Science.gov

Sample records for balance evaluation systems

  1. Balance Evaluation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    NeuroCom's Balance Master is a system to assess and then retrain patients with balance and mobility problems and is used in several medical centers. NeuroCom received assistance in research and funding from NASA, and incorporated technology from testing mechanisms for astronauts after shuttle flights. The EquiTest and Balance Master Systems are computerized posturography machines that measure patient responses to movement of a platform on which the subject is standing or sitting, then provide assessments of the patient's postural alignment and stability.

  2. Balance System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    TherEx Inc.'s AT-1 Computerized Ataxiameter precisely evaluates posture and balance disturbances that commonly accompany neurological and musculoskeletal disorders. Complete system includes two-strain gauged footplates, signal conditioning circuitry, a computer monitor, printer and a stand-alone tiltable balance platform. AT-1 serves as assessment tool, treatment monitor, and rehabilitation training device. It allows clinician to document quantitatively the outcome of treatment and analyze data over time to develop outcome standards for several classifications of patients. It can evaluate specifically the effects of surgery, drug treatment, physical therapy or prosthetic devices.

  3. Evaluation of surface energy and radiation balance systems for FIFE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritschen, Leo J.; Qian, Ping

    1988-01-01

    The energy balance and radiation balance components were determined at six sites during the First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project Field Experiment (FIFE) conducted south of Manhattan, Kansas during the summer of 1987. The objectives were: to determine the effect of slope and aspect, throughout a growing season, on the magnitude of the surface energy balance fluxes as determined by the Energy Balance Method (EBM); to investigate the calculation of the soil heat flux density at the surface as calculated from the heat capacity and the thermal conductivity equations; and to evaluate the performance of the Surface Energy and Radiation Balance System (SERBS). A total of 17 variables were monitored at each site. They included net, solar (up and down), total hemispherical (up and down), and diffuse radiation, soil temperature and heat flux density, air and wet bulb temperature gradients, wind speed and direction, and precipitation. A preliminary analysis of the data, for the season, indicate that variables including net radiation, air temperature, vapor pressure, and wind speed were quite similar at the sites even though the sites were as much as 16 km apart and represented four cardinal slopes and the top of a ridge.

  4. Highlights of recent balance of system research and evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, M.G.; Stevens, J.W.

    1994-10-01

    The cost of most photovoltaic (PV) systems is more a function of the balance of system (BOS) components than the collectors. The exception to this rule is the grid-tied system whose cost is related more directly to the collectors, and secondarily to the inverter/controls. In fact, recent procurements throughout the country document that collector costs for roof-mounted, utility-tied systems (Russell, PV Systems Workshop, 7/94) represent 60% to 70% of the system cost. This contrasts with the current market for packaged stand-alone all PV or PV-hybrid systems where collectors represent only 25% to 35% of the total. Not only are the BOS components the cost drivers in the current cost-effective PV system market place, they are also the least reliable components. This paper discusses the impact that BOS issues have on component performance, system performance, and system cost and reliability. We will also look at recent recommended changes in system design based upon performance evaluations of fielded PV systems.

  5. Evaluation of aerodynamic derivatives from a magnetic balance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raghunath, B. S.; Parker, H. M.

    1972-01-01

    The dynamic testing of a model in the University of Virginia cold magnetic balance wind-tunnel facility is expected to consist of measurements of the balance forces and moments, and the observation of the essentially six degree of freedom motion of the model. The aerodynamic derivatives of the model are to be evaluated from these observations. The basic feasibility of extracting aerodynamic information from the observation of a model which is executing transient, complex, multi-degree of freedom motion is demonstrated. It is considered significant that, though the problem treated here involves only linear aerodynamics, the methods used are capable of handling a very large class of aerodynamic nonlinearities. The basic considerations include the effect of noise in the data on the accuracy of the extracted information. Relationships between noise level and the accuracy of the evaluated aerodynamic derivatives are presented.

  6. Gastroretentive hydrodynamically balanced systems of ofloxacin: In vitro evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Amit Kumar; Das, Biswarup; Maji, Ruma

    2011-01-01

    Hydrodynamically balanced systems (HBSs) of ofloxacin were prepared using lactose, HPMC K4M, PVP K 30, and liquid paraffin, which may increase the mean residence time in the gastrointestinal tract, and may be able to provide maximum drug at the site of absorption to improve oral bioavailability. All these formulated HBS capsules were floated well over 6 h with no floating lag time. They also showed sustained drug release over 6 h. Time for 50% release of ofloxacin was within the range, 2.47 ± 0.02 to 3.07 ± 0.08 h. The in vitro drug release from these HBS capsules was dependent on HPMC K4M, PVP K 30, and liquid paraffin content. The drug release pattern of these HBS capsules containing ofloxacin followed the Higuchi model with the anomalous transport mechanism. PMID:23960825

  7. Balance Assessment in Sports-Related Concussion: Evaluating Test-Retest Reliability of the Equilibrate System.

    PubMed

    Odom, Mitchell J; Lee, Young M; Zuckerman, Scott L; Apple, Rachel P; Germanos, Theodore; Solomon, Gary S; Sills, Allen K

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the test-retest reliability of a novel computer-based, portable balance assessment tool, the Equilibrate System (ES), used to diagnose sports-related concussion. Twenty-seven students participated in ES testing consisting of three sessions over 4 weeks. The modified Balance Error Scoring System was performed. For each participant, test-retest reliability was established using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The ES test-retest reliability from baseline to week 2 produced an ICC value of 0.495 (95% CI, 0.123-0.745). Week 2 testing produced ICC values of 0.602 (95% CI, 0.279-0.803) and 0.610 (95% CI, 0.299-0.804), respectively. All other single measures test-retest reliability values produced poor ICC values. Same-day ES testing showed fair to good test-retest reliability while interweek measures displayed poor to fair test-retest reliability. Testing conditions should be controlled when using computerized balance assessment methods. ES testing should only be used as a part of a comprehensive assessment. PMID:27518293

  8. Evaluation of surface energy and radiation balance systems on the Konza Prairie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritschen, Leo J.

    1987-01-01

    Four Surface Energy and Radiation Balance Systems (SERBS) were installed and operated for two weeks in Kansas during July of 1986. Surface energy and radiation balances were investigated on six sites on the Konza Prairie about 3 km south of Manhattan, Kansas. Measurements were made to allow the computation of these radiation components: total solar and diffuse radiation, reflected solar radiation, net radiation, and longwave radiation upward and downward. Measurements were made to allow the computation of the sensible and latent heat fluxes by the Bowen ratio method using differential psychrometers on automatic exchange mechanisms. The report includes a description of the experimental sites, data acquisition systems and sensors, data acquisitions system operating instructions, and software used for data acquisition and analysis. In addition, data listings and plots of the energy balance components for all days and systems are given.

  9. Formulation and in vitro evaluation of Hydrodynamically balanced system for theophylline delivery

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Amit Kumar; Malakar, Jadupati

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to formulate hydrodynamically balanced systems (HBSs) of theophylline as single unit capsules. They were formulated by physical blending of theophylline with hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose, polyethylene oxide, polyvinyl pyrrolidone, ethyl cellulose, liquid paraffin, and lactose in different ratios. These theophylline HBS capsules were evaluated for weight uniformity, drug content uniformity, in vitro floating behavior and drug release in simulated gastric fluids (pH 1.2). All these formulated HBS capsules containing theophylline were floated well over 6 hours with no floating lag time, and also showed sustained in vitro drug release in simulated gastric fluid over 6 hours. The theophylline release from these capsules was more sustained with the addition of release modifiers (ethyl cellulose and liquid paraffin). The drug release pattern from these capsules was correlated well with first order model (F-1 to F-5) and Korsmeyer-Peppas model (F-6 and F-7) with the non-Fickian (anomalous) diffusion mechanism. These experimental results clearly indicated that these theophylline HBS capsules were able to remain buoyant in the gastric juice for longer period, which may improve oral bioavailability of theophylline PMID:24826013

  10. Configuring Balanced Scorecards for Measuring Health System Performance: Evidence from 5 Years' Evaluation in Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    Edward, Anbrasi; Kumar, Binay; Kakar, Faizullah; Salehi, Ahmad Shah; Burnham, Gilbert; Peters, David H.

    2011-01-01

    Background In 2004, Afghanistan pioneered a balanced scorecard (BSC) performance system to manage the delivery of primary health care services. This study examines the trends of 29 key performance indicators over a 5-year period between 2004 and 2008. Methods and Findings Independent evaluations of performance in six domains were conducted annually through 5,500 patient observations and exit interviews and 1,500 provider interviews in >600 facilities selected by stratified random sampling in each province. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) models were used to assess trends in BSC parameters. There was a progressive improvement in the national median scores scaled from 0–100 between 2004 and 2008 in all six domains: patient and community satisfaction of services (65.3–84.5, p<0.0001); provider satisfaction (65.4–79.2, p<0.01); capacity for service provision (47.4–76.4, p<0.0001); quality of services (40.5–67.4, p<0.0001); and overall vision for pro-poor and pro-female health services (52.0–52.6). The financial domain also showed improvement until 2007 (84.4–95.7, p<0.01), after which user fees were eliminated. By 2008, all provinces achieved the upper benchmark of national median set in 2004. Conclusions The BSC has been successfully employed to assess and improve health service capacity and service delivery using performance benchmarking during the 5-year period. However, scorecard reconfigurations are needed to integrate effectiveness and efficiency measures and accommodate changes in health systems policy and strategy architecture to ensure its continued relevance and effectiveness as a comprehensive health system performance measure. The process of BSC design and implementation can serve as a valuable prototype for health policy planners managing performance in similar health care contexts. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:21814499

  11. The use of the Balanced ScoreCard (BSC) in the model for investment and evaluation of medical information systems.

    PubMed

    Niss, K U

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the use of the Balanced ScoreCard (BSC) in the MIEMIS meso-model (Model for Investment and Evaluation of Medical Information Systems). The scope of the MIEMIS model is to integrate the evaluation process into the whole lifecycle of an information system using both a prospective and a retrospective approach. We conclude, that the MIEMIS-model has benefited from implementing the BSC into the model due to the fact, that the BSC can support the project management work. This approach helps ensuring, that the new information systems are fulfilled according to the plan and with a balance between the four perspectives (financial, customer/user, internal, and innovation/learning perspective) to avoid that the financial aspect is the driving force in developing and implementing a new information system, for example. PMID:10724849

  12. Automatic force balance calibration system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferris, Alice T. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A system for automatically calibrating force balances is provided. The invention uses a reference balance aligned with the balance being calibrated to provide superior accuracy while minimizing the time required to complete the calibration. The reference balance and the test balance are rigidly attached together with closely aligned moment centers. Loads placed on the system equally effect each balance, and the differences in the readings of the two balances can be used to generate the calibration matrix for the test balance. Since the accuracy of the test calibration is determined by the accuracy of the reference balance and current technology allows for reference balances to be calibrated to within .+-.0.05%, the entire system has an accuracy of a .+-.0.2%. The entire apparatus is relatively small and can be mounted on a movable base for easy transport between test locations. The system can also accept a wide variety of reference balances, thus allowing calibration under diverse load and size requirements.

  13. Automatic force balance calibration system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferris, Alice T.

    1995-05-01

    A system for automatically calibrating force balances is provided. The invention uses a reference balance aligned with the balance being calibrated to provide superior accuracy while minimizing the time required to complete the calibration. The reference balance and the test balance are rigidly attached together with closely aligned moment centers. Loads placed on the system equally effect each balance, and the differences in the readings of the two balances can be used to generate the calibration matrix for the test balance. Since the accuracy of the test calibration is determined by the accuracy of the reference balance and current technology allows for reference balances to be calibrated to within +/-0.05% the entire system has an accuracy of +/-0.2%. The entire apparatus is relatively small and can be mounted on a movable base for easy transport between test locations. The system can also accept a wide variety of reference balances, thus allowing calibration under diverse load and size requirements.

  14. Evaluating livestock system environmental performance with whole-farm nutrient balance.

    PubMed

    Koelsch, Rick

    2005-01-01

    As a part of the USEPA's concentrated animal feeding operation (CAFO) final rule, all CAFOs are required to develop and implement a nutrient management plan (NMP). The USEPA's emphasis on better management of nutrients appropriately targets a critical environmental issue associated with animal production. The concentration of animals in livestock feeding operations, often separate from feed grain production, requires importing of substantial quantities of feed nutrients. Due to the inefficiencies of nutrient utilization in livestock production, quantities of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in manure greater than can be utilized in local crop production often result. With the focus of the USEPA's NMP rules on internal farm manure management planning, nutrient concentrations resulting from animal concentration may not be adequately addressed by compliance with the USEPA rules alone. A review of two mandatory and two voluntary nutrient management strategies is made by comparing whole-farm nutrient balance for a case-study beef cattle feedlot. The results suggest that voluntary BMPs, such as modification to animal feeding program and exporting of manure, can have greater environmental benefits (30-60% reduction in P accumulation for case-study farm) than mandatory NMPs and buffers (5-7% reduction in P accumulation for case-study farm) for a typical beef cattle feedlot. Whole-farm nutrient balance procedures can also be valuable for reviewing the nutrient performance of livestock systems. PMID:15647544

  15. Active balance system and vibration balanced machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qiu, Songgang (Inventor); Augenblick, John E. (Inventor); Peterson, Allen A. (Inventor); White, Maurice A. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An active balance system is provided for counterbalancing vibrations of an axially reciprocating machine. The balance system includes a support member, a flexure assembly, a counterbalance mass, and a linear motor or an actuator. The support member is configured for attachment to the machine. The flexure assembly includes at least one flat spring having connections along a central portion and an outer peripheral portion. One of the central portion and the outer peripheral portion is fixedly mounted to the support member. The counterbalance mass is fixedly carried by the flexure assembly along another of the central portion and the outer peripheral portion. The linear motor has one of a stator and a mover fixedly mounted to the support member and another of the stator and the mover fixedly mounted to the counterbalance mass. The linear motor is operative to axially reciprocate the counterbalance mass.

  16. Evaluating surface energy balance system (SEBS) using aircraft data collected during BEAREX07

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is an essential component of the water balance and a major consumptive use of irrigation water and precipitation on cropland. Remote sensing based surface energy balance algorithms are now capable of providing accurate estimates of spatial-temporal ET. Uses of these spatial E...

  17. Evaluating the carbon balance estimate from an automated ground-level flux chamber system in artificial grass mesocosms.

    PubMed

    Heinemeyer, Andreas; Gornall, Jemma; Baxter, Robert; Huntley, Brian; Ineson, Phil

    2013-12-01

    Measuring and modeling carbon (C) stock changes in terrestrial ecosystems are pivotal in addressing global C-cycling model uncertainties. Difficulties in detecting small short-term changes in relatively large C stocks require the development of robust sensitive flux measurement techniques. Net ecosystem exchange (NEE) ground-level chambers are increasingly used to assess C dynamics in low vegetation ecosystems but, to date, have lacked formal rigorous field validation against measured C stock changes. We developed and deployed an automated and multiplexed C-flux chamber system in grassland mesocosms in order rigorously to compare ecosystem total C budget obtained using hourly C-flux measurements versus destructive net C balance. The system combines transparent NEE and opaque respiration chambers enabling partitioning of photosynthetic and respiratory fluxes. The C-balance comparison showed good agreement between the two methods, but only after NEE fluxes were corrected for light reductions due to chamber presence. The dark chamber fluxes allowed assessing temperature sensitivity of ecosystem respiration (R eco) components (i.e., heterotrophic vs. autotrophic) at different growth stages. We propose that such automated flux chamber systems can provide an accurate C balance, also enabling pivotal partitioning of the different C-flux components (e.g., photosynthesis and respiration) suitable for model evaluation and developments. PMID:24455131

  18. Evaluating the carbon balance estimate from an automated ground-level flux chamber system in artificial grass mesocosms

    PubMed Central

    Heinemeyer, Andreas; Gornall, Jemma; Baxter, Robert; Huntley, Brian; Ineson, Phil

    2013-01-01

    Measuring and modeling carbon (C) stock changes in terrestrial ecosystems are pivotal in addressing global C-cycling model uncertainties. Difficulties in detecting small short-term changes in relatively large C stocks require the development of robust sensitive flux measurement techniques. Net ecosystem exchange (NEE) ground-level chambers are increasingly used to assess C dynamics in low vegetation ecosystems but, to date, have lacked formal rigorous field validation against measured C stock changes. We developed and deployed an automated and multiplexed C-flux chamber system in grassland mesocosms in order rigorously to compare ecosystem total C budget obtained using hourly C-flux measurements versus destructive net C balance. The system combines transparent NEE and opaque respiration chambers enabling partitioning of photosynthetic and respiratory fluxes. The C-balance comparison showed good agreement between the two methods, but only after NEE fluxes were corrected for light reductions due to chamber presence. The dark chamber fluxes allowed assessing temperature sensitivity of ecosystem respiration (Reco) components (i.e., heterotrophic vs. autotrophic) at different growth stages. We propose that such automated flux chamber systems can provide an accurate C balance, also enabling pivotal partitioning of the different C-flux components (e.g., photosynthesis and respiration) suitable for model evaluation and developments. PMID:24455131

  19. Evaluating the Impact of Solar Generation on Balancing Requirements in Southern Nevada System

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Jian; Lu, Shuai; Etingov, Pavel V.; Makarov, Yuri V.

    2012-07-26

    Abstract—In this paper, the impacts of solar photovoltaic (PV) generation on balancing requirements including regulation and load following in the Southern Nevada balancing area are analyzed. The methodology is based on the “swinging door” algorithm and a probability box method developed by PNNL. The regulation and load following signals are mimicking the system’s scheduling and real-time dispatch processes. Load, solar PV generation and distributed PV generation (DG) data are used in the simulation. Different levels of solar PV generation and DG penetration profiles are used in the study. Sensitivity of the regulation requirements with respect to real-time solar PV generation forecast errors is analyzed.

  20. How Our Balance System Works

    MedlinePlus

    ... from your eyes, the inner ear, and the sensory systems of the body (such as the skin, muscles, ... function? How are vision, the inner ear, and sensory systems impacting functional balance? Some of the tests of ...

  1. Identifying Balance in a Balanced Scorecard System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aravamudhan, Suhanya; Kamalanabhan, T. J.

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, strategic management concepts seem to be gaining greater attention from the academicians and the practitioner's alike. Balanced Scorecard (BSC) concept is one such management concepts that has spread in worldwide business and consulting communities. The BSC translates mission and vision statements into a comprehensive set of…

  2. AN INITIAL EVALUATION OF THE BTRACKS BALANCE PLATE AND SPORTS BALANCE SOFTWARE FOR CONCUSSION DIAGNOSIS

    PubMed Central

    Manyak, Kristin A.; Abdenour, Thomas E.; Rauh, Mitchell J.; Baweja, Harsimran S.

    2016-01-01

    Background As recently dictated by the American Medical Society, balance testing is an important component in the clinical evaluation of concussion. Despite this, previous research on the efficacy of balance testing for concussion diagnosis suggests low sensitivity (∼30%), based primarily on the popular Balance Error Scoring System (BESS). The Balance Tracking System (BTrackS, Balance Tracking Systems Inc., San Diego, CA, USA) consists of a force plate (BTrackS Balance Plate) and software (BTrackS Sport Balance) which can quickly (<2 min) perform concussion balance testing with gold standard accuracy. Purpose The present study aimed to determine the sensitivity of the BTrackS Balance Plate and Sports Balance Software for concussion diagnosis. Study Design Cross-Sectional Study Methods Preseason baseline balance testing of 519 healthy Division I college athletes playing sports with a relatively high risk for concussions was performed with the BTrackS Balance Test. Testing was administered by certified athletic training staff using the BTrackS Balance Plate and Sport Balance software. Of the baselined athletes, 25 later experienced a concussion during the ensuing sport season. Post-injury balance testing was performed on these concussed athletes within 48 of injury and the sensitivity of the BTrackS Balance Plate and Sport Balance software was estimated based on the number of athletes showing a balance decline according to the criteria specified in the Sport Balance software. This criteria is based on the minimal detectable change statistic with a 90% confidence level (i.e. 90% specificity). Results Of 25 athletes who experienced concussions, 16 had balance declines relative to baseline testing results according to the BTrackS Sport Balance software criteria. This corresponds to an estimated concussion sensitivity of 64%, which is twice as great as that reported previously for the BESS. Conclusions The BTrackS Balance Plate and Sport Balance software has the

  3. A Balanced Higher Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Roger

    2011-01-01

    This article explores what is meant by "a balanced higher education system". It argues that the Clarkian "triangle of coordination" (Clark, 1983) and the more recent model of Martinez and Richardson (2003) should be replaced by one that distinguishes between "self" and "collective" interests in both the academy and the wider society. Such a scheme…

  4. Development of a multiplane multispeed balancing system for turbine systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, M. R.

    1984-01-01

    A prototype high speed balancing system was developed for assembled gas turbine engine modules. The system permits fully assembled gas turbine modules to be operated and balanced at selected speeds up to full turbine speed. The balancing system is a complete stand-alone system providing all necesary lubrication and support hardware for full speed operation. A variable speed motor provides the drive power. A drive belt and gearbox provide rotational speeds up to 21,000 rpm inside a vacuum chamber. The heart of the system is a dedicated minicomputer with attendant data acquisition, storage and I/O devices. The computer is programmed to be completely interactive with the operator. The system was installed at CCAD and evaluated by testing 20 T55 power turbines and 20 T53 power turbines. Engine test results verified the performance of the high speed balanced turbines.

  5. [A Standing Balance Evaluation Method Based on Largest Lyapunov Exponent].

    PubMed

    Liu, Kun; Wang, Hongrui; Xiao, Jinzhuang; Zhao, Qing

    2015-12-01

    In order to evaluate the ability of human standing balance scientifically, we in this study proposed a new evaluation method based on the chaos nonlinear analysis theory. In this method, a sinusoidal acceleration stimulus in forward/backward direction was forced under the subjects' feet, which was supplied by a motion platform. In addition, three acceleration sensors, which were fixed to the shoulder, hip and knee of each subject, were applied to capture the balance adjustment dynamic data. Through reconstructing the system phase space, we calculated the largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE) of the dynamic data of subjects' different segments, then used the sum of the squares of the difference between each LLE (SSDLLE) as the balance capabilities evaluation index. Finally, 20 subjects' indexes were calculated, and compared with evaluation results of existing methods. The results showed that the SSDLLE were more in line with the subjects' performance during the experiment, and it could measure the body's balance ability to some extent. Moreover, the results also illustrated that balance level was determined by the coordinate ability of various joints, and there might be more balance control strategy in the process of maintaining balance. PMID:27079089

  6. Evaluation of a distributed energy balance model for a high-altitude glacier on the Tibetan Plateau using a time lapse camera system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huintjes, Eva; Sauter, Tobias; Krenscher, Tobias; Maussion, Fabien; Kropacek, Jan; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Guoshuai; Kang, Shichang; Buchroithner, Manfred; Scherer, Dieter; Schneider, Christoph

    2013-04-01

    In the remote and high-altitude mountain areas of the Tibetan Plateau, climate observations as well as glacier-wide mass and energy balance determinations are scarce. Therefore, the application of models to determine reliable information on mass balance and runoff is important. Simultaneously, these circumstances make it difficult to evaluate the models. Since 2009, we operate an automatic weather station (AWS) in the ablation zone of Zhadang Glacier (5.665 m a.s.l.). The glacier is easily accessible. It is situated in the southern-central part of the Tibetan Plateau (30.5°N) in the Nam Co drainage basin and ranges between 5.400 and 5.900 m a.s.l. Based on these measurements over 2009-2012, we run and evaluate a physically based, distributed energy and mass balance model. The applied model couples an energy balance to a multilayer snow model and therefore accounts for subsurface processes like refreezing, subsurface melt and densification of the snowpack. First, the model is evaluated at point scale against measurements from the AWS. The results show that modelled accumulation and ablation patterns reproduce the observed changes in surface height very well. To evaluate the distributed model, we use daily images of a time lapse camera system installed nearby the glacier over 2010-2012. Therefore the non calibrated slope images had to be orthorectified using ground control points measured during field campaigns. The temporally and spatially highly resolved time series allows a detailed evaluation of the distributed energy balance model by analyzing the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of the snow line during the ablation season. First results show that the model captures the observed spatial heterogeneity of melt on the glacier surface. Subsequently to the evaluation the model will be applied on several glaciers and small ice caps in remote areas on the Tibetan Plateau to determine the linkages between climate fluctuations and glacier variability. The work is part

  7. Mass balance and exergy analysis of a fast pyrolysis system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mass balance closure and exergetic efficiency is evaluated for a bench scale fast pyrolysis system. The USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) has developed this system for processing energy crops and agricultural residues for bio-oil (pyrolysis oil or pyrolysis liquids) production. Mass balance c...

  8. Balance Systems and the Variational Bicomplex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preston, Serge

    2011-07-01

    In this work we show that the systems of balance equations (balance systems) of continuum thermodynamics occupy a natural place in the variational bicomplex formalism. We apply the vertical homotopy decomposition to get a local splitting (in a convenient domain) of a general balance system as the sum of a Lagrangian part and a complemental ''pure non-Lagrangian'' balance system. In the case when derivatives of the dynamical fields do not enter the constitutive relations of the balance system, the ''pure non-Lagrangian'' systems coincide with the systems introduced by S. Godunov [Soviet Math. Dokl. 2 (1961), 947-948] and, later, asserted as the canonical hyperbolic form of balance systems in [Müller I., Ruggeri T., Rational extended thermodynamics, 2nd ed., Springer Tracts in Natural Philosophy, Vol. 37, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1998].

  9. Application of Balanced Scorecard in the Evaluation of a Complex Health System Intervention: 12 Months Post Intervention Findings from the BHOMA Intervention: A Cluster Randomised Trial in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Mutale, Wilbroad; Stringer, Jeffrey; Chintu, Namwinga; Chilengi, Roma; Mwanamwenge, Margaret Tembo; Kasese, Nkatya; Balabanova, Dina; Spicer, Neil; Lewis, James; Ayles, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In many low income countries, the delivery of quality health services is hampered by health system-wide barriers which are often interlinked, however empirical evidence on how to assess the level and scope of these barriers is scarce. A balanced scorecard is a tool that allows for wider analysis of domains that are deemed important in achieving the overall vision of the health system. We present the quantitative results of the 12 months follow-up study applying the balanced scorecard approach in the BHOMA intervention with the aim of demonstrating the utility of the balanced scorecard in evaluating multiple building blocks in a trial setting. Methods The BHOMA is a cluster randomised trial that aims to strengthen the health system in three rural districts in Zambia. The intervention aims to improve clinical care quality by implementing practical tools that establish clear clinical care standards through intensive clinic implementations. This paper reports the findings of the follow-up health facility survey that was conducted after 12 months of intervention implementation. Comparisons were made between those facilities in the intervention and control sites. STATA version 12 was used for analysis. Results The study found significant mean differences between intervention(I) and control (C) sites in the following domains: Training domain (Mean I:C; 87.5.vs 61.1, mean difference 23.3, p = 0.031), adult clinical observation domain (mean I:C; 73.3 vs.58.0, mean difference 10.9, p = 0.02 ) and health information domain (mean I:C; 63.6 vs.56.1, mean difference 6.8, p = 0.01. There was no gender differences in adult service satisfaction. Governance and motivation scores did not differ between control and intervention sites. Conclusion This study demonstrates the utility of the balanced scorecard in assessing multiple elements of the health system. Using system wide approaches and triangulating data collection methods seems to be key to successful

  10. Longitudinal Study Evaluating Postural Balance of Young Athletes.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Nili; Nemet, Dan; Pantanowitz, Michal; Zeev, Aviva; Hallumi, Monder; Sindiani, Mahmood; Meckel, Yoav; Eliakim, Alon

    2016-02-01

    Repeated anaerobic conditions during athletic performance may cause general and local fatigue that result in postural balance deficit. Evidence suggests that improved postural balance during athletic training may decrease the risk for fallings and traumatic injuries among athletes. Twenty athletes (12 girls, 8 boys) and 20 controls (12 girls, 8 boys) ages 10-15 years participated in the current study. All athletes were active in an 8-month physical activity program, 3 times per week for 90 min., specific to basketball, soccer, or athletic training. The control children participated in physical education at school only, with no involvement in organized extracurricular sports. All participants were evaluated for postural balance in three assessments over one year (at 4-mo intervals); the Interactive Balance System machine (Tetrax device) was used to assess balance at three test times (pre-, post-, and 10 min) after a session of a repeated sprint anaerobic test, consisting of 12 × 20 m run starting every 20 sec. The athletes had better postural balance than controls. There were different group patterns of change over the sessions; a significant interaction of session and group indicated that postural balance of the groups differed. The contribution of low sway frequencies (F1) and high sway frequencies (F6) differed between the controls and the athletes group. Results suggested that although athletes had better postural balance, improvement should be encouraged during training over the sessions and seasons, with special awareness of the balance deficit that occurs immediately after anaerobic stress and at the end of the season, to decrease the risk of injuries. PMID:27420320

  11. Novel techniques for data decomposition and load balancing for parallel processing of vision systems: Implementation and evaluation using a motion estimation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhary, Alok Nidhi; Leung, Mun K.; Huang, Thomas S.; Patel, Janak H.

    1989-01-01

    Computer vision systems employ a sequence of vision algorithms in which the output of an algorithm is the input of the next algorithm in the sequence. Algorithms that constitute such systems exhibit vastly different computational characteristics, and therefore, require different data decomposition techniques and efficient load balancing techniques for parallel implementation. However, since the input data for a task is produced as the output data of the previous task, this information can be exploited to perform knowledge based data decomposition and load balancing. Presented here are algorithms for a motion estimation system. The motion estimation is based on the point correspondence between the involved images which are a sequence of stereo image pairs. Researchers propose algorithms to obtain point correspondences by matching feature points among stereo image pairs at any two consecutive time instants. Furthermore, the proposed algorithms employ non-iterative procedures, which results in saving considerable amounts of computation time. The system consists of the following steps: (1) extraction of features; (2) stereo match of images in one time instant; (3) time match of images from consecutive time instants; (4) stereo match to compute final unambiguous points; and (5) computation of motion parameters.

  12. Automatic balancing system with laser unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giers, A.

    1981-01-01

    A balancing plant for miniature rotor gyroscopes was developed, using a pulsed laser for material removal in order to perform the necessary measurements and balancing processes in one single operation. The plant, consisting of five units, is depicted and illustrated by graphs and photographs. The tests were intended to check the machine, to get experimental data, and to investigate the possibilities of this technology. As compared to conventional procedures, this automatic balancing process with laser compensation is rationalized, is faster, is cheaper, and provides a higher balancing quality. The test results confirm the system reliability as well as the process advantages.

  13. Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, DR

    2011-02-14

    A Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) has been installed collocated with each deployed ECOR system at the Southern Great Plains (SGP), North Slope of Alaska (NSA), Tropical Western Pacific (TWP), ARM Mobile Facility 1 (AMF1), and ARM Mobile Facility 2 (AMF2). The surface energy balance system consists of upwelling and downwelling solar and infrared radiometers within one net radiometer, a wetness sensor, and soil measurements. The SEBS measurements allow the comparison of ECOR sensible and latent heat fluxes with the energy balance determined from the SEBS and provide information on wetting of the sensors for data quality purposes.

  14. Clinical evaluation of a new biofeedback standing balance training device.

    PubMed

    Lee, M Y; Wong, M K; Tang, F T

    1996-01-01

    For patients with neurological damage of the central nervous system, such as that due to cerebrovascular accident (CVA), standing balance training is a critical therapeutic procedure to be undertaken before walking and self-care training. The identification and characterization of neurological disorder in postural steadiness will enhance our understanding of the postural control system, and help to identify patients at risk of falls in the CVA population. This paper discusses the design and clinical evaluation of a new biofeedback training device for static (postural steadiness) performance of the standing balance system. The device includes a height adjustable standing table, an instrumented force sensing platform, an on-line weight bearing audio/visual biofeedback system, a postural correction mirror, and a belt suspension system for the upper extremities. A quantitative evaluation protocol of bilateral asymmetries in weight distribution and postural sway to characterize standing balance with the force sensing platform is discussed. Finally, the clinical evaluation results of sixty patients with hemiplegia from acute stroke for a period of four weeks are discussed. With this economic standing training device, the static standing steadiness can be trained effectively through weight bearing biofeedback and a postural correction mirror in the clinical and home caring environments. PMID:8836924

  15. Balancing Broad Ideas with Context: An Evaluation of Student Accuracy in Describing Ecosystem Processes after a System-Level Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Rebecca C.; Brooks, Wesley R.; Hmelo-Silver, Cindy; Eberbach, Catherine; Sinha, Suparna

    2014-01-01

    Promoting student understanding of ecosystem processes is critical to biological education. Yet, teaching complex life systems can be difficult because systems are dynamic and often behave in a non-linear manner. In this paper, we discuss assessment results from a middle school classroom intervention in which a conceptual representation framework…

  16. Magnetic suspension and balance systems (MSBSs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britcher, Colin P.; Kilgore, Robert A.

    1987-01-01

    The problems of wind tunnel testing are outlined, with attention given to the problems caused by mechanical support systems, such as support interference, dynamic-testing restrictions, and low productivity. The basic principles of magnetic suspension are highlighted, along with the history of magnetic suspension and balance systems. Roll control, size limitations, high angle of attack, reliability, position sensing, and calibration are discussed among the problems and limitations of the existing magnetic suspension and balance systems. Examples of the existing systems are presented, and design studies for future systems are outlined. Problems specific to large-scale magnetic suspension and balance systems, such as high model loads, requirements for high-power electromagnets, high-capacity power supplies, highly sophisticated control systems and position sensors, and high costs are assessed.

  17. Magnetic suspension and balance system advanced study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boom, R. W.; Eyssa, Y. M.; Mcintosh, G. E.; Abdelsalam, M. K.

    1985-01-01

    An improved compact design for a superconducting magnetic suspension and balance system for an 8 ft. x 8 ft. transonic wind tunnel is developed. The original design of an MSBS in NASA Cr-3802 utilized 14 external superconductive coils and a superconductive solenoid in the airplane test model suspended in a wind tunnel. The improvements are in the following areas: test model solenoid options, dynamic force limits on the model, magnet cooling options, structure and cryogenic designs, power supply specifications, and cost and performance evaluations. The improvements are: MSBS cost reduction of 28%, weight; reduction of 43%, magnet system ampere-meter reduction of 38%, helium liquifier capacity reduction by 33%, magnet system stored energy reduction by 55%, AC loss to liquid helium reduced by 76%, system power supply reduced by 68%, test coil pole strength increased by 19%, wing magnetization increased by 40%, and control frequency limit increased by 200% from 10 Hz to 30 Hz. The improvements are due to: magnetic holmium coil forms in the test model, better rare earth permanent magnets in the wings, fiberglass-epoxy structure replacing stainless steel, better coil configuration, and new saddle roll coil design.

  18. Balanced bridge feedback control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lurie, Boris J. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    In a system having a driver, a motor, and a mechanical plant, a multiloop feedback control apparatus for controlling the movement and/or positioning of a mechanical plant, the control apparatus has a first local bridge feedback loop for feeding back a signal representative of a selected ratio of voltage and current at the output driver, and a second bridge feedback loop for feeding back a signal representative of a selected ratio of force and velocity at the output of the motor. The control apparatus may further include an outer loop for feeding back a signal representing the angular velocity and/or position of the mechanical plant.

  19. Evaluation of Two Energy Balance Closure Parametrizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eder, Fabian; De Roo, Frederik; Kohnert, Katrin; Desjardins, Raymond L.; Schmid, Hans Peter; Mauder, Matthias

    2014-05-01

    A general lack of energy balance closure indicates that tower-based eddy-covariance (EC) measurements underestimate turbulent heat fluxes, which calls for robust correction schemes. Two parametrization approaches that can be found in the literature were tested using data from the Canadian Twin Otter research aircraft and from tower-based measurements of the German Terrestrial Environmental Observatories (TERENO) programme. Our analysis shows that the approach of Huang et al. (Boundary-Layer Meteorol 127:273-292, 2008), based on large-eddy simulation, is not applicable to typical near-surface flux measurements because it was developed for heights above the surface layer and over homogeneous terrain. The biggest shortcoming of this parametrization is that the grid resolution of the model was too coarse so that the surface layer, where EC measurements are usually made, is not properly resolved. The empirical approach of Panin and Bernhofer (Izvestiya Atmos Oceanic Phys 44:701-716, 2008) considers landscape-level roughness heterogeneities that induce secondary circulations and at least gives a qualitative estimate of the energy balance closure. However, it does not consider any feature of landscape-scale heterogeneity other than surface roughness, such as surface temperature, surface moisture or topography. The failures of both approaches might indicate that the influence of mesoscale structures is not a sufficient explanation for the energy balance closure problem. However, our analysis of different wind-direction sectors shows that the upwind landscape-scale heterogeneity indeed influences the energy balance closure determined from tower flux data. We also analyzed the aircraft measurements with respect to the partitioning of the "missing energy" between sensible and latent heat fluxes and we could confirm the assumption of scalar similarity only for Bowen ratios 1.

  20. Reflective optical imaging system with balanced distortion

    DOEpatents

    Chapman, Henry N.; Hudyma, Russell M.; Shafer, David R.; Sweeney, Donald W.

    1999-01-01

    An optical system compatible with short wavelength (extreme ultraviolet) An optical system compatible with short wavelength (extreme ultraviolet) radiation comprising four reflective elements for projecting a mask image onto a substrate. The four optical elements comprise, in order from object to image, convex, concave, convex and concave mirrors. The optical system is particularly suited for step and scan lithography methods. The invention enables the use of larger slit dimensions associated with ring field scanning optics, improves wafer throughput and allows higher semiconductor device density. The inventive optical system is characterized by reduced dynamic distortion because the static distortion is balanced across the slit width.

  1. Efficacy of virtual reality-based balance training versus the Biodex balance system training on the body balance of adults

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Manal S.; Mattar, Ayman G.; Elhafez, Salam M.

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated efficacy of virtual reality (VR)-based balance training on enhancing balance and postural reactions of adults as a low-cost new modality compared to the established Biodex Balance System (BBS). [Subjects] Thirty normal adults of both genders were divided randomly into two equal-sized experimental groups of 15: BBS balance training and VR balance training. [Methods] The training programmes were conducted in 12 sessions, three 15-min sessions per week. The Nintendo® Wii Fit Plus (NWFP) and its balance board were used to train of the VR group. Each participant answered a questionnaire concerning usability, enjoyment, balance improvement, and fatigue at the end of the training programs. [Results] The study found a significant increase the measure of mean overall balance (OLB) in both groups. No significant difference was found between the groups, but a significant decrease in the mean balance-test time was found for both groups, with no significant difference between the two training methods. The VR programme was rated highly enjoyable by 81.8% of the group. [Conclusion] The Wii Fit Plus system with the balance board as a new VR balance-training technique, can be considered an effective and enjoyable tool for the training of adults’ body balance. PMID:26957722

  2. Efficacy of virtual reality-based balance training versus the Biodex balance system training on the body balance of adults.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Manal S; Mattar, Ayman G; Elhafez, Salam M

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated efficacy of virtual reality (VR)-based balance training on enhancing balance and postural reactions of adults as a low-cost new modality compared to the established Biodex Balance System (BBS). [Subjects] Thirty normal adults of both genders were divided randomly into two equal-sized experimental groups of 15: BBS balance training and VR balance training. [Methods] The training programmes were conducted in 12 sessions, three 15-min sessions per week. The Nintendo(®) Wii Fit Plus (NWFP) and its balance board were used to train of the VR group. Each participant answered a questionnaire concerning usability, enjoyment, balance improvement, and fatigue at the end of the training programs. [Results] The study found a significant increase the measure of mean overall balance (OLB) in both groups. No significant difference was found between the groups, but a significant decrease in the mean balance-test time was found for both groups, with no significant difference between the two training methods. The VR programme was rated highly enjoyable by 81.8% of the group. [Conclusion] The Wii Fit Plus system with the balance board as a new VR balance-training technique, can be considered an effective and enjoyable tool for the training of adults' body balance. PMID:26957722

  3. The Dynamic Balancer electrical safety systems

    SciTech Connect

    Konkel, H.

    1997-12-01

    The Pantex Plant Dynamic Balancer is used to identify physical imbalance in some weapon systems. This study was conducted at the request of the US Department of Energy/Albuquerque Operations Office (USDOE/AL) Dynamic Balancer Project Team to identify the electrical conditions required for motor over-speed to occur and to discuss the functions of the various electrical protective features associated with the Dynamic Balancer (DB). As is shown through the development of a fault tree, numerous electrical and human failures are required for over-speed conditions to occur. As directed by the Project Team, no effort was made to develop detailed fault trees for all electrical systems, to quantify basic events in the fault tree, or to develop accident scenarios leading to or resulting from over-speed. The Pantex Building 12-60, Bay 2, facility electrical circuits and grounding are described, and potential hazards are discussed. DB motor over-speed is a safety concern, and therefore, the controls that limit this condition are described and discussed in detail. Other safety-significant electrical circuits are discussed as well. These safety systems also are described in the facility Basis for Interim Operation. A potential for a motor over-speed that is not sensed by the standard safety protective systems does exist. This fault pathway is discussed, and recommendations to mitigate its effect are made.

  4. Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, D. R.

    2016-01-01

    A Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) has been installed collocated with each deployed Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System (ECOR) at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s Southern Great Plains (SGP) site, North Slope of Alaska (NSA) site, first ARM Mobile Facility (AMF1), second ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2), and third ARM Mobile Facility (AMF3) at Oliktok Point (OLI). A SEBS was also deployed with the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) site, before it was decommissioned. Data from these sites, including the retired TWP, are available in the ARM Data Archive. The SEBS consists of upwelling and downwelling solar and infrared radiometers within one net radiometer, a wetness sensor, and soil measurements. The SEBS measurements allow the comparison of ECOR sensible and latent heat fluxes with the energy balance determined from the SEBS and provide information on wetting of the sensors for data quality purposes.

  5. Battery Cell Balancing System and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, Francis J. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A battery cell balancing system is operable to utilize a relatively small number of transformers interconnected with a battery having a plurality of battery cells to selectively charge the battery cells. Windings of the transformers are simultaneously driven with a plurality of waveforms whereupon selected battery cells or groups of cells are selected and charged. A transformer drive circuit is operable to selectively vary the waveforms to thereby vary a weighted voltage associated with each of the battery cells.

  6. Reflective optical imaging system with balanced distortion

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, H.N.; Hudyma, R.M.; Shafer, D.R.; Sweeney, D.W.

    1999-10-26

    An optical system compatible with short wavelength (extreme ultraviolet) radiation comprising four reflective elements for projecting a mask image onto a substrate is disclosed. The four optical elements comprise, in order from object to image, convex, concave, convex and concave mirrors. The optical system is particularly suited for step and scan lithography methods. The invention enables the use of larger slit dimensions associated with ring field scanning optics, improves wafer throughput and allows higher semiconductor device density. The inventive optical system is characterized by reduced dynamic distortion because the static distortion is balanced across the slit width.

  7. Reflective optical imaging systems with balanced distortion

    DOEpatents

    Hudyma, Russell M.

    2001-01-01

    Optical systems compatible with extreme ultraviolet radiation comprising four reflective elements for projecting a mask image onto a substrate are described. The four optical elements comprise, in order from object to image, convex, concave, convex and concave mirrors. The optical systems are particularly suited for step and scan lithography methods. The invention enables the use of larger slit dimensions associated with ring field scanning optics, improves wafer throughput, and allows higher semiconductor device density. The inventive optical systems are characterized by reduced dynamic distortion because the static distortion is balanced across the slit width.

  8. Balancing Hydronic Systems in Multifamily Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Ruch, R.; Ludwig, P.; Maurer, T.

    2014-07-01

    In multifamily hydronic systems, temperature imbalance may be caused by undersized piping, improperly adjusted balancing valves, inefficient water temperature and flow levels, and owner/occupant interaction with the boilers, distribution and controls. The effects of imbalance include tenant discomfort, higher energy use intensity and inefficient building operation. This paper explores cost-effective distribution upgrades and balancing measures in multifamily hydronic systems, providing a resource to contractors, auditors, and building owners on best practices to improve tenant comfort and lower operating costs. The research was conducted by The Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) in conjunction with Elevate Energy. The team surveyed existing knowledge on cost-effective retrofits for optimizing distribution in typical multifamily hydronic systems, with the aim of identifying common situations and solutions, and then conducted case studies on two Chicago area buildings with known balancing issues in order to quantify the extent of temperature imbalance. At one of these buildings a booster pump was installed on a loop to an underheated wing of the building. This study found that unit temperature in a multifamily hydronic building can vary as much as 61 degrees F, particularly if windows are opened or tenants use intermittent supplemental heating sources like oven ranges. Average temperature spread at the building as a result of this retrofit decreased from 22.1 degrees F to 15.5 degrees F.

  9. Balancing Hydronic Systems in Multifamily Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Ruch, Russell; Ludwig, Peter; Maurer, Tessa

    2014-07-01

    In multifamily hydronic systems, temperature imbalance may be caused by undersized piping, improperly adjusted balancing valves, inefficient water temperature and flow levels, and owner/occupant interaction with the boilers, distribution, and controls. The imbalance leads to tenant discomfort, higher energy use intensity, and inefficient building operation. This research, conducted by Building America team Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, explores cost-effective distribution upgrades and balancing measures in multifamily hydronic systems, providing a resource to contractors, auditors, and building owners on best practices to improve tenant comfort and lower operating costs. The team surveyed existing knowledge on cost-effective retrofits for optimizing distribution in typical multifamily hydronic systems, with the aim of identifying common situations and solutions, and then conducted case studies on two Chicago area buildings with known balancing issues in order to quantify the extent of temperature imbalance. At one of these buildings a booster pump was installed on a loop to an underheated wing of the building. This study found that unit temperature in a multifamily hydronic building can vary as much as 61°F, particularly if windows are opened or tenants use intermittent supplemental heating sources like oven ranges. Average temperature spread at the building as a result of this retrofit decreased from 22.1°F to 15.5°F.

  10. Use of the Microsoft Kinect system to characterize balance ability during balance training

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Dohyung; Kim, ChoongYeon; Jung, HoHyun; Jung, Dukyoung; Chun, Keyoung Jin

    2015-01-01

    The risk of falling increases significantly in the elderly because of deterioration of the neural musculature regulatory mechanisms. Several studies have investigated methods of preventing falling using real-time systems to evaluate balance; however, it is difficult to monitor the results of such characterizations in real time. Herein, we describe the use of Microsoft’s Kinect depth sensor system to evaluate balance in real time. Six healthy male adults (25.5±1.8 years, 173.9±6.4 cm, 71.4±6.5 kg, and 23.6±2.4 kg/m2), with normal balance abilities and with no musculoskeletal disorders, were selected to participate in the experiment. Movements of the participants were induced by controlling the base plane of the balance training equipment in various directions. The dynamic motion of the subjects was measured using two Kinect depth sensor systems and a three-dimensional motion capture system with eight infrared cameras. The two systems yielded similar results for changes in the center of body mass (P>0.05) with a large Pearson’s correlation coefficient of γ>0.60. The results for the two systems showed similarity in the mean lower-limb joint angle with flexion–extension movements, and these values were highly correlated (hip joint: within approximately 4.6°; knee joint: within approximately 8.4°) (0.40<γ<0.74) (P>0.05). Large differences with a low correlation were, however, observed for the lower-limb joint angle in relation to abduction–adduction and internal–external rotation motion (γ<0.40) (P<0.05). These findings show that clinical and dynamic accuracy can be achieved using the Kinect system in balance training by measuring changes in the center of body mass and flexion–extension movements of the lower limbs, but not abduction–adduction and internal–external rotation. PMID:26170647

  11. System Risk Balancing Profiles: Software Component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, John C.; Sigal, Burton C.; Gindorf, Tom

    2000-01-01

    The Software QA / V&V guide will be reviewed and updated based on feedback from NASA organizations and others with a vested interest in this area. Hardware, EEE Parts, Reliability, and Systems Safety are a sample of the future guides that will be developed. Cost Estimates, Lessons Learned, Probability of Failure and PACTS (Prevention, Avoidance, Control or Test) are needed to provide a more complete risk management strategy. This approach to risk management is designed to help balance the resources and program content for risk reduction for NASA's changing environment.

  12. Magnetic suspension and balance system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boom, R. W.; Eyssa, Y. M.; Mcintosh, G. E.; Abdelsalam, M. K.

    1984-01-01

    A compact design for a superconducting magnetic suspension and balance system is developed for a 8 ft. x 8 ft. transonic wind tunnel. The main features of the design are: a compact superconducting solenoid in the suspended airplane model; permanent magnet wings; one common liquid helium dewar for all superconducting coils; efficient new race track coils for roll torques; use of established 11 kA cryostable AC conductor; acceptable AC losses during 10 Hz control even with all steel structure; and a 560 liter/hour helium liquefier. Considerable design simplicity, reduced magnet weights, and reduced heat leak results from using one common dewar which eliminates most heavy steel structure between coils and the suspended model. Operational availability is thought to approach 100% for such magnet systems. The weight and cost of the magnet system is approximately one-third that of previous less compact designs.

  13. Force balances in systems of cylindrical polyelectrolytes.

    PubMed

    Brenner, S L; McQuarrie, D A

    1973-04-01

    A detailed analysis is made of the model system of two parallel cylindrical polyelectrolytes which contain ionizable groups on their surfaces and are immersed in an ionic bathing medium. The interaction between the cylinders is examined by considering the interplay between repulsive electrostatic forces and attractive forces of electrodynamic origin. The repulsive force arises from the screened coulomb interaction between the surface charge distributions on the cylinders and has been treated by developing a solution to the linearized Poisson-Boltzmann equation. The boundary condition at the cylinder surfaces is determined as a self-consistent functional of the potential, with the input consisting of the density of ionizable groups and their dissociation constants. It is suggested that a reasonably accurate representation for the form of the attractive force can be obtained by performing a pairwise summation of the individual interatomic forces. A quantitative estimate is obtained using a Hamaker constant chosen on the basis of rigorous calculations on simpler systems. It is found that a balance exists between these repulsive and attractive forces at separations in good agreement with those observed in arrays of tobacco mosaic virus and in the A band myosin lattice in striated muscle. The behavior of the balance point as a function of the pH and ionic strength of the bathing medium closely parallels that seen experimentally. PMID:4696760

  14. Voltage balanced multilevel voltage source converter system

    DOEpatents

    Peng, F.Z.; Lai, J.S.

    1997-07-01

    Disclosed is a voltage balanced multilevel converter for high power AC applications such as adjustable speed motor drives and back-to-back DC intertie of adjacent power systems. This converter provides a multilevel rectifier, a multilevel inverter, and a DC link between the rectifier and the inverter allowing voltage balancing between each of the voltage levels within the multilevel converter. The rectifier is equipped with at least one phase leg and a source input node for each of the phases. The rectifier is further equipped with a plurality of rectifier DC output nodes. The inverter is equipped with at least one phase leg and a load output node for each of the phases. The inverter is further equipped with a plurality of inverter DC input nodes. The DC link is equipped with a plurality of rectifier charging means and a plurality of inverter discharging means. The plurality of rectifier charging means are connected in series with one of the rectifier charging means disposed between and connected in an operable relationship with each adjacent pair of rectifier DC output nodes. The plurality of inverter discharging means are connected in series with one of the inverter discharging means disposed between and connected in an operable relationship with each adjacent pair of inverter DC input nodes. Each of said rectifier DC output nodes are individually electrically connected to the respective inverter DC input nodes. By this means, each of the rectifier DC output nodes and each of the inverter DC input nodes are voltage balanced by the respective charging and discharging of the rectifier charging means and the inverter discharging means. 15 figs.

  15. Voltage balanced multilevel voltage source converter system

    DOEpatents

    Peng, Fang Zheng; Lai, Jih-Sheng

    1997-01-01

    A voltage balanced multilevel converter for high power AC applications such as adjustable speed motor drives and back-to-back DC intertie of adjacent power systems. This converter provides a multilevel rectifier, a multilevel inverter, and a DC link between the rectifier and the inverter allowing voltage balancing between each of the voltage levels within the multilevel converter. The rectifier is equipped with at least one phase leg and a source input node for each of the phases. The rectifier is further equipped with a plurality of rectifier DC output nodes. The inverter is equipped with at least one phase leg and a load output node for each of the phases. The inverter is further equipped with a plurality of inverter DC input nodes. The DC link is equipped with a plurality of rectifier charging means and a plurality of inverter discharging means. The plurality of rectifier charging means are connected in series with one of the rectifier charging means disposed between and connected in an operable relationship with each adjacent pair of rectifier DC output nodes. The plurality of inverter discharging means are connected in series with one of the inverter discharging means disposed between and connected in an operable relationship with each adjacent pair of inverter DC input nodes. Each of said rectifier DC output nodes are individually electrically connected to the respective inverter DC input nodes. By this means, each of the rectifier DC output nodes and each of the inverter DC input nodes are voltage balanced by the respective charging and discharging of the rectifier charging means and the inverter discharging means.

  16. BALANCE

    DOEpatents

    Carmichael, H.

    1953-01-01

    A torsional-type analytical balance designed to arrive at its equilibrium point more quickly than previous balances is described. In order to prevent external heat sources creating air currents inside the balance casing that would reiard the attainment of equilibrium conditions, a relatively thick casing shaped as an inverted U is placed over the load support arms and the balance beam. This casing is of a metal of good thernnal conductivity characteristics, such as copper or aluminum, in order that heat applied to one portion of the balance is quickly conducted to all other sensitive areas, thus effectively preventing the fornnation of air currents caused by unequal heating of the balance.

  17. Determination and evaluation of organic balances of alumina refineries

    SciTech Connect

    Solymar, K.; Gimpel-Kazar, M.; Molnar, E.

    1996-10-01

    The adequate measures to control the organic level and especially that of humates and oxalate need the determination and evaluation of the organic balance of the given alumina plant. The organic materials of the different alumina refineries have special compositions, therefore it is very difficult and limited to draw general and common conclusions for all alumina refineries concerning the role and control of organics. The methodology of the determination of the organic balance of an alumina plant will be discussed. The qualitative and quantitative determination of organic materials has been performed by means of gas-chromatography of the esterized organic materials. The organic balances of three different alumina refineries will be compared and evaluated relating to the total organic and oxalate contents.

  18. iBalance-ABF: a smartphone-based audio-biofeedback balance system.

    PubMed

    Franco, C; Fleury, A; Gumery, P Y; Diot, B; Demongeot, J; Vuillerme, N

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes an implementation of a Kalman filter, using inertial sensors of a smartphone, to estimate 3-D angulation of the trunk. The developed system monitors the trunk angular evolution during bipedal stance and helps the user to improve balance through a configurable and integrated auditory-biofeedback (ABF) loop. A proof-of-concept study was performed to assess the effectiveness of this so-called iBalance-ABF--smartphone-based audio-biofeedback system--in improving balance during bipedal standing. Results showed that young healthy individuals were able to efficiently use ABF on sagittal trunk tilt to improve their balance in the medial-lateral direction. These findings suggest that the iBalance-ABF system as a telerehabilitation system could represent a suitable solution for ambient assisted living technologies. PMID:23047859

  19. Implementation and Performance Evaluation Using the Fuzzy Network Balanced Scorecard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tseng, Ming-Lang

    2010-01-01

    The balanced scorecard (BSC) is a multi-criteria evaluation concept that highlights the importance of performance measurement. However, although there is an abundance of literature on the BSC framework, there is a scarcity of literature regarding how the framework with dependence and interactive relationships should be properly implemented in…

  20. Surface energy and radiation balance systems - General description and improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritschen, Leo J.; Simpson, James R.

    1989-01-01

    Surface evaluation of sensible and latent heat flux densities and the components of the radiation balance were desired for various vegetative surfaces during the ASCOT84 experiment to compare with modeled results and to relate these values to drainage winds. Five battery operated data systems equipped with sensors to determine the above values were operated for 105 station days during the ASCOT84 experiment. The Bowen ratio energy balance technique was used to partition the available energy into the sensible and latent heat flux densities. A description of the sensors and battery operated equipment used to collect and process the data is presented. In addition, improvements and modifications made since the 1984 experiment are given. Details of calculations of soil heat flow at the surface and an alternate method to calculate sensible and latent heat flux densities are provided.

  1. Dynamic Load Balancing on Single- and Multi-GPU Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Long; Villa, Oreste; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Gao, Guang R.

    2010-04-19

    The computational power provided by many-core graphics processing units (GPUs) has been exploited in many applications. The programming techniques supported and employed on these GPUs are not sufficient to address problems exhibiting irregular, and unbalanced workload. The problem is exacerbated when trying to effectively exploit multiple GPUs, which are commonly available in many modern systems. In this paper, we propose a task-based dynamic load-balancing solution for single- and multi-GPU systems. The solution allows load balancing at a finer granularity than what is supported in existing APIs such as NVIDIA’s CUDA. We evaluate our approach using both micro-benchmarks and a molecular dynamics application that exhibits significant load imbalance. Experimental results with a single-GPU configuration show that our fine-grained task solution can utilize the hardware more efficiently than the CUDA scheduler for unbalanced workload. On multi-GPU systems, our solution achieves near-linear speedup, load balance, and significant performance improvement over techniques based on standard CUDA APIs.

  2. The liver: conductor of systemic iron balance

    PubMed Central

    Meynard, Delphine; Babitt, Jodie L.

