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Sample records for baltic states predicated

  1. Detection of global state predicates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marzullo, Keith; Neiger, Gil

    1991-01-01

    The problem addressed here arises in the context of Meta: how can a set of processes monitor the state of a distributed application in a consistent manner? For example, consider the simple distributed application as shown here. Each of the three processes in the application has a light, and the control processes would each like to take an action when some specified subset of the lights are on. The application processes are instrumented with stubs that determine when the process turns its lights on or off. This information is disseminated to the control processes, each of which then determines when its condition of interest is met. Meta is built on top of the ISIS toolkit, and so we first built the sensor dissemination mechanism using atomic broadcast. Atomic broadcast guarantees that all recipients receive the messages in the same order and that this order is consistent with causality. Unfortunately, the control processes are somewhat limited in what they can deduce when they find that their condition of interest holds.

  2. Language Politics and Practices in the Baltic States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan-Brun, Gabrielle; Ozolins, Uldis; Ramoniene, Meilute; Rannut, Mart

    2008-01-01

    This monograph provides an overview of the language situation in the three Baltic countries: Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. It examines the recent change in language regimes that the Baltic States have deliberately brought about since the restitution of their independence, the nature of these changes, the opposition they have engendered and the…

  3. The national pharmacopoeias of the Baltic States.

    PubMed

    Kondratas, R; Gudienė, V; Simaitiene, Z; Maurina, B; Paju, K; Hinrikus, T; Raal, A

    2015-10-01

    After Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania proclaimed their independence in 1918 and began to create their national health care systems, one of their stated priorities was the formulation and publication of national pharmacopoeias. In order to accomplish this, working groups as well as commissions composed of pharmacists, medical specialists and even linguists had to be formed. The process was long and difficult. New terminology in native languages had to be created. Sources for the monographs had to be chosen, researched, analyzed and compared. There were organizational and financial problems. Nevertheless, by the late 1930s, all three Baltic States published their national pharmacopoeias. Officially, they were not able to use them for long because during World War II all three were occupied and annexed by the Soviet Union. Pharmacists in those countries were obliged to use the Soviet pharmacopoeias, although unofficially, they also made good use of their national ones. Currently, the European Pharmacopoeia is in use in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. PMID:26601427

  4. Hot and Cold Ethnicities in the Baltic States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehala, Martin; Zabrodskaja, Anastassia

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses the temperatures of the main ethnic groups in the Baltic states: Estonians, Latvians, Lithuanians, and their three Russian-speaking communities, and the Latgalian and Polish minority groups in Latvia and Lithuania, respectively. The study uses a triangulated methodology that includes a survey questionnaire for quantitative…

  5. The Professionalisation of Adult Educators in the Baltic States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jogi, Larissa; Gross, Marin

    2009-01-01

    Adult education and lifelong learning together form one of the priorities for development in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. The important historical and social context in which the professional development of adult educators has been taking place in the Baltic States since they regained their independence in the 1990s is the changes that occurred…

  6. Consistent detection of global predicates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Robert; Marzullo, Keith

    1991-01-01

    A fundamental problem in debugging and monitoring is detecting whether the state of a system satisfies some predicate. If the system is distributed, then the resulting uncertainty in the state of the system makes such detection, in general, ill-defined. Three algorithms are presented for detecting global predicates in a well-defined way. These algorithms do so by interpreting predicates with respect to the communication that has occurred in the system.

  7. Upwardly Mobile Languages: The Politics of Language in the Baltic States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozolins, Uldis

    1994-01-01

    Examines language policy in the Baltic states since they regained their independence from the Soviet Union. The article argues that each Baltic state has substantially realized its language policy aims and that the favorable response to language requirements at the group and individual level signals the extraordinary reversal of a colonial…

  8. US foreign policy and the Baltic states. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Shuey, K.A.

    1996-03-01

    This thesis examines U. S. foreign policy toward the Baltic states from 1918 to 1991 to determine if the U.S. has been realistic in its dealings with small nations. An analysis of U.S. policy indicates that the United States acts hypocritically by accepting compromises on the very moral principals to which it claims to be the protectorate of when domestic political costs are high. The sacrifice of national values degrades the credibility of the moral high ground necessary for U.S. policy. This study reviews the events that occurred during the three major periods in U.S.-Baltic relations: The initial period of Baltic independence following World War I; the Soviet annexation of the Baltics during World War II: and finally the beginning of the second period of Baltic independence during the breakup of the Soviet Union. In all three cases U.S. policy was unclear and contradictory. The Baltic case provides a good example of the tendency for U.S. policy to be paradoxical and ineffective. This study concludes that despite the U.S. policy of nonrecognition of the Soviet annexation of the Baltic states during the Cold War, the United States failed to adhere to its principals when given the opportunity. In the process, it also neglected problems within its borders that required attention perhaps more urgently than those outside. The tendency for U.S. policy to ignore the issues that actually threaten its security internally and placing a higher priority on external matters that do not have a real impact on its standing could likely lead to its inadvertent downfall.

  9. MPC&A training needs of the NIS/Baltics States.

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, David Franklin; Stoy-McLeod, Carol L.

    2006-07-01

    This report serves to document contract deliverables considered to be of continuing interest associated with two workshops conducted as part of an initial assessment of Material Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC&A) training needs of the Newly Independent and Baltic States (NIS/Baltics). These workshops were held in Kiev, Ukraine, ca. 2003-2004, with the assistance of personnel from the George Kuzmycz Training Center (GKTC) of the Kiev Institute of Nuclear Research (KINR). Because of the dominant role Ukraine plays in the region in terms of the nuclear industry, one workshop focused exclusively on Ukrainian training needs, with participants attending from twelve Ukrainian organizations (plus U.S. DOE/NNSA representatives). The second workshop included participation by a further ten countries from the NIS/Baltics region. In addition, the training needs data developed during the workshop were supplemented by the outcomes of surveys and studies conducted by the GKTC.

  10. Cultural and Linguistic Diversity of the Baltic States in a New Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savickien, Ineta; Kaledaite, Violeta

    2005-01-01

    Language questions are increasingly on the agenda in Europe. This paper addresses some problematic aspects of language teaching and learning that have come to the fore in the Baltic states after the European Union enlargement of 2004. First, the paper aims at providing relevant information about language policies in the former USSR and the…

  11. The Nature of Predication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liebesman, David

    2009-01-01

    I articulate and defend a necessary and sufficient condition for an occurrence of a term to function semantically as a predicate. The condition is that the term occurrence stands in the relation of "ascription" to its denotation, ascription being a fundamental semantic relation that differs from reference. This view on predication has dramatically…

  12. 8 CFR 204.10 - Petitions by, or for, certain scientists of the Commonwealth of Independent States or the Baltic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CFR part 103. (j) Rejection. Petitions filed under this provision on or after September 30, 2006 or... scientist or engineer of the eligible independent states of the former Soviet Union or the Baltic...

  13. 8 CFR 204.10 - Petitions by, or for, certain scientists of the Commonwealth of Independent States or the Baltic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CFR part 103. (j) Rejection. Petitions filed under this provision on or after September 30, 2006 or... scientist or engineer of the eligible independent states of the former Soviet Union or the Baltic...

  14. RES-E Support Policies In The Baltic States: Development Aspect (Part I)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobinaite, V.; Priedite, I.

    2015-02-01

    Despite quite similar conditions (natural resources) for electricity production from renewable energy sources (RES-E) in three Baltic States (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania), significant differences exist in these countries as to the RES-E production volume. In Latvia this volume is the highest, while in Estonia and Lithuania it is half as high. One of the factors that determine the RES-E production volumes is support policies, which in the Baltic States are different. The main objective of this work was to analyze and compare these support policies. The results have shown that for rapid RES-E development the most effective policy is to be market-oriented (as in Estonia), whereas for more stable development such policy should be producer-oriented (as in Lithuania).

  15. Marshak Lectureship Talk: Women in Physics in the Baltic States Region: Problems and Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satkovskiene, Dalia

    2008-03-01

    In this contribution the gender equality problem in physics will be discussed on the basis of the results obtained implementing the project ``Baltic States Network: Women in Sciences and High Technology'' (BASNET) initiated by Lithuanian women physicists and financed by European Commission. The main goal of BASNET project was creation of the regional Strategy how to deal with women in sciences problem in the Baltic States. It has some stages and the contribution follows them. The first one was in depth sociological study aiming to find out disincentives and barriers women scientists face in their career and work at science and higher education institutions. Analysis of results revealed wide range of problems concerned with science organization, management and financing common for both counterparts. However it also proved the existence of women discrimination in sciences. As main factors influencing women under-representation in Physics was found: the stereotypes existing in the society where physics is assigned to the masculine area of activity; failings of the science management system, where highest positions are distributed not using the institutionalized objective criteria but by voting, where the correctness of majority solutions is anticipated implicitly. In physics where male scientists are the majority (they also usually compose executive boards, committees etc.) results of such a procedures often are unfavorable for women. The same reasons also influence women ``visibility'' in physicist's community and as the consequence possibility to receive needed recourses for their research as well as appropriate presentation of results obtained. The study revealed also the conservatism of scientific community- reluctance to face existing in the scientific society problems and to start solving them. On the basis of the results obtained as well practice of other countries the common strategy of solving women in physics (sciences) in the Baltic States region was

  16. Minority Language Rights before and after the 2004 EU Enlargement: The Copenhagen Criteria in the Baltic States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adrey, Jean-Bernard

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of the recent European Union (EU) enlargement on minority language policies in the Baltic states, and in particular in Latvia and Estonia. I first look at the so-called Copenhagen political criteria conditioning EU accession and at the European Commission's monitoring system for assessing applicant countries'…

  17. Results of the neotectonic stress state study in the eastern part of Baltic shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sim, Lidiya A.; Zhirov, Dmitriy V.; Smaglichenko, Tatyana A.; Smaglichenko, Alexandr V.

    2010-05-01

    Recently a caving of the Kovdor quarry south-eastern bort occurred on the Kovdor massif (the eastern part of Baltic shield). This required a careful analyze of the stress field in the massif and a comparison of it with general situation in a region. In spite of weak seismicity at whole on the given territory it is characterized by the presence of earthquakes with M = 4 - 4.4 especially in zones of mining works (for example, events of 16.04.1989 and 17.08.1999 at the Khibiny-Lovoserskyi district). The risk zone is increased as for large industrial facilities AES located there as for big quarries extracting minerals. Kinematic method developed by Gushenko in 1973, 1979 has been applied in order to get the stress fields. The field works were performed during summer of 2009. According to this method vectors of tectonic movements along in fissures have been analyzed and local stress states have been reconstructed demonstrating significant range in orientation of axis of main normal stresses. These local stress states were conventionally correspond to the third rank and by using this information tectonic stresses of the second rank have been reconstructed. In the caving zone the local stress state can be characterized as uniaxial tension that could bring the caving. Previous investigations of the eastern part of Baltic shield were made for peninsulas Sredniy, Ryibachiy, for the White sea islands, at coast of the Kandalakschsky Bay, on the Chibino massif. Tectonic stresses of the first rank were revealed and were characterized as subhorizontal axis of compression and of tension. The compressional axis has the WNW orientation while and the extension axis is submeridional. Our research showed that the compression axis on the Kovdor massif has orientation 98° , angle is equal 15. This is in agreement with the previous results. The reconstructed stress field at whole well corresponds to the major faults Onego-Segozerskiy and Kandalakscha, which are seismic active zones. The

  18. Res-E Support Policies in the Baltic States: Electricity Price Aspect (Part II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobinaite, V.; Priedite, I.

    2015-04-01

    Increasing volumes of electricity derived from renewable energy sources (RES-E) affect the electricity market prices and the prices for final electricity consumers in the Baltic States. The results of a multivariate regression analysis show that in 2013 the RES-E contributed to decreasing the electricity market prices in the Baltic States. However, the final electricity consumers pay for the promotion of RES-E through the approved RES-E component which has a tendency to increase. It is estimated that in 2013 the net benefits from the wind electricity promotion were achieved in Lithuania and Latvia while the net cost - in Estonia. This suggests that the economic efficiency of the wind electricity support scheme based on the application of feed-in tariffs was higher than that based on the feed-in premium. Rakstā analizēta elektroenerģijas ražošanas no atjaunojamiem energoresursiem (AER-E) palielināšanas ietekme uz elektroenerģijas tirgus cenu un gala cenu elektroenerģijas lietotājiem Baltijas valstīs. Daudzfaktoru regresijas analīzes rezultāti atklāja, ka AER-E 2013. gadā varētu samazināt elektroenerģijas tirgus cenas Baltijas valstīs. Tomēr jāņem vērā, ka elektroenerģijas lietotāja gala cenā ir iekļauta AER-E atbalsta komponente, kurai ir raksturīgi palielināties. Aprēķināts, ka no vēja elektroenerģijas ražošanas Latvijā un Lietuvā tika iegūta tīrā peļņa, bet Igaunijā tikai nosedza pašizmaksu. Tas liecina, ka vēja elektroenerģijas atbalsta shēmai, kas balstīta uz obligātā iepirkuma atbalsta principu, ir augstāka ekonomiskā efektivitāte, nekā atbalsta shēmai, kas balstīta uz piemaksu par no AER saražoto elektroenerģiju obligātā iepirkuma ietvaros.

  19. Trichinella in arctic, subarctic and temperate regions: Greenland, the Scandinavian countries and the Baltic States.

    PubMed

    Kapel, C M

    1997-01-01

    The transmission and occurrence of Trichinella spp according to the zoogeography of different climatic conditions, socioeconomy and human activity are discussed. Comparing arctic, subarctic and temperate regions, it appears that the species of Trichinella present, the composition of the fauna and the human activity are all very important interacting factors affecting epidemiology. In Greenland, where only sylvatic trichinellosis is present, the high prevalence in wildlife appears closely connected with polar bear hunting. In the Scandinavian countries, the prevalence of both sylvatic and domestic trichinellosis differ widely. Denmark is regarded as Trichinella-free in the case of domestic trichinellosis and sylvatic trichinellosis is very rare. In Sweden and Norway, Trichinella is found in wildlife but domestic trichinellosis is rare. In Finland, both domestic and sylvatic trichinellosis have increased dramatically during the last decade. Among the Scandinavian countries, Finland also has the largest populations of carnivorous mammals. In the Baltic states, Trichinella is frequently found in wildlife and domestic trichinellosis is increasingly diagnosed. The high prevalence in the widespread wildlife populations may have epidemiological importance in relation to the recent changes in production and infrastructure in these former Soviet states. PMID:9656341

  20. Baltic Earth - Earth System Science for the Baltic Sea Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, Markus; Rutgersson, Anna; Lehmann, Andreas; Reckermann, Marcus

    2014-05-01

    The Baltic Sea region, defined as its river catchment basin, spans different climate and population zones, from a temperate, highly populated, industrialized south with intensive agriculture to a boreal, rural north. It encompasses most of the Scandinavian Peninsula in the west; most of Finland and parts of Russia, Belarus, and the Baltic states in the east; and Poland and small parts of Germany and Denmark in the south. The region represents an old cultural landscape, and the Baltic Sea itself is among the most studied sea areas of the world. Baltic Earth is the new Earth system research network for the Baltic Sea region. It is the successor to BALTEX, which was terminated in June 2013 after 20 years and two successful phases. Baltic Earth stands for the vision to achieve an improved Earth system understanding of the Baltic Sea region. This means that the research disciplines of BALTEX continue to be relevant, i.e. atmospheric and climate sciences, hydrology, oceanography and biogeochemistry, but a more holistic view of the Earth system encompassing processes in the atmosphere, on land and in the sea as well as in the anthroposphere shall gain in importance in Baltic Earth. Specific grand research challenges have been formulated, representing interdisciplinary research questions to be tackled in the coming years. A major means will be scientific assessments of particular research topics by expert groups, similar to the BACC approach, which shall help to identify knowledge gaps and develop research strategies. Preliminary grand challenges and topics for which Working Groups have been installed include: • Salinity dynamics in the Baltic Sea • Land-Sea biogeochemical feedbacks in the Baltic Sea region • Natural hazards and extreme events in the Baltic Sea region • Understanding sea level dynamics in the Baltic Sea • Understanding regional variability of water and energy exchange • Utility of Regional Climate Models • Assessment of Scenario Simulations

  1. The Baltics: Regional energy profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    However, all three Baltic Republics are heavily dependent on primary energy imports. Domestic energy sources in the Baltics are limited to oil shale mines in Estonia, small oil deposits in Lithuania, peat, and some very small hydroelectric power plants. A RBMK nuclear power station, similar to Chernobyl, operates at Snieckus in Lithuania, but the reactor fuel is also imported from Russia. However, Lithuania and Estonia are net exporters of electricity despite their reliance on primary fuels imports. The major power stations in these two Republics are the Ignalina Nuclear Power Station and the two thermal power plants at Narva in Estonia which are fueled by oil shale. The only oil refinery in the Baltics is also located in Lithuania, at Mazeikiai. This refinery has the capacity to satisfy the demand for selected refined products of the entire region, including the Kaliningrad oblast, a noncontiguous part of Russia. The Mazeikiai refinery has operated at only forty to sixty percent capacity since 1990 due to halts in crude oil supplies from Russia. The Baltic Republics also import one hundred percent of their coal and natural gas supplies. Russia is the main trading partner for all the Baltic states, accounting for more than half of their trade flow. Mutual trade within the Baltics has been surprisingly low. Other Baltic states contribute less than ten percent to each Republic`s exports or imports, even less than Belarus or Ukraine. Aside from Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus, only Kazakhstan contributes more than two percent to Baltics trade.

  2. The Baltics: Regional energy profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    However, all three Baltic Republics are heavily dependent on primary energy imports. Domestic energy sources in the Baltics are limited to oil shale mines in Estonia, small oil deposits in Lithuania, peat, and some very small hydroelectric power plants. A RBMK nuclear power station, similar to Chernobyl, operates at Snieckus in Lithuania, but the reactor fuel is also imported from Russia. However, Lithuania and Estonia are net exporters of electricity despite their reliance on primary fuels imports. The major power stations in these two Republics are the Ignalina Nuclear Power Station and the two thermal power plants at Narva in Estonia which are fueled by oil shale. The only oil refinery in the Baltics is also located in Lithuania, at Mazeikiai. This refinery has the capacity to satisfy the demand for selected refined products of the entire region, including the Kaliningrad oblast, a noncontiguous part of Russia. The Mazeikiai refinery has operated at only forty to sixty percent capacity since 1990 due to halts in crude oil supplies from Russia. The Baltic Republics also import one hundred percent of their coal and natural gas supplies. Russia is the main trading partner for all the Baltic states, accounting for more than half of their trade flow. Mutual trade within the Baltics has been surprisingly low. Other Baltic states contribute less than ten percent to each Republic's exports or imports, even less than Belarus or Ukraine. Aside from Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus, only Kazakhstan contributes more than two percent to Baltics trade.

  3. [Sanitary state of the ships of the Baltic fleet and development of the navy hygiene in the 18th century].

    PubMed

    Kostyuk, A V

    2015-09-01

    Sanitary and hygienic state of the Baltic navy ships in the 18th century was considered as unsatisfactory due to inappropriate habitation conditions answering hygienic requirements. The reason for the low ship habitation of that time was limited technological possibilities of the sail shipbuilding, lack of appropriate labour, and life and rest conditions for navy servicemen. In fact, wooden ships were not suitable for life activity of the navy crew, but contributed to disease increase. Because of the rapid development of the' navy hygiene and improvement of shipbuilding technologies, sanitary and hygienic state of local navy ships had became improving. With a glance on recommendations, developed by physicians D.P.Sinopeus and A.G.Bakherakht, were made following improvements: were implemented ventilators on ships, daily fumigation of ships rooms, monitoring of personal hygiene. PMID:26827523

  4. Rabies in the Baltic States: Decoding a Process of Control and Elimination

    PubMed Central

    Robardet, Emmanuelle; Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Dobroštana, Marianna; Jaceviciene, Ingrida; Mähar, Katrin; Muižniece, Zita; Pridotkas, Gediminas; Masiulis, Marius; Niin, Enel; Olševskis, Edvīns; Cliquet, Florence

    2016-01-01

    Rabies is a fatal zoonosis that still causes nearly 70, 000 human deaths every year. In Europe, the oral rabies vaccination (ORV) of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) was developed in the late 1970s and has demonstrated its effectiveness in the eradication of the disease in Western and some Central European countries. Following the accession of the three Baltic countries—Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania—to the European Union in 2004, subsequent financial support has allowed the implementation of regular ORV campaigns since 2005–2006. This paper reviews ten years of surveillance efforts and ORV campaigns in these countries resulting in the near eradication of the disease. The various factors that may have influenced the results of vaccination monitoring were assessed using generalized linear models (GLMs) on bait uptake and on herd immunity. As shown in previous studies, juveniles had lower bait uptake level than adults. For the first time, raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) were shown to have significantly lower bait uptake proportion compared with red foxes. This result suggests potentially altered ORV effectiveness in this invasive species compared to the red foxes. An extensive phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the North-East European (NEE) rabies phylogroup is endemic in all three Baltic countries. Although successive oral vaccination campaigns have substantially reduced the number of detected rabies cases, sporadic detection of the C lineage (European part of Russian phylogroup) underlines the risk of reintroduction via westward spread from bordering countries. Vaccine induced cases were also reported for the first time in non-target species (Martes martes and Meles meles). PMID:26849358

  5. Rabies in the Baltic States: Decoding a Process of Control and Elimination.

    PubMed

    Robardet, Emmanuelle; Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Dobroštana, Marianna; Jaceviciene, Ingrida; Mähar, Katrin; Muižniece, Zita; Pridotkas, Gediminas; Masiulis, Marius; Niin, Enel; Olševskis, Edvīns; Cliquet, Florence

    2016-02-01

    Rabies is a fatal zoonosis that still causes nearly 70, 000 human deaths every year. In Europe, the oral rabies vaccination (ORV) of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) was developed in the late 1970s and has demonstrated its effectiveness in the eradication of the disease in Western and some Central European countries. Following the accession of the three Baltic countries--Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania--to the European Union in 2004, subsequent financial support has allowed the implementation of regular ORV campaigns since 2005-2006. This paper reviews ten years of surveillance efforts and ORV campaigns in these countries resulting in the near eradication of the disease. The various factors that may have influenced the results of vaccination monitoring were assessed using generalized linear models (GLMs) on bait uptake and on herd immunity. As shown in previous studies, juveniles had lower bait uptake level than adults. For the first time, raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) were shown to have significantly lower bait uptake proportion compared with red foxes. This result suggests potentially altered ORV effectiveness in this invasive species compared to the red foxes. An extensive phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the North-East European (NEE) rabies phylogroup is endemic in all three Baltic countries. Although successive oral vaccination campaigns have substantially reduced the number of detected rabies cases, sporadic detection of the C lineage (European part of Russian phylogroup) underlines the risk of reintroduction via westward spread from bordering countries. Vaccine induced cases were also reported for the first time in non-target species (Martes martes and Meles meles). PMID:26849358

  6. Predicate Reference and Navigation in ORM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halpin, Terry

    A conceptual schema of an information system specifies the fact structures of interest as well as related business rules that are either constraints or derivation rules. The sole data structure used in fact-oriented modeling approaches is the fact type, which may be understood as a set of typed predicates. In spite of the central role played by predicates in fact-orientation, several issues need to be resolved before their full potential can be fully realized. This paper identifies a number of these issues relating to predicate reference and navigation, and proposes some solutions. Specific issues addressed include predicate disambiguation and formalization, role navigation, and automated verbalization of predicate paths. While the discussion focuses largely on Object-Role Modeling (ORM), many of the issues discussed are also relevant to other fact-oriented approaches, such as Cognition enhanced Natural Information Analysis Method (CogNIAM) and the Semantics of Business Vocabulary and Business Rules approach (SBVR), as well as attribute-based approaches like Entity Relationship modeling and the Unified Modeling Language.

  7. The Four Families of English Predicate Formation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caissie, Roland

    A system for classifying English predicates into four families that account for all forms, moods, voices, and tenses is examined as an approach to teach grammar to students of English as a second language (ESL). It is suggested that by focusing on one family at a time, then building by combining these families, students can learn more readily to…

  8. Predicate Adjective Usage in Standard Russian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Morton

    1959-01-01

    This paper describes predicate adjective usage in modern standard Russian using a corpus of written Russian derived from "Pravda" (neutral literary style) and "Krokodil" (conversational material). The short, long nominative, and instrumental forms are examined in relation to the type of adjective, copulative verb, sentence subject, and other…

  9. Lexical, Functional Grammar Analysis of Korean Complex Predicates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hee-Seob

    The structure of complementation in complex predicates in Korean has attracted configurational analysis. Using a lexical functional grammar (LFG) framework, this paper examines the structure of complementation in complex predicates. The term "predicate" in this context is used to describe both verbs and adjectives that are assumed to consist of…

  10. Representational System Predicate Use and Convergence in Counseling: Gloria Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercier, Mary Ann; Johnson, Marilyn

    1984-01-01

    Analayzed transcripts of Three Approaches to Psychotherapy (Shostrom, 1966) for counselor and client representational system predicate use. Although different patterns of predicate use emerged, only limited support for Neurolinguistic Programming theory was found. The findings of different patterns of predicate use were related to convergence and…

  11. Suppes predicate for genetics and natural selection.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, J C; Krause, D

    2001-03-21

    Patrick Suppes' slogan that "to axiomatize a theory is to present a set-theoretical predicate" was used in the synthetic theory of evolution. The system presented here extends the axiomatics of the evolutionary theory presented by M. Williams to encompass aspects of genetics. Some biological implications of the system are discussed, including the relationship between the Darwinian concept of fitness, as applied to organisms, and the concept of fitness as applied to genotypes, as it is normally used in population genetics. This paper should be viewed as an adjunct to the speculations on the logical-mathematical foundations of biological sciences. PMID:11401456

  12. Hindi Aspectual Complex Predicates at the Syntax-Semantics Interface

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poornima, Shakthi

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this dissertation is to explore Hindi verbal complex predicates at the syntax/semantics interface using the lexicalist framework of HPSG. The enduring theoretical interest in complex predicates is undoubtedly due to the fact that in some aspects they pattern with prototypical words, whereas in other aspects they pattern with…

  13. Scandinavia and the Baltic Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Data from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera were combined to create this cloud-free natural-color mosaic of Scandinavia and the Baltic region. The image extends from 64oN, 0oE in the northwest to 56oN, 32oE in the southeast, and has been draped over a shaded relief Digital Terrain Elevation Model from the United States Geological Survey. It is displayed in an equidistant conic projection.

    The image area includes southern Norway, Sweden and Finland, northern Denmark, Estonia, Latvia and part of western Russia. Norway's rugged western coastline is deeply indented by fjords. Elongated lakes, formed by glacial erosion and deposition, are characteristic of the entire region, and are particularly dense throughout Finland and Sweden. Numerous islands are present, and a virtually continuous chain of small, scattered islands occur between Sweden and Finland. The northern and eastern waters of the Baltic Sea are almost fresh, since the Baltic receives saltwater only from the narrow and shallow sounds between Denmark and Sweden that connect it to the North Sea. Most of the major cities within the image area are coastal, including St. Petersburg, Stockholm, Helsinki, Riga, and Oslo.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) observes the daylit Earth continuously from pole to pole, and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  14. Curonian Spit, Baltic Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    On July 25, 2006, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), flying on NASA's Terra satellite, captured this image of the Curonian (or Courland)spit, the Curonian Lagoon (also known as the Courland Lagoon) it encloses, and part of the Baltic Sea. Just 3,800 meters (about 12,460 feet) at its widest point, the spit encloses a lagoon of some 1,620 square kilometers (625 square miles). In this image, dark blue indicates deep water, and lighter blue indicates shallow and/or sediment-laden water. Different shades of blue distinguish the deeper Baltic Sea and the shallower Curonian Lagoon. Vegetation appears in varying shades of green, paved surfaces and bare ground appear in shades of beige and gray, and sandy areas appear off-white. Obvious sandy areas appear along the length of the spit. On the Baltic Sea side, a thin off-white band of beach runs the length of the spit; on the Curonian Lagoon side, intermittent beaches carve their way into the narrow strip of land.

  15. Lower paleozoic of Baltic Area

    SciTech Connect

    Haselton, T.M.; Surlyk, F.

    1988-01-01

    The Baltic Sea offers a new and exciting petroleum play in northwestern Europe. The Kaliningrad province in the Soviet Union, which borders the Baltic Sea to the east, contains an estimated 3.5 billion bbl of recoverable oil from lower Paleozoic sandstones. To the south, in Poland, oil and gas fields are present along a trend that projects offshore into the Baltic. Two recent Petrobaltic wells in the southern Baltic have tested hydrocarbons from lower Paleozoic sandstone. Minor production comes from Ordovician reefs on the Swedish island of Gotland in the western Baltic. The Baltic synclise, which began subsiding in the late Precambrian, is a depression in the East European platform. Strate dip gently to the south where the Baltic Synclise terminates against a structurally complex border zone. Depth to the metamorphosed Precambrian basement is up to 4,000 m. Overlying basement is 200-300 m of upper Precambrian arkosic sandstone. The Lower Cambrian consists of shallow marine quartzites. During Middle and Late Camnbrian, restricted circulation resulted in anoxic conditions and the deposition of Alum shale. The Lower Ordovician consists of quartzites and shale. The Upper Ordovician includes sandstones and algal reefs. The Silurian contains marginal carbonates and shales. For the last 25 years, exploration in northwest Europe has concentrated on well-known Permian sandstone, Jurassic sandstone, and Cretaceous chalk plays. Extrapolation of trends known and exploited in eastern Europe could open an entirely new oil province in the lower Paleozoic in the Baltic.

  16. Functional-Anatomical Organization of Predicate Metaphor Processing

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Evan; Widick, Page; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2008-01-01

    The bulk of the research on the neural organization of metaphor comprehension has focused on nominal metaphors and the metaphoric relationships between word pairs. By contrast, little work has been conducted on predicate metaphors using verbs of motion such as “The man fell under her spell.” We examined predicate metaphors as compared to literal sentences of motion such as “The child fell under the slide” in an event-related, functional MRI study. Our results demonstrated greater activation in the left inferior frontal cortex and left lateral temporal lobe for predicate metaphors as compared to literal sentences, while no differences were seen in homologous areas of the right hemisphere. We suggest that the results support a neural organization principle for motion processing in which greater abstraction proceeds along a posterior to anterior axis within the lateral portion of the left temporal cortex. PMID:18692890

  17. Symmetric and Asymmetric Patterns of Attraction Errors in Producing Subject-Predicate Agreement in Hebrew: An Issue of Morphological Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deutsch, Avital; Dank, Maya

    2011-01-01

    A common characteristic of subject-predicate agreement errors (usually termed attraction errors) in complex noun phrases is an asymmetrical pattern of error distribution, depending on the inflectional state of the nouns comprising the complex noun phrase. That is, attraction is most likely to occur when the head noun is the morphologically…

  18. Morphosyntax of Complex Predicates in South Caucasian Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lomashvili, Leila

    2010-01-01

    The argument structure of complex predicates such as causatives and applicatives is closely associated with the functional heads that introduce core and non-core arguments: Voice, causative and applicative. These elements merge in a sentence structure at various cycles of derivation and take complements whose "size" accounts for the meaning and…

  19. Coverbs and Complex Predicates in Wagiman. Stanford Monographs in Linguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Stephen

    Wagiman is an Australian Aboriginal language spoken in the northern part of the Northern Territory by about ten people. It possesses an unusual open class of words, which are called coverbs. Most frequently coverbs are paired with an inflecting verb from a closed class to form a complex predicate. This book provides a descriptive and analytical…

  20. Drawing Inferences from Semantically Positive and Negative Implicative Predicates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vosniadou, Stella

    A study investigated the inferential processing involved in the comprehension of a class of complex predicates (such as "remember to,""manage to,""fail to," and "neglect to") that are known as implicative. The subjects, 64 college students, were timed while they drew inferences from syntactically affirmative and negative sentences containing the…

  1. The German and English Auxiliary Systems and Complex Predicates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Terrence C.

    1976-01-01

    This paper explores the auxiliary systems of English and German and the use of the auxiliary verbs in various complex predicate structures in the two languages. It aims at alleviating two types of problems in learning German involving governing patterns and ordering problems in clauses. (CHK)

  2. Children's Acquisition of Reciprocal Sentences with Stative and Active Predicates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsuo, Ayumi

    2000-01-01

    Shows that children (mean age 4 years and 4 months) not only know the meaning and use of complex reciprocal anaphors like "each other," but that they also have knowledge of subtle differences in the possible interpretations of such anaphors depending on the type of predicates involved. (Author/VWL)

  3. Argument Structure of Tsou: Simplex and Complex Predicates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Gujing

    2010-01-01

    This thesis investigates the argument structure of Tsou, a Formosan language within the Austronesian family. The investigation studies both simplex and complex predicates as well as describes the valency groupings and alignment patterns emerging from various clausal configurations. Assuming the stance that language description should respect…

  4. Neuro-Linguistic Programming, Matching Sensory Predicates, and Rapport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmedlen, George W.; And Others

    A key task for the therapist in psychotherapy is to build trust and rapport with the client. Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP) practitioners believe that matching the sensory modality (representational system) of a client's predicates (verbs, adverbs, and adjectives) improves rapport. In this study, 16 volunteer subjects participated in two…

  5. Publishing Biomedical Predication Repository About MeSH Co-Occurrences in MEDLINE.

    PubMed

    Miñarro-Giménez, Jose Antonio; Martínez, Manuel Quesada; Fernández-Breis, Jesualdo Tomás; Schulz, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The construction and publication of predications form scientific literature databases like MEDLINE is necessary due to the large amount of resources available. The main goal is to infer meaningful predicates between relevant co-occurring MeSH concepts manually annotated from MEDLINE records. The resulting predications are formed as subject-predicate-object triples. We exploit the content of MRCOC file to extract the MeSH indexing terms (main headings and subheadings) of MEDLINE. The predications were inferred by combining the semantic predicates from SemMedDB, the clustering of MeSH terms by their associated MeSH subheadings and the frequency of relevant terms in the abstracts of MEDLINE records. The inferring process also obtains and associates a weight to each generated predication. As a result, we published the generated dataset of predications using the Linked Data principles to make it available for future projects. PMID:27577489

  6. Being Something: Prospects for a Property-Based Approach to Predicative Quantification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rieppel, Michael Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Few questions concerning the character of our talk about the world are more basic than how predicates combine with names to form truth-evaluable sentences. One particularly intriguing fact that any account of predication needs to make room for is that natural language allows for quantification into predicate position, through constructions like…

  7. The Effects of Counselor-Client Predicate Use Similarity on Counselor Attractiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorn, Fred J.

    1983-01-01

    Counselor predicate use similarity in a social psychological context was considered in a study involving 180 college students. Results failed to support the hypothesis that clients perceive counselors with similar predicate preferences as more attractive or that predicate similarity in natural language is too subtle to detect. (JAC)

  8. Argument-predicate distance as a filter for enhancing precision in extracting predications on the genetic etiology of disease

    PubMed Central

    Masseroli, Marco; Kilicoglu, Halil; Lang, François-Michel; Rindflesch, Thomas C

    2006-01-01

    Background Genomic functional information is valuable for biomedical research. However, such information frequently needs to be extracted from the scientific literature and structured in order to be exploited by automatic systems. Natural language processing is increasingly used for this purpose although it inherently involves errors. A postprocessing strategy that selects relations most likely to be correct is proposed and evaluated on the output of SemGen, a system that extracts semantic predications on the etiology of genetic diseases. Based on the number of intervening phrases between an argument and its predicate, we defined a heuristic strategy to filter the extracted semantic relations according to their likelihood of being correct. We also applied this strategy to relations identified with co-occurrence processing. Finally, we exploited postprocessed SemGen predications to investigate the genetic basis of Parkinson's disease. Results The filtering procedure for increased precision is based on the intuition that arguments which occur close to their predicate are easier to identify than those at a distance. For example, if gene-gene relations are filtered for arguments at a distance of 1 phrase from the predicate, precision increases from 41.95% (baseline) to 70.75%. Since this proximity filtering is based on syntactic structure, applying it to the results of co-occurrence processing is useful, but not as effective as when applied to the output of natural language processing. In an effort to exploit SemGen predications on the etiology of disease after increasing precision with postprocessing, a gene list was derived from extracted information enhanced with postprocessing filtering and was automatically annotated with GFINDer, a Web application that dynamically retrieves functional and phenotypic information from structured biomolecular resources. Two of the genes in this list are likely relevant to Parkinson's disease but are not associated with this disease

  9. Web mining for topics defined by complex and precise predicates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ching-Cheng; Sampathkumar, Sushma

    2004-04-01

    The enormous growth of the World Wide Web has made it important to perform resource discovery efficiently for any given topic. Several new techniques have been proposed in the recent years for this kind of topic specific web-mining, and among them a key new technique called focused crawling which is able to crawl topic-specific portions of the web without having to explore all pages. Most existing research on focused crawling considers a simple topic definition that typically consists of one or more keywords connected by an OR operator. However this kind of simple topic definition may result in too many irrelevant pages in which the same keyword appears in a wrong context. In this research we explore new strategies for crawling topic specific portions of the web using complex and precise predicates. A complex predicate will allow the user to precisely specify a topic using Boolean operators such as "AND", "OR" and "NOT". Our work will concentrate on defining a format to specify this kind of a complex topic definition and secondly on devising a crawl strategy to crawl the topic specific portions of the web defined by the complex predicate, efficiently and with minimal overhead. Our new crawl strategy will improve the performance of topic-specific web crawling by reducing the number of irrelevant pages crawled. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the above approach, we have built a complete focused crawler called "Eureka" with complex predicate support, and a search engine that indexes and supports end-user searches on the crawled pages.

  10. BALTEX - A science broker for the Baltic Sea Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reckermann, M.; von Storch, H.; Langner, J.; Omstedt, A. T.

    2010-12-01

    confirmed the high credibility of this report (Bray et al. 2010). A remarkable aspect of this assessment, and BALTEX outreach activities in general, is the sensible cooperation with regional bodies acting as science-policy interfaces, such as HELCOM (Helsinki Commission, Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission), and basin-wide organized regional decision makers (BSSSC, Baltic Sea States Sub-regional Co-operation), who are dependent on reliable scientific information to design and implement regional adaptation strategies against climate change impacts. A new BACC report has been initiated as a scientific update extending the scope to socio-economic impacts, and is expected to be finished in 2014.

  11. Graph-Based Methods for Discovery Browsing with Semantic Predications

    PubMed Central

    Wilkowski, Bartłomiej; Fiszman, Marcelo; Miller, Christopher M.; Hristovski, Dimitar; Arabandi, Sivaram; Rosemblat, Graciela; Rindflesch, Thomas C.

    2011-01-01

    We present an extension to literature-based discovery that goes beyond making discoveries to a principled way of navigating through selected aspects of some biomedical domain. The method is a type of “discovery browsing” that guides the user through the research literature on a specified phenomenon. Poorly understood relationships may be explored through novel points of view, and potentially interesting relationships need not be known ahead of time. In a process of “cooperative reciprocity” the user iteratively focuses system output, thus controlling the large number of relationships often generated in literature-based discovery systems. The underlying technology exploits SemRep semantic predications represented as a graph of interconnected nodes (predication arguments) and edges (predicates). The system suggests paths in this graph, which represent chains of relationships. The methodology is illustrated with depressive disorder and focuses on the interaction of inflammation, circadian phenomena, and the neurotransmitter norepinephrine. Insight provided may contribute to enhanced understanding of the pathophysiology, treatment, and prevention of this disorder. PMID:22195216

  12. Oils and hydrocarbon source rocks of the Baltic syneclise

    SciTech Connect

    Kanev, S.; Margulis, L. ); Bojesen-Koefoed, J.A. ); Weil, W.A.; Merta, H. ); Zdanaviciute, O. )

    1994-07-11

    Prolific source rock horizons of varying thickness, having considerable areal extent, occur over the Baltic syneclise. These source sediments are rich and have excellent petroleum generation potential. Their state of thermal maturity varies form immature in the northeastern part of the syneclise to peak generation maturity in the southwestern part of the region-the main kitchen area. These maturity variations are manifest in petroleum composition in the region. Hence, mature oils occur in the Polish and Kaliningrad areas, immature oils in small accumulations in Latvian and central Lithuanian onshore areas, and intermediate oils in areas between these extremes. The oil accumulations probably result from pooling of petroleum generated from a number of different source rocks at varying levels of thermal maturity. Hence, no single source for petroleum occurrences in the Baltic syneclise may be identified. The paper describes the baltic syneclise, source rocks, thermal maturity and oils and extracts.

  13. Climate change and the Baltic Sea action plan: Model simulations on the future of the western Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedland, René; Neumann, Thomas; Schernewski, Gerald

    2012-12-01

    In this study we apply the model ERGOM to simulate the consequences of Climate Change as well as the combination of Climate Change with nutrient load reductions according to the Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP) on the Baltic Sea ecosystem. According to the simulations, Climate Change will cause an increase of the water temperature up to 3 K and a salinity decrease of 1.5 PSU until 2100. However, the implementation of the BSAP will have much stronger effects on the ecosystem. The model suggests that the western Baltic Sea will shift from a nitrogen (N) towards a phosphorus (P) limited system. As a consequence, N-fixation will strongly decrease. The same applies to nutrient-concentrations in winter, denitrification as well as detritus and chlorophyll concentrations in summer. The availability of N in summer, the Secchi depth and the oxygen saturation will increase. Our simulations suggest that the full implementation of the BSAP will cause imbalances in the Baltic Sea over decades before a new system state will be reached. Our results indicate that the Secchi depth alone is not a suitable indicator for the state of eutrophication. Concerning the Water Framework Directive (WFD), Climate Change might alter gradients and concentrations, e.g. of salinity, and in return this might require a re-definition of the WFD typology or a spatial shift of the surface water types, e.g. in Germany. The western Baltic Sea is strongly controlled by regional nutrient loads. Climate Change has only a limited effect on loads in the western Baltic. A re-definition of reference conditions and a good status because of Climate Change seems not necessary.

  14. The Baltic Sea natural long-term variability of salinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schimanke, Semjon; Markus Meier, H. E.

    2015-04-01

    The Baltic Sea is one of the largest brackish sea areas of the world. The sensitive state of the Baltic Sea is sustained by a fresh-water surplus by river discharge and precipitation on one hand as well as inflows of highly saline and oxygen-rich water masses from the North Sea on the other. Major inflows which are crucial for the renewal of the deep water occur very intermittent with a mean frequency of approximately one per year. Stagnation periods (periods without major inflows) lead for instance to a reduction of oxygen concentration in the deep Baltic Sea spreading hypoxic conditions. Depending on the amount of salt water inflow and fresh-water supply the deep water salinity of the Baltic Sea varies between 11 to 14 PSU on the decadal scale. The goal of this study is to understand the contribution of different driving factors for the decadal to multi-decadal variability of salinity in the Baltic Sea. Continuous measurement series of salinity exist from the 1950 but are not sufficiently long for the investigation of long-term fluctuations. Therefore, a climate simulation of more than 800 years has been carried out with the Rossby Center Ocean model (RCO). RCO is a biogeochemical regional climate model which covers the entire Baltic Sea. It is driven with atmospheric data dynamical downscaled from a GCM mimicking natural climate variability. The analysis focus on the role of variations in river discharge and precipitation, changes in wind speed and direction, fluctuations in temperature and shifts in large scale pressure patterns (e.g. NAO). Hereby, the length of the simulation will allow to identify mechanisms working on decadal to multi-decadal time scales. Moreover, it will be discussed how likely long stagnation periods are under natural climate variability and if the observed exceptional long stagnation period between 1983-1993 might be related to beginning climate change.

