a screening method for GM potatoes because the gene should be inserted in all 8 lines of the GM potatoes. For identification of NL, NLP and NLY, we further designed three specific primer pairs for the different recombinant DNAs (r-DNA) specifically introduced into NL, NLP, or NLY. In addition, to identify the 3 lines of NLY that have been introduced with the same r-DNA, the three line-specific primer pairs for the border sequence between the r-DNA and genomic DNA of NLY 3 lines were designed. Six lines of GM potato used as the test material were specifically identified using the each primer pair under the same PCR condition. The detection limits of all the GM potatoes should be approximately 0.1%. Furthermore, the specificity and reproducibility of the methods were confirmed in a six-laboratory collaborative study. PMID:15340215

Watanabe, Takahiro; Kuribara, Hideo; Mishima, Takashi; Kikuchi, Hiroyuki; Kodama, Takashi; Futo, Satoshi; Kasama, Kikuko; Toyota, Akie; Nouno, Masanori; Saita, Ayako; Takahashi, Kunihiko; Hino, Akihiro; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Maitani, Tamio; Kubo, Misao

2004-09-01

334

The first and second backcross progeny of the intergeneric fusion hybrids of potato and tomato after crossing with potato  

Microsoft Academic Search

Somatic fusion hybrids between the diploid potato and tomato were backcrossed to several genotypes of potato. Two ploidy levels of fusion hybrids, 4x and 6x, were used as female parents in backcrosses with five clones of 4x-potato. An estimate of the berry set and “seed set” in immature berries harvested 14–21 days after pollination indicated that crosses between certain combinations

E. Jacobsen; M. K. Daniel; J. E. M. Bergervoet-van Deelen; D. J. Huigen; M. S. Ramanna

1994-01-01

335

The R1 gene conferring race-specific resistance to Phytophthora infestans in potato is located on potato chromosome V  

Microsoft Academic Search

Late blight in potato is caused by the fungusPhytophthora infestans and can inflict severe damage on the potato crop. Resistance toP. infestans is either based on major dominantR genes conferring vertical, race-specific resistance or on “minor” genes inducing horizontal, unspecific resistance. A dihaploid potato line was identified which carried theR1 gene, conferring vertical resistance to allP. infestans races, with the

Christiane Leonards-Schippers; Werner Gieffers; Francesco Salamini; Christiane Gebhardt

1992-01-01

336

Purification of potato virus A and its detection in potato by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potato virus A (PVA) was purified fromNicandra physaloides by a simple method that omitted organic solvent clarification and consisted of differential centrifugation followed by equilibrium\\u000a centrifugation in CsCl. An antiserum was produced that specifically detected PVA in potato leaf sap using either the SDS-agar\\u000a test or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). No heterlogous reaction of the antiserum with potato virus Y

R. P. Singh; J. G. McDonald

1981-01-01

337

Assessment using sheep of the nutritive value of liquid potato feed and partially fried potato chips (French fries)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three experiments were carried out in which the nutritive value of co-products of the potato processing industry was assessed. In experiment 1, apparent digestibilities in sheep of organic matter were 0.78 and 0.81 for liquid potato feed (LPF) and partially fried potato chips (French fries), respectively, and for energy, 0.76 and 0.81. Digestible and metabolisable energy (MJ kg?1 dry matter

J. A. Rooke; Angela R. Moss; A. I. Mathers; R. Crawshaw

1997-01-01

338

Interspecific somatic hybrids between wild potato Solanum acaule Bitt. and anther-derived dihaploid potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solanum acaule Bitt. is a disomic tetraploid (4x) wild potato species which is resistant to several potato diseases. Introgression of disease\\u000a resistance and abiotic stress tolerance to the tetrasomic tetraploid (4x) cultivated potato (S. tuberosum L.) gene pool via crossing has been limited due to the difference in the endosperm balance number. In the present study,\\u000a protoplast fusion was applied

V.-M. Rokka; A. Tauriainen; L. Pietilä; E. Pehu

1998-01-01

339

Variations in specific gravity of potatoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Over 20,000 tubers of 6 varieties of potatoes obtained from 10 different states were graded individually for specific gravity.\\u000a Varietal differences were noted in the specific gravity values. Katahdin showed the greatest variability and Irish Cobbler\\u000a and Chippewa the least. The variability in specific gravity as shown by the standard deviations indicates that some lots and\\u000a varieties are more adaptable

P. H. Heinze; C. C. Craft; Beatrice M. Mountjoy; Mary E. Kirkpatrick

1952-01-01

340

Potato growth in response to relative humidity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L. cvs. Russet Burbank, Norland, and Denali) were grown for 56 days in controlled-environment rooms under continuous light at 20C and 50% or 85% RH. No significant differences in total plant dry weight were measured between the humidity treatments, but plants grown under 85% RH produced higher tuber yields. Leaf areas were greater under 50% RH and leaves tended to be larger and darker green than at 85% RH.

Wheeler, R. M.; Tibbitts, T. W.; Fitzpatrick, A. H.

1989-01-01

341

Potato Steroidal Glycoalkaloids: Biosynthesis and Genetic Manipulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potato steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGAs) are important components of plant resistance against pests and pathogens but can\\u000a be toxic to humans at high levels. SGAs derive their toxicity from anticholinesterase activity affecting the central nervous\\u000a system and the disruptive effects on cell membrane integrity affecting the digestive system and other organs. Accordingly,\\u000a current safety regulations limit their content in the

Idit Ginzberg; James G. Tokuhisa; Richard E. Veilleux

2009-01-01

342

Late blight infection of potato tubers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Apparent varietal resistance toPhytophthora infestans among tubers of potato varieties differed when the tubers were inoculated through eyes, wounds of different sizes, or on\\u000a freshly cut surfaces. Invasion by the fungus increased with greater concentrations of inoculum. Tubers of certain R1 varieties were infected relatively easily by race 0, especially through wounds; others were infected only rarely. R1 varieties differed

Edmundo Davila

1964-01-01

343

Resistance to late blight in Andigena potatoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Andigena clones derived from mass-selected seedling populations which had been subjected to several generations of natural selection in the field for late blight resistance were studied. The average level of resistance (score about 3 on scale 1–5) was better than a sample ofTuberosum potatoes (score about 4) and the best individual clones were very resistant indeed. It is concluded thatAndigena

N. W. Simmonds; J. F. Malcolmson

1967-01-01

344

Volatile monoterpenes inhibit potato tuber sprouting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several volatile monoterpenes, which are among the major constituents of several easily obtainable essential oils, were phytotoxic\\u000a in the gaseous phase to emerged potato tuber sprouts. Analyses of the more phytotoxic monoterpenes were conducted using a\\u000a continuous-flow system in which the compounds were released as volatiles into the headspace surrounding the tubers. Several\\u000a of these compounds, which have low mammalian

Steven F. Vaughn; Gayland F. Spencer

1991-01-01

345

Calcium and magnesium distribution in potato tubers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The calcium present in the potato tuber is partially extractable by water and by dilute HCl. Either of these procedures may\\u000a show higher calcium content than dry-ashing. A degree of fractionation of calcium can be obtained by extraction by 1N HCl,\\u000a first at room temperature and then at 70 C. Wet-ashing yielded consistently higher results for calcium than dry ashing.

Carl W. Bretzloff

1971-01-01

346

Couch Potato: The Antithesis of Hormesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The impact of hormesis on health can be further appreciated by consideration of the “couch potato” lifestyle. When cells in\\u000a the body and brain are not challenged, they become complacent and are therefore vulnerable to injury and disease. Lack of\\u000a physical and mental exercise, in combination with excessive food intake, results in a condition called insulin resistance\\u000a that is a

Mark P. Mattson; Alexis Stranahan; Bronwen Martin

347

Charm Physics at BaBar  

SciTech Connect

Large production of the c{bar c} pairs and high integrated luminosity make the PEPII B Factory an excellent place for studying the charm hadrons. In this paper, we present a few most recent results from BaBar collaboration in charm sector.

Chen, Chunhui; /Maryland U.

2005-06-29

348

User-Defined Scroll Bars in Spreadsheets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microsoft Excel allows the easy creation of user-defined scroll bars that can be used to control parameter values in a spreadsheet. These scroll bars make it convenient to use a spreadsheet for in-class demonstrations, animations, and curve fitting, and offer significant instructional value to the student.

Hatten, Daniel L.; Moloney, Michael J.

2004-03-01

349

Graphite bar irradiation history, C-Reactor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The following is all the information the authors can get on the graphite bar history from the A and G test holes at C-Reactor. The A test hole was charged with 18--23 1/2 inch long graphite bars before the original startup of C-Reactor. This was 6/12/53. ...

W. B. Olson

1968-01-01

350

CLFV Decays at BaBar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rare ? decays provide a sensitive probe of charged lepton flavor violating interactions. With the dataset collected by the BaBar experiment at PEP-II (?4.88×108??bar pairs at the ?(4S) resonance), we have set limits on a large variety of rare charge lepton flavor-violating ? decays.

Hitlin, David G.

2014-03-01

351

Bar Study Stories. Issues in Prevention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of "Issues in Prevention" focuses on the impact of the availability of drinks in licensed establishments, such as bars and taverns on student drinking. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Cheap Drinks at College Bars Can Escalate Student Drinking (John D. Clapp); (2) High Alcohol Outlet Density: A Problem for Campuses and…

Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

2012-01-01

352

Studies for Somatic Embryogenesis in Sweet Potato  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this study was to improve the somatic embryo (SE) system for plant production of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L(Lam)). Explants isolated from SE-derived sweet potato plants were compared with control (non SE-derived) plants for their competency for SE production. Leaf explants were cultured on Murashige-Skoog (MS) medium with 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (0.2 mg/L) and 6-benzylaminopurine (2.5 mg/L) for 2 weeks in darkness and transferred to MS medium with abscisic acid (2.5 mg/L). Explants isolated from those plants developed through somatic embryogenesis produced new somatic embryos rapidly and in higher frequency than those isolated from control plants They also appeared to grow faster in tissue culture than the control plants. Current studies in the laboratory are examining whether plants derived from a cyclical embryogenesis system (five cycles) would have any further positive impact on the rapidity and frequency of somatic embryo development. More detailed studies using electron microscopy are expected to show the point of origin of the embryos and to allow determination of their quality throughout the cyclical process. This study may facilitate improved plant micropropagation, gene transfer and germplasm conservation in sweet potato.

Bennett, J. Rasheed; Prakash, C. S.

1997-01-01

353

Bar codes : can you decode a barcode?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students are shown a key to the post office conversion code and given a bar coded zip code to decipher. The activity, part of the Figure This! collection of 80 math challenges emphasizing math in the real world, introduces the bar-coding system and explains how the system enables businesses and banks to run more efficiently. The Hint suggests that students group the long and short bars into sets of five and then refer to the key to see what number is being represented. Related questions ask students to write a code using the U.S. Postal Service bar code and to decode a bar code on a piece of their own mail. Answers to all questions and links to resources are included. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM)

2002-01-01

354

Line width roughness reduction by rational design of photoacid generator for sub-millisecond laser post-exposure bake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sub-millisecond laser post-exposure bake (PEB) is an alternative technology to address the excessive acid diffusion for chemically amplified photoresist systems. By rationally designing the resist, laser post-exposure bake is able to improve the resolution and reduce the line width roughness (LWR) compared to patterns exposed under the same conditions but using conventional hotplate PEB. It was found that only the resist with high deprotection activation energy and low diffusion activation energy showed improved performance using laser PEB. Accordingly, a PAG was designed to have low acid diffusivity by binding the counter ions to a molecular glass core while keeping photophysical properties and processing conditions similar to a conventional PAG. By reducing the diffusivity of the counter ions, the PAG was able to further reduce LWR by 60% using laser PEB.

Jiang, Jing; Thompson, Michael O.; Ober, Christopher K.

2014-03-01

355

Effect of Electropolishing and Low-Temperature Baking on the Superconducting Properties of Large-Grain Niobium  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of superconducting properties such as bulk and surface critical fields and thermal conductivity have been carried out in the temperature range from 2 K to 8 K on large-grain samples of different purity and on a high-purity fine-grain sample, for comparison. The samples were treated by electropolishing and low temperature baking (120° C, 48 h). While the residual resistivity ratio changed by a factor of ~3 among the samples, no significant variation was found in their superconducting properties. The onset field for flux penetration at 2 K, Hffp, measured within a ~30 µm depth from the surface, was ~160 mT, close to the bulk value. The baking effect was mainly to increase the field range up to which a coherent superconducting phase persists on the surface, above the upper critical field.

A. S. Dhavale, G. Ciovati, G. R. Myneni

2011-03-01

356

Application of FDM and FEM in solving the simultaneous heat and moisture transfer inside bread during baking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heat and mass transfer inside bread during baking can be taken as a multiphase flow problem, involving heat, liquid water and water vapour. Among the various developed models, the one based on an evaporation-condensation mechanism well explains several unique phenomenal observations during baking, and is most promising. This paper presents the results of numerically solving the one-dimensional case of this simultaneous transfer model by applying finite difference methods (FDM) and finite element methods (FEM). In particular, various FDM and FEM schemes are applied and the sensitivity of the results to the changes within the parameters are studied. Changes in bread temperature and moisture are characterised by some critical values such as peak water level and dry-out time. Comparison between the results by FDM and FEM is made.

Zhou, Weibiao

2005-01-01

357

The carry-through of residues of maleic hydrazide from treated potatoes, following manufacture into potato crisps and 'jacket' potato crisps.  

PubMed

Potatoes, which had been treated 'in the field' with a commercial formulation of maleic hydrazide, were processed into potato crisps and jacket potato crisps on a factory production line using standard manufacturing conditions. Samples were taken at strategic points throughout the process and analysed to determine the degree of carry-through of residues. Results demonstrated that ca 56% of the maleic hydrazide residue in a potato could be carried through into the potato crisps, irrespective of which type of crisp was being manufactured. Results from a similarly constructed study investigating the fate of pesticides applied post-harvest showed that carry-through was less than 10%. This difference is explained in terms of the different modes of action of the two classes of pesticides being investigated. It is known that, as maleic hydrazide is a systemic pesticide, it will be located within the flesh of the potato tuber and is therefore likely to be protected from the various stages of the crisping process. However, the post-harvest non-systemic pesticides are applied to the exterior surface of the tuber and are therefore not likely to be protected in the same way. The results also showed that, due to the concentration effect caused by the loss of moisture during crisp manufacture, the levels of maleic hydrazide residues in crisps (on a mg/kg product basis) were approximately twice those measured in the original potatoes. PMID:9829033

Lewis, D J; Thorpe, S A; Wilkinson, K; Reynolds, S L

1998-07-01

358

[A detection method of recombinant DNA from genetically modified potato (NewLeaf Plus potato) and detection of NewLeaf Plus potato in snack].  