    2014-01-01

    Iron is a micronutrient essential for almost all organisms: bacteria, plants, and animals. It is a metal that exists in multiple redox states, including the divalent ferrous (Fe2+) and the trivalent ferric (Fe3+) species. The multiple oxidation states of iron make it excellent for electron transfer, allowing iron to be selected during evolution as a cofactor for many proteins involved in central cellular processes including oxygen transport, mitochondrial respiration, and DNA synthesis. However, the redox cycling of ferrous and ferric iron in the presence of H2O2, which is physiologically present in the cells, also leads to the production of free radicals (Fenton reaction) that can attack and damage lipids, proteins, DNA, and other cellular components. To meet the physiological needs of the body, but to prevent cellular damage by iron, the amount of iron in the body must be tightly regulated. Here we review how the liver is the central conductor of systemic iron balance and show that this central role is related to the secretion of a peptide hormone hepcidin by hepatocytes. We then review how the liver receives and integrates the many signals that report the body’s iron needs to orchestrate hepcidin production and maintain systemic iron homeostasis. PMID:24200681

  3. Demand-Supply Balancing Capability Analysis for a Future Power System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogimoto, Kazuhiko; Kataoka, Kazuto; Ikegami, Takashi; Nonaka, Shunsuke; Azuma, Hitoshi; Fukutome, Suguru

    Under the anticipated high penetration of variable renewable energy generation such as photovoltaics and higher share of nuclear generation, the issue of supply-demand balancing capability should be evaluated and fixed in a future power system. Improvement of existing balancing measures and new technologies such as demand activation and energy storage are expected to solve the issue. Under the situation, a long-range power system supply-demand analysis should have the capability to evaluate the balancing capability and balancing counter measures. This paper presents a new analysis methodology of activated demand model and evaluation of supply-demand balancing capability for a long-range power system demand-supply analysis model, ESPRIT. Model analysis was made to verify the new methodology of the tool including day-ahead scheduling of a heat pump water heater, an EV/PHEV and a battery.

  4. Lubricating system for an engine balancing device

    SciTech Connect

    Candea, C.

    1987-07-07

    An internal combustion engine is described having an engine block with cylinder bores, pistons, connecting rods and a crankshaft with the pistons and associated connecting rods movable in the parallel cylinder bores of the engine block when the crankshaft rotates. It generates a periodic unbalance force with each half-rotation of the crankshaft. An improved balancing device generates an opposing force to effectively cancel the unbalance forces of the pistons and connecting rods, comprising: the balancing device including a housing enclosure located beneath the crankshaft and block. The housing has a hollow interior and a pair of apertures at either end. A pair of elongated balance shafts extend in parallelism through the hollow interior with adjacent end portions projecting through the apertures supporting the balance shafts for rotation in the housing; the housing is supported by the block and beneath the crankshaft and with the balance shafts in parallelism with the crankshaft axis. Means are attached to the housing forming an enclosure having an interior enclosing adjacent end portions of the balance shafts which project from an end of the housing; means lubricate the shaft mounting apertures and discharge oil from the interiors of the housing and the enclosure means; a vacuum breaks air bleed means in an upper portion of the enclosure for facilitating the discharge of oil from the enclosure interior.

  5. Development of Load Balancing Systems in a Parallel MRP System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukishima, Takahiro; Sato, Masahiro; Onari, Hisashi

    The application of parallel computing system to MRP (Material Requirements Planning) is essential to achieve a real-time demand forecasting for a whole Supply Chain which consists of Multiple enterprises near future. The MRP using loosely connected multi-computer system is examined here. New methods of synchronization, load balancing and data access are required to keep high parallel efficiency increasing PE’s(Processing Elements). In this paper load balancing and data access methods are proposed. The prototype system can keep 96% parallel efficiency for the MRP with 120, 000 items on the 6 PE’s structure and can be robust against unbalanced load. The processing speed increases in liner fashion.

  6. Evaluating Teaching and Research Activities--Finding the Right Balance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidal, Javier; Mora, Jose-Gines

    2003-01-01

    Analyzes on a national, regional, and institutional level the evaluation systems used to assess teaching and research activities at Spanish universities. Also examines ways in which evaluation systems orient to promote research activities to the detriment of teaching activities. (SWM)

  7. Computational evaluation of load carriage effects on gait balance stability.

    PubMed

    Mummolo, Carlotta; Park, Sukyung; Mangialardi, Luigi; Kim, Joo H

    2016-08-01

    Evaluating the effects of load carriage on gait balance stability is important in various applications. However, their quantification has not been rigorously addressed in the current literature, partially due to the lack of relevant computational indices. The novel Dynamic Gait Measure (DGM) characterizes gait balance stability by quantifying the relative effects of inertia in terms of zero-moment point, ground projection of center of mass, and time-varying foot support region. In this study, the DGM is formulated in terms of the gait parameters that explicitly reflect the gait strategy of a given walking pattern and is used for computational evaluation of the distinct balance stability of loaded walking. The observed gait adaptations caused by load carriage (decreased single support duration, inertia effects, and step length) result in decreased DGM values (p < 0.0001), which indicate that loaded walking motions are more statically stable compared with the unloaded normal walking. Comparison of the DGM with other common gait stability indices (the maximum Floquet multiplier and the margin of stability) validates the unique characterization capability of the DGM, which is consistently informative of the presence of the added load. PMID:26691823

  8. Strain-gage balance calibration of a magnetic suspension and balance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Paul W.; Tcheng, Ping

    A load calibration of the NASA 13-in magnetic suspension and balance system (MSBS) is described. The calibration procedure was originally intended to establish the empirical relationship between the coil currents and the external loads (forces and moments) applied to a magnetically suspended calibrator. However, it was discovered that the performance of a strain-gage balance is not affected when subjected to the magnetic environment of the MSBS. The use of strain-gage balances greatly reduces the effort required to perform a current-vs.-load calibration as external loads can be directly inferred from the balance outputs while a calibrator is suspended in MSBS. It is conceivable that in the future such a calibration could become unnecessary, since an even more important application for the use of a strain-gage balance in MSBS environment is the acquisition of precision aerodynamic force and moment data by telemetering the balance outputs from a suspended model/core/balance during wind tunnel tests.

  9. Strain-gage balance calibration of a magnetic suspension and balance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Paul W.; Tcheng, Ping

    1987-01-01

    A load calibration of the NASA 13-in magnetic suspension and balance system (MSBS) is described. The calibration procedure was originally intended to establish the empirical relationship between the coil currents and the external loads (forces and moments) applied to a magnetically suspended calibrator. However, it was discovered that the performance of a strain-gage balance is not affected when subjected to the magnetic environment of the MSBS. The use of strain-gage balances greatly reduces the effort required to perform a current-vs.-load calibration as external loads can be directly inferred from the balance outputs while a calibrator is suspended in MSBS. It is conceivable that in the future such a calibration could become unnecessary, since an even more important application for the use of a strain-gage balance in MSBS environment is the acquisition of precision aerodynamic force and moment data by telemetering the balance outputs from a suspended model/core/balance during wind tunnel tests.

  10. Broken detailed balance at mesoscopic scales in active biological systems.

    PubMed

    Battle, Christopher; Broedersz, Chase P; Fakhri, Nikta; Geyer, Veikko F; Howard, Jonathon; Schmidt, Christoph F; MacKintosh, Fred C

    2016-04-29

    Systems in thermodynamic equilibrium are not only characterized by time-independent macroscopic properties, but also satisfy the principle of detailed balance in the transitions between microscopic configurations. Living systems function out of equilibrium and are characterized by directed fluxes through chemical states, which violate detailed balance at the molecular scale. Here we introduce a method to probe for broken detailed balance and demonstrate how such nonequilibrium dynamics are manifest at the mesosopic scale. The periodic beating of an isolated flagellum from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii exhibits probability flux in the phase space of shapes. With a model, we show how the breaking of detailed balance can also be quantified in stationary, nonequilibrium stochastic systems in the absence of periodic motion. We further demonstrate such broken detailed balance in the nonperiodic fluctuations of primary cilia of epithelial cells. Our analysis provides a general tool to identify nonequilibrium dynamics in cells and tissues. PMID:27126047

  11. Balancing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harteveld, Casper

    At many occasions we are asked to achieve a “balance” in our lives: when it comes, for example, to work and food. Balancing is crucial in game design as well as many have pointed out. In games with a meaningful purpose, however, balancing is remarkably different. It involves the balancing of three different worlds, the worlds of Reality, Meaning, and Play. From the experience of designing Levee Patroller, I observed that different types of tensions can come into existence that require balancing. It is possible to conceive of within-worlds dilemmas, between-worlds dilemmas, and trilemmas. The first, the within-world dilemmas, only take place within one of the worlds. We can think, for example, of a user interface problem which just relates to the world of Play. The second, the between-worlds dilemmas, have to do with a tension in which two worlds are predominantly involved. Choosing between a cartoon or a realistic style concerns, for instance, a tension between Reality and Play. Finally, the trilemmas are those in which all three worlds play an important role. For each of the types of tensions, I will give in this level a concrete example from the development of Levee Patroller. Although these examples come from just one game, I think the examples can be exemplary for other game development projects as they may represent stereotypical tensions. Therefore, to achieve harmony in any of these forthcoming games, it is worthwhile to study the struggles we had to deal with.

  12. Farm nitrogen balances in six European agricultural landscapes - a method for farming system assessment, emission hotspot identification, and mitigation measure evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalgaard, T.; Bienkowski, J. F.; Bleeker, A.; Drouet, J. L.; Durand, P.; Dragosits, U.; Frumau, A.; Hutchings, N. J.; Kedziora, A.; Magliulo, V.; Olesen, J. E.; Theobald, M. R.; Maury, O.; Akkal, N.; Cellier, P.

    2012-07-01

    Six agricultural landscapes in Poland (PL), the Netherlands (NL), France (FR), Italy (IT), Scotland (UK) and Denmark (DK) were studied, and a common method was developed for undertaking farm inventories and the derivation of farm nitrogen (N) balances and N surplus from the in total 222 farms and 11 440 ha of farmland. In all landscapes, a large variation in the farm N surplus was found, and thereby a large potential for reductions. The highest average N surpluses were found in the most livestock-intensive landscapes of IT, FR, and NL; on average 202 ± 28, 179 ± 63 and 178 ± 20 kg N ha-1yr-1, respectively. However, all landscapes showed hotspots, especially from livestock farms, including a special UK case with landless large-scale poultry farming. So, whereas the average N surplus from the land-based UK farms dominated by extensive sheep grazing was only 31 ± 10 kg N ha-1yr-1, the landscape average was similar to those of PL and DK (122 ± 20 and 146 ± 55 kg N ha-1yr-1, respectively) when landless poultry were included. However, the challenge remains how to account for indirect N surpluses and emissions from such farms with a large export of manure out of the landscape. We conclude that farm N balances are a useful indicator for N losses and the potential for improving N management. Significant correlations to N surplus were found, both with ammonia air concentrations and nitrate levels in soils and groundwater, measured during the landscape data collection campaign from 2007-2009. This indicates that farm N surpluses may be used as an independent dataset for validation of measured and modelled N emissions in agricultural landscapes. However, no significant correlation was found to N measured in surface waters, probably because of the short time horizon of the study. A case study of the development in N surplus from the landscape in DK from 1998-2008 showed a 22 % reduction, related to statistically significant effects (p < 0.01) of measures targeted at

  13. Validation of a robotic balance system for investigations in the control of human standing balance.

    PubMed

    Luu, Billy L; Huryn, Thomas P; Van der Loos, H F Machiel; Croft, Elizabeth A; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien

    2011-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that human body sway during standing approximates the mechanics of an inverted pendulum pivoted at the ankle joints. In this study, a robotic balance system incorporating a Stewart platform base was developed to provide a new technique to investigate the neural mechanisms involved in standing balance. The robotic system, programmed with the mechanics of an inverted pendulum, controlled the motion of the body in response to a change in applied ankle torque. The ability of the robotic system to replicate the load properties of standing was validated by comparing the load stiffness generated when subjects balanced their own body to the robot's mechanical load programmed with a low (concentrated-mass model) or high (distributed-mass model) inertia. The results show that static load stiffness was not significantly (p > 0.05) different for standing and the robotic system. Dynamic load stiffness for the robotic system increased with the frequency of sway, as predicted by the mechanics of an inverted pendulum, with the higher inertia being accurately matched to the load properties of the human body. This robotic balance system accurately replicated the physical model of standing and represents a useful tool to simulate the dynamics of a standing person. PMID:21511567

  14. Pressure transducer system is force-balanced, has digital output

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Forced-balanced pressure transducer and associated circuitry controls pressure testing of space equipment systems under actual operating conditions. The transducer and circuitry automatically converts the sensed pressure to digital form.

  15. Spectrally balanced chromatic landing approach lighting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chase, W. D. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    Red warning lights delineate the runway approach with additional blue lights juxtaposed with the red lights such that the red lights are chromatically balanced. The red/blue point light sources result in the phenomenon that the red lights appear in front of the blue lights with about one and one-half times the diameter of the blue. To a pilot observing these lights along a glide path, those red lights directly below appear to be nearer than the blue lights. For those lights farther away seen in perspective at oblique angles, the red lights appear to be in a position closer to the pilot and hence appear to be above the corresponding blue lights. This produces a very pronounced three dimensional effect referred to as chromostereopsis which provides valuable visual cues to enable the pilot to perceive his actual position above the ground and the actual distance to the runway.

  16. Human Balance System: A Complex Coordination of Central and Peripheral Systems

    MedlinePlus

    ... 8428 · INFO @ VESTIBULAR . ORG · WWW . VESTIBULAR . ORG The Human Balance System — A Complex Coordination of Central and ... support. 1 A properly functioning balance system allows humans to see clearly while moving, identify orientation with ...

  17. Development of closed loop roll control for magnetic balance systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Covert, E. E.; Haldeman, C. W.; Ramohalli, G.; Way, P.

    1982-01-01

    This research was undertaken with the goal of demonstrating closed loop control of the roll degree of freedom on the NASA prototype magnetic suspension and balance system at the MIT Aerophysics Laboratory, thus, showing feasibility for a roll control system for any large magnetic balance system which might be built in the future. During the research under this grant, study was directed toward the several areas of torque generation, position sensing, model construction and control system design. These effects were then integrated to produce successful closed loop operation of the analogue roll control system. This experience indicated the desirability of microprocessor control for the angular degrees of freedom.

  18. Environmental performance evaluation and strategy management using balanced scorecard.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yu-Lung; Liu, Chun-Chu

    2010-11-01

    Recently, environmental protection and regulations such as WEEE, ELV, and RoHS are rapidly emerging as an important issue for business to consider. The trend of swinging from end-of-pipe control to product design, green innovation, and even the establishment of image or brand has affected corporations in almost every corner in the world, and enlarged to the all modern global production network. Corporations must take proactive environmental strategies to response the challenges. This study adopts balanced scorecard structure and aim at automobile industries to understand the relationships of internal and external, financial and non-financial, and outcome and driving factors. Further relying on these relationships to draw the "map of environment strategy" to probe and understand the feasibility of environmental performance evaluation and environmental strategy control. PMID:20020324

  19. Projection-free approximate balanced truncation of large unstable systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flinois, Thibault L. B.; Morgans, Aimee S.; Schmid, Peter J.

    2015-08-01

    In this article, we show that the projection-free, snapshot-based, balanced truncation method can be applied directly to unstable systems. We prove that even for unstable systems, the unmodified balanced proper orthogonal decomposition algorithm theoretically yields a converged transformation that balances the Gramians (including the unstable subspace). We then apply the method to a spatially developing unstable system and show that it results in reduced-order models of similar quality to the ones obtained with existing methods. Due to the unbounded growth of unstable modes, a practical restriction on the final impulse response simulation time appears, which can be adjusted depending on the desired order of the reduced-order model. Recommendations are given to further reduce the cost of the method if the system is large and to improve the performance of the method if it does not yield acceptable results in its unmodified form. Finally, the method is applied to the linearized flow around a cylinder at Re = 100 to show that it actually is able to accurately reproduce impulse responses for more realistic unstable large-scale systems in practice. The well-established approximate balanced truncation numerical framework therefore can be safely applied to unstable systems without any modifications. Additionally, balanced reduced-order models can readily be obtained even for large systems, where the computational cost of existing methods is prohibitive.

  20. Digital control of wind tunnel magnetic suspension and balance systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britcher, Colin P.; Goodyer, Michael J.; Eskins, Jonathan; Parker, David; Halford, Robert J.

    1987-01-01

    Digital controllers are being developed for wind tunnel magnetic suspension and balance systems, which in turn permit wind tunnel testing of aircraft models free from support interference. Hardware and software features of two existing digital control systems are reviewed. Some aspects of model position sensing and system calibration are also discussed.

  1. Research developing closed loop roll control for magnetic balance systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Covert, E. E.; Haldeman, C. W.

    1981-01-01

    Computer inputs were interfaced to the magnetic balance outputs to provide computer position control and data acquisition. The use of parameter identification of a means of determining dynamic characteristics was investigated. The thyraton and motor generator power supplies for the pitch and yaw degrees of freedom were repaired. Topics covered include: choice of a method for handling dynamic system data; applications to the magnetic balance; the computer interface; and wind tunnel tests, results, and error analysis.

  2. The Impact of Solar Photovoltaic Generation on Balancing Requirements in the Southern Nevada System

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Jian; Lu, Shuai; Hafen, Ryan P.; Etingov, Pavel V.; Makarov, Yuri V.; Chadliev, Vladimir

    2012-05-07

    Abstract—The impact of integrating large-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) generation on the balancing requirements in terms of regulation and load-following requirements in the southern Nevada balancing area is evaluated. The “swinging door” algorithm and the “probability box” method developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) were used to quantify the impact of large PV generation on the balancing requirements of the system operations. The system’s actual scheduling, real-time dispatch and regulation processes were simulated. Different levels of distributed generation were also considered in the study. The impact of hourly solar PV generation forecast errors on regulation and load-following requirements was assessed. The sensitivity of balancing requirements with respect to real-time forecast errors of large PV generation was analyzed. Index Terms—Ancillary services, balancing requirements, load following, regulation, renewables integration, swinging door

  3. On Evaluating Cycling and Movement of Conventional Generators for Balancing Services with Large Solar Penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Diao, Ruisheng; Lu, Shuai; Ma, Jian

    2012-05-07

    Abstract— The increasing uncertainty caused by a higher penetration level of renewable energy points to the need for sufficient balancing services to ensure secure operation. It is thus of necessity to accurately quantify these services and evaluate the cycling and movement of conventional generators providing load following and regulation services for optimally planning and scheduling multiple resources. This paper first introduces a systematic approach to calculating load following and regulation requirements with a large amount of solar integration. Then, two methods to quantitatively determine the cycling of conventional generators are proposed, including (1) mileage and number of direction changes in balancing service and (2) ramp statistics (or half-cycle) analysis. The proposed methods are tested on the NV Energy power system model. Simulation results demonstrate a significant impact of increased solar capacity on balancing service and cycling of conventional generators. Busy hours are identified for different study scenarios with various solar penetration levels. This study provides a basis for evaluating the wear and tear of the conventional generators in the solar integration process in the Nevada power system. Index Terms—balancing requirement, conventional generator, cycling and movement, load following, regulation, renewable energy, solar integration

  4. An Analysis of System Balance Requirements for Scientific Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Alam, Sadaf R; Vetter, Jeffrey S

    2006-08-01

    Scientific applications are diverse in terms of the resource requirements, and tend to vary significantly from commercial applications. In order to provide sustained performance, a target high performance computing (HPC) platform must offer a balance between CPU performance to memory, interconnect and I/O subsystems performance. We characterize the system balance requirements for two large-scale Office of Science applications, GYRO (fusion simulation) and POP (climate modeling), and develop platform-independent parameterized requirement models. We measure the parallel efficiencies for GYRO and POP on three multiprocessor systems: an SMP cluster (IBM p690), a shared-memory system (SGI Altix) and a vector supercomputer (Cray X1). The higher computational intensity and interconnect bandwidth requirements of GYRO result in higher performance efficiencies on the vector platform. At the same time, small message sizes in POP benefit from low MPI latencies of the shared-memory platform. Overall results confirm system balance requirements that are generated by the requirement models.

  5. Balancing the Contradictions between Accountability and Systemic Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kersaint, Gladis; Borman, Kathryn M.; Lee, Reginald; Boydston, Theodore L.

    2001-01-01

    Examines effects of the National Urban League's Systemic Initiative reforms in four cities: Chicago, El Paso, Memphis, and Miami, based on an analysis of interviews with 47 principals. Principals must balance the demands of systemic math and science reforms with those of multilevel accountability policies. Such alignments may be unachievable.…

  6. NASA Langley Magnetic Suspension/Balance System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A shuttle model is magnetically suspended in the transparent hexagonal test section of the MIT/NASA Langley 6 inch MSBS. Massive power supplies are required to drive electromagnets for model position control. A unique electromagnetic position sensor, similar to a linear variable differential transformer, provides five degrees of freedom for the test model. The low speed (Mach 0.5) wind tunnel was hand crafted from mahogany. Aerodynamic forces on the test model are measured by the proportional electrical current used to hold the model in place. The system was built by MIT in the late sixties, and was relocated to Langley in the mid eighties. In a joint effort with Old Dominion University in 1992 the MSBS was used to test the aerodynamics of store separation, simulating a bomb released from an aircraft. The system has been donated to Old Dominion University.

  7. System balance analysis for vector computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, J. C.; Poole, W. G., Jr.; Voight, R. G.

    1975-01-01

    The availability of vector processors capable of sustaining computing rates of 10 to the 8th power arithmetic results pers second raised the question of whether peripheral storage devices representing current technology can keep such processors supplied with data. By examining the solution of a large banded linear system on these computers, it was found that even under ideal conditions, the processors will frequently be waiting for problem data.

  8. Photovoltaic balance-of-system designs and costs at PVUSA

    SciTech Connect

    Reyes, A.B.; Jennings, C.

    1995-05-01

    This report is one in a series of 1994-1995 PVUSA reports that document PVUSA lessons learned at demonstration sites in California and Texas. During the last 7 years (1988 to 1994), 16 PV systems ranging from 20 kW to 500 kW have been installed. Six 20-kW emerging module technology (EMT) arrays and three turnkey (i.e., vendor designed and integrated) utility-scale systems were procured and installed at PVUSA`s main test site in Davis, California. PVUSA host utilities have installed a total of seven EMT arrays and utility-scale systems in their service areas. Additional systems at Davis and host utility sites are planned. One of PVUSA`s key objectives is to evaluate the performance, reliability, and cost of PV balance-of-system (BOS). In the procurement stage PVUSA encouraged innovative design to improve upon present practice by reducing maintenance, improving reliability, or lowering manufacturing or construction costs. The project team worked closely with suppliers during the design stage not only to ensure designs met functional and safety specifications, but to provide suggestions for improvement. This report, intended for the photovoltaic (PV) industry and for utility project managers and engineers considering PV plant construction and ownership, documents PVUSA utility-scale system design and cost lessons learned. Complementary PVUSA topical reports document: construction and safety experience; five-year assessment of EMTs; validation of the Kerman 500-kW grid-support PV plant benefits; PVUSA instrumentation and data analysis techniques; procurement, acceptance, and rating practices for PV power plants; experience with power conditioning units and power quality.

  9. Carbon balances during land conversion in early bioenergy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenone, T.; Chen, J.; Gelfand, I.; Robertson, G. P.; Hamilton, S. K.

    2012-12-01

    In this study, we established a field experiment and deployed seven eddy-covariance towers to quantify the roles of land use change and the subsequent carbon (C) balances of three different bioenergy systems (corn, switchgrass, and mixed prairie species) that were developed from two historical land use types: monocultural grasslands dominated by smooth brome (Bromus inermis Leyss) and lands in the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP). Three CRP fields and three cropland fields were converted to soybean in 2009 (conversion year) before establishing the cellulosic biofuel cropping systems in 2010 (establishment year). A CRP perennial grassland site was kept undisturbed as a reference. Conversion of CRP to soybean induced net C emissions during the conversion year (134 -262 g C m-2 yr-1), while in the same year the net C balance at the CRP grassland reference was -35 g C m-2 yr-1 (i.e., net C sequestration). The establishment of switchgrass and mixed prairie induced a cumulative C balance of -113 g C m-2 (switchgrass from CRP), 250 g C m-2 (switchgrass from cropland), 706 g C m-2 (mixed prairie from CRP), and 59 g C m-2 (mixed prairie from cropland) over the three-year study period. The cumulative three-year C balance of corn converted from CRP and from cropland was -151 g C m-2 and -183 g C m-2, respectively. Eddy flux measurements during cellulosic biofuel crop establishment reveal annual changes in C balance that cannot be detected using conventional mass balance approaches. When end-use of harvested biomass was considered, the C balances for all studied systems, except the reference site, exhibited large C emissions ranging from 150 to 990 g C m-2 over the three-year conversion phase.

  10. Magnetic suspension and balance system advanced study, 1989 design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boom, Roger W.; Eyssa, Y. M.; Abdelsalam, Moustafa K.; Mcintosh, Glen E.

    1991-01-01

    The objectives are to experimentally confirm several advanced design concepts on the Magnetic Suspension and Balance Systems (MSBS). The advanced design concepts were identified as potential improvements by Madison Magnetics, Inc. (MMI) during 1984 and 1985 studies of an MSBS utilizing 14 external superconductive coils and a superconductive solenoid in an airplane test model suspended in a wind tunnel. This study confirmed several advanced design concepts on magnetic suspension and balance systems. The 1989 MSBS redesign is based on the results of these experiments. Savings of up to 30 percent in supporting magnet ampere meters and 50 percent in energy stored over the 1985 design were achieved.

  11. Nursing elective: balancing caregiving in oppressive systems.

    PubMed

    Scarry, K D

    1999-12-01

    This course was developed when health care reform was being birthed in local hospitals under the slogan "Patient First." Architects of the change promised to involve nursing in all decisions. In the end, nursing leaders and advocates were terminated or squeezed out of the organizations. No one there now speaks for nurses at an executive level. Returning registered nurses experience this lack of voice in their organizations and come to class feeling powerless to stop the emergence of unsafe or fraudulent practices in health care (i.e. use of unlicensed assistants, altering of diagnostic codes to lengthen stays, etc.). Nurses want to take action but lack the political knowledge and skills to know where to start. Developing and implementing a course in oppression in nursing challenged this author to face the ways nursing education continues to oppress students and prepares them to blend into the status quo. Students graduate to practice in systems consumed with restructuring health care, lowering patient costs, and providing the least amount of qualified staff. Learning about oppression and how to withstand domination of one's nursing practice in deviant health care systems is not part of the regular language of teaching. The course was an attempt to flush out, articulate, and confront the meta-world of the curriculum that silently instructs students to accept oppressive practices in the workplace. The course labeled the beast and served as a catalyst for many interesting discussions. Oppression and tactics to counter oppression must be actively taught to our students. Oppressed nurses equal oppressed nursing care. Based on my learning and a critical eye to the scary realities of practice, this course marks for me my intent to support Jane Hardens (1996) call to teach for peaceful revolution. PMID:10609588

  12. Climate balance of biogas upgrading systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pertl, A.; Mostbauer, P.; Obersteiner, G.

    2010-01-15

    One of the numerous applications of renewable energy is represented by the use of upgraded biogas where needed by feeding into the gas grid. The aim of the present study was to identify an upgrading scenario featuring minimum overall GHG emissions. The study was based on a life-cycle approach taking into account also GHG emissions resulting from plant cultivation to the process of energy conversion. For anaerobic digestion two substrates have been taken into account: (1) agricultural resources and (2) municipal organic waste. The study provides results for four different upgrading technologies including the BABIU (Bottom Ash for Biogas Upgrading) method. As the transport of bottom ash is a critical factor implicated in the BABIU-method, different transport distances and means of conveyance (lorry, train) have been considered. Furthermore, aspects including biogas compression and energy conversion in a combined heat and power plant were assessed. GHG emissions from a conventional energy supply system (natural gas) have been estimated as reference scenario. The main findings obtained underlined how the overall reduction of GHG emissions may be rather limited, for example for an agricultural context in which PSA-scenarios emit only 10% less greenhouse gases than the reference scenario. The BABIU-method constitutes an efficient upgrading method capable of attaining a high reduction of GHG emission by sequestration of CO{sub 2}.

  13. Optimized balance rehabilitation training strategy for the elderly through an evaluation of balance characteristics in response to dynamic motions

    PubMed Central

    Jung, HoHyun; Chun, Keyoung Jin; Hong, Jaesoo; Lim, Dohyung

    2015-01-01

    Balance is important in daily activities and essential for maintaining an independent lifestyle in the elderly. Recent studies have shown that balance rehabilitation training can improve the balance ability of the elderly, and diverse balance rehabilitation training equipment has been developed. However, there has been little research into optimized strategies for balance rehabilitation training. To provide an optimized strategy, we analyzed the balance characteristics of participants in response to the rotation of a base plate on multiple axes. Seven male adults with no musculoskeletal or nervous system-related diseases (age: 25.5±1.7 years; height: 173.9±6.4 cm; body mass: 71.3±6.5 kg; body mass index: 23.6±2.4 kg/m2) were selected to investigate the balance rehabilitation training using customized rehabilitation equipment. Rotation of the base plate of the equipment was controlled to induce dynamic rotation of participants in the anterior–posterior, right-diagonal, medial–lateral, and left-diagonal directions. We used a three-dimensional motion capture system employing infrared cameras and the Pedar Flexible Insoles System to characterize the major lower-extremity joint angles, center of body mass, and center of pressure. We found statistically significant differences between the changes in joint angles in the lower extremities in response to dynamic rotation of the participants (P<0.05). The maximum was greater with anterior–posterior and medial–lateral dynamic rotation than with that in other directions (P<0.05). However, there were no statistically significant differences in the frequency of center of body mass deviations from the base of support (P>0.05). These results indicate that optimizing rotation control of the base plate of balance rehabilitation training equipment to induce anterior–posterior and medial–lateral dynamic rotation preferentially can lead to effective balance training. Additional tests with varied speeds and ranges of

  14. How Body Balance Influences Political Party Evaluations: A Wii Balance Board Study

    PubMed Central

    Dijkstra, Katinka; Eerland, Anita; Zijlmans, Josjan; Post, Lysanne S.

    2012-01-01

    Embodied cognition research has shown how actions or body positions may affect cognitive processes, such as autobiographical memory retrieval or judgments. The present study examined the role of body balance (to the left or the right) in participants on their attributions to political parties. Participants thought they stood upright on a Wii™ Balance Board, while they were actually slightly tilted to the left or the right. Participants then ascribed fairly general political statements to one of 10 political parties that are represented in the Dutch House of Representatives. Results showed a significant interaction of congruent leaning direction with left- or right-wing party attribution. When the same analyses were performed with the political parties being divided into affiliations to the right, center, and left based on participants’ personal opinions rather than a ruling classification, no effects were found. The study provides evidence that conceptual metaphors are activated by manipulating body balance implicitly. Moreover, people’s judgments may be colored by seemingly trivial circumstances such as standing slightly out of balance. PMID:23233844

  15. Increasing cropping system diversity balances productivity, profitability and environmental health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Balancing productivity, profitability, and environmental health is a key challenge for agricultural sustainability. Most crop production systems in the United States are characterized by low species and management diversity, high use of fossil energy and agrichemicals, and can have large negative im...

  16. Systemic oxidant/antioxidant balance in human abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Menteşe, Umit; Turan, Ibrahim; Usta, Sefer; Demir, Selim; Koral, Özgür; Öztaş Menteşe, Seda; Çavuşoğlu, Ismail Gökhan; Karahan, Süleyman Caner; Alver, Ahmet; Doğan, Orhan Veli; Aykan, Ahmet Çağrı

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the oxidant-antioxidant balance in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). Forty-two consecutive patients with AAA and 46 control subjects were included. Total oxidant status (TOS) and total antioxidant status (TAS) levels were measured and the oxidative stress index (OSI) value determined. Serum TOS and OSI values in patients with AAA were higher than those in the controls (p<0.001, p<0.001, respectively). There was a positive correlation between abdominal aortic diameters, serum TOS levels (r=0.592, p<0.001) and OSI values (r=0.598, p<0.001). A cut-off value of 17.68 µmol H2O2equivalent/L for TOS was associated with 86% sensitivity and 83% specificity and a cut-off value of 1.77 for OSI was associated with 86% sensitivity and 81% specificity for predicting AAA. Systemic oxidative imbalance develops in patients with AAA, particularly as a result of an increase in TOS. PMID:26228275

  17. The mass balance approach: application to interpreting the chemical evolution of hydrologic systems.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plummer, L.N.; Back, W.

    1980-01-01

    Mass balance calculations are applied to observed chemical and isotopic data of three natural water systems involving carbonate reactions in order to define mineral stoichiometry of reactants and products, relative rates of reactions, and mass transfer. One study evaluates reactions in a lagoon on the east coast of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico.- from Authors

  18. Dual strain gage balance system for measuring light loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Paul W. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A dual strain gage balance system for measuring normal and axial forces and pitching moment of a metric airfoil model imparted by aerodynamic loads applied to the airfoil model during wind tunnel testing includes a pair of non-metric panels being rigidly connected to and extending towards each other from opposite sides of the wind tunnel, and a pair of strain gage balances, each connected to one of the non-metric panels and to one of the opposite ends of the metric airfoil model for mounting the metric airfoil model between the pair of non-metric panels. Each strain gage balance has a first measuring section for mounting a first strain gage bridge for measuring normal force and pitching moment and a second measuring section for mounting a second strain gage bridge for measuring axial force.

  19. The balanced scorecard: an integrative approach to performance evaluation.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, J

    2001-05-01

    In addition to strict financial outcomes, healthcare financial managers should assess intangible assets that affect the organization's bottom line, such as clinical processes, staff skills, and patient satisfaction and loyalty. The balanced scorecard, coupled with data-warehousing capabilities, offers a way to measure an organization's performance against its strategic objectives while focusing on building capabilities to achieve these objectives. The balanced scorecard examines performance related to finance, human resources, internal processes, and customers. Because the balanced scorecard requires substantial amounts of data, it is a necessity to establish an organizational data warehouse of clinical, operational, and financial data that can be used in decision support. Because it presents indicators that managers and staff can influence directly by their actions, the balanced-scorecard approach to performance measurement encourages behavioral changes aimed at achieving corporate strategies. PMID:11351809

  20. An Evaluation of the HVAC Load Potential for Providing Load Balancing Service

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Ning

    2012-09-30

    This paper investigates the potential of providing aggregated intra-hour load balancing services using heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. A direct-load control algorithm is presented. A temperature-priority-list method is used to dispatch the HVAC loads optimally to maintain consumer-desired indoor temperatures and load diversity. Realistic intra-hour load balancing signals were used to evaluate the operational characteristics of the HVAC load under different outdoor temperature profiles and different indoor temperature settings. The number of HVAC units needed is also investigated. Modeling results suggest that the number of HVACs needed to provide a {+-}1-MW load balancing service 24 hours a day varies significantly with baseline settings, high and low temperature settings, and the outdoor temperatures. The results demonstrate that the intra-hour load balancing service provided by HVAC loads meet the performance requirements and can become a major source of revenue for load-serving entities where the smart grid infrastructure enables direct load control over the HAVC loads.

  1. Evaluation of a distributed catchment scale water balance model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Troch, Peter A.; Mancini, Marco; Paniconi, Claudio; Wood, Eric F.

    1993-01-01

    The validity of some of the simplifying assumptions in a conceptual water balance model is investigated by comparing simulation results from the conceptual model with simulation results from a three-dimensional physically based numerical model and with field observations. We examine, in particular, assumptions and simplifications related to water table dynamics, vertical soil moisture and pressure head distributions, and subsurface flow contributions to stream discharge. The conceptual model relies on a topographic index to predict saturation excess runoff and on Philip's infiltration equation to predict infiltration excess runoff. The numerical model solves the three-dimensional Richards equation describing flow in variably saturated porous media, and handles seepage face boundaries, infiltration excess and saturation excess runoff production, and soil driven and atmosphere driven surface fluxes. The study catchments (a 7.2 sq km catchment and a 0.64 sq km subcatchment) are located in the North Appalachian ridge and valley region of eastern Pennsylvania. Hydrologic data collected during the MACHYDRO 90 field experiment are used to calibrate the models and to evaluate simulation results. It is found that water table dynamics as predicted by the conceptual model are close to the observations in a shallow water well and therefore, that a linear relationship between a topographic index and the local water table depth is found to be a reasonable assumption for catchment scale modeling. However, the hydraulic equilibrium assumption is not valid for the upper 100 cm layer of the unsaturated zone and a conceptual model that incorporates a root zone is suggested. Furthermore, theoretical subsurface flow characteristics from the conceptual model are found to be different from field observations, numerical simulation results, and theoretical baseflow recession characteristics based on Boussinesq's groundwater equation.

  2. Data Partitioning and Load Balancing in Parallel Disk Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheuermann, Peter; Weikum, Gerhard; Zabback, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Parallel disk systems provide opportunities for exploiting I/O parallelism in two possible waves, namely via inter-request and intra-request parallelism. In this paper we discuss the main issues in performance tuning of such systems, namely striping and load balancing, and show their relationship to response time and throughput. We outline the main components of an intelligent, self-reliant file system that aims to optimize striping by taking into account the requirements of the applications and performs load balancing by judicious file allocation and dynamic redistributions of the data when access patterns change. Our system uses simple but effective heuristics that incur only little overhead. We present performance experiments based on synthetic workloads and real-life traces.

  3. Factors Associated With Balance Confidence in Older Adults With Health Conditions Affecting the Balance Vestibular System

    PubMed Central

    Marchetti, Gregory F.; Whitney, Susan L.; Redfern, Mark S.; Furman, Joseph M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the functional, clinical, and comorbid health condition factors that contribute to balance confidence in persons with balance or vestibular disorders, or both. Design Cross-sectional descriptive. Setting Tertiary care center for balance disorders. Participants Older adults (N95) with signs and symptoms of vestibular dysfunction. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures Activity-specific Balance Confidence Scale (ABC) was administered on examination for complaints of balance, postural instability, or both. Results Balance confidence as measured by the ABC was associated with functional balance performance on the Timed Up & Go test and the Dynamic Gait Index. Duration of symptoms and general health-related quality of life (as measured by the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey) were significant covariates of balance confidence. Self reported treatment for anxiety, depression, or both, significantly reduced balance confidence. Conclusions Balance confidence is a complex construct in older adults with signs and symptoms of balance or vestibular dysfunction, or both. Decreased balance confidence in performing functional activities is associated with actual balance performance, duration of vestibular symptoms, general healthrelated quality of life, and the presence of comorbid psychological and visual impairments. Understanding these relationships can potentially improve management of older adults who present with balance or vestibular disease, or both. PMID:22032223

  4. Progress towards large wind tunnel magnetic suspension and balance systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britcher, C. P.

    1984-01-01

    Recent developments and current research efforts leading towards realization of a large scale production wind tunnel Magnetic Suspension and Balance facility are reviewed. Progress has been made in the areas of model roll control, high angle-of-attack testing, digital system control, high magnetic moment superconducting solenoid model cores, and system failure tolerance. Formal design studies of large scale facilities have commenced and are continuing.

  5. Effectiveness of a Wii balance board-based system (eBaViR) for balance rehabilitation: a pilot randomized clinical trial in patients with acquired brain injury

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Acquired brain injury (ABI) is the main cause of death and disability among young adults. In most cases, survivors can experience balance instability, resulting in functional impairments that are associated with diminished health-related quality of life. Traditional rehabilitation therapy may be tedious. This can reduce motivation and adherence to the treatment and thus provide a limited benefit to patients with balance disorders. We present eBaViR (easy Balance Virtual Rehabilitation), a system based on the Nintendo® Wii Balance Board® (WBB), which has been designed by clinical therapists to improve standing balance in patients with ABI through motivational and adaptative exercises. We hypothesize that eBaViR, is feasible, safe and potentially effective in enhancing standing balance. Methods In this contribution, we present a randomized and controlled single blinded study to assess the influence of a WBB-based virtual rehabilitation system on balance rehabilitation with ABI hemiparetic patients. This study describes the eBaViR system and evaluates its effectiveness considering 20 one-hour-sessions of virtual reality rehabilitation (n = 9) versus standard rehabilitation (n = 8). Effectiveness was evaluated by means of traditional static and dynamic balance scales. Results The final sample consisted of 11 men and 6 women. Mean ± SD age was 47.3 ± 17.8 and mean ± SD chronicity was 570.9 ± 313.2 days. Patients using eBaViR had a significant improvement in static balance (p = 0.011 in Berg Balance Scale and p = 0.011 in Anterior Reaches Test) compared to patients who underwent traditional therapy. Regarding dynamic balance, the results showed significant improvement over time in all these measures, but no significant group effect or group-by-time interaction was detected for any of them, which suggests that both groups improved in the same way. There were no serious adverse events during treatment in either group. Conclusions The results suggest that e

  6. Balanced-Viscosity solutions for multi-rate systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mielke, Alexander; Rossi, Riccarda; Savaré, Giuseppe

    2016-06-01

    Several mechanical systems are modeled by the static momentum balance for the displacement u coupled with a rate-independent flow rule for some internal variable z. We consider a class of abstract systems of ODEs which have the same structure, albeit in a finite-dimensional setting, and regularize both the static equation and the rate-independent flow rule by adding viscous dissipation terms with coefficients εα and ε, where 0 < ε « 1 and α > 0 is a fixed parameter. Therefore for α ≠ 1 u and z have different relaxation rates. We address the vanishing-viscosity analysis as ε ↓ 0 of the viscous system. We prove that, up to a subsequence, (reparameterized) viscous solutions converge to a parameterized curve yielding a Balanced Viscosity solution to the original rate-independent system, and providing an accurate description of the system behavior at jumps. We also give a reformulation of the notion of Balanced Viscosity solution in terms of a system of subdifferential inclusions, showing that the viscosity in u and the one in z are involved in the jump dynamics in different ways, according to whether α > 1, α =1, and α є (0,1).

  7. Capillary Action may Cool Systems and Precisely balance Chemical Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriske, Richard

    2011-10-01

    It is well known that it takes no work for Water to rise in a Capillary tube against the force of Gravity. There is a precise balance in this system that resembles Robert Millikan's ``Oil Drop'' experiment, where mass was balanced against the electrostatic force. If at the top of the capillary tube there is evaporation, one can see that the system is cooled as another water molecule has room to move up the column. Furthermore, if the evaporation process can be controlled one photon at a time, a precise balance is created between a photon, and the height/mass of the column. If other molecules are place in the column, they can be moved up and down the column, in a chromatograph way, in a fairly precise manner, by controlling evaporation and molecular weight. If in addition to all of this, the interface of the solution against the walls of the column have Fermi levels, it can be seen as a very precise Electrochemical Device. In the situation of nanotubes, as opposed to trees and plants, these properties can be used to create measure environmental properties and to Balance Chemical Reactions. Forests, and Plants may cool themselves and their environment using this process, and using this process coupled with more energetic photons through photosynthesis.

  8. Tradeoffs in the design of health plan payment systems: Fit, power and balance.

    PubMed

    Geruso, Michael; McGuire, Thomas G

    2016-05-01

    In many markets, including the new U.S. Marketplaces, health insurance plans are paid by risk-adjusted capitation, sometimes combined with reinsurance and other payment mechanisms. This paper proposes a framework for evaluating the de facto insurer incentives embedded in these complex payment systems. We discuss fit, power and balance, each of which addresses a distinct market failure in health insurance. We implement empirical metrics of fit, power, and balance in a study of Marketplace payment systems. Using data similar to that used to develop the Marketplace risk adjustment scheme, we quantify tradeoffs among the three classes of incentives. We show that an essential tradeoff arises between the goals of limiting costs and limiting cream skimming because risk adjustment, which is aimed at discouraging cream-skimming, weakens cost control incentives in practice. A simple reinsurance system scores better on our measures of fit, power and balance than the risk adjustment scheme in use in the Marketplaces. PMID:26922122

  9. A novel load balancing method for hierarchical federation simulation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bin, Xiao; Xiao, Tian-yuan

    2013-07-01

    In contrast with single HLA federation framework, hierarchical federation framework can improve the performance of large-scale simulation system in a certain degree by distributing load on several RTI. However, in hierarchical federation framework, RTI is still the center of message exchange of federation, and it is still the bottleneck of performance of federation, the data explosion in a large-scale HLA federation may cause overload on RTI, It may suffer HLA federation performance reduction or even fatal error. Towards this problem, this paper proposes a load balancing method for hierarchical federation simulation system based on queuing theory, which is comprised of three main module: queue length predicting, load controlling policy, and controller. The method promotes the usage of resources of federate nodes, and improves the performance of HLA simulation system with balancing load on RTIG and federates. Finally, the experiment results are presented to demonstrate the efficient control of the method.

  10. Fuzzy Pool Balance: An algorithm to achieve a two dimensional balance in distribute storage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wenjing; Chen, Gang

    2014-06-01

    The limitation of scheduling modules and the gradual addition of disk pools in distributed storage systems often result in imbalances among their disk pools in terms of both disk usage and file count. This can cause various problems to the storage system such as single point of failure, low system throughput and imbalanced resource utilization and system loads. An algorithm named Fuzzy Pool Balance (FPB) is proposed here to solve this problem. The input of FPB is the current file distribution among disk pools and the output is a file migration plan indicating what files are to be migrated to which pools. FPB uses an array to classify the files by their sizes. The file classification array is dynamically calculated with a defined threshold named Tmax that defines the allowed pool disk usage deviations. File classification is the basis of file migration. FPB also defines the Immigration Pool (IP) and Emigration Pool (EP) according to the pool disk usage and File Quantity Ratio (FQR) that indicates the percentage of each category of files in each disk pool, so files with higher FQR in an EP will be migrated to IP(s) with a lower FQR of this file category. To verify this algorithm, we implemented FPB on an ATLAS Tier2 dCache production system. The results show that FPB can achieve a very good balance in both free space and file counts, and adjusting the threshold value Tmax and the correction factor to the average FQR can achieve a tradeoff between free space and file count.

  11. Force Measurements in Magnetic Suspension and Balance System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuzin, Alexander; Shapovalov, George; Prohorov, Nikolay

    1996-01-01

    The description of an infrared telemetry system for measurement of drag forces in Magnetic Suspension and Balance Systems (MSBS) is presented. This system includes a drag force sensor, electronic pack and transmitter placed in the model which is of special construction, and receiver with a microprocessor-based measuring device, placed outside of the test section. Piezosensitive resonators as sensitive elements and non-magnetic steel as the material for the force sensor are used. The main features of the proposed system for load measurements are discussed and the main characteristics are presented.

  12. Towards a Load Balancing Middleware for Automotive Infotainment Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaluf, Yara; Rettberg, Achim

    In this paper a middleware for distributed automotive systems is developed. The goal of this middleware is to support the load bal- ancing and service optimization in automotive infotainment and entertainment systems. These systems provide navigation, telecommunication, Internet, audio/video and many other services where a kind of dynamic load balancing mechanisms in addition to service quality optimization mechanisms will be applied by the developed middleware in order to improve the system performance and also at the same time improve the quality of services if possible.

  13. Evaluation of a specific balance and coordination programme for individuals with a traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Dault, Mylène Claude; Dugas, Claude

    2002-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an aerobic dancing training, designed to reduce postural imbalance and coordination deficits for individuals who had sustained a traumatic brain injury (TBI). A two group experimental design was conducted. A control group participated in a traditional muscular training (TMT) programme while participants in the experimental group were assigned to an aerobic dancing, Slide and Step training programme (specific training group (ST)). Participants were evaluated pre- and post-training. Balance was quantified using a force platform and coordination using a Peak Performance system to compare the velocity profiles of a modified Jumping jack test. Results showed that temporal variables were significantly different pre- and post-training for the ST group, but no changes were found in the TMT group. The results of the balance test indicated a significant reduction of postural sway area in the ST group but not in the TMT group. Overall, the combination workout with Step and Slide is more effective in reducing balance and coordination deficits when compared to muscular based training. PMID:11908477

  14. Integrated design of electrical distribution systems: Phase balancing and phase prediction case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dilek, Murat

    Distribution system analysis and design has experienced a gradual development over the past three decades. The once loosely assembled and largely ad hoc procedures have been progressing toward being well-organized. The increasing power of computers now allows for managing the large volumes of data and other obstacles inherent to distribution system studies. A variety of sophisticated optimization methods, which were impossible to conduct in the past, have been developed and successfully applied to distribution systems. Among the many procedures that deal with making decisions about the state and better operation of a distribution system, two decision support procedures will be addressed in this study: phase balancing and phase prediction. The former recommends re-phasing of single- and double-phase laterals in a radial distribution system in order to improve circuit loss while also maintaining/improving imbalances at various balance point locations. Phase balancing calculations are based on circuit loss information and current magnitudes that are calculated from a power flow solution. The phase balancing algorithm is designed to handle time-varying loads when evaluating phase moves that will result in improved circuit losses over all load points. Applied to radial distribution systems, the phase prediction algorithm attempts to predict the phases of single- and/or double phase laterals that have no phasing information previously recorded by the electric utility. In such an attempt, it uses available customer data and kW/kVar measurements taken at various locations in the system. It is shown that phase balancing is a special case of phase prediction. Building on the phase balancing and phase prediction design studies, this work introduces the concept of integrated design, an approach for coordinating the effects of various design calculations. Integrated design considers using results of multiple design applications rather than employing a single application for a

  15. Postural balance indicator and associated feedback compensation system.

    PubMed

    Ingerson, Paul; Druzgalski, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    Postural balance related disorders not only limit individual mobility but also often result in serious injuries or even death in particular in the elderly. Presented statistical data demonstrates the severity of this growing problem as the population at large is getting older. In addition, the disorders of the vesitibular system, often of idiopathic origin, and related abnormalities affect population across all age groups. Therefore, in order to provide an assessment of balance, awareness to patients, as well as continuous feedback to assist in maintaining equilibrium, a low cost unobtrusive system for postural balance management has been designed. The system is based on two designed and perpendicularly placed level sensors with optical detection, and a set of vibrators interfaced with the PIC based BS2 board by Parallax. The tilt identifiable vibrators provide a feedback. A programmable delay and curtailment of movement related superficial responses provides additional adaptability. The premise of this compact battery operated system is to assist patients in restoring mobility and gaining independence. PMID:17270776

  16. Large-scale violation of detailed balance in biological systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broedersz, Chase; Battle, Christopher; Fakhri, Nikta; Mackintosh, Fred; Schmidt, Christopher

    2015-03-01

    Living systems are out of equilibrium. A fundamental manifestation of non-equilibrium dynamics in biological systems is the violation of detailed balance: at the microscopic level, enzymatic processes such as kinetic proofreading or molecular motor activity clearly violate detailed balance. We study how such non-equilibrium dynamics emerge at macroscopic scales in cellular assemblies. We measure the steady-state dynamics of two systems, beating flagella of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and mechanosensitive primary cilia protruding from epithelial kidney cells. The flagellum exhibits clear non-equilibrium driving, whereas fluctuations in the primary cilium are difficult to differentiate from Brownian motion. We parameterize the shapes of the flagellum and primary cilium using a low-dimensional representation of their configuration phase space, and use the measured dynamics to infer the steady-state probability distributions and probability currents. For both the flagellum and the primary cilium we find significant, coherent circulating probability currents, demonstrating that these systems violate detailed balance at the mesoscopic scale.

  17. Management and modeling of balance disorders using decision support systems: the EMBALANCE project.

    PubMed

    Exarchos, Themis P; Bellos, Christos; Bakola, Iliana; Kikidis, Dimitris; Bibas, Athanasios; Koutsouris, Dimitrios; Fotiadis, Dimitrios I

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we present the concept, the methodological ideas and the architecture of the EMBALANCE platform. EMBALANCE platform extends existing but generic and currently uncoupled balance modeling activities, leading to a multi-scale and patient-specific balance Hypermodel, which is incorporated to a Decision Support System (DSS), towards the early diagnosis, prediction and the efficient treatment planning of balance disorders. Various data feed the intelligent system increasing the dimensionality and personalization of the system. Human Computer Interaction techniques are utilized in order to develop the required interfaces in a user-intuitive and efficient way, while interoperable web services enhance the accessibility and acceptance of the system. The platform will be validated using both retrospective as well as prospective experimental and clinical data. The final tool will be a powerful web-based platform provided to primary and secondary care physicians across specialties, levels of training and geographical boundaries, targeting wider clinical acceptance as well as the increased confidence in the developed DSS towards the early diagnostic evaluation, behaviour prediction and effective management planning of balance problems. Currently we focus and present the management and modeling of the balance disorders. PMID:25417016

  18. Interactive rehabilitation system for improvement of balance therapies in people with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Jaume-i-Capó, Antoni; Martínez-Bueso, Pau; Moyà-Alcover, Biel; Varona, Javier

    2014-03-01

    The present study covers a new experimental system, designed to improve the balance and postural control of adults with cerebral palsy. This system is based on a serious game for balance rehabilitation therapy, designed using the prototype development paradigm and features for rehabilitation with serious games: feedback, adaptability, motivational elements, and monitoring. In addition, the employed interaction technology is based on computer vision because motor rehabilitation consists of body movements that can be recorded, and because vision capture technology is noninvasive and can be used for clients who have difficulties in holding physical devices. Previous research has indicated that serious games help to motivate clients in therapy sessions; however, there remains a paucity of clinical evidence involving functionality. We rigorously evaluated the effects of physiotherapy treatment on balance and gait function of adult subjects with cerebral palsy undergoing our experimental system. A 24-week physiotherapy intervention program was conducted with nine adults from a cerebral palsy center who exercised weekly in 20-min sessions. Findings demonstrated a significant increase in balance and gait function scores resulting in indicators of greater independence for our participating adults. Scores improved from 16 to 21 points in a scale of 28, according to the Tinetti Scale for risk of falls, moving from high fall risk to moderate fall risk. Our promising results indicate that our experimental system is feasible for balance rehabilitation therapy. PMID:24122561

  19. Active vibration and balance system for closed cycle thermodynamic machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qiu, Songgang (Inventor); Augenblick, John E. (Inventor); Peterson, Allen A. (Inventor); White, Maurice A. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    An active balance system is provided for counterbalancing vibrations of an axially reciprocating machine. The balance system includes a support member, a flexure assembly, a counterbalance mass, and a linear motor or an actuator. The support member is configured for attachment to the machine. The flexure assembly includes at least one flat spring having connections along a central portion and an outer peripheral portion. One of the central portion and the outer peripheral portion is fixedly mounted to the support member. The counterbalance mass is fixedly carried by the flexure assembly along another of the central portion and the outer peripheral portion. The linear motor has one of a stator and a mover fixedly mounted to the support member and another of the stator and the mover fixedly mounted to the counterbalance mass. The linear motor is operative to axially reciprocate the counterbalance mass. A method is also provided.

  20. Evaluation of delay performance in valiant load-balancing network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yingdi; Jin, Yaohui; Cheng, Hong; Gao, Yu; Sun, Weiqiang; Guo, Wei; Hu, Weisheng

    2007-11-01

    Network traffic grows in an unpredictable way, which forces network operators to over-provision their backbone network in order to meet the increasing demands. In the consideration of new users, applications and unexpected failures, the utilization is typically below 30% [1]. There are two methods aimed to solve this problem. The first one is to adjust link capacity with the variation of traffic. However in optical network, rapid signaling scheme and large buffer is required. The second method is to use the statistical multiplexing function of IP routers connected point-to-point by optical links to counteract the effect brought by traffic's variation [2]. But the routing mechanism would be much more complex, and introduce more overheads into backbone network. To exert the potential of network and reduce its overhead, the use of Valiant Load-balancing for backbone network has been proposed in order to enhance the utilization of the network and to simplify the routing process. Raising the network utilization and improving throughput would inevitably influence the end-to-end delay. However, the study on delays of Load-balancing is lack. In the work presented in this paper, we study the delay performance in Valiant Load-balancing network, and isolate the queuing delay for modeling and detail analysis. We design the architecture of a switch with the ability of load-balancing for our simulation and experiment, and analyze the relationship between switch architecture and delay performance.

  1. Offshore Wind Balance-of-System Cost Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Maness, Michael; Stehly, Tyler; Maples, Ben; Mone, Christopher

    2015-09-29

    Offshore wind balance-of-system (BOS) costs contribute up to 70% of installed capital costs. Thus, it is imperative to understand the impact of these costs on project economics as well as potential cost trends for new offshore wind technology developments. As a result, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed and recently updated a BOS techno-economic model using project cost estimates created from wind energy industry sources.

  2. Battery model for electrical power system energy balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hafen, D. P.

    1983-01-01

    A model to simulate nickel-cadmium battery performance and response in a spacecraft electrical power system energy balance calculation was developed. The voltage of the battery is given as a function of temperature, operating depth-of-charge (DOD), and battery state-of-charge. Also accounted for is charge inefficiency. A battery is modeled by analysis of the results of a multiparameter battery cycling test at various temperatures and DOD's.

  3. The 13-inch magnetic suspension and balance system wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, William G., Jr.; Dress, David A.

    1989-01-01

    NASA Langley has a small, subsonic wind tunnel in use with the 13-inch Magnetic Suspension and Balance System (MSBS). The tunnel is capable of speeds up to Mach 0.5. This report presents tunnel design and construction details. It includes flow uniformity, angularity, and velocity fluctuation data. It also compares experimental Mach number distribution data with computed results for the General Electric Streamtube Curvature Program.

  4. Team-based work and work system balance in the context of agile manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Yauch, Charlene A

    2007-01-01

    Manufacturing agility is the ability to prosper in an environment characterized by constant and unpredictable change. The purpose of this paper is to analyze team attributes necessary to facilitate agile manufacturing, and using Balance Theory as a framework, it evaluates the potential positive and negative impacts related to these team attributes that could alter the balance of work system elements and resulting "stress load" experienced by persons working on agile teams. Teams operating within the context of agile manufacturing are characterized as multifunctional, dynamic, cooperative, and virtual. A review of the literature relevant to each of these attributes is provided, as well as suggestions for future research. PMID:16631101

  5. Measure Guideline. Steam System Balancing and Tuning for Multifamily Residential Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Jayne; Ludwig, Peter; Brand, Larry

    2013-04-01

    This guideline provides building owners, professionals involved in multifamily audits, and contractors insights for improving the balance and tuning of steam systems. It provides readers an overview of one-pipe steam heating systems, guidelines for evaluating steam systems, typical costs and savings, and guidelines for ensuring quality installations. It also directs readers to additional resources for details not included here. Measures for balancing a distribution system that are covered include replacing main line vents and upgrading radiator vents. Also included is a discussion on upgrading boiler controls and the importance of tuning the settings on new or existing boiler controls. The guideline focuses on one-pipe steam systems, though many of the assessment methods can be generalized to two-pipe steam systems.

  6. Balanced-Rotating-Spray Tank-And-Pipe-Cleaning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaxton, Eric A.; Caimi, Raoul E. B.

