Science.gov

Sample records for balsams

  1. Remote sensing of balsam fir forest vigor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luther, Joan E.; Carroll, Allen L.

    1997-12-01

    The potential of remote sensing to monitor indices of forest health was tested by examining the spectral separability of plots with different balsam fir, Abies balsamea (L.) Mill, vigor. Four levels of vigor were achieved with controlled experimental manipulations of forest stands. In order of increasing vigor, the treatments were root pruning, control, thinning and thinning in combination with fertilization. Spectral reflectance of branchlets from each plot were measured under laboratory conditions using a field portable spectroradiometer with a spectral range from 350 - 2500 nm. Branchlets were discriminated using combinations of factor and discriminant analyses techniques with classification accuracies of 91% and 83% for early and late season analyses, respectively. Relationships between spectral reflectance measurements at canopy levels, stand vigor, and foliage quality for an insect herbivore will be analyzed further in support of future large scale monitoring of balsam fir vulnerability to insect disturbance.

  2. Understanding the Physiology of Postharvest Needle Abscission in Balsam Fir

    PubMed Central

    Lada, Rajasekaran R.; MacDonald, Mason T.

    2015-01-01

    Balsam fir (Abies balsamea) trees are commonly used as a specialty horticultural species for Christmas trees and associated greenery in eastern Canada and United States. Postharvest needle abscission has always been a problem, but is becoming an even bigger challenge in recent years presumably due to increased autumn temperatures and earlier harvesting practices. An increased understanding of postharvest abscission physiology in balsam fir may benefit the Christmas tree industry while simultaneously advancing our knowledge in senescence and abscission of conifers in general. Our paper describes the dynamics of needle abscission in balsam fir while identifying key factors that modify abscission patterns. Concepts such as genotypic abscission resistance, nutrition, environmental factors, and postharvest changes in water conductance and hormone evolution are discussed as they relate to our understanding of the balsam fir abscission physiology. Our paper ultimately proposes a pathway for needle abscission via ethylene and also suggests other potential alternative pathways based on our current understanding. PMID:26635863

  3. New insights in the chemical composition of benzoin balsams.

    PubMed

    Burger, Pauline; Casale, Alexandre; Kerdudo, Audrey; Michel, Thomas; Laville, Rémi; Chagnaud, Francis; Fernandez, Xavier

    2016-11-01

    Benzoin balsam is an anthropic exudate obtained from the bark of several species of Styrax trees that is mainly used as a perfume fixative as well as a flavouring agent. Benzoe tonkinensis Laos (also commercialized under the denomination Siam benzoin balsam) displaying characteristic vanilla notes and already being largely used to flavour all kinds of edible goods, was intended to be proposed by Agroforex Company to the Codex Committee on Food Additives for evaluation as a food additive. For this purpose, the present paper reports the phytochemical characterisation of both the volatile and non-volatile fractions of benzoin balsams and the quantitation of some of the major components by gas and liquid chromatography techniques. Four coniferyl and two morinol derivatives were characterised for the first time in Benzoe tonkinensis Laos. Finally, two liquid chromatographic methods used to easily discriminate Siam from Sumatra balsam (also known as Benzoe sumatranus Indonesia) were developed. PMID:27211689

  4. [Systemic contact eczema against Balsam of Peru].

    PubMed

    Pfützner, Wolfgang; Niedermeier, Andrea; Thomas, Peter; Przybilla, Bernhard

    2003-09-01

    Balsam of Peru (PB; Myroxylon pereirae) is a natural product derived from resin of a tropical tree (MyroxyIon balsamum (L.) Harms var. pereirae (Royle) Baillon). Because of its antiseptic and aromatic properties PB or PB-components can be found worldwide not only in many health care and cosmetic products, but also in food items and semiluxury food. PB contains a wide variety of potent contact allergens leading to hypersensitivity reactions not only after topical application but also oral uptake. We report a 51-year-old brewer with chronic eczema of the hands who showed delayed-type patch test reactions against PB and fragrance-mix. Oral PB-challenge led to exacerbation of the eczema 5 and in a repeated test 2 days later. We here review this probably quite often overlooked disease and the therapeutic consequences which require profound knowledge about the wide distribution of PB when advising the patient about a PB-restricted diet. In addition, this unusual case report demonstrates that one has to consider marked delayed hypersensitivity reaction when investigating a systemic contact allergy. PMID:16285279

  5. Characterization of acetic acid bacteria in "traditional balsamic vinegar".

    PubMed

    Gullo, Maria; Caggia, Cinzia; De Vero, Luciana; Giudici, Paolo

    2006-02-01

    This study evaluated the glucose tolerance of acetic acid bacteria strains isolated from Traditional Balsamic Vinegar. The results showed that the greatest hurdle to acetic acid bacteria growth is the high sugar concentration, since the majority of the isolated strains are inhibited by 25% of glucose. Sugar tolerance is an important technological trait because Traditional Balsamic Vinegar is made with concentrated cooked must. On the contrary, ethanol concentration of the cooked and fermented must is less significant for acetic acid bacteria growth. A tentative identification of the isolated strains was done by 16S-23S-5S rDNA PCR/RFLP technique and the isolated strains were clustered: 32 strains belong to Gluconacetobacter xylinus group, two strains to Acetobacter pasteurianus group and one to Acetobacter aceti. PMID:16214251

  6. Mounting ground sections of teeth: Cyanoacrylate adhesive versus Canada balsam

    PubMed Central

    Vangala, Manogna RL; Rudraraju, Amrutha; Subramanyam, RV

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Hard tissues can be studied by either decalcification or by preparing ground sections. Various mounting media have been tried and used for ground sections of teeth. However, there are very few studies on the use of cyanoacrylate adhesive as a mounting medium. Aims: The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of cyanoacrylate adhesive (Fevikwik™) as a mounting medium for ground sections of teeth and to compare these ground sections with those mounted with Canada balsam. Materials and Methods: Ground sections were prepared from twenty extracted teeth. Each section was divided into two halves and mounted on one slide, one with cyanoacrylate adhesive (Fevikwik™) and the other with Canada balsam. Scoring for various features in the ground sections was done by two independent observers. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis using Student's t-test (unpaired) of average scores was performed for each feature observed. Results: No statistically significant difference was found between the two for most of the features. However, cyanoacrylate was found to be better than Canada balsam for observing striae of Retzius (P < 0.0205), enamel lamellae (P < 0.036), dentinal tubules (P < 0.0057), interglobular dentin (P < 0.0001), sclerotic dentin – transmitted light (P < 0.00001), sclerotic dentin – polarized light (P < 0.0002) and Sharpey's fibers (P < 0.0004). Conclusions: This initial study shows that cyanoacrylate is better than Canada balsam for observing certain features of ground sections of teeth. However, it remains to be seen whether it will be useful for studying undecalcified sections of carious teeth and for soft tissue sections. PMID:27194857

  7. 21 CFR 524.2620 - Liquid crystalline trypsin, Peru balsam, castor oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Liquid crystalline trypsin, Peru balsam, castor... NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.2620 Liquid crystalline trypsin, Peru balsam, castor oil. (a)(1) Specifications. The drug is a liquid for direct application or an aerosol preparation formulated so that each...

  8. 21 CFR 524.2620 - Liquid crystalline trypsin, Peru balsam, castor oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Liquid crystalline trypsin, Peru balsam, castor... NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.2620 Liquid crystalline trypsin, Peru balsam, castor oil. (a) Specifications—(1) Each gram of liquid or aerosol contains 0.12 milligram of crystalline trypsin, 87.0 milligrams of...

  9. 21 CFR 524.2620 - Liquid crystalline trypsin, Peru balsam, castor oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Liquid crystalline trypsin, Peru balsam, castor... NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.2620 Liquid crystalline trypsin, Peru balsam, castor oil. (a)(1) Specifications. The drug is a liquid for direct application or an aerosol preparation formulated so that each...

  10. 21 CFR 524.2620 - Liquid crystalline trypsin, Peru balsam, castor oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Liquid crystalline trypsin, Peru balsam, castor... NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.2620 Liquid crystalline trypsin, Peru balsam, castor oil. (a)(1) Specifications. The drug is a liquid for direct application or an aerosol preparation formulated so that each...

  11. C-band microwave scattering from small balsam fir

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ranson, K. J.; Saatchi, Sasan S.

    1992-01-01

    An experiment to examine the C-band backscattering characteristics of conifer trees was conducted using a truck-mounted scatterometer. Small (1 m tall) balsam fir (Abies balsamea) were arranged at various equidistant spacings on a platform to present canopies of varying density to the radar. C-band backscattering measurements of a range of canopy densities were acquired under different polarizations and incidence angles. The measured backscattering coefficient from the tree canopies increased with increasing biomass, but approached a maximum at a LAI of 2.5 and fresh biomass of 3.3 kg/sq m. A backscatter model was implemented using measured canopy attributes and showed close agreement with scatterometer measurements over the range of canopy densities. Model results indicated that branches were the prime scatterers of the radar while needles were found to only slightly attenuate the radar signal.

  12. Succession of selected strains of Acetobacter pasteurianus and other acetic acid bacteria in traditional balsamic vinegar.

    PubMed

    Gullo, Maria; De Vero, Luciana; Giudici, Paolo

    2009-04-01

    The application of a selected Acetobacter pasteurianus strain for traditional balsamic vinegar production was assessed. Genomic DNA was extracted from biofilms after enrichment cultures on GYC medium (10% glucose, 1.0% yeast extract, 2.0% calcium carbonate) and used for PCR/denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus/PCR sequencing. Results suggested that double-culture fermentation is suitable for traditional balsamic vinegar acetification. PMID:19251897

  13. Zygosaccharomyces sapae sp. nov., isolated from Italian traditional balsamic vinegar.

    PubMed

    Solieri, Lisa; Chand Dakal, Tikam; Giudici, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Fourteen yeast isolates were recovered from two traditional balsamic vinegar (TBV) samples collected in the provinces of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy. Microsatellite-primed-PCR (MSP-PCR) was used to de-replicate the isolate collection into two representative strains, ABT301(T) and ABT601. Phylogenetic analysis based on the D1/D2 domains of the 26S rRNA gene indicated that these strains represented a distinct species of the genus Zygosaccharomyces, closely related to Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Zygosaccharomyces mellis. Physiological and morphological tests supported the recognition of a novel taxon of halotolerant, osmotolerant, non-psychrotolerant and maltose-fermentation-negative yeasts showing a chain or star-shaped pattern of budding cells, which remained attached to each other. Morphological observations offered evidence of ascospore formation. A novel species, Zygosaccharomyces sapae sp. nov., is proposed to accommodate these strains, with strain ABT301(T) (= CBS 12607(T) = MUCL 54092(T)) as the type strain. Based on D1/D2 domain phylogenetic analysis, the novel strains shared the highest sequence similarity (100 %) with Zygosaccharomyces sp. strain NCYC 3042, previously isolated from sugar [James, S. A., Bond, C. J., Stratford, M. & Roberts, I. N. (2005). FEMS Yeast Res 5, 747-755]. However, based on phylogenetic (internal transcribed spacers, ITS), PCR fingerprinting and physiological analyses, marked differences were observed between the novel species and strain NCYC 3042, and these results are discussed in more detail. PMID:23024146

  14. Yeasts associated to Traditional Balsamic Vinegar: ecological and technological features.

    PubMed

    Solieri, L; Giudici, P

    2008-06-30

    Traditional Balsamic Vinegar (TBV) is an Italian homemade vinegar made with cooked grape must through a three-step process: conversion of sugars to ethanol by naturally occurring yeasts; oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid by acetic acid bacteria (AAB); and, finally, at least 12-years ageing. The cooked must is a selective and stressful medium for yeasts growth, due to its high sugar content and low pH values. Recent studies have shown that a large number of yeast species are involved in the fermentation, among them there are Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, Zygosaccharomyces pseudorouxii, Zygosaccharomyces mellis, Zygosaccharomyces bisporus, Zygosaccharomyces lentus, Hanseniaspora valbyensis, Hanseniaspora osmophila, Candida lactis-condensi, Candida stellata, Saccharomycodes ludwigii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Nevertheless, the TBV-associated yeast population could be even more complex and many other slow-growing or poorly cultivable species might contribute to cooked must fermentation. In this review the main TBV yeast species are described, pointing out their role in TBV production and their influence on final product quality. Finally, both future developments in TBV yeast community studies (culture-independent and metagenomic techniques) and technological advances in TBV making (use of starter culture) are discussed. PMID:17900732

  15. Acetic acid bacteria in traditional balsamic vinegar: phenotypic traits relevant for starter cultures selection.

    PubMed

    Gullo, Maria; Giudici, Paolo

    2008-06-30

    This review focuses on acetic acid bacteria in traditional balsamic vinegar process. Although several studies are available on acetic acid bacteria ecology, metabolism and nutritional requirements, their activity as well as their technological traits in homemade vinegars as traditional balsamic vinegar is not well known. The basic technology to oxidise cooked grape must to produce traditional balsamic vinegar is performed by the so called "seed-vinegar" that is a microbiologically undefined starter culture obtained from spontaneous acetification of previous raw material. Selected starter cultures are the main technological improvement in order to innovate traditional balsamic vinegar production but until now they are rarely applied. To develop acetic acid bacteria starter cultures, selection criteria have to take in account composition of raw material, acetic acid bacteria metabolic activities, applied technology and desired characteristics of the final product. For traditional balsamic vinegar, significative phenotypical traits of acetic acid bacteria have been highlighted. Basic traits are: ethanol preferred and efficient oxidation, fast rate of acetic acid production, tolerance to high concentration of acetic acid, no overoxidation and low pH resistance. Specific traits are tolerance to high sugar concentration and to a wide temperature range. Gluconacetobacter europaeus and Acetobacter malorum strains can be evaluated to develop selected starter cultures since they show one or more suitable characters. PMID:18177968

  16. Sun angle, view angle, and background effects on spectral response of simulated balsam fir canopies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ranson, K. J.; Daughtry, C. S. T.; Biehl, L. L.

    1986-01-01

    An experiment is described that examines the effects of solar zenith angle and background reflectance on the composite scene reflectance of small balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) arranged in different densities. In this study, the shape, density, and, consequently, the needle area index and phytomass of the canopies, as well as the background reflectance, were controlled. The effects of sun angle, view angle, and background reflectance on the multispectral response of small balsam fir trees were significant. Regression models relating spectral vegetation indices (i.e., normalized difference (ND) and greenness (GR) to phytomass) showed very poor relationships for balsam fir canopies with a grass background. However, strong linear relationships were found for ND and GR with phytomass for a background that simulated the reflectance of snow. Changing solar zenith angle significantly affected the models relating ND to phytomass for the snow background, but was not significant in the model relating GR to phytomass for the snow background

  17. Vinegar Metabolomics: An Explorative Study of Commercial Balsamic Vinegars Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Pinu, Farhana R; de Carvalho-Silva, Samuel; Trovatti Uetanabaro, Ana Paula; Villas-Boas, Silas G

    2016-01-01

    Balsamic vinegar is a popular food condiment produced from cooked grape must by two successive fermentation (anaerobic and aerobic) processes. Although many studies have been performed to determine the composition of major metabolites, including sugars and aroma compounds, no study has been undertaken yet to characterize the comprehensive metabolite composition of balsamic vinegars. Here, we present the first metabolomics study of commercial balsamic vinegars by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The combination of three GC-MS methods allowed us to detect >1500 features in vinegar samples, of which 123 metabolites were accurately identified, including 25 amino acids, 26 carboxylic acids, 13 sugars and sugar alcohols, four fatty acids, one vitamin, one tripeptide and over 47 aroma compounds. Moreover, we identified for the first time in vinegar five volatile metabolites: acetin, 2-methylpyrazine, 2-acetyl-1-pyroline, 4-anisidine and 1,3-diacetoxypropane. Therefore, we demonstrated the capability of metabolomics for detecting and identifying large number of metabolites and some of them could be used to distinguish vinegar samples based on their origin and potentially quality. PMID:27455339

  18. Effects of an Experimental Drought on Balsam Fir Xylogenesis in the Eastern Canada Boreal Forest.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Orangeville, L.; Côté, B.; Houle, D.; Morin, H.

    2014-12-01

    A 20-40% reduction in soil moisture is projected for the boreal forest of Eastern Canada for the period 2070-99 relative to 1971-2000. In order to better predict the effects of a reduced water supply on the growth of balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.), a dominant tree species of the boreal forest, we simulated 2 consecutive years of summer droughts (starting in July) by means of throughfall exclusion. Four 100-m2 plots were established in 2010 with polyethylene sheets maintained 1.3-2 m aboveground and redirecting the water outside the plots. Wood microcores were extracted weekly from mature trees from April to October 2011 to analyse the time dynamics of wood formation in that year. The number of tracheids formed during and before treatment and their anatomical characteristics were determined through microscopic analyses. The growth of lateral and terminal branches and the water potential of balsam fir seedlings were also monitored. Throughfall exclusion significantly reduced soil water content by 5.8% in 2010 and 10.5% in 2011. Xylogenesis was affected significantly by the treatment. Tracheids were 16.1% smaller in diameter and their cell wall was 14.1% thicker during both years. The treatment delayed by more than a week the start of the tracheid differentiation process in the second year with a concomitant decrease (26%) in the number of tracheids produced. The seedlings displayed a 32% reduction in growth and a 40% reduction in leaf water potential. Our results suggest that a future regime of increased frequency and intensity of droughts could have nega­tive effects on the duration of xylogenesis and the amount of carbon sequestrated in balsam fir.

  19. Genome analysis and characterization of a tobacco mosaic virus isolate infecting balsam (Impatiens balsamina).

    PubMed

    Choi, Seung-Kook; Yoon, Ju-Yeon; Chung, Bong-Nam

    2009-01-01

    The complete RNA genomic sequence of a tobacco mosaic virus isolate infecting Impatiens balsamina, designated as TMV-IM, has been determined. The genomic sequence and the predicted gene products of TMV-IM were similar to those of other members of the genus Tobamovirus. The CP ORF of TMV-IM showed sequence identities of 95.0-99.5% with the corresponding ORFs of other TMV strains. Full-length cDNA of TMV-IM was amplified by RT-PCR with a 5'-end primer harboring a T7 promoter sequence and a 3'-end TMV-specific primer. Subsequently, the full-length cDNA was cloned into plasmid vectors. Capped transcripts synthesized from the cDNA clone were highly infectious and caused characteristic symptoms in balsam plants, similar to wild-type TMV-IM and TMV-U1. These results provide definitive evidence for the natural occurrence of TMV in balsam. PMID:19381775

  20. Spread of a Gammabaculovirus within Larval Populations of Its Natural Balsam Fir Sawfly (Neodiprion abietis) Host Following Its Aerial Application.

    PubMed

    Graves, Roger; Lucarotti, Christopher J; Quiring, Dan T

    2012-01-01

    Field trials and assessments of the balsam fir sawfly (Neodiprion abietis) nucleopolyhedrovirus (NeabNPV: Baculoviridae, Gammabaculovirus) against its natural host were conducted in July and August 2002 near Corner Brook, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, in naturally regenerated, precommercially thinned stands dominated by balsam fir (Abies balsamea). Two experimental blocks, each with its own untreated control, were established. The purpose of the Island Pond block was to examine the spread of NeabNPV from a 313-ha aerial treatment block out into adjacent populations of balsam fir sawflies. The purpose of the Old Man's Pond block (2,093 ha) was to determine whether NeabNPV could disperse into populations of balsam fir sawflies within a 200-m zone between spray swaths. NeabNPV was applied to treatment blocks by a Cessna 188B AgTruck aircraft equipped with MicronAir AU4000 rotary atomizers at an application rate equivalent to 1 × 10⁸ NeabNPV occlusion bodies/ha in 2.5 L of 20% aqueous molasses. At Island Pond, NeabNPV infection increased with time following the spray, especially for individuals close to the treatment block, and infection rate decreased to a measured distance of 400 m from the treatment block. At Old Man's Pond, NeabNPV infection rose higher (80% vs. 15%) and sawfly densities declined more (84% vs. 60%) in the area between spray swaths than in the control block. PMID:26466719

  1. Effects of sulfur dioxide on volatile terpene emission from balsam fir

    SciTech Connect

    Renwick, J.A.A.; Potter, J.

    1981-01-01

    Exposure of balsam fir trees to SO/sub 2/ can cause increased emission of volatile terpenes from the foliage. This phenomenon may prove to be a more general physiological reaction of conifers to SO/sub 2/. Longer term exposures of scotch pine to the gas in Europe have resulted in a similar increase in terpene emissions. The greater difference between fumigated and control plants in levels of terpene emitted may be particularly relevant to plant-insect relationships. Monoterpene hydrocarbons have been implicated in the attraction of spruce budworm moths to their host trees. After dispersal of many such forest insects, the process of finding a host tree is critical for their survival. It is conceivable that increased levels of attractive terpenes could contribute towards the success of this process. Experiments on host selection behavior of the insects when offered fumigated and unfumigated trees may provide more definitive evidence to support these conclusions.

  2. Genetic variation among lake states balsam poplar populations is associated with geographic origin

    SciTech Connect

    Riemenschneider, D.E.; McMahon, B.G. )

    1993-02-01

    Variation among populations of balsam poplar from Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan (the Lake States) in tree height, phenology, and sylleptic branching was associated with geographic origin based on bivariate correlation, canonical correlation, principal component, and cluster analyses. Ninety percent of the joint variation in five traits was explained by two principal components, the first associated with late season growth and tree height, the second associated with number of sylleptic branches. Populations were delineated into northwestern, central, and southeastern clusters based on principal component one and two coordinates using Ward's minimum variance method. Populations from the southeastern cluster grew taller, produced more late season leaves, and set bud later than populations from the northwestern and central clusters. 11 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  3. Transmission of a Gammabaculovirus within Cohorts of Balsam Fir Sawfly (Neodiprion abietis) Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Graves, Roger; Quiring, Dan T.; Lucarotti, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Nucleopolyhedroviruses (NPV: Gammabaculovirus: Baculoviridae) of diprionid sawflies (Diprionidae: Hymenoptera) are highly host specific and only infect the midgut epithelium. While still alive, infected sawfly larvae excrete NPV-laden diarrhea that contaminates food sources. The diarrhea can then be consumed by conspecific larvae, resulting in rapid horizontal transmission of the virus. To better understand the efficacy of Gammabaculovirus-based biological control products, the horizontal spread of such a virus (NeabNPV) within cohorts of balsam fir sawfly (Neodiprion abietis) larvae was studied by introducing NeabNPV-treated larvae into single-cohort groups at densities similar to those observed during the increasing (field study) and peak (laboratory study) phases of an outbreak. In field studies (~200 N. abietis larvae/m2 of balsam fir (Abies balsamea) foliage), NeabNPV-induced mortality increased positively in a density-dependent manner, from 23% (in control groups) to 51% with the addition of one first-instar NeabNPV-treated larva, to 84% with 10 first–instar-treated larvae. Mortality was 60% and 63% when one or 10 NeabNPV-treated third-instar larva(e), respectively, were introduced into groups. Slightly higher levels of NeabNPV-induced mortality occurring when NeabNPV-treated larvae were introduced into first- rather than third-instar cohorts suggests that early instars are more susceptible to the virus. In the laboratory (~1330 N. abietis larvae/ m2 of foliage), NeabNPV-caused mortality increased from 20% in control groups to over 80% with the introduction of one, five or 10 NeabNPV-treated larvae into treatment groups of first-instar larvae. PMID:26466722

  4. Antitumor activity of balsam fir oil: production of reactive oxygen species induced by alpha-humulene as possible mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Legault, Jean; Dahl, Wivecke; Debiton, Eric; Pichette, André; Madelmont, Jean-Claude

    2003-05-01

    The antitumor activity of the essential oil of Abies balsamea (balsam fir oil) was evaluated against several solid tumor cell lines including MCF-7, PC-3, A-549, DLD-1, M4BEU and CT-26. Balsam fir oil was found to be active against all the solid tumor cell lines tested, with GI 50 values ranging between 0.76 and 1.7 mg/mL. The oil was analyzed by GC-MS and the cytotoxicity of each oil constituent was determined. Balsam fir oil is essentially constituted of monoterpenes tau; 96 %) and some sesquiterpenes. All the compounds tested were inactive (tau; 250 microM) except for alpha-humulene (GI50 = 55 to 73 microM) which thus seems responsible for the cytotoxicity of the oil. We also tested the cytotoxicity of caryophyllene oxide, which proved inactive, and gamma-caryophyllene which was found to be active against all solid tumor cell lines tested. We evaluated the effects of balsam fir oil and alpha-humulene on the cellular glutathione (GSH) content and on the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Balsam fir oil and alpha-humulene induced a dose- and time-dependent decrease in cellular GSH content and an increase in ROS production. These results suggest that GSH depletion and ROS production may be implicated in the cytotoxicity of alpha-humulene and balsam fir oil. PMID:12802719

  5. A new putative Zygosaccharomyces yeast species isolated from traditional balsamic vinegar.

    PubMed

    Solieri, Lisa; Cassanelli, Stefano; Giudici, Paolo

    2007-05-01

    The taxonomic status and species number of the genus Zygosaccharomyces have rapidly changed in the last years. In this study, two new osmotolerant Zygosaccharomyces strains isolated from traditional balsamic vinegar, viz. ABT301 and ABT601, were investigated to elucidate their taxonomic relationships with Zygosaccharomyces rouxii species. A multi-gene sequence approach was employed, including regions of the rDNA repeat [5.8S, two internal transcribed spacers (ITS) and the 26S D1/D2 domain], COX2 mitochondrial gene and two nuclear genes (SOD2 and HIS3). Cloning and sequence analysis of 5.8S-ITS rDNA revealed that these strains bear an unusual polymorphism for this region. Three highly divergent 5.8S-ITS sequences were detected, one identical to Z. rouxii, the other two showing some relatedness to Z. mellis. Sequence and gene number polymorphism was also observed for the protein-encoding nuclear genes SOD2 and HIS3, as two copies for each gene different from those found in Z. rouxii were detected. Analysis of the D1/D2 26S domain showed that ABT301 and ABT601 have only one type of D1/D2 sequence statistically different from that of Z. rouxii. The findings obtained in this work suggest that the genomic background of strains ABT301 and ABT601 is different from the other Zygosaccharomyces species. We speculated that they could belong to a new putative species related to Z. rouxii. PMID:17366521

  6. Timing of photoperiodic competency causes phenological mismatch in balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera L.).

    PubMed

    Soolanayakanahally, Raju Y; Guy, Robert D; Silim, Salim N; Song, Minghua

    2013-01-01

    Plant phenology is expected to be sensitive to climate warming. In boreal trees, spring flush is primarily temperature driven, whereas height growth cessation and autumn leaf senescence are predominantly controlled by photoperiod. Cuttings of 525 genotypes from the full range of balsam poplar were planted into two common gardens (Vancouver and Indian Head, Canada) at similar latitudes, but with differing winter temperatures and growing seasons. There was clinal variation in spring and, particularly, summer and fall phenology. Bud flush and, despite milder climate, bud set and leaf drop were earlier at Vancouver than at Indian Head by 44, 28 and 7 d, respectively. Although newly flushed growth is insensitive to photoperiod, many genotypes at both sites became competent before the summer solstice. At Vancouver, high-latitude genotypes set dormant terminal buds in mid-spring. Most other genotypes grew until midsummer or set bud temporarily and then experienced a second flush. In both gardens and in a growth chamber experiment, earlier bud set was associated with reduced height growth and higher root/shoot ratios. Shoots attained competency ~5 weeks after flushing, which would normally prevent dormancy induction before the solstice, but may be insufficient if spring advances by more than a few weeks. PMID:22702736

  7. Host Genotype Shapes the Foliar Fungal Microbiome of Balsam Poplar (Populus balsamifera)

    PubMed Central

    Bálint, Miklós; Tiffin, Peter; Hallström, Björn; O’Hara, Robert B.; Olson, Matthew S.; Fankhauser, Johnathon D.; Piepenbring, Meike; Schmitt, Imke

    2013-01-01

    Foliar fungal communities of plants are diverse and ubiquitous. In grasses endophytes may increase host fitness; in trees, their ecological roles are poorly understood. We investigated whether the genotype of the host tree influences community structure of foliar fungi. We sampled leaves from genotyped balsam poplars from across the species' range, and applied 454 amplicon sequencing to characterize foliar fungal communities. At the time of the sampling the poplars had been growing in a common garden for two years. We found diverse fungal communities associated with the poplar leaves. Linear discriminant analysis and generalized linear models showed that host genotypes had a structuring effect on the composition of foliar fungal communities. The observed patterns may be explained by a filtering mechanism which allows the trees to selectively recruit fungal strains from the environment. Alternatively, host genotype-specific fungal communities may be present in the tree systemically, and persist in the host even after two clonal reproductions. Both scenarios are consistent with host tree adaptation to specific foliar fungal communities and suggest that there is a functional basis for the strong biotic interaction. PMID:23326555

  8. Balsamin, a novel ribosome-inactivating protein from the seeds of Balsam apple Momordica balsamina.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Inderdeep; Yadav, Santosh K; Hariprasad, Gururao; Gupta, R C; Srinivasan, Alagiri; Batra, Janendra K; Puri, Munish

    2012-08-01

    Plant seeds, a rich source of proteins, are considered important for their application as functional ingredients in a food system. A novel ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP), balsamin was purified from the seeds of Balsam apple, Momordica balsamina. Balsamin was purified by ion exchange chromatography on CM Sepharose and gel filtration on superdex-75. It has a molecular weight of 28 kDa as shown by SDS-PAGE analysis. Balsamin inhibits protein synthesis in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate-based cell free translation assay with an IC(50) of 90.6 ng ml(-1). It has RNA N-glycosidase activity and releases a 400-base long fragment termed the Endo fragment from 28S rRNA in the same manner as does saporin-6 from Saponaria officinalis. The N-terminal sequence analysis of the first 12 amino acids of balsamin revealed that it shares 83% similarity with type I RIP α-MMC from Momordica charantia and 50% similarity with β-MMC (from Momordica charantia), bryodin I (from Bryonia dioica) and luffin a (from Luffa cylindrica). Balsamin was further characterized by mass spectrometry. CD spectroscopic studies indicate that secondary structure of balsamin contains helix (23.5%), β-strand (24.6%), turn (20%) and random coil (31.9%). Thus RIPs activity expressed in vegetables like Momordica sp. advocates its usage in diet. PMID:22120616

  9. Carbon allocation during defoliation: testing a defense-growth trade-off in balsam fir

    PubMed Central

    Deslauriers, Annie; Caron, Laurie; Rossi, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    During repetitive defoliation events, carbon can become limiting for trees. To maintain growth and survival, the resources have to be shared more efficiently, which could result in a trade-off between the different physiological processes of a plant. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of defoliation in carbon allocation of balsam fir [Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.] to test the presence of a trade-off between allocation to growth, carbon storage, and defense. Three defoliation intensities [control (C-trees, 0% defoliation), moderately (M-trees, 41–60%), and heavily (H-trees, 61–80%) defoliated] were selected in order to monitor several variables related to stem growth (wood formation in xylem), carbon storage in stem and needle (non-structural soluble sugars and starch), and defense components in needles (terpenoids compound) from May to October 2011. The concentration of starch was drastically reduced in both wood and leaves of H-trees with a quasi-absence of carbon partitioning to storage in early summer. Fewer kinds of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes were formed with an increasing level of defoliation indicating a lower carbon allocation for the production of defense. The carbon allocation to wood formation gradually reduced at increasing defoliation intensities, with a lower growth rate and fewer tracheids resulting in a reduced carbon sequestration in cell walls. The hypothesis of a trade-off between the allocations to defense components and to non-structural (NCS) and structural (growth) carbon was rejected as most of the measured variables decreased with increasing defoliation. The starch amount was highly indicative of the tree carbon status at different defoliation intensity and future research should focus on the mechanism of starch utilization for survival and growth following an outbreak. PMID:26029235

  10. Specific features of the dynamics of epiphytic and soil yeast communities in the thickets of Indian balsam on mucky gley soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glushakova, A. M.; Kachalkin, A. V.; Chernov, I. Yu.

    2011-08-01

    The annual dynamics of the number and taxonomic composition of yeast communities were studied in the phyllosphere, on the flowers, and on the roots of Indian balsam ( Impatiens glandulifera Royle) and in the mucky gley soil under the thickets of this plant. It was shown that typical phyllosphere yeast communities with a predominance of the red-pigmented species Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Rhodotorula glutinis and the typical epiphyte Cryptococcus magnus are formed on the leaves of this annual hygrophyte. However, yeast groups with a predominance of the ascosporous species Saccharomyces paradoxus, Kazachstania barnettii, and Torulaspora delbrueckii, which are not typical of soils at all, were found in the mucky gley soil under the thickets of Indian balsam. Thus, the epiphytic and soil yeast complexes under the thickets of Indian balsam are represented by two entirely discrete communities without common species. In other biogeocenoses of the forest zone, the rearrangement of the structure of yeast communities in passing from the aboveground substrates to the soil proceeds gradually, and most of the species can be isolated both from the aboveground parts of plants and from the soil. The strong difference between the yeast communities in the phyllosphere of Indian balsam and in the soil under its thickets is apparently related to the fact that the annual hygrophytes are decomposed very quickly (during several days after the first frosts). Because of this, an intermediate layer between the phyllosphere and the soil (the litter layer), in which epiphytic microorganisms can develop, is not formed under these plants.

  11. High-throughput analysis by SP-LDI-MS for fast identification of adulterations in commercial balsamic vinegars.

    PubMed

    Guerreiro, Tatiane Melina; de Oliveira, Diogo Noin; Ferreira, Mônica Siqueira; Catharino, Rodrigo Ramos

    2014-08-01

    Balsamic vinegar (BV) is a typical and valuable Italian product, worldwide appreciated thanks to its characteristic flavors and potential health benefits. Several studies have been conducted to assess physicochemical and microbial compositions of BV, as well as its beneficial properties. Due to highly-disseminated claims of antioxidant, antihypertensive and antiglycemic properties, BV is a known target for frauds and adulterations. For that matter, product authentication, certifying its origin (region or country) and thus the processing conditions, is becoming a growing concern. Striving for fraud reduction as well as quality and safety assurance, reliable analytical strategies to rapidly evaluate BV quality are very interesting, also from an economical point of view. This work employs silica plate laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (SP-LDI-MS) for fast chemical profiling of commercial BV samples with protected geographical indication (PGI) and identification of its adulterated samples with low-priced vinegars, namely apple, alcohol and red/white wines. PMID:25064247

  12. Application of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis to evaluate acetic acid bacteria in traditional balsamic vinegar.

    PubMed

    De Vero, Luciana; Gala, Elisabetta; Gullo, Maria; Solieri, Lisa; Landi, Sara; Giudici, Paolo

    2006-12-01

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are fastidious micro-organisms to isolate and cultivate despite of the great number of growth media available. Moreover, conventional techniques used to study AAB populations are time consuming and not completely reliable. In this study, we tested the usefulness of the polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electophoresis (PCR-DGGE) as a rapid and cost effective method for the screening of AAB in traditional balsamic vinegar (TBV). DGGE analysis was applied to 19 AAB strains isolated by agar plating from three different samples of TBV. DGGE was also used for the analysis of PCR products obtained from DNA extracted directly from the TBV samples. A tentative species identification was achieved comparing the PCR-DGGE patterns of the isolated strains and the TBV samples to those of 15 AAB reference strains. The results support that DGGE is functional to monitor vinegar's AAB population. PMID:16943087

  13. Reproductive potential of balsam fir (Abies balsamea), white spruce (Picea glauca), and black spruce (P. mariana) at the ecotone between mixedwood and coniferous forests in the boreal zone of western Quebec.

