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Sample records for baker beach san

  1. Variation of the Beach Profile, Ocean Beach, San Francisco, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J. E.; Ho, T.; Li, A.; Perez, A.; Wong, Y.; Bissell, M.

    2006-12-01

    Ocean Beach is a 7-km-long stretch of beach that is the western boundary of the city of San Francisco with the Pacific Ocean. This beach is exposed to large winter waves produced in the North Pacific and smaller summer waves from both the North and South Pacific. Recent decades have seen an increased rate of erosion at the south end of the beach that has led to the partial collapse of a parking lot, and continued erosion threatens both public and private infrastructure. To gain an understanding of the variation in beach profiles we established six cross-shore profiles approximately 1 km apart. Each profile represents a part of the beach that experiences different wave conditions, caused by refraction across the San Francisco Bar, and thus has a different morphologic response to offshore sea conditions. The six sub-aerial profiles were measured using a total station one week apart in August 2006. All profiles increased in elevation and five of the six profiles showed the early formation or continued growth of berms. The same profiles will be re-analyzed in the autumn to determine further change, and compared to data collected by a 2004 SF-ROCKS group that also studied Ocean Beach. We will relate beach profile change to wave conditions measured at an offshore buoy to determine what wave conditions cause profile accretion or erosion. The results of this study will shed light on the processes occurring at Ocean Beach and will help us to understand why the south end of the beach is eroding.

  2. Swash zone characteristics at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, CA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erikson, L.H.; Hanes, D.M.; Barnard, P.L.; Gibbs, A.E.

    2007-01-01

    Runup data collected during the summer of 2005 at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, CA are analyzed and considered to be typical summer swash characteristics at this site. Analysis shows that the beach was dissipative with Iribarren numbers between 0.05 and 0.4 and that infragravity energy dominated. Foreshore slopes were mild between 0.01 and 0.05 with swash periods on the order of a minute. Predicted runup heights obtained with six previously developed analytical runup formulae were compared to measured extreme runup statistics. Formulations dependent on offshore wave height, foreshore slope and deep water wavelength gave reasonable results.

  3. Quantifying Beach Response to Episodic Large Wave Events, a Predictive Empirical Model, Ocean Beach, San Francisco, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J. E.; Barnard, P. L.

    2006-12-01

    Predicting beach response on an event scale is extremely difficult due to highly variable spatial and temporal conditions, lack of data on antecedent beach morphology, generic model shortcomings, and uncertainty of local forcing parameters. Each beach system is unique and classical beach erosion models may not be applicable to many high-energy beaches, especially those receiving large long-period waves. Therefore, developing an empirical model is the best way to predict future beach response at a given site. Based on 12 closely spaced (temporally) GPS topographic surveys during the winter of 2005-2006 at Ocean Beach, in San Francisco, California, we have developed a predictive empirical model that relates sub-aerial beach response to observed wave height, period, and direction. The model will provide important information to coastal managers, who will be able to better predict and mitigate possible loss from a forecasted wave event. Ocean Beach, located immediately south of the Golden Gate in San Francisco, is a high-energy, intermediate- slope beach that is exposed to waves generated in both the North and South Pacific. Winter breaking wave heights frequently reach 4 m and can exceed 7 m, with periods sometimes greater than 20 s. Our observations demonstrate that large seasonal variations in the sub-aerial beach profile are likely forced by several single large wave events. These events have led to the partial destruction of a recreational parking lot at the south end of the beach where an erosion hot spot is currently located, and continued erosion will threaten other parts of public infrastructure. This study, in combination with other ongoing research at Ocean Beach, will provide valuable insight that will not only aid local personnel in their management decisions but also contribute to a better understanding of sediment transport at high-energy beaches.

  4. Coastal Adaptation: The Case of Ocean Beach, San Francisco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheong, S.

    2012-12-01

    Coastal erosion, storms, sea-level rise, and tsunamis all lead to inundation that puts people and communities at risk. Adapting to these coastal hazards has gained increasing attention with climate change. Instead of promoting one particular strategy such as seawalls or defending against one type of hazard, scholars and practitioners encourage a combination of existing methods and strategies to promote synergistic effects. The recently published Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on climate extremes reflects this trend in the integration of disaster risk management and climate change adaptation. This paper focuses on the roles, compatibilities, and synergies of three coastal adaptation options - engineering, vegetation, and policy - in the case of Ocean Beach in San Francisco. Traditionally engineering approach and ecosystem conservation often have stood in opposition as hard shoreline structures destroy coastal habitats, worsen coastal erosion, divert ocean currents, and prevent the natural migration of shores. A natural migration of shores without structure translates into the abandonment of properties in the coastal zone, and is at odds with property rights and development. For example, policies of relocation, retreat, and insurance may not be popular given the concerns of infrastructure and coastal access. As such, engineering, natural defense, and policy can be more conflictual than complementary. Nonetheless, all these responses are used in combination in many locations. Complementarities and compatibilities, therefore, must be assessed when considering the necessity of engineering responses, natural defense capabilities, and policy options. In this light, the question is how to resolve the problem of mixed responses and short- and long-term interests and values, identify compatibilities, and generate synergies. In the case of Ocean Beach, recent erosions that endangered San Francisco's wastewater treatment system acted as major stimuli in coastal adaptation initiatives and resulted in the Ocean Beach Master Plan. Investigation into the planning processes involving multiple stakeholder engagement such as San Francisco (SF) Public Utilities Commission, California Coastal Commission, National Park Service, SF Department of Public Works, SF Recreation and Park Department, SF Planning Department, and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers can shed light on trade-offs and synergies of different adaptation responses. The role of the coordinator - SF Planning and Urban Research Commission - as a mediator between different stakeholder interests and priorities, a realistic assessment of current hazard management practices specific to local contexts, and the necessity of combining hazard mitigation policies with coastal management and community management are the key findings of this research. They help inform policy formulation and decision-making in climate change adaptation, and provide a valuable case study that can be transferred to other locations.

  5. Coastal processes study at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, CA: summary of data collection 2004-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Eshleman, Jodi; Erikson, Li H.; Hanes, Daniel M.

    2007-01-01

    Ocean Beach in San Francisco, California, contains a persistent erosional section in the shadow of the San Francisco ebb tidal delta and south of Sloat Boulevard that threatens valuable public infrastructure as well as the safe recreational use of the beach. Coastal managers have been discussing potential mediation measures for over a decade, with little scientific research available to aid in decision making. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) initiated the Ocean Beach Coastal Processes Study in April 2004 to provide the scientific knowledge necessary for coastal managers to make informed management decisions. This study integrates a wide range of field data collection and numerical modeling techniques to document nearshore sediment transport processes at the mouth of San Francisco Bay, with emphasis on how these processes relate to erosion at Ocean Beach. The Ocean Beach Coastal Processes Study is the first comprehensive study of coastal processes at the mouth of San Francisco Bay.

  6. Monitoring and modeling nearshore dredge disposal for indirect beach nourishment, Ocean Beach, San Francisco

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Hanes, Daniel M.; Lescinski, Jamie; Elias, Edwin

    2007-01-01

    Nearshore dredge disposal was performed during the summer of 2005 at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, CA, a high energy tidal and wave environment. This trial run was an attempt to provide a buffer to a reach of coastline where wave attack during the winter months has had a severe impact on existing sewage infrastructure. Although the subsequent beach response was inconclusive, after one year the peak of the disposal mound had migrated ~100 m toward the shore, providing evidence that annual dredge disposal at this site could be beneficial over the long-term by at the very least providing: 1) additional wave dissipation during storms 2) compatible sediment to feed nearshore bars, 3) sediment cover on an exposed sewage outfall pipe, and 4) a viable alternative to the shoaling offshore disposal site. Numerical modeling suggests that despite the strong tidal currents in the region, wave forcing is the dominant factor moving the sediment slowly toward shore, and placing sediment at just slightly shallower depths (e.g. 9 m) in the future would have a more immediate impact.

  7. Observations of wave-driven surf-zone dynamics on a high-energy beach, Ocean Beach, San Francisco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, I. S.; Janssen, T. T.; Hansen, J. E.; Barnard, P.

    2010-12-01

    Alongshore variations in wave energy, currents and water depth affect wave-driven surf-zone hydrodynamics and are important for near-shore transport processes and beach evolution. These processes are not that well understood, in part because most earlier field studies were conducted in areas characterized by alongshore-uniform conditions and moderate incident wave energy. In this study, we present observations of the surf zone circulation at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, an area characterized by energetic wave conditions (near-shore wave heights can exceed 10 m), strong tidal currents (> 1 m/s alongshore), refractive wave focusing, and alongshore inhomogeneity of the incident wave field. The experiment was specifically designed to capture the effects of spatially inhomogeneous wave fields and to quantify the contribution of the pressure gradient to the alongshore momentum balance. The data set includes detailed pressure, current, and wave measurements from a two-week long experiment at Ocean Beach, including a wide range of wave (significant wave heights of 1-5 m) and wind conditions. In the analysis, the various terms of the mean-flow momentum balance have been extracted from observations. The momentum balance will be evaluated to determine the comparative role of wave-induced set-up and radiation stress gradients in driving circulation. We will present the field experiment set-up, time series of the bulk wave statistics over the duration of the experiment and a surf-zone momentum analysis to identify the role of wave inhomogeneity on the near-shore circulation. This experiment and research is funded by the U. S. Geological Survey.

  8. Coastal Processes and Geomorphology along Crissy Beach and Inside San Francisco's Golden Gate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, D. A.; Erikson, L. H.; Barnard, P. L.; Battalio, B.; Elias, E.; Hansen, J. E.; Sheehan, L. R.; White, L. A.

    2011-12-01

    The Golden Gate inlet to San Francisco Bay is a highly dynamic zone for sediment transport and geomorphic patterns. The behavior of the coastline has historically not been considered during land use planning, leading to a heavily manipulated shoreline in areas such as Ocean Beach, Crissy Field and other portions of the northern shore of San Francisco. Understanding of the regional and local coastal processes is even more important for future land-use planning and habitat restoration as sea level rises. The goal of this study is to present a summary of the coastal dynamics that govern the geomorphology of Crissy Field Beach and Marsh area, and estimate the future shore response to sea level rise. The Crissy Field marsh restoration in the late 1990s marked a new stage of studying coastal processes in this area of the Golden Gate Littoral Cell. For the past decade, the USGS and ESA PWA have conducted hydrodynamic, sediment transport, and geomorphic investigations extending from Ocean Beach to Crissy Marsh. USGS work has been driven by understanding the long-term function of the marsh while ESA PWA has focused on applying science to address coastal engineering and shoreline protection issues. We present a synthesis of this body of work as an example of successful public-private collaboration on coastal sciences. Several datasets were combined to characterize the region's dynamism. The local wave climate includes short period waves generated from local winds blowing over San Francisco Bay and longer period waves (swell) that arrive at Crissy Field from distant sources through the Golden Gate entrance. Tidal current data and model simulations indicate the presence of a residual circulation cell with ebb -dominance (eastward flow) offshore of Crissy Beach and a weaker westward current in the very nearshore region. Cross-shore transects of bathymetry and topography from 1947, 1978, 1997, 2007 and 2008 suggest patterns of erosion and deposition patterns occur on decadal, annual and seasonal timescales. Variability of the shoreline was further analyzed using the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) in GIS, based on decadal aerial photographs beginning in the 1920s and long-term dredging records from the San Francisco Marina located immediately east of Crissy Beach. Based on the data and numerical modeling results, an overall sediment budget was estimated to determine the trends of potential geomorphic change. The geomorphic response to sea-level rise is vital to infrastructure design at Crissy Beach. Based on compilation and analysis of USGS and ESA PWA data and model results describing historic and present conditions, the accretion patterns on the west part of the beach are not expected to continue linearly. Incorporating anticipated sea level-rise rates established for California (0.35 m by 2050, 1.40 m by 2100), ESA PWA's calculated water levels are projected to exceed estimated shoreline elevations calculated from accretion rates. Transgression of the beach upward and landward is expected, as long as space is available for managed retreat.

  9. Coastal monitoring of the May 2005 dredge disposal offshore of Ocean Beach, San Francisco, Calif.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Hanes, Daniel M.

    2006-01-01

    Ocean Beach, California, contains an erosion hot spot in the shadow of the San Francisco ebb tidal delta south of Sloat Boulevard that threatens valuable public infrastructure as well as the safe recreational use of the beach. In an effort to reduce the erosion at this location and avoid hazardous navigation conditions at the current disposal site (SF-8), a new plan for the management of sediment dredged annually from the main shipping channel at the mouth of Francisco Bay was implemented in May 2005 by the United States Army Corps of Engineers, San Francisco District (COE). The objective for COE was to perform a test dredge disposal of ~230,000 m3 (300,000 yd3) of sand just offshore of the erosion hot spot, in depths between approximately 9 and 14 m. This disposal site was chosen because it is in a location where the strong tidal currents associated with the mouth of San Francisco Bay and waves can potentially feed sediment toward the littoral zone in the reach of the beach that is experiencing critical erosion. The onshore migration of sediment from the target disposal location might feed the primary longshore bar or the nearshore zone, and provide a buffer to erosion that peaks during winter months when large waves impact the region. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with the Sea Floor Mapping Lab (SFML) of California State University, Monterey Bay, monitored the initial bathymetric evolution of the test dredge disposal site and the adjacent coastal region from May 2005 to November 2005. This paper reports on this monitoring effort and assesses the short-term coastal response.

  10. Baker nominated to Science Board

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    President Ronald Reagan has announced his intention to nominate Warren J. Baker to the National Science Board (NSB), according to an announcement by the National Science Foundation (NSF). Baker is the president of California Polytechnic State University in San Luis Obispo. A civil engineer by training, his research specialty is soil dynamics.The 24-member NSB is the policy-making body of the NSF. Provided that the Senate confirms his appointment, Baker will serve on the board until May 1988.

  11. Persistent organic pollutants in plastic marine debris found on beaches in San Diego, California.

    PubMed

    Van, Almira; Rochman, Chelsea M; Flores, Elisa M; Hill, Kish L; Vargas, Erica; Vargas, Serena A; Hoh, Euhna

    2012-01-01

    Plastic debris were collected from eight beaches around San Diego County, California. Debris collected include: pre-production pellets and post-consumer plastics including fragments, polystyrene (PS) foam, and rubber. A total of n = 2453 pieces were collected ranging from <5 mm to 50 mm in size. The plastic pieces were separated by type, location, and appearance and analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its breakdown products, and chlordanes. PAH concentrations ranged from 30 ng g(-1) to 1900 ng g(-1), PCBs from non-detect to 47 ng g(-1), chlordanes from 1.8 ng g(-1) to 60 ng g(-1), and DDTs from non-detect to 76 ng g(-1). Consistently higher PAH concentrations found in PS foam samples (300-1900 ng g(-1)) led us to examine unexposed PS foam packaging materials and PS virgin pellets. Unexposed PS foam contained higher concentrations of PAHs (240-1700 ng g(-1)) than PS virgin pellets (12-15 ng g(-1)), suggesting that PAHs may be produced during manufacturing. Temporal trends of debris were investigated at one site, Ocean Beach, where storm events and beach maintenance were found to be important variables influencing debris present at a given time. PMID:22014466

  12. Coupling alongshore variations in wave energy to beach morphologic change using the SWAN wave model at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, CA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eshleman, Jodi L.; Barnard, Patrick L.; Erikson, Li H.; Hanes, Daniel M.

    2007-01-01

    Coastal managers have faced increasing pressure to manage their resources wisely over the last century as a result of heightened development and changing environmental forcing. It is crucial to understand seasonal changes in beach volume and shape in order to identify areas vulnerable to accelerated erosion. Shepard (1950) was among the first to quantify seasonal beach cycles. Sonu and Van Beek (1971) and Wright et al. (1985) described commonly occurring beach states. Most studies utilize widest spaced 2-D cross shore profiles or shorelines extracted from aerial photographs (e.g. Winant et al. 1975; Aubrey, 1979, Aubrey and Ross, 1985; Larson and Kraus, 1994; Jimenez et al., 1977; Lacey and Peck, 1998; Guillen et al., 1999; Norcorss et al., 2002) to analyzed systematic changes in beach evolution. But with the exception of established field stations, such as Duck, NC (Birkemeier and Mason, 1984), ans Hazaki Oceanographical Research Station (HORS) in Japan (Katoh, 1997), there are very few beach change data sets with high temporal and spatial resolutions (e.g. Dail et al., 2000; Ruggiero et al., 2005; Yates et al., in press). Comprehensive sets of nearshore morphological data and local in situ measurements outside of these field stations are very rare and virtually non-existent high-energy coasts. Studied that have attempted to relate wave statistics to beach morphology change require some knowledge of the nearshore wave climate, and have had limited success using offshore measurement (Sonu and Van Beek, 1971; Dail et al., 2000). The primary objective of this study is to qualitatively compare spatially variable nearshore wave predictions to beach change measurements in order to understand the processes responsible for a persistent erosion 'hotspot' at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, CA. Local wave measurements are used to calibrate and validate a wave model that provides nearshore wave prediction along the beach. The model is run for thousands of binned offshore wave conditions to help isolate the effects of offshore wave direction and period on nearshore wave predictions. Alongshore varying average beach change statistics are computed at specific profile locations from topographic beach surveys and lidar data. The study area is located in the San Francisco Bight in central California. Ocean Beach is a seven kilometer long north-south trending sandy coastline located just south of the entrance to the San Francisco Bay Estuary (Figure 1). It contains an erosion hotspot in the southern part of the beach which has resulted in damage to local infrastructure and is the cause of continued concern. A wide range of field data collection and numerical modeling efforts have been focused here as part of the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) San Francisco Bight Coastal Processes Study, which began in October 2003 and represents the first comprehensive study of coastal processes at the mouth of San Francisco Bay. Ocean Beach is exposed to very strong tidal flows, with measured currents often in excess of 1 m/s at the north end of the beach. Current profiler measurements indicate that current magnitudes are greater in the northern portion of the beach, while wave energy is greater in the southern portion where erosion problems are greatest (Barnard et al., 2007). The sub-aerial beach volume fluctuates seasonally over a maximum envelope of 400,000 m3 for the seven kilometer stretch (Barnard et al, 2007). The wave climate in the region is dominated by an abundance of low frequency energy (greater than 20 s period) and prevailing northwest incident wave angles. The application of a wave model to the region is further complicated by the presence of the Farallon Islands 40 kilometers west, and a massive ebb tidal delta at the mouth of San Francisco Bay (~150 km2), which creates complicated refraction patterns as wave energy moves from offshore Ocean Beach; however the cost and threat of the energetic nearshore environment have limited the temporal and spatial resolution of these measurements. Applying numerical models to predict wave and current patterns along the beach can help supplement the filed data that exists and provide opportunities to make prediction about the impacts of changing environmental forcing.

  13. The Performance of Nearshore Dredge Disposal at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, California, 2005-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Erikson, Li H.; Hansen, Jeff E.; Elias, Edwin

    2009-01-01

    Ocean Beach, California, contains an erosion hot spot in the shadow of the San Francisco ebb tidal delta that threatens valuable public infrastructure as well as the safe recreational use of the beach. In an effort to reduce the erosion at this location a new plan for the management of sediment dredged annually from the main shipping channel at the mouth of San Francisco Bay was implemented in May 2005 by the United States Army Corps of Engineers, San Francisco District (USACE). The USACE designated a temporary nearshore dredge disposal site for the annual disposal of about 230,000 m3 (300,000 yd3) of sand about 750 m offshore and slightly south of the erosion hot spot, in depths between approximately 9 and 14 m. The site has now been used three times for a total sediment disposal of about 690,000 m3 (about 900,000 yds3). The disposal site was chosen because it is in a location where strong tidal currents and open-ocean waves can potentially feed sediment toward the littoral zone in the reach of the beach that is experiencing critical erosion, as well as prevent further scour on an exposed outfall pipe. The onshore migration of sediment from the target disposal location might feed the primary longshore bar or the nearshore zone, and provide a buffer to erosion that peaks during winter months when large waves impact the region. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) has been monitoring and modeling the bathymetric evolution of the test dredge disposal site and the adjacent coastal region since inception in May 2005. This paper reports on the first 2.5 years of this monitoring program effort (May 2005 to December 2007) and assesses the short-term coastal response. Here are the key findings of this report: *Approximately half of the sediment that has been placed in the nearshore dredge-disposal site during the 2.5 years of this study remains within the dredge focus area. *In the winter of 2006-7, large waves transported the dredge-mound material onshore. *High rates of seasonal cross-shore sediment transport mask any potential profile change in the Coastal Profiling System data due to dredge placement. *Pockets of accretion have been recorded by topographic surveying adjacent to the dredge site, but it is unclear if the accretion is linked to the nourishment. *Cross-shore profile modeling suggests that dredge material must be placed in water depths no greater than 5 m to drive a positive shoreline response. *Area modeling demonstrates that the new dredge site increases wave dissipation and modifies local sediment-transport patterns, although the effect on the nearshore morphology is largely negligible. *Any increase in beach width or wave energy-dissipation related to the nourishment is likely to be realized only in the vicinity directly onshore of the nourishment site, which is several hundred meters south of the area of critical erosion. *Larger waves from the northwest and smaller waves from the west or southwest contribute most to the sediment transport from the dredge mound onshore.

  14. Abundance, Health and Status of Sand Crabs at Ocean Beach, San Francisco: Comparisons From two Summers, 2003 and 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad-Saydah, A.; MacCormack, D.; Velarde, M.; Masters, D.; Walton, M.

    2004-12-01

    Interns from the California Academy of Sciences in San Francisco monitored Pacific mole crabs, Emerita analoga, commonly known as sand crabs, at Ocean Beach, San Francisco for the second consecutive summer. Comparisons from two data sets revealed trends in crab abundance, size and location. Changes in abundance and location may have been related to water temperature and predation. Dissections of random crabs from all gender classes allowed inspection of parasitism on the crabs. The dissections revealed increased numbers of parasites in larger crabs (especially females with eggs) and in crabs collected later in the summer season. Crab parasitism may be connected to population changes of species predating the sand crabs.

  15. Correlations Between Emerita analoga and Profilicollis spp. as Influenced by Environmental Factors at Ocean Beach, San Francisco CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, E.; Le, A.

    2014-12-01

    Since 2002 the Careers in Science (CiS) intern program has monitored Ocean Beach in San Francisco, California for the population of Emerita analoga (Pacific Mole Crab) as part of a partnership program with the Long-term Monitoring Program and Experiential Training for Students (LiMPETS). LiMPETS is an organization that conducts citizen science with Bay Area youth such as the CiS interns. We specifically assist in the collection of Pacific Mole Crab population statistics at Ocean Beach during the summer from June through August. The purpose of collecting Pacific Mole Crabs is to monitor Profilicollis spp. (Acanthocephalan parasites) - to which Pacific Mole Crabs serve as intermediate hosts - and to learn more about our environment as Pacific Mole Crabs are indicator species. During our collections at Ocean Beach we record size, sex, and number of individuals at specific transects. We then take a random sample from the day, return to the lab, and record their sizes, sexes, and Acanthocephalan parasite load. The results of the collection and dissections are then entered into the LiMPETS online database for scientist and researchers to use. Our project will focus on correlations relating to the data collected (Pacific Mole Crab population, parasite load, abiotic and biotic factors, et cetera).

  16. BAKER'S CYST

    PubMed Central

    Demange, Marco Kawamura

    2015-01-01

    Baker's cysts are located in the posteromedial region of the knee between the medial belly of the gastrocnemius muscle and semimembranosus tendon. In adults, these cysts are related to intra-articular lesions, which may consist of meniscal lesions or arthrosis. In children, these cysts are usually found on physical examination or imaging studies, and they generally do not have any clinical relevance. Ultrasound examination is appropriate for identifying and measuring the popliteal cyst. The main treatment approach should focus on the joint lesions, and in most cases there is no need to address the cyst directly. Although almost all knee cysts are benign (Baker's cysts and parameniscal cysts), presence of some signs makes it necessary to suspect malignancy: symptoms disproportionate to the size of the cyst, absence of joint damage (e.g. meniscal tears) that might explain the existence of the cyst, unusual cyst topography, bone erosion, cyst size greater than 5 cm and tissue invasion (joint capsule).

  17. Integration of bed characteristics, geochemical tracers, current measurements, and numerical modeling for assessing the provenance of beach sand in the San Francisco Bay Coastal System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Foxgrover, Amy; Elias, Edwin P.L.; Erikson, Li H.; Hein, James; McGann, Mary; Mizell, Kira; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Takesue, Renee K.; Wong, Florence L.; Woodrow, Don

    2013-01-01

    Over 150 million m3 of sand-sized sediment has disappeared from the central region of the San Francisco Bay Coastal System during the last half century. This enormous loss may reflect numerous anthropogenic influences, such as watershed damming, bay-fill development, aggregate mining, and dredging. The reduction in Bay sediment also appears to be linked to a reduction in sediment supply and recent widespread erosion of adjacent beaches, wetlands, and submarine environments. A unique, multi-faceted provenance study was performed to definitively establish the primary sources, sinks, and transport pathways of beach-sized sand in the region, thereby identifying the activities and processes that directly limit supply to the outer coast. This integrative program is based on comprehensive surficial sediment sampling of the San Francisco Bay Coastal System, including the seabed, Bay floor, area beaches, adjacent rock units, and major drainages. Analyses of sample morphometrics and biological composition (e.g., Foraminifera) were then integrated with a suite of tracers including 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd isotopes, rare earth elements, semi-quantitative X-ray diffraction mineralogy, and heavy minerals, and with process-based numerical modeling, in situ current measurements, and bedform asymmetry to robustly determine the provenance of beach-sized sand in the region.

  18. Integration of bed characteristics, geochemical tracers, current measurements, and numerical modeling for assessing the provenance of beach sand in the San Francisco Bay coastal system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Foxgrover, Amy C.; Elias, Edwin P.L.; Erikson, Li H.; Hein, James R.; McGann, Mary; Mizell, Kira; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Takesue, Renee K.; Wong, Florence L.; Woodrow, Donald L.

    2013-01-01

    Over 150 million m3 of sand-sized sediment has disappeared from the central region of the San Francisco Bay Coastal System during the last half century. This enormous loss may reflect numerous anthropogenic influences, such as watershed damming, bay-fill development, aggregate mining, and dredging. The reduction in Bay sediment also appears to be linked to a reduction in sediment supply and recent widespread erosion of adjacent beaches, wetlands, and submarine environments. A unique, multi-faceted provenance study was performed to definitively establish the primary sources, sinks, and transport pathways of beach-sized sand in the region, thereby identifying the activities and processes that directly limit supply to the outer coast. This integrative program is based on comprehensive surficial sediment sampling of the San Francisco Bay Coastal System, including the seabed, Bay floor, area beaches, adjacent rock units, and major drainages. Analyses of sample morphometrics and biological composition (e.g., Foraminifera) were then integrated with a suite of tracers including 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd isotopes, rare earth elements, semi-quantitative X-ray diffraction mineralogy, and heavy minerals, and with process-based numerical modeling, in situ current measurements, and bedform asymmetry to robustly determine the provenance of beach-sized sand in the region.

  19. Identifying beach sand sources and pathways in the San Francisco Bay Coastal System through the integration of bed characteristics, geochemical tracers, current measurements, and numerical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, P.; Foxgrover, A. C.; Elias, E.; Erikson, L. H.; Hein, J. R.; McGann, M. L.; Mizell, K.; Rosenbauer, R. J.; Swarzenski, P. W.; Takesue, R. K.; Wong, F. L.; Woodrow, D. L.

    2012-12-01

    A unique, multi-faceted provenance study was performed to definitively establish the primary sources, sinks, and transport pathways of beach sized-sand in the San Francisco Bay Coastal System. This integrative program is based on comprehensive surficial sediment sampling of the San Francisco Bay Coastal System, including the seabed, bay floor, area beaches, adjacent rock units, and major drainages. Analyses of sample morphometrics and biological composition (e.g., foraminifera) were then integrated with a suite of tracers including 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd isotopes, rare earth elements, semi-quantitative X-ray diffraction mineralogy, and heavy minerals, and with process-based numerical modeling, in situ current measurements, and bedform asymmetry, to robustly determine the provenance of beach-sized sand in the region. Cross-validating geochemical analyses, numerical modeling, physical process measurements, and proxy-based techniques (e.g., bedform asymmetry, grain size morphometrics) is proved an effective technique for confidently defining sources, pathways, and sinks of sand in complex coastal-estuarine systems. The consensus results highlight the regional impact of a sharp reduction in the primary sediment source, the Sierras, to the San Francisco Bay Coastal System over the last century in driving erosion of the bay floor, ebb-tidal delta, and the outer coast south of the Golden Gate.A) Calculated transport directions based on the integration of the provenance techniques. B) Number of techniques applied for each grid cell to determine the final transport directions.

  20. Sex, Status, and Sand: California Academy of Sciences' Teen Interns Examine Trends of the Pacific Mole Crab (Emerita analoga) at Ocean Beach, San Francisco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, J. B.; Conrad-Saydah, A.; Cohen, S.; Tom, R.; Robins-Moloney, M.; Masters, D.; Mason, K.; Alfaro, F.

    2003-12-01

    Student interns from the California Academy of Sciences' Careers in Sciences program monitored the Pacific mole crab (Emerita analoga), or sand crabs, in collaboration with the Farallones Marine Sanctuary Association. These small crustaceans live in the swash zone of the sandy beach habitat. Sand crabs are important in the food web, and therefore their status can help indicate the health of the larger environment. The interns helped the Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary by monitoring the abundance and distribution of sand crabs at Ocean Beach in San Francisco, California. Students set up transects perpendicular to the shoreline, collected 10 samples along the transect, measured the carapace length, determined the sex of each crab, and checked for the presence of eggs. Students monitored June through September, 2003. Trends examined included differences in the gender ratio, size frequency, and distribution along the beach. Students also compared their data to other student data taken from other sites in San Francisco and Marin counties during 2001-2003 from the online database at http://www.sandcrabs.org. Using comparisons, interns were able to better understand the processes and significance of studying marine species. Implementation of the project was invaluable in aiding the interns in their understanding of the natural sciences and the role of monitoring habitats in environmental health.

  1. Geochemical characterization of tarballs on beaches along the California coast. Part I - Shallow seepage impacting the Santa Barbara Channel Islands, Santa Cruz, Santa Rosa and San Miguel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hostettler, F.D.; Rosenbauer, R.J.; Lorenson, T.D.; Dougherty, J.

    2004-01-01

    Tarballs are common along the southern California coastline. This study investigates tarballs from beaches along this coastline, with a focus on Santa Cruz, Santa Rosa, and San Miquel Islands in the Santa Barbara Channel. The tarballs were fingerprinted using biomarker and stable carbon isotope parameters, and then grouped according to genetic similarities. The data show that the tarballs are of natural and not anthropogenic origin and that all originate from source rock within the Miocene Monterey Formation via shallow seeps offshore. Sterane biomarker parameters were found to vary widely in the sample set. Biodegradation, especially of the regular steranes, is the primary process impacting the biomarker distributions in a large group of samples. The most common tarball occurrences appear to come from offshore seepage near the west end of Santa Cruz Island. Another major group most likely was transported north from near Santa Monica Bay. Several individual occurrences of some of these tarball groups also were found on beaches as far north as Pt. Reyes and as far south as San Diego, indicating significant long-distance dispersal by ocean currents. This study begins a library of tarball fingerprints to be used as a database to help distinguish between natural and anthropogenic tar occurrences all along the California coast, and to compare shallow seepage with future samples of deeper production oils from the same area.

  2. Baker heads JOI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    D. James Baker, Jr., dean of the College of Ocean and Fishery Sciences at the University of Washington in Seattle, has been appointed to a 2-year term as president of the Joint Oceanographic Institutions, Inc. (JOI), a consortium of 10 academic oceanographic institutions. Baker, who has been working parttime in the position since May 15, will begin working full-time at JOI on November 1. Baker will be on leave from his post at the University of Washington while he is at JOI headquarters in Washington, D.C.; an interim dean has not yet been appointed.Among the tasks Baker envisions for JOI is to work with other groups, including such National Research Council boards as the Board on Ocean Science and Policy (BOSP), on a long-range plan for the use of satellites in oceanography. Baker is a member of BOSP. JOI also plans to submit a proposal on July 15 to the National Science Foundation for the management of the Advanced Ocean Drilling Program (AODP) with Texas A&M University as the scientific operator. A decision on the proposal is expected in early fall, Baker said.

  3. Clarifying Baker's Law

    PubMed Central

    Cheptou, P.-O.

    2012-01-01

    Background Baker's Law states that colonization by self-compatible organisms is more likely to be successful than colonization by self-incompatible organisms because of the ability for self-compatible organisms to produce offspring without pollination agents. This simple model has proved very successful in plant ecology and has been applied to various contexts, including colonizing or ruderal species, islands colonizers, invasive species or mating system variation across distribution ranges. Moreover, it is one of the only models in population biology linking two traits of major importance in ecology, namely dispersal and mating system. Although Baker's Law has stimulated a large number of empirical studies reporting the association of self-fertilization and colonizing ability in various contexts, the data have not established a general pattern for the association of traits. Scope In this paper, a critical position is adopted to discuss and clarify Baker's Law. From the literature referring to Baker's Law, an analysis made regarding how mating success is considered in such studies and discrepancies with population genetics theory of mating systems are highlighted. The data reporting the association of self-fertilization and colonizing ability are also briefly reviewed and the potential bias in interpretation is discussed. Lastly, a recent theoretical model analysing the link between colonizing ability and self-fertilization is considered. Conclusions Evolutionary predictions are actually more complex than Baker's intuitive arguments. It appears that Baker's Law encompasses a variety of ecological scenarios, which cannot be considered a priori as equivalent. Questioning what has been considered as self-evident for more than 50 years seems a reasonable objective to analyse in-depth dispersal and mating system traits. PMID:21685434

  4. Baker & Taylor's George Coe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fialkoff, Francine

    2009-01-01

    In his 30 years as a library wholesaler, first as VP and general manager of Brodart Books, Library, and School Automation divisions and since 2000 as president of the Library & Education division of Baker & Taylor (B&T), George Coe has been instrumental in a whole host of innovations. They go way beyond the selection, processing, and delivery of

  5. Baker & Taylor's George Coe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fialkoff, Francine

    2009-01-01

    In his 30 years as a library wholesaler, first as VP and general manager of Brodart Books, Library, and School Automation divisions and since 2000 as president of the Library & Education division of Baker & Taylor (B&T), George Coe has been instrumental in a whole host of innovations. They go way beyond the selection, processing, and delivery of…

  6. On the range of applicability of Baker`s approach to the frame problem

    SciTech Connect

    Kartha, G.N.

    1996-12-31

    We investigate the range of applicability of Baker`s approach to the frame problem using an action language. We show that for temporal projection and deterministic domains, Baker`s approach gives the intuitively expected results.

  7. 17. TURNTABLE RECONSTRUCTION BEACH & HYDE: Photocopy of May ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. TURNTABLE RECONSTRUCTION - BEACH & HYDE: Photocopy of May 1956 photograph of the turntable at Beach and Hyde Streets. View to the north. Note position of the tracks atop the turntable and details of the steel members that support the wooden decking. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  8. Cruise report: RV Ocean Alert Cruise A2-98-SC: mapping the southern California continental margin; March 26 through April 11, 1998; San Diego to Long Beach, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, James V.; Mayer, Larry A.

    1998-01-01

    The major objective of cruise A2-98 was to map portions of the southern California continental margin, including mapping in detail US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) ocean dumping sites. Mapping was accomplished using a high-resolution multibeam mapping system. The cruise was a jointly funded project between the USEPA and the US Geological Survey (USGS). The USEPA is specifically interested in a series of ocean dump sites off San Diego, Newport Beach, and Long Beach (see Fig. 1 in report) that require high-resolution base maps for site monitoring purposes. The USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Program has several on-going projects off southern California that lack high-precision base maps for a variety of ongoing geological studies. The cruise was conducted under a Cooperative Agreement between the USGS and the Ocean Mapping Group, University of New Brunswick, Canada.

  9. Baker rises to the top

    SciTech Connect

    Freedman, W.

    1997-03-19

    With its recent acquisition of Petrolite (St. Louis), Baker Performance Chemicals (BPC; Houston), a unit of Baker Hughes, leapfrogs Nalco-Exxon Energy Chemicals to become the biggest purveyor of oil field chemicals. {open_quotes}Petrolite and Baker were number two and number three,{close_quotes} says Credit Suisse First Boston analyst Gordon T. Hall, who adds that the combined operations will have at least $700 million/year in sales and be positioned to expand, primarily outside the US Hall says the Nalco-Exxon jv, the only other major oil field chemicals player, has sales of less than $650 million/year. Although Baker Hughes does no break out sales by division, BPC president Glen Bassett says sales last year were {open_quotes}more than $300 million{close_quotes} but not as high as Petrolite`s $361 million. {open_quotes}It`s Baker Hughes`s intent to merge Petrolite and [BPC],{close_quotes} Bassett says. Baker paid $689 million to obtain Petrolite, which was under shareholder pressure to seek a buyer . Petrolite is Baker`s third acquisition in a year. Last summer it bought Suramco Chemical Research (Lloydminster, AB) and BASF`s oil field chemicals business. Reports that the purchase could trigger FTC scrutiny may have been overblown. {open_quotes}I don`t believe there are any antitrust issues,{close_quotes} says Joe Pilaro, president of BRAE Partners (Princeton, NJ), an investment advisory firm. Petrolite`s products complement, rather than parallel, those of Baker Hughes, he says.

  10. The scope of Baker's law.

    PubMed

    Pannell, John R; Auld, Josh R; Brandvain, Yaniv; Burd, Martin; Busch, Jeremiah W; Cheptou, Pierre-Olivier; Conner, Jeffrey K; Goldberg, Emma E; Grant, Alannie-Grace; Grossenbacher, Dena L; Hovick, Stephen M; Igic, Boris; Kalisz, Susan; Petanidou, Theodora; Randle, April M; de Casas, Rafael Rubio; Pauw, Anton; Vamosi, Jana C; Winn, Alice A

    2015-11-01

    Baker's law refers to the tendency for species that establish on islands by long-distance dispersal to show an increased capacity for self-fertilization because of the advantage of self-compatibility when colonizing new habitat. Despite its intuitive appeal and broad empirical support, it has received substantial criticism over the years since it was proclaimed in the 1950s, not least because it seemed to be contradicted by the high frequency of dioecy on islands. Recent theoretical work has again questioned the generality and scope of Baker's law. Here, we attempt to discern where the idea is useful to apply and where it is not. We conclude that several of the perceived problems with Baker's law fall away when a narrower perspective is adopted on how it should be circumscribed. We emphasize that Baker's law should be read in terms of an enrichment of a capacity for uniparental reproduction in colonizing situations, rather than of high selfing rates. We suggest that Baker's law might be tested in four different contexts, which set the breadth of its scope: the colonization of oceanic islands, metapopulation dynamics with recurrent colonization, range expansions with recurrent colonization, and colonization through species invasions. PMID:26192018

  11. The sea-finding behavior of hatchling olive ridley sea turtles, Lepidochelys olivacea, at the beach of San Miguel (Costa Rica).

    PubMed

    Stapput, Katrin; Wiltschko, Wolfgang

    2005-05-01

    Newly hatched olive ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea) were tested for their directional preferences in a sand-filled circular arena in total darkness. Hatchlings that had crawled about 5 m on the beach, toward the sea preferred the southwesterly direction that would have brought them to the water line, whereas hatchlings that had been denied this experience headed eastward, a direction of unclear origin. These data suggest that a short crawl across the natural beach can set the direction in which the young turtles subsequently move. The crawling experience was sufficient to acquire the compass course that they later follow, probably with the help of a magnetic compass, not only in the water, but already while still on land. PMID:15834543

  12. The sea-finding behavior of hatchling olive ridley sea turtles, Lepidochelys olivacea, at the beach of San Miguel (Costa Rica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stapput, Katrin; Wiltschko, Wolfgang

    2005-05-01

    Newly hatched olive ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea) were tested for their directional preferences in a sand-filled circular arena in total darkness. Hatchlings that had crawled about 5 m on the beach, toward the sea preferred the southwesterly direction that would have brought them to the water line, whereas hatchlings that had been denied this experience headed eastward, a direction of unclear origin. These data suggest that a short crawl across the natural beach can set the direction in which the young turtles subsequently move. The crawling experience was sufficient to acquire the compass course that they later follow, probably with the help of a magnetic compass, not only in the water, but already while still on land.

  13. Ella Baker: An Unknown Soldier.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Joni L.

    1988-01-01

    The movement to gain civil rights for Black people was largely carried out by women, such as Ella Baker. She was a consumer advocate and an executive in major civil rights organizations. She did not seek public attention but deserves acknowledgement for her contributions. (VM)

  14. Baker picked to head NOAA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    President Clinton nominated D. James Baker as the Commerce Department's undersecretary for oceans and atmospheres on February 12. He would serve as the director of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Doug Hall, vice-president of the Nature Conservancy, was nominated as assistant secretary for oceans and atmospheres. He would serve as NOAA's deputy director. The nominations are subject to confirmation by the Senate.“We have found the perfect balance to lead NOAA,” said Clinton. “With Jim Baker and Doug Hall, we have a team that will bring scientific skills, laboratory management experience, a strong commitment to environmental protection, and the savvy required to deal effectively with sensitive issues.”

  15. Characterized allergens causing bakers' asthma.

    PubMed

    Baur, X; Posch, A

    1998-06-01

    Although airborne allergens in bakeries and confectioneries cause one of the most common forms of occupational asthma, namely, bakers' asthma, only a few of them are known in detail so far. Here we summarize current knowledge of bakery allergens and describe our own two-dimensional (2-D) immunoelectrophoresis studies of wheat-flour allergens as well as the allergenic baking enzyme Asp o 2. Out of approximately 700 soluble wheat polypeptides, 70 show IgE binding; the following wheat-flour allergens could be identified and characterized: members of the alpha-amylase inhibitor family (14-18 kDa), acyl-CoA oxidase (26 kDa), peroxidase (36 kDa), and fructose-bisphosphate aldolase (37 kDa). However, the great majority of the soluble wheat-flour allergens, mainly located in the 27-, 55-, and 70-kDa areas of the 2-D immunoblots with pI values of 5.8-6.8, 5.9-6.5, and 5.5-6.1, respectively, are not known at present. Asp o 2, to which approximately 25% of all bakers with respiratory symptoms are sensitized, is a well-characterized starch-cleaving enzyme. We conclude that great effort is still needed to describe all major wheat-flour allergens. As shown by Asp o 2, knowledge of the causative allergens and their characteristics enables us to initiate very effective preventive measures such as the introduction of granulated allergenic products. PMID:9689337

  16. [Focus: baker's asthma. Epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of baker's asthma].

    PubMed

    Romano, Canzio

    2014-01-01

    Baker's asthma, though having been recognized and studied since long time, still stays one of the most common causes of occupational asthma. Moreover, our understanding of the causative agents, the pathophysiological mnechanisms, the usefulness of medical surveillance, the proper treatment and prevention of the disease is still scanty. This is due to either to its complex pathogenesis or to possible confoundings, besides the still inadequate quality and standardization of the tools available as far as the allergologic diagnosis is concerned. Proper medical surveillance, validated causal therapies, efficient primary prevention are still uncertain. Change of employment or relocation is often impossible, particularly among artisan workers. Various evidences have been critically revised and summarized. PMID:25558716

  17. Effects of beach replenishment on intertidal invertebrates: A 15-month, eight beach study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wooldridge, Tyler; Henter, Heather J.; Kohn, Joshua R.

    2016-06-01

    Beach replenishment is an increasingly popular means to remediate coastal erosion, but no consensus exists regarding how long replenishment affects sandy beach intertidal invertebrates, key components of beach ecosystems. We monitored the intertidal invertebrate community for fifteen months following a replenishment project at eight beaches, each with replenished and control sections, across San Diego County. Nearly all taxa showed major declines in abundance immediately following replenishment. Populations of talitrid amphipods and the bean clam Donax gouldii recovered within one year, sooner than in previous studies. On some beaches, populations of the mole crab Emerita analoga bloomed four months after replenishment and were more numerous on replenished portions of beaches at that time. Mole crab populations subsequently declined and no longer differed by treatment. The polychaete community, composed of Scolelepis sp. and several other numerically important taxa, showed a strong replenishment-induced reduction in abundance that persisted through the end of the study. The large negative effect of replenishment on polychaetes, coupled with their overall importance to the invertebrate community, resulted in a more than twofold reduction in overall invertebrate abundance on replenished beaches at 15 months. Such reductions may have far reaching consequences for sandy beach ecosystems, as community declines can reduce prey availability for shorebirds and fish. As this and other recent studies have revealed longer times for the recovery of intertidal invertebrates than previously observed, longer study periods and more cautious estimates regarding the magnitude, variability, and duration of impacts of beach replenishment for management decision-making are warranted.

  18. 21 CFR 172.325 - Bakers yeast protein.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bakers yeast protein. 172.325 Section 172.325 Food... Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.325 Bakers yeast protein. Bakers yeast protein may be safely used in food in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Bakers yeast protein is...

  19. Beach profile variation on Hawaiian carbonate beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibbs, A.E.; Richmond, B.M.; Fletcher, C.H.

    2000-01-01

    Beach profiles from selected Oahu and Maui beaches quantitatively document beach volume variation and change between 1994 and 1999. Along exposed, high-energy beaches, large fluctuations in beach volume, characterized primarily by the formation and erosion of extensive berms, dominate the seasonal changes. Beaches along more protected stretches of coastline show much less variation in profile morphology. Beaches on the west (leeward) coast of Oahu experienced the most seasonal variation in profile volume, followed by the north shore, east (windward) shore, and south shore. Similar to Oahu, beaches along the west coast of Maui showed the greatest overall profile variation. However, the mean variation for profiles along a single coastal reach showed little difference compared to other coastal segments. Although some beaches showed net gain or loss during the study period, most beaches remained relatively stable with change limited to a finite envelope. No island-wide trends in beach erosion or accretion were observed during the study period. However, no extreme events, such as tropical storms or hurricanes, directly influenced the Hawaiian Islands during the study period. This data set should therefore be considered as representative of typical annual beach activity. Greater variation and possible long-term change would be expected during extreme events.

  20. Hyphenated history: the Phelps-Baker test.

    PubMed

    Mehlman, C T; Crawford, A H

    1997-12-01

    The language of orthopedics is filled with eponyms. Orthopedic surgeons speak cryptically to one another using code words and "orthopedic pig-Latin." Certain hyphenated eponyms are particularly interesting, because they represent people who came to be partners in orthopedic history. The derivation of the Phelps-Baker test, an important component of the hip examination of children who suffer from cerebral palsy, named in honor of Winthrop Morgan Phelps and Lenox D. Baker, is described in this report. PMID:9413591

  1. Pre-employment screening among trainee bakers.

    PubMed Central

    De Zotti, R; Molinari, S; Larese, F; Bovenzi, M

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To assess the prevalence of atopy in a vocational school so as to evaluate the feasibility of pre-employment screening. METHODS--The prevalence of atopy by family diathesis, prick tests, immunoglobulin E (IgE) concentrations, and personal history of allergic respiratory diseases was investigated in 144 trainee bakers and 81 students on a graphic artists course (mean age 15.4 years). Skin sensitisation to wheat, rye, and barley flours, to alpha amylase, and to storage mites was also evaluated. RESULTS--Personal allergic symptoms were reported by 13.2% of the bakers and 14.7% of the graphic artists and there was a significant association between symptoms and atopy by prick tests (odds ratio (OR) 17.2; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 5.27-56.4) and by family history (OR 3.11; 95% CI 1.02-9.53). When bakers were grouped according to the presence of allergic symptoms and results of immunological tests, 6.9% had asthma, 6.3% had rhinoconjunctivitis, and a high percentage (28.5%) were without symptoms but scored positive on prick tests or family symptoms. Skin sensitisation to storage mites had similar prevalences (16%) in the two groups of trainees and occurred nearly always in atopic people. Positive skin tests to wheat flour (3.5%), rye (0.7%), and alpha amylase (0.7%) were specific to bakers. CONCLUSIONS--Pre-employment screening is a useful source of medical information and allows for counseling. The presence of asthma, or of another allergic disease in a severe form, is suggested as a criterion for excluding students of a vocational school from training as bakers. Student bakers without allergic symptoms but atopic by other criteria should be informed about their risks of developing occupational asthma, and periodic check ups must be recommended. Screening studies in vocational school provide a better understanding of specificity of skin sensitisation to occupational allergens. PMID:7795745

  2. Josephine Baker: psychoanalysis and the colonial fetish.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Anne Anlin

    2006-01-01

    This paper traces an intricate path connecting racial fantasy, aesthetic judgment, and the larger cultural problem of inter-subjective recognition. In particular, the author examines the theme of fetishism, both sexual and racial, in a Western historical, colonial context, in order to unravel a set of disturbances that cohere around the racial fetish then and now. Taking the figure of an entertainment icon of the 1920s, Josephine Baker, as a case study, the author shows how the imagination of the colonizing white male was both articulated and disrupted by Baker as a ready-made representation of the cultural, racial, and sexual other. PMID:16482962

  3. 21 CFR 184.1983 - Bakers yeast extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bakers yeast extract. 184.1983 Section 184.1983... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1983 Bakers yeast extract. (a) Bakers yeast extract... a selected strain of yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It may be concentrated or dried. (b)...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1983 - Bakers yeast extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bakers yeast extract. 184.1983 Section 184.1983... GRAS § 184.1983 Bakers yeast extract. (a) Bakers yeast extract is the food ingredient resulting from concentration of the solubles of mechanically ruptured cells of a selected strain of yeast,...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1983 - Bakers yeast extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bakers yeast extract. 184.1983 Section 184.1983... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1983 Bakers yeast extract. (a) Bakers yeast extract... a selected strain of yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It may be concentrated or dried. (b)...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1983 - Bakers yeast extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Bakers yeast extract. 184.1983 Section 184.1983... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1983 Bakers yeast extract. (a) Bakers yeast extract... a selected strain of yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It may be concentrated or dried. (b)...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1983 - Bakers yeast extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bakers yeast extract. 184.1983 Section 184.1983... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1983 Bakers yeast extract. (a) Bakers yeast extract... a selected strain of yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It may be concentrated or dried. (b)...

  8. Richmond's Response to Comment by Keith Baker and Others.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Mossie J.

    1978-01-01

    Mossie J. Richmond, Jr. responds to Keith Baker's criticisms directed at "Effects of Extended School Year" (Education, 97, 392-8), maintaining that Baker has criticized research and research methodology with which Baker has never come in contact. Richmond presents definitions, classifications, and rationale for his research methodology. (JC)

  9. Virtual Beach Manager Toolset

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Virtual Beach Manager Toolset (VB) is a set of decision support software tools developed to help local beach managers make decisions as to when beaches should be closed due to predicted high levels of water borne pathogens. The tools are being developed under the umbrella of...

  10. BEACHES HEALTH SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Baterial samples were taken at swimming beaches (primarily freshwater beaches) in Region 10 while evaluating potential bacterial sources (e.g., people, cattle, pets, septic systems, runoff, birds). For each beach selected, the preferred sampling is: background, low/no use period...

  11. Synthesis study of an erosion hot spot, Ocean Beach, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Hansen, Jeff E.; Erikson, Li H.

    2012-01-01

    A synthesis of multiple coastal morphodynamic research efforts is presented to identify the processes responsible for persistent erosion along a 1-km segment of 7-km-long Ocean Beach in San Francisco, California. The beach is situated adjacent to a major tidal inlet and in the shadow of the ebb-tidal delta at the mouth of San Francisco Bay. Ocean Beach is exposed to a high-energy wave climate and significant alongshore variability in forcing introduced by varying nearshore bathymetry, tidal forcing, and beach morphology (e.g., beach variably backed by seawall, dunes, and bluffs). In addition, significant regional anthropogenic factors have influenced sediment supply and tidal current strength. A variety of techniques were employed to investigate the erosion at Ocean Beach, including historical shoreline and bathymetric analysis, monthly beach topographic surveys, nearshore and regional bathymetric surveys, beach and nearshore grain size analysis, two surf-zone hydrodynamic experiments, four sets of nearshore wave and current experiments, and several numerical modeling approaches. Here, we synthesize the results of 7 years of data collection to lay out the causes of persistent erosion, demonstrating the effectiveness of integrating an array of data sets covering a huge range of spatial scales. The key findings are as follows: anthropogenic influences have reduced sediment supply from San Francisco Bay, leading to pervasive contraction (i.e., both volume and area loss) of the ebb-tidal delta, which in turn reduced the regional grain size and modified wave focusing patterns along Ocean Beach, altering nearshore circulation and sediment transport patterns. In addition, scour associated with an exposed sewage outfall pipe causes a local depression in wave heights, significantly modifying nearshore circulation patterns that have been shown through modeling to be key drivers of persistent erosion in that area.

  12. 78 FR 39599 - Safety Zone; Independence Day Fireworks, Kings Beach, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Independence Day Fireworks, Kings Beach, CA AGENCY: Coast... safety zone for the Independence Day Fireworks, Kings Beach, CA in the Captain of the Port, San Francisco... 33 CFR 165.1191, Table 1, number 20, will be enforced from 7 a.m. through 10 p.m. on July 3,...

  13. VIEW OF THE AREA BETWEEN THE BEACH (LEFT) AND BEACH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THE AREA BETWEEN THE BEACH (LEFT) AND BEACH ROAD. NOTE THE RESIDENCES ON OPPOSITE SIDE OF BEACH ROAD. VIEW FACING NORTH. - Hickam Field, Fort Kamehameha Historic Housing, Along Worchester Avenue & Hope Street, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  14. Human Health at the Beach

    MedlinePlus

    ... Other Beach Safety Topics Beach Related Illnesses A water quality warning sign advising swimmers to avoid contact with ... a source of longer-term data about beach water quality. EPA created BEACON to provide the Agency's requirement ...

  15. Louisiana's statewide beach cleanup

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindstedt, Dianne M.; Holmes, Joseph C., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Litter along Lousiana's beaches has become a well-recognized problem. In September 1987, Louisiana's first statewide beach cleanup attracted about 3300 volunteers who filled 16,000 bags with trash collected along 15 beaches. An estimated 800,173 items were gathered. Forty percent of the items were made of plastic and 11% were of polystyrene. Of all the litter collected, 37% was beverage-related. Litter from the oil and gas, commercial fishing, and maritime shipping industries was found, as well as that left by recreational users. Although beach cleanups temporarily rid Louisiana beaches of litter, the real value of the effort is in public participation and education. Civic groups, school children, and individuals have benefited by increasing their awareness of the problems of trash disposal.

  16. 75 FR 27287 - South Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... Forest Service South Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The South Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie (MBS) Resource Advisory Committee (RAC... Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest Web site at:...