PubMed

A detection method using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed to detect the genetically modified (GM) potato (NewLeaf Plus potato; NL-P), which has not been authorized as safe in foods in Japan. The potato sucrose synthase gene was used as an internal control. The DNA from NL-P specifically provided an amplified band using PCR with a primer pair recognizing PLRV-rep gene. In addition, to prevent false-positive results in processed potato foods infected with PLRV, we designed a primer pair recognizing sequences derived from two organisms to detect specifically NL-P in processed potato. The PCR product obtained using the designed primer pair was specific for NL-P. The DNA introduced into NL-P could be detected from potato powder samples containing 0.05% NL-P. The proposed method was applied to the detection of NL-P in 25 processed potato foods. NL-P was detected in 3 snack products. PMID:11998315

Akiyama, Hiroshi; Sugimoto, Kazue; Matsumoto, Misao; Isuzugawa, Kazuto; Shibuya, Masaaki; Goda, Yukihiro; Toyoda, Masatake

2002-02-01

359

Severe metabolic alkalosis due to baking soda ingestion: case reports of two patients with unsuspected antacid overdose.  

PubMed

Oral ingestion of baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) has been used for decades as a home remedy for acid indigestion. Excessive bicarbonate ingestion places patients at risk for a variety of metabolic derangements including metabolic alkalosis, hypokalemia, hypernatremia, and even hypoxia. The clinical presentation is highly variable but can include seizures, dysrhythmias, and cardiopulmonary arrest. We present two cases of severe metabolic alkalosis in patients with unsuspected antacid overdose. The presentation and pathophysiology of antacid-related metabolic alkalosis is reviewed. PMID:9950389

Fitzgibbons, L J; Snoey, E R

1999-01-01

360

Microbiological examination of ready-to-eat foods and ready-to-bake frozen pastries from university canteens.  

PubMed

During a 10-year inspection survey (2001-2010), a microbiological study of ready-to-eat (RTE) foods and ready-to-bake frozen pastries from 15 canteens of the university campus was undertaken to determine their microbiological quality. The cumulative study revealed that the aerobic colony counts for the RTE product groups were as follows: from 10(6) to 10(8) CFU/g for 50% of sandwiches; under the detection limit (<10 CFU/g) for 88.6% of oven baked pastries; <10(5) CFU/g for 86.5% of desserts oven baked; from 10(3) to 10(9) CFU/g for desserts with dairy cream. The highest mean Enterobacteriaceae counts were recorded for desserts with dairy cream. The highest percentages of foodborne pathogens were: 20% Listeria monocytogenes and 12.5% Staphylococcus aureus in desserts with dairy cream; 17.5% Salmonella spp. and 8.5% presumptive Escherichia coli O157 in sandwiches; 14.6% Bacillus cereus in oven baked pastries. Aerobic colony counts were in the range 10(7)-10(8) CFU/g for 48.8% of frozen pastries; whereas Enterobacteriaceae counts between 10(3) and 10(4) CFU/g were detected in 35.3%. Foodborne pathogens prevalences for frozen pastries were as follows: B. cereus, 31.8%; Salmonella spp., 28.6%; presumptive E. coli O157, 25%; S. aureus, 8.7%; L. monocytogenes, 8.7%. Improved sanitary conditions in the processing plants and precautionary measures are necessary for consumer protection. PMID:23541200

Kotzekidou, Parthena

2013-06-01

361

Kinetics of strain aging in bake hardening ultra low carbon steel—a comparison with low carbon steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kinetics of the static strain aging process have been analyzed in a vacuum-degassed ultra low carbon bake hardenable (ULC\\u000a BH) steel with a total carbon content of 20 wt.ppm through measurement of the strength properties. The influence of prestrain\\u000a and free interstitial carbon content has been studied. The kinetic results were compared with those of a BH low carbon

A. K. De; B. C. De Cooman; S. Vandeputte

2001-01-01

362

Effect of lyophilized jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) fin and mantle muscle on dough properties and bread baking performance of commercial wheat flour  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of 25 and 50 g\\/kg of lyophilized jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) fin (JSF) and mantle muscle (JSM) on dough properties and baking performance of wheat flour were studied. Dough maximum resistance (Rmax), extensibility, deformation work (Area, 45-min resting time), baking performance, loaf volume, and acceptability were evaluated. JSF (25 g\\/kg) almost tripled (P? 0.05) Rmaxcompared to control dough,

J. C. Ramirez-Suarez; A. R. Islas-Rubio; L. C. Montoya-Ballesteros; M. C. Granados-Nevarez; F. Vázquez-Lara; R. Pacheco-Aguilar; M. E. Lugo-Sánchez

2012-01-01

363

Relationship between mechanical properties and microstructure in a 1.5% Mn–0.3% Mo ultra-low carbon steel with bake hardening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of annealing conditions on the mechanical properties including bake hardening, microstructure, and texture were investigated in a 1.5% Mn–0.3% Mo ultra-low carbon steel. Bainitic ferrite with high dislocation density became predominant in the microstructure when both higher annealing temperature and higher cooling rate were combined. The highly dislocated phases transformed at low temperatures enhanced both bake hardening and anti-strain

W. C. Jeong

2007-01-01

364

Conservation Research and Development/ New Ultra-Low Carbon High Strength Steels with Improved Bake Hardenability for Enhanced Stretch Formability and Dent Resistance  

SciTech Connect

Conservation Research and Development/New Ultra-Low Carbon High Strength Steels with Improved Bake Hardenability for Enhanced Stretch Formability and Dent Resistance. The experimental work can be divided into four phases. In each phase, the materials were received or designed, processed and tested, to evaluate the BH increment or response, as a function of compositions and processing conditions. Microstructural characterization by various techniques was performed in order to gain insights into the mechanisms of flow stress increment by bake hardening.

Anthony J. DeArdo; C. Isaac Garcia

2003-12-15

365

Effect of flour extraction rate and baking process on vitamin B 1 and B 2 contents and antioxidant activity of ginger-based products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of flour extraction rate and baking on thiamine (vitamin B1) and riboflavin (vitamin B2) content and antioxidant capacity of traditional ginger cake was studied and then compared to white wheat bread. Ginger cake\\u000a was formulated either with whole-grain (100% extraction rate) or with brown (92% extraction rate) rye flour and baked at 180 °C\\u000a for 18 min. The antioxidant capacity

Cristina Martinez-Villaluenga; Anna Horszwald; Juana Frias; Mariusz Piskula; Concepcion Vidal-Valverde; Henryk Zieli?ski

2009-01-01

366

Effect of dentifrice containing fluoride and/or baking soda on enamel demineralization/remineralization: an in situ study.  

PubMed

The additive effect of baking soda on the anticariogenic effect of fluoride dentifrice is not well established. To evaluate it, a crossover in situ study was done in three phases of 28 days. Volunteers, using acrylic palatal appliances containing four human enamel blocks, two sound (to evaluate demineralization) and two with artificial caries lesions (to evaluate remineralization), took part in this study. During each phase, 10% sucrose solution was dripped (3 times a day) only onto the sound blocks. After 10 min, a slurry of placebo, fluoride (F) or fluoride and baking soda (F+NaHCO(3)) dentifrice was dripped onto all enamel blocks. The results showed a higher F concentration in dental plaque formed during treatment with F+NaHCO(3) than placebo (p<0.05), but the difference related to F dentifrice was not significant. The enamel demineralization was lower, and remineralization was greater, after treatment with F+NaHCO(3) than placebo (p<0.05), but the difference related to F dentifrice was not significant. The data suggest that baking soda neither improves nor impairs the effect of F dentifrice on reduction of demineralization and enhancement of remineralization of enamel. PMID:11275669

Cury, J A; Hashizume, L N; Del Bel Cury, A A; Tabchoury, C P

2001-01-01

367

Effect of baking process on added folic acid and endogenous folates stability in wheat and rye breads.  

PubMed

In Poland bread as a staple food both made from wheat and rye flour can be a potential product for future fortification with folic acid. The objective of the study was to examine the effect of fermentation and baking on added folic acid and some endogenous folates stability during breadmaking of rye and wheat breads. Breads were produced using the formulation containing enriched flour with 0.2 mg folic acid/100 g product, baker's yeast and additionally ascorbic acid for wheat bread and lactic acid for rye bread. Folates were extracted with Hepes/Ches buffer (pH = 7.85) followed by destruction of matrix by amylase and protease and deconjugation with rat serum conjugase. Affinity chromatography (FBP bovine milk) was used to purify and concentrate samples. The folates were separated by HPLC with C18 column and with a combination of fluorescence and UV detection. For both rye and wheat breads there was a decrease of folic acid from flour to bread stage. The total losses depend on baking process and ranged from 12 to 21%. Some changes in the level of different native folate forms during the stage of baking process were also observed. PMID:16021829

Gujska, Elzbieta; Majewska, Katarzyna

2005-06-01

368

Effect of flour extraction rate and baking on thiamine and riboflavin content and antioxidant capacity of traditional rye bread.  

PubMed

The effect of rye flour extraction rates and baking on thiamine and riboflavin content, and antioxidant capacity of traditional rye bread were studied and compared with white wheat flour. The content of thiamine was higher (10.9%) in rye dough formulated with dark rye flour (F-100%; extraction rate of 100%) than in rye dough formulated with brown rye flour (F-92%; extraction rate of 92%) that was similar to dough made with wheat flour. The riboflavin content in rye dough made from flour F-100% was also higher (16%) than in dough formulated with flour F-92%, and both provided larger riboflavin content than wheat dough. Baking led to reductions in thiamine of 56% for wheat bread and of 20% for both rye breads; however, this process caused only a 10% decrease in riboflavin for wheat bread and a 30% decrease for rye breads. Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, peroxyl radical scavenging capacity, DPPH radical scavenging activity, and Folin-Ciocalteu reducing capacity were higher in rye than in wheat dough and bread. Baking process produced slight changes in antioxidant activity, except for Superoxide Dismutase-like activity where a sharp decrease was observed. Our findings showed that rye breads are an important source of B vitamins and rye breads formulated with dark and brown flours showed better antioxidant properties than wheat bread. Therefore, rye breads should be more widely recommended in human nutrition. PMID:19200085

Martinez-Villaluenga, C; Michalska, A; Frias, J; Piskula, M K; Vidal-Valverde, C; Zieli?ski, H

2009-01-01

369

High insoluble fibre content increases in vitro starch digestibility in partially baked breads.  

PubMed

Wheat breads prepared from frozen partially baked breads were characterized by their content of rapidly digestible starch (RDS) and slowly digestible starch (SDS) by the in vitro starch digestibility method developed by Englyst. Breads with different contents and types of fibre and breads prepared with different fermentation processes were studied. Bread with inulin and with a double fermentation had the lowest RDS content of 58.8 ± 1.7 and 60.0 ± 1.9 (% dry matter), respectively. Wheat bran bread, seeded bread, triple fermentation white bread and baguette-type bread showed values of RDS between 63.1 ± 1.7 and 65.7 ± 1.7 with no significant differences between them (p < 0.05). The fraction of SDS was higher in wheat breads than in breads with added fibre. The highest values of the starch digestive rate index (SDRI) were obtained by the three types of breads with added fibre, which ranged from 91.8 ± 3.5 to 95.8 ± 3.5 versus 80.2 ± 3.5 to 87.5 ± 3.5 for white wheat breads. A significant (p < 0.01) positive linear correlation between the insoluble fibre content and SDRI was obtained (R² = 0.96). Insoluble fibre dilutes and disrupts gluten network and probably weakens the interaction between gluten and starch, which protects starch from digestive enzymes action. Scanning electronic microscopy microstructure of bread crumbs corroborated this statement. PMID:22621760

Ronda, Felicidad; Rivero, Pablo; Caballero, Pedro A; Quilez, Joan

2012-12-01

370

High Temperature Baking as a Means of Controlling Solid-state Nanopore Fabrication and Stability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solid-state nanopores have been of interest in single biomolecule analysis due to their ability to be tunable in dimension and robust nature. The ability to withstand wide variations in temperature, salt, denaturing agent, and pH while maintaining pore stability has made it a promising technology in detecting biomolecules at the single molecule level. One of the current methods for fabricating these solid-state nanopores uses a low energy ion beam, ˜ 3 keV, incident on a 100nm diameter hole in a silicon nitride membrane to close it to a smaller diameter. Because of individual variability in between samples, the time taken for pore closure can vary from a matter of seconds to a few hours. Because the error in the measured final diameter of the nanopore is proportional to the closure rate, this causes a wide variability in final nanopore diameter. In addition, the variations in stability and electrical noise level of these nanopores at experimental solution condition have also been observed. Here we use a tube furnace to investigate adventitious carbon and its effects on the closure rate. We also use the tube furnace to bake the silicon nitride nanopores after fabrication and investigate the effects on the stability of the pore and electrical noise in solution.

Walsh, Nathan; Tita, Denis; Nandivada, Santoshi; Rollings, Ryan; Li, Jiali

2013-03-01

371

Modelling the effects of orange pomace using response surface design for gluten-free bread baking.  

PubMed

The development of gluten-free bread creates many challenges; producing bread that will match the properties of its wheat counterpart can be difficult. Fruit by-products are know from literature to contain a high level of dietary fibre which could improve the bread properties and fibre contents of gluten-free bread. Therefore, a mathematical design was created; three variables were identified from preliminary tests (water (85-100% flour weight, OP 0-8% flour weight and proofing time 35-100min) as being crucial in the development of acceptable bread. Results illustrated longer proofing times (p<0.05) and lower orange pomace levels (OP) (p<0.001) produced a bread with a greater specific volume. OP had the most significant (p<0.0001) effect on hardness at 2h and 24h post-baking. The optimised formulation was calculated to contain 5.5% OP, 94.6% water and a proofing time of 49min. Total fibre content of the control bread (2.1%) was successfully increased to 3.9% in the OP containing bread. Substituting gluten-free flours with orange pomace flour can help improve the total dietary intake of a coeliac while not negating on the quality properties of the bread. PMID:25053049

O'Shea, N; Rößle, C; Arendt, E; Gallagher, E

2015-01-01

372

Clinical and immunological responses to occupational exposure to alpha-amylase in the baking industry.  

PubMed

alpha-Amylase is a starch cleaving enzyme often used in the baking industry as a flour additive. It is usually of fungal origin, produced by Aspergillus oryzae. One previous report has shown IgE antibodies and positive skin prick test against alpha-amylase in asthmatic bakers. This paper describes four alpha-amylase sensitised index cases with occupational asthma or rhinitis and the results of a cross sectional study of 20 workers from the same factory who were also exposed to alpha-amylase powder. Air sampling detected airborne alpha-amylase at a concentration of 0.03 mg/m3. Significantly more work related symptoms such as rhinitis and dermatitis were found among the alpha-amylase exposed workers compared with referents. A skin prick test to alpha-amylase was positive in 30% (6/20) of the exposed workers. Most of the persons showing a positive skin prick test had work related symptoms and were also skin prick test positive to common allergens. Nasal challenge tests with amylase were performed in selected cases and validated three cases of alpha-amylase induced rhinitis. Two non-symptomatic workers had precipitins to alpha-amylase. Specific IgG antibodies were shown by two further serological techniques. The nature and relevance of these antibodies are currently being studied. It is concluded that alpha-amylase powder is a potent occupational sensitiser. Precautions should be taken when handling this allergenic enzyme. PMID:1832939

Brisman, J; Belin, L

1991-09-01

373

Processing of kansui roots stir-baked with vinegar reduces kansui-induced hepatocyte cytotoxicity by decreasing the contents of toxic terpenoids and regulating the cell apoptosis pathway.  