    PubMed

    Messaoud, Yassine; Bergeron, Yves; Asselin, Hugo

    2007-05-01

    The reproductive potentials of balsam fir and white spruce (co-dominants in mixedwood forests) and black spruce (dominant in coniferous forests) were studied to explain the location of the ecotone between the two forest types in the boreal zone of Quebec. Four sites were selected along a latitudinal gradient crossing the ecotone. Cone crop, number of seeds per cone, percentage filled seeds, and percentage germination were measured for each species. Balsam fir and white spruce cone crops were significantly lower in the coniferous than in the mixedwood forest, while black spruce had greater crop constancy and regularity between both forest types. Mast years were more frequent for black spruce than for balsam fir in both forest types (mast year data not available for white spruce). The number of seeds per cone was more related to cone size than to forest type for all species. Black spruce produced more filled seeds in the coniferous forest than balsam fir or white spruce. The sum of growing degree-days and the maximum temperature of the warmest month (both for the year prior to cone production) significantly affected balsam fir cone production. The climate-related northward decrease in reproductive potential of balsam fir and white spruce could partly explain the position of the northern limit of the mixedwood forest. This could change drastically, however, as the ongoing climate warming might cancel this competitive advantage of black spruce. PMID:21636443

  14. A Simulation Approach to Assessing Sampling Strategies for Insect Pests: An Example with the Balsam Gall Midge

    PubMed Central

    Carleton, R. Drew; Heard, Stephen B.; Silk, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Estimation of pest density is a basic requirement for integrated pest management in agriculture and forestry, and efficiency in density estimation is a common goal. Sequential sampling techniques promise efficient sampling, but their application can involve cumbersome mathematics and/or intensive warm-up sampling when pests have complex within- or between-site distributions. We provide tools for assessing the efficiency of sequential sampling and of alternative, simpler sampling plans, using computer simulation with “pre-sampling” data. We illustrate our approach using data for balsam gall midge (Paradiplosis tumifex) attack in Christmas tree farms. Paradiplosis tumifex proved recalcitrant to sequential sampling techniques. Midge distributions could not be fit by a common negative binomial distribution across sites. Local parameterization, using warm-up samples to estimate the clumping parameter k for each site, performed poorly: k estimates were unreliable even for samples of n∼100 trees. These methods were further confounded by significant within-site spatial autocorrelation. Much simpler sampling schemes, involving random or belt-transect sampling to preset sample sizes, were effective and efficient for P. tumifex. Sampling via belt transects (through the longest dimension of a stand) was the most efficient, with sample means converging on true mean density for sample sizes of n∼25–40 trees. Pre-sampling and simulation techniques provide a simple method for assessing sampling strategies for estimating insect infestation. We suspect that many pests will resemble P. tumifex in challenging the assumptions of sequential sampling methods. Our software will allow practitioners to optimize sampling strategies before they are brought to real-world applications, while potentially avoiding the need for the cumbersome calculations required for sequential sampling methods. PMID:24376556

  15. The potential influence of the invasive plant, Impatiens glandulifera (Himalayan Balsam), on the ecohydromorphic functioning of inland river systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    (Phil) Greenwood, Philip; Fister, Wolfgang; Kuhn, Nikolaus

    2014-05-01

    The invasive plant, Impatiens glandulifera (common English name: Himalayan Balsam), is now found in most temperate European countries, as well as across large parts of North America and on some Australasian islands. As a ruderal species, it favours damp, nutrient-rich soils that experience frequent natural disturbance, such as riparian zones. Its ability to out-compete native vegetation and tendency to suffer rapid dieback during cold weather has led to repeated speculation that it may promote soil erosion, particularly along riverbanks. Despite the strong implication, its ability to promote erosion has only recently been empirically proven during an investigation over one dieback and regrowth cycle along a small watercourse in northwest Switzerland. This presentation now benefits from additional results covering further dieback and regrowth cycles obtained from the same watercourse as above, and from a different river system in southwest UK. These additional results support the original conclusion that I. glandulifera promotes soil erosion along riverbanks and the riparian zone. Importantly, the equivalent ground surface retreat from each group of contaminated locations over the three dieback and regrowth cycles are comparable with erosion in regions where high magnitude events are often recorded. Given these very high erosion rates, albeit over three monitoring phases, it is hypothesised that I. glandulifera may act as a catalyst for repeat cycles of colonisation, dieback and extreme erosion. Aside from the deleterious effect of large quantities of nutrient-rich sediment entering into watercourses, high magnitude soil loss such as this could result in reach-scale sections of riverbank undergoing profound morphological changes and reduced structural stability. Dynamic modifications such as those could ultimately impede the ability of riverbanks to moderate stream flow and offer flood protection, as well as hamper the capacity of riparian zones to buffer and retain

  16. What difference does a civil union make? Changing public policies and the experiences of same-sex couples: comment on Solomon, Rothblum, and Balsam (2004).

    PubMed

    Patterson, Charlotte J

    2004-06-01

    When Vermont became the first state in the United States to legalize civil unions for same-sex couples, it marked an important milestone in lesbian and gay Americans' struggle for equal rights. Against this background, S. E. Solomon, E. D. Rothblum, and K. F. Balsam's (2004) study, the first to examine experiences of same-sex couples who have undertaken civil unions, is a significant effort. The study provides valuable data about these couples, yet much remains to be learned. Further study of the impact of changing legal landscapes on experiences of same-sex couples and their families has the potential to add significantly to knowledge about contemporary family lives. PMID:15222834

  17. Phenology and density of balsam twig aphid, Mindarus abietinus Koch (Homoptera: Aphididae) in relation to bud break, shoot damage, and value of fir Christmas trees.

    PubMed

    Fondren, K M; McCullough, D G

    2003-12-01

    The balsam twig aphid, Mindarus abietinus Koch (Homoptera: Aphididae), is a major insect pest of balsam and Fraser fir grown for Christmas trees. Our objectives in this study were to 1) monitor the phenology of A. abietinus in fir plantations; 2) assess relationships among M. abietinus density, tree phenology, and damage to tree foliage; and 3) develop an esthetic injury level for M. abietinus on Christmas trees. We monitored phenology of M. abietinus and fir trees on three commercial Christmas tree plantations in central and northern Lower Michigan for 3 yr (1999-2001). Phenology of M. abietinus fundatrices and sexuparae was strongly correlated with accumulated degree-days (DD) base 10 degrees C. Fundatrices matured by approximately 83 DD(10 degrees C) and sexuparae were first observed at approximately 83-111 DD(10 degrees C). Trees that broke bud approximately 1 wk later than other trees in the same field escaped M. abietinus damage and shoot expansion rate in spring was generally positively correlated with M. abietinus damage. Retail customers surveyed at a choose-and-cut Christmas plantation in 2 yr did not consistently differentiate between similarly sized trees with no, light, and moderate M. abietinus damage, but heavy damage (>50% damaged shoots) did affect customer perception. Similarly, when wholesale grades were assigned, the high quality Grade 1 trees had up to 40% shoot damage, whereas Grade 2 trees had 32-62% shoot damage. Two trees ranked as unsaleable had sparse canopies and distorted needles on 42% to almost 100% of the shoots. PMID:14977113

  18. Heavy metal accumulation in balsam pear and cowpea related to the geochemical factors of variable-charge soils in the Pearl River Delta, South China.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chun-Ying; Xu, Xiang-Hua; Liu, Chuan-Ping; Li, Shu-Yi; Liao, Xin-Rong; Dong, Jun; Li, Fang-Bai

    2014-07-01

    Variable-charge (v-c) soils in subtropical areas contain considerable amounts of iron/aluminum (Fe/Al) oxides that can strongly influence the fate of heavy metals in agricultural ecosystems. However, the relationship between heavy metal accumulation in vegetables and the geochemical factors associated with v-c soils in subtropical regions remains unknown. The present study investigated heavy metal accumulation under field conditions in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) by measuring the content of 8 heavy metals (zinc (Zn), arsenic (As), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni) and cadmium (Cd)) in 43 pairs of v-c soil and vegetable (balsam pear and cowpea) samples. Soil physicochemical properties including pH, texture, organic matter and oxide minerals (Fe2O3, SiO2, Al2O3, CaO, MgO, K2O and Na2O) were also analyzed. Heavy metal accumulation from soil to vegetables was assessed based on bioconcentration factors (BCFs). The results showed that soil extractable Fe, oxide minerals and chemical weathering indices of v-c soils strongly affected heavy metal accumulation, whereas the content of Zn, Cu, Cr and Ni in vegetables was strongly affected by the soil clay content. Significant correlations were found between the BCFs of heavy metals and oxide minerals. However, no significant relationship was found between pH and heavy metal accumulation (except for Cu) in balsam pear and cowpea. Correlation analyses showed that a lower oxalate/DCB- extractable Fe content might indicate greater heavy metal (Zn, Cu, Hg, Cr and Ni) accumulation in vegetables. Therefore, it can be deduced that oxalate/DCB- extractable Fe content is a critical geochemical factor that determines the bioavailability of heavy metals and that iron biogeochemical cycles play vital roles in the fate of heavy metals in vegetable fields in this area. These findings provide new insights into the behaviors and fate of heavy metals in subtropical v-c soils and can be used to develop possible

  19. A high-sensitivity fiber-optic evanescent wave sensor with a three-layer structure composed of Canada balsam doped with GeO2.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Nianbing; Zhao, Mingfu; Zhong, Lianchao; Liao, Qiang; Zhu, Xun; Luo, Binbin; Li, Yishan

    2016-11-15

    In this paper, we present a high-sensitivity polymer fiber-optic evanescent wave (FOEW) sensor with a three-layer structure that includes bottom, inter-, and surface layers in the sensing region. The bottom layer and inter-layer are POFs composed of standard cladding and the core of the plastic optical fiber, and the surface layer is made of dilute Canada balsam in xylene doped with GeO2. We examine the morphology of the doped GeO2, the refractive index and composition of the surface layer and the surface luminous properties of the sensing region. We investigate the effects of the content and morphology of the GeO2 particles on the sensitivity of the FOEW sensors by using glucose solutions. In addition, we examine the response of sensors incubated with staphylococcal protein A plus mouse IgG isotype to goat anti-mouse IgG solutions. Results indicate very good sensitivity of the three-layer FOEW sensor, which showed a 3.91-fold improvement in the detection of the target antibody relative to a conventional sensor with a core-cladding structure, and the novel sensor showed a lower limit of detection of 0.2ng/l and a response time around 320s. The application of this high-sensitivity FOEW sensor can be extended to biodefense, disease diagnosis, biomedical and biochemical analysis. PMID:27311112

  20. Less Pollen-Mediated Gene Flow for More Signatures of Glacial Lineages: Congruent Evidence from Balsam Fir cpDNA and mtDNA for Multiple Refugia in Eastern and Central North America

    PubMed Central

    Cinget, Benjamin; Gérardi, Sébastien; Beaulieu, Jean; Bousquet, Jean

    2015-01-01

    The phylogeographic structure and postglacial history of balsam fir (Abies balsamea), a transcontinental North American boreal conifer, was inferred using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) markers. Genetic structure among 107 populations (mtDNA data) and 75 populations (cpDNA data) was analyzed using Bayesian and genetic distance approaches. Population differentiation was high for mtDNA (dispersed by seeds only), but also for cpDNA (dispersed by seeds and pollen), indicating that pollen gene flow is more restricted in balsam fir than in other boreal conifers. Low cpDNA gene flow in balsam fir may relate to low pollen production due to the inherent biology of the species and populations being decimated by recurrent spruce budworm epidemics, and/or to low dispersal of pollen grains due to their peculiar structural properties. Accordingly, a phylogeographic structure was detected using both mtDNA and cpDNA markers and population structure analyses supported the existence of at least five genetically distinct glacial lineages in central and eastern North America. Four of these would originate from glacial refugia located south of the Laurentide ice sheet, while the last one would have persisted in the northern Labrador region. As expected due to reduced pollen-mediated gene flow, congruence between the geographic distribution of mtDNA and cpDNA lineages was higher than in other North American conifers. However, concordance was not complete, reflecting that restricted but nonetheless detectable cpDNA gene flow among glacial lineages occurred during the Holocene. As a result, new cpDNA and mtDNA genome combinations indicative of cytoplasmic genome capture were observed. PMID:25849816

  1. Molecular and microscopic analysis of the gut contents of abundant rove beetle species (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) in the boreal balsam fir forest of Quebec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Klimaszewski, Jan; Morency, Marie-Josee; Labrie, Philippe; Séguin, Armand; Langor, David; Work, Timothy; Bourdon, Caroline; Thiffault, Evelyne; Paré, David; Newton, Alfred F; Thayer, Margaret K

    2013-01-01

    Experimental research on beetle responses to removal of logging residues following clearcut harvesting in the boreal balsam fir forest of Quebec revealed several abundant rove beetle (Staphylinidae) species potentially important for long-term monitoring. To understand the trophic affiliations of these species in forest ecosystems, it was necessary to analyze their gut contents. We used microscopic and molecular (DNA) methods to identify the gut contents of the following rove beetles: Atheta capsularis Klimaszewski, Atheta klagesi Bernhauer, Oxypoda grandipennis (Casey), Bryophacis smetanai Campbell, Ischnosoma longicorne (Mäklin), Mycetoporus montanus Luze, Tachinus frigidus Erichson, Tachinus fumipennis (Say), Tachinus quebecensis Robert, and Pseudopsis subulata Herman. We found no apparent arthropod fragments within the guts; however, a number of fungi were identified by DNA sequences, including filamentous fungi and budding yeasts [Ascomycota: Candida derodonti Suh & Blackwell (accession number FJ623605), Candida mesenterica (Geiger) Diddens & Lodder (accession number FM178362), Candida railenensis Ramirez and Gonzáles (accession number JX455763), Candida sophie-reginae Ramirez & González (accession number HQ652073), Candida sp. (accession number AY498864), Pichia delftensis Beech (accession number AY923246), Pichia membranifaciens Hansen (accession number JQ26345), Pichia misumaiensis Y. Sasaki and Tak. Yoshida ex Kurtzman 2000 (accession number U73581), Pichia sp. (accession number AM261630), Cladosporium sp. (accession number KF367501), Acremoniumpsammosporum W. Gams (accession number GU566287), Alternaria sp. (accession number GU584946), Aspergillus versicolor Bubak (accession number AJ937750), and Aspergillusamstelodami (L. Mangin) Thom and Church (accession number HQ728257)]. In addition, two species of bacteria [Bradyrhizobium japonicum (Kirchner) Jordan (accession number BA000040) and Serratia marcescens Bizio accession number CP003942] were found in

  2. Molecular and microscopic analysis of the gut contents of abundant rove beetle species (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) in the boreal balsam fir forest of Quebec, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Klimaszewski, Jan; Morency, Marie-Josee; Labrie, Philippe; Séguin, Armand; Langor, David; Work, Timothy; Bourdon, Caroline; Thiffault, Evelyne; Paré, David; Newton, Alfred F.; Thayer, Margaret K.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Experimental research on beetle responses to removal of logging residues following clearcut harvesting in the boreal balsam fir forest of Quebec revealed several abundant rove beetle (Staphylinidae) species potentially important for long-term monitoring. To understand the trophic affiliations of these species in forest ecosystems, it was necessary to analyze their gut contents. We used microscopic and molecular (DNA) methods to identify the gut contents of the following rove beetles: Atheta capsularis Klimaszewski, Atheta klagesi Bernhauer, Oxypoda grandipennis (Casey), Bryophacis smetanai Campbell, Ischnosoma longicorne (Mäklin), Mycetoporus montanus Luze, Tachinus frigidus Erichson, Tachinus fumipennis (Say), Tachinus quebecensis Robert, and Pseudopsis subulata Herman. We found no apparent arthropod fragments within the guts; however, a number of fungi were identified by DNA sequences, including filamentous fungi and budding yeasts [Ascomycota: Candida derodonti Suh & Blackwell (accession number FJ623605), Candida mesenterica (Geiger) Diddens & Lodder (accession number FM178362), Candida railenensis Ramirez and Gonzáles (accession number JX455763), Candida sophie-reginae Ramirez & González (accession number HQ652073), Candida sp. (accession number AY498864), Pichia delftensis Beech (accession number AY923246), Pichia membranifaciens Hansen (accession number JQ26345), Pichia misumaiensis Y. Sasaki and Tak. Yoshida ex Kurtzman 2000 (accession number U73581), Pichia sp. (accession number AM261630), Cladosporium sp. (accession number KF367501), Acremoniumpsammosporum W. Gams (accession number GU566287), Alternaria sp. (accession number GU584946), Aspergillus versicolor Bubak (accession number AJ937750), and Aspergillusamstelodami (L. Mangin) Thom and Church (accession number HQ728257)]. In addition, two species of bacteria [Bradyrhizobium japonicum (Kirchner) Jordan (accession number BA000040) and Serratia marcescens Bizio accession number CP003942] were

  3. The annual invasive plant, Impatiens glandulifera (Himalayan Balsam) as a trigger for high-magnitude soil erosion in temperate river systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwood, Philip; Kuhn, Nikolaus

    2015-04-01

    The invasive plant, Impatiens glandulifera (common English name: Himalayan Balsam), is now found in most temperate European countries, as well as across large parts of North America and on some Australasian islands. As a ruderal species, it favours damp, fertile soils that experience frequent disturbance. Riverbanks and the riparian zone thus represent prime habitat. Its ability to out-compete most perennial vegetation yet tendency to suddenly die during seasonally cold weather has led to claims that it may promote soil erosion, particularly along inland watercourses. Despite the strong implication, this was only recently proven during an investigation conducted over one dieback and regrowth cycle in 2012/13 along a watercourse in northwest Switzerland. Here we reinterpret those initial findings and also present additional data from the same watercourse which now covers three die-off and regrowth cycles, as well as data over two die-off and regrowth cycles from a river system in southwest UK. Results from all monitoring campaigns strongly support the original conclusion that I. glandulifera promotes significant soil erosion along contaminated sections of riverbank and riparian zone. More specifically, however, approximately one third of the total number of contaminated locations monitored (n=41) recorded net ground surface retreat that exceeded, by at least one order of magnitude, equivalent annual erosion rates documented on cultivated hillslopes in temperate regions. Not only does I. glandulifera induce repeat cycles of colonization and die-off, therefore, but collectively, the results generated so far strongly infer that under certain circumstances, this cycle of events can commonly trigger severe or even extreme erosion. Seasonally induced soil loss of this magnitude, particularly along short sections of watercourses, is unsustainable in the long-term and may lead to key fluvial features undergoing profound morphological and structural changes. Such an effect

  4. The potential influence of the annual invasive plant, Impatiens glandulifera (Himalayan Balsam), on the hydro-geomorphic functioning of inland river systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, N. J.; Greenwood, P.; Fister, W.

    2014-12-01

    The invasive plant, Impatiens glandulifera (Himalayan Balsam), is now found in most European countries, as well as across large parts of North America and on some Australasian islands. It favours damp, nutrient-rich soils that experience frequent natural disturbance, such as riparian zones. Its ability to out-compete native vegetation and tendency to suffer rapid dieback during cold weather has led to speculation that it may promote soil erosion, particularly along riverbanks. Despite the strong implication, its ability to promote erosion has only recently been shown during an investigation over one dieback and regrowth cycle along a small watercourse in northwest Switzerland. This presentation now benefits from additional results covering further dieback and regrowth cycles obtained from the same watercourse as above, and from a different river system in southwest UK. These additional results support the original conclusion that I. glandulifera promotes soil erosion along riverbanks and the riparian zone. Importantly, the equivalent ground surface retreat from each group of contaminated locations over the three dieback and regrowth cycles are comparable with erosion in regions where high magnitude events are often recorded. Given these very high erosion rates, albeit over three monitoring phases, it is hypothesised that I. glandulifera may act as a catalyst for repeat cycles of colonisation, dieback and extreme erosion. Aside from the deleterious effect of large quantities of nutrient-rich sediment entering into watercourses, high magnitude soil loss such as this could result in reach-scale sections of riverbank undergoing profound morphological changes and reduced structural stability. Dynamic modifications such as those could ultimately impede the ability of riverbanks to moderate stream flow and offer flood protection, as well as hamper the capacity of riparian zones to buffer and retain sediment and associated contaminants during their passage from terrestrial

  5. Physiological integration of connected balsam poplar ramets.

    PubMed

    Adonsou, Kokouvi Emmanuel; DesRochers, Annie; Tremblay, Francine

    2016-07-01

    Clonal integration between ramets can be an ecological advantage of clonal plant species in environments where resources are patchily distributed. We investigated physiological integration among Populus balsamifera L. ramets under drought stress in order to demonstrate water sharing between connected ramets. Pairs of connected ramets were grown in separate pots in the greenhouse where half of ramets had the parental root connection severed and half were left intact. Drought stress was applied to one ramet, and growth, specific leaf area (SLA), net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, leaf water potential and carbon isotopic composition (δ(13)C) were measured after an 8-week growing period. Droughted ramets connected to watered ramets were able to maintain high gas exchange activity and water potential, similar to watered ramets. Leaf water potential and SLA results showed that the root connection was more beneficial for proximal compared with distal ramets. The parental root connection also allowed droughted ramets to discriminate more against (13)C compared with severed ramets. In conclusion, this study shows compelling evidence of physiological integration of connected P. balsamifera ramets through water sharing. PMID:26843209

  6. 21 CFR 524.2620 - Liquid crystalline trypsin, Peru balsam, castor oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... The drug is a liquid for direct application or an aerosol preparation formulated so that each gram...) Specifications. The drug is a liquid for direct application or an aerosol preparation formulated so that...

  7. Semiochemicals produced by western balsam bark beetle,Dryocoetes confusus Swaine (Coleoptera: Scolytidae).

    PubMed

    Borden, J H; Pierce, A M; Pierce, H D; Chong, L J; Stock, A J; Oehlschlager, A C

    1987-04-01

    The most prominent beetle-produced volatiles identified in the abdominal extracts of maleDryocoetes confusus Swaine after they had bored for 24 hr in logs of subalpine fir,Abies lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt. were:exo andendo-brevicomin,trans-verbenol, verbenone, myrtenol,trans-pinocarveol,cis- andtrans-p-menthen-7-ol, 3-caren-10-ol, and several monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. Myrtenol was the only conspicuous compound in extracts from males that had been exposed toA.lasiocarpa resin volatiles for 24 hr. Laboratory bioassays indicated that both (-)- and (+)-exo-brevicomin were attractive to femaleD. confusus, and that the (-) enantiomer did not inhibit response to its antipode. Results from field trapping experiments indicated that bothero-brevicomin and myrtenol are aggregation pheromones forD. confusus.exo-Brevicomin baits were effective in causing attack byD. confusus on baited and surrounding trees, suggesting that this pheromone may have utility in manipulating populations of the beetle. PMID:24302049

  8. Structure elucidation of anti-methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) flavonoids from balsam poplar buds.

    PubMed

    Simard, François; Gauthier, Charles; Legault, Jean; Lavoie, Serge; Mshvildadze, Vakhtang; Pichette, André

    2016-09-15

    There is nowadays an urgent need for developing novel generations of antibiotic agents due to the increased resistance of pathogenic bacteria. As a rich reservoir of structurally diverse compounds, plant species hold promise in this regard. Within this framework, we isolated a unique series of antibacterial flavonoids, named balsacones N-U, featuring multiple cinnamyl chains on the flavan skeleton. The structures of these compounds, isolated as racemates, were determined using extensive 1D and 2D NMR analysis in tandem with HRMS. Balsacones N-U along with previously isolated balsacones A-M were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against clinical isolates of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Several of the tested balsacones were potent anti-MRSA agents showing MIC values in the low micromolar range. Structure-activity relationships study highlighted some important parameters involved in the antibacterial activity of balsacones such as the presence of cinnamyl and cinnamoyl chains at the C-3 and C-8 positions of the flavan skeleton, respectively. These results suggest that balsacones could represent a potential novel class of naturally occurring anti-MRSA agents. PMID:27436809

  9. Genetic evidence for predominantly hydrochoric gene flow in the invasive riparian plant Impatiens glandulifera (Himalayan balsam)

    PubMed Central

    Love, Heather M.; Maggs, Christine A.; Murray, Tomás E.; Provan, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Riparian systems are prone to invasion by alien plant species. The spread of invasive riparian plants may be facilitated by hydrochory, the transport of seeds by water, but while ecological studies have highlighted the possible role of upstream source populations in the establishment and persistence of stands of invasive riparian plant species, population genetic studies have as yet not fully addressed the potential role of hydrochoric dispersal in such systems. Methods A population genetics approach based on a replicated bifurcate sampling design is used to test hypotheses consistent with patterns of unidirectional, linear gene flow expected under hydrochoric dispersal of the invasive riparian plant Impatiens glandulifera in two contrasting river systems. Key results A significant increase in levels of genetic diversity downstream was observed, consistent with the accumulation of propagules from upstream source populations, and strong evidence was found for organization of this diversity between different tributaries, reflecting the dendritic organization of the river systems studied. Conclusions These findings indicate that hydrochory, rather than anthropogenic dispersal, is primarily responsible for the spread of I. glandulifera in these river systems, and this is relevant to potential approaches to the control of invasive riparian plant species. PMID:24169594

  10. Bitter Melon

    MedlinePlus

    African Cucumber, Ampalaya, Balsam Pear, Balsam-Apple, Balsambirne, Balsamo, Bitter Apple, Bitter Cucumber, Bitter Gourd, Bittergurke, Carilla Fruit, Carilla Gourd, Cerasee, Chinli-Chih, Cundeamor, Fructus Mormordicae Grosvenori, Karavella, Kathilla, ...

  11. Dermatitis from propolis.

    PubMed

    Rudzki, E; Grzywa, Z

    1983-01-01

    22 patients with dermatitis from propolis were studied. In all the 21 tests with propolis were positive, and in 19 they were also positive to balsam of Peru. The chromatogram of the balsam and propolis show marked similarity and 3 identical peaks could be recognised in both substances. Among the patients sensitive to balsam of Peru and propolis, 12 were tested with some common components; 3 were positive to cinnamyl cinnamate, 2 to vanillin and 1 to benzyl cinnamate. Chromatograms of the 3 propolis samples from the Warsaw region were very similar, but not identical. Some of the patients were tested with 35 essential oils and eugenol. Sensitivity to clove oil was common. PMID:6220861

  12. The Impact of the Invasive Alien Plant, Impatiens glandulifera, on Pollen Transfer Networks.

    PubMed

    Emer, Carine; Vaughan, Ian P; Hiscock, Simon; Memmott, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Biological invasions are a threat to the maintenance of ecological processes, including pollination. Plant-flower visitor networks are traditionally used as a surrogated for pollination at the community level, despite they do not represent the pollination process, which takes place at the stigma of plants where pollen grains are deposited. Here we investigated whether the invasion of the alien plant Impatiens glandulifera (Balsaminaceae) affects pollen transfer at the community level. We asked whether more alien pollen is deposited on the stigmas of plants on invaded sites, whether deposition is affected by stigma type (dry, semidry and wet) and whether the invasion of I. glandulifera changes the structure of the resulting pollen transfer networks. We sampled stigmas of plants on 10 sites invaded by I. glandulifera (hereafter, balsam) and 10 non-invaded control sites. All 20 networks had interactions with balsam pollen, although significantly more balsam pollen was found on plants with dry stigmas in invaded areas. Balsam pollen deposition was restricted to a small subset of plant species, which is surprising because pollinators are known to carry high loads of balsam pollen. Balsam invasion did not affect the loading of native pollen, nor did it affect pollen transfer network properties; networks were modular and poorly nested, both of which are likely to be related to the specificity of pollen transfer interactions. Our results indicate that pollination networks become more specialized when moving from the flower visitation to the level of pollen transfer networks. Therefore, caution is needed when inferring pollination from patterns of insect visitation or insect pollen loads as the relationship between these and pollen deposition is not straightforward. PMID:26633170

  13. The Impact of the Invasive Alien Plant, Impatiens glandulifera, on Pollen Transfer Networks

    PubMed Central

    Emer, Carine; Vaughan, Ian P.; Hiscock, Simon; Memmott, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Biological invasions are a threat to the maintenance of ecological processes, including pollination. Plant-flower visitor networks are traditionally used as a surrogated for pollination at the community level, despite they do not represent the pollination process, which takes place at the stigma of plants where pollen grains are deposited. Here we investigated whether the invasion of the alien plant Impatiens glandulifera (Balsaminaceae) affects pollen transfer at the community level. We asked whether more alien pollen is deposited on the stigmas of plants on invaded sites, whether deposition is affected by stigma type (dry, semidry and wet) and whether the invasion of I. glandulifera changes the structure of the resulting pollen transfer networks. We sampled stigmas of plants on 10 sites invaded by I. glandulifera (hereafter, balsam) and 10 non-invaded control sites. All 20 networks had interactions with balsam pollen, although significantly more balsam pollen was found on plants with dry stigmas in invaded areas. Balsam pollen deposition was restricted to a small subset of plant species, which is surprising because pollinators are known to carry high loads of balsam pollen. Balsam invasion did not affect the loading of native pollen, nor did it affect pollen transfer network properties; networks were modular and poorly nested, both of which are likely to be related to the specificity of pollen transfer interactions. Our results indicate that pollination networks become more specialized when moving from the flower visitation to the level of pollen transfer networks. Therefore, caution is needed when inferring pollination from patterns of insect visitation or insect pollen loads as the relationship between these and pollen deposition is not straightforward. PMID:26633170

  14. Systemic contact dermatitis--kids and ketchup.

    PubMed

    Herro, Elise M; Jacob, Sharon E

    2013-01-01

    Systemic manifestations of allergic contact dermatitis due to consumption of foods containing balsam of Peru (Myroxylon pereirae)-associated chemicals have recently been reported in children. We present seven children with widespread, recalcitrant dermatitis who experienced 60-80% clearance after initiating a diet low in balsam of Peru, specifically the tomato product ketchup. Furthermore, because we have observed a high prevalence of ketchup in our pediatric patients' diets, we recommend consideration of moderate consumption of this product in patients with recalcitrant widespread dermatitis. PMID:22299798

  15. Activation of the human transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 by essential oils.

    PubMed

    Ohkawara, Susumu; Tanaka-Kagawa, Toshiko; Furukawa, Yoko; Nishimura, Tetsuji; Jinno, Hideto

    2010-01-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1) is a non-selective cation channel activated by capsaicin. TRPV1 is expressed not only on human sensory neurons but also on human epidermal and hair follicle keratinocytes. Therefore, TRPV1 could have the potential to be a therapeutic target for skin disorders. To search for novel TRPV1 agonists, we screened 31 essential oils by using human TRPV1-expressing HEK293 cells. TRPV1 was activated by 4 essential oils: rose, thyme geraniol, palmarosa, and tolu balsam. The dose-response curves for TRPV1 activation by the essential oils revealed a rank order potency [the half-maximal effective concentration (EC(50))] of rose>palmarosa>thyme geraniol>tolu balsam, and rank order efficiency (% activity in response to 1 microM capsaicin) of tolu balsam>rose>palmarosa>thyme geraniol. Moreover, the dose-response curves for TRPV1 activation by citronellol (main constituent of rose oil) and geraniol (main constituent of thyme geraniol and palmarosa oils) were consistent with the potency and efficiency of each essential oil. In contrast, benzyl cinnamate and benzyl benzoate (main constituent of tolu balsam oil) and geranyl acetate (main constituent of thyme geraniol oil) did not show TRPV1 activity. In this first-of-its-kind study, we successfully investigated the role of some essential oils in promoting human TRPV1 activation, and also identified two monoterpenes, citronellol and geraniol, as new human TRPV1 agonists. PMID:20686244

  16. GROWTH-TREND DECLINES OF SPRUCE AND FIR IN MID-APPALACHIAN SUBALPINE FORESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dendroecological analysis of 258 increment growth cores collected from red spruce, balsam fir, and Fraser fir in central West Virginia and western Virginia indicates marked declines in growth-trend during the past 20 years similar to that reported for spruce and fir in high-eleva...

  17. 27 CFR 21.65 - Formula No. 38-B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... Eucalyptol, N.F. XII. Eucalyptus oil, N.F. Eugenol, U.S.P. Guaiacol, N.F. X. Lavender oil, N.F. Menthol, U.S..., terpeneless. Spike lavender oil, natural. Storax, U.S.P. Thyme oil, N.F. XII. Thymol, N.F. Tolu balsam,...

  18. 27 CFR 21.65 - Formula No. 38-B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... Eucalyptol, N.F. XII. Eucalyptus oil, N.F. Eugenol, U.S.P. Guaiacol, N.F. X. Lavender oil, N.F. Menthol, U.S..., terpeneless. Spike lavender oil, natural. Storax, U.S.P. Thyme oil, N.F. XII. Thymol, N.F. Tolu balsam,...

  19. 27 CFR 21.65 - Formula No. 38-B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... Eucalyptol, N.F. XII. Eucalyptus oil, N.F. Eugenol, U.S.P. Guaiacol, N.F. X. Lavender oil, N.F. Menthol, U.S..., terpeneless. Spike lavender oil, natural. Storax, U.S.P. Thyme oil, N.F. XII. Thymol, N.F. Tolu balsam,...

  20. 27 CFR 21.65 - Formula No. 38-B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... Eucalyptol, N.F. XII. Eucalyptus oil, N.F. Eugenol, U.S.P. Guaiacol, N.F. X. Lavender oil, N.F. Menthol, U.S..., terpeneless. Spike lavender oil, natural. Storax, U.S.P. Thyme oil, N.F. XII. Thymol, N.F. Tolu balsam,...

  1. 27 CFR 21.65 - Formula No. 38-B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... Eucalyptol, N.F. XII. Eucalyptus oil, N.F. Eugenol, U.S.P. Guaiacol, N.F. X. Lavender oil, N.F. Menthol, U.S..., terpeneless. Spike lavender oil, natural. Storax, U.S.P. Thyme oil, N.F. XII. Thymol, N.F. Tolu balsam,...

  2. The Wolf, the Moose, and the Fir Tree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortier, Gary

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a case study for upper grade levels and undergraduate students that is designed to increase students' ability to read and comprehend scientific information. Discusses ecological parameters and evaluates trophic level interactions. Questions the fluctuations in the moose and wolf populations and the growth rates of balsam firs. Includes…

  3. Future Directions in Studies of Trauma among Ethnoracial and Sexual Minority Samples: Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triffleman, Elisa G.; Pole, Nnamdi

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Studies examining psychological trauma or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in ethnoracial or sexual minority groups are relatively few. The "Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology" recently published 4 articles (Balsam, Lehavot, Beadnall, & Circo, 2010; Harrington, Crowther, & Shipherd, 2010; Lester, Resick, Young-Xu, & Artz,…

  4. Cellulose digestion in Monochamus marmorator Kby. (coleoptera: Cerambycidae): role of acquired fungal enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Kukol, J.J.; Martin, M.M.

    1986-05-01

    Larvae of the balsam fir sawyer, Monochamus marmorator Kby. (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae), contain midgut digestive enzymes active against hemicellulose and cellulose. Cellulases from larvae fed on balsam fir wood infected with the fungus, Trichoderma harzianum Rifai (Deuteromycetes, Moniliales, Moniliaceae), were found to be identical to those of the cellulase complex produced by this fungus when compared using chromatography, electrophoresis, and isofocusing. When larvae are maintained on a fungusfree diet, their midgut fluids lack cellulolytic activity, and they are unable to digest cellulose. Cellulolytic capacity can be restored by feeding the larvae wood permeated by fungi. We conclude that the enzymes which enable M. marmorator larvae to digest cellulose are not produced by the larvae. Instead, the larvae acquire the capacity to digest cellulose by ingesting active fungal cellulases while feeding in fungus-infected wood.

  5. History of the spruce-fir forest in the Catskill Mountains of New York.

    PubMed

    Kudish, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) and balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) were present by 13,700 years B.C.E. in the Catskills Mountains of southeastern New York State. These conifers were, and still are, largely confined to the eastern and far western portions of the region. A gap in the distribution exists between these populations. Both species are absent from the intervening East Branch Delaware River watershed. No red spruce macrofossils were found in this watershed, suggesting that this conifer never colonized the gap postglacially. Rare macrofossils of balsam fir were found in only three of the 24 peatlands in this watershed, the conifer having disappeared between 11,300 and 8,200 years B.C.E. PMID:25098490

  6. Use of on-site mycorrhizal inoculum for plant establishment on abandoned mined lands. Final report, 31 May 1988-31 March 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Helm, D.J.; Carling, D.E.

    1990-04-27

    Natural vegetation succession on abandoned coal-mined lands does not provide sufficient plant cover to control soil erosion in the short term. Soil inoculum of mycorrhizal fungi from an adjacent undisturbed area was used to inoculate balsam poplar cuttings and alder seedlings to improve plant growth. Soil inoculum contains the species of mycorrhizal fungi indigenous to the area as well as other beneficial organisms. An initial survey of mycorrhizal fungi in soils was conducted to determine the existing levels of mycorrhizal infection on native and disturbed soils. Four experiments were implemented to determine (1) fertilizer and mycorrhizal effects, (2) effects of successional stage of inoculum source, (3) effects of nitrogen sources in conjunction with mycorrhizae, and (4) the combinations of microsites, fertilizer, and mycorrhizae needed to establish vegetation on a steep slope. Soil-borne inoculum improved the growth of balsam poplar cuttings and alder seedlings over the 2-yr period.