  17. Experimental implementation of the quantum baker's map.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Yaakov S; Lloyd, Seth; Emerson, Joseph; Cory, David G

    2002-10-01

    This Letter reports on the experimental implementation of the quantum baker's map via a three bit nuclear magnetic resonance quantum information processor. The experiments tested the sensitivity of the quantum chaotic map to perturbations. In the first experiment, the map was iterated forward and then backward to provide benchmarks for intrinsic errors and decoherence. In the second set of experiments, the least significant qubit was perturbed in between the iterations to test the sensitivity of the quantum chaotic map to controlled perturbations. These experiments can be used to investigate existing theoretical predictions for quantum chaotic dynamics. PMID:12366026

  18. Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff relations for supergroups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostelecký, V. Alan; Nieto, Michael Martin; Truax, Rodney

    1986-05-01

    One-parameter subgroups, the exponential mapping, and canonical coordinates have previously been defined for connected supergroups. In this paper, a technique for obtaining analytical expressions linking different coordinate schemes for supergroups is presented. These are the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff relations. The method is illustrated in detail with the examples of supergroups based on the supersymmetric quantum-mechanical superalgebra sqm (2) and on the Inönü-Wigner contraction isop(1/2) of the simple superalgebra osp(1/2).

  19. Obituary: James Gilbert Baker, 1914-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Neal Kenton

    2005-12-01

    Dr. James Gilbert Baker, renowned astronomer and optical physicist, died 29 June 2005 at his home in Bedford, New Hampshire at the age of 90. Although his scientific interest was astronomy, his extraordinary ability in optical design led to the creation of hundreds of optical systems that supported astronomy, aerial reconnaissance, instant photography (Polaroid SX70 camera), and the US space programs. He was the recipient of numerous awards for his creative work. He was born in Louisville, Kentucky, on 11 November 1914, the fourth child of Jesse B. Baker and Hattie M. Stallard. After graduating from Louisville DuPont Manual High, he went on to attend the University of Louisville majoring in Mathematics. He became very close to an Astronomy Professor, Dr. Moore, and many times used his telescopes to do nightly observations. While at the university, he built mirrors for his own telescopes and helped form the Louisville Astronomical Society in 1933. At the University of Louisville, he also met his future wife, Elizabeth Katherine Breitenstein of Jefferson County, Kentucky. He received his BA in 1935 at the height of the Depression. He began his graduate work in astronomy at the Harvard College Observatory. After his MA (1936), he was appointed a Junior Fellow (1937-1943) in the Prestigious Harvard Society of Fellows. He received his PhD in 1942 from Harvard in rather an unusual fashion, which is worth retelling. During an Astronomy Department dinner, Dr. Harlow Shapley (the director) asked him to give a talk. According to the "Courier-Journal Magazine", "Dr. Shapley stood up and proclaimed an on-the-spot departmental meeting and asked for a vote on recommending Baker for a Ph.D. on the basis of the 'oral exam' he had just finished. The vote was unanimous." It was at Harvard College Observatory during this first stage of his career that he collaborated with Donald H. Menzel, Lawrence H. Aller, and George H. Shortley on a landmark set of papers on the physical processes in gaseous nebulae. In addition to his theoretical work, he also began designing astronomical instruments with ever greater resolving powers and wide-angle acceptance which he described as the "the royal way to new discoveries."1 He is well known for the Baker-Schmidt telescope and the Baker Super Schmidt meteor camera. He was also a co-author with George Z. Dimitroff of a book entitled, "Telescopes and Accessories" (1945). In 1948 he received an Honorary Doctorate from the University of Louisville. With the start of World War II, the U.S. Army sought to establish an aerial reconnaissance branch and placed the project in charge of Colonel George W. Goddard. After months of searching for an optical designer, he asked for a recommendation from Dr. Mees2 of Eastman Kodak. Following the recommendations of Dr. Mees, Col. Goddard found this friendly and unassuming twenty-six year old graduate student at Harvard to be the perfect candidate. He was impressed by Dr. Baker's originality in optical design and provided him a small army research contract in early 1941 for a wide-angle camera system. Goddard's "Victory Lens" project began on 20 May 1942 when he visited Dr. Baker's office at Harvard College Observatory and described the need for a lens of f/2.5 covering a 5x5 plate to be made in huge quantities." Multiple designs were developed during the war effort. A hands-on man, Dr. Baker risked his life operating the cameras in many of the early test flights that carried the camera systems in unpressurized compartments on aircraft. He was the director of the Observatory Optical Project at Harvard University from 1943 to 1945. He began his long consulting career with the Perkin Elmer Corporation during this period. When the war ended, Harvard University decided to cease war-related projects and subsequently, Dr. Baker's lab was moved to Boston University and was eventually spun off as ITEK Corporation. However, he continued to be an associate professor and research associate at Harvard from 1946 to 1949. In 1948 he received the Presidential Medal for Merit for his work during World War II in the Office of Scientific Research and Development. In 1948, he moved to Orinda, California from Cambridge, Massachusetts and became a research associate of Lick Observatory for two years. He returned to Harvard in 1950. He had spent thousands of hours doing ray trace calculations on a Marchant calculator to produce his first aerial cameras. To replace the tedious calculations by hand, Dr. Baker introduced the use of numerical computers into the field of optics. His ray-trace program was one of the first applications run on the Harvard Mark II (1947) computer. Later on, he developed his own methodology to optimize the performance of his optical designs. These optical design computer programs were a family affair, developed under his direction by his own children to support his highly sophisticated designs of the 1960s and 1970s. For most of his career, Dr. Baker was involved with large system concepts covering not only the camera, but the camera delivery systems as well. As the chairman of U.S. Air Force Scientific Advisory Board, he recognized that national security requirements would require optical designs of even greater resolving power using aircraft at extreme altitudes. The need for such a plane resulted in the creation of the U-2 system consisting of a plane and camera functioning as a unit to create panoramic high-resolution aerial photographs. He formed Spica Incorporated in 1955 to perform the necessary optical design work for the US Government. The final design was a 36-inch f/10 system. Dr. Baker also designed the aircraft's periscope to allow the pilot to see his flight path. By 1958, he was almost solely responsible for all the cameras used in photoreconnaissance aircraft. He continued to serve on the President's Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board and on the Land Panel. Before the launch of Sputnik, he designed the Baker-Nunn satellite-tracking camera to support the Air Force's early satellite tracking and space surveillance networks. Because of his foresight, cameras were in place to track the Sputnik Satellite in October 1957. These cameras allowed the precise orbital determination of all orbiting spacecraft for over three decades until the tracking cameras were retired from service. He continued to advise top Government officials in the evolution of reconnaissance systems during the 1960s and 1970s. He received a Space Pioneer Award from the US Air Force. He received the Pioneers of National Reconnaissance Medal (2000) with the citation, "As a young Harvard astronomer, Dr. James G. Baker designed most of the lenses and many of the cameras used in aerial over flights of 'denied territory' enabling the success of the U.S. peacetime strategic reconnaissance policy." Around 1968, he undertook a consulting contract with Polaroid Corporation after Dr. Edwin Land persuaded him that only he could design the optical system for his new SX-70 Land. He was also responsible for the design of the Quintic focusing system for the Polaroid Spectra Camera system that employed a revolutionary combination of non-rotational aspherics to achieve focusing function. In 1958 he became a Fellow of the Optical Society of America (OSA). In 1960 he was elected President of the Society for one year and helped establish the Applied Optics Journal. He was the recipient of numerous OSA awards, spanning the breadth of the field, and has been honored with the Adolf Lomb Award, Ives Medal, Fraunhofer Award, and Richardson Award. He was made an honorary member of OSA in 1993. He also was the recipient of the 1978 Gold Medal, the highest award of the International Society of Optical Engineers (SPIE). Furthermore, he was the Recipient of the Elliott Cresson Medal of the Franklin Institute for his many innovations in astronomical tools. Dr. Baker was elected a Member of the National Academy of Sciences (1965), the American Philosophical Society (1970), the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (1946), and the National Academy of Engineering (1979). He was a member of the American Astronomical Society, the International Astronomical Union, and the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. He authored numerous professional papers and has over fifty US patents. He maintained his affiliation with the Harvard College Observatory and the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory until he retired in 2003. Even after his retirement in 2003, he continued work at his home on a new telescope design that he told his family he should have discovered in 1940. Light was always his tool to the understanding of the Universe. An entry from his personal observation log, 7 January 1933, made after an evening of star gazing reveals the pure inspiration of his efforts: "After all, it is the satisfaction obtained which benefits humanity, more than any other thing. It is in the satisfaction of greater human knowledge about the cosmos that the scientist is spurred on to greater efforts." James Baker fulfilled the destiny he had foreseen in 1933, living to see professional and amateur astronomers use his instruments and designs to further the understanding of the cosmos. Whereas, he had not predicted that his cameras would protect this nation for over many years. He is survived by his wife, his four children and five grandchildren. 1Oscar Bryant, "Astronomical Designs," in "Accent", the University of Louisville College of Arts and Sciences Alumni Newsletter, Spring 1994. 2George W. Goddard,Brigadier General, "Overview", 273.

  20. History of Ideas at Baker University. Position Paper I. Foundations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, John C.

    The foundations upon which Baker University's interdisciplinary course on the history of ideas is built are described in this position paper. The particular situation of the Baker students and faculty members is analyzed by way of identifying the needs, resources, and problems to be resolved. The presuppositions and definitions from which the…

  1. George Pierce Baker's "Principles of Argumentation": "Completely Logical"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bordelon, Suzanne

    2006-01-01

    The article contends that previous scholars have misread George Pierce Baker's efforts by focusing primarily on "The Principles of Argumentation" and the role of logic. Baker's view of logic was more complex than scholars have claimed. He challenged traditional concepts of formal logic, highlighting only those aspects that would help students…

  2. Respiratory cancer in Danish bakers: a 10 year cohort study.

    PubMed Central

    Tüchsen, F; Nordholm, L

    1986-01-01

    A national cohort based on the census at 9 November 1970 and the death registration files from 1970 to 1980 was analysed to see if skilled Danish bakers had an excess of respiratory cancer. The group of skilled bakers was divided into occupational subgroups to try to narrow down the possible causes of cancer. Significant excess mortality was found among skilled bakers in retail bakeries, skilled bakers in hotels and restaurants, and independent bakers. To adjust for confounding factors, the SMR was calculated with control groups of equal social status and smoking habits. With all skilled workers as the reference group, skilled bakers in retail bakeries still had an excess, but now insignificant, risk but skilled bakers in hotels and restaurants had a significant excess risk. Compared with all self employed people in urban occupations in which an average of six or fewer workers were employed as a referent group, independent bakers had an insignificant excess risk. Suspected carcinogens in bakeries include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), reaction products of PAH, free radicals, n-nitrosodimethylamine, aflatoxin, sterigmatocystin, and zeralenone. PMID:3730301

  3. Celebrating the Fiftieth Baker Gordon Symposium on Cosmetic Surgery: The Legacy of Thomas J. Baker, M.D.

    PubMed

    Stuzin, James M

    2016-02-01

    The Baker Gordon Symposium on Cosmetic Surgery celebrates its fiftieth year. A review of its history mirrors the evolution of aesthetic surgery in terms of advancements in techniques, and the acceptance of cosmetic surgery as a credible subspecialty of plastic surgery. Beginning in 1967, the Baker Gordon Symposium was the first live surgery symposium that focused on aesthetic surgery, and set a precedent for aesthetic surgery education over the ensuing decades. Historically, the pioneers in aesthetic techniques first presented their innovations at the Baker Gordon Symposium, helping to educate and train their peers to perform cosmetic procedures. The legacy of Thomas Baker is intertwined with the history of the Baker Gordon Symposium, both in terms of his contributions to plastic surgery education, and to the acceptance of the subspecialty of aesthetic surgery. PMID:26818283

  4. Equilibrium shoreline response of a high wave energy beach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yates, M.L.; Guza, R.T.; O'Reilly, W. C.; Hansen, J.E.; Barnard, P.L.

    2011-01-01

    Four years of beach elevation surveys at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, California, are used to extend an existing equilibrium shoreline change model, previously calibrated with fine sand and moderate energy waves, to medium sand and higher-energy waves. The shoreline, characterized as the cross-shore location of the mean high water contour, varied seasonally by between 30 and 60 m, depending on the alongshore location. The equilibrium shoreline change model relates the rate of horizontal shoreline displacement to the hourly wave energy E and the wave energy disequilibrium, the difference between E and the equilibrium wave energy that would cause no change in the present shoreline location. Values for the model shoreline response coefficients are tuned to fit the observations in 500 m alongshore segments and averaged over segments where the model has good skill and the estimated effects of neglected alongshore sediment transport are relatively small. Using these representative response coefficients for 0.3 mm sand from Ocean Beach and driving the model with much lower-energy winter waves observed at San Onofre Beach (also 0.3 mm sand) in southern California, qualitatively reproduces the small seasonal shoreline fluctuations at San Onofre. This consistency suggests that the shoreline model response coefficients depend on grain size and may be constant, and thus transportable, between sites with similar grain size and different wave climates. The calibrated model response coefficients predict that for equal fluctuations in wave energy, changes in shoreline location on a medium-grained (0.3 mm) beach are much smaller than on a previously studied fine-grained (0.2 mm) beach. Copyright ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  5. Equilibrium shoreline response of a high wave energy beach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yates, M. L.; Guza, R. T.; O'Reilly, W. C.; Hansen, J. E.; Barnard, P. L.

    2011-04-01

    Four years of beach elevation surveys at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, California, are used to extend an existing equilibrium shoreline change model, previously calibrated with fine sand and moderate energy waves, to medium sand and higher-energy waves. The shoreline, characterized as the cross-shore location of the mean high water contour, varied seasonally by between 30 and 60 m, depending on the alongshore location. The equilibrium shoreline change model relates the rate of horizontal shoreline displacement to the hourly wave energy E and the wave energy disequilibrium, the difference between E and the equilibrium wave energy that would cause no change in the present shoreline location. Values for the model shoreline response coefficients are tuned to fit the observations in 500 m alongshore segments and averaged over segments where the model has good skill and the estimated effects of neglected alongshore sediment transport are relatively small. Using these representative response coefficients for 0.3 mm sand from Ocean Beach and driving the model with much lower-energy winter waves observed at San Onofre Beach (also 0.3 mm sand) in southern California, qualitatively reproduces the small seasonal shoreline fluctuations at San Onofre. This consistency suggests that the shoreline model response coefficients depend on grain size and may be constant, and thus transportable, between sites with similar grain size and different wave climates. The calibrated model response coefficients predict that for equal fluctuations in wave energy, changes in shoreline location on a medium-grained (0.3 mm) beach are much smaller than on a previously studied fine-grained (0.2 mm) beach.

  6. Hawaii Beach Monitoring Program: Beach Profile Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibbs, Ann E.; Richmond, Bruce M.; Fletcher, Charles H.; Hillman, Kindra P.

    2001-01-01

    Coastal erosion is widespread and locally severe in Hawaii and other low-latitude areas. Typical erosion rates in Hawaii are in the range of 15 to 30 cm/yr (0.5 to 1 ft/yr; Hwang, 1981; Sea Engineering, Inc., 1988; Makai Ocean Engineering, Inc. and Sea Engineering, Inc.,1991). Recent studies on Oahu (Fletcher et al., 1997; Coyne et al., 1996) have shown that nearly 24%, or 27.5 km (17.1 mi) of an original 115 km (71.6 mi) of sandy shoreline (1940's) has been either significantly narrowed (17.2 km; 10.7 mi) or lost (10.3 km; 6.4 mi). Nearly one-quarter of the islands' beaches have been significantly degraded over the last half-century and all shorelines have been affected to some degree. Oahu shorelines are by far the most studied, however, beach loss has been identified on the other islands as well, with nearly 13 km (8 mi) of beach likely lost due to shoreline hardening on Maui (Makai Engineering, Inc. and Sea Engineering, Inc., 1991). Causes of coastal erosion and beach loss in Hawaii are numerous but, unfortunately, poorly understood and rarely quantified. Construction of shoreline protection structures limits coastal land loss, but does not alleviate beach loss and may actually accelerate the problem by prohibiting sediment deposition in front of the structures. Other factors contributing to beach loss include: a) reduced sediment supply; b) large storms; and, c) sea-level rise. Reduction in sand supply, either from landward or seaward (primarily reef) sources, can have a myriad of causes. Obvious causes such as beach sand mining and emplacement of structures that interrupt natural sediment transport pathways or prevent access to backbeach sand deposits, remove sediment from the active littoral system. More complex issues of sediment supply can be related to reef health and carbonate production which, in turn, may be linked to changes in water quality. Second, the accumulated effect of large storms is to transport sediment beyond the littoral system. Third, rising sea level leads to a natural landward migration of the shoreline. Dramatic examples of coastal erosion, such as houses and roads falling into the sea, are rare in Hawaii, but the impact of erosion is still very serious. The signs of erosion are much more subtle and typically start as a "temporary" hardening structure designed to mitigate an immediate problem which, eventually, results in a proliferation of structures along a stretch of coast. The natural ability of the sandy shoreline to respond to changes in wave climate is lost. The overall goals of this study are to document the coastal erosion history in Hawaii, determine the causal factors of that erosion, provide high-quality data for other "end-users" in applied studies (i.e. coastal engineers, planners, and managers), and increase our general understanding of low-latitude coastal geologic development. This project involves close cooperation between the USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Program and the University of Hawaii.

  7. Baker-Akhiezer functions and generalised Macdonald-Mehta integrals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feigin, M. V.; Hallnäs, M. A.; Veselov, A. P.

    2013-05-01

    For the rational Baker-Akhiezer functions associated with special arrangements of hyperplanes with multiplicities we establish an integral identity, which may be viewed as a generalisation of the self-duality property of the usual Gaussian function with respect to the Fourier transformation. We show that the value of properly normalised Baker-Akhiezer function at the origin can be given by an integral of Macdonald-Mehta type and explicitly compute these integrals for all known Baker-Akhiezer arrangements. We use the Dotsenko-Fateev integrals to extend this calculation to all deformed root systems, related to the non-exceptional basic classical Lie superalgebras.

  8. STS-71 Payload Commander Dr. Ellen S. Baker suits up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    STS-71 Payload Commander Dr. Ellen S. Baker is assisted by a suit technician as she dons her launch/entry suit in the Operations and Checkout Building. Her third spaceflight will be an historic one for Baker, a medical doctor, as she oversees the series of scientific investigations that will be conducted during the first docking of the U.S. Space Shuttle to the Russian Space Station Mir. Baker and six fellow crew members -- four Americans and two Russian cosmonauts -- will shortly depart for Launch Pad 39A, where the Space Shuttle Atlantis awaits liftoff during a 10- minute launch window opening at 3:32 p.m. EDT.

  9. BACTERIA, BEACHES AND SWIMMABLE WATERS: INTRODUCING VIRTUAL BEACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Safe beaches meet water quality standards and are valued for their aesthetics and the recreational opportunities that they afford. In the United States recreational water quality assessments and beach closure decisions are presently based on samples of enterococci or Escherichia ...

  10. Virtual Beach: Decision Support Tools for Beach Pathogen Prediction

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Virtual Beach Managers Tool (VB) is decision-making software developed to help local beach managers make decisions as to when beaches should be closed due to predicted high levels of water borne pathogens. The tool is being developed under the umbrella of EPA's Advanced Monit...

  11. Obituary: Norman Hodgson Baker, Jr., 1931-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helfand, David J.

    2005-12-01

    Norman H. Baker, a key contributor to the foundation of modern stellar pulsation theory and former editor of the "Astronomical Journal", died on 11 October 2005 in Watertown, New York near his beloved summer home in Natural Bridge. He succumbed to complications of Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia, a bone marrow lymphoma that he had successfully surmounted for twenty-two years. Norm, as he was known to all, was born 23 October 1931 in Fergus Falls, Minnesota to Norman Hodgson and Jeannette (née Lieber) Baker. He attended the University of Minnesota where he met the first of many lifelong astronomical friends, Bill Erickson. He received his BA in 1952. He went on to do his PhD, "Radiation from Particle Interactions which Create Current," at Cornell University under Phil Morrison. He then moved to a postdoctoral position at the Max Planck Institut für Physik und Astrophysik in München with the intent of pursuing his work in plasma physics with Ludwig Biermann and Arnulf Schlüter. However, Rudolf (Rudi) Kippenhan snatched him away to pursue what became his lifelong interest, stellar physics. This was the dawn of the era in which electronic computers were becoming practical for scientific calculations, and Norm immediately adopted this new tool. Indeed, he remained at the forefront of computing technology throughout his life: He was certainly the first member of the Astronomy Department at Columbia to buy a Mac, and was undoubtedly one of the few emeritus professors in the world known by all the administrative staff as the first person to turn to when stumped by a computer problem. Following his first paper with Kippenhan on stellar rotation, Norm turned his attention to stellar pulsations, a topic he would pursue throughout his career. His 1962 paper in "Zeitschrift für Astrophysik" on pulsational models of Cepheids (Baker and Kippenhan 1962, 54, 155) is a classic in the field. The first figure displays the three dimensional model of the atmospheric absorption coefficient as a function of log P and log T. Sophisticated three-dimensional computer images being many years in the future, it was contructed from a folded and bent sheet of grid paper which was subsequently photographed. Using extensive numerical analysis, the paper showed that stars in the δ Cephei region of the H-R diagram were ``pulsationally unstable due to the destabilizing effect of the He+ region.'' This paper, along with those of Zhevakin, Cox, and Christy, established our modern understanding of pulsational instability in horizontal branch stars. His second paper with Kippenhan the following year brought convection into the problem; this topic became another lifelong theme of Norm's research that he subsequently pursued with Douglas Gough. His most cited work, carried out a decade later with van Albada, was an attempt to understand the properties of horizontal branch stars. It synthesized for the first time stellar evolution theory and the insights gained from studies of stellar pulsations. Between 1961 and 1965, Norm held no fewer than five positions. After a year on the west coast at the Convair Science Research Lab in San Diego, he landed in the New York area to pursue pulsations, oscillating among the Goddard Institute for Space Studies, the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, Yale, and New York University. In 1965, he was hired as an Assistant Professor in the Department of Astronomy at Columbia University by Lo Woltjer, and remained at Columbia until he retired in 2003. As a teacher, he was deeply appreciated by undergraduate and graduate students alike for lectures that were models of clarity, for his out-of-class assistance which was generous and unstinting, and for incorporating into his courses modern numerical techniques which served the students well throughout their careers. In 1975 when Woltjer returned to Europe, Norm took over the editorship of the "Astronomical Journal", a position he held (shared in the last few years with Leon Lucy) for a decade. His scrupulous integrity and forthright honesty served him, and the Society, well. Despite his scathing intolerance for administrative stupidity, he also managed to complete successfully a term as Chair of the Department of Astronomy. (This author, who currently holds the Chair and shares the intolerance, has yet to fathom the gracious equanimity Norm displayed.) His early interest in brewing beer during graduate school at Cornell (where he co-founded the Old Undershirt Brewing Company) was transformed in later life into an expertise in German wines. The precision that marked his research extended to every aspect of his private life. I had the distinct pleasure of subletting his apartment during my first year on the faculty at Columbia while he was on leave in Europe. We spent most of the year trying to imagine how we could ever restore it to the state of perfect organization in which we found it. Norm is survived by his wife and constant companion of thirty years, psychiatrist Doris Blum Nagel, by his sister Dr. Jean Trousdale, and brother Dr. Richard C. Baker, two nieces, three nephews, and by several generations of undergraduates, graduate students, postdocs, and colleagues who hold fond memories of his patience, kindness, humor, and quiet "joie de vivre".

  12. 30. Photocopy of lithograph showing Empire Stores at corner (Baker, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Photocopy of lithograph showing Empire Stores at corner (Baker, Ostheimer and Co.) from Everts, Ensign & Everts, Combination Atlas Map of Erie County, 1876 - Empire Stores, 501-505 State Street, Erie, Erie County, PA

  13. Morphodynamics of Prograding Beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggiero, P.

    2012-12-01

    Long-term coastal evolution often results from the cumulative effects of small residual differences between relatively large signals. In light of dire projections of sea level rise over the next several decades to century, there is a strong societal need for accurate forecasts of net interannual- to decadal-scale coastal change. However, our present understanding of the processes responsible for storm-induced erosion and coastal recession is significantly more advanced than our knowledge of coastal recovery during calm periods. To investigate the processes and morphodynamics associated with progading beaches we synthesize findings from a long-term (15 years) beach morphology monitoring program in the U.S. Pacific Northwest. Most of the beaches along the Columbia River littoral cell (northwest Oregon and southwest Washington) were eroded during the two intense winters of 1997/1998 (a major El Nio event) and 1998/1999 (a moderate La Nia event). Subsequent to these winters the beaches have exhibited net residual progradation of several meters per year resulting in significant shoreline advance. During this same period as many as two to three new foredunes formed with backshore beach profiles accumulating sand at rates of well over 10 m3/m/yr. Interestingly, these large signals of horizontal and vertical coastal advance have occurred on beaches in which nearshore morphological variability is dominated by net offshore sandbar migration. Net offshore sandbar migration follows a three-stage process; bar generation near the shoreline, seaward migration, and bar degeneration in the outer nearshore with a cyclic return period of approximately 4 to 5 years in the region. Gradients in alongshore sediment transport, net onshore directed cross-shore sediment transport within the surf zone, and cross-shore feeding from a shoreface out of equilibrium with forcing conditions may each be partially responsible for the sediment supplied to the beaches and dunes during the study period. In this paper we will exploit regional variability in physical (e.g. sediment supply) and ecological variables (e.g. % cover of exotic beach grass species and density) thought responsible for the varying rates and form of coastal advance in the region. These gradients allow us to test hypotheses regarding the relative role of the various controls on interannual- to decadal-scale coastal evolution.

  14. The mettle of moral fundamentalism: a reply to Robert Baker.

    PubMed

    Beauchamp, Tom L

    1998-12-01

    This article is a reply to Robert Baker's attempt to rebut moral fundamentalism, while grounding international bioethics in a form of contractarianism. Baker is mistaken in several of his interpretations of the alleged moral fundamentalism and findings of the Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments. He also misunderstands moral fundamentalism generally and wrongly categorizes it as morally bankrupt. His negotiated contract model is, in the final analysis, itself a form of the moral fundamentalism he declares bankrupt. PMID:11660627

  15. Virtual Beach 3: User's Guide

    EPA Science Inventory

    Virtual Beach version 3 (VB3) is a decision support tool that constructs site-specific statistical models to predict fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentrations at recreational beaches. VB3 is primarily designed for beach managers responsible for making decisions regarding beac...

  16. Great Lakes Beach Health

    As schools close for the year and summer weather beckons, many recreationalists head to the Great Lakes' public beaches. However, these coastal areas can become contaminated with disease-causing bacteria that threaten public health, disrupt water recreation, and pay a toll on the Great Lakes economi...

  17. Shoreline relaxation at pocket beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turki, Imen; Medina, Raul; Kakeh, Nabil; González, Mauricio

    2015-09-01

    A new physical concept of relaxation time is introduced in this research as the time required for the beach to dissipate its initial perturbation. This concept is investigated using a simple beach-evolution model of shoreline rotation at pocket beaches, based on the assumption that the instantaneous change of the shoreline plan-view shape depends on the long-term equilibrium plan-view shape. The expression of relaxation time is developed function of the energy conditions and the physical characteristics of the beach; it increases at longer beaches having coarse sediments and experiencing low-energy conditions. The relaxation time, calculated by the developed model, is validated by the shoreline observations extracted from video images at two artificially embayed beaches of Barcelona (NW Mediterranean) suffering from perturbations of sand movement and a nourishment project. This finding is promising to estimate the shoreline response and useful to improve our understanding of the dynamic of pocket beaches and their stability.

  18. 1. OVERALL VIEW OF LOBOS CREEK INLET STRUCTURE (#1786), LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OVERALL VIEW OF LOBOS CREEK INLET STRUCTURE (#1786), LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Presidio Water Treatment Plant, Lobos Creek Inlet Structure, East of Lobos Creek at Baker Beach, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  19. 9. VIEW OF UPPER LEVEL OF FILTRATION ROOM SHOWING TANKS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF UPPER LEVEL OF FILTRATION ROOM SHOWING TANKS AND CONTROL VALVES, LOOKING NORTH - Presidio Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, East of Lobos Creek at Baker Beach, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  20. 1. VIEW OF VALVE HOUSE (#1771), AND PUMPING STATION (#1772) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF VALVE HOUSE (#1771), AND PUMPING STATION (#1772) BEYOND, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Presidio Water Treatment Plant, Valve House, East of Lobos Creek at Baker Beach, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  1. 1. VIEW OF PUMPING STATION (#1772), AND VALVE HOUSE (#1771) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF PUMPING STATION (#1772), AND VALVE HOUSE (#1771) BEYOND AT RIGHT, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Presidio Water Treatment Plant, Pumping Station, East of Lobos Creek at Baker Beach, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  2. 7. OBLIQUE INTERIOR VIEW OF FILTRATION ROOM IN FILTRATION PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. OBLIQUE INTERIOR VIEW OF FILTRATION ROOM IN FILTRATION PLANT (#1773), LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING PUMP NO. 1 AND METERING EQUIPMENT - Presidio Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, East of Lobos Creek at Baker Beach, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  3. 10. OBLIQUE DETAIL VIEW OF PUMP NO. 1 IN FILTRATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. OBLIQUE DETAIL VIEW OF PUMP NO. 1 IN FILTRATION ROOM IN FILTRATION PLANT (#1773), LOOKING NORTHEAST - Presidio Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, East of Lobos Creek at Baker Beach, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  4. 12. OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTH WORK ROOM IN FILTRATION PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTH WORK ROOM IN FILTRATION PLANT (#1773), LOOKING NORTHWEST - Presidio Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, East of Lobos Creek at Baker Beach, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  5. 8. OBLIQUE INTERIOR VIEW OF FILTRATION ROOM IN FILTRATION PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. OBLIQUE INTERIOR VIEW OF FILTRATION ROOM IN FILTRATION PLANT (#1773), LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING MEZZANINE WITH FILTER TANKS AT REAR - Presidio Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, East of Lobos Creek at Baker Beach, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  6. 11. DETAIL VIEW OF FILTER TANK IN FILTRATION PLANT (#1773), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. DETAIL VIEW OF FILTER TANK IN FILTRATION PLANT (#1773), LOOKING NORTHWEST - Presidio Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, East of Lobos Creek at Baker Beach, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  7. 5. OBLIQUE INTERIOR VIEW OF CHEMICAL STORAGE BUILDING (#1776), LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. OBLIQUE INTERIOR VIEW OF CHEMICAL STORAGE BUILDING (#1776), LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Presidio Water Treatment Plant, Chemical Storage, East of Lobos Creek at Baker Beach, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  8. 3. OBLIQUE DETAIL VIEW OF DOOR AT CHEMICAL STORAGE BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. OBLIQUE DETAIL VIEW OF DOOR AT CHEMICAL STORAGE BUILDING (#1776), LOOKING NORTHWEST - Presidio Water Treatment Plant, Chemical Storage, East of Lobos Creek at Baker Beach, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  9. 4. DETAIL VIEW OF WINDOW AT CHEMICAL STORAGE BUILDING (#1776), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL VIEW OF WINDOW AT CHEMICAL STORAGE BUILDING (#1776), LOOKING EAST - Presidio Water Treatment Plant, Chemical Storage, East of Lobos Creek at Baker Beach, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  10. Genetic Analysis of Haploids from Industrial Strains of Baker's Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Oda, Yuji; Ouchi, Kozo

    1989-01-01

    Strains of baker's yeast conventionally used by the baking industry in Japan were tested for the ability to sporulate and produce viable haploid spores. Three isolates which possessed the properties of baker's yeasts were obtained from single spores. Each strain was a haploid, and one of these strains, YOY34, was characterized. YOY34 fermented maltose and sucrose, but did not utilize galactose, unlike its parental strain. Genetic analysis showed that YOY34 carried two MAL genes, one functional and one cryptic; two SUC genes; and one defective gal gene. The genotype of YOY34 was identified as MATα MAL1 MAL3g SUC2 SUC4 gall. The MAL1 gene from this haploid was constitutively expressed, was dominant over other wild-type MAL tester genes, and gave a weak sucrose fermentation. YOY34 was suitable for both bakery products, like conventional baker's yeasts, and for genetic analysis, like laboratory strains. PMID:16347967

  11. Sand hazards on tourist beaches.

    PubMed

    Heggie, Travis W

    2013-01-01

    Visiting the beach is a popular tourist activity worldwide. Unfortunately, the beach environment is abundant with hazards and potential danger to the unsuspecting tourist. While the traditional focus of beach safety has been water safety oriented, there is growing concern about the risks posed by the sand environment on beaches. This study reports on the death and near death experience of eight tourists in the collapse of sand holes, sand dunes, and sand tunnels. Each incident occurred suddenly and the complete burial in sand directly contributed to the victims injury or death in each case report. PMID:23290717

  12. Getting Aquainted with Beaches and Coasts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWall, Allan E.

    1980-01-01

    Explains how a shoreline is formed and how it changes, and why its changes do not always coincide with human plans. Subjects discussed include beaches, beach processes, inlets and beaches, and a marine glossary. (Author/DS)

  13. 77 FR 50459 - South Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ... Forest Service South Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The South Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie (MBS) Resource Advisory Committee (RAC.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: More information will be posted on the Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest Web...

  14. 76 FR 17618 - South Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-30

    ... Forest Service South Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The South Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie (MBS) Resource Advisory Committee (RAC... meeting is open to the public. More information will be posted on the Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National...

  15. 75 FR 51748 - North Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ... Forest Service North Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The North Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie (MBS) Resource Advisory Committee (RAC..., 2010, from 8 a.m. to 4 p.m. ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at the Mt. Baker Ranger District...

  16. 76 FR 13345 - North Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-11

    ... Forest Service North Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The North Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie (MBS) Resource Advisory Committee (RAC... 4 p.m. ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at the Mt. Baker Ranger District office located at...

  17. 77 FR 48950 - North Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-15

    ... Forest Service North Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The North Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie (MBS) Resource Advisory Committee (RAC... from 8 a.m. to 4 p.m. ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at the Mt. Baker Ranger District...

  18. 75 FR 12167 - Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act; Public Accommodation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1450 Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act; Public Accommodation AGENCY... ``public accommodation'' as used in the Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act. DATES: Written...; blittle@cpsc.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: A. Background The Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa...

  19. Baker: Apprenticeship Course Outline. Apprenticeship and Industry Training. 2412

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The graduate of the Baker apprenticeship program is a certified journeyperson who will be able to: (1) prepare and bake all types of high quality yeast raised products in commercial quantities; (2) produce and decorate various types of cakes, cookies and pastries commonly available in commercial bakeries; (3) use efficiently and safely all hand…

  20. 61. VIEW FROM NORTHEAST OF LAUNDER FROM BAKER COOLER TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    61. VIEW FROM NORTHEAST OF LAUNDER FROM BAKER COOLER TO MILLING. LAUNDER PIERCES THE SOUTH FOUNDATION WALL BETWEEN MILL SOLUTION TANKS No. 1 AND No. 2. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  1. 21 CFR 172.325 - Bakers yeast protein.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bakers yeast protein. 172.325 Section 172.325 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives...

  2. 21 CFR 172.325 - Bakers yeast protein.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bakers yeast protein. 172.325 Section 172.325 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and...

  3. 21 CFR 172.898 - Bakers yeast glycan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Bakers yeast glycan. 172.898 Section 172.898 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN...

  4. 21 CFR 172.898 - Bakers yeast glycan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bakers yeast glycan. 172.898 Section 172.898 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.898...

  5. 21 CFR 172.898 - Bakers yeast glycan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bakers yeast glycan. 172.898 Section 172.898 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.898...

  6. 21 CFR 172.898 - Bakers yeast glycan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bakers yeast glycan. 172.898 Section 172.898 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN...

  7. 21 CFR 172.898 - Bakers yeast glycan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bakers yeast glycan. 172.898 Section 172.898 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives §...

  8. Beach-cusp formation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sallenger, A.H., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Field experiments on beach-cusp formation were undertaken to document how the cuspate form develops and to test the edge-wave hypothesis on the uniform spacing of cusps. These involved observations of cusps forming from an initially plane foreshore. The cuspate form was observed to be a product of swash modification of an intertidal beach ridge as follows. A ridge, cut by a series of channels quasi-equally spaced along its length, was deposited onto the lower foreshore. The ridge migrated shoreward with flood tide, while the longshore positions of the channels remained fixed. On ebb tide, changes in swash circulation over the ridge allowed the upwash to flow shoreward through the channels and the channel mouths were eroded progressively wider until adjacent mouths met, effecting a cuspate shape. Measured spacings of cusps, ranging in size from less than 1 m to more than 12 m, agree well with computed spacings due to either zero-mode subharmonic or zero-mode synchronous edge waves. Edge-wave-induced longshore variations in run up will cause water ponded behind a ridge to converge at points of low swash and flow seaward as relatively narrow currents eroding channels spaced at one edge-wave wavelength for synchronous edge waves or one half wavelength for subharmonic edge waves. The channels are subsequently modified into cusp troughs as described above.

  9. Geothermal energy at Long Beach Naval Shipyard and Naval Station and at Seal Beach Naval Weapons Station, California. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, C.T.; Chapman, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to determine and evaluate sources of geothermal energy at two military bases in southern California, the Long Beach Naval Shipyard and Naval Station and the Seal Beach Naval Weapons Station. One part of the project focused on the natural geothermal characteristics beneath the naval bases. Another part focused on the geothermal energy produced by oilfield operations on and adjacent to each base. Results of the study are presented here for the US Department of the Navy to use in its program to reduce its reliance on petrolem by the development of different sources of energy. The study was accomplished under a cooperative agreement between the US Department of Energy's San Francisco Operations Office and the Department of the Navy's Naval Weapons Center, China Lake, California, for joint research and development of geothermal energy at military installations.

  10. Reinstatement of the genus Colopalpus Pritchard and Baker (1958) and re-description of Colopalpus matthyssei Pritchard and Baker (1958), the type species of this genus (Acari, Tenuipalpidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pritchard and Baker (1958) erected the genus Colopalpus with Tenuipalpus matthyssei (Pritchard and Baker) a species described from Laguna, The Philippines, as the type species. Meyer (1979) treated the genus as a junior synonym of Tenuipalpus Donnadieu. In this paper, we re-describe the female, male...

  11. Ross E. Baker, DC: A Canadian chiropractic survivor.

    PubMed

    Brown, Douglas M

    2014-03-01

    This paper is an historical biography of a fortunate man. It begins with a glimpse of Ross E. Baker's origins in south-western Ontario, watches him going to school and working in Hamilton before joining the Canadian Army and shipping off to Europe to fight in the Second World War. At War's end, the article picks up Dr. Baker as he comes home, starts a family, becomes a chiropractor and sustains a viable practice. Now in the twilight of life, the good doctor is last seen content with his retirement, spending days at his cottage property, reviewing his memoirs and reflecting on the tumult, terror and eventual triumph of the D-Day landing at Normandy. PMID:24587499

  12. [Baker's asthma: what remains still unknown about it?].

    PubMed

    Walusiak, J

    2000-01-01

    In many countries baker's respiratory allergy is reported as one of the most common occupational diseases. The paper presents epidemiological data on and risk factors of sensitisation to bakery allergens. Different flour allergens, especially those of wheat and soya flour, and (alpha-amylase are also described, and problems occurring most frequently in diagnosing occupational allergy to flour discussed. It is stressed that skin prick tests should be included into the battery of preliminary examinations before starting vocational training. PMID:10857075

  13. Allergic airway disease in Italian bakers and pastry makers.

    PubMed Central

    De Zotti, R; Larese, F; Bovenzi, M; Negro, C; Molinari, S

    1994-01-01

    A survey was carried out on respiratory symptoms and skin prick test response to common allergens (atopy), storage mites, and occupational allergens among 226 bakers and pastry makers from 105 small businesses in northern Italy. Atopy was present in 54 workers (23.4%); 40 workers (17.7%) were skin positive to at least one storage mite, 27 (11.9%) to wheat flour and 17 (7.5%) to alpha-amylase. Work related asthma was reported by 11 (4.9%) workers and rhinoconjunctivitis by 31 (17.7%); 22 workers (10.2%) complained of chronic bronchitis. The distribution of skin prick test results among bakers and among 119 white collar workers did not indicate (by logistic analysis) an increased risk for bakers to skin sensitisation to common allergens, storage mite, or to a group of five flours. Sensitisation to wheat flour, on the other hand, was present only among exposed workers. Skin sensitisation to occupational allergens was significantly associated with atopy (p < 0.001), smoking habit (p = 0.015), and work seniority (p = 0.027). The risk of work related symptoms was associated with sensitisation to wheat or alpha-amylase, and with atopy, but not with sensitisation to storage mites, work seniority, or smoking habit. The results of the study indicate that there is still a significant risk of allergic respiratory disease among Italian bakers. Not only wheat allergens, but also alpha-amylase must be considered as causative agents, although sensitisation to storage mites is not important in the occupational allergic response. Atopy must be regarded as an important predisposing factor for skin sensitisation to occupational allergens and for the onset of symptoms at work. The data confirm that for effective prevention, greater care should be taken not only in limiting environmental exposure, but also in identifying susceptible people. PMID:7951780

  14. Ruptured Baker's cyst with compartment syndrome: an extremely unusual complication.

    PubMed

    Hamlet, Mark; Galanopoulos, Ilias; Mahale, Avinash; Ashwood, Neil

    2012-01-01

    A 69-year-old man presented with sudden onset of pain with acute tense swelling of his left leg. Initially he was treated empirically with antibiotics for cellulitis while the possibility of deep vein thrombosis was ruled out. His symptoms gradually worsened with progressive distal neurological deficit and increasing pain. Further investigations suggested that he had a ruptured Baker's cyst in the calf with development of compartment syndrome. PMID:23264161

  15. Occupational hypersensitivity pneumonitis in a baker: a new cause.

    PubMed

    Gerfaud-Valentin, Mathieu; Reboux, Gabriel; Traclet, Julie; Thivolet-Béjui, Françoise; Cordier, Jean-François; Cottin, Vincent

    2014-04-01

    Bakers are exposed daily to flour and may be susceptible to immunologic occupational diseases. A 30-year-old, nonsmoking, female baker was referred for progressive dyspnea on exertion, basal crackles on auscultation, restrictive lung function, decreased diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide, ground glass hyperdensities with a mosaic pattern on high-resolution CT scan, 25% lymphocytosis by BAL, and cellular chronic bronchiolitis with peribronchiolar interstitial inflammation by lung biopsy specimen. Cultures from flours isolated nine species, including Aspergillus fumigatus. Twenty-six antigens were tested. Serum-specific precipitins were found against A fumigatus, the flour mite Acarus siro, and total extracts from maize and oat. Outcome was favorable with cessation of occupational exposure to flours and transient therapy with prednisone and immunosuppressive agents. To our knowledge, this report is the first of a well-documented case of hypersensitivity pneumonitis due to sensitization to fungi- and mite-contaminated flours. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis--and not only asthma and allergic rhinitis--should be suspected in bakers with respiratory symptoms. PMID:24687706

  16. Production of Bakers' Yeast in Cheese Whey Ultrafiltrate †

    PubMed Central

    Champagne, C. P.; Goulet, J.; Lachance, R. A.

    1990-01-01

    A process for the production of bakers' yeast in whey ultrafiltrate (WU) is described. Lactose in WU was converted to lactic acid and galactose by fermentation. Streptococcus thermophilus was selected for this purpose. Preculturing of S. thermophilus in skim milk considerably reduced its lag. Lactic fermentation in 2.3×-concentrated WU was delayed compared with that in unconcentrated whey, and fermentation could not be completed within 60 h. The growth rate of bakers' yeast in fermented WU differed among strains. The rate of galactose utilization was similar for all strains, but differences in lactic acid utilization occurred. Optimal pH ranges for galactose and lactic acid utilization were 5.5 to 6.0 and 5.0 to 5.5, respectively. The addition of 4 g of corn steep liquor per liter to fermented WU increased cell yields. Two sources of nitrogen were available for growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: amino acids (corn steep liquor) and ammonium (added during the lactic acid fermentation). Ammonium was mostly assimilated during growth on lactic acid. This process could permit the substitution of molasses by WU for the industrial production of bakers' yeast. PMID:16348117

  17. Respiratory allergy to Aspergillus-derived enzymes in bakers' asthma.

    PubMed

    Quirce, S; Cuevas, M; Díez-Gómez, M; Fernández-Rivas, M; Hinojosa, M; González, R; Losada, E

    1992-12-01

    Baking and food industry workers are exposed to several powdered Aspergillus-derived enzymes with carbohydrate-cleaving activity that are commonly used to enhance baked products. We describe a retrospective study of sensitization to fungal alpha-amylase and cellulase on bakers. Five bakers in whom respiratory allergy symptoms developed when they were exposed to bread "improvers" that contained fungal alpha-amylase and cellulase were investigated by in vivo and in vitro tests. Type I hypersensitivity to these enzymes was demonstrated in the five patients by means of skin testing, histamine release test, positive reverse enzyme-immunoassay for specific IgE antibodies, and bronchial provocation test response to alpha-amylase or cellulase or both. Isolated immediate and dual responses to the bronchial challenge tests with these enzymes were observed. Immunoblot analysis with use of a pooled serum identified IgE-binding components in both enzymes. In the reverse-enzyme immunoassay-inhibition assays cross-reactivity between alpha-amylase and cellulase was not found, but some degree of cross-reactivity between alpha-amylase and A. oryzae, and between cellulase and A. niger was demonstrated. Four of the patients were also sensitized to cereal flour. Aspergillus-derived enzymes used as flour additives can elicit IgE-mediated respiratory allergy, and this fact has to be considered in the diagnosis and clinical management of bakers' asthma. PMID:1281180

  18. Stratigraphic analysis of a fossil Neogoniolithon-capped patch reef and associated facies, San Salvador, Bahamas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hattin, Donald E.; Warren, Victoria L.

    1989-06-01

    An unusual Pleistocene patch reef is exposed in a coastal cliff at Grotto Beach, San Salvador, Bahamas. The reef is a coralline framestone constructed mainly by Porites astreoides together with a few large heads of Diploria strigosa and Montastrea annularis, and is capped by a dense thicket of Neogoniolithon strictum that is interpreted as marking the subtidal/intertidal boundary. The reef is flanked to the northeast by laminated to low-angle cross-laminated intraclastic grainstones and to the southwest by skeletal rudstone of reefal and interreefal derivation. Uranium-series dating of pure aragonite from a Diploria corallum yielded an age of 123 000±9000 years. Reef growth began on an erosional surface underlain by steeply crossbedded eolian grainstone. As the reef grew upward, it also grew laterally over adjacent penecontemporaneous subtidal sediments. The reef was eventually buried by 2.3 m of shallow subtidal and beach sediments that apparently prograded seaward during a highstand, or possibly while sea level was still rising. The shallow subtidal sediments are mainly peloidal, ooidal and skeletal grainstones that are pervasively bioturbated. The overlying beach facies comprises predominantly laminated, sparsely burrowed grainstone. The beach and shallow subtidal facies contain boulders of fine-grained laminated grainstone that are interpreted as storm-tossed blocks of beachrock. Living analogs of the Grotto Beach fossil reef lie off East Beach, San Salvador. Several of these have a flourishing cap of Neogoniolithon that extends above low-tide level and we believe that the Neogoniolithon cap of Grotto Beach reef did likewise. Wherever found in the stratigraphic record this facies should serve to identify the subtidal/intertidal boundary. The uppermost Pleistocene beach sediments associated with Grotto Beach fossil reef lie 5.8 m above present-day mean sea level, which ist strong evidence that this portion of San Salvador has undergone little subsidence since the Grotto Beach section was deposited.

  19. San Marino.

    PubMed

    1985-02-01

    San Marino, an independent republic located in north central Italy, in 1983 had a population of 22,206 growing at an annual rate of .9%. The literacy rate is 97% and the infant mortality rate is 9.6/1000. The terrain is mountainous and the climate is moderate. According to local tradition, San Marino was founded by a Christian stonecutter in the 4th century A.D. as a refuge against religious persecution. Its recorded history began in the 9th century, and it has survived assaults on its independence by the papacy, the Malatesta lords of Rimini, Cesare Borgia, Napoleon, and Mussolini. An 1862 treaty with the newly formed Kingdom of Italy has been periodically renewed and amended. The present government is an alliance between the socialists and communists. San Marino has had its own statutes and governmental institutions since the 11th century. Legislative authority at present is vested in a 60-member unicameral parliament. Executive authority is exercised by the 11-member Congress of State, the members of which head the various administrative departments of the goverment. The posts are divided among the parties which form the coalition government. Judicial authority is partly exercised by Italian magistrates in civil and criminal cases. San Marino's policies are tied to Italy's and political organizations and labor unions active in Italy are also active in San Marino. Since World War II, there has been intense rivalry between 2 political coalitions, the Popular Alliance composed of the Christian Democratic Party and the Independent Social Democratic Party, and the Liberty Committee, coalition of the Communist Party and the Socialist Party. San Marino's gross domestic product was $137 million and its per capita income was $6290 in 1980. The principal economic activities are farming and livestock raising, along with some light manufacturing. Foreign transactions are dominated by tourism. The government derives most of its revenue from the sale of postage stamps to collectors around the world and from payment of an annual budget subsidy by the Italian government. Despite its close ties with Italy, San Marino has maintained its distinctive status for centuries. PMID:12178101

  20. Latest Pleistocene and Holocene glacier fluctuations on Mount Baker, Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborn, Gerald; Menounos, Brian; Ryane, Chanone; Riedel, Jon; Clague, John J.; Koch, Johannes; Clark, Douglas; Scott, Kevin; Davis, P. Thompson

    2012-08-01

    Glaciers on stratovolcanoes of the Pacific Northwest of North America offer opportunities for dating late Pleistocene and Holocene glacier advances because tephra and fossil wood are common in lateral moraines and in glacier forefields. We capitalize on this opportunity by examining the Holocene glacial record at Mount Baker, an active stratovolcano in northwest Washington. Earlier workers concluded that glaciers on Mount Baker during the early Holocene were more extensive than during the Little Ice Age and hypothesized that the explanation lay in unusual climatic or hypsometric effects peculiar to large volcanoes. We show that the main argument for an early Holocene glacier advance on Mount Baker, namely the absence of ca 10,000-year-old tephra on part of the south flank of the mountain, is incorrect. Moreover, a lake-sediment core indicates that a small cirque moraine previously thought be of early Holocene age is also likely older than the tephra and consequently of late Pleistocene age. Lateral and end moraines and wood mats ca 2 km downvalley of the present snout of Deming Glacier indicate that an advance during the Younger Dryas interval was little more extensive than the climactic Little Ice Age advance. Tephra and wood between tills in the left lateral moraine of Easton Glacier suggest that ice on Mount Baker was restricted in the early Holocene and that Neoglaciation began ca 6 ka. A series of progressively more extensive Neoglacial advances, dated to about 2.2, 1.6, 0.9, and 0.4 ka, are recorded by stacked tills in the right lateral moraine of Deming Glacier. Intervening retreats were long enough to allow establishment of forests on the moraine. Wood mats in moraines of Coleman and Easton glaciers indicate that Little Ice Age expansion began before 0.7 ka and was followed by retreat and a readvance ca 0.5 ka. Tree-ring and lichen data indicate glaciers on the south side of the mountain reached their maximum extents in the mid-1800s. The similarity between glacier fluctuations at Mount Baker and those elsewhere in the Cascades and in British Columbia suggests a coherent history of Holocene climate change over a broad area of the western Cordillera. We found no evidence that glaciers on stratovolcanoes behave differently than glaciers elsewhere.

  1. The sediment and hydrographic characteristics of three horseshoe crab nursery beaches in hong kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Helen M. C.; Morton, Brian

    2003-04-01

    Horseshoe crab juveniles have been recorded from sand and sandy-mud nursery beaches at Pak Nai (western New Territories), San Tau and Shui Hau (Lantau Island), Hong Kong. In order to provide a better understanding of these beaches and to identify those plausible factors which have made them preferred by spawning horseshoe crabs, environmental parameters, including temperature, salinity, pH and dissolved oxygen content of the water, and particle size distribution and organic matter content of the sediments at the three sites, were determined and compared. The hydrographic, and sediment data obtained for the three study sites have revealed some common environmental features. The three nursery beaches are relatively remote, and far (in Hong Kong terms) from urbanized and densely populated areas. The beaches are generally well sheltered from strong wave action and inundated regularly by estuarine waters. Horseshoe crab adults tend to select these beaches for spawning as their protected features ensures the laid eggs are less likely to be washed out of the sand, and hatched juveniles can feed on the meiofauna and grow. Sediments of the three beaches largely comprise medium-sized sand particles and are moderately sorted, suggesting medium porosity and good water permeability. Such a sand type, with the generally high oxygen levels in incursing waters, may help create a well-oxygenated micro-environment for the normal development of horseshoe crab eggs, larvae and juveniles. Lantau Island beaches at San Tau and Shui Hau are relatively free from organic pollution, as reflected in generally high dissolved oxygen level, and low BOD5 and ammonia nitrogen values. Pak Nai is, however, more polluted.

  2. Monkey Baker at U.S. Space and Rocket Center in Huntsville, Alabama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1958-01-01

    On May 28, 1958, Jupiter Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile provided by U.S. Army team in Huntsville, Alabama, launched a nose cone carrying Baker, a South American squirrel monkey and Able, an American-born rhesus monkey. Baker, pictured here and commonly known as 'Miss Baker', was later given a home at the U.S. Space and Rocket Center until her death on November 29, 1984. Able died in 1958. (Photo - Courtesy of Huntsville/Madison County Public Library)

  3. A defense of fundamental principles and human rights: a reply to Robert Baker.

    PubMed

    Macklin, Ruth

    1998-12-01

    This article seeks to rebut Robert Baker's contention that attempts to ground international bioethics in fundamental principles cannot withstand the challenges posed by multiculturalism and postmodernism. First, several corrections are provided of Baker's account of the conclusions reached by the Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments. Second, a rebuttal is offered to Baker's claim that an unbridgeable moral gap exists between Western individualism and non-Western communalism. In conclusion, this article argues that Baker's "nonnegotiable primary goods" cannot do the work of "classical human rights" and that the latter framework is preferable from both a practical and a theoretical standpoint. PMID:11657320

  4. The impact of the 2009-10 El Nio on West Coast beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, P.; Kaminsky, G. M.; Hansen, J. E.; Allan, J. C.; Ruggiero, P.; Hoover, D. J.