PubMed

Euphorbia kansui is a Traditional Chinese Medicine widely used for the treatment of oedema, ascites and asthma. However, its serious hepatotoxicity hinders its safe clinical application. The process of stir-baking with vinegar is regularly used to reduce the toxicity of kansui. Up till now, the exact mechanism of the reduction in hepatotoxicity of kansui stir-baked with vinegar has been poorly defined. In this study, decreased  contents of five diterpene and one triterpene in kansui (GS-1) after stir-baking with vinegar (GS-2) was investigated by UPLC-QTOF/MS. Flow cytometry and Hoechst staining were used to show that the stir-baking with vinegar process reduces kansui-induced cell apoptosis. Furthermore, the result also indicated that kansui stir-baked with vinegar protects LO2 cells from apoptosis by increasing the cell mitochondrial membrane potential (??m), decreasing the release of cytochrome c and inhibiting the activities of caspase-9 and caspase-3 as evidenced by means of high content screening (HCS), ELISA and western blotting. These results suggested that the stir-baking vinegar could reduce the hepatotoxicity of kansui by effectively decreasing the contents of toxic terpenoids and inhibiting the intrinsic pathway of hepatocyte cell apoptosis. In conclusion, the study provided significant data for promoting safer and better clinical use of this herb. PMID:24896263

Yan, Xiaojing; Zhang, Li; Guo, Jianming; Cao, Yudan; Shang, Erxin; Tang, Yuping; Ding, Anwei; Duan, Jin-Ao

2014-01-01

374

Effect of surface treatments/coatings and soft bake profile on surface uniformity and adhesion of SU-8 on a glass substrate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the effect of surface treatments/coatings and soft bake temperatures aimed at improving adhesion and surface uniformity of SU-8 on glass substrates. While the adhesion strength of SU-8 to metal layers on glass and silicon has been previously investigated, our research examines the influence of additional surface treatments (RCA, Acetone/IPA rinse) and coatings (fresh/one-day-aged Ti, fresh/one-day-aged Cr, SU-8 2005®) on adhesion strength as well as surface uniformity for 100 ?m thick SU-8 films. Additionally, we vary the soft bake times and temperatures while keeping all other process parameters constant, to correlate adhesion strength with surface uniformity of SU-8 films for each surface modification. We have found that for all surface treatments/coatings, a soft bake temperature of 65°C for 90 minutes yielded a more uniform SU-8 film (? = 5.18 ?m) as compared to the manufacturer-recommended soft bake temperature of 95°C (? = 12.66 ?m) for 30 minutes. Consequently, a more uniform SU-8 film provided excellent adhesion strength (> 2 MPa, as determined by stress testing using an Instron® microtester) for both metallic seed layers while the adhesion strength of films baked at 95°C was determined to be < 0.5 MPa. This study, for the first time, has been able to quantitatively determine the adhesion strength of SU-8 films on different seed layers deposited on glass substrates, for varying soft bake temperatures.

Grist, Samantha; Patel, Jasbir N.; Haq, Moeed; Gray, Bonnie L.; Kaminska, Bozena

2010-02-01

375

Cam-controlled boring bar  

DOEpatents

A cam-controlled boring bar system (100) includes a first housing (152) which is rotatable about its longitudinal axis (154), and a second housing in the form of a cam-controlled slide (158) which is also rotatable about the axis (154) as well as being translatable therealong. A tool-holder (180) is mounted within the slide (158) for holding a single point cutting tool. Slide (158) has a rectangular configuration and is disposed within a rectangularly configured portion of the first housing (152). Arcuate cam slots (192) are defined within a side plate (172) of the housing (152), while cam followers (194) are mounted upon the cam slide (158) for cooperative engagement with the cam slots (192). In this manner, as the housing (152) and slide (158) rotate, and as the slide (158) also translates, a through-bore (14) having an hourglass configuration will be formed within a workpiece (16) which may be, for example, a nuclear reactor steam generator tube support plate.

Glatthorn, Raymond H. (St. Petersburg, FL) [St. Petersburg, FL

1986-01-01

376

Changes in structure, density and porosity of potato during dehydration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structural changes in potato during drying were studied by light microscopy. It was observed that the degree of shrinkage of potato during low-temperature drying is greater than at high-temperature drying. Shrinkage also affects the physical properties of materials, such as the density and porosity. In the early stage of drying the density increased as the moisture content decreased, reaching a

N. Wang; J. G. Brennan

1995-01-01

377

Chlorflurenol Inhibits Peroxidase Activity in Sweet Potato Roots.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Chlorflurenol (0.000073 M) inhibits peroxidase activity in sweet potato root discs within 4 hr after treatment and by almost 50% after 24 hr. Ethylene is thought to induce the de novo synthesis of peroxidase in sweet potato root discs. Chlorflurenol parti...

D. H. Gaither D. T. Webb G. R. Leather L. E. Forrence R. C. Sievert

1973-01-01

378

O FREEWARE HOT POTATOES E SEU POTENCIAL COMO  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article aims to reflect about the production and implementation of interactive exercises created with the Hot Potatoes software in Foreign Language classes. These exercises were applied to High School students at Prieto Martinez State School in Curitiba. The activities were made available on a web site and the students accessed them in the school computer laboratory. The Hot Potatoes

FERRAMENTA DE APRENDIZAGEM; LENY GALLEGO DONDA

2007-01-01

379

Resource concentration dilutes a key pest in indigenous potato agriculture.  

PubMed

Modern restructuring of agricultural landscapes, due to the expansion of monocultures and the resulting elimination of non-crop habitat, is routinely blamed for rising populations of agricultural insect pests. However, landscape studies demonstrating a positive correlation between pest densities and the spatial extent of crop monocultures are rare. We test this hypothesis with a data set from 140 subsistence farms in the Andes and find the inverse correlation. Infestations by the Andean potato weevil (Premnotrypes spp.), the most important pest in Andean potato agriculture, decrease with increasing amounts of potato in the landscape. A statistical model predicts that aggregating potato fields may outperform the management of Andean potato weevils by IPM and chemical control. We speculate that the strong pest suppression generated by aggregating potato fields may partly explain why indigenous potato farmers cluster their potato fields under a traditional rotation system common in Andean agriculture (i.e., "sectoral fallow"). Our results suggest that some agricultural pests may also respond negatively to the expansion of monocultures, and that manipulating the spatial arrangement of host crops may offer an important tool for some IPM programs. PMID:21563583

Parsa, Soroush; Ccanto, Raul; Rosenheim, Jay A

2011-03-01

380

Performance of broilers fed on diets containing cooked potato flake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical analysis of dried cooked potato flake suggests that the material might be used in diets for broilers. Starter and finisher diets containing 0, 10, 20 and 40% potato flake in place of maize meal were formulated, and fed ad libitum in pellet form to broilers. Performance of the birds and characteristics of the pellets were measured.The performances of

C. T. Whittemore; I. W. Moffat

1974-01-01

381

Seed Potato Systems in Ecuador: A Case Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Seeds and seed systems, provide a vital link between cropping seasons. The research report, one of a series of case studies of seed potato programs, examines the seed potato system in Ecuador. The system is dominated by a farmer-based informal seed system...

C. C. Crissman J. E. Uquillas

1989-01-01

382

Usual Intake of Other starchy vegetables, excluding white potatoes  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Other starchy vegetables, excluding white potatoes Table A14. Other starchy vegetables, excluding white potatoes: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10%

383

Potato storage: Effect on the paste viscosity of the starch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The quality of potato starch, as indicated by paste viscosity, was not affected by storage of the potatoes for periods up\\u000a to nine months at temperatures of 34°, 42°, and 50° F. The composition of the water used in extracting the starch is of considerably\\u000a greater importance in determining starch quality.

G. C. Nutting; R. T. Whittenberger

1949-01-01

384

Reclassification of landrace populations of cultivated potatoes (Solanum sect. Petota)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultivated potatoes have been classified as species under the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN) and as cultivar- groups under the International Code of Nomenclature of Cultivated Plants (ICNCP); both classifications are still widely used. This study examines morphological support for the classification of landrace populations of cultivated potatoes, using representatives of all seven species and most subspecies as outlined

ZOSIMO HUAMAN; DAVID M. SPOONER

2002-01-01

385

Biological control of post-harvest late blight of potatoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction of US-8 genotypes of Phytophthora infestans has coincided with an increase in severity of potato late blight in North America. As alternatives to chemical fungicides, 18 bacterial strains patented as biological control agents (BCA) of both sprouting and Fusarium dry rot were cultivated in three liquid media and screened in wounded potato bioassays for their ability to suppress late

Patricia J. Slininger; David A. Schisler; Linda D. Ericsson; Tina L. Brandt; Mary Jo Frazier; Lynn K. Woodell; Nora L. Olsen; Gale E. Kleinkopf

2007-01-01

386

Pesticide Use on Fall Potatoes in the United States, 1979.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Growers treated more fall potatoes with insecticides than any other pesticide. Just over 1.0 million acres were included in the survey and 94 percent were treated with an insecticide. Potato farmers made 6.8 million acre-treatments, using 15.3 million pou...

J. R. Parks

1983-01-01

387

Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) yield response to simulated hail damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yield loss in potato damaged by hail is mainly caused by reduced leaf area and plant stand. A 2-year field experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of simulated hail damage on potato yield. The treatments were six levels of defoliation (control, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100%) and five defoliation times (2, 5, 8, 11 and 14 weeks after

Amir Hooshang Jalali

2012-01-01

388

Calystegines in potatoes with genetically engineered carbohydrate metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calystegines are hydroxylated nortropane alkaloids derived from the tropane alkaloid biosynthetic path- way. They are strong glycosidase inhibitors and occur in vegetables such as potatoes, tomatoes, and cabbage. Calystegine accumulation in root cultures was described to increase with carbohydrate availability. Whether this is indicative for the in planta situation is as yet un- known. Potatoes are model plants for the

Ute Richter; Uwe Sonnewald; Birgit Drager

2007-01-01

389

Minimizing energy losses in steam systems for potato starch production  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes improvements to the energy management of a steam system used for potato starch production. The system consists of a steam boiler plant (fired with natural gas), and steam and condensate pipelines with a hot air heat exchanger for drying potato starch (the steam consumer). In the existing system, the boiler cooperates with two open tanks that are

J. Bujak

2009-01-01

390

ENERGY VALUE OF SWEET POTATO CHIPS FOR YOUNG SWINE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A comparative slaughter experiment was conducted to determine the energy values of sweet potato chips for young pigs. Sweet potato chips fed in addition to the basal diet significantly increased daily gain and improved the feed to gain ratio. The apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) for dry matter and energy remained constant, but the ADC for nitrogen decreased with the

J. F. Wu

391

Assessing the technical efficiency in potato production in Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the energy requirements of inputs and outputs for potato production were examined. Also in this research, a non-parametric data envelopment analysis (DEA) technique was used to determine the efficiencies of farmers with regard to energy use in potato production activities in Iran. The results indicated that total input energy, total output energy and energy ratio were 107674

Reza Pahlavan; Shahin Rafiee; Mahmoud Omid

2012-01-01

392

32 CFR 776.66 - Bar admission and disciplinary matters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Bar admission and disciplinary matters. 776.66 Section 776.66 National...776.66 Bar admission and disciplinary matters. (a) Bar admission and disciplinary matters. A covered attorney, in...

2013-07-01

393

33 CFR 13.01-10 - Gold and silver bars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Gold and silver bars. 13.01-10 Section 13...RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-10 Gold and silver bars. No person shall receive...

2010-07-01

394

33 CFR 13.01-40 - Miniature medals and bars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-40 Miniature medals and bars. (a) Miniature Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals and bars are replicas of...

2013-07-01

395

33 CFR 13.01-40 - Miniature medals and bars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-40 Miniature medals and bars. (a) Miniature Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals and bars are replicas of...

2012-07-01

396

33 CFR 13.01-40 - Miniature medals and bars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-40 Miniature medals and bars. (a) Miniature Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals and bars are replicas of...

2011-07-01

397

Highly reliable qcw laser bars and stacks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on a well established technology for continuous-wave (cw) diode lasers, further development and optimization lead to high performance laser bars for quasi-continuous-wave (qcw) operation suitable for pumping applications. Mounted on standard heat sinks, these 808nm laser bars exhibit more than 300W (400W) qcw output power with 50% (75%) filling factors. Reliability tests of these bars are running at >200W. Several GShots at 2, 4 and 10% duty cycle (d.c.) were already achieved. With this high performance qcw laser bars, passively cooled laser stacks were developed and tested using a new design compatible to high power operation. Thermal expansion matched materials and hard solder techniques allow reliable operation, even under rough environmental conditions. Output powers of 2.5kW (>300W per bar) were demonstrated from a stack with 8 bars. After environmental tests (vibration and thermal cycles), an ongoing life test exhibits more than 2.5GShots with 1.6kW (~200W per bar) at 4% duty cycle.

Deichsel, E.; Schröder, D.; Meusel, J.; Hülsewede, R.; Sebastian, J.; Ludwig, S.; Hennig, P.

2008-03-01

398

Analysis of Hopkinson bar pressure gage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to fully understand the results of experiments on buried structures subjected to high intensity airblast that simulates nuclear weapons effects, an accurate measurement of the airblast pressure time-history must be made. Quite often, the peak airblast pressures in these tests are above what commercially-available air-pressure gages are capable of measuring. Hopkinson bar pressure gages remain elastic while measuring these very high airblast pressures. These bar gages also have the advantage that the sensing element of the gage is placed at a distance down the bar from the high pressure airblast. Thus the sensing element and the wires attached to it stand a much better chance of surviving the environment created by the simulator. The U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES) has developed a bar gage, designed to measure the airblast for tests in which airblast-induced ground shock is simulated. The primary objective of this study was to determine the accuracy of the WES bar gage and the possible effects the water and water seal have on the measured waveforms. Other objectives are to evaluate the differences in measured stresses between the WES and NMERI bars in the DET test, and to determine if modifications to the WES bar gage design are needed.

Baylot, James T.

1993-01-01

399

A newly developed Kolsky tension bar.  

SciTech Connect

Investigation of damage and failure of materials under impact loading relies on reliable dynamic tensile experiments. A precise Kolsky tension bar is highly desirable. Based on the template of the Kolsky compression bar that we recently developed and presented at 2009 SEM conference, a new Kolsky tension bar apparatus was completed at Sandia National Laboratories, California. It is secured to the same optical table. Linear bearings with interior Frelon coating were employed to support the whole tension bar system including the bars and gun barrel. The same laser based alignment system was used to efficiently facilitate highly precise alignment of the bar system. However, the gun part was completely re-designed. One end of the gun barrel, as a part of loading device, was directly jointed to the bar system. A solid cylindrical striker is launched inside the gun barrel and then impacts on a flange attached to the other end of the gun barrel to facilitate a sudden tensile loading on the whole system. This design improves the quality of impact to easily produce a perfect stress wave and is convenient to utilize pulse shaping technique. A calibration and dynamic characterization of an aluminum specimen are presented.