  15. Trauma research in the Baltic countries: from political oppression to recovery.

    PubMed

    Kazlauskas, Evaldas; Zelviene, Paulina

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of traumatic stress studies from the three Baltic countries-Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia-and reveal how specific social context contributes to the topics relevant in traumatic stress field in the region. Traumatic stress studies in the Baltic countries are closely related to the complicated history of the region. It was only since the restoration of independence of the Baltic States in the 1990s when traumatic stress studies could emerge. The start of the psychotraumatology in the Baltic States was inspired by the interest of the psychological effects of political violence. Four major topics in traumatic stress literature from the Baltic countries were identified in this article: political violence studies, epidemiology of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), disaster studies, and developmental aspects of trauma. Traumatic events prevalence was reported between 70 and 75%, and PTSD prevalence range 2-7% in the Baltic countries. The interest in psychotraumatology in the Baltic countries is rising. PMID:26996532

  16. Fresh oxygen for the Baltic Sea — An exceptional saline inflow after a decade of stagnation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohrholz, V.; Naumann, M.; Nausch, G.; Krüger, S.; Gräwe, U.

    2015-08-01

    The ecological state of the Baltic Sea depends crucially on sufficiently frequent, strong deep water renewal on the periodic deep water renewal events by inflow of oxygen rich saline water from the North Sea. Due to the strong density stratification these inflows are the only source for deep water ventilation. Since the early eighties of the last century the frequency of inflow events has dropped drastically from 5 to 7 major inflows per decade to only one inflow per decade. Wide spread anoxic conditions became the usual state in the central Baltic. The rare major Baltic inflow (MBI) events in 1993 and 2003 could interrupt the anoxic bottom conditions only temporarily. After more than 10 years without a major Baltic inflow events, in December 2014 a strong MBI brought large amounts of saline and well oxygenated water into the Baltic Sea. Based on observations and numerical modeling, the inflow was classified as one of the rare very strong events. The inflow volume and the amount of salt transported into the Baltic were estimated to be with 198 km3 and 4 Gt, respectively. The strength of the MBI exceeded considerably the previous 2003 event. In the list of the MBIs since 1880, the 2014 inflow is the third strongest event together with the MBI in 1913. This inflow event will most probably turn the entire Baltic deep water from anoxic to oxic conditions, with substantial spread consequences for marine life and biogeochemical cycles.

  17. Trauma research in the Baltic countries: from political oppression to recovery

    PubMed Central

    Kazlauskas, Evaldas; Zelviene, Paulina

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of traumatic stress studies from the three Baltic countries—Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia—and reveal how specific social context contributes to the topics relevant in traumatic stress field in the region. Traumatic stress studies in the Baltic countries are closely related to the complicated history of the region. It was only since the restoration of independence of the Baltic States in the 1990s when traumatic stress studies could emerge. The start of the psychotraumatology in the Baltic States was inspired by the interest of the psychological effects of political violence. Four major topics in traumatic stress literature from the Baltic countries were identified in this article: political violence studies, epidemiology of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), disaster studies, and developmental aspects of trauma. Traumatic events prevalence was reported between 70 and 75%, and PTSD prevalence range 2–7% in the Baltic countries. The interest in psychotraumatology in the Baltic countries is rising. PMID:26996532

  18. The neural basis of predicate-argument structure.

    PubMed

    Hurford, James R

    2003-06-01

    Neural correlates exist for a basic component of logical formulae, PREDICATE(x). Vision and audition research in primates and humans shows two independent neural pathways; one locates objects in body-centered space, the other attributes properties, such as colour, to objects. In vision these are the dorsal and ventral pathways. In audition, similarly separable "where" and "what" pathways exist. PREDICATE(x) is a schematic representation of the brain's integration of the two processes of delivery by the senses of the location of an arbitrary referent object, mapped in parietal cortex, and analysis of the properties of the referent by perceptual subsystems. The brain computes actions using a few "deictic" variables pointing to objects. Parallels exist between such nonlinguistic variables and linguistic deictic devices. Indexicality and reference have linguistic and nonlinguistic (e.g., visual) versions, sharing the concept of attention. The individual variables of logical formulae are interpreted as corresponding to these mental variables. In computing action, the deictic variables are linked with "semantic" information about the objects, corresponding to logical predicates. Mental scene descriptions are necessary for practical tasks of primates, and preexist language phylogenetically. The type of scene descriptions used by nonhuman primates would be reused for more complex cognitive, ultimately linguistic, purposes. The provision by the brain's sensory/perceptual systems of about four variables for temporary assignment to objects, and the separate processes of perceptual categorization of the objects so identified, constitute a pre-adaptive platform on which an early system for the linguistic description of scenes developed. PMID:14968690

  19. Constructing a semantic predication gold standard from the biomedical literature

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Semantic relations increasingly underpin biomedical text mining and knowledge discovery applications. The success of such practical applications crucially depends on the quality of extracted relations, which can be assessed against a gold standard reference. Most such references in biomedical text mining focus on narrow subdomains and adopt different semantic representations, rendering them difficult to use for benchmarking independently developed relation extraction systems. In this article, we present a multi-phase gold standard annotation study, in which we annotated 500 sentences randomly selected from MEDLINE abstracts on a wide range of biomedical topics with 1371 semantic predications. The UMLS Metathesaurus served as the main source for conceptual information and the UMLS Semantic Network for relational information. We measured interannotator agreement and analyzed the annotations closely to identify some of the challenges in annotating biomedical text with relations based on an ontology or a terminology. Results We obtain fair to moderate interannotator agreement in the practice phase (0.378-0.475). With improved guidelines and additional semantic equivalence criteria, the agreement increases by 12% (0.415 to 0.536) in the main annotation phase. In addition, we find that agreement increases to 0.688 when the agreement calculation is limited to those predications that are based only on the explicitly provided UMLS concepts and relations. Conclusions While interannotator agreement in the practice phase confirms that conceptual annotation is a challenging task, the increasing agreement in the main annotation phase points out that an acceptable level of agreement can be achieved in multiple iterations, by setting stricter guidelines and establishing semantic equivalence criteria. Mapping text to ontological concepts emerges as the main challenge in conceptual annotation. Annotating predications involving biomolecular entities and processes is

  20. Pollution in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Rheinheimer, G

    1998-07-01

    The Baltic Sea is almost totally surrounded by land and therefore more endangered by pollution than other marine areas. The sources of marine pollution are municipal and industrial waste inputs directly into the sea or via rivers, and atmospheric inputs mainly from traffic and agriculture. The increase of inorganic plant nutrients (NH3, NOx, PO4) caused eutrophication and consequent oxygen depletion in coastal bottom waters as well as in the depths of the open sea. In the anoxic sediments, hydrogen sulfide can be produced by protein-decomposing and sulfate-reducing bacteria. The bottom fauna will be destroyed and only H2S tolerant microorganisms can survive. Originating from cellulose manufacturing and from paper mills, large amounts of poisonous chlorinated compounds contaminated the coastal waters of Sweden and Finland until the 1980s. Most of this material is still present in sediments of the central Baltic Sea and can be resuspended by near bottom currents. To reduce pollution and improve the situation in the Baltic Sea, the surrounding countries organized the Helsinki Convention, which came into force on 3.5.1980. The Helsinki Commission (HELCOM) founded in 1974 acts as coordinator and is responsible for the enforcement of the Baltic monitoring program and international research projects. The activities of HELCOM have led to the reduction of dangerous pollutants which in turn has caused the regeneration of flora and fauna in some areas. Further improvements can be expected. PMID:9722964

  1. Predicate argument structure frames for modeling information in operative notes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Pakhomov, Serguei; Melton, Genevieve B

    2013-01-01

    The rich information about surgical procedures contained in operative notes is a valuable data source for improving the clinical evidence base and clinical research. In this study, we propose a set of Predicate Argument Structure (PAS) frames for surgical action verbs to assist in the creation of an information extraction (IE) system to automatically extract details about the techniques, equipment, and operative steps from operative notes. We created PropBank style PAS frames for the 30 top surgical action verbs based on examination of randomly selected sample sentences from 3,000 Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy notes. To assess completeness of the PAS frames to represent usage of same action verbs, we evaluated the PAS frames created on sample sentences from operative notes of 6 other gastrointestinal surgical procedures. Our results showed that the PAS frames created with one type of surgery can successfully denote the usage of the same verbs in operative notes of broader surgical categories. PMID:23920664

  2. Past Occurrences of Hypoxia in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zillen, L.; Conley, D. J.; Bjorck, S.

    2007-12-01

    The hypoxic zone in the Baltic Sea has increased in area by about four times since 1950. Widespread oxygen deficiency below the halocline has severely reduced macro benthic communities in the Baltic Proper and the Gulf of Finland over the past decades and negatively effected food chain dynamics, fish habitats and fisheries in the entire Baltic Sea. In addition, hypoxia alters nutrient biogeochemical cycles. The cause of the increased hypoxia is believed to be enhanced eutrophication through increased anthropogenic input of nutrients, such as phosphorous and nitrogen. Conditions prior to the 1950s are considered as the benchmark and some authors suggest that the earlier Baltic Sea was an oligothrophic, clear-water body with oxygenated deep waters. By contrast, studies of short sediment cores reveal that hypoxia has been present in some of the deepest basins for at least the last 100-200 years. In addition, long sediment cores suggest that hypoxia in the Baltic Sea has occurred intermittently in deep basins over the last c. 8500 years. Thus, the occurrence of present day hypoxia in the deeper basins need not necessarily be attributed to human activity but rather to natural oceanographic, geologic and climate conditions. We present a compilation of previous publications that reported the occurrence of laminated sediments (i.e. a palaeo-proxy for hypoxia) in the Baltic Sea. This review shows that the deeper parts of the Baltic Sea have experienced either intermittent or more regular hypoxia during most of the Holocene and that more continuous laminations started to form c. 7800-8500 cal. yr BP ago, in association with the establishment of a permanent halocline during the transition from the Ancylus Lake to the Littorina Sea. Laminated sediments were more common during the early and late Holocene and coincided with intervals of high organic productivity (high TOC content) and high salinity during the Holocene Thermal Maximum and the Medieval Climate Optimum. This study

  3. Modeling and verification of distributed systems with labeled predicate transition nets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloret, Jean-Christophe

    Two main steps in the design of distributed systems are modeling and verification. Petri nets and CCS are two basic formal models. CCS is a modular language supporting compositional verification. Conversely, the petri net theory requires an accurate description of parallelism and focuses on property global verification. A structuring technique based on CCS concepts is introduced for predicate/transition nets. It consists of a high level petri net that permits expression of communication with value passing. In particular, a petri net composition operator, that can be interpreted as a multi-rendezvous between communicating systems, is defined. The multi rendezvous allows abstract modeling, with small state graphs. The developed formalism is highly convenient for refining abstract models relative to less abstract levels. Based on this work, a software tool, supporting distributed system design and verification, is developed. The advantage of this approach is shown in many research and industrial applications.

  4. Interactive Negotiation of Perspectives in Japanese: Predicate-Final Structure as a Resource to Organize Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakamura, Kanae

    2009-01-01

    While the predicate-final structure of the Japanese language has been considered one of the main causes of its late projectability (Tanaka, 1999), this study demonstrates that the final predicate component of a "turn constructional unit" (TCU) furnishes a useful resource for conversational participants to negotiate various aspects of interaction.…

  5. The Role of Morpho-Phonological Factors in Subject-Predicate Gender Agreement in Hebrew

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dank, Maya; Deutsch, Avital

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the role of overt phonological realisation of morphological marking on the implementation of subject-predicate agreement in language production. This study was conducted in Hebrew, and focused on subject-predicate gender agreement for inanimate nouns. In Hebrew, singular masculine forms are usually morphologically…

  6. Mental Imagery as Revealed by Eye Movements and Spoken Predicates: A Test of Neurolinguistic Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elich, Matthew; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Tested Bandler and Grinder's proposal that eye movement direction and spoken predicates are indicative of sensory modality of imagery. Subjects reported images in the three modes, but no relation between imagery and eye movements or predicates was found. Visual images were most vivid and often reported. Most subjects rated themselves as visual,…

  7. Neurolinguistic Programming: The Impact of Imagery Tasks on Sensory Predicate Usage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graunke, Bruce; Roberts, T. Kevin

    1985-01-01

    Investigated the impact of varied imagining tasks on individuals' use of sensory predicates. Results demonstrated that subjects were able to vary their type of sensory predicates according to the task demands or situational context. Findings are incongruent with Bandler and Grinder's (1979) conceptualization of representational systems.…

  8. "Of"-Constructions in the Predicate of "Demonstrate" and "Show" in Academic Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Liyin; Chung, Siaw-Fong

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates "of"-constructions in the predicates of two reporting verbs, "demonstrate" and "show," in academic discourse. A construction perspective is taken to examine how the two predicate constructions (["demonstrate" N1 "of" N2] and ["show" N1 "of" N2]) would…

  9. Verbal Aspects in Germanic, Slavic, and Baltic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senn, Alfred

    1949-01-01

    This study examines the theory of Prokosch concerning the Germanic-Slavic-Baltic tense and aspect systems. The interrelatedness and influence of languages and dialects in Slavic (Russian and Old Church Slavic), Baltic (Lithuanian), and Germanic (Old High German and Gothic) are demonstrated. Examples illustrating the use of the perfective present…

  10. Predicate calculus for an architecture of multiple neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Consoli, Robert H.

    1990-08-01

    Future projects with neural networks will require multiple individual network components. Current efforts along these lines are ad hoc. This paper relates the neural network to a classical device and derives a multi-part architecture from that model. Further it provides a Predicate Calculus variant for describing the location and nature of the trainings and suggests Resolution Refutation as a method for determining the performance of the system as well as the location of needed trainings for specific proofs. 2. THE NEURAL NETWORK AND A CLASSICAL DEVICE Recently investigators have been making reports about architectures of multiple neural networksL234. These efforts are appearing at an early stage in neural network investigations they are characterized by architectures suggested directly by the problem space. Touretzky and Hinton suggest an architecture for processing logical statements1 the design of this architecture arises from the syntax of a restricted class of logical expressions and exhibits syntactic limitations. In similar fashion a multiple neural netword arises out of a control problem2 from the sequence learning problem3 and from the domain of machine learning. 4 But a general theory of multiple neural devices is missing. More general attempts to relate single or multiple neural networks to classical computing devices are not common although an attempt is made to relate single neural devices to a Turing machines and Sun et a!. develop a multiple neural architecture that performs pattern classification.

  11. First-Principles Predication of Two-Dimensional Electrides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming, Wenmei; Yoon, Mina

    Two-dimensional (2D) electrides have recently received increasing interest due to its promise for electron emitter, surface catalyst and high-mobility electronic devices. However, they are very limited in a few layered alkaline-earth nitrides and rare-earth carbides. Here, we extend the possibility of 2D electrides by structure predication, using density functional theory calculation in conjunction with particle swarm optimization algorithm. Simple-element compounds A2B (A/B = alkali metals/halogen, or A/B = alkaline-earth metals/VA, VIA, VIIA nonmetals) and AB (A/B = alkaline-earth metals/halogen), which have nominal imbalanced oxidation numbers, were investigated. We find several new 2D electrides out of 90 candidates, and uncover that the stabilization of the 2D layered structure, which is required for the success of 2D electrides, strongly depends on the relative size of cation, in such a way that it has to be of similar or larger size than the anion in order to sufficiently screen the repulsion between the excess electrons and anions. We additionally identify the experimental conditions of temperature and chemical potential where the predicted 2D electrides are stabilized against the decomposition into compounds with balanced oxidation numbers. Funding support from LDRD program at ORNL.

  12. A new proposal concerning the botanical origin of Baltic amber

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Alexander P.; Tappert, Ralf; Muehlenbachs, Karlis; Boudreau, Marc; McKellar, Ryan C.; Basinger, James F.; Garrett, Amber

    2009-01-01

    Baltic amber constitutes the largest known deposit of fossil plant resin and the richest repository of fossil insects of any age. Despite a remarkable legacy of archaeological, geochemical and palaeobiological investigation, the botanical origin of this exceptional resource remains controversial. Here, we use taxonomically explicit applications of solid-state Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy, coupled with multivariate clustering and palaeobotanical observations, to propose that conifers of the family Sciadopityaceae, closely allied to the sole extant representative, Sciadopitys verticillata, were involved in the genesis of Baltic amber. The fidelity of FTIR-based chemotaxonomic inferences is upheld by modern–fossil comparisons of resins from additional conifer families and genera (Cupressaceae: Metasequoia; Pinaceae: Pinus and Pseudolarix). Our conclusions challenge hypotheses advocating members of either of the families Araucariaceae or Pinaceae as the primary amber-producing trees and correlate favourably with the progressive demise of subtropical forest biomes from northern Europe as palaeotemperatures cooled following the Eocene climate optimum. PMID:19570786

  13. Development and evaluation of a biomedical search engine using a predicate-based vector space model.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Myungjae; Leroy, Gondy; Martinez, Jesse D; Harwell, Jeffrey

    2013-10-01

    Although biomedical information available in articles and patents is increasing exponentially, we continue to rely on the same information retrieval methods and use very few keywords to search millions of documents. We are developing a fundamentally different approach for finding much more precise and complete information with a single query using predicates instead of keywords for both query and document representation. Predicates are triples that are more complex datastructures than keywords and contain more structured information. To make optimal use of them, we developed a new predicate-based vector space model and query-document similarity function with adjusted tf-idf and boost function. Using a test bed of 107,367 PubMed abstracts, we evaluated the first essential function: retrieving information. Cancer researchers provided 20 realistic queries, for which the top 15 abstracts were retrieved using a predicate-based (new) and keyword-based (baseline) approach. Each abstract was evaluated, double-blind, by cancer researchers on a 0-5 point scale to calculate precision (0 versus higher) and relevance (0-5 score). Precision was significantly higher (p<.001) for the predicate-based (80%) than for the keyword-based (71%) approach. Relevance was almost doubled with the predicate-based approach-2.1 versus 1.6 without rank order adjustment (p<.001) and 1.34 versus 0.98 with rank order adjustment (p<.001) for predicate--versus keyword-based approach respectively. Predicates can support more precise searching than keywords, laying the foundation for rich and sophisticated information search. PMID:23892296

  14. Watching language grow in the manual modality: nominals, predicates, and handshapes.

    PubMed

    Goldin-Meadow, S; Brentari, D; Coppola, M; Horton, L; Senghas, A

    2015-03-01

    All languages, both spoken and signed, make a formal distinction between two types of terms in a proposition--terms that identify what is to be talked about (nominals) and terms that say something about this topic (predicates). Here we explore conditions that could lead to this property by charting its development in a newly emerging language--Nicaraguan Sign Language (NSL). We examine how handshape is used in nominals vs. predicates in three Nicaraguan groups: (1) homesigners who are not part of the Deaf community and use their own gestures, called homesigns, to communicate; (2) NSL cohort 1 signers who fashioned the first stage of NSL; (3) NSL cohort 2 signers who learned NSL from cohort 1. We compare these three groups to a fourth: (4) native signers of American Sign Language (ASL), an established sign language. We focus on handshape in predicates that are part of a productive classifier system in ASL; handshape in these predicates varies systematically across agent vs. no-agent contexts, unlike handshape in the nominals we study, which does not vary across these contexts. We found that all four groups, including homesigners, used handshape differently in nominals vs. predicates--they displayed variability in handshape form across agent vs. no-agent contexts in predicates, but not in nominals. Variability thus differed in predicates and nominals: (1) In predicates, the variability across grammatical contexts (agent vs. no-agent) was systematic in all four groups, suggesting that handshape functioned as a productive morphological marker on predicate signs, even in homesign. This grammatical use of handshape can thus appear in the earliest stages of an emerging language. (2) In nominals, there was no variability across grammatical contexts (agent vs. no-agent), but there was variability within- and across-individuals in the handshape used in the nominal for a particular object. This variability was striking in homesigners (an individual homesigner did not

  15. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 distribution in Baltic Sea waters

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarev, L.N.; Gedeonov, L.I.; Ivanova, L.M.; Stepanov, A.V.

    1988-09-01

    The strontium-90 and cesium-137 concentrations determined in 1983 in the Baltic Sea proper and the Gulf of Finland and in the Soviet Baltic rivers are furnished. The cesium-137 content has been found to be directly proportional to the salinity of the water. Significant influx of technogenic radioactive contaminants from the North to the Baltic Sea was noted in 1983.

  16. Language Policy and the Internationalization of Higher Education in the Baltic Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaša, Rita; Mhamed, Ali Ait Si

    2013-01-01

    In the framework of the internationalization and globalization of higher education and competition for international students, the paper examines how language policy in higher education shapes the provision of study programs in Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. It concludes that study programs in the Baltic states mostly follow the convention of a…

  17. A swarm of whiteflies--the first record of gregarious behavior from Eocene Baltic amber.

    PubMed

    Szwedo, Jacek; Drohojowska, Jowita

    2016-04-01

    A new whitefly Snotra christelae gen. et sp. n. is characterized, illustrated, and described from the Baltic amber. It represents the first record of gregarious behavior of Aleyrodinae (Aleyrodidae) whiteflies in fossil state. Implications of this finding on interpretation of whiteflies and their host-plant relationships and evolutionary traits of the group are discussed. PMID:27023734

  18. A swarm of whiteflies—the first record of gregarious behavior from Eocene Baltic amber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szwedo, Jacek; Drohojowska, Jowita

    2016-04-01

    A new whitefly Snotra christelae gen. et sp. n. is characterized, illustrated, and described from the Baltic amber. It represents the first record of gregarious behavior of Aleyrodinae (Aleyrodidae) whiteflies in fossil state. Implications of this finding on interpretation of whiteflies and their host-plant relationships and evolutionary traits of the group are discussed.

  19. Language-in-Education across the Baltic: Policies, Practices and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan-Brun, Gabrielle

    2007-01-01

    Since their political reorientation that started in the late 1980s, the Baltic states have experienced profound social reforms to rebuild their democratizing societies. Education has featured as a key vehicle to this transformation process of overcoming the limitations of the Soviet past. National legislative frameworks were therefore soon…

  20. Ice-ocean-ecosystem operational model of the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janecki, M.; Dzierzbicka-Glowacka, L.; Jakacki, J.; Nowicki, A.

    2012-04-01

    3D-CEMBS is a fully coupled model adopted for the Baltic Sea and have been developed within the grant, wchich is supported by the Polish State Committee of Scientific Reasearch. The model is based on CESM1.0 (Community Earth System Model), in our configuration it consists of two active components (ocean and ice) driven by central coupler (CPL7). Ocean (POP version 2.1) and ice models (CICE model, version 4.0) are forced by atmospheric and land data models. Atmospheric data sets are provided by ICM-UM model from University of Warsaw. Additionally land model provides runoff of the Baltic Sea (currently 78 rivers). Ecosystem model is based on an intermediate complexity marine ecosystem model for the global domain (J.K. Moore et. al., 2002) and consists of 11 main components: zooplankton, small phytoplankton, diatoms, cyanobacteria, two detrital classes, dissolved oxygen and the nutrients nitrate, ammonium, phosphate and silicate. The model is configured at two horizontal resolutions, approximately 9km and 2km (1/12° and 1/48° respectively). The model bathymetry is represented as 21 vertical levels and the thickness of the first four layers were chosen to be five metres. 3D-CEMBS model grid is based on stereographic coordinates, but equator of these coordinates is in the centre of the Baltic Sea (rotated stereographic coordinates) and we can assume that shape of the cells are square and they are identical. Currently model works in a operational state. The model creates 48-hour forecasts every 6 hours (or when new atmospheric dataset is available). Prognostic variables such as temperature, salinity, ice cover, currents, sea surface height and phytoplankton concentration are presented online on a the website and are available for registered users. Also time series for any location are accessible. This work was carried out in support of grant No NN305 111636 and No NN306 353239 - the Polish state Committee of Scientific Research. The partial support for this study was

  1. Lexical development of noun and predicate comprehension and production in isiZulu.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Ramona Kunene; Ahmed, Saaliha

    2016-01-01

    This study seeks to investigate the development of noun and predicate comprehension and production in isiZulu-speaking children between the ages of 25 and 36 months. It compares lexical comprehension and production in isiZulu, using an Italian developed and validated vocabulary assessment tool: The Picture Naming Game (PiNG) developed by Bello, Giannantoni, Pettenati, Stefanini and Caselli (2012). The PiNG tool includes four subtests, one each for subnoun comprehension (NC), noun production (NP), predicate comprehension (PC), and predicate production (PP). Children are shown these lexical items and then asked to show comprehension and produce certain lexical items. After adaptation into the South African context, the adapted version of PiNG was used to directly assess the lexical development of isiZulu with the three main objectives to (1) test the efficiency of the adaptation of a vocabulary tool to measure isiZulu comprehension and production development, (2) test previous findings done in many cross-linguistic comparisons that have found that both comprehension and production performance increase with age for a lesser-studied language, and (3) present our findings around the comprehension and production of the linguistic categories of nouns and predicates. An analysis of the results reported in this study show an age effect throughout the entire sample. Across all the age groups, the comprehension of the noun and predicate subtests was better performed than the production of noun and predicate subtests. With regard to lexical items, the responses of children showed an influence of various factors, including the late acquisition of items, possible problems with stimuli presented to them, and the possible input received by the children from their home environment. PMID:27542416

  2. Carnivorous leaves from Baltic amber

    PubMed Central

    Sadowski, Eva-Maria; Seyfullah, Leyla J.; Sadowski, Friederike; Fleischmann, Andreas; Behling, Hermann; Schmidt, Alexander R.

    2015-01-01

    The fossil record of carnivorous plants is very scarce and macrofossil evidence has been restricted to seeds of the extant aquatic genus Aldrovanda of the Droseraceae family. No case of carnivorous plant traps has so far been reported from the fossil record. Here, we present two angiosperm leaves enclosed in a piece of Eocene Baltic amber that share relevant morphological features with extant Roridulaceae, a carnivorous plant family that is today endemic to the Cape flora of South Africa. Modern Roridula species are unique among carnivorous plants as they digest prey in a complex mutualistic association in which the prey-derived nutrient uptake depends on heteropteran insects. As in extant Roridula, the fossil leaves possess two types of plant trichomes, including unicellular hairs and five size classes of multicellular stalked glands (or tentacles) with an apical pore. The apices of the narrow and perfectly tapered fossil leaves end in a single tentacle, as in both modern Roridula species. The glandular hairs of the fossils are restricted to the leaf margins and to the abaxial lamina, as in extant Roridula gorgonias. Our discovery supports current molecular age estimates for Roridulaceae and suggests a wide Eocene distribution of roridulid plants. PMID:25453067

  3. Carnivorous leaves from Baltic amber.

    PubMed

    Sadowski, Eva-Maria; Seyfullah, Leyla J; Sadowski, Friederike; Fleischmann, Andreas; Behling, Hermann; Schmidt, Alexander R

    2015-01-01

    The fossil record of carnivorous plants is very scarce and macrofossil evidence has been restricted to seeds of the extant aquatic genus Aldrovanda of the Droseraceae family. No case of carnivorous plant traps has so far been reported from the fossil record. Here, we present two angiosperm leaves enclosed in a piece of Eocene Baltic amber that share relevant morphological features with extant Roridulaceae, a carnivorous plant family that is today endemic to the Cape flora of South Africa. Modern Roridula species are unique among carnivorous plants as they digest prey in a complex mutualistic association in which the prey-derived nutrient uptake depends on heteropteran insects. As in extant Roridula, the fossil leaves possess two types of plant trichomes, including unicellular hairs and five size classes of multicellular stalked glands (or tentacles) with an apical pore. The apices of the narrow and perfectly tapered fossil leaves end in a single tentacle, as in both modern Roridula species. The glandular hairs of the fossils are restricted to the leaf margins and to the abaxial lamina, as in extant Roridula gorgonias. Our discovery supports current molecular age estimates for Roridulaceae and suggests a wide Eocene distribution of roridulid plants. PMID:25453067

  4. On the Use of CAD-Native Predicates and Geometry in Surface Meshing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aftosmis, M. J.

    1999-01-01

    Several paradigms for accessing computer-aided design (CAD) geometry during surface meshing for computational fluid dynamics are discussed. File translation, inconsistent geometry engines, and nonnative point construction are all identified as sources of nonrobustness. The paper argues in favor of accessing CAD parts and assemblies in their native format, without translation, and for the use of CAD-native predicates and constructors in surface mesh generation. The discussion also emphasizes the importance of examining the computational requirements for exact evaluation of triangulation predicates during surface meshing.

  5. Status of Biodiversity in the Baltic Sea

    PubMed Central

    Ojaveer, Henn; Jaanus, Andres; MacKenzie, Brian R.; Martin, Georg; Olenin, Sergej; Radziejewska, Teresa; Telesh, Irena; Zettler, Michael L.; Zaiko, Anastasija

    2010-01-01

    The brackish Baltic Sea hosts species of various origins and environmental tolerances. These immigrated to the sea 10,000 to 15,000 years ago or have been introduced to the area over the relatively recent history of the system. The Baltic Sea has only one known endemic species. While information on some abiotic parameters extends back as long as five centuries and first quantitative snapshot data on biota (on exploited fish populations) originate generally from the same time, international coordination of research began in the early twentieth century. Continuous, annual Baltic Sea-wide long-term datasets on several organism groups (plankton, benthos, fish) are generally available since the mid-1950s. Based on a variety of available data sources (published papers, reports, grey literature, unpublished data), the Baltic Sea, incl. Kattegat, hosts altogether at least 6,065 species, including at least 1,700 phytoplankton, 442 phytobenthos, at least 1,199 zooplankton, at least 569 meiozoobenthos, 1,476 macrozoobenthos, at least 380 vertebrate parasites, about 200 fish, 3 seal, and 83 bird species. In general, but not in all organism groups, high sub-regional total species richness is associated with elevated salinity. Although in comparison with fully marine areas the Baltic Sea supports fewer species, several facets of the system's diversity remain underexplored to this day, such as micro-organisms, foraminiferans, meiobenthos and parasites. In the future, climate change and its interactions with multiple anthropogenic forcings are likely to have major impacts on the Baltic biodiversity. PMID:20824189

  6. Density and Absolute Salinity of the Baltic Sea 2006-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feistel, R.; Weinreben, S.; Wolf, H.; Seitz, S.; Spitzer, P.; Adel, B.; Nausch, G.; Schneider, B.; Wright, D. G.

    2010-01-01

    The brackish water of the Baltic Sea is a mixture of ocean water from the Atlantic/North Sea with fresh water from various rivers draining a large area of lowlands and mountain ranges. The evaporation-precipitation balance results in an additional but minor excess of fresh water. The rivers carry different loads of salts washed out of the ground, in particular calcium carbonate, which cause a composition anomaly of the salt dissolved in the Baltic Sea in comparison to Standard Seawater. Directly measured seawater density shows a related anomaly when compared to the density computed from the equation of state as a function of Practical Salinity, temperature and pressure. Samples collected from different regions of the Baltic Sea during 2006-2009 were analysed for their density anomaly. The results obtained for the river load deviate significantly from similar measurements carried out forty years ago; the reasons for this decadal variability are not yet fully understood. An empirical formula is derived which estimates Absolute from Practical Salinity of Baltic Sea water, to be used in conjunction with the new Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater 2010 (TEOS-10), endorsed by IOC/UNESCO in June 2009 as the substitute for the 1980 International Equation of State, EOS-80. Our routine measurements of the samples were accompanied by studies of additional selected properties which are reported here: conductivity, density, chloride, bromide and sulphate content, total CO2 and alkalinity.

  7. Density and Absolute Salinity of the Baltic Sea 2006-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feistel, R.; Weinreben, S.; Wolf, H.; Seitz, S.; Spitzer, P.; Adel, B.; Nausch, G.; Schneider, B.; Wright, D. G.

    2009-08-01

    The brackish water of the Baltic Sea is a mixture of ocean water from the Atlantic/North Sea with fresh water from various rivers draining a large area of lowlands and mountain ranges. The evaporation-precipitation balance results in an additional but minor excess of fresh water. The rivers carry different loads of salts washed out of the ground, in particular calcium carbonate, which cause a composition anomaly of the salt dissolved in the Baltic Sea in comparison to Standard Seawater. Directly measured seawater density shows a related anomaly when compared to the density computed from the equation of state as a function of Practical Salinity, temperature and pressure. Samples collected from different regions of the Baltic Sea during 2006-2009 were analysed for their density anomaly. The results obtained for the river load deviate significantly from similar measurements carried out forty years ago; the reasons for this decadal variability are not yet fully understood. An empirical formula is derived which estimates Absolute from Practical Salinity of Baltic Sea water, to be used in conjunction with the new Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater 2010 (TEOS-10), endorsed by IOC/UNESCO in June 2009 as the substitute for the 1980 International Equation of State, EOS-80. Our routine measurements of the samples were accompanied by studies of additional selected properties which are reported here: conductivity, density, chloride, bromide and sulphate content, total CO2 and alkalinity.

  8. A Cognitive Account of Mood in Complements of Causative Predicates in Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mejías-Bikandi, Errapel

    2014-01-01

    Complements of causative predicates such as "hacer" in Spanish present a problem for analyses of mood that are based on semantic or pragmatic notions of assertion. The problem results from the fact that information expressed by these complements is presented both as true and new, and yet the complement verb appears in the subjunctive…

  9. Young Children's Sensitivity to New and Given Information when Answering Predicate-Focus Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomo, Dorothe; Lieven, Elena; Tomasello, Michael

    2010-01-01

    In two studies we investigated 2-year-old children's answers to predicate-focus questions depending on the preceding context. Children were presented with a successive series of short video clips showing transitive actions (e.g., frog washing duck) in which either the action (action-new) or the patient (patient-new) was the changing, and therefore…

  10. Lexical, Syntactic, and Semantic-Geometric Factors in the Acquisition of Motion Predicates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skordos, Dimitrios; Papafragou, Anna

    2014-01-01

    We report a study that explored the mechanisms used in hypothesizing meanings for novel motion predicates (verbs and prepositions) cross-linguistically. Motion stimuli were presented to English- and Greek-speaking adults and preschoolers accompanied by (a) a novel intransitive verb, (b) a novel transitive verb, (c) a novel transitive preposition,…

  11. The History of Predicative Possession in Slavic: Internal Development vs. Language Contact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAnallen, Julia

    2011-01-01

    The languages of the world encode possession in a variety of ways. In Slavic languages, possession on the level of the clause, or predicative possession, is represented by two main encoding strategies. Most Slavic languages, including those in the West and South Slavic sub-groupings, use a "have" verb comparable to English have and German "haben."…

  12. Predicate-Based Focus-and-Context Visualization for 3D Ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Schulte zu Berge, Christian; Baust, Maximilian; Kapoor, Ankur; Navab, Nassir

    2014-12-01

    Direct volume visualization techniques offer powerful insight into volumetric medical images and are part of the clinical routine for many applications. Up to now, however, their use is mostly limited to tomographic imaging modalities such as CT or MRI. With very few exceptions, such as fetal ultrasound, classic volume rendering using one-dimensional intensity-based transfer functions fails to yield satisfying results in case of ultrasound volumes. This is particularly due its gradient-like nature, a high amount of noise and speckle, and the fact that individual tissue types are rather characterized by a similar texture than by similar intensity values. Therefore, clinicians still prefer to look at 2D slices extracted from the ultrasound volume. In this work, we present an entirely novel approach to the classification and compositing stage of the volume rendering pipeline, specifically designed for use with ultrasonic images. We introduce point predicates as a generic formulation for integrating the evaluation of not only low-level information like local intensity or gradient, but also of high-level information, such as non-local image features or even anatomical models. Thus, we can successfully filter clinically relevant from non-relevant information. In order to effectively reduce the potentially high dimensionality of the predicate configuration space, we propose the predicate histogram as an intuitive user interface. This is augmented by a scribble technique to provide a comfortable metaphor for selecting predicates of interest. Assigning importance factors to the predicates allows for focus-and-context visualization that ensures to always show important (focus) regions of the data while maintaining as much context information as possible. Our method naturally integrates into standard ray casting algorithms and yields superior results in comparison to traditional methods in terms of visualizing a specific target anatomy in ultrasound volumes. PMID:26356952

  13. BIAS: A Regional Management of Underwater Sound in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Sigray, Peter; Andersson, Mathias; Pajala, Jukka; Laanearu, Janek; Klauson, Aleksander; Tegowski, Jaroslaw; Boethling, Maria; Fischer, Jens; Tougaard, Jakob; Wahlberg, Magnus; Nikolopoulos, Anna; Folegot, Thomas; Matuschek, Rainer; Verfuss, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    Management of the impact of underwater sound is an emerging concern worldwide. Several countries are in the process of implementing regulatory legislations. In Europe, the Marine Strategy Framework Directive was launched in 2008. This framework addresses noise impacts and the recommendation is to deal with it on a regional level. The Baltic Sea is a semienclosed area with nine states bordering the sea. The number of ships is one of the highest in Europe. Furthermore, the number of ships is estimated to double by 2030. Undoubtedly, due to the unbound character of noise, an efficient management of sound in the Baltic Sea must be done on a regional scale. In line with the European Union directive, the Baltic Sea Information on the Acoustic Soundscape (BIAS) project was established to implement Descriptor 11 of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive in the Baltic Sea region. BIAS will develop tools, standards, and methodologies that will allow for cross-border handling of data and results, measure sound in 40 locations for 1 year, establish a seasonal soundscape map by combining measured sound with advanced three-dimensional modeling, and, finally, establish standards for measuring continuous sound. Results from the first phase of BIAS are presented here, with an emphasis on standards and soundscape mapping as well as the challenges related to regional handling. PMID:26611063

  14. Persistent organic pollutants in Baltic herring (Clupea harengus)-an aspect of gender.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Sophia; Keddig, Nadia; Gerwinski, Wolfgang; Neukirchen, Jan; Kammann, Ulrike; Haarich, Michael; Hanel, Reinhold; Theobald, Norbert

    2016-06-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are monitored regularly in water, sediment, and biota in the Baltic Sea. Lipophilic substances are measured in remarkable concentrations especially in the fatty parts of fish, such as herring (Clupea harengus). However, less lipophilic POPs, e.g. perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), can also be detected. For the first time to our knowledge, this study provides a broad range of contaminant concentrations simultaneously measured in filet, liver, and gonads of both sexes of Baltic herring. We analysed organochlorines, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and PFCs in mature autumn-spawning individuals and found distinct organ pollutant pattern for all POPs in both sexes. POP concentrations found in the gonads of both sexes indicate that not only females but also males tend to reduce contaminants via reproduction. However, sex-dependent differences could be identified for hexachlorobenzene, PBDEs, and were most remarkable for PFCs. This transfer of contaminants to the gonads in both male and female herring is being underestimated, as it may directly affect the general reproduction success as well as the healthy development of the next generation. Hence, the accumulation of contaminants in the gonads should be considered one possible threat to a healthy wildlife as its achievement is stated by the Baltic Sea Action Plan. Inclusion of a periodic monitoring of POP concentrations in gonads of fish may be an important bioeffect measure to assess the environmental status of biota in the Baltic Sea. PMID:27226172

  15. Valuing the commons: An international study on the recreational benefits of the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Czajkowski, Mikołaj; Ahtiainen, Heini; Artell, Janne; Budziński, Wiktor; Hasler, Berit; Hasselström, Linus; Meyerhoff, Jürgen; Nõmmann, Tea; Semeniene, Daiva; Söderqvist, Tore; Tuhkanen, Heidi; Lankia, Tuija; Vanags, Alf; Zandersen, Marianne; Żylicz, Tomasz; Hanley, Nick

    2015-06-01

    The Baltic Sea provides benefits to all of the nine nations along its coastline, with some 85 million people living within the catchment area. Achieving improvements in water quality requires international cooperation. The likelihood of effective cooperation is known to depend on the distribution across countries of the benefits and costs of actions needed to improve water quality. In this paper, we estimate the benefits associated with recreational use of the Baltic Sea in current environmental conditions using a travel cost approach, based on data from a large, standardized survey of households in each of the 9 Baltic Sea states. Both the probability of engaging in recreation (participation) and the number of visits people make are modeled. A large variation in the number of trips and the extent of participation is found, along with large differences in current annual economic benefits from Baltic Sea recreation. The total annual recreation benefits are close to 15 billion EUR. Under a water quality improvement scenario, the proportional increases in benefits range from 7 to 18% of the current annual benefits across countries. Depending on how the costs of actions are distributed, this could imply difficulties in achieving more international cooperation to achieve such improvements. PMID:25846001

  16. Activation of the marine ecosystem model 3D CEMBS for the Baltic Sea in operational mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzierzbicka-Glowacka, Lidia; Jakacki, Jaromir; Janecki, Maciej; Nowicki, Artur

    2013-04-01

    The paper presents a new marine ecosystem model 3D CEMBS designed for the Baltic Sea. The ecosystem model is incorporated into the 3D POPCICE ocean-ice model. The Current Baltic Sea model is based on the Community Earth System Model (CESM from the National Center for Atmospheric Research) which was adapted for the Baltic Sea as a coupled sea-ice model. It consists of the Community Ice Code (CICE model, version 4.0) and the Parallel Ocean Program (version 2.1). The ecosystem model is a biological submodel of the 3D CEMBS. It consists of eleven mass conservation equations. There are eleven partial second-order differential equations of the diffusion type with the advective term for phytoplankton, zooplankton, nutrients, dissolved oxygen, and dissolved and particulate organic matter. This model is an effective tool for solving the problem of ecosystem bioproductivity. The model is forced by 48-hour atmospheric forecasts provided by the UM model from the Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling of Warsaw University (ICM). The study was financially supported by the Polish State Committee of Scientific Research (grants: No N N305 111636, N N306 353239). The partial support for this study was also provided by the project Satellite Monitoring of the Baltic Sea Environment - SatBaltyk founded by European Union through European Regional Development Fund contract no. POIG 01.01.02-22-011/09. Calculations were carried out at the Academy Computer Centre in Gdańsk.

  17. Indicator Properties of Baltic Zooplankton for Classification of Environmental Status within Marine Strategy Framework Directive

    PubMed Central

    Lehtiniemi, Maiju; Postel, Lutz; Rubene, Gunta; Amid, Callis; Lesutiene, Jurate; Uusitalo, Laura; Strake, Solvita; Demereckiene, Natalja

    2016-01-01

    The European Marine Strategy Framework Directive requires the EU Member States to estimate the level of anthropogenic impacts on their marine systems using 11 Descriptors. Assessing food web response to altered habitats is addressed by Descriptor 4 and its indicators, which are being developed for regional seas. However, the development of simple foodweb indicators able to assess the health of ecologically diverse, spatially variable and complex interactions is challenging. Zooplankton is a key element in marine foodwebs and thus comprise an important part of overall ecosystem health. Here, we review work on zooplankton indicator development using long-term data sets across the Baltic Sea and report the main findings. A suite of zooplankton community metrics were evaluated as putative ecological indicators that track community state in relation to Good Environmental Status (GES) criteria with regard to eutrophication and fish feeding conditions in the Baltic Sea. On the basis of an operational definition of GES, we propose mean body mass of zooplankton in the community in combination with zooplankton stock measured as either abundance or biomass to be applicable as an integrated indicator that could be used within the Descriptor 4 in the Baltic Sea. These metrics performed best in predicting zooplankton being in-GES when considering all datasets evaluated. However, some other metrics, such as copepod biomass, the contribution of copepods to the total zooplankton biomass or biomass-based Cladocera: Copepoda ratio, were equally reliable or even superior in certain basin-specific assessments. Our evaluation suggests that in several basins of the Baltic Sea, zooplankton communities currently appear to be out-of-GES, being comprised by smaller zooplankters and having lower total abundance or biomass compared to the communities during the reference conditions; however, the changes in the taxonomic structure underlying these trends vary widely across the sea basins due to

  18. Indicator Properties of Baltic Zooplankton for Classification of Environmental Status within Marine Strategy Framework Directive.