    2010-12-01

    Long-term monitoring programs at a series of beaches in California, Oregon and Washington were used to evaluate beach evolution associated with the El Nio winter of 2009-10, and to relate the observed coastal change to past winters, including the last major El Nio in 1997-98. At the California study sites, analysis of Lidar (1997-98) and semi-annual or greater high-resolution beach and nearshore surveys (2004-10) shows that coastal change during the winter of 2009-10 broadly rivals that in 1997-98, and that the 2009-10 winter storms collectively forced the most beach erosion since high-resolution monitoring began in 2004. Along the Oregon and Washington coasts, many beaches exhibited classic El Nio shoreline responses, with significant shoreline retreat occurring immediately north of jetties and tidal inlets as well as the southern ends of pocket beaches and littoral cells. In Washington in particular, these areas eroded rapidly during the winter of 2009-10, comparable to the response seen in the El Nio winter of 1997-98. Wave buoy data from buoys in California and Washington that captured both the 1997-98 and 2009-10 El Nio show that the two events were comparable in wave energy as measured by the mean wave year (1 July- 30 June) energy flux (Fig. 1). The increased wave energy in 2009-10 had significant impacts on coastal infrastructure throughout the region; for example, in San Francisco the Great Highway was severely undercut by wave action, resulting in a $5 million emergency remediation project. In Washington, approximately 195 m of road was eroded along the entrance to Willapa Bay and southern Grayland Plains. While the impacts of the 2009-10 winter were substantial, impacts on the coast were moderated by an unusually mild wave climate in 2008-9 (Fig. 1), which left beaches more accreted prior to the severe wave season of 2009-10. As climate change accelerates sea level rise and potentially increases the magnitude and frequency of storms in mid-latitudes, the beach erosion seen in 2009-10 will become less unusual, making it critical that we continue to monitor beach morphology to provide data for coastal managers and to improve our understanding of beach dynamics. Figure 1. Yearly mean wave energy flux relative to the mean since each buoys deployment offshore of Washington (Grays Harbor), San Francisco (Point Reyes), and Santa Barbara (Harvest, Anacapa Passage).

  5. 33 CFR 100.736 - Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. 100.736 Section 100.736 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. (a)(1) Regulated Area. The regulated area is formed...

  6. 33 CFR 100.736 - Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. 100.736 Section 100.736 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. (a)(1) Regulated Area. The regulated area is formed...

  7. 33 CFR 100.736 - Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. 100.736 Section 100.736 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. (a)(1) Regulated Area. The regulated area is formed...

  8. 33 CFR 100.736 - Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. 100.736 Section 100.736 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. (a)(1) Regulated Area. The regulated area is formed...

  9. Respiratory symptoms and sensitization in bread and cake bakers.

    PubMed

    Smith, T A; Smith, P W

    1998-07-01

    This purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between exposure to wheat flour, soya flour and fungal amylase and the development of work-related symptoms and sensitization in bread and cake bakery employees who have regular exposure to these substances. The study populations consisted of 394 bread bakery workers and 77 cake bakery workers whose normal jobs involved the sieving, weighing and mixing of ingredients. The groups were interviewed with the aim of identifying the prevalence, nature and pattern of any work-related respiratory symptoms. They were also skin-prick tested against the common bakery sensitizing agents, i.e., wheat flour, soya flour, rice flour and fungal amylase. The results of personal sampling for sieving, weighing and mixing operations at the bakeries from which the study groups were taken were collated in order to determine typical exposures to total inhalable dust from the ingredients, expressed as 8 hour time-weighted average exposures. Data from the health surveillance and collated dust measurements were compared with the aim of establishing an exposure-response relationship for sensitization. The prevalence of work-related symptoms in bread bakery and cake bakery ingredient handlers was 20.4% and 10.4% respectively. However, in a large proportion of those reporting symptoms in connection with work, the symptoms were intermittent and of short duration. It is considered that the aetiology of such symptoms is likely to be due to a non-specific irritant effect of high total dust levels, rather than allergy. None of the cake bakers and only 3.1% of the bread bakers had symptoms which were thought to be due to allergy to baking ingredients. Using skin-prick testing as a marker of sensitization, the prevalence of positive tests to wheat flour was 6% for the bread bakers and 3% for the cake bakers. Comparable prevalences for soya flour were 7% and 1% respectively. However, the prevalence of positive skin-prick tests to fungal amylase was 16% amongst the bread baking group with only a single employee (1%) in the cake baking group having a positive test. Furthermore, this employee had previously worked in a bread bakery. The difference in rates of sensitization to wheat flour between the bread and cake bakers is not statistically significant, whereas the difference for soya flour is at the borderline of statistical significance (p = 0.045). In contrast, the difference in fungal amylase sensitization is significant at the 0.1% level. For both bread and cake bakers, the 8 hour time-weighted average exposures for each of the activities showed a wide variation with mixing having the lowest average exposure and sieving the highest. Out of the allergens studied in this investigation, fungal amylase is the principal sensitizer in large scale bread bakeries, with the main source of exposure being the handling of bread improvers. In contrast, the risk of sensitization to wheat flour is low in both bread and cake bakeries. The absence of positive skin-prick tests in the subgroup of cake bakery employees who regularly handle fungal-amylase-containing flour suggests that their levels of exposure are below the threshold for sensitization to amylase. PMID:9876416

  10. 51. VIEW OF CRUSHER ADDITION FROM EAST. SHOWS BAKER COOLER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. VIEW OF CRUSHER ADDITION FROM EAST. SHOWS BAKER COOLER AT LOWER LEFT, AND FOUNDATIONS FOR ROD MILL BETWEEN COOLER AND STEPHENS-ADAMSON INCLINED BUCKET ELEVATOR. THE BELT CONVEYOR TO RIGHT OF ELEVATOR FED ELEVATOR FROM ROD MILL. 100-TON ORE BIN AND DUST COLLECTOR IS BEHIND FRAMING BENT. NOTE CONVEYOR EMERGING FROM BOTTOM OF ORE BIN, THIS AND THE INCLINED ELEVATOR FED THE SYMONS SCREEN (MISSING). - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  11. An algorithm for the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matone, Marco

    2015-05-01

    A simple algorithm, which exploits the associativity of the BCH formula, and that can be generalized by iteration, extends the remarkable simplification of the BakerCampbell-Hausdorff (BCH) formula, recently derived by Van-Brunt and Visser. We show that if [ X, Y] = uX + vY + cI, [ Y, Z] = wY + zZ + dI, and, consistently with the Jacobi identity, [ X, Z] = mX + nY + pZ + eI, then

  12. [Cosmetic surgery, certificates and the 'head-baker' of Eeclo].

    PubMed

    Keeman, J N

    2003-12-20

    The legend of the head-baker of Eeclo, an imaginary cosmetic surgeon, clearly illustrates that the improvement of the human physionomy was of great interest to people as long ago as the mid-16th century. In order to display their credentials the surgeons of that time and in the succeeding centuries would display certificates that testified in glowing terms to their knowledge and expertise. One only has to open a modern newspaper to see that this phenomenon has not died out. PMID:14735850

  13. Differentiating Experts' Anticipatory Skills in Beach Volleyball

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canal-Bruland, Rouwen; Mooren, Merel; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined how perceptual-motor expertise and watching experience contribute to anticipating the outcome of opponents' attacking actions in beach volleyball. To this end, we invited 8 expert beach volleyball players, 8 expert coaches, 8 expert referees, and 8 control participants with no beach volleyball experience to watch videos…

  14. A Study of Sandy Beach Zonation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Steve K.

    1991-01-01

    Describes the study of sandy beach zonations as a seashore activity for either high school or lower-level college courses in biology, ecology, or marine biology. Students first draw a profile of a beach scene and then collect specimens from the zones of the shore. In a laboratory, students identify their specimens and relate them to the beach

  15. The Archives of the History of American Psychology: An Interview with David B. Baker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prieto, Loreto R.

    2001-01-01

    Presents an interview with David B. Baker, Director of the Archives of the History of American Psychology. Covers topics such as: Baker's interest in the history of psychology, his work at the Archives of the History of American Psychology, and recommendations for teachers when addressing history in non-history courses. (CMK)

  16. STS-43 Pilot Baker eats a sandwich on OV-104's forward flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-43 Pilot Michael A. Baker, seated at the forward flight deck pilots station controls, eats a freefloating peanut butter and jelly sandwich while holding a carrot. Surrounding Baker on Atlantis', Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104's, flight deck are procedural checklists, control panels, and windows. A lemonade drink bag is velcroed to overhead panel O9.

  17. Recipe for Working Together: Gen. Colin Powell and the Baker's Dough Mural.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herberholz, Barbara

    2001-01-01

    Describes the process for creating a baker's-dough mural that would become a permanent part of the community and relates a visit made to the Sacramento (California) Boys & Girls Club by General Colin Powell. Discusses Powell's part in creating the mural. Includes the steps for how to make a Baker's-dough mural. (CMK)

  18. 78 FR 27215 - Baker County Oregon; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ...: Mason Dam Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: The proposed project would be located on the Powder River, at the existing U.S. Bureau of Reclamation's (Reclamation) Mason Dam, near Baker City, in Baker... current day- to-day operation of Mason dam but would operate utilizing flood control, irrigation,...

  19. 75 FR 65261 - Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act; Public Accommodation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... accommodations facility'' on March 15, 2010 (75 FR 12167). The proposed interpretive rule would interpret... COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1450 Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act; Public Accommodation AGENCY... ``public accommodations facility'' as used in the Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act....

  20. The shapes of beach pebbles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wentworth, Chester K.

    1923-01-01

    There is much confusion in geologic literature as to the shapes of fluvial and beach pebbles and the differences between them, if differences exist. Though the contrary has been asserted, most geologists who have written on the subject appear to hold the view that beach pebbles are generally flatter than river pebbles, having discoid, lozenge-shaped, ellipsoid, or oval forms. It is asserted by some that these forms are produced by pushing of the rock fragments to and fro by the waves. Others have considered that the shapes of the original fragments and the inherent structure of the rock are dominant in determining the shapes of beach pebbles, and with this view the writer is in accord. That beach pebbles, even those composed of massive igneous rocks are commonly of a flattened oval form seems certain, as has been stated elsewhere, but this fact is probably to be attributed to the development of such forms from original flat fragments or from rocks of schistose structure or to the segregation of such forms under the peculiar action of the waves, rather than to their production by a specialized wave abrasion.

  1. Beach lamination: Nature and origin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clifton, H.E.

    1969-01-01

    A distinctive two-fold sedimentation unit characterizes lamination in the upper swash zone of beaches. Within the unit a fine and/or a heavy mineral rich layer at the base grades upward into a coarser and/or a heavy mineral poor layer at the top. This distinctive type of lamination results from grain segregation within bed flow during wave backwash. ?? 1969.

  2. Inside the "Long Beach Way"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    This article features Long Beach Unified School District, the 2003 winner of a prestigious prize in urban education. The district of more than 90,000 students is the first winner of the award to return to the competition as a finalist. Its reappearance on the list after earning the prize in 2003 raises interesting questions about how districts…

  3. Inside the "Long Beach Way"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    This article features Long Beach Unified School District, the 2003 winner of a prestigious prize in urban education. The district of more than 90,000 students is the first winner of the award to return to the competition as a finalist. Its reappearance on the list after earning the prize in 2003 raises interesting questions about how districts

  4. Virginia Beach City Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runyan, Stephena

    1989-01-01

    Looks at the planning and implementation of the art curriculum in Virginia Beach City (VA) Public Schools. Lists the goals of the art education program and the components that serve as the organizational framework. Provides a brief description of elementary and secondary curricula. Discusses problems and solutions involved with the implementation…

  5. Virtual Beach 3: user's guide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cyterski, Mike; Brooks, Wesley; Galvin, Mike; Wolfe, Kurt; Carvin, Rebecca; Roddick, Tonia; Fienen, Mike; Corsi, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Virtual Beach version 3 (VB3) is a decision support tool that constructs site-specific statistical models to predict fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentrations at recreational beaches. VB3 is primarily designed for beach managers responsible for making decisions regarding beach closures or the issuance of swimming advisories due to pathogen contamination. However, researchers, scientists, engineers, and students interested in studying relationships between water quality indicators and ambient environmental conditions will find VB3 useful. VB3 reads input data from a text file or Excel document, assists the user in preparing the data for analysis, enables automated model selection using a wide array of possible model evaluation criteria, and provides predictions using a chosen model parameterized with new data. With an integrated mapping component to determine the geographic orientation of the beach, the software can automatically decompose wind/current/wave speed and magnitude information into along-shore and onshore/offshore components for use in subsequent analyses. Data can be examined using simple scatter plots to evaluate relationships between the response and independent variables (IVs). VB3 can produce interaction terms between the primary IVs, and it can also test an array of transformations to maximize the linearity of the relationship The software includes search routines for finding the "best" models from an array of possible choices. Automated censoring of statistical models with highly correlated IVs occurs during the selection process. Models can be constructed either using previously collected data or forecasted environmental information. VB3 has residual diagnostics for regression models, including automated outlier identification and removal using DFFITs or Cook's Distances.

  6. [Spatio-temporal variation of subtidal meiofauna in a sandy beach from Northeastern Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Arana, Ildefonso Liñero; Ojeda, Sol; Amaro, María Elena

    2013-03-01

    Meiofauna organisms that play an important role in the trophic ecology of soft bottom benthos, have short life cycles and they respond quickly to disturbance and pollution. The present study shows the spatio-temporal variation ofsubtidal meiofauna (metazoans passing a 500im sieve but retained on meshes of 40-63micro m) in four shallow subtidal stations. Samples were taken in the sandy beach of San Luis, in the Northeastern coast of Venezuela, from October 2005 until September 2006. For this, three replicate sediment core samples (4.91cm2), were collected monthly to a depth of 10cm into the sediment, and preserved in 6% formalin stained with rose Bengal. Specimens of 14 meiofaunal groups (Foraminifera excluded) were collected, being the nematodes, ostracods and harpacticoid copepods the most abundant. Monthly density was comprised between 64 and 503ind./10cm2, and mean density of stations between 173 and 449ind./10cm2. There is a trend of low densities from October to February (end of the rainy season until the middle of the dry season). The San Luis beach control of the meiofaunal community is shared by climatic conditions and by the biology of the species found. The meiofauna mean density in San Luis beach (263ind./10cm2) was low when compared to other studies in tropical areas. PMID:23894963

  7. Neoglacial fluctuations of Deming Glacier, Mt. Baker, Washington USA.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborn, G.; Menounos, B.; Scott, K.; Clague, J. J.; Tucker, D.; Riedel, J.; Davis, P.

    2007-12-01

    Deming Glacier flows from the upper west slopes of Mt. Baker, a stratovolcano in the Cascade Range of Washington, USA. The north and south lateral moraines of Deming Glacier are composed of at least four tills separated by layers of detrital wood and sheared stumps in growth position. The stratigraphy records fluctuations of the glacier during the Holocene. The outer ten rings of an in situ stump from the middle wood layer, which is about 40 m below the north lateral moraine crest and 1.2 km downvalley from the present glacier terminus, yielded an age of 1750 ± 50~~ 14C yr BP [1810-1550 cal yr BP]. The stump revealed at least 300 rings and thus records a period of landscape stability and relatively restricted glaciation for several hundred years prior to ca. 1750 14C yr BP . Samples from the lowest wood layer also have been submitted for radiocarbon dating. Outer rings of detrital wood samples collected from two wood mats exposed in the south lateral moraine, 2.3 km downvalley of the glacier terminus, returned radiocarbon ages of 1600 ± 30~~ 14C yr BP [1550- 1410 cal yr BP] and 430 ± 30~~ 14C yr BP [AD 1420-1620]. These data indicate that Deming Glacier advanced over a vegetated moraine sometime after 1810 cal yr BP to a position less extensive that it achieved at the peak of the Little Ice Age. The glacier then receded before it began its final and most extensive Holocene advance after AD 1420. The older advance is correlative with the 'First Millennium AD' advance, recently recognized throughout western North America. The younger advance coincides with an advance of Mt. Baker's Easton Glacier [AD 1430-1630], and advances of many alpine glaciers elsewhere in western North America. Our data suggest that glaciers on Mt. Baker fluctuated in a similar manner to alpine glaciers in the Coast Mountains of British Columbia and in other mountain ranges of northwest North America during Neoglaciation.

  8. Improving the freeze tolerance of bakers' yeast by loading with trehalose.

    PubMed

    Hirasawa, R; Yokoigawa, K; Isobe, Y; Kawai, H

    2001-03-01

    We examined the freeze tolerance of bakers' yeast loaded with exogenous trehalose. Freeze-tolerant and freeze-sensitive compressed bakers' yeast samples were soaked at several temperatures in 0.5 M and 1 M trehalose and analyzed. The intracellular trehalose contents in both types of bakers' yeast increased with increasing soaking period. The initial trehalose-accumulation rate increased with increasing exogenous trehalose concentration and soaking temperature. The maximum trehalose content was almost identical (200-250 mg/g of dry cells) irrespective of the soaking temperature and the type of bakers' yeast, but depended on the exogenous trehalose concentration. The leavening ability of both types of bakers' yeast loaded with trehalose was almost identical to that of the respective original cells, irrespective of the soaking conditions. The freeze-tolerant ratio (FTR) of both types of bakers' yeast increased with increasing intracellular trehalose content. However, FTR decreased during over-soaking after the maximum amount of trehalose had accumulated. FTR of the freeze-sensitive bakers' yeast was more efficiently improved than that of the freeze-tolerant type. PMID:11330663

  9. Recharge into a shingle beach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keating, T.

    1984-04-01

    Traditionally, groundwater recharge in the U.K. has been calculated by the Penman method on a monthly basis, using values of potential evaporation derived from averaged meteorological data and monthly totals of rainfall. Recent work by K.W.F. Howard and J.W. Lloyd has shown that these monthly totals considerably underestimate recharge calculated over shorter time periods and they suggested that 1-day, or at worst, 10-day intervals should be used. In this paper field experiments to measure recharge into a shingle beach are reported. These experiments were made with a lysimeter over a 6-yr. period and have shown that recharge into the shingle occurs whenever significant precipitation occurs, even during the summer months. The Penman model is shown to be unrealistic for estimating recharge into such a beach and an alternative model for calculating recharge is proposed. This model is shown to yield good results.

  10. Baker's yeast assay procedure for testing heavy metal toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Bitton, G.; Koopman, B.; Wang, H.D.

    1984-01-01

    Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is microorganism which is commercially available and sold as packaged dry pellets in any food store at low cost. Studies have been undertaken on the effects of organic xenobiotics as well as heavy metals on yeast metabolism. This type of study has been generally useful in examining the mechanism(s) of chemical toxicity. However, a rapid and quantitative toxicity test using S. cerevisiae as the test organism has not been developed. The purpose of this study was to develop a toxicity assay for heavy metals, using commercial dry yeast as the test microorganism. This rapid and simple procedure is based on the reduction of 2-(p-iodophenyl)-3-(p-nitrophenyl)-5-phenyltetrazolium chloride (INT) to INT-formazan by the yeast electron transport system. The scoring of active cells following exposure to heavy metals was undertaken according to the MINT (malachite green-INT) method developed by Bitton and Koopman.

  11. Leaf Epidermis of the Rheophyte Dyckia brevifolia Baker (Bromeliaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Lobo, Ghislaine Maria; de Souza, Thaysi Ventura; Voltolini, Caroline Heinig; Reis, Ademir

    2013-01-01

    Some species of Dyckia Schult. f., including Dyckia brevifolia Baker, are rheophytes that live in the fast-moving water currents of streams and rivers which are subject to frequent flooding, but also period of low water. This study aimed to analyze the leaf epidermis of D. brevifolia in the context of epidermal adaptation to this aquatic plant's rheophytic habitat. The epidermis is uniseriate, and the cuticle is thickened. The inner periclinal and anticlinal walls of the epidermal cells are thickened and lignified. Stomata are tetracytic, located in the depressions in relation to the surrounding epidermal cells, and covered by peltate trichomes. While the epidermal characteristics of D. brevifolia are similar to those of Bromeliaceae species, this species has made particular adaptations of leaf epidermis in response to its rheophytic environment. PMID:23864825

  12. Ross E. Baker, DC: A Canadian chiropractic survivor

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Douglas M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper is an historical biography of a fortunate man. It begins with a glimpse of Ross E. Baker’s origins in south-western Ontario, watches him going to school and working in Hamilton before joining the Canadian Army and shipping off to Europe to fight in the Second World War. At War’s end, the article picks up Dr. Baker as he comes home, starts a family, becomes a chiropractor and sustains a viable practice. Now in the twilight of life, the good doctor is last seen content with his retirement, spending days at his cottage property, reviewing his memoirs and reflecting on the tumult, terror and eventual triumph of the D-Day landing at Normandy. PMID:24587499

  13. The incidence of respiratory symptoms and sensitisation in baker apprentices.

    PubMed

    Skjold, T; Dahl, R; Juhl, B; Sigsgaard, T

    2008-08-01

    The aim of the current study was to describe the incidence of respiratory symptoms and allergic sensitisation and the sequence of events leading to respiratory symptoms among Danish baker apprentices (BA). A total of 114 BA were surveyed over a 20-month period. Questionnaires were completed along with spirometric analysis and skin-prick tests to common and work-related allergens. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) was determined at baseline and at the end of the follow-up period. The incidences of work-related rhinitis and asthma-like symptoms were 22.1 and 10.0 cases.100 person-yrs(-1), respectively. At 20 months the cumulative incidence proportion was 40.2 and 20.5% for rhinitis and asthma-like symptoms, respectively. The cumulative incidence of occupational sensitisation was 6.1%. An increased risk of asthma-like symptoms was found in both atopic subjects and in females. In the BA with new onset respiratory symptoms, an increase in BHR from baseline was observed. Forced expiratory volume in one second and forced vital capacity did not change during the follow-up period. No relationship was observed between new sensitisation and new symptoms. In conclusion rhinitis- and asthma-like symptoms were found to develop commonly in Danish baker apprentices. The mechanism by which symptoms arose was perceived to reflect the development of an inflammation rather than the production of a specific immunoglobulin E pathway, as sensitisation to occupational allergens was rarely observed. Hence, respiratory symptoms and allergy may develop through separate pathways. PMID:18417513

  14. Contact with beach sand among beach-goers and risk of illness

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Recently, numerous studies of fecal contamination of beach sand have triggered interest among scientists, the news media, and the general public. Evidence shows that beach sand harbors higher concentrations of fecal indicator organisms (microbes considered to indicate...

  15. Beach monitoring criteria: reading the fine print

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nevers, Meredith B.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    Beach monitoring programs aim to decrease swimming-related illnesses resulting from exposure to harmful microbes in recreational waters, while providing maximum beach access. Managers are advised by the U.S. EPA to estimate microbiological water quality based on a 5-day geometric mean of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentrations or on a jurisdiction-specific single-sample maximum; however, most opt instead to apply a default single-sample maximum to ease application. We examined whether re-evaluation of the U.S. EPA ambient water quality criteria (AWQC) and the epidemiological studies on which they are based could increase public beach access without affecting presumed health risk. Single-sample maxima were calculated using historic monitoring data for 50 beaches along coastal Lake Michigan on various temporal and spatial groupings to assess flexibility in the application of the AWQC. No calculation on either scale was as low as the default maximum (235 CFU/100 mL) that managers typically use, indicating that current applications may be more conservative than the outlined AWQC. It was notable that beaches subject to point source FIB contamination had lower variation, highlighting the bias in the standards for these beaches. Until new water quality standards are promulgated, more site-specific application of the AWQC may benefit beach managers by allowing swimmers greater access to beaches. This issue will be an important consideration in addressing the forthcoming beach monitoring standards.

  16. USING HYDROGRAPHIC DATA AND THE EPA VIRTUAL BEACH MODEL TO TEST PREDICTIONS OF BEACH BACTERIA CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A modeling study of 2006 Huntington Beach (Lake Erie) beach bacteria concentrations indicates multi-variable linear regression (MLR) can effectively estimate bacteria concentrations compared to the persistence model. Our use of the Virtual Beach (VB) model affirms that fact. VB i...

  17. 77 FR 5793 - Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health Act; Availability of BEACH Act Grants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-06

    ... Water Act (CWA) as amended by the Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health (BEACH) Act... past to apply for BEACH Act grants to implement effective and comprehensive coastal recreation water... recreation water monitoring and public notification programs (``development grants''). This notice...

  18. VISUAL BEACH: SOFTWARE FOR ACHIEVING BEACH AESTHETIC AND PUBLIC HEALTH PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health Act of 2000 directs the EPA to assure that 100% of significant public beaches are managed by 2008. Under the Act EPA is developing a program to monitor beach water quality and strategies for timely notification of the public...

  19. NOWCASTING AND FORECASTING BEACH BACTERIA CONCENTRATIONS USING EPA VIRTUAL BEACH SOFTWARE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evidence shows that traditional persistence-based beach closure decision making is inadequate, beaches are closed when they could be open and kept open when they should be closed. Intense interest is now focused on efforts to nowcast beach conditions using surrogate variables, su...

  20. 124. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: RAMP DETAILS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    124. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: RAMP DETAILS Sheet 6 of 11 (#3278) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  1. 122. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    122. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF EXTENSION TO PIER Sheet 4 of 11 (#3276) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  2. 127. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: FRAMING DETAILS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    127. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: FRAMING DETAILS Sheet 8 of 11 (#3281) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  3. 120. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    120. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF EXISTING PIER Sheet 2 of 11 (#3274) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  4. 110. PLAN AND ELEVATION OF HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: PIER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    110. PLAN AND ELEVATION OF HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: PIER APPROACH TO MID-SECTION Sheet 1 of 9 (#3252) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  5. 111. PLAN AND ELEVATION OF HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: PIER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    111. PLAN AND ELEVATION OF HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: PIER MID-SECTION TO END Sheet 2 of 9 (#3253) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  6. 121. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    121. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF EXISTING PIER Sheet 3 of 11 (#3275) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  7. 128. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: BOAT LANDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    128. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: BOAT LANDING DETAILS Sheet 9 of 11 (#3282) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  8. 125. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: MODIFIED RAMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    125. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: MODIFIED RAMP DETAILS Sheet 6A of 11 (#3279) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  9. 126. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: EXTENSION DETAILS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    126. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: EXTENSION DETAILS Sheet 7 of 11 (#3280) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  10. 10. GROUND VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTH FROM BEACH; SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. GROUND VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTH FROM BEACH; SHOWING (LEFT-RIGHT) CAPTAIN'S GALLEY'S GALLEY TO END OF PIER - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  11. 123. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: REPAIR DETAILS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    123. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: REPAIR DETAILS Sheet 5 of 11 (#3277) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  12. 7. GROUND VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING EAST FROM BEACH; SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. GROUND VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING EAST FROM BEACH; SHOWING 27TH BENT LANDWARD TO MAXWELL'S RESTAURANT, NEPTUNE'S GALLEY (RIGHT OF CENTER) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  13. 8. GROUND VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTH FROM BEACH; SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. GROUND VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTH FROM BEACH; SHOWING 17TH BENT TO END; NEPTUNE'S GALLEY TO END OF PIER - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  14. BEACH ROAD SHOWING THE LAWN WITH KIAWE TREES BETWEEN THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BEACH ROAD SHOWING THE LAWN WITH KIAWE TREES BETWEEN THE ROAD AND THE BEACH. BEACH ROAD IS 14' WIDE. VIEW FACING SOUTH. - Hickam Field, Fort Kamehameha Historic Housing, Along Worchester Avenue & Hope Street, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  15. 45. VIEW OF STAIRWAY UP FROM BEACH TO PIER APPROACH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. VIEW OF STAIRWAY UP FROM BEACH TO PIER APPROACH, NORTHWEST SIDE OF PIER, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  16. 104. VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE OF PIER TAKEN FROM BEACH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    104. VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE OF PIER TAKEN FROM BEACH, LOOKING SOUTH. BANDSHELL IS AT RIGHT Photograph #1574-HB. Photographer unknown, c. 1914 - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  17. 130. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LIGHTING DETAILS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    130. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LIGHTING DETAILS. Sheet 11 of 11 (#3284) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  18. 129. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LIGHTING DIAGRAM. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    129. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LIGHTING DIAGRAM. Sheet lO of 11 (#3283) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  19. 75 FR 30367 - North Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ... Vanderheyden, District Ranger, Mt. Baker Ranger District, phone (360) 854-2601, e-mail jvanderheyden@fs.fed.us... via e-mail to jvanderheyden@fs.fed.us or via facsimile to (360) 856-1934. All comments,...

  20. 4. JoAnn SieburgBaker, Photographer, September 1977. VIEW OF POWER BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. JoAnn Sieburg-Baker, Photographer, September 1977. VIEW OF POWER BUILDING (ELECTRICAL TRANSFORMER). - Salem Manufacturing Company, Arista Cotton Mill, Brookstown & Marshall Streets, Winston-Salem, Forsyth County, NC

  1. 33 CFR 165.1154 - Security Zones; Cruise Ships, San Pedro Bay, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ship that is moored, or is in the process of mooring, at any berth within the Los Angeles or Long Beach... § 165.1154 Security Zones; Cruise Ships, San Pedro Bay, California. (a) Definition. “Cruise ship” as..., extending from the surface to the sea floor, within a 100 yard radius around any cruise ship that...

  2. 33 CFR 165.1152 - San Pedro Bay, California-Regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Navigation Area (RNA) consists of the water area enclosed by the Los Angeles-Long Beach breakwater and a line... 118°10.80′ W (2) The San Pedro Bay RNA consists of the following named sub-areas, defined by lines... 12 knots through the water within the RNA. (2) A vessel navigating within the RNA, shall have...

  3. 33 CFR 165.1152 - San Pedro Bay, California-Regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Navigation Area (RNA) consists of the water area enclosed by the Los Angeles-Long Beach breakwater and a line... 118°10.80′ W (2) The San Pedro Bay RNA consists of the following named sub-areas, defined by lines... 12 knots through the water within the RNA. (2) A vessel navigating within the RNA, shall have...

  4. 33 CFR 165.1152 - San Pedro Bay, California-Regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Navigation Area (RNA) consists of the water area enclosed by the Los Angeles-Long Beach breakwater and a line... 118°10.80′ W (2) The San Pedro Bay RNA consists of the following named sub-areas, defined by lines... 12 knots through the water within the RNA. (2) A vessel navigating within the RNA, shall have...

  5. 33 CFR 165.1152 - San Pedro Bay, California-Regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Navigation Area (RNA) consists of the water area enclosed by the Los Angeles-Long Beach breakwater and a line... 118°10.80′ W (2) The San Pedro Bay RNA consists of the following named sub-areas, defined by lines... 12 knots through the water within the RNA. (2) A vessel navigating within the RNA, shall have...

  6. STS-52 Pilot Baker, in LES/LEH, during JSC WETF bailout exercises

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-52 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, Pilot Michael A. Baker smiles from under his launch and entry helmet (LEH) and from behind the communications carrier assembly (CCA) microphones as he adjusts his parachute harness. Baker, fully outfitted in a launch and entry suit (LES), prepares for emergency egress (bailout) training exercise in JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29 pool. The WETF's 25-ft deep pool will be used in this simulation of a water landing.

  7. STS-43 Pilot Baker reviews checklist on OV-104's aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-43 Pilot Michael A. Baker, wearing sunglasses, reviews a checklist on the aft flight deck of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104. He is monitoring data associated with the Space Station Heat Pipe Advanced Radiator Element II (SHARE-II) located in OV-104's payload bay (PLB) from his position in front of the aft flight deck viewing windows. Behind Baker are the closed circuit television (CCTV) monitors and above his head is overhead window W8.

  8. Water quality prediction of marine recreational beaches receiving watershed baseflow and stormwater runoff in southern California, USA.

    PubMed

    He, Li-Ming Lee; He, Zhen-Li

    2008-05-01

    Beach advisories are issued to the public in California when the concentration of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), including total coliform, fecal coliform (or Escherichia coli), and Enterococcus, exceed their recreational water health standards, or when the amount of a rainfall event is above the pre-determined threshold. However, it is not fully understood about how and to what degree stormwater runoff or baseflow exerts impacts on beach water quality. Furthermore, current laboratory methods used to determine the FIB levels take 18-96 h, which is too slow to keep pace with changes in FIB levels in water. Thus, a beach may not be posted when it is contaminated, and may be posted under advisory when bacterial levels have already decreased to within water quality standards. The study was designed to address the above critical issues. There were large temporal and spatial variations in FIB concentrations along two popular State Beaches in San Diego, CA, USA. The rainstorm-induced runoff from the watersheds exerts significant impacts on the marine recreational water quality of the beaches adjacent to lagoons during the first 24-48 h after a rain event. The large volume of stormwater runoff discharging to beaches caused high FIB concentrations in beach water not only at the lagoon outlet channel and the mixing zone, but also at the locations 90 m away from the channel northward or southward along the shoreline. The geomorphology of beach shoreline, distance from the outlet channel, wind strength, wind direction, tide height, wave height, rainfall, time lapse after a rainstorm, or channel flow rate played a role in affecting the distribution of FIB concentrations in beach water. Despite the great temporal and spatial variability of FIB concentrations along a shoreline, the artificial neural network-based models developed in this study are capable of successfully predicting FIB concentrations at different beaches, different locations, and different times under baseflow or rainstorm conditions. The models are based on readily measurable variables including temperature, conductivity, pH, turbidity, channel water flow, rainfall, and/or time lapse after a rainstorm. The established models will help fill the current gap between beach posting and actual water quality and make more meaningful and effective decisions on beach closures and advisories. PMID:18242661

  9. "Beach-Ball" Robotic Rovers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smyth, David E.

    1995-01-01

    Robotic vehicles resembling large beach balls proposed for carrying scientific instruments. Conceived for use in exploring planet Mars, also useful on Earth to carry meteorological or pollution-monitoring equipment to remote locations across rough terrain and even across water. Each vehicle features approximately spherical balloonlike outer shell inflated to suitable pressure. Three diametral tethers approximately perpendicular to each other attached to shell. Control box moves itself along tethers to shift center of gravity, causing vehicle to roll. Alternatively, instead of shell, structure of approximately spherical outline made of twisted rods; of course, not suitable for traversing water or thick vegetation.

  10. PREDICTING BACTERIAL CONCENTRATION ON THE NATION'S BEACHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A classical example of the failure of institutions and environmental technology to protect the nation's aesthetic, recreational, and public health values is represented by the July-August, 1999 Huntington Beach, California beach closure. This multi-million dollar regional public ...

  11. A Study of Sandy Beach Zonation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Steve K.

    1991-01-01

    Describes the study of sandy beach zonations as a seashore activity for either high school or lower-level college courses in biology, ecology, or marine biology. Students first draw a profile of a beach scene and then collect specimens from the zones of the shore. In a laboratory, students identify their specimens and relate them to the beach…

  12. Effects of beach cast cleaning on beach quality, microbial food web, and littoral macrofaunal biodiversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malm, Torleif; Råberg, Sonja; Fell, Sabine; Carlsson, Per

    2004-06-01

    At the end of the summer, drifting filamentous red algae cover shallow bottoms and accumulate in huge cast walls on the open shores of the non-tidal central Baltic Sea. The hypotheses that beach cleaning increases water clarity, decreases the organic content of the sand, and increases the species diversity in the shallow zone closest to the shore, were tested through field investigations and experiments. Cleaned shorelines were compared with un-cleaned shorelines at two sites with different intensity of beach cleaning in a rural area of SE Sweden. The results show that water clarity was significantly increased off the intensively cleaned beach but not off the moderately cleaned one. Similarly, the total leakage of nitrogenous compounds decreased off the intensively cleaned beach, but not off the moderately cleaned. The organic content of the sand was lower on both cleaned beaches compared with nearby un-cleaned beaches. The total animal biomass was significantly lower on the intensively cleaned beach compared with the un-cleaned beach, but the moderately cleaned beach gave no such effect. The difference in biodiversity and community structure between cleaned and un-cleaned beaches was insignificant. The most obvious difference in species composition was a much higher number of planktivore opossum shrimps of the genus Mysis and Praunus on the un-cleaned beaches. The bacterial production and the amount of ciliates larger than 20 mm were also higher on un-cleaned beaches, indicating that the microbial food web off the un-cleaned beaches is stimulated by the discharge of decomposing algal material. The conclusion of the study is that mechanical cleaning reduces the organic content of the beach sand and may change the water quality and microbial production, but the effect on the macrofaunal biodiversity is insignificant.

  13. Suprabenthic biodiversity of Catalan beaches (NW Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munilla, T.; San Vicente, C.

    2005-03-01

    An analysis of the suprabenthos has been carried out on 13 diverse type beaches in Catalonian coast (NE of Spain). A total of 29 717 specimens, belonging to 145 species and eight different zoological groups (mysids, amphipods, cumaceans, isopods, tanaidaceans, decapods, pycnogonids, and teleostean fishes) were obtained. The suprabenthos of Catalan beaches were characterized by a mean density of 40 ind. m -2, by the abundance of Mysids (75% of the total density) and by the higher diversity of Amphipods (64 species). Five population species were considered as typical of suprabenthic assemblages: Schistomysis assimilis, Mesopodopsis slabberi, Atylus guttatus, Pontocrates altamarinus, and Cumopsis goodsir. Four main types of beaches with different number of suprabenthic species and densities and three main faunistic groups are described and related to environmental physical factors of the analysed beaches (morphodynamics, exposure, etc.). The macrofaunal trend about to that the species richness decrease from dissipative to reflective beaches is confirmed for the suprabenthic communities.

  14. Vernonia condensata Baker (Asteraceae): a promising source of antioxidants.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Jucélia Barbosa; Temponi, Vanessa dos Santos; Gasparetto, Carolina Miranda; Fabri, Rodrigo Luiz; Aragão, Danielle Maria de Oliveira; Pinto, Nícolas de Castro Campos; Ribeiro, Antônia; Scio, Elita; Del-Vechio-Vieira, Glauciemar; de Sousa, Orlando Vieira; Alves, Maria Silvana

    2013-01-01

    The present study evaluated the antioxidant potential of Vernonia condensata Baker (Asteraceae). Dried and powdered leaves were exhaustively extracted with ethanol by static maceration followed by partition to obtain the hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and butanol fractions. Total phenols and flavonoids contents were determined through spectrophotometry and flavonoids were identified by HPLC-DAD system. The antioxidant activity was assessed by DPPH radical scavenging activity, TLC-bioautography, reducing power of Fe(+3), phosphomolybdenum, and TBA assays. The total phenolic content and total flavonoids ranged from 0.19 to 23.11 g/100 g and from 0.13 to 4.10 g/100 g, respectively. The flavonoids apigenin and luteolin were identified in the ethyl acetate fraction. The IC50 of DPPH assay varied from 4.28 to 75.10 µg/mL and TLC-bioautography detected the antioxidant compounds. The reducing power of Fe(+3) was 19.98 to 336.48  μg/mL, while the reaction with phosphomolybdenum ranged from 13.54% to 32.63% and 56.02% to 135.00% considering ascorbic acid and rutin as reference, respectively. At 30 mg/mL, the ethanolic extract and fractions revealed significant effect against lipid peroxidation. All these data sustain that V. condensata is an important and promising source of bioactive substances with antioxidant activity. PMID:24489987

  15. Early Holocene glaciation on Mount Baker, Washington State, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Paul A.; Easterbrook, Don J.; Clark, Peter U.

    2000-07-01

    The relation between radiocarbon-dated tephras and glacial moraines on the south flank of Mount Baker, Washington, records evidence of an early Holocene glacier advance. Scoria that erupted from a local cinder cone 8420±70 14C yr BP (9450±100 cal yr) occurs immediately in front of, but not on, a complex of moraines overlain by Mazama ash. Radiocarbon ages of 7670±130 14C yr BP (8415±110 cal yr) and 7045±65 14C yr BP (7890±90 cal yr) were obtained from charred wood below the Mazama ash and above till of the moraines, bracketing the age of the glacial advance between ˜7700 and 8400 14C yr BP (˜8400 and 9450 cal yr). Well-preserved Little Ice Age moraines occur proximal to the maximum Holocene positions. Assuming that precipitation regimes were similar, depression of former equilibrium line altitudes suggests that climate during the early Holocene event was at most ˜2°C cooler than present, and ˜0.5°C cooler than the Little Ice Age.

  16. Vernonia condensata Baker (Asteraceae): A Promising Source of Antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Jucélia Barbosa; Temponi, Vanessa dos Santos; Gasparetto, Carolina Miranda; Fabri, Rodrigo Luiz; Aragão, Danielle Maria de Oliveira; Pinto, Nícolas de Castro Campos; Ribeiro, Antônia; Scio, Elita; Del-Vechio-Vieira, Glauciemar; de Sousa, Orlando Vieira

    2013-01-01

    The present study evaluated the antioxidant potential of Vernonia condensata Baker (Asteraceae). Dried and powdered leaves were exhaustively extracted with ethanol by static maceration followed by partition to obtain the hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and butanol fractions. Total phenols and flavonoids contents were determined through spectrophotometry and flavonoids were identified by HPLC-DAD system. The antioxidant activity was assessed by DPPH radical scavenging activity, TLC-bioautography, reducing power of Fe+3, phosphomolybdenum, and TBA assays. The total phenolic content and total flavonoids ranged from 0.19 to 23.11 g/100 g and from 0.13 to 4.10 g/100 g, respectively. The flavonoids apigenin and luteolin were identified in the ethyl acetate fraction. The IC50 of DPPH assay varied from 4.28 to 75.10 µg/mL and TLC-bioautography detected the antioxidant compounds. The reducing power of Fe+3 was 19.98 to 336.48 μg/mL, while the reaction with phosphomolybdenum ranged from 13.54% to 32.63% and 56.02% to 135.00% considering ascorbic acid and rutin as reference, respectively. At 30 mg/mL, the ethanolic extract and fractions revealed significant effect against lipid peroxidation. All these data sustain that V. condensata is an important and promising source of bioactive substances with antioxidant activity. PMID:24489987

  17. Dynamics of Shengjini beach (Albania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gashi, Ferim; Nikolli, Pal

    2015-04-01

    Dynamics of Shengjini beach (Albania) Pal Nikolli , Ferim GASHI Through archaeological and historical data, presentations of ancient topographic, cartographic materials (topographic maps obtained at different periods from 1870 to 1990), aerial photographs (2007), satellite images (2014) and direct measurements, paper defines and analyzes the position of the coastline of Shengjini beach (Lezha) from century XVI until today. The coastline of the Shengjini city (port) to Drin River estuary is oriented north-south direction and is approximately 10.5 km long. This part of the coast is sandy and sediment comes mainly from the River Drin and distributed by currents along the coast. In this paper are make provision for the position of the coastline in the future and analyzed the possibilities of human intervention in the coastal environment , etc. This work forms the basis for the issuance of necessary data required for various projections at the coastal environment Shëngjini. Results of this study will have a significant impact on state policies for integrated management of the coastal zone in the study and development of tourism. Key words: GIS, Remonte Sennsing, cartography, management of coastal zone, tourism, environment.

  18. California: San Francisco Bay

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Northern California and San Francisco Bay     ... 17, 2000 (MISR) and August 25, 1997 (AirMISR) - Northern California and the San Francisco Bay. project:  MISR ... date:  Aug 17, 2000 Images:  California San Francisco Bay location:  United States ...

  19. A hybrid beach morphology model applied to a high energy sandy beach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karunarathna, Harshinie; Ranasinghe, Roshanka; Reeve, Dominic E.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, the application of a hybrid coastal morphodynamic model to forecast inter-annual beach change is discussed through the prediction of beach change in a high energy sandy beach over a period of 5 years. The modelling approach combines a `reduced-physics' formulation with a data-driven approach through an inverse technique to form the hybrid coastal morphodynamic model. The beach considered for the demonstration of the model is the Narrabeen Beach, which is a dynamic sand beach located in New South Wales, Australia. Despite its simplicity, we find that the model is able to capture beach change at Narrabeen Beach at inter-annual timescales with root mean square error between measured and computed beach profiles less than 0.4 m on average. Even though the model is used to forecast inter-annual beach change in this study, its ability to predict beach change is not limited to that timescale but depends on the frequency of historic beach profile measurements available to determine key unknown parameters of the model. Also, the length of profile forecasts largely depends on the length of available historic measurements where longer data sets allow longer predictions within a range of beach behaviour contained in the observations. The ability of the model to reliably forecast coastal change at inter-annual and potentially at other timescales, and its high efficiency make it possible to be used in providing multiple simulations required for probabilistic coastal change forecasts which will be very useful for coastal management purposes.

  20. Horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) reproductive activity on Delaware Bay beaches: Interactions with beach characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, D.R.; Pooler, P.S.; Loveland, R.E.; Botton, M.L.; Michels, S.F.; Weber, R.G.; Carter, Daniel B.

    2002-01-01

    We used results from a survey of horseshoe crab reproductive activity that was conducted in 1999 throughout Delaware Bay to examine the relationship between estimates of spawning females and egg deposition and analyze how that relationship varies with geography, time within a spawning season, beach morphology, and wave energy. We found that beach morphology and wave energy interacted with density of spawning females to explain variation in the density and distribution of eggs and larvae. For example, the quantity of eggs in surface sediment (i.e., eggs that are potentially available to foraging shorebirds) was associated with the density of spawning females, beach morphology, and wave energy. The association between beach morphology and live eggs in surface sediment was strong especially in late May (Percent Reduction in Error = 86% from regression tree model) where egg density was an order of magnitude higher on beaches <15 m wide (3.38*105 m-2; 90% CI: 2.29*105, 4.47*105) compared to wider beaches (1.49*104 m-2; 90% CI: 4.47*103, 2.53*104). Results also indicate that, among bay-front beaches, horseshoe crabs prefer to spawn on narrow beaches, possibly because of reduced wave energy. At peak periods of spawning activity, density of spawning females was inversely related to foreshore width on mid-latitude beaches within Delaware Bay (t = -2.68, 7 df, p = 0.03). Because the distribution of eggs across the foreshore varied with beach morphology and widened as the spawning season progressed, methods used to sample eggs need to be robust to variation in beach morphology and applicable regardless of when the samples are taken. Because beach morphology and wave energy were associated with the quantity of eggs in surface sediment, certain beach types may be critical to the conservation of shorebird foraging habitat.

  1. Tar loads on Omani beaches

    SciTech Connect

    Badawy, M.I.; Al-Harthy, F.T. )

    1991-11-01

    Owing to Oman's geographic position and long coastal line, the coastal areas of Oman are particularly vulnerable to oil pollution from normal tanker operations, illegal discharges, and accidental spills as well as local sources of oil input. UNEP carried out a survey on the coasts of Oman to determine the major sources of oil pollution and concluded that the major shoreline pollution problems in Oman arose from operational discharges of oil from passing vessels traffic. The oil, because of the high sea and air temperatures in the area, was subjected to relatively high rates of evaporation and photo-oxidation and tended to arrive at the coast as heavy petroleum particulate residues (tar balls). The aim of the present study was to measure the loads of tar balls in Omani coastal areas and to identify the source of oil pollutants on beaches.

  2. A study of factors contributing to bakers' allergy symptoms.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Y; Niitsuma, T; Ito, H

    1994-05-01

    It has been known for many years that bakers, who work in an atmosphere filled with wheat flour and other grain products, often suffer from bronchial asthma and other allergy symptoms. We examined 36 cooks (males: 33, females: 3, average age: 29.1 years) exposed to wheat products while baking bread or making confectionaries in a hotel. Their clinical symptoms were investigated, and peripheral blood eosinophils, serum IgE, wheat flour specific IgE, IgG1, IgG4, and antibodies to alpha-amylase and papain were measured. Clinical symptoms were present in some cases, the most common being rhinitis (13), itching and skin eruptions (8), ocular symptoms, including tearing, itching and conjunctival injection (8), and respiratory symptoms, including cough and sputum production (8). Wheat flour specific RAST was positive in 44.4% of cases. Peripheral eosinophils and wheat flour specific IgG1 levels were increased in those with positive RAST scores. Total IgE level and wheat flour specific IgG4 also seemed to be increased in those with positive RAST scores. Wheat flour specific IgG1 and IgG4 seemed to correlate positively with wheat flour specific IgE. The exposure duration correlated with neither total IgE nor wheat flour specific IgE. In those who were wheat flour RAST positive, wheat flour specific IgG1 levels correlated negatively with exposure duration. In RAST negative cases, however, there was no correlation. Similarly, there seemed to be a tendency for wheat flour specific IgG4 levels and exposure duration to correlate negatively in RAST positive cases. The subjects of this study initially worked in poorly ventilated areas.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7518230

  3. The relationship of freeze tolerance with intracellular compounds in baker's yeasts.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaojian; Miao, Yelian; Chen, Jie Yu; Chen, Jun; Li, Wenli; He, Xun; Wang, Jining

    2014-03-01

    Freeze-tolerant baker's yeasts are required for the processing of frozen doughs. The present study was carried out to investigate the cell survival rate after frozen storage and the change of fermentability in dough due to frozen storage, and to discuss quantitatively the relationship of freeze tolerance with intracellular trehalose, amino acids, and glycerol, using six types of baker's yeasts as the test materials. The experimental results showed that the fermentability of yeast cells in frozen dough was strongly correlated with the cell survival rate. The baker's yeast with a higher level of cell survival rate had a larger increase in the total intracellular compound content after frozen storage, and the cell survival rate increased linearly with increasing total intracellular compound content in frozen yeast cells. Trehalose was a primary compound affecting freeze tolerance, followed by glutamic acid, arginine, proline, asparagic acid, and glycerol. The basic information provided by the present study is useful for exploring the freeze-tolerance mechanisms of baker's yeast cells, breeding better freeze-tolerant baker's yeast strains, and developing more effective cryoprotectants. PMID:24482281

  4. Morphodynamics of a mesotidal rocky beach: Palmeras beach, Gorgona Island National Natural Park, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-García, A. M.; Bernal, G. R.; Osorio, A. F.; Botero, V.

    2014-10-01

    The response of a rocky beach to different possible combinations of hydrodynamic conditions (tides, waves, oceanic currents) has been little studied. In this work, the morphodynamic response to different hydrodynamic forcing is evaluated from sedimentological and geomorphological analysis in seasonal and medium term (19 years) scale in Palmeras beach, located in the southwest of Gorgona Island National Natural Park (NNP), a mesotidal rocky island on the Colombian Pacific continental shelf. Palmeras is an important nesting area of two types of marine turtles, with no anthropogenic stress. In the last years, coastal erosion has reduced the beach width, restricting the safe areas for nesting and conservation of these species. Until now, the sinks, sources, reservoirs, rates, and paths of sediments were unknown, as well as their hydrodynamic forcing. The beach seasonal variability, from October 2010 to August 2012, was analyzed based on biweekly or monthly measurements of five beach profiles distributed every 200 m along the 1.2 km of beach length. The main paths for sediment transport were defined from the modeling of wave currents with the SMC model (Coastal Modeling System), as well as the oceanic currents, simulated for the dry and wet seasons of 2011 using the ELCOM model (Estuary and Lake COmputer Model). Extreme morphologic variations over a time span of 19 years were analyzed with the Hsu and Evans beach static equilibrium parabolic model, from one wave diffraction point which dominates the general beach plan shape. The beach lost 672 m3/m during the measuring period, and erosional processes were intensified during the wet season. The beach trends responded directly to a wave mean energy flux change, resulting in an increase of up to 14 m in the width northward and loss of sediments in the beach southward. This study showed that to obtain the integral morphodynamic behavior of a rocky beach it is necessary to combine information of hydrodynamic, sedimentology and geomorphology in different time scales.

  5. Mixed sediment beach processes: Kachemak Bay, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruggiero, P.; Adams, P.N.; Warrick, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Mixed sediment beaches are morphologically distinct from and more complex than either sand or gravel only beaches. Three digital imaging techniques are employed to quantify surficial grain size and bedload sediment transport rates along the mixed sediment beaches of Kachemak Bay, Alaska. Applying digital imaging procedures originally developed for quickly and efficiently quantifying grain sizes of sand to coarse sediment classes gives promising results. Hundreds of grain size estimates lead to a quantitative characterization of the region's sediment at a significant reduction in cost and time as compared to traditional techniques. Both the sand and coarse fractions on this megatidal beach mobilize into self-organized bedforms that migrate alongshore with a seasonally reflecting the temporal pattern of the alongshore component of wave power. In contrast, the gravel bedforms also migrate in the cross-shore without significant seasonally suggesting that swash asymmetry is sufficient to mobilize the gravel even during low energy summer conditions. ?? 2007 ASCE.

  6. What Is the Impact of Beach Debris?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortner, Rosanne W.; Jax, Dan

    2003-01-01

    Presents a marine education activity. Students construct a web of changes that shows potential problems caused by solid waste on beaches. They then determine whether each change is an increase or a decrease from previous conditions. (Author/SOE)

  7. Differentiating experts' anticipatory skills in beach volleyball.

    PubMed

    Cañal-Bruland, Rouwen; Mooren, Merel; Savelsbergh, Geert J P

    2011-12-01

    In this study, we examined how perceptual-motor expertise and watching experience contribute to anticipating the outcome of opponents' attacking actions in beach volleyball. To this end, we invited 8 expert beach volleyball players, 8 expert coaches, 8 expert referees, and 8 control participants with no beach volleyball experience to watch videos of attack sequences that were occluded at three different times and to predict the outcome of these situations. Results showed that expert players and coaches (who were both perceptual-motor experts) outperformed the expert referees (who were watching experts but did not have the same motor expertise) and the control group in the latest occlusion condition (i.e., at spiker-ball contact). This finding suggests that perceptual-motor expertise may contribute to successful action anticipation in beach volleyball. PMID:22276408

  8. Juba: Science on an African Beach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drew, Walter F.

    1974-01-01

    This article presents a description of the teaching methods of Hawa Kamara who teaches sixth-grade science on a beach in Africa. His methods stress the elements of discovery and student questions. (JA)

  9. Sea level anomalies exacerbate beach erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theuerkauf, Ethan J.; Rodriguez, Antonio B.; Fegley, Stephen R.; Luettich, Richard A.

    2014-07-01

    Sea level anomalies are intra-seasonal increases in water level forced by meteorological and oceanographic processes unrelated to storms. The effects of sea level anomalies on beach morphology are unknown but important to constrain because these events have been recognized over large stretches of continental margins. Here, we present beach erosion measurements along Onslow Beach, a barrier island on the U.S. East Coast, in response to a year with frequent sea level anomalies and no major storms. The anomalies enabled extensive erosion, which was similar and in most places greater than the erosion that occurred during a year with a hurricane. These results highlight the importance of sea level anomalies in facilitating coastal erosion and advocate for their inclusion in beach-erosion models and management plans. Sea level anomalies amplify the erosive effects of accelerated sea level rise and changes in storminess associated with global climate change.

  10. Macrodebris and microplastics from beaches in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Laglbauer, Betty J L; Franco-Santos, Rita Melo; Andreu-Cazenave, Miguel; Brunelli, Lisa; Papadatou, Maria; Palatinus, Andreja; Grego, Mateja; Deprez, Tim

    2014-12-15

    The amount of marine debris in the environment is increasing worldwide, which results in an array of negative effects to biota. This study provides the first account of macrodebris on the beach and microplastics in the sediment (shoreline and infralittoral) in relation to tourism activities in Slovenia. The study assessed the quality and quantity of macrodebris and the quality, size and quantity of microplastics at six beaches, contrasting those under the influences of tourism and those that were not. Beach cleanliness was estimated using the Clean Coast Index. Tourism did not seem to have an effect on macrodebris or microplastic quantity at beaches. Over 64% of macrodebris was plastic, and microplastics were ubiquitous, which calls for classification of plastics as hazardous materials. Standard measures for marine debris assessment are needed, especially in the form of an all-encompassing debris index. Recommendations for future assessments are provided for the Adriatic region. PMID:25440193

  11. Salinity and groundwater flow below beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, T. B.; Wilson, A. M.; Moore, W. S.