Lu, Wei-Yang; Song, Bo; Antoun, Bonnie R.; Connelly, Kevin; Korellis, John S.

2010-03-01

400

Chemical characterization of conducive and suppressive soils for potato scab in Hokkaido, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potato common scab induced by Streptomyces scabies is a serious constraint for potato-producing farmers and the incidence of potato scab depends on the soil chemical properties. We examined the chemical characteristics of conducive and suppressive soils to potato common scab with reference to the chemical properties of nonallophanic Andosols, recently incorporated into the classification system of cultivated soils in Japan.

Naoharu Mizuno; Hozumi Yoshida; Masami Nanzyo; Toshiaki Tadano

1998-01-01

401

Effects of resistant potato starch on cholesterol and bile acid metabolism in the rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the effects of two types of resistant starch (RS), raw starch from uncooked potatoes and retrograded starch in the form of cooked and cooled potatoes, on cholesterol and bile acid metabolism in rats. Groups of 8 male Wistar rats were fed a semipurified diet containing 15% cellulose, freeze-dried raw potatoes, or freeze-dried cooked potatoes for four weeks.

JoCarol Chezem; Emily Furumoto; Jon Story

1997-01-01

402

Cool Farm Tool – Potato: Model Description and Performance of Four Production Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cool Farm Tool – Potato (CFT-Potato) is a spreadsheet programme that allows the calculation of the amount of CO2 equivalents that it costs to produce 1 t of potato. The spreadsheet was adapted from an original generic version of the tool, and completed for potato production in diverse production areas in the world applying different levels of technology. The

A. J. Haverkort; J. G. Hillier

2011-01-01

403

Cloning and expression of the potato alternative oxidase gene  

SciTech Connect

Mitochondria from 24-hour-aged potato slices possess an alternative path capacity and a 36kD protein not present in fresh potato mitochondria. This 36kD protein was identified by a monoclonal antibody against the Sauromatum guttatum alternative oxidase. These results suggest de novo synthesis of the 36kD protein during the aging process. To investigate this phenomenon, a clone containing a potato alternative oxidase gene was isolated from a cDNA library using the S. guttatum gene as a probe. This clone shows areas of high homology to the S. guttatum gene. Norther blots of RNA from fresh and 24-hour-aged potato slices are being probed with the potato gene to examine its expression in relation to the appearance of the 36kD protein.

Hiser, C.; McIntosh, L. (MSU-DOE Plant Research Laboratory, East Lansing, MI (USA) Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (USA))

1990-05-01

404

7.RP Buying Protein Bars and Magazines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Tom wants to buy some protein bars and magazines for a trip. He has decided to buy three times as many protein bars as magazines. Each protein bar cost...

405

Potato field colonization by low-density populations of Colorado potato beetle as a function of crop rotation distance.  

PubMed

Monitoring of 10 and 12 commercial potato, Solanum tuberosum L., fields in 2004 and 2005, respectively, confirmed for a low-density population of Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), that potato fields nearest to the previous year's potato fields are significantly more colonized by this beetle than more distant fields. This pattern is partially explained by the presence of a reservoir of colonizers estimated at 35% of the season-long colonizing population in 2004 and 2005. These beetles, which emerged before potato plants broke the ground, were ready to establish themselves on nearby potato plants. The colonizing Colorado potato beetles dispersed within the maximum range of 1.5 km over a season, and the colonization risk for the new crop decreased with distance from the previous year's crop. There was no evidence that rotation distance delayed colonization. In terms of pest management, although the findings confirm that only long 1.5-km rotations can prevent Colorado potato beetle colonization, they also demonstrate that short rotations of 100 m or more can make substantial contributions to pest management programs for low-density beetle populations. PMID:18950039

Boiteau, Gilles; Picka, J D; Watmough, James

2008-10-01

406

Gelatinizing, Pasting, and Gelling Properties of Potato and Amaranth Starch Mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 84(1):22-29 Physicochemical properties of mixtures of native potato and native amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus), heat-moisture treated (HMT) potato and heat-moisture treated amaranth, cross-linked potato and cross-linked amaranth, native potato and heat-moisture treated amaranth, and heat- moisture treated potato, and native amaranth were tested at different ratios. Two peaks were noticed in the pasting curves when large differ- ences of

Anil Gunaratne; Harold Corke

2007-01-01

407

The amyloplast proteome of potato tuber.  

PubMed

Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is the fourth largest crop worldwide in yield, and cv. Kuras is the major starch potato of northern Europe. Storage starch is packed densely in tuber amyloplasts, which become starch granules. Amyloplasts of soil-grown mini-tubers and agar-grown micro-tubers of cv. Kuras were purified. The mini-tuber amyloplast preparation was enriched 10-20-fold and the micro-tuber amyloplast approximately fivefold over comparative total protein extracts. Proteins separated by SDS-PAGE were digested with trypsin, analysed by mass spectrometry and identified by mascot software searches against an in-house potato protein database and the NCBI non-redundant plant database. The differential growth conditions for mini- and micro-tubers gave rise to rather different protein profiles, but the major starch granule-bound proteins were identical for both and dominated by granule-bound starch synthase I, starch synthase II and alpha-glucan water dikinase. Soluble proteins were dominated by starch phosphorylase L-1, other large proteins of the classes 'starch and sucrose metabolism', 'pentose phosphate pathway', 'glycolysis', 'amino acid metabolism', and other proteins such as plastid chaperonins. The majority of the identified proteins had a predicted plastid transit peptide, supporting their presence in the amyloplast. However, several highly expressed proteins had no transit peptide, such as starch phosphorylase H, or had a predicted mitochondrial location. Intriguingly, all polyphenol oxidases, a family of enolases, one transketolase, sulfite reductase, deoxynucleoside kinase-like and dihydroxy-acid dehydrase had twin-arginine translocation motifs, and a homologue to dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase had a Sec (secretory) motif; these motifs usually target thylakoid-like structures. PMID:18331355

Stensballe, Allan; Hald, Simon; Bauw, Guy; Blennow, Andreas; Welinder, Karen G

2008-04-01

408

bar K Nuclear Interactions and Dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

KN - ? ? dynamics and its realization through the ?(1405) resonance are introduced, highlighting recent theoretical studies of K-pp quasibound states. The role of bar K mesons in nuclei and in multistrange hadronic matter is discussed within RMF calculations.

Gal, Avraham

409

Theory of twisted nonuniformly heated bars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nonlineary distributed stresses in twisted nonuniformly heated bars of arbitrary cross section are calculated taking into account various elasticity parameters. The approximate theory is shown to be sufficiently general and accurate by comparison with experimental data.

Shorr, B. F.

1980-01-01

410

Split-Hopkinson Pressure Bar Tests.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes work conducted on the split-Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB). The SHPB was modified to permit both tensile and compressive testing on cementitious materials. Direct tension tests were performed on concrete by cementing the specimen to ...

C. A. Ross

1989-01-01

411

HOW DIFFERENT ARE NORMAL AND BARRED SPIRALS?  

SciTech Connect

No significant color differences are found between normal and barred spirals over the range of Hubble stages a-ab-b-bc. Furthermore, no significant difference is seen between the luminosity distributions of normal and barred galaxies over the same range of Hubble stages. However, SBc galaxies are found to be systematically fainter than Sc galaxies at 99% confidence. The observation that normal and barred spirals with Hubble stages a-ab-b-bc have indistinguishable intrinsic colors hints at the possibility that the bars in such spiral galaxies might be ephemeral structures. Finally, it is pointed out that lenticular galaxies of types S0 and SB0 are systematically fainter than are other early-type galaxies, suggesting that such galaxies are situated on evolutionary tracks that differ systematically from those of galaxies that lie along the E-Sa-Sb-Sc and E-SBa-SBb-SBc sequences.

Van den Bergh, Sidney, E-mail: sidney.vandenbergh@nrc.gc.ca [Dominion Astrophysical Observatory, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada)

2011-06-15

412

BAR Domains as Sensors of Membrane Curvature: The Amphiphysin BAR Structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The BAR (Bin/amphiphysin/Rvs) domain is the most conserved feature in amphiphysins from yeast to human and is also found in endophilins and nadrins. We solved the structure of the Drosophila amphiphysin BAR domain. It is a crescent-shaped dimer that binds preferentially to highly curved negatively charged membranes. With its N-terminal amphipathic helix and BAR domain (N-BAR), amphiphysin can drive membrane curvature in vitro and in vivo. The structure is similar to that of arfaptin2, which we find also binds and tubulates membranes. From this, we predict that BAR domains are in many protein families, including sorting nexins, centaurins, and oligophrenins. The universal and minimal BAR domain is a dimerization, membrane-binding, and curvature-sensing module.

Peter, Brian J.; Kent, Helen M.; Mills, Ian G.; Vallis, Yvonne; Butler, P. Jonathan G.; Evans, Philip R.; McMahon, Harvey T.

2004-01-01

413

Squeezed potato orbits in a magnetic well  

SciTech Connect

It is shown that potato orbits in the near-axis region of a high beta tokamak are squeezed in a magnetic well. The squeezing factor is the same as that for the banana orbits derived in an earlier work [Phys. Plasmas 3, 2843 (1996)]. It depends on the energy of the particle. For high-energy particles, the size of the squeezed orbits is independent of their energy. This implies improved confinement for high-energy particles and for high beta tokamaks with advanced fuels.

Shaing, K. C.

2001-09-01

414

Cultural systems for growing potatoes in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Higher plants are being evaluated for life support to provide needed food, oxygen and water as well as removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The successful utilization of plants in space will require the development of not only highly productive growing systems but also highly efficient bioregenerative systems. It will be necessary to recycle all inedible plant parts and all human wastes so that the entire complement of elemental compounds can be reused. Potatoes have been proposed as one of the desirable crops because they are 1) extremely productive, yielding more than 100 metric tons per hectare from field plantings, 2) the edible tubers are high in digestible starch (70%) and protein (10%) on a dry weight basis, 3) up to 80% of the total plant production is in tubers and thus edible, 4) the plants are easily propagated either from tubers or from tissue culture plantlets, 5) the tubers can be utilized with a minimum of processing, and 6) potatoes can be prepared in a variety of different forms for the human diet (Tibbitts et al., 1982). However potatoes have a growth pattern that complicates the development of growing the plants in controlled systems. Tubers are borne on underground stems that are botanically termed 'rhizomes', but in common usage termed 'stolons'. The stolons must be maintained in a dark, moist area with sufficient provision for enlargement of tubers. Stems rapidly terminate in flowers forcing extensive branching and spreading of plants so that individual plants will cover 0.2 m2 or more area. Thus the growing system must be developed to provide an area that is darkened for tuber and root growth and of sufficient size for plant spread. A system developed for growing potatoes, or any plants, in space will have certain requirements that must be met to make them a useful part of a life support system. The system must 1) be constructed of materials, and involve media, that can be reused for many successive cycles of plant growth, 2) involve a minimum quantity of media, 3) contain media that is essentially inert and not oxidize or degrade with use, 4) utilize a recirculating nutrient solution to permit regulation of pH and nutrient concentrations, and 5) be capable of complete automation of all planting, maintenance and harvesting procedures.

Tibbitts, T.; Bula, R.; Corey, R.; Morrow, R.

1988-01-01

415

Cultural systems for growing potatoes in space.  

PubMed

Higher plants are being evaluated for life support to provide needed food, oxygen and water as well as removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The successful utilization of plants in space will require the development of not only highly productive growing systems but also highly efficient bioregenerative systems. It will be necessary to recycle all inedible plant parts and all human wastes so that the entire complement of elemental compounds can be reused. Potatoes have been proposed as one of the desirable crops because they are 1) extremely productive, yielding more than 100 metric tons per hectare from field plantings, 2) the edible tubers are high in digestible starch (70%) and protein (10%) on a dry weight basis, 3) up to 80% of the total plant production is in tubers and thus edible, 4) the plants are easily propagated either from tubers or from tissue culture plantlets, 5) the tubers can be utilized with a minimum of processing, and 6) potatoes can be prepared in a variety of different forms for the human diet (Tibbitts et al., 1982). However potatoes have a growth pattern that complicates the development of growing the plants in controlled systems. Tubers are borne on underground stems that are botanically termed 'rhizomes', but in common usage termed 'stolons'. The stolons must be maintained in a dark, moist area with sufficient provision for enlargement of tubers. Stems rapidly terminate in flowers forcing extensive branching and spreading of plants so that individual plants will cover 0.2 m2 or more area. Thus the growing system must be developed to provide an area that is darkened for tuber and root growth and of sufficient size for plant spread. A system developed for growing potatoes, or any plants, in space will have certain requirements that must be met to make them a useful part of a life support system. The system must 1) be constructed of materials, and involve media, that can be reused for many successive cycles of plant growth, 2) involve a minimum quantity of media, 3) contain media that is essentially inert and not oxidize or degrade with use, 4) utilize a recirculating nutrient solution to permit regulation of pH and nutrient concentrations, and 5) be capable of complete automation of all planting, maintenance and harvesting procedures. PMID:11539774

Tibbitts, T; Bula, R; Corey, R; Morrow, R

1988-01-01

416

Sprouting of potatoes inhibited by plant hormones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Sprouting of potatoes stored above 21° C. (70°C F.) has been prevented for some time by treatments with the plant hormone,\\u000a methyl ester of alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid.\\u000a \\u000a The amount was about 0.9 gms. (3\\/100 oz.) per bushel.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a This chemical was the best of several tried.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a It could be used in various ways, but among those employed the applications with dust and

J. E. TI-XOMAS; A. J. Riker

1945-01-01

417

Potato Seed Requirements for Southern Growers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusion  As a means of improving the various sources of certified Bliss Triumph seed potatoes quite generally used in the general Southern\\u000a states, I would suggest:\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1. \\u000a \\u000a The testing of the strains, being recommended by the various certification authorities for certification in their home states,\\u000a at some central point in the South, by a disinterested party, such as the Federal Substation

J. W. Weston

1932-01-01

418

A Review of Stir Bar Sorptive Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) is an extraction technique for enrichment of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds\\u000a from aqueous and gaseous media. After exposure to a sample, the stir bar, which is covered in a layer of a polysiloxane is\\u000a subsequently removed and the sorbed compounds are then either thermally desorbed, and analysed by GC-MS or desorbed by means\\u000a of

Fuensanta Sánchez-Rojas; Catalina Bosch-Ojeda; José Manuel Cano-Pavón

2009-01-01

419

MY NASA DATA: Reading Bar Graphs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity engages students in reading a bar graph using authentic NASA data. Students will identify major parts of bar graphs and make a generalization based their interpretation of the graphed data. The lesson provides detailed procedures, related links and sample graphs, follow-up questions, extensions, and teacher notes. Designed for student use, MY NASA DATA LAS samples micro datasets from large scientific data archives, and provides structured investigations engaging students in exploration of real data to answer real world questions.