    PubMed

    Gorokhova, Elena; Lehtiniemi, Maiju; Postel, Lutz; Rubene, Gunta; Amid, Callis; Lesutiene, Jurate; Uusitalo, Laura; Strake, Solvita; Demereckiene, Natalja

    2016-01-01

    The European Marine Strategy Framework Directive requires the EU Member States to estimate the level of anthropogenic impacts on their marine systems using 11 Descriptors. Assessing food web response to altered habitats is addressed by Descriptor 4 and its indicators, which are being developed for regional seas. However, the development of simple foodweb indicators able to assess the health of ecologically diverse, spatially variable and complex interactions is challenging. Zooplankton is a key element in marine foodwebs and thus comprise an important part of overall ecosystem health. Here, we review work on zooplankton indicator development using long-term data sets across the Baltic Sea and report the main findings. A suite of zooplankton community metrics were evaluated as putative ecological indicators that track community state in relation to Good Environmental Status (GES) criteria with regard to eutrophication and fish feeding conditions in the Baltic Sea. On the basis of an operational definition of GES, we propose mean body mass of zooplankton in the community in combination with zooplankton stock measured as either abundance or biomass to be applicable as an integrated indicator that could be used within the Descriptor 4 in the Baltic Sea. These metrics performed best in predicting zooplankton being in-GES when considering all datasets evaluated. However, some other metrics, such as copepod biomass, the contribution of copepods to the total zooplankton biomass or biomass-based Cladocera: Copepoda ratio, were equally reliable or even superior in certain basin-specific assessments. Our evaluation suggests that in several basins of the Baltic Sea, zooplankton communities currently appear to be out-of-GES, being comprised by smaller zooplankters and having lower total abundance or biomass compared to the communities during the reference conditions; however, the changes in the taxonomic structure underlying these trends vary widely across the sea basins due to

  19. Long-term variability of extreme waves in the Caspian, Black, Azov and Baltic Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhipkin, Victor; Dobroliubov, Sergey

    2013-04-01

    In order to study extreme storm waves in the Caspian, Black, Azov and Baltic Sea we used the spectral wave model SWAN. Significant wave height, swell and sea height, direction of propagation, their length and period were calculated with the NCEP/NCAR (1,9°x1,9°, 4-daily) reanalysis wind forcing from 1948 to 2010 in the Caspian, Black and Baltic Seas and with the NCEP/CFSR (0,3°x0,3°, 1 hour) for the period from 1979 to 2010 in the Azov Sea. The calculations were performed on supercomputers of Lomonosov Moscow State University (MSU). The spatial resolution of the numerical grid was of order 5 km for the Caspian, Baltic and Black Seas, 2 km for the Azov Sea. These model wave hindcasts were used to calculate interannual and seasonal variability of the storm frequency, location and duration. The Initial Distribution Method and Annual Maxima Series Methods were used to study probable waves of a century reoccurrence. The long-term variability of extreme waves revealed different trends in the investigated seas. The Caspian and Azov seas decreased the storm activity, while in the Baltic Sea the number of storm cases increased and the Black Sea showed no significant trend. The of more than 12 m were observed in two centers in the middle part of the Caspian Sea and in the center of the Baltic Sea. In the Black Sea the extreme waves of the same probability of more than 14 m were found in the region to the south of the Crimean peninsula. In the Azov Sea the highest waves of a century reoccurrence do not exceed 5 m. The work was done in Natural Risk Assessment Laboratory, MSU under contract G.34.31.0007.

  20. Assessing Secchi and photic zone depth in the Baltic Sea from satellite data.

    PubMed

    Kratzer, Susanne; Håkansson, Bertil; Sahlin, Charlotte

    2003-12-01

    Long-term trends in the Secchi depth of the Baltic Sea have been interpreted in terms of eutrophication. The spectral attenuation coefficient Kd (490) can be estimated from remote sensing data. Given the empirical and theoretical relationships between diffuse attenuation and Secchi depth, it is therefore possible to estimate the trophic state from remote sensing data. This paper considers relationships among remotely sensed and in-water measured K (490), and Secchi depth data obtained during dedicated sea-truthing campaigns in the eastern Baltic Proper in 1999 (4) and in the western Baltic Proper/Himmerfjärden area during 2001 and 2002. In-water measurements are used to establish the relationship between the PAR and the spectral attenuation coefficient in the Baltic Sea via regression analysis. The analysis showed that in the area of investigation Kd(490) is about 1.48 times higher than Kd (PAR). This relationship is then used to define the link between the photic zone depth and the remote sensing optical depth, Kd (490)-1. The results show that the depth of the euphotic zone is about 6.8 times Kd (490)-1. The regression analysis between Kd (PAR) and Secchi depth confirmed previous work that Kd (PAR) is about 1.7 of the inverse Secchi depth. Furthermore, an in-water algorithm between Secchi depth and Kd (490) is used to simulate a Secchi depth map of the Baltic Sea from SeaWiFS Kd(490) data. This map is verified against sea-truthing data. Kd (490) data derived from satellite is compared to in situ Kd (490), and the sources of error are discussed. PMID:15049356

  1. Short-impending Anomaly of GPS Observation and its Implications in Yunnan Earthquake Predication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, M.; Shao, D.; Zhang, S.; Wu, T.; Wang, F.; Zhang, Y.; Wang, L.; Qian, X.

    2015-12-01

    This study proposals a new method, short-impending anomaly of GPS (SIA-GPS), to predict the coming earthquake. Based on long-term GNSS observations, we observed the abnormal deformations occurred around the active faults in Yunnan area before the earthquakes of magnitude MW³5.0. We constructed the regional strain fields with networks filtering, and extracted the abnormal deformations of each grid before each strong coming earthquake. Such special deformations of the GNSS observation are able to serve for short-impending earthquake prediction. The SIA-GPS method includes three steps. Firstly, Yunnan region is divided into multiple grids using interpolation calculation and the uniform displacement field is created. The area velocity field is obtained based on the continuous GNSS observations using GAMIT/GLOBK software. Next, the earthquake response capacity of each grid is evaluated in time-series analysis focusing on strains, and the short-term anomalies are easily extracted. Lastly, all the abnormal signals are carefully diagnosed in the considerations of tectonic movements. As examples, we predicated 19 earthquakes using the (SIA-GPS) method. 14 earthquakes of them are successful within the tolerable special and time misfits, and 5 of them do not occurred. The code of predication for short-impending earthquake requires that all the coming earthquakes of Mw³5 must be predicated, the maximum time error for coming event is three months, and the corresponding spatial misfit allows 5 grids. Following this role, 14 earthquakes of Mw³5 are predicted using SIA-GPS indicators with success rate 73.6%. For such experiences, SIA-GPS method has been utilized as a benefit tool to predicate the potential coming earthquakes in Earthquake Administration of Yunnan Province. Keywords:Short-impending anomaly of GPS, SIA-GPS, time series of analysis, GNSS observation, earthquake prediction, surface deformation, strain, Yunnan area.

  2. Discovery of Predicate-Oriented Relations among Named Entities Extracted from Thai Texts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tongtep, Nattapong; Theeramunkong, Thanaruk

    Extracting named entities (NEs) and their relations is more difficult in Thai than in other languages due to several Thai specific characteristics, including no explicit boundaries for words, phrases and sentences; few case markers and modifier clues; high ambiguity in compound words and serial verbs; and flexible word orders. Unlike most previous works which focused on NE relations of specific actions, such as work_for, live_in, located_in, and kill, this paper proposes more general types of NE relations, called predicate-oriented relation (PoR), where an extracted action part (verb) is used as a core component to associate related named entities extracted from Thai Texts. Lacking a practical parser for the Thai language, we present three types of surface features, i.e. punctuation marks (such as token spaces), entity types and the number of entities and then apply five alternative commonly used learning schemes to investigate their performance on predicate-oriented relation extraction. The experimental results show that our approach achieves the F-measure of 97.76%, 99.19%, 95.00% and 93.50% on four different types of predicate-oriented relation (action-location, location-action, action-person and person-action) in crime-related news documents using a data set of 1,736 entity pairs. The effects of NE extraction techniques, feature sets and class unbalance on the performance of relation extraction are explored.

  3. Nouns and predicates comprehension and production in children with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bello, A; Onofrio, D; Caselli, M C

    2014-04-01

    Our study investigated the lexical comprehension and production abilities as well as gestural production taking into account different lexical categories, namely nouns and predicates. Fourteen children with DS (34 months of developmental age) and a comparison group of 14 typically developing children (TD) matched for gender and developmental age were assessed through a test of lexical comprehension and production (PiNG) and the Italian MB-CDI. Children with DS showed a general weakness in lexical comprehension and production that appeared more evident when the lexicon was assessed through a structured test such as the PiNG that requires general cognitive skills that are impaired in children with DS. As for the composition of the lexical repertoire, for both groups of children, nouns are understood and produced in higher percentages compared to predicates. Children with DS produced more representational gestures than TD children in the comprehension tasks and above all with predicates; on the contrary, both groups of children exhibited the same number of gestures on the MB-CDI and during the subtests of PiNG production. Children with DS produced more unimodal gestural answers than the control group. Theoretical implications of these results are discussed. PMID:24529857

  4. The sound speed anomaly of Baltic Seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Rohden, C.; Weinreben, S.; Fehres, F.

    2015-11-01

    The effect of the anomalous chemical composition of Baltic seawater on the speed of sound relative to seawater with quasi-standard composition was quantified at atmospheric pressure and temperatures of 1 to 46 °C. Three modern oceanographic time-of-flight sensors were applied in a laboratory setup for measuring the speed-of-sound difference δ w in a pure water diluted sample of North Atlantic seawater and a sample of Baltic seawater of the same conductivity, i.e. the same Practical Salinity (SP=7.766). The average δ w amounts to 0.069 ± 0.014 m s-1, significantly larger than the resolution and reproducibility of the sensors and independent of temperature. This magnitude for the anomaly effect was verified with offshore measurements conducted at different sites in the Baltic Sea using one of the sensors. The results from both measurements show values up to one order of magnitude smaller than existing predictions based on chemical models.

  5. The sound speed anomaly of Baltic seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Rohden, C.; Weinreben, S.; Fehres, F.

    2016-02-01

    The effect of the anomalous chemical composition of Baltic seawater on the speed of sound relative to seawater with quasi-standard composition was quantified at atmospheric pressure and temperatures of 1 to 46 °C. Three modern oceanographic time-of-flight sensors were applied in a laboratory setup for measuring the speed-of-sound difference δw in a pure water diluted sample of North Atlantic seawater and a sample of Baltic seawater of the same conductivity, i.e., the same practical salinity (SP = 7.766). The average δw amounts to 0.069 ± 0.014 m s-1, which is significantly larger than the resolution and reproducibility of the sensors and independent of temperature. This magnitude for the anomaly effect was verified with offshore measurements conducted at different sites in the Baltic Sea using one of the sensors. The results from both measurements show values up to 1 order of magnitude smaller than existing predictions based on chemical models.

  6. Actors and arenas in hybrid networks: implications for environmental policymaking in the Baltic Sea region.

    PubMed

    Joas, Marko; Kern, Kristine; Sandberg, Siv

    2007-04-01

    Policymaking within and among states is under pressure for change. One feature of this change is empirically observed as an activation of different network structures in the Baltic Sea Region, especially since the collapse of the Iron Curtain, the initiation of the Rio process, and the enlargement of the European Union. The contemporary theoretical debates about governance highlight the changing conditions for policymaking and implementation on all societal levels. This process of change, especially evident concerning environmental policies, includes new types of networks crossing state borders both at the supranational and the subnational levels. This article illuminates this process of change with empirical data from the project "Governing a Common Sea" (GOVCOM) within the Baltic Sea Research Program (BIREME). PMID:17520939

  7. Predicate structures, gesture, and simultaneity in the representation of action in British Sign Language: evidence from deaf children and adults.

    PubMed

    Cormier, Kearsy; Smith, Sandra; Sevcikova, Zed

    2013-01-01

    British Sign Language (BSL) signers use a variety of structures, such as constructed action (CA), depicting constructions (DCs), or lexical verbs, to represent action and other verbal meanings. This study examines the use of these verbal predicate structures and their gestural counterparts, both separately and simultaneously, in narratives by deaf children with various levels of exposure to BSL (ages 5;1 to 7;5) and deaf adult native BSL signers. Results reveal that all groups used the same types of predicative structures, including children with minimal BSL exposure. However, adults used CA, DCs, and/or lexical signs simultaneously more frequently than children. These results suggest that simultaneous use of CA with lexical and depicting predicates is more complex than the use of these predicate structures alone and thus may take deaf children more time to master. PMID:23670881

  8. Sorption and predicted mobility of herbicides in Baltic soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Determination of pesticide sorption under local conditions is required to predict off-site transport. Recent surveys detected pesticides in surface water and groundwater of the Baltic region, but there is little information in the peer-reviewed literature regarding the fate of pesticides in Baltic s...

  9. The Baltic Klint beneath the central Baltic Sea and its comparison with the North Estonian Klint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuuling, Igor; Flodén, Tom

    2016-06-01

    Along its contact with the Baltic Shield, the margin of the East European Platform reveals a well-developed, flooded terraced relief. The most striking and consistent set of escarpments at the contact of the Lower Palaeozoic calcareous and terrigenous rocks, known as the Baltic Klint (BK), extends from northwest of Russia to the Swedish island of Öland. Marine seismic reflection profiling in 1990-2004 revealed the central Baltic Sea Klint (BSK) section in detail and enabled comparison of its geology/geomorphology with a classical klint-section onshore, namely the North Estonian Klint (NEK). The conception of the BK onshore, which is based on the land-sea separating terraced relief in northern Estonia, is not fully applicable beneath the sea. Therefore, we consider that the BSK includes the entire terraced Cambrian outcrop. We suggest the term "Baltic Klint Complex" to include the well-terraced margin of the Ordovician limestone outcrop, which is weakly developed in Estonia. Because of a steady lithological framework of the bedrock layers across the southern slope of the Fennoscandian Shield, the central BSK in the western and the NEK in the eastern part of the Baltic Homocline have largely identical morphologies. The North Estonian Ordovician limestone plateau with the calcareous crest of the BK extends across the central Baltic Sea, whereas morphological changes/variations along the Klint base occur due to the east-westerly lithostratigraphic/thickness changes in the siliciclastic Cambrian sequence. The verge of the NEK, located some 30-50 m above sea level, starts to drop in altitude as its east-westerly course turns to northeast-southwest in western Estonia. Further westwards, the BK shifts gradually into southerly deepening (0.1-0.2°) layers as its crest drops to c. 150 m below sea level (b.s.l.) near Gotska Sandön. This course change is accompanied by a considerable decrease in thickness of the platform sedimentary cover, as below the central Baltic Sea the

  10. A 35-year hindcast for the Baltic Sea (1980-2014) - a statistical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gräwe, Ulf; Holtermann, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The Baltic Sea is a semi-enclosed sea with limited water exchange. The most important process that leads to deep water renewal of the Baltic Sea are inflows of dense, saline North Sea water. These water masses have to pass narrow channels and sills in the Danish Straits and three basins with increasing depth. Along this path, the inflowing gravity currents are subject to entrainment, vertical and horizontal mixing. Thus, physical and numerical mixing are crucial for the proper propagation of these inflows. Additionally, a permanent halocline and a summer thermocline are challenging for state of the art ocean models. Moreover, Holtermann et al (2014) could show, that boundary mixing in the deep basins dominates the vertical mixing of tracers. To tackle these challenges, we used the General Estuarine Transport Model (GETM) to give a state estimate for the Baltic Sea for the period 1980-2014. The setup has a horizontal resolution of 1 nm. In the vertical, terain following coordinates are used. A special feature of GETM is that it can run with vertical adaptive coordinates. Here we use an adaptation towards stratification. The minimum layer thickness is limited to 30 cm. We also include the effects of wind waves (by radiation stresses, and changes in the bottom stresses) into our simulations. The atmospheric forcing is taken from the global reanalysis of the NCEP-CFSR (Saha et al 2011) with a spatial resolution of 30 km and hourly values. The model validation at selected stations in the Baltic Sea shows an average Bias of ±0.15 psu and a RMSE of 0.4 psu. These values are similar to the data assimilation runs of Fu et al (2011) or Liu et al (2013). However, one has to note that our simulations are free runs without any nudging or data assimilation. Driven by the good performance of the model, we use the model output to provide a state estimate of the actual climate period (1980-2010). The analysis includes a quantification and estimation of: surge levels with a 30-year

  11. Simulated sea surface temperature and heat fluxes in different climates of the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Döscher, Ralf; Meier, H E Markus

    2004-06-01

    The physical state of the Baltic Sea in possible future climates is approached by numerical model experiments with a regional coupled ocean-atmosphere model driven by different global simulations. Scenarios and recent climate simulations are compared to estimate changes. The sea surface is clearly warmer by 2.9 degrees C in the ensemble mean. The horizontal pattern of average annual mean warming can largely be explained in terms of ice-cover reduction. The transfer of heat from the atmosphere to the Baltic Sea shows a changed seasonal cycle: a reduced heat loss in fall, increased heat uptake in spring, and reduced heat uptake in summer. The interannual variability of surface temperature is generally increased. This is associated with a smoothed frequency distribution in northern basins. The overall heat budget shows increased solar radiation to the sea surface, which is balanced by changes of the other heat flux components. PMID:15264603

  12. A Graph-Based Recovery and Decomposition of Swanson’s Hypothesis using Semantic Predications

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Delroy; Bodenreider, Olivier; Yalamanchili, Hima; Danh, Tu; Vallabhaneni, Sreeram; Thirunarayan, Krishnaprasad; Sheth, Amit P.; Rindflesch, Thomas C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This paper presents a methodology for recovering and decomposing Swanson’s Raynaud Syndrome–Fish Oil Hypothesis semi-automatically. The methodology leverages the semantics of assertions extracted from biomedical literature (called semantic predications) along with structured background knowledge and graph-based algorithms to semi-automatically capture the informative associations originally discovered manually by Swanson. Demonstrating that Swanson’s manually intensive techniques can be undertaken semi-automatically, paves the way for fully automatic semantics-based hypothesis generation from scientific literature. Methods Semantic predications obtained from biomedical literature allow the construction of labeled directed graphs which contain various associations among concepts from the literature. By aggregating such associations into informative subgraphs, some of the relevant details originally articulated by Swanson has been uncovered. However, by leveraging background knowledge to bridge important knowledge gaps in the literature, a methodology for semi-automatically capturing the detailed associations originally explicated in natural language by Swanson has been developed. Results Our methodology not only recovered the 3 associations commonly recognized as Swanson’s Hypothesis, but also decomposed them into an additional 16 detailed associations, formulated as chains of semantic predications. Altogether, 14 out of the 19 associations that can be attributed to Swanson were retrieved using our approach. To the best of our knowledge, such an in-depth recovery and decomposition of Swanson’s Hypothesis has never been attempted. Conclusion In this work therefore, we presented a methodology for semi- automatically recovering and decomposing Swanson’s RS-DFO Hypothesis using semantic representations and graph algorithms. Our methodology provides new insights into potential prerequisites for semantics-driven Literature-Based Discovery (LBD

  13. On the Use of CAD-Native Predicates and Geometry in Surface Meshing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aftosmis, M. J.

    1999-01-01

    Several paradigms for accessing CAD geometry during surface meshing for CFD are discussed. File translation, inconsistent geometry engines and non-native point construction are all identified as sources of non-robustness. The paper argues in favor of accessing CAD parts and assemblies in their native format, without translation, and for the use of CAD-native predicates and constructors in surface mesh generation. The discussion also emphasizes the importance of examining the computational requirements for exact evaluation of triangulation predicates during surface meshing. The native approach is demonstrated through an algorithm for the generation of closed manifold surface triangulations from CAD geometry. CAD parts and assemblies are used in their native format, and a part's native geometry engine is accessed through a modeler-independent application programming interface (API). In seeking a robust and fully automated procedure, the algorithm is based on a new physical space manifold triangulation technique specially developed to avoid robustness issues associated with poorly conditioned mappings. In addition, this approach avoids the usual ambiguities associated with floating-point predicate evaluation on constructed coordinate geometry in a mapped space. The technique is incremental, so that each new site improves the triangulation by some well defined quality measure. The algorithm terminates after achieving a prespecified measure of mesh quality and produces a triangulation such that no angle is less than a given angle bound, a or greater than pi - 2alpha. This result also sets bounds on the maximum vertex degree, triangle aspect-ratio and maximum stretching rate for the triangulation. In addition to the output triangulations for a variety of CAD parts, the discussion presents related theoretical results which assert the existence of such an angle bound, and demonstrate that maximum bounds of between 25 deg and 30 deg may be achieved in practice.

  14. Astaxanthin dynamics in Baltic Sea mesozooplankton communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snoeijs, Pauline; Häubner, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    The red pigment astaxanthin is a powerful antioxidant, which occurs in eggs and body tissues of crustaceans and fish. It is produced by crustaceans from algal carotenoids. In a two-year field study we assessed natural concentrations and dynamics of astaxanthin in mesozooplankton communities in the brackish Baltic Sea area. Astaxanthin levels varied between 0.37 and 36 ng L- 1. They increased with salinity along the Baltic Sea gradient and were linked to zooplankton biomass and phytoplankton community composition. Astaxanthin concentrations showed typical seasonal patterns and varied from 0.2 to 5.1 ng ind- 1, 0.2 to 3.4 ng (μg C)- 1 and 6 to 100 ng mm- 3. These concentrations were inversely related to water temperature and strongly linked to zooplankton community composition. Communities dominated by the calanoid copepods Temora longicornis, Pseudocalanus acuspes and Eurytemora spp. generally held the highest concentrations. With increasing cladocerans:copepods biomass ratios community astaxanthin concentrations decreased and with higher relative biomass of Acartia spp. the proportion of astaxanthin diesters decreased. Diesters prevailed in the cold season and they are thought to improve the antioxidant protection of storage lipids during winter. Climate change causes higher temperature and lower salinity in the Baltic Sea proper. This modifies zooplankton community composition, but not necessarily into a community with lower concentrations of astaxanthin since T. longicornis (high concentrations) has been reported to increase with higher temperature. However, decreased astaxanthin production in the ecosystem is expected if a basin-wide increase in the cladocerans:copepods biomass ratios would occur with further climate change.

  15. Predicate-argument structure as a link between linguistic and nonlinguistic representations.

    PubMed

    Canseco-Gonzalez, E; Shapiro, L P; Zurif, E B; Baker, E

    1990-10-01

    We present a study wherein a severe Broca's aphasic patient was trained to learn symbols representing both pure transitive and dative predicates--predicates differing in argument structure--in a visually based artificial language (c-ViC). We found a decrease in performance when two symbols, rather than one, were used to depict these "verbs." However, this decrease in performance was more pronounced for symbols representing pure transitive verbs--those that allow only one argument structure--than for symbols representing dative verbs--those that allow two different argument structures. Also, dative "verbs" yielded better performance when they were inserted in more complex, three-argument "sentences" than when they were inserted in two-argument "sentences." The opposite pattern was found for pure transitives. These results are discussed in terms of our claim that argument structure serves as a point of connection between linguistic information and non-linguistic visual information and in terms of the possibility that argument structure entries are shaped by the form in which visual information is parsed. PMID:2149523

  16. The impact of time on predicate forms in the manual modality: signers, homesigners, and silent gesturers.

    PubMed

    Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2015-01-01

    It is difficult to create spoken forms that can be understood on the spot. But the manual modality, in large part because of its iconic potential, allows us to construct forms that are immediately understood, thus requiring essentially no time to develop. This paper contrasts manual forms for actions produced over three time spans-by silent gesturers who are asked to invent gestures on the spot; by homesigners who have created gesture systems over their life spans; and by signers who have learned a conventional sign language from other signers-and finds that properties of the predicate differ across these time spans. Silent gesturers use location to establish co-reference in the way established sign languages do, but they show little evidence of the segmentation sign languages display in motion forms for manner and path, and little evidence of the finger complexity sign languages display in handshapes in predicates representing events. Homesigners, in contrast, not only use location to establish co-reference but also display segmentation in their motion forms for manner and path and finger complexity in their object handshapes, although they have not yet decreased finger complexity to the levels found in sign languages in their handling handshapes. The manual modality thus allows us to watch language as it grows, offering insight into factors that may have shaped and may continue to shape human language. PMID:25329421

  17. Energy and the environment in the Baltic Sea region: A study of cooperative action from the Estonian perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brauer, Alex P.

    Due to their geographic proximity and shared natural resources, cooperation on energy-related and environmental issues is particularly important for the nine countries surrounding the Baltic Sea. Currently, two projects are underway that have placed the level of cooperation within the region under the microscope: the environmental management work undertaken by the Helsinki Commission for the Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea Area (HELCOM) and the Nord Stream pipeline project, which, when completed, will provide the direct transportation of natural gas from Russia to Germany via the Baltic seafloor. Although both have been declared inclusive and decidedly Baltic ventures by some regional actors, reception of the cooperative efforts amongst the littoral Baltic countries has been markedly different. This study addresses these varying reactions by examining Estonia's participation in and subsequent perspectives on the HELCOM and Nord Stream projects. A theoretical framework grounded in the discipline of international relations is utilized to analyze Estonia's role in the projects and its position as a small state in a regional context. The primary areas of focus are how historical experiences and current levels of cooperation in the two endeavors have shaped Estonia's responses and, ultimately, its 'realist' perception of global politics. The study concludes that Estonia appears to have more substantive participation in HELCOM than in the Nord Stream project because of the tendency of states to securitize and, thus, prioritize the energy policy area over the environmental. Estonian foreign policy behavior, however, perpetuates the state-centric and power-centered policy processes that dominate the international political system.

  18. Pole tide in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedev, I. P.; Rabinovich, A. B.; Kulikov, E. A.

    2014-03-01

    The pole tide, which is driven by the Chandler Wobble, has a period of about 14 months and typical amplitudes in the World Ocean of ˜0.5 cm. However, in the Baltic Sea the pole tide is anomalously high. To examine this effect we used long-term hourly sea level records from 23 tide gauges and monthly records from 64 stations. The lengths of the series were up to 123 years for hourly records and 211 years for monthly records. High-resolution spectra revealed a cluster of neighboring peaks with periods from 410 to 440 days. The results of spectral analysis were applied to estimate the integral amplitudes of pole tides from all available tide gauges along the coast of the Baltic Sea. The height of the pole tide was found to gradually increase from the entrance (Danish Straits, 1.5-2 cm) to the northeast end of the sea. The largest amplitudes—up to 4.5-7 cm—were observed in the heads of the Gulf of Finland and the Gulf of Bothnia. Significant temporal fluctuations in amplitudes and periods of the pole tide were observed during the 19th and 20th centuries.

  19. Sustainable Phosphorus Loadings from Effective and Cost-Effective Phosphorus Management Around the Baltic Sea

    PubMed Central

    Bryhn, Andreas C.

    2009-01-01

    Nutrient over-enrichment of the Baltic Sea, accompanied by intensified algal blooms and decreasing water clarity, has aroused widespread concern in the surrounding countries during the last four decades. This work has used a well-tested dynamic mass-balance model to investigate which decrease in total phosphorus loading would be required to meet the environmental goal to restore the trophic state in the Baltic Sea to pre-1960s levels. Furthermore, the extent to which various abatement options may decrease the phosphorus loading in a cost-effective manner has been studied. Upgrading urban sewage treatment in the catchment could, alone or in combination with banning phosphates in detergents, be sufficient to meet the set environmental goal, at an estimated annual basin-wide cost of 0.21–0.43 billion euro. Such a plan would potentially decrease the total phosphorus loading to the Baltic Sea with 6,650–10,200 tonnes per year. PMID:19412551

  20. The hydrodynamic part of the 3D CEMBS model for the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzierzbicka-Glowacka, Lidia; Jakacki, Jaromir; Janecki, Maciej; Nowicki, Artur

    2013-04-01

    The paper presents a hydrodynamic part of the coupled ice-ocean model 3D CEMBS designed for the Baltic Sea. It is based on the Community Earth System Model (CESM from the National Center for Atmospheric Research). It was adopted for the Baltic Sea as a coupled sea-ice model. It consists of the Community Ice Code (CICE model, version 4.0) and the Parallel Ocean Program (version 2.1). The models are linked through the coupler (CPL7) based on the Model Coupling Toolkit library. The ocean model has 21 vertical levels and horizontal grid of 600x640 cells. Horizontal resolution is approximately 2km. It is forced by atmospheric fields from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts and in operational mode from 48-hour atmospheric forecasts provided by the UM model from the Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling of Warsaw University (ICM). The study was financially supported by the Polish State Committee of Scientific Research (grants: No N N305 111636, N N306 353239). The partial support for this study was also provided by the project Satellite Monitoring of the Baltic Sea Environment - SatBaltyk founded by European Union through European Regional Development Fund contract no. POIG 01.01.02-22-011/09. Calculations were carried out at the Academy Computer Centre in Gdansk.

  1. An Earth System Science Program for the Baltic Sea Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, H. E. M.; Rutgersson, A.; Reckermann, M.

    2014-04-01

    From Russia in the east to Sweden, Denmark, and Germany in the west, reaching south to the tips of the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Ukraine, the Baltic Sea watershed drains nearly 20% of Europe (see Figure 1). In the highly populated south, the temperate climate hosts intensive agriculture and industry. In the north, the landscape is boreal and rural. In the Baltic Sea itself, complex bathymetry and stratification patterns as well as extended hypoxic and anoxic deep waters add to the diversity. Yet in recent history, the differences across the Baltic Sea region have been more than physical: In the mid-20th century, the watershed was split in two.

  2. The history of sturgeon in the Baltic Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Popovic, Danijela; Panagiotopoulou, Hanna; Baca, Mateusz; Stefaniak, Krzysztof; Mackiewicz, Pawel; Makowiecki, Daniel; King, Tim L.; Gruchota, Jakub; Weglenski, Piotr; Stankovic, Anna

    2014-01-01

    For the past 2000 years at least, A. o. oxyrinchus has been the dominant sturgeon in the Baltic Sea, indicating a much earlier origin than previously suggested. The most similar extant sturgeon populations to the extinct Baltic stock are those from the St John and St Lawrence rivers in Canada. These populations should be considered the best source of breeding material for the ongoing sturgeon restitution programmes in Poland and Germany.

  3. Nutrient trends through time in Sweden's Baltic Drainage Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, I.; Destouni, G.; Prieto, C.

    2015-12-01

    Changes in climate and land-use have and will continue to modify regional hydrology, in turn impacting environmental health, agricultural productivity and water resource quality and availability. The Baltic region is an area of interest as the coast spans nine countries- serving over 100 million people. The Baltic Sea contains one of the largest human caused hypoxic dead zones due to eutrophication driven by anthropogenic excess loading of nutrients. Policies to reduce these loads include also international directives and agreements, such as the EU Water Framework Directive, adopted in 2000 to protect and improve water quality throughout the European Union, and the Baltic Sea Action Plan under the Helsinki Commission aimed specifically at reducing the nutrient loading to and mitigating the eutrophication of the Baltic Sea. In light of these policies and amidst the number of studies on the Baltic Sea we ask, using the accessible nutrient and discharge data what does nutrient loading look like today? Are the most excessive loads going down? Observed nutrient and flow time series across Sweden allow for answering these questions, by spatial and temporal trend analysis of loads from various parts of Sweden to the Baltic Sea. Analyzing these observed time series in conjunction with the ecological health status classifications of the EU Water Framework Directive, allows in particular for answering the question if the loads into the water bodies with the poorest water quality, and from those to the Baltic Sea, are improving, being maintained or deteriorating. Such insight is required to contribute to relevant and efficient water and nutrient load management. Furthermore, empirically calculating nutrient loads, rather than only modeling, reveals that the water body health classification may not reflect what water bodies actually contribute the heaviest loads to the Baltic Sea. This work also underscores the importance of comprehensive analysis of all available data from

  4. Automatic annotation of ICD-to-MedDRA mappings with SKOS predicates.

    PubMed

    Declerck, Gunnar; Souvignet, Julien; Rodrigues, Jean-Marie; Jaulent, Marie-Christine

    2014-01-01

    Robust alignments between ICD and MedDRA are essential to enable the secondary use of clinical data for pharmacovigilance research. UMLS makes available ICD-to-MedDRA mappings, but they are only poorly specified, which introduces difficulties when exploited in an automatic way. SKOS vocabulary can help achieve quality and machine-processable mappings. We have developed an algorithm based on several simple rules which annotates automatically ICD-to-MedDRA mappings with SKOS predicates. The method was tested and evaluated on a sample of ICD-10-to MedDRA mappings extracted from UMLS. The algorithm demonstrated satisfying performances, especially for skos:exactMatch properties, which suggests that automatic methods can be used to improve the quality of terminology mappings. PMID:25160341

  5. Synonym, Topic Model and Predicate-Based Query Expansion for Retrieving Clinical Documents

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Qing T.; Redd, Doug; Rindflesch, Thomas; Nebeker, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    We present a study that developed and tested three query expansion methods for the retrieval of clinical documents. Finding relevant documents in a large clinical data warehouse is a challenging task. To address this issue, first, we implemented a synonym expansion strategy that used a few selected vocabularies. Second, we trained a topic model on a large set of clinical documents, which was then used to identify related terms for query expansion. Third, we obtained related terms from a large predicate database derived from Medline abstracts for query expansion. The three expansion methods were tested on a set of clinical notes. All three methods successfully achieved higher average recalls and average F-measures when compared with the baseline method. The average precisions and precision at 10, however, decreased with all expansions. Amongst the three expansion methods, the topic model-based method performed the best in terms of recall and F-measure. PMID:23304381

  6. Horizontal Variation of Bacterioplankton in the Baltic Sea

    PubMed Central

    Heinänen, Anne; Kuparinen, Jorma

    1991-01-01

    Variations in the thymidine incorporation rate, bacterial abundance, and mean cell volumes in the surface water (0.5 m) of the Baltic Sea in spring and summer were compared in studies with different spatial scales (570 nautical miles [nmi] [ca. 1056 km], 220 nmi [ca. 407 km], 24 nmi [ca. 44 km], 12 nmi [ca. 22 km], and 200 m). The objective of the comparison was to investigate whether a single sample taken at one sampling point is representative enough for researchers to make generalizations about a larger water area. Bacterioplankton variation was connected more to seasonal characteristics than to the spatial scale of sampling. Variation was greater and more random in spring than in summer. The state variables (bacterial abundance and mean cell volume) varied less than the rate variable (thymidine incorporation). The results suggest that the sampling design for bacterioplankton studies in northern temperate seas should be planned primarily according to the season and that more stress should be put on rate variable measurements than on those of state variables. PMID:16348580

  7. Texaco scores a first in the Baltic

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-10-01

    Wells on the first of 2 small concrete platforms designed specifically for the fragile but harsh environment of the Baltic Sea will produce the first oil from that offshore area by late 1984. The consortium of Deutsche Texaco AG and Wintershall AG awarded contracts late last year for the platforms and drilling equipment needed to develop the Schwedeneck-See field in Kiel Bay, off the northern coast of West Germany. Severe winter weather in the area dictated the use of concrete platforms rather than conventional 6-pile steel structures. Ice forces, generated by high winds and moderate waves, demanded heavy-duty structures in spite of the shallow water. A complicating factor in the field development plan is the presence of a German Navy submarine practice area which influenced location of one of the platforms. This means that all wells will be directionally drilled, and the reach will be greater than under more favorable conditions.

  8. Changing seasonality of the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahru, Mati; Elmgren, Ragnar; Savchuk, Oleg P.

    2016-02-01

    Changes in the phenology of physical and ecological variables associated with climate change are likely to have significant effect on many aspects of the Baltic ecosystem. We apply a set of phenological indicators to multiple environmental variables measured by satellite sensors for 17-36 years to detect possible changes in the seasonality in the Baltic Sea environment. We detect significant temporal changes, such as earlier start of the summer season and prolongation of the productive season, in several variables ranging from basic physical drivers to ecological status indicators. While increasing trends in the absolute values of variables like sea-surface temperature (SST), diffuse attenuation of light (Ked490) and satellite-detected chlorophyll concentration (CHL) are detectable, the corresponding changes in their seasonal cycles are more dramatic. For example, the cumulative sum of 30 000 W m-2 of surface incoming shortwave irradiance (SIS) was reached 23 days earlier in 2014 compared to the beginning of the time series in 1983. The period of the year with SST of at least 17 °C has almost doubled (from 29 days in 1982 to 56 days in 2014), and the period with Ked490 over 0.4 m-1 has increased from about 60 days in 1998 to 240 days in 2013 - i.e., quadrupled. The period with satellite-estimated CHL of at least 3 mg m-3 has doubled from approximately 110 days in 1998 to 220 days in 2013. While the timing of both the phytoplankton spring and summer blooms have advanced, the annual CHL maximum that in the 1980s corresponded to the spring diatom bloom in May has now shifted to the summer cyanobacteria bloom in July.

  9. Changing seasonality of the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahru, M.; Elmgren, R.; Savchuk, O. P.

    2015-11-01

    Changes in the phenology of physical and ecological variables associated with climate change are likely to have significant effect on many aspects of the Baltic ecosystems. We apply a set of phenological indicators to multiple environmental variables measured by satellite sensors for 17-35 years to detect possible changes in the seasonality in the Baltic Sea environment. We detect significant temporal changes such as earlier start of the summer season and prolongation of the productive season in multiple variables ranging from basic physical drivers to ecological status indicators. While increasing trends in the absolute values of variables like sea-surface temperature (SST), diffuse attenuation of light (Ked490) and satellite-detected chlorophyll concentration (CHL) are detectable, the corresponding changes in their seasonal cycles are more dramatic. For example, the cumulative sum of 30 000 W m-2 of surface incoming shortwave irradiance (SIS) was reached 23 days earlier in 2014 compared to the beginning of the time series in 1983. The period of the year with SST of at least 17 °C has almost doubled (from 29 days in 1982 to 56 days in 2014), the period with Ked490 over 0.4 m-1 has increased from about 60 days in 1998 to 240 days in 2013, i.e. quadrupled. The period with satellite-detected CHL of at least 3 mg m-3 has doubled from approximately 110 days in 1998 to 220 days in 2013. While the timing of both the phytoplankton spring and summer blooms have advanced, the annual CHL maximum that in the 1980s corresponded to the spring diatom bloom in May has now switched to the summer cyanobacteria bloom in July.

  10. Pathways of deep cyclones associated with large volume changes (LVCs) and major Baltic inflows (MBIs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, Andreas; Höflich, Katharina; Post, Piia; Myrberg, Kai

    2016-04-01

    Large volume changes (LVCs) and major Baltic inflows (MBIs) are essential processes for the water exchange and renewal of the deep stagnant deep water in the Baltic Sea deep basins. MBIs are considered as subset of LVCs transporting with the large water volume a big amount of highly saline and oxygenated water into the Baltic Sea. Since the early 1980s the frequency of MBIs has dropped drastically from 5 to 7 events to only one inflow per decade, and long lasting periods without MBIs became the usual state. Only in January 1993, 2003 and December 2014 MBIs occurred that were able to interrupt the stagnation periods in the deep basins of the Baltic Sea. However, in spite of the decreasing frequency of MBIs, there is no obvious decrease of LVCs. Large volume changes have been calculated for the period 1887-2014 filtering daily time series of Landsort sea surface elevation anomalies. The Landsort sea level is known to reflect the mean sea level of the Baltic Sea very well. Thus, LVCs can be calculated from the mean sea level variations. The cases with local minimum and maximum difference resulting of at least 100 km³ of water volume change have been chosen for a closer study of characteristic pathways of deep cyclones. The average duration of a LVC is about 40 days. During this time, 5-6 deep cyclones will move along characteristic storm tracks. We obtained three main routes of deep cyclones which were associated with LVCs, but also with the climatology. One is approaching from the west at about 58-62°N, passing the northern North Sea, Oslo, Sweden and the Island of Gotland, while a second, less frequent one, is approaching from the west at about 65°N, crossing Scandinavia south-eastwards passing the Sea of Bothnia and entering Finland. A third very frequent one is entering the study area north of Scotland turning north-eastwards along the northern coast of Scandinavia. Thus, the conditions for a LVC to happen are a temporal clustering of deep cyclones in certain

  11. Recruitment processes in Baltic sprat - A re-evaluation of GLOBEC Germany hypotheses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voss, Rüdiger; Peck, Myron A.; Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald; Clemmesen, Catriona; Baumann, Hannes; Stepputtis, Daniel; Bernreuther, Matthias; Schmidt, Jörn O.; Temming, Axel; Köster, Fritz W.

    2012-12-01

    The GLOBEC Germany program (2002-2007) had the ambitious goal to resolve the processes impacting the recruitment dynamics of Baltic sprat (Sprattus sprattus L.) by examining various factors affecting early life history stages. At the start of the research program, a number of general recruitment hypotheses were formulated, i.e. focusing on (1) predation, (2) food availability, (3) physical parameters, (4) the impact of current systems, and finally (5) the importance of top-down vs bottom-up effects. The present study synthesizes the results of field sampling (2002 and 2003), laboratory experiments, and modeling studies to re-evaluate these hypotheses for the Baltic sprat stock. Recruitment success was quite different in the 2 years investigated. Despite a lower spawning stock biomass in 2003, the total number of recruits was almost 2-fold higher that year compared to 2002. The higher recruitment success in 2003 could be attributed to enhanced survival success during the post-larval/juvenile stage, a life phase that appears to be critical for recruitment dynamics. In the state of the Baltic ecosystem during the period of investigation, we consider bottom-up control (e.g. temperature, prey abundance) to be more important than top-down control (predation mortality). This ranking in importance does not vary seasonally. Prevailing water circulation patterns and the transport dynamics of larval cohorts have a strong influence on sprat recruitment success. Pronounced transport to coastal areas is detrimental for year-class strength particularly at high sprat stock sizes. A suggested mechanism is density-dependant regulation of survival via intra- and inter-specific competition for prey in coastal areas. A documented change in larval vertical migration behavior between the early 1990s and early 2000s increased the transport potential to the coast, strengthening the coupling between inter-annual differences in the magnitude and direction of wind-driven surface currents and

  12. Past occurrences of hypoxia in the Baltic Sea and the role of climate variability, environmental change and human impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zillén, Lovisa; Conley, Daniel J.; Andrén, Thomas; Andrén, Elinor; Björck, Svante

    2008-12-01

    The hypoxic zone in the Baltic Sea has increased in area about four times since 1960 and widespread oxygen deficiency has severely reduced macro benthic communities below the halocline in the Baltic Proper and the Gulf of Finland, which in turn has affected food chain dynamics, fish habitats and fisheries in the entire Baltic Sea. The cause of increased hypoxia is believed to be enhanced eutrophication through increased anthropogenic input of nutrients, such as nitrogen and phosphorus. However, the spatial variability of hypoxia on long time-scales is poorly known: and so are the driving mechanisms. We review the occurrence of hypoxia in modern time (last c. 50 years), modern historical time (AD 1950-1800) and during the more distant past (the last c. 10 000 years) and explore the role of climate variability, environmental change and human impact. We present a compilation of proxy records of hypoxia (laminated sediments) based on long sediment cores from the Baltic Sea. The cumulated results show that the deeper depressions of the Baltic Sea have experienced intermittent hypoxia during most of the Holocene and that regular laminations started to form c. 8500-7800 cal. yr BP ago, in association with the formation of a permanent halocline at the transition between the Early Littorina Sea and the Littorina Sea s. str. Laminated sediments were deposited during three main periods (i.e. between c. 8000-4000, 2000-800 cal. yr BP and subsequent to AD 1800) which overlap the Holocene Thermal Maximum (c. 9000-5000 cal. yr BP), the Medieval Warm Period (c. AD 750-1200) and the modern historical period (AD 1800 to present) and coincide with intervals of high surface salinity (at least during the Littorina s. str.) and high total organic carbon content. This study implies that there may be a correlation between climate variability in the past and the state of the marine environment, where milder and dryer periods with less freshwater run-off correspond to increased salinities

  13. The Baltic Basin Case Study—towards a sustainable Baltic Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansson, Bengt-Owe; Stålvant, Carl-Einar

    2001-12-01

    Four watersheds, each characterized by a major resource use were selected for the study: The Vistula River in Poland—agriculture; the Dalälven River in Sweden—forestry; the Archipelago Sea in Sweden, Finland, Estonia—tourism; and the Lake Peipsi in Estonia/Russia—fisheries/agriculture. The main objective was to examine the reactions of particular ecosystems within the Baltic Sea drainage area, and to assess sustainability conditions on the regional level. The degree of sustainability and impact on the Baltic Sea were investigated through workshops and seminars in the areas. Overviews of environmental and socio-economic conditions were succinctly summarized in commissioned papers. Interventions by and discussions with scholars, sector experts, administrators and stakeholders of the various sites laid the foundation for conceptualizing the interaction of natural and human forces for each case. The project was able to draw quite a number of conclusions, summarized as the following lessons learnt. In the Vistula Region, nutrient emissions have levelled off but shortage of freshwater is critical. Forestry in the Dalälven watershed is largely environmental-friendly, except for fragmentation of the landscape and its negative impact on biodiversity. In the Archipelago area a former low-energy community has been replaced by a leisure time society. Different types of tourism is developing, but despite this variety, an improved integration of ecological properties with socio-economic patterns is required in order to build a sustainable, living Archipelago. The lake Peipsi basin and the surrounding area suffer both from problems of resource management and economic backwardness. Parts of the local economy has lost access to the one time large Soviet market, although the Estonian side has apparently benefited from present economic growth. To cope with the division of the lake, a regime for trans-national management is unfolding. It is based on both informal and, to an

  14. Geometrical model of the Baltic artesian basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sennikovs, J.; Virbulis, J.; Bethers, U.