    2013-12-01

    High rates of exchange between seawater and fresh groundwater in beach sediments drive significant chemical reactions, but the groundwater flow that controls this is poorly understood. Current conceptual models for groundwater flow in beaches highlight an upper saline plume, which is separated from the traditional freshwater-saltwater interface by a zone of brackish to fresh groundwater discharge. The lack of an upper saline plume at our study site led us to ask whether the plume exists in all beaches and what hydrogeological features control its formation. We used variable-density, saturated-unsaturated, transient groundwater flow models to investigate the geometry of the freshwater-saltwater interface in beaches with slopes varying from 0.1 to 0.01. We also varied hydraulic conductivity, dispersivity, tidal amplitude, inflow of fresh groundwater and precipitation. All models showed that a salinity gradient developed between the fresh groundwater and seawater in the intertidal zone, but the magnitude of the gradient was variable. The hydraulic conductivity was an important control on the development of an upper saline plume. A hydraulic conductivity of 100 m/d allowed the formation of an upper saline plume in every beach slope. No upper saline plumes formed in any beach with hydraulic conductivities less than 10 m/d. The slope of the beach was also a significant control. In models using a representative hydraulic conductivity of 10 m/d, the upper saline plume only formed in beaches with a slope of 0.5 or greater. The salinity of brackish groundwater that discharges seaward of the upper saline plume was inversely proportional to the input of fresh groundwater. Prior studies of groundwater flow and salinity in beaches have used very small dispersivities, but we found that the upper saline plume becomes much less distinct when larger dispersivities are used. Real beaches are highly mixed environments and the appropriate magnitude of dispersivity remains unclear. Our results suggest that upper saline plumes may not form in beaches of the U.S. Southeast, which are characterized by fine-grained sediment and moderate slopes. The concentration gradient between the upper saline plume and adjacent groundwater discharge zone increased with decreasing longitudinal dispersivity.

  12. A family of chaotic pure analog coding schemes based on baker's map function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Li, Jing; Lu, Xuanxuan; Yuen, Chau; Wu, Jun

    2015-12-01

    This paper considers a family of pure analog coding schemes constructed from dynamic systems which are governed by chaotic functions—baker's map function and its variants. Various decoding methods, including maximum likelihood (ML), minimum mean square error (MMSE), and mixed ML-MMSE decoding algorithms, have been developed for these novel encoding schemes. The proposed mirrored baker's and single-input baker's analog codes perform a balanced protection against the fold error (large distortion) and weak distortion and outperform the classical chaotic analog coding and analog joint source-channel coding schemes in literature. Compared to the conventional digital communication system, where quantization and digital error correction codes are used, the proposed analog coding system has graceful performance evolution, low decoding latency, and no quantization noise. Numerical results show that under the same bandwidth expansion, the proposed analog system outperforms the digital ones over a wide signal-to-noise (SNR) range.

  13. A novel bread making process using salt-stressed Baker's yeast.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Lien-Te; Charles, Albert Linton; Ho, Chi-Tang; Huang, Tzou-Chi

    2009-01-01

    By adjusting the mixing order of ingredients in traditional formula, an innovative bread making process was developed. The effect of salt-stressed Baker's yeast on bread dough of different sugar levels was investigated. Baker's yeast was stressed in 7% salt solution then mixed into dough, which was then evaluated for fermentation time, dough fermentation producing gas, dough expansion, bread specific volumes, and sensory and physical properties. The results of this study indicated that salt-stressed Baker's yeast shortened fermentation time in 16% and 24% sugar dough. Forty minutes of salt stress produced significant amount of gas and increased bread specific volumes. The bread was softer and significantly improved sensory properties for aroma, taste, and overall acceptability were obtained. PMID:20492129

  14. Allard's argument versus Baker's contention for the adaptive significance of selfing in a hermaphroditic fish.

    PubMed

    Avise, John C; Tatarenkov, Andrey

    2012-11-13

    Fertilization assurance (Baker's contention) and multilocus coadaptation (Allard's argument) are two distinct hypotheses for the adaptive significance of self-fertilization in hermaphroditic taxa, and both scenarios have been invoked to rationalize isogenicity via incest in various plants and invertebrate animals with predominant selfing. Here we contrast Allard's argument and Baker's contention as applied to the world's only known vertebrate that routinely self-fertilizes. We pay special attention to frequencies of locally most common multilocus genotypes in Floridian populations of the Mangrove Rivulus (Kryptolebias marmoratus). Isogenicity patterns in this fish appear inconsistent with Allard's argument, thus leaving Baker's contention as the more plausible scenario (a result also supported by natural history information for this species). These results contrast with the isogenicity patterns and conclusions previously drawn from several self-fertilizing plants and invertebrate animal species. Thus, the adaptive significance of selfing apparently varies across hermaphroditic taxa. PMID:23112206

  15. Wave Overtopping of a Barrier Beach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornton, E. B.; Laudier, N.; Macmahan, J. H.

    2009-12-01

    The rate of wave overtopping of a barrier beach is measured and modeled as a first step in modeling the breaching of a beach impounding an ephemeral river. Unique rate of wave overtopping data are obtained from the measure of the Carmel River, California, lagoon filling during a time when the lagoon is closed-off and there is no river inflow. Volume changes are calculated from measured lagoon height changes owing to wave overtopping by a stage-volume curve, then center differenced and averaged to provide volume rates of change in the lagoon. Wave height and period are obtained from CDIP MOPS directional wave spectra data in 15m fronting the beach. Beach morphology was measured by GPS walking surveys and interpolated for beach slopes and berm heights. Three empirical overtopping models by van der Meer and Janssen (1995), Hedges and Reis (1998) and Pullen et al. (2007) with differing parameterizations on wave height, period and beach slope and calibrated using extensive laboratory data obtained over plane, impermeable beaches are compared with the data. In addition, the run-up model by Stockdon et al. (2006) based on field data is examined. Three wave overtopping storm events are considered when morphology data were available less than 2 weeks prior to the event. The models are tuned to fit the data using a reduction factor to account for beach permeability, berm characteristics, non-normal wave incidence and surface roughness influence. It is concluded that the Stockdon et al. (2006) model underestimates run-up as no overtopping is predicted with this model. The three empirical overtopping models behaved similarly well with regression coefficients ranging 0.72 to 0.86 using a reasonable range of reduction factors 0.66 - 0.81 with an average of 0.74.

  16. Prevalence and risk factors for allergic rhinitis in bakers in Douala, Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Mbatchou Ngahane, Bertrand Hugo; Afane Ze, Emmanuel; Nde, Francis; Ngomo, Eliane; Mapoure Njankouo, Yacouba; Njock, Louis Richard

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence and risk factors of allergic rhinitis among bakers in Douala. Design A cross-sectional study; the logistic regression model was use to find the risk factors of allergic rhinitis. Setting The study was conducted in 42 bakeries randomly selected among a total of 151 bakeries in the city of Douala. Participants All bakers who consented to participate in the study between 1 May and 31 July 2013. Outcome measures Allergic rhinitis was the outcome of interest. It was defined as the presence of the following symptoms: itchy nose, rhinorrhea, nasal obstruction and sneezing. Results During the study period, a total of 273 bakers were invited and 229 finally agreed to participate in this study. Males were the most represented gender with 222 (96.9%) participants. The mean age of the participants was 36.29±8.9 years. Smoking was found in 55 participants (24.5%). The symptoms of allergic rhinitis were observed in 24.5% of participants. Work related nasal symptoms were present in 15% of participants. Sensitisation to wheat flour and α-amylase was found in 16.6% and 8.3% of participants, respectively. The Prick test was positive for mites in 12.2% of participants. After multivariate analysis, sensitisation to flour (OR 3.95, 95% CI 1.85 to 8.47) and storage mites (OR 3.44, 95% CI 1.45 to 8.18) were the factors independently associated with symptoms of allergic rhinitis. Conclusions Allergic rhinitis is frequent among bakers in Cameroon. Implementation of preventive measures against inhalation of airborne allergens in bakeries and clinical monitoring of bakers sensitised to wheat flour and mites could help to reduce the prevalence of allergic rhinitis among bakers. PMID:25180053

  17. 78 FR 40443 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request-Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-05

    ... of April 19, 2013 (76 FR 23546), the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC or Commission... COMMISSION Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request--Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act... verify whether pools and spas are in compliance with the Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety...

  18. Monitoring beach changes using GPS surveying techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Robert; Leach, Mark P.; Paine, Jeffrey G.; Cardoza, Michael A.

    1993-01-01

    The adaptation of Global Positioning System (GPS) surveying techniques to beach monitoring activities is a promising response to this challenge. An experiment that employed both GPS and conventional beach surveying was conducted, and a new beach monitoring method employing kinematic GPS surveys was devised. This new method involves the collection of precise shore-parallel and shore-normal GPS positions from a moving vehicle so that an accurate two-dimensional beach surface can be generated. Results show that the GPS measurements agree with conventional shore-normal surveys at the 1 cm level, and repeated GPS measurements employing the moving vehicle demonstrate a precision of better than 1 cm. In addition, the nearly continuous sampling and increased resolution provided by the GPS surveying technique reveals alongshore changes in beach morphology that are undetected by conventional shore-normal profiles. The application of GPS surveying techniques combined with the refinement of appropriate methods for data collection and analysis provides a better understanding of beach changes, sediment transport, and storm impacts.

  19. Opto-digital spectrum encryption by using Baker mapping and gyrator transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hang; Zhao, Jiguang; Liu, Zhengjun; Du, Xiaoping

    2015-03-01

    A concept of spectrum information hidden technology is proposed in this paper. We present an optical encryption algorithm for hiding both the spatial and spectrum information by using the Baker mapping in gyrator transform domains. The Baker mapping is introduced for scrambling the every single band of the hyperspectral image before adding the random phase functions. Subsequently, three thin cylinder lenses are controlled by PC for implementing the gyrator transform. The amplitude and phase information in the output plane can be regarded as the encrypted information and main key. Some numerical simulations are made to test the validity and capability of the proposed encryption algorithm.

  20. 33 CFR 110.218 - Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; in vicinity of Wilson Cove.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Island, Calif.; in vicinity of Wilson Cove. 110.218 Section 110.218 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; in vicinity of Wilson Cove. (a) The anchorage grounds. Shoreward on a line beginning at a point on the beach bearing 153° true, 1,400 yards, from Wilson Cove...

  1. 33 CFR 110.218 - Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; in vicinity of Wilson Cove.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Island, Calif.; in vicinity of Wilson Cove. 110.218 Section 110.218 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; in vicinity of Wilson Cove. (a) The anchorage grounds. Shoreward on a line beginning at a point on the beach bearing 153° true, 1,400 yards, from Wilson Cove...

  2. 33 CFR 110.218 - Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; in vicinity of Wilson Cove.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Island, Calif.; in vicinity of Wilson Cove. 110.218 Section 110.218 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; in vicinity of Wilson Cove. (a) The anchorage grounds. Shoreward on a line beginning at a point on the beach bearing 153° true, 1,400 yards, from Wilson Cove...

  3. 33 CFR 100.1101 - Southern California Annual Marine Events for the San Diego Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... submit an application each year in accordance with 33 CFR 100.15 to the cognizant Coast Guard Sector... adjacent to Crown Point Beach Park. 18. San Diego Ho`olaule`a and Keiki Heihei Wa`a Stand Up For the...

  4. 28. Photocopy of photograph (from San Francisco Chronicle Library, San ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Photocopy of photograph (from San Francisco Chronicle Library, San Francisco, California, c. 1930 (?) EXTERIOR, DETAIL OF MISSION BELL IN FRONT OF CONVENTO, C. 1930 (?) - Mission San Francisco Solano de Sonoma, First & Spain Streets, Sonoma, Sonoma County, CA

  5. 29. Photocopy of photograph (from San Francisco Chronicle Library, San ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Photocopy of photograph (from San Francisco Chronicle Library, San Francisco, California, c. 1930 (?) EXTERIOR, GENERAL VIEW OF CONVENTO, FRONT VIEW, AFTER RESTORATION - Mission San Francisco Solano de Sonoma, First & Spain Streets, Sonoma, Sonoma County, CA

  6. 40. Historic American Buildings Survey San Francisco Chronicle Collection San ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. Historic American Buildings Survey San Francisco Chronicle Collection San Francisco, California March 24, 1924 VIEW OF HIGH ALTAR - Mission San Carlos Borromeo, Rio Road & Lausen Drive, Carmel-by-the-Sea, Monterey County, CA

  7. An holistic approach to beach erosion vulnerability assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrakis, George; Poulos, Serafim Ε.

    2014-08-01

    Erosion is a major threat for coasts worldwide, beaches in particular, which constitute one of the most valuable coastal landforms. Vulnerability assessments related to beach erosion may contribute to planning measures to counteract erosion by identifying, quantifying and ranking vulnerability. Herein, we present a new index, the Beach Vulnerability Index (BVI), which combines simplicity in calculations, easily obtainable data and low processing capacity. This approach provides results not only for different beaches, but also for different sectors of the same beach and enables the identification of the relative significance of the processes involved. It functions through the numerical approximation of indicators that correspond to the mechanisms related to the processes that control beach evolution, such as sediment availability, wave climate, beach morhodynamics and sea level change. The BVI is also intended to be used as a managerial tool for beach sustainability, including resilience to climate change impact on beach erosion.

  8. An holistic approach to beach erosion vulnerability assessment.

    PubMed

    Alexandrakis, George; Poulos, Serafim Ε

    2014-01-01

    Erosion is a major threat for coasts worldwide, beaches in particular, which constitute one of the most valuable coastal landforms. Vulnerability assessments related to beach erosion may contribute to planning measures to counteract erosion by identifying, quantifying and ranking vulnerability. Herein, we present a new index, the Beach Vulnerability Index (BVI), which combines simplicity in calculations, easily obtainable data and low processing capacity. This approach provides results not only for different beaches, but also for different sectors of the same beach and enables the identification of the relative significance of the processes involved. It functions through the numerical approximation of indicators that correspond to the mechanisms related to the processes that control beach evolution, such as sediment availability, wave climate, beach morhodynamics and sea level change. The BVI is also intended to be used as a managerial tool for beach sustainability, including resilience to climate change impact on beach erosion. PMID:25123815

  9. Setting conservation targets for sandy beach ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Linda; Nel, Ronel; Holness, Stephen; Sink, Kerry; Schoeman, David

    2014-10-01

    Representative and adequate reserve networks are key to conserving biodiversity. This begs the question, how much of which features need to be placed in protected areas? Setting specifically-derived conservation targets for most ecosystems is common practice; however, this has never been done for sandy beaches. The aims of this paper, therefore, are to propose a methodology for setting conservation targets for sandy beach ecosystems; and to pilot the proposed method using data describing biodiversity patterns and processes from microtidal beaches in South Africa. First, a classification scheme of valued features of beaches is constructed, including: biodiversity features; unique features; and important processes. Second, methodologies for setting targets for each feature under different data-availability scenarios are described. From this framework, targets are set for features characteristic of microtidal beaches in South Africa, as follows. 1) Targets for dune vegetation types were adopted from a previous assessment, and ranged 19-100%. 2) Targets for beach morphodynamic types (habitats) were set using species-area relationships (SARs). These SARs were derived from species richness data from 142 sampling events around the South African coast (extrapolated to total theoretical species richness estimates using previously-established species-accumulation curve relationships), plotted against the area of the beach (calculated from Google Earth imagery). The species-accumulation factor (z) was 0.22, suggesting a baseline habitat target of 27% is required to protect 75% of the species. This baseline target was modified by heuristic principles, based on habitat rarity and threat status, with final values ranging 27-40%. 3) Species targets were fixed at 20%, modified using heuristic principles based on endemism, threat status, and whether or not beaches play an important role in the species' life history, with targets ranging 20-100%. 4) Targets for processes and 5) important assemblages were set at 50%, following other studies. 6) Finally, a target for an outstanding feature (the Alexandria dunefield) was set at 80% because of its national, international and ecological importance. The greatest shortfall in the current target-setting process is in the lack of empirical models describing the key beach processes, from which robust ecological thresholds can be derived. As for many other studies, our results illustrate that the conservation target of 10% for coastal and marine systems proposed by the Convention on Biological Diversity is too low to conserve sandy beaches and their biota.

  10. Advanced Decision-Support for Coastal Beach Health: Virtual Beach 3.0

    EPA Science Inventory

    Virtual Beach is a free decision-support system designed to help beach managers and researchers construct, evaluate, and operate site-specific statistical models that can predict levels of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) based on environmental conditions that are more readily mea...

  11. Transformation of Palm Beach Community College to Palm Beach State College: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basiratmand, Mehran

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this single-site case study was to examine the organization and leadership change process of Palm Beach State College, a publicly funded institution in Florida, as it embarked on offering bachelor's degree programs. The study examined the organizational change process and the extent to which Palm Beach State College's organization…

  12. Virginia Beach Public Library System, Virginia Beach/Oceanfront Branch: A Community Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Carolyn L., Comp.; And Others

    This study provides an overview of the community and the status of the library through an examination of the city of Virginia Beach, including its demography and needs, as well as the history, organization, administration, and financial support of both the Virginia Beach Public Library System and the Oceanfront Branch Library. The information is…

  13. Transformation of Palm Beach Community College to Palm Beach State College: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basiratmand, Mehran

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this single-site case study was to examine the organization and leadership change process of Palm Beach State College, a publicly funded institution in Florida, as it embarked on offering bachelor's degree programs. The study examined the organizational change process and the extent to which Palm Beach State College's organization

  14. 77 FR 50019 - Safety Zone; Cocoa Beach Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa Beach, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ...) 366-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Cocoa Beach Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa... establishing a temporary safety zone on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean located east of Cocoa Beach,...

  15. Beach changes from sediment delivered by streams to pocket beaches during a major flood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pranzini, Enzo; Rosas, Valentina; Jackson, Nancy L.; Nordstrom, Karl F.

    2013-10-01

    The significance of sediment delivered via storm-associated stream discharge in altering sediment characteristics, beach form, and volume is evaluated on pocket beaches with different basin characteristics and wave exposures. The focus is on changes on three beaches on Elba Island, Italy caused by a flood event in September 2002 that had an estimated recurrence interval of 200 years. Beach profiles and foreshore sediment samples were gathered in 1999 and 2000 to identify pre-storm characteristics, in September 2002 to reveal the immediate effects of the storm, and in 2003 and 2004 to reveal post-storm recovery. Foreshore sediments were finer and better sorted and contained no pebbles prior to the flood. Coarsening of the sand and granule fraction was evident after the flood, along with pebble accumulations, especially near major streams. Mean size, sorting values and percent pebbles one and two years after the flood were generally greater than pre-flood conditions but less than immediately after the flood. Beach profiles reveal conspicuous erosion immediately after the flood, when sediment delivered by streams is transported to subaqueous deltas. Thereafter, sediment moves onshore and alongshore to adjacent beaches to restore subaerial volumes. The location of streams within a compartment, relative to the location of capes and headlands, is important in determining the movement of sediment added to the beach by streams. The sites are all sheltered from the highest-energy waves from the west, facilitating longshore transport to the west. Where the largest stream is located at the east end of a compartment, sediment discharged from it is source material for the downdrift beaches to the west. Where the largest stream is at the west end of the compartment, the ability to supply sediment to the beaches to the east is restricted. Hence, broad-scale geologic controls (headlands and capes) enhance or diminish the ability of streams to influence beach change throughout the pocket. The inability of beaches on two of the sites to migrate landward, due to human development of uplands, will be an issue in the future. Lack of sediment to replenish beaches through erosion of the upland, places increased emphasis on the role of coastal streams in the beach sediment budget. Changing watershed attributes to allow more sediment discharge during high-energy, low-frequency events (e.g. devoting more land to agriculture) would be a way of helping to restore beach sediment.

  16. Shoreface storm morphodynamics and mega-rip evolution at an embayed beach: Bondi Beach, NSW, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarroll, R. Jak; Brander, Robert W.; Turner, Ian L.; Leeuwen, Ben Van

    2016-03-01

    Embayed beach dynamics differ from open beaches due to the nature of headland control. Their resultant morphologies and morphodynamic behaviour are poorly understood due in part to a critical lack of surfzone and nearshore bathymetry observations. This study describes the morphodynamic storm response of a high-energy intermediate, 850 m long embayed beach over a three week period spanning a cluster of storms. A headland and subaqueous ridge protects the northern end of the beach, resulting in an alongshore wave height gradient. Contrary to existing beach state conceptual models, under energetic forcing the beach did not 'reset' or enter a 'cellular mega-rip' beach state. The protected northern end persisted in a low energy state, while the wave exposed southern section transitioned from transverse-bar-and-rip to a complex double-bar system, a process previously undescribed in the literature. Bar-rip morphology at the exposed end of the beach migrated offshore to greater depths, leaving an inner-reflective beach and longshore trough, while a mega-rip channel with 3 m relief developed at the exposed headland. The number of rip channels remained near constant over multiple storm events. Offshore sediment flux was 350 m3/m at the exposed headland and 20 m3/m at the protected end. Alongshore bathymetric non-uniformity decreased over the sub-aerial beach and inner surfzone, but increased in the outer surfzone and beyond. Suggested mechanisms for the persistence of 3D morphology during the cluster of storms include: (i) wave refraction to shore normal within the embayment; (ii) alongshore energy gradients; and (iii) pre-existing bar-rip morphology. Formation of the complex multi-bar state may be related to antecedent morphology, headland geometry, substrate gradient and localised hydrodynamic interactions near the headland. A new conceptual embayed beach state model is proposed for asymmetric, transitional embayed beaches. The model describes a pre-storm embayment where beach state changes gradually alongshore, while the post-storm embayment exhibits an extreme alongshore morphological gradient, from low-energy intermediate to a "complex multi-bar and mega-rip" state at the exposed end of the beach. Further observations are required to determine the prevalence of this high-energy state and to provide inputs to future numerical models designed to examine the dominant forcing controls involved in its formation.

  17. The San Diego Hurricane of 2 October 1858.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chenoweth, Michael; Landsea, Christopher

    2004-11-01

    On 2 October 1858, estimated sustained hurricane-force winds produced by a tropical cyclone located a short distance offshore were felt in San Diego, California. Unprecedented damage was done in the city and was described as the severest gale ever felt to that date, and it has not been matched or exceeded in severity since. A “southeaster” and high seas from the diminishing tropical cyclone were also felt in the night of 2 3 October at San Pedro (the port serving Los Angeles), California, with shipping interests lightly damaged. The hurricane-force winds at San Diego are the first and only documented instance of winds of this strength from a tropical cyclone in the recorded history of the state. Available evidence suggests that the hurricane tracked just offshore from San Diego, without the eye coming inland, but close enough to produce damaging winds along the entire coast from San Diego to Long Beach, California. The rediscovery of this storm is relevant to climate change issues and the insurance emergency management communities risk assessment of rare and extreme events in the region.

  18. Long or short? Investigating the effect of beach length and other environmental parameters on macrofaunal assemblages of Maltese pocket beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deidun, A.; Schembri, P. J.

    2008-08-01

    Despite numerous published studies that have evaluated the influence of different physical parameters, including beach slope, sediment organic content and grain size, on beach macrofaunal assemblages, very few studies have investigated the influence of beach length on biotic attributes of the same assemblages. Four beaches on the Maltese Islands were sampled using pitfall traps at night for eight consecutive seasons during 2001-2003. Macrofaunal collections were dominated by arthropods, mostly isopods (especially Tylos europaeus) and tenebrionid beetles (especially Phaleria spp.). The environmental variables of beach slope, exposure to wave action, sediment organic content, mean particle diameter, log beach length, beach width and the beach deposit index (BDI) were regressed against a number of biotic parameters, including log individual abundance, total species, Shannon-Wiener ( H') diversity index value and the psammophilic fraction of the total species collected, whilst BIO-ENV and NMDS were used to identify the physical parameter which could best explain observed biotic patterns. RELATE was used to assess the long-term persistence of macrofaunal assemblages on beaches of different lengths. Results from this study suggest that, whilst the influence of beach length and beach width on individual abundance and total species number is unimportant, these 'beach-area' parameters may affect the taxonomic composition of a beach assemblage, mainly in terms of the psammophilic fraction of assemblages, as well as the permanence of macrofaunal assemblages on a beach. Shorter and narrower beaches were found to be more prone to sporadic and random events of colonisation by euryoecious species. In the absence of human disturbance and mass mortality events, beaches of limited dimensions can still maintain stable macrofaunal assemblages. Individual abundance and total species number could not be related to a single or small suite of physical parameters. The study further highlights the need to include biological interactions, the degree of human disturbance and other variables such as environmental heterogeneity and the connectivity of the individual beaches when assessing inter-beach differences in macrofaunal assemblages.

  19. The San Andreas Fault

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schulz, Sandra S.; Wallace, Robert E.

    1993-01-01

    The presence of the San Andreas fault was brought dramatically to world attention on April 18, 1906, when sudden displacement along the fault produced the great San Francisco earthquake and fire. This earthquake, however, was but one of many that have resulted from episodic displacement along the fault throughout its life of about 15-20 million years.

  20. 76 FR 72718 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Baker Resource Management Plan and Environmental Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-25

    ... change, lands with wilderness characteristics, and Tribal-government and community interests. Special... an updated framework in which to administer public lands. This RMP/EIS addresses new issues, changes in resource conditions, and changes in resource management practices since the Baker RMP of 1989....

  1. Thermal surveillance of active volcanoes. [infrared scanner recordings of thermal anomalies of Mt. Baker volcano

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, J. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. By the end of 1973, aerial infrared scanner traverses for thermal anomaly recordings of all Cascade Range volcanoes were essentially completed. Amplitude level slices of the Mount Baker anomalies were completed and compiled at a scale of 1:24,000, thus producing, for the first time, an accurate map of the distribution and intensity of thermal activity on Mount Baker. The major thermal activity is concentrated within the crater south of the main summit and although it is characterized by intensive solfataric activity and warm ground, it is largely subglacial, causing the development of sizable glacier perforation features. The outgoing radiative flux from the east breach anomalies is sufficient to account for the volume of ice melted to form the glacier perforations. DCP station 6251 has been monitoring a thermally anomalous area on the north slope of Mount Baker. The present thermal activity of Mount Baker accounts for continuing hydrothermal alteration in the crater south of the main summit and recurrent debris avalanches from Sherman Peak on its south rim. The infrared anomalies mapped as part of the experiment SR 251 are considered the basic evidence of the subglacial heating which was the probable triggering mechanism of an avalanche down Boulder Glacier on August 20-21, 1973.

  2. Remembering Community Inclusion: Stories From the Life of Jack Eldon Baker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millington, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    Jack Eldon Baker was born, lived, and died in Gilbert, Arkansas. The story of his life is retold in excerpts from a memorial publication published by the people of the town. This article also makes the case that his story is an example of community inclusion. Through the voices of those who knew him, we see Jack as a person who gave to the…

  3. 78 FR 25693 - Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest; Snohomish County, WA; Green Mountain Lookout Removal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-02

    ... Forest Service Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest; Snohomish County, WA; Green Mountain Lookout Removal.... SUMMARY: This project would remove the historic fire lookout on Green Mountain and relocate it to Circle... Wilderness in connection with the removal. Green Mountain Lookout is approximately one air mile...

  4. 78 FR 33048 - Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest; Snohomish County, WA; Green Mountain Lookout Removal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-03

    .... 85), beginning a 30 day comment period. Please see the Notice of Intent (FR Doc. 2013- 10322) for... Forest Service Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest; Snohomish County, WA; Green Mountain Lookout Removal... hereby gives notice that it is extending the public scoping comment period for the Green Mountain...

  5. Electronically Transmitted Threats and Higher Education: Oppression, Free Speech, and Jake Baker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Jared C.

    2013-01-01

    When Jake Baker wrote a violent, sexually themed story about one of his classmates and emailed it to a friend, the case that ensued highlighted how new technologies have created fresh ways for students to harass, oppress, or be oppressed by others. This article examines concepts of violence and cultural imperialism oppression, primarily as defined…

  6. Baker's Helper. DOT No. 313.684-010. Cafeteria Occupations. Coordinator's Guide. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East Texas State Univ., Commerce. Occupational Curriculum Lab.

    This study guide is one of eight individualized units developed for students enrolled in cooperative part-time training and employed in a cafeteria. Each self-paced unit is composed of information about one specific occupation; this unit focuses on the duties of the baker's helper. Materials provided in this guide for coordinator use include a…

  7. Use of Enzymes in Organic Synthesis: Reduction of Ketones by Baker's Yeast Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, James; Sigurdsson, Snorri Th.

    2005-01-01

    The reduction of ethyl acetoacetate using common baker's yeast is a traditional experiment that shows the stereoselective power of a biochemical system. Addition of organic solvents to aqueous reaction system increased the yields and reproducibility of the experiment thus overcoming the two problems associated with the experiment, low yield, and

  8. Chicks in Charge: Andrea Baker & Amy Daniels--Airport High School Media Center, Columbia, SC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This article briefly discusses two librarians exploration of Linux. Andrea Baker and Amy Daniels were tired of telling their students that new technology items were not in the budget. They explored Linux, which is a program that recycles older computers, installs free operating systems and free software.

  9. Floating Tophi in a Baker Cyst Secondary to Gout: Ultrasound Features and Differential Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Derry, William; Motamedi, Kambiz; Ben-Artzi, Ami

    2015-09-01

    We report the case of a 36-year-old man with a recent diagnosis of gout, who presents with a fullness behind his right knee that fluctuates in size with time. An ultrasound revealed a Baker cyst that contained both large and punctate internal hyperechoic foci. Cyst aspiration revealed negatively birefringent crystals, which were consistent with gout. PMID:26366691

  10. National Apprenticeship and Training Standards for Associated Retail Bakers of America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Associated Retail Bakers of America, Chicago, IL.

    The document presents systematic standards (adopted by the Associated Retail Bakers of America in accordance with the basic standards recommended by the Bureau of Apprenticeship and Training of the U.S. Department of Labor) to be used in the apprenticeship and training programs of the baking industry. Included is the following information: (1)…

  11. Checklist of insects associated with Salvinia minima (Baker) in Louisiana, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    his study presents a list of adult insects (excluding Diptera and Lepidoptera) collected from an infestation of an invasive aquatic weed, common salvinia (Salvinia minima Baker), in southern Louisiana, USA. Insects were sampled from May November of 2009 and 2010 using floating pitfall traps. A to...

  12. Use of Enzymes in Organic Synthesis: Reduction of Ketones by Baker's Yeast Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, James; Sigurdsson, Snorri Th.

    2005-01-01

    The reduction of ethyl acetoacetate using common baker's yeast is a traditional experiment that shows the stereoselective power of a biochemical system. Addition of organic solvents to aqueous reaction system increased the yields and reproducibility of the experiment thus overcoming the two problems associated with the experiment, low yield, and…

  13. Characterizing Magmatic Activity at Mount Baker, Washington With Inversion of Slope Distance Data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodge, B. E.; Crider, J. G.

    2007-12-01

    Surface deformation studies at active volcanoes are used to detect changes to magmatic source regions beneath the volcano. At Mount Baker, Washington, continued elevated gas (CO2 and H2S) and heat flux from fumaroles in Sherman Crater indicate the presence of a degassing magma reservoir. We assess if surface deformation has occurred on Mount Baker during the last quarter century by collecting a modern geodetic data set to compare with previous slope distance measurements acquired in 1981 and 1983 with EDM. Campaign GPS surveys in 2006 and 2007 provide slope distance measurements of all 19 trilateration lines on Mount Baker. These surveys determined that slope distances have predominantly shortened around the edifice at rates of less than 2 mm/yr. The greatest slope length change detected (HDLY-RSVT) is -17 ± 4 ppm on the northern flank of the volcano. We fit a strain model to the weighted slope change data using a nonlinear least-squares regression to characterize a two dimensional surface strain tensor. These results indicate contractional strain centered near the crater with and aerial dilation rate of less than 0.5 microstrain/yr. We also use these data to invert source parameters for a spherical magma source at depth to provide estimates of net volume and mass change of the magma reservoir. The inversion results are analyzed in conjunction with microgravity and gas flux data to better understand the current magmatic quiescence at Mount Baker.

  14. A baker's dozen of new particle flows for nonlinear filters, Bayesian decisions and transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daum, Fred; Huang, Jim

    2015-05-01

    We describe a baker's dozen of new particle flows to compute Bayes' rule for nonlinear filters, Bayesian decisions and learning as well as transport. Several of these new flows were inspired by transport theory, but others were inspired by physics or statistics or Markov chain Monte Carlo methods.

  15. Data-Based Personnel Decisions: Baker Middle's Intensive Support List

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Kimberly Kappler; Chopin, Scarlet Lilian

    2015-01-01

    Focused on the use of teacher evaluation data, this case was designed for use in two principal licensure courses, one on data literacy and the other on supervision and personnel. The principal of Baker Middle School has been instructed by the superintendent to use data from the state's new teacher evaluation system to determine which teachers…

  16. Beach science in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nevers, Meredith B.; Byappanahalli, Murulee N.; Edge, Thomas A.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring beach waters for human health has led to an increase and evolution of science in the Great Lakes, which includes microbiology, limnology, hydrology, meteorology, epidemiology, and metagenomics, among others. In recent years, concerns over the accuracy of water quality standards at protecting human health have led to a significant interest in understanding the risk associated with water contact in both freshwater and marine environments. Historically, surface waters have been monitored for fecal indicator bacteria (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci), but shortcomings of the analytical test (lengthy assay) have resulted in a re-focusing of scientific efforts to improve public health protection. Research has led to the discovery of widespread populations of fecal indicator bacteria present in natural habitats such as soils, beach sand, and stranded algae. Microbial source tracking has been used to identify the source of these bacteria and subsequently assess their impact on human health. As a result of many findings, attempts have been made to improve monitoring efficiency and efficacy with the use of empirical predictive models and molecular rapid tests. All along, beach managers have actively incorporated new findings into their monitoring programs. With the abundance of research conducted and information gained over the last 25 years, “Beach Science” has emerged, and the Great Lakes have been a focal point for much of the ground-breaking work. Here, we review the accumulated research on microbiological water quality of Great Lakes beaches and provide a historic context to the collaborative efforts that have advanced this emerging science.

  17. New stratigraphic constraints on Holocene glacier advances at Mt. Baker, Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, D.; Ryane, C.; Tucker, D.; Davis, T.; Bowerman, N.; Osborn, G.; Clague, J.; Menounos, B.; Scott, K.; Guilderson, T.; Riedel, J.; Steig, E.

    2007-12-01

    New data from a lake sediment core and moraine exposures at Mt. Baker, WA, indicate that a purported early Holocene glacier advance occurred earlier, likely at the end of the Pleistocene. Previous workers used 14C ages associated with small cirque moraines on the SW flank of Mt. Baker, along with the apparent absence of a distinctive scoria (set SC; 8850 14C yr BP, ~9900 cal yr BP) from other moraines on Mt. Baker, as evidence for an advance at ~8400 14C yr BP (~9450 cal yr BP). Such an advance is important to test because it would contrast with glacial records throughout most of the rest of western North America. A 1.2-m sediment core collected from Pocket Lake, which is dammed by one of the previously dated cirque moraines, contains three tephras: Baker set BA (~5800 14C yr BP; 6600 cal yr BP), Mazama ash (6800 14C yr BP; 7600 cal yr BP), and a basal set of ash beds that are tentatively identified as Baker set SC. The lowest macrofossil in the core, ~2 cm above the top of the basal ash beds, yielded an age of 7640 ± 50 14C yr BP (~8400 cal yr BP), consistent with the tephra being SC. Initial geochemical analyses of the tephra also support this identification. These findings indicate that the previous age on the cirque moraine, from organics near the surface of the till, provides a minimum rather than a direct age for the advance that formed the moraine. A 14C age of 11,400 ± 110 14C yr BP (~13,300 cal yr BP) on bulk sediments below the basal ash is likely contaminated and therefore too old. Tephra overlying other ridges at Mt. Baker that were previously identified as post-SC, early-Holocene moraines has been identified as set SC. The ridges thus are actually pre-SC rather than post-SC in age; they may not be moraines in any event. Meanwhile, abundant 14C ages on tills below Deming Glacier indicate both Younger Dryas and Neoglacial advances, but no early Holocene advances. Together, these observations indicate that glaciers in the Mt. Baker area advanced during the YD, were of minimal extent during the early Holocene, and readvanced during the Neoglacial. The similarity of glacier fluctuations here to those in British Columbia and elsewhere in the North Cascades suggests a coherent history of Holocene climate change over a broad area of the northern Cordillera.

  18. Reconstructing streamflow variation of the Baker River from tree-rings in Northern Patagonia since 1765

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lara, Antonio; Bahamondez, Alejandra; González-Reyes, Alvaro; Muñoz, Ariel A.; Cuq, Emilio; Ruiz-Gómez, Carolina

    2015-10-01

    The understanding of the long-term variation of large rivers streamflow with a high economic and social relevance is necessary in order to improve the planning and management of water resources in different regions of the world. The Baker River has the highest mean discharge of those draining both slopes of the Andes South of 20°S and it is among the six rivers with the highest mean streamflow in the Pacific domain of South America (1100 m3 s-1 at its outlet). It drains an international basin of 29,000 km2 shared by Chile and Argentina and has a high ecologic and economic value including conservation, tourism, recreational fishing, and projected hydropower. This study reconstructs the austral summer - early fall (January-April) streamflow for the Baker River from Nothofagus pumilio tree-rings for the period 1765-2004. Summer streamflow represents 45.2% of the annual discharge. The regression model for the period (1961-2004) explains 54% of the variance of the Baker River streamflow (R2adj = 0.54). The most significant temporal pattern in the record is the sustained decline since the 1980s (τ = -0.633, p = 1.0144 ∗ 10-5 for the 1985-2004 period), which is unprecedented since 1765. The Correlation of the Baker streamflow with the November-April observed Southern Annular Mode (SAM) is significant (1961-2004, r = -0.55, p < 0.001). The Baker record is also correlated with the available SAM tree-ring reconstruction based on other species when both series are filtered with a 25-year spline and detrended (1765-2004, r = -0.41, p < 0.01), emphasizing SAM as the main climatic forcing of the Baker streamflow. Three of the five summers with the highest streamflow in the entire reconstructed record occurred after the 1950s (1977, 1958 and 1959). The causes of this high streamflow events are not yet clear and cannot be associated with the reported recent increase in the frequency of glacial-lake outburst floods (GLOFs). The decreasing trend in the observed and reconstructed streamflow of the Baker River documented here for the 1980-2004 period is consistent with precipitation decrease associated with the SAM. Conversely, other studies have reported an increase of summer streamflow for a portion of the Baker River for the 1994-2008 period, explained by ice melt associated with temperature increase and glacier retreat and thinning. Future research should consider the development of new tree-ring reconstructions to increase the geographic range and to cover the last 1000 or more years using long-lived species (e.g. Fitzroya cupressoides and Pilgerodendron uviferum). Expanding the network and quality of instrumental weather, streamflow and other monitoring stations as well as the study and modeling of the complex hydrological processes in the Baker basin are necessary. This should be the basis for planning, policy design and decision making regarding water resources in the Baker basin.

  19. Factors which affect the frequency of sporulation and tetrad formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae baker's yeasts.

    PubMed Central

    Codn, A C; Gasent-Ramrez, J M; Bentez, T

    1995-01-01

    To clarify the role that respiration, the mitochondrial genome, and interactions of mitochondria and nucleus play on sporulation and to improve the sporogenic ability of several baker's yeasts, an investigation of the effects of different media and culture conditions on baker's yeast sporulation was undertaken. When standard protocols were followed, the sporulation frequency varied between 20 and 60% and the frequency of four-spore asci varied between 1 and 6%. Different presporulation and sporulation media, the use of solid versus liquid media, and incubation at 22 versus 30 degrees C were checked, and the cells were collected from presporulation media in either exponential or stationary phase. Best results, yielding sporulation and four-spore ascus formation frequencies up to 97 and 60%, respectively, were obtained by collection of the cells in exponential phase from liquid presporulation medium with 10% glucose and transfer of them to sporulation medium with 0.5% potassium acetate at 22 degrees C. Under these conditions, the most important factor was the growth phase (exponential versus stationary) at which cells from presporulation medium were collected. Changes in sporulation frequencies were also measured after transfer of mitochondria from different sources to baker's yeasts. When mitochondria from laboratory, baker's, and wine yeasts were transferred to baker's and laboratory petite strains, sporulation and four-spore ascus formation frequencies dropped dramatically either to no sporulation at all or to less than 50% in both parameters. This transfer also resulted in an increase in the frequency of petite mutant formation but yielded similar growth and respiration rates in glycerol.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7574601

  20. A multi-beach study of Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA, and enterococci in seawater and beach sand.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Kelly D; McNay, Melody; Cao, Yiping; Ebentier, Darcy; Madison, Melissa; Griffith, John F

    2012-09-01

    Incidences of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) have risen worldwide prompting a need to better understand routes of human exposure and whether standard bacterial water quality monitoring practices adequately account for this potential threat. Beach water and sand samples were analyzed during summer months for S. aureus, enterococci, and MRSA at three southern California beaches (Avalon, Doheny, Malibu Surfrider). S. aureus frequently was detected in samples of seawater (59%, n = 328) and beach sand (53%, n = 358). MRSA sometimes was detected in seawater (1.6%, n = 366) and sand (2.7%, n = 366) at relatively low concentrations. Site specific differences were observed, with Avalon Beach presenting the highest concentrations of S. aureus and Malibu Surfrider the lowest in both seawater and sand. S. aureus concentrations in seawater and sand were correlated to each other and to a variety of other parameters. Multiple linear regression on the combined beach data indicated that significant explanatory variables for S. aureus in seawater were S. aureus in sand, water temperature, enterococci in seawater, and the number of swimmers. In sand, S. aureus concentrations were related to S. aureus in seawater, water temperature, enterococci in seawater, and inversely to surf height classification. Only the correlation to water temperature held for individually analyzed beaches and for S. aureus concentrations in both seawater and sand. To provide context for these results, the prevalence of S. aureus in sand was compared to published fomite studies, and results suggested that beach prevalence was similar to that in homes. PMID:22652414

  1. Route No. 1 near east end, view toward Overton Beach ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Route No. 1 near east end, view toward Overton Beach and Lake Mead, view to northeast - Route No. 1-Overton-Lake Mead Road, Between Overton Beach & Park Boundary, 6 miles south of Overton, Overton, Clark County, NV

  2. USING PUBLIC-DOMAIN MODELS TO ESTIMATE BEACH BACTERIA CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stretches of beach along popular Huntington Beach, California are occassionally closed to swimming due to high levels of bacteria. One hypothesized source is the treated wastewater plume from the Orange County Sanitation District's (OCSD) ocean outfall. While three independent sc...

  3. Depositional settings of sand beaches along whitewater rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vincent, K.R.; Andrews, E.D.

    2008-01-01

    The numbers and sizes of sand beaches suitable for recreation along selected whitewater rivers in the western United States depend on sand concentrations, range of discharge and the size, frequency and type of depositional settings. River-width expansions downstream from constrictions are the predominant depositional setting for sand beaches in the upper Grand Canyon and along five Wild and Scenic Rivers in Idaho, but not along other rivers. Beaches located upstream from constrictions are rare, in general, except in the Grand Canyon. Beaches found in expansions without constrictions dominate depositional sites along the Yampa and Green Rivers, are fairly common along the rivers in Idaho, but are relatively rare in the Grand Canyon. The magnitude of flow expansion is a reliable predictor of beach size. Beaches located on the inside of curves are uncommon, in general, but can be important recreation sites. The mid-channel bar setting is the least important from a recreation standpoint because that setting is rare and beaches there are typically small, and emergent only at low flow. The frequency of beaches is highly variable among rivers and the concentration of sand in transport is only partially responsible. Of the rivers studied, the unregulated Yampa River carries the highest concentrations of suspended sand and has among the most beaches (1.2 beaches km-1). Emergent sand beaches are essentially nonexistent along the Deschutes River and are rare along other Oregon rivers, yet these rivers transport some sand. Sand beaches are fairly common (0.8-1.1 beaches km-1) along the regulated Colorado River, but are comparatively rare (0.6 beaches km-1) along the unregulated Middle Fork Salmon River. The suspended sand concentrations in study reaches of these two rivers are similar, and the difference in the frequency of beaches may be largely because the processes that create beach-deposition settings are less active along the Middle Fork Salmon.

  4. Burrowing inhibition by fine textured beach fill: Implications for recovery of beach ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viola, Sloane M.; Hubbard, David M.; Dugan, Jenifer E.; Schooler, Nicholas K.

    2014-10-01

    Beach nourishment is often considered the most environmentally sound method of maintaining eroding shorelines. However, the ecological consequences are poorly understood. Fill activities cause intense disturbance and high mortality and have the potential to alter the diversity, abundance, and distribution of intertidal macroinvertebrates for months to years. Ecological recovery following fill activities depends on successful recolonization and recruitment of the entire sandy intertidal community. The use of incompatible sediments as fill material can strongly affect ecosystem recovery. We hypothesized that burrowing inhibition of intertidal animals by incompatible fine fill sediments contributes to ecological impacts and limits recovery in beach ecosystems. We experimentally investigated the influence of intertidal zone and burrowing mode on responses of beach invertebrates to altered sediment texture (28-38% fines), and ultimately the potential for colonization and recovery of beaches disturbed by beach filling. Using experimental trials in fill material and natural beach sand, we found that the mismatched fine fill sediments significantly inhibited burrowing of characteristic species from all intertidal zones, including sand crabs, clams, polychaetes, isopods, and talitrid amphipods. Burrowing performance of all five species we tested was consistently reduced in the fill material and burrowing was completely inhibited for several species. The threshold for burrowing inhibition by fine sediment content in middle and lower beach macroinvertebrates varied by species, with highest sensitivity for the polychaete (4% fines, below the USA regulatory limit of 10% fines), followed by sand crabs and clams (20% fines). These results suggest broader investigation of thresholds for burrowing inhibition in fine fill material is needed for beach animals. Burrowing inhibition caused by mismatched fill sediments exposes beach macroinvertebrates to stresses, which could depress recruitment and survival at all intertidal zones. Our results suggest use of incompatible fine fill sediments from dredging projects creates unsuitable intertidal habitat that excludes burrowing macroinvertebrates and could delay beach ecosystem recovery. Through effects on beach invertebrates that are prey for shorebirds and fish, the ecological impacts of filling with mismatched fine sediments could influence higher trophic levels and extend beyond the beach itself.

  5. Anthropogenic influences on shoreline and nearshore evolution in the San Francisco Bay coastal system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dallas, K.L.; Barnard, P.L.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of four historical bathymetric surveys over a 132-year period has revealed significant changes to the morphology of the San Francisco Bar, an ebb-tidal delta at the mouth of San Francisco Bay estuary. From 1873 to 2005 the San Francisco Bar vertically-eroded an average of 80 cm over a 125 km2 area, which equates to a total volume loss of 100 ± 52 million m3 of fine- to coarse-grained sand. Comparison of the surveys indicates the entire ebb-tidal delta contracted radially, with the crest moving landward an average of 1 km. Long-term erosion of the ebb-tidal delta is hypothesized to be due to a reduction in the tidal prism of San Francisco Bay and a decrease in coastal sediment supply, both as a result of anthropogenic activities. Prior research indicates that the tidal prism of the estuary was reduced by 9% from filling, diking, and sedimentation. Compilation of historical records dating back to 1900 reveals that a minimum of 200 million m3 of sediment has been permanently removed from the San Francisco Bay coastal system through dredging, aggregate mining, and borrow pit mining. Of this total, ~54 million m3 of sand-sized or coarser sediment was removed from central San Francisco Bay. With grain sizes comparable to the ebb-tidal delta, and its direct connection to the bay mouth, removal of sediments from central San Francisco Bay may limit the sand supply to the delta and open coast beaches. SWAN wave modeling illustrates that changes to the morphology of the San Francisco Bar have altered the alongshore wave energy distribution at adjacent Ocean Beach, and thus may be a significant factor in a persistent beach erosion ‘hot spot’ occurring in the area. Shoreline change analyses show that the sandy shoreline in the shadow of the ebb-tidal delta experienced long-term (1850s/1890s to 2002) and short-term (1960s/1980s to 2002) accretion while the adjacent sandy shoreline exposed to open-ocean waves experienced long-term and short-term erosion. Therefore, the recently observed accelerating rates of bay sediment removal, ebb-tidal delta erosion, and open coast beach erosion are all correlated temporally.

  6. POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION (PCR) TECHNOLOGY IN VISUAL BEACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2000, the US Congress passed the Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health Act under which the EPA has the mandate to manage all significant public beaches by 2008. As a result, EPA, USGS and NOAA are developing the Visual Beach program which consists of software eq...

  7. Beaches in Motion. Interaction and Environmental Change. Secondary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee County School District, Ft. Myers, FL. Dept. of Environmental Education and Instructional Development Services.

    The terms "high energy" and "low energy" refer to the amount of energy a wave has that reaches the face of a beach. In this student guide, two types of beaches are investigated. The objective is to be able to identify whether a beach is of high or low energy. Background information is provided, as well as instructions and worksheets for activities…

  8. 103. VIEW OF BEACH STRUCTURES ON NORTHWEST SIDE OF PIER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    103. VIEW OF BEACH STRUCTURES ON NORTHWEST SIDE OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTHEAST; PACIFIC ELECTRIC RAILWAY CAR (UPPER LEFT), CONCESSION STANDS (LOWER LEFT), BANDSHELL (RIGHT), AND PIER IN BACKGROUND Photograph #5352-HB. Photographer unknown, c. 1914 - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  9. Monitoring of beach enteromorpha variation with near shore video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yali; Yu, Xinsheng; Yan, Zhijin; Yi, Weidong

    2014-07-01

    Beach is an important coastal protective barrier and tourism resources. Beach environment monitoring can help beach managers to make feasible decisions. Digital image of video monitoring technology can provide high resolution information of temporal and spatial variation of near shore in real time. The application of Video monitoring technology has been implemented in Qingdao's Shilaoren beach. The clustering method based on Gaussian mixture model is applied to extract beach enteromorpha changs for the digital images. Analysis results show that, the period of enteromorpha in Qingdao's Shilaoren beach was mainly from the early July to the mid-August in 2011, and the decline of enteromorpha is mainly associated with the rising temperature in the mid-August. Storm has significant impact on the beach enteromorpha. Tourists' activity space on the beach will decrease due to the enteromorpha covering on the beach, which affects beach tourism activities. Therefore, it's necessary to make preventive measures to avoid enteromorpha piling up on the beach, which is of great importance to the bathing beach environment and tourism development.

  10. Beach Sand Analysis for Indicators of Microbial Contamination

    EPA Science Inventory

    Traditional beach monitoring has focused on water quality, with little attention paid to health risks associated with beach sand. Recent research has reported that fecal indicator bacteria, as well as human pathogens can be found in beach sand and may constitute a risk to human h...

  11. 107. VIEW OF BEACH DEVELOPMENT ON NORTHWEST SIDE OF PIER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    107. VIEW OF BEACH DEVELOPMENT ON NORTHWEST SIDE OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTH-SOUTHEAST. SECTION OF PIER IS IN BACKGROUND Photograph #1579-HB. Photographer unknown, c. 1930-31 prior to replacement of original light standards in 1930-31 - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  12. Beaches in Motion. Interaction and Environmental Change. Secondary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee County School District, Ft. Myers, FL. Dept. of Environmental Education and Instructional Development Services.

    The terms "high energy" and "low energy" refer to the amount of energy a wave has that reaches the face of a beach. In this student guide, two types of beaches are investigated. The objective is to be able to identify whether a beach is of high or low energy. Background information is provided, as well as instructions and worksheets for activities

  13. Tracer Studies In A Laboratory Beach Subjected To Waves

    EPA Science Inventory

    This work investigated the washout of dissolved nutrients from beaches due to waves by conducting tracer studies in a laboratory beach facility. The effects of waves were studied in the case where the beach was subjected to the tide, and that in which no tidal action was present...

  14. Pressure-gradient-driven nearshore circulation on a beach influenced by a large inlet-tidal shoal system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, F.; Hanes, D. M.; Kirby, J. T.; Erikson, L.; Barnard, P.; Eshleman, J.

    2011-04-01

    The nearshore circulation induced by a focused pattern of surface gravity waves is studied at a beach adjacent to a major inlet with a large ebb tidal shoal. Using a coupled wave and wave-averaged nearshore circulation model, it is found that the nearshore circulation is significantly affected by the heterogeneous wave patterns caused by wave refraction over the ebb tidal shoal. The model is used to predict waves and currents during field experiments conducted near the mouth of San Francisco Bay and nearby Ocean Beach. The field measurements indicate strong spatial variations in current magnitude and direction and in wave height and direction along Ocean Beach and across the ebb tidal shoal. Numerical simulations suggest that wave refraction over the ebb tidal shoal causes wave focusing toward a narrow region at Ocean Beach. Due to the resulting spatial variation in nearshore wave height, wave-induced setup exhibits a strong alongshore nonuniformity, resulting in a dramatic change in the pressure field compared to a simulation with only tidal forcing. The analysis of momentum balances inside the surf zone shows that, under wave conditions with intensive wave focusing, the alongshore pressure gradient associated with alongshore nonuniform wave setup can be a dominant force driving circulation, inducing heterogeneous alongshore currents. Pressure-gradient-forced alongshore currents can exhibit flow reversals and flow convergence or divergence, in contrast to the uniform alongshore currents typically caused by tides or homogeneous waves.

  15. Pressure-gradient-driven nearshore circulation on a beach influenced by a large inlet-tidal shoal system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shi, F.; Hanes, D.M.; Kirby, J.T.; Erikson, L.; Barnard, P.; Eshleman, J.

    2011-01-01

    The nearshore circulation induced by a focused pattern of surface gravity waves is studied at a beach adjacent to a major inlet with a large ebb tidal shoal. Using a coupled wave and wave-averaged nearshore circulation model, it is found that the nearshore circulation is significantly affected by the heterogeneous wave patterns caused by wave refraction over the ebb tidal shoal. The model is used to predict waves and currents during field experiments conducted near the mouth of San Francisco Bay and nearby Ocean Beach. The field measurements indicate strong spatial variations in current magnitude and direction and in wave height and direction along Ocean Beach and across the ebb tidal shoal. Numerical simulations suggest that wave refraction over the ebb tidal shoal causes wave focusing toward a narrow region at Ocean Beach. Due to the resulting spatial variation in nearshore wave height, wave-induced setup exhibits a strong alongshore nonuniformity, resulting in a dramatic change in the pressure field compared to a simulation with only tidal forcing. The analysis of momentum balances inside the surf zone shows that, under wave conditions with intensive wave focusing, the alongshore pressure gradient associated with alongshore nonuniform wave setup can be a dominant force driving circulation, inducing heterogeneous alongshore currents. Pressure-gradient- forced alongshore currents can exhibit flow reversals and flow convergence or divergence, in contrast to the uniform alongshore currents typically caused by tides or homogeneous waves.

  16. 75 FR 16201 - FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Exemption 1.0 Background FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC (FPLE, the licensee) is the holder of Renewed Facility Operating License Nos. DPR-24 and DPR-27, which authorize...