    1995-01-01

    Spray head translates and rotates to clean entire inner surface of tank or pipe. Cleansing effected by three laterally balanced gas/liquid jets from spray head that rotates about longitudinal axis. Uses much less liquid. Cleaning process in system relies on mechanical action of jets instead of contaminant dissolution. Eliminates very difficult machining needed to make multiple converging/diverging nozzles within one spray head. Makes nozzle much smaller. Basic two-phase-flow, supersonic-nozzle design applied to other spray systems for interior or exterior cleaning.

  7. Development of a functional cDNA array for evaluation of the Th1/Th2 balance.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Aki; Koda, Toshiaki; Abe, Hiroyuki; Sato, Masayoshi; Li, Jie; Sakai, Tomoaki; Togashi, Yuji; Shinohara, Yukito; Ikeda, Hiroaki; Nishimura, Takashi

    2005-10-15

    The immune balance controlled by CD4(+) helper T cell subsets (T helper 1 (Th1) and T helper 2 (Th2)) is crucial for immunoregulation and its imbalance causes various immune diseases including infections, allergic disorders and autoimmune diseases. Therefore, it is of great importance to develop a system of diagnosing Th1/Th2 imbalances for curing immune diseases. Here we developed a functional cDNA array filter useful for assessing the Th1/Th2 balance in mice. To overcome the disadvantages of conventional microarrays carrying thousands of genes, we prepared an array filter containing 40 Th1-specific and 32 Th2-specific genes, which were selected from over 8700 genes based on (i) the specificity of expression in Th1 or Th2 cells and (ii) an expression level which is high enough for detection using a DNA array. This array filter provided a prompt and precise evaluation for the skewing of the Th1/Th2 balance combined with our calculation algorithm. The bias toward Th1 or Th2 was evaluated visually at a glance by aligning the genes on the filter. Moreover, we succeeded in evaluating the skewing of the Th1/Th2 balance in vivo during acute graft versus host disease (GVHD). Thus, this array filter will provide a novel tool for evaluation of the Th1/Th2 balance in a variety of immune diseases. PMID:15993951

  8. Complicity Revisited: Balancing Stakeholder Input and Roles in Evaluation Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturges, Keith M.

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on a qualitative study of an educational reform and its external evaluation, I describe how a well-intentioned but poorly conceptualized evaluation helped perpetuate asymmetries in the generation and use of evaluation findings. This article explores this project's failure to clarify evaluator roles, identify intended users and expected…

  9. Engineering and specifications for HVAC systems relating to testing and balancing

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, R.

    1999-07-01

    Over the past several years, there have been numerous performance problems relating to building mechanical systems. In evaluating the causes for this poor performance, there seemed to be a lack of commitment, lack of enforcement of specified items, and a lack of understanding of the design intent by the key participants. Communication between the architect, engineer, suppliers, and the contractors is essential. If any one of the participating members does not follow through with his responsibilities, the building's overall performance will suffer. The intent of this paper is to point out key areas that generally cause poor system performance and to expound on specific areas of ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 111-1988, Practices for Measuring, Testing, Adjusting, and Balancing of Building Heating, Ventilation, Air-Conditioning, and Refrigeration Systems (ASHRAE 1998), and NEBB 1991, Procedural Standards for Testing, Adjusting, Balancing of Environmental Systems (NEBB 1991), thus creating a fluent, positive mechanical design specification that fills these gaps. This paper will also address the basic problems and concerns test and balance contractors face every day and, by emphasizing certain enforceable language in the specification, allow the system to be balanced properly and improve the overall building performance.

  10. Balancing Accuracy and Computational Efficiency for Ternary Gas Hydrate Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, M. D.

    2011-12-01

    phase transitions. This paper describes and demonstrates a numerical solution scheme for ternary hydrate systems that seeks a balance between accuracy and computational efficiency. This scheme uses a generalize cubic equation of state, functional forms for the hydrate equilibria and cage occupancies, variable switching scheme for phase transitions, and kinetic exchange of hydrate formers (i.e., CH4, CO2, and N2) between the mobile phases (i.e., aqueous, liquid CO2, and gas) and hydrate phase. Accuracy of the scheme will be evaluated by comparing property values and phase equilibria against experimental data. Computational efficiency of the scheme will be evaluated by comparing the base scheme against variants. The application of interest will the production of a natural gas hydrate deposit from a geologic formation, using the guest molecule exchange process; where, a mixture of CO2 and N2 are injected into the formation. During the guest-molecule exchange, CO2 and N2 will predominately replace CH4 in the large and small cages of the sI structure, respectively.

  11. Magnetic Suspension and Balance Systems: A Selected, Annotated Bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuttle Marie H.; Kilgore, Robert A.; Boyden, Richmond P.

    1983-01-01

    This publication, containing 206 entries, supersedes an earlier bibliography, NASA TM-80225 (April 1980). Citations for 18 documents have been added in this updated version. Most of the additions report results of recent studies aimed at increasing the research capabilities of magnetic suspension and balance systems, e.g., increasing force and torque capability, increasing angle of attack capability, and increasing overall system reliability. Some of the additions address the problem of scaling from the relatively small size of existing systems to much larger sizes. The purpose of this bibliography is to provide an up-to-date list of publications that might be helpful to persons interested in magnetic suspension and balance systems for use in wind tunnels. The arrangement is generally chronological by date of publication. However, papers presented at conferences or meetings are placed under dates of presentation. The numbers assigned to many of the citations have been changed from those used in the previous bibliography. This has been done in order to allow outdated citations to be removed and some recently discovered older works to be included in their proper chronological order.

  12. Evaluating the impact of groundwater on cotton growth and root zone water balance using Hydrus-ID coupled with a crop growth model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Groundwater is an important factor that needs to be considered when evaluating the water balance of the soil-plant-atmosphere system and the sustainable water management. However, the impact of shallow groundwater on the root zone water balance and cotton growth is not fully understood. In this stud...

  13. iBEST: intelligent Balance assessment and Stability Training system using smartphone.

    PubMed

    Wai, Aung Aung Phyo; Duc, Pham Duy; Syin, Chan; Zhang, Haihong

    2014-01-01

    Patients with postural instability could lead to falls and injuries while walking due to balance disorders. So those patients need regular balance training and evaluation to improve and examine balance deficiencies. But many do not notice such balance issues; resulting lack of timely preventive measures. This shows the needs of affordable and accessible solution for balance training and assessment. So iBEST (intelligent Balance assessment and Stability Training) is proposed enabling to train and assess balance conveniently anywhere anytime. Moreover, therapists can remotely evaluate and manage their recovery progress. These benefits can be realized leveraging sensors from smartphone, cloud-based data analytics and web applications. iBEST employs sensorised automated balance assessment in digitizing Berg Balance Scale (BBS) clinical risk assessment tool. The initial feasibility study showed average accuracy of 90.22% using smartphone in classifying the specified BBS test items. PMID:25570790

  14. Creating a balanced scorecard for a hospital system.

    PubMed

    Pink, G H; McKillop, I; Schraa, E G; Preyra, C; Montgomery, C; Baker, G R

    2001-01-01

    In 1999, hospitals in Ontario, Canada, collaborated with a university-based research team to develop a report on the relative performance of individual hospitals in Canada's most populated province. The researchers used the balanced-scorecard framework advocated by Kaplan and Norton. Indicators of performance were developed in four areas: clinical utilization and outcomes, patient satisfaction, system integration and change, and financial performance and condition. The process of selecting, calculating, and validating meaningful indicators of financial performance and condition is outlined. Lessons learned along the way are provided. These lessons may prove valuable to other finance researchers and practitioners who are engaged in performance measurement endeavors. PMID:14680029

  15. Modelling human balance using switched systems with linear feedback control.

    PubMed

    Kowalczyk, Piotr; Glendinning, Paul; Brown, Martin; Medrano-Cerda, Gustavo; Dallali, Houman; Shapiro, Jonathan

    2012-02-01

    We are interested in understanding the mechanisms behind and the character of the sway motion of healthy human subjects during quiet standing. We assume that a human body can be modelled as a single-link inverted pendulum, and the balance is achieved using linear feedback control. Using these assumptions, we derive a switched model which we then investigate. Stable periodic motions (limit cycles) about an upright position are found. The existence of these limit cycles is studied as a function of system parameters. The exploration of the parameter space leads to the detection of multi-stability and homoclinic bifurcations. PMID:21697168

  16. Evaluating Zoltan for Static Load Balancing on BlueGene Architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Kumfert, G

    2007-11-15

    The purpose of this TechBase was to evaluate the Zoltan load-balancing library from Sandia National Laboratories as a possible replacement for ParMetis, which had been the load balancer of choice for nearly a decade but does not scale to the full 64,000 processors of BlueGene/L. This evaluation was successful in producing a clear result, but the result was unfortunately negative. Although Zoltan presents a collection load-balancing algorithms, none were able to meet or exceed the combined scalability and quality of ParMetis on representative datasets.

  17. Evaluation of knee joint proprioception and balance of young female volleyball players: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Şahin, Neşe; Bianco, Antonino; Patti, Antonino; Paoli, Antonio; Palma, Antonio; Ersöz, Gülfem

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The main purpose of our study was the evaluation of the effects of long-term volleyball practice on knee joint proprioception and balance of young female athletes. [Subjects and Methods] An observational case-control study was performed. The study enrolled 19 female volleyball players in the experimental group and 19 sedentary counterparts as controls. A Biodex balance system and dynamometer were used for the evaluations. The paired t-test was used to determine the significance of differences between the performance of athletes and controls. [Results] The knee proprioception analysis showed a significant difference at 60° joint position in active and passive tests. A similar trend, but without significance, was found for the 20° joint position. In the postural stability tests both groups showed similar results with no significant differences between them. [Conclusion] In conclusion, the results indicate a significant influence on joint proprioception is elicited by long-term exposure to a team sport like volleyball. However, the postural stability indexes showed similar trends in both groups, highlighting the analogous ontogenesis of the subjects investigated and the low influence of volleyball practice on postural stability. PMID:25729185

  18. Magnetic suspension and balance system advanced study, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boom, R. W.; Abdelsalam, M. K.; Eyssa, Y. M.; Mcintosh, G. E.

    1990-01-01

    The design improvements for the system encompass 14 or 18 external superconductive coils mounted on a 8 x 8 foot wind tunnel, a superconductive model core magnet on a holmium mandrel to fit an F-16 model, model wings of permanent magnet material Nd2Fe14B, and fiber glass epoxy structure. The Magnetic Suspension and Balance System (MSBS) advanced design is confirmed by the successful construction and test of a full size superconductive model core solenoid with holmium mandrel. The solenoid is 75 cm long and 12.6 cm in diameter and produces 6.1 tesla for a hold time of 47 minutes. An integrated coil system design of a new compact configuration without specific coils for roll or pitch shows promise of simplicity; magnet reductions of 30 percent compared to the most recent 1985 design are possible.

  19. Evaluation of the infrared test method for the olympus thermal balance tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donato, M.; Stpierre, D.; Green, J.; Reeves, M.

    The performance of the infrared (IR) rig used for the thermal balance testing of the Olympus S/C thermal model is discussed. Included in this evaluation are the rig effects themselves, the IRFLUX computer code used to predict the radiation inputs, the Monitored Background Radiometers (MBR's) developed to measure the absorbed radiation flux intensity, the Uniform Temperature Reference (UTR) based temperature measurement system and the data acquisition system. A preliminary set of verification tests were performed on a 1 m x 1 m zone to assess the performance of the IR lamps, calrods, MBR's and aluminized baffles. The results were used, in part, to obtain some empirical data required for the IRFLUX code. This data included lamp and calrod characteristics, the absorptance function for various surface types, and the baffle reflectivities.

  20. Evaluation of the infrared test method for the olympus thermal balance tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donato, M.; Stpierre, D.; Green, J.; Reeves, M.

    1986-01-01

    The performance of the infrared (IR) rig used for the thermal balance testing of the Olympus S/C thermal model is discussed. Included in this evaluation are the rig effects themselves, the IRFLUX computer code used to predict the radiation inputs, the Monitored Background Radiometers (MBR's) developed to measure the absorbed radiation flux intensity, the Uniform Temperature Reference (UTR) based temperature measurement system and the data acquisition system. A preliminary set of verification tests were performed on a 1 m x 1 m zone to assess the performance of the IR lamps, calrods, MBR's and aluminized baffles. The results were used, in part, to obtain some empirical data required for the IRFLUX code. This data included lamp and calrod characteristics, the absorptance function for various surface types, and the baffle reflectivities.

  1. An Evaluator's Balancing Act: Making Decisions about Methodological Rigor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braverman, Marc T.; Arnold, Mary E.

    2008-01-01

    Methodological rigor consists of a series of elements that, in combination, determine the confidence with which conclusions can be drawn from the evaluation results. These elements include evaluation design, conceptualization of constructs, measurement strategies, time frames, program integrity, and others. The authors examine the factors that…

  2. Mass-balance Approach to Interpreting Weathering Reactions in Watershed Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bricker, O. P.; Jones, B. F.; Bowser, C. J.

    2003-12-01

    weathering reactions in natural systems. The usefulness of the mass-balance approach to interpreting weathering reactions was first brought to the attention of the geochemical fraternity by the classic work of Garrels (1967) and Garrels and Mackenzie (1967) in their investigations of the origin of the composition of Sierra Nevada Springs.The primary objectives of mass-balance studies are: (i) quantify the mass fluxes into and out of watershed systems; (ii) interpret the reactions and processes occurring in the watershed that cause the observed changes in composition and flux; (iii) determine weathering rates of the various minerals constituting the bedrock, regolith, and soils of the watershed; and (iv) evaluate which mineral phases are critically involved in controlling water chemistry to help develop models of more general applicability (i.e., transfer value).

  3. Laser balancing system for high material removal rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, M. G.; Georgalas, G.; Ortiz, A. L.

    1984-01-01

    A laser technique to remove material in excess of 10 mg/sec from a spinning rotor is described. This material removal rate is 20 times greater than previously reported for a surface speed of 30 m/sec. Material removal enhancement was achieved by steering a focused laser beam with moving optics to increase the time of laser energy interaction with a particular location on the circumferential surface of a spinning rotor. A neodymium:yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) pulse laser was used in this work to evaluate material removal for carbon steel, 347 stainless steel, Inconal 718, and titanium 6-4. This technique is applicable to dynamic laser balancing.

  4. Evaluation Systems in HRD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1996

    This document contains three papers presented at a symposium on evaluation systems in human resource development (HRD) moderated by Jerry Gilley at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development. "PLS [Performance-Learning-Satisfaction] Evaluation System: Sales Communication Case Study" (Richard A. Swanson, Timothy R. McClernon)…

  5. Diesel engine exhaust trap particulate distribution and incineration balancing system

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, G. S.; Parker, W. J.; Tendulkar, D. V.

    1981-09-22

    A diesel particulate trapping and incineration system is disclosed that includes a porous wall monolithic ceramic filter element having dual openended inlet passages separated from adjacent exhaust passages by particulate filtering porous walls. A balancing system for the distribution and incineration of particulates is provided including dual inlet ducts feeding exhaust gases to both ends of the inlet passages and valve means for controlling the amount of inlet gas flow entering the open opposite ends of the inlet ducts. In this way control is obtained of distribution of particulates over the length of the inlet duct walls as well as of the incineration of particulates upon heating of the exhaust gases to incineration temperature.

  6. Increasing Cropping System Diversity Balances Productivity, Profitability and Environmental Health

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Adam S.; Hill, Jason D.; Chase, Craig A.; Johanns, Ann M.; Liebman, Matt

    2012-01-01

    Balancing productivity, profitability, and environmental health is a key challenge for agricultural sustainability. Most crop production systems in the United States are characterized by low species and management diversity, high use of fossil energy and agrichemicals, and large negative impacts on the environment. We hypothesized that cropping system diversification would promote ecosystem services that would supplement, and eventually displace, synthetic external inputs used to maintain crop productivity. To test this, we conducted a field study from 2003–2011 in Iowa that included three contrasting systems varying in length of crop sequence and inputs. We compared a conventionally managed 2-yr rotation (maize-soybean) that received fertilizers and herbicides at rates comparable to those used on nearby farms with two more diverse cropping systems: a 3-yr rotation (maize-soybean-small grain + red clover) and a 4-yr rotation (maize-soybean-small grain + alfalfa-alfalfa) managed with lower synthetic N fertilizer and herbicide inputs and periodic applications of cattle manure. Grain yields, mass of harvested products, and profit in the more diverse systems were similar to, or greater than, those in the conventional system, despite reductions of agrichemical inputs. Weeds were suppressed effectively in all systems, but freshwater toxicity of the more diverse systems was two orders of magnitude lower than in the conventional system. Results of our study indicate that more diverse cropping systems can use small amounts of synthetic agrichemical inputs as powerful tools with which to tune, rather than drive, agroecosystem performance, while meeting or exceeding the performance of less diverse systems. PMID:23071739

  7. A review of Magnetic Suspension and Balance Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyden, Richmond P.

    1988-01-01

    This paper traces the development of Magnetic Suspension and Balance Systems (MSBSs) for use in wind tunnels. The expression MSBS implies a system that can both suspend a model and also measure the forces and moments acting on the model. This avoids the need for any mechanical support of the model. An MSBS uses electromagnets located outside the test section walls to create magnetic fields inside the test section. Measurement of the electrical current flowing in each of the electromagnets can be used to determine the forces and moments acting on the suspended model. An MSBS is capable of supporting a model with an internal magnetized core subject to gravity, aerodynamic, and inertial loads. The model must have a core made of either a permanent magnet, magnetized soft iron, or a solenoid. The position of the suspended body is inherently unstable. A closed-loop control system which includes a position sensing system has to control the position of the body by controlling the applied magnetic fields. This paper includes a discussion of all the known MSBSs and the outlook for larger systems.

  8. Mass balance study of gravitational mass movements in proglacial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohn, Joachim; Vehling, Lucas; Moser, Michael

    2013-04-01

    In the framework of the DFG joint research project PROSA (high resoluted measurements of morphodynamics in rapidly changing PROglacial Systems of the Alps), mass movements are investigated geotechnically and process rates will be determined. As result, the actual mass balance for gravitational mass movements will be investigated exemplarily in an alpine glacier foreland in this PROSA sub-project. Alpine glacier forelands are defined as the area between the edge of the glacier and the moraines of the latest maximum in 1850. Since then, the region has become ice free due to the retreat of the glaciers. Because of this recent development, the glacier foreland differs considerably from the surrounding landscape and exhibits a rapid morphodynamic development. Mass movements like landslides and rock falls contribute a remarkable portion to total sediment transport in this area. As study area the region between Gepatschferner and Gepatsch backwater was choosen. The study area encompasses 62,5 km², lies at altitudes between 1759 and 3539 m a.s.l. and around 30 % are covered by glacier. Basic prerequisite is the geotechnical inventory-taking including the production of a geotechnical map. All mass balance studies for gravitational mass movements will base on this data collection. Short term behaviour during extreme meteorological events will be investigated as well, as the long term behaviour of the alpine slopes. The results of repeated high-resolution airborne laser scanning will contribute to a complete area-wide detection of surface changes. Detailed periodical terrestrial laser scanning of steep rock walls and their scree cones, as well as of slopes with soft rock will complete the data set. Spot tests with nets collecting the rock fall material, constructed on elected scree cones, allow the control and verification of the collected data. Mass movements in hard rock apart from rock fall processes, like rock creep, rock sliding and sagging will be monitored

  9. Evaluating ET estimates from the Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEB) model using METRIC model output

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senay, G. B.; Budde, M. E.; Allen, R. G.; Verdin, J. P.

    2008-12-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is an important component of the hydrologic budget because it expresses the exchange of mass and energy between the soil-water-vegetation system and the atmosphere. Since direct measurement of ET is difficult, various modeling methods are used to estimate actual ET (ETa). Generally, the choice of method for ET estimation depends on the objective of the study and is further limited by the availability of data and desired accuracy of the ET estimate. Operational monitoring of crop performance requires processing large data sets and a quick response time. A Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEB) model was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey's Famine Early Warning Systems Network to estimate irrigation water use in remote places of the world. In this study, we evaluated the performance of the SSEB model with the METRIC (Mapping Evapotranspiration at high Resolution and with Internalized Calibration) model that has been evaluated by several researchers using the Lysimeter data. The METRIC model has been proven to provide reliable ET estimates in different regions of the world. Reference ET fractions of both models (ETrF of METRIC vs. ETf of SSEB) were generated and compared using individual Landsat thermal images collected from 2000 though 2005 in Idaho, New Mexico, and California. In addition, the models were compared using monthly and seasonal total ETa estimates. The SSEB model reproduced both the spatial and temporal variability exhibited by METRIC on land surfaces, explaining up to 80 percent of the spatial variability. However, the ETa estimates over water bodies were systematically higher in the SSEB output, which could be improved by using a correction coefficient to take into account the absorption of solar energy by deeper water layers that has little contribution to the ET process. This study demonstrated the usefulness of the SSEB method for large-scale agro-hydrologic applications for operational monitoring and assessing of

  10. A reliability of the prototype trunk training system for sitting balance.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Juri; Park, Dae-Sung; Lee, Hyelim; Eun, Seondeok

    2014-11-01

    [Purpose] Cerebral palsy is a disorder that affects balance in the sitting position. Cerebral palsy patients need trunk muscle strengthening and balance training. In order to improve trunk control sensory-motor control training is carried out on an unstable surface. We have developed a Trunk Training System (TTS) that can provide visual feedback using a tilt sensor for balance training in the sitting position. Before using the TTS for training children with cerebral palsy experiments were conducted with healthy adult subjects and the TTS to gather basic data for its improvement. [Subjects] The subjects were 11 healthy men (n=3) and women (n=8). [Methods] Subjects trained at two levels (5°, 10°), in four different directions (anterior, posterior, left, right), three times each. TTS outcome indices (stability index, performance time) were measured. [Results] The stability index and performance time showed high correlation (-0.6evaluate the range of motion and execution capabilities of sitting balance. Additional experiments will be needed to investigate the validity of the TTS measurements. PMID:25435691

  11. A Reliability of the Prototype Trunk Training System for Sitting Balance

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Juri; Park, Dae-Sung; Lee, Hyelim; Eun, Seondeok

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] Cerebral palsy is a disorder that affects balance in the sitting position. Cerebral palsy patients need trunk muscle strengthening and balance training. In order to improve trunk control sensory-motor control training is carried out on an unstable surface. We have developed a Trunk Training System (TTS) that can provide visual feedback using a tilt sensor for balance training in the sitting position. Before using the TTS for training children with cerebral palsy experiments were conducted with healthy adult subjects and the TTS to gather basic data for its improvement. [Subjects] The subjects were 11 healthy men (n=3) and women (n=8). [Methods] Subjects trained at two levels (5°, 10°), in four different directions (anterior, posterior, left, right), three times each. TTS outcome indices (stability index, performance time) were measured. [Results] The stability index and performance time showed high correlation (−0.6evaluate the range of motion and execution capabilities of sitting balance. Additional experiments will be needed to investigate the validity of the TTS measurements. PMID:25435691

  12. Multidimensional evaluation of performance: experimental application of the balanced scorecard in Ferrara university hospital

    PubMed Central

    Verzola, Adriano; Bentivegna, Roberto; Carandina, Gianni; Trevisani, Lucio; Gregorio, Pasquale; Mandini, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims One of the best-known performance planning and evaluation techniques utilising both monetary and non-monetary data is the Balanced Scorecard (BSC). This is a means of rationalising the global activity of a business in the attempt to create value, and to translate the company vision into a set of tactical objectives and measurable strategies. The aim of this study was to implement and evaluate the use of BSC in two departments of the St. Anna University Hospital, Ferrara: the Analysis Laboratory and Digestive Endoscopy operating units (OU). Materials and methods With the collaboration of the health workers involved, a precise methodological programme was pursued: Definition of the strategic map from 4 perspectives, according to Kaplan and Norton, Definition of the Key Performance Areas (KPA), or macro-objectives, Identification of the cause-effect relationships between KPAs, Identification of the sub-objectives of each KPA, Definition of the Key Performance Indicators (KPI), Definition of the weight/importance of each objective in the global evaluation. Results The information gathered permitted the definition of macro- and sub-objectives for each perspective, as well as determining the relevant indicators, standards, weights, frequency of detection and means of acquisition. Strategic maps showing the cause/effect relationships in each OU were created, as were 'evaluation panels', which describe the global performance of each department. For each perspective, the fundamental data were summarised in one table. Evaluation of each perspective yielded a positive result for the majority of the objectives, and the global result (including all 4 perspectives) was found to be satisfactory. Discussion-Conclusion The Balanced Scorecard was implemented in the abovementioned OUs of St. Anna University Hospital, Ferrara, after the health workers themselves realised the need for change. In our research the employees were pleased to be evaluated, not only for

  13. Evaluating intensified camera systems

    SciTech Connect

    S. A. Baker

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes image evaluation techniques used to standardize camera system characterizations. Key areas of performance include resolution, noise, and sensitivity. This team has developed a set of analysis tools, in the form of image processing software used to evaluate camera calibration data, to aid an experimenter in measuring a set of camera performance metrics. These performance metrics identify capabilities and limitations of the camera system, while establishing a means for comparing camera systems. Analysis software is used to evaluate digital camera images recorded with charge-coupled device (CCD) cameras. Several types of intensified camera systems are used in the high-speed imaging field. Electro-optical components are used to provide precise shuttering or optical gain for a camera system. These components including microchannel plate or proximity focused diode image intensifiers, electro-static image tubes, or electron-bombarded CCDs affect system performance. It is important to quantify camera system performance in order to qualify a system as meeting experimental requirements. The camera evaluation tool is designed to provide side-by-side camera comparison and system modeling information.

  14. Balance Improvement Effects of Biofeedback Systems with State-of-the-Art Wearable Sensors: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Ma, Christina Zong-Hao; Wong, Duo Wai-Chi; Lam, Wing Kai; Wan, Anson Hong-Ping; Lee, Winson Chiu-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Falls and fall-induced injuries are major global public health problems. Balance and gait disorders have been the second leading cause of falls. Inertial motion sensors and force sensors have been widely used to monitor both static and dynamic balance performance. Based on the detected performance, instant visual, auditory, electrotactile and vibrotactile biofeedback could be provided to augment the somatosensory input and enhance balance control. This review aims to synthesize the research examining the effect of biofeedback systems, with wearable inertial motion sensors and force sensors, on balance performance. Randomized and non-randomized clinical trials were included in this review. All studies were evaluated based on the methodological quality. Sample characteristics, device design and study characteristics were summarized. Most previous studies suggested that biofeedback devices were effective in enhancing static and dynamic balance in healthy young and older adults, and patients with balance and gait disorders. Attention should be paid to the choice of appropriate types of sensors and biofeedback for different intended purposes. Maximizing the computing capacity of the micro-processer, while minimizing the size of the electronic components, appears to be the future direction of optimizing the devices. Wearable balance-improving devices have their potential of serving as balance aids in daily life, which can be used indoors and outdoors. PMID:27023558

  15. Balance Improvement Effects of Biofeedback Systems with State-of-the-Art Wearable Sensors: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Christina Zong-Hao; Wong, Duo Wai-Chi; Lam, Wing Kai; Wan, Anson Hong-Ping; Lee, Winson Chiu-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Falls and fall-induced injuries are major global public health problems. Balance and gait disorders have been the second leading cause of falls. Inertial motion sensors and force sensors have been widely used to monitor both static and dynamic balance performance. Based on the detected performance, instant visual, auditory, electrotactile and vibrotactile biofeedback could be provided to augment the somatosensory input and enhance balance control. This review aims to synthesize the research examining the effect of biofeedback systems, with wearable inertial motion sensors and force sensors, on balance performance. Randomized and non-randomized clinical trials were included in this review. All studies were evaluated based on the methodological quality. Sample characteristics, device design and study characteristics were summarized. Most previous studies suggested that biofeedback devices were effective in enhancing static and dynamic balance in healthy young and older adults, and patients with balance and gait disorders. Attention should be paid to the choice of appropriate types of sensors and biofeedback for different intended purposes. Maximizing the computing capacity of the micro-processer, while minimizing the size of the electronic components, appears to be the future direction of optimizing the devices. Wearable balance-improving devices have their potential of serving as balance aids in daily life, which can be used indoors and outdoors. PMID:27023558

  16. Pyrolysis system evaluation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An evaluation of two different pyrolysis concepts which recover energy from solid waste was conducted in order to determine the merits of each concept for integration into a Integrated Utility System (IUS). The two concepts evaluated were a Lead Bath Furnace Pyrolysis System and a Slagging Vertical Shaft, Partial Air Oxidation Pyrolysis System. Both concepts will produce a fuel gas from the IUS waste and sewage sludge which can be used to offset primary fuel consumption in addition to the sanitary disposal of the waste. The study evaluated the thermal integration of each concept as well as the economic impact on the IUS resulting from integrating each pyrolysis concepts. For reference, the pyrolysis concepts were also compared to incineration which was considered the baseline IUS solid waste disposal system.

  17. Remote terminal system evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, T. L.; Grams, H. L.; Lindenlaub, J. C.; Schwingendorf, S. K.; Swain, P. H.; Simmons, W. R.

    1975-01-01

    An Earth Resources Data Processing System was developed to evaluate the system for training, technology transfer, and data processing. In addition to the five sites included in this project two other sites were connected to the system under separate agreements. The experience of these two sites is discussed. The results of the remote terminal project are documented in seven reports: one from each of the five project sites, Purdue University, and an overview report summarizing the other six reports.

  18. Balanced Flow Metering and Conditioning: Technology for Fluid Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, Anthony R.

    2006-01-01

    Revolutionary new technology that creates balanced conditions across the face of a multi-hole orifice plate has been developed, patented and exclusively licensed for commercialization. This balanced flow technology simultaneously measures mass flow rate, volumetric flow rate, and fluid density with little or no straight pipe run requirements. Initially, the balanced plate was a drop in replacement for a traditional orifice plate, but testing revealed substantially better performance as compared to the orifice plate such as, 10 times better accuracy, 2 times faster (shorter distance) pressure recovery, 15 times less acoustic noise energy generation, and 2.5 times less permanent pressure loss. During 2004 testing at MSFC, testing revealed several configurations of the balanced flow meter that match the accuracy of Venturi meters while having only slightly more permanent pressure loss. However, the balanced meter only requires a 0.25 inch plate and has no upstream or downstream straight pipe requirements. As a fluid conditioning device, the fluid usually reaches fully developed flow within 1 pipe diameter of the balanced conditioning plate. This paper will describe the basic balanced flow metering technology, provide performance details generated by testing to date and provide implementation details along with calculations required for differing degrees of flow metering accuracy.

  19. System status display evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, Leland G.

    1988-01-01

    The System Status Display is an electronic display system which provides the crew with an enhanced capability for monitoring and managing the aircraft systems. A flight simulation in a fixed base cockpit simulator was used to evaluate alternative design concepts for this display system. The alternative concepts included pictorial versus alphanumeric text formats, multifunction versus dedicated controls, and integration of the procedures with the system status information versus paper checklists. Twelve pilots manually flew approach patterns with the different concepts. System malfunctions occurred which required the pilots to respond to the alert by reconfiguring the system. The pictorial display, the multifunction control interfaces collocated with the system display, and the procedures integrated with the status information all had shorter event processing times and lower subjective workloads.

  20. Evaluating intensified camera systems

    SciTech Connect

    S. A. Baker

    2000-06-30

    This paper describes image evaluation techniques used to standardize camera system characterizations. The authors group is involved with building and fielding several types of camera systems. Camera types include gated intensified cameras, multi-frame cameras, and streak cameras. Applications range from X-ray radiography to visible and infrared imaging. Key areas of performance include sensitivity, noise, and resolution. This team has developed an analysis tool, in the form of image processing software, to aid an experimenter in measuring a set of performance metrics for their camera system. These performance parameters are used to identify a camera system's capabilities and limitations while establishing a means for camera system comparisons. The analysis tool is used to evaluate digital images normally recorded with CCD cameras. Electro-optical components provide fast shuttering and/or optical gain to camera systems. Camera systems incorporate a variety of electro-optical components such as microchannel plate (MCP) or proximity focused diode (PFD) image intensifiers; electro-static image tubes; or electron-bombarded (EB) CCDs. It is often valuable to evaluate the performance of an intensified camera in order to determine if a particular system meets experimental requirements.

  1. Testing Postural Stability: Are the Star Excursion Balance Test and Biodex Balance System Limits of Stability Tests Consistent?

    PubMed

    Glave, A Page; Didier, Jennifer J; Weatherwax, Jacqueline; Browning, Sarah J; Fiaud, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    There are a variety of options to test postural stability; however many physical tests lack validity information. Two tests of postural stability - the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) and Biodex Balance System Limits of Stability Test (LOS) - were examined to determine if similar components of balance were measured. Healthy adults (n=31) completed the LOS (levels 6 and 12) and SEBT (both legs). SEBT directions were offset by 180° to approximate LOS direction. Correlations and partial correlations controlling for height were analyzed. Correlations were significant for SEBT 45° and LOS back-left (6: r=-0.41; 12: r=-0.42; p<0.05), SEBT 90° and LOS 6 left (r=-0.51, p<0.05), SEBT 135(o) and LOS 6 front-left (r=-0.53, p<0.05), SEBT overall and LOS 6 overall (r=-0.43, p<0.05). Partial correlations were significant for SEBT 90° and LOS 6 left (rSEBT,LOS·H=-0.45, p<0.05) and SEBT 135° and LOS 6 front-left (rSEBT,LOS·H=-0.51, p<0.05), and SEBT overall and LOS 6 overall (rSEBT,LOS·H=-0.37, p<0.05). These findings indicate the tests seem to assess different components of balance. Research is needed to determine and define what specific components of balance are being assessed. Care must be taken when choosing balance tests to best match the test to the purpose of testing (fall risk, athletic performance, etc.). PMID:26514832

  2. Potential benefits of magnetic suspension and balance systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawing, Pierce L.; Dress, David A.; Kilgore, Robert A.

    1987-01-01

    The potential of Magnetic Suspension and Balance Systems (MSBS) to improve conventional wind tunnel testing techniques is discussed. Topics include: elimination of model geometry distortion and support interference to improve the measurement accuracy of aerodynamic coefficients; removal of testing restrictions due to supports; improved dynamic stability data; and stores separation testing. Substantial increases in wind tunnel productivity are anticipated due to the coalescence of these improvements. Specific improvements in testing methods for missiles, helicopters, fighter aircraft, twin fuselage transports and bombers, state separation, water tunnels, and automobiles are also forecast. In a more speculative vein, new wind tunnel test techniques are envisioned as a result of applying MSBS, including free-flight computer trajectories in the test section, pilot-in-the-loop and designer-in-the-loop testing, shipboard missile launch simulation, and optimization of hybrid hypersonic configurations. Also addressed are potential applications of MSBS to such diverse technologies as medical research and practice, industrial robotics, space weaponry, and ore processing in space.

  3. Feasibility of a Low-Cost, Interactive Gaming System to Assess Balance in Older Women.

    PubMed

    Hall, Courtney D; Clevenger, Carolyn K; Wolf, Rachel A; Lin, James S; Johnson, Theodore M; Wolf, Steven L

    2016-01-01

    The use of low-cost interactive game technology for balance rehabilitation has become more popular recently, with generally good outcomes. Very little research has been undertaken to determine whether this technology is appropriate for balance assessment. The Wii balance board has good reliability and is comparable to a research-grade force plate; however, recent studies examining the relationship between Wii Fit games and measures of balance and mobility demonstrate conflicting findings. This study found that the Wii Fit was feasible for community-dwelling older women to safely use the balance board and quickly learn the Wii Fit games. The Ski Slalom game scores were strongly correlated with several balance and mobility measures, whereas Table Tilt game scores were not. Based on these findings, the Ski Slalom game may have utility in the evaluation of balance problems in community-dwelling older adults. PMID:26181324

  4. Performance Evaluation of Extension Education Centers in Universities Based on the Balanced Scorecard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Hung-Yi; Lin, Yi-Kuei; Chang, Chi-Hsiang

    2011-01-01

    This study aims at developing a set of appropriate performance evaluation indices mainly based on balanced scorecard (BSC) for extension education centers in universities by utilizing multiple criteria decision making (MCDM). Through literature reviews and experts who have real practical experiences in extension education, adequate performance…

  5. Modeling efficiency and water balance in PEM fuel cell systems with liquid fuel processing and hydrogen membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearlman, Joshua B.; Bhargav, Atul; Shields, Eric B.; Jackson, Gregory S.; Hearn, Patrick L.

    Integrating PEM fuel cells effectively with liquid hydrocarbon reforming requires careful system analysis to assess trade-offs associated with H 2 production, purification, and overall water balance. To this end, a model of a PEM fuel cell system integrated with an autothermal reformer for liquid hydrocarbon fuels (modeled as C 12H 23) and with H 2 purification in a water-gas-shift/membrane reactor is developed to do iterative calculations for mass, species, and energy balances at a component and system level. The model evaluates system efficiency with parasitic loads (from compressors, pumps, and cooling fans), system water balance, and component operating temperatures/pressures. Model results for a 5-kW fuel cell generator show that with state-of-the-art PEM fuel cell polarization curves, thermal efficiencies >30% can be achieved when power densities are low enough for operating voltages >0.72 V per cell. Efficiency can be increased by operating the reformer at steam-to-carbon ratios as high as constraints related to stable reactor temperatures allow. Decreasing ambient temperature improves system water balance and increases efficiency through parasitic load reduction. The baseline configuration studied herein sustained water balance for ambient temperatures ≤35 °C at full power and ≤44 °C at half power with efficiencies approaching ∼27 and ∼30%, respectively.

  6. Process evaluation distributed system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moffatt, Christopher L. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    The distributed system includes a database server, an administration module, a process evaluation module, and a data display module. The administration module is in communication with the database server for providing observation criteria information to the database server. The process evaluation module is in communication with the database server for obtaining the observation criteria information from the database server and collecting process data based on the observation criteria information. The process evaluation module utilizes a personal digital assistant (PDA). A data display module in communication with the database server, including a website for viewing collected process data in a desired metrics form, the data display module also for providing desired editing and modification of the collected process data. The connectivity established by the database server to the administration module, the process evaluation module, and the data display module, minimizes the requirement for manual input of the collected process data.

  7. MODULAR CONSTRUCTION SYSTEM EVALUATION

    SciTech Connect

    S. Gillespie

    2002-08-08

    The purpose of this study is to respond to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Technical Direction Letter (TDL) 02-003 (Waisley 2001), which directs Bechtel SAIC Company, LLC (BSC) to complete a design study to recommend repository design options to support receipt and/or emplacement of any or all of the following: commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF), high-level radioactive waste (HLW), DOE-managed spent nuclear fuel (DSNF) (including naval spent nuclear fuel [SNF]), and immobilized plutonium (if available), as soon as practicable, but no later than 2010. From the possible design options, a recommended approach will be determined for further evaluation to support the preliminary design of the repository. This study integrates the results of the repository Design Evolution Study (Rowe 2002) with supporting studies concerning national transportation options (BSC 2002b) and Nevada transportation options (Gehner 2002). The repository Design Evolution Study documents the processes used to reevaluate the design, construction, operation, and cost of the repository in response to TDL 02-003 (Waisley 2001), and to determine possible repository conceptual design options. The transportation studies evaluate the national and Nevada transportation options that support the repository conceptual design options. An evaluation methodology was established, based on Program-level requirements developed for the study in reference BSC 2001a, to allow the repository and system design options to be evaluated on a consistent basis. The transportation options and the design components were integrated into system design implementation options, which were evaluated using receipt and emplacement scenarios. The scenarios tested the ability of the design concept to adapt to changes in funding, waste receipt rate, and Nevada rail transportation availability. The results of the evaluation (in terms of system throughput, cost, and schedule) were then compared to the Program-level requirements, and

  8. Evaluating Recommendation Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shani, Guy; Gunawardana, Asela

    Recommender systems are now popular both commercially and in the research community, where many approaches have been suggested for providing recommendations. In many cases a system designer that wishes to employ a recommendation system must choose between a set of candidate approaches. A first step towards selecting an appropriate algorithm is to decide which properties of the application to focus upon when making this choice. Indeed, recommendation systems have a variety of properties that may affect user experience, such as accuracy, robustness, scalability, and so forth. In this paper we discuss how to compare recommenders based on a set of properties that are relevant for the application. We focus on comparative studies, where a few algorithms are compared using some evaluation metric, rather than absolute benchmarking of algorithms. We describe experimental settings appropriate for making choices between algorithms. We review three types of experiments, starting with an offline setting, where recommendation approaches are compared without user interaction, then reviewing user studies, where a small group of subjects experiment with the system and report on the experience, and finally describe large scale online experiments, where real user populations interact with the system. In each of these cases we describe types of questions that can be answered, and suggest protocols for experimentation. We also discuss how to draw trustworthy conclusions from the conducted experiments. We then review a large set of properties, and explain how to evaluate systems given relevant properties. We also survey a large set of evaluation metrics in the context of the properties that they evaluate.

  9. Evaluation of water and energy balances ovet the Colombian Orinoco Catchment Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abril, C.; Baquero-Bernal, A.

    2012-04-01

    This study presents a comparison between in-situ observations and gridded data from reanalyses and from a regional climate model over the Colombian Orinoco Catchment Basin, in South America, with focus on the surface water and energy balances. We use datasets from the regional climate model REMO and re-analyses ERA40, ERAInterim and NCEP/NCAR. The in-situ observations have been provided by the Colombian Institute of Hydrology, Meteorology and Environmental Studies (IDEAM). The balances are for the 1958-2011 period. Statistical analyses of temperature and precipitation are also presented. Discrepancies between gridded datasets and observations are evaluated and possible sources of error in each of the datasets are discussed. The research presented is the first intercomparison of the surface water and energy balances over the Colombian Orinoco Catchment Basin from different datasets.

  10. Surface Energy Balance System for Estimating Daily Evapotranspiration Rates in the Texas High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous energy balance (EB) algorithms have been developed to use remote sensing data for mapping evapotranspiration (ET) on a regional basis. Adopting any single or a combination of these models for an operational ET remote sensing program requires thorough evaluation. The Surface Energy Balance S...

  11. The radiation balance of the earth-atmosphere system from Nimbus 3 radiation measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raschke, E.; Vonderhaar, T. H.; Pasternak, M.; Bandeen, W. R.

    1973-01-01

    The radiation balance of the earth-atmosphere system and its components was computed from global measurements of radiation reflected and emitted from the earth to space. These measurements were made from the meteorological satellite Nimbus 3 during the periods from April 16 to August 15, 1969; October 3 to 17, 1969; and January 21 to February 3, 1970. Primarily the method of evaluation, its inherent assumptions, and possible error sources were discussed. Results are presented by various methods: (1) global, hemispherical, and zonal averages obtained from measurements in all semimonthly periods and (2) global maps of the absorbed solar radiation, the albedo, the outgoing longwave radiation, and the radiation balance obtained from measurements during semimonthly periods in each season (May 1 to 15, July 16 to 31, and October 3 to 17, 1969, and January 21 to February 3, 1970). Annual global averages of the albedo and of the outgoing longwave radiation were determined. These values balance to within 1 percent the annual global energy input by solar radiation that was computed for a solar constant.

  12. 26 CFR 801.1 - Balanced performance measurement system; in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Balanced performance measurement system; in general. 801.1 Section 801.1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INTERNAL REVENUE PRACTICE BALANCED SYSTEM FOR MEASURING ORGANIZATIONAL AND EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE WITHIN THE INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE §...

  13. Indicator Systems and Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canright, Shelley; Grabowski, Barbara

    1995-01-01

    Participants in the workshop session were actively engaged in a hands-on, minds-on approach to learning about indicators and evaluation processes. The six hour session was broken down into three two hour sessions. Each session was built upon an instructional model which moved from general understanding to specific IITA application. Examples and practice exercises served to demonstrate tand reinforce the workshop concepts. Each successive session built upon the previous session and addressed the major steps in the evaluation process. The major steps covered in the workshop included: project descriptions, writing goals and objectives for categories, determining indicators and indicator systems for specific projects, and methods and issues of data collection. The workshop served as a baseline upon which the field centers will build during the summer in undertaking a comprehensive examination and evaluation of their existing K-12 education projects.

  14. Evaluation of spinopelvic balance among patients undergoing surgical treatment for lumbar disk hernia☆☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Rafael de Paiva; Gonçalves Coimbra, Vinícius; Lubiana Chisté, Yuri; Lucas Batista Junior, José; Jacob Junior, Charbel; Machado Cardoso, Igor; Rezende, Rodrigo

    2014-01-01

    Objective to evaluate spinopelvic balance using the pelvic incidence, sacral slope and pelvic tilt among patients with lumbar disk hernias who underwent surgical treatment. Methods thirty patients at the spinal services of Hospital Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Vitória and Hospital Vila Velha were evaluated by measuring their spinopelvic balance from the angles of pelvic tilt, sacral slope and pelvic incidence, with their respective means, on simple lateral-view lumbopelvic radiographs that needed to encompass the lumbar spine, sacrum and proximal third of the femur. Results the spinopelvic balance measurements obtained from the mean angles of the population studied, for pelvic incidence, sacral slope and pelvic tilt, were 45°, 36.9° and 8.1°, respectively. The confidence interval for the mean pelvic incidence was from 41.9 to 48.1 (95% CI), thus including a reference value that characterized it as low, for an asymptomatic population, thus confirming that the sample was extracted from a population with this characteristic. Conclusion among these patients with lumbar disk hernias who underwent surgical treatment, the average spinopelvic balance was found to have pelvic incidence lower than what has been reported in the literature for an asymptomatic population. PMID:26229798

  15. Analytical evaluation of describing functions arising from harmonic balance analysis of tapping mode atomic force microscope.

    PubMed

    Mamedov, B A

    2008-05-01

    A new algorithm of harmonic balance analysis of tapping mode atomic force microscopes has been developed. The new algorithm is applicable to analytical evaluation of a large class of common tip-sample interaction potentials. The extensive test calculations show that the proposed algorithm in this work is the efficient one in practical computations. The comparative values presented in tables are acceptable and have the excellent agreement with the numerical results. PMID:18513097

  16. Comparison of digital controllers used in magnetic suspension and balance systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilgore, William A.

    1990-01-01

    Dynamic systems that were once controlled by analog circuits are now controlled by digital computers. Presented is a comparison of the digital controllers presently used with magnetic suspension and balance systems. The overall responses of the systems are compared using a computer simulation of the magnetic suspension and balance system and the digital controllers. The comparisons include responses to both simulated force and position inputs. A preferred digital controller is determined from the simulated responses.

  17. Factors Affecting Test Results and Standardized Method in Quiet Standing Balance Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jung Joong; Shin, Bo Mi; Na, Eun Hye

    2012-01-01

    Objective To identify factors affecting test results of the quiet standing balance evaluation conducted by posturography and to investigate the standardized method by comparing results according to feet width. Method The study cohort consisted of 100 healthy individuals. We assessed the quiet standing balance of subjects by using 3 different methods: standing on a force plate with feet width the same as shoulder width (test 1); with feet width the same as half the shoulder width (test 2); with feet width determined by the subject's comfort (test 3). Subjects underwent each test with their eyes open and closed for 30 seconds each time. Parameters for measuring standing balance included the mean mediolateral and anteroposterior extent, speed, and the velocity moment of center of pressure (COP) movement. Results All parameters showed better results when the subject's eyes were open rather than closed, and the mean AP extent and speed increased as the age of the subjects increased (p<0.01). However, there was no significant correlation between height and the study parameters, and no differences between men and women. Mean mediolateral extent and speed were significantly longer and faster in test 1 compared with tests 2 and 3 (p<0.01). The results of test 2 were better than the results of test 3, but the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion COP movements increased with age and when subjects closed their eyes in an evaluation of quiet standing balance conducted by posturography. Gender and height did not affect results of the test. We suggest that an appropriate method for conducting posturography is to have the subject stand on a force plate with their feet width the same as half the shoulder width, because this posture provided relatively accurate balance capacity. PMID:22506243

  18. Perturbation analysis of internal balancing for lightly damped mechanical systems with gyroscopic and circulatory forces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blelloch, P. A.; Mingori, D. L.; Wei, J. D.

    1987-01-01

    Approximate expressions are developed for internally balanced singular values corresponding to the modes of mechanical systems with gyroscopic forces, light damping, and small circulatory forces. A brief overview is first given of the balanced realization model reduction method, including a discussion of recent work. The models considered are defined, and a perturbation analysis is used to show that the modal representation becomes asymptotically balanced as damping reduces to zero. The approximate balanced singular values are calculated, and a simple example of a flexible, dual-spin spacecraft is given as an illustration of the results.

  19. Passing Muster: Evaluating Teacher Evaluation Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazerman, Steven; Goldhaber, Dan; Loeb, Susanna; Raudenbush, Stephen; Staiger, Douglas; Whitehurst, Grover J.

    2011-01-01

    This report addresses the comparison of teacher evaluation systems in the context of a particular administrative and legislative challenge: How a state or the federal government could achieve a uniform standard for dispensing funds to school districts for the recognition of exceptional teachers without imposing a uniform evaluation system on those…

  20. Evaluation of three long term mass balance records in Jotunheimen, southern Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreassen, Liss M.

    2013-04-01

    The accuracy of glacier surface mass-balance measurements depends on both the accuracy of the point observations and inter- and extrapolation of point values to spatially distributed values. Long series of measurements will seldom be perfectly homogeneous because of changes in personnel and procedure, and as there will be changes in glacier area (and elevation) when averaging the data. The Jotunheimen massif is the highest area in mainland Norway. Direct surface mass balance has been measured at Storbreen since 1949 and Hellstugubreen and Gråsubreen since 1962. These three mountain glaciers are reference glaciers of the World Glacier Monitoring Service. Four more glaciers in Jotunheimen were measured for shorter periods in the 1960/1970s. Moreover, measurements started on a small ice patch in 2010. The reference glaciers have been mapped repeatedly since measurements began, latest by laser scanning in 2009. The geodetic method has been used to calculate the cumulative surface mass balance. In this study the direct and geodetic mass balance results are presented and evaluated. Measurements reveal a remarked mass balance gradient in this region with smaller mass turnover towards east. All three long term glaciers have had a cumulative mass deficit since measurements began; over 1962-2010 the mean surface mass balance was -0.34 m w.e./a. The mass deficit has accelerated over the past decade, and the mean mass balance over 2001-2010 was -0.84 m w.e./a. Storbreen has lost about 1/5 of its volume since measurements began in 1949. Results reveal that the geodetic and direct measurements compare well for the glaciers, also for the latest mapping period 1997-2009, although discrepancies occur in some periods. Calibration and correction of the direct records with the geodetic results may be appropriate for some periods. The glacier changes of the three reference glaciers are finally compared with results from other glaciers in southern Norway for evaluation of the local and

  1. Craniomandibular System and Postural Balance after 3-Day Dry Immersion.

    PubMed

    Treffel, Loïc; Dmitrieva, Liubov; Gauquelin-Koch, Guillemette; Custaud, Marc-Antoine; Blanc, Stéphane; Gharib, Claude; Millet, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the influence of simulated microgravity by exposure to dry immersion on the craniomandibular system. Twelve healthy male volunteers participated in a 3-day dry immersion study. Before and immediately after exposure we measured maximal bite force using piezoresistive sensors. The mechanical properties of the jaw and cervical muscles were evaluated before, during, and after dry immersion using MyotonPRO. Because recent studies reported the effects of jaw motor activity on the postural stability of humans, stabilometric measurements of center of pressure were performed before and after dry immersion in two mandibular positions: rest position without jaw clenching, and intercuspidal position during voluntary teeth clenching. Results revealed no significant changes of maximal bite force after dry immersion. All postural parameters were significantly altered by dry immersion. There were however no significant differences in stabilometric data according to mandibular position. Moreover the masseter tonicity increased immediately after the end of dry immersion period. Dry immersion could be used as a valid model for studying the effects of microgravity on human subjects. However, 3 days appear insufficient in duration to evaluate the effects of weightlessness on maximal bite force. Our research suggests a link between postural disturbance after dry immersion and masseter tonicity. PMID:26913867

  2. Craniomandibular System and Postural Balance after 3-Day Dry Immersion

    PubMed Central

    Treffel, Loïc; Dmitrieva, Liubov; Gauquelin-Koch, Guillemette; Custaud, Marc-Antoine; Blanc, Stéphane; Gharib, Claude; Millet, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the influence of simulated microgravity by exposure to dry immersion on the craniomandibular system. Twelve healthy male volunteers participated in a 3-day dry immersion study. Before and immediately after exposure we measured maximal bite force using piezoresistive sensors. The mechanical properties of the jaw and cervical muscles were evaluated before, during, and after dry immersion using MyotonPRO. Because recent studies reported the effects of jaw motor activity on the postural stability of humans, stabilometric measurements of center of pressure were performed before and after dry immersion in two mandibular positions: rest position without jaw clenching, and intercuspidal position during voluntary teeth clenching. Results revealed no significant changes of maximal bite force after dry immersion. All postural parameters were significantly altered by dry immersion. There were however no significant differences in stabilometric data according to mandibular position. Moreover the masseter tonicity increased immediately after the end of dry immersion period. Dry immersion could be used as a valid model for studying the effects of microgravity on human subjects. However, 3 days appear insufficient in duration to evaluate the effects of weightlessness on maximal bite force. Our research suggests a link between postural disturbance after dry immersion and masseter tonicity. PMID:26913867

  3. TILLAGE AND ROTATION EFFECTS ON ENERGY BALANCES IN CORN AND SOYBEAN SYSTEMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Limited information is available regarding the effect of common management practices on the energy balance of corn and soybean cropping systems. Energy balances were calculated for continuous corn, continuous soybean, and corn-soybean rotations under six tillage treatments that included no-tillage, ...

  4. A worldwide evaluation of basin-scale evapotranspiration estimates against the water balance method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wenbin; Wang, Lei; Zhou, Jing; Li, Yanzhong; Sun, Fubao; Fu, Guobin; Li, Xiuping; Sang, Yan-Fang

    2016-07-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) plays a critical role in linking the water and energy cycles but is difficult to estimate at regional and basin scales. In this study, we present a worldwide evaluation of nine ET products (three diagnostic products, three land surface model (LSM) simulations and three reanalysis-based products) against reference ET (ETwb) calculated using the water balance method corrected for the water storage change at an annual time scale over the period 1983-2006 for 35 global river basins. The results indicated that there was no significant intra-category discrepancy in the annual ET estimates for the 35 basins calculated using the different products in 35 basins, but some products performed better than others, such as the Global Land surface Evaporation estimated using the Amsterdam Methodology (GLEAM_E) in the diagnostic products, ET obtained from the Global Land Data Assimilation System version 1 (GLDAS 1) with the Community Land Model scheme (GCLM_E) in LSM simulations, and ET from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications reanalysis dataset (MERRA_E) in the reanalysis-based products. Almost all ET products (except MERRA_E) reasonably estimated the annual means (especially in the dry basins) but systematically underestimated the inter-annual variability (except for MERRA_E, GCLM_E and ET simulation from the GLDAS 1 with the MOSAIC scheme - GMOS_E) and could not adequately estimate the trends (e.g. GCLM_E and MERRA_E) of ETwb (especially in the energy-limited wet basins). The uncertainties in nine ET products may be primarily attributed to the discrepancies in the forcing datasets and model structural limitations. The enhancements of global forcing data (meteorological data, solar radiation, soil moisture stress and water storage changes) and model physics (reasonable consideration of the water and energy balance and vegetation processes such as canopy interception loss

  5. Estimation of Optical Stimulus Amplitude for Balance Training Using Electrical Stimulation of the Vestibular System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goel, R.; De Dios, Y. E.; Cohen, H. S.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.

    2016-01-01

    Sensorimotor changes such as postural and gait instabilities can affect the functional performance of astronauts following gravitational transitions. By training astronauts preflight with supra-threshold noisy stochastic vestibular stimulation (SVS), the central nervous system can be trained to reweight sensory information by utilizing veridical information from other sensory inputs, such as vision and proprioception, for postural and gait control. This, in turn, can enhance functional performance in novel gravitational environments. The optimal maximum amplitude of stimulation to simulate the effect of deterioration in vestibular inputs for preflight training or for evaluating vestibular contribution in functional tests in general, however, has not yet been identified. Most studies have used arbitrary but fixed maximum current amplitudes from 3 to 5 mA in the medio-lateral (ML) direction to disrupt balance function in both ML and anterior-posterior directions in healthy adults. The goal of this study was to determine the minimum SVS level that yields an equivalently degraded balance performance. Fourteen subjects stood on a compliant surface with their eyes closed and were instructed to maintain a stable upright stance. Measures of stability of the head, trunk, and whole body were quantified in the ML direction. Objective perceptual motion thresholds, were estimated ahead of time by having subjects sit on a chair with their eyes closed and giving 1 Hz bipolar binaural sinusoidal electrical stimulation at various current amplitudes. Results from the balance task suggest that using stimulation amplitudes of 280% of motion-perceptual threshold (2.2 mA on average) significantly degraded balance performance and increasing the stimulation amplitude did not lead to further degradation. We anticipate that preflight training using supra-threshold SVS stimulation will be a component of preflight sensorimotor adaptability training designed to improve adaptability to novel

  6. Comparative analysis of net energy balance for satellite power systems (SPS) and other energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cirillo, R.R.; Cho, B.S.; Monarch, M.R.; Levine, E.P.

    1980-04-01

    The net energy balance of seven electric energy systems is assessed: two coal-based, one nuclear, two terrestrial solar, and two solar power satellites, with principal emphasis on the latter two systems. Solar energy systems require much less operating energy per unit of electrical output. However, on the basis of the analysis used here, coal and nuclear systems are two to five times more efficient at extracting useful energy from the primary resource base than are the solar energy systems. The payback period for all systems is less than 1.5 years, except for the terrestrial photovoltaic (19.8 yr) and the solar power satellite system (6.4 yr), both of which rely on energy-intensive silicon cells.