    2012-04-01

    Baltic artesian basin (BAB) is a multi-layer sedimentary basin spanning around 480'000 km2. BAB is located in the territory of Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia, parts of Poland, Russia, Belarus and large area of the Baltic Sea, including island of Gotland. The thickness of sedimentary cover is about 5000 m in the south-western part. Crystalline bedding reaches the surface in the northern and north-western parts. The aim of the present work is development of the model of geometric structure and three dimensional finite element mesh for the hydrogeological model of the whole BAB. The information that is used to build the geometrical structure includes: (1) Stratigraphic information from boreholes in Latvia and Estonia (2) Maps of height isolines of geological layers for Latvia and Lithuania (3) Maps of sub-quaternary deposits in Latvia and Lithuania (4) Maps of fault lines on the crystalline basement surface in Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia (5) Buried valley data from Latvia and Estonia (6) Earth topography data (7) Baltic sea depth data (8) Data from published geological cross-sections, information from books and other sources. Unification of the heterogeneous information from different sources, which are employed for building of the geometrical structure of the model are performed. Special algorithms are developed for this purpose considering the priority, importance and plausibility of each of the data sources. Pre-processing of the borehole information to screen out the outlying borehole data has been performed. Model of geological structure contains 42 layers. It includes aquifers and aquitards from Cambrian up to the Quaternary deposits. Fault displacements are incorporated into the model taking into account data from the published structural maps. Four reconstructed regional erosion surfaces (upper Ordovician, Devonian, Permian and Quaternary) are included into the model Three dimensional mesh of the geological structure is constructed layer-wise. The triangular

  15. What causes the barren bottoms of the Baltic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zillén, Lovisa; Conley, Daniel J.; Gustafsson, Bo G.

    2010-05-01

    One of the largest impacts on the Baltic Sea ecosystem health is eutrophication, which causes hypoxia (< 2mg/l dissolved oxygen). It is estimated that the hypoxic zone in the Baltic Sea has increased about four times in area since 1960 due to surplus loads of waterborne and airborne nutrients (N and P) from anthropogenic sources. Hypoxia has barren vast areas of the sea-floor, reduced the macrobenthic communities and disrupted benthic food webs in the whole Baltic basin. Hypoxia alters nutrient biogeochemical cycles; it increases the internal load of phosphorus released from sediments, which causes low nitrogen/phosphorus (N/P) ratios during summer - a factor that favors cyanobacterial blooms. Hypoxia in the Baltic Sea is not unique to the modern era. Based on a compilation of Baltic geological records Zillén et al., (2008) showed that the deeper depressions of the Baltic Proper have experienced intermittent hypoxia during most of the Holocene. Hypoxia occurred basin-wide, at water depths varying between 73-240 m during three major periods; i.e. between c. 8000-4000, 2000-800 cal. yr BP and subsequent to AD 1800. These periods overlap the Holocene Thermal Maximum HTM (c. 9000-5000 cal. yr BP), the Medieval Warm Period MWP (c. AD 750-1200) and the modern historical period (AD 1800 to present). In contrast, oxic bottom conditions were common between c. 7000-6000, c. 4000-2000 and c. 800-200 cal. yr BP. The latter period coincides with the Little Ice Age (LIA) and its characteristic server winters. Although we know that hypoxia has occurred in the past and probably co-varied with external forces, such as climate change and nutrient fluxes, the relative importance of these two forcing mechanisms is unresolved, which restricts predictions about the Baltic Sea ecosystem response to future climate and anthropogenic stressors. Most previous research suggests that there may be a correlation between the oxygen conditions in the Baltic Sea and climate variability in the past

  16. Benthic marine landscapes of the Eastern Gulf of Finland, the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaskela, Anu; Kotilainen, Aarno; Orlova, Marina; Ronkainen, Minna; Rousi, Heta; Ryabchuk, Daria

    2014-05-01

    Benthic marine landscapes are a combination of ecologically relevant hydrographical and geological datasets that characterize potential broad scale habitat distribution patterns with the overall aim to allocate conservation efforts on biodiversity and spaces instead of single species. At the best the benthic marine landscapes describe both the habitat distribution as well as the characteristics of the physical environment. This kind of spatial knowledge that informs both about geology and biology at the regional scale is very usable in ecosystem based management (ESBM) of marine areas. Here we will present the benthic marine landscapes of the Eastern Gulf of Finland at the scale of 1:500 000 and explain the analysis methods behind. The study area in the Eastern Gulf of Finland, the Baltic Sea, is a transboundary marine area shared by Finland and Russia. The HELCOM Baltic Sea Action Plan along with EU, Finnish and Russian legislation requires both countries to identify and assess the state of the marine environment in the Gulf of Finland. These appoint the need for shared knowledge on the marine environment, its state, physical characteristics and distribution of habitats among others. In order to produce ecologically relevant marine landscapes we have collected geological, hydrographical and biological data from the transboundary study area and studied their correlation. The statistical analyses have been run with Primer -software (BEST and LINKTREE). The study is a part of ENPI CBC funded Finnish-Russian co-operation project, the TOPCONS (http://www.merikotka.fi/topcons/). Project aims to develop innovative spatial tools for the regional planning of the sea areas in the Gulf of Finland, the Baltic Sea. The objective is to create methodology and tools to map the locations of the most diverse and sensitive marine landscapes. These will help the society when striving for the sustainable consolidation of human activities and the marine nature values. The TOPCONS is

  17. The regional geology and hydrocarbon potential of the Baltic Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Haselton, T.M. ); Brangulis, A.P.; Margulis, L.S. ); Kanev, S. )

    1991-08-01

    The Baltic Sea is roughly equivalent in size to the North Sea. Like the North Sea, is has an excellent oil prone source rock present over most of the area. In the entire Baltic Sea about 40 wells have been drilled. During the 1980s, exploration was carried out in the Soviet, Polish, and East German sectors of the Baltic Sea by Petrobaltic. Twenty-eight wells were drilled, 14 of which tested hydrocarbons. Two wells have been drilled in Danish waters and 11 in Swedish waters - all dry holes. Most of the Baltic Sea is included in the Baltic syneclise. In the deepest part of the basin a full Paleozoic and Mesozoic section is present. Major structural features are associated with reactivation of old basement faults. Most hydrocarbon discoveries are associated with structural arches. Exploration targets are Cambrian sandstones and Ordovician and Silurian reefs. The major discoveries are the B3 field in Poland and the D6 field offshore Lithuania and Kaliningrad, both of which have in-place reserves of around 100 million bbl. The Teisseyre-Tornquist line to the southwest represents the plate boundary between the East European platform and Europe. Repeated strike slip movements along this zone result in a complex pattern of extensional and compressional features in the Danish and German sectors. Primary exploration targets include Permian carbonates and sandstones as well as older zones. Gas has been tested in the German sector onshore.

  18. Parasitism at the ecosystem level in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Zander, C D; Reimer, L W

    2002-01-01

    The Baltic Sea is characterized by organisms that can tolerate brackish water. Because of the Sea's history during glacial times, its flora and fauna (and also their parasites) can be traced to marine, freshwater and genuine brackish elements beside glacial relics. Snails, planktonic copepods, benthic amphipods and isopods are important intermediate hosts of diverse helminths; in addition polychaetes, bivalves and fishes may also act as final hosts. The most important final hosts, beside fishes, were seals and birds; these were able to disperse the parasites over the whole of the Baltic. Decreasing salinity from west to east limits the distribution of many parasites. Several marine and genuine brackish water species have almost spread over the whole Baltic. Freshwater species, however, have a lower tolerance than marine species and are only rarely found in the western part. A serious problem in the Baltic is eutrophication which can lead to massive abundances of generalist parasites, in host populations as well as host individuals. The final stage of this influence can cause a general decrease of host abundance and, as a consequence, of all kinds of parasites, due to oxygen deficiency. In comparison with the species spectrum of other brackish waters in Europe, the Baltic presents some endemic parasites as well as sharing parasite species with the Mediterranean and even the Black Sea. PMID:12396220

  19. Infant mortality gap in the Baltic region - Latvia, Estonia, and Lithuania - in relation to macroeconomic factors in 1996-2010.

    PubMed

    Ebela, Inguna; Zile, Irisa; Ebela, Danute Razuka; Rozenfelde, Ingrida Rumba

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE. A constant gap has appeared in infant mortality among the 3 Baltic States - Latvia, Estonia, and Lithuania - since the restoration of independence in 1991. The aim of the study was to compare infant mortality rates in all the 3 Baltic countries and examine some of the macro- and socioeconomic factors associated with infant mortality. MATERIAL AND METHODS. The data were obtained from international databases, such as World Health Organization and EUROSTAT, and the national statistical databases of the Baltic States. The time series data sets (1996-2010) were used in the regression and correlation analysis. RESULTS. In all the 3 Baltic States, a strong and significant correlation was found: Latvia (r=-0.81, P<0.01), Lithuania (r=-0.93, P<0.01), and Estonia (r=-0.91, P<0.01). There was also a correlation between infant mortality and healthcare expenditure in local currency per capita: Latvia (r=-0.81, P<0.01); Lithuania (r=-0.90, P<0.01) and Estonia (r=-0.88, P<0.01). In Latvia (r=0.87, P<0.01) and Estonia (r=0.70; P<0.01), a significant correlation between infant mortality and unemployment levels was observed from 1996 to 2008, whereas the statistical significance disappeared in the period from 1996 to 2010. In Lithuania, the relationship was not significant. CONCLUSIONS. Higher infant mortality rates and a less stable decreasing tendency in Latvia are apparently explained by less successful adaptation to a new political and economic situation and limited skills in adjusting the healthcare system to the reality of life. PMID:24709788

  20. Analyses and Validation of Conditional Dependencies with Built-in Predicates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wenguang; Fan, Wenfei; Ma, Shuai

    This paper proposes a natural extension of conditional functional dependencies ( cfds [14]) and conditional inclusion dependencies ( cinds [8]), denoted by cfd p s and cind p s, respectively, by specifying patterns of data values with ≠, <, ≤, > and ≥ predicates. As data quality rules, cfd p s and cind p s are able to capture errors that commonly arise in practice but cannot be detected by cfds and cinds. We establish two sets of results for central technical problems associated with cfd p s and cind p s. (a) One concerns the satisfiability and implication problems for cfd p s and cind p s, taken separately or together. These are important for, e.g., deciding whether data quality rules are dirty themselves, and for removing redundant rules. We show that despite the increased expressive power, the static analyses of cfd p s and cind p s retain the same complexity as their cfds and cinds counterparts. (b) The other concerns validation of cfd p s and cind p s. We show that given a set Σ of cfd p s and cind p s on a database D, a set of sql queries can be automatically generated that, when evaluated against D, return all tuples in D that violate some dependencies in Σ. This provides commercial dbms with an immediate capability to detect errors based on cfd p s and cind p s.

  1. Distribution of diatoms and development of diatom-based models for inferring salinity and nutrient concentrations in the southern Baltic coastal lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rzodkiewicz, Monika; Szpikowska, Grażyna; Woszczyk, Michał; Suchińska, Anita; Staszak-Piekarska, Agata; Piekarski, Paweł; Burchardt, Lubomira; Messyasz, Beata

    2015-04-01

    The transfer function method has been developed as a useful tool for reconstruction of the past environmental changes. It is based on the assumption that the modern species, which ecological requirements are known, can be used to quantitative reconstructions of the past changes. The aim of the study was to gather test sets and to build diatom-based transfer function which can be used to reconstruct changes in the trophic state and salinity in the coastal lakes on the Polish Baltic coast. In the previous years there were several attempts made to reconstruct these parameters in lagoonal waters on the Baltic coasts in Germany, Denmark, Finland, Netherland, Sweden and Norway. But so far there is no diatom test set and transfer function built for the Polish coastal lakes. We sampled diatoms from 12 lakes located along the polish Baltic coast. At the same time we monitor the physical-chemical conditions in the lakes, which includes: lake water chemical composition (chlorides, phosphorous and sulphur), pH, salinity, conductivity, temperature, dissolved oxygen. We collected samples, few times per year (2012-2014) from the lakes as well as from the Baltic Sea and we analysed the whole phytoplankton composition. However the special focus in put on diatoms. In this poster we present new data from the Southern Baltic coastal lakes and quantify relationships between surface sediment diatom assemblages and present day environmental conditions. These relationships are then used to develop diatom-based transfer functions that will be applied to future studies of environmental change on the Polish Baltic coast. The results of the analysis show seasonal changes in the chemical and physical water properties. The diatom assemblage composition and species frequency also changed significantly. This study is a contribution to the projects: NN 306 064 640 financed by National Science Centre, Poland. The research was supported by Virtual Institute ICLEA (Integrated Climate and Landscape

  2. Response of the Baltic and North Seas to river runoff from the Baltic watershed - Physical and biological changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hänninen, Jari; Vuorinen, Ilppo; Rajasilta, Marjut; Reid, Philip C.

    2015-11-01

    Selected Baltic Sea watershed River Runoff (BSRR) events during 1970-2000 were used as predictor in Generalised Linear Mixed Models (GLIMMIX) for evidence of simultaneous changes/chain of events (including possible time lags) in some chemical, physical and biological variables in the Baltic and North Sea ecosystems. Our aim was to explore for climatic-based explanation for ecological regime shifts that were documented semi-simultaneously in both ecosystems. Certain similarities were identified in the North Sea and the Baltic Sea salinity, oxygen concentration, temperature and phyto- and zooplankton parameters. These findings suggest that BSRR events which originate in the Baltic Sea catchment area modify and contribute to large scale ecosystem changes not only in the Baltic Sea, but also in the adjacent parts of the North Sea. However, the Baltic Sea inter-annual and inter-decadal variabilities of physical and biological parameters are driven by direct atmospheric forcing, typically with a relatively short lag. In contrast, such changes in the North Sea are influenced by both local and direct atmospheric forcing, typically with a longer lag than in the Baltic, and a more regional, indirect forcing from changes in the North Atlantic. We suggest that this interactive system partially is behind large scale ecosystem regime shifts found in both Seas. During our study period two such shifts have been identified independently from us in a study earlier in the Southern and Central Baltic in 1980s and 1990s and a later one in 2001/2002 in the North Sea. As a post hoc test we compared the 0+ year class strength of the North Sea herring with BSRR intensity, and found evidence for higher herring production in high BSRR periods, which further corroborates the idea of a remote effect from the large watershed area of the Baltic. Regime shifts as well as their semi-synchronous appearance in two neighbouring sea areas could be identified. GLIMMIX models provide opportunities for

  3. The acoustics of carved Baltic psaltery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peekna, Andres; Rossing, Thomas

    2001-05-01

    The Baltic psaltery family of plucked string instruments includes the kantele (Finland), the kannel (Estonia), the kokle (Latvia), the kankles (Lithuania), and the wing-shaped gusli (Northwestern Russia). In its archaic, carved form, it has a limited range, 5-13 strings, usually tuned diatonically. By means of electronic TV holography, we studied the modes of vibration of several psalteries based on historic instruments. On the better instruments, the main body resonances are well distributed in frequency so that they support the various strings. Good string-to-soundbox coupling also appears to play a role. A useful method for studying string-to-soundbox coupling involves scanning at intervals as low as 0.1 Hz for narrow peaks within the nominal tuning range of the strings, and comparing them to their neighboring body resonances, while using electronic TV holography. Predictions of the Helmholtz resonance from sound-hole dimensions and air-cavity volume while neglecting damping in the sound holes yield upper limits when many small sound holes are involved. The locations of the sound holes, as well as their area, are found to have significant effects on sound quality and volume.

  4. Paleozoic oil and gas complexes of the Baltic syneclise

    SciTech Connect

    Geodekyan, A.A.; Dubovskoy, I.T.; Kleshchev, K.A.; Mazur, V.B.; Ostrovskiy, M.I.; Sakalavskas, K.A.

    1981-10-01

    Principal directions for exploration of new commercial accumulations of oil and gas in the main Paleozoic prospective complexes in the Baltic syneclise, including its sea portion, have been based on an analysis of the lithologic-facies composition, structural features, attitude of the rocks, and the distribution of the reservoir horizons and possible different types of traps. The promise of the deep parts of the southeastern Baltic Sea region, where a large number of local uplifts have been identified, and traps of nonanticlinal and combined types have been recorded, is emphasized where the principal focus for the generation of oil hydrocarbons inthe Baltic syneclise is located. As compared with the land area, it is suggested that there is an increase in the supply stock and the capacity parameters of the traps and an improvement in the conditions of preservation of petroleum accumulations here.

  5. Projected habitat loss for Atlantic herring in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Illing, Björn; Moyano, Marta; Hufnagl, Marc; Peck, Myron A

    2016-02-01

    Projected, climate-driven changes in rainfall patterns are expected to alter the salinity (S) of estuaries and larger brackish water bodies, such as the Baltic Sea. Some marine fish larvae are potentially more sensitive to low salinity than older stages, hence we compared the low salinity tolerance of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) larvae at the individual and population levels including four populations in the North and Baltic Seas. Acute low salinity tolerance was similar (S = 1.9-2.7) across populations and increased with increasing body size. Based on this physiological threshold and a regionally down-scaled climate model, spawning habitats in the northern and eastern Baltic Sea are projected to be largely unsuitable for herring by 2100. Although adaptive mechanisms may attenuate the effect in some species, the limited physiological tolerance of fish larvae will remain an important bottleneck for the persistence of marine fish populations in brackish waters undergoing climate-driven freshening. PMID:26724744

  6. Nitrogen surface water retention in the Baltic Sea drainage basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stålnacke, P.; Pengerud, A.; Vassiljev, A.; Smedberg, E.; Mörth, C.-M.; Hägg, H. E.; Humborg, C.; Andersen, H. E.

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we estimate the surface water retention of nitrogen (N) in all the 117 drainage basins to the Baltic Sea with the use of a statistical model (MESAW) for source apportionment of riverine loads of pollutants. Our results show that the MESAW model was able to estimate the N load at the river mouth of 88 Baltic Sea rivers, for which we had observed data, with a sufficient degree of precision and accuracy. The estimated retention parameters were also statistically significant. Our results show that around 380 000 t of N are annually retained in surface waters draining to the Baltic Sea. The total annual riverine load from the 117 basins to the Baltic Sea was estimated at 570 000 t of N, giving a total surface water N retention of around 40%. In terms of absolute retention values, three major river basins account for 50% of the total retention in the 117 basins; i.e. around 104 000 t of N are retained in Neva, 55 000 t in Vistula and 32 000 t in Oder. The largest retention was found in river basins with a high percentage of lakes as indicated by a strong relationship between N retention (%) and share of lake area in the river drainage areas. For example in Göta älv, we estimated a total N retention of 72%, whereof 67% of the retention occurred in the lakes of that drainage area (Lake Vänern primarily). The obtained results will hopefully enable the Helsinki Commission (HELCOM) to refine the nutrient load targets in the Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP), as well as to better identify cost-efficient measures to reduce nutrient loadings to the Baltic Sea.

  7. Mercury in particulate matter over Polish zone of the southern Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beldowska, M.; Saniewska, D.; Falkowska, L.; Lewandowska, A.

    2012-01-01

    Important Hg transformations can occur at the air-water interface where polluted terrestrial air masses meet humid, halogen-rich marine air masses over the southern Baltic Sea. These chemical and physical processes include gas-to-particle conversion that led to an increase of Hg associated with coarse particles, which due to higher dry deposition rates, enhanced local scale deposition and limited the transport of this toxic trace metal. Daily (24 h) sampling of size-segregated atmospheric particles revealed the sea to be a sink for Hg during winter months and as a source of Hg during summer months. Poland is one of the major Hg emitters among the Baltic States according to International HELCOM Reports. Thus, important measurements in this region were conducted over a one-year period from December 18, 2007 to December 15, 2008. The range in concentrations of Hg in particulate matter (2-142 pg m -3) at the Polish site are comparable to other measurements at sites along the coastal areas of the Baltic Sea. Annual Hg(p) represents 1% of the total atmospheric Hg (Hg TOT) under unpolluted or background ambient conditions. A major source of atmospheric Hg in this area is the combustion of fossil fuels, especially coal burning used for home heating. This was clearly seen in the statistically higher mean concentration of 24 pg m -3 observed during the heating season compared to the 15 pg m -3 measured during the non-heating season. Construction activities e.g., cement manufacturing, gravel extraction, and waste incineration during the warm season strongly influenced Hg concentrations and led to an increase in Hg(p) on working days compared to weekend days.

  8. Echoes from the past: a healthy Baltic Sea requires more effort.

    PubMed

    Kotilainen, Aarno T; Arppe, Laura; Dobosz, Slawomir; Jansen, Eystein; Kabel, Karoline; Karhu, Juha; Kotilainen, Mia M; Kuijpers, Antoon; Lougheed, Bryan C; Meier, H E Markus; Moros, Matthias; Neumann, Thomas; Porsche, Christian; Poulsen, Niels; Rasmussen, Peter; Ribeiro, Sofia; Risebrobakken, Bjørg; Ryabchuk, Daria; Schimanke, Semjon; Snowball, Ian; Spiridonov, Mikhail; Virtasalo, Joonas J; Weckström, Kaarina; Witkowski, Andrzej; Zhamoida, Vladimir

    2014-02-01

    Integrated sediment multiproxy studies and modeling were used to reconstruct past changes in the Baltic Sea ecosystem. Results of natural changes over the past 6000 years in the Baltic Sea ecosystem suggest that forecasted climate warming might enhance environmental problems of the Baltic Sea. Integrated modeling and sediment proxy studies reveal increased sea surface temperatures and expanded seafloor anoxia (in deep basins) during earlier natural warm climate phases, such as the Medieval Climate Anomaly. Under future IPCC scenarios of global warming, there is likely no improvement of bottom water conditions in the Baltic Sea. Thus, the measures already designed to produce a healthier Baltic Sea are insufficient in the long term. The interactions between climate change and anthropogenic impacts on the Baltic Sea should be considered in management, implementation of policy strategies in the Baltic Sea environmental issues, and adaptation to future climate change. PMID:24414805

  9. Differential bilateral involvement of the parietal gyrus during predicative metaphor processing: an auditory fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Obert, Alexandre; Gierski, Fabien; Calmus, Arnaud; Portefaix, Christophe; Declercq, Christelle; Pierot, Laurent; Caillies, Stéphanie

    2014-10-01

    Despite the growing literature on figurative language processing, there is still debate as to which cognitive processes and neural bases are involved. Furthermore, most studies have focused on nominal metaphor processing without any context, and very few have used auditory presentation. We therefore investigated the neural bases of the comprehension of predicative metaphors presented in a brief context, in an auditory, ecological way. The comprehension of their literal counterparts served as a control condition. We also investigated the link between working memory and verbal skills and regional activation. Comparisons of metaphorical and literal conditions revealed bilateral activation of parietal areas including the left angular (lAG) and right inferior parietal gyri (rIPG) and right precuneus. Only verbal skills were associated with lAG (but not rIPG) activation. These results indicated that predicative metaphor comprehension share common activations with other metaphors. Furthermore, individual verbal skills could have an impact on figurative language processing. PMID:25193417

  10. Integrated ecological assessment of Danish Baltic Sea coastal areas by means of phytoplankton and macrophytobenthos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagert, Sigrid; Krause Jensen, Dorte; Henriksen, Peter; Rieling, Thorsten; Schubert, Hendrik

    2005-04-01

    The Water Framework Directive (WFD) demands an integrated assessment of ecological quality based on biological parameters. In this context combined macrophytobenthos and phytoplankton data sets along the Danish Baltic Sea coast were analysed for similarities and differences in their response to abiotic variables. Zostera marina's depth limits showed a significantly negative correlation with concentrations of total-nitrogen, total phosphorus and chlorophyll a as well as with Myrionecta rubra biomass and a strongly positive correlation with Secchi depth. The results documented that selected phytobenthos and phytoplankton indicators show correlated responses to water quality. All biotic and abiotic parameters clustered in two groups, indicating two trophic states but, at the same time, also two distinct salinity classes. One class was characterised by low nutrient levels and low salinity while the other class was characterised by high nutrient levels and high salinity, indicating that the mixing of relatively nutrient poor brackish Baltic water with more nutrient rich North Sea water overruled traditional estuarine gradients in the investigated area. The results therefore allow an analysis of the eutrophication state regarding the additional influence of decreased salinity on euryhaline marine species. The consequences of the results are discussed in relation to classification systems for brackish water ecosystems.

  11. Investigating the influence of sea level oscillations in the Danish Straits on the Baltic Sea dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhonova, Natalia; Gusev, Anatoly; Diansky, Nikolay; Zakharchuk, Evgeny

    2016-04-01

    related to the distance between the measurement point and open boundary. For example, in the Gulfs of Finland and Riga, the 36hr harmonic has an amplitude substantially higher than in the open sea, and in the Stockholm area, this harmonic is at the noise level. The 40dy and 121dy harmonics have slightly lower amplitudes than the original prescribed signal, but they are almost unchanged while propagating further into the sea, and in all the investigated locations have almost identical peaks of spectral density. The 3dy and 6dy harmonics significantly lost their amplitude in all parts of the sea, and spectral density peaks are at the noise level. The simulation results showed us that the Danish straits do not filter 121dy and 40dy oscillations, and their amplitude does not decrease much. The 13dy, 6dy and 3dy oscillations significantly lose in amplitude and have no significant peaks of the spectral density. The 1.5dy harmonic propagates to the Gulfs of Finland and Riga, and increases in amplitude due to resonance at the natural frequency of the basin. It is suggested that, while Danish straits do not filter or transform frequency characteristics of oscillations propagated from the North Sea, but the Baltic Sea configuration may affect the magnitude and propagation extent of these oscillations. Thus, the fluctuations in the North Sea and the Danish Straits can significantly contribute to the Baltic Sea dynamics in the low-frequency range of the spectrum, and the periods of natural oscillations of the basin. The research was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grant № 16-05-00534) and Saint-Petersburg State University (grant №18.37.140.2014)

  12. Analysing water level trends and extremes in the Baltic Sea for the period 1950-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gräwe, Ulf; Klingbeil, Knut

    2016-04-01

    The General Estuarine Transport Model (GETM) was applied to create a state estimate of the Baltic Sea for the period 1950-2015 with a horizontal resolution of 1 nautical mile . In the vertical 60 terrain-following layers were used, which during runtime automatically adapt to the highly variable stratification. This is associated with sporadicly inflowing bottom gravity currents of saline North Sea water, the seasonal thermocline and internal wave motions at the permanent halocline. These challenges need to be tackled by a model to correctly reproduce the mixing and entrainment of water masses in the Baltic Sea. The atmospheric forcing was taken from a regional reanalysis with a spatial resolution of less than 20 km and hourly values. The analysis of the sea surface height (SSH) revealed a non-uniform absolute mean sea level (MSL) rise in the Baltic Sea. Lowest values are found in the western part with 1.4mm/year and highest values in the Gulf of Finland with values of 2.2 mm/year. This spatial heterogeneity is partially explained by an increase in the mean zonal winds but also by changes in air pressure. The warming trend of the sea surface temperature adds to the regional increase in SSH. Analysing water level extremes, the simulations indicate a much faster rise in annual maximum SSH compared to MSL rise. This is well correlated with an increase in the annual maximum wind speed. The linear trends in annual maximum SSH are 2 mm/year in the western Baltic Sea and reach peak values of 6 mm/year in the Gulf of Finland. For the trends in annual minimum SSH we do not see any trend different from MSL rise. As a further measure to quantify changes in extreme water levels, we computed the duration and intensity (duration times excess water height over 99 percentile). Whereas the mean duration does not change significantly, the model results indicate a significant increase in intensity. To estimate the robustness of the results, their sensitivity to the atmospheric forcing

  13. Sulfidization of lacustrine glacial clay upon Holocene marine transgression (Arkona Basin, Baltic Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmkvist, Lars; Kamyshny, Alexey; Brüchert, Volker; Ferdelman, Timothy G.; Jørgensen, Bo Barker

    2014-10-01

    Towards the end of the last deglaciation more than 13,500 years ago the southern Baltic Sea was a freshwater lake, the Baltic Ice Lake, for several thousand years during which iron-rich, organic-poor clay was deposited. The modern brackish-marine stage started about 8600 years ago with the deposition of organic-rich mud, which is today characterized by high rates of sulfate reduction and high concentrations of free sulfide. We studied the iron-sulfur diagenesis in gravity cores from the Arkona Basin, SW Baltic Sea, to track the progressing sulfidization front in the buried Ice Lake sediment. The geochemical zonation was unusual as the sulfate concentration dropped steeply by two thirds below which it increased again due to a deep sulfate reservoir. The reservoir had been established during the early Holocene marine period as sulfate and other seawater ions diffused down into the lake sediment for several thousand years. Sulfur isotope analyses confirmed its origin as seawater sulfate, while its oxygen isotope composition indicated a microbially catalyzed equilibration with ambient interstitial water, decoupled from net sulfate reduction. Today, hydrogen sulfide diffuses from the marine mud down into the lake sediment where a black band with high magnetic susceptibility and high iron monosulfide, greigite and elemental sulfur content shows progressing sulfidization of the large pool of solid-phase reactive iron. Dissolved iron from the deep Ice Lake sediment diffuses up to the sulfide front and provides a small supplement to the solid Fe(III) pool as a sulfide sink. Pyrite formation at the sulfidization front may involve surface-bound zero-valent sulfur while, above the front, polysulfides are in equilibrium with the system hydrogen sulfide - polysulfide - rhombic sulfur and may not be important for further pyrite formation. The Holocene iron-sulfur diagenesis observed in the Arkona Basin represents an important transitional state for post-glacial transgressions

  14. Concentrations and profiles of PCDD/Fs in sediments of major Polish rivers and the Gdansk Basin--Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Niemirycz, Elżbieta; Jankowska, Daria

    2011-10-01

    The present state of contamination of bottom sediments in southern part of the Baltic Sea with PCDD/Fs was compared to the findings made for the north-western and eastern Baltic Sea coastal areas of Finland, Sweden and Denmark. The extent of the study area--from marine the Gdańsk Basin, the lower Oder and Vistula Rivers up till Włocławek reservoir--allowed to obtain the sediment samples with diversified properties. Dioxin's concentrations in sediments examined in the Polish costal area allows us to evaluate this zone as relatively less contaminated. Higher dioxin concentration has been found in Wloclawek Dam Reservoir. Differences in congener patterns and temporal changes in marine sediment profiles were examined. The highest concentrations of tetra- and penta-congeners still remain in the surface layer of Gdansk Deep, whereas the decline in concentrations of these most toxic congeners, have been observed in the sediments from some other parts of the Baltic coast. Excess concentration of dioxins in sediments has a great impact on human being due to special ability of accumulation in the trophic chain as well as in water (fishes) and land (milk, meat). PMID:21917292

  15. Organic compounds in the water column of the eastern Baltic

    SciTech Connect

    Nemirovskaya, I.A.; Nesterova, M.P.; Pustel'nikov, O.S.

    1987-11-01

    This article describes the transport, distribution, concentration, chemistry, environmental consequences, and chemical control strategies of organic wastes--including waste hydrocarbons, industrial effluents and oil spills--in the Baltic Sea and in the regions along its shorelines. Data on seasonal and compositional variations in organic waste content are provided.

  16. Breaker zone aerosol dynamics in the southern Baltic Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Zielinski, T.; Zielinski, A.

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents the results of lidar based investigations of aerosol concentrations and their size distributions over the breaker zones. The measurements were carried out under various weather conditions over breaker zones of the Gulf of Gdansk (1992) and from a station on the open Baltic Sea (International Experiment BAEX in 1993).

  17. Bird's nest fungi (Nidulariales: Nidulariaceae) in Baltic and Dominican amber.

    PubMed

    Poinar, George

    2014-03-01

    Nidula baltica sp. nov. and Cyathus dominicanus sp. nov. are described from Cenozoic Baltic and Dominican amber. These are the first fossil members of the Family Nidulariaceae and show that the basic characteristics of this group were already established some 40-50 million years ago. PMID:24607356

  18. Clustering in Engineering Education in the Baltic Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahrens, Andreas; Zascerinska, Jelena

    2011-01-01

    The contemporary situation in the Baltic region, namely, the lack of working places due to the structural problems, a high unemployment rate, the migration of highly qualified people and the low rate of self-employees, demands on innovation as an engine of the economic development with a strong impact on sustainable development in the European…

  19. IODP expedition 347: Baltic Sea basin paleoenvironment and biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrén, T.; Barker Jørgensen, B.; Cotterill, C.; Green, S.; IODP expedition 347 scientific party, the

    2015-12-01

    The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) expedition 347 cored sediments from different settings of the Baltic Sea covering the last glacial-interglacial cycle. The main aim was to study the geological development of the Baltic Sea in relation to the extreme climate variability of the region with changing ice cover and major shifts in temperature, salinity, and biological communities. Using the Greatship Manisha as a European Consortium for Ocean Research Drilling (ECORD) mission-specific platform, we recovered 1.6 km of core from nine sites of which four were additionally cored for microbiology. The sites covered the gateway to the North Sea and Atlantic Ocean, several sub-basins in the southern Baltic Sea, a deep basin in the central Baltic Sea, and a river estuary in the north. The waxing and waning of the Scandinavian ice sheet has profoundly affected the Baltic Sea sediments. During the Weichselian, progressing glaciers reshaped the submarine landscape and displaced sedimentary deposits from earlier Quaternary time. As the glaciers retreated they left a complex pattern of till, sand, and lacustrine clay, which in the basins has since been covered by a thick deposit of Holocene, organic-rich clay. Due to the stratified water column of the brackish Baltic Sea and the recurrent and widespread anoxia, the deeper basins harbor laminated sediments that provide a unique opportunity for high-resolution chronological studies. The Baltic Sea is a eutrophic intra-continental sea that is strongly impacted by terrestrial runoff and nutrient fluxes. The Holocene deposits are recorded today to be up to 50 m deep and geochemically affected by diagenetic alterations driven by organic matter degradation. Many of the cored sequences were highly supersaturated with respect to methane, which caused strong degassing upon core recovery. The depth distributions of conservative sea water ions still reflected the transition at the end of the last glaciation from fresh-water clays to

  20. Detection of Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in the Baltic Countries and St. Petersburg Area

    PubMed Central

    Pavelkovich, Anastasia; Balode, Arta; Edquist, Petra; Egorova, Svetlana; Ivanova, Marina; Kaftyreva, Lidia; Konovalenko, Irina; Kõljalg, Siiri; Lillo, Jana; Lipskaya, Lidia; Parv, Kristel; Pärna, Katri; Rööp, Tiiu; Sepp, Epp; Štšepetova, Jelena; Naaber, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae is a global problem; however, no exact data on the epidemiology of carbapenemase in the Baltic countries and St. Petersburg area is available. We aimed to evaluate the epidemiology of carbapenemase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in the Baltic States and St. Petersburg, Russia, and to compare the different methods for carbapenemase detection. From January to May 2012, all K. pneumoniae (n = 1983) and E. coli (n = 7774) clinical isolates from 20 institutions in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and St. Petersburg, Russia were screened for carbapenem susceptibility. The IMP, VIM, GIM, NDM, KPC, and OXA-48 genes were detected using real-time PCR and the ability to hydrolyze ertapenem was determined using MALDI-TOF MS. Seventy-seven strains were found to be carbapenem nonsusceptible. From these, 15 K. pneumoniae strains hydrolyzed ertapenem and carried the blaNDM gene. All of these strains carried integron 1 and most carried integron 3 as well as genes of the CTX-M-1 group. No carbapenemase-producing E. coli or K. pneumoniae strains were found in Estonia, Latvia, or Lithuania; however, NDM-positive K. pneumoniae was present in the hospital in St. Petersburg, Russia. A MALDI-TOF MS-based assay is a suitable and cost-effective method for the initial confirmation of carbapenemase production. PMID:24724086

  1. Redox processes as revealed by voltammetry in the surface sediments of the Gotland Basin, Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yücel, Mustafa; Dale, Andy; Sommer, Stefan; Pfannkuche, Olaf

    2014-05-01

    Sulfur cycling in marine sediments undergoes dramatic changes with changing redox conditions of the overlying waters. The upper sediments of the anoxic Gotland Basin, central Baltic Sea represent a dynamic redox environment with extensive mats of sulfide oxidizing bacteria covering the seafloor beneath the chemocline. In order to investigate sulfur redox cycling at the sediment-water interface, sediment cores were sampled over a transect covering 65 - 174 m water depth in August-September 2013. High resolution (0.25 mm minimum) vertical microprofiles of electroactive redox species including dissolved sulfide and iron were obtained with solid state Au-Hg voltammetric microelectrodes. This approach enabled a fine-scale comparison of porewater profiles across the basin. The steepest sulfide gradients (i.e. the highest sulfide consumption) occurred within the upper 10 mm in sediments covered by surficial mats (2.10 to 3.08 mmol m-2 day-1). In sediments under permanently anoxic waters (>140m), voltammetric signals for Fe(II) and aqueous FeS were detected below a subsurface maximum in dissolved sulfide, indicating a Fe flux originating from older, deeper sedimentary layers. Our results point to a unique sulfur cycling in the Gotland basin seafloor where sulfide accumulation is moderated by sulfide oxidation at the sediment surface and by FeS precipitation in deeper sediment layers. These processes may play an important role in minimizing benthic sulfide fluxes to bottom waters around the major basins of the Baltic Sea.

  2. Detection of carbapenemase-producing enterobacteriaceae in the baltic countries and st. Petersburg area.

    PubMed

    Pavelkovich, Anastasia; Balode, Arta; Edquist, Petra; Egorova, Svetlana; Ivanova, Marina; Kaftyreva, Lidia; Konovalenko, Irina; Kõljalg, Siiri; Lillo, Jana; Lipskaya, Lidia; Miciuleviciene, Jolanta; Pai, Kristiine; Parv, Kristel; Pärna, Katri; Rööp, Tiiu; Sepp, Epp; Stšepetova, Jelena; Naaber, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae is a global problem; however, no exact data on the epidemiology of carbapenemase in the Baltic countries and St. Petersburg area is available. We aimed to evaluate the epidemiology of carbapenemase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in the Baltic States and St. Petersburg, Russia, and to compare the different methods for carbapenemase detection. From January to May 2012, all K. pneumoniae (n = 1983) and E. coli (n = 7774) clinical isolates from 20 institutions in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and St. Petersburg, Russia were screened for carbapenem susceptibility. The IMP, VIM, GIM, NDM, KPC, and OXA-48 genes were detected using real-time PCR and the ability to hydrolyze ertapenem was determined using MALDI-TOF MS. Seventy-seven strains were found to be carbapenem nonsusceptible. From these, 15 K. pneumoniae strains hydrolyzed ertapenem and carried the bla NDM gene. All of these strains carried integron 1 and most carried integron 3 as well as genes of the CTX-M-1 group. No carbapenemase-producing E. coli or K. pneumoniae strains were found in Estonia, Latvia, or Lithuania; however, NDM-positive K. pneumoniae was present in the hospital in St. Petersburg, Russia. A MALDI-TOF MS-based assay is a suitable and cost-effective method for the initial confirmation of carbapenemase production. PMID:24724086

  3. Postglacial paleoceanographic environments in the Barents and Baltic seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, E. V.; Murdmaa, I. O.; Emelyanov, E. M.; Seitkalieva, E. A.; Radionova, E. P.; Alekhina, G. N.; Sloistov, S. M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents reconstructions of ice sheet boundaries, lacustrine and marine paleobasins, as well as the connections of the Barents and Baltic seas with the North Atlantic from the Last Glacial Maximum to the Holocene. The reconstructions are based on original and published data obtained from the northern and western parts of the Barents Sea and Baltic depressions with account for the available regional schematic maps of deglaciation. The early deglaciation of the Scandinavian-Barents ice sheet culminated with the Bølling-Allerød interstadial (14.5-12.9 cal ka BP), which was characterized by a more vigorous Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) and a corresponding increase in surface Atlantic water inflow into the Barents Sea through deep troughs. The Baltic Ice Lake (BIL) remained a dammed-up isolated basin during deglaciation from 16.0 to 11.7 cal ka BP. In the Younger Dryas (YD), the lake drained into the North Sea and was replaced by a brackish Yoldia Sea (YS) at the beginning of the Holocene (Preboreal, 11.7-10.7 cal ka BP), due to a limited connection between two basins through the Närke Strait. In the Barents Sea, the next increase in the Atlantic water influx into the deep basins corresponded to terminal YD and Preboreal events with a culmination in the Early Holocene. The Yoldia Sea became a lake again during the next stage, the Ancylus (~10.7-8.8 cal ka BP). Atlantic water inflow both into the Barents and Baltic seas varied during the Holocene, with a maximum contribution in the Early Holocene, when the Littorina Sea (LS, 8-4 cal ka BP) connection with the North Sea via the Danish Straits was formed to replace the Ancylus Lake. The recent, post-Littorina stage (PS, the last 4 cal ka) of the Baltic Sea evolution began in the Late Holocene.

  4. Methane fluxes and their controlling processes in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehder, G. J.; Fossing, H.; Lapham, L.; Endler, R.; Spiess, V.; Bruchert, V.; Nguyen, T.; Gülzow, W.; Schneider von Deimling, J.; Conley, D. J.; Jorgensen, B.