  7. Forest dynamics after successive spruce budworm outbreaks in mixedwood forests.

    PubMed

    Bouchard, Mathieu; Kneeshaw, Daniel; Bergeron, Yves

    2006-09-01

    In order to assess the long-term spatiotemporal influence of the spruce budworm in sub-boreal mixedwood forests, we studied the effect of three successive outbreaks in a region of western Quebec, Canada. We used dendrochronology to detect past outbreaks in three areas (111-185 ha), based on the recruitment age of balsam fir (Abies balsamea) and on growth patterns of white spruce (Picea glauca), the two main host species of this defoliating insect. We also used a series of aerial photographs taken between 1935 and 2003 to evaluate overstory mortality and post-outbreak succession patterns in these same areas. Individual outbreaks had a spatially homogenous impact on host species throughout the region, but successive outbreaks differed in intensity: the two outbreaks around 1910 and 1980 caused widespread mortality in the overstory, but an outbreak around 1945 had little impact, probably because the forest mosaic had not yet recuperated from the 1910 outbreak. No clear outbreak was detected in the later part of the 19th century. In portions of the study areas where the 1910 outbreak had a major impact, between 36% and 50% of the stands were reoccupied by balsam fir stands in the period up to the 1980 outbreak (cyclic succession), the rest being at least partly replaced by nonhost species such as Betula spp. Changes in forest composition after the 1910 outbreak were mostly associated with upper-slope positions in all study areas. The 1980 outbreak also had a higher impact than earlier outbreaks in lower-slope positions dominated by black spruce (Picea mariana)-balsam fir mixtures. These results suggest that, at the regional scale, the abundance of mature or over-mature balsam fir stands does not determine the outbreak cycle. When an outbreak occurs, however, its impact will be strongly constrained by forest characteristics such as stand composition and structure, which are themselves influenced by previous disturbances and slope position. PMID:16995632

  8. Comparative study of the effects of laser photobiomodulation and extract of Brassica oleracea on skin wounds in wistar rats: A histomorphometric study.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Reggiani Vilela; Sarandy, Mariáurea Matias; da Matta, Sérgio Luis Pinto; Novaes, Rômulo Dias; Pinto, Marcus Vinicius de Mello

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a photobiomodulation laser and Brassica oleracea on tissue morphology in skin wounds. The parameters analyzed were type I and III collagen fibers, and thickness and surface density of the epithelial tissue, as well as how quickly the wound closed. Five skin wounds 12mm in diameter were made on the backs of the animals, which were randomized into four groups (8 animals each). Saline Group: 0.9% saline solution; Ointment Group (extract of Cabbage, B. oleracea, 10% lanolin); Balsam Group (10% glycolic extract of B. oleracea emulsion oil); L60 Group (laser GaAsAl 60J/cm(2)). The applications were made daily during a 20-day treatment, and every 4 days tissue from different wounds was removed. The reduction in the size of the wounds on the 4th, 8th, 12th and 16th days was significantly greater in the treated groups compared to the control group. At all the time points analyzed, there was a greater proportion of collagen in the Balsam and L60 groups (p<0.05). There was also a greater proliferation of epithelial cells in the L60 and Balsam groups after 20 days of treatment (p<0.05). The healing extract and laser 60j/cm(2) exerted a great effect on collagen proliferation in stimulating scar tissue maturation. PMID:23968696

  9. Ointment of Brassica oleracea var. capitata Matures the Extracellular Matrix in Skin Wounds of Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Sarandy, Mariáurea Matias; Novaes, Rômulo Dias; da Matta, Sérgio Luiz Pinto; Mezencio, Jose Mario da Silveira; da Silva, Marcelo Barreto; Zanuncio, José Cola; Gonçalves, Reggiani Vilela

    2015-01-01

    Wound healing is a complex process that aims to restore damaged tissue. Phytotherapeutics, such as cabbage, Brassica oleracea var. capitata (Brassicaceae), and sunflower, Helianthus annuus L. (Asteraceae) oil, are used as wound healers. Five circular wounds, each 12 mm in diameter, were made in the dorsolateral region of each rat. The animals were divided into four groups: balsam (B. oleracea); ointment (B. oleracea); sunflower oil (Helianthus annuus); control (saline solution 0.9%). These products were applied daily for 20 days and every four days the tissues of different wounds were removed. The wound contraction area, total collagen, types I and III collagen, glycosaminoglycans, and tissue cellularity were analyzed. In the groups that received ointment and balsam there was reduction in the wound area on days 4, 8, 12, and 20. Throughout the trial period, the balsam and ointment groups showed a higher amount of total collagen, type I collagen, and glycosaminoglycan compared to the others groups. The rats in the groups treated with B. oleracea var. capitata showed a higher number of cells on days 8, 16, and 20. B. oleracea was effective in stimulating the maturation of collagen and increasing the cellularity, as also in improving the mechanical resistance of the newly formed tissue. PMID:26170889

  10. Achieving production-level use of HEP software at the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uram, T. D.; Childers, J. T.; LeCompte, T. J.; Papka, M. E.; Benjamin, D.

    2015-12-01

    HEP's demand for computing resources has grown beyond the capacity of the Grid, and these demands will accelerate with the higher energy and luminosity planned for Run II. Mira, the ten petaFLOPs supercomputer at the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility, is a potentially significant compute resource for HEP research. Through an award of fifty million hours on Mira, we have delivered millions of events to LHC experiments by establishing the means of marshaling jobs through serial stages on local clusters, and parallel stages on Mira. We are running several HEP applications, including Alpgen, Pythia, Sherpa, and Geant4. Event generators, such as Sherpa, typically have a split workload: a small scale integration phase, and a second, more scalable, event-generation phase. To accommodate this workload on Mira we have developed two Python-based Django applications, Balsam and ARGO. Balsam is a generalized scheduler interface which uses a plugin system for interacting with scheduler software such as HTCondor, Cobalt, and TORQUE. ARGO is a workflow manager that submits jobs to instances of Balsam. Through these mechanisms, the serial and parallel tasks within jobs are executed on the appropriate resources. This approach and its integration with the PanDA production system will be discussed.

  11. Ointment of Brassica oleracea var. capitata Matures the Extracellular Matrix in Skin Wounds of Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sarandy, Mariáurea Matias; Novaes, Rômulo Dias; da Matta, Sérgio Luiz Pinto; Mezencio, Jose Mario da Silveira; da Silva, Marcelo Barreto; Zanuncio, José Cola; Gonçalves, Reggiani Vilela

    2015-01-01

    Wound healing is a complex process that aims to restore damaged tissue. Phytotherapeutics, such as cabbage, Brassica oleracea var. capitata (Brassicaceae), and sunflower, Helianthus annuus L. (Asteraceae) oil, are used as wound healers. Five circular wounds, each 12 mm in diameter, were made in the dorsolateral region of each rat. The animals were divided into four groups: balsam (B. oleracea); ointment (B. oleracea); sunflower oil (Helianthus annuus); control (saline solution 0.9%). These products were applied daily for 20 days and every four days the tissues of different wounds were removed. The wound contraction area, total collagen, types I and III collagen, glycosaminoglycans, and tissue cellularity were analyzed. In the groups that received ointment and balsam there was reduction in the wound area on days 4, 8, 12, and 20. Throughout the trial period, the balsam and ointment groups showed a higher amount of total collagen, type I collagen, and glycosaminoglycan compared to the others groups. The rats in the groups treated with B. oleracea var. capitata showed a higher number of cells on days 8, 16, and 20. B. oleracea was effective in stimulating the maturation of collagen and increasing the cellularity, as also in improving the mechanical resistance of the newly formed tissue. PMID:26170889

  12. Transmission of Squash vein yellowing virus to and From Cucurbit Weeds and Effects on Sweetpotato Whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Behavior.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, D; McAuslane, H J; Adkins, S T; Smith, H A; Dufault, N; Webb, S E

    2016-08-01

    Since 2003, growers of Florida watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai] have periodically suffered large losses from a disease caused by Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV), which is transmitted by the whitefly Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1), formerly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B. Common cucurbit weeds like balsam apple (Momordica charantia L.) and smellmelon [Cucumis melo var. dudaim (L.) Naud.] are natural hosts of SqVYV, and creeping cucumber (Melothria pendula L.) is an experimental host. Study objectives were to compare these weeds and 'Mickylee' watermelon as sources of inoculum for SqVYV via MEAM1 transmission, to determine weed susceptibility to SqVYV, and to evaluate whitefly settling and oviposition behaviors on infected vs. mock-inoculated (inoculated with buffer only) creeping cucumber leaves. We found that the lowest percentage of watermelon recipient plants was infected when balsam apple was used as a source of inoculum. Watermelon was more susceptible to infection than balsam apple or smellmelon. However, all weed species were equally susceptible to SqVYV when inoculated by whitefly. For the first 5 h after release, whiteflies had no preference to settle on infected vs. mock-inoculated creeping cucumber leaves. After 24 h, whiteflies preferred to settle on mock-inoculated leaves, and more eggs were laid on mock-inoculated creeping cucumber leaves than on SqVYV-infected leaves. The transmission experiments (source of inoculum and susceptibility) show these weed species as potential inoculum sources of the virus. The changing settling preference of whiteflies from infected to mock-inoculated plants could lead to rapid spread of virus in the agroecosystem. PMID:27400705

  13. A New Severity Rating System for Evaluating and Predicting the Impacts of a Nonnative Invasive Forest Insect on Two Pacific Northwest Fir Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrinkevich, K.; Progar, R. A.

    2014-12-01

    Balsam woolly adelgid (BWA) is a nonnative invasive forest insect introduced from Europe to North America around 1900. The insect established and spread in the northeast, infesting and causing mortality of balsam fir and has since established infestations in all true firs in eastern and western North America. There are several indicators of the presence and severity of BWA, and mortality can occur rapidly or trees may persist for many decades depending on the type and intensity of infestation. Severity ratings to describe damage have largely been based on a system developed for balsam fir in Newfoundland. Modifications to this system, also developed in eastern North America, used similar characteristics, but reduced the number of classes using qualitative damage assessments. Quantitative rating systems have been developed in the western United States, however much of the research in the Pacific Northwest is based on long-term monitoring studies that describe damage patterns for host species and quantify mortality rates. Results are inconsistent geographically and between tree species, and do not incorporate stand-specific information with individual tree ratings. This emphasizes the need for a species-specific, stand-level rating system, particularly in the west where the insect is expanding its range into novel habitat, likely as a result of climatic changes. We developed a new, more comprehensive rating system for grand fir and subalpine fir in the northwest US that combines all the symptoms of BWA-related tree damage with stand-level information about species composition and structure. Our scale identifies differences between each species and quantitatively differentiates between damage classes, identifying the symptoms defining each class. This rating system allows for more efficient classification of stand-level risk for BWA and will be used to develop a predictive risk model that identifies factors that can assist land managers with damage mitigation

  14. Calcium Oxalate Crystals as an Indicator of Plant Stress in Conifers at two elevations on Mount Moosilauke, NH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, M. N.; Rock, B. N.; Hale, S. R.; Graham, K. J.

    2007-12-01

    The research presented was conducted as part of Watershed Watch, a two-week hands-on summer program for undeclared entry-level undergraduates, designed to recruit and retain students in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) disciplines. The research was conducted on needles of red spruce (Picea rubens) and balsam fir (Abies balsamea) at the University of New Hampshire. The presence of calcium oxalate crystals (CaOx) in the cell walls of spruce mesophyll cells has been reported as an indicator of environmental stress. To assess this, first and third year needles of both species were collected from Mt. Moosilauke (Woodstock, NH) at two elevations (790m and 960m). Needles were analyzed using reflectance spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Estimates of chlorophyll and water were made using the Red Edge Inflection Point and the Moisture Stress Index. These were compared to SEM images of needle sections to visually correlate the amount of CaOx with the reflectance indices. Balsam fir from 790m have a higher occurrence of CaOx in their first and third year needles than from the 960m site, while spectroscopy results indicated less stress (i.e., higher chlorophyll and more water) at the lower site. This does not support a correlation between CaOx and stress factors in balsam fir. In red spruce, those needles with fewest CaOx had higher estimates of chlorophyll and water, supporting the correlation. Based on these results, more research is needed to fully understand the relationship between CaOx and plant stress in different species of conifers.

  15. Identification and Validation of Larixyl Acetate as a Potent TRPC6 Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Urban, Nicole; Wang, Liming; Kwiek, Sandra; Rademann, Jörg; Kuebler, Wolfgang M; Schaefer, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Classical or canonical transient receptor potential 6 (TRPC6), a nonselective and Ca(2+)-permeable cation channel, mediates pathophysiological responses within pulmonary and renal diseases that are still poorly controlled by current medication. Thus, controlling TRPC6 activity may provide a promising and challenging pharmacological approach. Recently identified chemical entities have demonstrated that TRPC6 is pharmacologically targetable. However, isotype-selectivity with regard to its closest relative, TRPC3, is difficult to achieve. Reasoning that balsams, essential oils, or incense materials that are traditionally used for inhalation may contain biologic activities to block TRPC6 activity, we embarked on a natural compound strategy to identify new TRPC6-blocking chemical entities. Within several preparations of plant extracts, a strong TRPC6-inhibitory activity was found in conifer balsams. The biologic activity was associated with nonvolatile resins, but not with essential oils. Of various conifers, the larch balsam was unique in displaying a marked TRPC6-prevalent mode of action. By testing the main constituents of larch resin, we identified larixol and larixyl acetate as blockers of Ca(2+) entry and ionic currents through diacylglycerol- or receptor-activated recombinant TRPC6 channels, exhibiting approximately 12- and 5-fold selectivity compared with its closest relatives TRPC3 and TRPC7, respectively. No significant inhibition of more distantly related TRPV or TRPM channels was seen. The potent inhibition of recombinant TRPC6 by larixyl acetate (IC50 = 0.1-0.6 µM) was confirmed for native TRPC6-like [Ca(2+)]i signals in diacylglycerol-stimulated rat pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. In isolated mouse lungs, larix-6-yl monoacetate (CAS 4608-49-5; larixyl acetate; 5 µM) prevented acute hypoxia-induced vasoconstriction. We conclude that larch-derived labdane-type diterpenes are TRPC6-selective inhibitors and may represent a starting point for

  16. Interspecific variation in resistance of two host tree species to spruce budworm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuentealba, Alvaro; Bauce, Éric

    2016-01-01

    Woody plants regularly sustain biomass losses to herbivorous insects. Consequently, they have developed various resistance mechanisms to cope with insect attack. However, these mechanisms of defense and how they are affected by resource availability are not well understood. The present study aimed at evaluating and comparing the natural resistance (antibiosis and tolerance) of balsam fir (Abies balsamea [L.] Mill.) and white spruce (Picea glauca [Moench) Voss] to spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem.), and how drainage site quality as a component of resource availability affects the expression of resistance over time (6 years). Our results showed that there are differences in natural resistance between the two tree species to spruce budworm, but it was not significantly affected by drainage quality. Balsam fir exhibited higher foliar toxic secondary compounds concentrations than white spruce in all drainage classes, resulting in lower male pupal mass, survival and longer male developmental time. This, however, did not prevent spruce budworm from consuming more foliage in balsam fir than in white spruce. This response suggests that either natural levels of measured secondary compounds do not provide sufficient toxicity to reduce defoliation, or spruce budworm has developed compensatory mechanisms, which allow it to utilize food resources more efficiently or minimize the toxic effects that are produced by its host's defensive compounds. Larvae exhibited lower pupal mass and higher mortality in rapidly drained and subhygric sites. Drainage class also affected the amount of foliage destroyed but its impact varied over the years and was probably influenced by climatic variables. These results demonstrate the complexity of predicting the effect of resource availability on tree defenses, especially when other confounding environmental factors can affect tree resource allocation and utilization.

  17. Are opera-house artistes afflicted with contact allergy to colophony and cosmetics?

    PubMed

    Färm, G; Karlberg, A T; Lidén, C

    1995-05-01

    The frequencies of cosmetics intolerance and contact allergy to colophony were investigated among 116 singers and dancers and 16 make-up artists. Participants were interviewed, examined and patch tested with a standard series and materials from the opera house. Common skin lesions were found in 1/3 of participants and more than 50% had a history of intolerance to cosmetics. Colophony gave positive patch test reactions in only 3 subjects. The prevalence of positive patch test reactions to fragrance mix and balsam of Peru was about the same as among dermatitis patients generally. Contact allergy to colophony did not seem to be a problem regarding cosmetics. PMID:7634780

  18. Roy Schafer: a narrative.

    PubMed

    Michels, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The author provides a brief overview of the papers given at the Schafer Symposium in October 2012 by the following six presenters: Henry Schwartz, Richard Fritsch, Rosemary Balsam, Lucy LaFarge, Michael Feldman, and Jay Greenberg. He also highlights some important ongoing themes in Schafer's writing, including theory-about which Schafer takes a unique position-history, and ideas from other disciplines. Schafer prefers continuing explorations over arriving at conclusions, the author notes, and believes that students should remain faithful to their mentors' thinking-until it is time for them to move beyond it. PMID:23457101

  19. Microclimate, Water Potential, Transpiration, and Bole Dielectric Constant of Coniferous and Deciduous Tree Species in the Continental Boreal Ecotone of Central Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmermann, R.; McDonald, K.; Way, J.; Oren, R.

    1994-01-01

    Tree canopy microclimate, xylem water flux and xylem dielectric constant have been monitored in situ since June 1993 in two adjacent natural forest stands in central Alaska. The deciduous stand represents a mature balsam poplar site on the Tanana River floodplain, while the coniferous stand consists of mature white spruce with some black spruce mixed in. During solstice in June and later in summer, diurnal changes of xylem water potential were measured to investigate the occurrence and magnitude of tree transpiration and dielectric constant changes in stems.

  20. Field and airborne spectral characterization of suspected damage in red spruce (picea rubens) from Vermont

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rock, B. N.; Vogelmann, J. E.; Williams, D. L.

    1985-01-01

    The utilization of remote sensing to monitor forest damage due to acid deposition is investigated. Spectral and water measurements and aircraft radiance data of red spruce and balsam fir, collected in Camels Hump Mountain and Ripton, Vermont between August 13-20, 1984, are analyzed to evaluate the damage levels of the trees. Variations in reflectance features and canopy moisture content are studied. It is observed that damage correlates with elevation (greater damage at higher elevations); xylem water column tension is greater at higher damage sites; and a 'blue shift' is indicated in the spectral data at high damage sites.

  1. Tongue erosions and diet cola.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Sharon E; Steele, Tace

    2007-04-01

    We report the case of a 38-year-old woman who presented with a 10-year history of painful ulcerations on her tongue. She reported that she drank large quantities of diet cola and some orange juice daily and that she used cinnamon-flavored toothpaste and mouthwash nightly. Patch testing elicited positive reactions to balsam of Peru (a fragrance as well as a flavoring agent put in cola drinks that cross-reacts with orange juice) and cinnamic aldehyde. She was diagnosed with allergic contact dermatitis. She was put on a restricted diet and a fragrance-free regimen, and her condition resolved. PMID:17500397

  2. Source and identity of compounds in a thermomechanical pulp mill effluent inducing hepatic mixed-function oxygenase activity in fish

    SciTech Connect

    Martel, P.H.; Kovacs, T.G.; O`Connor, B.I.; Voss, R.H.

    1997-11-01

    The source and identity of two mixed-function oxygenase (MFO)-inducing substances present in the primary-treated effluent of a thermomechanical pulp (TMP) mill producing newsprint was determined. The source was pinpointed by exposing rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to various process effluents sampled throughout the mill. Exposure concentrations were based on the flow of these process streams in relation to the final effluent flow. Contaminated TMP steam condensates were identified as the major process source of MFO-inducing substances. Using conventional extraction and fractionation procedures, an MFO-inducing fraction was isolated. The major gas chromatographic peaks in this fraction were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry as juvabione, dehydrojuvabione, and manool, all naturally occurring extractives in balsam fix (Abies balsamea). These substances were extracted and isolated from balsam fir and TMP condensates. Trout exposed to juvabione and dehydrojuvabione responded by exhibiting significant hepatic MFO inductions. No MFO induction was observed for manool. Secondary treatment in an activated sludge system effectively eliminated the MFO-inducing potential of the combined mill effluent consistent with a corresponding 90% reduction of both juvabione and dehydrojuvabione.

  3. Bifunctional cis-Abienol Synthase from Abies balsamea Discovered by Transcriptome Sequencing and Its Implications for Diterpenoid Fragrance Production*

    PubMed Central

    Zerbe, Philipp; Chiang, Angela; Yuen, Macaire; Hamberger, Björn; Hamberger, Britta; Draper, Jason A.; Britton, Robert; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    The labdanoid diterpene alcohol cis-abienol is a major component of the aromatic oleoresin of balsam fir (Abies balsamea) and serves as a valuable bioproduct material for the fragrance industry. Using high-throughput 454 transcriptome sequencing and metabolite profiling of balsam fir bark tissue, we identified candidate diterpene synthase sequences for full-length cDNA cloning and functional characterization. We discovered a bifunctional class I/II cis-abienol synthase (AbCAS), along with the paralogous levopimaradiene/abietadiene synthase and isopimaradiene synthase, all of which are members of the gymnosperm-specific TPS-d subfamily. The AbCAS-catalyzed formation of cis-abienol proceeds via cyclization and hydroxylation at carbon C-8 of a postulated carbocation intermediate in the class II active site, followed by cleavage of the diphosphate group and termination of the reaction sequence without further cyclization in the class I active site. This reaction mechanism is distinct from that of synthases of the isopimaradiene- or levopimaradiene/abietadiene synthase type, which employ deprotonation reactions in the class II active site and secondary cyclizations in the class I active site, leading to tricyclic diterpenes. Comparative homology modeling suggested the active site residues Asp-348, Leu-617, Phe-696, and Gly-723 as potentially important for the specificity of AbCAS. As a class I/II bifunctional enzyme, AbCAS is a promising target for metabolic engineering of cis-abienol production. PMID:22337889

  4. Aroma characterization based on aromatic series analysis in table grapes

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yusen; Duan, Shuyan; Zhao, Liping; Gao, Zhen; Luo, Meng; Song, Shiren; Xu, Wenping; Zhang, Caixi; Ma, Chao; Wang, Shiping

    2016-01-01

    Aroma is an important part of quality in table grape, but the key aroma compounds and the aroma series of table grapes remains unknown. In this paper, we identified 67 aroma compounds in 20 table grape cultivars; 20 in pulp and 23 in skin were active compounds. C6 compounds were the basic background volatiles, but the aroma contents of pulp juice and skin depended mainly on the levels of esters and terpenes, respectively. Most obviously, ‘Kyoho’ grapevine series showed high contents of esters in pulp, while Muscat/floral cultivars showed abundant monoterpenes in skin. For the aroma series, table grapes were characterized mainly by herbaceous, floral, balsamic, sweet and fruity series. The simple and visualizable aroma profiles were established using aroma fingerprints based on the aromatic series. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the aroma profiles of pulp juice, skin and whole berries could be classified into 5, 3, and 5 groups, respectively. Combined with sensory evaluation, we could conclude that fatty and balsamic series were the preferred aromatic series, and the contents of their contributors (β-ionone and octanal) may be useful as indicators for the improvement of breeding and cultivation measures for table grapes. PMID:27487935

  5. [Contact allergies in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Mahler, V

    2015-09-01

    The percentage of seniors (> 65 years of age) in the general population continues to rise. Their sensitization profile may be influenced by lifelong work-related and nonwork-related exposures and comorbidities requiring local or systemic treatment. Recent analysis of the IVDK (Information Network of Departments of Dermatology) cohort concerning the most frequently recognized contact allergens in the age group above 65 (2009-2013: N = 14,841) revealed significant differences compared to the age group up to 65 years of age. The top 10 contact allergens recognized in individuals older than 65 years were the following: fragrance mix, Myroxylon pereirae (Balsam of Peru), nickel (II) sulfate, fragrance mix II, colophony, propolis, methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (MCI/MI), lanolin alcohol, Amerchol L 101, tert-butylhydroquinone. Sensitization to nickel was significantly less frequent, while sensitizations to fragrance mix and Balsam of Peru were significantly more frequent than in the age group up to 65 years of age. The percentage of patients with leg dermatitis was 25.9 % in the age group above 65 (versus 5.8 % in the age group up to 65 years of age). The analysis of the subgroup over 65 years of age with and without ulcer/stasis dermatitis/chronic venous insufficiency displayed remarkable differences in sensitization frequencies against ingredients of topical ointments (lanolin alcohol, Amerchol L 101, and tert-butylhydroquinone). If these comorbidities exist, patch testing of the topical ointment series parallel to the standard series is worthwhile. PMID:26285897

  6. A survey of biogenic amines in vinegars.

    PubMed

    Ordóñez, J L; Callejón, R M; Morales, M L; García-Parrilla, M C

    2013-12-01

    This paper reports the determination of biogenic amines by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and fluorescence detection after derivatization with 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate (AQC) in balsamic, apple, and red, white, and Sherry wine vinegars. A solid-phase extraction (SPE) with mixed-mode resins method was used before analysis. The method was successfully validated obtaining adequate values of selectivity, response linearity, precision, accuracy, and low detection and quantification limits. The total content of biogenic amines in vinegars ranged from 23.35 to 1445.2 μg/L, being lower than those reported in wines. Putrescine was the amine that showed the highest concentrations in most samples. Methylamine and phenylethylamine were not determined in any vinegar. Balsamic and "Pedro Ximénez" Sherry vinegars reached the highest amounts of biogenic amines, while apple, white and Sherry wine vinegars had the lowest concentrations. Principal component analysis using the biogenic amines as variables, allowed to separate the different kind of vinegars, excepting red vinegars. PMID:23871015

  7. Identification and quantification of the main organic components of vinegars by high resolution 1H NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Caligiani, A; Acquotti, D; Palla, G; Bocchi, V

    2007-02-28

    A detailed analysis of the proton high-field NMR spectra of vinegars (in particular of Italian balsamic vinegars) is reported. A large number of organic substances belonging to different classes, such as carbohydrates, alcohols, organic acids, volatile compounds and amino acids, were assigned. The possibility of quantification of the substances identified in the whole vinegar sample, without extraction or pre-concentration steps, was also tested. The data validity was demonstrated in terms of precision, accuracy, repeatability and inter-day reproducibility. The effects of the most critical experimental parameters (sample concentration, water suppression and relaxation time) on the analysis response were also discussed. (1)H NMR results were compared with those obtained by traditional techniques (GC-MS, titrations), and good correlations were obtained. The results showed that (1)H NMR with water suppression allows a rapid, simultaneous determination of carbohydrates (glucose and fructose), organic acids (acetic, formic, lactic, malic, citric, succinic and tartaric acids), alcohols and polyols (ethanol, acetoin, 2,3-butanediol, hydroxymethylfurfural), and volatile substances (ethyl acetate) in vinegar samples. On the contrary, the amino acid determination without sample pre-concentration was critical. The (1)H NMR method proposed was applied to different samples of vinegars, allowing, in particular, the discrimination of vinegars and balsamic vinegars. PMID:17386654

  8. Chromatography-Olfactometry Study of the Aroma of Fino Sherry Wines

    PubMed Central

    Zea, L.; Moyano, L.; Ruiz, M. J.; Medina, M.

    2010-01-01

    The aroma of Fino sherry wines produced by industrial biological aging for 0, 1.5, 2.5, 4.5, and 6 years in the Montilla-Moriles region (southern Spain) was studied by gas chromatography-olfactometry. The aroma sensations detected by 3 trained sniffers were classified according to their odor descriptors into 8 odorant series (fruity, empyreumatic, chemical, fatty, balsamic, vegetable, floral, and spicy), describing the aroma profile of the studied wines. The results showed 47 detected odors in the unaged wines, 50 in the 1.5-years-old wines and 59, 61 and 69 in the wines aged 2.5, 4.5, and 6 years, respectively. According to the frequency of the perceived aromas, the fruity and empyreumatic series were the most characteristic odorant series. By exception of chemical, floral and balsamic series without changes during aging of the wines, the remainder series increased their participation during the aging, mainly the fruity, empyreumatic, and fatty series. PMID:20689702

  9. Identification and quantification of 56 targeted phenols in wines, spirits, and vinegars by online solid-phase extraction - ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography - quadrupole-orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Barnaba, C; Dellacassa, E; Nicolini, G; Nardin, T; Malacarne, M; Larcher, R

    2015-12-01

    Phenolic compounds seriously affect the sensory and nutritional qualities of food products, both through the positive contribution of wood transfer in barrel-aged products and as off-flavours. A new targeted analytical approach combining on-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) clean-up to reduce matrix interference and rapid chromatographic detection performed with ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole/high-resolution mass spectrometry (Q-Orbitrap), was developed for the quantification of 56 simple phenols. Considering the advantages of using on-line SPE and a resolving power of 140,000, the proposed method was applied to define phenolic content in red (N=8) and white (8) wines, spirits (8), common (8) and balsamic (8) vinegars. The final method was linear from the limits of quantification (0.0001-0.001μgmL(-1)) up to 10μgmL(-1) with R(2) of at least 0.99. Recovery, used to define method accuracy, ranged from 80 to 120% for 89% of compounds. The method was suitable for analytical requirements in the tested matrices being able to analyse 46 phenols in red wines, 41 phenols in white wines and in spirits, 42 phenols in common vinegars and 44 phenols in balsamic vinegars. PMID:26582576

  10. Aroma characterization based on aromatic series analysis in table grapes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yusen; Duan, Shuyan; Zhao, Liping; Gao, Zhen; Luo, Meng; Song, Shiren; Xu, Wenping; Zhang, Caixi; Ma, Chao; Wang, Shiping

    2016-01-01

    Aroma is an important part of quality in table grape, but the key aroma compounds and the aroma series of table grapes remains unknown. In this paper, we identified 67 aroma compounds in 20 table grape cultivars; 20 in pulp and 23 in skin were active compounds. C6 compounds were the basic background volatiles, but the aroma contents of pulp juice and skin depended mainly on the levels of esters and terpenes, respectively. Most obviously, 'Kyoho' grapevine series showed high contents of esters in pulp, while Muscat/floral cultivars showed abundant monoterpenes in skin. For the aroma series, table grapes were characterized mainly by herbaceous, floral, balsamic, sweet and fruity series. The simple and visualizable aroma profiles were established using aroma fingerprints based on the aromatic series. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the aroma profiles of pulp juice, skin and whole berries could be classified into 5, 3, and 5 groups, respectively. Combined with sensory evaluation, we could conclude that fatty and balsamic series were the preferred aromatic series, and the contents of their contributors (β-ionone and octanal) may be useful as indicators for the improvement of breeding and cultivation measures for table grapes. PMID:27487935

  11. Determination of blood flow to study the penetration of benzyl nicotinate topically applied in different vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobi, U.; Erdmenger, U.; Darvin, M.; Sterry, W.; Lademann, J.

    2006-05-01

    The penetration kinetics of topically applied drugs affecting the cutaneous blood flow can be studied by measuring the biological response to the drug using laser Doppler flowmetry noninvasively. In the present study, the kinetics of vasodilation caused by benzyl nicotinate topically applied in two different vehicles was studied by measuring the blood flows of the superficial dermal plexus and the larger deeper capillaries. The drug was topically applied in a balsam and a gel, respectively, on the flexor forearm of 6 male volunteers. Both blood flows measured were correlated with the time. The maximal value ( y max), the time to reach half of this value ( t rise), and the corresponding period Δ t were determined. Significantly increased blood flows were measured in the application areas after treatment with both emulsions. No significant differences were observed for any of the parameters comparing the blood flow after application of the gel with that of the treatment using the balsam. These results indicate similar penetration kinetics and pathways of the drug into the skin independent of the vehicle.

  12. [Work related sensitization risk in hotel school students, the role of garlic].

    PubMed

    Montalti, M; Lucadei, P; Fioriti, M; Luchetti, E; Sanchez, M A; Filippousi, M; Cupelli, V; Arcangeli, G

    2007-01-01

    We want to evaluate the incidence of allergic problems in a population of catering students at the beginning and after 3 and 5 years of their course. We enrolled in the study 601 students of a professional catering school: 412 in the first year and 189 in the fifth years. We used two questionnaires to investigate respiratory problems and dermatological ones. All the subjects were also patch tested with 10 aptens. The incidence of reported symptoms of allergy was higher in fifth year than in first one. We can observe a rising in positive reaction between the two group of students to Balsam Perù, Nickel, Fragrance mix and Garlic. In particular we found an higher incidence of positive patch reaction in female population. On the contrary the rising in positive reaction to Garlic is higher in male. About two third of the subjects positive to garlic present a sensitization to diallyl disulphide. The rising of positive patch test reactions to Garlic and Balsam Perù should be caused by the contact with cooking spices. The higher incidence of allergic pathology between students during fifth year of school and students at first year is probably due to scholastic practical activity. PMID:18410000

  13. Characterization of vegetation by microwave and optical remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daughtry, C. S. T. (Principal Investigator); Ranson, K. J.; Biehl, L. L.

    1986-01-01

    Two series of carefully controlled experiments were conducted. First, plots of important crops (corn, soybeans, and sorghum), prairie grasses (big bluestem, switchgrass, tal fescue, orchardgrass, bromegrass), and forage legumes (alfalfa, red clover, and crown vetch) were manipulated to produce wide ranges of phytomass, leaf area index, and canopy architecture. Second, coniferous forest canopies were simulated using small balsam fir trees grown in large pots of soil and arranged systematically on a large (5 m) platform. Rotating the platform produced many new canopies for frequency and spatial averaging of the backscatter signal. In both series of experiments, backscatter of 5.0 GHz (C-Band) was measured as a function of view angle and polarization. Biophysical measurements included leaf area index, fresh and dry phytomass, water content of canopy elements, canopy height, and soil roughness and moisture content. For a subset of the above plots, additional measurements were acquired to exercise microwave backscatter models. These measurements included size and shape of leaves, stems, and fruit and the probability density function of leaf and stem angles. The relationships of the backscattering coefficients and the biophysical properties of the canopies were evaluated using statistical correlations, analysis of variance, and regression analysis. Results from the corn density and balsam fir experiments are discussed and analyses of data from the other experiments are summarized.

  14. Contact sensitivity to standard series allergens in 1038 patients with contact dermatitis in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Akyol, Aynur; Boyvat, Ayşe; Peksari, Yavuz; Gürgey, Erbak

    2005-06-01

    We planned to determine the frequency of sensitivity to European standard patch test allergens in 1038 patients with contact dermatitis. From 1992 to 2004, 1038 patients with the diagnosis of contact dermatitis were patch tested with the European standard series. Seven hundred and five patients were female (67.9%) and 333 patients were male (32.1%). A total of 336 patients (32.3%) had one or more positive patch test reactions. The most common allergens were nickel (17.6%), cobalt chloride (5.3%), potassium dichromate (4.6%), neomycin (2.4%), fragrance mix (2.1%) and balsam of Peru (2.1%). Contact sensitivity to potassium dichromate and thiuram was significantly more frequent in male patients, whereas nickel and primin sensitivity was significantly more frequent in female patients. Higher sensitivity rates for potassium dichromate, neomycin, balsam of Peru, wool alcohol, fragrance mix and primin were noted in patients over 40 years of age. Sensitivity rates of the standard series allergens were all similar in atopic patients and in non-atopic patients. Metals, neomycin and fragrances are the leading allergens in Turkey. Although fragrances are among the most important sensitizers, sensitivity rates to fragrances and also to preservatives are much lower than the rates in Europe and the US. PMID:15932585

  15. Scaling the effects of moose browsing on forage distribution, from the geometry of plant canopies to landscapes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    De Jager, N. R.; Pastor, J.; Hodgson, A.L.