  17. Beach Cusps: Spatial distribution and time evolution at Massaguaçú beach (SP), Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos, H. H.; Siegle, E.; Sousa, P. H.

    2013-05-01

    Beach cusps are crescentic morphological structures observed on the foreshore of beaches characterized by steep seaward protruding extensions, called cusp horns, and gently sloped landward extensions, called cusp embayments. Their formation depends on the grain size, beach slope, tidal range and incoming waves. Cusps are best developed on gravel or shingle beaches, small tidal range with a large slope for incoming waves generate a well-developed swash excursion. These structures are quickly responding to wave climate and tidal range, changing the position of the rhythmic features on the beach face. Beach cusps are favored by normal incoming waves, while oblique waves tend to wash these features out. This study aims to analyze the spatial distribution and temporal evolution of rhythmic features such as beach cusps in Massaguaçú embayment (Caraguatatuba, northern coast of São Paulo, Brazil). This embayment has an extension of 7.5 km with reflective beaches cusped mainly in its more exposed central portion. The data set for this study consists of a series of video images (Argus system), covering a stretch of the beach. Visible beach cusps were digitalized from these rectified images. Results obtained from the images were related to the wave climate, water level and the storm surges. Results show that the cusps on the upper portion of the foreshore were more regular and present than the cusps on the lower portion of the foreshore due to the tidal modulation of wave action. The cusp spacing on the upper portion of the foreshore is of about 38 m and the lower portion of the foreshore is of about 28 m and their presence was correlated with the wave direction and water elevation. As expected, waves approaching with shore-normal angles (southeast direction) were favorable to the formation of beach cusps while the waves from the southwest, south, east and northeast generated a longshore current that reduced or destroyed any rhythmic feature. Other important forcing was the influence of the water level. Waves acting at higher water levels are able to produce the less dynamic upper layer of cusps. During 31 consecutive days from 8 July 2011 to 8 August of the same year these features show four periods with the presence of cusps on the upper and lower portion of the foreshore with three periods with cups only on the upper portion of the foreshore. The analyzed dataset shows the highly dynamic behavior of cusps, with rapid generation and destruction, related directly to its forcing hydrodynamic conditions.

  18. 77 FR 54811 - Safety Zone; TriRock San Diego, San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ... the safety zone will be navigable waters of the San Diego Bay behind the San Diego Convention Center.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice... limits of the safety zone will be navigable waters of the San Diego Bay behind the San Diego...

  19. Walruses Spill Over Beach Banks onto Tundra

    Thousands of walruses gathered to rest on the shore near the Alaskan coastal community of Point Lay during September of 2013 after sea ice disappeared from their offshore foraging grounds in the eastern Chukchi Sea. Walruses clamber up on to the grassy tundra of the barrier island, once the beach b...

  20. Cosmology at the Beach Lecture: Wayne Hu

    ScienceCinema

    Wayne Hu

    2010-01-08

    Wayne Hu lectures on Secondary Anisotropy in the CMB. The lecture is the first in a series of 3 he delivered as part of the "Cosmology at the Beach" winter school organized by Berkeley Lab's George Smoot in Los Cabos, Mexico from Jan. 12-16, 2009.

  1. Cosmology at the Beach Lecture: Wayne Hu

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne Hu

    2009-03-02

    Wayne Hu lectures on Secondary Anisotropy in the CMB. The lecture is the first in a series of 3 he delivered as part of the "Cosmology at the Beach" winter school organized by Berkeley Lab's George Smoot in Los Cabos, Mexico from Jan. 12-16, 2009.

  2. Raising Environmental Awareness in Virginia Beach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrington, Andrew T.; Davis, Barbara S.

    1980-01-01

    Described is the Individual Concern for the Environment (ICE) Project utilized in the Virginia Beach City Public Schools. The major goals of ICE are to train a corps of environmental educators and to develop a strong instructional program which involves the community as well as the students. (Author/DS)

  3. Agriculture-Horticulture Programs in Virginia Beach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easter, Elgia L.

    1975-01-01

    In the Virginia Beach, Virginia, city schools, the vocational agriculture program is centralized in one school, the Vocational-Technical Education Center. Students are bused from their home schools for a three-hour class daily. The vocational agriculture program consists of general vocational agriculture shop and ornamental horticulture. (AJ)

  4. Beaches, Dunes, and Barrier Islands. Habitat Pac.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish and Wildlife Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    The materials in this educational packet are designed for use with students in grades 4 through 7. They consist of a leader overview, teaching guides and student data sheets for three activities, and a poster. The leader overview describes the nature of beaches, dunes, and barrier islands, tracing their development, settlement, and management and…

  5. An Interview with Beatrice Beach Szekely

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner-Khamsi, Gita

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Beatrice Beach Szekely, a comparative education scholar that specialized in the Soviet Union. She was editor of the journal "Soviet Education" from 1970 to 1989. During the interview, Szekely talked about how she became personally involved in Russian/Soviet studies of education. She related that her interest…

  6. USGS Collects Sediments Samples at Pascagoula Beach

    U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists collected environmental data and samples at beach, barrier island, and wetland sites in response to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. The USGS Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas Science Centers collaborated to ...

  7. USGS Collects Sediments Samples at Pascagoula Beach

    U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists collected environmental data and samples at beach, barrier island, and wetland sites in response to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico.  The USGS Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas Science Centers collaborated to ...

  8. Creating the Higbee Beach Butterfly Garden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiles, Eric, And Others

    1994-01-01

    Recently, the popularity of butterfly watching has skyrocketed, and Higbee Beach Wildlife Management Area has emerged as a mecca. This article describes the site, garden design, vegetation, planting and weeding strategies, and tips for using the garden as a model. Lists bloom periods for plant species used at the garden. (LZ)

  9. Beach Erosion and Sea Turtle Nest

    This image depicts a cliff-like escarpment in the sand of a Florida beach. Notice the marked turtle nest (background) and the unusual single exposed egg (right foreground). The protective stakes mark a nest from an earlier week as part of a county research program that marks and records every eighth...

  10. Assessment of increased thermal activity at Mount Baker, Washington, March 1975-March 1976

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frank, David; Meier, Mark Frederick; Swanson, Donald A.; with contributions by Babcock, James W.; Fretwell, Marvin O.; Malone, Stephen D.; Rosenfeld, Charles L.; Shreve, Ronald L.; Wilcox, Ray E.

    1977-01-01

    In March 1975 Mount Baker showed a large increase in thermal emission, which has persisted for more than 1 year. Fumarole ejecta accompanied the thermal activity from March to September, but the ejecta had no constituents that suggest a magmatic source. Estimates of that part of the total heat flux that would account for the observed snow and ice loss show that the heat-flow increase was roughly one order of magnitude, from about 2 megawatts at 10 watts per square meter, averaged over Sherman Crater before 1975, to about 30 megawatts at 180 watts per square meter, during 1975. Almost half of the glacier that occupied the basin of Sherman Crater was melted in 1975. The new activity generated great concern among the public and the government agencies responsible for geological evaluation of potential hazards and for protection of life and property. The past geologic history, current topography, rock alteration, and location of major fumarolic activity indicate that large rock avalanches and mudflows on the east slope in Boulder Creek valley are the potential hazards of most significance related to present conditions. The most probable types of large mass movements would be mudflows, having speeds of as much as 50 kilometers per hour, that would originate from mixtures of snow, ice, and melt water and avalanches of structurally weak clay-rich rocks that make up the rim of Sherman Crater. Similar mudflows from the volcano have traveled at least 12 kilometers 8 times during the past 10,000 years. A possible worst case event, however, might be a larger, air-cushioned avalanche of as much as 20 to 30 million cubic meters that could hit Baker Lake at speeds of more than 300 kilometers per hour and generate a wave of water large enough to overtop Upper Baker Dam. At least 30 million cubic meters of potentially unstable material occurs as hydrothermally altered remnants of the rim of Sherman Crater and could provide the required volume for the estimated worst case event or for smaller avalanches and mudflows. An earthquake, steam explosion, or eruption could provide a suitable trigger to initiate movement. Although such triggering events were possible before 1975, the probability might have been as much as 10 times greater in 1975 because of the increased thermal activity. The threat of avalanches and mudflows on Boulder Creek valley and Baker Lake prompted the closure by management agencies of the Boulder Creek drainage and of Baker Lake and its shoreline in the summer of 1975. Additionally, Baker Lake was kept below full pool at a level calculated to prevent overtopping of Upper Baker Dam by waves which could result from a worst-case avalanche. In 1975 an interdisciplinary program of seismic, tilt, gravity, gas, hydrologic, petrologic, thermal infrared, and photographic studies by Federal and university scientists was initiated to evaluate the impact of the current thermal activity and to monitor changes that might indicate an impending eruption. By March 1976 only one small earth- quake had been identified beneath Mount Baker. Tilt and gravity changes have been observed but cannot be attributed solely to volcanic causes. The data available thus far provide no evidence of an impending eruption, but they cannot be fully interpreted without many additional geophysical and geochemical measurements, as it is not yet possible to clearly distinguish volcanic effects from non- volcanic background effects. Inasmuch as current activity continues unchanged - without steam explosions, eruptions, or frequent or large earthquakes - the probability of a suitable trigger for large avalanches and mudflows should decrease and should approach that of a more average year. Such an average year would have a hazard probability at least as great as that which existed before 1975, although that level of hazard was not recognized at the time by the public or by administrative agencies. The potential hazard and the uncertainties of future activ

  11. Allard's argument versus Baker's contention for the adaptive significance of selfing in a hermaphroditic fish

    PubMed Central

    Avise, John C.; Tatarenkov, Andrey

    2012-01-01

    Fertilization assurance (Baker's contention) and multilocus coadaptation (Allard's argument) are two distinct hypotheses for the adaptive significance of self-fertilization in hermaphroditic taxa, and both scenarios have been invoked to rationalize isogenicity via incest in various plants and invertebrate animals with predominant selfing. Here we contrast Allard's argument and Baker's contention as applied to the world's only known vertebrate that routinely self-fertilizes. We pay special attention to frequencies of locally most common multilocus genotypes in Floridian populations of the Mangrove Rivulus (Kryptolebias marmoratus). Isogenicity patterns in this fish appear inconsistent with Allard's argument, thus leaving Baker’s contention as the more plausible scenario (a result also supported by natural history information for this species). These results contrast with the isogenicity patterns and conclusions previously drawn from several self-fertilizing plants and invertebrate animal species. Thus, the adaptive significance of selfing apparently varies across hermaphroditic taxa. PMID:23112206

  12. STS-52 Pilot Baker, in LES, dons parachute during JSC WETF bailout exercises

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-52 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, Pilot Michael A. Baker is assisted with a training version of his Shuttle partial-pressure launch and entry suit (LES). A technician adjusts his parachute harness prior to the emergency egress (bailout) training exercise in JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29 pool. The WETF's 25-ft deep pool will be used in this simulation of a water landing.

  13. Baker-Barry Tunnel Lighting: Evaluation of a Potential GATEWAY Demonstrations Project

    SciTech Connect

    Tuenge, Jason R.

    2011-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is evaluating the Baker-Barry Tunnel as a potential GATEWAY Demonstrations project for deployment of solid-state lighting (SSL) technology. The National Park Service (NPS) views this project as a possible proving ground and template for implementation of light-emitting diode (LED) luminaires in other NPS tunnels, thereby expanding the estimated 40% energy savings from 132 MWh/yr for this tunnel to a much larger figure national

  14. Demonstration of an infected popliteal (Baker's) cyst with three-phase skeletal scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Wallner, R.J.; Dadparvar, S.; Croll, M.N.; Brady, L.W.

    1985-03-01

    A case is reported of an infected popliteal (Baker's) cyst demonstrated with triple phase skeletal scintigraphy. Although double-contrast arthrography and ultrasonography are currently the modalities most frequently employed to diagnose the presence of popliteal cysts, they may also be detected utilizing this radionuclide technique in the course of evaluation for knee joint disease or septic arthritis. Radionuclide studies may be more sensitive for the evaluation of associated inflammatory disease involving the knee joint.

  15. Catalytic activity of baker's yeast in a mediatorless microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Sayed, Enas Taha; Tsujiguchi, Takuya; Nakagawa, Nobuyoshi

    2012-08-01

    The catalytic activity of baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as a biocatalyst was investigated in a mediatorless microbial fuel cell. The yeast cells that adhered on the anode surface were the active biocatalyst for glucose oxidation in a mediatorless biofuel cell, suggesting that the electron transfer took place through the surface confined species. The species in the anolyte solution including the dispersed yeast cells did not take a part in the electron transfer and thus in the power generation. PMID:22357359

  16. Heavy mineral analysis for assessing the provenance of sandy sediment in the San Francisco Bay Coastal System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wong, Florence L.; Woodrow, Donald L.; McGann, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Heavy or high-specific gravity minerals make up a small but diagnostic component of sediment that is well suited for determining the provenance and distribution of sediment transported through estuarine and coastal systems worldwide. By this means, we see that surficial sand-sized sediment in the San Francisco Bay Coastal System comes primarily from the Sierra Nevada and associated terranes by way of the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers and is transported with little dilution through the San Francisco Bay and out the Golden Gate. Heavy minerals document a slight change from the strictly Sierran-Sacramento mineralogy at the confluence of the two rivers to a composition that includes minor amounts of chert and other Franciscan Complex components west of Carquinez Strait. Between Carquinez Strait and the San Francisco Bar, Sierran sediment is intermingled with Franciscan-modified Sierran sediment. The latter continues out the Gate and turns southward towards beaches of the San Francisco Peninsula. The Sierran sediment also fans out from the San Francisco Bar to merge with a Sierran province on the shelf in the Gulf of the Farallones. Beach-sand sized sediment from the Russian River is transported southward to Point Reyes where it spreads out to define a Franciscan sediment province on the shelf, but does not continue southward to contribute to the sediment in the Golden Gate area.

  17. Relationships Between Sand and Water Quality at Recreational Beaches

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Matthew C.; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M.; Piggot, Alan M.; Klaus, James S.; Zhang, Yifan

    2011-01-01

    Enterococci are used to assess the risk of negative human health impacts from recreational waters. Studies have shown sustained populations of enterococci within sediments of beaches but comprehensive surveys of multiple tidal zones on beaches in a regional area and their relationship to beach management decisions are limited. We sampled three tidal zones on eight South Florida beaches in Miami-Dade and Broward counties and found that enterococci were ubiquitous within South Florida beach sands although their levels varied greatly both among the beaches and between the supratidal, intertidal and subtidal zones. The supratidal sands consistently had significantly higher (p<0.003) levels of enterococci (average 40 CFU/g dry sand) than the other two zones. Levels of enterococci within the subtidal sand correlated with the average level of enterococci in the water (CFU/100mL) for the season during which samples were collected (rs= 0.73). The average sand enterococci content over all the zones on each beach correlated with the average water enterococci levels of the year prior to sand samplings (rs=0.64) as well as the average water enterococci levels for the month after sand samplings (rs=0.54). Results indicate a connection between levels of enterococci in beach water and sands throughout South Floridas beaches and suggest that the sands are one of the predominant reservoirs of enterococci impacting beach water quality. As a result, beaches with lower levels of enterococci in the sand had fewer exceedences relative to beaches with higher levels of sand enterococci. More research should focus on evaluating beach sand quality as a means to predict and regulate marine recreational water quality. PMID:22071324

  18. Relationships between sand and water quality at recreational beaches.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Matthew C; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M; Piggot, Alan M; Klaus, James S; Zhang, Yifan

    2011-12-15

    Enterococci are used to assess the risk of negative human health impacts from recreational waters. Studies have shown sustained populations of enterococci within sediments of beaches but comprehensive surveys of multiple tidal zones on beaches in a regional area and their relationship to beach management decisions are limited. We sampled three tidal zones on eight South Florida beaches in Miami-Dade and Broward counties and found that enterococci were ubiquitous within South Florida beach sands although their levels varied greatly both among the beaches and between the supratidal, intertidal and subtidal zones. The supratidal sands consistently had significantly higher (p < 0.003) levels of enterococci (average 40 CFU/g dry sand) than the other two zones. Levels of enterococci within the subtidal sand correlated with the average level of enterococci in the water (CFU/100mL) for the season during which samples were collected (r(s) = 0.73). The average sand enterococci content over all the zones on each beach correlated with the average water enterococci levels of the year prior to sand samplings (r(s) = 0.64) as well as the average water enterococci levels for the month after sand samplings (r(s) = 0.54). Results indicate a connection between levels of enterococci in beach water and sands throughout South Florida's beaches and suggest that the sands are one of the predominant reservoirs of enterococci impacting beach water quality. As a result, beaches with lower levels of enterococci in the sand had fewer exceedences relative to beaches with higher levels of sand enterococci. More research should focus on evaluating beach sand quality as a means to predict and regulate marine recreational water quality. PMID:22071324

  19. History of San Marco

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caporale, A. J.

    1968-01-01

    A brief history is reported of the first San Marco project, a joint program of the United States and Italy. The Project was a three phase effort to investigate upper air density and associated ionosphere phenomena. The initial phase included the design and development of the spacecraft, the experiments, the launch complex, and a series of suborbital flights, from Wallops Island. The second phase, consisting of designing, fabricating, and testing a spacecraft for the first orbital mission, culminated in an orbital launch also from Wallops Island. The third phase consisted of further refining the experiments and spacecraft instrumentation and of establishing a full-bore scout complex in Kenya. The launch of San Marco B, in April 1967, from this complex into an equatorial orbit, concluded the initial San Marco effort.

  20. Integrated protecting plan for beach erosion. A case study in Plaka beach, E. Crete, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrakis, Stelios; Alexandrakis, George; Kozyrakis, George; Hatziyanni, Eleni; Kampanis, Nikolaos

    2015-04-01

    Coastal zones are among the most active areas on Earth, being subjected to extreme wind / wave conditions, thus vulnerable to erosion. In Greece and Crete in particular, beach zones are extremely important for the welfare of the inhabitants, since, apart for the important biological and archaeological value of the beach zones, the socio-economic value is critical since a great number of human activities are concentrated in such areas (touristic facilities, fishing harbors etc.). The present study investigates the erosional procedures observed in Plaka beach, E. Crete, Greece, a highly touristic developed area with great archaeological interest and proposes a cost-effective solution. The factors taken into consideration for the proposed solution in reducing the erosion of the beach were the study of the climatological, geological and geomorphological regime of the area, the recent (~70 years) shifting of the coastline through the study of topographic maps, aerial photographs and satellite images, the creation of detailed bathymetric and seabed classification maps of the area and finally, a risk analysis in terms of erosional phenomena. On the basis of the above, it is concluded that the area under investigation is subjected to an erosional rate of about 1 m/10 years and the total land-loss for the past 70 years is about 4600 m2. Through the simulation of the wave regime we studied 3 possible scenarios, the "do-nothing" scenario, the construction of a detached submerged breakwater at the depth of 3 meters and, finally, the armoring of the existing beach-wall through the placement of appropriate size and material boulders, forming an artificial slope for the reducing of the wave breaking energy and a small scale nourishment plan. As a result, through the modeling of the above, the most appropriate and cost-effective solution was found to be the third, armoring of the existing coastal wall and nourishment of the beach periodically, thus the further undermining of the beach will be reduced and part of the beach can be replaced, and providing aesthetic and economic value to the beach in order to maintain the coastal protection programme. Acknowledgements This work was performed in the framework of the PEFYKA project within the KRIPIS Αction of the GSRT. The project is funded by Greece and the European Regional Development Fund of the European Union under the NSRF and the O.P. Competitiveness and Entrepreneurship. It has also been supported by the "Estimation of the vunlerability of coastal areas to climatic change and sea level rise. Pilot study in Crete isl. Programme for the promotion of the exchange and scientific cooperation between Greece and Germany" programme IKYDA2013.

  1. Measurement of natural radioactivity in beach sands from Rizhao bathing beach, China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xinwei; Zhang, Xiaolan

    2008-01-01

    The natural radioactivity of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K was determined for beach sand samples collected from Rizhao bathing beach, China, using gamma ray spectrometry. The measured activity in beach sand ranges from 7.6 to 17.2, 7.8 to 25.1 and 883.4 to 1313.6 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K with mean values of 12.0, 15.2 and 1079.2 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The activity concentrations of (226)Ra and (232)Th in beach sands are lower, while (40)K is higher than the world average. The radium equivalent activity in all beach sand samples is lower than the safe limit set in the OECD report (370 Bq kg(-1)). The values of the external hazard index are less than unity. The mean outdoor air absorbed dose rate is 59.8 nGy h(-1) and the corresponding outdoor effective dose rate is 0.073 mSv y(-1). PMID:18325933

  2. Beaches and Dunes of Developed Coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordstrom, Karl F.

    2004-06-01

    This volume discusses the role of humans in transforming the coastal landscape. The book details the many ways beaches and dunes are eliminated, altered and replaced and the differences between natural landforms and the human artefacts that replace them. Emphasis is placed on the importance of retaining naturally functioning beaches and dunes in ways that achieve natural values while accommodating development and use. The issues dealt with in this book will be of interest to practising coastal engineers and research scientists, as well as to planners and managers of coastal resources at all levels of government. It will be of particular value to investigators planning for the future of coastal development under accelerated sea level rise. The book will also be useful as a reference text for graduate and advanced undergraduate courses in geography, geology, ecology and other disciplines dealing with the interaction between science, technology and society.

  3. SANS studies of polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Wignall, G.D.

    1984-10-01

    Before small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), chain conformation studies were limited to light and small angle x-ray scattering techniques, usually in dilute solution. SANS from blends of normal and labeled molecules could give direct information on chain conformation in bulk polymers. Water-soluble polymers may be examined in H/sub 2/O/D/sub 2/O mixtures using contrast variation methods to provide further information on polymer structure. This paper reviews some of the information provided by this technique using examples of experiments performed at the National Center for Small-Angle Scattering Research (NCSASR).

  4. Virginia Beach search and rescue experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rais, Houra; Mansfield, Arthur W.; Huxtable, Barton D.; Chotoo, Kancham

    2000-08-01

    In May, 1998, the NASA Search and Rescue Mission conducted a SAR crash detection test in the swampy area south and west of Virginia Beach. A number of aircraft parts were hidden in the dense foliage. The radar used was the Navy P-3 with the ERIM XLC and UHF SAR, providing fine resolution imagery with full polarimetry and an IFSAR capability. This paper reports preliminary results of this test.

  5. Internal wave turbulence near a Texel beach.

    PubMed

    van Haren, Hans; Gostiaux, Louis; Laan, Martin; van Haren, Martijn; van Haren, Eva; Gerringa, Loes J A

    2012-01-01

    A summer bather entering a calm sea from the beach may sense alternating warm and cold water. This can be felt when moving forward into the sea ('vertically homogeneous' and 'horizontally different'), but also when standing still between one's feet and body ('vertically different'). On a calm summer-day, an array of high-precision sensors has measured fast temperature-changes up to 1 °C near a Texel-island (NL) beach. The measurements show that sensed variations are in fact internal waves, fronts and turbulence, supported in part by vertical stable stratification in density (temperature). Such motions are common in the deep ocean, but generally not in shallow seas where turbulent mixing is expected strong enough to homogenize. The internal beach-waves have amplitudes ten-times larger than those of the small surface wind waves. Quantifying their turbulent mixing gives diffusivity estimates of 10(-4)-10(-3) m(2) s(-1), which are larger than found in open-ocean but smaller than wave breaking above deep sloping topography. PMID:22403671

  6. Textural analysis of Point Calimere beach sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeyapal, K. A.

    2013-05-01

    Grain size analysis helps to identify the nature of coastal and sedimentary environments.This parameters provide an insight in to the nature and the energy flux of the transporting agents and their nature of depositional environment. The Beach sediments from the Point Calimere coast are studied for analysis the impact of wave action over the coast. Cauvery and its tributaries are the Chief source for sediments are by the deposits. This dynamic coast of South India is reported to have accretion and erosion at invariably high degrees. Also the impact of land ocean interaction is at high intensity. Further there are chains of Dunes along this coast. The geomorphology of this coast is not a uniform stretch, it has curvature Point Calimere in the south and straight coast towards North. wave properties like reflection, refraction and diffraction are noticed along the study area. Beach Samples were collected along selected zones and their properties were studied in laboratory after sieving half phi interval. Mean mode, sorting, skewness and other statistics are calculated using moment and Folk and Ward graphical methods. This region has three different zones of waves and this wave impact shapes the coast. In few zones erosion were noticed and in few sited deposition Results expressed in metric units, provided of compositionally variable sediments. . The statistical results and field surveys of Point Calimere beach sand samples reveal sediment accretion and wave environments respectivelyGeographic coordinates of sampling stationt; t;

  7. Rescues conducted by surfers on Australian beaches.

    PubMed

    Attard, Anna; Brander, Robert W; Shaw, Wendy S

    2015-09-01

    This study describes the demographics, occurrence, location, primary hazards and outcomes involved in rescues performed by surfers on Australian beaches. Conservative estimates suggest that the number of rescues conducted by Australian surfers each year is on par with the number conducted by volunteer surf lifesavers. Surfers perform a considerable number of serious rescues in both lifesaver/lifeguard patrolled (45%) and unpatrolled (53%) beach locations. Rip currents represent the major physical hazard leading to rescue (75%) and the dominant emotional response of people rescued is one of panic (85%). Most surfer rescue events occur during conditions of moderate waves and sunny, fine weather with the highest proportion of rescues occurring on quiet beaches with few people around (26%). Swimming is the activity associated with most rescue events (63%), followed by board riding (25%). Males aged 18-29 represent the largest demographic of people rescued. Surfers with prior water-safety training are more likely to perform a higher number of rescues, however ability to perform rescues is not associated with formal training, but rather number of years' experience surfing. Seventy-eight percent of surfers were happy to help, while 28% expressed feelings of annoyance or inconvenience, generally towards unwary swimmers. Results of this research suggest that 63% of surfers feel they have saved a life. This value may be enhanced through improved training of surfers in basic water safety rescue techniques. PMID:26056968

  8. Correlation of Sub-Aerial Beach Change with Numerical Model Derived Nearshore Wave Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J. E.; Erikson, L.; Barnard, P. L.; Eshleman, J. L.

    2007-12-01

    Wave-induced sediment transport on and off of beaches is difficult to understand and predict without thorough knowledge of the nearshore wave conditions. Wave data is commonly provided by a buoy located offshore in deep water that measures waves prior to shoaling and refraction. Irregular bathymetry causes dissimilar refraction and shoaling and can lead to variable wave conditions in the nearshore environment. To account for wave propagation over varying bathymetry, numerical wave models are good tools for estimating the nearshore wave climate from offshore wave data. Ocean Beach in San Francisco, CA is an energetic, intermediately sloping beach that was the subject of frequent sub-aerial topographic surveys in 2005 and 2006, with some surveys being as close as two days apart. Sediment volume change derived from these surveys was correlated to nearshore wave heights estimated from offshore buoy measurements and the application of the numerical wave model SWAN (Simulating WAves Nearshore). The SWAN model was used to create a "look-up" table of nearshore wave heights from over 4500 combinations of offshore wave heights, periods, and directions. The model was run using a nested grid scheme using three separate spatial resolutions, with the finest being closest to shore. Correlations between the sub-aerial beach volume data at five morphologically different reaches of Ocean Beach and the SWAN derived wave heights from just outside of the surf zone (in 5, 7.5, or 10 m of water depending on wave height) are generally low, with R2 values less than 0.5, with the highest being 0.61. Although the coefficients of determination are low in most instances the significance exceeds 90%. The reason for the low coefficients of determination is not known but is currently being investigated; some possible reasons are improper characterization of the lengthy time series of wave data between surveys (up to 28 days), or the ignored effect of strong along-shore directed tidal currents (O(~1m/s)) on breaking waves in the surf zone.

  9. Independent risk factors for beach-related injuries in children.

    PubMed

    Petronis, Kelli A; Welch, J Camille; Pruitt, Charles W

    2009-06-01

    This study was conducted in a resort area during the summer tourist season to identify independent risk factors for injuries to children in a beach environment. Surveys including demographics, environmental and beach conditions, group characteristics, and hypothesized risk factors were administered to 28 cases and 105 controls. The most common injuries were lacerations and puncture wounds, followed by musculoskeletal injuries. The following environmental factors were found to significantly increase the risk for pediatric beach-related injury: rough/choppy water, cloudy weather, greater than 3 children in the group, participation by the child in water safety classes, and use of beach equipment (including boogie boards, skim boards, and kayaks). Providers who care for children can use this information to educate parents about beach safety. Targeted interventions that address these risk factors may reduce injuries sustained by children in a beach environment. PMID:19164132

  10. Shifts in the Microbial Community Composition of Gulf Coast Beaches Following Beach Oiling

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Ryan J.; Huse, Susan M.; Morrison, Hilary G.; Peake, Colin S.; Sogin, Mitchell L.; McLellan, Sandra L.

    2013-01-01

    Microorganisms associated with coastal sands serve as a natural biofilter, providing essential nutrient recycling in nearshore environments and acting to maintain coastal ecosystem health. Anthropogenic stressors often impact these ecosystems, but little is known about whether these disturbances can be identified through microbial community change. The blowout of the Macondo Prospect reservoir on April 20, 2010, which released oil hydrocarbons into the Gulf of Mexico, presented an opportunity to examine whether microbial community composition might provide a sensitive measure of ecosystem disturbance. Samples were collected on four occasions, beginning in mid-June, during initial beach oiling, until mid-November from surface sand and surf zone waters at seven beaches stretching from Bay St. Louis, MS to St. George Island, FL USA. Oil hydrocarbon measurements and NOAA shoreline assessments indicated little to no impact on the two most eastern beaches (controls). Sequence comparisons of bacterial ribosomal RNA gene hypervariable regions isolated from beach sands located to the east and west of Mobile Bay in Alabama demonstrated that regional drivers account for markedly different bacterial communities. Individual beaches had unique community signatures that persisted over time and exhibited spatial relationships, where community similarity decreased as horizontal distance between samples increased from one to hundreds of meters. In contrast, sequence analyses detected larger temporal and less spatial variation among the water samples. Superimposed upon these beach community distance and time relationships, was increased variability in bacterial community composition from oil hydrocarbon contaminated sands. The increased variability was observed among the core, resident, and transient community members, indicating the occurrence of community-wide impacts rather than solely an overprinting of oil hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria onto otherwise relatively stable sand population structures. Among sequences classified to genus, Alcanivorax, Alteromonas, Marinobacter, Winogradskyella, and Zeaxanthinibacter exhibited the largest relative abundance increases in oiled sands. PMID:24040219

  11. Shifts in the microbial community composition of Gulf Coast beaches following beach oiling.

    PubMed

    Newton, Ryan J; Huse, Susan M; Morrison, Hilary G; Peake, Colin S; Sogin, Mitchell L; McLellan, Sandra L

    2013-01-01

    Microorganisms associated with coastal sands serve as a natural biofilter, providing essential nutrient recycling in nearshore environments and acting to maintain coastal ecosystem health. Anthropogenic stressors often impact these ecosystems, but little is known about whether these disturbances can be identified through microbial community change. The blowout of the Macondo Prospect reservoir on April 20, 2010, which released oil hydrocarbons into the Gulf of Mexico, presented an opportunity to examine whether microbial community composition might provide a sensitive measure of ecosystem disturbance. Samples were collected on four occasions, beginning in mid-June, during initial beach oiling, until mid-November from surface sand and surf zone waters at seven beaches stretching from Bay St. Louis, MS to St. George Island, FL USA. Oil hydrocarbon measurements and NOAA shoreline assessments indicated little to no impact on the two most eastern beaches (controls). Sequence comparisons of bacterial ribosomal RNA gene hypervariable regions isolated from beach sands located to the east and west of Mobile Bay in Alabama demonstrated that regional drivers account for markedly different bacterial communities. Individual beaches had unique community signatures that persisted over time and exhibited spatial relationships, where community similarity decreased as horizontal distance between samples increased from one to hundreds of meters. In contrast, sequence analyses detected larger temporal and less spatial variation among the water samples. Superimposed upon these beach community distance and time relationships, was increased variability in bacterial community composition from oil hydrocarbon contaminated sands. The increased variability was observed among the core, resident, and transient community members, indicating the occurrence of community-wide impacts rather than solely an overprinting of oil hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria onto otherwise relatively stable sand population structures. Among sequences classified to genus, Alcanivorax, Alteromonas, Marinobacter, Winogradskyella, and Zeaxanthinibacter exhibited the largest relative abundance increases in oiled sands. PMID:24040219

  12. Dune recovery after storm erosion on a high-energy beach: Vougot Beach, Brittany (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suanez, Serge; Cariolet, Jean-Marie; Cancouët, Romain; Ardhuin, Fabrice; Delacourt, Christophe

    2012-02-01

    On 10th March 2008, the high energy storm Johanna hit the French Atlantic coast, generating severe dune erosion on Vougot Beach (Brittany, France). In this paper, the recovery of the dune of Vougot Beach is analysed through a survey of morphological changes and hydrodynamic conditions. Data collection focused on the period immediately following storm Johanna until July 2010, i.e. over two and a half years. Results showed that the dune retreated by a maximum of almost 6 m where storm surge and wave attack were the most energetic. Dune retreat led to the creation of accommodation space for the storage of sediment by widening and elevating space between the pre- and post-storm dune toe, and reducing impacts of the storm surge. Dune recovery started in the month following the storm event and is still ongoing. It is characterised by the construction of "secondary" embryo dunes, which recovered at an average rate of 4-4.5 cm per month, although average monthly volume changes varied from - 1 to 2 m 3.m - 1 . These embryo dunes accreted due to a large aeolian sand supply from the upper tidal beach to the existing foredune. These dune-construction processes were facilitated by growth of vegetation on low-profile embryo dunes promoting backshore accretion. After more than two years of survey, the sediment budget of the beach/dune system showed that more than 10,000 m 3 has been lost by the upper tidal beach. We suggest that seaward return currents generated during the storm of 10th March 2008 are responsible for offshore sediment transport. Reconstitution of the equilibrium beach profile following the storm event may therefore have generated cross-shore sediment redistribution inducing net erosion in the tidal zone.

  13. 109. VIEW OF SOUTHEAST SIDE OF PIER TAKEN FROM BEACH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    109. VIEW OF SOUTHEAST SIDE OF PIER TAKEN FROM BEACH, LOOKING WEST. VIEW SHOWS ART DECO BUILDINGS ADDED IN 1931 AND 5TH TEE ADDED IN 1940 Photograph #5369-HB. Photographer unknown, c. 1945, based on clothing of sunbathers; view probably taken in mid-1945 after the U.S. Army vacated the pier and it was reopened to the public. - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  14. Innovation in san francisco.

    PubMed

    Travis, J

    1992-08-01

    In San Francisco 2 weeks ago, AAAS and Science sponsored a new meeting, Science Innovation '92. The unusual gathering focused not on research results but on new techniques and instruments, particularly for biomedical science. As seen in the stories below, some of the most eye-catching innovations emerged at the intersection of physics and biology. PMID:17736460

  15. SAN PEDRO WATERSHED DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The San Pedro River Geo-Data Browser was jointly developed by the Landscape Ecology Branch of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service (Tucson, AZ). Since 1995, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EP A) and U...

  16. SAN PEDRO GEODATA BROWSER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The San Pedro Data Browser was developed by the Landscape Ecology Branch of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (Las Vegas, NV). The goal of the Landscape Sciences Program is to improve decision-making relative to natural and human resource management through the development...

  17. Recent scientific advances and their implications for sand management near San Francisco, California: the influences of the ebb tidal delta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanes, Daniel M.; Barnard, Patrick L.; Dallas, Kate; Elias, Edwin; Erikson, Li H.; Eshleman, Jodi; Hansen, Jeff; Hsu, Tian Jian; Shi, Fengyan

    2011-01-01

    Recent research in the San Francisco, California, U.S.A., coastal region has identified the importance of the ebb tidal delta to coastal processes. A process-based numerical model is found to qualitatively reproduce the equilibrium size and shape of the delta. The ebb tidal delta itself has been contracting over the past century, and the numerical model is applied to investigate the sensitivity of the delta to changes in forcing conditions. The large ebb tidal delta has a strong influence upon regional coastal processes. The prominent bathymetry of the ebb tidal delta protects some of the coast from extreme storm waves, but the delta also focuses wave energy toward the central and southern portions of Ocean Beach. Wave focusing likely contributes to a chronic erosion problem at the southern end of Ocean Beach. The ebb tidal delta in combination with non-linear waves provides a potential cross-shore sediment transport pathway that probably supplies sediment to Ocean Beach.

  18. Changes along a seawall and natural beaches: Fourchon, LA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mossa, Joann; Nakashima, Lindsay D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper compares shoreline and beach morphology changes and responses to storms from 1985 to 1988 along sections of a rapidly eroding coast at the Bayou Lafourche headland, Louisiana. A beach consisting of a cement-filled bag seawall and nourishment was compared with natural beaches to the west and east of the project. Local patterns of beach response could be attributed to several recent processes and historical conditions. Hurricane Gilbert, which made landfall in Mexico, caused about 70% of the sediment loss on both the artificially-stablized and the natural shorelines over this three-year period.

  19. Summer E. coli patterns and responses along 23 Chicago beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitman, R.L.; Nevers, M.B.

    2008-01-01

    Concentrations of E. coli in recreational beach water are highly variable both locally and temporally, but a broader understanding of these fluctuations may be explained through coastal observations. Currently, beach contamination study approaches tend to be site-specific underthe belief that politically delineated beaches are unique and management of beaches cannot be regionally oriented. E. coli data collected over five years from 23 Chicago beaches clearly identified ambient linked patterns at the regional scale. Temporal fluctuations were similar, with all beaches having simultaneous peaks and troughs of E. coli concentrations. Spatially, E. coli concentrations for beaches more closely situated were more closely correlated, indicating spatial autocorrelation. Julian day, wave height, and barometric pressure explained up to 40% of the variation, a value comparable to individual, less parsimonious site-specific models. Day of sampling could explain the majority of the variation in E. coli concentrations, more so than beach, depth, or time of day. Comparing beaches along a targeted coastline allows a better understanding of inherent background regional fluctuations and, ultimately, better predictions of E. coli concentrations in coastal recreational water.

  20. San Jose, Costa Rica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    San Jose, capital city of Costa Rica, fills the valley between two steep mountain ranges. In this image made from data collected by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument on NASA's Terra satellite, visible, shortwave, and near-infrared wavelengths of light that the sensor observed have been combined to produce a false-color version of the scene in which vegetation is red, urban areas are silvery gray, water is dark blue, and clouds are white. The image was captured on February 8, 2007. San Jose is in the center of the image. The Rio Torres winds through downtown San Jose. Cartago, the much smaller colonial capital, sits in the lower right corner, while the city of Alajuela appears across the river, northwest of San Jose. The cities' manmade surfaces contrast sharply with the lushly vegetated landscape surrounding the city. Greenhouses are common in the region, and their glass roofs may be the brilliant white spots around the outer edges the cities. The long, straight runway of the Tobias Bolanos International Airport is visible as a dark line southeast of Alajuela. The landscape around the two cities shown here is rugged. Steep mountain peaks cast dark shadows across their leeward slopes. Patches of dark red vegetation on the mountains north of San Jose may be rainforest. Coffee plantations also cover the slopes of the mountains around the city. February is the dry season in Costa Rica. During the rainy season, from about April to November, clouds usually block the satellite's view of this tropical location. NASA image created by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of Asaf Ullah and Tim Gubbels, SERVIR project.

  1. Helicopter magnetic and electromagnetic surveys at Mounts Adams, Baker and Rainier, Washington: implications for debris flow hazards and volcano hydrology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finn, Carol A.; Deszcz-Pan, Maria

    2011-01-01

    High‐resolution helicopter magnetic and electromagnetic (HEM) data flown over the rugged, ice‐covered Mt. Adams, Mt. Baker and Mt. Rainier volcanoes (Washington), reveal the distribution of alteration, water and ice thickness essential to evaluating volcanic landslide hazards. These data, combined with geological mapping and rock property measurements, indicate the presence of appreciable thicknesses (>500 m) of water‐saturated hydrothermally altered rock west of the modern summit of Mount Rainier in the Sunset Amphitheater region and in the central core of Mount Adams north of the summit. Alteration at Mount Baker is restricted to thinner (<300 m) zones beneath Sherman Crater and the Dorr Fumarole Fields. The EM data identified water‐saturated rocks from the surface to the detection limit (100–200 m) in discreet zones at Mt. Rainier and Mt Adams and over the entire summit region at Mt. Baker. The best estimates for ice thickness are obtained over relatively low resistivity (<800 ohm‐m) ground for the main ice cap on Mt. Adams and over most of the summit of Mt. Baker. The modeled distribution of alteration, pore fluids and partial ice volumes on the volcanoes helps identify likely sources for future alteration‐related debris flows, including the Sunset Amphitheater region at Mt. Rainier, steep cliffs at the western edge of the central altered zone at Mount Adams and eastern flanks of Mt. Baker.

  2. Petrogenesis of Mt. Baker Basalts and Andesites: Constraints From Mineral Chemistry and Phase Equilibria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullen, E.; McCallum, I. S.

    2009-12-01

    Basalts in continental arcs are volumetrically subordinate to andesites and this is the case for Mt. Baker in the northern Cascade magmatic arc. However, basalts provide indirect evidence on mantle compositions and processes that produce magmas parental to the abundant andesites and dacites of the stratocones. Basalts at Mt. Baker erupted from monogenetic vents peripheral to the andesitic stratocone. Flows are variable in composition; some samples would more appropriately be classified as basaltic andesites. The basalts have relatively low Mg/(Mg+Fe) indicating that they have evolved from their original compositions. Samples studied are Park Butte, Tarn Plateau, Lk. Shannon, Sulphur Cr. basalts, and Cathedral Crag, Hogback, and Rankin Ridge basaltic andesites. Mt. Baker lavas belong to the calc-alkaline basalt suite (CAB) defined by Bacon et al. (1997) and preserve arc geochemical features. High alumina olivine tholeiite (HAOT) are absent. Equilibrium mineral pairs and whole rock compositions were used to calculate pre-eruptive temperatures, water contents, and redox states of the basalts. All samples have zoned olivine phenocrysts with Fo68 to Fo87 cores and chromite inclusions. Cpx and zoned plagioclase occur in all flows, but opx occurs only in Cathedral Crag, Rankin Ridge, and Tarn Plateau. Ti-magnetite and ilmenite coexist in all flows except for Sulphur Cr., Lk. Shannon and Hogback, which contain a single Fe-Ti oxide. Liquidus temperatures range from 1080 to 1232C and are negatively correlated with water contents. Water contents estimated using liquidus depression due to H2O (0.8 to 5.4 wt.%) agree well with plag core-whole rock equilibria estimates (1.2 to 3.9 wt.%). Park Butte, Sulphur Cr. and Lk. Shannon had <1.5 wt.% H2O, and Cathedral Crag is most hydrous. Redox states from ol-chr pairs (QFM +0.1 to +2.8) and Fe-Ti oxide pairs (QFM -0.6 to +1.8) indicate that Park Butte and Sulphur Cr. are most oxidized and Cathedral Crag most reduced; however, the two methods do not give consistent results. The water content and redox state of the basalts are inversely correlated, inconsistent with data from andesites that show the reverse correlation. Using published experimental data and the BATCH algorithm (Longhi, 2002) we constructed an array of phase diagrams in the multi-component basalt system relevant to arc basalts and andesites ranging from 0 to 3 GPa and variable water contents. Projections of Mt. Baker lava compositions (corrected for loss or gain of olivine and plag where appropriate) on these diagrams reveal: (1) with the exception of Sulphur Cr., primary basaltic compositions equilibrated with depleted hydrous mantle harzburgite/lherzolite at pressures from 1 to 1.5 GPa, coincident with the crust-mantle boundary in the Mt. Baker region, (2) except for Sulphur Cr., melt fractions were >10%; Sulphur Cr. basalt is alkalic and formed by smaller degrees of partial melting comparable to basalts from the northern Garibaldi belt, (3) evidence for shallow fractionation of basalts (5-10 km), (4) Mt. Baker andesites delineate a low pressure fractionation trend coincident with the 0.2 GPa, water-saturated, oliv+cpx+plag and cpx+amph+plag cotectics (Sisson and Grove, 1993, Grove et al., 2003).

  3. Using a watershed-centric approach to identify potentially impacted beaches

    EPA Science Inventory

    Beaches can be affected by a variety of contaminants. Of particular concern are beaches impacted by human fecal contamination and urban runoff. This poster demonstrates a methodology to identify potentially impacted beaches using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Since h...

  4. The influence of anthropic actions on the evolution of an urban beach: Case study of Marineta Cassiana beach, Spain.

    PubMed

    Pagán, J I; Aragonés, L; Tenza-Abril, A J; Pallarés, P

    2016-07-15

    Coastal areas have been historically characterized as being a source of wealth. Nowadays, beaches have become more relevant as a place for rest and leisure. This had led to a very high population pressure due to rapid urbanisation processes. The impacts associated with coastal tourism, demand the development of anthropic actions to protect the shoreline. This paper has studied the impacts of these actions on the Marineta Cassiana beach, in Denia, Spain. This particular Mediterranean beach has traditionally suffered a major shoreline regression, and the beach nourishments carried out in the 1980s would not have achieved the reliability desired. This research has analysed the historic evolution of the beach and its environment for a period of 65years (1950-2015). A Geographic Information System (GIS) has been used to integrate and perform a spatial analysis of urban development, soil erosion, stream flow, swell, longshore transport, submerged vegetation species and shoreline evolution. The results show how the anthropic actions have affected the shoreline. After the excessive urban development of the catchments, there is no natural sediment supply to the beach. The change in the typology of the sediment, from pebbles to sand, during the beach nourishments has led to a crucial imbalance in the studied area. Moreover, the beach area gained has disappeared, affecting the Posidonia oceanica meadow, and incrementing the erosion rates. The findings obtained are relevant, not only in the management and maintenance of the beaches, but also, in the decision-making for future nourishments. PMID:27065444

  5. Beyond beach width: Steps toward identifying and integrating ecological envelopes with geomorphic features and datums for sandy beach ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dugan, Jenifer E.; Hubbard, David M.; Quigley, Brenna J.

    2013-10-01

    Our understanding of ecological responses to climatic and anthropogenic forcing lags far behind that of physical or geomorphic responses for beach ecosystems. Reconciling geomorphic features of beaches with ecological features, such as intertidal zones and mobile biota that are not described by beach width alone, could help address this issue. First, although intertidal zones characterized by distinct groups of mobile burrowing animals are described for beaches, the locations and elevations of these zones do not coincide with standard shoreline datums. Second, intertidal zonation on beaches is extremely dynamic due to the combination of unstable sandy substrate and a highly mobile biota; shifting strongly with tides, waves, storms, and beach conditions. We propose that beach biota use ecological "envelopes" of cross-shore habitat to cope with constantly changing beach conditions. We estimated the extent of these "envelopes" for a variety of taxa on tidal to daily, semi-lunar and seasonal to annual time scales, using literature values on cross-shore animal movements and a field study of the positions of intertidal beds of two species of typical mid and upper shore beach invertebrates. Daily or tidal cross-shore movement varied most (1 m to 100 m) with daily "envelopes" covering 7% to 85% of the available beach width. Semi-lunar movement (12 m) and envelopes (28%) were relatively small, while estimated annual "envelopes" were large, averaging 61% of beach width. The large scope of annual ecological envelopes relative to beach widths reflects how intertidal animals escape seasonally extreme or episodically harsh conditions. Intertidal bed positions of a talitrid amphipod and an opheliid polychaete correlated well with selected beach features in our field study suggesting that incorporation of ecological envelopes in models of shoreline evolution may be feasible. Describing ecological zones in terms of more dynamic shoreline features, such as total water level (TWL) that incorporate wave setup and runup, may be particularly applicable to upper intertidal biota whose distributions closely followed the high tide strand line (HTS), a feature which tracks total water level (TWL). Developing a TWL approach may also provide new insights on habitat availability for beach nesting wildlife and coastal strand vegetation. Conservation of beach ecosystems could be enhanced by incorporating sufficient beach habitat to accommodate the dynamic ecological envelopes used by mobile intertidal invertebrates and wildlife.

  6. Radiological survey of San Diego Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Semler, M.O.; Blanchard, R.L.

    1989-06-01

    A radiological survey of three sites in San Diego Bay provided the basis for the following conclusions: 1. Small quantities of Co-60 (0.02-0.05 pCi/g) are present in the bottom sediments in some areas of the harbor at the Submarine Base. Most, if not all, of the Co-60 contamination present probably originated prior to the earlier 1967 survey that reported Co-60 levels as much as 300 times larger than those observed in this study. The highest Co-60 concentration measured is now less than one percent of the normal background radioactivity in harbor sediment samples. 2. No tritium or gamma-ray emitters, other than trace amounts of those occurring naturally, were detected in surface water from the dock areas or in nearby drinking water supplies. 3. Only radionuclides of natural origin and trace amounts of Cs-137 from fallout of previous nuclear weapons tests were detected in samples of kelp, algae, and fish taken from the harbor at the Submarine Base. 4. Gamma-ray surveys of the harbors near the docking areas and along shorelines and beaches near the shipyards failed to detect any exposure rates above background. 3 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. This photocopy of an engineering drawing shows the BakerPerkins 150gallon ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    This photocopy of an engineering drawing shows the Baker-Perkins 150-gallon mixer installation in the building. Austin, Field & Fry, Architects Engineers, 22311 West Third Street, Los Angeles 57, California: Edwards Test Station Complex, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Edwards Air Force Base, Edwards, California: "150 Gallon Mixer System Bldg. E-34, Plans, Sections & Details," drawing no. E34/6-0, 10 July 1963. California Institute of Technology, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Plant Engineering: engineering drawings of structures at JPL Edwards Facility. Drawings on file at JPL Plant Engineering, Pasadena, California - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Mixer, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  8. Multi-Baker Map as a Model of Digital PD Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csernák, Gábor; Gyebrószki, Gergely; Stépán, Gábor

    Digital stabilization of unstable equilibria of linear systems may lead to small amplitude stochastic-like oscillations. We show that these vibrations can be related to a deterministic chaotic dynamics induced by sampling and quantization. A detailed analytical proof of chaos is presented for the case of a PD controlled oscillator: it is shown that there exists a finite attracting domain in the phase-space, the largest Lyapunov exponent is positive and the existence of a Smale horseshoe is also pointed out. The corresponding two-dimensional micro-chaos map is a multi-baker map, i.e. it consists of a finite series of baker’s maps.

  9. The Optical Performance of the 81/90/3032mm ADH Baker-Schmidt Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, A. D.

    1997-07-01

    The optical performance of the ADH Baker-Schmidt telescope is discussed in the light of test plates taken by the author and the comments from its maker, Perkin Elmer Corp. U.S.A. Although modern optical tests are needed to make a final judgement on the correction requirements, the ADH telescope seems to be a feasible, future refurbishment project. There is no question as to the cost effectiveness of using existing optics, including a full-aperture objective prism. The use of modern detector devices for galactic and extragalactic studies, including low-dispersion spectroscopy, such as developed for other large Schmidts is suggested.

  10. Map Showing Seacliff Response to Climatic and Seismic Events, Seabright Beach, Santa Cruz County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hapke, Cheryl J.; Richmond, Bruce M.; D'Iorio, Mimi M.

    2002-01-01

    Introduction The coastal cliffs along much of the central California coast are actively retreating. Large storms and periodic earthquakes are responsible for most of the documented sea cliff slope failures. Long-term average erosion rates calculated for this section of coast do not provide the spatial or temporal data resolution necessary to identify the processes responsible for retreat of the sea cliffs where episodic retreat threatens homes and community infrastructure. Research suggests that more erosion occurs along the California coast over a short time scale, during periods of severe storms or seismic activity, than occurs during decades of normal weather or seismic quiescence. This is the third map in a series of maps prepared to document the processes of short-term sea cliff retreat through the identification of slope failure styles, spatial variability of failures, and temporal variation in retreat amounts in an area that has been identified as an erosion hotspot. This map presents sea cliff failure and retreat data from the Seabright Beach section, California, which is located on the east side of Santa Cruz along the northern Monterey Bay coast. The data presented in this map series provide high-resolution spatial and temporal information on the location, amount, and processes of sea cliff retreat in Santa Cruz, California. These data show the response of the sea cliffs to both large magnitude earthquakes and severe climatic events such as El Ni?os; this information may prove useful in predicting the future response of the cliffs to events of similar magnitude. The map data can also be incorporated into Global Information System (GIS) for use by researchers and community planners. During this study we developed a method for investigating short-term processes of sea cliff evolution using rectified photographic stereo models. This method allows us to document the linear extent of cliff failures, the spatial and temporal relationship between failures, and the type or style of slope failure. Seabright Beach extends 0.9 km from San Lorenzo Point on the west to the Santa Cruz Yacht Harbor on the east. The cliffs at Seabright Beach are completely protected from wave attack by a wide beach. The protective beach is a relatively recent feature that formed after the emplacement of the Santa Cruz Yacht Harbor jetty in 1963-1964. Prior to the completion of the jetty, the cliffs at Seabright Beach were subject to daily wave attack. The data in this study are post-jetty construction; therefore, the sea cliff failures and cliff retreat are the result of nonmarine processes (rainfall, groundwater and seismic shaking). The 8 to 15 m high cliffs at Seabright Beach are composed of the Miocene to Pliocene Purisima Formation, which is overlain by unconsolidated Pleistocene terrace deposits. The relative thickness of these units varies along the length of the cliff. At the west end of Seabright Beach, including San Lorenzo Point, nearly the entire cliff section is composed of Purisima Formation and is capped by less than 2 m of terrace deposits. In this exposure, the Purisima Formation is a moderately weathered, moderately indurated massive sandstone. The height of the cliffs and the thickness of the Purisima Formation decrease to the east. In the cliffs immediately adjacent to the harbor, the entire exposure is composed of terrace deposits. Toe-slope debris and wind-blown sand form a nearly continuous fan along the cliff base that obscure the lower portion of the cliff. This study documents the impacts of earthquakes and large storms to the sea cliffs in the Seabright Beach section. The first event is the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake, a M7.1 earthquake that caused widespread damage to the area stretching from Santa Cruz to the San Francisco Bay. The epicenter of the earthquake was located in the Santa Cruz Mountains, approximately 9 km inland from the coast. Extensive block and debris falls, induced by the seismic shaking, occ

  11. MEETING IN MEXICO: NOWCASTING AND FORECASTING BEACH BACTERIA CONCENTRATION USING EPA'S VIRTUAL BEACH SOFTWARE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Beaches in the United States of (North) America are subject to closure when bacterial counts exceed water quality criteria. Many authorities base these decisions on water samples that typically require at least 18 hours to analyze. This persistence approach, or model, often leads...

  12. NOWCASTING AND FORECASTING BEACH BACTERIA CONCENTRATION USING THE EPA VIRTUAL BEACH SOFTWARE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Beaches are subject to closure when bacterial counts exceed water quality criteria. Many authorities base these decisions on sample counts, which typically require a day or more to analyze. Sometimes called the persistence model, because conditions are assumed to persist, experie...