420

Liver targeting effect of vinegar-baked Radix Bupleuri on rhein in rats.  

PubMed

Vinegar-baked Radix Bupleuri (VBRB) is usually used to focus other drugs effect on liver in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). However, no sufficient scientific data are available to support this concept. In this paper, the liver targeting enhancing effect of VBRB on rhein was investigated. 432 of rats were divided into two large groups according to the dose of rhein, low dose group of rhein (LDGR) and high dose group of rhein (HDGR). In each group, the rats were further divided into four subgroups, rhein control and rhein co-administered with three different doses of VBRB peroral. Concentrations of rhein and its metabolite in different tissues were determined by HPLC. Compared to the control group, VBRB significantly increased the distribution of both rhein and its metabolite in liver and meanwhile decreased their distribution in other tissues, indicating a strong liver targeting enhancing effect. This liver targeting effect of VBRB depended on the dose of VBRB and rhein. Low and high dose of VBRB had a more strong effect than medium dose in HDGR; high dose of rhein was more sensitive than low dose of rhein (P<0.05). Rhein existed in two forms after peroral administration in vivo. It was found that the liver targeting effect of VBRB was more remarkable with the native form of rhein compared to its derivative form. The results of this paper demonstrated that co-administration with VBRB is a simple and efficiencient method for liver targeting therapy, and the meridine guide theory of TCM was credible. PMID:20728515

Zhao, Rui Zhi; Yuan, Dong; Liu, Shao Jun; Chen, You Jun; Liu, Li Juan; Zhao, Ying

2010-11-11

421

Physical and hydraulic properties of baked ceramic aggregates used for plant growth medium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Baked ceramic aggregates (fritted clay, arcillite) have been used for plant research both on the ground and in microgravity. Optimal control of water and air within the root zone in any gravity environment depends on physical and hydraulic properties of the aggregate, which were evaluated for 0.25-1-mm and 1-2-mm particle size distributions. The maximum bulk densities obtained by any packing technique were 0.68 and 0.64 g cm-3 for 0.25-1-mm and 1-2-mm particles, respectively. Wettable porosity obtained by infiltration with water was approximately 65%, substantially lower than total porosity of approximately 74%. Aggregate of both particle sizes exhibited a bimodal pore size distribution consisting of inter-aggregate macropores and intra-aggregate micropores, with the transition from macro- to microporosity beginning at volumetric water content of approximately 36% to 39%. For inter-aggregate water contents that support optimal plant growth there is 45% change in water content that occurs over a relatively small matric suction range of 0-20 cm H2O for 0.25-1-mm and 0 to -10 cm H2O for 1-2-mm aggregate. Hysteresis is substantial between draining and wetting aggregate, which results in as much as a approximately 10% to 20% difference in volumetric water content for a given matric potential. Hydraulic conductivity was approximately an order of magnitude higher for 1-2-mm than for 0.25-1-mm aggregate until significant drainage of the inter-aggregate pore space occurred. The large change in water content for a relatively small change in matric potential suggests that significant differences in water retention may be observed in microgravity as compared to earth.

Steinberg, Susan L.; Kluitenberg, Gerard J.; Jones, Scott B.; Daidzic, Nihad E.; Reddi, Lakshmi N.; Xiao, Ming; Tuller, Markus; Newman, Rebecca M.; Or, Dani; Alexander, J. Iwan. D.

2005-01-01

422

A study of the toxic hazard that might be associated with the consumption of green potato tops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eating green potatoes has reportedly led to poisoning attributed to potato glycoalkaloids (PGA), primarily ?-solanine and ?-chaconine. Concentrations of PGA increase during the greening of potatoes but are reportedly much higher in potato tops (leaves). As it is known that members of the UK Bangladeshi community consume potato tops, a study of the toxic hazard that may be associated with

B. J. Phillips; J. A. Hughes; J. C. Phillips; D. G. Walters; D. Anderson; C. S. M. Tahourdin

1996-01-01

423

Response of transgenic potato seedlings to allelopathic pressure and the effect of nutrients in the culture medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chinese farmers frequently use a wheat–potato cropping system. The land area planted to transgenic potatoes is increasing because transgenic potatoes have greater resistance to pests and diseases. However, little is known about the bio-compatibility of transgenic potatoes with wheat straw. The objective of this tissue culture study was to determine the allelopathic effects of wheat straw on transgenic potato seedlings.

Sheng-Peng Zuo; Xiu-Wei Li; Yong-Qing Ma

2010-01-01

424

Hydrodynamical Simulations of the Barred Galaxy NGC 4314: Gas Orbits in the Bar Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the results of a numerical simulation of the barred galaxy NGC 4314. We start with a gaseous isothermal, non-self gravitating disk, initially in rotational equilibrium, which is perturbed by the gravitational potential of the bar estimated in Quillen, Frogel & González (1994) using near-infrared observations. We then calculate the gas orbits in the region of the bar and compare them with stellar orbits obtained by Patsis (2006).

Ramos-Martínez, M.; Gómez, G. C.

2014-03-01

425

Using Bars as Signposts of Galaxy Evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies of galaxy morphology with the Hubble Deep Fields have indicated a dramatic paucity of bars beyond a redshift > 0.5. This result is unexpected because the classical bar formation mechanism would predict that bars ought to be more common at higher redshifts because of dynamically colder galaxy disks and increased interactions. If the scarcity of bars is true, then serious constraints may be placed on the evolutionary stage of galactic disks. On the other hand, it is possible that the observations are misleading due to band-shifting and dust obscuration effects. While these criticisms have been suggested qualitatively, a quantitative analysis of the evolution of the bar fraction with redshift is missing. We propose to do such an analysis using the best dataset available for this type of a study, the NICMOS map of the Hubble Deep Field. For a control sample we will use a sample of spirals representative of the nearby Universe and simulate their appearance at different redshifts. From these simulated data, we will measure the bar fraction for comparison to our analysis of the NICMOS data.

Sheth, Kartik

2002-07-01

426

Using Bars as Signposts of Galaxy Evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies of galaxy morphology with the Hubble Deep Fields have indicated a dramatic paucity of bars beyond a redshift > 0.5. This result is unexpected because the classical bar formation mechanism would predict that bars ought to be more common at higher redshifts because of dynamically colder galaxy disks and increased interactions. If the scarcity of bars is true, then serious constraints may be placed on the evolutionary stage of galactic disks. On the other hand, it is possible that the observations are misleading due to band-shifting and dust obscuration effects. While these criticisms have been suggested qualitatively, a quantitative analysis of the evolution of the bar fraction with redshift has been missing. We present preliminary results from an analysis of the bar fraction as a function of redshift using the NICMOS Deep Field, the best dataset available for such a quantitative study. For a control sample we use a sample of spirals representative of the nearby Universe and simulate their appearance at different redshifts using an IDL code developed by Strubbe et al. (discussed in poster session). This work is partially supported by grant HST-AR-09552.01-A through a grant from the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Incorporated, under NASA contract NAS5-26555, and by NSF grant AST-9981546.

Sheth, K.; Regan, M. W.; Scoville, N. Z.; Strubbe, L. E.

2002-12-01

427

A preliminary measurement of the {bar u}/{bar d} asymmetry in the proton sea  

SciTech Connect

The NuSea (E866) experiment at Fermilab has been using Drell-Yan scattering to study the {bar u}/{bar d} quark content of the proton by comparing of the yield between liquid hydrogen and liquid deuterium targets. A preliminary ratio of Drell-Yan yields, {sigma}{sup pd}/2{sigma}{sup pp} as a function of x is shown. This data confirms the previous indications from the NMC and NA51 experiments that {bar u}{ne}{bar d}. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Wise, D.; Willis, J.L.; Towell, R.S.; Sadler, M.E.; Isenhower, L.D.; Bush, J.D. [Abilene Christian University, ACU Station, Box 7963, Abilene, Texas79699 (United States); Kaufman, S.B.; Makins, N.; Zeidman, B. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S Cass Ave., Argonne, Illinois60439 (United States); Cooper, W.E. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, Illinois60510 (United States); Lee, W.M.; He, X.C. [Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia30303 (United States)] Kaplan, D.M. [Illinois Institute of Technology, Physics Department, Chicago, Illinois60616 (United States); Carey, T.A.; Garvey, G.T.; Lee, D.M.; Leitch, M.J.; McGaughey, P.L.; Moss, J.M.; Park, B.K.; Peng, J.C.; Sondheim, W.E.; Thompson, T.N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P-25, MS-H846, Los Alamos, New Mexico87545 (United States); Wang, Y.C.; Wang, Z.F. [Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana70803 (United States); Selden, J.; Papavassiliou, V.; Kyle, G.; Chang, T.H.; Beddo, M.E. [New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico 88003 (United States); Stankus, P.W.; Awes, T.C. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Physics Division, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, Tennessee37831 (United States); Hawker, E.A.; Tribble, R.E.; Vasiliev, M.A. [Texas A M University, Cyclotron Institute, College Station, Texas77843 (United States); Nord, P.M. [Valparaiso University, Niels Sci. Ctr., Valparaiso, Indiana46383 (United States)

1997-05-01

428

Influence of storage practices on acrylamide formation during potato frying.  

PubMed

A number of parameters linked to storage of potatoes were evaluated with regard to their potential to influence the acrylamide formation in French fries. Acrylamide, which is a potential human carcinogen, is reported to be formed during the frying of potatoes as a result of the reactions between asparagine and reducing sugars. This study was conducted using three potato varieties (Bintje, Ramos, and Saturna) typically used in Belgium, The Netherlands, and the northern part of France for French fry and crisp production. Saturna, mainly used in crisp production, appeared to be the least susceptible for acrylamide formation during frying. Especially storage at low temperatures (4 degrees C) compared to storage at 8 degrees C seemed to enhance acrylamide formation due to a strong increase in reducing sugars caused by low-temperature storage. Because of the reversible nature of this physiological reaction, it was possible to achieve a significant reduction of the reducing sugars after a reconditioning of the cold-stored potatoes for 3 weeks at 15 degrees C. All changes in acrylamide concentrations could mainly be explained by the reducing sugar content of the potato (R2 = 0.84, n = 160). This means that, by ensuring a low reducing sugar content of the potato tuber, the risk for acrylamide formation will largely be reduced. Finally the use of a sprout inhibitor did not influence the composition of the potato, and thus acrylamide formation was not susceptible to this treatment. PMID:16076148

De Wilde, Tineke; De Meulenaer, Bruno; Mestdagh, Frédéric; Govaert, Yasmine; Vandeburie, Stephan; Ooghe, Wilfried; Fraselle, Stéphanie; Demeulemeester, Kürt; Van Peteghem, Carlos; Calus, André; Degroodt, Jean-Marie; Verhé, Roland

2005-08-10

429

Can weed hosts increase aggressiveness of Phytophthora infestans on potato?  

PubMed

Potato late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans, is a major disease in potato production throughout the world. In southern Sweden, hairy nightshade (Solanum physalifolium), an alternative non-crop host to the pathogen, is an increasing weed problem. Single-lesion leaves infected by P. infestans were collected from potato and hairy nightshade to determine phenotypic and genotypic population differentiation of P. infestans between the two hosts. Genotypic variation was estimated using microsatellites as markers. The results showed no genotypic differentiation in the samples between the two hosts. Aggressiveness tests were performed using the sampled isolates to cross-inoculate potato and hairy nightshade. The proportion of infected leaves, latency period, lesion growth rate, and sporulation capacity were measured. For isolates from hairy nightshade, the odds of infection were higher on both hosts combined. When tested on potato leaves, isolates from hairy nightshade showed a significantly shorter latency period and higher sporulation capacity compared with isolates from potato. This indicates that an alternative host can filter populations of P. infestans toward a higher aggressiveness, which could lead to increasing problems in controlling potato late blight. PMID:22185335

Grönberg, L; Andersson, B; Yuen, J

2012-04-01

430

The impact of in vitro digestion on bioaccessibility of polyphenols from potatoes and sweet potatoes and their influence on iron absorption by human intestinal cells.  

PubMed

The composition of potatoes as determined by chemical extraction has been described extensively. It is thus quite well known that, among other compounds, potato is rich in polyphenols, vitamins and in some minerals. This paper underlines the important role of simulated gastro-intestinal in vitro digestion in the bioaccessibility of polyphenols (chlorogenic acid and derivatives, and rutin) from potatoes and sweet potatoes and their impact on iron uptake. Concentrations of polyphenols in the flesh of two potato cultivars (Nicola, white potato, and Vitelotte, purple potato) and sweet potato were measured by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography after boiling and after in vitro digestion. Chemical extraction underestimates polyphenol amounts that can be released during digestion and that are actually bioaccessible. Iron uptake, as evaluated by a ferritin assay, by intestinal human cells was decreased after incubation with the intestinal phase of in vitro digestion, presumably due to the presence of polyphenols. PMID:24056541

Miranda, Lisa; Deußer, Hannah; Evers, Danièle

2013-11-01

431

Role of Erosion in Shaping Point Bars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A powerful metaphor in fluvial geomorphology has been that depositional features such as point bars (and other floodplain features) constitute the river's historical memory in the form of uniformly thick sedimentary deposits waiting for the geomorphologist to dissect and interpret the past. For the past three decades, along the channel of Powder River (Montana USA) we have documented (with annual cross-sectional surveys and pit trenches) the evolution of the shape of three point bars that were created when an extreme flood in 1978 cut new channels across the necks of two former meander bends and radically shifted the location of a third bend. Subsequent erosion has substantially reshaped, at different time scales, the relic sediment deposits of varying age. At the weekly to monthly time scale (i.e., floods from snowmelt or floods from convective or cyclonic storms), the maximum scour depth was computed (by using a numerical model) at locations spaced 1 m apart across the entire point bar for a couple of the largest floods. The maximum predicted scour is about 0.22 m. At the annual time scale, repeated cross-section topographic surveys (25 during 32 years) indicate that net annual erosion at a single location can be as great as 0.5 m, and that the net erosion is greater than net deposition during 8, 16, and 32% of the years for the three point bars. On average, the median annual net erosion was 21, 36, and 51% of the net deposition. At the decadal time scale, an index of point bar preservation often referred to as completeness was defined for each cross section as the percentage of the initial deposit (older than 10 years) that was still remaining in 2011; computations indicate that 19, 41, and 36% of the initial deposits of sediment were eroded. Initial deposits were not uniform in thickness and often represented thicker pods of sediment connected by thin layers of sediment or even isolated pods at different elevations across the point bar in response to multiple floods during a water year. Erosion often was preferential and removed part or all of pods at lower elevations, and in time left what appears to be a random arrangement of sediment pods forming the point bar. Thus, we conclude that the erosional process is as important as the deposition process in shaping the final form of the point bar, and that point bars are not uniformly aggradational or transgressive deposits of sediment in which the age of the deposit increases monotonically downward at all locations across the point bar.

Moody, J.; Meade, R.