  7. Pure-rotary periodic motions of a planar two-ball auto-balancer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Chung-Jen; Tien, Meng-Hsuan

    2012-10-01

    Ball-type automatic balancers have been widely used to suppress the unbalanced vibration of rotor systems. However, instead of reaching the desired perfect balancing position, where the balls of the automatic balancer are allocated properly so that the rotor is perfectly balanced, the system may settle into a pure-rotary periodic motion, in which all the balls stick together and keep rotating around the balancer. Because the associated large vibrations may deteriorate the performance of the rotor system, it is desirable to avoid the pure-rotary periodic motion. To this end, there is a need to understand the properties of pure-rotary periodic motions clearly. In this study, we used the modified incremental harmonic balance method to find pure-rotary periodic motions numerically. The existence and stable regions of the pure-rotary periodic motion in a two-parameter plane were identified. The effects of system parameters on the stable regions of the pure-rotary periodic motion were examined. By comparing the stable regions of the pure-rotary periodic motion with those of the perfect balancing position, the variation of the steady-state response with the rotational speed was investigated. We also conducted experiments to test the stability of the pure-rotary periodic motion under different conditions. The experimental results agree well with the numerical results.

  8. Data Acquisition And Control For Horizontal Weiss Balance With An Embedded System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tunyagi, A. R.; Pop, V.

    2007-04-01

    A data acquisition and control system was developed for a Weiss balance. Using a high resolution LVDT position sensor and an embedded fuzzy-engine a real-time compensation and a long time stability was achieved.

  9. Surface heat flux data from energy balance Bowen ratio systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wesely, M.L.; Cook, D.R.; Coulter, R.L.

    1995-06-01

    The 350 {times} 400 km domain of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program`s Clouds and Radiation Testbed (CART) site in the southern Great Plains is equipped with 10 energy balance Bowen ratio (EBBR) stations at grassland sites; they measure the net radiation, ground heat flux, and temperature/humidity differences between 1.0 and 2.0 m heights. The latter differences provide estimates of the geometric Bowen ratio ({beta}), which are used to estimate sensible and latent heat fluxes. This paper addresses the problem that occurs when the value of {beta} is near {minus}1 and to demonstrate the effectiveness of the EBBR stations in collecting energy flux data at the CART site.

  10. Performance Analysis and Portability of the PLUM Load Balancing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliker, Leonid; Biswas, Rupak; Gabow, Harold N.

    1998-01-01

    The ability to dynamically adapt an unstructured mesh is a powerful tool for solving computational problems with evolving physical features; however, an efficient parallel implementation is rather difficult. To address this problem, we have developed PLUM, an automatic portable framework for performing adaptive numerical computations in a message-passing environment. PLUM requires that all data be globally redistributed after each mesh adaption to achieve load balance. We present an algorithm for minimizing this remapping overhead by guaranteeing an optimal processor reassignment. We also show that the data redistribution cost can be significantly reduced by applying our heuristic processor reassignment algorithm to the default mapping of the parallel partitioner. Portability is examined by comparing performance on a SP2, an Origin2000, and a T3E. Results show that PLUM can be successfully ported to different platforms without any code modifications.

  11. Fingerprinting Codes for Internet-Based Live Pay-TV System Using Balanced Incomplete Block Designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Shuhui; Uehara, Tetsutaro; Satoh, Takashi; Morimura, Yoshitaka; Minoh, Michihiko

    In recent years, with the rapid growth of the Internet as well as the increasing demand for broadband services, live pay-television broadcasting via the Internet has become a promising business. To get this implemented, it is necessary to protect distributed contents from illegal copying and redistributing after they are accessed. Fingerprinting system is a useful tool for it. This paper shows that the anti-collusion code has advantages over other existing fingerprinting codes in terms of efficiency and effectivity for live pay-television broadcasting. Next, this paper presents how to achieve efficient and effective anti-collusion codes based on unital and affine plane, which are two known examples of balanced incomplete block design (BIBD). Meanwhile, performance evaluations of anti-collusion codes generated from unital and affine plane are conducted. Their practical explicit constructions are given last.

  12. Designing and evaluating a balanced scorecard for a health information management department in a Canadian urban non-teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Nippak, Pria Md; Veracion, Julius Isidro; Muia, Maria; Ikeda-Douglas, Candace J; Isaac, Winston W

    2016-06-01

    This report is a description of a balanced scorecard design and evaluation process conducted for the health information management department at an urban non-teaching hospital in Canada. The creation of the health information management balanced scorecard involved planning, development, implementation, and evaluation of the indicators within the balanced scorecard by the health information management department and required 6 months to complete. Following the evaluation, the majority of members of the health information management department agreed that the balanced scorecard is a useful tool in reporting key performance indicators. These findings support the success of the balanced scorecard development within this setting and will help the department to better align with the hospital's corporate strategy that is linked to the provision of efficient management through the evaluation of key performance indicators. Thus, it appears that the planning and selection process used to determine the key indicators within the study can aid in the development of a balanced scorecard for a health information management department. In addition, it is important to include the health information management department staff in all stages of the balanced scorecard development, implementation, and evaluation phases. PMID:24948412

  13. Preliminary results of the first static calibration of the RSRA helicopter active-isolator rotor balance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acree, C. W., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The helicopter version of the Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA) is designed to make simultaneous measurements of all rotor forces and moments in flight analogous to a wind tunnel balance. Loads are measured by a combination of load cells, strain gages, and hydropneumatic active isolators which use pressure gages to measure loads. Complete evaluation of system performance required calibration of the rotor force and moment measuring system when installed in the aircraft. Measurement system responses to rotor loads obtained during the first static calibration of the RSRA helicopter are plotted and discussed. Plots of the raw transducer data are included.

  14. Mechanical design of a rotary balance system for NASA. Langley Research Center's vertical spin tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allred, J. W.; Fleck, V. J.

    1992-01-01

    A new lightweight Rotary Balance System is presently being fabricated and installed as part of a major upgrade to the existing 20 Foot Vertical Spin Tunnel. This upgrade to improve model testing productivity of the only free spinning vertical wind tunnel includes a modern fan/drive and tunnel control system, an updated video recording system, and the new rotary balance system. The rotary balance is a mechanical apparatus which enables the measurement of aerodynamic force and moment data under spinning conditions (100 rpm). This data is used in spin analysis and is vital to the implementation of large amplitude maneuvering simulations required for all new high performance aircraft. The new rotary balance system described in this report will permit greater test efficiency and improved data accuracy. Rotary Balance testing with the model enclosed in a tare bag can also be performed to obtain resulting model forces from the spinning operation. The rotary balance system will be stored against the tunnel sidewall during free flight model testing.

  15. Evaluation of Regression Models of Balance Calibration Data Using an Empirical Criterion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulbrich, Norbert; Volden, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    An empirical criterion for assessing the significance of individual terms of regression models of wind tunnel strain gage balance outputs is evaluated. The criterion is based on the percent contribution of a regression model term. It considers a term to be significant if its percent contribution exceeds the empirical threshold of 0.05%. The criterion has the advantage that it can easily be computed using the regression coefficients of the gage outputs and the load capacities of the balance. First, a definition of the empirical criterion is provided. Then, it is compared with an alternate statistical criterion that is widely used in regression analysis. Finally, calibration data sets from a variety of balances are used to illustrate the connection between the empirical and the statistical criterion. A review of these results indicated that the empirical criterion seems to be suitable for a crude assessment of the significance of a regression model term as the boundary between a significant and an insignificant term cannot be defined very well. Therefore, regression model term reduction should only be performed by using the more universally applicable statistical criterion.

  16. Cost of photovoltaic energy systems as determined by balance-of-system costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenblum, L.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of the balance-of-system (BOS), i.e., the total system less the modules, on photo-voltaic energy system costs is discussed for multikilowatt, flat-plate systems. Present BOS costs are in the range of 10 to 16 dollars per peak watt (1978 dollars). BOS costs represent approximately 50% of total system cost. The possibility of future BOS cost reduction is examined. It is concluded that, given the nature of BOS costs and the lack of comprehensive national effort focussed on cost reduction, it is unlikely that BOS costs will decline greatly in the next several years. This prognosis is contrasted with the expectations of the Department of Energy National Photovoltaic Program goals and pending legislation in the Congress which require a BOS cost reduction of an order of magnitude or more by the mid-1980s.

  17. Further developments relating to the NASA Langley Research Center 13-inch magnetic suspension and balance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britcher, Colin P.

    1991-01-01

    A few specific developments that were undertaken recently to the magnetic suspension and balance system (MSBS) are detailed. The improvements are as follows: modifications to the digital control system to accommodate a modified position sensing system; development of pressure telemetry systems; and revisions to the wind tunnel test section.

  18. Lysimetric evaluation of simplified surface energy balance approach in the Texas high plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gowda, P.H.; Senay, G.B.; Howell, T.A.; Marek, T.H.

    2009-01-01

    Numerous energy balance (EB) algorithms have been developed to make use of remote sensing data to estimate evapotranspiration (ET) regionally. However, most EB models are complex to use and efforts are being made to simplify procedures mainly through the scaling of reference ET. The Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEB) is one such method. This approach has never been evaluated using measured ET data. In this study, the SSEB approach was applied to 14 Landsat TM images covering a major portion of the Southern High Plains that were acquired during 2006 and 2007 cropping seasons. Performance of the SSEB was evaluated by comparing estimated ET with measured daily ET from four large monolithic lysimeters at the USDA-ARS Conservation and Production Research Laboratory, Bushland, Texas. Statistical evaluation of results indicated that the SSEB accounted for 84% of the variability in the measured ET values with a slope and intercept of 0.75 and 1.1 mm d-1, respectively. Considering the minimal amount of ancillary data required and excellent performance in predicting daily ET, the SSEB approach is a promising tool for mapping ET in the semiarid Texas High Plains and in other parts of the world with similar hydro-climatic conditions.

  19. Lysimetric Evaluation of Simplified Surface Energy Balance Approach in the Texas High Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senay, Gabriel B.; Gowda, P.H.; Howell, T.A.; Marek, T.H.

    2009-01-01

    Numerous energy balance (EB) algorithms have been developed to make use of remote sensing data to estimate evapotranspiration (ET) regionally. However, most EB models are complex to use and efforts are being made to simplify procedures mainly through the scaling of reference ET. The Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEB) is one such method. This approach has never been evaluated using measured ET data. In this study, the SSEB approach was applied to fourteen Landsat TM images covering a major portion of the Southern High Plains that were acquired during 2006 and 2007 cropping seasons. Performance of the SSEB was evaluated by comparing estimated ET with measured daily ET from four large monolithic lysimeters at the USDA-ARS Conservation and Production Research Laboratory, Bushland, Texas. Statistical evaluation of results indicated that the SSEB accounted for 84% of the variability in the measured ET values with a slope and intercept of 0.75 and 1.1 mm d-1, respectively. Considering the minimal amount of ancillary data required and excellent performance in predicting daily ET, the SSEB approach is a promising tool for mapping ET in the semiarid Texas High Plains and in other parts of the world with similar hydro-climatic conditions.

  20. Model Reduction by Balanced Truncation of Linear Systems with a Quadratic Output

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Beeumen, Roel; Meerbergen, Karl

    2010-09-01

    Balanced truncation is a widely used and appreciated projection-based model reduction technique for linear systems. This technique has the following two important properties: approximations by balanced truncation preserve the stability and the H∞-norm (the maximum of the frequency response) of the error system is bounded above by twice the sum of the neglected singular values. This paper tries to extend the framework of linear balanced truncation to systems with a quadratic output. For such systems, the controllability Gramian remains the same. The observability Gramian is computed from a linear system with multiple outputs that is derived from the quadratic output of the original system. We give a numerical example for a large-scale system arising from structural analysis.

  1. Technical and systems evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Skolnik, E.G.; DiPietro, J.P.

    1998-08-01

    During FY 1998 Energetics performed a variety of technology-based evaluations for the Hydrogen Program. Three evaluations are summarized below: hydrogen bromine-based electricity storage, carbon-based hydrogen storage, and hydrogen-fueled buses.

  2. Nitrogen fertilizer effects on soil carbon balances in midwestern U.S. agricultural systems.

    PubMed

    Russell, Ann E; Cambardella, Cynthia A; Laird, David A; Jaynes, Dan B; Meek, David W

    2009-07-01

    A single ecosystem dominates the Midwestern United States, occupying 26 million hectares in five states alone: the corn-soybean agroecosystem [Zea mays L.-Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. Nitrogen (N) fertilization could influence the soil carbon (C) balance in this system because the corn phase is fertilized in 97-100% of farms, at an average rate of 135 kg N x ha(-1) x yr(-1). We evaluated the impacts on two major processes that determine the soil C balance, the rates of organic-carbon (OC) inputs and decay, at four levels of N fertilization, 0, 90, 180, and 270 kg/ha, in two long-term experimental sites in Mollisols in Iowa, USA. We compared the corn-soybean system with other experimental cropping systems fertilized with N in the corn phases only: continuous corn for grain; corn-corn-oats (Avena sativa L.)-alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.; corn-oats-alfalfa-alfalfa; and continuous soybean. In all systems, we estimated long-term OC inputs and decay rates over all phases of the rotations, based on long-term yield data, harvest indices (HI), and root:shoot data. For corn, we measured these two ratios in the four N treatments in a single year in each site; for other crops we used published ratios. Total OC inputs were calculated as aboveground plus belowground net primary production (NPP) minus harvested yield. For corn, measured total OC inputs increased with N fertilization (P < 0.05, both sites). Belowground NPP, comprising only 6-22% of total corn NPP, was not significantly influenced by N fertilization. When all phases of the crop rotations were evaluated over the long term, OC decay rates increased concomitantly with OC input rates in several systems. Increases in decay rates with N fertilization apparently offset gains in carbon inputs to the soil in such a way that soil C sequestration was virtually nil in 78% of the systems studied, despite up to 48 years of N additions. The quantity of belowground OC inputs was the best predictor of long-term soil C storage. This

  3. Performance evaluation of extension education centers in universities based on the balanced scorecard.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hung-Yi; Lin, Yi-Kuei; Chang, Chi-Hsiang

    2011-02-01

    This study aims at developing a set of appropriate performance evaluation indices mainly based on balanced scorecard (BSC) for extension education centers in universities by utilizing multiple criteria decision making (MCDM). Through literature reviews and experts who have real practical experiences in extension education, adequate performance evaluation indices have been selected and then utilizing the decision making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) and analytic network process (ANP), respectively, further establishes the causality between the four BSC perspectives as well as the relative weights between evaluation indices. According to this previous result, an empirical analysis of the performance evaluation of extension education centers of three universities at Taoyuan County in Taiwan is illustrated by applying VlseKriterijumska Optimizacija I Kompromisno Resenje (VIKOR). From the analysis results, it indicates that "Learning and growth" is the significant influential factor and it would affect the other three perspectives. In addition, it is discovered that "Internal process" perspective as well as "Financial" perspective play important roles in the performance evaluation of extension education centers. The top three key performance indices are "After-sales service", "Turnover volume", and "Net income". The proposed evaluation model could be considered as a reference for extension education centers in universities to prioritize their improvements on the key performance indices after performing VIKOR analyses. PMID:20619892

  4. Evaluation of Diverse Community Asthma Interventions: Balancing Health Outcomes with Developing Community Capacity for Evidence-Based Program Measurement.

    PubMed

    Woodhouse, Lynn D; Livingood, William C; Toal, Russ; Keene, DeAnna; Hines, Robert B; Tedders, Stuart; Charles, Simone M; Lawrence, Raymona H; Gunn, Laura H; Williams, Natalie; Kellum, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    The challenge of evaluating community asthma management programs is complicated by balancing the emphasis on health outcomes with the need to build community process capacity for conducting and monitoring evidence-based programs. The evaluation of a Georgia Childhood Asthma Management Program, a Healthcare Georgia Foundation-supported initiative for multiple diverse programs and settings, provides an example of an approach and the results that address this challenge. A "developmental evaluation" approach was applied, using mixed methods of quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis, to assess the progress of community asthma prevention programs in building community within the context of: where the community is starting, community-level systems changes, and the community's progress toward becoming more outcome measurement oriented and evidence based. Initial evaluation efforts revealed extensive mobilization of community assets to manage childhood asthma. However, there were minimal planned efforts to assess health outcomes and systems changes, and the lack of a logic model-based program design linking evidence-based practices to outcomes. Following developmental technical assistance within evaluation efforts, all programs developed logic models, linking practices to outcomes with data collection processes to assess progress toward achieving the selected outcomes. This developmental approach across diverse projects and communities, along with a quality improvement benchmarking approach to outcomes, created a focus on health status outcome improvement. Specifically, this approach complemented an emphasis on an improved community process capacity to identify, implement, and monitor evidence-based asthma practices that could be used within each community setting. PMID:25658512

  5. Performance evaluation of Al-Zahra academic medical center based on Iran balanced scorecard model

    PubMed Central

    Raeisi, Ahmad Reza; Yarmohammadian, Mohammad Hossein; Bakhsh, Roghayeh Mohammadi; Gangi, Hamid

    2012-01-01

    Background: Growth and development in any country's national health system, without an efficient evaluation system, lacks the basic concepts and tools necessary for fulfilling the system's goals. The balanced scorecard (BSC) is a technique widely used to measure the performance of an organization. The basic core of the BSC is guided by the organization's vision and strategies, which are the bases for the formation of four perspectives of BSC. The goal of this research is the performance evaluation of Al-Zahra Academic Medical Center in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, based on Iran BSC model. Materials and Methods: This is a combination (quantitative–qualitative) research which was done at Al-Zahra Academic Medical Center in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2011. The research populations were hospital managers at different levels. Sampling method was purposive sampling in which the key informed personnel participated in determining the performance indicators of hospital as the BSC team members in focused discussion groups. After determining the conceptual elements in focused discussion groups, the performance objectives (targets) and indicators of hospital were determined and sorted in perspectives by the group discussion participants. Following that, the performance indicators were calculated by the experts according to the predetermined objectives; then, the score of each indicator and the mean score of each perspective were calculated. Results: Research findings included development of the organizational mission, vision, values, objectives, and strategies. The strategies agreed upon by the participants in the focus discussion group included five strategies, which were customer satisfaction, continuous quality improvement, development of human resources, supporting innovation, expansion of services and improving the productivity. Research participants also agreed upon four perspectives for the Al-Zahra hospital BSC. In the patients and community

  6. Transport aircraft loading and balancing system: Using a CLIPS expert system for military aircraft load planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, J.; Labbe, M.; Belala, Y.; Leduc, Vincent

    1994-01-01

    The requirement for improving aircraft utilization and responsiveness in airlift operations has been recognized for quite some time by the Canadian Forces. To date, the utilization of scarce airlift resources has been planned mainly through the employment of manpower-intensive manual methods in combination with the expertise of highly qualified personnel. In this paper, we address the problem of facilitating the load planning process for military aircraft cargo planes through the development of a computer-based system. We introduce TALBAS (Transport Aircraft Loading and BAlancing System), a knowledge-based system designed to assist personnel involved in preparing valid load plans for the C130 Hercules aircraft. The main features of this system which are accessible through a convivial graphical user interface, consists of the automatic generation of valid cargo arrangements given a list of items to be transported, the user-definition of load plans and the automatic validation of such load plans.

  7. Amylin Modulates the Mesolimbic Dopamine System to Control Energy Balance

    PubMed Central

    Mietlicki-Baase, Elizabeth G; Reiner, David J; Cone, Jackson J; Olivos, Diana R; McGrath, Lauren E; Zimmer, Derek J; Roitman, Mitchell F; Hayes, Matthew R

    2015-01-01

    Amylin acts in the CNS to reduce feeding and body weight. Recently, the ventral tegmental area (VTA), a mesolimbic nucleus important for food intake and reward, was identified as a site-of-action mediating the anorectic effects of amylin. However, the long-term physiological relevance and mechanisms mediating the intake-suppressive effects of VTA amylin receptor (AmyR) activation are unknown. Data show that the core component of the AmyR, the calcitonin receptor (CTR), is expressed on VTA dopamine (DA) neurons and that activation of VTA AmyRs reduces phasic DA in the nucleus accumbens core (NAcC). Suppression in NAcC DA mediates VTA amylin-induced hypophagia, as combined NAcC D1/D2 receptor agonists block the intake-suppressive effects of VTA AmyR activation. Knockdown of VTA CTR via adeno-associated virus short hairpin RNA resulted in hyperphagia and exacerbated body weight gain in rats maintained on high-fat diet. Collectively, these findings show that VTA AmyR signaling controls energy balance by modulating mesolimbic DA signaling. PMID:25035079

  8. Spectrally-balanced chromatic approach-lighting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chase, W. D.

    1977-01-01

    Approach lighting system employing combinations of red and blue lights reduces problem of color-based optical illusions. System exploits inherent chromatic aberration of eye to create three-dimensional effect, giving pilot visual clues of position.

  9. Uncertainty Analysis of the Single-Vector Force Balance Calibration System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Peter A.; Liu, Tianshu

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an uncertainty analysis of the Single-Vector Force Balance Calibration System (SVS). This study is focused on the uncertainty involved in setting the independent variables during the calibration experiment. By knowing the uncertainty in the calibration system, the fundamental limits of the calibration accuracy of a particular balance can be determined. A brief description of the SVS mechanical system is provided. A mathematical model is developed to describe the mechanical system elements. A sensitivity analysis of these parameters is carried out through numerical simulations to assess the sensitivity of the total uncertainty to the elemental error sources. These sensitivity coefficients provide valuable information regarding the relative significance of the elemental sources of error. An example calculation of the total uncertainty for a specific balance is provided. Results from this uncertainty analysis are specific to the Single-Vector System, but the approach is broad in nature and therefore applicable to other measurement and calibration systems.

  10. The Balanced Scorecard: a strategic management system for multi-sector collaboration and strategy implementation.

    PubMed

    Inamdar, S N; Kaplan, R S; Jones, M L; Menitoff, R

    2000-01-01

    This article illustrates the application of the Balanced Scorecard, a method more commonly associated with the business world, to a nonprofit multisector National Women's Health Quality Initiative (NWHQI). The article delineates the following multiple uses of the Balanced Scorecard for the NWHQI effort: Set NWHQI strategy and structure. Provide the framework and principles to implement NWHQI's strategy. Develop a measurement system to assess the progress and success of NWHQI's strategy. Serve as a collaboration mechanism for multisector stakeholders. Advance women's health knowledge base. This article concludes by sharing key insights regarding the utility of the Balanced Scorecard to promote the success of this nationwide women's health quality initiative. PMID:11183582

  11. Geochemical Estimates of Paleorecharge in the Pasco Basin: Evaluation of the Chloride Mass Balance Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Ellyn M.; Ginn, Timothy R.; Phillips, Jerry L.

    1996-04-01

    The Pasco Basin in southeastern Washington State provides a unique hydrogeologic setting for evaluating the chloride mass balance technique for estimating recharge. This basin was affected by late Pleistocene catastrophic floods when glacial dams in western Montana and northern Idaho were breached. It is estimated that multiple Missoula floods occurred between ˜13,000 and 15,000 years B.P. and reached a high water elevation of ˜350 m. These floods removed accumulated chloride from the sediment profile, effectively resetting the chloride mass balance clock at the beginning of the Holocene. The rate of chloride accumulation qCl in the sediments was determined by two methods and compared. The first method measured qCl by dividing the calculated natural fallout of 36Cl by a measured ratio of 36Cl/Cl in the pore water, while the second method used the total mass of chloride in the profile divided by the length of time that atmospheric chloride had accumulated since the last flood. Although the two methods are based on different approaches, they showed close agreement. In laboratory studies the sediment to water ratio for chloride extraction was sensitive to the grain size of the sediments; low extraction ratios in silt loam sediments led to significant underestimation of pore water chloride concentration. Br/Cl ratios were useful for distinguishing nonatmospheric (e.g., rock) sources of chloride. Field studies showed little spatial variability in estimated recharge at a given site within the basin but showed significant topographic control on recharge rates in this semiarid environment. An extension of the conventional chloride mass balance model was used to evaluate chloride profiles under transient, time-varying annual precipitation conditions. This model was inverted to determine the paleorecharge history for a given soil chloride profile, and the parameters of the root extraction model required to estimate paleoprecipitation

  12. Recent Developments In Theory Of Balanced Linear Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gawronski, Wodek

    1994-01-01

    Report presents theoretical study of some issues of controllability and observability of system represented by linear, time-invariant mathematical model of the form. x = Ax + Bu, y = Cx + Du, x(0) = xo where x is n-dimensional vector representing state of system; u is p-dimensional vector representing control input to system; y is q-dimensional vector representing output of system; n,p, and q are integers; x(0) is intial (zero-time) state vector; and set of matrices (A,B,C,D) said to constitute state-space representation of system.

  13. Evaluating new manure application technologies to balance environmental and agronomic objectives in no-till crop production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land application of manure is one of the most challenging issues facing farmers. Changing policies, demographics and management priorities must be balanced. A critical issue is the balance between manure incorporation for optimum nutrient management and use of no-till crop production systems. This p...

  14. Numerical analysis of the first static calibration of the RSRA helicopter active-isolator rotor balance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acree, C. W., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The helicopter version of the Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA) is designed to make simultaneous measurements of all rotor forces and moments in a manner analogous to a wind-tunnel balance. Loads are measured by a combination of load cells, strain gages, and hydropneumatic active isolators with built-in pressure gages. Complete evaluation of system performance requires calibration of the rotor force- and moment-measurement system when installed in the aircraft. Derivations of calibration corrections for various combinations of calibration data are discussed.

  15. A Vibrotactile and Plantar Force Measurement-Based Biofeedback System: Paving the Way towards Wearable Balance-Improving Devices.

    PubMed

    Ma, Christina Zong-Hao; Wan, Anson Hong-Ping; Wong, Duo Wai-Chi; Zheng, Yong-Ping; Lee, Winson Chiu-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Although biofeedback systems have been used to improve balance with success, they were confined to hospital training applications. Little attempt has been made to investigate the use of in-shoe plantar force measurement and wireless technology to turn hospital training biofeedback systems into wearable devices. This research developed a wearable biofeedback system which detects body sway by analyzing the plantar force and provides users with the corresponding haptic cues. The effects of this system were evaluated in thirty young and elderly subjects with simulated reduced foot sensation. Subjects performed a Romberg test under three conditions: (1) no socks, system turned-off; (2) wearing five layers of socks, system turned-off; (3) wearing five layers of socks, and system turned-on. Degree of body sway was investigated by computing the center of pressure (COP) movement measured by a floor-mounted force platform. Plantar tactile sensation was evaluated using a monofilament test. Wearing multiple socks significantly decreased the plantar tactile sensory input (p < 0.05), and increased the COP parameters (p < 0.017), indicating increased postural sway. After turning on the biofeedback system, the COP parameters decreased significantly (p < 0.017). The positive results of this study should inspire future development of wearable plantar force-based biofeedback systems for improving balance in people with sensory deficits. PMID:26694399

  16. A Vibrotactile and Plantar Force Measurement-Based Biofeedback System: Paving the Way towards Wearable Balance-Improving Devices

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Christina Zong-Hao; Wan, Anson Hong-Ping; Wong, Duo Wai-Chi; Zheng, Yong-Ping; Lee, Winson Chiu-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Although biofeedback systems have been used to improve balance with success, they were confined to hospital training applications. Little attempt has been made to investigate the use of in-shoe plantar force measurement and wireless technology to turn hospital training biofeedback systems into wearable devices. This research developed a wearable biofeedback system which detects body sway by analyzing the plantar force and provides users with the corresponding haptic cues. The effects of this system were evaluated in thirty young and elderly subjects with simulated reduced foot sensation. Subjects performed a Romberg test under three conditions: (1) no socks, system turned-off; (2) wearing five layers of socks, system turned-off; (3) wearing five layers of socks, and system turned-on. Degree of body sway was investigated by computing the center of pressure (COP) movement measured by a floor-mounted force platform. Plantar tactile sensation was evaluated using a monofilament test. Wearing multiple socks significantly decreased the plantar tactile sensory input (p < 0.05), and increased the COP parameters (p < 0.017), indicating increased postural sway. After turning on the biofeedback system, the COP parameters decreased significantly (p < 0.017). The positive results of this study should inspire future development of wearable plantar force-based biofeedback systems for improving balance in people with sensory deficits. PMID:26694399

  17. OBERON: OBliquity and Energy balance Run on N-body systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forgan, Duncan H.

    2016-08-01

    OBERON (OBliquity and Energy balance Run on N-body systems) models the climate of Earthlike planets under the effects of an arbitrary number and arrangement of other bodies, such as stars, planets and moons. The code, written in C++, simultaneously computes N body motions using a 4th order Hermite integrator, simulates climates using a 1D latitudinal energy balance model, and evolves the orbital spin of bodies using the equations of Laskar (1986a,b).

  18. Toward a workable biosafety system for regulating genetically modified organisms in Ethiopia: balancing conservation and competitiveness.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Adane

    2013-01-01

    On September 9, 2009, Ethiopia enacted a highly restrictive biosafety law firmly based on precautionary principles as a foundation for its GMO regulation system. Its drafting process, led by the country's Environmental Protection Authority, was judged as biased, focusing only on protecting the environment from perceived risks, giving little attention to potential benefits of GMOs. Many of its provisions are very stringent, exceeding those of Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, while others cannot be fulfilled by applicants, collectively rendering the emerged biosafety system unworkable. These provisions include requirements for advance informed agreement and rigorous socioeconomic assessment in risk evaluation for all GMO transactions, including contained research use-which requires the head of the competent national authority of the exporting country to take full responsibility for GMO-related information provided-and stringent labeling, insurance and monitoring requirements for all GMO activities. Furthermore, there is no provision to establish an independent national biosafety decision-making body(ies). As a result, foreign technology owners that provide highly demanded technologies like Bt cotton declined to work with Ethiopia. There is a fear that the emerged biosafety system might also continue to suppress domestic genetic engineering research and development. Thus, to benefit from GMOs, Ethiopia has to revise its biosafety system, primarily by making changes to some provisions of the law in a way that balances its diverse interests of conserving biodiversity, protecting the environment and enhancing competition in agricultural and other economic sectors. PMID:23580251

  19. Health technology assessment in middle-income countries: recommendations for a balanced assessment system

    PubMed Central

    Dankó, Dávid

    2014-01-01

    Because of significant differences in institutional contexts, health technology assessment (HTA) systems that are in place in core pharmaceutical markets may not be suitable, fully or in part, for middle-income countries (MICs) and for other noncore markets. Particular challenges may arise when systems based on the economic evaluation paradigm are conceptualized and implemented in MICs, sometimes with an insufficient level of awareness of the local institutional factors that influence pricing and reimbursement decision making. Focusing on pharmaceuticals, this article investigates possible development directions for HTA systems in MICs and noncore markets bearing similar institutional characteristics, and it provides recommendations for a balanced assessment system (BAS). For this, the main paradigms of HTA have also been reviewed briefly and factors influencing HTA and pricing and reimbursement decisions in MICs and in similar noncore countries have been summarized. The proposed BAS framework takes into account available resources and capabilities and is supposed to facilitate access to new pharmaceuticals while ensuring the transparency of decision-making processes and the stability of the pharmaceutical budget. PMID:27226832

  20. Fair to Everyone: Building the Balanced Teacher Evaluations that Educators and Students Deserve. Teacher Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almy, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    In schools across America, teachers know who among their peers is doing the best work and who is not. Yet the nation's evaluation systems tend to foster the notion that all teachers perform the same way, with the same results for students. Indeed, in an attempt at equality--uniform treatment for everyone--current evaluation systems often end up…

  1. Management Information System Based on the Balanced Scorecard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettunen, Juha; Kantola, Ismo

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This study seeks to describe the planning and implementation in Finland of a campus-wide management information system using a rigorous planning methodology. Design/methodology/approach: The structure of the management information system is planned on the basis of the management process, where strategic management and the balanced…

  2. Balancing Management and Leadership in Complex Health Systems

    PubMed Central

    Kwamie, Aku

    2015-01-01

    Health systems, particularly those in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), need stronger management and leadership capacities. Management and leadership are not synonymous, yet should be considered together as there can be too much of one and not enough of the other. In complex adaptive health systems, the multiple interactions and relationships between people and elements of the system mean that management and leadership, so often treated as domains of the individual, are additionally systemic phenomena, emerging from these relational interactions. This brief commentary notes some significant implications for how we can support capacity strengthening interventions for complex management and leadership. These would necessarily move away from competency-based models focused on training for individuals, and would rather encompass longer-term initiatives explicitly focused on systemic goals of accountability, innovation, and learning. PMID:26673472

  3. Evaluation of Counter-Based Dynamic Load Balancing Schemes for Massive Contingency Analysis on Over 10,000 Cores

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yousu; Huang, Zhenyu; Rice, Mark J.

    2012-12-27

    Contingency analysis studies are necessary to assess the impact of possible power system component failures. The results of the contingency analysis are used to ensure the grid reliability, and in power market operation for the feasibility test of market solutions. Currently, these studies are performed in real time based on the current operating conditions of the grid with a set of pre-selected contingency list, which might result in overlooking some critical contingencies caused by variable system status. To have a complete picture of a power grid, more contingencies need to be studied to improve grid reliability. High-performance computing techniques hold the promise of being able to perform the analysis for more contingency cases within a much shorter time frame. This paper evaluates the performance of counter-based dynamic load balancing schemes for a massive contingency analysis program on 10,000+ cores. One million N-2 contingency analysis cases with a Western Electricity Coordinating Council power grid model have been used to demonstrate the performance. The speedup of 3964 with 4096 cores and 7877 with 10240 cores are obtained. This paper reports the performance of the load balancing scheme with a single counter and two counters, describes disk I/O issues, and discusses other potential techniques for further improving the performance.

  4. Evaluation of total phosphorus mass balance in the lower Boise River and selected tributaries, southwestern Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Etheridge, Alexandra B.

    2013-01-01

    he U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Idaho Department of Environmental Quality, developed spreadsheet mass-balance models for total phosphorus using results from three synoptic sampling periods conducted in the lower Boise River watershed during August and October 2012, and March 2013. The modeling reach spanned 46.4 river miles (RM) along the Boise River from Veteran’s Memorial Parkway in Boise, Idaho (RM 50.2), to Parma, Idaho (RM 3.8). The USGS collected water-quality samples and measured streamflow at 14 main-stem Boise River sites, two Boise River north channel sites, two sites on the Snake River upstream and downstream of its confluence with the Boise River, and 17 tributary and return-flow sites. Additional samples were collected from treated effluent at six wastewater treatment plants and two fish hatcheries. The Idaho Department of Water Resources quantified diversion flows in the modeling reach. Total phosphorus mass-balance models were useful tools for evaluating sources of phosphorus in the Boise River during each sampling period. The timing of synoptic sampling allowed the USGS to evaluate phosphorus inputs to and outputs from the Boise River during irrigation season, shortly after irrigation ended, and soon before irrigation resumed. Results from the synoptic sampling periods showed important differences in surface-water and groundwater distribution and phosphorus loading. In late August 2012, substantial streamflow gains to the Boise River occurred from Middleton (RM 31.4) downstream to Parma (RM 3.8). Mass-balance model results indicated that point and nonpoint sources (including groundwater) contributed phosphorus loads to the Boise River during irrigation season. Groundwater exchange within the Boise River in October 2012 and March 2013 was not as considerable as that measured in August 2012. However, groundwater discharge to agricultural tributaries and drains during non-irrigation season was a large source of discharge and

  5. Mass balances for a biological life support system simulation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volk, Tyler; Rummel, John D.

    1987-01-01

    Design decisions to aid the development of future space based biological life support systems (BLSS) can be made with simulation models. The biochemistry stoichiometry was developed for: (1) protein, carbohydrate, fat, fiber, and lignin production in the edible and inedible parts of plants; (2) food consumption and production of organic solids in urine, feces, and wash water by the humans; and (3) operation of the waste processor. Flux values for all components are derived for a steady state system with wheat as the sole food source. The large scale dynamics of a materially closed (BLSS) computer model is described in a companion paper. An extension of this methodology can explore multifood systems and more complex biochemical dynamics while maintaining whole system closure as a focus.

  6. Evaluating balanced section restoration with thermochronological data in the Central Pyrenees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdos, Z.; Huismans, R. S.; van der Beek, P.

    2012-04-01

    Crustal-scale balanced section restoration is an elaborate procedure that requires understanding not just the present-day geology and the history of the area in question, but also the processes acting on the deep structures as well as those playing a role in the formation of topography. Integration of all available geological and geophysical data is essential to constrain a restoration that describes the present-day features in the most realistic and simplest possible way. Generally, these restorations are non-unique and their consistency with independent data - in particular thermochronological data that constrain spatial and temporal patterns of exhumation - is difficult to assess. As part of the TOPO-Europe project PYRTEC, we developed a new method that can be used to quantitatively evaluate the consistency of balanced section restorations with thermochronological datasets. We have applied our method on the area-balanced, crustal-scale cross-section restoration of the ECORS deep-seismic profile in the Central-Pyrenees constructed by Muñoz (1992) and Beaumont et al. (2000). This restoration is well constrained and supported by a wide variety of geological and geophysical data. Moreover, an extensive thermochronological dataset, including apatite and zircon fission-track, (U-Th)/He, mica, and feldspar Ar/Ar ages has been collected independently in the area. Using 2D-Move software, we have created a velocity field that describes the kinematics and internal deformation of different crustal blocks of the Central Pyrenees. The three central thrust sheets of the section - the Nogueres, the Orri and the Rialp - were our main focus, as these blocks make up the Axial Zone where basement is exposed and where the bulk of the thermochronological data was collected. We extend our model to the North Pyrenean Fault Zone to incorporate the available thermochronological data available from that area. Using this velocity field as an input for the thermo-kinematic model Pecube

  7. Pervious Pavement System Evaluation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Porous pavement is a low impact development stormwater control. The Urban Watershed Management Branch is evaluating interlocking concrete pavers as a popular implementation. The pavers themselves are impermeable, but the spaces between the pavers are backfilled with washed, grade...

  8. Evaluation Systems, Ethics, and Development Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Vinod

    2010-01-01

    After some 65 years of international development assistance, it is still difficult to show the effectiveness of aid in ways that are fully convincing. In part, this reflects inadequacies in the evaluation systems of the bilateral, multilateral, and global organizations that provide official development aid. Underlying these weaknesses often are a…

  9. Generation of artificial gravity in two-mass systems without balancing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samarov, N. G.; Skriabin, L. P.

    The use of spacecraft rotation as a method of generating artificial gravity is examined for a system consisting of a space station and an attached module (i.e., a two-mass system). It is shown that flexible coupling with nonlinear characteristics is a necessary condition for the balancing of the space station without the use of a special automatic balancing system. However, during the docking and maneuvering, the coupling between the station and the module must be rigid. A possible solution is the use of a combination coupling which allows the transition from rigid to flexible coupling and vice versa.

  10. Quantitative performance targets by using balanced scorecard system: application to waste management and public administration.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Paula; Nunes, Luis Miguel; Teixeira, Margarida Ribau

    2014-09-01

    This article demonstrates how decision-makers can be guided in the process of defining performance target values in the balanced scorecard system. We apply a method based on sensitivity analysis with Monte Carlo simulation to the municipal solid waste management system in Loulé Municipality (Portugal). The method includes two steps: sensitivity analysis of performance indicators to identify those performance indicators with the highest impact on the balanced scorecard model outcomes; and sensitivity analysis of the target values for the previously identified performance indicators. Sensitivity analysis shows that four strategic objectives (IPP1: Comply with the national waste strategy; IPP4: Reduce nonrenewable resources and greenhouse gases; IPP5: Optimize the life-cycle of waste; and FP1: Meet and optimize the budget) alone contribute 99.7% of the variability in overall balanced scorecard value. Thus, these strategic objectives had a much stronger impact on the estimated balanced scorecard outcome than did others, with the IPP1 and the IPP4 accounting for over 55% and 22% of the variance in overall balanced scorecard value, respectively. The remaining performance indicators contribute only marginally. In addition, a change in the value of a single indicator's target value made the overall balanced scorecard value change by as much as 18%. This may lead to involuntarily biased decisions by organizations regarding performance target-setting, if not prevented with the help of methods such as that proposed and applied in this study. PMID:25023987

  11. Mass balances for a biological life support system simulation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volk, Tyler; Rumel, John D.

    1987-01-01

    Design decisions to aid the development of future space-based biological life support systems (BLSS) can be made with simulation models. Here the biochemical stoichiometry is developed for: (1) protein, carbohydrate, fat, fiber, and lignin production in the edible and inedible parts of plants; (2) food consumption and production of organic solids in urine, feces, and wash water by the humans; and (3) operation of the waste processor. Flux values for all components are derived for a steady-state system with wheat as the sole food source.

  12. Magnetic suspension and balance system (MSBS) advanced study.I - System design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boom, Roger W.; Abdelsalam, Mostafa K.; Eyssa, Yehia M.; Mcintosh, Glen E.

    1987-01-01

    A magnetic suspension and balance system is designed to support models of aircraft or other objects in wind tunnels by means of magnetic forces. Major design improvements have been achieved, resulting in reductions of the system size, weight, and cost. These improvements are due to: (1) the use of holmium in the model core to increase its magnetic moment, (2) the use of a powerful new permanent magnet material in the model wings, (3) a new arrangement for the roll coils, and (4) the use of a nonmetallic structure to eliminate eddy current losses. The conceptual design of the holmium core superconductive solenoid and of the new permanent magnet wing assembly is described in detail. The discussion includes comparisons of the pole strengths for different model core magnets, the design of a superconducting solenoid and cryostat, and the analysis of model wing magnetic requirements.

  13. ENERGY BALANCE COMPARISON AMONG TILLAGE PRACTICES IN CORN AND CORN-SOYBEAN SYSTEMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction There is little information available on the effect of common management practices on the energy balance of corn and soybean cropping systems. This type of information is needed to assess the sustainability of these systems. Such information will also be useful for designing improved cr...

  14. Not as Easy as It Sounds: Designing a Balanced Assessment System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chattergoon, Rajendra; Marion, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Many states and school districts are rethinking how they do educational assessment. A few are going further: attempting to build "balanced," "comprehensive," or "next-generation" assessment systems. At the same time, practitioners and researchers have long mulled the purposes and parts such systems should have. But…

  15. The MIT / NASA Langley Magnetic Suspension/Balance System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A shuttle model is magnetically suspended in the transparent octagonal test section of the MIT / NASA Langley 6 Inch MSBS. Massive power supplies are required to drive electromagnets for model position control. A unique electromagnetic position sensor, similar to a linear variable differential transformer, provides five degrees of freedom for the test model. The low speed (Mach 0.5) wind tunnel was hand crafted from mahogany. Aerodynamic forces on the test model are measured by the proportional electrical current used to hold the model in place. The system was built by MIT in the late sixties and was relocated to Langley in the mid eighties. In a joint effort with Old Dominion University in 1992 the MSBS was used to test the aerodynamics of store separation, simulating a bomb released from an aircraft. The system has been donated to Old Dominion University.

  16. Three-Stage Production Cost Modeling Approach for Evaluating the Benefits of Intra-Hour Scheduling between Balancing Authorities

    SciTech Connect

    Samaan, Nader A.; Milligan, Michael; Hunsaker, Matthew; Guo, Tao

    2015-07-30

    This paper introduces a Production Cost Modeling (PCM) approach to evaluate the benefits of intra-hour scheduling between Balancing Authorities (BAs). The system operation is modeled in a three-stage sequential manner: day ahead (DA)-hour ahead (HA)-real time (RT). In addition to contingency reserve, each BA will need to carry out “up” and “down” load following and regulation reserve capacity requirements in the DA and HA time frames. In the real-time simulation, only contingency and regulation reserves are carried out as load following is deployed. To model current real-time operation with hourly schedules, a new constraint was introduced to force each BA net exchange schedule deviation from HA schedules to be within NERC ACE limits. Case studies that investigate the benefits of moving from hourly exchange schedules between WECC BAs into 10-min exchange schedules under two different levels of wind and solar penetration (11% and 33%) are presented.

  17. Pervious Pavement System Evaluation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pervious pavement is a low impact development stormwater control. The Urban Watershed Management Branch of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in Edison, NJ, is evaluating concrete pavers as a popular implementation. The pollutant removal of a bench-scale permeable interlo...

  18. Evaluation of five surface energy balance approaches for mapping ET using Landsat TM data acquired during BEAREX08

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous energy balance (EB) algorithms have been developed to make use of remote sensing data for mapping evapotranspiration (ET) on a regional basis. Adopting any or a combination of these models for an operational ET remote sensing program requires thorough evaluation. In this study, we evaluate...

  19. Flexible rotor balancing by the influence coefficient method. Part 1: Evaluation of the exact point-speed and least squares procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tessarzik, J. M.

    1972-01-01

    The practical aspects of balancing real, flexible rotors were investigated through inclusion of rotor out-of-roundness data at the measurement probe locations. The computer program was demonstrated to be fully capable of handling out-of-roundness data in the investigation. Testing was performed predominantly with a machine having a 41-inch long, 126-pound rotor. This rotor was operated over a speed range encompassing three rotor-bearing system critical speeds. Both balancing procedures were evaluated for several different conditions of initial rotor unbalance. Safe (and slow) passage through all the critical speeds was obtained after two or three balancing runs in most cases. The Least Squares procedure was found to be generally equivalent in capability to the Exact Point-Speed procedure for the configurations studies. (U)

  20. Evaluation of scale invariance in physiological signals by means of balanced estimation of diffusion entropy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenqing; Qiu, Lu; Xiao, Qin; Yang, Huijie; Zhang, Qingjun; Wang, Jianyong

    2012-11-01

    By means of the concept of the balanced estimation of diffusion entropy, we evaluate the reliable scale invariance embedded in different sleep stages and stride records. Segments corresponding to waking, light sleep, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and deep sleep stages are extracted from long-term electroencephalogram signals. For each stage the scaling exponent value is distributed over a considerably wide range, which tell us that the scaling behavior is subject and sleep cycle dependent. The average of the scaling exponent values for waking segments is almost the same as that for REM segments (∼0.8). The waking and REM stages have a significantly higher value of the average scaling exponent than that for light sleep stages (∼0.7). For the stride series, the original diffusion entropy (DE) and the balanced estimation of diffusion entropy (BEDE) give almost the same results for detrended series. The evolutions of local scaling invariance show that the physiological states change abruptly, although in the experiments great efforts have been made to keep conditions unchanged. The global behavior of a single physiological signal may lose rich information on physiological states. Methodologically, the BEDE can evaluate with considerable precision the scale invariance in very short time series (∼10^{2}), while the original DE method sometimes may underestimate scale-invariance exponents or even fail in detecting scale-invariant behavior. The BEDE method is sensitive to trends in time series. The existence of trends may lead to an unreasonably high value of the scaling exponent and consequent mistaken conclusions. PMID:23214843

  1. Steam System Balancing and Tuning for Multifamily Residential Buildings in Chicagoland

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Jayne; Ludwig, Peter; Brand, Larry

    2012-08-01

    Older heating systems often suffer from mis-investment--multiple contractors upgrading parts of systems in inadequate or inappropriate ways that reduce system functionality and efficiency--or from a lack of proper maintenance. This technical report addresses these barriers to information, contractor resources, and cost-savings. Building off of previous research, CNT Energy conducted a study to identify best practices for the methodology, typical costs, and energy savings associated with steam system balancing.

  2. Practical Decisions in Developing and Operating a Faculty Evaluation System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arreola, Raoul; Aleamoni, Lawrence M.

    1990-01-01

    When faculty evaluation systems are proposed, students, faculty, and administrators often think only of questionnaires and assignment of data-processing tasks. Much more must be considered, including balancing the needs of all constituencies, designing student-rating forms and administration procedures, and the treatment and uses of the…

  3. Technology Solutions Case Study: Balancing Hydronic Systems in Multifamily Buildings, Chicago, Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    2014-09-01

    In multifamily building hydronic systems, temperature imbalance may be caused by undersized piping, improperly adjusted balancing valves, inefficient water temperature and flow levels, and owner/occupant interaction with the boilers, distribution and controls. The effects of imbalance include tenant discomfort, higher energy use intensity and inefficient building operation. In this case study , Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit and Elevate Energy. explores cost-effective distribution upgrades and balancing measures in multifamily hydronic systems, providing a resource to contractors, auditors, and building owners on best practices to improve tenant comfort and lower operating costs.

  4. Extreme variability in convergence to structural balance in frustrated dynamical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Rajeev; Dasgupta, Subinay; Sinha, Sitabhra

    2014-01-01

    In many complex systems, heterogeneous connections can subject constituent elements to conflicting influences, resulting in frustration. Here we show numerically that an initially frustrated system can achieve structural balance by a link adaptation process inspired by Hebb's principle, with interaction strengths evolving in accordance with the dynamical states of its components. In the presence of fluctuations the time required to converge to the balanced state exhibits large dispersion characterized by a bimodal distribution, pointing to an intriguing problem in the study of evolving energy landscapes.

  5. A simple, mass balance model of carbon flow in a controlled ecological life support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garland, Jay L.

    1989-01-01

    Internal cycling of chemical elements is a fundamental aspect of a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS). Mathematical models are useful tools for evaluating fluxes and reservoirs of elements associated with potential CELSS configurations. A simple mass balance model of carbon flow in CELSS was developed based on data from the CELSS Breadboard project at Kennedy Space Center. All carbon reservoirs and fluxes were calculated based on steady state conditions and modelled using linear, donor-controlled transfer coefficients. The linear expression of photosynthetic flux was replaced with Michaelis-Menten kinetics based on dynamical analysis of the model which found that the latter produced more adequate model output. Sensitivity analysis of the model indicated that accurate determination of the maximum rate of gross primary production is critical to the development of an accurate model of carbon flow. Atmospheric carbon dioxide was particularly sensitive to changes in photosynthetic rate. The small reservoir of CO2 relative to large CO2 fluxes increases the potential for volatility in CO2 concentration. Feedback control mechanisms regulating CO2 concentration will probably be necessary in a CELSS to reduce this system instability.

  6. Systems effectiveness evaluation program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicely, H. P., Jr.; Givens, W. D.

    1972-01-01

    Eight integrated computer programs provide needed capability to reduce man-hours needed to perform routine monitoring and assessment of effectiveness, reliability, and maintainability of large electronic equipment systems.

  7. Evaluation of building ventilation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, R.T.; O'Brien, D.M.

    1986-04-01

    Over the past several years, NIOSH has responded to health hazard evaluation requests from workers in dozens of office environments. Typically, the employees have complained of headache, eye and upper respiratory tract irritation, dizziness, lethargy and the inability to concentrate. Most often inadequate ventilation has been blamed for these complaints. Of paramount importance in the evaluation and correction of these problems is an effective evaluation of the building's ventilation system. Heating, ventilating and air-conditioning conditions that can cause worker stresses include: migration of odors or chemical hazards between building areas; reentrainment of exhaust from building fume hoods or through heat wheels; buildup of microorganisms in the HVAC system components; and poor odor or environmental control due to insufficient fresh outdoor air or system heating or cooling malfunction. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of building ventilation systems, the ventilation problems associated with poorly designed or operating systems, and the methodology for effectively evaluating system performance.

  8. Self-balancing system of the disk on an elastic shaft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majewski, Tadeusz; Szwedowicz, Dariusz; Melo, Marco A. Meraz

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the automatic balancing of a rigid disk mounted on an elastic shaft. The balancing system consists of two drums at a variable distance from the disk and free balls (or rollers) inside the disk. The balls are able to change positions with respect to the rotor and compensate for rotor unbalance. This paper presents the equations of motion for the disk as well as for the balls during balancing. It is shown that the balls can compensate a part or all of the rotor unbalance depending on the positioning of the drums. There are vibratory forces that push the balls to new positions; these are responsible for the behavior of the balls and the final results. The vibratory forces are defined as a function of the system's parameters and they determine the position of equilibrium of the balls. The stability and efficiency of the method is analyzed in this paper.

  9. Evaluation of Surface Energy Balance models for mapping evapotranspiration using very high resolution airborne remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, George

    Agriculture is the largest (90%) consumer of all fresh water in the world. The consumptive use of water by vegetation represented by the process evapotranspiration (ET) has a vital role in the dynamics of water, carbon and energy fluxes of the biosphere. Consequently, mapping ET is essential for making water a sustainable resource and also for monitoring ecosystem response to water stress and changing climate. Over the past three decades, numerous thermal remote sensing based ET mapping algorithms were developed and these have brought a significant theoretical and technical advancement in the spatial modeling of ET. Though these algorithms provided a robust, economical, and efficient tool for ET estimations at field and regional scales, yet the uncertainties in flux estimations were large, making evaluation a difficult task. The main objective of this study was to evaluate and improve the performance of widely used remote sensing based energy balance models, namely: the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL), Mapping Evapotranspiration at high Resolution and with Internalized Calibration (METRIC), and Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS). Data used in this study was collected as part of a multi-disciplinary and multi-institutional field campaign BEAREX (Bushland Evapotranspiration and Agricultural Remote Sensing Experiment) that was conducted during 2007 and 2008 summer cropping seasons at the USDA-ARS Conservation and Production Research Laboratory (CPRL) in Bushland, Texas. Seventeen high resolution remote sensing images taken from multispectral sensors onboard aircraft and field measurements of the agro-meteorological variables from the campaign were used for model evaluation and improvement. Overall relative error measured in terms of mean absolute percent difference (MAPD) for instantaneous ET (mm h -1) were 22.7%, 23.2%, and 12.6% for SEBAL, METRIC, and SEBS, respectively. SEBAL and METRIC performances for irrigated fields representing higher ET

  10. A New Load Residual Threshold Definition for the Evaluation of Wind Tunnel Strain-Gage Balance Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulbrich, N.; Volden, T.

    2016-01-01

    A new definition of a threshold for the detection of load residual outliers of wind tunnel strain-gage balance data was developed. The new threshold is defined as the product between the inverse of the absolute value of the primary gage sensitivity and an empirical limit of the electrical outputs of a strain{gage. The empirical limit of the outputs is either 2.5 microV/V for balance calibration or check load residuals. A reduced limit of 0.5 microV/V is recommended for the evaluation of differences between repeat load points because, by design, the calculation of these differences removes errors in the residuals that are associated with the regression analysis of the data itself. The definition of the new threshold and different methods for the determination of the primary gage sensitivity are discussed. In addition, calibration data of a six-component force balance and a five-component semi-span balance are used to illustrate the application of the proposed new threshold definition to different types of strain{gage balances. During the discussion of the force balance example it is also explained how the estimated maximum expected output of a balance gage can be used to better understand results of the application of the new threshold definition.

  11. Impact of Balance Of System (BOS) costs on photovoltaic power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hein, G. F.; Cusick, J. P.; Poley, W. A.

    1978-01-01

    The Department of Energy has developed a program to effect a large reduction in the price of photovoltaic modules, with significant progress already achieved toward the 1986 goal of 50 cents/watt (1975 dollars). Remaining elements of a P/V power system (structure, battery storage, regulation, control, and wiring) are also significant cost items. The costs of these remaining elements are commonly referred to as Balance-of-System (BOS) costs. The BOS costs are less well defined and documented than module costs. The Lewis Research Center (LeRC) in 1976/77 and with two village power experiments that will be installed in 1978. The costs were divided into five categories and analyzed. A regression analysis was performed to determine correlations of BOS Costs per peak watt, with power size for these photovoltaic systems. The statistical relationship may be used for flat-plate, DC systems ranging from 100 to 4,000 peak watts. A survey of suppliers was conducted for comparison with the predicted BOS cost relationship.

  12. Flexible manufacturing system (FMS) evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Setter, D.L.

    1993-02-01

    The applicability of the flexible manufacturing system (FMS) concept to automate machining and inspecting a family of stainless steel and aluminum hardware for electrical components has been evaluated. FMS was found to be appropriate and justifiable and a project was initiated to purchase and implement an FMS system. System specifications and procurement methodologies were developed that resulted in a conventional competitive bid procurement A proposal evaluation technique was developed consisting of 40% price, 40% technical compliance, and 20% supplier management capabilities.

  13. Balancing reservoir creation and seismic hazard in enhanced geothermal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gischig, V.; Wiemer, S.; Alcolea, A.

    2014-09-01

    Fracture shear-dilatancy is an essential process for enhancing the permeability of deep geothermal reservoirs, and is usually accompanied by the radiation of seismic waves. However, the hazard and risk perspective of induced seismicity research typically focuses only on the question of how to reduce the occurrence of induced earthquakes. Here we present a quantitative analysis of seismic hazard as a function of the two key factors defining an enhanced geothermal system: The permeability enhancement, and the size of the stimulated reservoir. Our model has two coupled components: (1) a pressure diffusion model and (2) a stochastic seismicity model. Permeability is increased in the source area of each induced earthquake depending on the amount of slip, which is determined by the magnitude. We show that the few largest earthquakes (i.e. 5-10 events with M ≥ 1.5) contribute more than half of the total reservoir stimulation. The results further indicate that planning and controlling of reservoir engineering operations may be compromised by the considerable variability of maximum observed magnitude, reservoir size, the Gutenberg-Richter b-value and Shapiro's seismogenic index (i.e. a measure of seismic reactivity of a reservoir) that arises from the intrinsic stochastic nature of induced seismicity. We also find that injection volume has a large impact on both reservoir size and seismic hazard. Injection rate and injection scheme have a negligible effect. The impact of site-specific parameters on seismicity and reservoir properties is greater than that of the injected volume. In particular, conditions that lead to high b-values-possibly a low differential stress level-have a high impact on seismic hazard, but also reduce the efficiency of the stimulation in terms of permeability enhancement. Under such conditions, target reservoir permeability can still be achieved without reaching an unacceptable level of seismic hazard, if either the initial reservoir permeability is

  14. Evaluating Educative Temporary Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, Gary; Lamoureux, Marvin E.

    1975-01-01

    The framework of temporary systems theory was the basis for forming theoretical units and propositions pertaining to the outcomes of intensive adult education programs. Empirical indicators and research hypotheses were then developed and applied in the 1972 residential program of the Labour College of Canada. (Author)

  15. An equivalent unbalance identification method for the balancing of nonlinear squeeze-film damped rotordynamic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres Cedillo, Sergio G.; Bonello, Philip

    2016-01-01

    The high pressure (HP) rotor in an aero-engine assembly cannot be accessed under operational conditions because of the restricted space for instrumentation and high temperatures. This motivates the development of a non-invasive inverse problem approach for unbalance identification and balancing, requiring prior knowledge of the structure. Most such methods in the literature necessitate linear bearing models, making them unsuitable for aero-engine applications which use nonlinear squeeze-film damper (SFD) bearings. A previously proposed inverse method for nonlinear rotating systems was highly limited in its application (e.g. assumed circular centered SFD orbits). The methodology proposed in this paper overcomes such limitations. It uses the Receptance Harmonic Balance Method (RHBM) to generate the backward operator using measurements of the vibration at the engine casing, provided there is at least one linear connection between rotor and casing, apart from the nonlinear connections. A least-squares solution yields the equivalent unbalance distribution in prescribed planes of the rotor, which is consequently used to balance it. The method is validated on distinct rotordynamic systems using simulated casing vibration readings. The method is shown to provide effective balancing under hitherto unconsidered practical conditions. The repeatability of the method, as well as its robustness to noise, model uncertainty and balancing errors, are satisfactorily demonstrated and the limitations of the process discussed.