  13. 75 FR 41926 - Noise Exposure Map Notice New Smyrna Beach Municipal Airport, New Smyrna Beach, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Noise Exposure Map Notice New Smyrna Beach Municipal Airport, New Smyrna... Administration (FAA) announces its determination that the Noise Exposure Maps submitted by the City of New Smyrna... Safety and Noise Abatement Act) and 14 CFR Part 150 are in compliance with applicable requirements....

  14. 76 FR 54703 - Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC in the Federal Register (76 FR 124). We received..., October 9, 2011. This temporary safety zone is necessary for the safety of race participants, participant... Security Delegation No. 0170.1. The purpose of the rule is to ensure the safety of race...

  15. 77 FR 27120 - Safety Zone; Virginia Beach Oceanfront Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Virginia Beach, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-09

    ..., Virginia Beach, VA in the Federal Register (76 FR 13519). We received one comment on the proposed rule. No... good cause exists for making this rule effective less than 30 days after publication in the Federal... injury or death to mariners observing the air shows. Due to the need to protect mariners and the...

  16. Proline accumulation in baker's yeast enhances high-sucrose stress tolerance and fermentation ability in sweet dough.

    PubMed

    Sasano, Yu; Haitani, Yutaka; Ohtsu, Iwao; Shima, Jun; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    During bread-making processes, yeast cells are exposed to various baking-associated stresses. High-sucrose concentrations exert severe osmotic stress that seriously damages cellular components by generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Previously, we found that the accumulation of proline conferred freeze-thaw stress tolerance and the baker's yeast strain that accumulated proline retained higher-level fermentation abilities in frozen doughs than the wild-type strain. In this study, we constructed self-cloning diploid baker's yeast strains that accumulate proline. These resultant strains showed higher cell viability and lower intracellular oxidation levels than that observed in the wild-type strain under high-sucrose stress condition. Proline accumulation also enhanced the fermentation ability in high-sucrose-containing dough. These results demonstrate the usefulness of proline-accumulating baker's yeast for sweet dough baking. PMID:22041027

  17. Holocene cemented beach deposits in Belize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gischler, Eberhard; Lomando, Anthony J.

    1997-06-01

    Two types of cemented beach deposits occur on reef islands off the coast of Belize. These are (1) intertidal beachrock that is dominantly cemented by marine aragonite and high-magnesium-calcite cements, and (2) supratidal cayrock that is cemented mainly by vadose low-magnesium-calcite cements. Besides differences in position relative to present sea level and resulting early diagenesic features, beachrock and cayrock can be distinguished on the basis of differences in composition, texture, geographical position, and age. Whereas the composition of beachrock is similar to that of the adjacent marginal reef sediments, cayrock is enriched in benthic foraminifera. Intertidal beachrock is moderately to well sorted and well cemented, while supratidal cayrock is very well sorted, poorly cemented and friable. Beachrock occurs preferentially on windward beaches of sand-shingle Gays on the middle and southern barrier reefs and on the isolated platforms Glovers and Lighthouse Reefs. Cayrock only occurs on larger mangrove-sand Gays of the isolated platforms Turneffe Islands, Lighthouse Reef, and the northern barrier reef. 14C-dating of ten whole-rock and mollusk shell samples produced calibrated dates between AD 345 and AD 1435 for beachrock and between BC 1085 and AD 1190 for cayrock. The large-scale distribution of beachrock in Belize supports the contention that physical processes such as water agitation rather than biological processes control beachrock formation and distribution. Only on windward sides of cays that are close to the reef crest, where large amounts of seawater flush the beaches, considerable amounts of cements can be precipitated to produce beachrock. Cayrock forms due to cementation in the vadose zone and is only preserved on larger, stable mangrove-sand cays.

  18. The Spatial and Temporal Variability of a High-Energy Beach: Insight Gained From Over 50 High-Resolution Sub-aerial Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J. E.; Barnard, P. L.

    2008-12-01

    Since April 2004 a monitoring program of 7 km-long Ocean Beach, San Francisco, CA, has led to the completion of 55 Global Positioning System topographic surveys of the sub-aerial beach. The four-year timeseries contains over 1 million beach elevation measurements and documents detailed changes of the beach over a variety of spatial, temporal, and physical forcing scales. The goal of this ongoing data collection is to understand the variability in beach response as a function of wave forcing and offshore morphology which will ultimately aid in sediment management and erosion mitigation efforts. Several statistical methods are used to describe and account for the observed beach change, including empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) and linear regression. Results from the EOF analysis show that the first mode, and approximately 50% of the observed variance of either the mean high water (MHW) or mean sea level (MSL) position, is explained by the seasonal movement of sediment on and offshore. The second mode, and approximately 15% of the variance, is dominated by alongshore variability, possibly corresponding to the position of cusps and embayments. Higher level modes become increasingly variable in the alongshore direction and each explain little of the observed variance. In both cases the first temporal mode is well correlated (R2~=0.7) with offshore significant wave height averaged over the previous 80 to 110 days, suggesting that seasonal wave height variations are the primary driver of intra-annual shoreline position. No other modes exhibit good correlation with offshore wave parameters regardless of the averaging time. The observed seasonal change is superimposed on a longer term trend of net annual accretion at the north end of Ocean Beach and erosion at the south end. Areas at the northern end have seen as much as 60 m of cumulative shoreline progradation since 2004, while some areas of the southern portion have retrograded nearly as much. This pattern shows an overall rotation in the shoreline position hinged on a nodal point in the middle portion of the beach. The nodal point roughly corresponds to the location where the southern lobe of a large ebb tidal delta welds to the coast, suggesting that wave conditions coupled with offshore morphologic variability is a key control on short and long-term beach evolution.

  19. Alongshore variability in beach planform, grain-size distribution and foredune height of an embayed beach: Shoalwater Bay, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weymer, B. A.; Houser, C.; Giardino, R.

    2012-12-01

    Headland-bay beaches (HBB) are common beach-types found throughout the coastlines of the world. Morphodynamics of these structurally-controlled beaches are primarily governed by geological inheritance, wave climate, tidal range and grain-size distribution, which ultimately influence sediment transport across the beach-dune system. For embayed beaches, the degree of curvature (i.e., indentation ratio) has significant implications for littoral cell circulation, which mediates both cross-shore and alongshore sediment transport. This study investigated the morphodynamic controls on longshore and cross-shore sediment transport for a macro-tidal, embayed beach in central Queensland, Australia. Freshwater Beach is a 10 km long embayed beach located in the Shoalwater Bay Training Area, ~50 km north of Yeppoon. Freshwater Beach exhibits an asymmetrical planform which is characterized by a curved "shadow zone" (adjacent to the headland), transitioning to a straight tangential segment extending to the north. The beach is subjected to a mean tidal range of 6 m and prevailing onshore-directed winds and swell from the southeast. A total of 12 topographic profiles at ~1 km spacing were taken along the entire length of the beach to characterize variation in beach slope and foredune height. Sediment samples were collected across each transect for detailed grain-size and geochemical (XRD/XRF and SEM) analysis. Additionally, ground-based LiDAR surveys were conducted along the topographic profiles and for comparison with aerial-based LiDAR surveys. Preliminary results from topographic profiles show that the largest foredunes are located in the central portion of the beach, contrary to most embayed beaches where the largest dunes are typically located downdrift of the headland. Along the exposed section, the foredunes become large (~15 m high) and are hypothesized to be supplied by onshore welded bars that act as a sediment source for the foredunes to grow. Presently the alongshore and cross-shore sediment exchange is unknown and the dynamics of surface drainage and freshwater seeps in close proximity to the outlet of Freshwater Swamp remain a priority for understanding the morphologic evolution of the beach-dune system. Ongoing research is currently in progress to address relationships between grain-size grading alongshore and foredune height to determine a sediment budget from the nearshore extending through the parabolic dunefield.

  20. Evaluation of potential sources and transport mechanisms of fecal indicator bacteria to beach water, Murphy Park Beach, Door County, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Juckem, Paul F.; Corsi, Steven R.; McDermott, Colleen; Kleinheinz, Gregory; Fogarty, Lisa R.; Haack, Sheridan K.; Johnson, Heather E.

    2013-01-01

    Fecal Indicator Bacteria (FIB) concentrations in beach water have been used for many years as a criterion for closing beaches due to potential health concerns. Yet, current understanding of sources and transport mechanisms that drive FIB occurrence remains insufficient for accurate prediction of closures at many beaches. Murphy Park Beach, a relatively pristine beach on Green Bay in Door County, Wis., was selected for a study to evaluate FIB sources and transport mechanisms. Although the relatively pristine nature of the beach yielded no detection of pathogenic bacterial genes and relatively low FIB concentrations during the study period compared with other Great Lakes Beaches, its selection limited the number of confounding FIB sources and associated transport mechanisms. The primary sources of FIB appear to be internal to the beach rather than external sources such as rivers, storm sewer outfalls, and industrial discharges. Three potential FIB sources were identified: sand, swash-zone groundwater, and Cladophora mats. Modest correlations between FIB concentrations in these potential source reservoirs and FIB concentrations at the beach from the same day illustrate the importance of understanding transport mechanisms between FIB sources and the water column. One likely mechanism for transport and dispersion of FIB from sand and Cladophora sources appears to be agitation of Cladophora mats and erosion of beach sand due to storm activity, as inferred from storm indicators including turbidity, wave height, current speed, wind speed, sky visibility, 24-hour precipitation, and suspended particulate concentration. FIB concentrations in beach water had a statistically significant relation (p-value 0.05) with the magnitude of these storm indicators. In addition, transport of FIB in swash-zone groundwater into beach water appears to be driven by groundwater recharge associated with multiday precipitation and corresponding increased swash-zone groundwater discharge at the beach, as indicated by an increase in the specific conductance of beach water. Understanding the dynamics of FIB sources (sand, swash-zone groundwater, and Cladophora) and transport mechanisms (dispersion and erosion from storm energy, and swash-zone groundwater discharge) is important for improving predictions of potential health risks from FIB in beach water.

  1. Virtual Beach v2.2 User Guide

    EPA Science Inventory

    Virtual Beach version 2.2 (VB 2.2) is a decision support tool. It is designed to construct site-specific Multi-Linear Regression (MLR) models to predict pathogen indicator levels (or fecal indicator bacteria, FIB) at recreational beaches. MLR analysis has outperformed persisten...

  2. Composite analysis for Escherichia coli at coastal beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bertke, E.E.

    2007-01-01

    At some coastal beaches, concentrations of fecal-indicator bacteria can differ substantially between multiple points at the same beach at the same time. Because of this spatial variability, the recreational water quality at beaches is sometimes determined by stratifying a beach into several areas and collecting a sample from each area to analyze for the concentration of fecal-indicator bacteria. The average concentration of bacteria from those points is often used to compare to the recreational standard for advisory postings. Alternatively, if funds are limited, a single sample is collected to represent the beach. Compositing the samples collected from each section of the beach may yield equally accurate data as averaging concentrations from multiple points, at a reduced cost. In the study described herein, water samples were collected at multiple points from three Lake Erie beaches and analyzed for Escherichia coli on modified mTEC agar (EPA Method 1603). From the multiple-point samples, a composite sample (n = 116) was formed at each beach by combining equal aliquots of well-mixed water from each point. Results from this study indicate that E. coli concentrations from the arithmetic average of multiple-point samples and from composited samples are not significantly different (t = 1.59, p = 0.1139) and yield similar measures of recreational water quality; additionally, composite samples could result in a significant cost savings.

  3. WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF LAKE TEXOMA BEACHES, 1999-2001

    EPA Science Inventory

    A biological and inorganic assessment of five beaches on Lake Texoma was conducted from September 1999 through July 2001. Water samples for each beach site were divided into two groups, a swimming season and non-swimming season. Water properties such as temperature, alkalinity,...

  4. The Beach--A Natural Protection from the Sea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sensabaugh, William M.

    1983-01-01

    The beach and sand dunes are the first line of defense protecting the land from the sea. The effectiveness of the beach is caused by its sloping surface which dissipates the energy of waves and by the flexibility of the slope which changes as the waves change. The process and rate of accretion and erosion are dependent on the size and frequency of…

  5. At Long Beach, Success Is Measured by Degrees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fain, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The California State University campus at Long Beach graduated 8,720 students last month. Each one got the opportunity to walk the stage, and F. King Alexander, the university's president, shook every hand. California State at Long Beach has made graduating a greater number of its 38,000 students its top priority. The slogan "Graduation Begins…

  6. RECREATIONAL BEACH WATER QUALITY MONITORING WITH QUANTITATIVE POLYMERASE CHAIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recreational beaches are an important economic and aesthetic asset to communities, states and the nation as a whole. Considerable resources are expended each year in monitoring the water at these beaches for fecal indicator bacteria as a means of determining if it is safe for pu...

  7. Dramatic Improvements in Beach Water Quality Following Gull Removal

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gulls are often cited as important contributors of fecal contamination to surface waters, and some recreational beaches have used gull control measures to improve microbial water quality. In this study, gulls were chased from a Lake Michigan beach using specially trained dogs, a...

  8. 270. OFFICERS' QUARTERS (FORMER SUMMER COTTAGES) AT DOG PATCH BEACH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    270. OFFICERS' QUARTERS (FORMER SUMMER COTTAGES) AT DOG PATCH BEACH, C. 1939. VIEW NORTH DOWN GREENWICH ROAD TOWARD FORMER SUMMER COTTAGES, CONVERTED TO OFFICER'S QUARTERS, OVER-LOOKING DOG PATCH BEACH. - Quonset Point Naval Air Station, Roger Williams Way, North Kingstown, Washington County, RI

  9. Bodies that Matter: Performing White Possession on the Beach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreton-Robinson, Aileen

    2011-01-01

    Beaches remain important places within indigenous coastal peoples' territories, although the silence about our ownership is deafening. Many authors have argued that within Australian popular culture the beach is a key site where racialized and gendered transgressions, fantasies, and desires are played out, but none have elucidated how these…

  10. At Long Beach, Success Is Measured by Degrees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fain, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The California State University campus at Long Beach graduated 8,720 students last month. Each one got the opportunity to walk the stage, and F. King Alexander, the university's president, shook every hand. California State at Long Beach has made graduating a greater number of its 38,000 students its top priority. The slogan "Graduation Begins

  11. Tracer Studies In Laboratory Beach Simulating Tidal Influences

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bioremediation of oil spills on tidally influenced beaches commonly involves the addition of a nutrient solution to the contaminated region of the beach at low tide to stimulate the growth of indigenous oil-degrading bacteria. Maximizing the residentce time of nutrients in the be...

  12. Falcon Beach School Closure Review. Research 87-01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg. Planning and Research Branch.

    Falcon Beach School is a small school experiencing declining school enrollment and increasing operational costs. In February, 1987, Falcon Beach School was announced as a candidate for closure. The Planning and Research Branch of Manitoba Education conducted an economic and social analysis of the school operations. This research report provides…

  13. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey San Francisco Examiner Library EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey San Francisco Examiner Library EAST ELEVATION - Presidio of San Francisco, Old Station Hospital, Funston Avenue & Lincoln Boulevard, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  14. 75 FR 55975 - Safety Zone; San Diego Harbor Shark Fest Swim; San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; San Diego Harbor Shark Fest Swim; San Diego... Shark Fest Swim, consisting of 600 swimmers swimming a predetermined course. The sponsor will provide 26...; San Diego Harbor Shark Fest Swim; San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA. (a) Location. The following area is...

  15. Beach morphology and coastline evolution in the southern Bohai Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Wu, Jianzheng; Li, Weiran; Zhu, Longhai; Hu, Rijun; Jiang, shenghui; Sun, Yonggen; Wang, Huijuan

    2015-10-01

    The beach studied in this paper spans a length of 51 km and is one of several long sandy beaches in the southern Bohai Strait. Due to the obstruction of islands in the northeast and the influence of the underwater topography, the wave environment in the offshore area is complex; beach types and sediment transport characteristics vary along different coasts. The coastlines extracted from six aerial photographs in different years were compared to demonstrate the evolving features. Seven typical beach profiles were selected to study the lateral beach variation characteristics. Continuous wind and wave observation data from Beihuangcheng ocean station during 2009 were employed for the hindcast of the local wave environment using a regional spectral wave model. Then the results of the wave hindcast were incorporated into the LITDRIFT model to compute the sediment transport rates and directions along the coasts and analyze the longshore sand movement. The results show that the coastline evolution of sand beaches in the southern Bohai Strait has spatial and temporal variations and the coast can be divided into four typical regions. Region (I), the north coast of Qimudao, is a slightly eroded and dissipative beach with a large sediment transport rate; Region (II), the southwest coast of Gangluan Port, is a slightly deposited and dissipative beach with moderate sediment transport rate; Region (III), in the central area, is a beach that is gradually transformed from a slightly eroded dissipative beach to a moderately or slightly strong eroded bar-trough beach from west to east with a relatively moderate sediment transport rate. Region (IV), on the east coast, is a strongly eroded and reflective beach with a weak sediment transport rate. The wave conditions exhibit an increasing trend from west to east in the offshore area. The distribution of the wave-induced current inside the wave breaking region and the littoral sediment transport in the nearshore region exhibit a gradual weakening tendency from west to east, which is opposite to the trend of the wave conditions outside the breaking region. The presence of submerged shoal (Dengzhou Shoal), deep trough (Dengzhou Channel), islands and irregular topography influnces the wave climate, beach types, wave-induced current features, littoral sediment transport trends and coastline evolution patterns in the southern Bohai Strait. Human activities, such as the sand exploitation of Dengzhou Shoal and other coastal engineering projects, also influence the beach morphology and coastline evolution.

  16. Magma at depth: A retrospective analysis of the 1975 unrest at Mount Baker, Washington, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crider, Juliet G.; Frank, David; Malone, Stephen D.; Poland, Michael P.; Werner, Cynthia; Caplan-Auerbach, Jacqueline

    2011-01-01

    Mount Baker volcano displayed a short interval of seismically-quiescent thermal unrest in 1975, with high emissions of magmatic gas that slowly waned during the following three decades. The area of snow-free ground in the active crater has not returned to pre-unrest levels, and fumarole gas geochemistry shows a decreasing magmatic signature over that same interval. A relative microgravity survey revealed a substantial gravity increase in the ~30 years since the unrest, while deformation measurements suggest slight deflation of the edifice between 1981-83 and 2006-07. The volcano remains seismically quiet with regard to impulsive volcano-tectonic events, but experiences shallow (10 km) long-period earthquakes. Reviewing the observations from the 1975 unrest in combination with geophysical and geochemical data collected in the decades that followed, we infer that elevated gas and thermal emissions at Mount Baker in 1975 resulted from magmatic activity beneath the volcano: either the emplacement of magma at mid-crustal levels, or opening of a conduit to a deep existing source of magmatic volatiles. Decadal-timescale, multi-parameter observations were essential to this assessment of magmatic activity.

  17. Glacier terminus fluctuations on Mt. Baker, Washington, USA, 1940-1990, and climatic variations

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, J.T. )

    1993-11-01

    The terminus positions of six glaciers located on Mount Baker, Washington, were mapped by photogrammetric techniques at 2- to 7-yr intervals for the period 1940-1990. Although the timing varied slightly, each of the glaciers experienced a similar fluctuation sequence consisting of three phases: (1) rapid retreat, beginning prior to 1940 and lasting through the late 1940s to early 1950s; (2) approximately 30 yr of advance, ending in the late 1970s to early 1980s; (3) retreat though 1990. Terminus positions changed by up to 750 m during phases, with the advance phase increasing the lengths of glaciers by 13 to 24%. These fluctuations are well explained by variations in a smoothed time-series of accumulation-season precipitation and ablation-season mean temperature. The study glaciers appear to respond to interannual scale changes in climate within 20 yr or less. The glaciers on Mount Baker have a maritime location and a large percentage of area at high elevation, which may make their termini undergo greater fluctuations in response to climatic changes, especially precipitation variations, than most other glaciers in the North Cascades region. 40 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Quality of water and time of travel in Bakers Creek near Clinton, Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalkhoff, Stephen J.

    1982-01-01

    Although dissolved-oxygen concentrations remained below 5 milligrams per liter, the water quality in Bakers Creek improved in a 1.8 mile reach downstream of a (source of) wastewater outfall. The mean specific conductance decreased from 670 micromhos per centimeter to 306 micromhos per centimeter. The 5-day biochemical oxygen demand decreased from 19 to 2.8 milligrams per liter. The mean total nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations decreased from 10 to 7.1 milligrams per liter to 1.0 and 0.87 milligrams per liter, respectively. Maximum fecal coliform bacteria decreased from 7200 to 400 colonies per 100 milliliters. The concentrations of mercury (0.4 micrograms per liter), iron (3,400 micrograms per liter) and manganese (1,100 micrograms per liter) at the downstream site contained DDD (2.5 micrograms per kilogram), DDE (2.7 micrograms per kilogram), and DDT (.3 micrograms per kilogram). The average rate of travel through a 1.8-mile reach of Bakers Creek was 0.06 foot per second or 0.04 mile per hour. (USGS)

  19. Magma at depth: a retrospective analysis of the 1975 unrest at Mount Baker, Washington, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crider, Juliet G.; Frank, David; Malone, Stephen D.; Poland, Michael P.; Werner, Cynthia; Caplan-Auerbach, Jacqueline

    2011-03-01

    Mount Baker volcano displayed a short interval of seismically-quiescent thermal unrest in 1975, with high emissions of magmatic gas that slowly waned during the following three decades. The area of snow-free ground in the active crater has not returned to pre-unrest levels, and fumarole gas geochemistry shows a decreasing magmatic signature over that same interval. A relative microgravity survey revealed a substantial gravity increase in the ~30 years since the unrest, while deformation measurements suggest slight deflation of the edifice between 1981-83 and 2006-07. The volcano remains seismically quiet with regard to impulsive volcano-tectonic events, but experiences shallow (<3 km) low-frequency events likely related to glacier activity, as well as deep (>10 km) long-period earthquakes. Reviewing the observations from the 1975 unrest in combination with geophysical and geochemical data collected in the decades that followed, we infer that elevated gas and thermal emissions at Mount Baker in 1975 resulted from magmatic activity beneath the volcano: either the emplacement of magma at mid-crustal levels, or opening of a conduit to a deep existing source of magmatic volatiles. Decadal-timescale, multi-parameter observations were essential to this assessment of magmatic activity.

  20. Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacts on Alabama beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayworth, J. S.; Clement, T. P.; Valentine, J. F.

    2011-07-01

    From mid June 2010 to early August 2010, the white sandy beaches along Alabama's Gulf coast were inundated with crude oil discharged from the Deepwater Horizon well. The long-term consequences of this environmental catastrophe are still unfolding. Although BP has attempted to clean up some of these beaches, there still exist many unanswered questions regarding the physical, chemical, and ecological state of the oil contaminated beach system. In this paper, we present our understanding of what is known and known to be unknown with regard to the current state of Alabama's beaches in the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon disaster. Motivated by our observations of the evolving distribution of oil in Alabama's beaches and BP's clean-up activities, we offer our thoughts on the lessons learned from this oil spill disaster.

  1. Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacts on Alabama beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayworth, J. S.; Clement, T. P.; Valentine, J. F.

    2011-12-01

    From mid June 2010 to early August 2010, the white sandy beaches along Alabama's Gulf coast were inundated with crude oil discharged from the Deepwater Horizon well. The long-term consequences of this environmental catastrophe are still unfolding. Although BP has attempted to clean up some of these beaches, there still exist many unanswered questions regarding the physical, chemical, and ecological state of the oil contaminated beach system. In this paper, we present our understanding of what is known and known to be unknown with regard to the current state of Alabama's beaches in the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon disaster. Motivated by our observations of the evolving distribution of oil in Alabama's beaches and BP's clean-up activities, we offer our thoughts on the lessons learned from this oil spill disaster.

  2. Pore Water Transport of Enterococci out of Beach Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Matthew C.; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M.; Reniers, Adrianus J. H. M.; Wang, John D.; Kiger, Russell T.; Abdel-Mottaleb, Noha

    2011-01-01

    Enterococci are used to evaluate the safety of beach waters and studies have identified beach sands as a source of these bacteria. In order to study and quantify the release of microbes from beach sediments, flow column systems were built to evaluate flow of pore water out of beach sediments. Results show a peak in enterococci (average of 10% of the total microbes in core) released from the sand core within one pore water volume followed by a marked decline to below detection. These results indicate that few enterococci are easily removed and that factors other than simple pore water flow control the release of the majority of enterococci within beach sediments. A significantly larger quantity and release of enterococci were observed in cores collected after a significant rain event suggesting the influx of fresh water can alter the release pattern as compared to cores with no antecedent rainfall. PMID:21945015

  3. Evaluation of beach cleanup effects using linear system analysis.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Tomoya; Hinata, Hirofumi

    2015-02-15

    We established a method for evaluating beach cleanup effects (BCEs) based on a linear system analysis, and investigated factors determining BCEs. Here we focus on two BCEs: decreasing the total mass of toxic metals that could leach into a beach from marine plastics and preventing the fragmentation of marine plastics on the beach. Both BCEs depend strongly on the average residence time of marine plastics on the beach (τ(r)) and the period of temporal variability of the input flux of marine plastics (T). Cleanups on the beach where τ(r) is longer than T are more effective than those where τ(r) is shorter than T. In addition, both BCEs are the highest near the time when the remnants of plastics reach the local maximum (peak time). Therefore, it is crucial to understand the following three factors for effective cleanups: the average residence time, the plastic input period and the peak time. PMID:25577475

  4. Probabilistic assessment of beach and dune changes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sallenger, A.H., Jr.; Stockdon, H.; Haines, J.; Krabill, W.; Swift, R.; Brock, J.

    2004-01-01

    The recent availability of spatially-dense airborne lidar data makes assessment of the vulnerability of beaches and dunes to storm impacts practical over long reaches of coast. As an initial test, elevations of the tops (D high) and bases (Dlow) of foredune ridges along a 55-km reach on the northern Outer Banks, NC were found to have considerable spatial variability suggesting that different parts of the barrier island would respond differently to storms. Comparing statistics of storm wave runup to D high and Dlow, we found that net erosion due to overwash and dune retreat should be greatest at the northern and southern ends of the study area and least in the central section. This predicted spatial pattern of storm-induced erosion is similar to the spatial pattern of long-term erosion of the shoreline which may be controlled by additional processes (such as gradients in longshore transport) as well as the cross-shore processes considered here. However, consider feedback where at erosional hot spots there is a deficit of sand (caused by gradients in longshore transport) which lead to lower dunes and enhanced erosional cross-shore processes, such as overwash. Hence, the erosional hot spots would be exacerbated, further increasing the vulnerability of the beach and dunes to net erosion.

  5. Ecological risk assessment: Seal Beach, California

    SciTech Connect

    Vernon, K.J.; Kuo, J.

    1999-07-01

    Ecological risk assessment offers a means of quantifying the probability and degree of hazard posed toward the well-being of ecological resources by a myriad of physical, chemical and biological agents generated from human activity. In this paper, the authors discuss the results of a screening-level ecological risk assessment conducted in a unique coastal setting-the Seal beach National Wildlife Refuge, which is located within the US Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach, California. Evaluation of activities formerly conducted by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration indicated the presence of various organic and inorganic chemical contaminants in subsurface soil and groundwater resources located beneath the weapons station, as well as potential pathways for introduction of those contaminants to the ecological resources of the wildlife refuge. Completion of the screening-level assessment identified inorganic contaminants-antimony, arsenic, beryllium, and manganese-as the primary risk drivers, leading to a recommendation for definitive characterization of the extent of chemical degradation of the subsurface environs and concurrent performance of a full-scale ecological risk assessment. It is the author's understanding that both of the recommended studies were initiated and were nearing completion at the time of the submittal of this paper.

  6. THE VISUAL BEACH NUMERICAL MODEL: A DIAGNOSTIC AND PROGNOSTIC MODELING APPROACH TO ACHIEVING US BEACHES AESTHETIC AND PUBLIC HEALTH PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under the BEACH Act of 2000, EPA has committed to a program to monitor beach water quality and develop strategies, including modeling, for timely notification of the public when bacterial contamination poses a risk to bathers. EPA's goal is to manage 100% of significant public be...

  7. The responses of artificial embayed beaches to storm events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojeda, E.; Guillén, J.; Ribas, F.

    2009-09-01

    The plan-view and the profile shape of sandy beaches largely depend on the incoming wave-energy (Wright and Short, 1984). In this sense, storm events are responsible for major changes in the configuration of sandy beaches and the cumulative effect of storms and fair-weather conditions determines the morphodynamic state of a certain beach. With increasing wave energy, the beach will change from the Reflective state to the Low Tide Terrace, Transverse Bar and Rip, Rhythmic Bar and Beach, Longshore Bar and Trough and finally to the Dissipative beach state. These morphodynamic states are also observed at artificial embayed beaches, although artificial groins limit alongshore sediment transport and protect sections of the beach from waves approaching from a range of directions (Short and Masselink, 1999). This contribution focuses on the morphological changes of the shoreline and the submerged sandbars of artificial embayed (sandy) beaches due to the effect of high-wave conditions associated to storms. We characterize the morphological response of the emerged and submerged beach profile of two of the artificial embayed beaches of the Barcelona city coast (NW Mediterranean). The two embayed beaches under study are single-barred beaches subject to the same climatic conditions but with different morphological characteristics. The study comprises more than 4 years of data, from November 2001 to March 2006, obtained through an Argus video system (Holman and Stanley, 2007). The extraction of the shoreline and barline locations is accomplished using 10-minute time-exposure video images. Shorelines were extracted directly from oblique images (see Ojeda and Guillén, [2008] for a complete description) and rectified afterwards. Sandbars were inferred from the rectified time-exposure video images based on the preferential wave breaking over shallow areas, so they required a minimum significant wave height (Hs) which allowed the occurrence of a clear wave-breaking pattern. The barline extraction was accomplished through an automated alongshore tracking of the intensity maxima across each beach section (Van Enckevort and Ruessink, 2001). The mean Hs during the study period was 0.71 m and the averaged peak period was 5.7 s. The wave height time series shows a cyclic behaviour, with storm periods (October-April) separated by periods of low storm activity (May-October). The two most energetic periods affecting the beaches were from October 2001 to May 2002 and from October 2003 to April 2004 (wave data were obtained from a WANA node [virtual buoy] and direct measurements of the Barcelona-Coastal buoy). Approximately 25 storm events have been identified during the study period (following Ojeda and Guillén [2008], significant storms were defined as those with Hs higher than 2.5 m during the peak of the storm and a minimum duration of 12 h with Hs greater than 1.5 m). The morphological responses of the beach to the storm action determine the morphodynamic state. These responses were grouped into five categories: shoreline advance or retreat, beach rotation, sandbar migration, formation of megacusps, and changes in the sandbar configuration (linear or crescentic shape). The intensity and frequency of these modifications were different in both beaches. Regarding the changes in the morphodynamic state of the beaches, the bar at Bogatell switched more frequently among the four intermediate morphodynamic states during the study period than the bar at La Barceloneta. The bar at La Barceloneta only underwent the complete "reset" of the nearshore morphology (i.e., abrupt change of the plan-view shape of the beach towards a Longshore Bar and Trough state) once, associated with the high-energy wave event occurring on November 2001. At this beach, the strongest storm events produced the offshore migration of the bar and a certain decrease in the bar sinuosity, but did not generate an alongshore parallel bar. Similar storms caused different effects on the two adjacent beaches and, furthermore, the effect of storms of similar characteristics at the same beach, were also different. In the final paper, we will focus on these differential behaviours in an attempt to attain a certain predictability of the beach behaviour after a storm depending on the wave characteristics and the morphodynamic configuration of the beach prior to the storm. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This work was funded by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Technology within the project SEDMET (CTM2006-06919). The work of E. Ojeda and F. Ribas was partially supported by the Spanish government through the FPU and Juan de la Cierva programs, correspondingly. The authors would like to thank Dr. Gerben Ruessink for providing the BLIM software and Puertos del Estado for the wave data. REFERENCES Holman, R.A., Stanley, J., 2007. The history and technical capabilities of Argus. Coast. Eng. 54, 447-491. Ojeda, E., Guillén, J., 2008. Shoreline dynamics and beach rotation of artificial embayed beaches. Mar. Geol. 253, 51-62. Short, A.D., Masselink, G., 1999 Embayed and structurally controlled beaches, in: Short, A.D. (Ed.), Handbook of beach and shoreface morphodynamics. John Wiley & Son, Chichester, pp. 230-250. Van Enckevort, I.M.J., Ruessink, B.G., 2001. Effect of hydrodynamics and bathymetry on video estimates of nearshore sandbar position. J. Geophys. Res. 106, 16969-16979. Wright, L.D., Short, A.D., 1984. Morphodynamic variability of surf zones and beaches: a synthesis. Mar. Geol. 56, 93-118.

  8. Environmental contaminants in the food chain, NWS Seal Beach and Seal Beach NWR

    SciTech Connect

    Ohlendorf, H.M.; Byron, E.R.; Freas, K.E.; Casados, E.M.; Kidwell, J.J.

    1994-12-31

    The authors conducted a study to determine whether environmental contaminants occurred in fish and invertebrates at concentrations that could be harmful to birds feeding in the estuarine salt marsh at Seal Beach National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), which is part of Naval Weapons Station (NWS) Seal Beach. Management of the refuge is focused primarily on endangered species, especially the light-footed clapper rail and the California least tern. Important food-chain organisms taken by rails (e.g., crabs and snails) and least terns (small fish) were sampled and analyzed for inorganic and organic contaminants that might be related to Navy activities at the Station. Results indicated that those contaminants are not likely to have lethal effects on rails or terns, although some chemicals (including cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, zinc and DDE) occurred at elevated concentrations in portions of the marsh. Possible sublethal effects also were evaluated and will be discussed.

  9. The Isolation of Invertase from Baker's Yeast: A Four-Part Exercise in Protein Purification and Characterization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timerman, Anthony P.; Fenrick, Angela M.; Zamis, Thomas M.

    2009-01-01

    A sequence of exercises for the isolation and characterization of invertase (E.C. 3.1.2.26) from baker's yeast obtained from a local grocery store is outlined. Because the enzyme is colorless, the use of colored markers and the sequence of purification steps are designed to "visualize" the process by which a colorless protein is selectively…

  10. 75 FR 65263 - Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act; Public Accommodation; Withdrawal of Proposed Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... of such establishment as the residence of such proprietor'' (75 FR 12167). The Commission is... definition of ``public accommodations facility in the Federal Register of March 15, 2010 (75 FR 12167). The... COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1450 Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act; Public Accommodation;...

  11. Wave-Induced Groundwater Flows in a Freshwater Beach Aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malott, S. S.; Robinson, C. E.; O'Carroll, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    Wave-induced recirculation across the sediment-water interface can impact the transport of pollutants through a beach aquifer and their ultimate flux into coastal waters. The fate of nutrients (e.g. from septic and agricultural sources) and fecal indicator bacteria (e.g. E. coil) near the sediment-water interface are of particular concern as these pollutants often lead to degradation of recreational water quality and nearshore ecosystems. This paper presents detailed field measurements of groundwater flows in a freshwater beach aquifer on Lake Huron over periods of intensified wave conditions. Quantifying wave-driven processes in a freshwater beach aquifer enables wave effects to be studied in isolation from density and tidal effects that complicate groundwater flows in marine beaches. Water exchange across the sediment-water interface and groundwater flow patterns were measured using groundwater wells, arrays of vertically nested pressure transducers and manometers. Results show that wave action induces rapid infiltration/exfiltration across the sediment-water interface and a larger recirculation cell through the beach aquifer. Field data is used to validate a numerical groundwater model of wave-induced groundwater flows. While prior studies have simulated the effects of waves on beach groundwater flows, this study is the first attempt to validate these sophisticated modeling approaches. Finally, field data illustrating the impact of wave-induced groundwater flows on nutrient and bacteria fate and transport in beach aquifers will also be presented.

  12. New methodology for describing the equilibrium beach profile applied to the Valencia's beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aragonés, L.; Serra, J. C.; Villacampa, Y.; Saval, J. M.; Tinoco, H.

    2016-04-01

    Mathematical models used for the understanding of coastal seabed morphology play a key role in beach nourishment projects. These projects have become the fundamental strategy for coastal maintenance during the last few years. Accordingly, the accuracy of these models is vital to optimize the costs of coastal regeneration projects. Planning of such interventions requires methodologies that do not generate uncertainties in their interpretation. A study and comparison of mathematical simulation models of the coastline is carried out in this paper, as well as elements that are part of the model that are a source of uncertainty. The equilibrium profile (EP) and the offshore limit corresponding to the depth of closure (DoC) have been analyzed taking into account different timescale ranges. The results have thus been compared using data sets from three different periods which are identified as present, past and future. Accuracy in data collection for the beach profiles and the definition of the median grain size calculation using collected samples are the two main factors that have been taken into account in this paper. These data can generate high uncertainties and can produce a lack of accuracy in nourishment projects. Together they can generate excessive costs due to possible excess or shortage of sand used for the nourishment. The main goal of this paper is the development of a new methodology to increase the accuracy of the existing equilibrium beach profile models, providing an improvement to the inputs used in such models and in the fitting of the formulae used to obtain seabed shape. This new methodology has been applied and tested on Valencia's beaches.

  13. TESTING A BEACH BACTERIA MODEL IN LAKE MICHIGAN AND SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Beach closures due to high bacterial concentrations deprive the public and disrupt the tourist industry. Almost half the Lake Michigan beaches are closed more than 10% of the time. In 1999 the six-mile long beach in Huntington Beach, California was closed in July and August. Due ...

  14. Nourishment practices on Australian sandy beaches: a review.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Belinda C; Jones, Alan R; Goodwin, Ian D; Bishop, Melanie J

    2012-12-30

    It is predicted that the coastal zone will be among the environments worst affected by projected climate change. Projected losses in beach area will negatively impact on coastal infrastructure and continued recreational use of beaches. Beach nourishment practices such as artificial nourishment, replenishment and scraping are increasingly used to combat beach erosion but the extent and scale of projects is poorly documented in large areas of the world. Through a survey of beach managers of Local Government Areas and a comprehensive search of peer reviewed and grey literature, we assessed the extent of nourishment practices in Australia. The study identified 130 beaches in Australia that were subject to nourishment practices between 2001 and 2011. Compared to projects elsewhere, most Australian projects were small in scale but frequent. Exceptions were nine bypass projects which utilised large volumes of sediment. Most artificial nourishment, replenishment and beach scraping occurred in highly urbanised areas and were most frequently initiated in spring during periods favourable to accretion and outside of the summer season of peak beach use. Projects were generally a response to extreme weather events, and utilised sand from the same coastal compartment as the site of erosion. Management was planned on a regional scale by Local Government Authorities, with little monitoring of efficacy or biological impact. As rising sea levels and growing coastal populations continue to put pressure on beaches a more integrated approach to management is required, that documents the extent of projects in a central repository, and mandates physical and biological monitoring to help ensure the engineering is sustainable and effective at meeting goals. PMID:23103149

  15. Test of self-organization in beach cusp formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coco, Giovanni; Burnet, T. K.; Werner, B. T.; Elgar, Steve

    2003-03-01

    Field observations of swash flow patterns and morphology change are consistent with the hypothesis that beach cusps form by self-organization, wherein positive feedback between swash flow and developing morphology causes initial development of the pattern and negative feedback owing to circulation of flow within beach cusp bays causes pattern stabilization. The self-organization hypothesis is tested using measurements from three experiments on a barrier island beach in North Carolina. Beach cusps developed after the beach was smoothed by a storm and after existing beach cusps were smoothed by a bulldozer. Swash front motions were recorded on video during daylight hours, and morphology was measured by surveying at 3-4 hour intervals. Three signatures of self-organization were observed in all experiments. First, time lags between swash front motions in beach cusp bays and horns increase with increasing relief, representing the effect of morphology on flow. Second, differential erosion between bays and horns initially increases with increasing time lag, representing the effect of flow on morphology change because positive feedback causes growth of beach cusps. Third, after initial growth, differential erosion decreases with increasing time lag, representing the onset of negative feedback that stabilizes beach cusps. A numerical model based on self-organization, initialized with measured morphology and alongshore-uniform distributions of initial velocities and positions of the swash front at the beginning of a swash cycle, reproduces the measurements, except for parts of one experiment, where limited surveys and a significant low-frequency component to swash motions might have caused errors in model initialization.

  16. Kennedy Space Center ocean beach erosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, A. J.; Obrien, M. P.

    1973-01-01

    Dune barrier erosion and possible breakthrough due to storm and hurricane wave activity is studied near Mosquito Lagoon, in Kennedy Space Center property. The results of a geological as well as hydrodynamic appraisal of the problem area indicate that no inlet has existed across the dune barrier since 500 A.D., and that there is little likelihood of a possible breakthrough inlet remaining open permanently, primarily because the relatively shallow lagoon does not contain enough volume of water to maintain an inlet between the ocean and the lagoon. It is therefore recommended that only minimal measures, such as closing up the man-made passes across the dunes, be carried out to ensure continuation of the action of natural beach maintaining processes.

  17. California, San Francisco Bay area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The San Francisco Bay area (37.5N, 122.0W) of California from the Santa Cruz in the south to Point Reyes in the north with the rich agriculture region of the central San Joaquin Valley in the foreground.

  18. Combined biological and physico-chemical treatment of baker's yeast wastewater.

    PubMed

    Kalyuzhnyi, S; Gladchenko, M; Starostina, E; Shcherbakov, S; Versprille, A

    2005-01-01

    The UASB reactor (35 degrees C) was quite efficient for removal of bulk COD (52-74%) from the raw and diluted cultivation medium from the first separation process of baker's yeasts (the average organic loading rates varied in the range 3.7-16 g COD/I/d). The aerobic-anoxic biofilter (19-23 degrees C) can be used for removal of remaining BOD and ammonia from anaerobic effluents; however, it had insufficient COD to fulfil the denitrification requirements. To balance COD/N ratio, some bypass of raw wastewater (approximately 10%) should be added to the biofilter feed. The application of iron (III)-, aluminium- or calcium-induced coagulation for post-treatment of aerobic effluents can fulfil the limits for discharge to sewerage (even for colour mainly exerted by hardly biodegradable melanoidins), however, the required amounts of coagulants were relatively high. PMID:16180425

  19. Integrated biological (anaerobic-aerobic) and physico-chemical treatment of baker's yeast wastewater.

    PubMed

    Kalyuzhnyi, S; Gladchenko, M; Starostina, E; Shcherbakov, S; Versprille, B

    2005-01-01

    The UASB reactor (35 degrees C) was quite efficient for removal of bulk COD (52-74%) from simulated (on the basis of cultivation medium from the first separation process) general effluent of baker's yeast production (the average organic loading rates varied from 8.1 to 16 g COD/l/d). The aerobic-anoxic biofilter (19-23 degrees C) can be used for removal of remaining BOD and ammonia from anaerobic effluents; however, it suffered from COD-deficiency to fulfil denitrification requirements. To balance COD/N ratio, some bypass (approximately 10%) of anaerobically untreated general effluent should be added to the biofilter feed. The application of iron (III)-, aluminium- or calcium-induced coagulation for post-treatment of aerobic-anoxic effluents can fulfil the limits for discharge to sewerage (even for colour mainly exerted by hardly biodegradable melanoidins), however, the required amounts of coagulants were relatively high. PMID:16459801

  20. Revision of Myxobolus heterosporus Baker, 1963 (syn. Myxosoma Heterospora) (Myxozoa: Myxosporea) in African records.

    PubMed

    el-Mansy, A

    2005-02-28

    There is uncertainty regarding the validity of Myxobolus heterosporus Baker, 1963. The present study revises the taxonomy, using specimens isolated from plasmodia situated in the infected cornea of Oreochromis aureus, O. niloticus or Tilapia zillii inhabiting the River Nile, Egypt. In addition, histological effects of the parasite on the infected tissue were examined. The spores of M. heterosporus had a variety of shapes expressing remarkable heteromorphism. Five main Myxobolus-like spore types and tailed-spores were found. All forms were photographed, measured, sketched and described. Light and electron microscopy supported that spores of a Myxobolus-like morphology co-existed with so-called tailed-spores in one plasmodium. Some transitional stages from Myxobolus-like spore types to tailed-spores were observed. Therefore, some tailed-spores may be simply heteromorphs of Myxobolus. PMID:15819436

  1. Special-case closed form of the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van-Brunt, Alexander; Visser, Matt

    2015-06-01

    The Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formula is a general result for the quantity Z(X,Y)=ln ({{e}X}{{e}Y}), where X and Y are not necessarily commuting. For completely general commutation relations between X and Y, (the free Lie algebra), the general result is somewhat unwieldy. However in specific physics applications the commutator [X,Y], while non-zero, might often be relatively simple, which sometimes leads to explicit closed form results. We consider the special case [X,Y]=uX+vY+cI, and show that in this case the general result reduces to Furthermore we explicitly evaluate the symmetric function f(u,v)=f(v,u), demonstrating that and relate this to previously known results. For instance this result includes, but is considerably more general than, results obtained from either the Heisenberg commutator [P,Q]=-i\\hbar I or the creation-destruction commutator [a,{{a}\\dagger }]=I.

  2. Baker Construction, Cincinnati, Ohio. Solar energy system performance evaluation, October 1980-May 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Spears, J.W.

    1981-01-01

    The Baker Construction site is a single family residence in Ohio with a passive solar heating system, which consists of 302 square feet of 62 degree sloped greenhouse glazing, a 35,500-pound concrete mass wall, 10,400-pound concrete slab floor, 20 phase change storage rods, six 1-kW electric baseboard heaters, and a wood stove. A solar fraction of 55% is reported. Also the solar savings ratio and conventional fuel savings are given. The performance of the greenhouse collector subsystem, the heat storage subsystem, and the space heating subsystem are summarized as well as total system performance. Energy savings and weather data are also included. The design of the system, performance evaluation techniques, and sensor technology are also presented. (LEW)

  3. A Scheme for Obtaining Secure S-Boxes Based on Chaotic Baker's Map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gondal, Muhammad Asif; Abdul Raheem; Hussain, Iqtadar

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, a method for obtaining cryptographically strong 8 × 8 substitution boxes (S-boxes) is presented. The method is based on chaotic baker's map and a "mini version" of a new block cipher with block size 8 bits and can be easily and efficiently performed on a computer. The cryptographic strength of some 8 × 8 S-boxes randomly produced by the method is analyzed. The results show (1) all of them are bijective; (2) the nonlinearity of each output bit of them is usually about 100; (3) all of them approximately satisfy the strict avalanche criterion and output bits independence criterion; (4) they all have an almost equiprobable input/output XOR distribution.

  4. A young male runner with a posterior knee mass-not just your typical Baker's cyst.

    PubMed

    Abid, Ayesha; Kelley, James Fitzhugh; Flemming, Donald J; Silvis, Matthew L

    2016-01-01

    We present the case of a 28-year-old man with a growing mass in his right popliteal fossa causing pain on exertion. The differential diagnosis included Baker's cyst, entrapment syndrome of the popliteal artery, as well as a benign or malignant neoplasm. An ultrasound was non-specific. Follow-up MRI of the knee demonstrated cystic adventitial disease (CAD). With only about 500 cases reported in the literature since its discovery in 1947, CAD is a rare entity. The disease is characterised by mucinous or gelatinous cysts in the arterial or venous adventitia. The disease is predominantly seen in the popliteal artery and typically affects otherwise healthy males in the fourth to fifth decade of life. It presents clinically as intermittent exertional claudication. Examination of our case and a review of the literature will highlight the importance of considering CAD in patients who report of a popliteal mass and intermittent claudication. PMID:26933185

  5. Moraine-dammed lake failures in Patagonia and assessment of outburst susceptibility in the Baker Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iribarren Anacona, P.; Norton, K. P.; Mackintosh, A.

    2014-07-01

    Glacier retreat since the Little Ice Age has resulted in the development or expansion of hundreds of glacial lakes in Patagonia. Some of these lakes have produced large (?106 m3) Glacial Lake Outburst Floods (GLOFs) damaging inhabited areas. GLOF hazard studies in Patagonia have been mainly based on the analysis of short-term series (?50 years) of flood data and until now no attempt has been made to identify the relative susceptibility of lakes to failure. Power schemes and associated infrastructure are planned for Patagonian basins that have historically been affected by GLOFs, and we now require a thorough understanding of the characteristics of dangerous lakes in order to assist with hazard assessment and planning. In this paper, the conditioning factors of 16 outbursts from moraine dammed lakes in Patagonia were analysed. These data were used to develop a classification scheme designed to assess outburst susceptibility, based on image classification techniques, flow routine algorithms and the Analytical Hierarchy Process. This scheme was applied to the Baker Basin, Chile, where at least 7 moraine-dammed lakes have failed in historic time. We identified 386 moraine-dammed lakes in the Baker Basin of which 28 were classified with high or very high outburst susceptibility. Commonly, lakes with high outburst susceptibility are in contact with glaciers and have moderate (>8) to steep (>15) dam outlet slopes, akin to failed lakes in Patagonia. The proposed classification scheme is suitable for first-order GLOF hazard assessments in this region. However, rapidly changing glaciers in Patagonia make detailed analysis and monitoring of hazardous lakes and glaciated areas upstream from inhabited areas or critical infrastructure necessary, in order to better prepare for hazards emerging from an evolving cryosphere.

  6. Gene Expression Analysis of Cold and Freeze Stress in Baker's Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Vargas, Sonia; Estruch, Francisco; Randez-Gil, Francisca

    2002-01-01

    We used mRNA differential display to assess yeast gene expression under cold or freeze shock stress conditions. We found both up- and down-regulation of genes, although repression was more common. We identified and sequenced several cold-induced genes exhibiting the largest differences. We confirmed, by Northern blotting, the specificity of the response for TPI1, which encodes triose-phosphate isomerase; ERG10, the gene for acetoacetyl coenzyme A thiolase; and IMH1, which encodes a protein implicated in protein transport. These genes also were induced under other stress conditions, suggesting that this cold response is mediated by a general stress mechanism. We determined the physiological significance of the cold-induced expression change of these genes in two baker's yeast strains with different sensitivities to freeze stress. The mRNA level of TPI1 and ERG10 genes was higher in freeze-stressed than in control samples of the tolerant strain. In contrast, both genes were repressed in frozen cells of the sensitive strain. Next, we examined the effects of ERG10 overexpression on cold and freeze-thaw tolerance. Growth of wild-type cells at 10°C was not affected by high ERG10 expression. However, YEpERG10 transformant cells exhibited increased freezing tolerance. Consistent with this, cells of an erg10 mutant strain showed a clear phenotype of cold and freeze sensitivity. These results give support to the idea that a cause-and-effect relationship between differentially expressed genes and cryoresistance exists in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and open up the possibility of design strategies to improve the freeze tolerance of baker's yeast. PMID:12039763

  7. Moraine-dammed lake failures in Patagonia and assessment of outburst susceptibility in the Baker Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iribarren Anacona, P.; Norton, K. P.; Mackintosh, A.

    2014-12-01

    Glacier retreat since the Little Ice Age has resulted in the development or expansion of hundreds of glacial lakes in Patagonia. Some of these lakes have produced large (≥ 106 m3) Glacial Lake Outburst Floods (GLOFs) damaging inhabited areas. GLOF hazard studies in Patagonia have been mainly based on the analysis of short-term series (≤ 50 years) of flood data and until now no attempt has been made to identify the relative susceptibility of lakes to failure. Power schemes and associated infrastructure are planned for Patagonian basins that have historically been affected by GLOFs, and we now require a thorough understanding of the characteristics of dangerous lakes in order to assist with hazard assessment and planning. In this paper, the conditioning factors of 16 outbursts from moraine-dammed lakes in Patagonia were analysed. These data were used to develop a classification scheme designed to assess outburst susceptibility, based on image classification techniques, flow routine algorithms and the Analytical Hierarchy Process. This scheme was applied to the Baker Basin, Chile, where at least seven moraine-dammed lakes have failed in historic time. We identified 386 moraine-dammed lakes in the Baker Basin of which 28 were classified with high or very high outburst susceptibility. Commonly, lakes with high outburst susceptibility are in contact with glaciers and have moderate (> 8°) to steep (> 15°) dam outlet slopes, akin to failed lakes in Patagonia. The proposed classification scheme is suitable for first-order GLOF hazard assessments in this region. However, rapidly changing glaciers in Patagonia make detailed analysis and monitoring of hazardous lakes and glaciated areas upstream from inhabited areas or critical infrastructure necessary, in order to better prepare for hazards emerging from an evolving cryosphere.

  8. Verification survey of the Baker and Williams Warehouses, Building 521-527, New York, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, J.D.; Cotten, P.R.; Payne, J.L.

    1992-05-01

    During the early 1940's, the Manhattan Engineer District (MED), predecessor to the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and the Department of Energy (DOE), shipped uranium concentrates to the former Baker and Williams Warehouses on West 20th Street, in New York, New York. The warehouses were used for short-term storage of the uranium that was later distributed to various US Government facilities. According to historical information, approximately 99,430 kg (219,000 lbs) of orange and yellow sodium uranate was delivered in 1942, and approximately 39,000 kg (86,000 lbs) of orange and yellow sodium uranate, 10,000 kg (22,000 lbs) of sodium uranyl carbonate, and 9,080 kg (20,000 lbs) of black uranium oxide were delivered to the Baker and Williams Warehouses in 1943. In 1989, DOE reviewed available historical documentation, describing MED/AEC activities conducted at this facility, and, based on this information, determined that the potential for radioactive material to be present as a result of the past activities was low. However, the available information was not sufficient to demonstrate that radiological conditions of the site, following termination of MED/AEC activities, satisfied current criteria for use without restrictions. DOE decided that a radiological survey should be performed to determine whether additional investigations were warranted under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). The purpose of the radiological survey was to obtain sufficient radiological measurements such that DOE Headquarters could determine whether the site should be included for remedial action or eliminated from FUSRAP. A preliminary site visit was performed by the Environmental Survey and Site Assessment Program (ESSAP) of Oak Ridge Associated Universities and it was determined that Building 521--527 would be included in the survey, based on visual inspections and accessibility to the adjoining 529--535 building.

  9. Mechanical grooming and beach award status are associated with low strandline biodiversity in Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilburn, Andre S.

    2012-07-01

    Beach grooming and beach award status are both shown to be associated with low macroinvertebrate taxon richness in Scotland. Previous studies in California have revealed that mechanical raking to remove wrack from sandy beaches has negative ecological consequences for coastal ecosystems. In the current study the presence and absence of eight common taxa that inhabit beached wrack on sandy beaches in Scotland was assessed at 60 sites, 24 of which were groomed and 29 of which were in receipt of a beach award. On average 4.86 of the eight taxa were found to be present on ungroomed beaches, whereas only 1.13 taxa were present on groomed beaches. Thus, beach grooming seems to be having a major effect on the biodiversity of beach macroinvertebrates in Scotland. Fewer macroinvertebrate taxa were also found on award (1.5) compared to non-award (4.38) beaches. It was also revealed that award beaches were much more likely to be groomed than non-award beaches, with 69% of award beaches surveyed being groomed compared to only 6% of non-award beaches. This pattern is surprising as the awarding bodies discourage the removal of seaweed and regulations state that beached wrack should only be removed if it constitutes a nuisance. It is concluded that award status, not nuisance level, has the main factor driving most beach grooming and that this has resulted in the substantial loss of macroinvertebrate biodiversity from award beaches in Scotland. In conclusion it is shown that beach grooming has a substantial negative impact upon strandline macroinvertebrate biodiversity in Scotland and that grooming is much more likely to occur on award beaches.