    2010-12-01

    The Baltic Sea is an ideal natural laboratory to study the methane cycle in the framework of diagenetic processes. With its brackish character and a gradient from nearly marine to almost limnic conditions, a strong permanent haline stratification leading to large vertical redox gradients in the water column, and a sedimentation history which resulted in the deposition of organic-rich young post-glacial sediments over older glacial and post-glacial strata with very low organic content, the Baltic allows to study the role of a variety of key parameters for early diagenetic processes including the methane cycle. Within the BONUS + Project “Baltic Gas”, a 3.5 week scientific expedition of RV Maria S. Merian in August 2010 was dedicated to study the methane cycle in the various basins of the Baltic Sea, with strong emphasis on the metabolic reactions of early diagenesis and the occurrence of shallow gas deposits. Various subbottom profiling systems were used to map the thickness and structure of organic-rich deposits and build the base for a detailed coring program for biogeochemical analysis, including methane, sulfur compounds, iron, and other compounds. Methane gradients in connection with the information of the areal extend of organic-rich deposits are used to estimate the diffusive flux from the sediments into the water column and the rate of methane oxidation, with changing importance of sulfate as oxidant along the salinity gradient. On selected key stations, rate measurements of methanogenic and methanotrophic reactions were executed. The methane distribution in the water column was comprehensively assessed, revealing amongst other findings a drastic increase in bottom water methane concentration between the post bloom summer situation and the situation in the winter of 2009, in connection to the occurrence of a benthic nepheloid layer. Air-sea flux measurements were executed along the ship’s track comprising all major basins of the Baltic. The talk gives

  5. An international scope of the regional journal Baltic Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartasiute, Stanislava

    2015-08-01

    The internationalization of publishing has been progressing in most fields of science, including astronomy and physics in particular. Along with high quality journals having a completely international readership, national and regional journals represent a significant part in number, whereas their average impact is very diverse and not always competitive. Based mainly on the Web of Science data, we will give a comparative analysis of astronomy journals published in/for countries with relatively small astronomical communities, such as Baltic and some Eastern European. Bibliometric statistics will be presented of one of such journals, Baltic Astronomy, established in 1992 as a result of cooperation between astronomers of Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia. Since the first years of publishing this journal has been evolving from regional to the more internationalized status. The list of countries of contributing authors has expanded to 54, while only 19% of the articles are from the three Baltic countries, mainly from Lithuania (14%) and, to a much lesser extent, from Estonia (3%) and Latvia (2%). Recognizing the inadequacies of national and regional bases for dissemination and exchange of scientific information, the Baltic astronomical communities themselves move, however, towards internationalization: in international journals Latvia publishes twice and Estonia nearly ten times more articles than they do in Baltic Astronomy. Meanwhile Lithuanian astronomers publish nearly the same number of articles both outside and inside the region. In the light of progress being made toward consolidation of scholarly publications, a choice between a national/regional and international basis for publishing is becoming more decisive for the future of national and regional astronomy journals.

  6. Restoration of the Baltic Proper to a system in equilibrium with the external phosphorus supply in the presence of huge sustained internal supply connected to anoxic bottoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stigebrandt, Anders

    2015-04-01

    The phosphorus (P) content of the water column of the Baltic Proper has increased by 20 % since the 1980s in spite of a simultaneous reduction by 50 % of the external supply from land-based human activities and runoff. A simple budget model explains that the increased P content is a result of sustained leakage of P from anoxic bottoms. At the present, the internal P supply from anoxic bottoms is about three times greater than the external supply. Restoration of the Baltic Proper to a less eutrophic state obviously requires that the internal source vanishes which requires that the deepwater is kept oxygenated during a long period. This will not likely happen by natural processes as long as the oxygen consumption in the deepwater is high due to high P content and high biological production in the water column. One might therefore consider man-made oxygenation to keep the deepwater bottoms oxygenated. In the presentation positive and negative effects of man-made oxygenation of the Baltic Proper are discussed based on recently published results from a pilot experiment in the Swedish By Fjord and from analyses of physical, ecological and biogeochemical conditions in the Baltic Proper.

  7. Spectral quantification of Southern Baltic seabed roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szefler, K.; Tegowski, J.; Nowak, J.

    2012-12-01

    The work presents the fast and efficient tool for seafloor classification, where scales and shapes of geomorphological forms were taken into account. The precise bathymetry and seafloor texture was developed with multibeam echosounder at six different areas of size up to 10 by 20 km. This areas demonstrate typical geomorphological seafloor features of bottom relief at the southern Baltic Sea coastal waters. The acoustical measurements were accompanied by geological sampling and video inspection. High resolution mosaic maps were obtained as a result of multi-survey measurements with maximal spatial resolution of 0.05m. Such accuracy of the measurements allows to observe small geomorphologic forms as ripplemarks or pebbles. The most investigated polygons have bottom relief of polygenetic origin with relicts of periglacial forms together with contemporary forms of marine origin. In the studied areas different forms of sand accumulation were found, beginning with small ripplemarks ending at big sandy waves. In the seabed erosion zones the bottom surface is rough and varied with clearly formed embankments, abrasive platforms, inselbergs and stony gravely abrasive pavements on the bottom surface. Such geomorphic diversity of the bottom surface has allowed for development of consistent geomorphological classification system based mainly on spectral properties of seafloor roughness. Each analysed area was divided into squares (200 by 200 m) with an overlap between adjacent subareas of 75% a square size. Next, subdivided areas were spectrally transformed using a two dimensional fast Fourier transform (2D FFT). The spectral parameters as maximal value of spectral density function, spectral exponent and strength, spectral moments, mean frequency, spectral width and skewness for each characteristic type of bottom surface were determined relaying on the calculated 2D spectra. Moreover, other features characterised the corrugated surface as fractal dimension, radius of

  8. Education in the Baltic States, Ukraine, Belarus' and Russia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomiak, Janusz

    1992-01-01

    Reviews recent educational changes and issues in six republics of the former Soviet Union, including controversies over language of instruction, revision of curriculum and textbooks to eliminate Marxism and emphasize national history and culture, reappearance of religious schools and instruction, and criticisms of teacher education and teaching…

  9. Evidence of chromosomal damage in common eiders (Somateria mollissima) from the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Matson, Cole W; Franson, J Christian; Hollmén, Tuula; Kilpi, Mikael; Hario, Martti; Flint, Paul L; Bickham, John W

    2004-12-01

    Common eiders nesting in the Baltic Sea are exposed to generally high levels of contaminants including potentially genotoxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorines. Blood samples were collected from eiders at eight sites in the Baltic Sea and two sites in the Beaufort Sea. DNA content variation was estimated using the flow cytometric method, and subsequently utilized as a biomarker of genetic damage. We observed no significant differences in genetic damage among populations within either the Baltic or Beaufort Seas. However, eider populations from the Baltic Sea had significantly elevated estimates of genetic damage compared to populations from the Beaufort Sea. PMID:15556194

  10. Evidence of chromosomal damage in common eiders (Somateria mollissima) from the Baltic Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matson, C.W.; Franson, J.C.; Hollmén, Tuula E.; Kilpi, Mikael; Hario, Martti; Flint, P.L.; Bickham, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Common eiders nesting in the Baltic Sea are exposed to generally high levels of contaminants including potentially genotoxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorines. Blood samples were collected from eiders at eight sites in the Baltic Sea and two sites in the Beaufort Sea. DNA content variation was estimated using the flow cytometric method, and subsequently utilized as a biomarker of genetic damage. We observed no significant differences in genetic damage among populations within either the Baltic or Beaufort Seas. However, eider populations from the Baltic Sea had significantly elevated estimates of genetic damage compared to populations from the Beaufort Sea.

  11. Anthropogenic and naturally produced brominated substances in Baltic herring (Clupea harengus membras) from two sites in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Dahlberg, Anna-Karin; Bignert, Anders; Legradi, Jessica; Legler, Juliette; Asplund, Lillemor

    2016-02-01

    In the eutrophicated Baltic Sea, several naturally produced hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) have been found in marine biota. OH-PBDEs are toxic to adult and developing zebrafish and shown to be potent disruptors of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Disturbed OXPHOS can result in altered energy metabolism and weight loss. In herring, the concentration of OH-PBDEs (i.e. 2'-OH-BDE68 and 6-OH-BDE47) has increased during the period 1980-2010 in the Baltic Proper. Over the same time period, the condition and fat content in Baltic herring have decreased. Given the toxicity and increasing trends of OH-PBDEs in Baltic herring it is important to further assess the exposure to OH-PBDEs in Baltic herring. In this study, the concentrations of OH-PBDEs and related brominated substances i.e. polybrominated phenols (PBPs), polybrominated anisoles (PBAs), methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured in herring sampled in the northern Baltic Proper (Askö, n = 12) and the southern Bothnian Sea (Ängskärsklubb, n = 12). The geometric mean (GM) concentrations (ng/g l.w.) at Askö and Ängskärsklubb were; Σ2PBPs: 4.3 and 9.6, Σ(2)PBAs: 34 and 20, Σ(6)OH-PBDEs: 9.4 and 10, Σ(7)MeO-PBDEs: 42 and 150, Σ(6)PBDEs: 54 and 27, respectively. 6-OH-BDE47 dominated the OH-PBDE profile and comprised 87% (Askö) and 91% (Ängskärsklubb) of the ΣOH-PBDEs. At Ängskärsklubb the mean concentration of ΣMeO-PBDEs (150 ng/g l.w.) was 15 times higher than ΣOH-PBDEs. As other fish species are known to metabolically transform MeO-PBDEs to OH-PBDEs, high levels of MeO-PBDEs can be of concern as a precursor for more toxic OH-PBDEs in herring and their roe. PMID:26613358

  12. Investigating the Structural Evolution of the Western Baltic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hübscher, C.; Lykke-Anderson, H.; Hansen, M. Bak; Reicherter, K.

    2004-03-01

    The western Baltic Sea, located along the northern margin of the Central European Basin System (CEBS), is a world-class site for investigating the dynamics and stratigraphic evolution of a continental basin with marine geophysical data acquisition techniques. The universities of Aarhus and Hamburg have joined forces to investigate the post-Permian-to-recent structural evolution of the western Baltic, with special emphasis on neotectonic re-activation along major structural lineaments. Deep crustal structures of the CEBS are well established from previous studies. However, no systematic and localized research has yet been carried out to investigate the neotectonic activity in this region. In fact, the limited seismic resolution of previously available data prevented detailed research on Mesozoic and Cenozoic evolution or neotectonics.

  13. Evaluation of Baltic Sea transport properties using particle tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dargahi, Bijan; Cvetkovic, Vladimir

    2014-05-01

    Particle tracking model (PTM) is an effective tool for quantifying transport properties of large water bodies such as the Baltic Sea. We have applied PTM to our fully calibrated and validated Baltic Sea 3D hydrodynamic model for a 10-years period (2000-9). One hundred particles were released at a constant rate during an initial 10-days period from all the Baltic Sea sub-basins, the major rivers, and the open boundary in the Arkona Basin. In each basin, the particles were released at two different depths corresponding to the deep water and middle water layers. The objectives of the PTM simulations were to analyse the intra-exchange processes between the Baltic Sea basins and to estimate the arrival times and the paths of particles released from the rivers. The novel contribution of this study is determining the paths and arrival times of deeper water masses rather than the surface masses. Advective and diffusive transport processes in the Bornholm and Arkona basins are both driven by the interacting flows of the northern basins of the Baltic Sea and the North Sea. Particles released from Arkona basin flows northwards along the Stople Channel. The Gotland basins are the major contributors to the exchange process in the Baltic Sea. We find high values of the advection ratio, indicative of a forced advective transport process. The Bay of Gdansk is probably the most vulnerable region in the Baltic Sea. This is despite the fact that the main exchanging basins are the Bornholm Sea and the Easter Gotland Basin. The main reason is the intensive supply of the particles from the northern basins that normally take about 3000 days to reach the Bay of Gdansk. The process maintains a high level of particle concentration (90%) along its coastlines even after the 10-years period. Comparing the particle paths in the Western and Eastern Gotland basins two interesting features were found. Particles travelled in all four directions in the former basin and the middle layer particles

  14. Projected future climate change and Baltic Sea ecosystem management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Agneta

    2015-04-01

    Climate change is likely to have large effects on the Baltic Sea ecosystem. Simulations indicate 2-4oC warming and 50-80% decreasing ice cover by 2100. Precipitation may increase ~30% in the north, causing increased land runoff of allochthonous organic matter (AOM) and organic pollutants. Salinity will decrease by about 2 units. Coupled physical-biogeochemical models indicate that in the south, bottom-water anoxia may spread, reducing cod recruitment and increasing sediment phosphorus release, promoting cyanobacterial blooms. In the north, heterotrophic bacteria will be favoured by AOM while phytoplankton may become hampered. More trophic levels in the food web will increase energy losses and consequently reduce fish production. Future management of the Baltic Sea must consider effects of climate change on the ecosystem dynamics and functions, as well as effects of anthrophogenic nutrient and pollutant load. Monitoring should have a holistic approach and encompass both autotrophic (phytoplankton) and heterotrophic (e.g. bacterial) processes.

  15. Characterisation of juvenile flatfish habitats in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florin, Ann-Britt; Sundblad, Göran; Bergström, Ulf

    2009-04-01

    Survival and growth of the earliest life-stages is considered a key factor in determining the abundance of many marine fish species. For flatfishes, the availability of high quality nursery areas is essential for successful recruitment. Regarding the Baltic Sea, there are large gaps in knowledge on factors that influence the distribution of flatfishes during this sensitive stage. To identify the characteristics of important nursery areas in the Baltic for flounder ( Platichthys flesus) and turbot ( Psetta maxima), a field survey with push net sampling was conducted in the northern Baltic proper during autumn 2006. The sampling stations were stratified to cover several different habitat types defined by substrate and wave exposure. Apart from density of young-of-the-year (YOY) flatfishes, a number of ecological characteristics of the habitat were recorded. Physical habitat variables included substrate type, salinity, depth, turbidity, vegetation and habitat structure. Variables describing biotic processes, such as prey availability and abundance of competitors, were also sampled. The relationships between the spatial distribution of species and these ecological characteristics were fitted to presence/absence data of juvenile flatfish using generalized additive models (GAM). The best habitat descriptors for flounder in order of contribution were: substrate, habitat structure, salinity, wave exposure and occurrence of filamentous algae. Positive effects of increasing wave exposure, salinity and structure were detected while a high cover of filamentous algae had a negative effect. Sand and gravel were preferred over soft and stony substrates. For turbot the best habitat descriptors in order of contribution were: occurrence of filamentous algae, substrate and turbidity. Turbot showed a preference for areas with a low cover of filamentous algae, high turbidity and sandy substrate. Prey availability and abundance of competitors were not included in the models, indicating

  16. Numerical investigations of future ice conditions in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Haapala, J; Meier, H E; Rinne, J

    2001-08-01

    Global climate changes is expected to have an effect on the physical and ecological characteristics of the Baltic Sea. Estimates of future climate on the regional scale can be obtained by using either statistical or dynamical downscaling methods of global AOGCM scenario results. In this paper, we use 2 different coupled ice-ocean models of the Baltic Sea to simulate present and future ice conditions around 100 years from present. Two 10-year time slice experiments have been performed using the results of atmospheric climate model simulations as forcing, one representing pre-industrial climate conditions (control simulation), and the other global warming with a 150% increase in CO2 greenhouse gas concentration (scenario simulation). Present-day climatological ice conditions and interannual variability are realistically reproduced by the models. The simulated range of the maximum annual ice extent in the Baltic in both models together is 180 to 420 x 10(3) km2 in the control simulation and 45 to 270 x 10(3) km2 in the scenario simulation. The range of the maximum annual ice thickness is from 32 to 96 cm and from 11 to 60 cm in the control and scenario simulations, respectively. In contrast to earlier estimates, sea ice is still formed every winter in the Northern Bothnian Bay and in the most Eastern parts of the Gulf of Finland. Overall, the simulated changes of quantities such as ice extent and ice thickness, as well as their interannual variations are relatively similar in both models, which is remarkable, because the 2 coupled ice-ocean model systems have been developed independently. This increases the reliability of future projections of ice conditions in the Baltic Sea. PMID:11697256

  17. Access to distributed marine databases on the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, A.; Axe, P.; Bock, S.; Kaitala, S.; Manscher, O. H.; Rodriguez-Medina, M.; Olsonen, R.; Priha, I.; Tikka, K.

    2012-04-01

    Baltic Nest Institute, Stockholm University (Sweden) in cooperation with Department of Bioscience/DCE, National Centre for Environment and Energy, Aarhus University (Denmark), Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research (Germany), Finnish Environment Institute, Finnish Meteorological Institute and Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute developed a data assessment system, aimed at providing tools for online analysis of marine environmental data (temperature, salinity, chemical properties) from distributed collection of databases on the Baltic Sea. Such approach allows users to have fast access to the most recent data from all major data providers and providers remain in control of their data. The system contains a web data portal, which provides concurrent access to distributed marine databases and presents information in a unified way. Two client programs use the data portal and provide tools to analyse the data. The DAS - Data Assimilation System (http://nest.su.se/das/) accesses databases through the data portal and allow analysing the raw data and creating gridded data, which can be used as initial fields for 3D hydrodynamic models. A decision support system Nest (http://nest.su.se/nest/) developed and maintained at the Stockholm University as a tool to support decision-making at international negotiations regarding the Baltic Sea environment also uses the data portal to access marine data, provide access to the raw data and perform time-series analysis. The data portal designed to output data in a common format (CSV) for further post-processing using other software. It makes the system open to develop another client programs for data analysis.

  18. Magma mingling in the panozero sanukitoid intrusion, baltic shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rollinson, H.

    2003-04-01

    The 2.7 Ga Panozero pluton is a composite intrusion comprising magmas of sanukitoid affinity, intrusive into the ca. 2.75 Ga Segozero greenstone belt in western Karelia in the Baltic Shield. The intrusion is predominantly a monzonite, is elliptical in form (9 x 6 km) and is undeformed. Along the eastern margin of the intrusion a wide variety of cogenetic magmas have been mapped ranging in composition from biotite-hornblendites, through monzo-gabbro and monzonite to quartz-monzonite. The contact relationships between the different phases of the intrusion are complex and imply magma mingling and incomplete mixing between magma types. The monzogabbros show a gradational relationship with the monzodiorites, but occur as inclusions within, and contain inclusions of, the monzonite implying two coexisting melts. Similar relationships exist between the monzonite and quartz monzonite and in places there is a gneissose banding of the darker phase within the lighter phase. The quartz-syenite is intrusive into all earlier phases, although the latest phase is hornblendite. This is present as net veining in gabbro and as irregular veins, dykes and as irregularly shaped xenoliths in monzonite, quartz monzonite and syenite. The irregular form and deformed state of the hornblendite inclusions within the earlier magmas implies that the hornblendite was emplaced whilst the host magma was hot. Also developed along the eastern margin of the intrusion are breccia pipes. These are found in the monzodiorites, monzonites and in quartz monzonites. They contain elliptical fragments up to 20 cm long of hornblendite, tremolitite, epidotised amphibolite and in the monzodiorite euhedral feldspars with felsic reaction rims. The matrix of the breccias is often very similar to the composition of their host rock. Many of the fragments are thought to be derived from the adjacent greenstone belt. However, metabasaltic rocks are not recorded from this part of the greenstone belt and so may be derived

  19. Changes in extreme sea levels in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dieterich, Christian; Gröger, Matthias; Andersson, Helén; Nerheim, Signild; Jönsson, Anette

    2016-04-01

    A newly developed shallow water model for the Baltic Sea and North Sea is presented. The model is validated by means of a comparison with hindcast simulations with observational data sets. The aim of the development is to provide and apply a modelling tool to model extreme sea levels in the Baltic Sea, Kattegat and Skagerrak. The model approach will support the direct analysis of extreme sea level observations in the past and provide the possibility to extend the statistical data base by producing very long time series or very large ensembles of coastal sea levels. This effort is intended to contribute to an assessment of risks due to storm surges and coastal flooding in the 21st century along the coast of Sweden. By using different RCP climate scenarios downscaled with a regional, coupled climate model atmospheric forcing is available to project possible changes in extreme sea levels into the future. Projected sea level rise, changes in dynamical sea level in the North East Atlantic and tidal forcing in the northern North Sea are applied as boundary condition which allows to investigate their impact on the dynamics of regional sea level variability. Initial experiments focus on the impact of model resolution, resolution in the atmospheric forcing and the amount of details necessary in the bathymetry to faithfully model coastal sea level in the Baltic Sea and North Sea.

  20. A new radiation model for Baltic Sea ecosystem modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, Thomas; Siegel, Herbert; Gerth, Monika

    2015-12-01

    Photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) is one of the key requirements for primary production in the ocean. The ambient PAR is determined by incoming solar radiation and optical properties of sea water and the optically active water constituents along the radiation pathway. Especially in coastal waters, the optical properties are affected by terrigenous constituents like yellow substances as well as high primary production. Numerical models for marine ecosystems account for the optical attenuation process in different ways and details. For the consideration of coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and shading effects of phytoplankton particles, we propose a dynamic parametrization for the Baltic Sea. Furthermore, products from biological turnover processes are implemented. Besides PAR and its attenuation coefficient, the model calculates the Secchi disk depth, a simple measurable parameter describing the transparency of the water column and a water quality parameter in the European Water Framework Directive. The components of the proposed optical model are partly implemented from other publications respectively derived from our own measurements for the area of investigation. The model allows a better representation of PAR with a more realistic spatial and temporal variability compared to former parametrizations. The effect is that regional changes of primary production, especially in the northern part of the Baltic Sea, show reduced productivity due to higher CDOM concentrations. The model estimates for Secchi disk depth are much more realistic now. In the northern Baltic Sea, simulated oxygen concentrations in deep water have improved considerably.

  1. Deoxygenation of the Baltic Sea during the last century

    PubMed Central

    Carstensen, Jacob; Andersen, Jesper H.; Gustafsson, Bo G.; Conley, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Deoxygenation is a global problem in coastal and open regions of the ocean, and has led to expanding areas of oxygen minimum zones and coastal hypoxia. The recent expansion of hypoxia in coastal ecosystems has been primarily attributed to global warming and enhanced nutrient input from land and atmosphere. The largest anthropogenically induced hypoxic area in the world is the Baltic Sea, where the relative importance of physical forcing versus eutrophication is still debated. We have analyzed water column oxygen and salinity profiles to reconstruct oxygen and stratification conditions over the last 115 y and compare the influence of both climate and anthropogenic forcing on hypoxia. We report a 10-fold increase of hypoxia in the Baltic Sea and show that this is primarily linked to increased inputs of nutrients from land, although increased respiration from higher temperatures during the last two decades has contributed to worsening oxygen conditions. Although shifts in climate and physical circulation are important factors modulating the extent of hypoxia, further nutrient reductions in the Baltic Sea will be necessary to reduce the ecosystems impacts of deoxygenation. PMID:24706804

  2. Regional Ocean Colour Remote Sensing Algorithm for the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hieronymi, Martin; Muller, Dagmar; Krasemann, Hajo; Schonfeld, Wolfgang; Rottgers, Rudiger; Doerffer, Roland

    2015-12-01

    The Baltic Sea is a challenging study site from an optically point of view. Its partly highly absorbing waters are mainly associated with the presence of coloured dissolved organic matter and often accompanied by non-algae absorbing particles. In addition, the Baltic Sea area is characterised by massive annual surface blooms of cyanobacteria. In Europe, the Baltic Sea is a very specific and important case study with intense user interest. In the framework of different research projects as the “Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative”, the “SEOM OC Extreme Case 2 Waters”, and partly “MyOcean”, we aim to develop an optimised, error-characterised, regional ocean colour processor applicable to several satellite sensors, like MODIS, MERIS, VIIRS, and OLCI. The procedure, which is used to determine inherent optical properties and different water constituents’ concentrations from remote sensing reflectance, is an artificial Neural Network (NN). We provide first results of comparisons of in-situ data with different ocean colour products.

  3. Genetic structure of whitefish (Coregonus maraena) in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsson, Jens; Florin, Ann-Britt; Mo, Kerstin; Aho, Teija; Ryman, Nils

    2012-01-01

    Stocks of whitefish ( Coregonus maraena) in the northern part of the Baltic Sea have in many areas declined drastically during recent years. Causes for the decline are yet not fully understood, but knowledge on the genetic population structure of the species is pivotal for future conservation measures. In this study we analyse the genetic variation at seven microsatellite loci for whitefish from 18 different sites along the Swedish coast of the Baltic Sea. We found a strong dependence of isolation by distance ( R = 0.73), and a week but rather fine scaled genetic structure. In addition, there were differences between more northern and southern sites in the population genetic structure, where the degree of differentiation appears to be stronger in the north compared to the south. The results suggest that whitefish is a species suitable for local management with a regional context of the management strategy. In addition, the findings corroborate what is previously known for other coastal fish species in the Baltic Sea, such as perch and pike, suggesting that the majority of gene flow occurs between adjacent areas. Finally, our results highlight the potential for genetic subdivision even when the dependence of isolation by distance is strong.

  4. Mass Balance of Perfluoroalkyl Acids in the Baltic Sea

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A mass balance was assembled for perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) in the Baltic Sea. Inputs (from riverine discharge, atmospheric deposition, coastal wastewater discharges, and the North Sea) and outputs (to sediment burial, transformation of the chemical, and the North Sea), as well as the inventory in the Baltic Sea, were estimated from recently published monitoring data. Formation of the chemicals in the water column from precursors was not considered. River inflow and atmospheric deposition were the dominant inputs, while wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents made a minor contribution (<5%). A mass balance of the Oder River watershed was assembled to explore the sources of the perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in the river inflow. It indicated that WWTP effluents made only a moderate contribution to riverine discharge (21% for PFOA, 6% for PFOS), while atmospheric deposition to the watershed was 1–2 orders of magnitude greater than WWTP discharges. The input to the Baltic Sea exceeded the output for all four PFAAs, suggesting that inputs were higher during 2005–2010 than during the previous 20 years despite efforts to reduce emissions of PFAAs. One possible explanation is the retention and delayed release of PFAAs from atmospheric deposition in the soils and groundwater of the watershed. PMID:23528236

  5. On the causes of major Baltic inflows —an analysis of long time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schinke, Holger; Matthäus, Wolfgang

    1998-01-01

    Conditions for life in the deep water of the Baltic Sea are strongly influenced by inflows of highly saline and oxygenated water from the North Sea. These events - termed major Baltic inflows (MBI) - have episodic character, and are the only mechanisms by which the central Baltic deep water is renewed. Although the cycle of water renewal is well documented, certain meteorological and oceanographic processes determining it are either not very well understood or even partly unknown. Based on the data set of major inflows during the present century, long time series of relevant variables from the Baltic Sea itself (salinity, sea level), its drainage area (river runoff, precipitation), the whole Baltic region (air temperature) and from the North Atlantic and Europe (sea level pressure) are analyzed using statistical methods. Characteristic variations in the relevant meteorological, hydrological and oceanographic variables before and during major events are calculated in order to identify conditions favouring or preventing such events. Major Baltic inflows are characterized by two phases: (1) high pressure over the Baltic region with easterly winds followed by (2) several weeks of strong zonal wind and pressure fields over the North Atlantic and Europe. Major events may occur when only one of these is well developed, the probability of strong events is high if both phases are well developed and closely spaced in time. Variations in river runoff to the Baltic obviously have a greater impact on the occurrence of major events then hitherto supposed. The decreasing frequency and intensity of major inflows since the mid-1970s and the complete absence of such events from February 1983 to the beginning of 1993 is explained by increased zonal circulation linked with intensified precipitation in the Baltic region and increased river runoff to the Baltic. Possible anthropogenic impacts on changes in occurrence of major inflows due to river runoff regulations are indicated. The

  6. Phylogenetic Characterization of Phosphatase-Expressing Bacterial Communities in Baltic Sea Sediments.

    PubMed

    Steenbergh, Anne K; Bodelier, Paul L E; Hoogveld, Hans L; Slomp, Caroline P; Laanbroek, Hendrikus J

    2015-01-01

    Phosphate release from sediments hampers the remediation of aquatic systems from a eutrophic state. Microbial phosphatases in sediments release phosphorus during organic matter degradation. Despite the important role of phosphatase-expressing bacteria, the identity of these bacteria in sediments is largely unknown. We herein presented a culture-independent method to phylogenetically characterize phosphatase-expressing bacteria in sediments. We labeled whole-cell extracts of Baltic Sea sediments with an artificial phosphatase substrate and sorted phosphatase-expressing cells with a flow cytometer. Their phylogenetic affiliation was determined by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis. The phosphatase-expressing bacterial community coarsely reflected the whole-cell bacterial community, with a similar dominance of Alphaproteobacteria. PMID:25817584

  7. Migration and Ethnicity: Minorities in the USSR and the United States: A Chronology of Recent Developments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Migration World Magazine, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Outlines the recent developments in migration laws and political unrest with respect to Communist Soviet authority and United States policies toward Soviet refugees. Developments in the Baltic states, Moldavia, East Germany, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Ukraine, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia are discussed. (JS)

  8. Eutrophication-driven sediment microbial processes can explain the regional variation in phosphorus concentrations between Baltic Sea sub-basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehtoranta, Jouni; Ekholm, Petri; Pitkänen, Heikki

    2008-11-01

    Despite the ecological significance of microbial iron and sulphate reduction in aquatic environments, the processes involved have been poorly studied in Baltic Sea sediments. On the basis of indirect evidence, we conclude that the bottom sediments of the non-stratified and oligotrophic northernmost, and the poorly stratified and mesotrophic next northern, sub-basins of the Baltic have tolerated the external nutrient load rather well, as they are still in a state in which iron reduction and coupled cycling of iron and phosphorus prevail in the surface sediments. Since iron-reducing bacteria are unable to reduce ferric oxides completely, part of the iron-bound phosphorus may be permanently buried in the sediments. The good ability of the sediment to retain phosphorus results in low concentrations of phosphorus in water, a state that in turn promotes phosphorus limitation of primary production. In contrast, the sediments of the nutrient-loaded and stratified sub-basins, the Gulf of Finland (the most eutrophied sub-basin) and the Baltic Proper, appeared to have reached a state in which sulphate reduction is the dominant mineralisation pathway. Sulphate reduction followed by sulphide formation leads to efficient reduction of ferric oxides. Subsequently, iron-bound phosphorus dissolves into the pore water and is transported to the overlying water, whereas iron is buried as sulphides (uncoupled iron and phosphorus cycling). The capacity of sediments to retain phosphorus is limited; high amounts of bioavailable phosphate exist in the water column, primary production tends to be nitrogen limited and extensive blue-green algal blooms are common. We maintain that the decisive factors controlling the above regional distribution of iron and sulphate reduction are the flux of labile organic matter to the sediments and the variation in hydrodynamics. Sulphate reduction will be triggered when the flux of organic matter reaches a critical threshold value, resulting in anoxia at the

  9. Adult Education Research in the Countries in Transition. Adult Education Research Trends in the Former Socialist Countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the Baltic Region. Research Project Report. Studies and Researches 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelenc, Zoran

    This document presents results of an investigation into the state of the art of research on the education of adults in Central and Eastern European and Baltic countries. The first section discusses the background and implementation of the research. Section 2 is "Adult Education Research Trends in Central and Eastern Europe: Research Project…

  10. Element transformation rates and fluxes across the sediment-water interface of the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipka, Marko; Wegwerth, Antje; Dellwig, Olaf; Al-Raei, Abdul M.; Schoster, Frank; Böttcher, Michael E.

    2014-05-01

    Organic matter is mineralized in brackish-marine sediments by microbial activity using predominantly oxygen, sulfate, and metal oxides as electron acceptors. This leads to a reflux of carbon dioxide into the bottom waters. Under anoxic bottom water conditions, sulfate reduction dominates. Under specific conditions, shallow methane may be oxidized. Pore water profiles reflect biogeochemical processes, transformation rates and fluxes of dissolved species across the sediment-water interface. They are controlled by different factors like microbial activity, bottom water redox conditions, and availability of electron acceptors/donors. Microbial activity in the sediment leads to changes in redox conditions, formation of metabolites and may lead to the formation of authigenic minerals. As an example, organic matter mineralization and reduction of iron oxyhydroxides both may lead to the liberation of dissolved phosphate thereby leading to a reflux into the bottom waters. Hypoxic conditions will enhance this process. We present the results of a detailed biogeochemical investigation of interstitial waters from shallow sediments to study the biogeochemical processes in recent sediments and associated element fluxes at the sediment-water-interface in different areas of the Baltic Sea. Pore water and sediment samples were retrieved from short sediment cores that were collected with multicoring devices in key regions of the Baltic Sea. Pore waters were taken in sufficient depth resolution and analyzed for main and trace element concentrations (e.g., Mn, SO4, HS, PO4, DIC) to allow a modelling of steady-state transformation volumetric rates and element fluxes. A quantitative interpretation of vertical concentration profiles in the pore waters was performed using a diffusion-based modelling approach. Element fluxes across the sediment-water interface show for the Baltic Sea a dependence from bottom water redox conditions, sedimentology, organic contents, and formation conditions

  11. Quantifying the importance of sediment resuspension for the North Sea and Baltic Sea ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nissen, Cara; Schrum, Corinna; Daewel, Ute; Fennel, Katja; Castaño Primo, Rocío

    2014-05-01

    resuspension is considered. In contrast, resuspension only plays a minor role in large parts of the Baltic Sea which is generally characterized by weak tides and deep basins where the sediment is decoupled from surface wind stress. The results of the sensitivity analysis in ECOSMO are presented which quantify and illustrate the impact of resuspension on primary production and state variables of the carbonate system.

  12. A gilled mushroom, Gerontomyces lepidotus gen. et sp. nov. (Basidiomycota: Agaricales), in Baltic amber.

    PubMed

    Poinar, George

    2016-09-01

    A densely scaled small mushroom in Baltic amber is described as Gerontomyces lepidotus gen. et sp. nov. and is characterized by a convex pileus 1.0 mm in diameter, distant to subdistant lamellae with smooth margins and a centrally inserted cylindrical, solid stipe. Its taxonomic placement is uncertain. This is the first mushroom described from Baltic amber. PMID:27567715

  13. State feedback control of real-time discrete event systems with infinite states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Seong-Jin; Cho, Kwang-Hyun

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we study a state feedback supervisory control of timed discrete event systems (TDESs) with infinite number of states modelled as timed automata. To this end, we represent a timed automaton with infinite number of untimed states (called locations) by a finite set of conditional assignment statements. Predicates and predicate transformers are employed to finitely represent the behaviour and specification of a TDES with infinite number of locations. In addition, the notion of clock regions in timed automata is used to identify the reachable states of a TDES with an infinite time space. For a real-time specification described as a predicate, we present the controllability condition for the existence of a state feedback supervisor that restricts the behaviour of the controlled TDES within the specification.

  14. The diet of whiting Merlangius merlangus in the western Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Ross, S D; Gislason, H; Andersen, N G; Lewy, P; Nielsen, J R

    2016-05-01

    The diet of whiting Merlangius merlangus in the western Baltic Sea was investigated and compared to the diet in the southern North Sea. Clupeids were important prey in both areas, but especially in the western Baltic Sea where they constituted up to 90% of the diet of larger individuals. Gobies, brown shrimps and polychaetes were the main prey of juveniles in the western Baltic Sea, while a wider range of species were consumed in the North Sea. The shift to piscivory occurred at smaller sizes in the western Baltic Sea and the fish prey consumed was proportionately larger than in the southern North Sea. Estimates of prey abundance and food intake of M. merlangus are required to evaluate its predatory significance in the western Baltic Sea, but its diet suggests that it could be just as significant a fish predator here as in the southern North Sea. PMID:27005681

  15. A Study of Forming Force in the Fine-blanking Process Using the Theoretical Predication and Experimental Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elyasi, Majid; Daeizadeh, Vahid

    2011-01-01

    In the fine-blanking process, a smooth cut surface over almost the entire thickness of the material and high degree of dimensional accuracy are produced Previous research on fine-blanking was carried out mainly to develop this technology and clarify its mechanism In this paper the effect of the shape of the workpiece, material tensile strength and initial blank thickness on forming force in fine-blanking process was studied by theoretical formulation and experimental approach The theoretical formulation was used as a tool to carry out the predication of fine-blanking force The obtained results indicated that by increasing the shape of the workpiece the forces in fine-blanking process is increased Also, by increasing the initial blank thickness and the material tensile strength, the forces in fine-blanking process is increased

  16. Mean and extreme sea level changes in the southwestern Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Jessica; Patzke, Justus; Dangendorf, Sönke; Arns, Arne; Jensen, Jürgen; Fröhle, Peter

    2016-04-01

    In this contribution an overview over the BMBF project AMSeL_Ostsee (2015-2018) for the assessment of mean and extreme sea level changes over the past 150 years in the southwestern Baltic Sea is presented. We compile several high resolution tide gauge records provided by the Water and Shipping Administration (WSV) along the German Baltic Sea coastline and merge them in internationally available data bases (UHSLC, PSMSL, and data officially available at national authorities). In addition, we make efforts in digitizing historical records to expand the number of available data sets in this complex and vulnerable coastal region. To separate absolute from relative long-term changes in sea level the vertical land motion (VLM) at specific sites is assessed. Possible sources of VLM are independently assessed by using different state-of-the-art approaches, that is: Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) modelled by viscoelastic Earth models, GPS derived VLM, and the difference between tide gauge and nearby satellite altimetry. The VLM corrected tide gauge records are further assessed for linear and non-linear trends as well as possible acceleration/deceleration patterns by applying advanced time series models such as Singular System Analysis (SSA) combined with a Monte-Carlo-Autoregressive-Padding approach (Wahl et al., 2010). These trend assessments are applied to mean and extreme sea levels independently to prove whether observed changes in extremes are either due to an underlying trend on mean sea levels or changes in storminess. References: Wahl, T., Jensen, J., Frank, T. (2011): On analysing sea level rise in the German Bight since 1844, NHESS, 10, 171-179.

  17. Lead mobilization during tectonic reactivation of the western Baltic Shield

    SciTech Connect

    Romer, R.L. Luleaa Univ. ); Wright, J.E. )

    1993-06-01

    Lead isotope data from sulfide deposits of the western part of the Baltic Shield define mixing lines in the [sup 206]Pb/[sup 204]Pb-[sup 207]Pb/[sup 204]Pb diagram. Lead from two types of sulfide deposits have been investigated: (1) Exhalative and volcanogenic deposits that are syngenetic with their host rocks; and (2) vein deposits. The syngenetic deposits locally show a very wide range of lead isotopic compositions that reflect a variable addition of highly radiogenic lead, while the vein deposits, although they have radiogenic lead isotopic compositions, exhibit only limited isotopic variations. In different provinces of the shield, both types of deposits fall on the same lead mixing array. The slope of the lead mixing lines varies as a function of the age of basement rocks and the age of the tectonic event which produced the lead mobilization and therefore relates the source rock age with the age of lead mobilization. Calculated mixing ages fall into several short time periods that correspond either to orogenic events or to major phases of continental rifting. The orogenic events are the ca 360--430 Ma Caledonian, ca 900--1100 Ma Sveconorwegian, and the ca 1800--1900 Ma Svecofennian orogenic cycles. The rifting events correspond to the formation of the ca 280 Ma Oslo rift and the Ordovician (ca 450 Ma) graben system in the area of the present Gulf of Bothnia. Each mixing age indicates that lead was mobilized, probably as a consequence of mild thermal disturbances, and that the crust was permeable to lead migration. The data show that the geographic distribution of sulfide deposits with highly radiogenic lead isotopic compositions coincides with old graben systems, orogenic belts, and orogenic forelands on the Baltic Shield. The ages of vein deposits and their geographic distribution demonstrate multiple tectonic reactivation of the interior of the Baltic Shield in response to orogenic events at its margin. 68 refs., 6 refs., 4 tabs.

  18. Occurrence of flow parallel and flow transverse bedforms in Fehmarn Belt (SW Baltic Sea) related to the local palaeomorphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldens, P.; Diesing, M.; Schwarzer, K.; Heinrich, C.; Schlenz, B.

    2015-02-01

    This study describes the spatial distribution of flow-parallel sand ribbons and flow-transverse large and very large subaqueous dunes in the south-western Baltic Sea offshore Fehmarn Island between 13 m and 20 m water depth, based on hydroacoustic and grain size data. The system of sand ribbons and dunes is intermittently active due to currents induced during major inflows of the North Sea water into the Baltic Sea. The sand ribbons are located on a lag deposit on top of glacial till, while the dunes rest on top of drowned Holocene nearshore deposits. The sand ribbons reach heights between 0.4 m and 0.6 m, with widths varying between 60 m and several hundreds of metres. The observed dunes have heights between 0.09 m and 2.35 m, while their wavelengths range from 17 m to 120 m. Offshore Fehmarn Island, the transition from sand ribbons to dunes is most likely linked to a contrast in sediment supply, as reworked drowned nearshore deposits provide sediment available for transport in significantly larger amounts than glacial till. Similar to an earlier approach for river bed states, the dimensionless thickness of sediment available for transport is able to differentiate between the bed states.

  19. PREFACE: 5th Baltic Conference on Silicate Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezinskis, G.; Bragina, L.; Colombo, P.; Frischat, G. H.; Grabis, J.; Greil, P.; Deja, J.; Kaminskas, R.; Kliava, J.; Medvids, A.; Nowak, I.; Siauciunas, R.; Valancius, Z.; Zalite, I.

    2011-12-01

    Logo This Volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering presents a selection of the contributions to the 5th Baltic Conference on Silicate Materials (BaltSilica2011) held at Riga Technical University, Riga, Latvia from 23-25 May 2011. The conference was organized by Riga Technical University (Latvia) and Kaunas University of Technology (Lithuania). The series of Baltic conferences on silicate materials was started since 2004: the first conference was held in Riga, Latvia, 2004; the second conference was held in Kaunas, Lithuania 2005; the third was held again in Riga, Latvia, 2007, and the fourth was held in Kaunas, Lithuania 2009. BaltSilica 2011 was attended by around 50 participants from Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Germany, Poland, Italy, France, Ukraine and Russia. In comparison with previous silicate materials conferences, the broadening of participating countries is an indication of the interest of scientists, engineers and students to exchange research ideas, latest results, and to find new research topics for cooperation in the fields of silicate, high temperature materials, and inorganic nanomaterials. The scientific programme included 8 invited plenary lectures 23 oral presentations and 25 posters [1]. Scientific themes covered in the conference and in this special issue: Natural and Artificial Stone Materials; Traditional and New Ceramic and Glass-Like Materials; Nanoparticles and Nanomaterials. This volume consists of 23 selected proceeding papers. The Editor of this special issue is grateful to all the contributors to BaltSilica 2011. I am also very grateful to the scientific committee, the local organizing committee, the session chairs, the referees who refereed the submitted articles to this issue, and to students from the Department of Silicate, High Temperature and Inorganic Nanomaterials Technology of the Riga Technical University who ensured the smooth running of the conference. Particular thanks goes to eight plenary

  20. Early Holocene lake ecosystem development in the southern Baltic lowlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Słowiński, Michał; Ott, Florian; Kramkowski, Mateusz; Noryśkiewicz, Agnieszka M.; Zawiska, Izabela; Dräger, Nadine; Theuerkauf, Martin; Hass, Christoph; Obremska, Milena; Błaszkiewicz, Mirosław; Kordowski, Jarosław; Tjallingii, Rik; Rzodkiewicz, Monika; Schwab, Markus; Brauer, Achim

    2016-04-01

    The first millennia of the Holocene are characterized by gradual and rapid environmental changes following the warming at the beginning of the Holocene superimposed by short-term climatic instability. Landscape evolution during this period occurred at different time scales due to specific response times of landscape compartments like vegetation succession, soil formation and permafrost thawing. As a consequence, a spatiotemporally heterogeneous pattern of changes occurred particularly in regions close to the margins of the continental ice sheets like the Baltic region. Regional atmospheric circulation patterns were affected by cold catabatic winds from the remains of the Fennoscandian ice sheet. The ongoing deglaciation further influenced the regional climate through meltwater release and related changes in the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation. Both effects declined with the progressive ice sheet melt down. Additionally, the land-sea distribution in the North Sea changed drastically during the final melting phase of the glacial ice sheets. The Baltic Sea development is even more complex due to the strong glacio-isostatic adjustments effects that resulted in open and closed water stages affecting the entire Baltic realm. Consequently, the early Holocene interval of sediment records from the southern Baltic lowlands are not considered as straightforward palaeoclimate archives but need to be interpreted in a broader context. We present five partly varved lake records from northern Poland all including an intriguing highly organic-rich interval interrupting biochemical calcite precipitation at about the same time between 10.5 and 10.2 cal kyr BP. These sediment records have been correlated by independent age models based on varve counting, AMS 14C dating, biostratigraphy and tephrochronology. We present multi-proxy records of early Holocene sediments and our preliminary interpretation suggests hydrological processes as the main reason for the intriguing shifts

  1. An ant-associated mesostigmatid mite in Baltic amber

    PubMed Central

    Dunlop, Jason A.; Kontschán, Jenő; Walter, David E.; Perrichot, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Fossil mesostigmatid mites (Acari: Parasitiformes: Mesostigmata) are extremely rare, and specimens from only nine families, including four named species, have been described so far. A new record of Myrmozercon sp. described here from Eocene (ca 44–49 Myr) Baltic amber represents the first—and so far only—fossil example of the derived, extant family Laelapidae. Significantly, modern species of this genus are habitually myrmecophilous and the fossil mite described here is preserved attached to the head of the dolichoderine ant Ctenobethylus goepperti (Mayr, 1868). It thus offers the oldest unequivocal evidence for an ecological association between mesostigmatid mites and social insects in the order Hymenoptera. PMID:25209198

  2. Complex Predicates and Event Structure: An Integrated Analysis of Serial Verb Constructions in the Mabia Languages of West Africa. Working Papers in Linguistics No. 20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodomo, Adams B.