  16. Reliability of System Identification Techniques to Assess Standing Balance in Healthy Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Maier, Andrea B.; Aarts, Ronald G. K. M.; van Gerven, Joop M. A.; Arendzen, J. Hans; Schouten, Alfred C.; Meskers, Carel G. M.; van der Kooij, Herman

    2016-01-01

    Objectives System identification techniques have the potential to assess the contribution of the underlying systems involved in standing balance by applying well-known disturbances. We investigated the reliability of standing balance parameters obtained with multivariate closed loop system identification techniques. Methods In twelve healthy elderly balance tests were performed twice a day during three days. Body sway was measured during two minutes of standing with eyes closed and the Balance test Room (BalRoom) was used to apply four disturbances simultaneously: two sensory disturbances, to the proprioceptive and the visual system, and two mechanical disturbances applied at the leg and trunk segment. Using system identification techniques, sensitivity functions of the sensory disturbances and the neuromuscular controller were estimated. Based on the generalizability theory (G theory), systematic errors and sources of variability were assessed using linear mixed models and reliability was assessed by computing indexes of dependability (ID), standard error of measurement (SEM) and minimal detectable change (MDC). Results A systematic error was found between the first and second trial in the sensitivity functions. No systematic error was found in the neuromuscular controller and body sway. The reliability of 15 of 25 parameters and body sway were moderate to excellent when the results of two trials on three days were averaged. To reach an excellent reliability on one day in 7 out of 25 parameters, it was predicted that at least seven trials must be averaged. Conclusion This study shows that system identification techniques are a promising method to assess the underlying systems involved in standing balance in elderly. However, most of the parameters do not appear to be reliable unless a large number of trials are collected across multiple days. To reach an excellent reliability in one third of the parameters, a training session for participants is needed and at

  17. Evaluating five remote sensing based single-source surface energy balance models for estimating daily evapotranspiration in a humid subtropical climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattarai, Nishan; Shaw, Stephen B.; Quackenbush, Lindi J.; Im, Jungho; Niraula, Rewati

    2016-07-01

    In the last two decades, a number of single-source surface energy balance (SEB) models have been proposed for mapping evapotranspiration (ET); however, there is no clear guidance on which models are preferable under different conditions. In this paper, we tested five models-Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL), Mapping ET at high Resolution with Internalized Calibration (METRIC), Simplified Surface Energy Balance Index (S-SEBI), Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS), and operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEBop)-to identify the single-source SEB models most appropriate for use in the humid southeastern United States. ET predictions from these models were compared with measured ET at four sites (marsh, grass, and citrus surfaces) for 149 cloud-free Landsat image acquisition days between 2000 and 2010. The overall model evaluation statistics showed that SEBS generally outperformed the other models in terms of estimating daily ET from different land covers (e.g., the root mean squared error (RMSE) was 0.74 mm day-1). SSEBop was consistently the worst performing model and overestimated ET at all sites (RMSE = 1.67 mm day-1), while the other models typically fell in between SSEBop and SEBS. However, for short grass conditions, SEBAL, METRIC, and S-SEBI appear to work much better than SEBS. Overall, our study suggests that SEBS may be the best SEB model in humid regions, although it may require modifications to work better over short vegetation.

  18. Balancing multiple objectives using a classification-based forest management system in Changbai Mountains, China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fuqiang; Yang, Jian; Liu, Zhihua; Dai, Limin; He, Hong S

    2011-12-01

    Contemporary forest management often consists of multiple objectives, including restoration of human-impacted forested landscapes toward their range of natural variability (RNV) and sustainable levels of timber production. Balancing multiple management objectives is often challenging due to intrinsic conflicts between these objectives and a lack of reference conditions for evaluating the effectiveness of forest restoration efforts. We used a spatially explicit forest landscape model to assess how well a classification-based forest management (CFM) system could achieve multiple objectives in a Korean pine broadleaf mixed forest ecosystem at Changbai Mountain in Northeast China. The CFM system divided the forest landscape into three management areas (Commercial Forest, Special Ecological Welfare Forest, and General Ecological Welfare Forest), each with its own management objectives and prescriptions, but with an overall goal of increasing the ecological and economic sustainability of the entire landscape. The zoning approach adopted in the Chinese CFM system is very similar to the TRIAD approach that is being advocated for managing public forests in Canada. In this study, a natural disturbance scenario and seven harvest scenarios (one identical to the current harvest regime and six alternative scenarios) were simulated to examine how tree species composition, age structure, and timber production at the landscape level can be affected by different strategies under the CFM system. The results indicated that the current forest management regime would not only fail to reach the designated timber production level but also move the forest landscape far away from its RNV. In order to return the currently altered forest landscape to approach its RNV while providing a stable level of timber production over time, harvest intensities should be reduced to a level that is equivalent to the amount of timber removals that would occur under the natural disturbances; and the

  19. Balancing Multiple Objectives Using a Classification-Based Forest Management System in Changbai Mountains, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Fuqiang; Yang, Jian; Liu, Zhihua; Dai, Limin; He, Hong S.

    2011-12-01

    Contemporary forest management often consists of multiple objectives, including restoration of human-impacted forested landscapes toward their range of natural variability (RNV) and sustainable levels of timber production. Balancing multiple management objectives is often challenging due to intrinsic conflicts between these objectives and a lack of reference conditions for evaluating the effectiveness of forest restoration efforts. We used a spatially explicit forest landscape model to assess how well a classification-based forest management (CFM) system could achieve multiple objectives in a Korean pine broadleaf mixed forest ecosystem at Changbai Mountain in Northeast China. The CFM system divided the forest landscape into three management areas (Commercial Forest, Special Ecological Welfare Forest, and General Ecological Welfare Forest), each with its own management objectives and prescriptions, but with an overall goal of increasing the ecological and economic sustainability of the entire landscape. The zoning approach adopted in the Chinese CFM system is very similar to the TRIAD approach that is being advocated for managing public forests in Canada. In this study, a natural disturbance scenario and seven harvest scenarios (one identical to the current harvest regime and six alternative scenarios) were simulated to examine how tree species composition, age structure, and timber production at the landscape level can be affected by different strategies under the CFM system. The results indicated that the current forest management regime would not only fail to reach the designated timber production level but also move the forest landscape far away from its RNV. In order to return the currently altered forest landscape to approach its RNV while providing a stable level of timber production over time, harvest intensities should be reduced to a level that is equivalent to the amount of timber removals that would occur under the natural disturbances; and the

  20. MTA Computer Based Evaluation System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenner, Lisa P.; And Others

    The MTA PLATO-based evaluation system, which has been implemented by a consortium of schools of medical technology, is designed to be general-purpose, modular, data-driven, and interactive, and to accommodate other national and local item banks. The system provides a comprehensive interactive item-banking system in conjunction with online student…

  1. Energy Balance Concept in the Evaluation of Water Table Management Effects on Corn Growth: Experimental Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalita, Prasanta K.; Kanwar, Rameshwar S.

    1992-10-01

    The effects of water table management practices (WTMP) on corn growth in 1989 and 1990 at two field sites, Ames and Ankeny, Iowa, were evaluated by calculating crop water stress index (CWSI) and monitoring plant physiological parameters during the growing seasons. Experiments were conducted on field lysimeters at the Ames site by maintaining water tables at 0.3-, 0.6-, and 0.9-m depths and in a subirrigation field at the Ankeny site with 0.2-, 0.3-, 0.6-, 0.9-, and 1.1-m water table depths, and periodically measuring leaf and air temperature, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) using leaf chamber techniques. Net radiation of canopy was estimated using the leaf energy balance equation and leaf chamber measurements and then correlated with PAR. Analysis of data revealed that net radiation, leaf air temperature differential, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, and CWSI were strongly related to WTMP during vegetative and flowering stages of corn growth. Excess water in the root zone with a water table depth of 0.2 m caused the maximum crop water stress and ceased crop growth. Both water and oxygen could be adequately maintained for favorable crop growth by adopting the best WTMP. Results indicate that plant physiological parameters and CWSI could be used to evaluate the effectiveness of WTMP and develop the best WTMP for corn growth in the humid region.

  2. Application of Magnetic Suspension and Balance Systems to Ultra-High Reynolds Number Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britcher, Colin P.

    1996-01-01

    The current status of wind tunnel magnetic suspension and balance system development is briefly reviewed. Technical work currently underway at NASA Langley Research Center is detailed, where it relates to the ultra-high Reynolds number application. The application itself is addressed, concluded to be quite feasible, and broad design recommendations given.

  3. Science Assessments for All: Integrating Science Simulations into Balanced State Science Assessment Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quellmalz, Edys S.; Timms, Michael J.; Silberglitt, Matt D.; Buckley, Barbara C.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on the collaboration of six states to study how simulation-based science assessments can become transformative components of multi-level, balanced state science assessment systems. The project studied the psychometric quality, feasibility, and utility of simulation-based science assessments designed to serve formative purposes…

  4. Design concepts and cost studies for magnetic suspension and balance systems. [wind tunnel apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloom, H. L.

    1982-01-01

    The application of superconducting magnets for suspension and balance of wind tunnel models was studied. Conceptual designs are presented for magnetic suspension and balance system (MSBS) configurations compatible with three high Reynolds number cases representing specified combinations of test conditions and model sizes. Concepts in general met initially specified performance requirements such as duty cycle, force and moment levels, model angular displacement and positioning accuracy with nominal design requirements for support subsystems. Other performance requirements, such as forced model sinusoidal oscillations, and control force magnitude and frequency, were modified so as to alleviate the magnitude of magnet, power, and cryogenic design requirements.

  5. Radionuclide mass balance for the TMI-2 accident: data-base system and preliminary mass balance. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, M I; Davis, R J; Strahl, J F; Arcieri, W C; Tonkay, D W

    1983-04-01

    After the accident at Three Mile Island, Unit 2 (TMI-2), on March 28, 1979, GEND stated its intention to support an effort to determine, as accurately as possible, the current mass balances of significant radiological toxic species. GEND gave two primary reasons for support this effort: (1) such exercises guarantee completeness of the studies, and (2) mass balance determinations ensure that all important sinks and attentuation mechanisms have been identified. The primary objective of the studies conducted by NUS Corporation was to support the goals of the GEND planners and to continue the mass balance effort by generating a preliminary accounting of key radioactive species following the TMI-2 accident. As a result of these studies, secondary objectives, namely a computerized data base and recommendations, have been achieved to support future work in this area.

  6. Sensitivity of the Balance Error Scoring System and the Sensory Organization Test in the Combat Environment.

    PubMed

    Haran, F Jay; Slaboda, Jill C; King, Laurie A; Wright, W Geoff; Houlihan, Daniel; Norris, Jacob N

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated the utility of the Balance Error Scoring System (BESS) and the Sensory Organization Test (SOT) as tools for the screening and monitoring of Service members (SMs) with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in a deployed setting during the acute and subacute phases of recovery. Patient records (N = 699) were reviewed for a cohort of SMs who sustained a blast-related mTBI while deployed to Afghanistan and were treated at the Concussion Restoration Care Center (CRCC) at Camp Leatherneck. On initial intake into the CRCC, participants completed two assessments of postural control, the BESS, and SOT. SMs with mTBI performed significantly worse on the BESS and SOT when compared with comparative samples. When the SOT data were further examined using sensory ratios, the results indicated that postural instability was primarily a result of vestibular and visual integration dysfunction (r > 0.62). The main finding of this study was that the sensitivity of the SOT composite score (50-58%) during the acute phase was higher than previous sensitivities found in the sports medicine literature for impact-related trauma. PMID:26560740

  7. Air Sampling System Evaluation Template

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2000-05-09

    The ASSET1.0 software provides a template with which a user can evaluate an Air Sampling System against the latest version of ANSI N13.1 "Sampling and Monitoring Releases of Airborne Radioactive Substances from the Stacks and Ducts of Nuclear Facilities". The software uses the ANSI N13.1 PIC levels to establish basic design criteria for the existing or proposed sampling system. The software looks at such criteria as PIC level, type of radionuclide emissions, physical state ofmore » the radionuclide, nozzle entrance effects, particulate transmission effects, system and component accuracy and precision evaluations, and basic system operations to provide a detailed look at the subsystems of a monitoring and sampling system/program. A GAP evaluation can then be completed which leads to identification of design and operational flaws in the proposed systems. Corrective measures can then be limited to the GAPs.« less

  8. Integration of microalgae systems at municipal wastewater treatment plants: implications for energy and emission balances.

    PubMed

    Menger-Krug, Eve; Niederste-Hollenberg, Jutta; Hillenbrand, Thomas; Hiessl, Harald

    2012-11-01

    Integrating microalgae systems (MAS) at municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) to produce of bioenergy offers many potential synergies. Improved energy balances provide a strong incentive for WWTPs to integrate MAS, but it is crucial that WWTPs maintain their barrier function to protect water resources. We perform a prospective analysis of energy and emission balances of a WWTP with integrated MAS, based on a substance flow analysis of the elements carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P). These elements are the main ingredients of wastewater, and the key nutrients for algae growth. We propose a process design which relies solely on resources from wastewater with no external input of water, fertilizer or CO(2). The whole process chain, from cultivation to production of bioelectricity, takes place at the WWTP. Our results show that MAS can considerably improve energy balances of WWTPs without any external resource input. With optimistic assumptions, they can turn WWTPs into net energy producers. While intensive C recycling in MAS considerably improves the energy balance, we show that it also impacts on effluent quality. We discuss the importance of nonharvested biomass for effluent quality and highlight harvesting efficiency as key factor for energy and emission balances of MAS at WWTP. PMID:23050661

  9. Load Balancing Using Time Series Analysis for Soft Real Time Systems with Statistically Periodic Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hailperin, Max

    1993-01-01

    This thesis provides design and analysis of techniques for global load balancing on ensemble architectures running soft-real-time object-oriented applications with statistically periodic loads. It focuses on estimating the instantaneous average load over all the processing elements. The major contribution is the use of explicit stochastic process models for both the loading and the averaging itself. These models are exploited via statistical time-series analysis and Bayesian inference to provide improved average load estimates, and thus to facilitate global load balancing. This thesis explains the distributed algorithms used and provides some optimality results. It also describes the algorithms' implementation and gives performance results from simulation. These results show that our techniques allow more accurate estimation of the global system load ing, resulting in fewer object migration than local methods. Our method is shown to provide superior performance, relative not only to static load-balancing schemes but also to many adaptive methods.

  10. DIETARY RISK EVALUATION SYSTEM: DRES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Dietary Risk Evaluation System (DRES) estimates exposure to pesticides in the diet by combining information concerning residues on raw agricultural commodities with information on consumption of those commodities. It then compares the estimated exposure level to a toxicologi...

  11. Evaluating the Australian Traineeship System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, R. J.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the Australian Traineeship System (ATS), a program integrating formal education and employment designed to increase options for dropouts. Discusses problems involving the centrality of ATS's educational component and implementation of a program evaluation strategy. Includes two references. (MLH)

  12. OCEAN DATA EVALUATION SYSTEM (ODES)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Ocean Data Evaluation System (ODES) maintains a variety of marine monitoring data pertaining to water quality, oceanographic descriptions, sediment pollutants, physical/chemical characteristics, biological characteristics, and estuary information. ODES was initially develope...

  13. Preliminary investigations of design philosophies and features applicable to large magnetic suspension and balance systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britcher, C. P.; Fortescue, P. W.; Allcock, G. A.; Goodyer, M. J.

    1979-01-01

    The technology which is required to allow the principles of magnetic suspension and balance systems (MSBS) to be applied to the high Reynolds number transonic testing of aircraft models is examined. A test facility is presented as comprising a pressurized transonic cryogenic wind tunnel, with the MSBS providing full six degree of freedom control. The electro-magnets which are superconducting and fed from quiet, bipolar power supplies are examined. A model control system having some self adaptive characteristics is discussed.

  14. EMCAS, an evaluation methodology for safeguards and security systems

    SciTech Connect

    Eggers, R.F.; Giese, E.W.; Bichl, F.J.

    1987-07-01

    EMCAS is an evaluation methodology for safeguards and security systems. It provides a score card of projected or actual system performance for several areas of system operation. In one area, the performance of material control and accounting and security systems, which jointly defend against the insider threat to divert or steal special nuclear material (SNM) using stealth and deceit, is evaluated. Time-dependent and time-independent risk equations are used for both diversion and theft risk calculations. In the case of loss detection by material accounting, a detailed timeliness model is provided to determine the combined effects of loss detection sensitivity and timeliness on the overall effectiveness of the material accounting detection procedure. Calculated risks take into account the capabilities of process area containment/surveillance, material accounting mass balance tests, and physical protection barriers and procedures. In addition, EMCAS evaluates the Material Control and Accounting (MCandA) System in the following areas: (1) system capability to detect errors in the official book inventory of SNM, using mass balance accounting methods, (2) system capability to prevent errors from entering the nuclear material data base during periods of operation between mass balance tests, (3) time to conduct inventories and resolve alarms, and (4) time lost from production to carry out material control and accounting loss detection activities.

  15. EMCAS: An evaluation methodology for safeguards and security systems

    SciTech Connect

    Eggers, R.F.; Giese, E.W.; Bichl, F.J.

    1987-01-01

    EMCAS is an evaluation methodology for safeguards and security systems. It provides a score card of projected or actual system performance for several areas of system operation. In one area, the performance of material control and accounting and security systems, which jointly defend against the insider threat to divert or steal special nuclear material (SNM) using stealth and deceit, is evaluated. Time-dependent and time-independent risk equations are used for both diversion and theft risk calculations. In the case of loss detection by material accounting, a detailed timeliness model is provided to determine the combined effects of loss detection sensitivity and timeliness on the overall effectiveness of the material accounting detection procedure. Calculated risks take into account the capabilities of process area containment/surveillance, material accounting mass balance tests, and physical protection barriers and procedures. In addition, EMCAS evaluates the Material Control and Accounting (MC and A) System in the following areas: (1) system capability to detect errors in the official book inventory of SNM, using mass balance accounting methods, (2) system capability to prevent errors from entering the nuclear material data base during periods of operation between mass balance tests, (3) time to conduct inventories and resolve alarms, and (4) time lost from production to carry out material control and accounting loss detection activities. 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Evaluation of a two source snow-vegetation energy balance model for estimating surface energy fluxes in a rangeland ecosystem

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The utility of a two source snow-vegetation energy balance model for estimating surface energy fluxes is evaluated with field measurements at two sites in a rangeland ecosystem in southwestern Idaho during the winter of 2007: one site dominated by aspen vegetation and the other by sagebrush. Model ...

  17. Evaluating the degradation, sorption, and negative mass balances of pharmaceuticals and personal care products during wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Blair, Benjamin; Nikolaus, Adam; Hedman, Curtis; Klaper, Rebecca; Grundl, Timothy

    2015-09-01

    Conventional activated sludge (CAS) wastewater treatment processes are insufficient at removing many pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) from wastewater. In addition, negative mass balances, where the effluent concentration is greater than the influent concentration, have been observed in wastewater treatment studies and a further understanding of these results is needed. In this study, the fate and occurrence of 57 PPCPs and hormones were evaluated in an activated sludge process and the mass balances were determined. The goal of the project was to understand the PPCPs biological degradation and the extent of sorption to solids. The samples containing in situ PPCPs (i.e. samples were not spiked with additional PPCPs) were evaluated. Forty-eight of the PPCPs were detected in the soluble form and 29 were detected sorbed to solids. Two notable results were found. First, the results of this study indicate a subset of the highly biodegradable PPCPs stop being degraded at low, yet notable, concentrations. Second, the results revealed that negative mass balances were present for a subset of the PPCPs when evaluating both the soluble and sorbed concentration, for example carbamazepine and ofloxacin. Desorption from solids was not found to attribute to negative mass balances. Overall, the results from this study provide new insights into the fate of PPCPs during CAS wastewater treatment by evaluating the degradation kinetics and sorption and the results may explain the consistent levels of highly degradable PPCPs being emitted from WWTPs worldwide. PMID:25985097

  18. Evaluating Students' Conceptual Understanding of Balanced Equations and Stoichiometric Ratios Using a Particulate Drawing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanger, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    A total of 156 students were asked to provide free-response balanced chemical equations for a classic multiple-choice particulate-drawing question first used by Nurrenbern and Pickering. The balanced equations and the number of students providing each equation are reported in this study. The most common student errors included a confusion between…

  19. An evaluation of inside surface heat balance models for cooling load calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Liesen, R.J.; Pedersen, C.O.

    1997-12-31

    The heat balance method is a fundamental procedure that can be used for a specified control volume to describe building physics. With a better understanding of building physics and the cost-effectiveness of computers, these types of procedures are accessible to all practicing engineers. The heat balance method describes the processes using the three fundamental modes of heat transfer: conduction, convection, and radiation. The control volumes naturally divide the building processes into an outside balance, an inside balance, an air balance, and conduction through the building elements. This allows the building heat balance to be solved in a number of fundamental ways. This paper looks at the general formulation of the inside surface heat balance from the conduction through the building elements to the radiant exchange and convection to the air in the zone. Development of many radiant exchange models is shown; these models range from the exact solutions using uniform radiosity networks and exact view factors to mean radiant temperature (MRT) and area-weighted view factors. These radiant exchange models are directly compared to each other for a simple zone with varying aspect ratios. The radiant exchange models are then compared to determine their effect on the cooling load. Finally, other parameters that affect the inside surface heat balance are investigated to determine their sensitivity to the cooling load.

  20. A detailed evaluation of the stratospheric heat budget: 2. Global radiation balance and diabatic circulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mlynczak, Martin G.; Mertens, Christopher J.; Garcia, Rolando R.; Portmann, Robert W.

    1999-03-01

    We present a detailed evaluation of radiative heating, radiative cooling, net heating, global radiation balance, radiative relaxation times, and diabatic circulations in the stratosphere using temperature and minor constituent data provided by instruments on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) between 1991 and 1993 and by the limb infrared monitor of the stratosphere (LIMS) instrument which operated on the Nimbus-7 spacecraft in 1978-1979. Included in the calculations are heating due to absorption of solar radiation from ultraviolet through near-infrared wavelengths and radiative cooling due to emission by carbon dioxide, water vapor, and ozone from 0 to 3000 cm-1 (∞ - 3.3 μm). Infrared radiative effects of Pinatubo aerosols are also considered in some detail. In general, we find the stratosphere to be in a state of global mean radiative equilibrium on monthly timescales to within the uncertainty of the satellite-provided measurements. Radiative relaxation times are found to be larger in the lower stratosphere during UARS than LIMS because of the presence of Pinatubo aerosols. The meridional circulations in the upper stratosphere as diagnosed from the calculated fields of net heating are generally stronger in the UARS period than during the LIMS period, while the lower stratosphere meridional circulations are stronger during the LIMS period. A climatology of these calculations is available to the community via a World Wide Web interface described herein.

  1. Evaluation of organic markers for chemical mass balance source apportionment at the Fresno Supersite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow, J. C.; Watson, J. G.; Lowenthal, D. H.; Chen, L. W. A.; Zielinska, B.; Mazzoleni, L. R.; Magliano, K. L.

    2007-04-01

    Sources of PM2.5 at the Fresno Supersite during high PM2.5 episodes occurring from 15 December 2000-3 February 2001 were estimated with the Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) receptor model. The ability of source profiles with organic markers to distinguish motor vehicle, residential wood combustion (RWC), and cooking emissions was evaluated with simulated data. Organics improved the distinction between gasoline and diesel vehicle emissions and allowed a more precise estimate of the cooking source contribution. Sensitivity tests using average ambient concentrations showed that the gasoline vehicle contribution was not resolved without organics. Organics were not required to estimate hardwood contributions. The most important RWC marker was the water-soluble potassium ion. The estimated cooking contribution did not depend on cholesterol because its concentrations were below the detection limit in most samples. Winter time source contributions were estimated by applying the CMB model to individual and average sample concentrations. RWC was the largest source, contributing 29-31% of measured PM2.5. Hardwood and softwood combustion accounted for 16-17% and 12-15%, respectively. Secondary ammonium nitrate and motor vehicle emissions accounted for 31-33% and 9-15%, respectively. The gasoline vehicle contribution (3-10%) was comparable to the diesel vehicle contribution (5-6%). The cooking contribution was 5-19% of PM2.5. Fresno source apportionment results were consistent with those estimated in previous studies.

  2. Automatic balancing of AMB systems using plural notch filter and adaptive synchronous compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiangbo; Chen, Shao; Zhang, Yanan

    2016-07-01

    To achieve automatic balancing in active magnetic bearing (AMB) system, a control method with notch filters and synchronous compensators is widely employed. However, the control precision is significantly affected by the synchronous compensation error, which is caused by parameter errors and variations of the power amplifiers. Furthermore, the computation effort may become intolerable if a 4-degree-of-freedom (dof) AMB system is studied. To solve these problems, an adaptive automatic balancing control method in the AMB system is presented in this study. Firstly, a 4-dof radial AMB system is described and analyzed. To simplify the controller design, the 4-dof dynamic equations are transferred into two plural functions related to translation and rotation, respectively. Next, to achieve automatic balancing of the AMB system, two synchronous equations are formed. Solution of them leads to a control strategy based on notch filters and feedforward controllers with an inverse function of the power amplifier. The feedforward controllers can be simplified as synchronous phases and amplitudes. Then, a plural phase-shift notch filter which can identify the synchronous components in 2-dof motions is formulated, and an adaptive compensation method that can form two closed-loop systems to tune the synchronous amplitude of the feedforward controller and the phase of the plural notch filter is proposed. Finally, the proposed control strategy is verified by both simulations and experiments on a test rig of magnetically suspended control moment gyro. The results indicate that this method can fulfill the automatic balancing of the AMB system with a light computational load.

  3. Optimization of water balance within the martian crew life support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sychev, V.; Levinskikh, M.

    The present-day scenarios of the first exploration mission differ in the total length crew size period of the stay on Mars etc However no matter the scenario one of the common problems is optimization of water balance within the crew life support system Water balance optimization implies in addition to regeneration of atmospheric moisture and urine also dehydration of biowastes In this mission all wastes will be stored and for this reason safe storage is prerequisite Investigations of two-component laboratory BLSS in which the autotrophic component was composed of algae Spirulina platensis and the heterotrophic component was represented by Japanese quail Coturnix coturnix japonica dom showed that optimization of the autotrophic and heterotrophic gas exchange and water regeneration from quail biowastes could raise the system susbstance balance to 76 of the total balance during autonomic cultivation of algae and birds In these investigations dehydration of quail biowastes caused significant pollution of water and air by organics toxic for humans It was demonstrated that the sorption technologies applied on the Russian space station MIR and ISS cannot fully absorb organic contaminants released in the process of quail wastes drying Algal suspension as a hydrobiological filter was able to control the organic pollination of both air and water These results are in agreement with the data of ground-based simulation studies with participation of human subjects at IBMP According to the simulation data intensive

  4. Load Balancing Using Time Series Analysis for Soft Real Time Systems with Statistically Periodic Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hailperin, M.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis provides design and analysis of techniques for global load balancing on ensemble architectures running soft-real-time object-oriented applications with statistically periodic loads. It focuses on estimating the instantaneous average load over all the processing elements. The major contribution is the use of explicit stochastic process models for both the loading and the averaging itself. These models are exploited via statistical time-series analysis and Bayesian inference to provide improved average load estimates, and thus to facilitate global load balancing. This thesis explains the distributed algorithms used and provides some optimality results. It also describes the algorithms' implementation and gives performance results from simulation. These results show that the authors' techniques allow more accurate estimation of the global system loading, resulting in fewer object migrations than local methods. The authors' method is shown to provide superior performance, relative not only to static load-balancing schemes but also to many adaptive load-balancing methods. Results from a preliminary analysis of another system and from simulation with a synthetic load provide some evidence of more general applicability.

  5. FORTRAN code-evaluation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capps, J. D.; Kleir, R.

    1977-01-01

    Automated code evaluation system can be used to detect coding errors and unsound coding practices in any ANSI FORTRAN IV source code before they can cause execution-time malfunctions. System concentrates on acceptable FORTRAN code features which are likely to produce undesirable results.

  6. New Evaluation System Wins Approval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Laura

    2011-01-01

    All Massachusetts school districts will have to adopt new evaluation systems based on a state framework that was approved by the Board of Elementary and Secondary Education on June 28. The new system will be phased in over three years, beginning with Level 4 schools--those designated "underperforming" by the state--in the 2011-12 school year.…

  7. Evaluating Water Conservation and Reuse Policies Using a Dynamic Water Balance Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qaiser, Kamal; Ahmad, Sajjad; Johnson, Walter; Batista, Jacimaria R.

    2013-02-01

    A dynamic water balance model is created to examine the effects of different water conservation policies and recycled water use on water demand and supply in a region faced with water shortages and significant population growth, the Las Vegas Valley (LVV). The model, developed using system dynamics approach, includes an unusual component of the water system, return flow credits, where credits are accrued for returning treated wastewater to the water supply source. In LVV, Lake Mead serves as, both the drinking water source and the receiving body for treated wastewater. LVV has a consumptive use allocation from Lake Mead but return flow credits allow the water agency to pull out additional water equal to the amount returned as treated wastewater. This backdrop results in a scenario in which conservation may cause a decline in the available water supply. Current water use in LVV is 945 lpcd (250 gpcd), which the water agency aims to reduce to 752 lpcd (199 gpcd) by 2035, mainly through water conservation. Different conservation policies focused on indoor and outdoor water use, along with different population growth scenarios, are modeled for their effects on the water demand and supply. Major contribution of this study is in highlighting the importance of outdoor water conservation and the effectiveness of reducing population growth rate in addressing the future water shortages. The water agency target to decrease consumption, if met completely through outdoor conservation, coupled with lower population growth rate, can potentially satisfy the Valley's water demands through 2035.

  8. Involving stakeholders in the evaluation of community alcohol projects: finding a balance between subjective insight and objective facts.

    PubMed

    Boots, Kevin; Midford, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The role played by key community representatives in the evaluation of community alcohol projects differs according to the evaluation paradigm adopted. In evaluations that adopt a positivist, experimental design they are cast in the role of independent informants. In post-positivist evaluations they are seen as having an interest in the evaluation and accordingly are considered active stakeholders. However, the degree to which stakeholders can be actively engaged in an evaluation varies considerably along a number of dimensions. Four dimensions of the stakeholder role--stakeholder inclusiveness, participation mode, participation frequency, and evaluation role--are examined in the context of eight evaluation theories. This is integrated into a model that links these dimensions to an object-subject continuum of stakeholder involvement. The model facilitates systematic consideration of these dimensions and will assist evaluators in achieving their desired balance of subjective insight and objective fact. PMID:18075920

  9. A new balanced modulation code for a phase-image-based holographic data storage system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, Renu; Joseph, Joby; Singh, Kehar

    2005-08-01

    We propose a new balanced modulation code for coding data pages for phase-image-based holographic data storage systems. The new code addresses the coding subtleties associated with phase-based systems while performing a content-based search in a holographic database. The new code, which is a balanced modulation code, is a modification of the existing 8:12 modulation code, and removes the false hits that occur in phase-based content-addressable systems due to phase-pixel subtractions. We demonstrate the better performance of the new code using simulations and experiments in terms of discrimination ratio while content addressing through a holographic memory. The new code is compared with the conventional coding scheme to analyse the false hits due to subtraction of phase pixels.

  10. New insights on the role of the endocannabinoid system in the regulation of energy balance.

    PubMed

    Gatta-Cherifi, B; Cota, D

    2016-02-01

    Within the past 15 years, the endocannabinoid system (ECS) has emerged as a lipid signaling system critically involved in the regulation of energy balance, as it exerts a regulatory control on every aspect related to the search, the intake, the metabolism and the storage of calories. An overactive endocannabinoid cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor signaling promotes the development of obesity, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia, representing a valuable pharmacotherapeutic target for obesity and metabolic disorders. However, because of the psychiatric side effects, the first generation of brain-penetrant CB1 receptor blockers developed as antiobesity treatment were removed from the European market in late 2008. Since then, recent studies have identified new mechanisms of action of the ECS in energy balance and metabolism, as well as novel ways of targeting the system that may be efficacious for the treatment of obesity and metabolic disorders. These aspects will be especially highlighted in this review. PMID:26374449

  11. Cell-balancing currents in parallel strings of a battery system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubarry, Matthieu; Devie, Arnaud; Liaw, Bor Yann

    2016-07-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are attractive for vehicle electrification or grid modernization applications. In these applications, battery packs are required to have multiple-cell configurations and battery management system to operate properly and safely. Here, a useful equivalent circuit model was developed to simulate the spontaneous transient balancing currents among parallel strings in a battery system. The simulation results were validated with experimental data to illustrate the accuracy and validity of the model predictions. Understanding the transient behavior of such cell and string balancing in a parallel circuit configuration is very important to assess the impacts of current fluctuation and cell variability on a battery system's performance, regarding durability, reliability, safety, abuse tolerance and failure prevention, including possible short circuit or open circuit conditions. Additional features and advantages, including the ability to assessing impacts on the performance of the string assemblies from string swapping or cell/module replacement in the strings, could be realized to aid battery management, maintenance and repair.

  12. Load Balancing Scientific Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Pearce, Olga Tkachyshyn

    2014-12-01

    The largest supercomputers have millions of independent processors, and concurrency levels are rapidly increasing. For ideal efficiency, developers of the simulations that run on these machines must ensure that computational work is evenly balanced among processors. Assigning work evenly is challenging because many large modern parallel codes simulate behavior of physical systems that evolve over time, and their workloads change over time. Furthermore, the cost of imbalanced load increases with scale because most large-scale scientific simulations today use a Single Program Multiple Data (SPMD) parallel programming model, and an increasing number of processors will wait for the slowest one at the synchronization points. To address load imbalance, many large-scale parallel applications use dynamic load balance algorithms to redistribute work evenly. The research objective of this dissertation is to develop methods to decide when and how to load balance the application, and to balance it effectively and affordably. We measure and evaluate the computational load of the application, and develop strategies to decide when and how to correct the imbalance. Depending on the simulation, a fast, local load balance algorithm may be suitable, or a more sophisticated and expensive algorithm may be required. We developed a model for comparison of load balance algorithms for a specific state of the simulation that enables the selection of a balancing algorithm that will minimize overall runtime.

  13. Intra-Rater and Inter-Rater Reliability of the Balance Error Scoring System in Pre-Adolescent School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehan, Dwayne P.; Lafave, Mark R.; Katz, Larry

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to test the intra- and inter-rater reliability of the University of North Carolina's Balance Error Scoring System in 9- and 10-year-old children. Additionally, a modified version of the Balance Error Scoring System was tested to determine if it was more sensitive in this population ("raw scores"). Forty-six normally…

  14. 76 FR 2368 - Balance Power Systems, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Balance Power Systems, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Balance Power Systems, LLC's application for...

  15. Evaluating recharge to an ephemeral dryland stream using a hydraulic model and water, chloride and isotope mass balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogramaci, Shawan; Firmani, Giovanni; Hedley, Paul; Skrzypek, Grzegorz; Grierson, Pauline F.

    2015-02-01

    has not extended beyond 27 km from the discharge point. Our approach using a combination of hydrochemical and isotope methods coupled with classical surface flow hydraulic modelling allowed evaluation of components of the water budget otherwise not possible in a highly dynamic system that is mainly driven by infrequent but large episodic floods.

  16. Quantification of leachate discharged to groundwater using the water balance method and the hydrologic evaluation of landfill performance (HELP) model.

    PubMed

    Alslaibi, Tamer M; Abustan, Ismail; Mogheir, Yunes K; Afifi, Samir

    2013-01-01

    Landfills are a source of groundwater pollution in Gaza Strip. This study focused on Deir Al Balah landfill, which is a unique sanitary landfill site in Gaza Strip (i.e., it has a lining system and a leachate recirculation system). The objective of this article is to assess the generated leachate quantity and percolation to the groundwater aquifer at a specific site, using the approaches of (i) the hydrologic evaluation of landfill performance model (HELP) and (ii) the water balance method (WBM). The results show that when using the HELP model, the average volume of leachate discharged from Deir Al Balah landfill during the period 1997 to 2007 was around, 6800 m3/year. Meanwhile, the average volume of leachate percolated through the clay layer was 550 m3/year, which represents around 8% of the generated leachate. Meanwhile, the WBM indicated that the average volume of leachate discharged from Deir Al Balah landfill during the same period was around 7660 m3/year--about half of which comes from the moisture content of the waste, while the remainder comes from the infiltration of precipitation and re-circulated leachate. Therefore, the estimated quantity of leachate to groundwater by these two methods was very close. However, compared with the measured leachate quantity, these results were overestimated and indicated a dangerous threat to the groundwater aquifer, as there was no separation between municipal, hazardous and industrial wastes, in the area. PMID:23148014

  17. Evaluating the potential for environmental pollution from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood waste: a new mass balance approach.

    PubMed

    Mercer, T G; Frostick, L E

    2014-07-15

    The potential for pollution from arsenic, chromium and copper in chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treated wood waste was assessed using two lysimeter studies. The first utilised lysimeters containing soil and CCA wood waste mulch exposed to natural conditions over a five month period. The second study used the same lysimeter setup in a regulated greenhouse setting with a manual watering regime. Woodchip, soil and leachate samples were evaluated for arsenic, chromium and copper concentrations. Resultant concentration data were used to produce mass balances, an approach thus far unused in such studies. This novel analysis revealed new patterns of mobility and distribution of the elements in the system. The results suggest that CCA wood waste tends to leach on initial exposure to a leachant and during weathering of the wood. When in contact with soil, metal(loid) transport is reduced due to complexation reactions. With higher water application or where the adsorption capacity of the soil is exceeded, the metal(loid)s are transported through the soil column as leachate. Overall, there was an unexplained loss of metal(loid)s from the system that might be attributed to volatilisation of arsenic and plant uptake. This suggests a hitherto unidentified risk to both the environment and human health. PMID:24858049

  18. Population-based learning of load balancing policies for a distributed computer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehra, Pankaj; Wah, Benjamin W.

    1993-01-01

    Effective load-balancing policies use dynamic resource information to schedule tasks in a distributed computer system. We present a novel method for automatically learning such policies. At each site in our system, we use a comparator neural network to predict the relative speedup of an incoming task using only the resource-utilization patterns obtained prior to the task's arrival. Outputs of these comparator networks are broadcast periodically over the distributed system, and the resource schedulers at each site use these values to determine the best site for executing an incoming task. The delays incurred in propagating workload information and tasks from one site to another, as well as the dynamic and unpredictable nature of workloads in multiprogrammed multiprocessors, may cause the workload pattern at the time of execution to differ from patterns prevailing at the times of load-index computation and decision making. Our load-balancing policy accommodates this uncertainty by using certain tunable parameters. We present a population-based machine-learning algorithm that adjusts these parameters in order to achieve high average speedups with respect to local execution. Our results show that our load-balancing policy, when combined with the comparator neural network for workload characterization, is effective in exploiting idle resources in a distributed computer system.

  19. Evaluation of Electroscope Electroshield System.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    Hospitals have used a number of approaches to managing the risks of serious complications during laparoscopic monopolar electrosurgery: implementing clinician credentialing policies, considering the interaction of the primary equipment selected for laparoscopy, and introducing an accessory safety device--the Electroscope Electroshield System, which we evaluate here--to reduce the effects of high leakage currents originating on the shaft of the active electrode. We evaluated only the monopolar electrode shielding feature of the device. PMID:7713715

  20. Design of a perfect balance system for active upper-extremity exoskeletons.

    PubMed

    Smith, Richard L; Lobo-Prat, Joan; van der Kooij, Herman; Stienen, Arno H A

    2013-06-01

    Passive gravity compensation in exoskeletons significantly reduces the amount of torque and energy needed from the actuators. So far, no design has been able to achieve perfect balance without compromising the exoskeleton characteristics. Here we propose a novel design that integrates an existing statically-balanced mechanism with two springs and four degrees of freedom into a general-purpose exoskeleton design, that can support any percentage of the combined weight of exoskeleton and arm. As it allows for three rotational degrees of freedom at the shoulder and one at the elbow, it does not compromise exoskeleton characteristics and can be powered with any choice of passive or active actuation method. For instance, with this design a perfectly balanced exoskeleton design with inherently safe, passive actuators on each joint axis becomes possible. The potential reduction in required actuator torque, power and weight, simplification of control, improved dynamic performance, and increased safety margin, all while maintaining perfect balance, are the major advantages of the design, but the integrated systems does add a significant amount of complexity. Future integration in an actual exoskeleton should prove if this tradeoff is beneficial. PMID:24187195

  1. Does performance evaluation help public managers? A Balanced Scorecard approach in urban waste services.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Bernardo; Simões, Pedro; Marques, Rui Cunha

    2010-12-01

    The urban waste market has evolved significantly in the past decades, which among other changes, has led to the creation of new utilities and new business models. However, very few things have changed for the users. Urban waste collection remains mainly under the responsibility of local authorities and the charges paid by the users in most countries are very low compared to the provision costs. This situation forces the injection of public money into the system, encouraging the 'quiet-life' within the utilities and, therefore, inefficiency. The present study intends to analyze the potential for the application of the Balanced Scorecard (BSc) methodology into the waste utilities. After a comprehensive revision of the urban waste sector in Portugal, the methodology of BSc and its application in local public services is described and discussed. Focusing on implementation rather than on strategy, a set of performance indicators is proposed to be utilized in the different management models of waste utilities in Portugal: the municipalities, semi-autonomous utilities, municipal companies and mixed companies. This implementation is then exemplified through four case studies, one for each type of utility. This paper provides a flexible framework proposal to be applied to waste utilities operating both in Portugal and abroad. PMID:20696516

  2. [Viability of the hospital system in Catalonia [Spain]. Balance after a decade].

    PubMed

    Cots, Francesc

    2004-01-01

    Concern about the viability of the hospital system has increased as demand has continued to grow and as the expected increase in public resources to meet this demand remains below requirements. The Central de Balances of CatSalut, which groups all the economic results of the Catalan Public Hospital Network (CPHN), has enabled determination of the relationship between activity and resources in the hospitals within the public sector from 1993 to 2000. We analyzed data from the Central de Balances to determine hospital functioning throughout the 1990s, paying special attention to the development of the hospital system's general productivity over this period. The annual accumulative growth in activity was 4.1%, that of expenses was 1.8% and that of revenues was 1.9%. Unitary cost in 2000 was 85.3% of the unitary cost in 1993. PMID:14980175

  3. System engineering techniques for establishing balanced design and performance guidelines for the advanced telerobotic testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, W. F.; Matijevic, J. R.

    1987-01-01

    Novel system engineering techniques have been developed and applied to establishing structured design and performance objectives for the Telerobotics Testbed that reduce technical risk while still allowing the testbed to demonstrate an advancement in state-of-the-art robotic technologies. To estblish the appropriate tradeoff structure and balance of technology performance against technical risk, an analytical data base was developed which drew on: (1) automation/robot-technology availability projections, (2) typical or potential application mission task sets, (3) performance simulations, (4) project schedule constraints, and (5) project funding constraints. Design tradeoffs and configuration/performance iterations were conducted by comparing feasible technology/task set configurations against schedule/budget constraints as well as original program target technology objectives. The final system configuration, task set, and technology set reflected a balanced advancement in state-of-the-art robotic technologies, while meeting programmatic objectives and schedule/cost constraints.

  4. Systems Engineering of Chemical Hydrogen Storage, Pressure Vessel and Balance of Plant for Onboard Hydrogen Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, Kriston P.; Simmons, Kevin L.; Weimar, Mark R.

    2014-09-02

    This is the annual report for the Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence project as required by DOE EERE's Fuel Cell Technologies Office. We have been provided with a specific format. It describes the work that was done with cryo-sorbent based and chemical-based hydrogen storage materials. Balance of plant components were developed, proof-of-concept testing performed, system costs estimated, and transient models validated as part of this work.

  5. Multivariable frequency domain controller for magnetic suspension and balance systems. [for wind tunnel aircraft models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baheti, R. S.

    1982-01-01

    The magnetic suspension and balance system for an airplane model in a large wind tunnel is considered. In this system, superconducting coils generate magnetic forces and torques on the magnetized soft iron core of the airplane model. The control system is a position servo where the airplane model, with six degrees of feedom, follows the reference static or dynamic input commands. The controller design, based on the characteristic loci method, minimizes the effects of aerodynamic and inertial cross-couplings, and provides the specified dynamic response.

  6. Progress towards extreme attitude testing with Magnetic Suspension and Balance Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britcher, Colin P.; Parker, David H.

    1988-01-01

    Progress is reported in a research effort aimed towards demonstration of the feasibility of suspension and aerodynamic testing of models at high angles of attack in wind tunnel Magnetic Suspension and Balance Systems. Extensive modifications, described in this paper, have been made to the Southampton University suspension system in order to facilitate this work. They include revision of electromagnet configuration, installation of all-new position sensors and expansion of control system programs. An angle of attack range of 0 to 90 deg is expected for axisymmetric models. To date, suspension up to 80 deg angle of attack has been achieved.

  7. A balanced diagnostic system compatible with a barotropic prognostic model. [for weather forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghil, M.; Shkoller, B.; Yangarber, V.

    1977-01-01

    A system of diagnostic equations for the velocity field, or wind laws, for a barotropic primitive-equation model of large-scale atmospheric flow is derived. Attention is given to the classical balance equation and its ellipticity condition. Numerical solutions of the diagnostic system are presented, including examples of cases of the mixed elliptic-hyperbolic type and cases with non-zero divergence. Procedures for implementing such a system are outlined, along with a review of factors in using the technique for operational numerical weather prediction.

  8. Drag measurements on a body of revolution in Langley's 13-inch Magnetic Suspension and Balance System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dress, David A.

    1988-01-01

    NASA Langley's 13-inch Magnetic Suspension and Balance System (MSBS) has been used to conduct low-speed wind tunnel drag force measurements on a laminar-flow body-of-revolution free of support system interference, in order to verify the drag force measurement capabilities of the MSBS. The drag force calibrations and wind-on repeatability data obtained have verified the design capabilities for this system. A drag-prediction code has been used to assess the MSBS's usefulness in body drag estimation.

  9. Environmental balance of the UK biogas sector: An evaluation by consequential life cycle assessment.

    PubMed

    Styles, David; Dominguez, Eduardo Mesa; Chadwick, Dave

    2016-08-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is expanding rapidly in the UK. Previous life cycle assessment (LCA) studies have highlighted the sensitivity of environmental outcomes to feedstock type, fugitive emissions, biomethane use, energy conversion efficiency and digestate management. We combined statistics on current and planned AD deployment with operational data from a survey of biogas plant operators to evaluate the environmental balance of the UK biogas sector for the years 2014 and 2017. Consequential LCA was applied to account for all major environmental credits and burdens incurred, including: (i) substitution of composting, incineration, sewer disposal, field decomposition and animal feeding of wastes; (ii) indirect land use change (ILUC) incurred by the cultivation of crops used for biogas production and to compensate for bakery and brewery wastes diverted from animal feed. In 2014, the UK biogas sector reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 551-755Gg CO2e excluding ILUC, or 238-755Gg CO2e including ILUC uncertainty. Fossil energy depletion was reduced by 8.9-10.8PJe, but eutrophication and acidification burdens were increased by 1.8-3.4Gg PO4e and 8.1-14.6Gg SO2e, respectively. Food waste and manure feedstocks dominate GHG abatement, largely through substitution of in-vessel composting and manure storage, whilst food waste and crop feedstocks dominate fossil energy credit, primarily through substitution of natural gas power generation. Biogas expansion is projected to increase environmental credits and loadings by a factor of 2.4 by 2017. If all AD bioelectricity replaced coal generation, or if 90% of biomethane replaced transport diesel or grid natural gas, GHG abatement would increase by 131%, 38% and 20%, respectively. Policies to encourage digestion of food waste and manures could maximize GHG abatement, avoiding the risk of carbon leakage associated with use of crops and wastes otherwise used to feed livestock. Covering digestate stores could largely mitigate

  10. An evaluation of spindle-shaft seizure accident sequences for the Schenck Dynamic Balancer

    SciTech Connect

    Bott, T.F.; Fischer, S.R.

    1998-11-01

    This study was conducted at the request of the USDOE/AL Dynamic Balancer Project Team to develop a set of representative accident sequences initiated by rapid seizure of the spindle shaft of the Schenck dynamic balancing machine used in the mass properties testing activities in Bay 12-60 at the Pantex Plant. This Balancer is used for balancing reentry vehicles. In addition, the study identified potential causes of possible spindle-shaft seizure leading to a rapid deceleration of the rotating assembly. These accident sequences extend to the point that the reentry vehicle either remains in stable condition on the balancing machine or leaves the machine with some translational and rotational motion. Fault-tree analysis was used to identify possible causes of spindle-shaft seizure, and failure modes and effects analysis identified the results of shearing of different machine components. Cause-consequence diagrams were used to help develop accident sequences resulting from the possible effects of spindle-shaft seizure. To make these accident sequences physically reasonable, the analysts used idealized models of the dynamics of rotating masses. Idealized physical modeling also was used to provide approximate values of accident parameters that lead to branching down different accident progression paths. The exacerbating conditions of balancing machine over-speed and improper assembly of the fixture to the face plate are also addressed.

  11. An overhead harness and trolly system for balance and ambulation assessment and training.

    PubMed

    Harburn, K L; Hill, K M; Kramer, J F; Noh, S; Vandervoort, A A; Matheson, J E

    1993-02-01

    Safe assessment of standing balance and gait is often jeopardized by the potential for falls, which may have major physical and legal consequences. This article describes the design and use of a system that enhances the safety of the patient and clinician during balance and gait assessment and training. The system consists of an overhead track and moveable trolly that allows the patient, while secured in a simple body harness, the freedom to ambulate, perform functional types of activities, and fall with minimal risk of injury. As a result, a single therapist can more readily assess balance and ambulation, as well as provide training for these skills. In addition, the therapist is free to observe the patient's movements from any position, without direct physical contact. Practically, the system described may allow ambulation training sooner after injury or surgery, permit training in weight-bearing or partial weight-bearing activities with or without assistive devices, and allow the clinician to focus on assessment and training, rather than on patient safety. PMID:8431110

  12. Building America Case Study: Balancing Hydronic Systems in Multifamily Buildings, Chicago, Illinois (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-09-01

    In multifamily hydronic systems, temperature imbalance may be caused by undersized piping, improperly adjusted balancing valves, inefficient water temperature and flow levels, and owner/occupant interaction with the boilers, distribution and controls. The effects of imbalance include tenant discomfort, higher energy use intensity and inefficient building operation. This paper explores cost-effective distribution upgrades and balancing measures in multifamily hydronic systems, providing a resource to contractors, auditors, and building owners on best practices to improve tenant comfort and lower operating costs. The research was conducted by The Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) in conjunction with Elevate Energy. The team surveyed existing knowledge on cost-effective retrofits for optimizing distribution in typical multifamily hydronic systems, with the aim of identifying common situations and solutions, and then conducted case studies on two Chicago area buildings with known balancing issues in order to quantify the extent of temperature imbalance. At one of these buildings a booster pump was installed on a loop to an underheated wing of the building. This study found that unit temperature in a multifamily hydronic building can vary as much as 61 degrees F, particularly if windows are opened or tenants use intermittent supplemental heating sources like oven ranges. Average temperature spread at the building as a result of this retrofit decreased from 22.1 degrees F to 15.5 degrees F.

  13. A compact wideband precision impedance measurement system based on digital auto-balancing bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Binxin; Wang, Jinyu; Song, Guangdong; Zhang, Faxiang

    2016-05-01

    The ac impedance spectroscopy measurements are predominantly taken by using impedance analyzers based on analog auto-balancing bridge. However, those bench-top analyzers are generally complicated, bulky and expensive, thus limiting their usage in industrial field applications. This paper presents the development of a compact wideband precision measurement system based on digital auto-balancing bridge. The methods of digital auto-balancing bridge and digital lock-in amplifier are analyzed theoretically. The overall design and several key sections including null detector, direct digital synthesizer-based sampling clock, and digital control unit are introduced in detail. The results show that the system achieves a basic measurement accuracy of 0.05% with a frequency range of 20 Hz–2 MHz. The advantages of versatile measurement capacity, fast measurement speed, small size and low cost make it quite suitable for industrial field applications. It is demonstrated that this system is practical and effective by applying in determining the impedance-temperature characteristic of a motor starter PTC thermistor.

  14. Hierarchical storage management system evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodrow, Thomas S.

    1993-01-01

    The Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation (NAS) Program at NASA Ames Research Center has been developing a hierarchical storage management system, NAStore, for some 6 years. This evaluation compares functionality, performance, reliability, and other factors of NAStore and three commercial alternatives. FileServ is found to be slightly better overall than NAStore and DMF. UniTree is found to be severely lacking in comparison.

  15. An Aerodynamic Force Estimation Method for Winged Models at the JAXA 60cm Magnetic Suspension and Balance System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    澤田, 秀夫

    The aerodynamic performance of an AGARD-B model, as an example of a winged model, was measured in a low-speed wind tunnel equipped with the JAXA 60cm Magnetic Suspension and Balance System (MSBS). The flow speed was in the range between 25m/s and 35m/s, and the angle of attack and the yaw angle were in the range of [- 8, 4] and [- 3, 3] degrees, respectively. Six components of the aerodynamic force were evaluated by using the control coil currents of the MSBS. In evaluating the drag, the effect of the lift on the drag must be evaluated at MSBS when the lift is much larger than drag. A new evaluation method for drag and lift was proposed and was examined successfully by subjecting the model to the same loads as in the wind tunnel test. The drag coefficient at zero lift and the derivatives of the lift and pitching moment coefficient with respect to the angle of attack were evaluated and compared with other source data sets. The obtained data agreed well with the corresponding values of the other sources. The side force, yawing moment and rolling moment coefficients were also evaluated on the basis of corresponding calibration test results, and reasonable results were obtained, although they could not be compared due to the lack of reliable data sets.

  16. Identification of Balance Deficits in People with Parkinson Disease; is the Sensory Organization Test Enough?

    PubMed Central

    Gera, G; Freeman, DL; Blackinton, MT; Horak, FB; King, L

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Balance deficits in people with Parkinson’s disease can affect any of the multiple systems encompassing balance control. Thus, identification of the specific deficit is crucial in customizing balance rehabilitation. The sensory organization test, a test of sensory integration for balance control, is sometimes used in isolation to identify balance deficits in people with Parkinson’s disease. More recently, the Mini-Balance Evaluations Systems Test, a clinical scale that tests multiple domains of balance control, has begun to be used to assess balance in patients with Parkinson’s disease. The purpose of our study was to compare the use of Sensory Organization Test and Mini-Balance Evaluations Systems Test in identifying balance deficits in people with Parkinson’s disease. Methods 45 participants (27M, 18F; 65.2 ± 8.2 years) with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease participated in the cross-sectional study. Balance assessment was performed using the Sensory Organization Test and the Mini-Balance Evaluations Systems Test. People were classified into normal and abnormal balance based on the established cutoff scores (normal balance: Sensory Organization Test >69; Mini-Balance Evaluations Systems Test >73). Results More subjects were classified as having abnormal balance with the Mini-Balance Evaluations Systems Test (71% abnormal) than with the Sensory Organization Test (24% abnormal) in our cohort of people with Parkinson’s disease. There were no subjects with a normal Mini-Balance Evaluations Systems Test score but abnormal Sensory Organization Test score. In contrast, there were 21 subjects who had an abnormal Mini-Balance Evaluations Systems Test score but normal Sensory Organization Test scores. Discussion and Conclusions Findings from this study suggest that investigation of sensory integration deficits, alone, may not be able to identify all types of balance deficits found in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Thus, a

  17. Impact of Diabetic Complications on Balance and Falls: Contribution of the Vestibular System.

    PubMed

    D'Silva, Linda J; Lin, James; Staecker, Hinrich; Whitney, Susan L; Kluding, Patricia M

    2016-03-01

    Diabetes causes many complications, including retinopathy and peripheral neuropathy, which are well understood as contributing to gait instability and falls. A less understood complication of diabetes is the effect on the vestibular system. The vestibular system contributes significantly to balance in static and dynamic conditions by providing spatially orienting information. It is noteworthy that diabetes has been reported to affect vestibular function in both animal and clinical studies. Pathophysiological changes in peripheral and central vestibular structures due to diabetes have been noted. Vestibular dysfunction is associated with impaired balance and a higher risk of falls. As the prevalence of diabetes increases, so does the potential for falls due to diabetic complications. The purpose of this perspective article is to present evidence on the pathophysiology of diabetes-related complications and their influence on balance and falls, with specific attention to emerging evidence of vestibular dysfunction due to diabetes. Understanding this relationship may be useful for screening (by physical therapists) for possible vestibular dysfunction in people with diabetes and for further developing and testing the efficacy of interventions to reduce falls in this population. PMID:26251477

  18. Concurrent ultrasonic weld evaluation system

    DOEpatents

    Hood, Donald W.; Johnson, John A.; Smartt, Herschel B.

    1987-01-01

    A system for concurrent, non-destructive evaluation of partially completed welds for use in conjunction with an automated welder. The system utilizes real time, automated ultrasonic inspection of a welding operation as the welds are being made by providing a transducer which follows a short distance behind the welding head. Reflected ultrasonic signals are analyzed utilizing computer based digital pattern recognition techniques to discriminate between good and flawed welds on a pass by pass basis. The system also distinguishes between types of weld flaws.

  19. Concurrent ultrasonic weld evaluation system

    DOEpatents

    Hood, D.W.; Johnson, J.A.; Smartt, H.B.