    2009-01-01

    Landscape heterogeneity influences large herbivores by altering their feeding rates, but as herbivores attempt to maximize feeding rates they also create spatial heterogeneity by altering plant growth. Herbivore feeding rates thus provide a quantitative link between the causes and consequences of spatial heterogeneity in herbivore-dominated ecosystems. The fractal geometry of plant canopies determines both the density and mass of twigs available to foraging herbivores. These properties determine a threshold distance between plants (d*) that distinguishes the mechanisms regulating herbivore intake rates. When d* is greater than the actual distance between plants (d), intake is regulated by the rate of food processing in the mouth. But when d* < d, intake is regulated by the rate at which the herbivore encounters new plants. Alterations to plant geometry due to past browsing could change the rate at which herbivores encounter and process bites of plant tissue, modify d* relative to d, and thus change intake rates and the distribution of mechanisms regulating it across landscapes. We measured changes in the geometry of aspen (Populus tremuloides) and balsam fir (Abies balsamea) saplings along gradients of moose browsing from 2001 to 2005 at Isle Royale National Park, Michigan, USA. For aspen saplings, fractal dimension of bite density, bite mass, and forage biomass responded quadratically to increasing moose browsing and were greatest at -3-4 g-g.m-2.yr"1 consumption. For balsam fir, in contrast, these same measures declined steadily with increasing moose browsing. The different responses of plant canopies to increased browsing altered d* around plants. In summer, d* > d for aspen saplings at all prior consumption levels. Food processing therefore regulated summer moose feeding rates across our landscapes. In winter, changes in bite mass due to past browsing were sufficient to cause d* < d for aspen and balsam fir. Therefore, travel velocity and food processing

  16. Consumption study and identification of methyl salicylate in spicy cassava chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nirjana, Marlene; Anggadiredja, Kusnandar; Damayanti, Sophi

    2015-09-01

    Spicy cassava chips is a popular snack. However, some news in electronic media reported addition of balsam which is a banned food additives in that product to give extra spicy flavor. This study aimed to determine ITB students' pattern of consumption, health problems caused by spicy chips consumption, and knowledge about illicit use of food additives in that product, and identify the main content of balsam namely methyl salicylate in 10 samples of spicy cassava chips taken from inside and outside about ITB campus. A total of 300 questionnaires distributed to ITB students then data processing was performed. Spicy cassava chips sample macerated in 50 mL of methanol for 24 hours at room temperature, filtered and analyzed using gas chromatography capillary column with OV-1, nitrogen carrier gas and flame ionization detector. Based on questionnaires, 292 (97%) of 300 respondents had consumed spicy chips. A total of 247 (85%) from 292 respondents spicy chips consumed less than 3 times a week. A total of 195 respondents (67%) had experienced health problems after eating spicy chips. There were 137 (47%) of the 292 respondents who knew about the illicit addition of food additives into spicy chips; only 35 respondents (12%) who knew about balsam's addition. There were 126 respondents (43%) who did not pay attention to their health because they will keep eating spicy chips despite the addition of banned food additives. Through the verification of the standard addition method in gas chromatography system with a hydrogen pressure of 1.5 bar, injector temperature 200 °C, detector temperature 230 °C, oven temperature 60 °C for 2 minutes and then increased to 230 °C with rate 6 °C/menit; linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantitation, accuracy, precision, and specificity parameters met the acceptance limits. From 10 spicy cassava chips samples which were analyzed, they did not reveal any content of methyl salicylate. Methyl salicylate contained in the positive control

  17. Management of radiation dermatitis in a patient after mastectomy.

    PubMed

    McDougall, Carol J; Franklin, Lynette E; Gresle, Suzanne O

    2005-01-01

    Women who are diagnosed with breast cancer and undergoing chemotherapy and radiation are at high risk of developing acute radiation dermatitis. The purpose of this case study is to explore an alternative topical therapy for skin toxicity in the post-radiation care of a patient with a history of breast cancer. The patient, a 54-year-old white female, was treated by modified radical mastectomy, chemotherapy, and radiation. During post-radiation therapy the patient developed wet desquamation reaction over the midincision line into the right axilla. Balsam Peru, hydrogenated castor oil, trypsin (Xenaderm Healthpoint, San Antonio, Tex) was trialed to evaluate efficacy in providing wound healing to the denuded skin. Within 14 days of treatment, the area was completely healed and topical therapy stopped. This case study provides the basis for further research into the area of topical therapy for women with moist desquamation after radiation for breast cancer. PMID:16234729

  18. Development of a Double Glass Mounting Method Using Formaldehyde Alcohol Azocarmine Lactophenol (FAAL) and its Evaluation for Permanent Mounting of Small Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    ZAHABIUN, Farzaneh; SADJJADI, Seyed Mahmoud; ESFANDIARI, Farideh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Permanent slide preparation of nematodes especially small ones is time consuming, difficult and they become scarious margins. Regarding this problem, a modified double glass mounting method was developed and compared with classic method. Methods: A total of 209 nematode samples from human and animal origin were fixed and stained with Formaldehyde Alcohol Azocarmine Lactophenol (FAAL) followed by double glass mounting and classic dehydration method using Canada balsam as their mounting media. The slides were evaluated in different dates and times, more than four years. Different photos were made with different magnification during the evaluation time. Results: The double glass mounting method was stable during this time and comparable with classic method. There were no changes in morphologic structures of nematodes using double glass mounting method with well-defined and clear differentiation between different organs of nematodes in this method. Conclusion: Using this method is cost effective and fast for mounting of small nematodes comparing to classic method. PMID:26811729

  19. Benzoyl peroxide: is it a relevant bone cement allergen in patients with orthopaedic implants?

    PubMed

    Treudler, Regina; Simon, Jan C

    2007-09-01

    Contact allergies to orthopaedic implant material are discussed to be relevant for postoperative complaints. We aimed at determining the prevalence of sensitizations to implant metals and to bone cements in patients with implants. We investigated 13 consecutive patients with suspicion of contact allergy to implant material. Epicutaneous patch testing was performed with metals and bone cement components including benzoyl peroxide (BPO). The chief complaints were skin disorders (n = 3), loosening of implant (n = 2), swelling (n = 6), and pain (n = 2). 6 patients had a sensitization to at least 1 allergen. 3 patients reacted to BPO, being of possible relevance in 1 of these patients suffering from dermatitis. Other sensitizations, such as those to nickel, fragrance, and balsam of Peru, were observed, with no clinical relevance (n = 1, respectively). BPO in bone cements may lead to type 4 sensitizations of which the relevance, however, remains questionable. Nevertheless we recommend this allergen to be tested in patients with complicated cemented orthopaedic implants. PMID:17680868

  20. Acute allergic contact dermatitis of the lips from peppermint oil in a lip balm.

    PubMed

    Tran, Anh; Pratt, Melanie; DeKoven, Joel

    2010-01-01

    The etiology of cheilitis is often not readily apparent. We present a case series of four patients with allergic contact cheilitis (ACC) secondary to exposure to peppermint oil contained in a lip balm product. These patients developed eczematous dermatitis involving their lips and perioral skin. They were tested with the North American Contact Dermatitis Group standard series as well as with an expanded series of flavoring agents, sunscreens, plant and fragrance components, and their own products. The lip balm contained potential sensitizers such as propolis, lanolin, coconut oil, almond oil, peppermint oil, and vitamin E. Our patch-test results showed that peppermint oil was the most likely culprit in these patients' ACC. Peppermint oil is less commonly reported as causing ACC than are more common contactants such as balsam of Peru or nickel sulfate. However, with the widespread use of lip balms containing peppermint oil, more cases of peppermint oil-induced ACC may be expected. PMID:20233551

  1. Effects of a dwarfing compound, CCC, on the production and export of gibberellin-like substances by root systems.

    PubMed

    Reid, D M; Carr, D J

    1967-03-01

    (2-Chloroethyl)trimethylammonium chloride (Cycocel or CCC), an inhibitor of gibberellin biosynthesis, when repeatedly supplied to the root systems of balsam (Impatiens glandulifera Royle) plants reduces growth in height and the level of gibberellin-like substances in the bleeding sap that exudes from the stumps of detopped plants. Within twelve hours after a single application of the inhibitor to decapitated field peas (Pisum arvense), there are quantitative and qualitative changes in the gibberellins of the sap compared with those in sap collected over the same period of time from untreated plants. These changes are interpreted in terms of the possible blockage by CCC of normal gibberellin production and diversion of precursors into synthesis of "abnormal" gibberellins. PMID:24554364

  2. Remote detection of forest damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rock, B. N.; Vogelmann, J. E.; Vogelmann, A. F.; Hoshizaki, T.; Williams, D. L.

    1986-01-01

    The use of remote sensing to discriminate, measure, and map forest damage is evaluated. TM spectal coverage, a helicopter-mounted radiometer, and ground-based surveys were utilized to examine the responses of the spruces and firs of Camels Hump Mountain, Vermont to stresses, such as pollution and trace metals. The basic spectral properties of vegetation are described. Forest damage at the site was estimated as 11.8-76.0 percent for the spruces and 19-43.8 percent for the balsam firs. Shifts in the spectra of the conifers in particular in the near IR region are analyzed, and variations in the mesophyll cell anatomy and pigment content of the spruces and firs are investigated. The relations between canopy moisture and damage is studied. The TM data are compared to aircraft data and found to be well correlated.

  3. Chewing lice (Phthiraptera) from Calidris fuscicollis (Aves: Scolopacidae) in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Sâmara Nunes; Pesenti, Tatiana Cheuiche; Cirne, Maximiano Pinheiro; Müller, Gertrud

    2014-08-01

    During April and September from 2010 to 2012, 80 birds of the species Calidris fuscicollis (white-rumped sandpiper) were collected for parasitological studies in the southern coast of Rio Grande do Sul, under ICMBIO license No. 26234-1. For ectoparasite collection, the birds were first submerged in water with detergent. The parasites found were fixed in 70% alcohol, cleared in 10% potassium hydroxide and mounted in Canada balsam. Of 80 birds examined, 79% were parasitized. Actornithophilus umbrinus (47.5%), Actornithophilus lacustris (37.5%), Actornithophilus spp. (13.75%), Carduiceps zonarius (26.25%), Lunaceps incoenis (27.5%), and Lunaceps spp. (16.25%) were the species found with their respective prevalence. We record for the first time parasitism by chewing lice in Calidris fuscicollis. PMID:24742904

  4. [Species identification of the fragment of wood found in the left eye socket bone during exhumation of general Władysław Sikorski's corpse].

    PubMed

    Wasik, Radosław

    2009-01-01

    During the exhumation of general Władysław Sikorski's corpse, a fragment of wood was found embedded in the left eye socket bone. The wood fragment was referred by the Institute of Forensic Research to the laboratory of Department of Forest and Wood Utilization, University of Agriculture in Krakow, where investigations were performed, aiming at determining the species of the wood. The fragment was cut into 20 microm thick microtome scraps of three anatomy sections: transverse, tangential and radial. The scraps were immersed in 99.8% ethyl alcohol for 24 hours and then for about 1 hour in xylene. Subsequently, they were placed between a microscope slide and a cover-glass in Canada balsam. The thus prepared scraps were then analyzed with the use of a Jenaval Carl Zeiss microscope. On the basis of microscope observations it was determined that the investigated fragment of wood belonged to Douglas-fir species (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco). PMID:19711820

  5. Pre-Emptive Avoidance Strategy (P.E.A.S.) - addressing allergic contact dermatitis in pediatric populations.

    PubMed

    Hill, Hannah; Goldenberg, Alina; Golkar, Linda; Beck, Kristyn; Williams, Judith; Jacob, Sharon E

    2016-05-01

    Pediatric allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) has been increasingly recognized in the United States. Reported rates of positive patch tests in children referred for suspected ACD range between 27 and 95.6%. Many young children are becoming sensitized to contact allergens found in personal hygiene products. We reviewed five recent pediatric patch test studies to determine the top allergens associated with this source of ACD in children. The top ten allergens were neomycin, balsam of Peru, fragrance mix, lanolin, cocamidopropylbetaine, formaldehyde, corticosteroids, methylchlorisothiazolinone (MCI)/methylisothiazolinone (MI), propylene glycol, and benzalkonium chloride. We estimate that one third of children suffering from ACD could potentially benefit from a 'pre-emptive avoidance strategy' (P.E.A.S.) of the stated top 10 allergens. PMID:26764601

  6. High Infestation by Dawestrema cycloancistrioides in Arapaima gigas Cultured in the Amazon Region, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Mathews, Patrick D.; Malheiros, Antonio F.; Vasquez, Narda D.; Chavez, Milton D.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of Dawestrema cycloancistrioides in semi-intensive fish farming of fingerlings of Arapaima gigas. Between September and November 2013, 60 individuals of A. gigas born in captivity, were collected in three concrete ponds, from a semi-intensive fish farm in the Peruvian Amazon. For the study of sclerotized structures, parasites were fixed in a solution of ammonium picrate glycerine and mounted in Canada balsam. To visualize internal structures, parasites were fixed in hot formaldehyde solution (4%) for staining with Gomori's trichrome. The parasitic indexes calculated were prevalence, mean intensity, and mean abundance. This study identified a high infestation of a monogenean D. cycloancistrioides in gills of A. gigas. The prevalence was 100%. The mean intensity and mean abundance of the parasite were 144.9 of parasites per individual. This study confirms the necessity of constant monitoring of fish in order to reduce fish mortality. PMID:26464924

  7. [Polychromatic method of simultaneously demonstrating all the structural components of a peripheral nerve].

    PubMed

    Dolishniĭ, N V; Mel'man, E P

    1978-02-01

    To study neuro-vessel relations in the nerve conductive system, a combined method revealing myelinated and non-myelinated nerve fibers and blood vessels was suggested. The method includes the following stages of material treatment: injection of the nerve blood vessels with chloroform emulsion of Paris blue (5--10 g of the dye in 100 g of the solvant); the straightened nerves about 5 mm long are fixed in 12% neutral formalin; etching in the solution of chromium solts; embedding in paraffin and preparation of thin sections (3--5 mcm); staining after Masson's method applied for collagen fiber staining) in the author's modification and mounting in balsam. In the preparations, the axons of the nerve fibers are seen blue--purple, myelin sheaths--light red, connective tissue elements--violet and blood vessels are seen as dark blue rings. PMID:77154

  8. Cognitive influences on health symptoms from acute chemical exposure.

    PubMed

    Dalton, P

    1999-11-01

    Symptom reports, perceived adverse health effects, and public health concerns are increasingly precipitated by the perception of chemical odors. This study examined the interaction between health cognitions, odor perception, and symptom reports. A group of 180 healthy men and women were exposed to 1 of 3 ambient odors, normatively rated as healthful (methyl salicylate, or wintergreen), harmful (butanol or alcohol), and ambiguous (isobomyl acetate, or balsam), after receiving 1 of 3 odorant characterizations (harmful, healthful, and neutral). Individuals given a harmful bias reported significantly more health symptoms following exposure and more intense odor and irritation during exposure than did those given a neutral or healthful bias. The overall pattern of results suggests that many of the health-related effects of exposure to odorants are mediated not by a direct agency of odors but by cognitive variables, such as mental models of the relationship between environmental odors and health. PMID:10619531

  9. Fate of spinosad in litter and soils of a mixed conifer stand in the Acadian forest region of New Brunswick.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Dean G; Harris, Brenda J; Lanteigne, Leonard J; Buscarini, Teresa M; Chartrand, Derek T

    2002-02-13

    Spinosad is a natural insecticide, produced via fermentation culture of the actinomycete Saccharopolyspora spinosa, with potential use against a number of forest pests including spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana [Clem]). Persistence of spinosad was determined in terrestrial fate experiments conducted within a semimature stand of black spruce (Picea mariana [Mill.]) and balsam fir (Abies balsamea [L]) in the Acadian forest region of New Brunswick, Canada. Results of experiments established under full coniferous canopy and in a canopy opening indicated that spinosad dissipated rapidly following hyperbolic kinetics in both litter and soils and was not susceptible to leaching. Time to 50% dissipation estimates for spinosyn A ranged from 2.0 to 12.4 days depending upon matrix and experimental conditions. Spinosyn D dissipated to levels below quantitation limits (0.02 microg/g of dry mass) within 7 days in all cases. Sporadic low-level detection of the demethylated metabolites suggested that parent compounds were degraded in situ. PMID:11829646

  10. Feasibility of using hyperaccumulating plants to bioremediate metal-contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, R.J.; Guerin, T.F.

    1995-12-31

    A feasibility study was carried out to determine whether selected plants were capable of hyperaccumulating anthropogenic sources of metals found in soils from three contaminated sites. A trial was conducted using the previously reported hyperaccumulators, Armeria maritima (thrift), Impatiens balsamina (balsam), Alyssum saxatile (gold dust), and the control species, Brassica oleracea (cabbage). Although none of these plants showed any substantial hyperaccumulation of Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd, it was established that there is an optimum period in the life-cycle of these plants in which the metal concentration reaches a maximum. This period was dependent on the metal, soil, and plant type. The current paper describes the data obtained for Zn and Cu uptake by thrift.

  11. A new flea from Iran

    PubMed Central

    Darvishi, Mohammad Mehdi; Youssefi, Mohammad Reza; Changizi, Emad; Lima, Rasoul Rostami; Rahimi, Mohammad Taghi

    2014-01-01

    Fleas are obligatory ectoparsites of humans and animals. These tiny insects are hematophagous and they can transmit a wide varity of disease agents to humans and domesticated animals. Indeed, this pest causes a considerable economic damages and health dangers particularly in tropical and subtropical. During an investigation on ectoparasites of five Mus muscuuls in Semnan province, Iran, 15 fleas (8 males and 7 females) were collected. The extracted fleas mounted using clearing, dehydrating, mounting process and preserved with Canada balsam. After precise study, all of examined specimens were recognized as Leptopsylla aethiopicus aethiopicus using available systematic keys. This is the first report of this genus and species in Iran. And this country is new locality for Leptopsylla aethiopicus aethiopicus.

  12. [Contact allergies in patients with chronic wounds: results of a study from 1999 to 2004].

    PubMed

    Lehnen, M; Kohaus, S; Körber, A; Hillen, U; Grabbe, S; Dissemond, J

    2006-04-01

    Patients with chronic wounds frequently acquire clinically relevant contact sensitization. We examined the results of the skin patch tests in patients with chronic wounds, who were treated between 1999-2004 in the Department of Dermatology, University School of Medicine, Essen, Germany. Altogether 105 patients with chronic wounds underwent patch testing. In 68 individuals, contact sensitization to at least one substance was detected. The most frequent contact allergens were to balsam of Peru, Amerchol L-101, fragrance mix, wool wax alcohols and rosins. Contact sensitization to wound dressing materials was also identified in 4 patients. Our results demonstrate the current spectrum of contact sensitization of patients with chronic wounds. Our results show the importance of paying attention to the ingredients in wound dressings and performing patch testing if there is any clinical suggestion of allergic contact dermatitis. PMID:16317553

  13. Recent Progress of Propolis for Its Biological and Chemical Compositions and Its Botanical Origin

    PubMed Central

    Toreti, Viviane Cristina; Sato, Helia Harumi; Pastore, Glaucia Maria; Park, Yong Kun

    2013-01-01

    Propolis is the generic name given to the product obtained from resinous substances, which is gummy and balsamic and which is collected by bees from flowers, buds, and exudates of plants. It is a popular folk medicine possessing a broad spectrum of biological activities. These biological properties are related to its chemical composition and more specifically to the phenolic compounds that vary in their structure and concentration depending on the region of production, availability of sources to collect plant resins, genetic variability of the queen bee, the technique used for production, and the season in which propolis is produced. Many scientific articles are published every year in different international journal, and several groups of researchers have focused their attention on the chemical compounds and biological activity of propolis. This paper presents a review on the publications on propolis and patents of applications and biological constituents of propolis. PMID:23737843

  14. Metabolomics Reveals the Origins of Antimicrobial Plant Resins Collected by Honey Bees

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Michael B.; Spivak, Marla; Hegeman, Adrian D.; Rendahl, Aaron; Cohen, Jerry D.

    2013-01-01

    The deposition of antimicrobial plant resins in honey bee, Apis mellifera, nests has important physiological benefits. Resin foraging is difficult to approach experimentally because resin composition is highly variable among and between plant families, the environmental and plant-genotypic effects on resins are unknown, and resin foragers are relatively rare and often forage in unobservable tree canopies. Subsequently, little is known about the botanical origins of resins in many regions or the benefits of specific resins to bees. We used metabolomic methods as a type of environmental forensics to track individual resin forager behavior through comparisons of global resin metabolite patterns. The resin from the corbiculae of a single bee was sufficient to identify that resin's botanical source without prior knowledge of resin composition. Bees from our apiary discriminately foraged for resin from eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides), and balsam poplar (P. balsamifera) among many available, even closely related, resinous plants. Cottonwood and balsam poplar resin composition did not show significant seasonal or regional changes in composition. Metabolomic analysis of resin from 6 North American Populus spp. and 5 hybrids revealed peaks characteristic to taxonomic nodes within Populus, while antimicrobial analysis revealed that resin from different species varied in inhibition of the bee bacterial pathogen, Paenibacillus larvae. We conclude that honey bees make discrete choices among many resinous plant species, even among closely related species. Bees also maintained fidelity to a single source during a foraging trip. Furthermore, the differential inhibition of P. larvae by Populus spp., thought to be preferential for resin collection in temperate regions, suggests that resins from closely related plant species many have different benefits to bees. PMID:24204850

  15. Greater efficiency of water use in poplar clones having a delayed response of mesophyll conductance to drought.

    PubMed

    Théroux Rancourt, Guillaume; Éthier, Gilbert; Pepin, Steeve

    2015-02-01

    Improvement of water use efficiency is a key objective to improve the sustainability of cultivated plants, especially fast growing species with high water consumption like poplar. It is well known that water use efficiency (WUE) varies considerably among poplar genotypes, and it was recently suggested that the use of the mesophyll-to-stomatal conductance ratio (gm/gs) would be an appropriate trait to improve WUE. The responses of 7-week-old cuttings of four hybrid poplar clones and one native Balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera L.) to a water stress-recovery cycle were examined to evaluate the relation between the gm/gs ratio and transpiration efficiency (TE), a leaf-level component of WUE. A contrasting gs response to water stress was observed among the five clones, from stomatal closure early on during soil drying up to limited closure in Balsam poplar. However in the hybrids, the decline in gm was consistently delayed by a few days compared with gs. Moreover, in the most water use-efficient hybrids, the recovery following rehydration occurred faster for gm than for gs. Thus, the delay in the response of gm to drought and its faster recovery upon rewatering increased the gm/gs of the hybrids and this ratio scaled positively with TE. Our results support the use of the gm/gs ratio to select genotypes with improved WUE, and the notion that breeding strategies focusing mainly on stomatal responses to soil drying should also look for a strong curvilinearity between net carbon assimilation rate and gs, the indication of a significant increase in gm/gs in the earlier stages of stomatal closure. PMID:25721370

  16. High pressure deformation experiments using solid confining media and Griggs piston-cylinder methods: Appraisal of stress and deformation in talc assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Eric D.; Holyoke, , Caleb W.; Kronenberg, Andreas K.

    2013-03-01

    Attempts to calibrate mechanical results obtained in triaxial compression experiments using solid media assemblies in a Griggs piston-cylinder apparatus have failed to reveal a dependable relationship between results obtained using a talc assembly and results obtained with a gas triaxial deformation apparatus. Temperature-stepping experiments (600 °C-1000 °C) were performed on high-purity molybdenum (Mo) and a Ti-Zr-Mo alloy (TZM), pressurized by talc in a Griggs apparatus and by argon gas using a Heard apparatus. Apparent strengths of metal samples deformed at temperatures in the stability field of talc were at least 1500 MPa (> 6 times) greater than those determined in gas apparatus experiments, and they do not appear to follow any simple trend. At temperatures above talc dehydration, apparent strengths in talc assemblies were 500-800 MPa (> 2 1/2 times) greater. Total shortening strains of the metal samples measured after deformation in talc exceeded axial strains monitored during the triaxial deformation stage of the experiments by as much as 15-25%. A pressurization experiment performed on a TZM cylinder in talc, without engaging the load column, shows that samples can be shortened axially by the pressurization process. This test and a pressurization experiment conducted on a compound sample of Balsam Gap dunite and San Carlos olivine indicate that differential stresses within talc assemblies exceed the yield strengths of these materials during pressurization. Deformation of Balsam Gap dunite and San Carlos olivine during pressurization leads to complex microstructures, consisting of brittle faults, high dislocation densities, and small (10-40 μm) recrystallized grains. Experimental studies of deformation mechanisms and microstructures in samples deformed in strong solid confining media using Griggs piston-cylinder methods must therefore establish that the observed crystalline defects and microstructures are due to deformation at the controlled temperature

  17. Metabolomics reveals the origins of antimicrobial plant resins collected by honey bees.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Michael B; Spivak, Marla; Hegeman, Adrian D; Rendahl, Aaron; Cohen, Jerry D

    2013-01-01

    The deposition of antimicrobial plant resins in honey bee, Apis mellifera, nests has important physiological benefits. Resin foraging is difficult to approach experimentally because resin composition is highly variable among and between plant families, the environmental and plant-genotypic effects on resins are unknown, and resin foragers are relatively rare and often forage in unobservable tree canopies. Subsequently, little is known about the botanical origins of resins in many regions or the benefits of specific resins to bees. We used metabolomic methods as a type of environmental forensics to track individual resin forager behavior through comparisons of global resin metabolite patterns. The resin from the corbiculae of a single bee was sufficient to identify that resin's botanical source without prior knowledge of resin composition. Bees from our apiary discriminately foraged for resin from eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides), and balsam poplar (P. balsamifera) among many available, even closely related, resinous plants. Cottonwood and balsam poplar resin composition did not show significant seasonal or regional changes in composition. Metabolomic analysis of resin from 6 North American Populus spp. and 5 hybrids revealed peaks characteristic to taxonomic nodes within Populus, while antimicrobial analysis revealed that resin from different species varied in inhibition of the bee bacterial pathogen, Paenibacillus larvae. We conclude that honey bees make discrete choices among many resinous plant species, even among closely related species. Bees also maintained fidelity to a single source during a foraging trip. Furthermore, the differential inhibition of P. larvae by Populus spp., thought to be preferential for resin collection in temperate regions, suggests that resins from closely related plant species many have different benefits to bees. PMID:24204850

  18. Soil response to a 3-year increase in temperature and nitrogen deposition measured in a mature boreal forest using ion-exchange membranes.

    PubMed

    D'Orangeville, Loïc; Houle, Daniel; Côté, Benoît; Duchesne, Louis

    2014-12-01

    The projected increase in atmospheric N deposition and air/soil temperature will likely affect soil nutrient dynamics in boreal ecosystems. The potential effects of these changes on soil ion fluxes were studied in a mature balsam fir stand (Abies balsamea [L.] Mill) in Quebec, Canada that was subjected to 3 years of experimentally increased soil temperature (+4 °C) and increased inorganic N concentration in artificial precipitation (three times the current N concentrations using NH4NO3). Soil element fluxes (NO3, NH4, PO4, K, Ca, Mg, SO4, Al, and Fe) in the organic and upper mineral horizons were monitored using buried ion-exchange membranes (PRS™ probes). While N additions did not affect soil element fluxes, 3 years of soil warming increased the cumulative fluxes of K, Mg, and SO4 in the forest floor by 43, 44, and 79 %, respectively, and Mg, SO4, and Al in the mineral horizon by 29, 66, and 23 %, respectively. We attribute these changes to increased rates of soil organic matter decomposition. Significant interactions of the heating treatment with time were observed for most elements although no clear seasonal patterns emerged. The increase in soil K and Mg in heated plots resulted in a significant but small K increase in balsam fir foliage while no change was observed for Mg. A 6-15 % decrease in foliar Ca content with soil warming could be related to the increase in soil-available Al in heated plots, as Al can interfere with the root uptake of Ca. PMID:25139238

  19. Bluejoint Is an Effective Bio-Barrier Species on Mine Covers.

    PubMed

    Kamorina, Galina; Tremblay, Francine; Bussière, Bruno; Smirnova, Evgeniya; Thiffault, Nelson

    2015-11-01

    Covers with capillary barrier effects (CCBE) are used to prevent acid mine drainage from mine wastes in the short term. However, the long-term efficiency of CCBE can be affected by trees because their roots may reduce the ability of covers to limit oxygen migration and also physically damage the CCBE. Two plant species that are native to boreal Canada, bluejoint () and sheep laurel (, were selected as bio-barrier species (BBS) to test if they reduce the growth and root system architecture of trees established on mine covers (balsam poplar [], willow [ spp], and black spruce []). The experiment was established in 2008 on a mine tailings impoundment located in northwestern Quebec, Canada. Trees were measured for height, diameter, and biomass. Coarse roots were excavated from the plots and digitized in three dimensions. Compared with the control (no BBS), bluejoint strongly decreased tree height and diameter increment, biomass, maximum root depth and radial extension, total root length and volume, and number of second- and third-order tree roots. Height and diameter increment, biomass, maximum root depth and volume, and number of second-order roots of balsam poplar increased with sheep laurel compared with control conditions, whereas willow showed no response to this treatment. Most characteristics of black spruce (except root-to-shoot ratio and number of second-order roots) improved in the presence of sheep laurel compared with the control. Thus, bluejoint was a more efficient BBS than sheep laurel. Bio-barriers comprised of bluejoint can be used as a countermeasure for controlling tree invasion of CCBE. PMID:26641331

  20. Characterizing canopy nonrandomness with a multiband vegetation imager (MVI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucharik, C. J.; Norman, J. M.; Murdock, L. M.; Gower, S. T.

    1997-12-01

    A new method for measuring plant canopy nonrandomness and other architectural components has been developed using a 16 bit (65535 gray scale levels) charged-coupled device (CCD) camera that captures images of plant canopies in two wavelength bands. This complete system is referred to as a multiband vegetation imager (MVI). The use of two wavelength bands (visible (VIS) 400-620 nm and near infrared (NIR) 720-950 nm) permits identification of sunlit and shaded foliage, sunlit and shaded branch area, clouds, and blue sky based on the camera's resolution, and the varying spectral properties that scene components have in the two wavelength bands. This approach is different from other canopy imaging methods (such as fish-eye photography) because it emphasizes measuring the fraction of an image occupied by various scene components (branches, shaded leaves, sunlit leaves) under different sky conditions rather than simply the canopy gap fraction under uniform sky conditions. The MVI has been used during the Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) in aspen (Populus tremuloides) and balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera) to estimate architectural characteristics of each canopy. The leaf area index (LAI), sunlit LAI, and degree of nonrandomness within a canopy are architectural properties that have been measured with the MVI. Using a crown-based Monte Carlo model for nonrandom canopies, nonrandomness factors are calculated from MVI data using two approaches (gap fraction and gap-size distribution theories) to correct total and sunlit LAI estimates from indirect methods that assume random foliage distributions. Canopy nonrandomness factors obtained from analyzing the gap-size distribution in a Monte Carlo model are shown to be a function of path length (angle) through the canopy (Ωe(θ)); thus we suggest that LAI-2000 indirect measurements of LAI be adjusted with the value of Ωe(θ) at θ=35° because this is the mean angle at which the canopy gap fraction is measured by the

  1. Mapping of taiga forest units using AIRSAR data and/or optical data, and retrieval of forest parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rignot, Eric; Williams, Cynthia; Way, Jobea; Viereck, Leslie

    1993-01-01

    A maximum a posteriori Bayesian classifier for multifrequency polarimetric SAR data is used to perform a supervised classification of forest types in the floodplains of Alaska. The image classes include white spruce, balsam poplar, black spruce, alder, non-forests, and open water. The authors investigate the effect on classification accuracy of changing environmental conditions, and of frequency and polarization of the signal. The highest classification accuracy (86 percent correctly classified forest pixels, and 91 percent overall) is obtained combining L- and C-band frequencies fully polarimetric on a date where the forest is just recovering from flooding. The forest map compares favorably with a vegetation map assembled from digitized aerial photos which took five years for completion, and address the state of the forest in 1978, ignoring subsequent fires, changes in the course of the river, clear-cutting of trees, and tree growth. HV-polarization is the most useful polarization at L- and C-band for classification. C-band VV (ERS-1 mode) and L-band HH (J-ERS-1 mode) alone or combined yield unsatisfactory classification accuracies. Additional data acquired in the winter season during thawed and frozen days yield classification accuracies respectively 20 percent and 30 percent lower due to a greater confusion between conifers and deciduous trees. Data acquired at the peak of flooding in May 1991 also yield classification accuracies 10 percent lower because of dominant trunk-ground interactions which mask out finer differences in radar backscatter between tree species. Combination of several of these dates does not improve classification accuracy. For comparison, panchromatic optical data acquired by SPOT in the summer season of 1991 are used to classify the same area. The classification accuracy (78 percent for the forest types and 90 percent if open water is included) is lower than that obtained with AIRSAR although conifers and deciduous trees are better

  2. Contact dermatitis: facts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Ronni; Orion, Edith; Ruocco, Eleonora; Baroni, Adone; Ruocco, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    The history of contact dermatitis (CD) is inseparable from the history of the patch test, and the patch test is inseparable from the pioneer in the field, Josef Jadassohn (1860-1936). Despite the fact that we have been diagnosing, treating, and investigating the condition for more than 100 years, there are still many unsolved questions and controversies, which show no signs of coming to an end in the foreseeable future. This contribution reviews and highlights some of the disagreements and discrepancies associated with CD. For example: • What is the real sensitizer in balsam of Peru, one of the most common allergens, and what, if any, is the value of a low-balsam diet? • Is benzalkonium chloride, which has well-known and undisputed irritant properties, a contact allergen as well? • Is cocamidopropyl betaine (CABP) a common contact allergen and what is the actual sensitizer in CABP allergy the molecule itself, or impurities, or intermediaries in its synthesis? • How can the significant differences in the prevalence of sensitization of formaldehyde (FA, a common cause of contact allergy) between the United States (8%-9%) and Europe (2%-3%) be explained? • What is the relationship between formaldehyde releasers (FRs) allergy and an FA allergy? Should we recommend that FA-allergic patients also avoid FRs, and, if so, to what extent? • What is the true frequency of lanolin allergy? This issue remains enigmatic despite the expenditure of thousands of dollars and the innumerable hours spent investigating this subject. • What is the basis behind the so-called "lanolin paradox"? This label was coined in 1996 and is still a matter of controversy. • Is there such a thing as systemic CD from nickel, and, if so, to what extent? Is there a cross-reactivity or concomitant sensitization between nickel and cobalt?These are some of the controversial problems discussed. We have selected the ones that we consider to be of special interest and importance to the

  3. Consumption study and identification of methyl salicylate in spicy cassava chips

    SciTech Connect

    Nirjana, Marlene Anggadiredja, Kusnandar; Damayanti, Sophi

    2015-09-30

    Spicy cassava chips is a popular snack. However, some news in electronic media reported addition of balsam which is a banned food additives in that product to give extra spicy flavor. This study aimed to determine ITB students’ pattern of consumption, health problems caused by spicy chips consumption, and knowledge about illicit use of food additives in that product, and identify the main content of balsam namely methyl salicylate in 10 samples of spicy cassava chips taken from inside and outside about ITB campus. A total of 300 questionnaires distributed to ITB students then data processing was performed. Spicy cassava chips sample macerated in 50 mL of methanol for 24 hours at room temperature, filtered and analyzed using gas chromatography capillary column with OV-1, nitrogen carrier gas and flame ionization detector. Based on questionnaires, 292 (97%) of 300 respondents had consumed spicy chips. A total of 247 (85%) from 292 respondents spicy chips consumed less than 3 times a week. A total of 195 respondents (67%) had experienced health problems after eating spicy chips. There were 137 (47%) of the 292 respondents who knew about the illicit addition of food additives into spicy chips; only 35 respondents (12%) who knew about balsam’s addition. There were 126 respondents (43%) who did not pay attention to their health because they will keep eating spicy chips despite the addition of banned food additives. Through the verification of the standard addition method in gas chromatography system with a hydrogen pressure of 1.5 bar, injector temperature 200 °C, detector temperature 230 °C, oven temperature 60 °C for 2 minutes and then increased to 230 °C with rate 6 °C/menit; linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantitation, accuracy, precision, and specificity parameters met the acceptance limits. From 10 spicy cassava chips samples which were analyzed, they did not reveal any content of methyl salicylate. Methyl salicylate contained in the positive

  4. Labeling Feral Spruce Budworm (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Populations With Rubidium.

    PubMed

    MacKinnon, Wayne; Eveleigh, Eldon; Silk, Peter; Forbes, Glen

    2016-04-01

    Rubidium (Rb) is a trace element that occurs naturally in low concentrations and is easily absorbed by plants, making it a useful tool for labeling insect defoliators, such as spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana Clemens). Balsam fir trees (Abies balsamea (L.) Miller) injected with either 8 or 16 g per tree of rubidium chloride (RbCl) showed quick uptake and distribution throughout the crown, with no negative effects on tree shoot growth or spruce budworm survival and development. Adult spruce budworm that fed as larvae on trees injected with RbCl were clearly labeled, with significantly higher Rb concentrations than the background levels found in adults that fed as larvae on control trees. Rb concentrations in feral spruce budworm adults for both the 8 g (9 µg/g) and 16 g (25 µg/g) per tree treatments were at least five times lower than those in laboratory-reared adults on 1,000 µg/g RbCl diet (125 µg/g); survival, development, pupal weight, sex ratio, and mating status of spruce budworm were not adversely affected by Rb treatment. Egg masses laid by feral females that fed as larvae on Rb-labeled trees were also labeled with Rb. Injecting trees with RbCl is a viable technique for labeling feral spruce budworm populations to help distinguish local populations from immigrants to better evaluate the success of early intervention strategies such as mating disruption. PMID:26920559

  5. Ecological genomics meets community-level modelling of biodiversity: mapping the genomic landscape of current and future environmental adaptation.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Matthew C; Keller, Stephen R

    2015-01-01

    Local adaptation is a central feature of most species occupying spatially heterogeneous environments, and may factor critically in responses to environmental change. However, most efforts to model the response of species to climate change ignore intraspecific variation due to local adaptation. Here, we present a new perspective on spatial modelling of organism-environment relationships that combines genomic data and community-level modelling to develop scenarios regarding the geographic distribution of genomic variation in response to environmental change. Rather than modelling species within communities, we use these techniques to model large numbers of loci across genomes. Using balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera) as a case study, we demonstrate how our framework can accommodate nonlinear responses of loci to environmental gradients. We identify a threshold response to temperature in the circadian clock gene GIGANTEA-5 (GI5), suggesting that this gene has experienced strong local adaptation to temperature. We also demonstrate how these methods can map ecological adaptation from genomic data, including the identification of predicted differences in the genetic composition of populations under current and future climates. Community-level modelling of genomic variation represents an important advance in landscape genomics and spatial modelling of biodiversity that moves beyond species-level assessments of climate change vulnerability. PMID:25270536

  6. Ocular linguatuliasis in Ecuador: case report and morphometric study of the larva of Linguatula serrata.

    PubMed

    Lazo, R F; Hidalgo, E; Lazo, J E; Bermeo, A; Llaguno, M; Murillo, J; Teixeira, V P

    1999-03-01

    Linguatula serrata is a pentastomid, a cosmopolitan parasite belonging to the Phylum Pentastomida. Humans may act as an intermediate or accidental definitive host of this parasite, manifesting the nasopharyngeal or visceral form, with the latter having been described more frequently. The occurrence of ocular linguatuliasis is extremely rare, but it has been reported in the United States and Israel. The objective of the present paper was to report the first case of ocular linguatuliasis in Ecuador and to extend the morphologic study of L. serrata by morphometric analysis. The patient studied was a 34-year old woman from Guayaquil, Ecuador who complained of ocular pain with conjunctivitis and visual difficulties of two-months duration. Biomicroscopic examination revealed a mobile body in the anterior chamber of the eye. The mobile body was surgically removed. The specimen was fixed in alcohol, cleared using the technique of Loos, stained with acetic carmine, and mounted on balsam between a slide and a coverslip. It was observed with stereoscopic and common light microscopes in combination with an automatic system for image analysis and processing. The morphologic and morphometric characteristics corresponded to the third-instar larval form of L. serrata. To our knowledge, ocular linguatuliasis has not been previously described in South America, with this being the first report for Ecuador and South America. The present study shows that computer morphometry can adequately contribute both to the morphologic study and to the systematic classification of Pentastomids, and L. serrata in particular. PMID:10466969

  7. Inhibition of insect glutathione S-transferase (GST) by conifer extracts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiling; Zhao, Zhong; Abou-Zaid, Mamdouh M; Arnason, John T; Liu, Rui; Walshe-Roussel, Brendan; Waye, Andrew; Liu, Suqi; Saleem, Ammar; Cáceres, Luis A; Wei, Qin; Scott, Ian M

    2014-12-01

    Insecticide synergists biochemically inhibit insect metabolic enzyme activity and are used both to increase the effectiveness of insecticides and as a diagnostic tool for resistance mechanisms. Considerable attention has been focused on identifying new synergists from phytochemicals with recognized biological activities, specifically enzyme inhibition. Jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.), black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP.), balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.), and tamarack larch (Larix laricina (Du Roi) Koch) have been used by native Canadians as traditional medicine, specifically for the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties based on enzyme inhibitory activity. To identify the potential allelochemicals with synergistic activity, ethanol crude extracts and methanol/water fractions were separated by Sephadex LH-20 chromatographic column and tested for in vitro glutathione S-transferase (GST) inhibition activity using insecticide-resistant Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) midgut and fat-body homogenate. The fractions showing similar activity were combined and analyzed by ultra pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. A lignan, (+)-lariciresinol 9'-p-coumarate, was identified from P. mariana cone extracts, and L. laricina and A. balsamea bark extracts. A flavonoid, taxifolin, was identified from P. mariana and P. banksiana cone extracts and L. laricina bark extracts. Both compounds inhibit GST activity with taxifolin showing greater activity compared to (+)-lariciresinol 9'-p-coumarate and the standard GST inhibitor, diethyl maleate. The results suggested that these compounds can be considered as potential new insecticide synergists. PMID:25270601

  8. Propolis from northern California and Oregon: chemical composition, botanical origin, and content of allergens.

    PubMed

    Aliboni, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Propolis is a beehive product that bees manufacture by mixing their own wax with vegetable resins collected from different species of trees and bushes. The chemical composition of propolis is very variable because it depends on the flora locally available, and specimens from different geographical and climatic areas display unique properties. In this paper, the results of the chemical characterization of some propolis specimens collected in northern California and in Oregon are presented. Their chemical compositions show that all specimens contain resins from poplars of the Tacamahaca section (balsam poplars)--characteristic of the western part of the North American continent. Nevertheless, some of the specimens are of mixed origin because they also contain resins from poplars of the Aigeiros section (cottonwoods)--also present in this part of the world. Propolis causes allergies in sensitive human individuals, which are due to the presence of certain esters. The contents of known propolis allergenic esters--phenylethyl caffeate, 1,1-dimethylallyl caffeate, benzyl cinnamate, and benzyl salicylate--have been investigated in these specimens and found to depend on the botanical origin. PMID:24772818

  9. Plant community influences on soil microfungal assemblages in boreal mixed-wood forests.

    PubMed

    De Bellis, T; Kernaghan, G; Widden, P

    2007-01-01

    We studied the relationships between assemblages of soil microfungi and plant communities in the southern boreal mixed-wood forests of Quebec. Sampling took place in 18,100 m2 plots from an existing research site. Plots were separated into three categories based on dominant overstory tree species: (i) trembling aspen, (ii) white birch and (iii) a mixture of white spruce and balsam fir. Within each plot a 1 m2 subplot was established in which the understory herbaceous layer was surveyed and soil cores were collected. Microfungi were isolated from soil cores with the soil-washing technique and isolates were identified morphologically. To support our morphological identifications DNA sequences were obtained for the most abundant microfungi. The most frequently occurring microfungal species were Penicillium thomii, P. spinulosum, P. janthinellum, Penicillium sp., P. melinii, Trichoderma polysporum, T. viride, T. hamatum, Mortierella ramanniana, Geomyces pannorum, Cylindrocarpon didymum, Mortierella sp. and Mucor hiemalis. Multivariate analyses (redundancy analysis followed by variance partitioning) revealed that most of the variation in microfungal communities was explained by understory plant species composition as opposed to soil chemistry or overstory tree species. In this floristically diverse system saprophytic microfungal assemblages were not correlated with the overstory tree species but were significantly correlated with the main understory herbs, thereby reflecting differences at a smaller spatial scale. PMID:17883027

  10. Associated terrestrial and marine fossils in the late-glacial Presumpscot Formation, southern Maine, USA, and the marine reservoir effect on radiocarbon ages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, W.B.; Griggs, C.B.; Miller, N.G.; Nelson, R.E.; Weddle, T.K.; Kilian, T.M.