    An integrated analysis of the syntax and semantics of serial verb constructions (SVCs) in a group of West African languages is presented. With data from Dagaare and closest relatives, a structural definition for SVCs is developed (two or more lexical verbs that share grammatical categories within a clause), establishing SVCs as complex predicates.…

  3. Prospects of the New Science and Outreach Network Baltic Earth with Results of the Second Climate Change Assessment for the Baltic Sea Region (BACC II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reckermann, M.; Von Storch, H.; Omstedt, A. T.; Meier, M.; Rutgersson, A.

    2014-12-01

    The Baltic Sea region in Northern Europe spans different climate and population zones, from a temperate, highly populated, industrialized south with intensive agriculture to a boreal, rural north. It represents an old cultural landscape, and the Baltic Sea itself is among the most intensively studied sea areas of the world. Baltic Earth is the new Earth system research network for the Baltic Sea region. It is the successor to BALTEX, which was terminated in June 2013 after 20 years and two successful phases. Baltic Earth stands for the vision to achieve an improved Earth system understanding of the Baltic Sea region. This means that the research disciplines of BALTEX continue to be relevant, i.e. atmospheric and climate sciences, hydrology, oceanography and biogeochemistry, but a more holistic view of the Earth system encompassing processes in the atmosphere, on land and in the sea as well as in the anthroposphere shall gain in importance in Baltic Earth. Specific grand research challenges have been formulated, representing interdisciplinary research questions to be tackled in the coming years. A major means will be scientific assessments of particular research topics by expert groups, similar to the BACC approach, which shall help to identify knowledge gaps and develop research strategies. A major outcome of Baltic Earth will be the update of the BALTEX Assessment of Climate Change for the Baltic Sea Basin (BACC II). This new study after 5 years finds the results of BACC I still valid. Climate change can be detected at the regional scale but attribution is still weak. The effect of changing atmospheric aerosol loads and land use change is largely unknown so far and needs further attention in the coming years. For the observed changes in biogeochemical and ecological systems, multiple drivers are at work of which climate change is one. Their relative importance still needs to be evaluated. When addressing climate change impacts on e.g. forestry, agriculture, urban

  4. Learning Through CyberApprenticeship (LTCA): Robust Evaluation Predicated on Stakeholder Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bober, Marcie

    2004-01-01

    San Diego State University's (SDSU) Learning through CyberApprenticeship program, awarded in 1999 under the Preparing Tomorrow's Teachers to Use Technology (PT3) initiative, was built on a simple but challenging premise: to establish and develop a system through which preservice teachers enrolled in EdTec 4701 work directly with technologically…

  5. Development of a remote sensing algorithm for cyanobacterial phycocyanin pigment in the Baltic Sea using neural network approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riha, Stefan; Krawczyk, Harald

    2011-11-01

    Water quality monitoring in the Baltic Sea is of high ecological importance for all its neighbouring countries. They are highly interested in a regular monitoring of water quality parameters of their regional zones. A special attention is paid to the occurrence and dissemination of algae blooms. Among the appearing blooms the possibly toxicological or harmful cyanobacteria cultures are a special case of investigation, due to their specific optical properties and due to the negative influence on the ecological state of the aquatic system. Satellite remote sensing, with its high temporal and spatial resolution opportunities, allows the frequent observations of large areas of the Baltic Sea with special focus on its two seasonal algae blooms. For a better monitoring of the cyanobacteria dominated summer blooms, adapted algorithms are needed which take into account the special optical properties of blue-green algae. Chlorophyll-a standard algorithms typically fail in a correct recognition of these occurrences. To significantly improve the opportunities of observation and propagation of the cyanobacteria blooms, the Marine Remote Sensing group of DLR has started the development of a model based inversion algorithm that includes a four component bio-optical water model for Case2 waters, which extends the commonly calculated parameter set chlorophyll, Suspended Matter and CDOM with an additional parameter for the estimation of phycocyanin absorption. It was necessary to carry out detailed optical laboratory measurements with different cyanobacteria cultures, occurring in the Baltic Sea, for the generation of a specific bio-optical model. The inversion of satellite remote sensing data is based on an artificial Neural Network technique. This is a model based multivariate non-linear inversion approach. The specifically designed Neural Network is trained with a comprehensive dataset of simulated reflectance values taking into account the laboratory obtained specific optical

  6. Microsatellite variation in ringed seals (Phoca hispida): genetic structure and history of the Baltic Sea population.

    PubMed

    Palo, J U; Mäkinen, H S; Helle, E; Stenman, O; Väinölä, R

    2001-05-01

    Genetic variability and population structure of Baltic ringed seals and an Arctic reference population were assessed using eight microsatellite loci. Ringed seals colonized the Baltic Sea basin soon after deglaciation 11 500 years ago and are supposed to have remained largely isolated from the main Arctic stock since then, approximately 1000 generations. In the 1900s the Baltic population declined rapidly, and is now confined to three distinct breeding areas, with N < 6000 seals altogether. Microsatellite heterozygosity in ringed seals was higher than that in the closely related, boreal harbour seal and grey seal, for which the markers were initially developed. This is plausibly attributed to an overall greater population (species) size of ringed seals during the Quaternary. Allele frequency differentiation between the Baltic and Arctic ringed seals, conventionally treated as different subspecies, was weak. Assuming complete isolation, the divergence (FST=0.023) would imply a notably high postglacial effective population size, approximately 20 000 for the Baltic population. The isolation assumption however, seems unrealistic in the light of the data: a coalescent-based simulation approach to the likelihood of alternative demographic histories clearly favoured a scenario with recurrent gene flow to the Baltic, over one of complete isolation (drift only). Within the Baltic Sea, no differentiation was found between the Gulf of Finland and the Gulf of Bothnia breeding areas; the recent population decline and split have not yet affected the inbreeding levels of the disjunct breeding stocks. PMID:11554977

  7. Structural evolution and petroleum productivity of the Baltic basin

    SciTech Connect

    Ulmishek, G.F. )

    1991-08-01

    The Baltic basin is an oval depression located in the western part of the Russian craton; it occupies the eastern Baltic Sea and adjacent onshore areas. The basin contains more than 5,000 m of sedimentary rocks ranging from latest Proterozoic to Tertiary in age. These rocks consist of four tectonostratigraphic sequences deposited during major tectonic episodes of basin evolution. Principal unconformities separate the sequences. The basin is underlain by a rift probably filled with Upper Proterozoic rocks. Vendian and Lower Cambrian rocks (Baikalian sequence) form two northeast-trending depressions. The principal stage of the basin development was during deposition of a thick Middle Cambrian-Lower Devonian (Caledonian) sequence. This stage was terminated by the most intense deformations in the basin history. The Middle Devonian-Carboniferous (Hercynian) and Permian-Tertiary (Kimmerian-Alpine) tectonic and depositional cycles only slightly modified the basin geometry and left intact the main structural framework of underlying rocks. The petroleum productivity of the basin is related to the Caledonian tectonostratigraphic sequence that contains both source rocks and reservoirs. However, maturation of source rocks, migration of oil, and formation of fields took place mostly during deposition of the Hercynian sequence.

  8. Optically black waters in the northern Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthon, Jean-François; Zibordi, Giuseppe

    2010-05-01

    The peculiar bio-optical properties of the northernmost waters of the Baltic Sea (Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay) are illustrated by exploiting unique in situ measurements of apparent and inherent optical properties collected in 2007. Specifically, this study shows that the high values of absorption by colored dissolved organic matter (ays(412) around 1.4 m-1) resulting from the presence of humic matter brought by the numerous Swedish and Finnish rivers alimenting the basin are not correlated with high concentrations of particles as generally observed in the southern Baltic Sea. As a consequence, extremely low values (i.e., less than 0.5) of the ratio of scattering to absorption are observed in the blue spectral region. The corresponding spectra of normalized water leaving radiance are close to satisfy the “black pixel” assumption in the blue and even in the green part of the visible spectrum. Consequently, the Bothnian Sea and most of all the Bothnian Bay, appear ideal candidates for studies on atmospheric corrections and vicarious calibration of ocean color sensors in coastal waters.

  9. Hypoxia sustains cyanobacteria blooms in the Baltic sea.

    PubMed

    Funkey, Carolina P; Conley, Daniel J; Reuss, Nina S; Humborg, Christoph; Jilbert, Tom; Slomp, Caroline P

    2014-01-01

    Nutrient over-enrichment is one of the classic triggering mechanisms for the occurrence of cyanobacteria blooms in aquatic ecosystems. In the Baltic Sea, cyanobacteria regularly occur in the late summer months and form nuisance accumulations in surface waters and their abundance has intensified significantly in the past 50 years attributed to human-induced eutrophication. However, the natural occurrence of cyanobacteria during the Holocene is debated. In this study, we present records of cyanobacteria pigments, water column redox proxies, and nitrogen isotopic signatures for the past ca. 8000 years from Baltic Sea sediment cores. Our results demonstrate that cyanobacteria abundance and nitrogen fixation are correlated with hypoxia occurring during three main intervals: (1) ca. 7000-4000 B.P. during the Littorina transgression, (2) ca. 1400-700 B.P. during the Medieval Climate Anomaly, and (3) from ca. 1950 A.D. to the present. Issues of preservation were investigated, and we show that organic matter and pigment profiles are not simply an artifact of preservation. These results suggest that cyanobacteria abundance is sustained during periods of hypoxia, most likely because of enhanced recycling of phosphorus in low oxygen conditions. PMID:24512281

  10. Projected future climate change and Baltic Sea ecosystem management.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Agneta; Meier, H E Markus; Ripszam, Matyas; Rowe, Owen; Wikner, Johan; Haglund, Peter; Eilola, Kari; Legrand, Catherine; Figueroa, Daniela; Paczkowska, Joanna; Lindehoff, Elin; Tysklind, Mats; Elmgren, Ragnar

    2015-06-01

    Climate change is likely to have large effects on the Baltic Sea ecosystem. Simulations indicate 2-4 °C warming and 50-80 % decrease in ice cover by 2100. Precipitation may increase ~30 % in the north, causing increased land runoff of allochthonous organic matter (AOM) and organic pollutants and decreased salinity. Coupled physical-biogeochemical models indicate that, in the south, bottom-water anoxia may spread, reducing cod recruitment and increasing sediment phosphorus release, thus promoting cyanobacterial blooms. In the north, heterotrophic bacteria will be favored by AOM, while phytoplankton production may be reduced. Extra trophic levels in the food web may increase energy losses and consequently reduce fish production. Future management of the Baltic Sea must consider the effects of climate change on the ecosystem dynamics and functions, as well as the effects of anthropogenic nutrient and pollutant load. Monitoring should have a holistic approach, encompassing both autotrophic (phytoplankton) and heterotrophic (e.g., bacterial) processes. PMID:26022318

  11. Hypoxia Sustains Cyanobacteria Blooms in the Baltic Sea

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Nutrient over-enrichment is one of the classic triggering mechanisms for the occurrence of cyanobacteria blooms in aquatic ecosystems. In the Baltic Sea, cyanobacteria regularly occur in the late summer months and form nuisance accumulations in surface waters and their abundance has intensified significantly in the past 50 years attributed to human-induced eutrophication. However, the natural occurrence of cyanobacteria during the Holocene is debated. In this study, we present records of cyanobacteria pigments, water column redox proxies, and nitrogen isotopic signatures for the past ca. 8000 years from Baltic Sea sediment cores. Our results demonstrate that cyanobacteria abundance and nitrogen fixation are correlated with hypoxia occurring during three main intervals: (1) ca. 7000–4000 B.P. during the Littorina transgression, (2) ca. 1400–700 B.P. during the Medieval Climate Anomaly, and (3) from ca. 1950 A.D. to the present. Issues of preservation were investigated, and we show that organic matter and pigment profiles are not simply an artifact of preservation. These results suggest that cyanobacteria abundance is sustained during periods of hypoxia, most likely because of enhanced recycling of phosphorus in low oxygen conditions. PMID:24512281

  12. Microplastic concentrations in beach sediments along the German Baltic coast.

    PubMed

    Stolte, Andrea; Forster, Stefan; Gerdts, Gunnar; Schubert, Hendrik

    2015-10-15

    The contamination with microplastic particles and fibres was evaluated on beaches along the German Baltic coast. Sediments were sampled near the Warnow and Oder/Peene estuaries, on Rügen island and along the Rostock coast to derive possible entry pathways. Seasonal variations were monitored along the Rostock coast from March to July 2014. After density separation in saline solution, floating particles were found to be dominated by sand grains. Water surface tension is shown to be sufficient to explain floatation of grains with sizes less than 1.5mm. Selecting intensely coloured particles and fibres, we find lower limits of the microplastic concentrations of 0-7 particles/kg and 2-11 fibres/kg dry sediment. The largest microplastic contaminations are measured at the Peene outlet into the Baltic Sea and in the North Sea Jade Bay. City discharges, industrial production sites, fishing activity and tourism are the most likely sources for the highest microplastic concentrations. PMID:26198261

  13. [History of German-Baltic relations in medicine].

    PubMed

    Tankler, H; Laschinski, G; Roots, I

    2004-04-30

    Today, the three Baltic countries Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, have well-known medical faculties with international standing. Their individual histories are briefly outlined. However, relations of the German academic world were closest with the university of Dorpat (today: Tartu). It was re-opened in 1802 by tsar Alexander I in order to keep young Baltic people from studying abroad. The medical faculty was its biggest faculty. The university was Russian, but the official language was German. So many a German professor came to Dorpat and many professors from Dorpat were offered a chair at a German university. The scientific imports connected Dorpat with other centres of West-European science, they brought knowledge and ideas and an exchange of information. The standard was high, and among the teaching staff was a handsome number of medical celebrities, e.g. the anatomist August Rauber and the surgeon Ernst von Bergmann. In Dorpat, Rudolf Buchheim brought a new science, experimental pharmacology, into being, which his pupil and successor, Oswald Schmiedeberg, fully established and propagated all over the world. PMID:15133742

  14. Dependency Resolution Difficulty Increases with Distance in Persian Separable Complex Predicates: Evidence for Expectation and Memory-Based Accounts.

    PubMed

    Safavi, Molood S; Husain, Samar; Vasishth, Shravan

    2016-01-01

    Delaying the appearance of a verb in a noun-verb dependency tends to increase processing difficulty at the verb; one explanation for this locality effect is decay and/or interference of the noun in working memory. Surprisal, an expectation-based account, predicts that delaying the appearance of a verb either renders it no more predictable or more predictable, leading respectively to a prediction of no effect of distance or a facilitation. Recently, Husain et al. (2014) suggested that when the exact identity of the upcoming verb is predictable (strong predictability), increasing argument-verb distance leads to facilitation effects, which is consistent with surprisal; but when the exact identity of the upcoming verb is not predictable (weak predictability), locality effects are seen. We investigated Husain et al.'s proposal using Persian complex predicates (CPs), which consist of a non-verbal element-a noun in the current study-and a verb. In CPs, once the noun has been read, the exact identity of the verb is highly predictable (strong predictability); this was confirmed using a sentence completion study. In two self-paced reading (SPR) and two eye-tracking (ET) experiments, we delayed the appearance of the verb by interposing a relative clause (Experiments 1 and 3) or a long PP (Experiments 2 and 4). We also included a simple Noun-Verb predicate configuration with the same distance manipulation; here, the exact identity of the verb was not predictable (weak predictability). Thus, the design crossed Predictability Strength and Distance. We found that, consistent with surprisal, the verb in the strong predictability conditions was read faster than in the weak predictability conditions. Furthermore, greater verb-argument distance led to slower reading times; strong predictability did not neutralize or attenuate the locality effects. As regards the effect of distance on dependency resolution difficulty, these four experiments present evidence in favor of working memory

  15. Dependency Resolution Difficulty Increases with Distance in Persian Separable Complex Predicates: Evidence for Expectation and Memory-Based Accounts

    PubMed Central

    Safavi, Molood S.; Husain, Samar; Vasishth, Shravan

    2016-01-01

    Delaying the appearance of a verb in a noun-verb dependency tends to increase processing difficulty at the verb; one explanation for this locality effect is decay and/or interference of the noun in working memory. Surprisal, an expectation-based account, predicts that delaying the appearance of a verb either renders it no more predictable or more predictable, leading respectively to a prediction of no effect of distance or a facilitation. Recently, Husain et al. (2014) suggested that when the exact identity of the upcoming verb is predictable (strong predictability), increasing argument-verb distance leads to facilitation effects, which is consistent with surprisal; but when the exact identity of the upcoming verb is not predictable (weak predictability), locality effects are seen. We investigated Husain et al.'s proposal using Persian complex predicates (CPs), which consist of a non-verbal element—a noun in the current study—and a verb. In CPs, once the noun has been read, the exact identity of the verb is highly predictable (strong predictability); this was confirmed using a sentence completion study. In two self-paced reading (SPR) and two eye-tracking (ET) experiments, we delayed the appearance of the verb by interposing a relative clause (Experiments 1 and 3) or a long PP (Experiments 2 and 4). We also included a simple Noun-Verb predicate configuration with the same distance manipulation; here, the exact identity of the verb was not predictable (weak predictability). Thus, the design crossed Predictability Strength and Distance. We found that, consistent with surprisal, the verb in the strong predictability conditions was read faster than in the weak predictability conditions. Furthermore, greater verb-argument distance led to slower reading times; strong predictability did not neutralize or attenuate the locality effects. As regards the effect of distance on dependency resolution difficulty, these four experiments present evidence in favor of working

  16. Modelling the 13C and 12C isotopes of inorganic and organic carbon in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustafsson, Erik; Mörth, Carl-Magnus; Humborg, Christoph; Gustafsson, Bo G.

    2015-08-01

    In this study, 12C and 13C contents of all carbon containing state variables (dissolved inorganic and organic carbon, detrital carbon, and the carbon content of autotrophs and heterotrophs) have for the first time been explicitly included in a coupled physical-biogeochemical Baltic Sea model. Different processes in the carbon cycling have distinct fractionation values, resulting in specific isotopic fingerprints. Thus, in addition to simulating concentrations of different tracers, our new model formulation improves the possibility to constrain the rates of processes such as CO2 assimilation, mineralization, and air-sea exchange. We demonstrate that phytoplankton production and respiration, and the related air-sea CO2 fluxes, are to a large degree controlling the isotopic composition of organic and inorganic carbon in the system. The isotopic composition is further, but to a lesser extent, influenced by river loads and deep water inflows as well as transformation of terrestrial organic carbon within the system. Changes in the isotopic composition over the 20th century have been dominated by two processes - the preferential release of 12C to the atmosphere in association with fossil fuel burning, and the eutrophication of the Baltic Sea related to increased nutrient loads under the second half of the century.

  17. Modelling of marine radionuclide dispersion in IAEA MODARIA program: Lessons learnt from the Baltic Sea and Fukushima scenarios.

    PubMed

    Periáñez, R; Bezhenar, R; Brovchenko, I; Duffa, C; Iosjpe, M; Jung, K T; Kobayashi, T; Lamego, F; Maderich, V; Min, B I; Nies, H; Osvath, I; Outola, I; Psaltaki, M; Suh, K S; de With, G

    2016-11-01

    State-of-the art dispersion models were applied to simulate (137)Cs dispersion from Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster fallout in the Baltic Sea and from Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant releases in the Pacific Ocean after the 2011 tsunami. Models were of different nature, from box to full three-dimensional models, and included water/sediment interactions. Agreement between models was very good in the Baltic. In the case of Fukushima, results from models could be considered to be in acceptable agreement only after a model harmonization process consisting of using exactly the same forcing (water circulation and parameters) in all models. It was found that the dynamics of the considered system (magnitude and variability of currents) was essential in obtaining a good agreement between models. The difficulties in developing operative models for decision-making support in these dynamic environments were highlighted. Three stages which should be considered after an emergency, each of them requiring specific modelling approaches, have been defined. They are the emergency, the post-emergency and the long-term phases. PMID:27376914

  18. Y-Chromosomal Lineages of Latvians in the Context of the Genetic Variation of the Eastern-Baltic Region.

    PubMed

    Pliss, Liana; Timša, Līga; Rootsi, Siiri; Tambets, Kristiina; Pelnena, Inese; Zole, Egija; Puzuka, Agrita; Sabule, Areta; Rozane, Sandra; Lace, Baiba; Kucinskas, Vaidutis; Krumina, Astrida; Ranka, Renate; Baumanis, Viesturs

    2015-11-01

    Variations of the nonrecombining Y-chromosomal region were investigated in 159 unrelated Baltic-speaking ethnic Latvians from four different geographic regions, using 28 biallelic markers and 12 short tandem repeats. Eleven different haplogroups (hgs) were detected in a regionally homogeneous Latvian population, among which N1c, R1a, and I1 cover more than 85% of its paternal lineages. When compared its closest geographic neighbors, the composition of the Latvian Y-chromosomal gene pool was found to be very similar to those of Lithuanians and Estonians. Despite the comparable frequency distribution of hg N1c in Latvians and Lithuanians with the Finno-Ugric-speaking populations from the Eastern coast of the Baltic Sea, the observed differences in allelic variances of N1c haplotypes between these two groups are in concordance with the previously stated hypothesis of different dispersal ways of this lineage in the region. More than a third of Latvian paternal lineages belong specifically to a recently defined R1a-M558 hg, indicating an influence from a common source within Eastern Slavic populations on the formation of the present-day Latvian Y-chromosome gene pool. PMID:26411886

  19. Surface wave effects on water temperature in the Baltic Sea: simulations with the coupled NEMO-WAM model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alari, Victor; Staneva, Joanna; Breivik, Øyvind; Bidlot, Jean-Raymond; Mogensen, Kristian; Janssen, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Coupled circulation (NEMO) and wave model (WAM) system was used to study the effects of surface ocean waves on water temperature distribution and heat exchange at regional scale (the Baltic Sea). Four scenarios—including Stokes-Coriolis force, sea-state dependent energy flux (additional turbulent kinetic energy due to breaking waves), sea-state dependent momentum flux and the combination these forcings—were simulated to test the impact of different terms on simulated temperature distribution. The scenario simulations were compared to a control simulation, which included a constant wave-breaking coefficient, but otherwise was without any wave effects. The results indicate a pronounced effect of waves on surface temperature, on the distribution of vertical temperature and on upwelling's. Overall, when all three wave effects were accounted for, did the estimates of temperature improve compared to control simulation. During the summer, the wave-induced water temperature changes were up to 1 °C. In northern parts of the Baltic Sea, a warming of the surface layer occurs in the wave included simulations in summer months. This in turn reduces the cold bias between simulated and measured data, e.g. the control simulation was too cold compared to measurements. The warming is related to sea-state dependent energy flux. This implies that a spatio-temporally varying wave-breaking coefficient is necessary, because it depends on actual sea state. Wave-induced cooling is mostly observed in near-coastal areas and is the result of intensified upwelling in the scenario, when Stokes-Coriolis forcing is accounted for. Accounting for sea-state dependent momentum flux results in modified heat exchange at the water-air boundary which consequently leads to warming of surface water compared to control simulation.

  20. Surface wave effects on water temperature in the Baltic Sea: simulations with the coupled NEMO-WAM model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alari, Victor; Staneva, Joanna; Breivik, Øyvind; Bidlot, Jean-Raymond; Mogensen, Kristian; Janssen, Peter

    2016-08-01

    Coupled circulation (NEMO) and wave model (WAM) system was used to study the effects of surface ocean waves on water temperature distribution and heat exchange at regional scale (the Baltic Sea). Four scenarios—including Stokes-Coriolis force, sea-state dependent energy flux (additional turbulent kinetic energy due to breaking waves), sea-state dependent momentum flux and the combination these forcings—were simulated to test the impact of different terms on simulated temperature distribution. The scenario simulations were compared to a control simulation, which included a constant wave-breaking coefficient, but otherwise was without any wave effects. The results indicate a pronounced effect of waves on surface temperature, on the distribution of vertical temperature and on upwelling's. Overall, when all three wave effects were accounted for, did the estimates of temperature improve compared to control simulation. During the summer, the wave-induced water temperature changes were up to 1 °C. In northern parts of the Baltic Sea, a warming of the surface layer occurs in the wave included simulations in summer months. This in turn reduces the cold bias between simulated and measured data, e.g. the control simulation was too cold compared to measurements. The warming is related to sea-state dependent energy flux. This implies that a spatio-temporally varying wave-breaking coefficient is necessary, because it depends on actual sea state. Wave-induced cooling is mostly observed in near-coastal areas and is the result of intensified upwelling in the scenario, when Stokes-Coriolis forcing is accounted for. Accounting for sea-state dependent momentum flux results in modified heat exchange at the water-air boundary which consequently leads to warming of surface water compared to control simulation.

  1. Radioactive pollution of the waters of the baltic sea during 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarev, L.N.; Kuznetsov, Yu.V.; Gedeonov, L.I.; Gavrilov, V.M.; Gritchenko, Z.G.; Ivanova, L.M.; Orlova, T.E.; Tishkova, N.A.

    1989-01-01

    Results are presented from an investigation of radioactive pollution of the waters of the Baltic Sea during 1986. Inhomogeneities in the pollution of this area of water, due to varying density of atmospheric radioactive fallout, are detected. It is found that among the radionuclides entering the surface of the Baltic Sea in 1986 as a result of atmospheric transport, the main one in terms of radiation dose is cesium-137. Comparisons are made of the level of cesium-137 content in the waters of the Baltic Sea in 1986 and in preceding years. It is noted that even in the most polluted regions of the sea the cesium-137 content was 500 times less than the maximum allowable concentration (MAC) in the USSR for drinking water. The first results of the determination of plutonium-239 and 240 in the Baltic Sea are presented.

  2. Intrusion of radioactive industrially polluted water from North Sea into central Baltic Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Vakulovskiy, S.M.; Nikitin, A.I.

    1985-02-01

    The problem of penetration of radioactive industrially polluted water into the central Baltic Sea was studied. The content of Cs-134 as determined in water near the bottom of deep water trenches along the path traveled by North Sea water entering the Baltic. Samples were taken at 5 locations, with Cs-134 concentrated from samples of several thousands of liters. It was found that radioactive pollution caused by the entry of water from the North Sea extends through the system of deep water depressions into the Baltic as far as the Gotland trench. The greatest degree of contamination is found in the Arkona depression adjacent to the straits. The concentration of Cs-134 in the Gdansk trench is one-half as great and in the Gotland trench one-third as great as in the Arkona depression. Radioactive contamination in the Baltic is attributed to discharge of radioactive wastes by plants at Windscale.

  3. Transferrin variants as markers of migrations and admixture between populations in the Baltic Sea region.

    PubMed

    Beckman, L; Sikström, C; Mikelsaar, A V; Krumina, A; Ambrasiene, D; Kucinskas, V; Beckman, G

    1998-01-01

    Transferrin (TF) types were examined by isoelectric focusing in an attempt to elucidate migrations and admixture between populations in the Baltic Sea region. A highly significant heterogeneity between populations was found with respect to TF*C subtypes as well as the rare TF variants B2, B0-1 and DCHI. With the exception for Estonia, increased frequencies of the TF*C3 allele were observed east of the Baltic Sea. The island of Gotland in the middle of the Baltic Sea also showed a high TF*C3 frequency indicating an eastern influence. The TF*DCHI allele, a marker of eastern (Finno-Ugric) influence, was found in Finland and Estonia and on the island of Gotland, but not in mainland Sweden and in the Baltic peoples (Latvians and Lithuanians). These results indicate the presence of a Finno-Ugric, most likely Estonian or Livonian, genetic influence in the Gotland population. PMID:9694249

  4. Influence of sea level rise on the dynamics of salt inflows in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hordoir, Robinson; Axell, Lars; Löptien, Ulrike; Dietze, Heiner; Kuznetsov, Ivan

    2015-10-01

    The Baltic Sea is a marginal sea, located in a highly industrialized region in Central Northern Europe. Saltwater inflows from the North Sea and associated ventilation of the deep exert crucial control on the entire Baltic Sea ecosystem. This study explores the impact of anticipated sea level changes on the dynamics of those inflows. We use a numerical oceanic general circulation model covering both the Baltic and the North Sea. The model successfully retraces the essential ventilation dynamics throughout the period 1961-2007. A suite of idealized experiments suggests that rising sea level is associated with intensified ventilation as saltwater inflows become stronger, longer, and more frequent. Expressed quantitatively as a salinity increase in the deep central Baltic Sea, we find that a sea level rise of 1 m triggers a saltening of more than 1 PSU. This substantial increase in ventilation is the consequence of the increasing cross section in the Danish Straits amplified by a reduction of vertical mixing.

  5. Two new fossil species of Cryptocephalus Geoffroy (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) from Baltic and Dominican Amber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two new species of Cryptocephalus Geoffroy (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) are described and illustrated from fossil resin: Cryptocephalus groehni sp. nov (Baltic amber) and Cryptocephalus kheelorum sp. nov. (Dominican amber). These are the first described species of Cryptocephalinae from fossil resin. ...

  6. Verbal predicates foster conscious recollection but not familiarity of a task-irrelevant perceptual feature--an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Ecker, Ullrich K H; Arend, Anna M; Bergström, Kirstin; Zimmer, Hubert D

    2009-09-01

    Research on the effects of perceptual manipulations on recognition memory has suggested that (a) recollection is selectively influenced by task-relevant information and (b) familiarity can be considered perceptually specific. The present experiment tested divergent assumptions that (a) perceptual features can influence conscious object recollection via verbal code despite being task-irrelevant and that (b) perceptual features do not influence object familiarity if study is verbal-conceptual. At study, subjects named objects and their presentation colour; this was followed by an old/new object recognition test. Event-related potentials (ERP) showed that a study-test manipulation of colour impacted selectively on the ERP effect associated with recollection, while a size manipulation showed no effect. It is concluded that (a) verbal predicates generated at study are potent episodic memory agents that modulate recollection even if the recovered feature information is task-irrelevant and (b) commonly found perceptual match effects on familiarity critically depend on perceptual processing at study. PMID:19443243

  7. Magnetic enhancement of Baltic Sea sapropels by greigite magnetofossils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinholdsson, M.; Snowball, I.; Zillén, L.; Lenz, C.; Conley, D. J.

    2013-03-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are known to biosynthesise single-domain magnetite (Fe3O4) for geomagnetic navigation and their relict magnetosomes (called magnetofossils) can control the magnetic properties of lake and marine sediments. Magnetotactic bacteria also produce greigite (Fe3S4) magnetosomes but, compared to those made of magnetite, relatively little is known about the sedimentary environments where they are produced and the magnetic properties of the preserved particles. We studied the magnetic properties of sediment cores from two basins (the North Central Baltic Proper and eastern Gotland Basin) that currently experience hypoxia and we discovered the magnetic enhancement of older laminated sapropels, which are a signal of past occurrences of anoxia and hypoxia in the Baltic Sea. Magnetic concentrates extracted from the laminated sapropels were characterised by transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and we identified only single-domain greigite (Fe3S4) particles with a mean size of 55×75 nm, which we interpret as magnetofossils due to diagnostic chains of individual particles separated by an intact dividing membrane. The degree of magnetic enhancement in the laminated sapropels has a positive relationship with loss-on-ignition data, which indicates a link between the production of greigite magnetosomes, organic matter supply and preservation and redox conditions. The coercive force of collections of non-interacting greigite magnetofossils is ∼13 mT, which is considerably lower than the magnetite counterparts (∼30 mT) and strictly non-bacterial and larger greigite single-domain grains (∼60 mT). The values of the interparametric ratios of SIRM/χ, χARM/SIRM and χARM/χ that we obtain for our greigite magnetofossils overlap with those previously considered to be diagnostic of magnetosomal magnetite. The presence of bacterial greigite, which is easily detected by magnetic measurements, forms a proxy for hypoxia and

  8. Denitrification in the water column of the central Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalsgaard, Tage; De Brabandere, Loreto; Hall, Per O. J.

    2013-04-01

    Removal of fixed nitrogen in the water column of the eastern Gotland Basin, central Baltic Sea, was studied during two cruises in September 2008 and August 2010. The water column was stratified with anoxic sulfidic bottom water meeting oxic nitrate containing water at the oxic-anoxic interface. Anammox was never detected whereas denitrification was found in all incubations from anoxic depths and occurred immediately below the oxic-anoxic interface. Sulfide (H2S + HS- + S2-) was in most cases the only electron donor for denitrification but, in contrast to previous findings, denitrification was in some situations driven by organic matter alone. Nitrous oxide (N2O) became an increasingly important product of denitrification with increasing sulfide concentration and was >80% of the total N gas formation at 10 μM sulfide. The potential rates of denitrification measured in incubations at elevated NO3- or sulfide concentrations were converted to in situ rates using the measured water column concentrations of NO3- and sulfide and the actual measured relations between NO3- and sulfide concentrations and denitrification rates. In situ denitrification ranged from 0.24 to 15.9 nM N2 h-1. Assuming that these rates were valid throughout the anoxic NO3- containing zone, depth integrated in situ denitrification rates of 0.06-2.11 mmol N m-2 d-1 were estimated. The thickness of this zone was generally 3-6 m, which is probably what can be maintained through regular turbulent mixing induced by internal waves at the oxic-anoxic interface. However, layers of up to 55 m thickness with low O2 water (<10 μM) were observed which was probably the result of larger scale mixing. In such a layer nitrification may produce NO3- and once the O2 has been depleted denitrification will follow resulting in enormous rates per unit area. Even with an active denitrification layer of 3-6 m thickness the pelagic denitrification per unit area clearly exceeded sediment denitrification rates elsewhere in

  9. Variational data assimilation problem for the Baltic Sea thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharova, Natalia; Agoshkov, Valery; Parmuzin, Eugene

    2015-04-01

    The most versatile and promising technology for solving problems of monitoring and analysis of the natural environment is a four-dimensional variational data assimilation of observation data. In such problems not only the development and justification of algorithms for numerical solution of variational data assimilation problems but the properties of the optimal solution play an important role. In this work the variational data assimilation problems in the Baltic Sea water area were formulated and studied. Numerical experiments on restoring the ocean heat flux and obtaining solution of the system (temperature, salinity, velocity, and sea surface height) in the Baltic Sea primitive equation hydrodynamics model with assimilation procedure were carried out. In the calculations we used daily sea surface temperature observation from Danish meteorological Institute, prepared on the basis of measurements of the radiometer (AVHRR, AATSR and AMSRE) and spectroradiometer (SEVIRI and MODIS). The spatial resolution of the model grid with respect to the horizontal variables amounted to 0.0625x0.03125 degree. The results of the numerical experiments are presented. This study was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project 13-01-00753, project 14-01-31195) and project 14-11-00609 by the Russian Science Foundation. References: 1 E.I. Parmuzin, V.I. Agoshkov, Numerical solution of the variational assimilation problem for sea surface temperature in the model of the Black Sea dynamics. Russ. J. Numer. Anal. Math. Modelling (2012) 27, No.1, 69-94 2 Zakharova N.B., Agoshkov V.I., Parmuzin E.I., The new method of ARGO buoys system observation data interpolation. Russian Journal of Numerical Analysis and Mathematical Modelling. Vol. 28, Issue 1, 2013. 3 Zalesny V.B., Gusev A.V., Chernobay S.Yu., Aps R., Tamsalu R., Kujala P., Rytkönen J. The Bal-tic Sea circulation modelling and assessment of marine pollution, Russ. J. Numer. Analysis and Math. Modelling, 2014, V 29

  10. Stable isotope signals of eutrophication in Baltic Sea sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voss, Maren; Larsen, Birger; Leivuori, Mirja; Vallius, Henry

    2000-07-01

    Increasing δ15N and δ13C values in coastal Baltic marine sediments are evaluated as indicator of changes in the trophic status of the ecosystem. The influence of eutrophication on the δ15N values was found to be so dominant that it even overprints the usually observed mixing gradient from terrestrial (low isotope values) to the marine environment (high isotope values). A distinct gradient in stable nitrogen isotope values from eutrophic coastal areas to open more oligotrophic waters in the central Baltic Sea and Gulf of Bothnia was found. Our data show high δ15N values in surface sediments: 13‰ in the Oder Lagoon and the Pomeranian Bight, over 9‰ in the Gulf of Riga (Daugava River), 7‰ in the inner Gulf of Finland (Neva River), 6.5‰ in the Curonian Lagoon (Nemunas River), and 5.7‰ in the Gdansk Deep (Vistula River). In the Baltic Sea Proper, significantly lower δ15N values of 3-5‰ are found. A decrease in δ15N values with depth/age of the sediment was indicated in some cores that were analyzed down to 15-40 cm depth in 1-cm steps. There is a great overall difference between pre-industrial δ15N values in coastal sediments and recent ones of 2.3-10‰. As explanations for this increase are suggested, elevated nutrient δ15N values of waste water in combination with fractionation processes like nutrient uptake by phytoplankton and denitrification and nitrification processes in rivers discharging into the coastal water. Delta 13C values in sediment surfaces off the river estuaries primarily indicate differences between the inorganic carbon signatures of the rivers. However, since the δ13C values also decrease downcore, we contribute this change to increased primary production caused by the enhanced nutrient load. Since both stable isotope values in sediments ( δ13C and δ15N) correlate downcore, this strongly suggests that the anthropogenic nutrient loads in the rivers might be the reason for the changes of stable isotope values.

  11. Tritium volume activity in the Baltic Sea in 1987-1989

    SciTech Connect

    Styro, D.B.; Korotkov, V.P.

    1994-11-01

    Tritium volume activities measured in the Baltic Sea are summarized in this paper. Activity levels were determined by the liquid scintillation method with a LS-1000 counter. The field investigations showed that the tritium volume activity in the Baltic Sea can change substantially in absolute magnitude. Therefore, average volume activity is used as an indicator of natural content. Correlations between calculated (averaged) tritium activity levels and the Chernobyl accident are very briefly discussed. 7 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  12. The radiological exposure of man from radioactivity in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, S P; Bengtson, P; Bojanowsky, R; Hagel, P; Herrmann, J; Ilus, E; Jakobson, E; Motiejunas, S; Panteleev, Y; Skujina, A; Suplinska, M

    1999-09-30

    A radiological assessment has been carried out considering discharges of radioactivity to the Baltic Sea marine environment since 1950. The sources of radioactivity that have been evaluated are atmospheric nuclear-weapons fallout, fallout from the Chernobyl accident in 1986, discharges of radionuclides from Sellafield and La Hague transported into the Baltic Sea, and discharges of radionuclides from nuclear installations located in the Baltic Sea area. Dose rates from man-made radioactivity to individual members of the public (critical groups) have been calculated based on annual intake of seafood and beach occupancy time. The dose rates to individuals from the regions of the Bothnian Sea and Gulf of Finland are predicted to be larger than from any other area in the Baltic Sea due to the pattern of Chernobyl fallout. The dose rates are predicted to have peaked in 1986 at a value of 0.2 mSv year-1. Collective committed doses to members of the public have been calculated based on fishery statistics and predicted concentrations of radionuclides in biota and coastal sediments. The total collective dose from man-made radioactivity in the Baltic Sea is estimated at 2600 manSv, of which approximately two-thirds originate from Chernobyl fallout, approximately one-quarter from atmospheric nuclear-weapons fallout, approximately 8% from European reprocessing facilities, and approximately 0.04% from nuclear installations bordering the Baltic Sea area. An assessment of small-scale dumping of low-level radioactive waste in the Baltic Sea in the 1960s by Sweden and the Soviet Union has showed that doses to man from these activities are negligible. Dose rates and doses from natural radioactivity dominate except for the year 1986 where dose rates to individuals from Chernobyl fallout in some regions of the Baltic Sea approached those from natural radioactivity. PMID:10568271

  13. The LWb blood group as a marker of prehistoric Baltic migrations and admixture.

    PubMed

    Sistonen, P; Virtaranta-Knowles, K; Denisova, R; Kucinskas, V; Ambrasiene, D; Beckman, L

    1999-06-01

    Archaeological findings and historical records indicate frequent migrations and exchange of genetic material between populations in the Baltic Sea area. However, there have so far been very few attempts to trace migrations in this area using genetic markers. We have studied the Baltic populations with respect to exceptional variations in the frequencies of the Landsteiner-Wiener (LW) blood group. The frequency of the uncommon LWb gene was high in the Balts, around 6% among Latvians and Lithuanians, very low among the other western Europeans (0-0.1%) and apparently absent in Asiatic and African populations. From the Baltic region of peak frequency there was a regular decline of LWb incidence (a descending cline) in the neighboring populations: 4.0% in the Estonians, 2.9% in the Finns, 2. 2% in the Vologda Russians, and 2.0% in the Poles. Thus the distribution of LWb suggests considerable and extensive Baltic admixture, especially in the north and northeast direction. In Southern Sweden with an LWb frequency of 0.3%, the Baltic influence appeared slight, while in the population of the Swedish island Gotland in the middle of the Baltic Sea there was a significantly increased LWb frequency of 1.0% compared with that of Western European countries. The distinction of codominantly inherited LW antigenic forms, LWa and LWb (previously Nea), is known to be due to a single base substitution. Based on our population data, it is plausible that the expansion of this point mutation occurred only once during human history. Furthermore, our data indicate that the expansion of the LWb mutation occurred in Balts and that LWb can be considered a 'Baltic tribal marker', its presence in other populations being an indicator of the degree of Baltic genetic influence. PMID:10364680

  14. Increasing nitrogen limitation in the Bothnian Sea, potentially caused by inflow of phosphate-rich water from the Baltic Proper.

    PubMed

    Rolff, Carl; Elfwing, Tina

    2015-11-01

    The study showed that the open water of the Bothnian Sea (BS) is likely to have shifted from altering nitrogen and phosphorous limitations of the spring bloom to more nitrogen-limited conditions during the last 20 years. This is affected by the by inflow of phosphate-rich and oxygen-depleted water from depths near the halocline in the northern Baltic Proper, where severe oxygen conditions currently cause extreme phosphate concentrations in the deep water. The change in relation between inorganic nitrogen and phosphorous in the BS occurs first in the deep water and then progresses to the surface water. The change can potentially cause increased production in the BS and more frequent cyanobacterial blooms. There does not appear to be any immediate concern in the short-term perspective for the state of the BS, but a progression of the processes may lead to a more eutrophic state of the BS. PMID:25990584

  15. Variability of atmospheric circulation patterns associated with large volume changes of the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, A.; Post, P.