    1985-09-04

    A system for concurrent, non-destructive evaluation of partially completed welds for use in conjunction with an automated welder. The system utilizes real time, automated ultrasonic inspection of a welding operation as the welds are being made by providing a transducer which follows a short distance behind the welding head. Reflected ultrasonic signals are analyzed utilizing computer based digital pattern recognition techniques to discriminate between good and flawed welds on a pass by pass basis. The system also distinguishes between types of weld flaws.

  20. Concurrent ultrasonic weld evaluation system

    DOEpatents

    Hood, D.W.; Johnson, J.A.; Smartt, H.B.

    1987-12-15

    A system for concurrent, non-destructive evaluation of partially completed welds for use in conjunction with an automated welder is disclosed. The system utilizes real time, automated ultrasonic inspection of a welding operation as the welds are being made by providing a transducer which follows a short distance behind the welding head. Reflected ultrasonic signals are analyzed utilizing computer based digital pattern recognition techniques to discriminate between good and flawed welds on a pass by pass basis. The system also distinguishes between types of weld flaws. 5 figs.

  1. Development and Modification of a Unified Balancing Method for Unsymmetrical Rotor-Bearing Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Y.; Sheen, G.-J.; Wang, S.-M.

    1997-01-01

    On the basis of theoretical developments, this study proposes procedures for a modified unified balancing method for unsymmetrical rotor-bearing systems. A formulation of modal influence coefficient matrices is derived from the motion equations for unsymmetrical rotors, using a complex co-ordinate representation and the finite element method. Due to unequal properties in two principal directions, two sets of modal influence coefficients are presented. This formulation indicates that two trial masses in different directions are required in the two trial operations for each balancing plane. Also, the modal influence coefficients are found to be correlated with forward precession and unbalanced forces when asymmetry of bearings is considered. Therefore, forward precessions instead of measured displacements are required to calculate the unbalance distribution. Several examples are presented to verify the validity of the present work.

  2. Non-contact FBG sensing based steam turbine rotor dynamic balance vibration detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tianliang; Tan, Yuegang; Cai, Lin

    2015-10-01

    This paper has proposed a non-contact vibration sensor based on fiber Bragg grating sensing, and applied to detect vibration of steam turbine rotor dynamic balance experimental platform. The principle of the sensor has been introduced, as well as the experimental analysis; performance of non-contact FBG vibration sensor has been analyzed in the experiment; in addition, turbine rotor dynamic vibration detection system based on eddy current displacement sensor and non-contact FBG vibration sensor have built; finally, compared with results of signals under analysis of the time domain and frequency domain. The analysis of experimental data contrast shows that: the vibration signal analysis of non-contact FBG vibration sensor is basically the same as the result of eddy current displacement sensor; it verified that the sensor can be used for non-contact measurement of steam turbine rotor dynamic balance vibration.

  3. Evaluating the potential of improving residential water balance at building scale.

    PubMed

    Agudelo-Vera, Claudia M; Keesman, Karel J; Mels, Adriaan R; Rijnaarts, Huub H M

    2013-12-15

    Earlier results indicated that, for an average household, self-sufficiency in water supply can be achieved by following the Urban harvest Approach (UHA), in a combination of demand minimization, cascading and multi-sourcing. To achieve these results, it was assumed that all available local resources can be harvested. In reality, however, temporal, spatial and location-bound factors pose limitations to this harvest and, thus, to self-sufficiency. This article investigates potential spatial and temporal limitations to harvest local water resources at building level for the Netherlands, with a focus on indoor demand. Two building types were studied, a free standing house (one four-people household) and a mid-rise apartment flat (28 two-person households). To be able to model yearly water balances, daily patterns considering household occupancy and presence of water using appliances were defined per building type. Three strategies were defined. The strategies include demand minimization, light grey water (LGW) recycling, and rainwater harvesting (multi-sourcing). Recycling and multi-sourcing cater for toilet flushing and laundry machine. Results showed that water saving devices may reduce 30% of the conventional demand. Recycling of LGW can supply 100% of second quality water (DQ2) which represents 36% of the conventional demand or up to 20% of the minimized demand. Rainwater harvesting may supply approximately 80% of the minimized demand in case of the apartment flat and 60% in case of the free standing house. To harvest these potentials, different system specifications, related to the household type, are required. Two constraints to recycle and multi-source were identified, namely i) limitations in the grey water production and available rainfall; and ii) the potential to harvest water as determined by the temporal pattern in water availability, water use, and storage and treatment capacities. PMID:24238880

  4. Multidimensional evaluation of performance with experimental application of balanced scorecard: a two year experience

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In today's dynamic health-care system, organizations such as hospitals are required to improve their performance for multiple stakeholders and deliver an integrated care that means to work effectively, be innovative and organize efficiently. Achieved goals and levels of quality can be successfully measured by a multidimensional approach like Balanced Scorecard (BSC). The aim of the study was to verify the opportunity to introduce BSC framework to measure performance in St. Anna University Hospital of Ferrara, applying it to the Clinical Laboratory Operative Unit in order to compare over time performance results and achievements of assigned targets. Methods In the first experience with BSC we distinguished four perspectives, according to Kaplan and Norton, identified Key Performance Areas and Key Performance Indicators, set standards and weights for each objective, collected data for all indicators, recognized cause-and-effect relationships in a strategic map. One year later we proceeded with the next data collection and analysed the preservation of framework aptitude to measure Operative Unit performance. In addition, we verified the ability to underline links between strategic actions belonging to different perspectives in producing outcomes changes. Results The BSC was found to be effective for underlining existing problems and identifying opportunities for improvements. The BSC also revealed the specific perspective contribution to overall performance enhancement. After time results comparison was possible depending on the selection of feasible and appropriate key performance indicators, which was occasionally limited by data collection problems. Conclusions The first use of BSC to compare performance at Operative Unit level, in course of time, suggested this framework can be successfully adopted for results measuring and revealing effective health factors, allowing health-care quality improvements. PMID:21586111

  5. Laboratory evaluation of adhesive systems.

    PubMed

    Barkmeier, W W; Cooley, R L

    1992-01-01

    Adhesive bonding of resin materials to acid-conditioned enamel is a clinically proven technique in preventative, restorative, and orthodontic procedures. Laboratory evaluations of etched-enamel resin bonding have shown excellent bond strengths and the virtual elimination of marginal microleakage. Adhesion to dentin has been more of a challenge. Earlier-generation dentin bonding systems did not yield high bond strengths in the laboratory or prevent marginal microleakage. Newer-generation adhesive systems generally use a dentin conditioner to modify or remove the smear layer and a subsequent application of an adhesive resin bonding agent. Laboratory evaluations of newer systems have shown bond strengths that approach or actually exceed that of etched enamel resin bonding. Bond strengths have improved with the evolution of dentin bonding systems, and microleakage from the cementum/dentin margin has been significantly reduced or prevented with the newer systems. Although laboratory testing of adhesive systems provides a mechanism to screen and compare newly developed systems, clinical trials are essential to document long-term clinical performance. PMID:1470553

  6. The Adaptability Evaluation of Enterprise Information Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Junjuan; Xue, Chaogai; Dong, Lili

    In this paper, a set of evaluation system is proposed by GQM (Goal-Question-Metrics) for enterprise information systems. Then based on Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS), the evaluation model is proposed to evaluate enterprise information systems' adaptability. Finally, the application of the evaluation system and model is proved via a case study, which provides references for optimizing enterprise information systems' adaptability.

  7. Electrical measurement system in milling balance machine based on embedded optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yijun; Mei, Yushan

    2015-12-01

    Electrical measurement system in milling balance machine currently consists of micro-controller and peripheral devices. The structure has the problems which include low integration, single signal processing algorithms and great measurement error. Therefore, electrical measurement system in milling balance machine based on embedded optimization is presented in the paper. Firstly, the device control electrical measuring system by ARM subsystem of OMAP dual-core architecture and DSP subsystem realizes digital signal processing and unbalance computing. Also, the low-pass filtering circuit is designed for solving frequency interference. Secondly, the system implement digital band-pass tracking filter based on harmonic wavelet packet. Thirdly, the system extracts any period of weak signal characteristics using the unlimited segmentation features harmonic for wavelet packet signal in the frequency domain. Simulation results show that the system effectively inhibits nearly frequency signal interference, improves signal to noise ratio, and reduces the initial imbalance signal characteristics. And test results improve that precision indexes and technical specifications could meet the design goals.

  8. Dynamic and balanced capacity allocation scheme with uniform bandwidth for OFDM-PON systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Cheng; Chen, Hongwei; Chen, Minghua; Yu, Ying; Guo, Qiang; Yang, Sigang; Xie, Shizhong

    2015-03-01

    As the bitrate of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing passive optical network (OFDM-PON) system is continuously increasing, how to effectively allocate the system bandwidth among the huge number of optical network units (ONUs) is one of the key problems before OFDM-PON can be practical deployed. Unlike traditional bandwidth allocation scheme, in this paper, the transmission performance of single ONU is for the first time taken into consideration and optimized. To reduce the manufacturing complexity and fully utilize the processing ability of the receivers, the system bandwidth is equally distributed to the ONUs. Bit loading is used to allocate the total transmission capacity, and power loading is used to guarantee the ONUs have balanced transmission performance even if they operate at different bitrate. In this way, a dynamic and balanced capacity allocation scheme with uniform bandwidth for OFDM-PON systems can be realized. At last, an experimental system is established to verify the feasibility of the proposed scheme, and the influence that the scheme brings to the whole system is also analyzed.

  9. A High Performance Load Balance Strategy for Real-Time Multicore Systems

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Keng-Mao; Tsai, Chun-Wei; Chiu, Yi-Shiuan; Yang, Chu-Sing

    2014-01-01

    Finding ways to distribute workloads to each processor core and efficiently reduce power consumption is of vital importance, especially for real-time systems. In this paper, a novel scheduling algorithm is proposed for real-time multicore systems to balance the computation loads and save power. The developed algorithm simultaneously considers multiple criteria, a novel factor, and task deadline, and is called power and deadline-aware multicore scheduling (PDAMS). Experiment results show that the proposed algorithm can greatly reduce energy consumption by up to 54.2% and the deadline times missed, as compared to the other scheduling algorithms outlined in this paper. PMID:24955382

  10. A balanced approach to IT reforms in the system of healthcare in the Russian Federation.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, Petr P; Stolbov, Andrey P; Chebotaev, Konstantin J

    2008-01-01

    Russia's IT in healthcare today is a loose alloy of the inherited pre-perestroika infrastructure with the modern healthcare governance initiatives, against the background of the rapidly developing private sector in the medical IT-industry. By illustrating a balanced approach to major IT reforms of the healthcare system, presented by Russia's leading experts in the field, we have tried to outline and accentuate a growing degree of awareness of the need to create a single information space in the system of healthcare. PMID:18999124

  11. The Aspartate-Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase of Edwardsiella ictaluri and Its Use as Balanced-Lethal System in Fish Vaccinology

    PubMed Central

    Santander, Javier; Xin, Wei; Yang, Zhao; Curtiss, Roy

    2010-01-01

    asdA mutants of Gram-negative bacteria have an obligate requirement for diaminopimelic acid (DAP), which is an essential constituent of the peptidoglycan layer of the cell wall of these organisms. In environments deprived of DAP, i.e., animal tissues, they will undergo lysis. Deletion of the asdA gene has previously been exploited to develop antibiotic-sensitive strains of live attenuated recombinant bacterial vaccines. Introduction of an Asd+ plasmid into a ΔasdA mutant makes the bacterial strain plasmid-dependent. This dependence on the Asd+ plasmid vector creates a balanced-lethal complementation between the bacterial strain and the recombinant plasmid. E. ictaluri is an enteric Gram-negative fish pathogen that causes enteric septicemia in catfish. Because E. ictaluri is a nasal/oral invasive intracellular pathogen, this bacterium is a candidate to develop a bath/oral live recombinant attenuated Edwardsiella vaccine (RAEV) for the catfish aquaculture industry. As a first step to develop an antibiotic-sensitive RAEV strain, we characterized and deleted the E. ictaluri asdA gene. E. ictaluri ΔasdA01 mutants exhibit an absolute requirement for DAP to grow. The asdA gene of E. ictaluri was complemented by the asdA gene from Salmonella. Several Asd+ expression vectors with different origins of replication were transformed into E. ictaluri ΔasdA01. Asd+ vectors were compatible with the pEI1 and pEI2 E. ictaluri native plasmids. The balanced-lethal system was satisfactorily evaluated in vivo. Recombinant GFP, PspA, and LcrV proteins were synthesized by E. ictaluri ΔasdA01 harboring Asd+ plasmids. Here we constructed a balanced-lethal system, which is the first step to develop an antibiotic-sensitive RAEV for the aquaculture industry. PMID:21209920

  12. Measures used for the evaluation of balance in individuals with Parkinson’s disease: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Jamile Benite Palma; Lameira de Melo, Gileno Edu; Lazzari, Roberta Delasta; Santos, Cibele Almeida; Franco de Moura, Renata Calhes; Dumont, Arislander Jonathan Lopes; Braun, Luiz Alfredo Ferreirra; Duarte, Natalia Almeida Carvalho; Pareira, Rodolfo Borges; Miziara, Isabela Marques; Oliveira, Claudia Santos

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The present literature review was conducted on the use of different measures for the evaluation of balance in patients with Parkinson’s disease. [Materials and Methods] The PubMed, Bireme, SciELO, Lilacs, and PEDro electronic databases were searched for relevant studies. [Results] The searches initially led to the retrieval of 3,623 articles, 540 of which were potentially eligible after limiting the search to clinical trials published in the last five years. A total of 264 duplicates were removed, and 276 articles were excluded based on their titles and abstracts. The full texts of 84 articles were analyzed, and only those with a PEDro score higher than four points (n=25) were included in the review. [Conclusion] Different methods, such as scales, tests, and equipment, are used for the evaluation of balance in patients with Parkinson’s disease. More than one measure has been employed in most studies, and there is no consensus on a single precise measure for the evaluation of balance in this population. PMID:27390451

  13. High angle of attack position sensing for the Southampton University magnetic suspension and balance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, David H.

    1987-01-01

    An all digital five channel position detection system is to be installed in the Southampton University Magnetic Suspension and Balance System (SUMSBS). The system is intended to monitor a much larger range of model pitch attitudes than has been possible hitherto, up to a maximum of a 90 degree angle of attack. It is based on the use of self-scanning photodiode arrays and illuminating laser light beams, together with purpose built processing electronics. The principles behind the design of the system are discussed, together with the results of testing one channel of the system which was used to control the axial position of a magnetically suspended model in SUMSBS. The removal of optically coupled heave position information from the axial position sensing channel is described.

  14. Variable Renewable Generation can Provide Balancing Control to the Electric Power System (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-09-01

    As wind and solar plants become more common in the electric power system, they may be called on to provide grid support services to help maintain system reliability. For example, through the use of inertial response, primary frequency response, and automatic generation control (also called secondary frequency response), wind power can provide assistance in balancing the generation and load on the system. These active power (i.e., real power) control services have the potential to assist the electric power system in times of disturbances and during normal conditions while also potentially providing economic value to consumers and variable renewable generation owners. This one-page, two-sided fact sheet discusses the grid-friendly support and benefits renewables can provide to the electric power system.

  15. Static calibration of the RSRA active-isolator rotor balance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acree, C. W., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA) active-isolator system is designed to reduce rotor vibrations transmitted to the airframe and to simultaneously measure all six forces and moments generated by the rotor. These loads are measured by using a combination of load cells, strain gages, and hydropneumatic active isolators with built-in pressure gages. The first static calibration of the complete active-isolator rotor balance system was performed in l983 to verify its load-measurement capabilities. Analysis of the data included the use of multiple linear regressions to determine calibration matrices for different data sets and a hysteresis-removal algorithm to estimate in-flight measurement errors. Results showed that the active-isolator system can fulfill most performance predictions. The results also suggested several possible improvements to the system.

  16. Impact of electromagnetic fields on human vestibular system and standing balance: pilot results and future developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, A.; Villard, S.; Corbacio, M.; Goulet, D.; Plante, M.; Souques, M.; Deschamps, F.; Ostiguy, G.; Lambrozo, J.; Thomas, A. W.; Legros, A.

    2016-03-01

    Although studies have found that extremely low-frequency (ELF, < 300 Hz) magnetic fields (MF) can modulate human standing balance, the acute effects of electromagnetic fields on standing balance have not been systematically investigated. This work aims to establish the threshold for acute standing balance modulation during ELFMF exposure. One hundred volunteers will be exposed to transcranial electric stimulations (Direct Current - DC and Alternating Current - AC, 1 mA) and ELFMF (0 to 160 Hz, 0 to 100 mT). The displacement of their center of pressure will be collected and analyzed as an indicator of vestibular performance. During pilot testing (n=6), we found increased lateral sway with DC, and to a lesser extent, AC exposure. The ELFMF exposure system still needs to be adapted to allow meaningful results. Future protocol design will test for possible effects due to exposures in the radiofrequency range (i.e. above 3 kHz). These results will contribute to the literature documenting exposure guidelines aiming to protect workers and the general public.

  17. A role for central nervous system PPAR-γ in the regulation of energy balance.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Karen K; Li, Bailing; Grayson, Bernadette E; Matter, Emily K; Woods, Stephen C; Seeley, Randy J

    2011-05-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) is a nuclear receptor that is activated by lipids to induce the expression of genes involved in lipid and glucose metabolism, thereby converting nutritional signals into metabolic consequences. PPAR-γ is the target of the thiazolidinedione (TZD) class of insulin-sensitizing drugs, which have been widely prescribed to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus. A common side effect of treatment with TZDs is weight gain. Here we report a previously unknown role for central nervous system (CNS) PPAR-γ in the regulation of energy balance. We found that both acute and chronic activation of CNS PPAR-γ, by either TZDs or hypothalamic overexpression of a fusion protein consisting of PPAR-γ and the viral transcriptional activator VP16 (VP16-PPAR-γ), led to positive energy balance in rats. Blocking the endogenous activation of CNS PPAR-γ with pharmacological antagonists or reducing its expression with shRNA led to negative energy balance, restored leptin sensitivity in high-fat-diet (HFD)-fed rats and blocked the hyperphagic response to oral TZD treatment. These findings have implications for the widespread clinical use of TZD drugs and for understanding the etiology of diet-induced obesity. PMID:21532595

  18. Evaluation of the Precision Agricultural Landscape Modeling System (PALMS) in the Semiarid Texas Southern High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate models to simulate the soil water balance in semiarid cropping systems are needed to evaluate management practices for soil and water conservation in both irrigated and dryland production systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate the application of the Precision Agricultural Land...

  19. Evaluation of the precision agricultural landscape modeling system (PALMS) in the semiarid Texas southern high plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate models to simulate the soil water balance in semiarid cropping systems are needed to evaluate management practices for soil and water conservation in both irrigated and dryland production systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate the application of the Precision Agricultural Land...

  20. Evaluation of Intrusion Detection Systems

    PubMed Central

    Ulvila, Jacob W.; Gaffney, John E.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive method for evaluating intrusion detection systems (IDSs). It integrates and extends ROC (receiver operating characteristic) and cost analysis methods to provide an expected cost metric. Results are given for determining the optimal operation of an IDS based on this expected cost metric. Results are given for the operation of a single IDS and for a combination of two IDSs. The method is illustrated for: 1) determining the best operating point for a single and double IDS based on the costs of mistakes and the hostility of the operating environment as represented in the prior probability of intrusion and 2) evaluating single and double IDSs on the basis of expected cost. A method is also described for representing a compound IDS as an equivalent single IDS. Results are presented from the point of view of a system administrator, but they apply equally to designers of IDSs.

  1. Balance Impairments after Brachial Plexus Injury as Assessed through Clinical and Posturographic Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Lidiane; Lemos, Thiago; Silva, Débora C.; de Oliveira, José M.; Guedes Corrêa, José F.; Tavares, Paulo L.; Oliveira, Laura A.; Rodrigues, Erika C.; Vargas, Claudia D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether a sensorimotor deficit of the upper limb following a brachial plexus injury (BPI) affects the upright balance. Design: Eleven patients with a unilateral BPI and 11 healthy subjects were recruited. The balance assessment included the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), the number of feet touches on the ground while performing a 60 s single-leg stance and posturographic assessment (eyes open and feet placed hip-width apart during a single 60 s trial). The body weight distribution (BWD) between the legs was estimated from the center of pressure (COP) lateral position. The COP variability was quantified in the anterior-posterior and lateral directions. Results: BPI patients presented lower BBS scores (p = 0.048) and a higher frequency of feet touches during the single-leg stance (p = 0.042) compared with those of the healthy subjects. An asymmetric BWD toward the side opposite the affected arm was shown by 73% of BPI patients. Finally, higher COP variability was observed in BPI patients compared with healthy subjects for anterior-posterior (p = 0.020), but not for lateral direction (p = 0.818). Conclusions: This study demonstrates that upper limb sensorimotor deficits following BPI affect body balance, serving as a warning for the clinical community about the need to prevent and treat the secondary outcomes of this condition. PMID:26834610

  2. On the use of a water balance to evaluate inter-annual terrestrial ET variability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurately measuring inter-annual variability in terrestrial evapotranspiration (ET) is a major challenge for efforts to detect inter-annual variability in the hydrologic cycle. Based on comparisons with annual ET values derived from a terrestrial water balance analysis, past research has cast doubt...

  3. The stem heat balance method to measure transpiration:Evaluation of a new sensor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The direct measurement of crop transpiration (Tcrop) under field conditions and throughout the growing season is difficult to obtain. An available method uses stem flow gauge sensors, based on the stem heat balance. The sensor consists of a small heater that is wrapped around the stem of the plant a...

  4. Numerical evaluation of a sensible heat balance method to determine rates of soil freezing and thawing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In-situ determination of ice formation and thawing in soils is difficult despite its importance for many environmental processes. A sensible heat balance (SHB) method using a sequence of heat pulse probes has been shown to accurately measure water evaporation in subsurface soil, and it has the poten...

  5. The "Balance Intervention" for Promoting Caloric Compensatory Behaviours in Response to Overeating: A Formative Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wammes, Birgitte; Breedveld, Boudewijn; Kremers, Stef; Brug, Johannes

    2006-01-01

    To help people prevent weight gain, the Netherlands Nutrition Centre initiated the "balance intervention", which promotes moderation of food intake and/or increased physical activity in response to occasions of overeating. The aim of this study was to determine whether intervention materials were appreciated, encouraged information seeking and…

  6. Lysimetric evaluation of simplified surface energy balance approach in the Texas High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous energy balance (EB) algorithms have been developed to make use of remote sensing data to estimate evapotranspiration (ET) regionally. However, most EB models are complex to use and efforts are being made to simplify procedures mainly through the scaling of reference ET. The Simplified Surfa...

  7. Performance Criteria and Evaluation System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1992-06-18

    The Performance Criteria and Evaluation System (PCES) was developed in order to make a data base of criteria accessible to radiation safety staff. The criteria included in the package are applicable to occupational radiation safety at DOE reactor and nonreactor nuclear facilities, but any data base of criteria may be created using the Criterion Data Base Utiliity (CDU). PCES assists personnel in carrying out oversight, line, and support activities.

  8. High Pressure Electrolyzer System Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prokopius, Kevin; Coloza, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    This report documents the continuing efforts to evaluate the operational state of a high pressure PEM based electrolyzer located at the NASA Glenn Research Center. This electrolyzer is a prototype system built by General Electric and refurbished by Hamilton Standard (now named Hamilton Sunstrand). It is capable of producing hydrogen and oxygen at an output pressure of 3000 psi. The electrolyzer has been in storage for a number of years. Evaluation and testing was performed to determine the state of the electrolyzer and provide an estimate of the cost for refurbishment. Pressure testing was performed using nitrogen gas through the oxygen ports to ascertain the status of the internal membranes and seals. It was determined that the integrity of the electrolyzer stack was good as there were no appreciable leaks in the membranes or seals within the stack. In addition to the integrity testing, an itemized list and part cost estimate was produced for the components of the electrolyzer system. An evaluation of the system s present state and an estimate of the cost to bring it back to operational status was also produced.

  9. Steam System Balancing and Tuning for Multifamily Residential Buildings in Chicagoland - Second Year of Data Collection

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, J.; Ludwig, P.; Brand, L.

    2013-08-01

    Steam heated buildings often suffer from uneven heating as a result of poor control of the amount of steam entering each radiator. In order to satisfy the heating load to the coldest units, other units are overheated. As a result, some tenants complain of being too hot and open their windows in the middle of winter, while others complain of being too cold and are compelled to use supplemental heat sources. Building on previous research, CNT Energy identified 10 test buildings in Chicago and conducted a study to identify best practices for the methodology, typical costs, and energy savings associated with steam system balancing. A package of common steam balancing measures was assembled and data were collected on the buildings before and after these retrofits were installed to investigate the process, challenges, and the cost effectiveness of improving steam systems through improved venting and control systems. The test buildings that received venting upgrades and new control systems showed 10.2% savings on their natural gas heating load, with a simple payback of 5.1 years. The methodologies for and findings from this study are presented in detail in this report. This report has been updated from a version published in August 2012 to include natural gas usage information from the 2012 heating season and updated natural gas savings calculations.

  10. Recent Developments and Status of the Langley Single Vector Balance Calibration System (SVS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Shirley M.; Rhew, Ray D.

    2004-01-01

    The Langley Research Center (LaRC) Single Vector Balance Calibration System (SVS) was first introduced in 2000 by Peter Parker. The SVS combines the Design of Experiments (DOE) methodology with a novel load application system. Since that time three systems have been designed and developed with different load range capabilities (ranging from 2 pounds to 3,000 pounds). Approximately fifteen balances have been calibrated and their data compared to conventional techniques. This paper will present results of these comparisons, based on the mathematical models and accuracies, and discuss differences that were observed. In addition, changes in the implementation of the initial load schedules developed using DOE will be highlighted. One of the principles behind DOE is randomization. The initial loading schedules used to date have been randomized in the traditional DOE sense but not for repeat calibrations or experiments. Implementation of this randomization within blocks and its impact on data quality will be reviewed. Areas of potential future development will be presented which include changes in the centers to include loads with the force position system in the pure error estimates.

  11. Superconducting electromagnets for large wind tunnel magnetic suspension and balance systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boom, R. W.; Eyssa, Y. M.; Mcintosh, G. E.; Abdelsalam, M. K.; Scurlock, R. G.; Wu, Y. Y.; Goodyer, M. J.; Balcerek, K.; Eskins, J.; Britcher, C. P.

    1984-01-01

    A superconducting electromagnetic suspension and balance system for an 8 x 8-ft, Mach 0.9 wind tunnel is presented. The system uses a superconducting solenoid as a model core 70 cm long and with a 11.5 cm OD, and a combination of permanent magnet material in the model wings to produce the required roll torque. The design, which uses an integral cold structure rather than separate cryostats for mounting all control magnets, has 14 external magnets, including 4 racetrack-shaped roll coils. Helium capacity of the system is 3.0 to 3.5 l with idling boiloff rate predicted at 0.147 to 0.2 l/h. The improvements yielded a 50-percent reduction in the system size, weight, and cost.

  12. A new accounting system for financial balance based on personnel cost after the introduction of a DPC/DRG system.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Yoshiaki; Takemura, Tadamasa; Yoshihara, Hiroyuki; Nakagawa, Yoshinobu

    2011-04-01

    A hospital director must estimate the revenues and expenses not only in a hospital but also in each clinical division to determine the proper management strategy. A new prospective payment system based on the Diagnosis Procedure Combination (DPC/PPS) introduced in 2003 has made the attribution of revenues and expenses for each clinical department very complicated because of the intricate involvement between the overall or blanket component and a fee-for service (FFS). Few reports have so far presented a programmatic method for the calculation of medical costs and financial balance. A simple method has been devised, based on personnel cost, for calculating medical costs and financial balance. Using this method, one individual was able to complete the calculations for a hospital which contains 535 beds and 16 clinics, without using the central hospital computer system. PMID:20703565

  13. Balance in Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The review by Black and Wiliam of national systems makes clear the complexity of assessment, and identifies important issues. One of these is "balance": balance between local and central responsibilities, balance between the weights given to various purposes of schooling, balance between weights for various functions of assessment, and balance…

  14. Controls on the behaviour of sediment routing systems using a mass balance approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittaker, Alexander; Allen, Philip; Michael, Nikolas; Duller, Robert

    2014-05-01

    Sediment routing systems link source regions undergoing erosion with depositional sinks and involve a volumetric or mass budget. Understanding how these source-to-sink systems function is key to stratigraphic prediction, but estimation of their surface sediment discharges and depositional fluxes on geological time scales is a challenging problem. Moreover, resolving the extent to which tectono-climatic boundary conditions determine the temporal and spatial distribution of sediment characteristics remains contentious. In particular the rate of down-system fining of grain size, percentages of grain size fractions in preserved stratigraphy, position of moving boundaries, and evolution of gross depositional environments can all be related to variations in the volume of sediment supplied, the grain-size mix of the supply, and the spatial distribution of tectonic subsidence generating the accommodation. Deciphering how these factors interact to produce stratigraphy is a key challenge in the Earth Sciences. Here we compare detailed reconstructions of palaeo-sediment routing systems from the mid-late Eocene Escanilla Formation and its time-equivalents, Spanish Pyrenees, with Mio-Pliocene sediment routing systems draining the Great Plains, Central USA. Rates of grain size fining along time-lines in stratigraphy are reconstructed as a function of down-system distance and cumulative sediment volume in time and space, and are contrasted within a dimensionless mass balance framework that accounts for sediment extraction as a function of sediment volume. Use of a mass-balance framework allows for consistent, quantitative comparison across sediment routing systems of varying scales and shapes. Our results demonstrate that the position of key stratigraphic observables, such as the gravel front and rate of grain size fining, are similarly controlled by mass extraction across systems that differ in size and extent, but that selective extraction of particular size classes (e

  15. Nonlocal systems of balance laws in several space dimensions with applications to laser technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombo, Rinaldo M.; Marcellini, Francesca

    2015-12-01

    For a class of systems of nonlinear and nonlocal balance laws in several space dimensions, we prove the local in time existence of solutions and their continuous dependence on the initial datum. The choice of this class is motivated by a new model devoted to the description of a metal plate being cut by a laser beam. Using realistic parameters, solutions to this model obtained through numerical integrations meet qualitative properties of real cuts. Moreover, the class of equations considered comprises a model describing the dynamics of solid particles along a conveyor belt.

  16. A forecast of new test capabilities using Magnetic Suspension and Balance Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawing, Pierce L.; Johnson, William G., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    This paper outlines the potential of Magnetic Suspension and Balance System (MSBS) technology to solve existing problems related to support interference in wind tunnels. Improvement of existing test techniques and exciting new techniques are envisioned as a result of applying MSBS. These include improved data accuracy, dynamic stability testing, two-body/stores release testing, and pilot/designer-in-the-loop tests. It also discusses the use of MSBS for testing exotic configurations such as hybrid hypersonic vehicles. A new facility concept that combines features of ballistic tubes, magnetic suspension, and cryogenic tunnels is described.

  17. Optical heterodyne accelerometry: passively stabilized, fully balanced velocity interferometer system for any reflector

    SciTech Connect

    Buttler, William T.; Lamoreaux, Steven K.

    2010-08-10

    We formalize the physics of an optical heterodyne accelerometer that allows measurement of low and high velocities from material surfaces under high strain. The proposed apparatus incorporates currently common optical velocimetry techniques used in shock physics, with interferometric techniques developed to self-stabilize and passively balance interferometers in quantum cryptography. The result is a robust telecom-fiber-based velocimetry system insensitive to modal and frequency dispersion that should work well in the presence of decoherent scattering processes, such as from ejecta clouds and shocked surfaces.

  18. Gammon - A load balancing strategy for local computer systems with multiaccess networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumgartner, Katherine M.; Wah, Benjamin W.

    1989-01-01

    Consideration is given to an efficient load-balancing strategy, Gammon (global allocation from maximum to minimum in constant time), for distributed computing systems connected by multiaccess local area networks. The broadcast capability of these networks is utilized to implement an identification procedure at the applications level for the maximally and the minimally loaded processors. The search technique has an average overhead which is independent of the number of participating stations. An implementation of Gammon on a network of Sun workstations is described. Its performance is found to be better than that of other known methods.

  19. Battery system and method for sensing and balancing the charge state of battery cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, Francis J. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A battery system utilizes a plurality of transformers interconnected with the battery cells. The transformers each have at least one transformer core operable for magnetization in at least a first magnetic state with a magnetic flux in a first direction and a second magnetic state with a magnetic flux in a second direction. The transformer cores retain the first magnetic state and the second magnetic state without current flow through said plurality of transformers. Circuitry is utilized for switching a selected transformer core between the first and second magnetic states to sense voltage and/or balance particular cells or particular banks of cells.

  20. Superconducting electromagnets for large wind tunnel magnetic suspension and balance systems

    SciTech Connect

    Boom, R.W.; Abdelsalam, M.K.; Bakerek, K.; Britcher, C.P.; Esking, J.; Eyssa, Y.M.; Goodyer, M.J.; McIntosh, G.E.; Scurlock, R.G.; Wu, Y.Y.

    1985-03-01

    This paper presents a new design study of a Magnetic Suspension and Balance System (MSBS) for airplane models in a large 8 ft x 8 ft wind tunnel. New developments in the design include: use of a superconducting solenoid as a model core instead of magnetized iron; combination of permanent magnet material in the model wings along with four race-track coils to produce the required roll torque; and mounting of all the magnets in an integral cold structure instead of in separate cryostats. Design of superconducting solenoid model cores and practical experience with a small-scale prototype are discussed.

  1. Westinghouse Small Modular Reactor balance of plant and supporting systems design

    SciTech Connect

    Memmott, M. J.; Stansbury, C.; Taylor, C.

    2012-07-01

    The Westinghouse Small Modular Reactor (SMR) is an 800 MWt (>225 MWe) integral pressurized water reactor (iPWR), in which all of the components typically associated with the nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) of a nuclear power plant are incorporated within a single reactor pressure vessel. This paper is the second in a series of four papers which describe the design and functionality of the Westinghouse SMR. It focuses, in particular, upon the supporting systems and the balance of plant (BOP) designs of the Westinghouse SMR. Several Westinghouse SMR systems are classified as safety, and are critical to the safe operation of the Westinghouse SMR. These include the protection and monitoring system (PMS), the passive core cooling system (PXS), and the spent fuel cooling system (SFS) including pools, valves, and piping. The Westinghouse SMR safety related systems include the instrumentation and controls (I and C) as well as redundant and physically separated safety trains with batteries, electrical systems, and switch gears. Several other incorporated systems are non-safety related, but provide functions for plant operations including defense-in-depth functions. These include the chemical volume control system (CVS), heating, ventilation and cooling (HVAC) systems, component cooling water system (CCS), normal residual heat removal system (RNS) and service water system (SWS). The integrated performance of the safety-related and non-safety related systems ensures the safe and efficient operation of the Westinghouse SMR through various conditions and transients. The turbine island consists of the turbine, electric generator, feedwater and steam systems, moisture separation systems, and the condensers. The BOP is designed to minimize assembly time, shipping challenges, and on-site testing requirements for all structures, systems, and components. (authors)

  2. Application of Element Balance Method to Evaluate the Quantity and Period of Biogas Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LU, Shuangfang; LIU, Shaojun; SHEN, Jianian; XUE, Haitao; XU, Qingxia; HU, Huiting; WANG, Min

    The period of biogenic gas generation plays a very important role in its accumulation, but till now there is no creditable and effective method to appraise it at home and abroad. It is a material balance process of organic elements during organic matter evolution, regardless of the mechanisms of biogenic gas. In this article, the element balance method is explored and established to appraise biogenic gas, which is demarcated and applied according to the abundant analyzed data in Songliao basin. Results indicate that the depth of biogenic gas generation is possibly shallower than 800 m; the biogas-generated quantity of source rock in this area is about 285.0 × 10 12 m 3. And the main period of biogenic gas generation occurs before the end of Nenjiang period.

  3. Field evaluation of polymer capacitive humidity sensors for Bowen ratio energy balance flux measurements.

    PubMed

    Savage, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    The possibility of reliable, reasonably accurate and relatively inexpensive estimates of sensible heat and latent energy fluxes was investigated using a commercial combination thin-film polymer capacitive relative humidity and adjacent temperature sensor instrument. Long-term and unattended water vapour pressure profile difference measurements using low-power combination instruments were compared with those from a cooled dewpoint mirror hygrometer, the latter often used with Bowen ratio energy balance (BREB) systems. An error analysis, based on instrument relative humidity and temperature errors, was applied for various capacitive humidity instrument models. The main disadvantage of a combination capacitive humidity instrument is that two measurements, relative humidity and temperature, are required for estimation of water vapour pressure as opposed to one for a dewpoint hygrometer. In a laboratory experiment using an automated procedure, water vapour pressure differences generated using a reference dewpoint generator were measured using a commercial model (Dew-10) dewpoint hygrometer and a combination capacitive humidity instrument. The laboratory measurement comparisons showed that, potentially, an inexpensive model combination capacitive humidity instrument (CS500 or HMP50), or for improved results a slightly more expensive model (HMP35C or HMP45C), could substitute for the more expensive dewpoint hygrometer. In a field study, in a mesic grassland, the water vapour pressure measurement noise for the combination capacitive humidity instruments was greater than that for the dewpoint hygrometer. The average water vapour pressure profile difference measured using a HMP45C was highly correlated with that from a dewpoint hygrometer with a slope less than unity. Water vapour pressure measurements using the capacitive humidity instruments were not as accurate, compared to those obtained using a dewpoint hygrometer, but the resolution magnitudes for the profile

  4. Field Evaluation of Polymer Capacitive Humidity Sensors for Bowen Ratio Energy Balance Flux Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Savage, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    The possibility of reliable, reasonably accurate and relatively inexpensive estimates of sensible heat and latent energy fluxes was investigated using a commercial combination thin-film polymer capacitive relative humidity and adjacent temperature sensor instrument. Long-term and unattended water vapour pressure profile difference measurements using low-power combination instruments were compared with those from a cooled dewpoint mirror hygrometer, the latter often used with Bowen ratio energy balance (BREB) systems. An error analysis, based on instrument relative humidity and temperature errors, was applied for various capacitive humidity instrument models. The main disadvantage of a combination capacitive humidity instrument is that two measurements, relative humidity and temperature, are required for estimation of water vapour pressure as opposed to one for a dewpoint hygrometer. In a laboratory experiment using an automated procedure, water vapour pressure differences generated using a reference dewpoint generator were measured using a commercial model (Dew-10) dewpoint hygrometer and a combination capacitive humidity instrument. The laboratory measurement comparisons showed that, potentially, an inexpensive model combination capacitive humidity instrument (CS500 or HMP50), or for improved results a slightly more expensive model (HMP35C or HMP45C), could substitute for the more expensive dewpoint hygrometer. In a field study, in a mesic grassland, the water vapour pressure measurement noise for the combination capacitive humidity instruments was greater than that for the dewpoint hygrometer. The average water vapour pressure profile difference measured using a HMP45C was highly correlated with that from a dewpoint hygrometer with a slope less than unity. Water vapour pressure measurements using the capacitive humidity instruments were not as accurate, compared to those obtained using a dewpoint hygrometer, but the resolution magnitudes for the profile

  5. Evaluating different methods for glacier mass balance interpolation on a tropical glacier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mölg, Nico; Ceballos, Jorge Luis

    2016-04-01

    Glaciers in the inner tropics receive precipitation throughout the year while the annual temperature amplitude is small. Therefore, a seasonal distinction in accumulation and ablation season as for mid-latitude glaciers is hardly applicable. In order to better understand the sub-annual glacier development and its relation to meteorological conditions, a mass balance programme with monthly resolution was established on Conejeras Glacier in the Cordillera Central in Colombia in 2006. After almost ten years of measurements the time series has been reanalysed. The results show a mass balance of around -25 m w.e. during this period and a strong correlation to several warm and cold phases of ENSO. Reanalysis of the monthly mass balance data reveal an often low correlation between ablation/accumulation and elevation. Quality and density of the measurement network allow for the application of several different interpolation methods, recommended ones as well as "outlawed" GIS methods like Kriging. In this study we show the advantages and disadvantages of a number of possibilities and try to rank their usability according to different conditions and purposes. The application of multiple methods can also be of advantage for the estimation of uncertainty ranges.

  6. Evaluating feedback time delay during perturbed and unperturbed balance in handstand.

    PubMed

    Blenkinsop, Glen M; Pain, Matthew T G; Hiley, Michael J

    2016-08-01

    Feedback delays in balance are often assessed using muscle activity onset latencies in response to discrete perturbations. The purpose of the study was to calculate EMG latencies in perturbed handstand, and determine if delays are different to unperturbed handstand. Twelve national level gymnasts completed 12 perturbed and 10 unperturbed (five eyes open and five closed) handstands. Forearm EMG latencies during perturbed handstands were assessed against delay estimates calculated via: cross correlations of wrist torque and COM displacement, a proportional and derivative model of wrist torque and COM displacement and velocity (PD model), and a PD model incorporating a passive stiffness component (PS-PD model). Delays from the PD model (161±14ms) and PS-PD model (188±14ms) were in agreement with EMG latencies (165±14ms). Cross correlations of COM displacement and wrist torque provided unrealistically low estimates (5±9ms). Delays were significantly lower during perturbed (188±14ms) compared to unperturbed handstand (eyes open: 207±12ms; eyes closed: 220±19ms). Significant differences in delays and model parameters between perturbed and unperturbed handstand support the view that balance measures in perturbed testing should not be generalised to unperturbed balance. PMID:27155963

  7. Wind Tunnel Magnetic Suspension and Balance Systems With Transversely Magnetized Model Cores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britcher, Colin P.

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses the possibility of using vertically magnetized model cores for wind tunnel Magnetic Suspension and Balance Systems (MSBS) in an effort to resolve the traditional "roll control" problem. A theoretical framework is laid out, based on previous work related to generic technology development efforts at NASA Langley Research Center. The impact of the new roll control scheme on traditional wind tunnel MSBS configurations is addressed, and the possibility of demonstrating the new scheme with an existing electromagnet assembly is explored. The specific system considered is the ex- Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), ex-NASA, 6-inch MSBS currently in the process of recommissioning at Old Dominion University. This system has a sufficiently versatile electromagnet configuration such that straightforward "conversion" to vertically magnetized cores appears possible.

  8. Mass balance and life cycle assessment of the waste electrical and electronic equipment management system implemented in Lombardia Region (Italy).

    PubMed

    Biganzoli, L; Falbo, A; Forte, F; Grosso, M; Rigamonti, L

    2015-08-15

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is one of the fastest growing waste streams in Europe, whose content of hazardous substances as well as of valuable materials makes the study of the different management options particularly interesting. The present study investigates the WEEE management system in Lombardia Region (Italy) in the year 2011 by applying the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. An extensive collection of primary data was carried out to describe the main outputs and the energy consumptions of the treatment plants. Afterwards, the benefits and burdens associated with the treatment and recovery of each of the five categories in which WEEE is classified according to the Italian legislation (heaters and refrigerators - R1, large household appliances - R2, TV and monitors - R3, small household appliances - R4 and lighting equipment - R5) were evaluated. The mass balance of the treatment and recovery system of each of the five WEEE categories showed that steel and glass are the predominant streams of materials arising from the treatment; a non-negligible amount of plastic is also recovered, together with small amounts of precious metals. The LCA of the regional WEEE management system showed that the benefits associated with materials and energy recovery balance the burdens of the treatment processes, with the sole exception of two impact categories (human toxicity-cancer effects and freshwater ecotoxicity). The WEEE categories whose treatment and recovery resulted more beneficial for the environment and the human health are R3 and R5. The contribution analysis showed that overall the main benefits are associated with the recovery of metals, as well as of plastic and glass. Some suggestions for improving the performance of the system are given, as well as an indication for a more-in-depth analysis for the toxicity categories and a proposal for a new characterisation method for WEEE. PMID:25913003

  9. Evaluating Storage Systems for Lustre

    SciTech Connect

    Oral, H. Sarp

    2015-08-20

    Storage systems are complex, including multiple subsystems and components. Sustained operations with top performance require all these subsystems and components working as expected. Having a detailed performance profile helps establishing a baseline. This baseline can be used for easier identification of possible future problems. A systematic bottom-to-top approach, starting with a detailed performance analysis of disks and moving up across layers and subsystems, provides a quantitative breakdown of each component's capabilities and bottlenecks. Coupling these low-level tests with Lustre-level evaluations will present a better understanding of performance expectations under different I/O workloads.

  10. Evaluating geographic information systems technology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guptill, Stephen C.

    1989-01-01

    Computerized geographic information systems (GISs) are emerging as the spatial data handling tools of choice for solving complex geographical problems. However, few guidelines exist for assisting potential users in identifying suitable hardware and software. A process to be followed in evaluating the merits of GIS technology is presented. Related standards and guidelines, software functions, hardware components, and benchmarking are discussed. By making users aware of all aspects of adopting GIS technology, they can decide if GIS is an appropriate tool for their application and, if so, which GIS should be used.

  11. Performance evaluation using a three compartment mass balance for the removal of volatile organic compounds in pilot scale constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Seeger, Eva M; Reiche, Nils; Kuschk, Peter; Borsdorf, Helko; Kaestner, Matthias

    2011-10-01

    To perform a general assessment of treatment efficiency, a mass balance study was undertaken for two types of constructed wetlands (CWs), planted gravel filters and plant root mat systems, for treating VOC (benzene; MTBE) polluted groundwater under field conditions. Contaminant fate was investigated in the respective water, plant, and atmosphere compartments by determining water and atmospheric contaminant loads and calculating contaminant plant uptake, thereby allowing for an extended efficiency assessment of CWs. Highest total VOC removal was achieved during summer, being pronounced for benzene compared to MTBE. According to the experimental results and the calculations generated by the balancing model, degradation in the rhizosphere and plant uptake accounted for the main benzene removal processes, of 76% and 13% for the gravel bed CW and 83% and 11% for the root mat system. Volatilization flux of benzene and MTBE was low (<5%) for the gravel bed CW, while in the root mat system direct contact of aqueous and gaseous phases favored total MTBE volatilization (24%). With this applied approach, we present detailed contaminant mass balances that allow for conclusive quantitative estimation of contaminant elimination and distribution processes (e.g., total, surface, and phytovolatilization, plant uptake, rhizodegradation) in CWs under field conditions. PMID:21848285

  12. Balance Mass Flux and Velocity Across the Equilibrium Line in Ice Drainage Systems of Greenland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwally, H. Jay; Giovinetto, Mario B.; Koblinsky, Chester J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Estimates of balance mass flux and the depth-averaged ice velocity through the cross-section aligned with the equilibrium line are produced for each of six drainage systems in Greenland. (The equilibrium line, which lies at approximately 1200 m elevation on the ice sheet, is the boundary between the area of net snow accumulation at higher elevations and the areas of net melting at lower elevations around the ice sheet.) Ice drainage divides and six major drainage systems are delineated using surface topography from ERS (European Remote Sensing) radar altimeter data. The net accumulation rate in the accumulation zone bounded by the equilibrium line is 399 Gt/yr and net ablation rate in the remaining area is 231 Gt/yr. (1 GigaTon of ice is 1090 kM(exp 3). The mean balance mass flux and depth-averaged ice velocity at the cross-section aligned with the modeled equilibrium line are 0.1011 Gt kM(exp -2)/yr and 0.111 km/yr, respectively, with little variation in these values from system to system. The ratio of the ice mass above the equilibrium line to the rate of mass output implies an effective exchange time of approximately 6000 years for total mass exchange. The range of exchange times, from a low of 3 ka in the SE drainage system to 14 ka in the NE, suggests a rank as to which regions of the ice sheet may respond more rapidly to climate fluctuations.

  13. Energy balance in olive oil farms: comparison of organic and conventional farming systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Marta M.; Meco, Ramón; Moreno, Carmen

    2013-04-01

    The viability of an agricultural production system not only depends on the crop yields, but especially on the efficient use of available resources. However, the current agricultural systems depend heavily on non-renewable energy consumption in the form of fertilizers, fossil fuels, pesticides and machinery. In developed countries, the economic profitability of different productive systems is dependent on the granting of subsidies of diverse origin that affect both production factors (or inputs) and the final product (or output). Leaving such external aids, energy balance analysis reveals the real and most efficient form of management for each agroclimatic region, and is also directly related to the economic activity and the environmental state. In this work we compare the energy balance resulting from organic and conventional olive oil farms under the semi-arid conditions of Central Spain. The results indicate that the mean energy supplied to the organic farms was sensitively lower (about 30%) in comparison with the conventional management, and these differences were more pronounced for the biggest farms (> 15 ha). Mean energy outputs were about 20% lower in the organic system, although organic small farms (< 15 ha) resulted more productive than the conventional small ones. However, these lower outputs were compensated by the major market value obtained from the organic products. Chemical fertilizers and pesticides reached about 60% of the total energy inputs in conventional farming; in the organic farms, however, this ratio scarcely reached 25%. Human labor item only represented a very small amount of the total energy input in both cases (less than 1%). As conclusions, both management systems were efficient from an energy point of view. The value of the organic production should be focused on the environmental benefits it provides, which are not usually considered in the conventional management on not valuing the damage it produces to the environment. Organic

  14. Differential Evolution Based Intelligent System State Search Method for Composite Power System Reliability Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakkiyaraj, Ashok; Kumarappan, N.

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a new approach for evaluating the reliability indices of a composite power system that adopts binary differential evolution (BDE) algorithm in the search mechanism to select the system states. These states also called dominant states, have large state probability and higher loss of load curtailment necessary to maintain real power balance. A chromosome of a BDE algorithm represents the system state. BDE is not applied for its traditional application of optimizing a non-linear objective function, but used as tool for exploring more number of dominant states by producing new chromosomes, mutant vectors and trail vectors based on the fitness function. The searched system states are used to evaluate annualized system and load point reliability indices. The proposed search methodology is applied to RBTS and IEEE-RTS test systems and results are compared with other approaches. This approach evaluates the indices similar to existing methods while analyzing less number of system states.

  15. Cyber-physical system for a water reclamation plant: Balancing aeration, energy, and water quality to maintain process resilience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Junjie

    Aeration accounts for a large fraction of energy consumption in conventional water reclamation plants (WRPs). Although process operations at older WRPs can satisfy effluent permit requirements, they typically operate with excess aeration. More effective process controls at older WRPs can be challenging as operators work to balance higher energy costs and more stringent effluent limitations while managing fluctuating loads. Therefore, understandings of process resilience or ability to quickly return to original operation conditions at a WRP are important. A state-of-art WRP should maintain process resilience to deal with different kinds of perturbations even after optimization of energy demands. This work was to evaluate the applicability and feasibility of cyber-physical system (CPS) for improving operation at Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago (MWRDGC) Calumet WRP. In this work, a process model was developed and used to better understand the conditions of current Calumet WRP, with additional valuable information from two dissolved oxygen field measurements. Meanwhile, a classification system was developed to reveal the pattern of historical influent scenario based on cluster analysis and cross-tabulation analysis. Based on the results from the classification, typical process control options were investigated. To ensure the feasibility of information acquisition, the reliability and flexibility of soft sensors were assessed to typical influent conditions. Finally, the process resilience was investigated to better balance influent perturbations, energy demands, and effluent quality for long-term operations. These investigations and evaluations show that although the energy demands change as the influent conditions and process controls. In general, aeration savings could be up to 50% from the level of current consumption; with a more complex process controls, the saving could be up to 70% in relatively steady-state conditions and at least 40

  16. A dynamic human water and electrolyte balance model for verification and optimization of life support systems in space flight applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hager, P.; Czupalla, M.; Walter, U.

    2010-11-01

    In this paper we report on the development of a dynamic MATLAB SIMULINK® model for the water and electrolyte balance inside the human body. This model is part of an environmentally sensitive dynamic human model for the optimization and verification of environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) in space flight applications. An ECLSS provides all vital supplies for supporting human life on board a spacecraft. As human space flight today focuses on medium- to long-term missions, the strategy in ECLSS is shifting to closed loop systems. For these systems the dynamic stability and function over long duration are essential. However, the only evaluation and rating methods for ECLSS up to now are either expensive trial and error breadboarding strategies or static and semi-dynamic simulations. In order to overcome this mismatch the Exploration Group at Technische Universität München (TUM) is developing a dynamic environmental simulation, the "Virtual Habitat" (V-HAB). The central element of this simulation is the dynamic and environmentally sensitive human model. The water subsystem simulation of the human model discussed in this paper is of vital importance for the efficiency of possible ECLSS optimizations, as an over- or under-scaled water subsystem would have an adverse effect on the overall mass budget. On the other hand water has a pivotal role in the human organism. Water accounts for about 60% of the total body mass and is educt and product of numerous metabolic reactions. It is a transport medium for solutes and, due to its high evaporation enthalpy, provides the most potent medium for heat load dissipation. In a system engineering approach the human water balance was worked out by simulating the human body's subsystems and their interactions. The body fluids were assumed to reside in three compartments: blood plasma, interstitial fluid and intracellular fluid. In addition, the active and passive transport of water and solutes between those

  17. Development of a PEMFC Power System with Integrated Balance of Plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wynne, B.; Diffenderfer, C.; Ferguson, S.; Keyser, J.; Miller, M.; Sievers, B.; Ryan, A.; Vasquez, A.

    2012-01-01

    Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV s) have received increasing attention in recent years as military and commercial users look for means to maintain a mobile and persistent presence in the undersea world. Compact, neutrally buoyant power systems are needed for both small and large vehicles. Batteries are usually employed in these applications, but the energy density and therefore the mission duration are limited with current battery technology. At a certain energy or mission duration requirement, other means to get long duration power become feasible. For example, above 10 kW-hrs liquid oxygen and hydrogen have better specific energy than batteries and are preferable for energy storage as long as a compact system of about 100 W/liter is achievable to convert the chemical energy in these reactants into power. Other reactant forms are possible, such as high pressure gas, chemical hydrides or oxygen carriers, but it is essential that the power system be small and light weight. Recent fuel cell work, primarily focused on NASA applications, has developed power systems that can meet this target power density. Passive flow-through systems, using ejector driven reactant (EDR) flow, integrated into a compact balance of plant have been developed. These systems are thermally and functionally integrated in much the same way as are automotive, air breathing fuel cell systems. These systems fit into the small volumes required for AUV and future NASA applications. Designs have been developed for both a 21" diameter and a larger diameter (LD) AUV. These fuel cell systems occupy a very small portion of the overall energy system, allowing most of the system volume to be used for the reactants. The fuel cell systems have been optimized to use reactants efficiently with high stack efficiency and low parasitic losses. The resulting compact, highly efficient fuel cell system provides exceptional reactant utilization and energy density. Key design variables and supporting test data are

  18. Balance Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Balance Problems About Balance Problems Have you ever felt dizzy, lightheaded, or ... dizziness problem during the past year. Why Good Balance is Important Having good balance means being able ...

  19. Evaluation of Small Mass Spectrometer Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arkin, C. Richard; Griffin, Timothy P.; Ottens, Andrew K.; Diaz, Jorge A.; Follistein, Duke W.; Adams, Fredrick W.; Helms, William R.; Voska, N. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Various mass analyzer systems were evaluated. Several systems show promise, including the Stanford Research Systems RGA-100, Inficon XPR-2, the University of Florida's Ion Trap, and the Compact Double Focus Mass Spectrometer. Areas that need improvement are the response time, recovery time, system volume, and system weight. Future work will investigate techniques to improve systems and will evaluate engineering challenges.

  20. Progress of magnetic suspension and balance systems for wind tunnels in the USSR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuzin, A. V.; Vyshkov, Y. D.; Shapovalov, G. K.

    1992-01-01

    Magnetic Suspension and Balance Systems (MSBS) for wind tunnels are being developed in order to solve the principal problems of aerodynamics which cannot be solved by conventional means: (1) measurements of aerodynamic loads acting on the aircraft models without the effects of mechanical supporting devices; and (2) the study of base pressure. This paper traces the progress of MSBS for wind tunnels in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). The paper describes electromagnetic configuration, position sensing, and control and calibration systems of two wind tunnel MSBS existing in the CIS. The features of high-angle-of-attack control and roll control are discussed. The results of preliminary experiments on high-angle-of-attack and roll controls, digital control, and aerodynamic testing are also presented.

  1. Evaluation of a mass-balance approach to determine consumptive water use in northeastern Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mills, Patrick C.; Duncker, James J.; Over, Thomas M.; Marian Domanski; Marian Domanski; Engel, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Under ideal conditions, accurate quantification of consumptive use at the sewershed scale by the described mass-balance approach might be possible. Under most prevailing conditions, quantification likely would be more costly and time consuming than that of the present study, given the freely contributed technical support of the host community and relatively appropriate conditions of the study area. Essentials to quantification of consumptive use are a fully cooperative community, storm and sanitary sewers that are separate, and newer sewer infrastructure and (or) a robust program for limiting infiltration, exfiltration, and inflow.

  2. Balanced Scorecard--A Strategic Management System of the Higher Education Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hladchenko, Myroslava

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to focus on the comparative analysis of the Balanced Scorecards of four higher education institutions and aims to define the general framework of the Balanced Scorecard for the higher education institution which concerns: the structure and elements of the Balanced Scorecard; development of the Balanced…

  3. Influence Map Methodology for Evaluating Systemic Safety Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    "Raising the bar" in safety performance is a critical challenge for many organizations, including Kennedy Space Center. Contributing-factor taxonomies organize information about the reasons accidents occur and therefore are essential elements of accident investigations and safety reporting systems. Organizations must balance efforts to identify causes of specific accidents with efforts to evaluate systemic safety issues in order to become more proactive about improving safety. This project successfully addressed the following two problems: (1) methods and metrics to support the design of effective taxonomies are limited and (2) influence relationships among contributing factors are not explicitly modeled within a taxonomy.