    2011-01-01

    Excavations in the late-glacial Presumpscot Formation at Portland, Maine, uncovered tree remains and other terrestrial organics associated with marine invertebrate shells in a landslide deposit. Buds of Populus balsamifera (balsam poplar) occurred with twigs of Picea glauca (white spruce) in the Presumpscot clay. Tree rings in Picea logs indicate that the trees all died during winter dormancy in the same year. Ring widths show patterns of variation indicating responses to environmental changes. Fossil mosses and insects represent a variety of species and wet to dry microsites. The late-glacial environment at the site was similar to that of today's Maine coast. Radiocarbon ages of 14 tree samples are 11,907??31 to 11,650??5014C yr BP. Wiggle matching of dated tree-ring segments to radiocarbon calibration data sets dates the landslide occurrence at ca. 13,520+95/??20calyr BP. Ages of shells juxtaposed with the logs are 12,850??6514C yr BP (Mytilus edulis) and 12,800??5514C yr BP (Balanus sp.), indicating a marine reservoir age of about 1000yr. Using this value to correct previously published radiocarbon ages reduces the discrepancy between the Maine deglaciation chronology and the varve-based chronology elsewhere in New England. ?? 2011 University of Washington.

  11. [Chewing-lice (Phtihiraptera: Amblycera, Ischnocera) occurring on birds in the Konya zoo].

    PubMed

    Dik, Bilal; Uslu, Uğur

    2009-01-01

    In this study, 25 birds belonging to 15 different species at the zoo in Konya were inspected for the presence of chewing-lice. Three Long-legged Buzzards (Buteo rufinus), one Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca) and one Marsh Harrier (Circus aeruginosus) were found to be infested by chewing-lice. Two hundred and eleven chewing-lice specimens were collected from the birds and seven species were identified. They were mounted on slides separately in Faure forte medium or Canada balsam after clearing in 10% KOH. Morphologic characteristics of the chewing-lice were examined and measured under the light microscope. Laemobothrion maximum (Scopoli, 1763), Craspedorrhynchus platystomus (Burmeister, 1838) and Degeeriella fulva (Giebel, 1874) were detected on Long-legged buzzards; Craspedorrhynchus fraterculus (Eichler & Zlotorzycka, 1975), Degeeriella aquilarum (Eichler, 1943) and Colpocephalum impressum (Rudow, 1866) on the Imperial Eagle; and Degeeriella fusca (Denny, 1842), on the Mars Harrier. C. fraterculus, D. aquilarum, C. impressum and D. fusca were found for the first time on these raptors in Turkey and information about these species were given in this paper. PMID:19367546

  12. Histological patterns of the intestinal attachment of Corynosoma australe (Acanthocephala: Polymorphidae) in Arctocephalus australis (Mammalia: Pinnipedia).

    PubMed

    Silva, Renato Z; Pereira, Joaber; Cousin, João Carlos B

    2014-12-01

    The mucosal attachment pattern of Corynosoma australe in the intestines of Arctocephalus australis is described. Normal and abnormal tissue were sampled from 32 hosts to be submitted to histological routine protocol to embedding in paraffin and permanent mounting in balsam. Corynosoma australe shows three different degrees of body depth intestinal attachment (BDINA-1-3). BDINA-1: it is exclusive of the small intestine and the parasite attaches on the villi; BDINA-2: parasite affects the Lieberkühn crypts in several depth levels and, BDINA-3: the parasite reaches the submucosa. These attachment patterns alter the mucosa by degeneration and dysfunction due to necrosis of mucosal structure, great quantities of cellular debris and significant reduction of the mucosal thickness. Other aspects are crater-like concave holes (CLCHs) as sites where C. australe could be attached-detached several times according to adult migratory processes within luminal intestine space. The submucosa shows edema probably due to the local mucosal alterations resulting in homeostatic break. There is no severe inflammatory response by host but BDINA-1 to BDINA-3 and CLCH could represent foci to secondary opportunistic infections and significant areas of malabsorption in severally infected hosts contributing to increase clinical signs of preexistent pathologies. PMID:25320494

  13. Fitness dynamics within a poplar hybrid zone: I. Prezygotic and postzygotic barriers impacting a native poplar hybrid stand

    PubMed Central

    Roe, Amanda D; MacQuarrie, Chris J K; Gros-Louis, Marie-Claude; Simpson, J Dale; Lamarche, Josyanne; Beardmore, Tannis; Thompson, Stacey L; Tanguay, Philippe; Isabel, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    Hybridization and introgression are pervasive evolutionary phenomena that provide insight into the selective forces that maintain species boundaries, permit gene flow, and control the direction of evolutionary change. Poplar trees (Populus L.) are well known for their ability to form viable hybrids and maintain their distinct species boundaries despite this interspecific gene flow. We sought to quantify the hybridization dynamics and postzygotic fitness within a hybrid stand of balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera L.), eastern cottonwood (P. deltoides Marsh.), and their natural hybrids to gain insight into the barriers maintaining this stable hybrid zone. We observed asymmetrical hybrid formation with P. deltoides acting as the seed parent, but with subsequent introgression biased toward P. balsamifera. Native hybrids expressed fitness traits intermediate to the parental species and were not universally unfit. That said, native hybrid seedlings were absent from the seedling population, which may indicate additional selective pressures controlling their recruitment. It is imperative that we understand the selective forces maintaining this native hybrid zone in order to quantify the impact of exotic poplar hybrids on this native system. PMID:24967081

  14. Contact sensitization in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Balato, Anna; Balato, Nicola; Di Costanzo, Luisa; Ayala, Fabio

    2011-01-01

    Contact dermatitis from irritant and allergic sources is the reason for 6% to 10% of all dermatologic visits with considerable morbidity and economic impact. Allergic contact dermatitis is a T-cell-mediated inflammatory reaction and develops in predisposed individuals as a consequence of environmental exposure to allergens. Aging is correlated with the rate and type of contact sensitization because of "immunosenescence." The number of old people is growing around the world. This contribution reviews the main findings from published epidemiologic studies on contact allergy in elderly populations. In all examined studies, patch testing was performed in patients with cutaneous manifestations possibly related to contact dermatitis; the prevalence of contact dermatitis in the elderly was from 33% to 64%. Establishing the most frequent allergens responsible for allergic contact dermatitis in the elderly is a hard task. The commonest allergens reported were nickel sulfate, fragrance mix, diamino diphenylmethane, lanolin alcohols, paraben mix, Euxyl K400, quinoline mix, and balsam of Peru. We emphasize that allergens surveillance is needed to realize an "elderly series" for having a useful adjunct to contact allergy that may help the treatment of each patient. PMID:21146728

  15. 1,2-dicarbonyl compounds in commonly consumed foods.

    PubMed

    Degen, Julia; Hellwig, Michael; Henle, Thomas

    2012-07-18

    1,2-Dicarbonyl compounds, formed from carbohydrates during thermal processing in the course of caramelization and Maillard reactions, are intensively discussed as precursors for advanced glycation endproducts in foods and in vivo. To obtain information about the uptake of individual compounds with commonly consumed foods, a comprehensive analysis of the content of 3-deoxyglucosone (3-DG), 3-deoxygalactosone (3-DGal), and methylglyoxal (MGO) together with 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) in 173 food items like bakery products, pasta, nonalcoholic and alcoholic beverages, sweet spreads, and condiments was performed. Following suitable cleanup procedures, 1,2-dicarbonyl compounds were quantitated after derivatization with o-phenylenediamine via RP-HPLC with UV detection. 3-DG proved to be the predominant 1,2-dicarbonyl compound with concentrations up to 410 mg/L in fruit juices, 2622 mg/L in balsamic vinegars, and 385 mg/kg in cookies, thus exceeding the corresponding concentrations of HMF. 3-DGal was found to be of relevance in many foods even in the absence of galactose. MGO was only of minor quantitative importance in all foods studied, except for manuka honey. Dietary intake was estimated to range between 20 and 160 mg/day for 3-DG and 5 and 20 mg/day for MGO, respectively. PMID:22724891

  16. Two Herbivore-Induced Cytochrome P450 Enzymes CYP79D6 and CYP79D7 Catalyze the Formation of Volatile Aldoximes Involved in Poplar Defense[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Irmisch, Sandra; Clavijo McCormick, Andrea; Boeckler, G. Andreas; Schmidt, Axel; Reichelt, Michael; Schneider, Bernd; Block, Katja; Schnitzler, Jörg-Peter; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Unsicker, Sybille B.; Köllner, Tobias G.

    2013-01-01

    Aldoximes are known as floral and vegetative plant volatiles but also as biosynthetic intermediates for other plant defense compounds. While the cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYP) from the CYP79 family forming aldoximes as biosynthetic intermediates have been intensively studied, little is known about the enzymology of volatile aldoxime formation. We characterized two P450 enzymes, CYP79D6v3 and CYP79D7v2, which are involved in herbivore-induced aldoxime formation in western balsam poplar (Populus trichocarpa). Heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae revealed that both enzymes produce a mixture of different aldoximes. Knockdown lines of CYP79D6/7 in gray poplar (Populus × canescens) exhibited a decreased emission of aldoximes, nitriles, and alcohols, emphasizing that the CYP79s catalyze the first step in the formation of a complex volatile blend. Aldoxime emission was found to be restricted to herbivore-damaged leaves and is closely correlated with CYP79D6 and CYP79D7 gene expression. The semi-volatile phenylacetaldoxime decreased survival and weight gain of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) caterpillars, suggesting that aldoximes may be involved in direct defense. The wide distribution of volatile aldoximes throughout the plant kingdom and the presence of CYP79 genes in all sequenced genomes of angiosperms suggest that volatile formation mediated by CYP79s is a general phenomenon in the plant kingdom. PMID:24220631

  17. Simple gas chromatographic method for furfural analysis.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, Elvira M S M; Lopes, João F

    2009-04-01

    A new, simple, gas chromatographic method was developed for the direct analysis of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF), 2-furfural (2-F) and 5-methylfurfural (5-MF) in liquid and water soluble foods, using direct immersion SPME coupled to GC-FID and/or GC-TOF-MS. The fiber (DVB/CAR/PDMS) conditions were optimized: pH effect, temperature, adsorption and desorption times. The method is simple and accurate (RSD<8%), showed good recoveries (77-107%) and good limits of detection (GC-FID: 1.37 microgL(-1) for 2-F, 8.96 microgL(-1) for 5-MF, 6.52 microgL(-1) for 5-HMF; GC-TOF-MS: 0.3, 1.2 and 0.9 ngmL(-1) for 2-F, 5-MF and 5-HMF, respectively). It was applied to different commercial food matrices: honey, white, demerara, brown and yellow table sugars, and white and red balsamic vinegars. This one-step, sensitive and direct method for the analysis of furfurals will contribute to characterise and quantify their presence in the human diet. PMID:18976770

  18. The influence of top-down, bottom-up and abiotic factors on the moose (Alces alces) population of Isle Royale.

    PubMed

    Vucetich, John A; Peterson, Rolf O

    2004-01-22

    Long-term, concurrent measurement of population dynamics and associated top-down and bottom-up processes are rare for unmanipulated, terrestrial systems. Here, we analyse populations of moose, their predators (wolves, Canis lupus), their primary winter forage (balsam fir, Abies balsamea) and several climatic variables that were monitored for 40 consecutive years in Isle Royale National Park (544 km2), Lake Superior, USA. We judged the relative importance of top-down, bottom-up and abiotic factors on moose population growth rate by constructing multiple linear regression models, and calculating the proportion of interannual variation in moose population growth rate explained by each factor. Our analysis indicates that more variation in population growth rate is explained by bottom-up than top-down processes, and abiotic factors explain more variation than do bottom-up processes. Surprisingly, winter precipitation did not explain any significant variation in population growth rate. Like that detected for two Norwegian ungulate populations, the relationship between population growth rate and the North Atlantic Oscillation was nonlinear. Although this analysis provides significant insight, much remains unknown: of the models examined, the most parsimonious explain little more than half the variation in moose population growth rate. PMID:15058396

  19. The influence of top-down, bottom-up and abiotic factors on the moose (Alces alces) population of Isle Royale.

    PubMed Central

    Vucetich, John A.; Peterson, Rolf O.

    2004-01-01

    Long-term, concurrent measurement of population dynamics and associated top-down and bottom-up processes are rare for unmanipulated, terrestrial systems. Here, we analyse populations of moose, their predators (wolves, Canis lupus), their primary winter forage (balsam fir, Abies balsamea) and several climatic variables that were monitored for 40 consecutive years in Isle Royale National Park (544 km2), Lake Superior, USA. We judged the relative importance of top-down, bottom-up and abiotic factors on moose population growth rate by constructing multiple linear regression models, and calculating the proportion of interannual variation in moose population growth rate explained by each factor. Our analysis indicates that more variation in population growth rate is explained by bottom-up than top-down processes, and abiotic factors explain more variation than do bottom-up processes. Surprisingly, winter precipitation did not explain any significant variation in population growth rate. Like that detected for two Norwegian ungulate populations, the relationship between population growth rate and the North Atlantic Oscillation was nonlinear. Although this analysis provides significant insight, much remains unknown: of the models examined, the most parsimonious explain little more than half the variation in moose population growth rate. PMID:15058396

  20. Pervasive influence of large-scale climate in the dynamics of a terrestrial vertebrate community

    PubMed Central

    Post, Eric; Forchhammer, Mads C

    2001-01-01

    Background Large-scale climatic variability has been implicated in the population dynamics of many vertebrates throughout the Northern Hemisphere, but has not been demonstrated to directly influence dynamics at multiple trophic levels of any single system. Using data from Isle Royale, USA, comprising time series on the long-term dynamics at three trophic levels (wolves, moose, and balsam fir), we analyzed the relative contributions of density dependence, inter-specific interactions, and climate to the dynamics of each level of the community. Results Despite differences in dynamic complexity among the predator, herbivore, and vegetation levels, large-scale climatic variability influenced dynamics directly at all three levels. The strength of the climatic influence on dynamics was, however, strongest at the top and bottom trophic levels, where density dependence was weakest. Conclusions Because of the conflicting influences of environmental variability and intrinsic processes on population stability, a direct influence of climate on the dynamics at all three levels suggests that climate change may alter stability of this community. Theoretical considerations suggest that if it does, such alteration is most likely to result from changes in stability at the top or bottom trophic levels, where the influence of climate was strongest. PMID:11782292

  1. AmeriFlux CA-SF2 Saskatchewan - Western Boreal, forest burned in 1989.

    SciTech Connect

    Amiro, Brian

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site CA-SF2 Saskatchewan - Western Boreal, forest burned in 1989.. Site Description - Amiro_et_al_2006, AFM/136:...The 1989 burn site (F89) was northeast of Prince Albert National Park, Saskatchewan, with the humancaused fire covering 13,500 ha. Parts of the area had been logged prior to the fire, and slash residues would have been burned in some locations. Parts of the area were aerially seeded with jack pine seeds in the winter of 1990. The present tree canopy was composed of balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera L.), jack pine, trembling aspen, and birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) and prior to the fire, the stand consisted of these same species aswell asblack spruce.Deadsnags of black spruce and jack pinewere still standing, althoughmost had fallen over and formed a leaningmix of dry, dead tree boles. The understory vegetation consisted mostly of black spruce saplings, saplings of the tree overstory species, bearberry, blueberry (Vaccinium myrtilloides Michx.), raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.), rose (Rosa acicularis Lindl.), bunchberry (Cornus canadensis L.), and reed grass (Calamagrostis canadensis (Michx.) Nutt.).

  2. Enhancement of the Initial Growth Rate of Agricultural Plants by Using Static Magnetic Fields.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung C; Mason, Alex; Im, Wooseok

    2016-01-01

    Electronic devices and high-voltage wires induce magnetic fields. A magnetic field of 1,300-2,500 Gauss (0.2 Tesla) was applied to Petri dishes containing seeds of Garden Balsam (Impatiens balsamina), Mizuna (Brassica rapa var. japonica), Komatsuna (Brassica rapa var. perviridis), and Mescluns (Lepidium sativum). We applied magnets under the culture dish. During the 4 days of application, we observed that the stem and root length increased. The group subjected to magnetic field treatment (n = 10) showed a 1.4 times faster rate of growth compared with the control group (n = 11) in a total of 8 days (p <0.0005). This rate is 20% higher than that reported in previous studies. The tubulin complex lines did not have connecting points, but connecting points occur upon the application of magnets. This shows complete difference from the control, which means abnormal arrangements. However, the exact cause remains unclear. These results of growth enhancement of applying magnets suggest that it is possible to enhance the growth rate, increase productivity, or control the speed of germination of plants by applying static magnetic fields. Also, magnetic fields can cause physiological changes in plant cells and can induce growth. Therefore, stimulation with a magnetic field can have possible effects that are similar to those of chemical fertilizers, which means that the use of fertilizers can be avoided. PMID:27500712

  3. The influence of the annual invasive plant, Impatiens glandulifera, on the sediment dynamics of inland watercourses in temperate regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalvi, Shrutika; Greenwood, Philip

    2016-04-01

    Impatiens glandulifera (Common English Name - Himalayan Balsam) is a non native annual and highly invasive plant that was introduced into parts of Europe from the Himalaya during the nineteenth century as a colourful adornment to parks and gardens. This Plant colonises areas along the river banks, preferably wet, depositional sites, and displaces natural vegetation. The plant is killed by cold weather. The leaves area of riverbank previously occupied by the plant extremely vulnerable to soil erosion until new plant germinates in the following spring. Research work undertaken in the northwest Switzerland and the soutwestern United Kingdom established s link between accelerated soil erosion caused by Impatiens glandulifera and its detrimental impact on native biodiversity of riparian zone of river catchment area. This study focueses on the potential impact of such erosion on sediment quality. A priory reasoning suggests that the preference of Impatiens glandulifera on young depsotional sites near watercourses affects sediment quality. In this study, the results of a soil quality analysis along Impatiens glandulifera-contaminated river banks is presented. Soil physical and chemical properties are compared to non-affected sites to assess the potential impact of preferential erosion on water quality. In addtiion, soil surface profile (SSP) measuring based on by erosion pins, a micro profile bridge and a digital calliper at different selected locations along the riparian zone of river catchment area is used to determine erosion rates and determine sediment transfer from the riparian zone into the rivers.

  4. Gill histopathology of Maria-da-toca Hypleurochilus fissicornis by metacercariae of Bucephalus margaritae (Digenea: Bucephalidae).

    PubMed

    Silva, Renato Z; da Costa Marchiori, Natalia; Magalhães, Aimê Rachel M; Cousin, João Carlos B; Romano, Luis Alberto; Pereira, Joaber

    2016-06-01

    Gills of Maria-da-toca Hypleurochilus fissicornis collected at Ponta do Sambaqui-Florianópolis island-Brazil, were analyzed to describe the histopathology caused by metacercaria of Bucephalus margaritae. Gills were submitted to the routine histological techniques for embedding in paraffin and permanent mounting in Balsam and stereoscopic analysis. Metacercariae showed a branchial infection site pattern for encystations. The branchial infection site pattern is half-basalward in the primary branchial filament with amplitude of the infection of 1-3 metacercaria. Cysts occurred within branchial abductor muscle and cartilaginous and osseous tissues of the gills. Each metacercariae had a contentional hyaline parasitic capsule and melanin-like pigmentation. The half-apicalward region of the primary branchial filaments showed several dysplasia degrees, cartilage and osseous degeneration (pyknosis), thrombosis and immune exudated cells (mainly lymphocytes). Cytopathologies as thickening of the epithelium lining of the secondary branchial filaments were a response of the branchial infection site pattern of the metacercaria. Interlamellar obliteration and fusion of the lamellae due to the hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the epithelial lining as well as chloride cells occurred. Pyknosis of pillar cells and epithelial lining cells from the secondary branchial filaments were also present. Bucephalosis in H. fissicornis gills is no-hemorrhagic and no-fatal branchitis, but could compromises the gill functions and could permits the secondary opportunistic infections. PMID:27413297

  5. [Allergic contact dermatitis as a consequence of additional occupations].

    PubMed

    Paravina, M; Stanojević, M; Spalević, Lj; Jovanović, D

    1994-01-01

    During discovering etiology of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) anamnesis is of great importance (date of life, profession of a patients, activities besides the profession, habits, hobbies). Many people have additional professions, habits, hobbies). Many people have additional professions, either as hobbies or as financial reasons. They can show senzibilization to substances they come to contact with. The aim of this work is to point to this possibility of generating ACD. Five petients suffering from ACD were presented. All of them were tested by standard series and by substances thej came to contact with, while going in for additional occupations. 1. A metalsmith, going in for beekeeping, had positive tests to propolis and balsam of Peru. 2. A construction worker growing fruit, hat positive tests to TMT and fingicid melpreks. 3. Stics weaver, engaging in constructions work, had positive tests to potassium bichromate. 4. Retired professor in matematics, engaged in constructions works, had positive tests to potassium bichromate, too. 5. A law student, going in for photography, had positive tests to colour film developer. The nature of allergens, length of exposure, possibilites for elimination of allergens, means of protection etc have been discussed. It was conslused that a detail examination of patients was necessary for proving causes of ACD. PMID:18173214

  6. The Cucurbit Images (1515–1518) of the Villa Farnesina, Rome

    PubMed Central

    JANICK, JULES; PARIS, HARRY S.

    2006-01-01

    • Background The gorgeous frescoes organized by the master Renaissance painter Raphael Sanzio (1483–1520) and illustrating the heavenly adventures of Cupid and Psyche were painted between 1515 and 1518 to decorate the Roman villa (now known as the Villa Farnesina) of the wealthy Sienese banker Agostino Chigi (1466–1520). Surrounding these paintings are festoons of fruits, vegetables and flowers painted by Giovanni Martini da Udine (1487–1564), which include over 170 species of plants. A deconstruction and collation of the cucurbit images in the festoons makes it possible to evaluate the genetic diversity of cucurbits in Renaissance Italy 500 years ago. • Findings The festoons contain six species of Old World cucurbits, Citrullus lanatus (watermelon), Cucumis melo (melon), Cucumis sativus (cucumber), Ecballium elaterium (squirting cucumber), Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd) and Momordica balsamina (balsam apple), and two or three species of New World cucurbits, Cucurbita maxima, C. pepo and, perhaps, C. moschata (pumpkin, squash, gourd). The images of C. maxima are the first illustrations of this species in Europe. PMID:16314340

  7. Biochemical analysis of the crude extract of Momordica charantia (L.).

    PubMed

    Dar, Ume Kalsoom; Owais, Farah; Ahmad, Manzoor; Rizwani, Ghazala H

    2014-11-01

    Momordica charantia (L.) commonly referred as bitter gourd, karela and balsam pear. Its fruit is used for the treatment of diabetes and related conditions amongst the indigenous populations of Asia, South America, India and East Africa. The study was conducted to find out the biochemical aspects of crude extract of whole fruit of M. charantia including seeds which includes blood test (Hemoglobin, RBC, Total leukocyte count, platelets count, HbA1C (Glycocylated heamoglobin Type A1C)), Lipid profile test and electrolyte balance. Hemoglobin (7.1±0.14), platelets count (827 ×109±1.95), Cholesterol level (111±2), HDL (high density lipoproteins) (20±1.22) at 10mg shows marked increase in values as compared to control. While 25 mg dose shows insignificant result. Electrolyte balance are found significant at 10mg and 25mg except bicarbonates (Na(+¬)=143±1.87, K-=3.45±0.35, Cl(-) =108±1.48). Another important property of M. charantia is the elevation of platelet counts, heamoglobin and specifically high-density lipoproteins (HDL). It also controls cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL and VLDL at low dosage (10mg). Further studies can be conducted to find out which phytochemical components acts on specific biochemical activity. PMID:26045386

  8. Synchronisms and correlations of spring phenology between apical and lateral meristems in two boreal conifers.

    PubMed

    Antonucci, Serena; Rossi, Sergio; Deslauriers, Annie; Lombardi, Fabio; Marchetti, Marco; Tognetti, Roberto

    2015-10-01

    Phenological synchronisms between apical and lateral meristems could clarify some aspects related to the physiological relationships among the different organs of trees. This study correlated the phenological phases of bud development and xylem differentiation during spring 2010-14 in balsam fir (Abies balsamea Mill.) and black spruce [(Picea mariana Mill. (BSP)] of the Monts-Valin National Park (Quebec, Canada) by testing the hypothesis that bud development occurs after the reactivation of xylem growth. From May to September, we conducted weekly monitoring of xylem differentiation using microcores and bud development with direct observations on terminal branches. Synchronism between the beginning of bud development and xylem differentiation was found in both species with significant correlations between the phases of bud and xylem phenology. Degree-day sum was more appropriate in assessing the date of bud growth resumption, while thermal thresholds were more suitable for cambium phenology. Our results provide new knowledge on the dynamics of spring phenology and novel information on the synchronisms between two meristems in coniferous trees. The study demonstrates the importance of precisely defining the phases of bud development in order to correctly analyse the relationships with xylem phenology. PMID:26377874

  9. Anti-adipogenic activities of Alnus incana and Populus balsamifera bark extracts, part I: sites and mechanisms of action.

    PubMed

    Martineau, Louis C; Hervé, Jessica; Muhamad, Asim; Saleem, Ammar; Harris, Cory S; Arnason, John T; Haddad, Pierre S

    2010-09-01

    Obesity is an epidemic in most developed countries and novel therapeutic approaches are needed. In the course of a screening project of medicinal plants used by the Eastern James Bay Cree of Canada and having potential for the treatment of diabetes, we have identified several products that inhibit adipogenesis, suggesting potential antiobesity activities. The inhibitory activity of two of these, the extract of the inner bark of the deciduous trees Alnus incana ssp. rugosa (Speckled Alder) and Populus balsamifera L. (Balsam Poplar), was analyzed using the 3T3-L1 cell model of adipogenesis. Intracellular triglyceride accumulation, pre-adipocyte proliferation, and PPAR- γ activity were measured. Alnus incana extracts acted early in the differentiation process but did not affect clonal expansion of pre-adipocytes nor the morphological transformation from fibroblast-like to rounded fat-laden cells. Alnus incana extracts were found to act as partial agonists toward PPAR- γ activity. In contrast, Populus balsamifera extracts completely abrogated adipogenesis, severely limited clonal expansion of pre-adipocytes and generally maintained cells in an undifferentiated fibroblast-like morphology. Populus balsamifera extracts exerted antagonistic action against PPAR- γ activity. It is concluded that, through their actions on the adipocyte, these plant products may be useful for the treatment of obesity and related metabolic diseases. PMID:20301057

  10. Vegetation and disturbance history of two forest stands in northern New York using paleoecological data from small forest hollows

    SciTech Connect

    Kearsley, J.B.; Jackson, S.T.

    1995-06-01

    Pollen, macrofossils and charcoal from two small hollows (<0.05 ha) were analyzed to reconstruct the vegetational history of an outwash plain in the central Adirondack upland of New York. The basins are located 700 meters apart in contrasting modern vegetation at 461 in elevation. Dave`s Lost Hollow (DLH) is in a hemlock-dominated old-growth forest with yellow birch, red spruce and red maple, and Valhalla Hollow (VH) is surrounded by second-growth forest of white pine, balsam fir, paper birch and red maple. The record from DLH spans the entire Holocene, while VH provides data for the late Holocene. Modem pollen-vegetation data from 26 closed-canopy sites in the area provide evidence for the fine-scale sensing properties of closed- canopy pollen assemblages. We found abundant jack pine needles during the early Holocene at DLH. In contrast, data from the High Peaks, 30 km to the east, show white pine as the dominant pine species during that time period. DLH provides an early Holocene record for yellow birch in the region, whereas yellow birch was not present in the High Peaks until 6,000 yrs. B.P.

  11. Decline of red spruce in the Adirondacks, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, J.T.; Siccama, T.G.; Johnson, A.H.; Breisch, A.R.

    1984-01-01

    Thirty-two stands in the spruce-fir forests of Whiteface Mountain in the Adirondacks, originally sampled from 1964-66, were resurveyed in 1982. From 10-25 Bitterlich points were used in each stand in 1982 to obtain an estimate of basal area per hectare. Data were summarized for low elevation (<900m) and high elevation (> or = 900m) forests. Red spruce declined by 40-60% in basal area for the low elevation forests and by 60-70% above 900m. Balsam fir decreased by 35% at high elevations, due to natural disturbance in several of the stands, but was unchanged when only undisturbed stands were considered. The decline of red spruce accounted for about three quarters of the total decrease in basal area for both the high- and low-elevation forests. Spruce seedling frequency for the high-elevation sample decreased by 80%, but was unchanged below 900m. The pattern of spruce decline in the Adirondacks is similar to findings for New England. The cause of the decline is speculative at the time.

  12. Chemical and functional characterization of Italian propolis obtained by different harvesting methods.

    PubMed

    Papotti, Giulia; Bertelli, Davide; Bortolotti, Laura; Plessi, Maria

    2012-03-21

    The composition and antioxidant activity of Italian poplar propolis obtained using three harvesting methods and extracted with different solvents were evaluated. Waxes, balsams, and resins contents were determined. Flavones and flavonols, flavanones and dihydroflavonols, and total phenolics were also analyzed. To characterize the phenolic composition, the presence of 15 compounds was verified through HPLC-MS/MS. The antioxidant activity was evaluated through 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical and reducing power assays. The ability of propolis to inhibit lipid oxidation was monitored by analyzing hydroperoxide and TBARS formation in lipids incorporated into an oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion. Acetone shows the highest extraction capacity. Wedge propolis has the highest concentration of active phenolic compounds (TP = 359.1 ± 16.3 GAEs/g; TFF = 5.83 ± 0.42%; TFD = 7.34 ± 1.8%) and seems to be the most promising for obtaining high-value propolis more suitable to prepare high-quality dietary supplements (TBARS = 0.012 ± 0.009 mmol std/g; RP = 0.77 ± 0.07 TEs/g). PMID:22360702

  13. Volatile composition of six horsetails: prospects and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Fons, Françoise; Froissard, Didier; Bessière, Jean-Marie; Fruchier, Alain; Buatois, Bruno; Rapior, Sylvie

    2013-04-01

    Six horsetails were investigated for volatile organic compounds (VOC) by GC-MS using organic solvent extraction. Seventy-five VOC biosynthesized from the shikimic, lipidic and terpenic pathways including isoprenoid derivatives were detected from these putative natural resources. E. palustre var. americana contained mainly lipidic derivatives, i.e., 1-octen-3-ol (mushroom-like odor), (E)-2-hexenoic acid (fruity odor) and (E)-2-hexenal (green odor). Many isoprenoid flavour precursors, i.e., 3-oxo-alpha-ionol (spicy odor) and (E,E)-pseudoionone (balsamic odor), as well as odorous benzenic derivatives, i.e, phenylethanal (hyacinth, lilac note) and 2-phenylethanol (rose odor) contributed to the odor of E. arvense. The volatile pattern of E. telmateia is dominated by high amounts of isoprenoids and benzenic derivatives. The complex volatile profiles of E. hyemale and E. ramosissimum are based on ferulic acid isomers, along with either (E)-2-heptenal (green vegetable-like odor) or 4-vinylguaiacol (spicy clove smoky odor) for E. hyemale and E. ramosissimum, respectively. The broad spectrum of E. scirpioides shows the lowest VOC content with high amount of isoprenoids (46.9%), mainly ionone derivatives. Equisetum resources are of great interest as bioactive litter and new potential functional feed ingredients. PMID:23738466

  14. Quantile-Quantile Plots:. AN Approach for the Inter-Species Comparison of Promoter Architecture in Eukaryotes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldmeier, Kaspar; Kilian, Joachim; Harter, Klaus; Wanke, Dierk; Berendzen, Kenneth W.

    2011-01-01

    Regulatory non-coding DNA is important to drive gene transcription and thereby influence mRNA and consequently protein abundance. Therefore, biologists and bioinformation scientists aim to extract meaningful information from these sequence regions, in particular upstream regulation regions called promoters, and conclude on regulatory sequence function. While some approaches have been successful for single genes or a single genome, it is an open question whether information on promoter function can readily be transferred between different species. Thus, it is useful for biologists to know more about the general structure and composition of promoters including the occurrence of cisregulatory DNA-elements (CREs) to be able to compare promoter architecture between organisms. To approach this task, we utilized the fully sequenced genomes of the plant model organisms: mouse-ear cress (Arabidopsis thaliana), western balsam poplar (Populus trichocarpa), Sorghum bicolor and rice (Oryza sativa). For the interspecies comparison we made use of quantile-quantile (QQ)-plots of the variances of hexanucleotides or known functional CREs of core-promoter regions. Here, we suggest that the differences in promoter architecture correlate with the sizes of the intergenic space, i.e. regions, in which the promoters are located. In contrast, analysis of CREs is hampered by the general lack of well characterized transcription factor-CRE-relationships.

  15. Two herbivore-induced cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP79D6 and CYP79D7 catalyze the formation of volatile aldoximes involved in poplar defense.

    PubMed

    Irmisch, Sandra; McCormick, Andrea Clavijo; Boeckler, G Andreas; Schmidt, Axel; Reichelt, Michael; Schneider, Bernd; Block, Katja; Schnitzler, Jörg-Peter; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Unsicker, Sybille B; Köllner, Tobias G

    2013-11-01

    Aldoximes are known as floral and vegetative plant volatiles but also as biosynthetic intermediates for other plant defense compounds. While the cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYP) from the CYP79 family forming aldoximes as biosynthetic intermediates have been intensively studied, little is known about the enzymology of volatile aldoxime formation. We characterized two P450 enzymes, CYP79D6v3 and CYP79D7v2, which are involved in herbivore-induced aldoxime formation in western balsam poplar (Populus trichocarpa). Heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae revealed that both enzymes produce a mixture of different aldoximes. Knockdown lines of CYP79D6/7 in gray poplar (Populus × canescens) exhibited a decreased emission of aldoximes, nitriles, and alcohols, emphasizing that the CYP79s catalyze the first step in the formation of a complex volatile blend. Aldoxime emission was found to be restricted to herbivore-damaged leaves and is closely correlated with CYP79D6 and CYP79D7 gene expression. The semi-volatile phenylacetaldoxime decreased survival and weight gain of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) caterpillars, suggesting that aldoximes may be involved in direct defense. The wide distribution of volatile aldoximes throughout the plant kingdom and the presence of CYP79 genes in all sequenced genomes of angiosperms suggest that volatile formation mediated by CYP79s is a general phenomenon in the plant kingdom. PMID:24220631

  16. Antidiabetic effects of Momordica charantia (bitter melon) and its medicinal potency

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Baby; Jini, D

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is among the most common disorder in developed and developing countries, and the disease is increasing rapidly in most parts of the world. It has been estimated that up to one-third of patients with diabetes mellitus use some form of complementary and alternative medicine. One plant that has received the most attention for its anti-diabetic properties is bitter melon, Momordica charantia (M. charantia), commonly referred to as bitter gourd, karela and balsam pear. Its fruit is also used for the treatment of diabetes and related conditions amongst the indigenous populations of Asia, South America, India and East Africa. Abundant pre-clinical studies have documented in the anti-diabetic and hypoglycaemic effects of M. charantia through various postulated mechanisms. However, clinical trial data with human subjects are limited and flawed by poor study design and low statistical power. The present review is an attempt to highlight the antidiabetic activity as well as phytochemical and pharmacological reports on M. charantia and calls for better-designed clinical trials to further elucidate its possible therapeutic effects on diabetes.