    2015-10-01

    Salinity and stratification in the deep basins of the Baltic Sea are linked to the occurrence of Major Baltic Inflows (MBIs) of higher saline water of North Sea origin, which occur sporadically and transport higher saline and oxygenated water to deeper layers. Since the mid-1970s, the frequency and intensity of MBIs have decreased. They were completely absent between February 1983 and January 1993. However, in spite of the decreasing frequency of MBIs, there was no obvious decrease of larger Baltic Sea volume changes (LVCs). A LVC is defined by a total volume change of at least 100 km3. LVCs can be identified from the sea level changes at Landsort which is known to represent the mean sea level of the Baltic Sea very well. Strong inflows leading to LVCs are associated to a special sequence of atmospheric circulation patterns. Our analysis based on Jenkinson-Collison circulation (JCC) types confirms that most effective inflows occur if about a month before the main inflow period, eastern air flow with anticyclonic vorticity over the western Baltic prevails. These conditions reduce the mean sea level of the Baltic Sea and lead to an increased saline stratification in the Belt Sea area. An immediate period of strong to very strong westerly winds trigger the inflow and force LVCs/MBIs. The lack of MBIs coincide with a negative trend of eastern types and a parallel increase of western type JCCs.

  16. Metazoan parasites from herring (Clupea harengus L.) as biological indicators in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Unger, Patrick; Klimpel, Sven; Lang, Thomas; Palm, Harry Wilhelm

    2014-09-01

    Zoographical distribution of metazoan fish parasites in herring, Clupea harengus, from the Baltic Sea was analysed in order to use them as potential biological indicators. A total of 210 herring from six different sampling sites were investigated, harbouring 12 different parasite species [five digeneans (D), one cestode (C), three nematodes (N) and three acanthocephalans (A)]. The distribution of the parasite species differed according to region, with a distinct gradient of decreasing species richness towards the east of the Baltic Sea. The western localities at Kiel Bay, Rügen and Poland had the highest parasite diversity, including the marine parasite species Anisakis simplex (s.s.) (N), Brachyphallus crenatus and Hemiurus luehei (both D). The eastern localities had low parasite species richness, predominated by the freshwater digenean Diplostomum spathaceum. We could identify three different Baltic herring stocks, the spring-spawning herring of the western Baltic reaching from the Kattegat to the German and Polish coast, the stock of the central Baltic proper and the northern stock of C. harengus var. membras of the Gulf of Finland. The limited distribution of the herring parasites within the Baltic Sea enables their use as biological indicators for migration patterns and stock separation. The acanthocephalan Pomphorhynchus laevis that has already been used as an accumulation bioindicator for heavy metals was only recorded for the western herring stocks. However, the presence of mainly generalistic parasites and their uneven distribution patterns make their use as indicators for regional environmental and global change more difficult. PMID:25119368

  17. Bacterial methanogenesis in holocene sediments in the Baltic Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Lein, A.Y.; Namsaraev, B.B.; Trotsyuk, V.Y.; Ivanov, M.V.

    1981-01-01

    Soviet biologists have found evidence of viable methanogenic microorganisms in mud samples collected in 1978 from the Baltic Sea by the research ship Academician Kurchatov. Experiments with radioactive carbon and direct measurements of the samples' methane concentrations led to several conclusions: (1) the process of bacterial methanogenesis occurs mainly via carbon dioxide reduction, (2) the methanogenic intensity depends on the depth of the deposited sediment and its distance from land; shallow-water sediments found in gulfs produced more methane than deepwater ones taken from low spots, (3) organic-matter consumption during bacterial methane reduction makes up 0.14-7.9 mg of carbon/kg of wet mud per year; this is over 20 times less than during bacterial sulfate reduction, (4) The bulk of the methane generated migrates from the muds into the water and (5) marine sediments are undersaturated with methane, suggesting that the methane migrates via filtration of pore waters, not by diffusion.

  18. Paleogeographic sedimentation settings in the northern Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimonis, E. S.; Emelyanov, E. M.; Vaikutene, G.

    2008-10-01

    The grain-size and chemical composition of the bottom sediments and their diatom assemblages from the northern Baltic Sea is discussed. Characteristic layers are distinguished based on the lithostratgraphy and sediment core correlation, which reflect the transition from the lacustrine to marine sedimentation settings during the initial Holocene. Sediment cores demonstrate lateral variations in the sedimentation patterns during the marine (Yoldia Sea), the lacustrine (Ancylus Lake), and the subsequent marine (Littorina Sea) stages: first two stages were characterized by the clay deposition, while the latter one featured accumulation of silty-clayey and clayey muds in bottom depressions. Sea-level fluctuations and corresponding environmental changes are recorded in microlaminated sequences, in particular, sapropelic muds.

  19. The groundwater exchange rate of the southern Baltic coastal lowland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burzyński, K.; Sadurski, A.

    1990-11-01

    The groundwater of the southern Baltic lowlands usually occurs in particular hydrogeological conditions. The lowland is mostly covered by peats several metres in thickness. Peatbog water is isolated from deeper aquifers and has different chemical composition. Salty, relic groundwater of marine origin from the Atlantic period of the Holocene (Littorina transgression) may have survived in the deeper coastal aquifers in places of sluggish flow. The results of mathematical modelling of groundwater circulation show that the flow rate and local directions of groundwater change during the year, depending on the rate of groundwater recharge by precipitation. We present here an unsteady flow model, which makes it possible to predict the water table fluctuations during a year at any point of the area studied. The calculation of the groundwater exchange rate did not confirm the presence of any places of very sluggish groundwater flow, where salty, young relic water might have survived.

  20. Atmospheric circulation and storm events in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surkova, G. V.; Arkhipkin, Victor S.; Kislov, Alexander V.

    2015-09-01

    The storm events in the Baltic Sea are examined in connection with the main weather patterns grouped into the circulation types (CTs), and their changes in present climate. A calendar of storms was derived from results of wave model SWAN (Simulating WAves Nearshore) experiments for 1948-2011. Based on this calendar, a catalogue of atmospheric sea level pressure (SLP) fields was prepared for CTs from the NCEP/NCAR dataset. SLP fields were then analyzed using a pattern recognition algorithm which employed empirical orthogonal decomposition and cluster analysis. For every CT we conducted an analysis of their seasonal and interannual changes, along with their role in storm event formation. An increase of the storm CTs' frequency in the second part of the 20th century was shown to be in a close agreement with teleconnection circulation patterns such as the Arctic Oscillation, North Atlantic Oscillation and the Scandinavian blocking.

  1. Allelopathic activity of the Baltic cyanobacteria against microalgae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Żak, Adam; Musiewicz, Krzysztof; Kosakowska, Alicja

    2012-10-01

    The goal of this work was to investigate the influence of Baltic cyanobacteria Anabaena variabilis and Nodularia spumigena cells and cell-free filtrates on the growth of green algae Chlorella vulgaris. We have demonstrated that Anabaena variabilis and Nodularia spumigena caused allelopathic effects against microalgae. The cyanobacterial and microalgal cultures were provided on liquid medium, in 22 °C at continuous light. Cell-free filtrates were obtained by centrifugation and filtering aliquots of cyanobacterial cultures (including cultures in exponential and stationary phase of growth). Growth response of free cells (batch culture technique) and immobilized cultures (in alginate beads) of the unicellular green algae to cyanobacteria allelochemicals were tested and compared. In this experiment Anabaena variabilis supressed the growth of microalgae compared to control samples. Nodularia spumigena stimulated the growth of Chlorella vulgaris in most cases, however both positive and negative effects were observed.

  2. [Accumulation of polycyclic arenes in Baltic Sea algae].

    PubMed

    Veldre, I A; Itra, A R; Paal'me, L P; Kukk, Kh A

    1985-01-01

    The paper presents data on the level of benzo(a)pyrene (BP) and some other polycyclic arenes in alga and phanerogam specimens from different gulfs of the Baltic Sea. Algae were shown to absorb BP from sea water. The mean concentration of BP in sea water was under 0.004 microgram/1, while in algae it ranged 0.1-21.2 micrograms/kg dry weight. Algae accumulate BP to a higher degree than phanerogams. The highest concentrations of BP were found in algae Enteromorpha while the lowest ones in Furcellaria. In annual green algae, BP level was higher in autumn, i. e. at the end of vegetation period, than in spring. Brown algae Fucus vesiculosus is recommended for monitoring polycyclic arene pollution in the area from Vormsi Island to Käsmu and green algae Cladophora or Enteromorpha in the eastern part of the Finnish Gulf. PMID:4060672

  3. Radiational tides at the southeastern coast of the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabinovich, A. B.; Medvedev, I. P.

    2015-05-01

    The tides in the Baltic Sea are weak but unmistakably recognizable in sea-level spectra. Multiyear hourly tide gauge series enable us to examine specific tidal properties in detail and to identify some unexpected effects. Two nearby stations on the southeastern coast of the sea, namely Baltiysk, located in the strait connecting the Vistula Lagoon to the Baltic Sea, and Otkrytoe, on the coast of the Curonian Lagoon, are found to have very different character of tidal motions. Based on 13 years of simultaneous observations at these stations we constructed high-resolution spectra of sea level fluctuations that demonstrated that the tidal spectrum at Baltiysk is "classical" with sharp peaks corresponding to the major tidal constituents: M2, S2, N2, K1, O1, and P1. Unlike at Baltiysk, the main tidal peak at Otkrytoe is at the S1 frequency; the K1, P1, and S2 tidal harmonics also have significant peaks, while the other harmonics (including M2 and O1) are undistinguishable. Further analysis indicated that the tides at Baltiysk are generated by ordinary gravitational tidal forces, while at Otkrytoe they are induced by solar radiation, specifically by the breeze winds creating wind setups and setdowns in the Curonian Lagoon. Moreover, our findings demonstrate that the observed K1 and P1 peaks at Otkrytoe are related not to gravitational forces but to the seasonal modulation of the S1 radiational tidal constituent. The separate analysis of the "summer" and "winter" sea level spectra at Otkrytoe reveals prominent radiational tidal peaks (S1 and S2) in summer and the absence of these peaks in winter. The results of the analysis support the assumption that these motions are generated by the breeze winds associated with the sea/land temperature contrasts, which are substantial during the warm (ice-free) season but vague during the cold season when ice cover diminishes these contrasts.

  4. PUMa - modelling the groundwater flow in Baltic Sedimentary Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalvane, G.; Marnica, A.; Bethers, U.

    2012-04-01

    In 2009-2012 at University of Latvia and Latvia University of Agriculture project "Establishment of interdisciplinary scientist group and modelling system for groundwater research" is implemented financed by the European Social Fund. The aim of the project is to develop groundwater research in Latvia by establishing interdisciplinary research group and modelling system covering groundwater flow in the Baltic Sedimentary Basin. Researchers from fields like geology, chemistry, mathematical modelling, physics and environmental engineering are involved in the project. The modelling system is used as a platform for addressing scientific problems such as: (1) large-scale groundwater flow in Baltic Sedimentary Basin and impact of human activities on it; (2) the evolution of groundwater flow since the last glaciation and subglacial groundwater recharge; (3) the effects of climate changes on shallow groundwater and interaction of hydrographical network and groundwater; (4) new programming approaches for groundwater modelling. Within the frame of the project most accessible geological information such as description of geological wells, geological maps and results of seismic profiling in Latvia as well as Estonia and Lithuania are collected and integrated into modelling system. For example data form more then 40 thousands wells are directly used to automatically generate the geological structure of the model. Additionally a groundwater sampling campaign is undertaken. Contents of CFC, stabile isotopes of O and H and radiocarbon are the most significant parameters of groundwater that are established in unprecedented scale for Latvia. The most important modelling results will be published in web as a data set. Project number: 2009/0212/1DP/1.1.1.2.0/09/APIA/VIAA/060. Project web-site: www.puma.lu.lv

  5. On Suspended matter grain size in Baltic sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bubnova, Ekaterina; Sivkov, Vadim; Zubarevich, Victor

    2016-04-01

    Suspended matter grain size data were gathered during the 25th research vessel "Akademik Mstislav Keldysh" cruise (1991, September-October). Initial quantitative data were obtained with a use of the Coulter counter and subsequently modified into volume concentrations (mm3/l) for size intervals. More than 80 samples from 15 stations were analyzed (depth range 0-355 m). The main goal of research was to illustrate the spatial variability of suspended matter concentration and dispersion in Baltic Sea. The mutual feature of suspended matter grain size distribution is the logical rise of particle number along with descending of particle's size. Vertical variability of grain size distribution was defined by Baltic Sea hydrological structure, including upper mixed layer - from the surface to the thermocline - with 35 m thick, cold intermediate layer - from the thermocline to the halocline- and bottom layer, which lied under the halocline. Upper layer showed a rise in total suspended matter concentration (up to 0.6 mm3/l), while cold intermediate level consisted of far more clear water (up to 0.1 mm3/l). Such a difference is caused by the thermocline boarding role. Meanwhile, deep bottom water experienced surges in suspended matter concentration owing to the nepheloid layer presence and "liquid bottom" effect. Coastal waters appeared to have the highest amount of particles (up to 5.0 mm3/l). Suspended matter grain size distribution in the upper mixed layer revealed a peak of concentration at 7 μ, which can be due to autumn plankton bloom. Another feature in suspended matter grain size distribution appeared at the deep layer below halocline, where both O2 and H2S were observed and red/ox barrier is. The simultaneous presence of Fe and Mn (in solutions below red/ox barrier) and O2 leads to precipitation of oxyhydrates Fe and Mn and grain size distribution graph peaking at 4.5 μ.

  6. Towards uncertainty estimation for operational forecast products - a multi-model-ensemble approach for the North Sea and the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golbeck, Inga; Li, Xin; Janssen, Frank

    2014-05-01

    Several independent operational ocean models provide forecasts of the ocean state (e.g. sea level, temperature, salinity and ice cover) in the North Sea and the Baltic Sea on a daily basis. These forecasts are the primary source of information for a variety of information and emergency response systems used e.g. to issue sea level warnings or carry out oil drift forecast. The forecasts are of course highly valuable as such, but often suffer from a lack of information on their uncertainty. With the aim of augmenting the existing operational ocean forecasts in the North Sea and the Baltic Sea by a measure of uncertainty a multi-model-ensemble (MME) system for sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface salinity (SSS) and water transports has been set up in the framework of the MyOcean-2 project. Members of MyOcean-2, the NOOS² and HIROMB/BOOS³ communities provide 48h-forecasts serving as inputs. Different variables are processed separately due to their different physical characteristics. Based on the so far collected daily MME products of SST and SSS, a statistical method, Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis is applied to assess their spatial and temporal variability. For sea surface currents, progressive vector diagrams at specific points are consulted to estimate the performance of the circulation models especially in hydrodynamic important areas, e.g. inflow/outflow of the Baltic Sea, Norwegian trench and English Channel. For further versions of the MME system, it is planned to extend the MME to other variables like e.g. sea level, ocean currents or ice cover based on the needs of the model providers and their customers. It is also planned to include in-situ data to augment the uncertainty information and for validation purposes. Additionally, weighting methods will be implemented into the MME system to develop more complex uncertainty measures. The methodology used to create the MME will be outlined and different ensemble products will be presented. In

  7. Using an independent geochronology based on palaeomagnetic secular variation (PSV) and atmospheric Pb deposition to date Baltic Sea sediments and infer 14C reservoir age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lougheed, Bryan C.; Snowball, Ian; Moros, Matthias; Kabel, Karoline; Muscheler, Raimund; Virtasalo, Joonas J.; Wacker, Lukas

    2012-05-01

    Dating of sediment cores from the Baltic Sea has proven to be difficult due to uncertainties surrounding the 14C reservoir age and a scarcity of macrofossils suitable for dating. Here we present the results of multiple dating methods carried out on cores in the Gotland Deep area of the Baltic Sea. Particular emphasis is placed on the Littorina stage (8 ka ago to the present) of the Baltic Sea and possible changes in the 14C reservoir age of our dated samples. Three geochronological methods are used. Firstly, palaeomagnetic secular variations (PSV) are reconstructed, whereby ages are transferred to PSV features through comparison with varved lake sediment based PSV records. Secondly, lead (Pb) content and stable isotope analysis are used to identify past peaks in anthropogenic atmospheric Pb pollution. Lastly, 14C determinations were carried out on benthic foraminifera (Elphidium spec.) samples from the brackish Littorina stage of the Baltic Sea. Determinations carried out on smaller samples (as low as 4 μg C) employed an experimental, state-of-the-art method involving the direct measurement of CO2 from samples by a gas ion source without the need for a graphitisation step - the first time this method has been performed on foraminifera in an applied study. The PSV chronology, based on the uppermost Littorina stage sediments, produced ten age constraints between 6.29 and 1.29 cal ka BP, and the Pb depositional analysis produced two age constraints associated with the Medieval pollution peak. Analysis of PSV data shows that adequate directional data can be derived from both the present Littorina saline phase muds and Baltic Ice Lake stage varved glacial sediments. Ferrimagnetic iron sulphides, most likely authigenic greigite (Fe3S4), present in the intermediate Ancylus Lake freshwater stage sediments acquire a gyroremanent magnetisation during static alternating field (AF) demagnetisation, preventing the identification of a primary natural remanent magnetisation for

  8. Past storminess recorded in the internal architecture of coastal formations of Estonia in the NE Baltic Sea region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tõnisson, Hannes; Vilumaa, Kadri; Kont, Are; Sugita, Shinya; Rosentau, Alar; Muru, Merle; Anderson, Agnes

    2016-04-01

    Over the past 50 years, storminess has increased in northern Europe because of the changes in cyclonic activity. The cyclone season in the Baltic Sea area has shifted from autumn to winter; this has led to intensification of shore processes (erosion, sediment transport and accumulation) and has increased pressure to the economy (land use, coastal protection measures) of the coastal regions in the Baltic states. Therefore, studing the effects of such changes on shore processes in the past is critical for prediction of the future changes along the Baltic coasts. Beach ridge plains are found worldwide, where cyclones and storm surges affect accumulation forms. These sandy shores are highly susceptible to erosion. Due to the isostatic uplift on the NE coast of the Baltic Sea, the signs of major past events are well-preserved in the internal architecture of old coastal formations (dune ridge-swale complexes). Wave-eroded scarps in beach deposits are visible in subsurface ground-penetrating radar (GPR) records, indicating the past high-energy events. Several study areas and transects were selected on the NW coast of Estonia, using high-resolution topographic maps (LiDAR). Shore-normal subsurface surveys have been conducted with a digital GSSI SIR-3000 georadar with a 270 MHz antenna at each transect. Interpretation of GPR facies was based on hand auger and window sampler coring, which provided accurate depths of key stratigraphic boundaries and bounding surfaces. Several samples for luminescence and 14C dating were collected to determine the approximate chronology of the coastal formations along the Estonian coast. We have found that changes in storminess, including the periods of high and low intensity of storms in late Holocene, are clearly reflected in the internal patterns of ancient coastal formations. The sections with small ridges with short seaward-dipped layers (interface between wave-built and aeolian deposits) in deeper horizons are probably formed during

  9. Foraminiferal stable isotope constraints on salinity changes in the deglacial and early Holocene Baltic Sea region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintana Krupinski, Nadine; Filipsson, Helena; Bokhari-Friberg, Yasmin; Knudsen, Karen-Luise; Mackensen, Andreas; Groeneveld, Jeroen; Austin, William

    2015-04-01

    The northern European Baltic Sea shows evidence of strong coupling with North Atlantic climate over recent glacial-interglacial cycles, but existing climate proxy evidence from regional sediment records suggest that the coupling may occur through non-linear processes. High-resolution regional climate records in Europe and from the Baltic Sea are critical for evaluating this coupling and the regional sensitivity to North Atlantic and global climate signals. However, evaluating the drivers and mechanisms of proposed links between the North Atlantic and Baltic Sea climate has often been hampered by a lack of long, continuous, high-resolution climate records from this area. New high-resolution sediment cores collected by IODP/ECORD Expedition 347 (Baltic Sea Paleoenvironment) allow such records to be generated, including foraminiferal geochemistry records of Baltic Sea hydrographic conditions during the most recent deglaciation and early Holocene (~19-7 cal. ka). The dramatic changes in salinity, sea level, circulation, temperature, and oxygenation during this period, e.g. through massive meltwater release from proglacial lakes and the early Holocene inundation of the Baltic by seawater highlight these non-linear links between the Baltic and North Atlantic. This work uses benthic foraminiferal stable isotope records (δ18O and δ13C) from sites in the western Baltic (M0059, Lillebælt, early Holocene marine stage (Littorina Sea)) and Kattegat (M0060, Anholt, deglaciation) to constrain salinity changes during these intervals. Because of the dramatic changes in salinity this region experiences today and during the study periods, oxygen isotope records (δ18O) here primarily reflect a signal of changing salinity, with a reduced temperature effect. Early δ18O results from the western Baltic (M0059) show a trend of declining δ18O/salinity during the first several kyr of the Littorina Sea stage, in agreement with previous work indicating declining salinity due to gradual

  10. Reciprocal Predicates in Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishii, Yasuo

    A study of reciprocals in Japanese compares two kinds: (1) a verbal suffix "aw"; and (2) an NP argument "otagai." Although "otagai" appears to be taken care of by syntactic binding theory, it is proposed that there is no evidence for the existence of a syntactic position of the object NP in the case of "aw." The suffix can be characterized as…

  11. Corrosion behavior of high-nickel and chromium alloys in natural Baltic seawater

    SciTech Connect

    Birn, J.; Janik-Czachor, M.; Wolowik, A.; Szummer, A.

    1999-10-01

    Effect of Cl{sup {minus}} ion concentration (O M sodium chloride [NaCl] to 2 M NaCl) and temperature (25 C to 75 C) on stability of the passive state of high-Ni and Cr alloys: NI-1 ({approximately} 16% Mo), CR-2 ({approximately} 6.2% Mo), and NI-3 (3.5% Mo) were investigated in acidic and neutral electrolytes in strictly controlled electrochemical conditions. The anodic behavior of the alloys appeared to depend mostly upon Mo content in the alloy. Thus, the NI-1 was the most stable alloy under the applied experimental conditions. The other alloys were also quite resistant, undergoing pitting only at elevated temperatures, at high anodic potentials, and at a chloride concentration not lower than 1 M. In natural Baltic seawater, these alloys did not exhibit any tendency to pitting, in qualitative agreement with the accelerated electrochemical tests. Complementary microscopic and surface analytical (AES) investigations were carried out to correlate the anodic and corrosion behavior of these materials with their composition and structure, and the composition of the passivating films formed at their surfaces.

  12. Effects of an extensive Prymnesium polylepis bloom on breeding eiders in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsson, K.; Hajdu, S.; Kilpi, M.; Larsson, R.; Leito, A.; Lyngs, P.

    2014-04-01

    The effects of an extensive bloom of the potentially toxic Prymnesium polylepis (Haptophyta) on breeding eiders (Somateria mollissima) in the Baltic Sea were analysed. Increasing abundances of the alternate stage P. polylepis was detected by a marine monitoring programme in the autumn 2007. The bloom peaked between March and May 2008 in the southern, central and northwestern Baltic Proper and abundances of up to 5 × 106 cells l- 1 were recorded. At several sites P. polylepis constituted between 30 and 90% of the total phytoplankton biovolume. The flagellate was only recorded in low numbers in the northeastern Baltic Proper and Gulf of Finland. The abundances were low in 2007, 2009 and 2010. In 28 eider colonies situated in the southern and central Baltic Proper, sharp and synchronous declines in the number of nesting eiders were observed from 2007 to 2008. In colonies on Gotland in the central Baltic Proper, a 76% decrease, from 6650 nests to 1620 nests, was followed by increases in 2009 and 2010, although not up to numbers observed in 2007. At Utklippan and Ertholmene in the southern Baltic Proper, the observed decreases of 55%, from 144 to 65 nests, and 36%, from 1660 to 1060 nests, respectively, between 2007 and 2008, were followed by increases in 2009 and 2010 up to the level observed in 2007. By contrast, no general decline of the number of nesting eiders was observed from 2007 to 2008 in 75 colonies in the northeastern Baltic Proper and Gulf of Finland. Hence, the spatial distribution of the P. polylepis bloom in 2008 closely matched the observed distribution of extensive non-breeding of female eiders. We suggest that the intensive spring bloom of P. polylepis, either through a toxic or non-toxic pathway, affected the main benthic food of eiders, i.e. blue mussels (Mytilus trossulus × Mytilus edulis), at pre-breeding foraging sites close to the breeding sites, and, subsequently, the body condition of adult female eiders and their breeding propensity.

  13. ‘Contexts of Exit in the Migration of Russian Speakers from the Baltic Countries to Ireland’

    PubMed Central

    Aptekar, Sofya

    2013-01-01

    Recently, Ireland has become a major destination for migrants from Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. Many of these migrants are members of Russian-speaking minorities leaving a context of restrictive citizenship and language laws and varying degrees of ethnic tension. This paper draws on interviews collected in Ireland to examine the role played by the contexts of exit in decisions to migrate among Russian-speaking minorities from the Baltics. The results suggest that Russian speakers from Estonia migrate because of their experiences as minorities, while those from Latvia and Lithuania migrate to escape low wages and irregular employment. This is so despite equally restrictive language and citizenship laws in Estonia and Latvia. I argue that the effect of state policy as a push factor for minority emigration is mediated by other contextual aspects, such as levels of contact, timbre of ethnic relations, and the degree of intersection between economic stratification and ethnicity. PMID:24363609

  14. Juvenile flatfish in the northern Baltic Sea - long-term decline and potential links to habitat characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jokinen, Henri; Wennhage, Håkan; Ollus, Victoria; Aro, Eero; Norkko, Alf

    2016-01-01

    Flatfish in the northern Baltic Sea are facing multiple environmental pressures due to on-going large-scale ecosystem changes linked to eutrophication and climate change. Shallow juvenile habitats of flatfishes are expected to be especially susceptible to these environmental pressures. Using previously unpublished historical and present-state data on juvenile flatfish in nursery areas along the Finnish coast we demonstrate a drastic (up to 40 ×) decline in 1-Y-O flounder densities since the 1980s and a particularly low current occurrence of both flounders and turbots in several known juvenile habitats. As a consequence of ongoing coastal eutrophication vegetation coverage and filamentous algae have generally increased in shallow areas. We examined the predicted negative effect of vegetation/algae by exploring quantitative relationships between juvenile flatfish (flounder and turbot) occurrence and vegetation/algae among other environmental factors in shallow juvenile habitats. Despite sparse occurrence of juveniles we found a significant negative relationship between flatfish abundance and vegetation cover, implicating eutrophication as a potential major driver affecting the value of juvenile habitat. Shallow littoral habitats play a particularly central role for flatfish due to the spatial concentration of fish in these areas during the critical juvenile stage. Despite their importance, these areas have been relatively poorly studied in the northern Baltic Sea, which makes it difficult to quantify overall changes in environmental conditions and to relate these changes to flatfish recruitment. The low present-state flatfish densities recorded preclude strong inferences of the role of habitat quality to be drawn. Our study does, however, provide a baseline for future assessment. Based on existing evidence, we cannot thus establish any bottlenecks but hypothesize that the current low occurrence of juvenile flatfish, and the population decline of flounder on the

  15. Variability of Atmospheric Circulation Patterns associated with Major Baltic Inflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, Piia; Lehmann, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Due to the narrow and shallow Danish Straits the water exchange between the North Sea and the Baltic Sea is greatly restrained. As a consequence the salt flux into the Baltic Sea is reduced, so that during stagnation periods where no strong inflows occur the permanent halocline weakens, and even disappears in some basins. Only Major Baltic inflows (MBIs), when large volumes of highly saline and oxygenated water invade over the sills, are capable to flow as dense bottom currents into the central deeps and replace the stagnant water there, simultaneously improving living conditions to biota. MBIs are typically forced by a sequence of easterly winds lasting for about 20 days followed by strong to very strong westerly winds of similar duration. Since the mid-1970s, the frequency and intensity of major inflows have decreased, and they were completely absent between February 1983 and January 1993. As the major inflows are mainly forced by the atmosphere, the reason for this kind of change is assumed to be connected to variations in the atmospheric circulation. There have been several studies where the changes in regional atmospheric circulation have been described through local wind climatology or modes of large scale low-frequency circulation variability, defined by means of principal component analysis. Another way to describe atmospheric circulation patterns is by classifying them into different atmospheric circulation types. The latter are well suited for describing sequences of circulation patterns in appropriate temporal (in hours) and spatial (regional to local) scales. Circulation types reflect real circulation patterns, which are easy to interpret, unlike the modes of variability, that cannot be considered as typical patterns of airflow, but just as building bricks for describing variability of the atmospheric circulation. Hence, our aim was to characterize the variability of sequences of atmospheric circulation patterns at the time of MBIs, to use this

  16. Geological Storage od CO2 in the Southern Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernon, Richard; O'Neill, Nick; Pasquali, Riccardo; Niemi, Auli

    2014-05-01

    Geological Storage of CO2 in the Southern Baltic Sea Region The BASTOR project identifies and characterises the potential CO2 storage sites in the southern Baltic Sea. A regional theoretical storage capacity of 16Gt of CO2 in the Middle Cambrian sandstone beneath 900 metres of cap rock was estimated. 1.9Gt of this storage potential is estimated in the Dalders Monocline with some 743Mt CO2 in individual hydrocarbon and saline aquifer structures located mainly offshore Latvia and 128Mt in the Dalders Structure. Although the study has established a relatively large theoretical storage capacity, there is no effective capacity proven within these totals. Dynamic modelling undertaken in the Southern Swedish sector suggests that the relatively poor permeability and porosity characteristics would limit the injection rate to 0.5Mt per well per annum and restrict the reservoir pressure increase to 50% above the hydrostatic pressure for an injection period of 50 years. The dynamic modelling for this area suggests that an injection strategy for this sector would be limited to 5 injection wells giving a total injection capacity of 2.5 Mt per annum. Based on these results, the potential of the Southern Swedish offshore sector to sustain injection rates of CO2 required for regional industrial capture, even when using horizontal wells, brine extraction and hydraulic fracturing, would appear to be very low. Areas to the north east of the Monocline, such as offshore Latvia have been identified as having better reservoir quality despite limited data being available. These areas could sustain higher rates of injection and prove suitable areas for commercial storage. Furthermore, the regional storage capacity assessment demonstrated that there are sweet spots in the Cambrian reservoir such as onshore Latvia, where there is commercial gas storage, and both onshore and offshore Kaliningrad, where there is ongoing hydrocarbon production. The potential for seal failure was investigated as

  17. Iron cycling microbial communities in sediments of the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, Carolina; Delwig, Olaf; Noriega-Ortega, Beatriz; Dähnke, Kirstin; Böttcher, Michael E.; Friedrich, Michael W.

    2014-05-01

    The biogeochemical cycling of iron is a key early diagenetic process. However, limited information exists about the diversity and metabolic pathways of microorganisms linked to iron cycling in marine sediments. The goal of this study was to determine the bacterial community diversity in sediments showing ongoing dissimilatory iron reduction using 454-pyrosequencing as a first step in characterizing microorganisms potentially involved in iron reduction. For this purpose, two 35 cm cores were sampled from ferruginous sediments in the Skagerrak (SK) and the Bothnian Bay (BB) from the North-Sea Baltic Sea and the northern Baltic Sea respectively. Pore water profiles showed Fe2+ and Mn2+ levels of ~140-150 µM throughout the core below a 6 cm thick oxidized surface layer in SK sediments and ~300 µM below a 2 cm thick surface layer in BB sediments. Dissolved sulphide levels were below detection in both sediments. No significant depletion of SO42- occurred at both sites, further supported by stable S and O isotope analyses of dissolved sulfate at SK site. Only very minor net sulfate reduction is suggested here from the trend in sulphur isotope signatures, in agreement with previously reported gross microbial sulphate rate measurements (Canfield et al., 1993;GCA). Based on these biogeochemical constraints, Fe reduction in the studied sediments is therefore dominated by microbial dissimilatory iron reduction, while cryptic Fe-S-cycling can be largely excluded. 16S rRNA gene sequences indicate Proteobacteria as the dominating microbial group in these sediments. Potential iron and manganese reducing bacteria included Geobacteraceae, Pelobacteraceae, Shewanellaceae, and Oceanospirillales. Additionally, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were present. Also, Fe-oxidizers were present and their occurrence correlated in depth with a Fe-oxide-rich layer, most likely a former buried Fe-oxidation front. Gene sequences point to the presence of Mariprofundus in SK sediments and

  18. Morphological abnormalities in gonads of the Baltic herring (Clupea harengus membras): Description of types and prevalence in the northern Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Rajasilta, Marjut; Elfving, Mikael; Hänninen, Jari; Laine, Päivi; Vuorinen, Ilppo; Paranko, Jorma

    2016-03-01

    Due to heavy anthropogenic influence and variation of the environmental conditions in the Baltic Sea, reproductive disorders are becoming a major environmental concern. We show here an increasing prevalence of gonadal malformations in the Baltic herring (Clupea harengus membras), a key species of the Baltic ecosystem and important in commercial fishery. During 1987-2014, the spawning herring population in the Archipelago Sea (AS) (North Baltic Sea, Finland) was monitored annually and analyzed for gross morphology of the gonads [total number (n) of analyzed fish = 38 284]. Four different types of malformations were repeatedly found and named as asymmetric, rudimentary, segmented, and branched gonads, but also hermaphroditic gonads and miscellaneous (unidentified) disorders were recorded. In 2013, additional samplings (n of fish analyzed = 541) showed similar malformations in herring from the Bothnian Sea. In some gonad types, histological examination revealed disintegration of seminiferous tubules and hyperplasia of the interstitial tissue. In 2014, the overall prevalence of malformations was still relatively low in the AS (frequency = 0-3.4 %; n = 750) and had apparently minimal effect on population recruitment. However, an increasing trend in the time-series (GLM; F = 32.65; p < 0.001) and a significantly higher prevalence in the Bothnian Sea (frequency = 0.7-5.0 %; n = 541; χ (2) = 6.24; p < 0.05) suggest that gonadal malformations may become a new threat for fish in the Baltic Sea. The observed gonad atrophies may be due to environmental endocrine disruption; however, also other explanations may exist and potential explanations are discussed. PMID:26446509

  19. Chemical physiological and morphological studies of feral baltic salmon (Salmo salar) suffering from abnormal fry mortality

    SciTech Connect

    Norrgren, L. . Dept. of Pathology Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Stockholm ); Andersson, T. . Dept. of Zoophysiology); Bergqvist, P.A. . Inst. of Environmental Chemistry); Bjoerklund, I. )

    1993-11-01

    In 1974, abnormally high mortality was recorded among yolk-sac fry of Baltic salmon (Salmo salar) originating from feral females manually stripped and fertilized with milt from feral males. The cause of this mortality, designated M74, is unknown. The hypothesis is that xenobiotic compounds responsible for reproduction failure in higher vertebrates in the Baltic Sea also interfere with reproduction in Baltic salmon. The significance of M74 should not be underestimated, because the syndrome has caused up to 75% yearly mortality of developing Baltic salmon yolk-sac larvae in a fish hatchery dedicated to production of smolt during the last two decades. The author cannot exclude the possibility that only a relatively low number of naturally spawned eggs develop normally because of M74. No individual pollutant has been shown to be responsible for the development of M74 syndrome. However, a higher total body burden of organochlorine substances may be responsible for the M74 syndrome. The presence of induced hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes in both yolk-sac fry suffering from M74 and adult feral females producing offspring affected by M74 supports this hypothesis. In addition, the P450 enzyme activity in offspring from feral fish is higher than the activity in yolk-sac fry from hatchery-raised fish, suggesting that feral Baltic salmon are influenced by organic xenobiotics.

  20. Biodiversity gradient in the Baltic Sea: a comprehensive inventory of macrozoobenthos data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zettler, Michael L.; Karlsson, Anna; Kontula, Tytti; Gruszka, Piotr; Laine, Ari O.; Herkül, Kristjan; Schiele, Kerstin S.; Maximov, Alexey; Haldin, Jannica

    2014-03-01

    In the Helsinki Commission Red List project 2009-2012, taxonomic and distributional data of benthic (macro) invertebrates were compiled by the present authors in a comprehensive checklist of the Baltic Sea fauna. Based on the most recent and comprehensive data, this paper presents the diversity patterns observed among benthic invertebrates in the Baltic Sea. As expected, the total number of species per sub-region generally declined along the salinity gradient from the Danish Straits to the northern Baltic Sea. This relationship is well known from the Baltic Sea and has resulted in a general assumption of an exponentially positive relationship between species richness and salinity for marine species, and a negative relationship for freshwater species. In 1934, Remane produced a diagram to describe the hypothetical distribution of benthic invertebrate diversity along a marine-freshwater salinity gradient. Our results clearly indicated the validity of this theory for the macrozoobenthic diversity pattern within the Baltic Sea. Categorisation of sub-regions according to species composition showed both separation and grouping of some sub-regions and a strong alignment of similarity patterns of zoobenthic species composition along the salinity gradient.

  1. Sea level trends for all sections of the Baltic Sea coastline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, Kristine S.; Høyer, Jacob L.; Suursaar, Ülo; Knudsen, Per; She, Jun

    2016-04-01

    To better understand influence of sea level rise on societal vulnerability and coastal erosion processes, it is important to know the sea level trend. The coastline of the Baltic Sea is not uniformly exposed, and therefore we will determine the sea level trend of the last 10, 50 and 100 years for all sections of the coastline. The observational record of sea level in the Baltic Sea is quite unique with several records of more than 100 years of data. However, the information is confined to the tide gauge locations. Here, we utilize a statistical method based on least squares regression and originally developed for short term sea level variability (Madsen et al. 2015, JGR, doi:10.1002/2015JC011070) to spread out the sea level information from selected tide gauges to all sections of the Baltic Sea coast. Monthly mean tide gauge observations are retrieved from PSMSL and supplemented with Estonian observations. The spatial distribution of the sea level is obtained from model reanalysis from the Copernicus Marine Service and satellite altimetry observations and land rise information is taken into account. Results are validated against independent tide gauges, providing a consistent record of 20th century sea level trends and variability, including uncertainties, for the entire Baltic Sea coastline. This work is sponsored by the EMODnet project Baltic Checkpoint.

  2. Oceanographic connectivity and environmental correlates of genetic structuring in Atlantic herring in the Baltic Sea

    PubMed Central

    Teacher, Amber GF; André, Carl; Jonsson, Per R; Merilä, Juha

    2013-01-01

    Marine fish often show little genetic structuring in neutral marker genes, and Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) in the Baltic Sea are no exception; historically, very low levels of population differentiation (FST ≍ 0.002) have been found, despite a high degree of interpopulation environmental heterogeneity in salinity and temperature. Recent exome sequencing and SNP studies have however shown that many loci are under selection in this system. Here, we combined population genetic analyses of a large number of transcriptome-derived microsatellite markers with oceanographic modelling to investigate genetic differentiation and connectivity in Atlantic herring at a relatively fine scale within the Baltic Sea. We found evidence for weak but robust and significant genetic structuring (FST = 0.008) explainable by oceanographic connectivity. Genetic differentiation was also associated with site differences in temperature and salinity, with the result driven by the locus Her14 which appears to be under directional selection (FST = 0.08). The results show that Baltic herring are genetically structured within the Baltic Sea, and highlight the role of oceanography and environmental factors in explaining this structuring. The results also have implications for the management of herring fisheries, the most economically important fishery in the Baltic Sea, suggesting that the current fisheries management units may be in need of revision. PMID:23745145

  3. Using satellite data to estimate partial pressure of CO2 in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parard, Gaëlle; Charantonis, Anastase Alexandre; Rutgersson, Anna

    2016-03-01

    In this study we focused on estimating the pressure partial of CO2 (pCO2) in the entire Baltic Sea which can be considered a coastal area in its entirety. We used the self-organizing multiple linear output (SOMLO) method to estimate the ocean surface pCO2 in the Baltic Sea from the remotely sensed sea surface temperature, chlorophyll a, colored dissolved organic matter, net primary production, and mixed-layer depth. Uncertainties in the estimates include sparsity of in situ data used to train the algorithms, in particular, for some sectors and seasons. For this application we divided the Baltic Sea in four basins. When comparing the results obtained with this division to those obtained in previous studies, we notice a decrease in the root-mean-square error (<40 μatm) between the reconstruction of the pCO2 and their corresponding in situ measurements, as well as an increase of the correlation coefficient (> 0.96) between them. The outputs of this research have a horizontal resolution of 4 km and cover the 1998-2011 period. For the first time, a climatological mean distribution of surface water pCO2 over the Baltic Sea was calculated based on the SOMLO method with a mean pCO2 of 368.3 ± 100 μatm, and a range of 234-514 μatm. The seasonal variability is similar throughout the Baltic Sea, being high in winter and low in summer.

  4. Modelling the Influence of Major Baltic Inflows on Near-Bottom Conditions at the Entrance of the Gulf of Finland

    PubMed Central

    Lessin, Gennadi; Raudsepp, Urmas; Stips, Adolf

    2014-01-01

    A coupled hydrodynamic-biogeochemical model was implemented in order to estimate the effects of Major Baltic Inflows on the near-bottom hydrophysical and biogeochemical conditions in the northern Baltic Proper and the western Gulf of Finland during the period 1991–2009. We compared results of a realistic reference run to the results of an experimental run where Major Baltic Inflows were suppressed. Further to the expected overall decrease in bottom salinity, this modelling experiment confirms that in the absence of strong saltwater inflows the deep areas of the Baltic Proper would become more anoxic, while in the shallower areas (western Gulf of Finland) near-bottom average conditions improve. Our experiment revealed that typical estuarine circulation results in the sporadic emergence of short-lasting events of near-bottom anoxia in the western Gulf of Finland due to transport of water masses from the Baltic Proper. Extrapolating our results beyond the modelled period, we speculate that the further deepening of the halocline in the Baltic Proper is likely to prevent inflows of anoxic water to the Gulf of Finland and in the longer term would lead to improvement in near-bottom conditions in the Baltic Proper. Our results reaffirm the importance of accurate representation of salinity dynamics in coupled Baltic Sea models serving as a basis for credible hindcast and future projection simulations of biogeochemical conditions. PMID:25393720

  5. The identity of Romanian amber (rumanite) with Baltic amber (succinite).

    SciTech Connect

    Stout, E. C.; Beck, C. W.; Anderson, K. B.; Chemistry; Vassar Coll.

    2000-11-01

    Romanian amber (rumanite) has been considered to be a separate species of fossil resin for more than a century. While earlier investigators held it to be very similar to succinite (Baltic amber), modern scholars have assigned it a distinctly different botanical origin. We have found that almost all of the constituents of the ether-soluble fractions of 13 specimens of authentic rumanite identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry have previously been reported in the soluble fraction of succinite, including succinic acid and its monoterpene esters. Additionally and significantly, the soluble fraction of rumanite contains a number defunctionalized compounds that do not preexist in succinite, but that are produced by pyrolysis of whole succinite or of its insoluble polymeric fraction. Simultaneous methylation pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of the polymeric fraction of seven of the rumanite specimens yielded further copious amounts of dimethyl succinate, a number of diterpene resin acid methyl esters, and additional defunctionalized compounds known to be pyrolysis products of succinite. The evidence shows conclusively that the botanical origin of rumanite is not distinct from that of succinite. Rather, rumanite is a succinite that has suffered partial thermal degradation in the course of the folding of the Oligocene Kliwa sandstone formation in which it is most commonly found.

  6. Dynamics of hydrophobic organic contaminants in the Baltic proper pelagial

    SciTech Connect

    Axelman, J.; Broman, D.; Naef, C.; Pettersen, H.

    1995-12-31

    Hydrophobic organic contaminants occur in different forms in natural water. Apart from being truly dissolved in water they partition into dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and particles of different sizes including pelagic bacteria, phytoplankton and zooplankton. The distribution between the different forms is dependent on carbon turnover rates in and transport between the different compartments and on the physical and chemical properties of the compound in focus. The water phase, the DOC-phase and two particle size fractions, 0.2--2pm and 2--20 pm representing the base of the pelagic food web, were analyzed for their content of PCBs and PAHs during summer and winter conditions in the open sea in the Baltic proper. New methods for separating truly dissolved from DOC-bound compounds have been developed using a high capacity perfusion adsorbent and large scale gas sparging. The small particle size fraction was sampled using high volume tangential flow filtration. The possibility to separate between these four different compartments has given a more detailed picture of the short term dynamics of hydrophobic organic compounds in the important base of the pelagial food web.