2012-04-01

432

Involvement of Ethylene in Potato Microtuber Dormancy  

PubMed Central

Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) single-node explants undergoing in vitro tuberization produced detectable amounts of ethylene throughout tuber development, and the resulting microtubers were completely dormant (endodormant) for at least 12 to 15 weeks. The rate of ethylene production by tuberizing explants was highest during the initial 2 weeks of in vitro culture and declined thereafter. Continuous exposure of developing microtubers to the noncompetitive ethylene antagonist AgNO3 via the culture medium resulted in a dose-dependent increase in precocious sprouting. The effect of AgNO3 on the premature loss of microtuber endodormancy was observed after 3 weeks of culture. Similarly, continuous exposure of developing microtubers to the competitive ethylene antagonist 2,5-norbornadiene (NBD) at concentrations of 2 mL/L (gas phase) or greater also resulted in a dose-dependent increase in premature sprouting. Exogenous ethylene reversed this response and inhibited the precocious sprouting of NBD-treated microtubers. NBD treatment was effective only when it was begun within 7 d of the start of in vitro explant culture. These results indicate that endogenous ethylene is essential for the full expression of potato microtuber endodormancy, and that its involvement may be restricted to the initial period of endodormancy development.

Suttle, Jeffrey C.

1998-01-01

433

Wound Healing in Potato Tuber Tissue  

PubMed Central

Several aspects of wound healing in tuber tissue of potato (Solanum tuberosum var. Kennebec), known to require protein synthesis, are inhibited by 2,4-dichlorobenzyltributylphosphonium chloride (Phosphon D). Cell division was completely blocked by 60 ?m Phosphon and markedly reduced by concentrations as low as 3 ?m. When applied at the time of wounding, 0.25mm Phosphon completely prevented the wound-induced respiratory increase. Application at 15 hours after wounding arrested respiration at the rate present at that time. The same concentrations of Phosphon inhibited auxin-induced cell expansion of the tissue, protein synthesis as measured by the incorporation of leucine-14C into the trichloroacetic acid-insoluble fraction of tissue disks, and the appearance of wound-induced peroxidase isozymes. None of these inhibitory effects of Phosphon could be prevented or reversed by the application of gibberellic acid. All wound-induced processes inhibited by Phosphon are also inhibited by cycloheximide. It is suggested that inhibitory effects of Phosphon on wound healing in potato and on other developmental processes in excised plant tissues which cannot be reversed by gibberellin are due to interference with protein synthesis.

Borchert, R.; McChesney, J. D.; Watson, D.

1974-01-01

434

Analysis of Iranian Potato virus S isolates.  

PubMed

Two hundred forty potato samples with one or more symptoms of leaf mosaic, distortion, mottling and yellowing were collected between 2005 and 2008 from seven Iranian provinces. Forty-four of these samples tested positive with double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (DAS-ELISA) using a Potato virus S (PVS) polyclonal antibody. Of these 12 isolates of PVS were selected based on the geographical location for biological and molecular characterization. The full coat protein (CP) and 11K genes from 12 PVS isolates were PCR amplified, cloned and sequenced. All 12 PVS isolates showed mosaic symptoms on Nicotiana debneyii and N. tabacum cv. Whiteburly and local lesion on Chenopodium amaranticolor, C. quinoa and C. album. The Iranian isolates share between 93 and 100% pairwise nucleotide identity with other PVS(O) isolates. Based on maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis coupled with pairwise identity analysis, we propose 15 genotypes for the PVS(O) strain and 3 genotypes for the PVS(A) strain. PMID:21567245

Salari, Khadijeh; Massumi, Hossein; Heydarnejad, Jahangir; Hosseini Pour, Akbar; Varsani, Arvind

2011-10-01

435

Noise exposures during potato processing and manufacture of animal feed.  

PubMed

A noise exposure survey was conducted at an agricultural facility to evaluate noise exposures during potato processing and during the manufacture of alfalfa pellets. Of the 19 employees monitored, five reached or exceeded the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health recommended exposure limit for occupational noise. Four of these employees were from the potato processing area, and one was from the alfalfa pellet-mill operation. Two of the five (bagger and pellet-mill operator) also exceeded the Occupational Safety and Health Administration action level. The facility has a well-managed hearing conservation program for employees in the potato processing area, but not in the alfalfa manufacturing area. PMID:18075013

Achutan, C; Tubbs, R L

2007-11-01

436

Kinematic Analysis of the Double-Barred Galaxy NGC 357  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a kinematic analysis of the double-barred early-type galaxy NGC 357. The radial velocity and velocity dispersion profiles along both the nuclear bar axis and the semi-major axis clearly reveal the presence of the two bars. The results indicate that the bulge is pressure supported whereas the |vr|/? ratio shows a plateau along the nuclear bar.

de Lorenzo-Cáceres, A.; Vazdekis, A.; Aguerri, J. A. L.

2008-06-01

437

Cultural Factors Related to Smoking in San Francisco's Irish Bars  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

California's Smoke-Free Workplace Act was extended to include bars in 1998. While the majority of bars in the state have become smoke free, in many bars patrons and staff continue to smoke despite the law. The authors present findings from a study which assessed cultural factors related to continued smoking in bars in the city of San Francisco. In…

Satterlund, Travis D.; Antin, Tamar M. J.; Lee, Juliet P.; Moore, Roland S.

2009-01-01

438

Further Results on Bar k-Visibility Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bar visibility representation of a graph G is a collection of horizontal bars in the plane corresponding to the vertices of G such that two vertices are adjacent if and only if the corresponding bars can be joined by an unobstructed vertical line segment. In a bar k-visibility graph, two vertices are adjacent if and only if the corresponding

Stephen G. Hartke; Jennifer Vandenbussche; Paul Wenger

2007-01-01

439

Effects of milling and baking technologies on levels of deoxynivalenol and its masked form deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside.  

PubMed

The co-occurrence of the major Fusarium mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) and its conjugate deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (DON-3-Glc) has been documented in infected wheat. This study reports on the fate of this masked DON within milling and baking technologies for the first time and compares its levels with those of the free parent toxin. The fractionation of DON-3-Glc and DON in milling fractions was similar, tested white flours contained only approximately 60% of their content in unprocessed wheat grains. No substantial changes of both target analytes occurred during the dough preparation process, i.e. kneading, fermentation, and proofing. However, when bakery improvers enzymes mixtures were employed as a dough ingredient, a distinct increase up to 145% of conjugated DON-3-Glc occurred in fermented dough. Some decrease of both DON-3-Glc and DON (10 and 13%, respectively, compared to fermented dough) took place during baking. Thermal degradation products of DON, namely norDON A, B, C, D, and DON-lactone were detected in roasted wheat samples and baked bread samples by means of UPLC-Orbitrap MS. Moreover, thermal degradation products derived from DON-3-Glc were detected and tentatively identified in heat-treated contaminated wheat and bread based on accurate mass measurement performed under the ultrahigh mass resolving power. These products, originating from DON-3-Glc through de-epoxidation and other structural changes in the seskviterpene cycle, were named norDON-3-Glc A, B, C, D, and DON-3-Glc-lactone analogically to DON degradation products. Most of these compounds were located in the crust of experimental breads. PMID:21797213

Kostelanska, Marta; Dzuman, Zbynek; Malachova, Alexandra; Capouchova, Ivana; Prokinova, Evzenie; Skerikova, Alena; Hajslova, Jana

2011-09-14

440

Social Organization in Bars: Implications for Tobacco Control Policy  

PubMed Central

This paper considers social roles and relationships of the patrons, staff and owners of bars as critical factors determining adherence to public health policies, and specifically California’s smokefree workplace law. Specific elements of social organization in bars affecting health policy include the community within which the bar is set, the unique identity the bar creates, the bar staff and patrons who enact this identity, and their bar society. These elements were found to contribute to the development of power relations within the bar and solidarity against the outside world, resulting in either resistance to or compliance with smokefree workplace policy.

Lee, Juliet P.; Antin, Tamar M.J.; Moore, Roland S.

2011-01-01

441

Short communication The potential of the fungus, Muscodor albus, as a microbial control agent of potato tuber moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in stored potatoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potato tuber moth (PTM), Phthorimaea operculella, is a serious pest of stored potato in most countries where potatoes are grown. Entomopathogens oVer promise as alternatives to broad spectrum insecticides for management of this pest. The fungus Muscodor albus, which produces a mixture of antimicrobial volatile organic chemicals, was tested for its insecticidal activity against PTM. Adults and neo- nate larvae

Lawrence A. Lacey; Lisa G. Neven

442

Construction of two BAC libraries from the wild Mexican diploid potato, Solanum pinnatisectum, and the identification of clones near the late blight and Colorado potato beetle resistance loci  

Microsoft Academic Search

To facilitate isolation and characterization of disease and insect resistance genes important to potato, two bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries were constructed from genomic DNA of the Mexican wild diploid species, Solanum pinnatisectum, which carries high levels of resistance to the most important potato pathogen and pest, the late blight and the Colorado potato beetle (CPB). One of the libraries

Q. Chen; S. Sun; Q. Ye; S. McCuine; E. Huff; H.-B. Zhang

2004-01-01

443

Rhizosphere Communities of Genetically Modified Zeaxanthin-Accumulating Potato Plants and Their Parent Cultivar Differ Less than Those of Different Potato Cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Received 19 February 2009\\/Accepted 10 April 2009 The effects of genetically modified (GM), zeaxanthin-accumulating potato plants on microbial communities in the rhizosphere were compared to the effects of different potato cultivars. Two GM lines and their parental cultivar, as well as four other potato cultivars, were grown in randomized field plots at two sites and in different years. Rhizosphere samples

Nicole Weinert; Remo Meincke; Christine Gottwald; Holger Heuer; Newton C. M. Gomes; Michael Schloter; Gabriele Berg; Kornelia Smalla

2009-01-01

444

Characterization of Potato rough dwarf virus and Potato virus P: distinct strains of the same viral species in the genus Carlavirus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an attempt to resolve whether two putative carlaviruses, potato rough dwarf virus (PRDV) and potato virus P (PVP), reported infecting potato in Argentina and Brazil, respectively, are the same virus in the genus Carlavirus , they were characterized using nucleotide sequence analysis, serology and bioassay. For PRDV and PVP, sequences of 2016 and 1492 bp, respectively, were obtained. Similarity

C. Nisbet; I. Butzonitch; M. Colavita; J. Daniels; J. Martin; R. Burns; E. George; M. A. Y. Akhond; V. Mulholland; C. J. Jeffries

2006-01-01

445

Effect of Pheromone Trap Density on Mass Trapping of Male Potato Tuber Moth Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), and Level of Damage on Potato Tubers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potato tuber moth (PTM), Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller), is one of the pests that cause the most damage to potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) in both field crops and storage, especially in regions where summers are hot and dry. Larvae develop in the foliage and tubers of potatoes and cause direct losses of edible product. The use of synthetic pheromones that interfere

Michel Guillon; Julio Kalazich; Fernando Graña; Claudia Vásquez

2009-01-01

446

Effect of low-temperature baking on the radio-frequency properties of niobium superconducting cavities for particle accelerators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio-frequency superconducting (SRF) cavities are widely used to accelerate a charged particle beam in particle accelerators. The performance of SRF cavities made of bulk niobium has significantly improved over the last ten years and is approaching the theoretical limit for niobium. Nevertheless, RF tests of niobium cavities are still showing some ``anomalous'' losses that require a better understanding in order to reliably obtain better performance. These losses are characterized by a marked dependence of the surface resistance on the surface electromagnetic field and can be detected by measuring the quality factor of the resonator as a function of the peak surface field. A low-temperature (100-150 °C) ``in situ'' bake under ultrahigh vacuum has been successfully applied as final preparation of niobium RF cavities by several laboratories over the last few years. The benefits reported consist mainly of an improvement of the cavity quality factor at low field and a recovery from ``anomalous'' losses (so-called ``Q drop'') without field emission at higher field. A series of experiments with a CEBAF single-cell cavity have been carried out at Jefferson Lab to carefully investigate the effect of baking at progressively higher temperatures for a fixed time on all the relevant material parameters. Measurements of the cavity quality factor in the temperature range 1.37-280 K and resonant frequency shift between 6-9.3 K provide information about the surface resistance, energy gap, penetration depth, and mean free path. The experimental data have been analyzed with the complete BCS theory of superconductivity. The hydrogen content of small niobium samples inserted in the cavity during its surface preparation was analyzed with nuclear reaction analysis. The single-cell cavity has been tested at three different temperatures before and after baking to gain some insight on thermal conductivity and Kapitza resistance and the data are compared with different models. This paper describes the results of these experiments and comments on existing models to explain the effect of baking on the performance of niobium RF cavities.

Ciovati, Gianluigi

2004-08-01

447

Content of polyphenols in coloured and yellow fleshed potatoes during dices processing.  

PubMed

The purpose of the research was to examine the effect of the laboratory production of dried potato dice on the content of phenolic compounds in one yellow-fleshed potato variety and four blue-fleshed potatoes varieties. Coloured-flesh potato varieties were characterised by about three times higher amount of total phenolic content than traditional yellow-fleshed ones. The predominating phenolic acids in potato were chlorogenic acid and its isomers, which account about 90% of total phenolic content in tubers. The phenolic acid content decreased by 80% after peeling the blue-fleshed potatoes and by 60% after peeling the yellow variety. The dried potato dice obtained from yellow-fleshed potatoes had no content of phenolic acids but produced from colour-fleshed potatoes contained about 4% of the original phenolic content of the raw material. Chlorogenic acid amounted about 97% of total phenolic acid content, and the rest was neochlorogenic acid. PMID:24837944

Rytel, E; Tajner-Czopek, A; Kita, A; Anio?owska, M; Kucharska, A Z; Sokó?-??towska, A; Hamouz, K

2014-10-15

448

Effects of gamma Radiation on the Sweet Potato Weevil, Cylas Formicarius Elegantulus (Summers). Progress Report, June 1984-August 1984.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The following tests are reported: with eggs, with larvae in sweet potato roots, with larvae in sweet potato slices, with pupae in sweet potato roots, with adults, and sterility studies. Data are presented. (ERA citation 10:001256)

M. A. Dawes

1984-01-01

449

Effects of gamma radiation on the sweet potato weevil, Cylas formicarius elegantulus (Summers). Progress report, June 1984-August 1984  

SciTech Connect

The following tests are reported: with eggs, with larvae in sweet potato roots, with larvae in sweet potato slices, with pupae in sweet potato roots, with adults, and sterility studies. Data are presented. (MHR)

Dawes, M.A.

1984-01-01

450

bar H and bar H+ production cross sections for the GBAR experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The production and cooling of the bar H+ ion is the key point of the GBAR experiment (Gravitational Behaviour of Antihydrogen at Rest), which aims at performing the free fall of antihydrogen atoms to measure bar g, the acceleration of antimatter on Earth. bar H+ ions will be obtained from collisions between a positronium cloud and antiprotons delivered by the AD/ELENA facility at CERN, with intermediate formation of antihydrogen atoms. In order to optimise the experimental production of bar H+ ions, we computed the total cross sections of the two corresponding reactions, within the same theoretical framework of the Continuum Distorted Wave - Final State (CDW-FS) model. The different contributions of the bar H excited states have been systematically investigated for different states of Ps. The results exhibit an increase of the bar H production toward low kinetic energies, in agreement with experimental data and previous calculations, whereas the largest bar H+ production is obtained with low energy ground-state antihydrogen atoms. These theoretical predictions suggest that the overall production of bar H+ could be optimal for 2 keV antiproton impact energy, using positronium atoms prepared in the 2p state.