  17. Fate of spinosad in litter and soils of a white spruce plantation in central Ontario.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Dean G; Harris, Brenda J; Buscarini, Teresa M; Chartrand, Derek T

    2002-04-01

    Spinosad is a natural insecticide with potential as a novel biorational control agent for spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana [Clem]), the most destructive insect defoliator of spruce and balsam fir in Canada. Concurrent terrestrial fate experiments were conducted under full coniferous canopy and in a natural opening of a mature white spruce (Piecea glauca [Moench]) plantation of central Ontario to examine the fate and persistence of spinosad in the forest floor and underlying soils. Mean initial residues of spinosyn A and D were approximately 0.2 and 0.02 microgram g-1, respectively, in thatch and exposed soils, but were substantially higher, 2.72 and 0.36 micrograms g-1, in litter under coniferous canopy. Results demonstrated that spinosad residues in spruce litter, graminaceous thatch and exposed sandy loam soils dissipated rapidly, following hyperbolic or exponential decline models. Dissipation time (DT50) values ranged from 2.0 to 7.8 days, depending on matrix and experimental conditions. Transient increases in demethylated metabolite residues confirmed that the parent product was degraded in situ. No evidence of vertical mobility of any of the analytes was observed. PMID:11975189

  18. Identification and characterization of CYP79D6v4, a cytochrome P450 enzyme producing aldoximes in black poplar (Populus nigra).

    PubMed

    Irmisch, Sandra; Unsicker, Sybille B; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Köllner, Tobias G

    2013-01-01

    After herbivore feeding, poplar trees produce complex volatile blends containing terpenes, green leaf volatiles, aromatics, and nitrogen-containing compounds such as aldoximes and nitriles. It has been shown recently that volatile aldoximes released from gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) caterpillar-damaged black poplar (Populus nigra) trees attract parasitoids that are caterpillar enemies. In western balsam poplar (P. trichocarpa), volatile aldoximes are produced by 2 P450 monooxygenases, CYP79D6v3 and CYP79D7v2. A gene fragment with high similarity to CYP79D6/7 was recently shown to be upregulated in herbivore-damaged leaves of P. nigra. In the present study we report the cloning and characterization of this gene, designated as CYP79D6v4. Recombinant CYP79D6v4 was able to convert different amino acids into the corresponding aldoximes, which were also found in the volatile blend of P. nigra. Thus, CYP79D6v4 is most likely involved in herbivore-induced aldoxime formation in black poplar. PMID:24390071

  19. AmeriFlux CA-Gro Ontario - Groundhog River, Boreal Mixedwood Forest.

    DOE Data Explorer

    McCaughey, Harry [Queen's University

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site CA-Gro Ontario - Groundhog River, Boreal Mixedwood Forest.. Site Description - Groundhog River (FCRN or CCP site "ON-OMW") is situated in a typical boreal mixedwood forest in northeastern Ontario (48.217 degrees north and 82.156 degrees west) about 80 km southwest of Timmins in Reeves Twp. near the Groundhog River. Rowe (1972) places the site in the Missinaibi-Cabonga Section of the Boreal Forest Region. In terms of ecoregion and ecozone, the site is in the Lake Timiskaming Lowlands of the Boreal Shield. The forest developed after high-grade logging in the 1930's. The average age in 2013 is estimated at beteen 75 and 80 years. The forest is dominated by five species characteristic of Ontario boreal mixedwoods: trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.), black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.), white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench.) Voss.), white birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.), and balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.). The surficial geology is a lacustrine deposit of varved or massive clays, silts and silty sands. The soil is an orthic gleysol with a soil moisture regime classified as fresh to very fresh. Plonski (1974) rates it as a site class 1. The topography is simple and flat with an overall elevation of 340 m ASL.

  20. [Chronic urticaria from the aspect of autoimmune diseases].

    PubMed

    Jovanović, M; Lenert, P; Poljacki, M; Mitić, I; Duran, V

    1995-01-01

    At some time in their lives one in a five persons is affected by urticaria and/or angioedema. The cause of urticaria may never be found in up to one quarter of patients with acute urticaria and in up to 90-95% with chronic urticaria. In this study we present results of our compounded approach (clinical follow up, laboratory findings, allergological testing) to patients with chronic urticaria and autoimmune diseases that progressed into chronic urticaria or started before the onset of the chronic urticaria. Our first case was a 56 year old woman with a 10 month history of chronic urticaria, angioedema and chronic gastritis before the diagnoses of insulin dependent Diabetes mellitus and Hypothyreoidismus primarius were established. Allergological testing reveals specific clinical significant immediate reaction to Balsam Peru. After adequate substitutional therapy was advocated and with specific clinical avoidance of offended allergen, remission was obtained. The second case was a 46 year old female suffering from chronic urticaria (with clinical features of urticaria like vasculitis) associated with hypocomplementemia (particularly C4 depressed) with negative antinuclear antibodies but positive circulating immune complexes after a 2 year follow up the patient developed Systemic lupus erythematosus. The third case was a 63 year old woman who developed chronic urticaria 3 years after total thyroidectomy, with pathological finding of Thyroiditis lymphocytaria-Hashimoto; after the allergological testing, positive lymphocyte transformation test revealed allergical sensitization to Vobenol was substituted with Thyvoral, complete remission was obtained. PMID:7565341

  1. Cyanobacterial gardens: the liverwort Frullania asagrayana acts as a reservoir of lichen photobionts.

    PubMed

    Cornejo, Carolina; Scheidegger, Christoph

    2016-06-01

    Cyanobacteria are important mediators of unrelated lichen species, which form epiphytic communities that share the same cyanobiont. No study to date, however, has considered the role of cyanobacteria as mediator between lichens and bryophytes. In the present study, DNA barcoding (16S rDNA, rbcLX) was used to identify filamentous cyanobacteria living in close association with members of an epiphytic liverwort-lichen community on balsam fir in Newfoundland. This study is the first to confirm the presence of Rhizonema strains in boreal forests where they are associated with the liverwort Frullania asagrayana and several lichen species. The majority of cyanobacterial haplotypes can associate with the liverwort, however, some lichen species appear to be more selective for single or closely related haplotypes. Some Rhizonema strains were found exclusively in association with boreal lichens, while others seem to be globally distributed and involved in different lichen symbioses of unrelated fungal lineages and of varying ecological traits. Complex biological interactions in a cyanobacteria-mediated guild are proposed here, which explains composition and dynamics in bryophyte and lichen-dominated epiphytic communities. PMID:26929112

  2. Chunkwood production: a new concept

    SciTech Connect

    Arola, R.A.; Winsauer, S.A.; Radcliffe, R.C.; Smith, M.R.

    1983-07-01

    Small trees from noncommercial or poor quality stands and residue should be utilized to help meet the growing demand for fiber or fuel and to extend quality timber supplies. A revolutionary wood chunker has been developed and laboratory tested for reducing small diameter bolts into chunky wood particles considerable larger than conventional pulp chips. Chunkwood appears to offer excellent utilization opportunities as energy wood or as an intermediate for manufacturing composite flakewood products. Research study data obtained for six Lake States's species indicate the energy requirements for chunking are approximately one-third of that required for the whole-tree chipping - values ranged from 1.2 hp-min/cu.ft for balsam fir to 2.5 hp-min/cu.ft for sugar maple. Chunkwood production rate for test bolts ranging between 5.0 to 8.5 inches in diameter averaged 36 cubic feet per minute at 100 percent machine availability. Graphical data show the effects of species (wood density), bolt diameter, feed rate, and disk speed on rate of production, power, and energy. Results for frozen wood and thicker cutting blades indicate energy requirements increase and production rate decreases. The chunks, averaging about 3.5 inches in length, had a bulk density ranging from 20 to 25 pcf with an all species average of 22 pcf. Information regarding US and foreign licensing can be obtained upon request from the National Technical Information Service, US Department of Commerce. 3 references

  3. Associated terrestrial and marine fossils in the late-glacial Presumpscot Formation, southern Maine, USA, and the marine reservoir effect on radiocarbon ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Woodrow B.; Griggs, Carol B.; Miller, Norton G.; Nelson, Robert E.; Weddle, Thomas K.; Kilian, Taylor M.

    2011-05-01

    Excavations in the late-glacial Presumpscot Formation at Portland, Maine, uncovered tree remains and other terrestrial organics associated with marine invertebrate shells in a landslide deposit. Buds of Populus balsamifera (balsam poplar) occurred with twigs of Picea glauca (white spruce) in the Presumpscot clay. Tree rings in Picea logs indicate that the trees all died during winter dormancy in the same year. Ring widths show patterns of variation indicating responses to environmental changes. Fossil mosses and insects represent a variety of species and wet to dry microsites. The late-glacial environment at the site was similar to that of today's Maine coast. Radiocarbon ages of 14 tree samples are 11,907 ± 31 to 11,650 ± 50 14C yr BP. Wiggle matching of dated tree-ring segments to radiocarbon calibration data sets dates the landslide occurrence at ca. 13,520 + 95/-20 cal yr BP. Ages of shells juxtaposed with the logs are 12,850 ± 65 14C yr BP ( Mytilus edulis) and 12,800 ± 55 14C yr BP ( Balanus sp.), indicating a marine reservoir age of about 1000 yr. Using this value to correct previously published radiocarbon ages reduces the discrepancy between the Maine deglaciation chronology and the varve-based chronology elsewhere in New England.

  4. Chewing lice (Phthiraptera) species of wild birds in northwestern Turkey with a new host record☆

    PubMed Central

    Girisgin, Ahmet Onur; Dik, Bilal; Girisgin, Oya

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to identify the chewing lice species of migratory and non-migratory wild birds in the province of Bursa, which is located in northwestern Turkey, between August 2009 and November 2012. Sixty-eight birds brought to the animal hospital in need of medical intervention, which belonged to 25 species, 20 genera and 15 families in 10 orders, were examined for ectoparasites. To sample for the presence of chewing lice, an insecticide was pulverised on the feathers of each bird over a white piece of paper, and then all of the lice were collected and placed in tubes containing 70% alcohol. The lice specimens were cleared in 10% KOH for 24 h, mounted in Canada balsam and identified using a light microscope. Forty (58.8%) out of 68 birds examined were infested with at least one species of chewing lice, and a total of 29 lice species were found on the birds. This study represents the first documentation in Turkey of 9 of these lice species and also provides the first worldwide record of Degeeriella nisus on the Common buzzard (Buteo buteo). PMID:24533339

  5. A single method to stain Malassezia furfur and Corynebacterium minutissimum in scales.

    PubMed

    Padilha-Gonçalves, A

    1996-01-01

    The scales are collected by pressing small pieces of scotch tape (about 4 cm length and 2 cm width) onto the lesions and following withdrawal the furfuraceous scales will remain on the glue side. These pieces are then immersed for some minutes in lactophenol-cotton blue stain. Following absorption of the stain the scales are washed in current water to remove the excess of blue stain, dried with filter paper, dehydrated via passage in two bottles containing absolute alcohol and then placed in xylene in a centrifugation tube. The xylene dissolves the scotch tape glue and the scales fall free in the tube. After centrifugation and decantation the scales concentrated on the bottom of the tube are collected with a platinum-loop, placed in Canada balsam on a microscopy slide and closed with a cover slip. The preparations are then ready to be submitted to microscopic examination. Other stains may also be used instead of lactophenol-cotton blue. This method is simple, easily performed, and offers good conditions to study these fungi as well as being useful for the diagnosis of the diseases that they cause. PMID:9216113

  6. Female exhibitionism: identification, competition and camaraderie.

    PubMed

    Holtzman, Deanna; Kulish, Nancy

    2012-04-01

    The ancient figure of Baubo plays a pivotal role in the Greek myth of Demeter and Persephone with an exhibitionistic act that brings Demeter out of her depression. The Baubo episode raises questions about the meaning of female exhibitionism, suggesting divergences from earlier psychoanalytic conceptualizations as either a perversion or a compensation for the lack of a penis. In line with contemporary thinking about primary femininity, such as that of Balsam or Elise, the authors propose a more inclusive understanding of female exhibitionism, which would encompass pleasure in the female body and its sexual and reproductive functions. They argue that female exhibitionism can reflect triangular or "oedipal" scenarios and the need to attract the male, identification with the mother, competition or camaraderie with other women, a sense of power in the female body and its capacities, as well as homoerotic impulses. The authors posit a dual early desire and identification with the mother that underlie and characterize female sexual development. The authors present clinical data from adolescent and adult cases of female exhibitionism which illustrate these Baubo-like aspects and discuss the technical issues that are involved in such cases. PMID:22471632

  7. Comparative study of Finn Chambers and T.R.U.E. test methodologies in detecting the relevant allergens inducing contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Suneja, T; Belsito, D V

    2001-12-01

    T.R.U.E. Test is a ready-to-use patch test system, which contains 23 allergens and is the only Food and Drug Administration-approved source of allergens currently commercially available in the United States. Previously, allergens dispersed in either petrolatum or water and designed to be applied utilizing Finn Chambers were also commercially available in the United States. During a 5-year study at the University of Kansas Medical Center, 167 patients were patch tested using both Finn Chamber and T.R.U.E. Test methodologies. Discordant positive reactions were examined for clinical relevance. The Finn Chamber methodology was superior in detecting clinically relevant allergies to fragrance mix, balsam of Peru, and thiuram mix. T.R.U.E. Test performed somewhat better than the Finn Chamber in detecting relevant allergic reactions to nickel, neomycin, and methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone. Neither T.R.U.E. Test nor Finn Chamber methodologies performed optimally in detecting relevant allergies to formaldehyde and carbamates. Practitioners limited to only the T.R.U.E. Test methodology need to be aware that relevant reactions to fragrances, rubber accelerators/pesticides (carbamates and thiurams), and formaldehyde may be missed with this system. PMID:11712026

  8. Initial responses of rove and ground beetles (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Carabidae) to removal of logging residues following clearcut harvesting in the boreal forest of Quebec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Work, Timothy T; Klimaszewski, Jan; Thiffault, Evelyne; Bourdon, Caroline; Paré, David; Bousquet, Yves; Venier, Lisa; Titus, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Increased interest in biomass harvesting for bioenergetic applications has raised questions regarding the potential ecological consequences on forest biodiversity. Here we evaluate the initial changes in the abundance, species richness and community composition of rove (Staphylinidae) and ground beetles (Carabidae), immediately following 1) stem-only harvesting (SOH), in which logging debris (i.e., tree tops and branches) are retained on site, and 2) whole-tree harvesting (WTH), in which stems, tops and branches are removed in mature balsam fir stands in Quebec, Canada. Beetles were collected throughout the summer of 2011, one year following harvesting, using pitfall traps. Overall catch rates were greater in uncut forest (Control) than either stem-only or whole-tree harvested sites. Catch rates in WTH were greater than SOH sites. Uncut stands were characterized primarily by five species: Atheta capsularis, Atheta klagesi, Atheta strigosula, Tachinus fumipennis/frigidus complex (Staphylinidae) and to a lesser extent to Pterostichus punctatissimus(Carabidae). Increased catch rates in WTH sites, where post-harvest biomass was less, were attributable to increased catches of rove beetles Pseudopsis subulata, Quedius labradorensis and to a lesser extent Gabrius brevipennis. We were able to characterize differences in beetle assemblages between harvested and non-harvested plots as well as differences between whole tree (WTH) and stem only (SOH) harvested sites where logging residues had been removed or left following harvest. However, the overall assemblage response was largely a recapitulation of the responses of several abundant species. PMID:23653498

  9. Initial responses of rove and ground beetles (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Carabidae) to removal of logging residues following clearcut harvesting in the boreal forest of Quebec, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Work, Timothy T.; Klimaszewski, Jan; Thiffault, Evelyne; Bourdon, Caroline; Paré, David; Bousquet, Yves; Venier, Lisa; Titus, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Increased interest in biomass harvesting for bioenergetic applications has raised questions regarding the potential ecological consequences on forest biodiversity. Here we evaluate the initial changes in the abundance, species richness and community composition of rove (Staphylinidae) and ground beetles (Carabidae), immediately following 1) stem-only harvesting (SOH), in which logging debris (i.e., tree tops and branches) are retained on site, and 2) whole-tree harvesting (WTH), in which stems, tops and branches are removed in mature balsam fir stands in Quebec, Canada. Beetles were collected throughout the summer of 2011, one year following harvesting, using pitfall traps. Overall catch rates were greater in uncut forest (Control) than either stem-only or whole-tree harvested sites. Catch rates in WTH were greater than SOH sites. Uncut stands were characterized primarily by five species: Atheta capsularis, Atheta klagesi, Atheta strigosula, Tachinus fumipennis/frigidus complex (Staphylinidae) and to a lesser extent to Pterostichus punctatissimus (Carabidae). Increased catch rates in WTH sites, where post-harvest biomass was less, were attributable to increased catches of rove beetles Pseudopsis subulata, Quedius labradorensis and to a lesser extent Gabrius brevipennis. We were able to characterize differences in beetle assemblages between harvested and non-harvested plots as well as differences between whole tree (WTH) and stem only (SOH) harvested sites where logging residues had been removed or left following harvest. However, the overall assemblage response was largely a recapitulation of the responses of several abundant species. PMID:23653498

  10. HTO and OBT concentrations in a wetland ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S. B.; Workman, W. J. G.; Davis, P. A.; Yankovich, T.

    2008-07-15

    Tritiated water (HTO) and organically bound tritium (OBT) concentrations in the non-human biota inhabiting Duke Swamp were measured during the 2005 growing season. Samples of surface water, soil, plants, precipitation, wild animals and air moisture were collected from 2005 May to October at five locations in the swamp and analyzed for their tritium content. HTO concentrations in air moisture decreased with height since the tritium source is in the ground. Soil HTO concentrations were not closely related to the concentrations in nearby surface water and the HTO concentration in balsam fir needles showed no clear pattern with height. HTO concentrations in moss, grass and alder leaves decreased in September, which is the time when metabolic activity is reduced. OBT concentrations in a given compartment showed less variation than the HTO concentrations in that compartment. The OBT/HTO ratio was approximately one for soil and less than one for plants, with the exception of lichen. The OBT/HTO ratio in most wild animals was also less than one, but increased to more than 2.0 for mice. Although the tritium concentrations varied substantially in space and time in Duke Swamp, the fact that OBT/HTO <1 for most compartments suggests that equilibrium conditions hold locally. (authors)

  11. Composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of seven essential oils from the North American boreal forest.

    PubMed

    Poaty, Bouddah; Lahlah, Jasmina; Porqueres, Félicia; Bouafif, Hassine

    2015-06-01

    Essential oils (EOs) were steam-extracted from the needles and twigs of balsam fir, black spruce, white spruce, tamarack, jack pine and eastern white cedar that remained after logging in eastern Canada. These EOs, similarly to that from Labrador tea and other commercial EOs from Chinese cinnamon, clove and lemon eucalyptus, exhibited many common constituent compounds (mainly α-pinene, β-pinene, limonene and bornyl acetate) making up 91% of each oil based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. All of these oils exhibited antibacterial properties, especially when examined in closed tube assay compared to the traditional 96-well microliter format. These antimicrobial activities (minimum inhibitory concentration ≥ 0.2% w/v), comparable to those of exotic EOs, were shown against common pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The antioxidant potential of the boreal samples was determined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging (concentration providing 50% inhibition ≥ 7 mg/ml) and reducing power methods. Finally, this investigation revealed some boreal EOs to be potential antimicrobial and antioxidant agents that would notably benefit products in the personal hygiene and care industry. PMID:25801172

  12. (abstract) Monitoring Seasonal Change in Taiga Forests Using ERS-1 SAR Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Way, JoBea; Rignot, Eric; McDonald, Kyle; Viereck, Leslie; Williams, Cynthia; Adams, Phyllis; Payne, Cheryl; Wood, William

    1993-01-01

    Sensitivity of radar backscatter to the dielectric and geometric character of forested regions suggests significant changes in backscatter are expected with season due to freezing temperatures, snow, wind, leaf fall, and drought. The first European Remote Sensing Satellite, ERS-1, offers a unique opportunity to monitor a complete seasonal cycle for the Alaskan taiga forest ecosystem with synthetic aperture radar. During the 3-day repeat Commissioning Phase of ERS-1, from August 1991to December 1991, ERS-1 SAR data were collected in the region of Manley Hot Springs, Alaska, along the Tanana River, west of Fairbanks. In parallel with the SAR data collection, meteorological data from three weather stations positioned in three forest stands were collected continuously along with in situ measurements of the dielectric and moisture properties of the canopy and of ground cover which were collected during each overflight. The in situ data were collected in floodplain forest stands dominated by balsam poplar, white spruce, and black spruce. These results from the Commissioning Phase as well as preliminary results from the 35-day Repeat Phase will be presented.

  13. Mechanics of water collection in plants via morphology change of conical hairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Fuyu; Komatsubara, Satoshi; Shigezawa, Naoki; Morikawa, Hideaki; Murakami, Yasushi; Yoshino, Katsumi; Yamanaka, Shigeru

    2015-03-01

    In an arid area like the Namib Desert, plants and animals obtain moisture needed for life from mist in the air. There, some plants have hairs or fibrous structures on their leaf surface that reportedly collect fresh water from the air. We examined the morphology and function of leaf hairs of plants during water collection under different circumstances. We studied the water collecting mechanics of several plants having fibrous hairs on their leaves: tomato, balsam pear, Berkheya purpurea, and Lychnis sieboldii. This plant was selected for detailed investigation as a model because this plant originated from dry grassland near Mount Aso in Kyusyu, Japan. We found a unique feature of water collection and release in this plant. The cone-shaped hairs having inner microfibers were reversibly converted to crushed plates that were twisted perpendicularly in dry conditions. Microfibers found in the hairs seem to be responsible for water storage and release. Their unique reciprocal morphological changes, cone-shaped hairs transformed into perpendicularly twisted shapes, depend on the moisture level in the air, and water stored during wet external conditions was released onto the leaf in drier conditions. These morphological changes were recorded as a movie. Simulations explained the formation of the twisted structure. In theoretical analyses, twisted structures were found to give higher mechanical strength. Similar phenomena were found in the other plants described above. These findings pave the way to new bioinspired technology for alleviating global water shortages.

  14. Composition and antibacterial activity of Abies balsamea essential oil.

    PubMed

    Pichette, André; Larouche, Pierre-Luc; Lebrun, Maxime; Legault, Jean

    2006-05-01

    The antibacterial activity of the essential oil of Abies balsamea (balsam fir) was evaluated against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The essential oil of A. balsamea was found to be inactive against E. coli (>100 microg/mL) and active against S. aureus, with an MIC of 56 microg/mL. The oil composition was analysed by GC-MS and the antibacterial activity of each oil constituent was determined. The essential oil of A. balsamea is essentially constituted of monoterpenes (>96%) and some sesquiterpenes. beta-pinene (29.9%), delta-3-carene (19.6%) and alpha-pinene (14.6%) were the major components. beta-pinene and delta-3-carene were found inactive against both bacteria strains. However, three constituents of the essential oil were active against S. aureus: alpha-pinene, beta-caryophyllene (0.4%) and alpha-humulene (0.2%) with MIC values of 13.6 microg/mL, 5.1 microg/mL and 2.6 microg/mL, respectively. PMID:16619365

  15. Repellent effectiveness of seven plant essential oils, sunflower oil and natural insecticides against horn flies on pastured dairy cows and heifers.

    PubMed

    Lachance, S; Grange, G

    2014-06-01

    Plant essential oils (basil, geranium, balsam fir, lavender, lemongrass, peppermint, pine and tea tree), mixed with either sunflower oil or ethyl alcohol, were applied at 5% concentrations to the sides of Holstein cattle. Pastured cattle treated with essential oils diluted in sunflower oil had less flies than the untreated control for a 24-h period. However, the essential oil treatments were not significantly different than the carrier oil alone. Barn-held heifers treated with essential oils and sunflower oil alone had significantly less flies than the untreated control for up to 8 h after treatment. Basil, geranium, lavender, lemongrass and peppermint repelled more flies than sunflower oil alone for a period ranging from 1.5 to 4 h after treatments applied to heifers. All essential oils repelled > 75% of the flies on the treated area for 6 and 8 h on pastured cows and indoor heifers, respectively. Geranium, lemongrass and peppermint stayed effective for a longer duration. Essential oils mixed with ethyl alcohol demonstrated less repellence than when mixed with the carrier oil. Safer's soap, natural pyrethrins without piperonyl butoxide and ethyl alcohol alone were not efficient at repelling flies. Essential oils could be formulated for use as fly repellents in livestock production. PMID:24382265

  16. Theoretical note: the C/T ratio in artificial neural networks.

    PubMed

    Burgos, José E

    2005-05-31

    This paper describes computer simulations of the effect of the C/T ratio on acquisition rate in artificial neural networks. The networks consisted of neural processing elements that functioned according to a neurocomputational model whose learning rule is consistent with information on dopaminergic mechanisms of reinforcement. In Simulation 1, three comparisons were made: constant C and variable T, variable C and constant T, and a constant C/T with variable C and T. In the last two comparisons, C was manipulated by changing the probability of reinforcement within the intertrial interval (ITI), in the absence of the conditioned stimulus (CS). Acquisition rate tended to increase with C/T, and the invariant ratio had no effect. In Simulation 2, C was manipulated by changing the ITI, with continuous reinforcement in the presence of the CS and no reinforcements in its absence. Results were comparable to those obtained in Simulation 1. Simulation 3 further explored the effect of the invariant ratio, but with larger absolute values of C and T, which slowed acquisition significantly. The results parallel some experimental findings and theoretical implications of the Gibbon-Balsam model, showing that they can emerge from the moment-to-moment dynamics of a neural-network model. In contrast to that model, however, Simulation 3 suggests that the effect of invariant C/T ratios may be bounded. PMID:15845311

  17. Sensitizations to allergens of TRUE test in 864 consecutive eczema patients in Israel.

    PubMed

    Magen, Eli; Mishal, Joseph; Schlesinger, Menachem

    2006-12-01

    The TRUE test is a widespread diagnostic tool for initial patch testing of patients with contact dermatitis (CD). From 2002 to 2005, 864 patients with eczema were patch-tested using TRUE test in one Israeli allergology clinic. 547 (63.3%) patients were female and 317 (36.7%) were male. 346 (40%) patients had > or =1 positive patch test reactions. The most common allergens were nickel sulfate for 114 (13.2%) patients, potassium dichromate 111 (12.8%), fragrance mix 59 (6.8%), cobalt chloride 12 (1.4%), ethylenediamine dihydrochloride 11 (1.3%), epoxy resin 11 (1.3%), balsam of Peru 9 (1.0%), carba mix 7 (0.8%), thiomersal 6 (0.7%), wool alcohol 5 (0.6%), black rubber (PPD) mix 5 (0.6%), neomycin 4 (0.5%); Kathon CG, Colophony and Quaternium 15 - each 2 (0.2%), other allergens - each 1 (0.1%). In male patients, carba mix, black rubber (PPD) mix and epoxy resin sensitivity was more frequent, whereas nickel sulfate, fragrance mix, ethylenediamine dihydrochloride and cobalt chloride sensitivity was significantly more frequent in female patients. Our results are in general agreement with previously published reports, excluding the low sensitivity rates to cobalt, which maybe is missed by TRUE test. PMID:17101019

  18. Contact sensitization in chronic venous insufficiency: modern wound dressings.

    PubMed

    Gallenkemper, G; Rabe, E; Bauer, R

    1998-05-01

    Patch tests with an expanded European standard series and 20 different wound dressings revealed sensitization in 78% of all (36) patients. The charts of allergens were headed by ointment bases (wool wax alcohols sensitization in 33% of all patients; Amerchol L-101 19.4%; cetearyl alcohol 13.9%; propylene glycol 8.3%), followed by plant resins/ethereal oils (balsam of Peru 22.2%; colophony 13.9%, fragrance mix 8.3%; propolis 5.6%) and topical antibiotics (neomycin sulfate 16.7%, chloramphenicol 13.9%), while usually common sensitizers like metal salts were not found as often (nickel sulfate 16.7%; potassium dichromate 13.9%; cobalt chloride 5.6%). Sensitization to modern wound dressings was found in 8.3% (3 cases) and was caused by propylene glycol as an ingredient of hydrogels; no sensitization was found to hydrocolloids, alginates or polyurethane foams. The overall sensitization rate in 2nd degree CVI was nearly as high as in 3rd degree CVI, but sensitization to ointments, their additives and topical antibiotics was significantly higher in 3rd degree CVI. Significant differences in sensitization frequencies to individual allergens were found between male and female patients. Our investigation points out the high risk of sensitization in 2nd as well as 3rd degree CVI, especially to ointment bases and active principles of topical drugs. Even wound dressings may cause allergic contact reactions. PMID:9667445

  19. [Eczema in hairdressers].

    PubMed

    Lindemayr, H

    1984-01-01

    Among cases of occupational dermatoses, eczema in hairdressers was reported most frequently in Austria during 1981 and 1982. Analysing 247 reports, extensive data could be obtained with regard to predisposition, clinical pattern, course, contact sensitization, skin tests, prognosis, influence on occupational development, rehabilitation, and disability pension. Epicutaneous tests with standard allergens and a hairdressers' screening tray proved to be positive in 71%. Nickel (44,7%) and para-haircolors (40,2%) top the allergen list. With exception of cobalt (19,1%) and balsam of Peru (4%) all other substances tested were found to be positive in less than 4%. 65% of nickel sensitive probands reacted to their occupationally used shampoos, as compared to only 34% of nickel-negative probands. Of hairdressers allergic to para-colors, 48.1% showed positive ECT tests to their haircolors, 4/13 patients allergic to ammonium thioglycollate reacted to permanent wave liquids used at their work. Two thirds of nickel sensitive hairdressers were sensitized during apprenticeship. Alkali resistance (AR) was decreased in 35% of patients tested. AR results from the irritant dermatitis patients were worse than those from persons with contact allergy. Of the hairdressers affected, 61.8% had to discontinue their professions for medical reasons. Of those who continued a hairdresser's career only 32% of patients with allergic contact eczema and 58% of patients with irritant eczema had no skin problems (mean period of observation: 15 months). The proportion of atopics was found to be normal within the patient material, but prognosis is unfavorable once atopic hairdressers have developed hand eczema. After discontinuation of occupation, clinical resolution was slowest in patients allergic to nickel. Of those previously occupied as hairdressers 15% ended up in a wet working environment unsuitable to their skin condition.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6231175

  20. Correction to Ward et al. (2015).

    PubMed

    Ward, Ryan D; Winiger, Vanessa; Higa, Kerin K; Kahn, Julia B; Kandel, Eric R; Balsam, Peter D; Simpson, Eleanor H

    2015-08-01

    Reports an error in "The impact of motivation on cognitive performance in an animal model of the negative and cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia" by Ryan D. Ward, Vanessa Winiger, Kerin K. Higa, Julia B. Kahn, Eric R. Kandel, Peter D. Balsam and Eleanor H. Simpson (Behavioral Neuroscience, 2015[Jun], Vol 129[3], 292-299). There is a text error in the 4th paragraph of the Discussion section. The explanation for the abbreviation OFC was incorrectly listed as occipitofrontal circumference. It should have been orbitofrontal cortex. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2015-18639-001.) Interactions between motivation and cognition are implicated in producing functional impairments and poor quality of life in psychiatric patients. This interaction, however, is not well understood at either the behavioral or neural level. We developed a procedure for mice in which a cognitive measure, sustained attention, is modulated by a motivationally relevant signal that predicts reward probability on a trial-by-trial basis. Using this paradigm, we tested the interaction between motivation and cognition in mice that model the increased striatal D2 receptor activity observed in schizophrenia patients (D2R-OE mice). In control mice, attention was modulated by signaled-reward probability. In D2R-OE mice, however, attention was not modulated by reward-related cues. This impairment was not due to any global deficits in attention or maintenance of the trial-specific information in working memory. Turning off the transgene in D2R-OE mice rescued the motivational modulation of attention. These results indicate that deficits in motivation impair the ability to use reward-related cues to recruit attention and that improving motivation improves functional cognitive performance. These results further suggest that addressing motivational impairments in patients is critical to achieving substantive cognitive and functional gains. PMID:26214211

  1. Microbiological and mucociliary properties of the ethanol extract of Hymenocardia acida on selected respiratory clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Obidike, I C; Aboh, M I; Salawu, O A

    2011-03-01

    The antimicrobial property of the ethanol leaf extract of Hymenocardia acida (H. acida) on some opportunistic respiratory pathogens was evaluated in this study. We also assessed the activity of the extract on tracheal mucociliary activity using murine tracheal mucus exudation and mucociliary motility in pigeons as experimental models. Phytochemical screening of the extract was done; and acute toxicity of the extract in mice was carried out using Lorke's method for estimation of its median lethal dose. Results show the presence of carbohydrates, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids, resins, and balsams in the extract and the absence of anthraquinones, terpenes, and sterols. Results of the acute toxicity test showed that the extract was slightly toxic, with an estimated median lethal dose of 1,767.77 mg/kg body weight. At 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg body weight of H. acida, tracheal mucus exudation was increased by 14.29, 19.24, and 33.82%, respectively. The effect on mucociliary velocity was dose-dependent as 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg body weight of the extract led to increased ciliary activity by 7.69, 61.5, and 81.6%, respectively. The effects of the extract (200 mg/kg body weight) on mucus exudation and clearance were significant (p < .05) and higher than the effect of ammonium chloride. Although the extract did not inhibit the growth of C. albicans and K. pneumoniae, it exhibited moderate antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus. These findings show the mucociliary activity and antimicrobial properties of H. acida ethanol extract, and justify its use in the treatment of airway disorders. PMID:22432631

  2. Longevity of strain localization associated with dynamic recrystallization of olivine in mantle rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speciale, P. A.; Behr, W. M.; Hirth, G.; Tokle, L.

    2015-12-01

    The processes that cause strain localization in the lithosphere are fundamental to our understanding of plate tectonics. The relationship between localization and grain size reduction by dynamic recrystallization (DRX) is ubiquitous in natural shear zones, but whether localization by DRX persists to high strains is debated because of the potential role of grain growth. If DRX is associated with surface energy-driven grain boundary migration (γGBM), for example, grains will grow after recrystallization and localization will be cyclical or temporary. At high stress, low temperature conditions, however, migration is theoretically predicted to be driven by strain energy (ρGBM). At these conditions, grain growth may be suppressed even in monophase aggregates, and localization will persist over geologic timescales. Here we examine the conditions at which DRX leads to permanent, as opposed to transient, localization by evaluating the role of grain growth in olivine aggregates. We deformed as-is Balsam Gap dunite in axial compression using a Griggs rig and molten salt cell. We conducted 12 experiments at 1100 and 1200°C, a strain rate of 10-5 s-1, and a confining pressure of 1300 MPa. After samples reached strains of ~30%, we relaxed the stress, either with the motor off or at a strain rate of 10-6 s-1, for specific time increments before quenching. We perform detailed microstructural analyses to identify the transition from ρGBM to γGBM at these experimental conditions. We predict the microstructure (at time t1) will reflect ρGBM, with negligible net grain growth. After strain energy has been substantially reduced (time t1+n), evidence of γGBM will be observed in the microstructure as 120° triple junctions and increased grain sizes. By isolating the conditions at which γGBM becomes more important than ρGBM, we can infer the grainsize-stress conditions under which DRX may promote permanent strain localization in the lithosphere.

  3. Canadian boreal pulp and paper feedstocks contain neuroactive substances that interact in vitro with GABA and dopaminergic systems in the brain.

    PubMed

    Waye, Andrew; Annal, Malar; Tang, Andrew; Picard, Gabriel; Harnois, Frédéric; Guerrero-Analco, José A; Saleem, Ammar; Hewitt, L Mark; Milestone, Craig B; MacLatchy, Deborah L; Trudeau, Vance L; Arnason, John T

    2014-01-15

    Pulp and paper wood feedstocks have been previously implicated as a source of chemicals with the ability to interact with or disrupt key neuroendocrine endpoints important in the control of reproduction. We tested nine Canadian conifers commonly used in pulp and paper production as well as 16 phytochemicals that have been observed in various pulp and paper mill effluent streams for their ability to interact in vitro with the enzymes monoamine oxidase (MAO), glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), and GABA-transaminase (GABA-T), and bind to the benzodiazepine-binding site of the GABA(A) receptor (GABA(A)-BZD). These neuroendocrine endpoints are also important targets for treatment of neurological disorders such as anxiety, epilepsy, or depression. MAO and GAD were inhibited by various conifer extracts of different polarities, including major feedstocks such as balsam fir, black spruce, and white spruce. MAO was selectively stimulated or inhibited by many of the tested phytochemicals, with inhibition observed by a group of phenylpropenes (e.g. isoeugenol and vanillin). Selective GAD inhibition was also observed, with all of the resin acids tested being inhibitory. GABA(A)-BZD ligand displacement was also observed. We compiled a table identifying which of these phytochemicals have been described in each of the species tested here. Given the diversity of conifer species and plant chemicals with these specific neuroactivities, it is reasonable to propose that MAO and GAD inhibition reported in effluents is phytochemical in origin. We propose disruption of these neuroendocrine endpoints as a possible mechanism of reproductive inhibition, and also identify an avenue for potential research and sourcing of conifer-derived neuroactive natural products. PMID:24041600

  4. 30 years of change in understory plant communities along the Tanana River, Alaska: Revisiting the concept of turning points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollingsworth, T. N.; Lloyd, A. H.; Ruess, R. W.; Viereck, L. A.; Charlton, B. A.