  10. 110. Frank Deras Jr., Photographer April 1999 VIEW OF SAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    110. Frank Deras Jr., Photographer April 1999 VIEW OF SAN FRANCISCO VIADUCT WITH 1950'S MODIFICATION AT SECOND STREET, FACING NORTHWEST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  11. 101. Dennis Hill, Photographer December 1997 VIEW OF SAN FRANCISCO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    101. Dennis Hill, Photographer December 1997 VIEW OF SAN FRANCISCO VIADUCT WITH 1950'S MODIFICATION IN FOREGROUND, BETWEEN FOURTH AND THIRD STREETS, FACING EAST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  12. 104. Dennis Hill, Photographer December 1997 VIEW OF SAN FRANCISCO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    104. Dennis Hill, Photographer December 1997 VIEW OF SAN FRANCISCO VIADUCT IN BACKGROUND AND 1950'S MODIFICATION IN FOREGROUND, NEAR THIRD STREET, FACING WEST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  13. 106. Frank Deras Jr., Photographer December 1997 VIEW OF SAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    106. Frank Deras Jr., Photographer December 1997 VIEW OF SAN FRANCISCO VIADUCT (ABOVE) AND 1950'S MODIFICATION (BELOW), BETWEEN THIRD AND SECOND STREETS, FACING WEST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  14. 96. Dennis Hill, Photographer December 1997 VIEW OF SAN FRANCISCO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    96. Dennis Hill, Photographer December 1997 VIEW OF SAN FRANCISCO VIADUCT AND ABUTMENT NEAR FOURTH STREET (CONCRETE) WITH 1950'S MODIFICATION IN FOREGROUND, FACING WEST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  15. 105. Frank Deras Jr., Photographer December 1997 VIEW OF SAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    105. Frank Deras Jr., Photographer December 1997 VIEW OF SAN FRANCISCO VIADUCT AT INTERSECTION OF 1950'S MODIFICATION, FACING EAST FROM THIRD STREET. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  16. 98. Dennis Hill, Photographer December 1997 VIEW OF SAN FRANCISCO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    98. Dennis Hill, Photographer December 1997 VIEW OF SAN FRANCISCO VIADUCT (LEFT) AND 1950'S MODIFICATION (RIGHT), FACING NORTHEAST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  17. 100. Dennis Hill, Photographer July 1998 VIEW OF SAN FRANCISCO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    100. Dennis Hill, Photographer July 1998 VIEW OF SAN FRANCISCO VIADUCT AT TRANSITION TO FIFTH STREET WITH 1950'S MODIFICATION (RIGHT AND LEFT), FACING SOUTHWEST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  18. 78 FR 58878 - Safety Zone; San Diego Shark Fest Swim; San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; San Diego Shark Fest Swim; San Diego Bay... Diego Shark Fest Swim. This safety zone is necessary to provide for the safety of the participants,...

  19. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Cal State Div. of Beaches ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Cal State Div. of Beaches & Parks Collection Sketch of 1857 Rephoto 1960 NORTHEAST CORNER ELEVATION - B. F. Hastings Bank Building, 128-132 J Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  20. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Cal State Division Beaches and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Cal State Division Beaches and Park Collection Sketch of 1854 Rephoto of 1960 EAST ELEVATION - Adams & Company Building, 1014 Second Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  1. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Cal State Division Beaches and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Cal State Division Beaches and Park Collection Sketch of 1857 Rephoto 1960 EAST ELEVATION WITH OTHER BUILDINGS - Adams & Company Building, 1014 Second Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  2. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Cal. State Div. Beaches & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Cal. State Div. Beaches & Parks Collection Sketch of 1857 Rephoto 1960 NORTHEAST CORNER ELEVATION - B. F. Hastings Bank Building, 128-132 J Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  3. 2. VIEW SHOWING NATURAL SAND BEACH ON KIDNEY LAKE, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW SHOWING NATURAL SAND BEACH ON KIDNEY LAKE, LOOKING WEST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Kidney Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 4.7 miles North of Miners Gulch Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  4. 24. Photocopy of photograph (from Division of Beaches and Parks, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Photocopy of photograph (from Division of Beaches and Parks, State of California, Department of Natural Resources) Photographer unknown, Date unknown MAP OF SUTTER'S FORT - Sutter's Fort, L & Twenty-Seventh Streets, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  5. 11. BEACH TOILET BUILDING, OFFICE AND FIRST AID BUILDING, PLANS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. BEACH TOILET BUILDING, OFFICE AND FIRST AID BUILDING, PLANS, ELEVATIONS AND SECTIONS Drawing No. 103-07 - Glen Echo Park, Crystal Swimming Pool, 7300 McArthur Boulevard, Glen Echo, Montgomery County, MD

  6. General view looking to intersection of Beach Drive and Hume ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view looking to intersection of Beach Drive and Hume Drive - National Park Seminary, Bounded by Capitol Beltway (I-495), Linden Lane, Woodstove Avenue, & Smith Drive, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  7. Evaluation of airborne topographic lidar for quantifying beach changes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sallenger, A.H., Jr.; Krabill, W.B.; Swift, R.N.; Brock, J.; List, J.; Hansen, M.; Holman, R.A.; Manizade, S.; Sontag, J.; Meredith, A.; Morgan, K.; Yunkel, J.K.; Frederick, E.B.; Stockdon, H.

    2003-01-01

    A scanning airborne topographic lidar was evaluated for its ability to quantify beach topography and changes during the Sandy Duck experiment in 1997 along the North Carolina coast. Elevation estimates, acquired with NASA's Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), were compared to elevations measured with three types of ground-based measurements - 1) differential GPS equipped all-terrain vehicle (ATV) that surveyed a 3-km reach of beach from the shoreline to the dune, 2) GPS antenna mounted on a stadia rod used to intensely survey a different 100 m reach of beach, and 3) a second GPS-equipped ATV that surveyed a 70-km-long transect along the coast. Over 40,000 individual intercomparisons between ATM and ground surveys were calculated. RMS vertical differences associated with the ATM when compared to ground measurements ranged from 13 to 19 cm. Considering all of the intercomparisons together, RMS ??? 15 cm. This RMS error represents a total error for individual elevation estimates including uncertainties associated with random and mean errors. The latter was the largest source of error and was attributed to drift in differential GPS. The ??? 15 cm vertical accuracy of the ATM is adequate to resolve beach-change signals typical of the impact of storms. For example, ATM surveys of Assateague Island (spanning the border of MD and VA) prior to and immediately following a severe northeaster showed vertical beach changes in places greater than 2 m, much greater than expected errors associated with the ATM. A major asset of airborne lidar is the high spatial data density. Measurements of elevation are acquired every few m2 over regional scales of hundreds of kilometers. Hence, many scales of beach morphology and change can be resolved, from beach cusps tens of meters in wavelength to entire coastal cells comprising tens to hundreds of kilometers of coast. Topographic lidars similar to the ATM are becoming increasingly available from commercial vendors and should, in the future, be widely used in beach surveying.

  8. Microbes in Beach Sands: Integrating Environment, Ecology and Public Health.

    PubMed

    Whitman, Richard; Harwood, Valerie J; Edge, Thomas A; Nevers, Meredith; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara; Vijayavel, Kannappan; Brandão, João; Sadowsky, Michael J; Alm, Elizabeth Wheeler; Crowe, Allan; Ferguson, Donna; Ge, Zhongfu; Halliday, Elizabeth; Kinzelman, Julie; Kleinheinz, Greg; Przybyla-Kelly, Kasia; Staley, Christopher; Staley, Zachery; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M

    2014-09-01

    Beach sand is a habitat that supports many microbes, including viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa (micropsammon). The apparently inhospitable conditions of beach sand environments belie the thriving communities found there. Physical factors, such as water availability and protection from insolation; biological factors, such as competition, predation, and biofilm formation; and nutrient availability all contribute to the characteristics of the micropsammon. Sand microbial communities include autochthonous species/phylotypes indigenous to the environment. Allochthonous microbes, including fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and waterborne pathogens, are deposited via waves, runoff, air, or animals. The fate of these microbes ranges from death, to transient persistence and/or replication, to establishment of thriving populations (naturalization) and integration in the autochthonous community. Transport of the micropsammon within the habitat occurs both horizontally across the beach, and vertically from the sand surface and ground water table, as well as at various scales including interstitial flow within sand pores, sediment transport for particle-associated microbes, and the large-scale processes of wave action and terrestrial runoff. The concept of beach sand as a microbial habitat and reservoir of FIB and pathogens has begun to influence our thinking about human health effects associated with sand exposure and recreational water use. A variety of pathogens have been reported from beach sands, and recent epidemiology studies have found some evidence of health risks associated with sand exposure. Persistent or replicating populations of FIB and enteric pathogens have consequences for watershed/beach management strategies and regulatory standards for safe beaches. This review summarizes our understanding of the community structure, ecology, fate, transport, and public health implications of microbes in beach sand. It concludes with recommendations for future work in this vastly under-studied area. PMID:25383070

  9. Microbes in Beach Sands: Integrating Environment, Ecology and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Whitman, Richard; Harwood, Valerie J.; Edge, Thomas A.; Nevers, Meredith; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara; Vijayavel, Kannappan; Brandão, João; Sadowsky, Michael J.; Alm, Elizabeth Wheeler; Crowe, Allan; Ferguson, Donna; Ge, Zhongfu; Halliday, Elizabeth; Kinzelman, Julie; Kleinheinz, Greg; Przybyla-Kelly, Kasia; Staley, Christopher; Staley, Zachery; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Beach sand is a habitat that supports many microbes, including viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa (micropsammon). The apparently inhospitable conditions of beach sand environments belie the thriving communities found there. Physical factors, such as water availability and protection from insolation; biological factors, such as competition, predation, and biofilm formation; and nutrient availability all contribute to the characteristics of the micropsammon. Sand microbial communities include autochthonous species/phylotypes indigenous to the environment. Allochthonous microbes, including fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and waterborne pathogens, are deposited via waves, runoff, air, or animals. The fate of these microbes ranges from death, to transient persistence and/or replication, to establishment of thriving populations (naturalization) and integration in the autochthonous community. Transport of the micropsammon within the habitat occurs both horizontally across the beach, and vertically from the sand surface and ground water table, as well as at various scales including interstitial flow within sand pores, sediment transport for particle-associated microbes, and the large-scale processes of wave action and terrestrial runoff. The concept of beach sand as a microbial habitat and reservoir of FIB and pathogens has begun to influence our thinking about human health effects associated with sand exposure and recreational water use. A variety of pathogens have been reported from beach sands, and recent epidemiology studies have found some evidence of health risks associated with sand exposure. Persistent or replicating populations of FIB and enteric pathogens have consequences for watershed/beach management strategies and regulatory standards for safe beaches. This review summarizes our understanding of the community structure, ecology, fate, transport, and public health implications of microbes in beach sand. It concludes with recommendations for future work in this vastly under-studied area. PMID:25383070

  10. Can the gold coast beaches withstand extreme events?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelle, Bruno; Le Corre, Yann; Tomlinson, Rodger

    2008-02-01

    The Gold Coast sandy beaches of Queensland (Australia) are exposed to energetic wave conditions. Storms, particularly tropical cyclones, have a high potential of destruction. The Gold Coast has not experienced excessive erosive events over the past 30 years. However, some climate indicators suggest that cyclone frequency is likely to increase in response to global climate change within the near future. Over a 2-month period in early 2006, beach surveys were undertaken with a theodolite total station at four different sites. Offshore wave conditions were provided by SWAN regional wave modelling. During this study, the Gold Coast was exposed to three major storms, the first one being the second most energetic over the past 30 years. Results show a substantial variability of the beach response to these events along the Gold Coast, and that engineering structures do not have marked effects. Easterly swells have the greatest impact on the Gold Coast sub-aerial beach morphology. When low wave-energy conditions prevail, the southern Gold Coast beaches recover more quickly than the northern ones, as they are sheltered from high SE waves and draw advantage from the artificial sand bypassing system. Nevertheless, the data show that the Gold Coast beaches are exceedingly fragile. For instance, the early March decadal event considerably weakened the beaches, which resulted in surprisingly high erosion rates all along the Gold Coast during the two following annual wave events. This study suggests that the Gold Coast beaches would not be able to withstand the impact of an increased frequency of extreme events similar in scale to those of 1967.

  11. The wister mud pot lineament: Southeastward extension or abandoned strand of the San Andreas fault?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lynch, D.K.; Hudnut, K.W.

    2008-01-01

    We present the results of a survey of mud pots in the Wister Unit of the Imperial Wildlife Area. Thirty-three mud pots, pot clusters, or related geothermal vents (hundreds of pots in all) were identified, and most were found to cluster along a northwest-trending line that is more or less coincident with the postulated Sand Hills fault. An extrapolation of the trace of the San Andreas fault southeastward from its accepted terminus north of Bombay Beach very nearly coincides with the mud pot lineament and may represent a surface manifestation of the San Andreas fault southeast of the Salton Sea. Additionally, a recent survey of vents near Mullet Island in the Salton Sea revealed eight areas along a northwest-striking line where gas was bubbling up through the water and in two cases hot mud and water were being violently ejected.

  12. Global diversity patterns in sandy beach macrofauna: a biogeographic analysis.

    PubMed

    Barboza, Francisco Rafael; Defeo, Omar

    2015-01-01

    Unlike the advances generated on land, the knowledge of global diversity patterns in marine ecosystems is limited to a small number of studies. For sandy beaches, which dominate the world's ocean shores, previous meta-analyses highlighted the role of beach morphodynamics in explaining species richness patterns. Oceanographic variables and historical processes have not been considered, even though they could be main predictors of community structure. Our work, based on 256 sandy beaches around the world, analysed species richness considering for the first time temperature, salinity and primary productivity. Biogeographic units (realms, provinces and ecoregions) were used to incorporate historical factors in modelling processes. Ecoregions, which implicitly include isolation and coastal complexity among other historical geographic factors, best represented trends in species richness worldwide. Temperature was a main predictor of species richness, which increased from temperate to tropical sandy beaches. Species richness increased with tide range and towards wide beaches with gentle slopes and fine grains, which is consistent with the hypothesis that habitat availability has an important role in structuring sandy beach communities. The role of temperature and habitat availability suggests that ocean warming and sea level rise could affect the distribution of obligate species living in these narrow ecosystems. PMID:26411697

  13. Physical modeling of three-dimensional intermediate beach morphodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michallet, H.; Castelle, B.; BarthéLemy, E.; Berni, C.; Bonneton, P.

    2013-06-01

    Experiments have been performed in a large wave tank in order to study the morphodynamics of rip current systems. Both accretive and erosive shore-normal wave conditions were applied, the beach evolving through all the states within the intermediate beach classification, under the so-called down-state (accretive) and up-state (erosive) morphological transitions. Results show that any prescribed change in the wave conditions drastically increases the rate at which the morphology changes. The surf zone morphology tends toward a steady state when running a given wave climate for a long duration. We quantitatively describe a full down-state sequence characterized by the progressive evolution of an alongshore-uniform bar successively into a crescentic plan shape, a bar and rip channel morphology, and a terrace. From the analysis of a large data set of dense Eulerian measurements and bathymetric surveys, we depict several feedback mechanisms associated with wave-driven rip current circulation, wave nonlinearities and the seabed evolution. At first, a positive feedback mechanism drives a rapid increase in the rate of morphological change, beach three-dimensionality, and rip intensity. By the time the sandbar evolves into a bar and rip morphology, a negative feedback mechanism, characterized by a decaying beach change rate and an increasing beach alongshore uniformity, overwhelms the former mechanism. An erosive sequence characterized by both an overall offshore bar migration and an increase in beach three-dimensionality is also described.

  14. Coastal processes influencing water quality at Great Lakes beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2013-01-01

    In a series of studies along the Great Lakes, U.S. Geological Survey scientists are examining the physical processes that influence concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria and related pathogens at recreational beaches. These studies aim to estimate human health risk, improve management strategies, and understand the fate and transport of microbes in the nearshore area. It was determined that embayed beaches act as traps, accumulating Escherichia coli (E. coli) and other bacteria in the basin and even in beach sand. Further, shear stress and wave run-up could resuspend accumulated bacteria, leading to water-contamination events. These findings are being used to target beach design and circulation projects. In previous research, it was determined that E. coli followed a diurnal pattern, with concentrations decreasing throughout the day, largely owing to solar inactivation, but rebounding overnight. Studies at a Chicago beach identified the impact of wave-induced mass transport on this phenomenon, a finding that will extend our understanding of bacterial fate in the natural environment. In another series of studies, scientists examined the impact of river outfalls on bacteria concentrations, using mechanistic and empirical modeling. Through these studies, the models can indicate range and extent of impact, given E. coli concentration in the source water. These findings have been extended to extended lengths of coastlines and have been applied in beach management using empirical predictive modeling. Together, these studies are helping scientists identify and eliminate threats to human and coastal health.

  15. Global diversity patterns in sandy beach macrofauna: a biogeographic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rafael Barboza, Francisco; Defeo, Omar

    2015-01-01

    Unlike the advances generated on land, the knowledge of global diversity patterns in marine ecosystems is limited to a small number of studies. For sandy beaches, which dominate the world’s ocean shores, previous meta-analyses highlighted the role of beach morphodynamics in explaining species richness patterns. Oceanographic variables and historical processes have not been considered, even though they could be main predictors of community structure. Our work, based on 256 sandy beaches around the world, analysed species richness considering for the first time temperature, salinity and primary productivity. Biogeographic units (realms, provinces and ecoregions) were used to incorporate historical factors in modelling processes. Ecoregions, which implicitly include isolation and coastal complexity among other historical geographic factors, best represented trends in species richness worldwide. Temperature was a main predictor of species richness, which increased from temperate to tropical sandy beaches. Species richness increased with tide range and towards wide beaches with gentle slopes and fine grains, which is consistent with the hypothesis that habitat availability has an important role in structuring sandy beach communities. The role of temperature and habitat availability suggests that ocean warming and sea level rise could affect the distribution of obligate species living in these narrow ecosystems. PMID:26411697

  16. Global diversity patterns in sandy beach macrofauna: a biogeographic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafael Barboza, Francisco; Defeo, Omar

    2015-09-01

    Unlike the advances generated on land, the knowledge of global diversity patterns in marine ecosystems is limited to a small number of studies. For sandy beaches, which dominate the world’s ocean shores, previous meta-analyses highlighted the role of beach morphodynamics in explaining species richness patterns. Oceanographic variables and historical processes have not been considered, even though they could be main predictors of community structure. Our work, based on 256 sandy beaches around the world, analysed species richness considering for the first time temperature, salinity and primary productivity. Biogeographic units (realms, provinces and ecoregions) were used to incorporate historical factors in modelling processes. Ecoregions, which implicitly include isolation and coastal complexity among other historical geographic factors, best represented trends in species richness worldwide. Temperature was a main predictor of species richness, which increased from temperate to tropical sandy beaches. Species richness increased with tide range and towards wide beaches with gentle slopes and fine grains, which is consistent with the hypothesis that habitat availability has an important role in structuring sandy beach communities. The role of temperature and habitat availability suggests that ocean warming and sea level rise could affect the distribution of obligate species living in these narrow ecosystems.

  17. An introduction to the Hele-Shaw beach experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornton, Anthony; van der Horn, Bram; van der Meer, Devaraj; Zweers, Wout; Bokhove, Onno

    2012-11-01

    The sea, as well as being a destructive force can also be constructive and can move great quantities of sand often forming a beach. Waves can move material both up and down the beach, leading to the construction of sloping beaches. Wave-sand dynamics are studied via experiments. The tank is narrow, just over one-particle diameter wide, creating a quasi-2D set-up also geared towards mathematical modelling. There is strong two-way feedback between the free-surface waves and the beach morphology. The waves transport the particles, changing the basal topography, causing the waves to transform from rolling to breaking. ``All'' classical breaker types (plunging, collapsing, spilling and surging) are observed on a time-scale of about a second. Finally, on longer time-scales many steady beach morphologies are observed, including dry and wet beaches, dry berms/dunes, and bars. The highlight being dry dunes which have dynamic waves crashing on the seaward-side and quiescent water on the far side.

  18. Investigation of medium-term barred beach behavior using 28-year beach profile data and Rotated Empirical Orthogonal Function analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuriyama, Yoshiaki; Yanagishima, Shinichi

    2016-05-01

    A 28-year beach profile dataset for a stretch of the Hasaki coast in Japan was examined using Rotated Empirical Orthogonal Function (REOF) analysis to investigate the cross-shore variation in the characteristics of beach profile change. The data were obtained weekly, on a micro-tidal wave-dominated intermediate beach, along a survey line extending from the backshore to a water depth of approximately 5 m. REOF analysis using the first eight empirical orthogonal functions led to the study area being divided into five unique zones based on beach profile change patterns, namely the backshore, the foreshore, the inner and outer transition zones and the bar-trough zone. Although these zones were notably distinct from one another, the profiles in foreshore and the shoreward part of the inner transition zone changed in the same way over periods of 6 and 12 months.

  19. Health assessment for Times Beach Site, Times Beach, St. Louis County, Missouri, Region 7. CERCLIS No. MOD980685226. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-02-19

    The Times Beach National Priorities List site is situated on the banks of the Meramec River in St. Louis County, about 30 miles southwest of St. Louis, Missouri. The roads within the City of Times Beach have been contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). After the 1982 flood, the City of Times Beach was evacuated and access has been restricted to only authorized personnel. Potential exposure pathways that could result from the site include ingestion of contaminated soil and fish or game animals that have bioconcentrated TCDD, dermal absorption upon contact with tainted soil, and inhalation of TCDD-entrained fugitive dusts. Flooding of Times Beach in 1982, 1983, and 1985 may have resulted in the migration of some TCDD off-site into the Meramec River. The levels of TCDD at the site are of concern and warrant continued site-access control, prevention of sediment runoff, and eventual removal of the TCDD.

  20. The Impacts of Back-Beach Barriers on Sandy Beach Morphology Along the California Coast and Implications for Coastal Change with Future Sea-Level Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harden, E. L.

    2010-12-01

    Coastal squeeze, or foreshore narrowing, is a result of marine encroachment, such as sea-level rise in the presence of a back-beach barrier, terrestrial encroachment, such as coastal development, or both. In California, the permanent coastal population increased by almost 10 million people between 1980 and 2003, and an additional 130 million beachgoers visit Southern California beaches each year. Beaches in California are an important component of the state and federal economy and provide hundreds of thousands of jobs. Approximately 14% of the California coast from Marin County to the Mexican border is artificially armored with seawalls, rip rap, or revetment, more than half of which protects back-beach developments or lower-lying dynamic regions like harbors and dunes. Many sandy beaches that do not have back-beach armoring are still restricted by commercial and residential infrastructure, parking lots, and roadways. Although these types of coastal infrastructure are not back-beach barriers by intentional design like seawalls and rip rap, they still restrict beaches from landward migration and can cause significant placement loss of the beach. Nearly 67 km, or 44% of the total length of sandy coastline from Long Beach to the U.S.-Mexico border is backed by such infrastructure. This study is part of a broader effort to catalog the extent to which California’s beaches are restricted in the back beach, to describe the effects of back-beach barriers on sandy beach morphology, and to predict how these different beaches might behave with future sea-level rise. Beach morphology, shoreface characteristics, and historical rates of shoreline change were compared between select beaches with back-beach barriers and unrestricted beaches using 1997 LiDAR data and shoreline rates of change published in the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Assessment of Shoreline Change report. Although preliminary results of the morphological analysis show that there is no statistically significant difference in foreshore characteristics such as seasonal berm height and foreshore slope between the two types of beaches, beaches without back-beach barriers have more developed back dune systems and are significantly wider than adjacent restricted beaches, given that no extensive artificial beach nourishment has occurred. In regions such as Ventura and Imperial Beach, unrestricted beaches are 50-100% wider than adjacent beaches with back-beach barriers even with no significant differences in historical rates of shoreline change. Taking into account the nature of the back beach is just as crucial in predicting impacts of sea-level rise on beaches in California as considering inundation and retreat in the foreshore, and will be an important consideration for coastal managers in designing sea-level rise adaptation plans.

  1. Holocene Tectonic and Sedimentary Evolution of Coastal San Diego

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maloney, J. M.; Driscoll, N. W.; Brothers, D. S.; Babcock, J. M.; Kent, G.

    2010-12-01

    The shelf and nearshore region of San Diego, California, between La Jolla cove in the north and the U.S.- Mexico border in the south, is an important ecological and economic resource. It contains two of the largest kelp forests in southern California and lies offshore miles of popular beaches. Understanding the interplay between tectonic and sedimentary processes in this area is critical because it will allow us to assess how other forcing functions such as the rapid sea level rise (2 - 3 mm/yr) and predicted climate change associated with global warming are impacting the kelp and nearshore environments. The fault architecture and sedimentary deposits offshore San Diego have been mapped using high-resolution seismic CHIRP profiling. The mapped area lies within the inner California Continental Borderland (CCB), which is characterized by a system of basins and ridges and extensive strike-slip faulting. The CHIRP data clearly images several splays of the Coronado Bank Fault Zone (CBFZ), a major fault in the area, which show recent activity in the upper 30 m of sediment with the most recent deformation at ~4 m below seafloor. Several sediment packages as deep as 50 m below the seafloor are imaged and place important constraints on tectonic deformation and sediment dispersal in the region as well as the earthquake recurrence interval on the CBFZ. Exposed and buried wavecut terraces identified on numerous CHIRP profiles, which can be correlated to terraces mapped regionally, provide insight into tectonic uplift rates and sea-level fluctuations. Finally, the extensive kelp forests offshore Mount Soledad and Point Loma occur where hardgrounds are exposed at the seafloor as a consequence of tectonic uplift. High resolution mapping offshore San Diego is providing new insight into the complex interplay between tectonics, sedimentation, and biology in this ecologically diverse region.

  2. Users' Perception as a Tool to Improve Urban Beach Planning and Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervantes, Omar; Espejel, Ileana; Arellano, Evarista; Delhumeau, Sheila

    2008-08-01

    Four beaches that share physiographic characteristics (sandy, wide, and long) but differ in socioeconomic and cultural terms (three are located in northwestern Mexico and one in California, USA) were evaluated by beach users. Surveys (565) composed of 36 questions were handed out to beach users on weekends and holidays in 2005. The 25 questions that revealed the most information were selected by factor analysis and classified by cluster analysis. Beach users’ preferences were assigned a value by comparing the present survey results with the characteristics of an “ideal” recreational urban beach. Cluster analysis separated three groups of questions: (a) services and infrastructure, (b) recreational activities, and (c) beach conditions. Cluster linkage distance ( r = 0.82, r = 0.78, r = 0.67) was used as a weight and multiplied by the value of beach descriptive factors. Mazatlán and Oceanside obtained the highest values because there are enough infrastructure and services; on the contrary, Ensenada and Rosarito were rated medium and low because infrastructure and services are lacking. The presently proposed method can contribute to improving current beach evaluations because the final score represents the beach users’ evaluation of the quality of the beach. The weight considered in the present study marks the beach users’ preferences among the studied beaches. Adding this weight to beach evaluation will contribute to more specific beach planning in which users’ perception is considered.

  3. What is on those Titan Beaches?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauchamp, P.; Cable, M.; Hodyss, R.; Choukroun, M.; Vu, T.; Malaska, M.

    2014-04-01

    Benzene is found on Titan and is a likely constituent of the putative evaporite deposits formed around the hydrocarbon lakes. We have recently demonstrated the formation of a benzene-ethane co-crystal under Titan-like surface condition as a function of temperature. We show that the formation process would reach completion under Titan surface conditions in ~18 hours, and that benzene precipitates from liquid ethane as the co-crystal. This suggests that evaporite basins rich in benzene may not contain just pure crystalline materials, but instead the beaches or basins may be replete with co-crystals of various forms. These new structures may influence evaporite characteristics, such as particle size and infrared spectral properties. This co-crystalline form of benzene with ethane represents a new class of materials for Titan's surface, analogous to hydrated minerals on Earth. This work is being extended to explore the interaction of benzene with methane and propane at Titan temperatures. We are also investigating other molecules such as acetylene and pyridine to determine if co-crystal formation can occur in these systems as well.

  4. Industrial Arts at San Jose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohn, Ralph C.

    1969-01-01

    San Jose State College in California has special features in its course for industrial arts teachers. Ralph C. Bohn, Chairman of the College's Department of Industrial Studies, describes the course and the reasons for its special character. (Editor)

  5. Petrology and geochemistry of coeval andesite flows at Mount Baker, North Cascades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullen, E.; McCallum, I. S.

    2012-12-01

    At the Mt. Baker volcanic field in the northern Cascade arc, the coeval Coleman Pinnacle (CP) hornblende andesite and the Table Mountain (TM) two-pyroxene andesite have overlapping eruption ages (305±5 ka) and field relations show flow interlayering (Hildreth et al., 2003). Although primary vents can no longer be recognized, the distribution of dikes and outcrop patterns are consistent with eruption from vents close to the southern rim of Kulshan Caldera. Although both flow sets have similar ranges in SiO2, they have markedly different phenocryst assemblages, initial water contents, oxidation states, K2O contents, isotopic ratios and trace element abundances. In the more silicic CP andesite samples, plagioclase and hornblende are the dominant phenocrysts with microphenocrysts of titanomagnetite, ilmenite and apatite set in a fine-grained, crystalline groundmass. The most mafic CP andesite flow also contains orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene and inclusions of two-pyroxene andesite rich in apatite, Fe-Ti oxides (including pseudobrookite) and abundant quenched interstitial rhyolitic glass. In Table Mountain andesites, phenocrysts are plagioclase, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, titanomagnetite and ilmenite with minor resorbed olivine and late-stage amphibole in the lowermost flow. Coleman Pinnacle andesite is richer in K2O (2.7-3.2 wt.%), H2O (5-6 wt.%) and is more oxidized (fO2: NNO+1 to +1.7) than Table Mountain andesite (K2O: 1.6-2.4 wt.%, H2O: ~3 wt.%, fO2: NNO to NNO+0.7). Breakdown rims on CP amphibole are absent or very narrow while TM amphibole rims range from 25-30 μm, indicating integrated ascent rates of ~0.003 m/sec. Mg-rich rims on most CP amphiboles provide evidence for late magma mixing. High Fe3+ contents of amphiboles indicate dehydrogenation during the eruptive event. Phase equilibria for CP and TM flows are consistent with crystallization at PH2O of ~2kb but both flow sequences define distinct fractionation trends on [Pl] Ol-Wo-Qz projections. In Pb-Pb and Sr-Nd isotope plots, CP and TM andesites plot along a mixing line between Mt. Baker basalts and more-radiogenic Kulshan caldera rhyodacites, indicating crustal assimilation by basalt and/or mixing of crustal melts with basalt. The pseudobrookite-bearing CP flow lies off the mixing lines and clearly requires an additional component, probably subducted sediment. The TM andesite has an Os isotope ratio (γOs = 65) similar to those of the most primitive Mt. Baker basalts, indicating that crustal input had a minimal effect on γOs. Trace element abundances of both TM and CP are consistent with AFC modeling in which parent basalts similar to those at Tarn Plateau and Park Butte assimilate silicic crust and fractionate plagioclase and amphibole. Reference: Hildreth et al. (2003) GSA Bull 115, 729-764.

  6. Hyperelliptic solutions of KdV and KP equations: re-evaluation of Baker's study on hyperelliptic sigma functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsutani, Shigeki

    2001-06-01

    Explicit function forms of hyperelliptic solutions of Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) and Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (KP) equations are constructed for a given curve y2 = f(x) whose genus is three. This paper is based upon the fact that about one hundred years ago (Baker H F 1903 Acta Math. 27 135-56), Baker essentially derived KdV hierarchy and KP equations by using a bilinear differential operator D, identities of Pfaffians, symmetric functions, the hyperelliptic σ-function and wp-functions; wpµν = -∂µ∂νlog σ = - (DµDνσσ)/2σ2. The connection between his theory and the modern soliton theory is also discussed.

  7. Improvement of stress tolerance and leavening ability under multiple baking-associated stress conditions by overexpression of the SNR84 gene in baker's yeast.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xue; Zhang, Cui-Ying; Bai, Xiao-Wen; Feng, Bing; Xiao, Dong-Guang

    2015-03-16

    During the bread-making process, industrial baker's yeast cells are exposed to multiple baking-associated stresses, such as elevated high-temperature, high-sucrose and freeze-thaw stresses. There is a high demand for baker's yeast strains that could withstand these stresses with high leavening ability. The SNR84 gene encodes H/ACA snoRNA (small nucleolar RNA), which is known to be involved in pseudouridylation of the large subunit rRNA. However, the function of the SNR84 gene in baker's yeast coping with baking-associated stresses remains unclear. In this study, we explored the effect of SNR84 overexpression on baker's yeast which was exposed to high-temperature, high-sucrose and freeze-thaw stresses. These results suggest that overexpression of the SNR84 gene conferred tolerance of baker's yeast cells to high-temperature, high-sucrose and freeze-thaw stresses and enhanced their leavening ability in high-sucrose and freeze-thaw dough. These findings could provide a valuable insight for breeding of novel stress-resistant baker's yeast strains that are useful for baking. PMID:25555226

  8. Medium timescale beach rotation; gale climate and offshore island influences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, T.; Phillips, M. R.; Williams, A. T.; Jenkins, R. E.

    2011-12-01

    Beach profile surveys, gale climate and atmospheric variations were utilized to assess medium timescale morphological change at South Sands, Tenby, West Wales. Due to beach aspect in relation to offshore islands, gale wave height decreased as wave direction rotated eastwards (r = 0.83) and westwards (r = 0.88). Similarly, wave heights were in attuned to variations in positive (r = 0.68) and negative (r = - 0.72) NAO Index, showing a wave height reduction occurred during weakly negative/positive or transitory phases; morphological change was attuned to atmospheric variation at a 2-year timelag. Shelter from offshore islands is given to waves from the predominant southwesterly direction and was confirmed by negligible correlation with South Sands morphology. However, outside the shelter of these offshore islands, correlation was found between south-eastward rotating wave directions (135°-180°) and morphological change, which resulted in southern and central beach erosion and accretion to the north. With a southwesterly rotation (243°-256°) the opposite was true. Beach rotation expressed by volume change within the sub-aerial zone had a negative phased relationship between beach extremities (r = - 0.94) and a timelagged association within the intertidal zone (r = 0.55). Analyses resulted in the development of two medium timescale rotation models based on incident wave direction and climatic variability. Results have global implications for headland bays in the lee of offshore islands, as well as macro-tidal beach areas; and consequently similar models could inform local, regional and national beach management strategies

  9. Heart Rate and Motion Analysis by GPS in Beach Soccer

    PubMed Central

    Castellano, Julen; Casamichana, David

    2010-01-01

    Although beach soccer has become increasingly popular in recent years very little scientific research has been conducted into the sport. A pilot study was carried out with the aim of examining the physiological (heart rate) and physical (motion analysis) responses of beach soccer players during competitive matches. Ten players (age 25.5 ± 0.5 years; height 1.80 ± 0.08 m; weight 78.2 ± 5.6 kg.) were studied over five beach soccer matches. The physiological demands were analysed by measuring heart rate (HR) using telemetric devices, while the physical profile was evaluated by recording motion and speed by means of GPS devices. During competitive matches, players obtained a HRmean of 165.2 bpm (86.5% HRmax), with 59.3% of the time participating (TP) corresponding to values above 90% of the HRmax. The distance covered per minute of participation was 97.7 m, with 9.5% of this distance corresponding to high-intensity running and 2.5% to sprint; the work:rest ratio was 1.4:1 and the maximum speed 21.7 km·h-1. These results showed that beach soccer is an intermittent physical activity of greater intensity than other team games. It requires a major contribution from the anaerobic system as emphasis is placed on players making quick bursts of high-intensity activity separated by brief rest periods. Key points The distance covered per minute of play is around 100 m. Beach soccer is an intermittent sport with a work:rest ratio of 1.4:1. The playing surface in beach soccer is an important handicap to obtain maximum speeds. Beach soccer has a high physiological intensity, with more than half of the game is spent at intensities above 90 % of the HRmax. PMID:24149392

  10. Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff relations and unitarity of SU(2) and SU(1,1) squeeze operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truax, D. Rodney

    1985-04-01

    For squeeze operators, an alternative to the matrix derivations of Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff relations is presented for the groups SU(2) and SU(1,1). The technique involves the solution of a system of nonlinear, first-order differential equations. By this method, criteria for unitarity of the representations are established, and these apply to both infinite- and to finite-dimensional representations of these groups.

  11. Postglacial volcanic deposits at Mount Baker, Washington, and potential hazards from future eruptions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hyde, Jack H.; Crandell, Dwight Raymond

    1978-01-01

    Eruptions and other geologic events at Mount Baker during the last 10,000 years have repeatedly affected adjacent areas, especially the valleys that head on the south and east sides of the volcano. Small volumes of tephra were erupted at least four times during the past 10,000 years. Future eruptions like these could cause as much as 35 centimeters of tephra to be deposited at sites 17 kilometers from the volcano, 15 centimeters of tephra to be deposited 29 kilometers from the volcano, and 5 centimeters, 44 kilometers from the volcano. Lava flows were erupted at least twice during the last 10,000 years and moved down two valleys. Future lava flows will not directly endanger people because lava typically moves so slowly that escape is possible. Hot pyroclastic flows evidently occurred during only one period and were confined to the Boulder Creek valley. Such flows can move at speeds of as much as 150 kilometers per hour and can bury valley floors under tens of meters of hot rock debris for at least 15 kilometers from the volcano. large mudflows, most of which contain hydrothermally altered rock debris, originated at Mount Baker at least eight times during the last 10,000 years. The largest mudflow reached 29 kilometers or more down the valley of the Middle Fork Nooksack River, west of the volcano, about 6,000 years ago. Extensive masses of hydrothermally altered rock that are potentially unstable exist today near the summit of the volcano, especially in the Sherman Crater - Sherman Peak area. Avalanches of this material could be triggered by steam explosions, earthquakes, or eruptions, or may occur because of slow-acting forces of processes that gradually decrease stability. large avalanches could move downslope at high speed and could grade downvalley into mudflows. Floods caused by rapid melting of snow and ice by lava or by hot rock debris could affect valley floors many tens of kilometers from the volcano and could have especially severe effects if they were to occur at a time of flooding resulting from rapid snowmelt or heavy rains.

  12. Geochemical results of a hydrothermally altered area at Baker Creek, Blaine County, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erdman, James A.; Moye, Falma J.; Theobald, Paul K.; McCafferty, Anne E.; Larsen, Richard K.

    2001-01-01

    The area immediately east of Baker Creek, Blaine County, Idaho, is underlain by a thick section of mafic to intermediate lava flows of the Eocene Challis Volcanic Group. Widespread propylitic alteration surrounds a zone of argillic alteration and an inner core of phyllic alteration. Silicified breccia is present along an east-trending fault within the zone of phyllic alteration. As part of a reconnaissance geochemical survey, soils and plants were sampled. Several species of plants (Douglas-fir [ Pseudotsuga menziesii ], mountain big sagebrush [ Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana ], and elk sedge [ Carex geyerii ]) were collected from 10 upland localities and stream sediments, panned concentrates, and aquatic mosses were collected from 16 drainage basin localities all of which were generally within the area of alteration. Geochemical results yielded anomalous concentrations of molybenum, zinc, silver, and lead in at least half of the seven different sample media and of gold, thallium, arsenic, antimony, manganese, boron, cadmium, bismuth, copper, and beryllium in from one to four of the various media. Part of this suite of elements? silver, gold, arsenic, antimony, thallium, and manganese? suggests that the mineralization in the area is epithermal. Barite and pyrite (commonly botryoidal-framboidal) are widespread throughout the area sampled. Visible gold and pyromorphite (a secondary lead mineral) were identified in only one small drainage basin, but high levels of gold were detected in aquatic mosses over a larger area. Data from the upland and stream sampling indicate two possible mineralized areas. The first mineralized area was identified by a grab sample from an outcrop of quartz stockwork that contained 50 ppb Au, 1.5 ppm Ag, and 50 ppm Mo. Although the soil and plant species that were sampled in the area indicated mineralized bedrock, the Douglas-fir samples were the best indicators of the silver anomaly. The second possible mineralized area centers on the fault-controlled silicified breccia that is most likely the source of anomalous silver and molybdenum levels identified in the soils; silver, molybdenum, and manganese in stream sediments; thallium in Douglas-fir; bismuth and silver in concentrates; and gold, silver, arsenic, antimony, and molybdenum and lead in aquatic mosses. An interpretation of regional aeromagnetic data delineated the subsurface extent of shallow, steeply dipping magnetic sources inferred to be shallower parts of an Eocene batholith thought to underlie much of the Baker Creek area. The Eocene intrusive event(s) may have served as the heat source(s) that caused the hydrothermal alteration. Examination of core from a 1,530-ft-deep (466 m) hole drilled in 1982 confirmed a bedrock source for the anomalous silver and base-metal suite at the quartz stockwork location, and indicated subeconomic levels of molybdenum.

  13. Simplifying the Reinsch algorithm for the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van-Brunt, Alexander; Visser, Matt

    2016-02-01

    The Goldberg version of the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff series computes the quantity Z ( X , Y ) = ln (" separators=" e X e Y ) = ∑ w g ( w ) w ( X , Y ) , where X and Y are not necessarily commuting in terms of "words" constructed from the {X, Y} "alphabet." The so-called Goldberg coefficients g(w) are the central topic of this article. This Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff series is a general purpose tool of very wide applicability in mathematical physics, quantum physics, and many other fields. The Reinsch algorithm for the truncated series permits one to calculate the Goldberg coefficients up to some fixed word length |w| by using nilpotent (|w| + 1) × (|w| + 1) matrices. We shall show how to further simplify the Reinsch algorithm, making its implementation (in principle) utterly straightforward using "off the shelf" symbolic manipulation software. Specific computations provide examples which help to provide a deeper understanding of the Goldberg coefficients and their properties. For instance, we shall establish some strict bounds (and some equalities) on the number of non-zero Goldberg coefficients. Unfortunately, we shall see that the number of nonzero Goldberg coefficients often grows very rapidly (in fact exponentially) with the word length |w|. Furthermore, the simplified Reinsch algorithm readily generalizes to many closely related but still quite distinct problems—we shall also present closely related results for the symmetric product S ( X , Y ) = ln (" separators=" e X / 2 e Y e X / 2 ) = ∑ w g S ( w ) w ( X , Y ) . Variations on such themes are straightforward. For instance, one can just as easily consider the "loop" product L ( X , Y ) = ln (" separators=" e X e Y e - X e - Y ) = ∑ w g L ( w ) w ( X , Y ) . This "loop" type of series is of interest, for instance, when considering either differential geometric parallel transport around a closed curve, non-Abelian versions of Stokes' theorem, or even Wigner rotation/Thomas precession in special relativity. Several other closely related series are also briefly investigated.

  14. Improving freeze-tolerance of baker's yeast through seamless gene deletion of NTH1 and PUT1.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jian; Chen, Didi; Wang, Guanglu; Zhang, Cuiying; Du, Liping; Liu, Shanshan; Zhao, Yu; Xiao, Dongguang

    2016-06-01

    Baker's yeast strains with freeze-tolerance are highly desirable to maintain high leavening ability after freezing. Enhanced intracellular concentration of trehalose and proline in yeast is linked with freeze-tolerance. In this study, we constructed baker's yeast with enhanced freeze-tolerance by simultaneous deletion of the neutral trehalase-encoded gene NTH1 and the proline oxidase-encoded gene PUT1. We first used the two-step integration-based seamless gene deletion method to separately delete NTH1 and PUT1 in haploid yeast. Subsequently, through two rounds of hybridization and sporulation-based allelic exchange and colony PCR-mediated tetrad analysis, we obtained strains with restored URA3 and deletion of NTH1 and/or PUT1. The resulting strain showed higher cell survival and dough-leavening ability after freezing compared to the wild-type strain due to enhanced accumulation of trehalose and/or proline. Moreover, mutant with simultaneous deletion of NTH1 and PUT1 exhibits the highest relative dough-leavening ability after freezing compared to mutants with single-gene deletion perhaps due to elevated levels of both trehalose and proline. These results verified that it is applicable to construct frozen dough baker's yeast using the method proposed in this paper. PMID:26965428

  15. Evaluation of baker's yeast strains exhibiting significant growth on Japanese beet molasses and compound analysis of the molasses types.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Hiroaki; Tamura, Masahiko; Shintani, Takahiro; Gomi, Katsuya

    2014-06-01

    Cane molasses, most of which is imported, is used as a raw material for production of baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) in Japan. On the other hand, beet molasses is scarcely used for this purpose, but it can be of great advantage to cane molasses because it is domestically produced in relatively high amounts as a by-product of beet sugar processing. However, the yield of baker's yeast is sometimes low with Japanese beet molasses compared to imported cane molasses. For the production of baker's yeast with Japanese beet molasses, we evaluated S. cerevisiae strains, including industrial and laboratory strains, to group them according to the growth profile on beet and cane molasses. To discuss the factors affecting growth, we further analyzed the major compounds in both types of molasses. Beet molasses seems to contain compounds that promote the growth of beet molasses-favoring strains rather than inhibit the growth of cane molasses-favoring strains. It was assumed that α-amino acid was one of the growth promotion factors for beet molasses-favoring strains. PMID:24333188

  16. Measurements of slope currents and internal tides on the Continental Shelf and slope off Newport Beach, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenberger, Kurt J.; Noble, Marlene A.; Norris, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    An array of seven moorings housing current meters and oceanographic sensors was deployed for 6 months at 5 sites on the Continental Shelf and slope off Newport Beach, California, from July 2011 to January 2012. Full water-column profiles of currents were acquired at all five sites, and a profile of water-column temperature was also acquired at two of the five sites for the duration of the deployment. In conjunction with this deployment, the Orange County Sanitation District deployed four bottom platforms with current meters on the San Pedro Shelf, and these meters provided water-column profiles of currents. The data from this program will provide the basis for an investigation of the interaction between the deep water flow over the slope and the internal tide on the Continental Shelf.

  17. 41. Historic American Buildings Survey San Francisco CallBulletin Library San ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. Historic American Buildings Survey San Francisco Call-Bulletin Library San Francisco, California INTERIOR VIEW OF CHURCH BEFORE RESTORATION - 1934 - Mission San Carlos Borromeo, Rio Road & Lausen Drive, Carmel-by-the-Sea, Monterey County, CA

  18. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of San Gregorio, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cochrane, Guy R.; Dartnell, Peter; Greene, H. Gary; Watt, Janet T.; Golden, Nadine E.; Endris, Charles A.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Bretz, Carrie K.; Manson, Michael W.; Sliter, Ray W.; Ross, Stephanie L.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Chin, John L.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2014-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California's State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 100 m) subsurface geology. The Offshore of San Gregorio map area is located in northern California, on the Pacific coast of the San Francisco Peninsula about 50 kilometers south of the Golden Gate. The map area lies offshore of the Santa Cruz Mountains, part of the northwest-trending Coast Ranges that run roughly parallel to the San Andreas Fault Zone. The Santa Cruz Mountains lie between the San Andreas Fault Zone and the San Gregorio Fault system. The nearest significant onshore cultural centers in the map area are San Gregorio and Pescadero, both unincorporated communities with populations well under 1,000. Both communities are situated inland of state beaches that share their names. No harbor facilities are within the Offshore of San Gregorio map area. The hilly coastal area is virtually undeveloped grazing land for sheep and cattle. The coastal geomorphology is controlled by late Pleistocene and Holocene slip in the San Gregorio Fault system. A westward bend in the San Andreas Fault Zone, southeast of the map area, coupled with right-lateral movement along the San Gregorio Fault system have caused regional folding and uplift. The coastal area consists of high coastal bluffs and vertical sea cliffs. Coastal promontories in the northern and southern parts of the map area are the result of right-lateral motion on strands of the San Gregorio Fault system. In the south, headlands near Pescadero Point have been uplifted by motion along the west strand of the San Gregorio Fault (also called the Frijoles Fault), which separates rocks of the Pigeon Point Formation south of the fault from rocks of the Purisima Formation north of the fault. The regional uplift in this map area has caused relatively shallow water depths within California's State Waters and, thus, little accommodation space for sediment accumulation. Sediment is observed offshore in the central part of the map area, in the shelter of the headlands north of the east strand of the San Gregorio Fault (also called the Coastways Fault) around Miramontes Point (about 5 km north of the map area) and also on the outer half of the California's State Waters shelf in the south where depths exceed 40 m. Sediment in the outer shelf of California's State Waters is rippled, indicating some mobility. The Offshore of San Gregorio map area lies within the cold-temperate biogeographic zone that is called either the "Oregonian province" or the "northern California ecoregion." This biogeographic province is maintained by the long-term stability of the southward-flowing California Current, an eastern limb of the North Pacific subtropical gyre that flows from Oregon to Baja California. At its midpoint off central California, the California Current transports subarctic surface (0–500 m deep) waters southward, about 150 to 1,300 km from shore. Seasonal northwesterly winds that are, in part, responsible for the California Current, generate coastal upwelling. The south end of the Oregonian province is at Point Conception (about 350 km south of the map area), although its associated phylogeographic group of marine fauna may extend beyond to the area offshore of Los Angeles in southern California. The ocean off of central California has experienced a warming over the last 50 years that is driving an ecosystem shift away from the productive subarctic regime towards a depopulated subtropical environment. Seafloor habitats in the Offshore of San Gregorio map area, which lies within the Shelf (continental shelf) megahabitat, range from significant rocky outcrops that support kelp-forest communities nearshore to rocky-reef communities in deep water. Biological productivity resulting from coastal upwelling supports diverse populations of sea birds such as Sooty Shearwater, Western Gull, Common Murre, Cassin's Auklet, and many other less populous bird species. In addition, an observable recovery of Humpback and Blue Whales has occurred in the area; both species are dependent on coastal upwelling to provide nutrients. The large extent of exposed inner shelf bedrock supports large forests of "bull kelp," which is well adapted for high wave-energy environments. Common fish species found in the kelp beds and rocky reefs include lingcod and various species of rockfish and greenling.

  19. Low faunal diversity on Maltese sandy beaches: fact or artefact?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deidun, Alan; Azzopardi, Marthese; Saliba, Stephen; Schembri, Patrick J.

    2003-10-01

    Eight sandy beaches on Malta and two on Gozo were sampled for macrofauna to test the hypothesis that Maltese beaches have an intrinsically low diversity. Stations distributed in the supralittoral (dry zone), mediolittoral (wet zone) and upper infralittoral (submerged zone to 1 m water depth) were sampled by sieving core samples and standardised searching during daytime, and pitfall trapping and standardised sweeping of the water column using a hand-net at night, as appropriate. Physical parameters of the sediment were measured and human occupancy of the beaches was estimated. From the supralittoral and mediolittoral, 39 species represented by 1584 individuals were collected by the combined techniques of pitfall trapping, sieving and standard searching. For Ramla beach, which had the highest diversity, 267 individuals representing 25 infaunal species were collected by sieving from a combined volume of 1.175 m 3 of sand, and 149 individuals representing 28 epifaunal species were collected by standardised searching from a combined area of 700 m 2 of sand during two winter and two summer sampling sessions between 1992 and 1993. For nine other beaches sampled during the summer of 2000, only six macrofaunal species were collected from core samples, with overall population densities ranging from 4.13 to 45.45 individuals m -2. Only 92 individuals belonging to 12 species were collected by hand-net from the uppermost infralittoral of five beaches sampled using this method during the summer of 2000. Taxa of gastropods, bivalves, decapods, mysids and staphylinid beetles generally abundant on Mediterranean sandy beaches, were entirely absent from the beaches sampled. Few correlations that could explain the impoverishment of Maltese sandy beaches were found between physical parameters and faunal abundances, and other factors such as inadequate sampling effort, human disturbance and marine pollution were also excluded; however, seasonally biased sampling may partly explain the results obtained. One factor that may explain why certain species are missing could be lack of recruitment, due to Malta's geographical isolation from the European and African mainlands.

  20. Macrofaunal sediment selectivity considerations for beach nourishment programmes.

    PubMed

    Van Tomme, J; Vanden Eede, S; Speybroeck, J; Degraer, S; Vincx, M

    2013-03-01

    Nowadays, beach nourishment is widely considered as a better alternative compared to the construction of hard structures to protect a sandy coast against detrimental erosive effects, both from an ecological and an engineering perspective. The rare studies conducted on the ecological impact of beach nourishment are short-term, post hoc monitoring investigations of the benthic macrofauna. Little is known of the biological processes during and after nourishment. To allow swift recolonization after nourishment, the characteristics of the nourished beach have to match the habitat demands of the benthic macrofauna. The sediment preference of the key intertidal species Scolelepis squamata, Eurydice pulchra, Bathyporeia pilosa and Bathyporeia sarsi, which dominate many West European sandy beaches, was investigated through laboratory experiments, both in single-species as well as combined-species treatments. While the former aimed at developing guidelines for impact mitigation of beach nourishment, the latter aimed at elucidating the role of biotic interactions in sediment preference. Results of the experiments indicated that B.pilosa and E.pulchra prefer the finest sediment, while B.sarsi had a broader preference and also occurred in medium-coarse sediments. However, the sediment preference of E.pulchra for fine sediments was not confirmed by other field and experimental studies. The polychaete S.squamata had the broadest preference and even showed a high occurrence in coarse sediments that are not naturally occurring on the sandy beaches where the animals were caught for this experiment. However, this polychaete is a cosmopolitan species, not only occurring on fine-grained beaches, but also on coarse-grained beaches worldwide. The preferences imply that beach nourishment with coarse sediment will have a major effect on B.pilosa while effects of coarse sediments on S.squamata will be minor. Finally, interspecific competition with the sympatrically occurring amphipod B.sarsi was found to change the sediment selection of the amphipod B.pilosa towards the coarser sediments where B.sarsi occurred in lower frequencies. PMID:23182894

  1. Swash Zone Sediment Dynamics on Steep and Shallow Beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, J. R.; Butt, T.; Russell, P. E.; Masselink, G.; Evans, D.; Ganderton, P.; Huntley, D. A.