Comini, P.; Hervieux, P.-A.

2013-06-01

451

Measurement of B0bar -> D(*)0 K(*)0bar BranchingFractions  

SciTech Connect

The authors present a study of the decays {bar B}{sup 0} {yields} D{sup (*)0}{bar K}{sup (*)0} using a sample of 226 million {Upsilon}(4S) {yields} B{bar B} decays collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider at SLAC. They report evidence for the decay of B{sup 0} and {bar B}{sup 0} mesons to the D*{sup 0}K{sub S}{sup 0} final state with an average branching fraction {Beta}({bar B}{sup 0} {yields} D*{sup 0} {bar K}{sup 0}) {triple_bond} {Beta}({bar B}{sup 0} {yields} D*{sup 0} {bar K}{sup 0}) + {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} D*{sup 0}K{sup 0})/2 = (3.6 {+-} 1.2 {+-} 0.3) x 10{sup -5}.

Aubert, B.

2006-04-10

452

Potato leafroll virus distribution in potato meristem tips and production of virus-free plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Uridine-H3 was incorporated into meristem tips of both healthy and PLRV-infected potato plants, of the cultivars, Majestic and Primura.\\u000a Autoradiograms of tips pretreated with actinomycin D showed that 13 of 14 and 11 of 14 respectively, were virus free in the\\u000a dome and first 4 leaf primordia, 1 and 3 were infected in the 4th leaf primordium, and 1 of

G. Faccioli; C. Rubies-Autonell; R. Resca

1988-01-01

453

Increasing the efficiency of agronomy experiments in potato using INFOCROP-POTATO model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  This paper reports adaptations of a generic crop model IN FOCROP for potato and its application in increasing the efficiency\\u000a of agronomic experiments in tropical environments. A dataset of 13 experiments consisting of 153 treatments was assembled\\u000a from an extensive literature search. These experiments were conducted over the period 1976-1999 in diverse Indian locations\\u000a from 31 °N 75 ° E

J. P. Singh; P. M. Govindakrishnan; S. S. Lal; P. K. Aggarwal

2005-01-01

454

Bar code usage in nuclear materials accountability  

SciTech Connect

The age old method of physically taking an inventory of materials by listing each item's identification number has lived beyond its usefulness. In this age of computerization, which offers the local grocery store a quick, sure, and easy means to inventory, it is time for nuclear materials facilities to automate accountability activities. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant began investigating the use of automated data collection devices in 1979. At that time, bar code and optical-character-recognition (OCR) systems were reviewed with the purpose of directly entering data into DYMCAS (Dynamic Special Nuclear Materials Control and Accountability System). Both of these systems appeared applicable; however, other automated devices already employed for production control made implementing the bar code and OCR seem improbable. However, the DYMCAS was placed on line for nuclear material accountability, a decision was made to consider the bar code for physical inventory listings. For the past several months a development program has been underway to use a bar code device to collect and input data to the DYMCAS on the uranium recovery operations. Programs have been completed and tested, and are being employed to ensure that data will be compatible and useful. Bar code implementation and expansion of its use for all nuclear material inventory activity in Y-12 is presented.

Mee, W.T.

1983-07-01

455

Weighted visibility graphs of bars and related flow problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A layout is a set of vertically oriented non-intersecting line segments in the plane called bars. The visibility graph associated with a layout is defined as a graph whose vertices correspond to the bars, and whose weighted edges represent the visibility between bars. (Two bars [`<\\/font\\u000a>(v)]\\\\bar v\\u000a are visible for t units, if a rectangle of vertical thickness t

David G. Kirkpatrick; Stephen K. Wismath

456

Measuring $\\bar{g}$ with ${\\rm AE\\bar{g}IS}$, progress and perspectives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AE\\bar {gIS} experiment's main goal is to measure the local gravitational acceleration of antihydrogen \\bar g and thus perform a direct test of the weak equivalence principle with antimatter. In the first phase of the experiment the aim is to measure \\bar g with 1% relative precision. This paper presents the antihydrogen production method and a description of some components of the experiment, which are necessary for the gravity measurement. Current status of the AE\\bar {gIS} experimental apparatus is presented and recent commissioning results with antiprotons are outlined. In conclusion we discuss the short-term goals of the AE\\bar {gIS} collaboration that will pave the way for the first gravity measurement in the near future.

Krasnický, D.; Aghion, S.; Ahlén, O.; Amsler, C.; Ariga, A.; Ariga, T.; Belov, A. S.; Berggren, K.; Bonomi, G.; Bräunig, P.; Bremer, J.; Brusa, R. S.; Cabaret, L.; Canali, C.; Caravita, R.; Castelli, F.; Cerchiari, G.; Cialdi, S.; Comparat, D.; Consolati, G.; Derking, H.; di Domizio, S.; di Noto, L.; Doser, M.; Dudarev, A.; Ereditato, A.; Ferragut, R.; Fontana, A.; Genova, P.; Giammarchi, M.; Gligorova, A.; Gninenko, S. N.; Haider, S.; Huse, T.; Jordan, E.; Jørgensen, L. V.; Kaltenbacher, T.; Kawada, J.; Kellerbauer, A.; Kimura, M.; Knecht, A.; Lagomarsino, V.; Lehner, S.; Magnani, A.; Malbrunot, C.; Mariazzi, S.; Matveev, V. A.; Nebbia, G.; Nédélec, P.; Oberthaler, M. K.; Pacifico, N.; Petrá?ek, V.; Pistillo, C.; Prelz, F.; Prevedelli, M.; Regenfus, C.; Riccardi, C.; Røhne, O.; Rotondi, A.; Sandaker, H.; Scampoli, P.; Storey, J.; Subieta Vasquez, M. A.; Špa?ek, M.; Testera, G.; Widmann, E.; Yzombard, P.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zmeskal, J.

2014-05-01

457

[Active crop canopy sensor-based nitrogen diagnosis for potato].  

PubMed

In the present study, two potato experiments involving different N rates in 2011 were conducted in Wuchuan County and Linxi County, Inner Mongolia. Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was collected by an active GreenSeeker crop canopy sensor to estimate N status of potato. The results show that the NDVI readings were poorly correlated with N nutrient indicators of potato at vegetative Growth stage due to the influence of soil background. With the advance of growth stages, NDVI values were exponentially related to plant N uptake (R2 = 0.665) before tuber bulking stage and were linearly related to plant N concentration (R2 = 0.699) when plant fully covered soil. In conclusion, GreenSeeker active crop sensor is a promising tool to estimate N status for potato plants. The findings from this study may be useful for developing N recommendation method based on active crop canopy sensor. PMID:24555388

Yu, Jing; Li, Fei; Qin, Yong-Lin; Fan, Ming-Shou

2013-11-01

458

7 CFR 318.13-25 - Sweet potatoes from Hawaii.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and found to be free of the gray pineapple mealybug (Dysmicoccus neobrevipes ) and the Kona coffee-root knot nematode (Meloidogyne konaensis ). (4)(i) Sweet potatoes that are treated in Hawaii must be packaged in the following manner:...

2010-01-01

459

Alcohol fermentation of sweet potato. Membrane reactor in enzymic hydrolysis  

SciTech Connect

Use of ultrafiltration membrane systems in stirred cell and in thin-channel systems for immobilizing enzyme (sweet potato intrinsic and crystalline beta-amylase) in hydrolysis of sweet potato through a continuous operation mode were studied. Both the filtration rate and reducing sugars, produced as the result of enzymic hydrolysis, decreased with the filtration time. The immobilized enzymes in the thin-channel system showed a much better performance compared to that in the stirred cell system. Addition of crystalline sweet potato beta-amylase to the sweet potato increased both the filtration rate and reducing-sugars content. Alcohol fermentation of the filtrate resulted in an alcohol content of 4.2%. This represented fermentation of 95% of the sugars with an efficiency of 88%.

Azhar, A.; Hamdy, M.K.

1981-01-01

460

Alcohol fermentation of sweet potato. Membrane reactor in enzymatic hydrolysis  

SciTech Connect

Use of ultrafiltration membrane systems in stirred cell and in thin-channel systems for immobilizing enzyme (sweet potato intrinsic and crystalline /beta/-amylase) in hydrolysis of sweet potato through a continuous operation mode were studied. Both the filtration rate and reducing sugars, produced as the result of enzymatic hydrolysis, decreased with the filtration time. THe immobilized enzymes in the thin-channel system showed a much better performance compared to that in the stirred cell system. Addition of crystalline sweet potato /beta/-amylase to the sweet potato increased both the filtration rate and reducing-sugars content. Alcoholic fermentation of the filtrate resulted in an alcohol content of 4.2%. This represented fermentation of 95% of the sugars with an efficiency of 88%. 17 refs.

Azhar, A.; Hamdy, M.K.

1981-06-01

461

Mass and thermal energy balance of potato processing operations  

SciTech Connect

A mass and thermal energy analysis was conducted for a potato peeling operation. Results provide insight into opportunities for process modifications leading to increased recovery of product components and thermal energy.

Chadbourne, D.L.; Heldman, D.R.

1981-01-01

462

Simplot Potato Processing Plant Energy Conservation Study: Appendices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This group of appendices, B--G, of the ''Simplot Potato Processing Plant Energy Conservation Study'', covers processing equipment, refrigeration equipment, water systems, air conditioning systems and lighting systems. Data on these systems related to cost...

1988-01-01

463

Energy conservation study on Simplot potato processing plant, Heyburn, Idaho  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the findings of an energy study done at the Simplot potato processing plant in Heyburn, Idaho. The study includes all electrical energy using systems at the plant but does not address specific modifications to process equipment. The plant receives raw potatoes and produces a mixture of pre-fried and frozen potato products including french fries and pre-formed patties, a dehydrated frozen product, starch, and processes and ships raw potatoes. The plant also contains a box line that makes cardboard cartons for all Simplot plants. The plant contains all necessary equipment and processes to produce a finished product and has long-term cold storage. 13 figs., 16 tabs.

Not Available

1985-03-01

464

Compliant antivibration bar for a steam generator  

SciTech Connect

A steam generator for a nuclear power plant is described comprising a shell, flow tubes having an approximate U-shaped configuration within the shell and arranged in successive columns and rows so as to form an array having a square pattern with spaces therebetween, and compliant antivibration bars fitting between each successive column of tubes and comprising a pair of parallel arranged flexible strips having a space therebetween and supported along the length thereof by spaced ribs. The spacing of the ribs is at least as long as the spacing of four tubes in a single column of tubes, with each successive and parallel antivibration bar being positioned such that its ribs are staggered relative to the position of the ribs of the preceding and parallel antivibration bar.

Lagally, H.O.; Silverblatt, B.L.; Pitterle, T.A.; Singleton, N.R.

1988-01-19

465

Localized vibrational modes in bars and plates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the localized vibrational modes that can exist at the edge of a semi-infinite plate and at the end of a semi-infinite bar of small thickness. It is known that for certain special values of Poisson's ratio ? these modes are perfectly localized, are uncoupled to bulk modes, and thus do not lose energy by acoustic radiation. We show that for other values of ? it is possible to modify the shape of the end of the plate or bar in a way such that a perfectly localized edge mode is formed. Finally, we discuss the effect of this localization phenomenon on the vibrational modes of plates and bars of finite length.

Ma, Jing; Maris, Humphrey J.

2010-05-01

466

Evidence for B+ -> K*0bar K*+  

SciTech Connect

We present measurements of the branching fraction and fraction of longitudinal polarization for the decay B{sup +} {yields} {bar K}*{sup 0} K*{sup +} with a sample of 467 {+-} 5 million B{bar B} pairs collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. We obtain the branching fraction {Beta}(B{sup +} {yields} {bar K}*{sup 0} K*{sup +}) = (1.2 {+-} 0.5 {+-} 0.1) x 10{sup ?6} with a significance of 3.7 standard deviations including systematic uncertainties. We measure the fraction of longitudinal polarization f{sub L} = 0.75{sub -0.26}{sup +0.16} {+-} 0.03. The first error quoted is statistical and the second is systematic.

Aubert, B.; Bona, M.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Prudent, X.; Tisserand, V.; /Annecy, LAPP; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; /Barcelona U., ECM; Lopez, L.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; /INFN, Bari /Bari U.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; /Bergen U.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D.N.; Kerth, L.T.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Lynch, G.; /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UCLA /UC, Riverside /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /Frascati /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /Harvard U. /Heidelberg U. /Humboldt U., Berlin /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Orsay, LAL /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Karlsruhe U., EKP /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT, LNS /McGill U. /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /Mt. Holyoke Coll. /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /Paris U., VI-VII /Pennsylvania U. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Princeton U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DSM, DAPNIA, Saclay /South Carolina U. /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Albany /Tennessee U. /Texas U. /Texas U., Dallas /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /Valencia U., IFIC /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison

2009-06-19

467

Study of hydrogen peroxide, potato enzymes and blackspot  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rate of oxidation of tyrosine, p-cresol and catechol by potato enzyme diminished as H2O2 concentration increased. By contrast, the rate of oxidation of chlorogenic acid in the presence of H2O2 increased. Bovine catalase destroyed H2O2 and thus effectively prevented either H2O2-induced inhibition or acceleration of oxidation of the four substrates by potato enzyme. Horseradish peroxidase in the presence\\u000a of

M. L. Weaver; E. Hautala

1970-01-01

468

Delayed Tillage and Cover Crop Effects in Potato Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Delayed tillage and the inclusion of cover crops can substantially reduce erosion in intensively tilled potato systems. Both\\u000a of these practices can potentially impact potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) yield and quality via changes in soil temperature and soil water status, and suppression or enhancement of soil-borne\\u000a diseases. Research was conducted over six rotation cycles at two Maine locations to evaluate

Timothy S. Griffin; Robert P. Larkin; C. W. Honeycutt

2009-01-01

469

Recent developments in our knowledge of potato transgenic biology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Transgenic potato plants are being generated world-wide to assess the impact of transgene expression (sense and\\/or antisense)\\u000a on parameters as diverse as yield, quality, stress physiology and pest\\/disease resistance. Strategies for alternative uses\\u000a of the potato crops by diverting metabolism into high value products or by expressing recombinant proteins are also being\\u000a explored. Results obtained are often surprising although the

H. V. Davies

1996-01-01

470

Disease and sprout control in individually film wrapped potatoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. cv Russet Burbank) were individually wrapped in Cryovac D-955, a biaxially oriented shrink film, and stored at 24°C. The\\u000a wrapped potatoes were either treated with a fungicide (thiobendazole), or the film itself was coated with an antimicrobial\\u000a agent (silicon quaternary ammonium salt) to control diseases that may appear during storage and marketing. Under film wrapped\\u000a conditions,

Kiran K. Shetty; Robert B. Dwelle

1990-01-01

471

Evaluation of boiled potato peel as a wound dressing.  