    2008-12-01

    In interior Alaska, the most productive forests occur along the floodplain of the glacially fed Tanana River. The Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest (BCEF) is located approximately 20 km southwest of Fairbanks, Alaska and was established in 1963 to include representative floodplain forests along the Tanana River. Both the sequence and the mechanisms of succession have been relatively well studied along the Tanana River, where biological and physical "turning points" are hypothesized to be the main proponents of plant community succession. However, prior research has concentrated almost exclusively on four dominant woody taxa: willows, thin-leaf alder, balsam poplar, and white spruce. Comparatively little is known about successional changes in the understory taxa, including shrubs, herbaceous vascular plants, and nonvascular mosses and lichens. Long-term monitoring in BCEF not only provides a unique opportunity to investigate the relationships between vegetation and climate over a 30-year period, but also increases our knowledge and understanding about floodplain successional dynamics. Here, we analyze vegetation and climate data collected since 1977 located in the BCEF at the Bonanza Creek Long-Term Ecological Research (BNZ- LTER) site in order to address the following questions: 1) Are there identifiable understory turning points that mirror the overstory changes in succession? 2) Have changes in climate been manifested in unexpected understory vegetation changes? When examining understory vegetation, we found that the sites established in the 1970s rarely follow the traditional succesional paradigm. In addition, we found changes in functional abundance and diversity in late succesional stands that could indicate vegetation patterns related to associated changes in climate.

  5. Constituents within pulp mill effluent deplete retinoid stores in white sucker and bind to rainbow trout retinoic acid receptors and retinoid X receptors.

    PubMed

    Alsop, Derek; Hewitt, Mark; Kohli, Mohan; Brown, Scott; Van Der Kraak, Glen

    2003-12-01

    Wild female and male white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) inhabiting an area receiving pulp mill effluent had reduced hepatic levels of retinol, didehydroretinol, retinyl esters, and didehydroretinyl esters, while vitamin E levels were unaffected. This disruption of the retinoid system led us to test methanol and dichloromethane extracts from the effluent of 11 pulp mills from across Canada for their ability to bind to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) retinoic acid receptors (RARs) from the gill and retinoid X receptors (RXRs) from the liver. Concentrated extracts of the final effluent from 6 of the 11 pulp mills were able to displace greater than 25% of the receptor-bound [3H]all-trans retinoic acid (RA) or [3H]9-cis RA from trout RARs and RXRs, respectively. The ability of the extracts to displace retinoic acid did not appear to be linked to the pulping or treatment processes. Moreover, extracts with the greatest activity came from thermomechanical mills, suggesting the compounds may originate from the wood furnish. In addition, extracts prepared from wood furnish (wood chips: white spruce [50%], lodgepole pine [47%], and balsam fir [3%]) from one mill were able to displace [3H]RA from the RARs and RXRs. The 4-hydroxy RA, a metabolite of RA that has been shown to be generated in greater quantities in fish exposed to P450-inducing xenobiotics, was able to displace [3H]all-trans RA from trout RARs as effectively as unlabeled all-trans RA. These results suggest that pulp mill effluent may impact the retinoid system of fish at multiple sites, either by decreasing hepatic retinoid stores or through contributing additional ligands (from the wood furnish) that can bind to RA receptors. PMID:14713038

  6. A framework for modelling species-specific site quality index based on data generated from remote sensing imagery and a process-based model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Quazi Khalid

    This Thesis presents a framework for modelling species-specific site quality index (SQI) at a spatial resolution of 250 m by integrating biophysical variables of growing degree days (ODD), soil water content (SWC), and incident photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) in descriptions of potential tree growth. Development of ODD maps is based on processing and blending remotely-sensed data acquired with the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor on the Terra satellite and ETM+ sensor on Landsat-7 satellite at spatial resolutions of 250 m and 28.5 m. Descriptions of SWC are based on a temperature-vegetation wetness index (TVWI) that relies on MODIS-based optical and thermal image products. PAR is estimated with an existing solar-radiation distribution model. SQI is defined as a function of species vital attributes and species environmental response to ODD, TVWI, and PAR. The methods are applied to a balsam fir [bF; Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.] dominated region in northwest New Brunswick. Comparisons between SQI and field-based estimates of site index and enhanced vegetation index showed that about 66 and 88% of the values corresponding to a series of Forest Development Survey lines (691 in total) were within 16% of SQI values. On average 92.1% of high bF-content stands (> 50% composition) in the area fell on medium-to-very high SQI values (> 0.50). Based on these agreements, SQI can be perceived as a good predictor of potential tree-species growth in the selection of optimal sites for biomass and wood fibre production

  7. Transcriptomic Responses of the Softwood-Degrading White-Rot Fungus Phanerochaete carnosa during Growth on Coniferous and Deciduous Wood ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, Jacqueline; Doering, Matt; Canam, Thomas; Gong, Yunchen; Guttman, David S.; Campbell, Malcolm M.; Master, Emma R.

    2011-01-01

    To identify enzymes that could be developed to reduce the recalcitrance of softwood resources, the transcriptomes of the softwood-degrading white-rot fungus Phanerochaete carnosa were evaluated after growth on lodgepole pine, white spruce, balsam fir, and sugar maple and compared to the transcriptome of P. carnosa after growth on liquid nutrient medium. One hundred fifty-two million paired-end reads were obtained, and 63% of these reads were mapped to 10,257 gene models from P. carnosa. Five-hundred thirty-three of these genes had transcripts that were at least four times more abundant during growth on at least one wood medium than on nutrient medium. The 30 transcripts that were on average over 100 times more abundant during growth on wood than on nutrient medium included 6 manganese peroxidases, 5 cellulases, 2 hemicellulases, a lignin peroxidase, glyoxal oxidase, and a P450 monooxygenase. Notably, among the genes encoding putative cellulases, one encoding a glycosyl hydrolase family 61 protein had the highest relative transcript abundance during growth on wood. Overall, transcripts predicted to encode lignin-degrading activities were more abundant than those predicted to encode carbohydrate-active enzymes. Transcripts predicted to encode three MnPs represented the most highly abundant transcripts in wood-grown cultivations compared to nutrient medium cultivations. Gene set enrichment analyses did not distinguish transcriptomes resulting from softwood and hardwood cultivations, suggesting that similar sets of enzyme activities are elicited by P. carnosa grown on different wood substrates, albeit to different expression levels. PMID:21441342

  8. Magruder Park Swamp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hotchkiss, N.; Uhler, F.M.

    1967-01-01

    The last Tuesday in August, between five-thirty and seven in the evening, we zigzaged through this glorious jungle, attended by a family of Wood Pewees for whom we seemed to be stirring up a feast of flying insects. There was gentle background music by Mole Crickets. A few steps in from the playing field and we were out of sight in ten-foot-high Cattails. All through, we met -- as high as we, or higher--clumped Cinnamon Ferns, deep-rose Joe Pye Weed, and orange, pendent flowers of Jewelweed (first cousins to Balsam and Sultana). Here and there were soft, white spikes of Canadian Burnet, a rare plant hereabouts, and deep purple Ironweed. Dense-foliaged Hempweed climbed over bushes and up small trees, filling the air with its delicate fragrance. Arrowleaf Tear-thumb snatched at us with tiny prongs on its angled stems. Once in a while we tripped over huge sedge tussocks, half-hidden in the tangle. A few times we steered around a small bush of Poison Sumac. The next day We remembered seeing ninety kinds of plants on this hasty trip. Skunk Cabbage leaves recalled April, when a person, from the edge of the lawn, could see huge clumps of them all the way across the swamp. The sky had been washed by last week's downpours; scattered Gums were reddening; and Maples were getting ready for crimson beauty a month from now. There wasn't a mosquito! (Ed. Note.-The Hyattsville City Council is taking pains to preserve this interesting swamp.)

  9. National rates and regional differences in sensitization to allergens of the standard series. Population-adjusted frequencies of sensitization (PAFS) in 40,000 patients from a multicenter study (IVDK).

    PubMed

    Schnuch, A; Geier, J; Uter, W; Frosch, P J; Lehmacher, W; Aberer, W; Agathos, M; Arnold, R; Fuchs, T; Laubstein, B; Lischka, G; Pietrzyk, P M; Rakoski, J; Richter, G; Ruëff, F

    1997-11-01

    Sensitization rates to contact allergens vary between centers and are influenced by sex and age. Eliminating the latter 2 factors by standardization of data by age and sex, the present analysis addresses possible differences between centers remaining after elimination of these confounders, and analyzes other factors which might influence rates, e.g., the MOAHL index. Overall standardized rates were well within the range reported in previous studies and may be regarded as representing the rates of the "patch test population" in Central Europe (e.g., nickel sulfate 12.9%, fragrance mix 10.5%, balsam of Peru 7.3%, thimerosal 5.6%). For this analysis, data of those departments which contributed more than 2000 patients, or of those with extreme proportions concerning sex, age and occupational cases were selected. Patients from these 10 departments differed considerably with regard to the items of the MOAHL index and with regard to standardized rates. The items of the MOAHL index proved to be suitable for describing different patch test populations and for explaining some differences between centers. Only 'atopic dermatitis' seems to have little influence on (standardized) rates. Face dermatitis is not yet represented in the MOAHL index, but should be included, together with age > 40 years, in an extended index (acronym: MOAHLFA). Regional allergen exposure (with striking differences between East Germany, West Germany and, to a lesser extent, Austria) seems to have a great influence on the sensitization pattern observed in a department. In addition, sociological factors may influence sensitization rates, which is exemplified by high rates of nickel allergy in a socially defined subgroup. Future studies should focus on these factors, as well as on factors concerning patch test practices and quality control. PMID:9412746

  10. Laterally applied Ethrel causes local increases in radial growth and indole-3-acetic acid concentration in Abies balsamea shoots.

    PubMed

    Eklund, L; Anthony Little, C H

    1996-05-01

    The terminal (1-year-old) shoot of quiescent, two-year-old balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) seedlings was ringed with lanolin containing 0, 1 or 10 mg g(-1) Ethrel, an ethylene-generating compound, and cultured for 6 weeks under environmental conditions favorable for growth. Bud break and the elongation of the current-year terminal shoot were monitored, and the subjacent previous-year terminal shoot that had been treated with Ethrel was harvested to measure stem radial growth by microscopy, shoot ethylene evolution by gas chromatography, and cambial region indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) concentration by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Compared with the lanolin controls, Ethrel at 1 and 10 mg g(-1) did not affect bud break or longitudinal growth, but stimulated tracheid production and bark increment up to about 2-fold at the application site, though not above or below it. In addition, the 1 and 10 mg g(-1) Ethrel treatments increased the cambial region IAA concentration about 3-fold and the evolution of ethylene at least 40-fold at the application site, compared with unwounded portions of both treated and control shoots. The 10 mg g(-1) Ethrel treatment also stimulated ethylene evolution about 10-fold, both above and below the application site. However, this stimulation was not associated with an elevation in cambial region IAA concentration. Similarly, the lanolin control treatment increased ethylene evolution at the application site about 10-fold, without affecting the cambial region IAA concentration. Our results suggest that the localized stimulation of radial growth in woody shoots ringed with Ethrel is mediated by an increase in IAA concentration, which in turn is induced by a threshold, abnormally high concentration of Ethrel-derived ethylene. PMID:14871721

  11. Watershed Watch - Student-driven Research Experiences That Attract Undeclared Undergraduate Students Into STEM Majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rock, B. N.; Hale, S. R.; Hayden, L. B.; Graham, K. J.

    2007-12-01

    The NSF-sponsored partnership between the University of New Hampshire (UNH), Elizabeth City State University (ECSU), New Hampshire Community Technical College (NHCTC), and the College of the Albemarle (COA) has implemented a unique series of courses designed to attract undergraduate students with undeclared majors into the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines. These courses incorporate student- driven research comparing the Merrimack River (NH/MA) and Pasquotank River watersheds (VA/NC). Entitled Watershed Watch (WW), the courses utilize pedagogical approaches based on hands-on, inquiry-based teaching and learning. In alternating years, a two-week WW summer institute is held in each watershed. Students conduct authentic research on various aspects of the watershed's geology, limnology, and landscape ecology. Then during the academic year, WW students enroll in a course where they are paired with faculty mentors, and engage in more in-depth research projects. Samples of student research include assessing calcium oxalate crystals as an indicator of plant stress in NH red spruce (Picea rubens) and balsam fir (Abies balsamea) and GIS modeling/mapping coastal NC changes resulting from postulated melting of the Greenland ice sheet. After completing the first year in a five-year funding cycle, formative/summative evaluation methods have identified the following student perceptions regarding STEM disciplines: participating students found WW to be enjoyable, exciting, and meaningful; as a result of WW, 60 percent of undeclared students from the four-year institutions (UNH/ECSU) declared a STEM major or minor; and approximately 20 percent of the two-year students (NHCTC/COA) enrolled in four-year STEM programs or are employed in STEM fields.

  12. Composition of the Spruce Budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) Midgut Microbiota as Affected by Rearing Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Landry, Mathieu; Comeau, André M.; Derome, Nicolas; Cusson, Michel; Levesque, Roger C.

    2015-01-01

    The eastern spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) is one of the most destructive forest insect pests in Canada. Little is known about its intestinal microbiota, which could play a role in digestion, immune protection, communication and/or development. The present study was designed to provide a first characterization of the effects of rearing conditions on the taxonomic diversity and structure of the C. fumiferana midgut microbiota, using a culture-independent approach. Three diets and insect sources were examined: larvae from a laboratory colony reared on a synthetic diet and field-collected larvae reared on balsam fir or black spruce foliage. Bacterial DNA from the larval midguts was extracted to amplify and sequence the V6-V8 region of the 16S rRNA gene, using the Roche 454 GS-FLX technology. Our results showed a dominance of Proteobacteria, mainly Pseudomonas spp., in the spruce budworm midgut, irrespective of treatment group. Taxonomic diversity of the midgut microbiota was greater for larvae reared on synthetic diet than for those collected and reared on host plants, a difference that is likely accounted for by several factors. A greater proportion of bacteria from the phylum Bacteroidetes in insects fed artificial diet constituted the main difference between this group and those reared on foliage; within the phylum Proteobacteria, the presence of the genus Bradyrhizobium was also unique to insects reared on artificial diet. Strikingly, a Bray-Curtis analysis showed important differences in microbial diversity among the treatment groups, pointing to the importance of diet and environment in defining the spruce budworm midgut microbiota. PMID:26636571

  13. [Auguste Lumière, pioneer of the modern cicatrization].

    PubMed

    Salazard, B; Casanova, D; Zuleta, J; Desouches, C; Magalon, G

    2003-06-01

    At the "Grand Café" in Paris, on december 28, 1895 Louis and Auguste Lumiere displayed the cinematograph, a technical innovation that revolutionized the nascent motion picture. It was the first public projection of a film. While Louis continues his work on pictures and invents autochrome plates for colour photography, Auguste focused his interests on biology and medicine. Since Ambroise Paré, few doctors have been interested in the healing process. Although Carrel and Lecomte Du Nouy published the first studies in the early twentieth century, Auguste Lumière was a pioneer in the modern research and treatment of wounds. He applied the principles of experimental medicine. In his research he used 44 dogs to study the healing speed and the scar quality in certain areas and under general conditions. In the winter of 1914-1915 he studied in Lyon several hundred wounds of war casualties. In 1922 he established and published in a marvellous book the principles of normal healing. In the department of Pr Leon Bérard he was shocked by the fetidness of the wards where the dried bandages were changed once a week. In 1915 he perfected a revolutionary sterilized "treatment-bandage" consisting of 2 mm stitched gauze saturated with Vaseline and Perou's balsam: the "Tulle Gras. In order to disinfect wounds, he used an iodized solution, sprayed in little droplets. The lives of Auguste and Louis Lumière were full of projects and inventions. When Auguste died in 1954 he had registered more than one hundred patents. PMID:12837641

  14. Monitoring environmental state of Alaskan forests with AIRSAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, Kyle C.; Way, Jobea; Rignot, Eric; Williams, Cindy; Viereck, Les; Adams, Phylis

    1992-01-01

    During March 1988 and May 1991, the JPL airborne synthetic aperture radar, AIRSAR, collected sets of multi-temporal imagery of the Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest near Fairbanks, Alaska. These data sets consist of series of multi-polarized images collected at P-, L-, and C-bands each over a period of a few days. The AIRSAR campaigns were complemented with extensive ground measurements that included observations of both static canopy characteristics such as forest architecture as well as properties that vary on short term time scales such as canopy dielectric conditions. Observations exist for several stands of deciduous and coniferous species including white spruce (Picea glauca), black spruce (Picea mariana), and balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera). Although the duration of each campaign was fairly short, significant changes in environmental conditions caused notable variations in the physiological state of the canopies. During the 1988 campaign, environmental conditions ranged from unseasonably warm to more normal subfreezing temperatures. This permitted AIRSAR observations of frozen and thawed canopy states. During May 1991, ice jams that occurred along the river caused many stands to flood while the subsequent clearing of the river then allowed the waters to recede, leaving a snow covered ground surface. This allowed observations of several stands during both flooded and nonflooded conditions. Furthermore, the local weather varied from clear sunny days to heavy overcast days with some occurrence of rain. Measurements of leaf water potential indicated that this caused significant variations in canopy water status, allowing SAR observations of water stressed and unstressed trees. Mean backscatter from several stands is examined for the various canopy physiological states. The changes in canopy backscatter that occur as a function of environmental and physiological state are analyzed. Preliminary results of a backscatter signature modeling analysis are presented

  15. Atmospheric deposition and watershed nitrogen export along an elevational gradient in the Catskill Mountains, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, G.B.; Lovett, Gary M.; Baevsky, Y.H.

    2000-01-01

    Cumulative effects of atmospheric N deposition may increase N export from watersheds and contribute to the acidification of surface waters, but natural factors (such as forest productivity and soil drainage) that affect forest N cycling can also control watershed N export. To identify factors that are related to stream-water export of N, elevational gradients in atmospheric deposition and natural processes were evaluated in a steep, first-order watershed in the Catskill Mountains of New York, from 1991 to 1994. Atmospheric deposition of SO4/2-, and probably N, increased with increasing elevation within this watershed. Stream-water concentrations of SO4/2- increased with increasing elevation throughout the year, whereas stream-water concentrations of NO3/- decreased with increasing elevation during the winter and spring snowmelt period, and showed no relation with elevation during the growing season or the fall. Annual export of N in stream water for the overall watershed equaled 12% to 17% of the total atmospheric input on the basis of two methods of estimation. This percentage decreased with increasing elevation, from about 25% in the lowest subwatershed to 7% in the highest subwatershed; a probable result of an upslope increase in the thickness of the surface organic horizon, attributable to an elevational gradient in temperature that slows decomposition rates at upper elevations. Balsam fir stands, more prevalent at upper elevations than lower elevations, may also affect the gradient of subwatershed N export by altering nitrification rates in the soil. Variations in climate and vegetation must be considered to determine how future trends in atmospheric deposition will effect watershed export of nitrogen.

  16. Patch test results in patients with allergic contact dermatitis in the Podlasie region

    PubMed Central

    Bacharewicz, Joanna; Pawłoś, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to provide current data on the incidence of allergy to various contact allergens in patients with allergic contact eczema and the analysis of selected socio-demographic data of the patients. Material and methods The study included 1532 patients (1010 women and 522 men) treated for allergic contact dermatitis at the Department of Dermatology and Venereology and at the Dermatology Outpatient Clinic in Bialystok in 2007–2011. The assessment of selected demographic data and skin lesions was based on the MOAHFLA index, while the results of patch tests were analyzed with modified Baseline European Series consisting of 31 allergens. Results In the group of patients with eczema, 34.1% were men, and 55% of all respondents were people over 40 years of age. The occupational character of skin lesions was found in 22.5%. Most frequently (38.9%) skin lesions were localized on the hands, rarely involved legs (3.98%). Atopic dermatitis was diagnosed in 4.5% of patients. The ten most frequent allergens were: nickel sulfate (24%), cobalt chloride (15.3%), fragrance mix (8.25%), potassium dichromate (6.8%), balsam of Peru (5.5%), neomycin (4.42%), paraphenylenediamine (3.85%), Quatermium-15 (2.1%), detreomycin (1.83%) and budesonide (1.44% of tested patients). Conclusions Frequent allergy to detreomycin indicates the need of patch testing for this allergen of all examined patients with allergic contact dermatitis. The increased frequency of the nickel allergy is a worrying problem and indicates the need for education about the risk factors for nickel allergy development and the implementation of appropriate legal regulations. PMID:24493997

  17. Contact allergy to special and standard allergens in patients with venous ulcers.

    PubMed

    Tomljanović-Veselski, Mirna; Lipozencić, Jasna; Lugović, Liborija

    2007-09-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of contact sensitivity in patients with leg ulcers, and possible difference in the rate of contact hypersensitivity to standard series of allergens used in patch testing, and to particular topical agents used in local therapy of leg ulcers in special series, patients with and without atopy. The study included 60 patients, 45 female and 15 male, aged 37-85 (mean 68.37 female and 51.13 male), 30 of them with and 30 without allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) of the leg (control group). The mean duration of leg ulceration was 5.62 years. The two groups of patients underwent testing to standard series allergens and target series allergens including mupirocin, bepanthene, silver sulfadiazine, chloramphenicol + clostridiopeptidase, betamethasone dipropionate, hydrocortisone + oxytetracycline, momethasone, alginate, hydrocolloid, lanolin, pyrogallol, Vaseline, permanganate, Rivanol, povidone-iodine, gentamicin, i.e. local agents most frequently used by the patients. Contact allergic hypersensitivity to standard series allergens was demonstrated in 25 patients with a total of 49 positive reactions and a mean of 1.6 reactions per patient. Positive reactions were most commonly recorded to balsam of Peru, fragrance mix and neomycin sulfate. There were 12 positive reactions to target series allergens, mean 0.4 reactions per patient. Forty-five positive reactions, mean 0.1 reactions per patient, were recorded in the control group. Positive reactions were most commonly demonstrated to corticosteroid ointments, lanolin and bepanthene. Study results did not confirm a statistically significantly higher rate of sensitization to particular topical agents frequently used in the treatment of patients with venous ulcers. Patch testing to standard and special series allergens should be performed in case of prolonged leg ulcer epithelization. PMID:18041384

  18. Liquid Adhesive Contact Dermatitis After Bunionectomy: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Hood, Christopher R; Cornell, Rhonda S; Greenfield, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Hypersensitivity reactions to the skin adherents used in postoperative dressings are an uncommon but unfavorable complication that can result in poor wound healing, increased scarring, and surgical wound infections. This unexpected and unforeseen complication is not well documented in the current published data. We present the case of a 39-year-old female who had undergone a bunionectomy procedure and developed allergic contact dermatitis postoperatively. We discuss the clinical findings and treatments administered after application of a commonly used liquid skin adhesive applied intraoperatively. Through the use of topical and oral steroids and foot soaks in astringent solutions, over the course of several months, the patient's skin returned to the expected postoperative appearance. With the increased consciousness to minimize surgical scarring to improve cosmesis, one of these causes of the reaction might have been the liquid adhesive used in the surgical closure and dressing application. Therefore, we additionally reviewed the adhesive compound's chemical makeup and any potential cross-reactivity to help surgeons make an informed decision of whether to use a liquid adhesive. The various ingredients in liquid adhesives contain known allergen compounds that can cause a reaction, such as balsam of Peru and colophony or rosin, both of which are reviewed in our report. We also present a treatment algorithm developed from the compiled data in the case of a patient developing an allergic reaction. From our literature review and considering the percentage of incidence, if a surgeon desires to use a liquid adhesive product, Mastisol(®) should be chosen because of its lower reactivity and greater adhesive properties compared with the compound tincture of benzoin. PMID:26472569

  19. Interannual Variation in Stand Transpiration is Dependent Upon Tree Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewers, B. E.; Mackay, D. S.; Burrows, S. N.; Ahl, D. E.; Samanta, S.

    2003-12-01

    In order to successfully predict transpirational water fluxes from forested watersheds, interannual variability in transpiration must be quantified and understood. In a heterogeneous forested landscape in northern Wisconsin, we quantified stand transpiration across four forest cover types representing more than 80 percent of the land area in order to 1) quantify differences in stand transpiration and leaf area over two years and 2) determine the mechanisms governing the changes in transpiration over two years. We measured sap flux in eight trees of each tree species in the four cover types. We found that in northern hardwoods, the leaf area of sugar maple increased between the two measurement years with transpiration per unit ground area increasing even more than could be explained by leaf area. In an aspen stand, tent caterpillars completely defoliated the stand for approximately a month until a new set of leaves flushed out. The new set of leaves resulted in a lower leaf area but the same transpiration per unit leaf area indicating there was no physiological compensation for the lower leaf area. At the same time, balsam fir growing underneath the aspen increased their transpiration rate in response to greater light penetration through the dominant aspen canopy Red pine had a thirty percent change in leaf area within a growing season due to multiple cohorts of leaves and transpiration followed this leaf area dynamic. In a forested wetland, white cedar transpiration was proportional to surface water depth between the two years. Despite the specific tree species' effects on stand transpiration, all species displayed a minimum water potential regulation resulting in a saturating response of transpiration to vapor pressure deficit that did not vary across the two years. This physiological set point will allow future water flux models to explain mechanistically interannual variability in transpiration of this and similar forests.

  20. The Study of a Liquid Droplet Falling Through Two Immiscible Layers of Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesa, Bianca

    2013-11-01

    In an exploratory experiment, we noticed the unusual behaviors of liquid droplets falling through layers of oil and water. A rectangular container was filled with an aqueous solution and a layer of oil. A dropper was used to control the size of the droplet. Water was mixed with Bromothymol Blue dye, a chemical indicator, to visualize the flow processes. Surface tension and the buoyancy of the oil layer between the liquid droplet and the water below caused the liquid droplet to be stopped at the interface. Over time, the support weakened and the droplet would fall quickly through the water. The first of two cases was a salt water solution with NaOH, and the second consisted of balsamic vinegar and NaOH. Once the salt water droplet touched the aqueous solution, it collapsed, sank and spread rapidly at the interface. The sinking motion dragged the spreading fluid back to its center and then down. For the second case, a trace amount of the droplet spread rapidly at the interface while the main portion of the droplet sank and then spontaneously exploded. The difference in behavior is mainly due to the surface tension of the droplet in water. The underlying mechanisms of the droplet's flow instability are from the effects of diffusion weakening the surface tension. Bianca Mesa is an undergraduate student in the Ocean and Mechanical Engineering Department at Florida Atlantic University. She is pursuing a B.S. degree in Ocean Engineering. In addition to her academic interests, she is also an avid sailor.

  1. Monitoring of environmental conditions in taiga forests using ERS-1 SAR

    SciTech Connect

    Rignot, E.; Way, J.B.; McDonald, K. ); Viereck, L.; Williams, C.; Adams, P.; Payne, C.; Wood, W. ); Shi, J. )

    1994-08-01

    Synthetic-aperture radar images of forest site near Manley Hot Springs (64[degree]N, 151[degree]W), Alaska, were collected between August 1991 and December 1991, day and night, every 3 days, at C-band frequency ([lambda] = 5.7 cm), vertical receive and transmit polarization, by the European Space Agency First Remote Sensing Satellite, ERS-1. During the same period, air and soil temperatures and dielectric and gravimetric moisture properties of the forest canopy and forest floor were monitored in three forest stands dominated, respectively, by black spruce (Picea mariana), white spruce (Picea glauca), and balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera). The calibrated ERS-1 radar backscatter values, [sigma][degree], of the forest stands are shown to exhibit a pronounced temporal pattern, with little separability between tree species. The largest change in [sigma][degree], a 3-dB decrease almost independent of tree species, is observed in early winter when the soil and vegetation freeze. In the summer, temporal fluctuations in [sigma][degree] are about 1--2 dB in magnitude, depending on tree species. Diurnal variations in [sigma][degree] are as large as 2 dB during fall freeze-up, and less than 1 dB in summer and winter. These temporal variations in radar backscatter from the forest are interpreted using the MIMICS radar backscatter model and the in situ surface observations as due to changes in the dielectric properties of the forest floor and forest canopy induced by precipitation (summer), drought (fall), and freezing (fall-winter) events. In winter, [sigma][degree] increases across the entire landscape, probably because of volume scattering from large depth hoar ice crystals forming in the snow pack.

  2. Genotypic variation in nitrogen isotope discrimination in Populus balsamifera L. clones grown with either nitrate or ammonium.

    PubMed

    Kalcsits, Lee A; Guy, Robert D

    2016-08-20

    Intraspecific variability in nitrogen use has not been comprehensively assessed in a natural poplar species. Here, a nitrogen isotope mass balance approach was used to assess variability in nitrogen uptake, assimilation and allocation traits in 25 genotypes from five climatically dispersed provenances of Populus balsamifera L. grown hydroponically with either nitrate or ammonium. Balsam poplar was able to grow well with either ammonium or nitrate as the sole nitrogen source. Variation within provenances exceeded significant provenance level variation. Interestingly, genotypes with rapid growth on nitrate achieved similar growth with ammonium. In most cases, the root:shoot ratio was greater in plants grown with ammonium. However, there were genotypes where root:shoot ratio was lower for some genotypes grown with ammonium compared to nitrate. Tissue nitrogen concentration was greater in the leaves and stems but not the roots for plants grown with ammonium compared to nitrate. There was extensive genotypic variation in organ-level nitrogen isotope composition. Root nitrogen isotope discrimination was greater under nitrate than ammonium, but leaf nitrogen isotope discrimination was not significantly different between plants on different sources. This can indicate variation in partitioning of nitrogen assimilation, efflux/influx (E/I) and root or leaf assimilation rates. The proportion of nitrogen assimilated in roots was lower under nitrate than ammonium. E/I was lower for nitrate than ammonium. With the exception of E/I, genotype-level variations in nitrogen-use traits for nitrate were correlated with the same traits when grown with ammonium. Using the nitrogen isotope mass balance model, a high degree of genotypic variation in nitrogen use traits was identified at both the provenance and, more extensively, the genotypic level. PMID:27423015

  3. Effects of acid deposition on calcium nutrition and health of Southern Appalachian spruce fir forests

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, S.B.; Wullschleger, S.; Stone, A.; Wimmer, R.; Joslin, J.D.

    1995-02-01

    The role of acid deposition in the health of spruce fir forests in the Southern Appalachian Mountains has been investigated by a wide variety of experimental approaches during the past 10 years. These studies have proceeded from initial dendroecological documentation of altered growth patterns of mature trees to increasingly more focused ecophysiological research on the causes and characteristics of changes in system function associated with increased acidic deposition. Field studies across gradients in deposition and soil chemistry have been located on four mountains spanning 85 km of latitude within the Southern Appalachians. The conclusion that calcium nutrition is an important component regulating health of red spruce in the Southern Appalachians and that acid deposition significantly reduces calcium availability in several ways has emerged as a consistent result from multiple lines or research. These have included analysis of trends in wood chemistry, soil solution chemistry, foliar nutrition, gas exchange physiology, root histochemistry, and controlled laboratory and field studies in which acid deposition and/or calcium nutrition has been manipulated and growth and nutritional status of saplings or mature red spruce trees measured. This earlier research has led us to investigate the broader implications and consequences of calcium deficiency for changing resistance of spruce-fir forests to natural stresses. Current research is exploring possible relationships between altered calcium nutrition and shifts in response of Fraser fir to insect attack by the balsam wooly adelgid. In addition, changes in wood ultrastructural properties in relation to altered wood chemistry is being examined to evaluate its possible role in canopy deterioration, under wind and ice stresses typical of high elevation forests.

  4. Diet and Dermatitis: Food Triggers

    PubMed Central

    Schlichte, Megan

    2014-01-01

    Given increasing awareness of the link between diet and health, many patients are concerned that dietary factors may trigger dermatitis. Research has found that dietary factors can indeed exacerbate atopic dermatitis or cause dermatitis due to systemic contact dermatitis. In atopic dermatitis, dietary factors are more likely to cause an exacerbation among infants or children with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis relative to other populations. Foods may trigger rapid, immunoglobulin E-mediated hypersensitivity reactions or may lead to late eczematous reactions. While immediate reactions occur within minutes to hours of food exposure, late eczematous reactions may occur anywhere from hours to two days later. Screening methods, such as food allergen-specific serum immunoglobulin E tests or skin prick tests, can identify sensitization to specific foods, but a diagnosis of food allergy requires specific signs and symptoms that occur reproducibly upon food exposure. Many patients who are sensitized will not develop clinical findings upon food exposure; therefore, these tests may result in false-positive tests for food allergy. This is why the gold standard for diagnosis remains the double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge. In another condition, systemic contact dermatitis, ingestion of a specific food can actually cause dermatitis. Systemic contact dermatitis is a distinct T-cell mediated immunological reaction in which dietary exposure to specific allergens results in dermatitis. Balsam of Peru and nickel are well-known causes of systemic contact dermatitis, and reports have implicated multiple other allergens. This review seeks to increase awareness of important food allergens, elucidate their relationship with atopic dermatitis and systemic contact dermatitis, and review available diagnostic and treatment strategies. PMID:24688624

  5. Comparing modern and presettlement forest dynamics of a subboreal wilderness: does spruce budworm enhance fire risk?

    PubMed

    Sturtevant, Brian R; Miranda, Brian R; Shinneman, Douglas J; Gustafson, Eric J; Wolter, Peter T

    2012-06-01

    Insect disturbance is often thought to increase fire risk through enhanced fuel loadings, particularly in coniferous forest ecosystems. Yet insect disturbances also affect successional pathways and landscape structure that interact with fire disturbances (and vice-versa) over longer time scales. We applied a landscape succession and disturbance model (LANDIS-II) to evaluate the relative strength of interactions between spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) outbreaks and fire disturbances in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area (BWCA) in northern Minnesota (USA). Disturbance interactions were evaluated for two different scenarios: presettlement forests and fire regimes vs. contemporary forests and fire regimes. Forest composition under the contemporary scenario trended toward mixtures of deciduous species (primarily Betula papyrifera and Populus spp.) and shade-tolerant conifers (Picea mariana, Abies balsamea, Thuja occidentalis), with disturbances dominated by a combination of budworm defoliation and high-severity fires. The presettlement scenario retained comparatively more "big pines" (i.e., Pinus strobus, P. resinosa) and tamarack (L. laricina), and experienced less budworm disturbance and a comparatively less-severe fire regime. Spruce budworm disturbance decreased area burned and fire severity under both scenarios when averaged across the entire 300-year simulations. Contrary to past research, area burned and fire severity during outbreak decades were each similar to that observed in non-outbreak decades. Our analyses suggest budworm disturbances within forests of the BWCA have a comparatively weak effect on long-term forest composition due to a combination of characteristics. These include strict host specificity, fine-scaled patchiness created by defoliation damage, and advance regeneration of its primary host, balsam fir (A. balsamea) that allows its host to persist despite repeated disturbances. Understanding the nature of the three-way interaction between

  6. Environmental hazards of aluminum to plants, invertebrates, fish, and wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sparling, D.W.; Lowe, T.P.

    1996-01-01

    Aluminum is extremely common throughout the world and is innocuous under circumneutral or alkaline conditions. However, in acidic environments, it can be a maJor limiting factor to many plants and aquatic organisms. The greatest concern for toxicity in North America occurs in areas that are affected by wet and dry acid deposition, such as eastern Canada and the northeastern U.S. Acid mine drainage, logging, and water treatment plant effluents containing alum can be other maJor sources of Al. In solution, the metal can combine with several different agents to affect toxicity. In general, Al hydroxides and monomeric Al are the most toxic forms. Dissolved organic carbons, F, PO(3)3- and SO(4)2- ameliorate toxicity by reducing bioavailability. Elevated metal levels in water and soil can cause serious problems for some plants. Algae tend to be both acid- and Al tolerant and, although some species may disappear with reduced pH, overall algae productivity and biomass are seldom affected if pH is above 3.0. Aluminum and acid toxicity tend to be additive to some algae when pH is less than 4.5. Because the metal binds with inorganic P, it may reduce P availability and reduce productivity. Forest die-backs in North America involving red spruce, Fraser fir, balsam fir, loblolly pine, slash pine, and sugar maples have been ascribed to Al toxicity, and extensive areas of European forests have died because of the combination of high soil Al and low pH. Extensive research on crops has produced Al-resistant cultivars and considerable knowledge about mechanisms of and defenses against toxicity. Very low Al levels may benefit some plants, although the metal is not recognized as an essential nutrient. Hyperaccumulator species of plants may concentrate Al to levels that are toxic to herbivores. Toxicity in aquatic invertebrates is also acid dependent. Taxa such as Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Cladocera are sensitive and may perish when Al is less than 1 mg.L-1 whereas dipterans

  7. The Importance of Measuring Mercury in Wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.; Yanai, R. D.; Driscoll, C. T.; Montesdeoca, M.