  4. Measurement of body composition as a surrogate evaluation of energy balance in obese patients.

    PubMed

    Rotella, Carlo Maria; Dicembrini, Ilaria

    2015-03-26

    In clinical practice obesity is primarily diagnosed through the body mass index. In order to characterize patients affected by obesity the use of traditional anthropometric measures appears misleading. Beyond the body mass index, there are overwhelming evidences towards the relevance of a more detailed description of the individual phenotype by characterizing the main body components as free-fat mass, muscle mass, and fat mass. Among the numerous techniques actually available, bioelectrical impedance analysis seems to be the most suitable in a clinical setting because it is simple, inexpensive, noninvasive, and highly reproducible. To date, there is no consensus concerning the use of one preferred equation for the resting energy expenditure in overweight and/or obese population. Energy restriction alone is an effective strategy to achieve an early and significant weight loss, however it results in a reduction of both fat and lean mass therefore promoting or aggravating an unfavourable body composition (as sarcobesity) in terms of mortality and comorbidities. Therefore the implementation of daily levels of physical activity should be simultaneously promoted. The major role of muscle mass in the energy balance has been recently established by the rising prevalence of the combination of two condition as sarcopenia and obesity. Physical exercise stimulates energy expenditure, thereby directly improving energy balance, and also promotes adaptations such as fiber type, mitochondrial biogenesis, improvement of insulin resistance, and release of myokines, which may influence different tissues, including muscle. PMID:25825693

  5. Measurement of body composition as a surrogate evaluation of energy balance in obese patients

    PubMed Central

    Rotella, Carlo Maria; Dicembrini, Ilaria

    2015-01-01

    In clinical practice obesity is primarily diagnosed through the body mass index. In order to characterize patients affected by obesity the use of traditional anthropometric measures appears misleading. Beyond the body mass index, there are overwhelming evidences towards the relevance of a more detailed description of the individual phenotype by characterizing the main body components as free-fat mass, muscle mass, and fat mass. Among the numerous techniques actually available, bioelectrical impedance analysis seems to be the most suitable in a clinical setting because it is simple, inexpensive, noninvasive, and highly reproducible. To date, there is no consensus concerning the use of one preferred equation for the resting energy expenditure in overweight and/or obese population. Energy restriction alone is an effective strategy to achieve an early and significant weight loss, however it results in a reduction of both fat and lean mass therefore promoting or aggravating an unfavourable body composition (as sarcobesity) in terms of mortality and comorbidities. Therefore the implementation of daily levels of physical activity should be simultaneously promoted. The major role of muscle mass in the energy balance has been recently established by the rising prevalence of the combination of two condition as sarcopenia and obesity. Physical exercise stimulates energy expenditure, thereby directly improving energy balance, and also promotes adaptations such as fiber type, mitochondrial biogenesis, improvement of insulin resistance, and release of myokines, which may influence different tissues, including muscle. PMID:25825693

  6. Developments at M.I.T. related to magnetic model suspension and balance systems for large scale facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haldeman, C. W.; Way, P.; Kramer, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    The paper deals with magnetic model suspension and balance systems for wind tunnel use. Particular attention is given to the extension of the electromagnetic position sensor (EPS) system producing roll position signals and the ac roll drive system producing closed loop control of rolling moment.

  7. Balancing the Books: Emphasizing the Importance of Qualitative Evaluation for Understanding Electronic Information Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Pete; McNicol, Sarah

    2004-01-01

    Evaluation in Library and Information Services has traditionally focused on quantitative measures of input and output. This trend has been generally reflected in the emerging efforts relating to the evaluation of electronic information services (EIS). Less well developed are qualitative approaches to evaluation of EIS. Issues that feature high on…

  8. A Virtual Reality-Cycling Training System for Lower Limb Balance Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Chieh; Hsueh, Ya-Hsin; Yeh, Chun-Yu; Lo, Hsin-Chang; Lan, Yi-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Stroke survivors might lose their walking and balancing abilities, but many studies pointed out that cycling is an effective means for lower limb rehabilitation. However, during cycle training, the unaffected limb tends to compensate for the affected one, which resulted in suboptimal rehabilitation. To address this issue, we present a Virtual Reality-Cycling Training System (VRCTS), which senses the cycling force and speed in real-time, analyzes the acquired data to produce feedback to patients with a controllable VR car in a VR rehabilitation program, and thus specifically trains the affected side. The aim of the study was to verify the functionality of the VRCTS and to verify the results from the ten stroke patients participants and to compare the result of Asymmetry Ratio Index (ARI) between the experimental group and the control group, after their training, by using the bilateral pedal force and force plate to determine any training effect. The results showed that after the VRCTS training in bilateral pedal force it had improved by 0.22 (p = 0.046) and in force plate the stand balance has also improved by 0.29 (p = 0.031); thus both methods show the significant difference. PMID:27034953

  9. A Virtual Reality-Cycling Training System for Lower Limb Balance Improvement.

    PubMed

    Yin, Chieh; Hsueh, Ya-Hsin; Yeh, Chun-Yu; Lo, Hsin-Chang; Lan, Yi-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Stroke survivors might lose their walking and balancing abilities, but many studies pointed out that cycling is an effective means for lower limb rehabilitation. However, during cycle training, the unaffected limb tends to compensate for the affected one, which resulted in suboptimal rehabilitation. To address this issue, we present a Virtual Reality-Cycling Training System (VRCTS), which senses the cycling force and speed in real-time, analyzes the acquired data to produce feedback to patients with a controllable VR car in a VR rehabilitation program, and thus specifically trains the affected side. The aim of the study was to verify the functionality of the VRCTS and to verify the results from the ten stroke patients participants and to compare the result of Asymmetry Ratio Index (ARI) between the experimental group and the control group, after their training, by using the bilateral pedal force and force plate to determine any training effect. The results showed that after the VRCTS training in bilateral pedal force it had improved by 0.22 (p = 0.046) and in force plate the stand balance has also improved by 0.29 (p = 0.031); thus both methods show the significant difference. PMID:27034953

  10. Evaluating fractionated space systems - Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornford, S.; Jenkins, S.; Wall, S.; Cole, B.; Bairstow, B.; Rouquette, N.; Dubos, G.; Ryan, T.; Zarifian, P.; Boutwell, J.

    DARPA has funded a number of teams to further refine its Fractionated Spacecraft vision. Several teams, including this team led by JPL, have been tasked to develop a tool for the evaluation of the Business case for a fractionated system architecture. This evaluation is to understand under what conditions and constraints the fractionated architecture make more sense (in a cost/benefit sense) than the traditional monolithic paradigm. Our approach to this evaluation is to generate and evaluate a variety of trade space options. These options include various sets of stimuli, various degrees of fractionation and various subsystem element properties. The stimuli include many not normally modeled such as technology obsolescence, funding profile changes and changes in mission objectives during the mission itself. The degrees of fractionation enable various traditional subsystem elements to be distributed across different free flyers which then act in concert as needed. This will enable key technologies to be updated as need dictates and availability allows. We have described our approach in a previous IEEE Aerospace conference paper but will briefly summarize here. Our approach to generate the Business Case evaluation is to explicitly model both the implementation and operation phases for the life cycle of a fractionated constellation. A variety of models are integrated into the Phoenix ModelCenter framework and are used to generate various intermediate data which is aggregated into the Present Strategic Value (PSV). The PSV is essentially the value (including the value of the embedded real options) minus the cost. These PSVs are calculated for a variety of configurations and scenarios including variations of various stimuli or uncertainties (e.g. supply chain delays, launch vehicle failures and orbital debris events). There are various decision options (e.g. delay, accelerate, cancel) which can now be exercised for each stimulus. We can compute the PSV for the various comb

  11. Incorporating Ecosystem Processes Controlling Carbon Balance Into Models of Coupled Human-Natural Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, W.; Brown, D. G.; Brunner, A.; Fouladbash, L.; Hadzick, Z.; Hutchins, M.; Kiger, S. E.; Makino, Y.; Nassauer, J. I.; Robinson, D. T.; Riolo, R. L.; Sun, S.

    2012-12-01

    A key element in the study of coupled human-natural systems is the interactions of human populations with vegetation and soils. In human-dominated landscapes, vegetation production and change results from a combination of ecological processes and human decision-making and behavior. Vegetation is often dramatically altered, whether to produce food for humans and livestock, to harvest fiber for construction and other materials, to harvest fuel wood or feedstock for biofuels, or simply for cultural preferences as in the case of residential lawns with sparse trees in the exurban landscape. This alteration of vegetation and its management has a substantial impact on the landscape carbon balance. Models can be used to simulate scenarios in human-natural systems and to examine the integration of processes that determine future trajectories of carbon balance. However, most models of human-natural systems include little integration of the human alteration of vegetation with the ecosystem processes that regulate carbon balance. Here we illustrate a few case studies of pilot-study models that strive for this integration from our research across various types of landscapes. We focus greater detail on a fully developed research model linked to a field study of vegetation and soils in the exurban residential landscape of Southeastern Michigan, USA. The field study characterized vegetation and soil carbon storage in 5 types of ecological zones. Field-observed carbon storage in the vegetation in these zones ranged widely, from 150 g C/m2 in turfgrass zones, to 6,000 g C/m2 in zones defined as turfgrass with sparse woody vegetation, to 16,000 g C/m2 in a zone defined as dense trees and shrubs. Use of these zones facilitated the scaling of carbon pools to the landscape, where the areal mixtures of zone types had a significant impact on landscape C storage. Use of these zones also facilitated the use of the ecosystem process model Biome-BGC to simulate C trajectories and also

  12. Java Mission Evaluation Workstation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettinger, Ross; Watlington, Tim; Ryley, Richard; Harbour, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    The Java Mission Evaluation Workstation System (JMEWS) is a collection of applications designed to retrieve, display, and analyze both real-time and recorded telemetry data. This software is currently being used by both the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) and the International Space Station (ISS) program. JMEWS was written in the Java programming language to satisfy the requirement of platform independence. An object-oriented design was used to satisfy additional requirements and to make the software easily extendable. By virtue of its platform independence, JMEWS can be used on the UNIX workstations in the Mission Control Center (MCC) and on office computers. JMEWS includes an interactive editor that allows users to easily develop displays that meet their specific needs. The displays can be developed and modified while viewing data. By simply selecting a data source, the user can view real-time, recorded, or test data.

  13. Evaluating the impact of SWOT observations§ on the water balance of lakes and wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreadis, K.; Moller, D.; Rodriguez, E.; Alsdorf, D.

    2012-04-01

    Lakes and wetlands can exert controls on the water and energy fluxes, playing an important role in the local and regional climate. The spatial extent and storage volume of water bodies globally is poorly known, due to lack of measurements over large areas. The planned Surface Water Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission will provide observations of water surface elevation and inundated area globally at an unprecedented spatial resolution. Apart from being used directly, these observations can be used to constrain the water balance simulated hydrologic model over large-scale basins. In this study, the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) macroscale hydrologic model is implemented over the Great Lakes region within an identical twin synthetic experiment. VIC solves an energy and water balance over a gridded domain, and represents lakes and wetlands dynamically as fractional areas of each model grid cell. A baseline simulation of the water and energy balance is designated as "truth", and errors in precipitation, temperature and model parameters are added to simulate a "first-guess" of hydrologic variables of interest. Synthetic SWOT observations are generated from the instrument simulator (developed at JPL) with the anticipated orbital and error characteristics. These "virtual" observations are then assimilated into the "first-guess" model to estimate runoff, evapotranspiration and sensible/latent heat fluxes. The assimilation technique used is the Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF), which solves the optimal estimation problem by approximating model and observation errors through a Monte Carlo ensemble approach. The "first-guess" simulation consists of an ensemble of model states that is propagated temporally until a SWOT observation becomes available. The impact of merging the SWOT observations is examined in terms of water and energy fluxes, and the sensitivity of the results to the different observation errors is assessed. The latter can include errors in lake

  14. Mass balance and isotope effects during nitrogen transport through septic tank systems with packed-bed (sand) filters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinkle, S.R.; Böhlke, J.K.; Fisher, L.H.

    2008-01-01

    Septic tank systems are an important source of NO3- to many aquifers, yet characterization of N mass balance and isotope systematics following septic tank effluent discharge into unsaturated sediments has received limited attention. In this study, samples of septic tank effluent before and after transport through single-pass packed-bed filters (sand filters) were evaluated to elucidate mass balance and isotope effects associated with septic tank effluent discharge to unsaturated sediments. Chemical and isotopic data from five newly installed pairs and ten established pairs of septic tanks and packed-bed filters serving single homes in Oregon indicate that aqueous solute concentrations are affected by variations in recharge (precipitation, evapotranspiration), NH4+ sorption (primarily in immature systems), nitrification, and gaseous N loss via NH3 volatilization and(or) N2 or N2O release during nitrification/denitrification. Substantial NH4+ sorption capacity was also observed in laboratory columns with synthetic effluent. Septic tank effluent ??15N-NH4+ values were almost constant and averaged + 4.9??? ?? 0.4??? (1 ??). In contrast, ??15N values of NO3- leaving mature packed-bed filters were variable (+ 0.8 to + 14.4???) and averaged + 7.2??? ?? 2.6???. Net N loss in the two networks of packed-bed filters was indicated by average 10-30% decreases in Cl--normalized N concentrations and 2-3??? increases in ??15N, consistent with fractionation accompanying gaseous N losses and corroborating established links between septic tank effluent and NO3- in a local, shallow aquifer. Values of ??18O-NO3- leaving mature packed-bed filters ranged from - 10.2 to - 2.3??? (mean - 6.4??? ?? 1.8???), and were intermediate between a 2/3 H2O-O + 1/3 O2-O conceptualization and a 100% H2O-O conceptualization of ??18O-NO3- generation during nitrification.

  15. Evaluation of blood oxidant/antioxidant balance in dogs with sarcoptic mange.

    PubMed

    Camkerten, Ilker; Sahin, T; Borazan, G; Gokcen, A; Erel, O; Das, A

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate of oxidant/antioxidant balance in dogs with sarcoptic mange. The study materials consisted of totally 30 cross-breed male dogs; 15 with sarcoptic mange (study group) and 15 healthy as control. Blood samples for analyses were taken from control and study group. In study group, microscopic examination of dermal scrapings of 15 dogs revealed S. scabies. Lipid hydroperoxide level, total oxidant status and oxidative stress index in dogs with sarcoptic mange were higher (P<0.01, P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively) than the control. Otherwise; sulphydril levels in dogs with sarcoptic mange were lower (P<0.05) than that of control. No significant differences were observed in total antioxidant capacity between groups. Our results suggest a possible relationship between oxidant/antioxidant imbalance and sarcoptic mange infestation in dogs. PMID:19211189

  16. Evaluation of glacier mass balance by observing variations in transient snowline positions. [Jostedalsbreen ice cap, Norway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oestrem, G. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The transient snowline on five outlet glaciers from the Jostedalsbreen ice-cap in Southwestern Norway could be determined from ERTS-1 image 1336-10260, when bands MSS 5, 6, and 7 were combined in an additive color viewer. The snowline was situated at a very low altitude at the time of imagery (24 June 1973) indicating that glacier melt was behind normal schedule, a fact that has a hydrologic bearing: one could expect less melt water in the streams. The idea to use ERTS-1 imagery in snowline determinations proved realistic and relatively easy to apply in practice. The method will be useful to estimate the glaciers' mass balance for large areas, provided some ground truth observations are made. Images from the end of the melt season are of course vital in this work.

  17. A balanced hazard ratio for risk group evaluation from survival data.

    PubMed

    Branders, Samuel; Dupont, Pierre

    2015-07-30

    Common clinical studies assess the quality of prognostic factors, such as gene expression signatures, clinical variables or environmental factors, and cluster patients into various risk groups. Typical examples include cancer clinical trials where patients are clustered into high or low risk groups. Whenever applied to survival data analysis, such groups are intended to represent patients with similar survival odds and to select the most appropriate therapy accordingly. The relevance of such risk groups, and of the related prognostic factors, is typically assessed through the computation of a hazard ratio. We first stress three limitations of assessing risk groups through the hazard ratio: (1) it may promote the definition of arbitrarily unbalanced risk groups; (2) an apparently optimal group hazard ratio can be largely inconsistent with the p-value commonly associated to it; and (3) some marginal changes between risk group proportions may lead to highly different hazard ratio values. Those issues could lead to inappropriate comparisons between various prognostic factors. Next, we propose the balanced hazard ratio to solve those issues. This new performance metric keeps an intuitive interpretation and is as simple to compute. We also show how the balanced hazard ratio leads to a natural cut-off choice to define risk groups from continuous risk scores. The proposed methodology is validated through controlled experiments for which a prescribed cut-off value is defined by design. Further results are also reported on several cancer prognosis studies, and the proposed methodology could be applied more generally to assess the quality of any prognostic markers. PMID:25894296

  18. Balanced Flow Measurement and Conditioning Technology (Balanced Orifice Plate 7,051,765 B1) for NASA Inventions and Contributions Board Invention of the Year Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, Anthony R.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews the Balanced Flow Measurement (BFM) and Conditioning Technology, and makes the case for this as the NASA Invention of the Year. The BFM technology makes use of a thin, multi-hole orifice plate with holes sized and placed per a unique set of equations. It produces mass flow, volumetric flow,kinelic energy,or momentum BALANCE across the face of the plate. The flow is proportional.to the square root of upstream to downstream differential pressure. Multiple holes lead to smoother pressure measurement. Measures and conditions or can limit fluid flow. This innovation has many uses in and out of NASA.

  19. Traction Drives for Zero Stick-Slip Robots, and Reaction Free, Momentum Balanced Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, William J.; Shipitalo, William; Newman, Wyatt

    1995-01-01

    Two differential (dual input, single output) drives (a roller-gear and a pure roller), and a momentum balanced (single input, dual output) drive (pure roller ) were designed, fabricated, and tested. The differential drives are each rated at 295 rad/sec (2800 rpm) input speed, 450 N-m (4,000 in-lbf) output torque. The momentum balanced drive is rated at 302 rad/sec (2880 rpm) input speed, and dual output torques of 434N-m (3840 in-lbf). The Dual Input Differential Roller-Gear Drive (DC-700) has a planetary roller-gear system with a reduction ratio (one input driving the output with the second input fixed) of 29.23: 1. The Dual Input Differential Roller Drive (DC-500) has a planetary roller system with a reduction ratio of approximately 24:1. Each of the differential drives features dual roller-gear or roller arrangements consisting of a sun, four first row planets, four second row planets, and a ring. The Momentum Balanced (Grounded Ring) Drive (DC-400) has a planetary roller system with a reduction ratio of 24:1 with both outputs counterrotating at equal speed. Its single roller cluster consists of a sun, five first and five second row planets, a roller cage or spider and a ring. Outputs are taken from both the roller cage and the ring which counterrotate. Test results reported for all three drives include angular and torque ripple (linearity and cogging), viscous and Coulomb friction, and forward and reverse power efficiency. Of the two differential drives, the Differential Roller Drive had better linearity and less cogging than did the Differential Roller-Gear Drive, but it had higher friction and lower efficiency (particularly at low power throughput levels). Use of full preloading rather than a variable preload system in the Differential Roller Drive assessed a heavy penalty in part load efficiency. Maximum measured efficiency (ratio of power out to power in) was 95% for the Differential Roller-Gear Drive and 86% for the Differential Roller Drive. The Momentum

  20. Health technology assessment in the Balkans: opportunities for a balanced drug assessment system

    PubMed Central

    Dankó, Dávid; Petrova, Guenka

    2014-01-01

    Countries in the Balkan region use pharmaco-economic data for decisions about the inclusion of new pharmaceuticals into their positive drug lists, but no predefined frameworks are used and resources for health technology assessment (HTA) are limited. The goal of this analysis is to investigate into possible development directions for the HTA system in the region, and provide some practical recommendations for a sustainable model. For this purpose, the main factors currently influencing HTA in Balkan countries are briefly presented, and possible development strategies are compared. A resource-saving balanced assessment approach is proposed. It is aligned with available resources and capabilities, and helps access to new pharmaceuticals while ensuring the transparency of decision-making processes and the stability of the pharmaceutical budget. PMID:26019605

  1. Aqueous precipitation: Population balance modeling and control in multi-cation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Voigt, J.A.

    1996-03-01

    Efficient separation of metal species from aqueous streams by precipitation techniques requires a fundamental understanding of the processes that occur during precipitation. These processes include particle nucleation, particle growth by solute deposition, agglomerate formation, and agglomerate breakup. Population balance method has been used to develop a kinetic model that accounts for these competing kinetic processes. The usefulness of the model is illustrated through its application to precipitation of yttrium hydroxynitrate, YHN. Kinetic parameters calculated from the model equations and system-specific solution chemistry are used to describe several aspects of the effect of pH on YHN precipitation. Implications for simultaneous precipitation of more than one cation type are discussed with examples. Effects of solution chemistry, precipitator design, and solvent choice are considered.

  2. Drag measurements on a modified prolate spheroid using a magnetic suspension and balance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dress, David A.

    1989-01-01

    Low-speed wind tunnel drag force measurements were taken on a modified prolate spheroid free of support interference. This body was tested at zero incidence in the NASA Langley 13 inch Magnetic Suspension and Balance System. This shape was one of two bodies tested to determine the drag force measuring capabilities of the 13 inch MSBS. In addition, support interference on this shape at zero incidence was quantified by using a dummy sting. The drag force calibrations and wind-on repeatability data make it possible to assess the drag force measuring capabilities of the 13 inch MSBS. Comparisons with and without the sting showed differences in the drag coefficients with the dummy sting case resulting in lower drag coefficients.

  3. Further investigation into calibration techniques for a magnetic suspension and balance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eskins, J.

    1986-01-01

    Calibrations performed on three different magnetic cores for wind tunnel models suspended in the Southampton University Magnetic Suspension and Balance System (SUMSBS) are detailed. The first core investigated was the Southampton University pilot Superconducting Solenoid model, first flown in July 1983. Static calibrations of lift force, drag force and pitching moment, together with lift force and pitching moment calibrations determined by the dynamic method are detailed in this report. Other types of core investigated in a similar manner were conventional permanent magnets, Alnico and samarium-cobalt. All static calibrations gave a linear dependence of force on electromagnet current as expected. Dynamic calibrations are faster to perform but are proving to be not as easily analyzed as static calibrations. There are still some effects to be explained but dynamic lift calibration results were obtained agreeing to within 2 percent of the static calibration value.

  4. Clinical Applications of Cine Balanced Steady-State Free Precession MRI for the Evaluation of the Subarachnoid Spaces.

    PubMed

    Li, A E; Wilkinson, M D; McGrillen, K M; Stoodley, M A; Magnussen, J S

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the physiology of normal brain and spinal cord motion in the subarachnoid space, principles of cine balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), clinical applications, and the pitfalls encountered with this technique. The brain and spinal cord are dynamic structures that move with each heartbeat due to transmitted arterial pulse waves. Conventional MRI sequences do not allow anatomic evaluation of the pulsatile movement of the neural structures in the subarachnoid space due to limitations in temporal resolution. Cine bSSFP MRI uses cardiac gating to evaluate dynamically the brain and spinal cord with high contrast and temporal resolution.Cine bSSFP can be used in the evaluation of idiopathic syringomyelia to assess an underlying treatable cause, including arachnoid bands, which are usually not well visualized with conventional MR sequences due to motion artifact. This MRI technique is also useful in the evaluation of intraspinal and intracranial arachnoid cysts and the degree of mass effect on the cord. Other applications include preoperative and postoperative evaluation of Chiari I malformation and the evaluation of lateral ventricular asymmetry. The major limitation of cine bSSFP is the presence of banding artifacts, which can be reduced by shimming and modifying other scan parameters. PMID:25854921

  5. Evaluation of phosphorus and nitrogen balances as an indicator for the impact of agriculture on environment a comparison of case studies from Poland and the Mississippi US

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the research was to quantify the changes of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) balances in Poland and Mississippi (MS). Nutrient balances were calculated as difference between input and output in the agricultural system according to Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development...

  6. Removal efficiency and balance of nitrogen in a recirculating aquaculture system integrated with constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Fei; Liang, Wei; Yu, Tao; Cheng, Shui P; He, Feng; Wu, Zhen B

    2011-01-01

    The nitrogen (N) balance for aquaculture is an important aspect, especially in China, and it is attributed to the eutrophication in many freshwater bodies. In recent years, constructed wetlands (CWs) have been widely used in wastewater treatment and ecosystem restoration. A recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) consisting of CWs and 4 fish ponds was set up in Wuhan, China. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fingerlings were fed for satiation daily for 168 days with 2 diets containing 5.49 % and 6.53 % nitrogen, respectively. The objectives of this study were to investigate the N budget in the RAS, and try to find out the feasibility of controlling N accumulation in the fish pond. It is expected that the study can provide a mass balance for the fate of N in the eco-friendly treatment system to avoid eutrophication. The results showed that the removal rates of ammonia (NH(+)(4)-N), sum of nitrate & nitrite (NO(-)(X)-N), and total nitrogen (TN) by the CWs were 20-55%, 38-84 % and 39-57 %, respectively. Denitrification in the CWs was the main pathway of nitrogen loss (41.67 %). Nitrogen accumulation in pond water and sediment accounted for 3.39 % and 12.65 % of total nitrogen loss, respectively. The nitrogen removal efficiency and budget showed that the CW could be used to control excessive nitrogen accumulation in fish ponds. From the viewpoint of the nitrogen pollution control, the RAS combined with the constructed wetland can be applied to ensure the sustainable development for aquaculture. PMID:21644158

  7. Correlation between CMC and chromatographic index: simple and effective evaluation of the hydrophobic/hydrophilic balance of bile acids.

    PubMed

    Natalini, Benedetto; Sardella, Roccaldo; Camaioni, Emidio; Gioiello, Antimo; Pellicciari, Roberto

    2007-08-01

    The discovery that bile acids are involved in the modulation of nuclear steroid receptors has prompted renewed interest in this field of research. Due to the nature of research in this field, a technique that enables simple and effective assessment of the hydrophobic/hydrophilic balance, thus improving and speeding up evaluations of the biological profiles of these compounds, is greatly needed. In this context, both CMC value determination and RP-HPLC mobility evaluation were explored as possible approaches. While the CMC was calculated using the noninvasive conductimetric method, the RP-HPLC mobility was assessed by measuring the retention factor at several mobile phase compositions and extrapolating back to the pure aqueous mobile phase. The correlation of the CMC with the derived chromatographic hydrophobic index phi0 was satisfactory. PMID:17572887

  8. Balancing Linguistic and Social Needs: Evaluating Texts Using a Critical Language Awareness Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Rod E.; Ndura, Elavie; Righettini, Marielena

    2005-01-01

    English as a second language (ESL) content-based texts are often evaluated for their presentation of sound second-language teaching practices. While such reviews are important and valuable, they ignore an examination of the race, class, and gender issues introduced in the texts. A critical perspective on textbook evaluation organized around the…

  9. Evapotranspiration of a pine-switchgrass intercropping bioenergy system measured by combined surface renewal and energy balance method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, M.; Noormets, A.; Domec, J. C.; Rosa, R.; Williamson, J.; Boone, J.; Sucre, E.; Trnka, M.; King, J.

    2015-12-01

    Intercropping bioenergy grasses within traditional pine silvicultural systems provides an opportunity for economic diversification and regional bioenergy production in a way that complements existing land use systems. Bioenergy intercropping in pine plantations does not compete with food production for land and it is thought will increase ecosystem resource-use efficiencies. As the frequency and intensity of drought is expected to increase with the changing climate, maximizing water use-efficiency of intercropped bioenergy systems will become increasingly important for long-term economic and environmental sustainability. The presented study is focused on evapotranspiration (ET) of an experimental pine-switchgrass intercropping system in the Lower Coastal Plain of North Carolina. We measured ET of two pure switchgrass fields, two pure pine stands and two pine-switchgrass intercropping systems using combined surface renewal (SR) and energy balance (EB) method throughout 2015. SR is based on high-frequency measurement of air temperature at or above canopy. As previously demonstrated, temperature time series are associated with identifiable, repeated patterns called "turbulent coherent structures". These coherent structures are considered to be responsible for most of the turbulent transport. Statistical analysis of the coherent structures in temperature time series allows quantification of sensible heat flux density (H) from the investigated area. Information about H can be combined with measurement of net radiation and soil heat flux density to indirectly obtain ET estimates as a residual of the energy balance equation. Despite the recent progress in the SR method, there is no standard methodology and each method available includes assumptions which require more research. To validate our SR estimates of ET, we used an eddy covariance (EC) system placed temporarily next to the each SR station as a comparative measurement of H. The conference contribution will include

  10. Measuring Health System Strengthening: Application of the Balanced Scorecard Approach to Rank the Baseline Performance of Three Rural Districts in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Mutale, Wilbroad; Godfrey-Fausset, Peter; Mwanamwenge, Margaret Tembo; Kasese, Nkatya; Chintu, Namwinga; Balabanova, Dina; Spicer, Neil; Ayles, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Introduction There is growing interest in health system performance and recently WHO launched a report on health systems strengthening emphasising the need for close monitoring using system-wide approaches. One recent method is the balanced scorecard system. There is limited application of this method in middle- and low-income countries. This paper applies the concept of balanced scorecard to describe the baseline status of three intervention districts in Zambia. Methodology The Better Health Outcome through Mentoring and Assessment (BHOMA) project is a randomised step-wedged community intervention that aims to strengthen the health system in three districts in the Republic of Zambia. To assess the baseline status of the participating districts we used a modified balanced scorecard approach following the domains highlighted in the MOH 2011 Strategic Plan. Results Differences in performance were noted by district and residence. Finance and service delivery domains performed poorly in all study districts. The proportion of the health workers receiving training in the past 12 months was lowest in Kafue (58%) and highest in Luangwa district (77%). Under service capacity, basic equipment and laboratory capacity scores showed major variation, with Kafue and Luangwa having lower scores when compared to Chongwe. The finance domain showed that Kafue and Chongwe had lower scores (44% and 47% respectively). Regression model showed that children's clinical observation scores were negatively correlated with drug availability (coeff −0.40, p = 0.02). Adult clinical observation scores were positively association with adult service satisfaction score (coeff 0.82, p = 0.04) and service readiness (coeff 0.54, p = 0.03). Conclusion The study applied the balanced scorecard to describe the baseline status of 42 health facilities in three districts of Zambia. Differences in performance were noted by district and residence in most domains with finance and service delivery

  11. Analytical and experimental performance evaluation of an integrated Si-photonic balanced coherent receiver in a colorless scenario.

    PubMed

    Morsy-Osman, Mohamed; Chagnon, Mathieu; Xu, Xian; Zhuge, Qunbi; Poulin, Michel; Painchaud, Yves; Pelletier, Martin; Paquet, Carl; Plant, David V

    2014-03-10

    We study analytically and experimentally the performance limits of a Si-photonic (SiP) balanced coherent receiver (CRx) co-packaged with transimpedance amplifiers (TIAs) in a colorless WDM scheme. Firstly, the CRx architecture is depicted and characterization results are presented. Secondly, an analytical expression for the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at the CRx output is rigorously developed and various noise sources in the context of colorless reception are outlined. Thirdly, we study experimentally the system-level CRx performance in colorless reception of 16 × 112 Gbps PDM-QPSK WDM channels. Using a 15.5 dBm local oscillator (LO) power, error free transmissions over 4800 and 4160 km at received powers of -3 and -21 dBm per channel, respectively, were achieved in a fully colorless and preamplifierless reception. Next, a set of measurements on one of the center WDM channels is performed where the LO power, received signal power, distance, and number of channels presented to the CRx are swept to evaluate the performance limits of colorless reception. Results reveal that the LO beating with optical noise incoming with the signal is a dominant noise source regardless of received signal power. In the high received signal power regime (~0 dBm/channel), the self-beat noise from out-of-band (OOB) channels is an additional major noise source especially for small LO-to-signal power ratio, short reach and large number of OOB channels. For example, at a received signal power of 0 dBm/channel after 1600 km transmission, the SNR difference between the fully filtered and colorless scenarios, where 1 and 16 channels are passed to the CRx respectively, grows from 0.5 to 3.3 dB as the LO power changes from 12 to 0 dBm. For low received power (~-12 dBm/channel), the effect of OOB channels becomes minor while the receiver shot and thermal noises become more significant. We identify the common mode rejection ratio (CMRR) and sensitivity as the two important CRx specifications that

  12. The 'balance intervention' for promoting caloric compensatory behaviours in response to overeating: a formative evaluation.

    PubMed

    Wammes, Birgitte; Breedveld, Boudewijn; Kremers, Stef; Brug, Johannes

    2006-08-01

    To help people prevent weight gain, the Netherlands Nutrition Centre initiated the 'balance intervention', which promotes moderation of food intake and/or increased physical activity in response to occasions of overeating. The aim of this study was to determine whether intervention materials were appreciated, encouraged information seeking and increased motivation and caloric compensatory behaviours. A three-group randomized trial with pre-intervention measures (n = 963, response 86%) and post-intervention measures (n = 857) using electronic questionnaires was conducted among participants aged 25-40 years, recruited from an Internet research panel. The first group received a printed brochure and electronic newsletters (print group), the second group was exposed to radio advertisements (radio group) and the third group was the control group. Multiple regression analyses were used to investigate the impact of the materials on self-reported prevalence of overeating, attitudes, perceived behavioural control, intentions and compensatory behaviours. At follow-up, we found significantly more positive attitudes, intentions and dietary action in the print and radio groups. However, participants who received the radio advertisement had a significantly lower perceived behavioural control. No effects were found on the prevalence of overeating. The results indicate that the intervention materials have potential for increasing people's attitudes, motivation and self-reported behaviour actions, with a possible negative side-effect on perceived behavioural control. PMID:16606638

  13. Balance Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Balance Problems Basic Facts & Information What are Balance Problems? Having good balance means being able to ... Only then can you “keep your balance.” Why Balance is Important Your feelings of dizziness may last ...

  14. Uplink Downlink Rate Balancing and Throughput Scaling in FDD Massive MIMO Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergel, Itsik; Perets, Yona; Shamai, Shlomo

    2016-05-01

    In this work we extend the concept of uplink-downlink rate balancing to frequency division duplex (FDD) massive MIMO systems. We consider a base station with large number antennas serving many single antenna users. We first show that any unused capacity in the uplink can be traded off for higher throughput in the downlink in a system that uses either dirty paper (DP) coding or linear zero-forcing (ZF) precoding. We then also study the scaling of the system throughput with the number of antennas in cases of linear Beamforming (BF) Precoding, ZF Precoding, and DP coding. We show that the downlink throughput is proportional to the logarithm of the number of antennas. While, this logarithmic scaling is lower than the linear scaling of the rate in the uplink, it can still bring significant throughput gains. For example, we demonstrate through analysis and simulation that increasing the number of antennas from 4 to 128 will increase the throughput by more than a factor of 5. We also show that a logarithmic scaling of downlink throughput as a function of the number of receive antennas can be achieved even when the number of transmit antennas only increases logarithmically with the number of receive antennas.

  15. Sideline Performance of the Balance Error Scoring System during a Live Sporting Event

    PubMed Central

    Rahn, Carrie; Munkasy, Barry A.; Joyner, A. Barry; Buckley, Thomas A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose was to examine the influence of a live sporting sideline environment on balance error scoring system (BESS) performance. Design Prospective longitudinal cohort study. Setting The BESS was performed by all participants at three locations; 1) quiet laboratory, 2) football stadium sidelines, 3) basketball arena sidelines. Participants The experimental group had 38 participants (age: 20.1±1.1 years; height: 170.0±7.7 cm; mass: 66.7±9.5 kg) who were female intercollegiate student-athletes (SA). The control group consisted of 38 recreationally active female college students (age: 20.8±1.1 years; height: 162.6±6.0 cm; mass: 63.7±10.6 kg). Interventions The two groups performed the tests at the same locations, the SA group during live sporting events and the control group when no event was occurring. Main Outcome Measures The dependent variable was the total BESS score. Separate 2 × 3 mixed methods ANOVAs investigated the influence of the environment and practice effect. Results There was a significant interaction for group by environment (P=0.004) and the SA group committed more errors at both the football and basketball settings than the control group. The SA group also committed more errors at football (P=0.028) than baseline. The control group demonstrated a likely practice effect with fewer errors during each administration. Conclusions BESS score deteriorated when performed on the sidelines of a live sporting event potentially challenging the clinical utility of the BESS. Clinicians need to consider the role of the local environment when performing the BESS test and should perform post-injury tests in the same environment as the baseline test. Clinical Relevance When performing balance testing of patients with suspected concussions, clinicians need to consider the environment in which the test is performed and attempt to match the pre-season testing environment. PMID:25098674

  16. Assessment of structural model and parameter uncertainty with a multi-model system for soil water balance models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalik, Thomas; Multsch, Sebastian; Frede, Hans-Georg; Breuer, Lutz

    2016-04-01

    Water for agriculture is strongly limited in arid and semi-arid regions and often of low quality in terms of salinity. The application of saline waters for irrigation increases the salt load in the rooting zone and has to be managed by leaching to maintain a healthy soil, i.e. to wash out salts by additional irrigation. Dynamic simulation models are helpful tools to calculate the root zone water fluxes and soil salinity content in order to investigate best management practices. However, there is little information on structural and parameter uncertainty for simulations regarding the water and salt balance of saline irrigation. Hence, we established a multi-model system with four different models (AquaCrop, RZWQM, SWAP, Hydrus1D/UNSATCHEM) to analyze the structural and parameter uncertainty by using the Global Likelihood and Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE) method. Hydrus1D/UNSATCHEM and SWAP were set up with multiple sets of different implemented functions (e.g. matric and osmotic stress for root water uptake) which results in a broad range of different model structures. The simulations were evaluated against soil water and salinity content observations. The posterior distribution of the GLUE analysis gives behavioral parameters sets and reveals uncertainty intervals for parameter uncertainty. Throughout all of the model sets, most parameters accounting for the soil water balance show a low uncertainty, only one or two out of five to six parameters in each model set displays a high uncertainty (e.g. pore-size distribution index in SWAP and Hydrus1D/UNSATCHEM). The differences between the models and model setups reveal the structural uncertainty. The highest structural uncertainty is observed for deep percolation fluxes between the model sets of Hydrus1D/UNSATCHEM (~200 mm) and RZWQM (~500 mm) that are more than twice as high for the latter. The model sets show a high variation in uncertainty intervals for deep percolation as well, with an interquartile range (IQR) of

  17. Improved automated electronic balance calibration program

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, J.P.; Frickey, E.M.

    1995-11-01

    An improved automated electronic balance calibration and record system has been developed using a spread sheet to consolidate information required to calibrate electronic balances and satisfy requirements for traceability, validation and documentation. Several improvements have been made over an Epson HX-20{trademark} notebook computer-based balance calibration system, which was developed at the Savannah River Site in 1986 and used continuously since to annually calibrate electronic balances. These improvements included: built in tables of balance models performance test limits and calibration standards` apparent masses & uncertainties; calculated ratios of balance to test weight uncertainties; bar-code data input; enhanced graphs and tables; and permanent electronic records. The software and hardware were thoroughly tested by calibrating 30 balances in another department. Hardware for importing data from balances through an RS-232 interface and bar code reader into a portable computer`s spread sheet was evaluated and found to add little value to the calibration process. Computerized data collection minimizes record handling and reduces paper work costs by >50%. Databases are established for each organization`s electronic balances that contain records for each balance that are identified by model, property identification number and location. In addition, each record contains calibration and expiration dates, performance testing information, etc. Details of equipment, statistical testing, spread sheet features and examples of the program are described.

  18. Feedback Improvement in Automatic Program Evaluation Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skupas, Bronius

    2010-01-01

    Automatic program evaluation is a way to assess source program files. These techniques are used in learning management environments, programming exams and contest systems. However, use of automated program evaluation encounters problems: some evaluations are not clear for the students and the system messages do not show reasons for lost points.…

  19. A novel balanced-lethal host-vector system based on glmS.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwangsoo; Jeong, Jae Ho; Lim, Daejin; Hong, Yeongjin; Yun, Misun; Min, Jung-Joon; Kwak, Sahng-June; Choy, Hyon E

    2013-01-01

    During the last decade, an increasing number of papers have described the use of various genera of bacteria, including E. coli and S. typhimurium, in the treatment of cancer. This is primarily due to the facts that not only are these bacteria capable of accumulating in the tumor mass, but they can also be engineered to deliver specific therapeutic proteins directly to the tumor site. However, a major obstacle exists in that bacteria because the plasmid carrying the therapeutic gene is not needed for bacterial survival, these plasmids are often lost from the bacteria. Here, we report the development of a balanced-lethal host-vector system based on deletion of the glmS gene in E. coli and S. typhimurium. This system takes advantage of the phenotype of the GlmS(-) mutant, which undergoes lysis in animal systems that lack the nutrients required for proliferation of the mutant bacteria, D-glucosamine (GlcN) or N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc), components necessary for peptidoglycan synthesis. We demonstrate that plasmids carrying a glmS gene (GlmS(+)p) complemented the phenotype of the GlmS(-) mutant, and that GlmS(+) p was maintained faithfully both in vitro and in an animal system in the absence of selection pressure. This was further verified by bioluminescent signals from GlmS (+)pLux carried in bacteria that accumulated in grafted tumor tissue in a mouse model. The signal was up to several hundred-fold stronger than that from the control plasmid, pLux, due to faithful maintenance of the plasmid. We believe this system will allow to package a therapeutic gene onto an expression plasmid for bacterial delivery to the tumor site without subsequent loss of plasmid expression as well as to quantify bioluminescent bacteria using in vivo imaging by providing a direct correlation between photon flux and bacterial number. PMID:23555984

  20. Evaluation of oxidant-antioxidant balance and total antioxidant capacity of serum in children with urinary tract infection

    PubMed Central

    Soleimani, Gholamreza; Sadeghi-Bojd, Simin; Teimouri, Alireza; Nakhaee, Alireza; Sheikhhosseini, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common bacterial infections in children. This studyaimed to investigate the oxidative and antioxidate status of plasma in patients with UTI and to compare them with those of the controls. Methods: This case–control study of 50–75 children in the given order was performed in 2013 at the Pediatric Clinic of infections in Zahedan Hospital of Ali Ibn Abi Talib. The antioxidative status of plasma were evaluated by measuring the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) The oxidative status of samples was assessed by measuring the total peroxide and the oxidative stress index (OSI) levels. The means of the parameters were compared and the relationship among them was determined. Data were analyzed using SPSS 20 (IBM Corp. Released 2011. IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 20.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp). Student's t-test and Mann–Whitney U-test were applied in various situations of our questions; 95% confidence interval was considered for the level of significance. Results: The results showed that total oxidant serum status in UTI patients was higher compared to controls when total antioxidant serum was lower. The balance of oxidant-antioxidant serum was in favor of oxidant serum and this term was confirmed by OSI. Conclusion: Our results showed that the plasma levels of TAC in patients with UTI were decreased compared to controls, and oxidant-antioxidant balance and OSI caused increased OS in patients. PMID:27226686

  1. Balance Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... it could be a sign of a balance problem. Balance problems can make you feel unsteady or as if ... related injuries, such as hip fracture. Some balance problems are due to problems in the inner ear. ...

  2. Balance Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... often, it could be a sign of a balance problem. Balance problems can make you feel unsteady or as ... fall-related injuries, such as hip fracture. Some balance problems are due to problems in the inner ...

  3. Symposium Papers-Progress in Radiation and Energy Balance Measurement Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On November 2, 2004, an all-day symposium entitled “Progress in Radiation and Energy Balance Measurement Systems” was convened at the ASA-CSSA-SSSA annual meetings in Seattle, WA. Interest in the measurement of radiation and energy balance components at soil and plant canopy surfaces has seen a res...

  4. Evaluation of ecosystem services for good balance between climate change prevention and biodiversity conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, A.; Adachi, M.; Yamagata, Y.; Suzuki, R.; Saigusa, N.; Sekine, H.

    2011-12-01

    For appropriate decision making in ecosystem management for global warming prevention and biodiversity conservation, a reliable and practical method to evaluate ecosystem services is necessary. For this purpose, we are conducting a project focusing on the evaluation of ecosystem services with a financial support from the Ministry of Environment, Japan, during the period from 2011 to 2013. The project is titled "Development of a method for evaluation of ecosystem services aiming at trade-off mitigation between climate change prevention and biodiversity conservation" (Environmental Research Fund, No. F-1101) and jointly conducted through collaboration among: the National Institute for Environmental Studies, the Japan-Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, and Mitsubishi Research Institute. The objectives of the project include: (1) integration of observational data from field sites and satellites related to ecosystem functions, (2) development of a practical evaluation method of ecosystem services, and (3) contribution to mitigate conflicts between environmental mitigation options such as climate change prevention and biodiversity conservation. In this project, we have a couple of candidate sites in Asian region to conduct field studies including in situ observation of forest biomass, leaf area index, canopy structure, in conjunction with corresponding satellite observations. These data on functional traits will be related with important ecosystem services such as carbon sequestration and climate regulation, water supply, and genetic resource stemming from biodiversity.

  5. Comparing Propensity Score Methods in Balancing Covariates and Recovering Impact in Small Sample Educational Program Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Clement A.; Tang, Yun

    2013-01-01

    Propensity score applications are often used to evaluate educational program impact. However, various options are available to estimate both propensity scores and construct comparison groups. This study used a student achievement dataset with commonly available covariates to compare different propensity scoring estimation methods (logistic…

  6. Epochs in the depressor/pressor balance of the renin-angiotensin system.

    PubMed

    Colafella, Katrina M Mirabito; Hilliard, Lucinda M; Denton, Kate M

    2016-05-01

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a commanding role in the regulation of extracellular fluid homoeostasis. Tigerstadt and Bergman first identified the RAS more than two centuries ago. By the 1980s a voyage of research and discovery into the mechanisms and actions of this system led to the development of drugs that block the RAS, which have become the mainstay for the treatment of cardiovascular and renal disease. In the last 25 years new components of the RAS have come to light, including the angiotensin type 2 receptor (AT2R) and the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)/angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang(1-7)]/Mas receptor (MasR) axis. These have been shown to counter the classical actions of angiotensin II (AngII) at the predominant angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R). Our studies, and those of others, have demonstrated that targeting these depressor RAS pathways may be therapeutically beneficial. It is apparent that the evolution of both the pressor and depressor RAS pathways is distinct throughout life and that the depressor/pressor balance of the RAS vary between the sexes. These temporal patterns of expression suggest that therapies targeting the RAS could be optimized for discrete epochs in life. PMID:27128801

  7. [Plant transpiration in a maize/soybean intercropping system measured with heat balance method].

    PubMed

    Gao, Yang; Duan, Ai-wang; Qiu, Xin-qiang; Zhang, Jun-peng; Sun, Jing-sheng; Wang, He-zhou

    2010-05-01

    In an experimental field with maize/soybean strip intercropping, the transpiration of maize and soybean plants was measured with sap flow gauge based on heat balance method. In the intercropping system, the diurnal change of the sap flow rates of the plants fitted single-peak curve in sunny day and multi-peak curve in cloudy day. The plant sap flow rates were affected by many environmental factors, among which, solar radiation was the most important meteorological factor. The daily sap flow per maize or soybean plant showed significant correlations with solar radiation, air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and soil heat flux. During the observation period (June 1-30, 2008), the mean daily transpiration of maize plant (1.44 mm x d(-1)) was about 1.8 times of that of soybean plant (0.79 mm x d(-1)). Maize transpiration and soybean transpiration contributed 64% and 36% to the total transpiration of the intercropping system, respectively. Due to the spatial variation of stem diameter and leaf area, it would be necessary to install more sap flow gauges to accurately measure the sap flow of maize and soybean plants. PMID:20707114

  8. Alignment in Complex Education Systems: Achieving Balance and Coherence. OECD Education Working Papers, Number 64

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Looney, Janet W.

    2011-01-01

    The majority of OECD countries now implement one form or another of standards-based assessment and evaluation. The core logic of standards-based systems rests upon the alignment of three key elements: "standards" defining the knowledge and skills--or "competences"--students are expected to have attained at different stages of their education;…

  9. Functional evaluation of the field capacity concept for water balance analysis under climatic seasonality conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceres, Francesca; Battista Chirico, Giovanni; Romano, Nunzio

    2010-05-01

    Some types of hydrologic models, such as the bucket model, rely on the concept of field water capacity, θFWC. In this study, the techniques traditionally proposed for determining this parameter have been critically analyzed in terms of their effectiveness in computing soil water budget. Two basic aspects of the problem will be presented: (i) to set up techniques for a suitable parameterization of hydrologic models, (ii) to implement simulation models that describe the various processes with different levels of complexity and compare their results. The following models are considered: the Richards equation based model and the simplified bucket-type model. Soil water content at the condition of field capacity has been determined for both uniform and layered soil profiles by using the numerical model developed by Romano et al. (1998) and verified by Brunone et al. (2003). This model solves the Richards equation with the Crank-Nicolson finite difference technique and uses a numerical algorithm specifically designed in case of layered soils for calculating the hydraulic conductivity at the layer interface. For layered soil profiles, which actually represent the rule rather than an exception, soil layer sequence and the reciprocal differences in the soil hydraulic properties (soil water retention and hydraulic conductivity functions) strongly influence the attainment of the field capacity condition. Simulations of soil water balance using the Richards-based model or the bucket-type model have been compared. It is shown that climatic seasonality typical of the Mediterranean environments exerts some influence on the dynamics of surficial water contents in soil and this influence can be kept only in part by the bucket model if not parameterized adequately. Rainfall variability during the vegetative season and that one evolving during the quiescent phase is responsible for different transpiration conditions and for evolutions of the water content in the soil characterized

  10. Evaluation Strategy. Paper Preservation Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FMC Corp., Gastonia, NC. Lithium Div.

    After a decade of slow but steady progress, the pace of development of technologies to deacidify and strengthen deteriorating books and documents has quickened significantly. These developments accentuate the need for the conservation community to scientifically evaluate the technical merits of potential processes. This draft evaluation strategy…

  11. Open dissipative seismic systems and ensembles of strong earthquakes: energy balance and entropy funnels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akopian, Samvel Ts.

    2015-06-01

    A concept of seismic system (SS), which is responsible for the preparation of an ensemble of strong earthquakes, is considered as an open dissipative system exchanging energy and entropy with the environment. Open dissipative SS allow one to describe the equilibrium and non-equilibrium states of SS, and the lithosphere evolution under different plate tectonic settings on the basis of seismostatistics. Several new seismic parameters (`seismic temperature', `seismic time', dissipation function, efficiency, inelastic energy, dynamical probability) are defined and proposed for better understanding and describing the dynamical processes. The Sakhalin SS is considered to illustrate the behaviour of proposed parameters. By analogy to Liouville's equation in thermodynamics, it is shown that there is no criterion of instability in the domain where the Gutenberg-Richter law is true. In the proposed approach, the instability origination and the formation of seismogenic structures in the lithosphere are based on the energy versus information entropy power law; the existence of `time arrow' also proceeds from such a dependence. Application of energy and trajectory diagrams enables to describe the preparation of strong earthquakes within an ensemble in terms of slow and fast timescales. These diagrams help perform the spatiotemporal-energy monitoring of the instability origination in the lithosphere. It is shown that the information entropy parameter can serve as a measure of the unknown external energy flow into the system (this energy is supplied for the elastic radiation energy in the earthquake sources and for inelastic processes in the system volume). The property of the ensemble of strong earthquakes is periodically to restore the SS equilibrium state that enables to describe the SS energy balance. The results offer possibilities to estimate the fraction of inelastic energy released by the SS medium during the preparation and occurrence of seismic catastrophes. The

  12. Measure Guideline: Steam System Balancing and Tuning for Multifamily Residential Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, J.; Ludwig, P.; Brand, L.

    2013-04-01

    This report was written as a resource for professionals involved in multifamily audits, retrofit delivery, and program design, as well as for building owners and contractors. It is intended to serve as a guide for those looking to evaluate and improve the efficiency and operation of one-pipe steam heating systems. In centrally heated multifamily buildings with steam or hydronic systems, the cost of heat for tenants is typically absorbed into the owner's operating costs. Highly variable and rising energy costs have placed a heavy burden on landlords. In the absence of well-designed and relevant efficiency efforts, increased operating costs would be passed on to tenants who often cannot afford those increases. Misinvestment is a common problem with older heating systems -- multiple contractors may inadequately or inappropriately upgrade parts of systems and reduce system functionality and efficiency, or the system has not been properly maintained.

  13. Cryosphere water balance in the HKH-system: case study Batura Glacier (Upper Hunza, Karakoram)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winiger, M.; Boerst, U.

    2012-12-01

    Investigations on climate dynamics and related responses of the cryosphere in the Hindukush-Karakoram-Himalaya (HKH) increasingly result in regional different functional patterns. A predominant loss of ice and snow is documented for most of the region. Nevertheless, in the northwestern part, mainly in the Karakoram, several studies identified exemptions from the general HKH-pattern, either for individual glaciers or altitudinal ranges. Coordinated comparative studies, based on comparable methodological approaches and data bases might help to provide a better understanding of climate-cryosphere-runoff-systems. 'Third Pole Environment' (TEP), as well as the 'Upper Indus Basin' Initiative (UIB) of the 'International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development' (ICIMOD) promote and develop coordinated campaigns for the assessment of high altitude water balances in the HKH mountain ranges. As a first step, inventories of glaciers and snow-cover for HKH, the Tibetan Plateau, as well as its neighboring mountain ranges have been carried out. Glacier typology, climate related spatial and temporal dynamics, the impact of black carbon, dust and other influencing factors will further differentiate general inventories. In a next phase, case studies at selected sites, based on comparable approaches, thorough quality assessments of existing data series have been initiated by several research groups - up to now with only little coordination. Identification of case study sites should take advantage of previous studies. Although proper long-term monitoring is almost completely lacking, several glaciers in the Karakoram have repeatedly been investigated. Among them Raikot Glacier (Nanga Parbat), Biafo-Hispar glacier system, Baltoro Glacier (K2), and Batura Glacier (Gojal, Upper Hunza) are comparatively well documented examples. As part of the UIB-initiative, Batura, Passu and Baltoro Glaciers are in the process of repeat investigations of mass-balance. Selected first results of

  14. A high-speed bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy system based on the digital auto-balancing bridge method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Nan; Xu, Hui; Wang, Wei; Zhou, Zhou; Qiao, Guofeng; D-U Li, David

    2013-06-01

    A novel bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy system based on the digital auto-balancing bridge method improved from the conventional analogue auto-balancing method is presented for bioelectrical impedance measurements. The hardware of the proposed system consists of a reference source, a null detector, a variable source, a field programmable gate array, a clock generator, a flash and a USB controller. Software implemented in the field programmable gate array includes three major blocks: clock management, peripheral control and digital signal processing. The principle and realization of the least-mean-squares-based digital auto-balancing algorithm is introduced in detail. The performances of our system were examined by comparing with a commercial impedance analyzer. The results reveal that the proposed system has high speed (less than 3.5 ms per measurement) and high accuracy in the frequency range of 1 kHz-10 MHz. Compared with the commercial instrument based on the traditional analogue auto-balancing method, our system shows advantages in measurement speed, compactness and flexibility, making it suitable for various bioelectrical impedance measurement applications.

  15. Towards objective evaluation of balance in the elderly: validity and reliability of a measurement instrument applied to the Tinetti test.

    PubMed

    Panella, Lorenzo; Tinelli, Carmine; Buizza, Angelo; Lombardi, Remo; Gandolfi, Roberto

    2008-03-01

    The aim of the present study was the validation of an instrument for evaluating balance, applied to the Tinetti test. Trunk inclination was measured by inclinometers during the Tinetti test in 163 healthy participants scoring 28/28 in the Tinetti scale (controls: 92 women, 71 men; age 19-85 years), and 111 residents in old people's homes, able to autonomously perform the test, but scoring less than 28/28 (test group: 78 women, 33 men; age 55-96 years). Trunk inclination was quantified by 20 parameters, whose standardized values were summed and provided an overall performance index (PTOT). PTOT reliability was evaluated by Cronbach's alpha, and its validity by item scale correlation, discriminant validity and concurrent validity. Influence of age and sex was assessed by a logistic regression model. Repeatable and consistent measurements were obtained (Cronbach's alpha=0.88). Parameter distribution was significantly different in controls and patients (P<0.001). Optimal PTOT threshold for discriminating between normal and abnormal performance (153.9/200) corresponded to sensitivity of 88.3%, specificity of 84.7% and area under the receiver operating characteristics curve of 0.93. PTOT correlated with the Tinetti scale score, its partial, balance-related score and Barthel's Index, but not with the Mini Mental State score. PTOT correlated with age and level of performance but not with sex; correlation with age did not prevent the possibility of discriminating between different levels of performance and between normal and abnormal performance. The instrument provided objective discrimination between different performance levels, in particular, between normal and altered performance. PMID:18277206

  16. Two-Source Energy Balance Model Evaluation for Mapping Evapotranspiration on the Semi- arid Southern High Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gowda, P. H.; Chavez, J. L.; Colaizzi, P. D.; Evett, S. R.; Howell, T. A.; Copeland, K.

    2007-05-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is an essential component of the water balance and a major consumptive use of irrigation water and precipitation on cropland. In this study, we applied the Two-Source Energy Balance (T-SEB) model to estimate hourly ET from Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data for the semi-arid Southern High Plains of the United States where more than 90 percent of the groundwater withdrawals are used for irrigation. For this purpose, a Landsat TM image covering a major portion of the Southern High Plains (parts of Texas Panhandle and northeastern New Mexico) was acquired for 23 July 2006 for the overpass at 11:26 AM CST. Atmospheric correction on the TM imagery was done using MODTRAN, an atmospheric radiative transfer model. Comprehensive ground-truth data were collected to develop a detailed land use map showing major crops grown in the region. Performance of the T SEB model was evaluated by comparing mapped ET data with measured hourly ET data on five weighing lysimeters at Bushland, TX [35 Deg. 11' N, 102 Deg. 06' W; 1,170 m elevation MSL] managed by the Conservation and Production Research Laboratory, USDA-ARS. Lysimeter-measured ET rates varied from 0.24 to 0.71 mm/h. Comparison of estimated hourly mapped ET values with lysimetric measurements had an accuracy within 6% of the measured ET (r2=0.99), with a root mean squared error of 0.03 mm/h. These results support the use of the T-SEB model for the semi-arid Southern High Plains; however, more evaluation is needed for different agroclimatological conditions in the region.