PubMed

In a series of experiments full thickness skin defects in 68 rats were covered with dressings made of boiled potato peels according to the method developed in Bombay. The wounds closed within 14 days and histologically complete repair of epidermis was found. The cork layer of the potato peel prevents dehydration of the wound and protects against exogenous agents. Experiments with homogenates revealed that a complete structure of the peel is necessary. Steroidal glycosides may have contributed to the favourable results. PMID:1930669

Dattatreya, R M; Nuijen, S; van Swaaij, A C; Klopper, P J

1991-08-01

472

Genome sequence and analysis of the tuber crop potato  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is the world’s most important non-grain food crop and is central to global food security. It is clonally propagated, highly heterozygous, autotetraploid, and suffers acute inbreeding depression. Here we use a homozygous doubled-monoploid potato clone to sequence and assemble 86% of the 844-megabase genome. We predict 39,031 protein-coding genes and present evidence for at least two

Xun Xu; Shengkai Pan; Shifeng Cheng; Bo Zhang; Desheng Mu; Peixiang Ni; Gengyun Zhang; Shuang Yang; Ruiqiang Li; Jun Wang; Gisella Orjeda; Frank Guzman; Michael Torres; Roberto Lozano; Olga Ponce; Diana Martinez; Germ'an De la Cruz; S. K. Chakrabarti; Virupaksh U. Patil; Konstantin G. Skryabin; Boris B. Kuznetsov; Nikolai V. Ravin; Tatjana V. Kolganova; Alexey V. Beletsky; Andrei V. Mardanov; Alex Di Genova; Daniel M. Bolser; David M. A. Martin; Guangcun Li; Yu Yang; Hanhui Kuang; Qun Hu; Xingyao Xiong; Gerard J. Bishop; Boris Sagredo; Nilo Mej'ia; Wlodzimierz Zagorski; Robert Gromadka; Jan Gawor; Pawel Szczesny; Sanwen Huang; Zhonghua Zhang; Chunbo Liang; Jun He; Ying Li; Ying He; Jianfei Xu; Youjun Zhang; Binyan Xie; Yongchen Du; Dongyu Qu; Merideth Bonierbale; Marc Ghislain; Maria del Rosario Herrera; Giovanni Giuliano; Marco Pietrella; Gaetano Perrotta; Paolo Facella; Kimberly OBrien; Sergio E. Feingold; Leandro E. Barreiro; Gabriela A. Massa; Luis Diambra; Brett R. Whitty; Brieanne Vaillancourt; Haining Lin; Alicia N. Massa; Michael Geoffroy; Steven Lundback; Dean DellaPenna; C. Robin Buell; Sanjeev Kumar Sharma; David F. Marshall; Robbie Waugh; Glenn J. Bryan; Marialaura Destefanis; Istvan Nagy; Dan Milbourne; Susan J. Thomson; Mark Fiers; Jeanne M. E. Jacobs; Kaa re L. Nielsen; Mads So nderkae r; Marina Iovene; Giovana A. Torres; Jiming Jiang; Richard E. Veilleux; Christian W. B. Bachem; Jan de Boer; Theo Borm; Bjorn Kloosterman; Herman van Eck; Erwin Datema; Bas te Lintel Hekkert; Aska Goverse; Roeland C. H. J. van Ham; Richard G. F. Visser

2011-01-01

473

Physiological Growth Responses by Nutrient Interruption in Aeroponically Grown Potatoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to retard potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cvs Superior, Atlantic, and Jasim) shoot growth by nutrient interruption and thereby induce tuber formation in an aeroponic\\u000a cultivation system. In the period between 25 and 55 days after transplanting (DAT), a 10-day nutrient interruption was carried\\u000a out on the potato plants. The interruption of nutrient supply significantly increased root activity

Dong Chil Chang; Choun Soo Park; Sung Yeul Kim; Su Jeong Kim; Yong Beom Lee

2008-01-01

474

Glycemic response of mashed potato containing high-viscocity hydroxypropylmethylcellulose.  

PubMed

Potatoes generally have one of the highest glycemic index values of any food. Relatively small differences in the glycemic response (GR) of regularly consumed starch foods have shown beneficial effects on health. Lowering the GR of a potato-based meal has potentially wide-reaching health benefits. High-viscosity hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HV-HPMC) is a modified cellulose dietary fiber extensively used in the food industry. We hypothesized that the GR of a high-glycemic index product such as mashed potato would be lower with the addition of HV-HPMC. In a nonblind, randomized, repeat-measure, crossover controlled trial, 15 healthy adults consumed portions of mashed potato with different doses (0%, 1%, 2%, and 4%) of a specially selected and optimized HV-HPMC and a reference food (glucose) on separate occasions. Five subjects were excluded from the final analysis due to noncompliance with study procedures. Capillary blood glucose was measured in fasted subjects and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after starting to eat. For each sample, the incremental area under the blood glucose response curve was calculated and the GR determined. There was a significant lowering effect of HV-HPMC on GR (P < .001) of mashed potato. Glycemic responses for all mashed potato samples with the HV-HPMC were significantly lower than the standard mashed potato: 1% level (P < .05), 2% level (P < .05), and 4% level (P < .05). However, there was no significant effect of the HV-HPMC dose on GR. We conclude that addition of select HV-HPMC to mashed potato blunts GR. PMID:19761889

Lightowler, Helen J; Henry, C Jeya K

2009-08-01

475

Persistence of Genetically Modified Potatoes in the Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volunteers from genetically modified (GM) potatoes may pose an environmental problem if allowed to grow in the field after\\u000a the annual crop is harvested. We tested whether they are more likely to produce volunteers than non-GM potatoes. Specifically,\\u000a we compared the number of volunteers, number of tubers per plant, tuber size, and their vertical distribution in the soil.\\u000a More volunteer

Chang-Gi Kim; Do Young Kim; Ye Seul Moon; Hyo-Jeong Kim; Dae In Kim; Young Jin Chun; Kee Woong Park; Soon Chun Jeong; Soo Young Kim; Hwan Mook Kim

2010-01-01

476

Advances in Functional Genomics and Genetic Modification of Potato  

Microsoft Academic Search

The challenges facing potato breeding have actually changed very little over the years with resistance to pests and pathogens\\u000a remaining high on the agenda together with improvements in storability, reduction in blemishes, and novelty and consistency\\u000a in cooking\\/processing qualities. The need to expand the range of targets for potato improvement is being driven by requirements\\u000a for reduced agrochemical usage and

Howard Davies; Glenn J. Bryan; Mark Taylor

2008-01-01

477

Fluidized Bed Drying Process of Thinly Sliced Potato ( Solanum tuberosum )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potatoes play the role of a vegetable or a complementary dish in the Mexican diet. They are mainly consumed fresh. Dried vegetables\\u000a of the particular interest in preparation of dry mixtures are used for soups. The rapid expansion of the fast food industry\\u000a could result in an increase in the use of dehydrated potatoes, as a component for vegetable mixture

Araceli Lozano-Acevedo; Maribel Jimenez-Fernández; Arturo Ragazzo-Sánchez; Galo R. Urrea-Garcia; Guadalupe Luna-Solano

478

Food allergy to wheat products: the effect of bread baking and in vitro digestion on wheat allergenic proteins. A study with bread dough, crumb, and crust.  

PubMed

The effect of baking and digestion on the allergenicity of wheat flour proteins has been studied. Pooled sera of patients suffering from food allergy to wheat products were tested for IgE binding to the proteins of the wheat dough and of the bread crumb and crust, before and after being in vitro digested. During in vitro digestion, the IgE binding protein components of the unheated dough tended to disappear, whereas a permanence of IgE recognition was evident for both the bread crumb and crust. This indicates that the baking process increases the resistance of the potential allergens of the wheat flour to proteolytic digestion, allowing them to reach the gastrointestinal tract, where they can elicit the immunological response. Therefore, the effects of baking must be carefully considered in studying food allergies to wheat products. PMID:11714375

Simonato, B; Pasini, G; Giannattasio, M; Peruffo, A D; De Lazzari, F; Curioni, A

2001-11-01

479

Insertional Mutagenesis Using Tnt1 Retrotransposon in Potato1[OPEN  

PubMed Central

Insertional mutagenesis using transfer DNA or transposable elements, which is an important tool in functional genomics and is well established in several crops, has not been developed in potato (Solanum tuberosum). Here, we report the application of the tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) Tnt1 retrotransposon as an insertional mutagen in potato. The Tnt1 retrotransposon was introduced into a highly homozygous and self-compatible clone, 523-3, of the diploid wild potato species Solanum chacoense. Transposition of the Tnt1 elements introduced into 523-3 can be efficiently induced by tissue culture. Tnt1 preferentially inserted into genic regions in the potato genome and the insertions were stable during sexual reproduction, making Tnt1 an ideal mutagen in potato. Several distinct phenotypes associated with plant stature and leaf morphology were discovered in mutation screening from a total of 38 families derived from Tnt1-containing lines. We demonstrate that the insertional mutagenesis system based on Tnt1 and the 523-3 clone can be expanded to the genome-wide level to potentially tag every gene in the potato genome.

Duangpan, Saowapa; Zhang, Wenli; Wu, Yufang; Jansky, Shelley H.; Jiang, Jiming

2013-01-01

480

The quality of protein of coloured fleshed potatoes.  

PubMed

Potatoes of purple varieties and red flesh colour were estimated as the important food product containing valuable protein. Amino acids concentration and protein nutritive value of coloured potatoes were analysed and compared with traditional yellow-fleshed varieties. Studies comprised potatoes of 13 varieties: 7 of purple-fleshed, four of red-fleshed and two of yellow-fleshed. There were observed differences between studied potatoes with respect to dry matter, starch and protein content as well as to amino acids concentration and protein quality independently on flesh colour. Potatoes of low as well of high content of total protein, independently on flesh colour, characterised similar protein quality, like for example varieties of Blaue Anneliese and Highland B. Red or Blue Congo and Salad Blue. Leucine limited the quality of majority of coloured fleshed potato varieties used for the experiment. The best amino acid profiles and protein quality confirmed by chemical scores and EAA index values characterised purple fleshed Vitelotte and Blaue Anneliese, yellow fleshed Verdi as well as red fleshed Herbie 26, Highland B. Red and Rosemarie. PMID:23871046

P?ksa, A; Kita, A; Ku?akowska, K; Anio?owska, M; Hamouz, K; Nem?, A

2013-12-01

481

Mathematical modeling of laser based potato cutting and peeling.  

PubMed

A mathematical model is developed and validated to predict the depth of cut in potato tuber slabs as a function of laser power and travel speed. The model considers laser processing parameters such as input power, spot size and exposure time as well as the properties of the material being cut such as specific heat, thermal conductivity, surface reflectance, etc. The model also considers the phase change of water in potato and the ignition temperature of the solid portion. The composition of the potato tuber is assumed to be of water and solid. The model also assumes that the ablation process is accomplished through ejection of liquid water, debris and water vapour, and combustion of solid. A CO(2) laser operating in c.w. mode was chosen for the experimental work because water absorbs laser energy highly at 10.6 microm, and CO(2) laser units with relatively high output power are available. Slabs of potato tuber were chosen to be laser processed since potato contains high moisture and large amounts of relatively homogeneous tissue. The results of the preliminary calculations and experiments concluded that the model is able to predict the depth of cut in potato tuber parenchyma when subjected to a CO(2) laser beam. PMID:17324500

Ferraz, A Carlos O; Mittal, Gauri S; Bilanski, Walter K; Abdullah, Hussein A

2007-01-01

482

Microsatellite analysis of relationships within cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum).  

PubMed

The potential of microsatellite markers for use in genetical studies in potato (Solanum tuberosum) was evaluated. Database searches revealed that microsatellite sequences were present in the non-coding regions of 24 potato genes. Twenty-two sets of primers were designed and products successfully amplified using 19 primer pairs. These were tested against a panel of 18 tetraploid potato cultivars. Four pairs of primers designed to amplify microsatellites from tomato were also used. Seven (including 2 of the tomato sequences) failed to reveal any variation in the accessions tested. Sixteen primer pairs did reveal polymorphism, detecting between 2 and 19 alleles at each locus. Of these, 3 gave rise to complex band patterns, suggesting that multiple polymorphic loci were being amplified using a single primer pair. Heterozygosity values ranged from 0.408 to 0.921. Phenetic analysis of the derived information allowed a dendrogram to be constructed depicting the relationships between the 18 potato cultivars. The potential of microsatellite markers for genetic analysis and satutory applications in potato is discussed in the context of these results. Furthermore, the potential of 'crossspecies amplification' is highlighted as an additional source of microsatellite markers for genetic research in potato. PMID:24166639

Provan, J; Powell, W; Waugh, R

1996-06-01

483

B Counting at BaBar  

SciTech Connect

In this thesis we examine the method of counting B{bar B} events produced in the BABAR experiment. The original method was proposed in 2000, but improvements to track reconstruction and our understanding of the detector since that date make it appropriate to revisit the B Counting method. We propose a new set of cuts designed to minimize the sensitivity to time-varying backgrounds. We find the new method counts B{bar B} events with an associated systematic uncertainty of {+-} 0.6%.

McGregor, Grant Duncan

2008-12-16

484

BaBar forward endcap upgrade  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The muon and neutral hadron detector (instrumented flux return or IFR) in the forward endcap of the BaBar detector at SLAC was upgraded by the installation of a new generation of resistive plate chambers (RPCs) and by increasing the absorber. The chamber replacement was made necessary by the rapid aging and efficiency loss of the original BaBar RPCs. Based on our experience with those original RPCs and 24 RPCs with thinner linseed oil treatments, improvements in the design, construction, and testing of the new generation RPCs were implemented and are described in detail.

Anulli, F.; Baldini, R.; Calcaterra, A.; Daniello, L.; de Sangro, R.; Finocchiaro, G.; Patteri, P.; Piccolo, M.; Santoni, M.; Zallo, A.; Cheng, C. H.; Lange, D. J.; Wright, D. M.; Boyce, R.; Krebs, J.; Messner, R.; Putallaz, G.; Wisniewski, W. J.; Buzzo, A.; Crosetti, G.; LoVetere, M.; Minutoli, S.; Passaggio, S.; Pollovio, P.; Robutti, E.; Tosi, S.; Trovato, A.; Cartaro, C.; Fabozzi, F.; Lista, L.; Piccolo, D.; Paolucci, P.; Avanzini, C.; Carpinelli, M.; Forti, F.; Neri, N.; Paoloni, E.; Rizzi, D.; Bellini, F.; Buccheri, A.; Cavoto, G.; del Re, D.; Faccini, R.; Ferrarotto, F.; Ferroni, F.; Gargiulo, C.; Gaspero, M.; Lunadei, R.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Morganti, S.; Pelosi, A.; Pierini, M.; Piredda, G.; Voena, C.; Sinev, N.; Strom, D.; Foulkes, S.; Wang, K.; Band, H. R.; Hollar, J.; Tan, P.

2005-02-01

485