    2014-12-01

    Forests are important receptors of Hg deposition, and biological Hg hotspots occur mainly in forested regions, but few efforts have been made to determine the Hg content of trees. Mercury concentrations in stem tissue are lower than the foliage and bark, so low that they have often been below detection limits, especially in hardwood species. However, because wood is the largest component of forest biomass, it can be a larger Hg pool than the foliage, and thus quantifying concentrations in wood is important to Hg budgets in forests. The objective of our study was to determine the methods necessary to detect Hg in bole wood of four tree species, including two hardwoods and two conifers. We also evaluated the effect of air-drying and oven-drying samples on Hg recovery, compared to freeze-drying samples prior to analysis, which is the standard procedure. Many archived wood samples that were air-dried or oven-dried could be appropriate for Hg analysis if these methods could be validated; few are freeze-dried. We analyzed samples for total Hg using thermal decomposition, catalytic conversion, amalgamation, and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (Method 7473, USEPA 1998). The result of the method detection limit study was 1.27 ng g-1, based on apple leaf standards (NIST 1515, 44 ± 4 ng/g). Concentrations in the hardwood species were 1.48 ± 0.23 ng g-1 for sugar maple and 1.75 ± 0.14 ng g-1 for American beech. Concentrations were higher in red spruce and balsam fir. Samples that were analyzed fresh, freeze-dried, or oven-dried at 65 ˚C were in close agreement, after correcting for moisture content. However, Hg concentrations were 34 to 45% too high in the air-dry samples, presumably reflecting absorption from the atmosphere, and they were 44 to 66% too low in the samples oven-dried at 103 ˚C, presumably due to volatilization. We recommend that samples be freeze-dried or oven-dried at 65 ˚C for analysis of Hg in wood; archived samples that have been oven-dried at

  8. Comparing modern and presettlement forest dynamics of a subboreal wilderness: Does spruce budworm enhance fire risk?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sturtevant, Brian R.; Miranda, Brian R.; Shinneman, Douglas J.; Gustafson, Eric J.; Wolter, Peter T.

    2012-01-01

    Insect disturbance is often thought to increase fire risk through enhanced fuel loadings, particularly in coniferous forest ecosystems. Yet insect disturbances also affect successional pathways and landscape structure that interact with fire disturbances (and vice-versa) over longer time scales. We applied a landscape succession and disturbance model (LANDIS-II) to evaluate the relative strength of interactions between spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) outbreaks and fire disturbances in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area (BWCA) in northern Minnesota (USA). Disturbance interactions were evaluated for two different scenarios: presettlement forests and fire regimes vs. contemporary forests and fire regimes. Forest composition under the contemporary scenario trended toward mixtures of deciduous species (primarily Betula papyrifera and Populus spp.) and shade-tolerant conifers (Picea mariana, Abies balsamea, Thuja occidentalis), with disturbances dominated by a combination of budworm defoliation and high-severity fires. The presettlement scenario retained comparatively more “big pines” (i.e., Pinus strobus, P. resinosa) and tamarack (L. laricina), and experienced less budworm disturbance and a comparatively less-severe fire regime. Spruce budworm disturbance decreased area burned and fire severity under both scenarios when averaged across the entire 300-year simulations. Contrary to past research, area burned and fire severity during outbreak decades were each similar to that observed in non-outbreak decades. Our analyses suggest budworm disturbances within forests of the BWCA have a comparatively weak effect on long-term forest composition due to a combination of characteristics. These include strict host specificity, fine-scaled patchiness created by defoliation damage, and advance regeneration of its primary host, balsam fir (A. balsamea) that allows its host to persist despite repeated disturbances. Understanding the nature of the three-way interaction

  9. Does the invasive plant, Impatiens glandulifera promote soil erosion from riparian zones? An investigation on a small watercourse in northwest Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwood, Philip; Kuhn, Nikolaus

    2013-04-01

    Impatiens glandulifera (common English name: Himalayan Balsam) was introduced into Europe in the mid-19th century, whereupon its invasive tendency has facilitated its expansion throughout many mainland European countries. Its rate of expansion can be attributed to certain lifecycle traits that allow it to become rapidly established and crowd-out many native floral species. Its preferred habitat includes damp, nutrient-rich soils that experience frequent natural disturbance, such as along riparian zones. Once present, nearby watercourses then inadvertently act as conduits that facilitate the movement of seeds downstream into un-colonised parts of a catchment. Once established, individual plants form discrete and often mono-cultural stands of dense vegetation that can typically range in area from a few m-2 to > 150 m-2. Impatiens glandulifera is cold-intolerant however, and in temperate countries rapidly dies when exposed to the first frosts of the season. Once die-back occurs, it is hypothesised that a reduction in the protection afforded to the underlying soil by the vegetation canopy will promote the mobilisation of material from areas contaminated with I. glandulifera at a greater rate that areas supporting indigeneous vgetation, due to their increased exposure to erosion processes. An investigation was conducted to test this hypothesis in a contaminated sub-catchment of the Birs River in northwest Switzerland. A measurement technique consisting of erosion pins, an erosion bridge and a digital caliper was employed to quantify changes in the soil profile, as this approach represented the least invasive way of repeatedly measuring through vegetation without undue disturbance. An initial soil surface profile was established at five contaminated sites in late summer 2012 before die-back occurred, as well as at five nearby reference sites where I. glandulifera was absent. All soil surface profiles were re-measured at ca. 25-day intervals and the average net change was

  10. Modeling the Emergent Impacts of Harvesting Acadian Forests over 100+ Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luus, K. A.; Plug, L. J.

    2007-12-01

    Harvesting strategies and policies for Acadian forest in Nova Scotia, Canada, presently are set using Decision Support Models (DSMs) that aim to maximize the long-term (>100y) value of forests through decisions implemented over short time horizons (5-80 years). However, DSMs typically are aspatial, lack ecological processes and do not treat erosion, so the long-term (>100y) emergent impacts of the prescribed forestry decisions on erosion and vegetation in Acadian forests remain poorly known. To better understand these impacts, we created an equation-based model that simulates the evolution of a ≥4 km2 forest in time steps of 1 y and at a spatial resolution of 3 m2, the footprint of a single mature tree. The model combines 1) ecological processes of recruitment, competition, and mortality; 2) geomorphic processes of hillslope erosion; 3) anthropic processes of tree harvesting, replanting, and road construction under constraints imposed by regulations and cost/benefit ratio. The model uses digital elevation models, parameters (where available), and calibration (where measurements are not available) for conditions presently found in central Cape Breton, Nova Scotia. The model is unique because it 1) deals with the impacts of harvesting on an Acadian forest; and 2) vegetation and erosion are coupled. The model was tested by comparing the species-specific biomass of long-term (40 y) forest plot data to simulated results. At the spatial scale of individual 1 ha plots, model predictions presently account for approximately 50% of observed biomass changes through time, but predictions are hampered by the effects of serendipitous "random" events such as single tree windfall. Harvesting increases the cumulative erosion over 3000 years by 240% when compared to an old growth forest and significantly suppresses the growth of Balsam Fir and Sugar Maple. We discuss further tests of the model, and how it might be used to investigate the long-term sustainability of the

  11. Monitoring Forest and Rangeland Change in the United States Using Landsat Time Series Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogelmann, J.; Tolk, B.; Xian, G. Z.; Homer, C.

    2011-12-01

    , increases in canopy cover appear to be mostly related to expansion of eastern red cedar. In the White Mountains of New Hampshire, observed increases in forest canopy appear to be related to understory balsam fir expansion, most likely related to release of forest suppression resulting from the thinning of the upper forest canopy. Continued analyses of time series data using multi-spatial scenes and covering multiple years are required in order to develop accurate impressions and representations of the changing ecosystem patterns and trends that are occurring. The approach demonstrates that Landsat time series data can be used operationally for assessing gradual ecosystem change across large areas. This information complements the information derived from other time-series change detection used for LANDFIRE.

  12. Characterization of asphalt materials containing bio oil from michigan wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills-Beale, Julian

    The objective of this research is to develop sustainable wood-blend bioasphalt and characterize the atomic, molecular and bulk-scale behavior necessary to produce advanced asphalt paving mixtures. Bioasphalt was manufactured from Aspen, Basswood, Red Maple, Balsam, Maple, Pine, Beech and Magnolia wood via a 25 KWt fast-pyrolysis plant at 500 °C and refined into two distinct end forms - non-treated (5.54% moisture) and treated bioasphalt (1% moisture). Michigan petroleum-based asphalt, Performance Grade (PG) 58-28 was modified with 2, 5 and 10% of the bioasphalt by weight of base asphalt and characterized with the gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), Fourier Transform Infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy and the automated flocculation titrimetry techniques. The GC-MS method was used to characterize the Carbon-Hydrogen-Nitrogen (CHN) elemental ratio whiles the FTIR and the AFT were used to characterize the oxidative aging performance and the solubility parameters, respectively. For rheological characterization, the rotational viscosity, dynamic shear modulus and flexural bending methods are used in evaluating the low, intermediate and high temperature performance of the bio-modified asphalt materials. 54 5E3 (maximum of 3 million expected equivalent standard axle traffic loads) asphalt paving mixes were then prepared and characterized to investigate their laboratory permanent deformation, dynamic mix stiffness, moisture susceptibility, workability and constructability performance. From the research investigations, it was concluded that: 1) levo, 2, 6 dimethoxyphenol, 2 methoxy 4 vinylphenol, 2 methyl 1-2 cyclopentandione and 4-allyl-2, 6 dimetoxyphenol are the dominant chemical functional groups; 2) bioasphalt increases the viscosity and dynamic shear modulus of traditional asphalt binders; 3) Bio-modified petroleum asphalt can provide low-temperature cracking resistance benefits at -18 °C but is susceptible to cracking at -24 °C; 3) Carbonyl and sulphoxide

  13. Interannual consistency in canopy stomatal conductance control of leaf water potential across seven tree species.

    PubMed

    Ewers, B E; Mackay, D S; Samanta, S

    2007-01-01

    We investigated interannual variability of canopy transpiration per unit ground area (E (C)) and per unit leaf area (E (L)) across seven tree species in northern Wisconsin over two years. These species have previously been shown to be sufficient to upscale stand-level transpiration to the landscape level during one growing season. Our objective was to test whether a simple plant hydraulic model could capture interannual variation in transpiration. Three species, wetland balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill), basswood (Tilia Americana L.) and speckled alder (Alnus rugosa (DuRoi) Spreng), had no change in E (C) or E (L) between 2000 and 2001. Red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait) had a 57 and 19% increase in E (C) and E (L), respectively, and sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh) had an 83 and 41% increase in E (C) and E (L), respectively, from 2000 to 2001. Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx) had a 50 and 21% decrease in E (C) and E (L), respectively, from 2000 to 2001 in response to complete defoliation by forest tent caterpillar (Malascoma distria Hüber) and subsequent lower total leaf area index of the reflushed foliage. White cedar (Thuja occidentalis L.) had a 20% decrease in both E (C) and E (L) caused by lowered surface water in wetlands in 2001 because of lower precipitation and wetland flow management. Upland A. balsamea increased E (L) and E (C) by 55 and 53%, respectively, as a result of release from light competition of the defoliated, overstory P. tremuloides. We hypothesized that regardless of different drivers of interannual variability in E (C) and E (L), minimum leaf water potential would be regulated at the same value. Minimum midday water potentials were consistent over the two years within each of the seven species despite large changes in transpiration between years. This regulation was independently verified by the exponential saturation between daily E (C) and vapor pressure deficit (D) and the tradeoff between a reference canopy stomatal

  14. Combining near infrared spectra of feces and geostatistics to generate forage nutritional quality maps across landscapes.

    PubMed

    Pierre-Olivier, Jean; Bradley, Robert L; Tremblay, Jean-Pierre; Côté, Steeve D

    2015-09-01

    An important asset for the management of wild ungulates is recognizing the spatial distribution of forage quality across heterogeneous landscapes. To do so typically requires knowledge of which plant species are eaten, in what abundance they are eaten, and what their nutritional quality might be. Acquiring such data, however, may be difficult and time consuming. Here, we are proposing a rapid and cost-effective forage quality monitoring tool that combines near infrared (NIR) spectra of fecal samples and easily obtained data on plant community composition. Our approach rests on the premise that NIR spectra of fecal samples collected within low population density exclosures reflect the optimal forage quality of a given landscape. Forage quality can thus be based on the Mahalanobis distance of fecal spectral scans across the landscape relative to fecal spectral scans inside exclosures (referred to as DISTEX). The Gi* spatial autocorrelation statistic can then be applied among neighboring DISTEX values to detect and map "hot spots" and "cold spots" of nutritional quality over the landscape. We tested our approach in a heterogeneous boreal landscape on Anticosti Island (Québec, Canada), where white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) populations over the landscape have ranged from 20 to 50 individuals/km2 for at least 80 years, resulting in a loss of most palatable and nutritious plant species. Our results suggest that hot spots of forage quality occur when old-growth balsam fir stands comprise >39.8% of 300 ha neighborhoods, whereas cold spots occur in laggs (i.e., transition zones from forest to peatland). In terms of ground-level indicator plant species, the presence of Canada bunchberry (Cornus canadensis) was highly correlated with hot spots, whereas tamarack (Larix laricina) was highly correlated with cold spots. Mean DISTEX values were positively and significantly correlated with the neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent lignin contents of feces. While our

  15. GC-MS profiling of the phytochemical constituents of the oleoresin from Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. and a preliminary in vivo evaluation of its antipsoriatic effect.

    PubMed

    Gelmini, Fabrizio; Beretta, Giangiacomo; Anselmi, Cecilia; Centini, Marisanna; Magni, Paolo; Ruscica, Massimiliano; Cavalchini, Alberto; Maffei Facino, Roberto

    2013-01-20

    Copaiba is the oleoresin (OR) obtained from Copaifera (Fabaceae), a neotropical tree which grows in Amazon regions. The balsam, constituted by an essential oil and a resinous fraction is used as folkloristic remedy in the treatment of several inflammatory diseases and for its antioxidant and antibacterial properties. Aim of this work was (a) to carry out a characterization by GC-MS of the volatile and nonvolatile constituents of Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. oleoresin (OR); (b) to investigate the mechanism of its anti-inflammatory activity; (c) to evaluate its antipsoriatic effect after oral intake/topical application. The volatile fraction (yield: 22.51%, w/w) shows: α-bergamotene (48.38%), α-himachalene (11.17%), β-selinene (5.00%) and β-caryophyllene (5.47%). The OR residue (77.49%, w/w), after derivatization, showed as main constituents the following compounds: copalic, abietic, daniellic, lambertinic, labd-7-en-15-oic, pimaric, isopimaric acids and kaur16-en18-oic acid. Preincubation of LPS-stimulated human THP-1 monocytes with increasing concentrations of the OR purified fraction (OR-PF), containing diterpene acids, diterpenes and sesquiterpenes, reduced the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNFα) in a dose-range of 0.1-10 μM. In addition, in cell culture system of human THP-1 monocytes, 1 μM OR-PF counteracts LPS-driven NF-κB nuclear translocation. In a preliminary clinical trial three patients affected by chronic psoriasis, treated with oral intake or topical application of the OR, exhibited a significant improvement of the typical signs of this disease, i.e. erythema, skin thickness, and scaliness. In conclusion, the results of this work, beside an extensive analytical characterization of the OR chemical composition, provide strong evidences that its anti-inflammatory activity is related to the inhibition of the NF-κB nuclear translocation, and consequently of proinflammatory cytokines secretion. PMID:22939967

  16. Wood Anatomy and Insect Defoliator Systems: Is there an anatomical response to sustained feeding by the western spruce budworm (Choristoneura occidentalis) on Douglas-fir (Pseudotusga menziesii)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Axelson, Jodi; Gärtner, Holger; Alfaro, René; Smith, Dan

    2013-04-01

    The western spruce budworm (Choristoneura occidentalis Freeman) is the most widespread and destructive defoliator of coniferous forests in western North America, and has a long-term coexistence with its primary host tree, Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii Franco). Western spruce budworm (WSB) outbreaks usually last for several years, and cause reductions in annual growth, stem defects, and regeneration delays. In British Columbia, the WSB is the second most damaging insect after the mountain pine beetle, and sustained and/or severe defoliation can result in the mortality of host trees. Numerous studies have used tree rings to reconstruct WSB outbreaks across long temporal scales, to evaluate losses in stand productivity, and examine isotope ratios. Although some studies have looked at the impacts of artificial defoliation on balsam fir in eastern North America, there has been no prior research on how WSB outbreaks affect the anatomical structure of the stem as described by intra-annual wood density and potential cell size variations. The objective of this study was to anatomically examine the response of Douglas-fir to sustained WSB outbreaks in two regions of southern British Columbia. We hypothesize that the anatomical intra-annual characteristics of the tree rings, such as cell wall thickness, latewood cell size, and/or lumen area changes during sustained WSB outbreaks. To test this hypothesis we sampled four permanent sample plots in coastal and dry interior sites, which had annually resolved defoliation data collected over a 7-12 year period. At each site diameter-at-breast height (cm), height (m), and crown position were recorded and three increment cores were extracted from 25 trees. Increment cores were prepared to permit anatomical and x-ray density analyses. For each tree, a 15µm thick micro section was cut from the radial plane. Digital images of the micro sections were captured and processed. In each annual ring, features such as cell lumen area (µm2

  17. Microbial weathering of apatite and wollastonite in a forest soil: Evidence from minerals buried in a root-free zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nezat, C. A.

    2011-12-01

    Mineral weathering is an important process in biogeochemical cycling because it releases nutrients from less labile pools (e.g., rocks) to the food chain. A field experiment was undertaken to determine the degree to which microbes - both fungi and bacteria - are responsible for weathering of Ca-bearing minerals. The experiment was performed at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF) in the northeastern USA, where acid deposition has leached plant-available calcium from soils for decades. Trees obtain soil nutrients through root uptake as well as through mycorrhizal fungi with which they are symbiotically associated. These fungi extend their hyphae from the tree roots into the soil and exude organic acids that may enhance mineral dissolution. The two most common types of symbiotic fungal-tree associations are ectomycorrhizae, which are associated with spruce (Picea), fir (Abies), and beech (Fagus); and arbuscular mycorrhizae which are commonly associated with angiosperms, such as maples (Acer). To examine the role of fungi and bacteria in weathering of Ca- and/or P-bearing minerals, mesh bags containing sand-sized grains of quartz (as a control), quartz plus 1% wollastonite (CaSiO3), or quartz plus 1% apatite (Ca5(PO4)3F) were buried ~15 cm deep in mineral soil beneath American beech, sugar maple, and mixed spruce and balsam fir stands at the HBEF. Half of the bags were constructed of 50-μm mesh to exclude roots but allow fungal hyphae and bacteria to enter the bags; the remaining bags had 1-μm mesh to exclude fungi and roots but allow bacteria to enter. The bags were retrieved ~ 1, 2 or 4 years after burial. Microbial community composition and biomass in the mesh bags and surrounding soil were characterized and quantified using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. Fungal biomass in the soil and control bags did not differ significantly among stand types. In contrast, the degree of fungal colonization in apatite- and wollastonite-amended bags varied

  18. Ecological implications of Laurel Wilt infestation on Everglades Tree Islands, southern Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, James R.

    2014-01-01

    There is a long history of introduced pests attacking native forest trees in the United States (Liebhold and others, 1995; Aukema and others, 2010). Well-known examples include chestnut blight that decimated the American chestnut (Castanea dentata), an extremely important tree in the eastern United States, both as a food source for wildlife and humans and for the wood; Dutch elm disease that attacks native elms (Ulmus spp.), including those commonly planted as shade trees along city streets; and the balsam wooly adelgid (Adelges piceae), an insect that is destroying Fraser firs (Abies fraseri) in higher elevations of Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Laurel wilt, a fungal disease transmitted by the redbay ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus), is a 21st-century example of an introduced forest pest that attacks native tree species in the laurel family (Lauraceae) (Mayfield, 2007; Hulcr and Dunn, 2011).The introduction of laurel wilt disease has been traced to the arrival of an Asian ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus) at Port Wentworth, Georgia, near Savannah, in 2002, apparently accidently introduced in wooden shipping material (Mayfield, 2007). Within the next 2 years, it was determined that the non-native wood-boring insect was the vector of an undescribed species of fungus, responsible for killing large numbers of red bay (Persea borbonia) trees in the surrounding area. Dispersing female redbay ambrosia beetles drill into live trees and create tunnels in the wood. They carry with them fungal spores in specialized organs called mycangia at the base of each mandible and sow the spores in the tunnels they excavate. The fungus, since named Raffaelea lauricola (Harrington and others, 2008), is the food source for adults and larvae. The introduction of Raffaelea lauricola causes the host plant to react in such a way as to block the vascular tissue, resulting in loss of water conduction, wilt, and death (Kendra and others, 2013).Although first seen in red bay

  19. Ca isotope cycling in a forested ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmden, Chris; Bélanger, Nicolas

    2010-02-01

    Reports of large Ca isotope fractionations between trees and soils prompted this study of a Boreal forest ecosystem near La Ronge, Saskatchewan, to improve understanding of this phenomenon. The results on five tree species (black spruce, trembling aspen, white spruce, jack pine, balsam poplar) confirm that nutrient Ca uptake by plants favors the light isotopes, thus driving residual Ca in plant available soil pools towards enrichment in the heavy isotopes. Substantial within-tree fraction occurs in tissues formed along the transpiration stream, with low δ 44Ca values in fine roots (2 mm), intermediate values in stemwood, and high values in foliage. Separation factors between different plant tissues are similar between species, but the initial fractionation step in the tips of the fine roots is species specific, and/or sensitive to the local soil environment. Soil water δ 44Ca values appear to increase with depth to at least 35 cm below the top of the forest floor, which is close to the deepest level of fine roots. The heavy plant fractionated signature of Ca in the finely rooted upper soils filters downward where it is retained on ion exchange sites, leached into groundwater, and discharged into surface waters. The relationship between Ca uptake by tree fine roots and the pattern of δ 44Ca enrichment with soil depth was modeled for two Ca pools: the forest floor (litter) and the underlying (upper B) mineral soil. Six study plots were investigated along two hillside toposequences trending upwards from a first order stream. We used allometric equations describing the Ca distribution in boreal tree species to calculate weighted average δ 44Ca values for the stands in each plot and estimate Ca uptake rates. The δ 44Ca value of precipitation was measured, and soil weathering signatures deduced, by acid leaching of lower B mineral soils. Steady state equations were used to derive a set of model Ca fluxes and fractionation factors for each plot. The model reproduces

  20. Strain Partitioning and Crystallographic Textures of Experimentally Deformed Olivine + Orthopyroxene Aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundberg, M.; Cooper, R. F.

    2005-12-01

    The plastic deformation of polycrystalline rocks incorporates the grain matrix deformation of the individual grains (via chemical diffusion and/or dislocation propagation) acting in kinetic series with inter-grain sliding along grain- and phase-boundaries. In a polyphase aggregate where multiple types of interfaces exist, plastic deformation necessarily leads to strain partitioning and phase separation predicated on the relative effective viscosities of grain- and phase-boundaries. This segregation is sensitive both to lithology and stress, and manifests itself both in the grain-scale microstructures and in the lattice preferred orientations of the component phases. We have deformed fine-grained (~5 μm) aggregates of Balsam Gap dunite + Bamble, Norway orthopyroxene in triaxial compression and in (nominally) simple shear to investigate textural development in polyphase mantle rocks. Constant-load triaxial compression tests were conducted at P=300 MPa, T=1200°C in a Paterson-type gas medium apparatus. Simple shear tests were conducted at P=1.6 GPa and T=1200°C in a Griggs apparatus using a molten-salt cell at strain rates of 10-5s-1 to 10-4s-1. Samples were dried for 12 h (CO:CO2 buffer at 950-1000°C) prior to sintering to ensure that these experiments were conducted in an anhydrous environment. No melt was produced during these experiments. Constant-load tests, conducted over the range of strain-rates used in the constant displacement-rate shear experiments, on a 50:50 mixture of olivine and orthopyroxene, reveal a stress exponent of 1.5±0.2. Similar experiments conducted on a 35:65 mixture of olivine and orthopyroxene reveal a stress exponent of 2.0±0.2. The fine grain size of the aggregates and the small stresses (<15 MPa) used in the creep tests would seem to preclude significant contribution of dislocation motion to the rheology. Samples composed of 35 vol% orthopyroxene deformed in shear at a constant strain-rate of 10-5s-1 develop a pronounced olivine

  1. Micromorphology of two prehistoric ritual burials from Yemen, and considerations on methodological aspects of sampling the burial matrix - work in progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usai, Maria-Raimonda; Brothwell, Don; Buckley, Stephen; Ai-Thour, Kalid; Canti, Matthew

    2010-05-01

    Introduction In the central area of Yemen, two burial sites placed high in the crevices of vertical cliff face of Cretaceous sandstone (Tawilah Group) provided evidence of human remains and yielded burial soils. Radiocarbon dating indicated c.2500-2900 years BP for the burials. In other local comparable sites the deep horizontal crevices yielded Bronze Age human remains, in exceptional state of preservation Questions: What was the nature of the burial matrix? Are other human influences superimposed on the soils derived from it? Is it simply decomposed crevice rock, scraped together at the time of burial, or the result of a more complex burial practice? Such questions are also relevant to a variety of other burials of different periods and world regions. Methods Seven matrix samples from Cliff Burials (A) Talan (Layers 4,10,12,14,18,20 and 22, from top to bottom) and (B) Shiban Kawkaban (Layer 1 and 9) were analysed with micromorphology, supplemented by SEM microprobe, X-ray diffraction, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Results Cliff Burial Site Talan. The presence of cholesterol was confirmed in the lower sample. The second layer contained darker earth with fibrous plant material. A hard calcareous upper capping contrasted with the other levels of matrix, and it displayed a highly birefingent material with a significant component of uric acid. The other levels had variable organic content and plant inclusions, and possibly pollen. In Layer 10, aromatic acids indicative of balsam and sugar markers suggested plant gum. Cholesterol was the major sterol in Layers 10 and 22, but whilst in Layer 10 its oxidation products were present and cholestanol was abundant as normally in soils, it was only a minor component of Layer 22 where, rather, a significant amount of coprostanol indicated faecal input, and cholesterol oxidation products were absent. Cliff Burial Site Shiban Kawkaban. Although no stratification was visible to the naked eye, variation was observed at a

  2. Environmental hazards of aluminum to plants, invertebrates, fish, and wildlife.

    PubMed

    Sparling, D W; Lowe, T P

    1996-01-01

    Aluminum is extremely common throughout the world and is innocuous under circumneutral or alkaline conditions. However, in acidic environments, it can be a major limiting factor to many plants and aquatic organisms. The greatest concern for toxicity in North America occurs in areas that are affected by wet and dry acid deposition, such as eastern Canada and the northeastern U.S. Acid mine drainage, logging, and water treatment plant effluents containing alum can be other major sources of Al. In solution, the metal can combine with several different agents to affect toxicity. In general, Al hydroxides and monomeric Al are the most toxic forms. Dissolved organic carbons, F, PO(3)3- and SO(4)2- ameliorate toxicity by reducing bioavailability. Elevated metal levels in water and soil can cause serious problems for some plants. Algae tend to be both acid- and Al tolerant and, although some species may disappear with reduced pH, overall algae productivity and biomass are seldom affected if pH is above 3.0. Aluminum and acid toxicity tend to be additive to some algae when pH is less than 4.5. Because the metal binds with inorganic P, it may reduce P availability and reduce productivity. Forest die-backs in North America involving red spruce, Fraser fir, balsam fir, loblolly pine, slash pine, and sugar maples have been ascribed to Al toxicity, and extensive areas of European forests have died because of the combination of high soil Al and low pH. Extensive research on crops has produced Al-resistant cultivars and considerable knowledge about mechanisms of and defenses against toxicity. Very low Al levels may benefit some plants, although the metal is not recognized as an essential nutrient. Hyperaccumulator species of plants may concentrate Al to levels that are toxic to herbivores. Toxicity in aquatic invertebrates is also acid dependent. Taxa such as Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Cladocera are sensitive and may perish when Al is less than 1 mg.L-1 whereas dipterans

  3. Colonisation trends of the invasive plant, Impatiens glandulifera, along river corridors: some preliminary findings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwood, Phil; Kuhn, Brigitte; Kuhn, Nikolaus

    2016-04-01

    Originating from the Himalayas, the highly invasive plant, Impatiens glandulifera (Himalayan Balsam), is now found on three separate continents, with a distribution that includes most temperate European countries, large areas of east and west North America and parts of New Zealand. As a ruderal species, it prefers damp, shady and fertile soils that are frequently disturbed. This means that it commonly occurs along the riparian zone of rivers and streams. Being highly sensitivity to cold weather, however, whole stands suddenly and often simultaneously die-off; leaving riparian areas bare or partially devoid of vegetation. These lifecycle traits have implicated it in promoting soil erosion in affected river systems in temperate regions. Recent work undertaken by members of the Physical Geography & Environmental Change Research Group, University of Basel, has documented erosion rates along a section of contaminated river systems in northwest Switzerland, and southwest UK. Collectively, these data now span a total of seven separate germination and die-off cycles. Results from both river systems over all monitoring campaigns indicate that soil loss from areas contaminated with I. glandulifera is significantly greater than comparable areas supporting perennial vegetation. Crucially, however, extremely high-magnitude erosion was recorded at approximately 30% of contaminated areas (n=41). Reasons for high disturbance levels focus on the possibility that I. glandulifera tends to colonise depositional areas within a flood-zone. As those areas act as foci for the accretion of flood-derived sediment, the ability of this material to resist subsequent mobilisation processes is low due to limited cohesion, poor compaction and undeveloped soil structure. We hypothesis, therefore, that the tendency of I. glanduilfera to grow in depositional sites will be reflected in a number of key physico-chemical traits associated with soils in such areas; namely lower in-situ bulk

  4. The "Mud-volcanoes route" (Emilia Apennines, northern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coratza, Paola; Castaldini, Doriano

    2016-04-01

    In the present paper the "Mud-volcanoes route" (MVR), an itinerary unfolds across the districts of Viano, Sassuolo, Fiorano Modenese and Maranello, in which part of the Emilia mud volcanoes fields are located, is presented. The Mud-volanoes route represents an emotional journey that connects places and excellences through the geological phenomenon of mud volcanoes, known with the local name "Salse". The Mud Volcanoes are created by the surfacing of salt water and mud mixed with gaseous and liquid hydrocarbons along faults and fractures of the ground. The name "Salsa"- from Latin salsus - results from the"salt" content of these muddy waters, ancient heritage of the sea that about a million years ago was occupying the current Po Plain. The "Salse" may take the shape of a cone or a level-pool according to the density of the mud. The Salse of Nirano, in the district of Fiorano Modenese, is one of the most important in Italy and among the most complex in Europe. Less extensive but equally charming and spectacular, are the "Salse" located in the districts of Maranello (locality Puianello), Sassuolo (locality Montegibbio) and Viano (locality Casola Querciola and Regnano). These fascinating lunar landscapes have always attracted the interest of researchers and tourist.The presence on the MVR territory of ancient settlements, Roman furnaces and mansions, fortification systems and castles, besides historic and rural buildings, proves the lasting bond between this land and its men. In these places, where the culture of good food has become a resource, we can find wine cellars, dairy farms and Balsamic vinegar factories that enable us to appreciate unique worldwide products. This land gave also birth to some personalities who created unique worldwide famous values, such as the myth of the Ferrrari, the ceramic industry and the mechatronics. The MVR is represented in a leaflet containing, short explanation, photos and a map in which are located areas with mud volcanoes, castles

  5. A Multivariate Approach for Using Satellite Imagery to Map the Composition and Structure of Forests Susceptible to Insect Disturbance: Application to the Simulation of Carbon Dynamics in Northern Minnesota and Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsend, P. A.; Wolter, P. T.

    2007-12-01

    Compared to other forest disturbances, insects and disease influence the largest area of forests in both the U.S. and Canada, affecting an estimated 50 million acres in the U.S. with economic costs over $1.5 billion. The successful understanding and modeling of ecosystem impacts of insect disturbances (especially for carbon dynamics) requires good knowledge of the spatial distribution, density and structure of host species on the landscape. In this study, we mapped the distribution of host species for the spruce budworm ( Choristoneura fumiferana) to facilitate landscape scale planning and modeling of outbreak dynamics. Spruce budworm is one of the most destructive indigenous pests in sub-boreal and boreal spruce-fir forests in the United States and Canada. Although periodic outbreaks are part of the natural cycle in these forests, traditional forest management practices may be responsible for increasing the frequency and severity of outbreaks. Currently, accurate spatially explicit forest structure data for such endeavors remains a persistent challenge and considerable research has focused on using remote sensing to identify methodologies to facilitate accurate estimation of stand volume and/or biomass. We used multi-temporal, multi-seasonal Landsat data and over 230 ground truth plots (and 220 additional validation plots) to map basal area (BA), for over two million hectares of forest in northern Minnesota and neighboring Ontario. BA was mapped both overall and for two spruce budworm host tree species ( Picea glauca and Abies balsamea) using partial least squares (PLS) regression applied to raw spectral bands, various spectral derivatives, and ground truth data. Results of the PLS regression yielded reasonable estimates of overall forest BA with an adjusted R2 of 0.62 and RMSE 4.67 m2 ha-1. White spruce relative BA had an adjusted R2 of 0.88 (RMSE 12.57 m2ha-1) and balsam fir relative BA had an adjusted R2 of 0.64 (RMSE 6.08 m2ha-1). The method also produced

  6. Similarity of nutrient uptake and root dimensions of Engelmann spruce and subalpine fir at two contrasting sites in Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Yanai, R; McFarlane, K; Lucash, M; Kulpa, S; Wood, D

    2009-10-09

    were indistinguishable in specific root length and diameter distribution, while most of the other ten species had statistically distinct diameter distributions across five diameter classes < 2 mm. Based on specific root length, subalpine fir and Engelmann spruce had significantly coarser roots than red pine (Pinus resinosa Soland), yellow birch (Betula allegheniensis Britt.), sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.), chestnut oak (Quercus prinus L.), black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.), and red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.). White oak (Quercus alba L.), balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.), American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) were intermediate in SRL (indistinguishable from Engelmann spruce and subalpine fir by ANOVA). Species that differ more in physiology and morphology than the two species we compared would likely show dissimilar uptake characteristics even at the same site.

  7. Biochemical conversions of lignocellulosic biomass for sustainable fuel-ethanol production in the upper Midwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodeur-Campbell, Michael J.

    Biofuels are an increasingly important component of worldwide energy supply. This research aims to understand the pathways and impacts of biofuels production, and to improve these processes to make them more efficient. In Chapter 2, a life cycle assessment (LCA) is presented for cellulosic ethanol production from five potential feedstocks of regional importance to the upper Midwest — hybrid poplar, hybrid willow, switchgrass, diverse prairie grasses, and logging residues — according to the requirements of Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS). Direct land use change emissions are included for the conversion of abandoned agricultural land to feedstock production, and computer models of the conversion process are used in order to determine the effect of varying biomass composition on overall life cycle impacts. All scenarios analyzed here result in greater than 60% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions relative to petroleum gasoline. Land use change effects were found to contribute significantly to the overall emissions for the first 20 years after plantation establishment. Chapter 3 is an investigation of the effects of biomass mixtures on overall sugar recovery from the combined processes of dilute acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Biomass mixtures studied were aspen, a hardwood species well suited to biochemical processing; balsam, a high-lignin softwood species, and switchgrass, an herbaceous energy crop with high ash content. A matrix of three different dilute acid pretreatment severities and three different enzyme loading levels was used to characterize interactions between pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Maximum glucose yield for any species was 70% of theoretical for switchgrass, and maximum xylose yield was 99.7% of theoretical for aspen. Supplemental β-glucosidase increased glucose yield from enzymatic hydrolysis by an average of 15%, and total sugar recoveries for mixtures could be predicted to within 4% by linear interpolation of the pure

  8. Salix polaris growth responses to active layer detachment and solifluction processes in High Arctic.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siekacz, Liliana

    2015-04-01

    The work is dedicated to demonstrate the potential of Salix polaris grow properties in the dendrogemorphologic image, analyzing periglacially induced slope processes in the high Arctic.. Observed anatomical and morphological plants responses to solifluction and active layer detachment processes are presented qualitatively and quantitatively as a summary of presented features frequency. The results are discussed against the background of the other research results in this field. The investigations was performed in Ebba valley, in the vicinity of Petunia Bay, northernmost part of Billefjorden in central Spitsbergen (Svalbard). Environmental conditions are characterized by annual precipitation sum lower than 200 mm (Hagen et al.,1993) and average summer temperature of about 5°C, with maximum daily temperatures rarely exceeding 10°C (Rachlewicz, 2009). Collected shrub material was prepared according to the methods presented by Schweingruber and Poschlod (2005). Thin (approx. 15-20μm) sections of the whole cross-section were prepared with a sledge microtome, stained with Safranine and Astra blue and finally permanently fixed on microslides with Canada balsam and dried. Snapshots were taken partially for each cross-section with digital camera (ColorView III, Olympus) connected to a microscope (Olympus BX41) and merged into one, high resolution image. After all, ring widths were measured in 3-4 radii in every single cross-section using ImageJ software. Analyzed plants revealed extremely harsh environmental conditions of their growth. Buchwał et al. (2013) provided quantitative data concerning missing rings and partially missing rings in shrubs growing on Ebba valley floor. Mean ring width at the level of 79μm represents one of the smallest values of yearly growth ever noted. The share of missing rings and partially missing rings was 11,2% and 13,6% respectively. Plants growing on Ebba valley slope indicate almost twice smaller values of ring width (41μm), and higher