    2002-12-01

    In the swash zone, high sediment concentrations and large flow velocities mean that the potential for sediment transport and beach profile change is considerable. However, our understanding of the contribution of different suspension mechanisms (e.g. velocity, acceleration, turbulence, in/exfiltration) on beaches of different slopes is limited. Furthermore, the cross-shore structure of sediment transport in the swash zone is poorly understood. Field measurements of swash hydrodynamics, sediment dynamics and profile change have therefore been made at a dissipative, fine grained beach in North Cornwall, UK (Perranporth), and at a steeper, coarser grained beach in West Cornwall (Sennen). Velocities were measured at high frequency close to the bed using a vertical array of two electromagnetic current meters and 2-D and 3-D acoustic döppler velocimeters. Suspended sediment concentrations were measured using a vertical array of miniature optical backscatter sensors. Further to this, run-up data were collected using video, pressure sensors were used to measure wave heights and pressure gradients in the bed, and surveys were taken at each low tide to establish profile change. On both beaches, large suspended sediment concentrations (200kg/m3) were measured in the initial (turbulent) part of the uprush. On the dissipative beach, secondary waves behind the initial uprush suspended an order of magnitude less sediment than the initial front. On the steep beach, the high uprush concentrations in the inner swash were well correlated with downward pressure gradients in the bed, suggesting a dominance of boundary layer thinning over sediment stabilisation. During the backwash, a second peak in concentration occurred, although backwash velocities were not as efficient at suspending sediment than uprush velocities. The net cross-shore transport from uprush and backwash was examined in relation to cross-shore position in the swash. Data from high-energy conditions showed that on both beaches, onshore transport dominated in the inner swash zone on both flood and ebb tides. A zero crossing in the cross-shore transport occurred at the mid swash zone on the flood tide on both beaches. Offshore transport occurred seaward of this point. The transport divergence point shifted landward in both cases during the ebb tide, possibly due to differences in the water table. Further detailed analysis of data is being carried out in order to examine the role of the various mechanisms of suspension, and their contribution at different cross-shore positions in the swash.

  2. Detached macroalgae: Its importance to inshore sandy beach fauna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orr, Kyla K.; Wilding, Thomas A.; Horstmeyer, Lena; Weigl, Simon; Heymans, Johanna J.

    2014-10-01

    Kelp forests shed a large proportion of their biomass through storm-mediated defoliation, senescence of kelp blades, and constant erosion of particulate organic matter from the kelp fronds. Much of this detached macroalgae drifts in the water column and is deposited on intertidal zones of beaches. Detached macroalgae may provide inshore sandy beach fauna with refuge and food subsidies in an exposed and bare environment, with limited in situ primary production. We evaluated the relationship between detached macroalgae and the density of inshore fauna, where 'inshore' was the body of water extending from low water seawards for approximately 50 m. Inshore fauna were sampled using a push-net (1 mm mesh) on 11 beaches, and using a beam-trawl (4 mm mesh) on a subset of 8 beaches. On each beach, the density of detached macroalgae in the water column was quantified, together with a suite of physico-chemical beach characteristics. Push-net samples principally comprised omnivorous and detritivorous crustaceans such as gammarid amphipods, mysids and valviferan isopods, which have limited swimming abilities and reside inshore year-round. Beam-trawl fauna were mainly carnivorous decapods and fish, which undergo seasonal inshore-offshore migrations to utilize sandy beaches as nursery habitats. Linear models predicted increases of 11% (95% CI: 3.5-19%) and 2.4% (95% CI: 0.7-4.2%) in the density of push-net and beam-trawl fauna, respectively, with a 1 ℓ.100 m-3 increase in detached macroalgae. This suggests that detached macroalgae is more important in the provision of food and shelter to small, weak-swimming detritivores/omnivores than to larger and more mobile predators. The densities of large predators were mostly explained by physical beach characteristics, which overshadowed the role of macroalgae. Maximum abundances of decapods and fish were found on wide, flat beaches with low wave heights. Large accumulations of macroalgae may inhibit the foraging efficiencies of predatory fauna such as decapods and fish, and restrict their abundance.

  3. Water quality, weather and environmental factors associated with fecal indicator organism density in beach sand at two recreational marine beaches.

    PubMed

    Heaney, Christopher D; Exum, Natalie G; Dufour, Alfred P; Brenner, Kristen P; Haugland, Richard A; Chern, Eunice; Schwab, Kellogg J; Love, David C; Serre, Marc L; Noble, Rachel; Wade, Timothy J

    2014-11-01

    Recent studies showing an association between fecal indicator organisms (FIOs) in sand and gastrointestinal (GI) illness among beachgoers with sand contact have important public health implications because of the large numbers of people who recreate at beaches and engage in sand contact activities. Yet, factors that influence fecal pollution in beach sand remain unclear. During the 2007 National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational (NEEAR) Water Study, sand samples were collected at three locations (60 m apart) on weekend days (Sat, Sun) and holidays between June and September at two marine beaches - Fairhope Beach, AL and Goddard Beach, RI - with nearby publicly-owned treatment works (POTWs) outfalls. F(+) coliphage, enterococci, Bacteroidales, fecal Bacteroides spp., and Clostridium spp. were measured in sand using culture and qPCR-based calibrator-cell equivalent methods. Water samples were also collected on the same days, times and transects as the 144 sand samples and were assayed using the same FIO measurements. Weather and environmental data were collected at the time of sample collection. Mean FIO concentrations in sand varied over time, but not space. Enterococci CFU and CCE densities in sand were not correlated, although other FIOs in sand were. The strongest correlation between FIO density in sand and water was fecal Bacteroides CCE, followed by enterococci CFU, Clostridium spp. CCE, and Bacteroidales CCE. Overall, the factors associated with FIO concentrations in sand were related to the sand-water interface (i.e., sand-wetting) and included daily average densities of FIOs in water, rainfall, and wave height. Targeted monitoring that focuses on daily trends of sand FIO variability, combined with information about specific water quality, weather, and environmental factors may inform beach monitoring and management decisions to reduce microbial burdens in beach sand. The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. PMID:25150738

  4. Water quality, weather and environmental factors associated with fecal indicator organism density in beach sand at two recreational marine beaches

    PubMed Central

    Heaney, Christopher D.; Exum, Natalie G.; Dufour, Alfred P.; Brenner, Kristen P.; Haugland, Richard A.; Chern, Eunice; Schwab, Kellogg J.; Love, David C.; Serre, Marc L.; Noble, Rachel; Wade, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies showing an association between fecal indicator organisms (FIOs) in sand and gastrointestinal (GI) illness among beachgoers with sand contact have important public health implications because of the large numbers of people who recreate at beaches and engage in sand contact activities. Yet, factors that influence fecal pollution in beach sand remain unclear. During the 2007 National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational (NEEAR) Water Study, sand samples were collected at three locations (60 m apart) on weekend days (Sat, Sun) and holidays between June and September at two marine beaches — Fairhope Beach, AL and Goddard Beach, RI — with nearby publicly-owned treatment works (POTWs) outfalls. F+ coliphage, enterococci, Bacteroidales, fecal Bacteroides spp., and Clostridium spp. were measured in sand using culture and qPCR-based calibrator-cell equivalent methods. Water samples were also collected on the same days, times and transects as the 144 sand samples and were assayed using the same FIO measurements. Weather and environmental data were collected at the time of sample collection. Mean FIO concentrations in sand varied over time, but not space. Enterococci CFU and CCE densities in sand were not correlated, although other FIOs in sand were. The strongest correlation between FIO density in sand and water was fecal Bacteroides CCE, followed by enterococci CFU, Clostridium spp. CCE, and Bacteroidales CCE. Overall, the factors associated with FIO concentrations in sand were related to the sand–water interface (i.e., sand-wetting) and included daily average densities of FIOs in water, rainfall, and wave height. Targeted monitoring that focuses on daily trends of sand FIO variability, combined with information about specific water quality, weather, and environmental factors may inform beach monitoring and management decisions to reduce microbial burdens in beach sand. The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. PMID:25150738

  5. Planview Geometry and morphological characteristics of pocket beaches on the Catalan coast (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, D.; Guillén, J.; López, L.; Pellegrino, V.

    2009-07-01

    Coastal planform studies are a relevant initial stage before launching detailed dynamic field experiments. The aim of this study is to define the planform characteristics of 72 Catalan pocket beaches, natural and man-made, and to determine their sheltering effect, embaymentization and their status of equilibrium. Planform measurements were performed on SIGPAC, 1:5000 orthophoto sets and wave climate was provided by Puertos del Estado (Wana model). Planform parameters were applied and coastal planview indexes were determined. The study shows that the Catalan pocket beaches display a wide range of indentation, suggesting that no single structural, tectonic or morphological control dominates their planform. The man-made pocket beaches typically display indentations which are smaller than those shown by natural pocket beaches. Headland spacing and beach area are positively correlated. The more indented bays are, the shorter their beaches become. Low-indented pocket beaches are the widest and the longest ones. Deep indentation contributes towards beach protection and energy dissipation which counteracts rip efficiency and inhibits the formation of mega-rips. Pocket beaches often show gradual and moderate alongshore changes in texture and beach morphology. One third of the Catalan pocket beaches are "sediment starved", i.e., 60% and more of their embayed shorelines are deprived of beach sediments. Examination of the status of equilibrium demonstrates that most of the Catalan pocket beaches are in an unstable mode, with indentation ratios that are unrelated to the wave obliquity.

  6. Beach groin acts as barrier to longshore transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-09-01

    The Bergen Avenue Groin in Harvey Cedars, N.J., a storm protection structure that confines alongshore-moving sediment to create wider beaches, has been found to act as a barrier to longshore sediment transport according to Michael S. Bruno, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, N.J. Using a wave transformation-shoreline evolution model, Bruno examined the effectiveness of an existing stone groin on a commercially and historically valuable beach. His findings were summarized at the 21st Union of Panamerican Engineers meeting hosted by the American Association of Engineering Societies held in Washington, D.C., August 19-24.Groins are low, narrow jetties made of timber, stone, concrete, or steel that extend roughly perpendicular to the shoreline. They are designed to protect the shore from erosion by currents, tides or waves, or to trap sand and littoral drift to build up or make a beach. The advantage of a groin is that it is a permanent solution to beach erosion, as opposed to the continuing process of beach replenishment required in nonstructural processes such as beachfills. This same permanence, however, is often the downfall of structural solutions because of the long-term deleterious consequences associated with such devices.

  7. Natural Reworking of Tsunami Evidence in Chandipur Beach, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, T.; Mukhopadhyay, A.

    2010-12-01

    In a particular tide- or wave- dominated environment the flow energy is best understood by the size of the sand grains deposited at the respective bar or beach or the depositional platform. Though the flow energy is generally fluctuating in this kind of dynamic environment, the overall set up can represent a particular domain of energy regime. A particular range of grain size is supposed to be deposited laterally and vertically as well. A specific trend of variation in grain size is also expected and can be estimated from both the hydrodynamic and aerodynamic interplay or in combination. Hence, whenever any stratum with an extra ordinary grain size is observed, that usually stimulates to think about some sudden and extraordinary energy regime, indicate a catastrophic event. In the year 2005, on Chandipur beach (Orissa, India) such a stratum found with an unusual grain size, which was much coarser than the usual grains¬ extended along the beach and outer flank of the main bar, exhibited many unusual features in its morphology and mineralogy indicated a possible deposit due to the great Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004. In the contrary, the same deposit is exhibiting the definite reworking due to the normal beach process in 2008. It’s a definite signature of gap of information in a dynamic environment and a challenge for the palaeo-tsunami researchers. Key words: Tsunami deposit; Beach dynamics; Natural reworking

  8. Predicting 'very poor' beach water quality gradings using classification tree.

    PubMed

    Thoe, Wai; Choi, King Wah; Lee, Joseph Hun-wei

    2016-02-01

    A beach water quality prediction system has been developed in Hong Kong using multiple linear regression (MLR) models. However, linear models are found to be weak at capturing the infrequent 'very poor' water quality occasions when Escherichia coli (E. coli) concentration exceeds 610 counts/100 mL. This study uses a classification tree to increase the accuracy in predicting the 'very poor' water quality events at three Hong Kong beaches affected either by non-point source or point source pollution. Binary-output classification trees (to predict whether E. coli concentration exceeds 610 counts/100 mL) are developed over the periods before and after the implementation of the Harbour Area Treatment Scheme, when systematic changes in water quality were observed. Results show that classification trees can capture more 'very poor' events in both periods when compared to the corresponding linear models, with an increase in correct positives by an average of 20%. Classification trees are also developed at two beaches to predict the four-category Beach Water Quality Indices. They perform worse than the binary tree and give excessive false alarms of 'very poor' events. Finally, a combined modelling approach using both MLR model and classification tree is proposed to enhance the beach water quality prediction system for Hong Kong. PMID:26837834

  9. Mineral resource potential map of the Natural Area Roadless Area, Baker County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cathcart, James B.; Patterson, Sam H.; Crandall, Thomas M.

    1983-01-01

    The Natural Area Roadless Area, which is in the Osceola National Forest in Baker County, Fla., is underlain by sedimentary rocks containing phosphate deposits that are not a potential mineral resource by todays standards. The region has a low potential for oil and gas and virtually no potential for other valuable minerals. The phosphate deposits are either slightly low in tonnage and P2O5 content, high in MgO and/or Fe2O3 + Al2O3, or the ratio of CaO to P2O5 is too high for deposits that can be mined profitably at the present time. A low potential for oil and gas is indicated by the numerous dry holes in the region and the absence of the formations that contain these hydrocarbons in southern and westernmost Florida. The only mineral material that has been produced in the study area is clayey sand, used in stabilizing Forest Service roads. This type of clayey sand has no particular value because there are virtually unlimited quantities in the surrounding region. The peaty material in the area is too high in ash content to be mined. Large quantities of limestone underlie the area but are too deeply buried to be quarried. Heavy-mineral and clay deposits, which are mined elsewhere in northern peninsular Florida, are not present in the study area.

  10. Thermodynamic analysis of fermentation and anaerobic growth of baker's yeast for ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Teh, Kwee-Yan; Lutz, Andrew E

    2010-05-17

    Thermodynamic concepts have been used in the past to predict microbial growth yield. This may be the key consideration in many industrial biotechnology applications. It is not the case, however, in the context of ethanol fuel production. In this paper, we examine the thermodynamics of fermentation and concomitant growth of baker's yeast in continuous culture experiments under anaerobic, glucose-limited conditions, with emphasis on the yield and efficiency of bio-ethanol production. We find that anaerobic metabolism of yeast is very efficient; the process retains more than 90% of the maximum work that could be extracted from the growth medium supplied to the chemostat reactor. Yeast cells and other metabolic by-products are also formed, which reduces the glucose-to-ethanol conversion efficiency to less than 75%. Varying the specific ATP consumption rate, which is the fundamental parameter in this paper for modeling the energy demands of cell growth, shows the usual trade-off between ethanol production and biomass yield. The minimum ATP consumption rate required for synthesizing cell materials leads to biomass yield and Gibbs energy dissipation limits that are much more severe than those imposed by mass balance and thermodynamic equilibrium constraints. PMID:20184925

  11. Telescope Fabra ROA Montsec: A New Robotic Wide Field Baker-Nunn Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fors, Octavi; Núñez, Jorge; Muiños, José Luis; Montojo, Francisco Javier; Baena-Gallé, Roberto; Boloix, Jaime; Morcillo, Ricardo; Merino, María Teresa; Downey, Elwood C.; Mazur, Michael J.

    2013-05-01

    A Baker-Nunn Camera (BNC), originally installed at the Real Instituto y Observatorio de la Armada (ROA) in 1958, was refurbished and robotized. The new facility, called Telescope Fabra ROA Montsec (TFRM), was installed at the Observatori Astronòmic del Montsec (OAdM). The process of refurbishment is described in detail. Most of the steps of the refurbishment project were accomplished by purchasing commercial components, which involve little posterior engineering assembling work. The TFRM is a 0.5 m aperture f/0.96 optically modified BNC, which offers a unique combination of instrumental specifications: fully robotic and remote operation, wide field of view (4°.4 × 4°.4), moderate limiting magnitude (V ~ 19.5 mag), ability of tracking at arbitrary right ascension (α) and declination (δ) rates, as well as opening and closing CCD shutter at will during an exposure. Nearly all kinds of image survey programs can benefit from those specifications. Apart from other less time-consuming programs, since the beginning of science TFRM operations we have been conducting two specific and distinct surveys: super-Earths transiting around M-type dwarfs stars, and geostationary debris in the context of Space Situational Awareness/Space Surveillance and Tracking (SSA/SST) programs. Preliminary results for both cases will be shown.

  12. Matrix factorization-based data fusion for gene function prediction in baker's yeast and slime mold.

    PubMed

    Zitnik, Marinka; Zupan, Bla

    2014-01-01

    The development of effective methods for the characterization of gene functions that are able to combine diverse data sources in a sound and easily-extendible way is an important goal in computational biology. We have previously developed a general matrix factorization-based data fusion approach for gene function prediction. In this manuscript, we show that this data fusion approach can be applied to gene function prediction and that it can fuse various heterogeneous data sources, such as gene expression profiles, known protein annotations, interaction and literature data. The fusion is achieved by simultaneous matrix tri-factorization that shares matrix factors between sources. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach by evaluating its performance on predicting ontological annotations in slime mold D. discoideum and on recognizing proteins of baker's yeast S. cerevisiae that participate in the ribosome or are located in the cell membrane. Our approach achieves predictive performance comparable to that of the state-of-the-art kernel-based data fusion, but requires fewer data preprocessing steps. PMID:24297565

  13. Classification of commutator algebras leading to the new type of closed Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formulas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matone, Marco

    2015-11-01

    We show that there are {\\it 13 types} of commutator algebras leading to the new closed forms of the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff (BCH) formula $$\\exp(X)\\exp(Y)\\exp(Z)=\\exp({AX+BZ+CY+DI}) \\ , $$ derived in arXiv:1502.06589, JHEP {\\bf 1505} (2015) 113. This includes, as a particular case, $\\exp(X) \\exp(Z)$, with $[X,Z]$ containing other elements in addition to $X$ and $Z$. The algorithm exploits the associativity of the BCH formula and is based on the decomposition $\\exp(X)\\exp(Y)\\exp(Z)=\\exp(X)\\exp({\\alpha Y}) \\exp({(1-\\alpha) Y}) \\exp(Z)$, with $\\alpha$ fixed in such a way that it reduces to $\\exp({\\tilde X})\\exp({\\tilde Y})$, with $\\tilde X$ and $\\tilde Y$ satisfying the Van-Brunt and Visser condition $[\\tilde X,\\tilde Y]=\\tilde u\\tilde X+\\tilde v\\tilde Y+\\tilde cI$. It turns out that $e^\\alpha$ satisfies, in the generic case, an algebraic equation whose exponents depend on the parameters defining the commutator algebra. In nine {\\it types} of commutator algebras, such an equation leads to rational solutions for $\\alpha$. We find all the equations that characterize the solution of the above decomposition problem by combining it with the Jacobi identity.

  14. Effect of Growth Conditions and Trehalose Content on Cryotolerance of Bakers' Yeast in Frozen Doughs

    PubMed Central

    Gélinas, Pierre; Fiset, Gisèle; LeDuy, Anh; Goulet, Jacques

    1989-01-01

    The cryotolerance in frozen doughs and in water suspensions of bakers' yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) previously grown under various industrial conditions was evaluated on a laboratory scale. Fed-batch cultures were very superior to batch cultures, and strong aeration enhanced cryoresistance in both cases for freezing rates of 1 to 56°C min−1. Loss of cell viability in frozen dough or water was related to the duration of the dissolved-oxygen deficit during fed-batch growth. Strongly aerobic fed-batch cultures grown at a reduced average specific rate (μ = 0.088 h−1 compared with 0.117 h−1) also showed greater trehalose synthesis and improved frozen-dough stability. Insufficient aeration (dissolved-oxygen deficit) and lower growth temperature (20°C instead of 30°C) decreased both fed-batch-grown yeast cryoresistance and trehalose content. Although trehalose had a cryoprotective effect in S. cerevisiae, its effect was neutralized by even a momentary lack of excess dissolved oxygen in the fed-batch growth medium. PMID:16348024

  15. Improving industrial full-scale production of baker's yeast by optimizing aeration control.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Carlos A; Rayo, Julia; Giralda, José M

    2008-01-01

    This work analyzes the control of optimum dissolved oxygen of an industrial fed-batch procedure in which baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is grown under aerobic conditions. Sugar oxidative metabolism was controlled by monitoring aeration, molasses flows, and yeast concentration in the propagator along the later stage of the propagation, and keeping pH and temperature under controlled conditions. A large number of fed-batch growth experiments were performed in the tank for a period of 16 h, for each of the 3 manufactured commercial products. For optimization and control of cultivations, the growth and metabolite formation were quantified through measurement of specific growth and ethanol concentration. Data were adjusted to a model of multiple lineal regression, and correlations representing dissolved oxygen as a function of aeration, molasses, yeast concentration in the broth, temperature, and pH were obtained. The actual influence of each variable was consistent with the mathematical model, further justified by significant levels of each variable, and optimum aeration profile during the yeast propagation. PMID:18567307

  16. Improved Properties of Baker's Yeast Mutants Resistant to 2-Deoxy-d-Glucose

    PubMed Central

    Rincón, Ana M.; Codón, Antonio C.; Castrejón, Francisco; Benítez, Tahía

    2001-01-01

    We isolated spontaneous mutants from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's yeast V1) that were resistant to 2-deoxy-d-glucose and had improved fermentative capacity on sweet doughs. Three mutants could grow at the same rate as the wild type in minimal SD medium (0.17% Difco yeast nitrogen base without amino acids and ammonium sulfate, 0.5% ammonium sulfate, 2% glucose) and had stable elevated levels of maltase and/or invertase under repression conditions but lower levels in maltose-supplemented media. Two of the mutants also had high levels of phosphatase active on 2-deoxy-d-glucose-6-phosphate. Dough fermentation (CO2 liberation) by two of the mutants was faster and/or produced higher final volumes than that by the wild type, both under laboratory and industrial conditions, when the doughs were supplemented with glucose or sucrose. However, the three mutants were slower when fermenting plain doughs. Fermented sweet bakery products obtained with these mutants were of better quality than those produced by the wild type, with regard to their texture and their organoleptic properties. PMID:11526034

  17. Brewer's/baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and preventive medicine: Part II.

    PubMed

    Moyad, Mark A

    2008-02-01

    Yeast is the term generally applied to a unicellular fungus, and there are hundreds of species now identified. One of the most notable and well-known species of yeast in health and wellness is known as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is also known by its more common names, brewer's yeast or baker's yeast. Typically, brewer's yeast is used as a protein supplement, energy booster, immune enhancer, or other vehicle where other compounds can be inserted to create a commercialized health product. For example, one of the most notable positive findings was the encouraging results from a large randomized trial of adults recently vaccinated for seasonal influenza who also received an over-the-counter daily adjuvant modified brewer's yeast-based product (EpiCor) to prevent colds and flu symptoms. The modified yeast-based product significantly reduced the incidence and duration of this common condition. Yeast-based technology is also being used as a molecular mechanistic model of caloric restriction (CR) with the goal of improving the human life span. The current and potential impact of yeast-based technology in medicine is encouraging and should receive more attention, but the recent preliminary positive results of CR in humans may be in part due to what has been already learned from brewer's yeast. PMID:18335702

  18. Brewer's/baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and preventive medicine: part I.

    PubMed

    Moyad, Mark A

    2007-12-01

    Yeast is the term generally applied to a unicellular fungus, and there are hundreds of species now identified. One of the most notable and well-known species of yeast in health and wellness is known as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is also known by its more common names, brewer's yeast or baker's yeast. It is usually grown on hops or another substrate similar to the plant utilized in the beer-making industry, after which it is harvested and killed. The final product is generally half composed of protein, as well as a large amount of B vitamins and minerals, and depending on the technology, a diverse number of other healthy compounds. Typically, brewer's yeast is used as a protein supplement, energy booster, immune enhancer, or other vehicle where other compounds can be inserted to create a commercialized health product. A more extensive review of the preventive medical aspects of yeast will be covered in Part 2 of this article to be published in a future issue of Urologic Nursing. Yeast-based technology is also being used as a molecular mechanistic model of caloric restriction with the goal of improving the human life span. The current and potential impact of yeast-based technology in medicine is encouraging. PMID:18217542

  19. Topical Antinociceptive Effect of Vanillosmopsis arborea Baker on Acute Corneal Pain in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Inocêncio Leite, Laura Hévila; Leite, Gerlânia de Oliveira; Silva Coutinho, Thales; de Sousa, Severino Denício Gonçalves; Sampaio, Renata Souza; da Costa, José Galberto Martins; de Menezes, Irwin Rose Alencar; Campos, Adriana Rolim

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the possible topical antinociceptive activity of Vanillosmopsis arborea Baker essential oil (EOVA) and to clarify the underlying mechanism, using the acute model of chemical (eye wiping) nociception in mice. EOVA (25 to 200 mg/kg; p.o. and topical) evidenced significant antinociception against chemogenic pain in the test model of formalin-induced neuroinflammatory pain. Local application of 5 M NaCl solution on the corneal surface of the eye produced a significant nociceptive behavior, characterized by eye wiping. The number of eye wipes was counted during the first 30 s. EOVA (25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg; p.o. and topical) significantly decreased the number of eye wipes. Naloxone, yohimbine, L-NAME, theophylline, glibenclamide, and ruthenium red had no effect on the antinociceptive effect of EOVA. However, ondansetron, p-chlorophenylalanine methyl ester (PCPA), capsazepine, prazosin, and atropine prevented the antinociception induced by EOVA. These results indicate the topical antinociceptive effect of EOVA and showed that 5-HT, α1, TRPV1, and central muscarinic receptors might be involved in the antinociceptive effect of EOVA in the acute corneal model of pain in mice. PMID:24660017

  20. Sr, Nd, Pb and Os Isotopic Compositions of Lavas From the Mount Baker Volcanic Field, Cascade Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullen, E. K.; McCallum, I.; Brandon, A. D.

    2008-12-01

    We present the results of a trace element and Sr, Nd, Pb and Os isotopic study of the Mt. Baker volcanic field (MBVF), part of the northern segment of the Cascade magmatic arc known as the Garibaldi Belt. To date, only 4 Sr isotopic ratios (all from the Sulphur Creek flow) have been published. The Mount Baker volcanic field extends to 3.72 Ma and a case can be made for continuous magmatic activity in this region extending from 34 Ma to present. Our goal is to use isotope ratios to characterize the mantle source regions that underlie the Garibaldi Belt, to document the chemical inputs of slab fluid/melt, sediment, and lower crust, and to assess temporal and spatial variations in these factors. We measured 29 Sr and Nd isotopic ratios, 8 Pb isotopic ratios, and 9 Os isotopic ratios, representing the full age range and compositional diversity (calc- alkaline basalt through rhyolite) of the MBVF, including all known MBVF basalts. A 22.86-Ma gabbronorite from the adjacent Chilliwack batholith was analyzed as an analog for the modern mafic lower crust. All Mt. Baker lavas are calc-alkaline with the arc-characteristic signatures of HFSE depletion and LILE enrichment. MBVF 87Sr/86Sr values (0.703932 to 0.703057) and ɛNd (+4.71 to +7.79) are well correlated and lie within the mantle array. Mt. Baker Sr and Nd data are indistinguishable from other Garibaldi belt lavas (Green & Harry 1999, Green & Sinha 2005), and also overlap data from the neighboring Chilliwack batholith (Tepper 1996; Tepper et al. 1993). In contrast, central and southern Cascade arc lavas with similar Sr ratios have corresponding ɛNd values that are lower by ~2 epsilon units. The Garibaldi Belt and Chilliwack magmas are tapping a mantle source distinct from that of the rest of the Cascade arc. 206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb and 208Pb/204Pb ratios of MBVF basalts plot close to the NHRL, in a linear trend between Juan de Fuca MORB and Pacific sediment, indicating a sediment contribution to the MBVF magmas. With the exception of the Sulphur Creek flow, Pb isotopic values are well correlated with Nd and Sr. (Sr/P)N, commonly used as an indicator of a slab fluid-derived component, ranges from 1.4 to 5 but correlates poorly with Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic ratios. The similarity of isotopic and trace element data among Mt. Baker and Chilliwack magmas is consistent with the hypothesis that magmas of the MBVF represent a modern continuation of the Chilliwack magmatic system. Mafic and felsic MBVF rocks are indistinguishable in their Sr and Nd isotopic compositions, most likely because the lower crust beneath Mt. Baker is primarily Cenozoic in age and mafic in composition (the root of a long-lived arc system). In an attempt to 'see through' this problem, we measured Os isotopic ratios on whole rocks and mineral separates as only a few million years are required for crustal 187Os/188Os ratios to evolve from mantle values. MBVF basalt γOs values range from +70 to +522. The most primitive sample is Table Mountain andesite (γOs 65). The γOs values and Os concentrations (1.56 to 17.7 ppt) do not correlate with any major or trace element trends or with Sr, Nd, or Pb isotope ratios. Given that primitive arc mantle-derived magmas have γOs values of ~10, we hypothesize that Cenozoic lower crust has contributed substantially to the modern Mount Baker magmas via assimilation, melting and mixing. It is likely that Cenozoic lower crust would have variable Os isotopic compositions but would be virtually homogeneous in terms of Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopic ratios.

  1. Recreational water exposures and health effects at a tropical and a runoff impacted beach

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Studies conducted by the EPA at beaches with nearby treated sewage discharges established associations between gastrointestinal (GI) illnesses among swimmers and measurements of fecal indicator bacteria, Enterococcus and Bacteroidales (marine beaches only) measured by...

  2. The EMPACT Beaches Project Results from a Study on Microbiological Monitoring in Recreational Waters

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EMPACT (Environmental Monitoring for Public Access and Community Tracking) Beaches project has attempted to define which characteristics are most signifi cant with regard to monitoring approaches. This project examined five beach environments to determine the factors that mos...

  3. Health effects associated with cyanobacteria exposure among beach attendees in Puerto Rico

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cyanobacteria and their toxins are associated with adverse human health effects, although among marine waters, the pyrrhophyta, including dinoflagellates are more recognized as health hazards. We recruited beach attendees during summer 2009, at Boquern Beach, Puerto Rico...

  4. Health effects associated with cyanobacteria exposure among beach attendees in Puerto Rico

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cyanobacteria and their toxins are associated with adverse human health effects, although among marine waters, the pyrrhophyta, including dinoflagellates are more recognized as health hazards. We recruited beach attendees during summer 2009, at Boquerón Beach, Puerto Rico...

  5. Wave energy level and geographic setting correlate with Florida beach water quality.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zhixuan; Reniers, Ad; Haus, Brian K; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M; Kelly, Elizabeth A

    2016-03-15

    Many recreational beaches suffer from elevated levels of microorganisms, resulting in beach advisories and closures due to lack of compliance with Environmental Protection Agency guidelines. We conducted the first statewide beach water quality assessment by analyzing decadal records of fecal indicator bacteria (enterococci and fecal coliform) levels at 262 Florida beaches. The objectives were to depict synoptic patterns of beach water quality exceedance along the entire Florida shoreline and to evaluate their relationships with wave condition and geographic location. Percent exceedances based on enterococci and fecal coliform were negatively correlated with both long-term mean wave energy and beach slope. Also, Gulf of Mexico beaches exceeded the thresholds significantly more than Atlantic Ocean ones, perhaps partially due to the lower wave energy. A possible linkage between wave energy level and water quality is beach sand, a pervasive nonpoint source that tends to harbor more bacteria in the low-wave-energy environment. PMID:26892203

  6. TeraShake: Strong Shaking in Los Angeles Expected From Southern San Andreas Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, K.; Day, S.; Minster, J.; Cui, Y.; Chourasia, A.; Faerman, M.; Moore, R.; Hu, Y.; Zhu, J.; Li, Y.; Maechling, P.; Jordan, T.

    2005-12-01

    We have carried out some of the largest and most detailed earthquake simulations completed to date (TeraShake), in which we model ground motions expected from a large earthquake on the southern San Andreas fault. The TeraShake calculations simulate 4 minutes of 0-0.5 Hz ground motion in a 180,000 km2 area of southern California, for a M 7.7 earthquake along the 199 km section of the San Andreas fault between Cajon Creek north of Los Angeles, and Bombay Beach on the shore of the Salton Sea. The two segments of the San Andreas fault south of the 1857 rupture, the San Bernardino Mountains segment and the Coachella Valley segment, have not seen a major event since 1812 and about 1690, respectively. The average recurrence interval for large earthquakes with surface rupture on these segments are only 146+91-60 yrs and 220±13 yrs, respectively. An inescapable conclusion is that a major component of the seismic hazard in southern California and northern Mexico stems from a putative large earthquake on this part of the San Andreas Fault. The simulations include ruptures propagating both northwest-ward and southeast-ward on the fault. The kinematic source model is based on that inferred for the 2002 Denali Earthquake. The crustal model is taken from the SCEC 3D Community Velocity Model Version 3.0 discretized into 200 m3 cubes. The results show that the chain of sedimentary basins between San Bernardino and downtown Los Angeles form an effective waveguide that channels Love waves along the southern edge of the San Bernardino and San Gabriel Mountains. Earthquake scenarios in which the guided wave is efficiently excited (scenarios with northward rupture) produce unusually high long-period ground motions over much of the greater Los Angeles region. Intense, localized amplitude modulations arising from variations in waveguide cross-section can be explained to a remarkable level of accuracy in terms of energy conservation for the guided mode. Less certain are the predicted absolute amplitudes of the ground motion extremes, as nonlinearity induced by the higher-than-anticipated waveguide amplifications we have identified here would likely cause significant reduction of both shear modulus and Q factor in the near-surface layers. The simulations using a parallel fourth-order finite-difference code required up to 19,000 CPU hours on 240 processors of the 10 teraflops IBM Power4+ DataStar supercomputer at San Diego Supercomputer Center. Animations of the simulated wave propagation and synthetic seismograms from TeraShake are available at http://www.scec.org/TeraShake.

  7. A method for determining average beach slope and beach slope variability for U.S. sandy coastlines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doran, Kara S.; Long, Joseph W.; Overbeck, Jacquelyn R.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Assessment of Hurricane-Induced Coastal Erosion Hazards compares measurements of beach morphology with storm-induced total water levels to produce forecasts of coastal change for storms impacting the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic coastlines of the United States. The wave-induced water level component (wave setup and swash) is estimated by using modeled offshore wave height and period and measured beach slope (from dune toe to shoreline) through the empirical parameterization of Stockdon and others (2006). Spatial and temporal variability in beach slope leads to corresponding variability in predicted wave setup and swash. For instance, seasonal and storm-induced changes in beach slope can lead to differences on the order of 1 meter (m) in wave-induced water level elevation, making accurate specification of this parameter and its associated uncertainty essential to skillful forecasts of coastal change. A method for calculating spatially and temporally averaged beach slopes is presented here along with a method for determining total uncertainty for each 200-m alongshore section of coastline.

  8. Industrial plastic on the southern beaches of the Arabian Gulf and the western beaches of the Gulf of Oman.

    PubMed

    Khordagui, H K; Abu-Hilal, A H

    1994-01-01

    The increasing production and use of plastic in the Arabian Gulf combined with shipping and waste disposal practices, have increased the concentration of plastic particles on the sea's surface and beaches. The objective of this investigation was to provide an assessment of the abundance, distribution, potential sources and significance of industrial plastic on the western beaches of the United Arab Emirates on the Arabian Gulf and on the eastern beaches on the Gulf of Oman. The abundance of stranded plastic pellets was highly uneven. By early 1992 alarming levels of fresh plastic pellets were noticed on the Arabian Gulf beaches of the UAE. Large numbers of 25 kg sacks of white plastic spherules manufactured by (SABIC) in Jubail, Saudi Arabia were washed ashore. When compared to the west coast on the Arabian Gulf, the east coast on the Gulf of Oman exhibited much lower levels of plastic pellets. When compared to other parts of the world, the beaches of the UAE on the Arabian Gulf are considered to be heavily polluted with industrial plastic. PMID:15091703

  9. Response of intertidal sandy-beach macrofauna to human trampling: An urban vs. natural beach system approach.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Martínez, Ma José; Ruíz-Delgado, Ma Carmen; Sánchez-Moyano, Juan Emilio; García-García, Francisco José

    2015-02-01

    Sandy beaches are subjected to intense stressors, which are mainly derived from the increasing pattern of beach urbanization. These ecosystems are also a magnet for tourists, who prefer these locations as leisure and holiday destinations, and such activity further increases the factors that have an adverse effect on beaches. In the study reported here the effect of human trampling on macrofauna assemblages that inhabit intertidal areas of sandy beaches was assessed using a BACI design. For this purpose, three contrasting sectors of the same beach were investigated: an urban area with a high level of visitors, a protected sector with a low density of users, and a transitional area with a high level of human occupancy. The physical variables were constant over time in each sector, whereas differences were found in the intensity of human use between sectors. Density variations and changes in the taxonomic structure of the macrofauna with time were shown by PERMANOVA analysis in the urban and transitional locations whereas the protected sector remained constant throughout the study period. The amphipod Bathyporeia pelagica appears sensitive to human trampling pressure and the use of this species as a bioindicator for these types of impact is recommended. PMID:25460060

  10. External costs of coastal beach pollution: an hedonic approach

    SciTech Connect

    Wilman, E.A.

    1984-01-01

    A technique for inputing a monetary value to the loss in beach recreational services that would result from a hypothetical oil spill in the Georges Bank area combines an oil-spill risk analysis model with a hedonic pricing model of the market for tourist accommodations on Cape Cod and Martha's Vineyard. The estimate of beach pollution costs associated with offshore oil development allows a rational judgment of whether the benefits of developing offshore oil outweigh the costs. The method is an effort to improve the economic efficiency of coastal zone management. The report concludes with a discussion of the many sources of uncertainty and suggestions for overcoming them. Five appendices present information on the models, variables, questionnaire responses, beaches, and factor patterns. 7 figures, 27 tables.

  11. Macrobenthic zonation patterns along a morphodynamical continuum of macrotidal, low tide bar/rip and ultra-dissipative sandy beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degraer, S.; Volckaert, A.; Vincx, M.

    2003-03-01

    The species composition, densities, biomass and zonation patterns of the macrobenthos of sandy beaches are greatly influenced by the morphodynamics and morphology of the beaches. Macrobenthic zonation patterns along a small-scale morphodynamic gradient, comprising eight Belgian beach sites, were investigated. By taking into account the dimensionless fall velocity ( Ω) and the relative tidal range, the beach sites were ordered along the gradient from the ultra-dissipative beach type (UD) to the low tide bar/rip beach type (LTBR). The resulting beach state index varied between 1.8 and 4.2 and the beach profiles were related with the beaches' morphodynamic state. In total 35 macrobenthic species, mainly polychaetes and crustaceans, were encountered, varying between 19 and 23 species per beach site. The species composition was quite similar among beach sites, with Scolelepis squamata being abundant at all eight sites. Furthermore, the macrobenthic distribution patterns were mainly related to elevation at all beach sites. Some remarkable difference in metrics, largely related to the beach morphodynamics and the consequent hydrodynamics, were found. At the hydrodynamically benign and consequently macrobenthos-rich UD beaches, the highest macrobenthic densities and biomass occurred on the upper beach, while at the hydrodynamically harsh and thus macrobenthos-poor LTBR beaches, the maximum densities and biomass occurred lower on the beach. Species, typically occurring on the upper UD beaches, such as Eurydice pulchra, S. squamata, and Bathyporeia sarsi, were restricted to the sub-optimal middle and lower beach zone at LTBR beaches. Only Bathyporeia pilosa was found on the upper beach of both UD and LTBR beaches. The more robust polychaete Ophelia rathkei and the interstitial polychaete Hesionides arenaria were exclusively found in the hydrodynamically harsh conditions of the middle LTBR beach zone.

  12. Beach and dunal system monitoring at Su Giudeu beach, Sardinia (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balzano, Andrea; Sulis, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    Even if coastal floods are quite rare events in Sardinia (Italy) at present, they have had dramatic consequences for coastal communities, particularly in conjunction with river flooding. However, flood risk (defined as the product of event probability, vulnerability and value of assets) is expected to increase significantly in the future, due to climate change, defence degradation and sea level rise. Sardinia island has a costal length of approximately 1.900 km including minor neighbouring islands (25% of the entire Italian coasts) and the estimation of the potential exposure of coastal communities to flooding is therefore a critical task. To date methods for achieving this have been based on modelling of coastal inundation using hydrodynamic or GIS-based models of varying complexity. The Dept of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Architecture at the University of Cagliari is carrying out a comprehensive activity of coastal flooding risk mapping at the regional scale within the framework of a scientific collaboration with the Sardinian Regional Authority for the Hydrographic District, that includes monitoring and scientific activities along the entire Sardinian coast. Bathymetry and topographical surveys, sediment characterization, waves and currents measurements, hydrodynamic and morphodynamic modelling are planned, focusing on critical extended areas. In this paper we present an overview of the entire activity programme and give an in-depth account of the ongoing monitoring survey of the dunal system of the Su Giudeu beach (Southern Sardinia, 50 km far from the city of Cagliari). Su Giudeu is a sandy, bay-shaped beach, extending for about 1200 m between two headlands, evolving under waves with a predominant direction of 220-240°N (Scirocco wind). The survey is expected to provide evidence of the response of the remarkable dunal system to wave runup occurring during storm events, to be used in the verification of existing numerical models of dune erosion.

  13. Longshore currents over barred beach with mild slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan; Zou, Zhi-li

    2016-04-01

    The laboratory experiment and numerical simulations of wave-driven longshore currents by random waves on barred beaches with slopes of 1:100 and 1:40 were conducted to investigate the bimodal feature of mean longshore currents, with emphasis on the location and ratio of two peaks of longshore currents. The location and ratio of two peaks are controlled by the sand bar. The influences of wave heights and beach slopes on the longshore currents are discussed. Numerical simulations were also performed to compute the measured velocity profile, with the emphasis on the effect of lateral mixing, bottom friction and surface rollers on numerical results.

  14. 75 FR 67214 - Special Local Regulations for Marine Events; Wrightsville Channel, Wrightsville Beach, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-02

    ... Beach, NC in the Federal Register (75 FR 56024). We received no comments on the proposed rule. No public... Battleship Full and Half Iron Distance Triathlon,'' to be held on the waters adjacent to Wrightsville Beach... 13, 2010, the Wilmington YMCA will sponsor the ``Beach 2 Battleship Full and Half Iron...

  15. GREAT LAKES BEACH CLOSURES: USING SATELLITE IMAGES TO IDENTIFY AREAS AT RISK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Are people getting sick from swimming at Great Lakes beaches? Some are. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, swimmers are experiencing an increase in bacterial borne illnesses from swimming at many popular Great Lakes beaches. The beaches in the Great Lak...

  16. 76 FR 48879 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Alabama Beach Mouse General Conservation Plan for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Alabama Beach Mouse General... endangered Alabama beach mouse (Peromyscus polionotus ammobates) in Baldwin County, Alabama. The GCP analyzes... availability of the proposed GCP and the dEIS. These documents analyze the take of the Alabama beach...

  17. 75 FR 52549 - Environmental Impact Statement; Alabama Beach Mouse Draft General Conservation Plan; Fort Morgan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-26

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Environmental Impact Statement; Alabama Beach Mouse Draft General... Beach Mouse General Conservation Plan (ABM GCP) Project. We are preparing the ABM GCP under the... are included in the plan: Alabama beach mouse (ABM) (Peromyscus polionotus ammobates), Loggerhead...

  18. 75 FR 65581 - Proposed Amendment and Revocation of Class E Airspace, Vero Beach, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ...This action proposes to amend Class E surface airspace, and airspace extending upward from 700 feet above the surface, and remove Class E airspace designated as an extension to Class D surface area at Vero Beach Municipal Airport, Vero Beach, FL. The Vero Beach Non- Directional Beacon (NDB) has been decommissioned and new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) have been developed for......

  19. 36 CFR 3.17 - What regulations apply to swimming areas and beaches?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... swimming areas and beaches? 3.17 Section 3.17 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BOATING AND WATER USE ACTIVITIES § 3.17 What regulations apply to swimming areas and beaches? (a) The superintendent may designate areas as swimming areas or swimming beaches...

  20. 36 CFR 3.17 - What regulations apply to swimming areas and beaches?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... swimming areas and beaches? 3.17 Section 3.17 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BOATING AND WATER USE ACTIVITIES § 3.17 What regulations apply to swimming areas and beaches? (a) The superintendent may designate areas as swimming areas or swimming beaches...

  1. Field Guide to Beaches. Early Science Curriculum Project Pamphlet Series PS-7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyt, John H.

    The study of beaches and their capacity as an interface between land, air, and water is presented. Students investigate shore phenomena to better understand the beach's history and possible future. Also discussed is the interaction between man and the beach, from weather effects to pollution. Laboratory investigations of samples collected from the…

  2. 33 CFR 334.990 - Long Beach Harbor, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Long Beach Harbor, Calif.; naval... THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.990 Long Beach.... Naval Base Los Angeles, Long Beach, California, and such agencies as he may designate....

  3. 40 CFR 227.10 - Hazards to fishing, navigation, shorelines or beaches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., shorelines or beaches. 227.10 Section 227.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Environmental Impact § 227.10 Hazards to fishing, navigation, shorelines or beaches. (a) Wastes which may... present a hazard to shorelines or beaches may be dumped only at sites and under conditions which...

  4. 76 FR 28025 - Edison Mission Holding Beach, LLC; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Edison Mission Holding Beach, LLC; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order... Mission Holding Beach, LLC (EMHB) filed a petition for declaratory order requesting that the Federal...), that it will acquire from, and then lease back to their current owner, AES Huntington Beach, LLC....

  5. 33 CFR 334.990 - Long Beach Harbor, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Long Beach Harbor, Calif.; naval... THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.990 Long Beach.... Naval Base Los Angeles, Long Beach, California, and such agencies as he may designate....

  6. 36 CFR 3.17 - What regulations apply to swimming areas and beaches?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... swimming areas and beaches? 3.17 Section 3.17 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... and beaches? (a) The superintendent may designate areas as swimming areas or swimming beaches in... flotation devices, glass containers, kites, or incompatible activities in swimming areas or swimming...

  7. 33 CFR 334.990 - Long Beach Harbor, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Long Beach Harbor, Calif.; naval... THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.990 Long Beach.... Naval Base Los Angeles, Long Beach, California, and such agencies as he may designate....

  8. 40 CFR 227.10 - Hazards to fishing, navigation, shorelines or beaches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., shorelines or beaches. 227.10 Section 227.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Environmental Impact § 227.10 Hazards to fishing, navigation, shorelines or beaches. (a) Wastes which may... present a hazard to shorelines or beaches may be dumped only at sites and under conditions which...

  9. 33 CFR 334.990 - Long Beach Harbor, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Long Beach Harbor, Calif.; naval... THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.990 Long Beach.... Naval Base Los Angeles, Long Beach, California, and such agencies as he may designate....

  10. 36 CFR 3.17 - What regulations apply to swimming areas and beaches?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... swimming areas and beaches? 3.17 Section 3.17 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... and beaches? (a) The superintendent may designate areas as swimming areas or swimming beaches in... flotation devices, glass containers, kites, or incompatible activities in swimming areas or swimming...

  11. 33 CFR 110.185 - Atlantic Ocean, off the Port of Palm Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Palm Beach, FL. 110.185 Section 110.185 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... of Palm Beach, FL. (a) The anchorage grounds. (1) Anchorage A. The waters lying within an area... Palm Beach, shall only anchor within the anchorage areas hereby defined and established, except...

  12. 36 CFR 3.17 - What regulations apply to swimming areas and beaches?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... swimming areas and beaches? 3.17 Section 3.17 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... and beaches? (a) The superintendent may designate areas as swimming areas or swimming beaches in... flotation devices, glass containers, kites, or incompatible activities in swimming areas or swimming...

  13. 33 CFR 334.990 - Long Beach Harbor, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Long Beach Harbor, Calif.; naval... THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.990 Long Beach.... Naval Base Los Angeles, Long Beach, California, and such agencies as he may designate....

  14. 40 CFR 227.10 - Hazards to fishing, navigation, shorelines or beaches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., shorelines or beaches. 227.10 Section 227.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Environmental Impact § 227.10 Hazards to fishing, navigation, shorelines or beaches. (a) Wastes which may... present a hazard to shorelines or beaches may be dumped only at sites and under conditions which...

  15. 75 FR 52461 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Wrightsville Beach, NC and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-26

    ..., Wrightsville Beach, NC and Northeast Cape Fear River, Wilmington, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice..., mile 283.1, at Wrightsville Beach, NC, and the Isabel S. Holmes Bridge across the Northeast Cape Fear... 283.1, at Wrightsville Beach and the Isabel S. Holmes Bridge across the Northeast Cape Fear...

  16. Sand sources and transport pathways for the San Francisco Bay coastal system, based on X-ray diffraction mineralogy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hein, James R.; Mizell, Kira; Barnard, Patrick L.

    2013-01-01

    The mineralogical compositions of 119 samples collected from throughout the San Francisco Bay coastal system, including bayfloor and seafloor, area beaches, cliff outcrops, and major drainages, were determined using X-ray diffraction (XRD). Comparison of the mineral concentrations and application of statistical cluster analysis of XRD spectra allowed for the determination of provenances and transport pathways. The use of XRD mineral identifications provides semi-quantitative compositions needed for comparisons of beach and offshore sands with potential cliff and river sources, but the innovative cluster analysis of XRD diffraction spectra provides a unique visualization of how groups of samples within the San Francisco Bay coastal system are related so that sand-sized sediment transport pathways can be inferred. The main vector for sediment transport as defined by the XRD analysis is from San Francisco Bay to the outer coast, where the sand then accumulates on the ebb tidal delta and also moves alongshore. This mineralogical link defines a critical pathway because large volumes of sediment have been removed from the Bay over the last century via channel dredging, aggregate mining, and borrow pit mining, with comparable volumes of erosion from the ebb tidal delta over the same period, in addition to high rates of shoreline retreat along the adjacent, open-coast beaches. Therefore, while previously only a temporal relationship was established, the transport pathway defined by mineralogical and geochemical tracers support the link between anthropogenic activities in the Bay and widespread erosion outside the Bay. The XRD results also establish the regional and local importance of sediment derived from cliff erosion, as well as both proximal and distal fluvial sources. This research is an important contribution to a broader provenance study aimed at identifying the driving forces for widespread geomorphic change in a heavily urbanized coastal-estuarine system.

  17. 1. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT TURNOUT ON SAN TAN FLOODWATER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT TURNOUT ON SAN TAN FLOOD-WATER CANAL TO SAN TAN INDIAN CANAL - San Carlos Irrigation Project, San Tan Flood Water Canal, North Side of Gila River, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  18. North beach (Nazaré) sand tracer experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, João; Taborda, Rui; Ribeiro, Mónica; Cascalho, João; Silva, Ana; Bosnic, Ivana

    2014-05-01

    The littoral in the vicinity of Nazaré (West Portuguese coast) is characterized by two distinct coastal stretches separated by Nazaré headland: a northern sector (Norte beach) characterized by a high energetic continuous sandy beach and a southern sector (Nazaré bay beach) that corresponds to an embayed beach, sheltered by the Nazaré headland. The bay is a geomorphological expression of the Nazaré canyon head, which acts as powerful sediment sink, capturing the large longshore net southward transport at Norte beach generated by the north Atlantic high energetic swell. The northern side of the canyon head is carved on highly resistant Cretaceous limestone sustaining an underwater vertical relief that emerges on the Nazaré headland, creating a unusual nearshore wave pattern. This wave pattern not only concentrates high energy levels at the Norte beach but also contributes to local complex longshore drift gradients capable of inducing beach seasonal cross-shore variations of more than 200 m. The main factors that influence local sediment budget are: (1) canyon head capturing and (2) headland sediment bypassing. To obtain a direct measure of the net longshore drift at Norte beach (upstream boundary of the system) a large scale fluorescent tracer experiment was performed. The data will be used to validate longshore transport formulas in a high energetic environment and to access Nazaré canyon head sediment loss. Considering the anticipation of high transport rates, approximately 10 tonnes of native sand where coated with orange fluorescent ink using a set of concrete mixers. The experiment took place on the 9th to 15th September 2013 period and followed the continuous injection method (CIM). The CIM approach was justified by the expected high energy levels that inhibits sediment sampling across the surf zone. During the tracer injection procedure (approx. 5 hours), sediment sampling was performed at 13 sites along a rectilinear coastal stretch extended through 600 m downdrift of the injection point. Tracer was injected at a rate of 16 kg each 30 sec and collected at a frequency of 10 min at each site. Complementary sampling was performed at the inner shelf and at the beach southern of the headland. In order to follow tracer downdrift movement and headland sediment bypassing low resolution sampling was extended through three more days. Oceanographic forcing throughout the experiment was measured by an offshore wave buoy and an ADCP specifically deployed for the experiment. During the first tidal cycle, data from field observations using a hand held UV light showed a southward tracer displacement of more than 600 m. After the second tidal cycle, sediment tracer was detected in the Nazaré bay beach showing headland bypassing. Further insights on the sediment transport at the Nazaré canyon head system will be supported by the analysis of sediment samples collected at the beach and inner shelf using an automated image analysis system. This work was done in the framework of the PTDC/MAR/114674/2009 program, financed by FCT which the authors acknowledge gratefully.

  19. Update: San Andreas Fault experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christodoulidis, D. C.; Smith, D. E.

    1984-01-01

    Satellite laser ranging techniques are used to monitor the broad motion of the tectonic plates comprising the San Andreas Fault System. The San Andreas Fault Experiment, (SAFE), has progressed through the upgrades made to laser system hardware and an improvement in the modeling capabilities of the spaceborne laser targets. Of special note is the launch of the Laser Geodynamic Satellite, LAGEOS spacecraft, NASA's only completely dedicated laser satellite in 1976. The results of plate motion projected into this 896 km measured line over the past eleven years are summarized and intercompared.

  20. An aldose reductase homolog from the resurrection plant Xerophyta viscosa Baker.

    PubMed

    Mundree, S G; Whittaker, A; Thomson, J A; Farrant, J M

    2000-10-01

    An aldose reductase homologue (ALDRXV4) was cloned from the resurrection plant Xerophyta viscosa Baker using complementation by functional sufficiency in Escherichia coli. A cDNA library constructed from X. viscosa leaves dehydrated to 85%, 37% and 5% relative water contents (RWC) was converted into an infective phagemid library. Escherichia coli (sr1::Tn10) cells transformed with ds-pBluescript phagemids were selected on minimal medium plates supplemented with 1 mM isopropyl beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside and 1.25 M sorbitol. Nine cDNA clones that conferred tolerance to the osmotically stressed E. coli cells were selected. The phagemid from one clone contained the ALDRXV4 insert. The E. coli cells expressing ALDRXV4 were capable of tolerating the osmotic stress, whereas control cultures were not. The ALDRXV4 insert contained an open reading frame that can code for 319 amino acids, and the predicted protein had a calculated Mr of 35,667. Amino acid sequence comparisons revealed significant similarity to several aldose reductases, with the highest similarity to aldose reductase proteins from Hordeum vulgare, Bromus inermis and Avena fatua, in the order of 66%, 65% and 65% respectively. Northern blot analysis revealed that ALDRXV4 was expressed only under dehydration conditions in X. viscosa leaves. Western blot analysis detected a protein of 36 kDa under dehydration conditions only. Aldose reductase activity levels in X. viscosa leaves increased as the leaf RWC decreased, whereas there was no significant change in aldose reductase activity in Sporobolus stafianus as the leaf RWC decreased. PMID:11089682