  17. New automatic ball balancer design to reduce transient-response in rotor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Taekil; Na, Sungsoo

    2013-05-01

    Ball-type automatic balancers are used to reduce vibrations in rotating machines due to the rotor's inherent imbalance. An automatic ball balancer, consisting of several balls moving freely in a circular race containing a viscous fluid, is used in various rotating machines to reduce rotor vibrations. A properly designed automatic ball balancer can effectively reduce vibrations at steady state. However, it increases vibrations at transient state compared with rotors without an automatic ball balancer. High vibration response at the transient state may shorten the machine's life and produce unpleasant feelings in humans. In this regard, this paper provides a new automatic ball balancer design that prevents increasing vibrations at the transient state. To analyze the present design's motion properties in comparison with the traditional design, a theoretical model with a five-ball automatic balancer is constructed. Governing equations of this theoretical model are derived using Lagrange's equations, and a simulation is conducted using Matlab. The theoretical model's stability is determined with various values of design parameters at the steady state. Consequentially, this paper provides engineering guidelines for designing reliable ball balancers.

  18. Fate, mass balance, and transport of phosphorus in the septic system drainfields.

    PubMed

    Mechtensimer, Sara; Toor, Gurpal S

    2016-09-01

    Septic systems can be a potential source of phosphorus (P) in shallow groundwater. Our objective was to investigate the fate, mass balance, and transport of P in the drainfield of a drip-dispersal septic system. Drainfields were replicated in lysimeters (152.4 cm long, 91.4 cm wide, and 91.4 cm high). Leachate and effluent samples were collected over 67 events (n = 15 daily; n = 52 weekly flow-weighted) and analyzed for total P (TP), orthophosphate (PO4P), and other P (TP - PO4P). Mean TP was 15 mg L(-1) (84% PO4P; 16% other P) in the effluent and 0.16 mg L(-1) (47% PO4P, 53% other P) in the leachate. After one year, 46.8 g of TP was added with effluent and rainfall to each drainfield, of which, <1% leached, 3.8% was taken up by St. Augustine grass, leaving >95% in the drainfield. Effluent dispersal increased water extractable P (WEP) in the drainfield from <5 to >10 mg kg(-1). Using the P sorption maxima of sand (118 mg kg(-1)) and soil (260 mg kg(-1)), we estimated that ∼18% of the drainfield P sorption capacity was saturated after one year of effluent dispersal. We conclude that despite the low leaching potential of P dispersed with effluent in the first year of drainfield operation, a growing WEP pool in the drainfield and low P sorption capacity of Florida's sandy soils may have the potential to transport P to shallow groundwater in long-running septic systems. PMID:27288645

  19. Evaluation of a bulk calorimeter and heat balance for determination of supersonic combustor efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclinton, C. R.; Anderson, G. Y.

    1980-01-01

    Results are presented from the shakedown and evaluation test of a bulk calorimeter. The calorimeter is designed to quench the combustion at the exit of a direct-connect, hydrogen fueled, scramjet combustor model, and to provide the measurements necessary to perform an analysis of combustion efficiency. Results indicate that the calorimeter quenches reaction, that reasonable response times are obtained, and that the calculated combustion efficiency is repeatable within + or -3 percent and varies in a regular way with combustor model parameters such as injected fuel equivalence ratio.

  20. Pervious Pavement System Evaluation- Abstract

    EPA Science Inventory

    Porous pavement is a low impact development stormwater control. The Urban Watershed Management Branch is evaluating interlocking concrete pavers as a popular implementation. The pavers themselves are impermeable, but the spaces between the pavers are backfilled with washed, gra...

  1. Soil water balance in an unsaturated pyroclastic slope for evaluation of soil hydraulic behaviour and boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirone, Marianna; Papa, Raffaele; Nicotera, Marco Valerio; Urciuoli, Gianfranco

    2015-09-01

    Flowslides in granular soils pose a major threat to life and the environment. Their initiation in unsaturated soils is regulated by rainfall infiltration which reduces the matric suction and hence shear strength. Analysis of such phenomena is of strategic importance especially when it aims to mitigate landslide risk by means of early warning systems (EWSs). In this framework, physically-based models need to reproduce the hydro-mechanical behaviour of the slopes through numerical analyses, whose main uncertainty concerns the hydraulic conditions at the boundaries of the studied domain and hydraulic conductivity functions of unsaturated soils. Hence consummate knowledge of both these factors is absolutely necessary for efficient predictions. In this paper hydraulic boundary conditions and hydraulic conductivity functions are investigated at the scale of the slope through an application of soil water balance based on in-situ monitoring at the test site of Monteforte Irpino (southern Italy). Meteorological data, matric suction and soil water content measurements were collected over four years at the test site. The soil water balance was analysed on a seasonal time scale with regard to the whole pyroclastic cover resting on the steep limestone substratum. Infiltration and runoff are estimated, interaction between the soil cover and the substratum is investigated, and the hydraulic conductivity functions operative at the site scale are defined.

  2. Modeling evapotranspiration and energy balance in a wheat-maize cropping system using the revised RZ-SHAW model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Correctly simulating evapotranspiration (ET) and surface energy balance is essential to estimating crop growth under water and heat stress conditions in agricultural systems. The revised hybrid model (RZ-SHAW), combining the Root Zone Water Quality Model (RZWQM) and Simultaneous Heat and Water (SHAW...

  3. Experimental evaluation of PCDD/Fs and PCBs release and mass balance of a WTE plant.

    PubMed

    Grosso, Mario; Biganzoli, Laura; Rigamonti, Lucia; Cernuschi, Stefano; Giugliano, Michele; Poluzzi, Vanes; Biancolini, Valeria

    2012-01-01

    The behaviour of waste incineration plants with respect to organic toxic trace contaminants such as PCDDs, PCDFs and, to a minor extent, PCBs, is still a matter of concern for the public opinion and the decision makers. It is therefore very important, first, to evaluate the release of these organic toxic trace contaminants in the environment during waste incineration, not only through the stack gas emission but also with the solid and liquid residues, and then to compare the total release with the input through the treated waste in order to assess the plant behaviour as a "sink" rather than a "source" of organic toxic trace contaminants. The experimental investigation carried out on an Italian full scale incineration plant has shown a total 17 PCDD/Fs and 12 dioxin-like PCBs release of 5.5-27 μg WHO-TEQ per tonne of treated waste and an input flux of 1.6-44 μg WHO-TEQ per tonne of waste, with the difference between the input and the output fluxes rather small and the plant behaviour toward organic trace toxic contaminants in average neutral. Results are compared with similar evaluations conducted in the last decade on a number of waste-to-energy (WTE) plants operating in Italy. PMID:22094053

  4. Research on six-degree-of-freedom calibration system for wind tunnel balances with a collimated laser beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Zhigang; He, Jin; Zuo, Baojun; Li, Runshun; Jia, Yuansheng; Gui, Bing; Qiu, Junwen; Dong, Milin

    2003-02-01

    A newly-developed six-degree-of-freedom calibration system for the wind tunnel balances is introduced. The frame of the system, the functions and the operating principle of different parts are presented in detail. The system is composed of four parts: the automatically loading subsystem, the automatically resetting subsystem, the data-acquisition subsystem and the measurement subsystem. The results of some cell experiments proved that the system can meet the needs of the present calibration task of the balance. Through further improvement, the system can be also used to calibrate other devices with multi degree-of-freedom and measure the minute shifts, such as the guide rail of machine tool and the assembling of large parts and so on.

  5. Land-Based Wind Plant Balance-of-System Cost Drivers and Sensitivities (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Mone, C.; Maples, B.; Hand, M.

    2014-04-01

    With Balance of System (BOS) costs contributing up to 30% of the installed capital cost, it is fundamental to understand the BOS costs for wind projects as well as potential cost trends for larger turbines. NREL developed a BOS model using project cost estimates developed by industry partners. Aspects of BOS covered include engineering and permitting, foundations for various wind turbines, transportation, civil work, and electrical arrays. The data introduce new scaling relationships for each BOS component to estimate cost as a function of turbine parameters and size, project parameters and size, and geographic characteristics. Based on the new BOS model, an analysis to understand the non‐turbine wind plant costs associated with turbine sizes ranging from 1-6 MW and wind plant sizes ranging from 100-1000 MW has been conducted. This analysis establishes a more robust baseline cost estimate, identifies the largest cost components of wind project BOS, and explores the sensitivity of the capital investment cost and the levelized cost of energy to permutations in each BOS cost element. This presentation shows results from the model that illustrate the potential impact of turbine size and project size on the cost of energy from US wind plants.

  6. Balanced Rotating Spray Tank and Pipe Cleaning and Cleanliness Verification System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caimi, Raoul E. B. (Inventor); Thaxton, Eric A. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A system for cleaning and verifying the cleanliness of the interior surfaces of hollow items, such as small bottles, tanks, pipes and tubes, employs a rotating spray head for supplying a gas-liquid cleaning mixture to the item's surface at a supersonic velocity. The spray head incorporates a plurality of nozzles having diverging cross sections so that the incoming gas-liquid mixture is first converged within the spray head and then diverged through the nozzles, thereby accelerating the mixture to a supersonic velocity. In the preferred embodiment, three nozzles are employed; one forwardly facing nozzle at the end of the spray head and two oppositely facing angled nozzles exiting on opposite sides of the spray head which balance each other, and therefore impart no net side load on the spray head. A drive mechanism is provided to rotate the spray head and at the same time move the head back and forth within the item to be cleaned. The drive mechanism acts on a long metal tube to which the spray head is fixed, and thus no moving parts are exposed to the interior surfaces of the items to be cleaned, thereby reducing the risk of contamination.

  7. Thermal Vacuum/Balance Test Results of Swift BAT with Loop Heat Pipe Thermal System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Michael K.

    2004-01-01

    The Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) Detector Array is thermally well coupled to eight constant conductance heat pipes (CCHPs) embedded in the Detector Array Plate PAP), and two loop heat pipes (LHPs) transport heat from the CCHPs to a radiator. The CCHPs have ammonia as the working fluid and the LHPs have propylene as the working fluid. Precision heater controllers, which have adjustable set points in flight, are used to control the LHP compensation chamber and Detector Array xA1 ASIC temperatures. The radiator has AZ-Tek's AZW-LA-II low solar absorptance white paint as the thermal coating, and is located on the anti-sun side of the spacecraft. A thermal balance (T/B) test on the BAT was successfully completed. It validated that the thermal design satisfies the temperature requirements of the BAT in the flight thermal environments. Instrument level and observatory level thermal vacuum (TN) cycling tests of the BAT Detector Array by using the LHP thermal system were successfully completed. This paper presents the results of the T/B test and T N cycling tests.

  8. Bidirectional and Multi-User Telerehabilitation System: Clinical Effect on Balance, Functional Activity, and Satisfaction in Patients with Chronic Stroke Living in Long-Term Care Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Kwan-Hwa; Chen, Chin-Hsing; Chen, You-Yin; Huang, Wen-Tzeng; Lai, Jin-Shin; Yu, Shang-Ming; Chang, Yuan-Jen

    2014-01-01

    Background The application of internet technology for telerehabilitation in patients with stroke has developed rapidly. Objective The current study aimed to evaluate the effect of a bidirectional and multi-user telerehabilitation system on balance and satisfaction in patients with chronic stroke living in long-term care facilities (LTCFs). Method This pilot study used a multi-site, blocked randomization design. Twenty-four participants from three LTCFs were recruited, and the participants were randomly assigned into the telerehabilitation (Tele) and conventional therapy (Conv) groups within each LTCF. Tele group received telerehabilitation but the Conv group received conventional therapy with two persons in each group for three sessions per week and for four weeks. The outcome measures included Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Barthel Index (BI), and the telerehabilitation satisfaction of the participants. Setting A telerehabilitation system included “therapist end” in a laboratory, and the “client end” in LTCFs. The conventional therapy was conducted in LTCFs. Results Training programs conducted for both the Tele and Conv groups showed significant effects within groups on the participant BBS as well as the total and self-care scores of BI. No significant difference between groups could be demonstrated. The satisfaction of participants between the Tele and the Conv groups also did not show significant difference. Conclusions This pilot study indicated that the multi-user telerehabilitation program is feasible for improving the balance and functional activity similar to conventional therapy in patients with chronic stroke living in LTCFs. PMID:25019632

  9. Fuel Systems Architecture (FSA) evaluation criteria and concept evaluation methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendershot, J. E.; Corban, R. R.; Stevenson, S. M.

    1991-01-01

    Consideration is given to two methods developed for the evaluation, screening, and ranking of concepts for Space Exploration Initiative vehicle propellant management systems. The methods selected for handling this multicriteria decision problem are based on the utility theory which transforms both qualitative and quantitative criteria into a nondimensional utility scale for comparison of dissimilar figures of merit. The development of the resultant FSA evaluation criteria and concept evaluation methodology is summarized.

  10. The utility of the balance error scoring system for mild brain injury assessments in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Quatman-Yates, Catherine; Hugentobler, Jason; Ammon, Robin; Mwase, Najima; Kurowski, Brad; Myer, Gregory D

    2014-09-01

    The Balance Error Scoring System (BESS) is widely recognized as an acceptable assessment of postural control for adult patients following a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) or concussion. However, the measurement properties of the BESS as a post-mTBI assessment test for younger patients are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of the BESS as a post-mTBI assessment test for children and adolescents aged 8 to 18 years through 2 investigations: (1) a retrospective medical records review of the relationship among age, BESS scores, and other common post-mTBI assessment tests; and (2) a prospective study comparing BESS scores for a cohort of children with a recent mTBI and BESS scores for a cohort of matched healthy peers. Age was found to be significantly correlated with several of the BESS measures and the total BESS score (P < 0.05). Significant differences were observed between the injured and healthy cohorts for 3 of the BESS measures and the total BESS score. However, the observed differences were not likely to be clinically meaningful. Cumulatively, evidence from the literature and the results of these studies indicate that the BESS may be limited for producing accurate assessments of younger athletes' post-mTBI postural control abilities. Future research recommendations include testing of modified versions of the BESS or other alternatives for post-mTBI postural control assessments with younger individuals. PMID:25295764

  11. Efficient Evaluation System for Learning Management Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavus, Nadire

    2009-01-01

    A learning management system (LMS) provides the platform for web-based learning environment by enabling the management, delivery, tracking of learning, testing, communication, registration process and scheduling. There are many LMS systems on the market that can be obtained for free or through payment. It has now become an important task to choose…

  12. Cogeneration technology alternatives study. Volume 4: Heat Sources, balance of plant and auxiliary systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Data and information established for heat sources balance of plant items, thermal energy storage, and heat pumps are presented. Design case descriptions are given along with projected performance values. Capital cost estimates for representative cogeneration plants are also presented.

  13. A force balance system for the measurement of skin friction drag force

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, J. W.; Mcvey, E. S.

    1971-01-01

    Research on force balance instrumentation to measure the skin friction of hypersonic vehicles at extreme temperatures, high altitudes and in a vibration field is discussed. A rough overall summary and operating instructions for the equipment are presented.

  14. Impact of Balancing Area Size, Obligation Sharing, and Energy Markets on Mitigating Ramping Requirements in Systems with Wind Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, B.; Milligan, M.

    2008-01-01

    Balancing area reserve sharing holds the promise of significantly reducing wind integration costs. In a companion paper we examine wind integration costs as a function of balancing area size to determine if the larger system size helps mitigate wind integration cost increases. In this paper we turn to an examination of the NYISO sub-hourly energy market to understand how it incentivizes generators to respond to ramping signals without having to explicitly pay for the service. Because markets appear to have the ability of bringing out supply response in sub-hourly energy markets, and because existing thermal resources appear to have significant untapped ramping capability, we believe that a combination of fast energy markets and combined balancing area operations can increase the grid's ability to absorb higher wind penetrations without experiencing significant operational problems or costs.

  15. Earth orbital teleoperator visual system evaluation program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederick, P. N.; Shields, N. L., Jr.; Kirkpatrick, M., III

    1977-01-01

    Visual system parameters and stereoptic television component geometries were evaluated for optimum viewing. The accuracy of operator range estimation using a Fresnell stereo television system with a three dimensional cursor was examined. An operator's ability to align three dimensional targets using vidicon tube and solid state television cameras as part of a Fresnell stereoptic system was evaluated. An operator's ability to discriminate between varied color samples viewed with a color television system was determined.

  16. Aided targeting system simulation evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demaio, Joe; Becker, Curtis

    1994-01-01

    Simulation research was conducted at the Crew Station Research and Development Facility on the effectiveness and ease of use of three targeting systems. A manual system required the aviator to scan a target array area with a simulated second generation forward looking infrared (FLIR) sensor, locate and categorize targets, and construct a target hand-off list. The interface between the aviator and the system was like that of an advanced scout helicopter (manual mode). Two aided systems detected and categorized targets automatically. One system used only the FLIR sensor and the second used FLIR fused with Longbow radar. The interface for both was like that of an advanced scout helicopter aided mode. Exposure time while performing the task was reduced substantially with the aided systems, with no loss of target hand-off list accuracy. The fused sensor system showed lower time to construct the target hand-off list and a slightly lower false alarm rate than the other systems. A number of issues regarding system sensitivity and criterion, and operator interface design are discussed.

  17. Evaluation of the oxidant and antioxidant balance in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Cristóvão, C; Cristóvão, L; Nogueira, F; Bicho, M

    2013-01-01

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is one of the most common chronic diseases and a major cause of morbility and mortality. An imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants (oxidative stress) has been proposed as a critical event in the pathogenesis of COPD. The increased oxidative stress in patients with COPD is the result of exogenous oxidants namely pollutants and cigarette smoke as well as endogenous oxidant production during inflammation. The aim of the present study was to clarify the hypothesis about the presence of an imbalance between oxidants and the antioxidant defences associated to COPD. In this study, we evaluated a biomarker of oxidative stress (malondialdehyde, a lipid peroxidation derived product) and non-enzymatic antioxidants (vitamin C and the sulphydryl groups) in COPD patients and healthy controls. The marker of oxidative stress was found to be significantly (p<0,001) higher in COPD patients when compared with the control group. No age dependent changes in the plasma levels of lipid peroxidation products were found. COPD patients had a significant (p<0,001) decrease in antioxidant status compared with control group. Our results show that oxidative stress is an important pathophysiologic change in COPD. PMID:23199890

  18. DEGREASING SYSTEM POLLUTION PREVENTION EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses a joint EPA/USAF study, the objective of which was to evaluate the capability of cost effective degreaser control concepts that eliminate solvent methylchloroform emissions to the atmosphere while complying with industrial hygiene limits. The study represents ...

  19. Faculty Evaluation System: Counseling Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint Louis Community Coll., MO.

    This manual provides a series of forms and instruments and outlines the procedures used by St. Louis Community College in its annual evaluation of counseling faculty performance. First, general information is provided in lists of the performance indicators and other criteria upon which the assessment of teachers, counselors, and instructional…

  20. Internet Systems for Evaluation Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, James H.

    1999-01-01

    Provides a detailed description of diverse data collection tools based on the World Wide Web and enumerates their advantages, disadvantages, and logistical challenges. Web-based data collection can offer cost-effective, flexible, and timely solutions to many evaluation needs. (Author/SLD)

  1. Evaluation Methods for Intelligent Tutoring Systems Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, Jim; Mark, Mary

    2016-01-01

    The 1993 paper in "IJAIED" on evaluation methods for Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) still holds up well today. Basic evaluation techniques described in that paper remain in use. Approaches such as kappa scores, simulated learners and learning curves are refinements on past evaluation techniques. New approaches have also arisen, in…

  2. Evaluation of the CMIP5 models in the aim of regional modelling of the Antarctic surface mass balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agosta, C.; Fettweis, X.; Datta, R.

    2015-06-01

    The Antarctic surface mass balance (SMB) cannot be reliably deduced from global climate models (GCMs), both because their spatial resolution is insufficient and because their physics are not adapted for cold and snow-covered regions. By contrast, regional climate models (RCMs) adapted for polar regions can physically and dynamically downscale surface mass balance components over the ice-sheet using large scale forcing at their boundaries. Polar-oriented RCMs require appropriate GCM fields for forcing because the response of the cryosphere to a warming climate is dependent on its initial state and is not linear with respect to temperature increase. In this context, we evaluate current climate in 41 climate models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) dataset over Antarctica by focusing on forcing fields which may have the greatest impact on SMB components simulated by RCMs. Our inter-comparison includes 5 reanalyses, among which ERA-Interim reanalysis is chosen as a reference over 1979-2014. Model efficiency is assessed taking into account the multi-decadal variability of the fields over the 1850-1980 period. We show that less than 10 CMIP5 models show reasonable biases compared to ERA-Interim, among which ACCESS1-3 seems to be the most pertinent choice for regional climate modeling over Antarctica, followed by CMCC-CM, MIROC-ESM/MIROC-ESM-CHEM and NorESM1-M. Finally, climate change over the Southern Ocean is much more dependent on the initial state of winter sea-ice extent and on the local feedback between air temperature increase and winter sea-ice extent decrease than on the global warming signal.

  3. Evaluation of satisfaction with work-life balance among U.S. Gynecologic Oncology fellows: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Szender, J Brian; Grzankowski, Kassondra S; Eng, Kevin H; Odunsi, Kunle; Frederick, Peter J

    2016-04-01

    To characterize the state of satisfaction with work-life balance (WLB) among gynecologic oncology fellows in training, risk factors for dissatisfaction, and the impact of dissatisfaction on career plans. A cross-sectional evaluation of gynecologic oncology fellows was performed using a web-based survey. Demographic data, fellowship characteristics, and career plans were surveyed. The primary outcomes were satisfaction with WLB and career choices. p < 0.05 was used as a test for significance. Regression analysis was used to estimate prevalence ratios (PRs) for various potential risk factors for dissatisfaction. Of 52.5% responding fellows, 22.2% were satisfied with WLB, but 83.3% would be physicians again and 80.3% would select gynecologic oncology again. Satisfaction with WLB was significantly associated with age (PR = 0.70, 95% CI: 0.54-0.91), working fewer than 80 h per week (PR = 4.35, 95% CI: 1.34-14.10), and fatigue (PR = 0.31, 95% CI: 0.12-0.75). Career and WLB satisfaction were not associated with gender, marital status, and whether or not the fellow is a parent. Those satisfied with WLB planned to work an average of 3.5 years longer than those who were not (p < 0.05). Gynecologic oncology fellows are not generally satisfied with their WLB, although this does not alter their overall career or specialty satisfaction. Satisfaction with WLB predicts a longer post-fellowship career. Further studies are needed to determine the workforce impact of this lack of perceived balance. PMID:27331129

  4. Evaluating options for balancing the water-electricity nexus in California: part 1--securing water availability.

    PubMed

    Tarroja, Brian; AghaKouchak, Amir; Sobhani, Reza; Feldman, David; Jiang, Sunny; Samuelsen, Scott

    2014-11-01

    The technical potential and effectiveness of different water supply options for securing water availability in a large-scale, interconnected water supply system under historical and climate-change augmented inflow and demand conditions were compared. Part 1 of the study focused on determining the scale of the options required to secure water availability and compared the effectiveness of different options. A spatially and temporally resolved model of California's major surface reservoirs was developed, and its sensitivity to urban water conservation, desalination, and water reuse was examined. Potential capacities of the different options were determined. Under historical (baseline) hydrology conditions, many individual options were found to be capable of securing water availability alone. Under climate change augment conditions, a portfolio approach was necessary. The water savings from many individual options other than desalination were insufficient in the latter, however, relying on seawater desalination alone requires extreme capacity installations which have energy, brine disposal, management, and cost implications. The importance of identifying and utilizing points of leverage in the system for choosing where to deploy different options is also demonstrated. PMID:25022721

  5. BALANCE TRAINING FOR THE OLDER ATHLETE

    PubMed Central

    Page, Phil; Takeshima, Nobuo

    2013-01-01

    As the older adult population increases in size, the number of older adults participating in sport activities will also likely increase proportionally with a concomitant increase in musculoskeletal injuries. Age-associated functional declines in muscle strength and the sensory systems, in addition to several other issues, contribute to reductions in balance that may increase fall risk There are a variety of ways to evaluate balance and fall-risk, and each older adult should be regularly screened in order to evaluate any changes in the ability to maintain postural stability. Balance training is a useful intervention in rehabilitation of postural stability impairments as well as in training programs for performance enhancement. One scientifically-based approach is Sensorimotor Training (SMT) which can be characterized as a progressive balance training program using labile surfaces to provide adequate and safe challenges to the older athlete's balance. SMT addresses both static and dynamic components of balance as well as the multitude of systems that control balance in order to train effective strategies and elicit automatic postural responses in order to enhance postural stability. The authors believe that SMT should become part of the regular training regimen for the aging athlete. For the sport and orthopedic healthcare professional, an understanding of the physiologic changes that occur with age, the means by which balance can be assessed, and how SMT programs can be developed and implemented is crucial in addressing the growing number of older athletes that they will see. Level of Evidence: 5 PMID:24175135

  6. Evaluation of automated emergency response systems

    SciTech Connect

    Addis, R.P.

    1988-12-31

    Automated Emergency Response (ER) systems are playing a greater role in providing prompt and reliable predictions of the impact of inadvertent releases of hazardous materials to the environment. Observed and forecast environmental and accident source term data are input into environmental transport and dispersion models to provide dosimetry estimates used as decision making aids for responding to emergencies. Several automated ER systems have been developed for US Federal Government facilities and many are available commercially. For such systems to be useful, they must reliably and consistently deliver a timely product to the decision makers. Evaluation of the entire ER system is essential to determine the performance that can be expected from the system during an emergency. Unfortunately, seldom are ER systems evaluated as a whole. Usually Quality Assurance programs evaluate the performance of individual components of the system. Most atmospheric pollution model evaluation methods usually involve an evaluation of the predictive performance of the transport and dispersion model when compared either with experimental tracer results or results from other models. Rarely, however, is the ability of the ER system to provide timely, reliable and consistent information evaluated. Such an evaluation is vital to determine the system performance during an emergency and to provide valuable information to aid in improving the system.

  7. Assessing daily actual evapotranspiration through energy balance: an experiment to evaluate the selfpreservation hypothesis with acquisition time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maltese, A.; Capodici, F.; Ciraolo, G.; La Loggia, G.; Rallo, G.

    2013-10-01

    An operational use of the actual evapotranspiration estimates requires the integration from instantaneous to daily values. This can commonly be achieved under the hypothesis of daytime self-preservation of the evaporative fraction. In this study, it has been evaluated the effect of this assumption on the assessment of daily evapotranspiration from proximity sensing images acquired at hourly intervals over a homogeneous olive groove. Results have been validated by comparison with observations made by a micrometeorological (EC-flux tower) and an eco-physiological (sap flux) sensor. SEBAL model has been applied to thermal and multispectral images acquired during a clear day on August 2009 trough a FLIR A320G thermal camera and a Tetracam MCA II multispectral camera, installed on a tethered helium balloon. Thermal and multispectral images were characterized by very high spatial resolution. This experiment aims to analyze two effects: 1) the consistency of the self-preservation hypothesis for daily estimates of the actual evapotranspiration from hourly assessments at different times of the day; 2) the effects of the spatial resolution on the performances of the energy balance model. To evaluate the effects of the spatial resolution, semi-hourly observations made by a flux tower and sap-flow measures were compared to the evapotranspiration estimates performed using downscaled images at resolutions close to canopy sizes (2, 5 and 10 m). Results show that the best estimates are obtained with a spatial resolution comparable to the average size of the canopy with images taken approximately at 10 UTC.

  8. Description and development of the means of a model experiment for load balancing in distributed computing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagiyev, A. E.; Sherstnyova, A. I.; Botygin, I. A.; Galanova, N. Y.

    2016-06-01

    The results of the statistical model experiments research of various load balancing algorithms in distributed computing systems are presented. Software tools were developed. These tools, which allow to create a virtual infrastructure of distributed computing system in accordance with the intended objective of the research focused on multi-agent and multithreaded data processing were developed. A diagram of the control processing of requests from the terminal devices, providing an effective dynamic horizontal scaling of computing power at peak loads, is proposed.

  9. Framework for Evaluating Educational Systemic Initiatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikegulu, T. Nelson

    This paper describes the implementation of the Holistic Systemic Evaluation (HSE), a component of an Education Systemic Initiative's strategic management. The HSE provides general guidance for the implementation and continual improvement of an Education Systemic Initiative Reform (ESIR). The implementation of the education system initiative plan:…

  10. Earth orbital teleoperator systems evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, N. L., Jr.; Slaughter, P. H.; Brye, R. G.; Henderson, D. E.

    1979-01-01

    The mechanical extension of the human operator to remote and specialized environments poses a series of complex operational questions. A technical and scientific team was organized to investigate these questions through conducting specific laboratory and analytical studies. The intent of the studies was to determine the human operator requirements for remotely manned systems and to determine the particular effects that various system parameters have on human operator performance. In so doing, certain design criteria based on empirically derived data concerning the ultimate control system, the human operator, were added to the Teleoperator Development Program.

  11. RAMI modeling of selected balance of plant systems for the proposed Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project

    SciTech Connect

    Radder, J.A.; Cramer, D.S.

    1997-06-01

    In order to meet Department of Energy (DOE) Defense Program requirements for tritium in the 2005-2007 time frame, new production capability must be made available. The Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) Plant is being considered as an alternative to nuclear reactor production of tritium, which has been the preferred method in the past. The proposed APT plant will use a high-power proton accelerator to generate thermal neutrons that will be captured in {sup 3}He to produce tritium (3H). It is expected that the APT Plant will be built and operated at the DOE`s Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, South Carolina. Discussion is focused on Reliability, Availability, Maintainability, and Inspectability (RAMI) modeling of recent conceptual designs for balance of plant (BOP) systems in the proposed APT Plant. In the conceptual designs for balance of plant (BOP) systems in the proposed APT Plant. In the conceptual design phase, system RAMI estimates are necessary to identify the best possible system alternative and to provide a valid picture of the cost effectiveness of the proposed system for comparison with other system alternatives. RAMI estimates in the phase must necessarily be based on generic data. The objective of the RAMI analyses at the conceptual design stage is to assist the designers in achieving an optimum design which balances the reliability and maintainability requirements among the subsystems and components.

  12. Assessment of strip tillage systems for maize production in semi-arid Ethiopia: effects on grain yield and water balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temesgen, M.; Rockstrom, J.; Savenije, H. H. G.; Hoogmoed, W. B.

    2007-07-01

    The traditional tillage implement, the Maresha plow, and the tillage systems that require repeated and cross plowing have caused poor rainfall partitioning, land degradation and hence low water productivity in Ethiopia. Conservation tillage could alleviate these problems. However, no-till can not be feasible for smallholder farmers in semi-arid regions of Ethiopia because of difficulties in maintaining soil cover due to low rainfall and communal grazing and because of high costs of herbicides. Strip tillage systems may offer a solution. This study was initiated to test strip tillage systems using implements that were modified forms of the Maresha plow, and to evaluate the impacts of the new tillage systems on water balance and grain yields of maize (Zea mays XX). Experiments were conducted in two dry semi arid areas called Melkawoba and Wulinchity, in the central Rift Valley of Ethiopia during 2003-2005. Strip tillage systems that involved cultivating planting lines at a spacing of 0.75 m using the Maresha plow followed by subsoiling along the same lines (STS) and without subsoiling (ST) were compared with the traditional tillage system of 3 to 4 times plowing with the Maresha plow (CONV). Soil moisture was monitored to a depth of 1.8 m using Time Domain Reflectometer while surface runoff was measured using rectangular trough installed at the bottom of each plot. STS resulted in the least surface runoff (Qs=17 mm-season-1), the highest transpiration (T=196 mm-season-1), the highest grain yields (Y=2130 kg-ha-1) and the highest water productivity using total evaporation (WPET=0.67 kg-m-3) followed by ST (Qs=25 mm-season-1, T=178 mm-season-1, Y=1840 kg-ha-1, WPET=0.60 kg-m-3) and CONV (Qs=40 mm-season-1,T=158 mm-season-1, Y=1720 kg-ha-1, WPET=0.58 kg-m-3). However, when the time between the last tillage operation and planting of maize was more than 26 days, the reverse occurred. There was no statistically significant change in soil physical and chemical properties

  13. UNIX-based operating systems robustness evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Yu-Ming

    1996-01-01

    Robust operating systems are required for reliable computing. Techniques for robustness evaluation of operating systems not only enhance the understanding of the reliability of computer systems, but also provide valuable feed- back to system designers. This thesis presents results from robustness evaluation experiments on five UNIX-based operating systems, which include Digital Equipment's OSF/l, Hewlett Packard's HP-UX, Sun Microsystems' Solaris and SunOS, and Silicon Graphics' IRIX. Three sets of experiments were performed. The methodology for evaluation tested (1) the exception handling mechanism, (2) system resource management, and (3) system capacity under high workload stress. An exception generator was used to evaluate the exception handling mechanism of the operating systems. Results included exit status of the exception generator and the system state. Resource management techniques used by individual operating systems were tested using programs designed to usurp system resources such as physical memory and process slots. Finally, the workload stress testing evaluated the effect of the workload on system performance by running a synthetic workload and recording the response time of local and remote user requests. Moderate to severe performance degradations were observed on the systems under stress.

  14. NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF SENSORY SYSTEMS'

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to many neurotoxic compounds has been shown to produce a sensory system dysfunction. Neurophysiological assessment of sensory function in humans and animal models often uses techniques known as sensory evoked potentials. Because both humans and animals show analogous res...

  15. Economic evaluation of distribution system smart grid investments

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Onen, Ahmet; Cheng, Danling; Broadwater, Robert P.; Scirbona, Charlie; Cocks, George; Hamilton, Stephanie; Wang, Xiaoyu; Roark, Jeffrey

    2014-12-31

    This paper investigates economic benefits of smart grid automation investments. A system consisting of 7 substations and 14 feeders is used in the evaluation. Here benefits that can be quantified in terms of dollar savings are considered, termed “hard dollar” benefits. Smart Grid investment evaluations to be considered include investments in improved efficiency, more cost effective use of existing system capacity with automated switches, and coordinated control of capacitor banks and voltage regulators. These Smart Grid evaluations are sequentially ordered, resulting in a series of incremental hard dollar benefits. Hard dollar benefits come from improved efficiency, delaying large capital equipmentmore » investments, shortened storm restoration times, and reduced customer energy use. Analyses used in the evaluation involve hourly power flow analysis over multiple years and Monte Carlo simulations of switching operations during storms using a reconfiguration for restoration algorithm. The economic analysis uses the time varying value of the Locational Marginal Price. Algorithms used include reconfiguration for restoration involving either manual or automated switches and coordinated control involving two modes of control. Field validations of phase balancing and capacitor design results are presented. The evaluation shows that investments in automation can improve performance while at the same time lowering costs.« less

  16. Economic evaluation of distribution system smart grid investments

    SciTech Connect

    Onen, Ahmet; Cheng, Danling; Broadwater, Robert P.; Scirbona, Charlie; Cocks, George; Hamilton, Stephanie; Wang, Xiaoyu; Roark, Jeffrey

    2014-12-31

    This paper investigates economic benefits of smart grid automation investments. A system consisting of 7 substations and 14 feeders is used in the evaluation. Here benefits that can be quantified in terms of dollar savings are considered, termed “hard dollar” benefits. Smart Grid investment evaluations to be considered include investments in improved efficiency, more cost effective use of existing system capacity with automated switches, and coordinated control of capacitor banks and voltage regulators. These Smart Grid evaluations are sequentially ordered, resulting in a series of incremental hard dollar benefits. Hard dollar benefits come from improved efficiency, delaying large capital equipment investments, shortened storm restoration times, and reduced customer energy use. Analyses used in the evaluation involve hourly power flow analysis over multiple years and Monte Carlo simulations of switching operations during storms using a reconfiguration for restoration algorithm. The economic analysis uses the time varying value of the Locational Marginal Price. Algorithms used include reconfiguration for restoration involving either manual or automated switches and coordinated control involving two modes of control. Field validations of phase balancing and capacitor design results are presented. The evaluation shows that investments in automation can improve performance while at the same time lowering costs.

  17. Waste assay and mass balance for the decontamination and volume reduction system at LANL

    SciTech Connect

    Gruetzmacher, Kathleen M.; Ferran, Scott G.; Garner, Scott E.; Romero, Mike J.; Christensen, Davis V.; Bustos, Roland M.

    2003-07-01

    The Decontamination and Volume Reduction System (DVRS) operated by the Solid Waste Operations (SWO) Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) processes large volume, legacy radioactive waste items. Waste boxes, in sizes varying from 4 ft x 4 ft x 8 ft to 10 ft x 12 ft x 40 ft, are assayed prior to entry into the processing building. Inside the building, the waste items are removed from their container, decontaminated and/or size reduced if necessary, and repackaged for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) or on-site low-level waste disposal. The repackaged items and any secondary waste produced (e.g., personal protective equipment) are assayed again at the end of the process and a mass balance is done to determine whether there is any significant hold-up material left in the DVRS building. The DVRS building is currently classed as a radiological facility, with a building limit of 0.52 Ci of Pu239 and Am241, and 0.62 Ci of Pu238, the most common radionuclides processed. This requires tight controls on the flow of nuclear material. The large volume of the initial waste packages, the (relatively) small amounts of radioactive material in them, and the tight ceiling on the building inventory require accurate field measurements of the nuclear material. This paper describes the radioactive waste measurement techniques, the computer modeling used to determine the amount of nuclear material present in a waste package, the building inventory database, and the DVRS process itself. Future plans include raising the limit on the nuclear material inventory allowed in the building to accommodate higher activity waste packages. All DOE sites performing decontamination and decommissioning of radioactive process equipment face challenges related to waste assay and inventory issues. This paper describes an ongoing operation, incorporating lessons learned over the life of the project to date.

  18. Evaluating Impacts of Land Use/Land Cover Changes on Water Balance of a Small Watershed using a Distributed Hydrologic Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, S. K.; Ostrowski, M. W.; Jain, A.

    2005-12-01

    The impacts of land use/land cover changes due to varying agricultural practices, urbanization, and forestation/deforestation can impact the water cycle of a region significantly. The changes in the hydrologic characteristics of a region are closely linked to its environment and ecology. Therefore, an accurate evaluation of such impacts is important from the environmental and water resources management point of view. This paper presents the results of an investigative study aimed at evaluating the effects of changes in dynamic land uses on water balance of a small watershed. The detailed meteorological and hydrological data from Tarrawara watershed of area 10.5 hectares in Australia were employed to carry out the sensitivity analyses. The Tarrawara watershed mainly consists of grass, and is used for cattle grazing. The watershed has smoothly undulating terrain with no perennial streams or channels. The climate is temperate with mean annual rainfall of 820 mm and potential evapotranspiration of 830 mm. A physically based, spatially distributed conceptual hydrological model, called Water Balance Model (WBM), developed at the Institute for Hydraulics and Water Resources Engineering, Technical University Darmstadt, Germany, was employed in this study. The WBM model simulates the watershed using a raster element with four layers: infiltration layer, root layer, transport layer, and groundwater layer. Each raster element is capable of simulating the soil-vegetation-atmosphere-transfer system (SVAT) accounting for separation of precipitation into storage processes in a vertical column and runoff generation. The effect of changes in root depth, vegetation cover, leaf area index, and land uses in terms of various combinations of coniferous and deciduous forests on the interception evaporation, soil evaporation, transpiration, evapotranspiration, and through fall have been studied. The data in terms of precipitation (mm), temperature (0C), evapotranspiration (mm/hr), and

  19. Evaluating and synthesizing broadcasting satellite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knouse, G. H.

    1974-01-01

    A system model and a computer program have been developed which are representative of broadcasting satellite systems employing several types of receiving terminals. The program provides a user-oriented tool for (1) evaluating performance/cost tradeoffs, (2) synthesizing minimum cost systems for a given set of system requirements, and (3) performing sensitivity analyses to identify critical user requirements, system parameters, and technology. The types of systems which can be evaluated are described, and the capabilities of the program are illustrated by means of several examples.

  20. High Speed Balancing Applied to the T700 Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, J.; Lee, C.; Martin, M.

    1989-01-01

    The work performed under Contracts NAS3-23929 and NAS3-24633 is presented. MTI evaluated the feasibility of high-speed balancing for both the T700 power turbine rotor and the compressor rotor. Modifications were designed for the existing Corpus Christi Army Depot (CCAD) T53/T55 high-speed balancing system for balancing T700 power turbine rotors. Tests conducted under these contracts included a high-speed balancing evaluation for T700 power turbines in the Army/NASA drivetrain facility at MTI. The high-speed balancing tests demonstrated the reduction of vibration amplitudes at operating speed for both low-speed balanced and non-low-speed balanced T700 power turbines. In addition, vibration data from acceptance tests of T53, T55, and T700 engines were analyzed and a vibration diagnostic procedure developed.

  1. Designing and Evaluating Explanations for Recommender Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tintarev, Nava; Masthoff, Judith

    This chapter gives an overview of the area of explanations in recommender systems. We approach the literature from the angle of evaluation: that is, we are interested in what makes an explanation "good", and suggest guidelines as how to best evaluate this. We identify seven benefits that explanations may contribute to a recommender system, and relate them to criteria used in evaluations of explanations in existing systems, and how these relate to evaluations with live recommender systems. We also discuss how explanations can be affected by how recommendations are presented, and the role the interaction with the recommender system plays w.r.t. explanations. Finally, we describe a number of explanation styles, and how they may be related to the underlying algorithms. Examples of explanations in existing systems are mentioned throughout.

  2. Global Load Balancing with Parallel Mesh Adaption on Distributed-Memory Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biswas, Rupak; Oliker, Leonid; Sohn, Andrew

    1996-01-01

    Dynamic mesh adaptation on unstructured grids is a powerful tool for efficiently computing unsteady problems to resolve solution features of interest. Unfortunately, this causes load inbalances among processors on a parallel machine. This paper described the parallel implementation of a tetrahedral mesh adaption scheme and a new global load balancing method. A heuristic remapping algorithm is presented that assigns partitions to processors such that the redistribution coast is minimized. Results indicate that the parallel performance of the mesh adaption code depends on the nature of the adaption region and show a 35.5X speedup on 64 processors of an SP2 when 35 percent of the mesh is randomly adapted. For large scale scientific computations, our load balancing strategy gives an almost sixfold reduction in solver execution times over non-balanced loads. Furthermore, our heuristic remappier yields processor assignments that are less than 3 percent of the optimal solutions, but requires only 1 percent of the computational time.

  3. Global Load Balancing with Parallel Mesh Adaption on Distributed-Memory Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biswas, Rupak; Oliker, Leonid; Sohn, Andrew

    1996-01-01

    Dynamic mesh adaption on unstructured grids is a powerful tool for efficiently computing unsteady problems to resolve solution features of interest. Unfortunately, this causes load imbalance among processors on a parallel machine. This paper describes the parallel implementation of a tetrahedral mesh adaption scheme and a new global load balancing method. A heuristic remapping algorithm is presented that assigns partitions to processors such that the redistribution cost is minimized. Results indicate that the parallel performance of the mesh adaption code depends on the nature of the adaption region and show a 35.5X speedup on 64 processors of an SP2 when 35% of the mesh is randomly adapted. For large-scale scientific computations, our load balancing strategy gives almost a sixfold reduction in solver execution times over non-balanced loads. Furthermore, our heuristic remapper yields processor assignments that are less than 3% off the optimal solutions but requires only 1% of the computational time.

  4. Perceptions of Nebraska Teachers Regarding the Transition from STARS to NeSA and Its Perceived Influence on the Implementation of a Balanced Assessment System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isom, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this explanatory mixed methods study was to explore the perceptions of Nebraska teachers about their experiences in the transition from STARS to NeSA. The study explored their perceptions of the influence of the transition on implementation of a balanced assessment system. As defined by NDE, a balanced system included NeSA testing,…

  5. Flexible manufacturing system (FMS) evaluation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Setter, D.L.

    1993-02-01

    The applicability of the flexible manufacturing system (FMS) concept to automate machining and inspecting a family of stainless steel and aluminum hardware for electrical components has been evaluated. FMS was found to be appropriate and justifiable and a project was initiated to purchase and implement an FMS system. System specifications and procurement methodologies were developed that resulted in a conventional competitive bid procurement A proposal evaluation technique was developed consisting of 40% price, 40% technical compliance, and 20% supplier management capabilities.

  6. Experimental and simulated investigation of 1 kW solid oxide fuel cell balance of power system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Sung Kook; Dong, Sang Keun; Yang, Je Bok

    2012-09-01

    A 1 kW solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) balance of power (BOP) system is analyzed using experiments and simulations to optimize the design and operating conditions. The system consists of an autothermal reformer, combined heat exchanger and afterburner, and dummy stack. Thermolib program is used for the simulations. The system exhibits stable operation during a two cycle on/off experiment. The simulated results obtained by zero-dimensional modeling are similar to the experimental results although a discrepancy appears early in operation owing to the simplified modeling. The system's characteristics are also investigated in terms of the fuel utilization, presence or absence of internal reforming and external heat transfer coefficient.

  7. Benchmarking Non-Hardware Balance of System (Soft) Costs for U.S. Photovoltaic Systems Using a Data-Driven Analysis from PV Installer Survey Results

    SciTech Connect

    Ardani, K.; Barbose, G.; Margolis, R.; Wiser, R.; Feldman, D.; Ong, S.

    2012-11-01

    This report presents results from the first U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored, bottom-up data-collection and analysis of non-hardware balance-of-system costs--often referred to as 'business process' or 'soft' costs--for residential and commercial photovoltaic (PV) systems.

  8. Physiological evaluation of men wearing three different toxicological protective systems

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, L.; Cadarette, B.S.; Sawka, M.N.; Pandolf, K.B.

    1989-08-01

    This study examined the physiological responses of seven volunteers exercising in the heat while wearing three different toxicological protective systems. The Toxicological Agent Protective (TAP) suit has been available for use for more than 30 years while the other two protective systems are developmental efforts. The Self-Contained Toxicological Environmental Protection Outfit (STEPO) includes either a backpack-rebreather (with CO{sub 2} scrubber) and ice-cooling vest (STEPO-R), or a tether system which supplies breathing/cooling air inside the suit (STEPO-T). After the volunteers were heat acclimated, the three toxicological protection systems were evaluated utilizing a counter-balanced experimental design initially in a hot and then in a cool environment while subjects walked at 1.12 m/s, 0% grade for an attempted two hours. There was no statistical advantage of any one system in terms of exercise time in the cool environment. While evaporated sweating rate was greater for the STEPO-T in the cool environment compared to both STEPO-R and TAP. Development efforts to improve the STEPO system designs continue, and physiological evaluation of new developmental models is underway.

  9. Evaluating Health Information Systems Using Ontologies

    PubMed Central

    Anderberg, Peter; Larsson, Tobias C; Fricker, Samuel A; Berglund, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Background There are several frameworks that attempt to address the challenges of evaluation of health information systems by offering models, methods, and guidelines about what to evaluate, how to evaluate, and how to report the evaluation results. Model-based evaluation frameworks usually suggest universally applicable evaluation aspects but do not consider case-specific aspects. On the other hand, evaluation frameworks that are case specific, by eliciting user requirements, limit their output to the evaluation aspects suggested by the users in the early phases of system development. In addition, these case-specific approaches extract different sets of evaluation aspects from each case, making it challenging to collectively compare, unify, or aggregate the evaluation of a set of heterogeneous health information systems. Objectives The aim of this paper is to find a method capable of suggesting evaluation aspects for a set of one or more health information systems—whether similar or heterogeneous—by organizing, unifying, and aggregating the quality attributes extracted from those systems and from an external evaluation framework. Methods On the basis of the available literature in semantic networks and ontologies, a method (called Unified eValuation using Ontology; UVON) was developed that can organize, unify, and aggregate the quality attributes of several health information systems into a tree-style ontology structure. The method was extended to integrate its generated ontology with the evaluation aspects suggested by model-based evaluation frameworks. An approach was developed to extract evaluation aspects from the ontology that also considers evaluation case practicalities such as the maximum number of evaluation aspects to be measured or their required degree of specificity. The method was applied and tested in Future Internet Social and Technological Alignment Research (FI-STAR), a project of 7 cloud-based eHealth applications that were developed and

  10. Evaluation of implement monitoring systems.

    PubMed

    Rakhra, A K; Mann, D D

    2013-01-01

    During monitoring of rear-mounted equipment, frequent rearward turning of tractor drivers causes awkward postures that can cause musculoskeletal disorders related to the back, neck, and shoulders. The objective of this study was to compare three implement monitoring strategies (direct viewing via physical turning, indirect viewing via rear-view mirrors, and indirect viewing via a camera-monitor system) in a lab environment using a tractor and air seeder driving simulator Comparison was based on monitoring performance of the operator (i.e., response error), physical impact on the operator (i.e., head/neck acceleration and increase in neck muscle temperature), and operator preference. Indirect viewing via a camera-monitor system caused the least physical impact on subjects and was the preferred implement monitoring strategy. No significant differences (alpha = 0.05) in monitoring performance were observed. PMID:23600169

  11. Computerized ultrasound risk evaluation system

    DOEpatents

    Duric, Nebojsa; Littrup, Peter J.; Holsapple, III, Earle; Barter, Robert Henry; Moore, Thomas L.; Azevedo, Stephen G.; Ferguson, Sidney W.

    2007-10-23

    A method and system for examining tissue are provided in which the tissue is maintained in a position so that it may be insonified with a plurality of pulsed spherical or cylindrical acoustic waves. The insonifying acoustic waves are scattered by the tissue so that scattered acoustic radiation including a mix of reflected and transmitted acoustic waves is received. A representation of a portion of the tissue is then derived from the received scattered acoustic radiation.

  12. Evaluation of sound field systems in elementary school classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigeant, Michelle C.; Kruger, Kelly

    2003-10-01

    Our primary purpose in this study was to determine the relevant ergonomic issues associated with daily use of sound field systems in elementary school classrooms, in order to develop a purchasing guideline and technical specification. The secondary purpose was to evaluate these systems to identify if one or more acoustical parameters could be used to determine the quality and effectiveness of a system. Six sound field systems, with varying numbers and types of speakers, were chosen as a cross-section of available systems on the market. Six representative classrooms, currently in use, were selected based on a range of reverberation times and background noise levels. All systems were installed for two weeks in each classroom. Student speech intelligibility (SI) tests using phonetically balanced word lists were conducted, as well as teacher interviews. The acoustical parameters measured were clarity ratios C50 and C80, speech transmission indices STI and R(rapid)STI, sound pressure level (SPL) uniformity and frequency response. An improvement in SI was found for all systems. Only SPL uniformity and frequency response were found to be useful distinguishing performance parameters between systems. Ergonomic design aspects of sound field systems had a significant influence on the acceptance and usage in the classroom.

  13. Evaluating the Center of Gravity of Dislocations in Soccer Players With and Without Reconstruction of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament Using a Balance Platform

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Angelica Castilho; Greve, Júlia Maria D’Andréa; Camanho, Gilberto Luis

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to compare the dislocation of the center of gravity and postural balance in sedentary and recreational soccer players with and without anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using the Biodex Balance System (BBS). METHOD Sixty-four subjects were divided into three groups: a) soccer players who were post- anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction; b) soccer players with no anterior cruciate ligament injuries; and c) sedentary subjects. The subjects were submitted to functional stability tests using the Biodex Balance System. The instability protocols used were level eight (more stable) and level two (less stable). Three stability indexes were calculated: the anteroposterior stability index, the mediolateral stability index, and the general stability index. RESULTS Postural balance (dislocation) on the reconstructed side of the athletes was worse than on the side that had not undergone reconstruction. The postural balance of the sedentary group was dislocated less on both sides than the reconstructed knees of the athletes without anterior cruciate ligament injuries. There were no differences in postural balance with relation to left/right dominance for the uninjured athletes and the sedentary individuals. CONCLUSION The dislocation of the center of gravity and change in postural balance in sedentary individuals and on the operated limb of Surgery Group are less marked than in the soccer players from the Non Surgery Group and on the non-operated limbs. The dislocation of the center of gravity and the change in postural balance from the operated limb of the soccer players is less marked than in their non-operated limbs. PMID:19330239

  14. Mass balance evaluation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in landfill leachate and potential for transfer from e-waste.

    PubMed

    Danon-Schaffer, Monica N; Mahecha-Botero, Andrés; Grace, John R; Ikonomou, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Previous research on brominated flame retardants (BFRs), including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) has largely focussed on their concentrations in the environment and their adverse effects on human health. This paper explores their transfer from waste streams to water and soil. A comprehensive mass balance model is developed to track polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), originating from e-waste and non-e-waste solids leaching from a landfill. Stepwise debromination is assumed to occur in three sub-systems (e-waste, aqueous leachate phase, and non-e-waste solids). Analysis of landfill samples and laboratory results from a solid-liquid contacting chamber are used to estimate model parameters to simulate an urban landfill system, for past and future scenarios. Sensitivity tests to key model parameters were conducted. Lower BDEs require more time to disappear than high-molecular weight PBDEs, since debromination takes place in a stepwise manner, according to the simplified reaction scheme. Interphase mass transfer causes the decay pattern to be similar in all three sub-systems. The aqueous phase is predicted to be the first sub-system to eliminate PBDEs if their input to the landfill were to be stopped. The non-e-waste solids would be next, followed by the e-waste sub-system. The model shows that mass transfer is not rate-limiting, but the evolution over time depends on the kinetic degradation parameters. Experimental scatter makes model testing difficult. Nevertheless, the model provides qualitative understanding of the influence of key variables. PMID:23732223

  15. Two-source energy balance model evaluation for mapping evapotranspiration on the semi-arid Southern High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is an essential component of the water balance and a major consumptive use of irrigation water and precipitation on cropland. In this study, we applied the Two-Source Energy Balance (T-SEB) model to estimate hourly ET from the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data for the semi-ar...

  16. Comprehensive system models: Strategies for evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Field, Christopher; Kutzbach, John E.; Ramanathan, V.; Maccracken, Michael C.

    1992-01-01

    The task of evaluating comprehensive earth system models is vast involving validations of every model component at every scale of organization, as well as tests of all the individual linkages. Even the most detailed evaluation of each of the component processes and the individual links among them should not, however, engender confidence in the performance of the whole. The integrated earth system is so rich with complex feedback loops, often involving components of the atmosphere, oceans, biosphere, and cryosphere, that it is certain to exhibit emergent properties very difficult to predict from the perspective of a narrow focus on any individual component of the system. Therefore, a substantial share of the task of evaluating comprehensive earth system models must reside at the level of whole system evaluations. Since complete, integrated atmosphere/ ocean/ biosphere/ hydrology models are not yet operational, questions of evaluation must be addressed at the level of the kinds of earth system processes that the models should be competent to simulate, rather than at the level of specific performance criteria. Here, we have tried to identify examples of earth system processes that are difficult to simulate with existing models and that involve a rich enough suite of feedbacks that they are unlikely to be satisfactorily described by highly simplified or toy models. Our purpose is not to specify a checklist of evaluation criteria but to introduce characteristics of the earth system that may present useful opportunities for model testing and, of course, improvement.

  17. Earth orbital teleoperator visual system evaluation program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, N. L., Jr.; Kirkpatrick, M., III; Frederick, P. N.; Malone, T. B.

    1975-01-01

    Empirical tests of range estimation accuracy and resolution, via television, under monoptic and steroptic viewing conditions are discussed. Test data are used to derive man machine interface requirements and make design decisions for an orbital remote manipulator system. Remote manipulator system visual tasks are given and the effects of system parameters of these tasks are evaluated.

  18. Economic Evaluation of Townhouse Solar Energy System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Solar-energy site in Columbia, South Carolina, is comprised of four townhouse apartments. Report summarizes economic evaluation of solar--energy system and projected performance of similar systems in four other selected cities. System is designed to supply 65 percent of heating and 75 percent of hot water.

  19. Evaluation of Advanced Oxidation Protein Products, Prooxidant-Antioxidant Balance, and Total Antioxidant Capacity in Untreated Vitiligo Patients

    PubMed Central

    Güntaş, Gülcan; Ekmekçi, Özlem Balcı; Kutlubay, Zekayi; Ekmekci, Hakan; Songür, Abdullah; Uzunçakmak, Tuğba Kevser Üstünbaş; Vehid, Hayriye Ertem; Serdaroğlu, Server; Tüzün, Yalçın; Uzun, Hafize

    2015-01-01

    Background Vitiligo is a chronic, common disease of unknown etiology, and oxidative stress is suggested to have a role in its etiopathogenesis. Objective Advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs), prooxidant-antioxidant balance (PAB), and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were evaluated regarding their role in the pathogenesis of vitiligo as well as their relationship with clinical presentation and disease severity, and these parameters were compared with those of healthy controls. Methods The study included 53 patients with vitiligo and 20 healthy volunteers as the control group. AOPP level, PAB, and FRAP were determined by colorimetric methods. Results PAB and FRAP level were significantly higher in patients with vitiligo than in healthy controls (p<0.001). The AOPP levels in vitiligo patients were not statistically significantly higher than those in healthy controls. The Vitiligo Area Scoring Index positively correlated with disease duration (rs: 0.531, p<0.001). Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of AOPP and PAB status in vitiligo. PAB may be used as an indicator for oxidative stress in the etiopathogenesis of vitiligo. Our results show that these parameters may play a major role in the melanocyte damage observed in vitiligo. Further studies are required to confirm the mechanisms underlying this effect. PMID:25834357

  20. Dual-core mass-balance approach for evaluating mercury and210Pb atmospheric fallout and focusing to lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Metre, P.C.; Fuller, C.C.

    2009-01-01

    Determining atmospheric deposition rates of mercury and other contaminants using lake sediment cores requires a quantitative understanding of sediment focusing. Here we present a novel approach that solves mass-balance equations for two cores algebraically to estimate contaminant contributions to sediment from direct atmospheric fallout and from watershed and in-lake focusing. The model is applied to excess 210Pb and Hg in cores from Hobbs Lake, a high-altitude lake in Wyoming. Model results for excess 210Pb are consistent with estimates of fallout and focusing factors computed using excess 210Pb burdens in lake cores and soil cores from the watershed and model results for Hg fallout are consistent with fallout estimated using the soil-core-based 210Pb focusing factors. The lake cores indicate small increases in mercury deposition beginning in the late 1800s and large increases after 1940, with the maximum at the tops of the cores of 16-20 ??g/m 2year. These results suggest that global Hg emissions and possibly regional emissions in the western United States are affecting the north-central Rocky Mountains. Hg fallout estimates are generally consistent with fallout reported from an ice core from the nearby Upper Fremont Glacier, but with several notable differences. The model might not work for lakes with complex geometries and multiple sediment inputs, but for lakes with simple geometries, like Hobbs, it can provide a quantitative approach for evaluating sediment focusing and estimating contaminant fallout.