  7. Seasonal Activity Budget of Adult Baltic Ringed Seals

    PubMed Central

    Harkonen, Tero; Jüssi, Mart; Jüssi, Ivar; Verevkin, Michail; Dmitrieva, Lilia; Helle, Eero; Sagitov, Roustam; Harding, Karin C.

    2008-01-01

    Although ringed seals are important components in oceanic and fresh water ecosystems at high latitudes, little is known about how they exploit these harsh environments. Seasonal activity and diving behaviour of 19 adult Baltic ringed seals were studied by satellite telemetry. We elaborated an activity budget for ten months of the year, extending over the period from moult to the breeding season. Seals from three main regions showed explicit site fidelity and the distributions of animals tagged from different areas did not overlap, suggesting separate stocks. Both the mean duration and the mean depth of dives peaked in June and July. Seals spent 70% (females) to 85% (males) of their time diving in June and July which decreased to 50% in late autumn. Less than one percent of dives exceeded 10 min in females, while 10% of male dives lasted longer than 10 min in June to September. Less than one percent of dives lasted for more than 25 min. Both females and males were most active during day time and hauled out predominantly during the night. Activity patterns during the summer are suggested to be correlated to energy accumulation and prey availability. The information on seasonal activity budget is crucial for developing population energetic models where interactions between ringed seals and other trophic levels can be evaluated. PMID:18414676

  8. Developmental defects in pelagic fish embryos from the western Baltic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    v. Westernhagen, H.; Dethlefsen, V.; Cameron, P.; Berg, J.; Fürstenberg, G.

    1988-03-01

    In February/March 1983 and 1984 a survey of pelagic fish eggs was conducted in the western Baltic (Kiel Bight), employing a horizontally towed plankton net (1 m Ø and 300 μm mesh). Maximum egg numbers in the upper meter of the S=21×10-3 salinity layer were 200·100 m-3. The most abundant eggs were cod (up to 142 eggs·100 m-3), followed by plaice (up to 74 eggs·100 m-3) and flounder (20 eggs·100 m-3). A considerable percentage of embryos of all species displayed aberrant development. In 1983 18% of cod, 22% of flounder and 24% of plaice eggs caught contained defective embryos; in 1984 this number was larger, ranging from 28% in plaice over 32% in cod to 44% in flounder. Early developmental stages showed the highest malformation rates (up to 51% in the case of early flounder embryos). With progressive development, malformations decreased in numbers, being lowest prior to hatching. Highest rates of malformations were recorded in the Mecklenburg Bight in 1983. A second area with high incidence of malformation rates was located south and east of the island of Langeland. Several reasons, including environmental and anthropogenic factors, for the occurrence of malformed embryos in pelagic fish eggs are discussed. The potential of malformation rates in embryos of pelagic fish eggs as a tool for monitoring is considered.

  9. Eye function of Mysidacea (Crustacea) in the northern Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Lindström

    2000-03-30

    Eye spectral sensitivity, [S(lambda)], was measured in seven northern Baltic mysid species using an electroretinogram technique. Their S(lambda) curves were compared with the spectral distribution of underwater light at their normal habitats. In the littoral species Neomysis integer, Praunus flexuosus and Praunus inermis, the S(lambda) maxima, [S(lambda)(max)], were in the wavelength-bands of 525-535, 505-515 and 520-530 nm respectively. The neoimmigrant species Hemimysis anomala had a S(lambda)(max) around 500 nm and high sensitivity at 393 nm, possibly indicating UV-sensitivity. S(lambda) of the pelagic species Mysis mixta and Mysis relicta sp. II was at about 505-520 nm. M. relicta sp. I from Pojoviken Bay and fresh water humic Lake Pääjärvi had S(lambda)(max) at approximately 550 nm and 570 nm respectively. This is in accordance with a similar long-wavelength shift in light transmittance of the respective waters. The eyes of the latter population were also damaged by strong light. The pontocaspian neoimmigrant H. anomala is clearly adapted to waters transmitting more blue light. PMID:10699220

  10. Inactivated phosphorus by added aluminum in Baltic Sea sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rydin, Emil

    2014-12-01

    Decreased phosphorus (P) retention in aquatic sediments during hypoxic periods results in increased P recycling to the water column. To revert to less productive conditions in the enclosed bays of the Baltic Sea archipelago, increased sediment P burial capacity is needed. Aluminum (Al) addition is considered to be a cost-effective lake restoration method, as it improves sediment P burial capacity. However, little is known about its ability to permanently bind P in brackish systems. In summer 2000, Al sulfate granules were added to a hypoxic bottom area in the Östhammar bay, Sweden. Sediment core samples from the area were collected 10 years later. A peak in Al and P was detected at 20 cm sediment depth, reflecting the added Al and P trapped to it. Only part of the added Al was recovered, but the recovered Al (8 g Al/m2) trapped P at a ratio of 5:1 (molar). Chemical fractionation showed that P extracted as 'Al-P' constituted 55% of the trapped P, indicating that Al added also trapped P extracted as other P forms.

  11. The nutrient load from food waste generated onboard ships in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Wilewska-Bien, Magda; Granhag, Lena; Andersson, Karin

    2016-04-15

    The combination of the sensitive characteristics of the Baltic Sea and the intense maritime traffic makes the marine environment vulnerable to anthropogenic influences. The theoretical scenario calculated in this study shows that the annually generated food waste onboard ships in traffic in the Baltic Sea contains about 182tonnes of nitrogen and 34tonnes of phosphorus. Today, all food waste generated onboard can be legally discharged into the marine environment at a distance of 12NM from the nearest land. The annual load of nitrogen contained in the food waste corresponds to 52% of load of nitrogen from the ship-generated sewage. Future regulations for sewage discharge in the Baltic Sea will require significant reduction of total nitrogen and phosphorus released. The contribution of nutrients from food waste compared to sewage will therefore be relatively larger in the future, if food waste still can be legally discharged. PMID:26992746

  12. [The Baltic countries as the birthplace of embryology. Contingencies of a transnational region of science].

    PubMed

    Riha, Ortrun; Schmuck, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Modern embryology is grounded on the research of Pander (theory of germ-layers), von Baer (human egg) and Rathke (branchial arches in mammals). All these scientists lived and worked in the Baltic region. They held professorships at the universities of Koenigsberg and Dorpat and at the Imperial Academy of St. Petersburg, thus moving between the Kingdom of Prussia and the Russian Czardom. Since the Baltic countries are not commonly considered to be predestined as a birthplace of embryology, special attention is turned to the coincidences that, there of all places, made those people focus on that special field of research. Considering the peripheral position of the Baltic, the paper examines personal relations, national identities, cultural exchange, and local working conditions, including room for development as well as formidable obstacles. PMID:21563375

  13. alpha1-antitrypsin (PI) alleles as markers of Westeuropean influence in the Baltic Sea region.

    PubMed

    Beckman, L; Sikström, C; Mikelsaar, A; Krumina, A; Kucinskas, V; Beckman, G

    1999-01-01

    The distribution of alpha1-antitrypsin (PI) alleles was studied in an attempt to elucidate migrations and admixture between populations in the Baltic Sea region. The frequency of the PI Z allele, a typically Northwesteuropean marker gene, showed a highly significant regional variation in the Baltic Sea region. The highest frequency (4.5%) was found in the western part of Latvia (Courland). The PI S allele, another marker of Westeuropean influence, also showed an increased frequency in the Courland population. These results indicate that among the populations east of the Baltic Sea the Curonian population has the most pronounced Westeuropean influence. Archaeological data have shown that from the 7th century and for several hundreds of years Courland received immigrations from mainland Sweden and the island of Gotland. We speculate that the increased frequencies of the PI Z alleles and S alleles in Courland may have been caused by these migrations. PMID:9858859

  14. Factors influencing variability of mercury input to the southern Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Bełdowska, Magdalena; Saniewska, Dominika; Falkowska, Lucyna

    2014-09-15

    The southern Baltic countries have been identified as significant sources of Hg into the sea. Are anthropogenic activities the sole source? How do meteorological parameters influence the deposition? Studies on input of Hg to the Baltic were conducted in 2008-2012 in the Polish coastal stations. The riverine load was found to depend directly or indirectly on the amount of precipitation and catchment type. Input of atmospheric Hg increased along with the number of precipitation episodes from remote maritime air masses, as well as with the number of days when continental air masses from regional (when domestic heating prevailed) and remote sources moved over the Baltic, during the heating season. During the non-heating season metal input was found to be proportional to episodes of rain from continental regional air masses and to the number of days under influence of continental and maritime air masses from regional sources. PMID:25066454

  15. Sources of sedimentary biomarkers and proxies with potential paleoenvironmental significance for the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Jérôme; Arz, Helge W.

    2016-07-01

    The Baltic Sea is a shallow, semi-enclosed and intra-continental shelf sea characterized by anoxic bottom waters in the deepest basins, allowing for the preservation of sedimentary organic matter. In the present study, the most abundant, naturally-occurring lipids in surface sediments from the entire Baltic Sea and the Skagerrak area were identified and their potential sources were assigned. Together with long-chain n-alkanes derived from land plant leaf waxes, diploptene and branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) are of allochthonous origin, while isoprenoid GDGTs, hydroxylated isoprenoid GDGTs (OH-GDGTs), n-C25:1, n-C27:1 and n-C29:1 alkenes are autochthonous lipids. The isoprenoid and OH-GDGTs are probably derived from Thaumarchaeota and the long-chain n-alkenes from phototrophic organisms. Significant correlations were found between indexes based on isoprenoid and OH-GDGTs and Baltic Sea surface and bottom temperatures. The calibrations obtained for surface temperature have statistically similar slopes, but different intercepts than calibrations established for the Nordic Seas. The branched and isoprenoid tetraether index can be used to estimate the percentage of soil (terrestrial) organic matter in the sediments of the Baltic Sea. High values of the Paq' ratio (defined here as the ratio of odd numbered n-C23 and n-C25 over n-C23 to n-C29 alkanes) in the northern Baltic Sea originate from the presence of both Sphagnum mosses in the drainage basin and submerged macrophytes, such as Potamogeton sp. and Myriophyllum sp., in the freshwater to brackish water of the coastal areas. The Paq' ratio may thus reflect fluctuations in the regional expansion of freshwater to brackish coastal environments in the Baltic Sea.

  16. Attributing causes of regional climate change in the Baltic Sea area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhend, Jonas; Gaillard-Lemdahl, Marie-José; Hansson, Hans-Christen

    2015-04-01

    Here we assess to what extent the effect of forcing mechanisms on the observed climate change in the Baltic Sea area can be detected. In particular, we assess the effect of factors causing large-scale warming (mainly anthropogenic greenhouse gases) and the regional effect of atmospheric aerosols and land-cover and land-use changes. Unfortunately, only very few targeted analyses for the Baltic catchment area are available at the moment, but findings at the regional scale are generally qualitatively consistent with global or hemispheric analyses. The observed warming in summer cannot be explained without human influence (in particular the warming effect of increasing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations). In other seasons and for other aspects of regional warming, findings are mixed or not significant as of yet. In addition, large-scale circulation and rainfall changes in the northern hemisphere and the Arctic have been detected to exceed natural internal variability. Other aspects of regional climate change including changes in storminess, snow properties, runoff and the changing physical properties of the Baltic Sea have not been formally attributed to human influence yet. Scientific understanding of the effect of aerosols on regional climate is still accumulating. It is likely that the major emission changes in Europe have had an effect on the climate in the Baltic region, the magnitude of which, however, is still unknown. Development of the modelling capability and targeted analyses are urgently needed to reduce the uncertainties related to the effect of aerosol changes on regional observed climate change. Historic deforestation and recent reforestation are the major anthropogenic land-cover changes affecting the Baltic Sea area. From all studies at hand it can be concluded that there is no evidence that anthropogenic land-cover change would be one of the forcings behind the recent warming in the Baltic region. However, past anthropogenic land-cover change

  17. Long-chain alkenone patterns in the Baltic Sea - An ocean-freshwater transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Hans-Martin; Schöner, Anne; Emeis, Kay-Christian

    2000-02-01

    Two different patterns of long-chain alkenones are found in surficial sediments of the Baltic Sea, which is the largest brackish water body on Earth. One pattern occurs in surficial sediments from the Western Baltic Sea where surface-water salinitiy is in excess of 7.7 PSU. It corresponds to the pattern produced by the marine coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi with a suite of C 37 di- to tetra-unsaturated methyl ketones and C 38 di- and tri-unsaturated methyl and ethyl ketones. A second pattern, resembling that found in lake sediments in lacking C 38 methyl ketones and having distinctly higher C 37:4 methyl ketone concentrations, dominates in surficial sediments of the eastern and northern Baltic Sea, where salinities are lower than 7.7 PSU. Correspondence of sea-surface temperature (SST) estimates from the U37K and U37K' indices (using marine calibrations) with mean SST in the euphotic zone from July-August (the main haptophyte growth season) is poor. Thus, these indices are not applicable as sedimentary thermometers in surficial sediments of the Baltic Sea. The different patterns may either reflect the salinity-dependent occurrence of specific alkenone producers or changes in the alkenone biosynthesis due to physiological stress caused by salinity variations. Furthermore, advection of saline and oxygenated North Sea water may transport marine algal material characterized by a marine E. huxleyi-like alkenone pattern into the western Baltic Sea, thus covering the signature of the local alkenone producers with a Baltic Sea pattern.

  18. Non-tidal loading by the Baltic Sea: comparison of modelled deformation with GNSS time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordman, Maaria; Virtanen, Heikki; Nyberg, Sonja; Mäkinen, Jaakko; Virtanen, Jenni

    2013-04-01

    The Baltic Sea is a well-monitored semi-enclosed sea in northern Europe. The mass variations of the Baltic Sea are mostly due to atmospheric pressure changes and wind, which redistribute the water within the basin and also govern the so-called fill level, the amount of water exchange with the North Sea. The variations in the sea level can be abrupt and and large, for example during storms. The variable load may cause significant effects in geodetic measurements, especially near the coastline. We have computed the time series of non-tidal loading due to Baltic Sea for 193 stations in northern Europe. These stations are used for GNSS, absolute and relative gravity measurements and other geodetic observations.. We have used hourly observations of the sea level at the tide gauges of the Baltic Operational Oceanographic Service (BOOS, http://boos.org) to estimate the momentary sea level over the whole basin of the Baltic Sea. These sea level models are then convolved with Green's functions for the Gutenberg-Bullen Earth model using program SPOTL (Agnew, 2012, http://escholarship.org/uc/item/954322pg) to obtain gravity change, deformation in three dimensions and change in tilt and strain. The time period is four years, February 2008 to February 2012. The time series could be used for several purposes, e.g. for the studies of other error sources, to create stable time series and also to correct campaign measurements, which take place in varying conditions. In this study we have compared the computed deformation to coordinate changes measured by GNSS at selected stations around the Baltic Sea. We use two different daily time series of GNSS positions: the PPP (Precise Point Positioning) time series provided by Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL, http://sideshow.jpl.nasa.gov/post/series.html) and a double difference solution computed at our institute.

  19. Transplant experiments uncover Baltic Sea basin-specific responses in bacterioplankton community composition and metabolic activities.

    PubMed

    Lindh, Markus V; Figueroa, Daniela; Sjöstedt, Johanna; Baltar, Federico; Lundin, Daniel; Andersson, Agneta; Legrand, Catherine; Pinhassi, Jarone

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenically induced changes in precipitation are projected to generate increased river runoff to semi-enclosed seas, increasing loads of terrestrial dissolved organic matter and decreasing salinity. To determine how bacterial community structure and functioning adjust to such changes, we designed microcosm transplant experiments with Baltic Proper (salinity 7.2) and Bothnian Sea (salinity 3.6) water. Baltic Proper bacteria generally reached higher abundances than Bothnian Sea bacteria in both Baltic Proper and Bothnian Sea water, indicating higher adaptability. Moreover, Baltic Proper bacteria growing in Bothnian Sea water consistently showed highest bacterial production and beta-glucosidase activity. These metabolic responses were accompanied by basin-specific changes in bacterial community structure. For example, Baltic Proper Pseudomonas and Limnobacter populations increased markedly in relative abundance in Bothnian Sea water, indicating a replacement effect. In contrast, Roseobacter and Rheinheimera populations were stable or increased in abundance when challenged by either of the waters, indicating an adjustment effect. Transplants to Bothnian Sea water triggered the initial emergence of particular Burkholderiaceae populations, and transplants to Baltic Proper water triggered Alteromonadaceae populations. Notably, in the subsequent re-transplant experiment, a priming effect resulted in further increases to dominance of these populations. Correlated changes in community composition and metabolic activity were observed only in the transplant experiment and only at relatively high phylogenetic resolution. This suggested an importance of successional progression for interpreting relationships between bacterial community composition and functioning. We infer that priming effects on bacterial community structure by natural episodic events or climate change induced forcing could translate into long-term changes in bacterial ecosystem process rates. PMID

  20. Transplant experiments uncover Baltic Sea basin-specific responses in bacterioplankton community composition and metabolic activities

    PubMed Central

    Lindh, Markus V.; Figueroa, Daniela; Sjöstedt, Johanna; Baltar, Federico; Lundin, Daniel; Andersson, Agneta; Legrand, Catherine; Pinhassi, Jarone

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenically induced changes in precipitation are projected to generate increased river runoff to semi-enclosed seas, increasing loads of terrestrial dissolved organic matter and decreasing salinity. To determine how bacterial community structure and functioning adjust to such changes, we designed microcosm transplant experiments with Baltic Proper (salinity 7.2) and Bothnian Sea (salinity 3.6) water. Baltic Proper bacteria generally reached higher abundances than Bothnian Sea bacteria in both Baltic Proper and Bothnian Sea water, indicating higher adaptability. Moreover, Baltic Proper bacteria growing in Bothnian Sea water consistently showed highest bacterial production and beta-glucosidase activity. These metabolic responses were accompanied by basin-specific changes in bacterial community structure. For example, Baltic Proper Pseudomonas and Limnobacter populations increased markedly in relative abundance in Bothnian Sea water, indicating a replacement effect. In contrast, Roseobacter and Rheinheimera populations were stable or increased in abundance when challenged by either of the waters, indicating an adjustment effect. Transplants to Bothnian Sea water triggered the initial emergence of particular Burkholderiaceae populations, and transplants to Baltic Proper water triggered Alteromonadaceae populations. Notably, in the subsequent re-transplant experiment, a priming effect resulted in further increases to dominance of these populations. Correlated changes in community composition and metabolic activity were observed only in the transplant experiment and only at relatively high phylogenetic resolution. This suggested an importance of successional progression for interpreting relationships between bacterial community composition and functioning. We infer that priming effects on bacterial community structure by natural episodic events or climate change induced forcing could translate into long-term changes in bacterial ecosystem process rates. PMID

  1. Population genomic evidence for adaptive differentiation in the Baltic Sea herring.

    PubMed

    Guo, Baocheng; Li, Zitong; Merilä, Juha

    2016-06-01

    Detecting and estimating the degree of genetic differentiation among populations of highly mobile marine fish having pelagic larval stages is challenging because their effective population sizes can be large, and thus, little genetic drift and differentiation is expected in neutral genomic sites. However, genomic sites subject to directional selection stemming from variation in local environmental conditions can still show substantial genetic differentiation, yet these signatures can be hard to detect with low-throughput approaches. Using a pooled RAD-seq approach, we investigated genomewide patterns of genetic variability and differentiation within and among 20 populations of Atlantic herring in the Baltic Sea (and adjacent Atlantic sites), where previous low-throughput studies and/or studies based on few populations have found limited evidence for genetic differentiation. Stringent quality control was applied in the filtering of 1 791 254 SNPs, resulting in a final data set of 68 182 polymorphic loci. Clear differentiation was identified between Atlantic and Baltic populations in many genomic sites, while differentiation within the Baltic Sea area was weaker and geographically less structured. However, outlier analyses - whether including all populations or only those within the Baltic Sea - uncovered hundreds of directionally selected loci in which variability was associated with either salinity, temperature or both. Hence, our results support the view that although the degree of genetic differentiation among Baltic Sea herring populations is low, there are many genomic regions showing elevated divergence, apparently as a response to temperature- and salinity-related natural selection. As such, the results add to the increasing evidence of local adaptation in highly mobile marine organisms, and those in the young Baltic Sea in particular. PMID:27093194

  2. Comparison of nematode communities in Baltic and North Sea sublittoral, permeable sands Diversity and environmental control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban-Malinga, Barbara; Hedtkamp, Stefanie I. C.; van Beusekom, Justus E. E.; Wiktor, Józef; Węsławski, Jan Marcin

    2006-10-01

    The structure of free-living nematode communities was investigated seasonally at two sandy locations representing typical shallow sublittoral, permeable environments of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. At the Baltic study site the chlorophyll and organic carbon concentrations in the sediment were, on average, four times lower than at the North Sea. Highest nematode densities (1674-4100 ind. 10 cm -2) and a higher number of free-living nematode genera (66) were recorded in the North Sea (Baltic: 206-1227 ind. 10 cm -2, 30 genera). Despite lower salinity and lower food availability the less dense and less diverse Baltic nematode community was similar in generic composition to the North Sea community. At the North Sea site, all trophic groups according to Wieser's classification were present with omnivores/predators, dominated by Viscosia, prevailing and followed by epistrate-feeders. In the food-limited Baltic community, non-selective deposit feeders (mainly Ascolaimus, Axonolaimus and Daptonema) and omnivores/predators dominated by Enoplolaimus were the most abundant trophic groups while selective deposit feeders were absent or their contribution was negligible. An analysis of the vertical generic distribution revealed highest diversity of the Baltic community in deeper sediment layers, below the sediment surface affected by ripple migration and near the interface of oxic and anoxic conditions. The diversity pattern in the North Sea sediment was more variable but generally showed high diversity in the upper centimetre of the sediment. These observations suggest that food supply and sediment oxygenation are the most important factors influencing the vertical pattern of nematode generic diversity in sublittoral, permeable sands.

  3. Assessment of Marine Mammal Impact Zones for Use of Military Sonar in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Mathias H; Johansson, Torbjörn

    2016-01-01

    Military sonars are known to have caused cetaceans to strand. Navies in shallow seas use different frequencies and sonar pulses, commonly frequencies between 25 and 100 kHz, compared with most studied NATO sonar systems that have been evaluated for their environmental impact. These frequencies match the frequencies of best hearing in the harbor porpoises and seals resident in the Baltic Sea. This study uses published temporary and permanent threshold shifts, measured behavioral response thresholds, technical specifications of a sonar system, and environmental parameters affecting sound propagation common for the Baltic Sea to estimate the impact zones for harbor porpoises and seals. PMID:26610942

  4. Ctenophore population recruits entirely through larval reproduction in the central Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Jaspers, Cornelia; Haraldsson, Matilda; Bolte, Sören; Reusch, Thorsten B H; Thygesen, Uffe H; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2012-10-23

    The comb jelly Mertensia ovum, widely distributed in Arctic regions, has recently been discovered in the northern Baltic Sea. We show that M. ovum also exists in the central Baltic but that the population consists solely of small-sized larvae (less than 1.6 mm). Despite the absence of adults, eggs were abundant. Experiments revealed that the larvae were reproductively active. Egg production and anticipated mortality rates suggest a self-sustaining population. This is the first account of a ctenophore population entirely recruiting through larval reproduction (paedogenesis). We hypothesize that early reproduction is favoured over growth to compensate for high predation pressure. PMID:22535640

  5. Allelopathic Effects of Cyanobacterial Filtrates on Baltic Diatom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Śliwińska, Sylwia; Latała, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Allelopathy may be one of the factors affecting the formation of massive and harmful algal blooms in aquatic environments. Recent studies indicate that blooms of cyanobacteria in the Baltic Sea has grown significantly in last decades, so it is important to determine the allelopathic interactions between the dominant species of cyanobacteria and microalgae. In this work we investigated the influence of allelopathic compounds on the growth of Skeletonema marinoi by addition of cell-free filtrate of the Baltic cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena cultures grown under different temperature (15-25°C). Additionally the effects of filtrates of both an exponential and a stationary growing culture of N. spumigena were tested on diatom. These studies indicate that high temperature affected the donor species by increasing its production of allelochemicals. The highest drop of growth of analyzed diatom were observed after the addition of cell-free filtrate obtained from N. spumigena grown at 25°C and constituted 70% of their control. N. spumigena was only allelopathic in exponential growth phase, whereas the cyanobacteria filtrate from stationary phase have any effect on S. marinoi. These findings suggest that N. spumigena may reveal allelopathic activity and that the production of allelopathic substances is influenced by the temperature and growth phase of cyanobacteria. Allelopatia może być kluczowym czynnikiem wpływającym na tworzenie się masowych zakwitów sinic w wielu wodnych ekosystemach. Badania pokazują, że zakwity sinic w Morzu Bałtyckim w ostatnich dekadach znacznie się nasiliły, dlatego tak ważne jest określenie stopnia oddziaływania allelopatycznego dominujących w tym akwenie gatunków fitoplanktonu. W przeprowadzonych badaniach określono wpływ związków allelopatycznych produkowanych przez bałtycką sinicę Nodularia spumigena hodowaną w różnych temperaturach (15-25°C) na wzrost okrzemki Skeletonema marinoi. Dodatkowo w niniejszej pracy por

  6. Seabird guano fertilizes Baltic Sea littoral food webs.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Karine; Rothäusler, Eva; Syrjänen, Anneli; Yli-Renko, Maria; Jormalainen, Veijo

    2013-01-01

    Nutrient enrichment in coastal marine systems can have profound impacts on trophic networks. In the Baltic Sea, the population of Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) has increased nearly exponentially since the mid-1990 s, and colonies of these seabirds can be important sources of nitrogen enrichment for nearby benthic communities due to guano runoff. In this study we used stable isotope analyses and diet mixing models to determine the extent of nitrogen enrichment from cormorant colonies, as well as to examine any possible changes in herbivore diet preferences due to enrichment. We found significantly higher levels of δ(15)N in samples from colony islands than control islands for producers (the dominant macroalga Fucus vesiculosus, filamentous algae, and periphyton) and herbivores, as well as a positive correlation between enrichment and nest density in colony sites. We also found that enrichment increased over the breeding season of the cormorants, with higher enrichment in late summer than early summer. While the amount of total nitrogen did not differ between colony and control sites, the amount of guano-based nitrogen in algae was >50% in most sites, indicating high nitrogen enrichment from colonies. Herbivores (the isopod Idotea balthica and the gastropod Theodoxus fluviatilis) preferred feeding upon the dominant macroalga Fucus vesiculosus rather than on filamentous algae or periphyton in both control and colony, and there was a significant increase in periphyton consumption near colony sites. Overall, guano from cormorant colonies seems to have effects on both producers and herbivores, as well as the potential to modify algae-herbivore interactions. PMID:23593452

  7. Egg production of turbot, Scophthalmus maximus, in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nissling, Anders; Florin, Ann-Britt; Thorsen, Anders; Bergström, Ulf

    2013-11-01

    In the brackish water Baltic Sea turbot spawn at ~ 6-9 psu along the coast and on offshore banks in ICES SD 24-29, with salinity influencing the reproductive success. The potential fecundity (the stock of vitellogenic oocytes in the pre-spawning ovary), egg size (diameter and dry weight of artificially fertilized 1-day-old eggs) and gonad dry weight were assessed for fish sampled in SD 25 and SD 28. Multiple regression analysis identified somatic weight, or total length in combination with Fulton's condition factor, as main predictors of fecundity and gonad dry weight with stage of maturity (oocyte packing density or leading cohort) as an additional predictor. For egg size, somatic weight was identified as main predictor while otolith weight (proxy for age) was an additional predictor. Univariate analysis using GLM revealed significantly higher fecundity and gonad dry weight for turbot from SD 28 (3378-3474 oocytes/g somatic weight) compared to those from SD 25 (2343 oocytes/g somatic weight), with no difference in egg size (1.05 ± 0.03 mm diameter and 46.8 ± 6.5 μg dry weight; mean ± sd). The difference in egg production matched egg survival probabilities in relation to salinity conditions suggesting selection for higher fecundity as a consequence of poorer reproductive success at lower salinities. This supports the hypothesis of higher size-specific fecundity towards the limit of the distribution of a species as an adaptation to harsher environmental conditions and lower offspring survival probabilities. Within SD 28 comparisons were made between two major fishing areas targeting spawning aggregations and a marine protected area without fishing. The outcome was inconclusive and is discussed with respect to potential fishery induced effects, effects of the salinity gradient, effects of specific year-classes, and effects of maturation status of sampled fish.

  8. Suicides in the Baltic countries, 1968-90.

    PubMed

    Värnik, A; Wasserman, D; Eklund, G

    1994-09-01

    Trends of male and female suicides in the Baltic countries--Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania--in the years 1968-90 were studied. As throughout the former USSR, suicide rates declined sharply from 1986, the year marking the onset of turbulent social change. During the "period of stagnation" from 1968 to 1984, the mean value of male suicide rates per 100,000 males were 55.7 in Estonia, 52.5 in Latvia and 51.7 in Lithuania. The figures for female suicide rates were 14.3, 14.3 and 10.4, respectively. Suicide rates remained consistently high in Estonia and Latvia, while in Lithuania the male suicide rate rose gradually from 33.0 to 61.3 and the female rate from 8.0 to 13.1 during the stagnation period. In conjunction with perestroika in the former USSR (including a restrictive alcohol policy and the first tentative steps towards democracy), annual male suicide rates per 100,000 in the years 1986-90 fell considerably below those in the stagnation period. Mean values of male suicide rates decreased by 26.6% in Estonia, 26.6% in Latvia and 14.4% in Lithuania in the period 1986-90 compared with the mean values for the period 1968-84. Female suicide rates were relatively stable and the male-female ratio was accordingly lower in 1986-90 (Estonia and Latvia 3.1, Lithuania 4.2) than in 1968-84 (Estonia 3.9, Latvia 3.7 and Lithuania 5.0). PMID:7846473

  9. Fecundity regulation by atresia in turbot Scophthalmus maximus in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Nissling, A; Thorsen, A; da Silva, F F G

    2016-04-01

    Down-regulation of fecundity through oocyte resorption was assessed in Baltic Sea turbot Scophthalmus maximus at three locations in the period from late vitellogenesis in April to spawning during June to July. The mean ± s.d. total length of the sampled fish was 32.7 ± 3.1 cm and mean ± s.d. age was 6.2 ± 1.5 years. Measurements of atresia were performed using the 'profile method' with the intensity of atresia adjusted according to the 'dissector method' (10.6% adjustment; coefficient of determination was 0.675 between methods). Both prevalence (portion of fish with atresia) and intensity (calculated as the average proportion of atretic cells in fish displaying atresia) of atresia were low in prespawning fish, but high from onset of spawning throughout the spawning period. Atretic oocytes categorized as in early alpha and in late alpha state occurred irrespective of maturity stage from late prespawning individuals up to late spawning fish, showing that oocytes may become atretic throughout the spawning period. Observed prevalence of atresia throughout the spawning period was almost 40% with an intensity of c. 20%. This indicates extensive down-regulation, i.e. considerably lower realized (number of eggs spawned) v. potential fecundity (number of developing oocytes), suggesting significant variability in reproductive potential. The extent of fecundity regulation in relation to fish condition (Fulton's condition factor) is discussed, suggesting an association between levels of atresia and fish condition. PMID:26928526

  10. Bimodal variation in mercury wet deposition to the coastal zone of the southern Baltic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siudek, P.; Falkowska, L.; Urba, A.

    2009-10-01

    In the following periods: November 2005-June 2006 and October 2007-January 2009, concentrations and deposition rates of total mercury (THg) and Hg(II) were measured in precipitation over the urbanized and industrialized area of the southern Baltic - the city of Gdynia. Rains over the coastal zone had different concentrations of total mercury, they ranged from 8.6 to 118.0 ng L-1, out of which about 32% were labile, inorganic forms, easily reducible in a SnCl2 solution. Over the southern Baltic two maxima of concentrations were observed: first, in the heating season and second, in the non-heating season. Elevated concentrations of mercury in precipitations during heating seasons were the result of the activity of local emission sources (intensive combustion of fossil fuels in domestic furnaces and individual power and heat generating plants). During the warm season, precipitation over the southern Baltic could clean the air from Hg reemitted from sea and land surfaces. Precipitations, which purified marine and continental air masses were responsible for the comparable input of mercury to the coastal zone. The wet deposition value in 2008 was estimated to be 28.9 μg m-2. In the coastal zone of the southern Baltic, acid precipitations with the elevated Hg concentrations are very frequent.

  11. Diversity of Pico- to Mesoplankton along the 2000 km Salinity Gradient of the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yue O O; Karlson, Bengt; Charvet, Sophie; Andersson, Anders F

    2016-01-01

    Microbial plankton form the productive base of both marine and freshwater ecosystems and are key drivers of global biogeochemical cycles of carbon and nutrients. Plankton diversity is immense with representations from all major phyla within the three domains of life. So far, plankton monitoring has mainly been based on microscopic identification, which has limited sensitivity and reproducibility, not least because of the numerical majority of plankton being unidentifiable under the light microscope. High-throughput sequencing of taxonomic marker genes offers a means to identify taxa inaccessible by traditional methods; thus, recent studies have unveiled an extensive previously unknown diversity of plankton. Here, we conducted ultra-deep Illumina sequencing (average 10(5) sequences/sample) of rRNA gene amplicons of surface water eukaryotic and bacterial plankton communities sampled in summer along a 2000 km transect following the salinity gradient of the Baltic Sea. Community composition was strongly correlated with salinity for both bacterial and eukaryotic plankton assemblages, highlighting the importance of salinity for structuring the biodiversity within this ecosystem. In contrast, no clear trends in alpha-diversity for bacterial or eukaryotic communities could be detected along the transect. The distribution of major planktonic taxa followed expected patterns as observed in monitoring programs, but groups novel to the Baltic Sea were also identified, such as relatives to the coccolithophore Emiliana huxleyi detected in the northern Baltic Sea. This study provides the first ultra-deep sequencing-based survey on eukaryotic and bacterial plankton biogeography in the Baltic Sea. PMID:27242706

  12. A new approach to model oxygen dependent benthic phosphate fluxes in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almroth-Rosell, Elin; Eilola, Kari; Kuznetsov, Ivan; Hall, Per O. J.; Meier, H. E. Markus

    2015-04-01

    The new approach to model the oxygen dependent phosphate release by implementing formulations of the oxygen penetration depths (OPD) and mineral bound inorganic phosphorus pools to the Swedish Coastal and Ocean Biogeochemical model (SCOBI) is described. The phosphorus dynamics and the oxygen concentrations in the Baltic proper sediment are studied during the period 1980-2008 using SCOBI coupled to the 3D-Rossby Centre Ocean model. Model data are compared to observations from monitoring stations and experiments. The impact from oxygen consumption on the determination of the OPD is found to be largest in the coastal zones where also the largest OPD are found. In the deep water the low oxygen concentrations mainly determine the OPD. Highest modelled release rate of phosphate from the sediment is about 59 × 103 t P year- 1 and is found on anoxic sediment at depths between 60-150 m, corresponding to 17% of the Baltic proper total area. The deposition of organic and inorganic phosphorus on sediments with oxic bottom water is larger than the release of phosphorus, about 43 × 103 t P year- 1. For anoxic bottoms the release of total phosphorus during the investigated period is larger than the deposition, about 19 × 103 t P year- 1. In total the net Baltic proper sediment sink is about 23.7 × 103 t P year- 1. The estimated phosphorus sink efficiency of the entire Baltic Sea is on average about 83% during the period.

  13. Assessment of undiscovered conventional and continuous oil and gas resources of the Baltic Depression Province, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers, Heidi M.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 282 million barrels of conventional oil, 576 billion cubic feet of conventional gas, 1.3 billion barrels of continuous oil, and 4.6 trillion cubic feet of shale gas in the Baltic Depression Province.

  14. Anatomizing one of the largest saltwater inflows into the Baltic Sea in December 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gräwe, Ulf; Naumann, Michael; Mohrholz, Volker; Burchard, Hans

    2015-11-01

    In December 2014, an exceptional inflow event into the Baltic Sea was observed, a so-called Major Baltic Inflow (MBI). Such inflow events are important for the deep water ventilation in the Baltic Sea and typically occur every 3-10 years. Based on first observational data sets, this inflow had been ranked as the third largest since 100 years. With the help of a multinested modeling system, reaching from the North Atlantic (8 km resolution) to the Western Baltic Sea (600 m resolution, which is baroclinic eddy resolving), this event is reproduced in detail. The model gave a slightly lower salt transport of 3.8 Gt, compared to the observational estimate of four Gt. Moreover, by using passive tracers to mark the different inflowing water masses, including an age tracer, the inflowing water masses could be tracked and their paths and timing through the different basins could be reproduced and investigated. The analysis is supported by the recently developed Total Exchange Flow (TEF) to quantify the volume transport in different salinity classes. To account for uncertainties in the modeled velocity and tracer fields, a Monte Carlo Analysis (MCA) is applied to correct possible biases and errors. With the help of the MCA, 95% confidence intervals are computed for the transport estimates. Based on the MCA, the "best guess" of the volume transport is 291.0 ± 13.65 km3 and 3.89 ± 0.18 Gt for the total salt transport.

  15. N/P ratio of nutrient uptake in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Z.; Jonasson, L.; Bi, H.

    2011-06-01

    The N/P ratio of nutrient uptake, i.e., the ratio of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) to dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) taken by primary producers, varies in different basins and in different seasons in the Baltic Sea. The N/P ratio of nutrient alteration fore and after spring blooms is not same as the N/P ratio of nutrient uptake, but the former can be regarded as an indicator for the later in the Baltic Sea. Based on the observed N/P ratio of nutrient alteration, we hypothesize a non-Redfield N/P ratio of nutrient uptake. The 3D-ecosystem model ERGOM coupled with the circulation model DMI-BSHcmod was used to test the hypothesis. When the Redfield ratio was used in the model, the DIP surplus after spring blooms was too high and resulted in the overly growth of cyanobacteria and too much nitrogen fixation. When the non-Redfield ratio was used in the model, the corresponding problem tended to disappear. In summary, we show that: (1) the Redfield N/P ratio of nutrient uptake in the Baltic Sea tends to be too high; (2) a lower N/P ratio 10:1 appears to work better than the Redfield value; and (3) the N/P ratio of nutrient uptake in the Baltic Proper during spring blooms is around 6:1.

  16. SwingStations: a web-based client tool for the Baltic environmental database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, Alexander; Wulff, Fredrik

    1999-08-01

    This paper describes the operation of a web-based computer program designed as a client program for the Baltic Environmental Database. This database contains a large collection of oceanographic data for the Baltic Sea from all Baltic countries, covering observations from 1900 to the present. A database server manages this database allowing user access via the Internet. To investigate the database, a web-based program (SwingStations) was developed. This program works as a client in client/server interaction with the database. It allows data to be selected using graphical user-friendly queries and to analyze the data in numerical and graphical forms. It is also possible to construct vertical profiles of statistics and time series (time-depth graph) of oceanographic parameters for a selected area of the Baltic Sea. SwingStations applet is written in Java™ using Java Foundation Classes Application Programming Interface. This interface is included in the Sun's Java™ Plug-in Virtual Machine that provides complete Java Compatible™ support for all the popular web browsers on major hardware platforms.

  17. PHOTOCHEMICAL MINERALIZATION OF DISSOLVED ORGANIC NITROGEN TO AMMONIUM IN THE BALTIC SEA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Solar radiation-induced photochemistry can be considered as a new source of nutrients when photochemical reactions release bioavailable nitrogen from biologically non-reactive dissolved organic nitrogen (DON). Pretreatments of Baltic Sea waters in the dark indicated that >72% of ...

  18. Language and Education Orientations in Lithuania: A Cross-Baltic Perspective Post-EU Accession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulajeva, Tatjana; Hogan-Brun, Gabrielle

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an up-to-date overview of language policies and practices in Lithuania, paying particular attention to the latest developments that have taken place in national educational contexts. Against the background of recent sociodemographic changes in the three Baltic republics, Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia, it analyzes issues…

  19. Intercultural Education in the Curriculum: Some Comparative Aspects from the Baltic and Nordic Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asser, Hiie; Trasberg, Karmen; Vassilchenko, Larissa

    2004-01-01

    During the 1990s, the educational systems of the Baltic countries, newly independent of the Soviet Union, underwent rapid and far-reaching change. National educational traditions were re-established and the countries achieved an internationally recognized quality of education. In the second half of the past decade, however, it came to be…

  20. A new species of Diochus from Baltic amber (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Diochini)

    PubMed Central

    Chatzimanolis, Stylianos; Engel, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The first fossil of the staphylinine tribe Diochini Casey is described and figured from an inclusion in mid-Eocene (Lutetian) Baltic amber. Diochus electrus sp. n. is distinguished from its congeners and the diversity of rove beetles (Staphylinidae s.l.) is summarized briefly. PMID:22144854

  1. Diversity of Pico- to Mesoplankton along the 2000 km Salinity Gradient of the Baltic Sea

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yue O. O.; Karlson, Bengt; Charvet, Sophie; Andersson, Anders F.

    2016-01-01

    Microbial plankton form the productive base of both marine and freshwater ecosystems and are key drivers of global biogeochemical cycles of carbon and nutrients. Plankton diversity is immense with representations from all major phyla within the three domains of life. So far, plankton monitoring has mainly been based on microscopic identification, which has limited sensitivity and reproducibility, not least because of the numerical majority of plankton being unidentifiable under the light microscope. High-throughput sequencing of taxonomic marker genes offers a means to identify taxa inaccessible by traditional methods; thus, recent studies have unveiled an extensive previously unknown diversity of plankton. Here, we conducted ultra-deep Illumina sequencing (average 105 sequences/sample) of rRNA gene amplicons of surface water eukaryotic and bacterial plankton communities sampled in summer along a 2000 km transect following the salinity gradient of the Baltic Sea. Community composition was strongly correlated with salinity for both bacterial and eukaryotic plankton assemblages, highlighting the importance of salinity for structuring the biodiversity within this ecosystem. In contrast, no clear trends in alpha-diversity for bacterial or eukaryotic communities could be detected along the transect. The distribution of major planktonic taxa followed expected patterns as observed in monitoring programs, but groups novel to the Baltic Sea were also identified, such as relatives to the coccolithophore Emiliana huxleyi detected in the northern Baltic Sea. This study provides the first ultra-deep sequencing-based survey on eukaryotic and bacterial plankton biogeography in the Baltic Sea. PMID:27242706

  2. Mass variations of the Baltic Sea compared to superconducting gravimeter and GRACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virtanen, H.; Virtanen, J.; Nordman, M.; Bilker-Koivula, M.; Mäkinen, J.

    2009-04-01

    We study the gravity effect of Baltic Sea mass variations observed using different methods and time resolutions. We compare data from tide gauges, from superconductive gravimeter (SG) at Metsähovi, Finland and from the GRACE gravity satellite. The mass variation in the semi-enclosed Baltic Sea is due to both internal redistribution of the water mass and due to changes in the so-called fill level caused by water exchange with the North Sea. The monthly variation in the water mass is about 60 Gt over an area of 390000 km-2. Due to a dense network of tide gauges, the Baltic Sea is one of best monitored mass variations in this size in the world. For modeling the observed water mass, we have used both monthly PSMSL tide gauge records and hourly values from several sources. In addition, we have hydrodynamic models for comparisons. To calculate gravity effect, we have used Green's function formalism for modeled sea surface. We have previously used temporal gravity field data from GRACE satellite to show that GRACE can recover the total mass variation in the Baltic Sea on monthly scales. In addition to monthly GRACE solutions with different filters, we now also use 10-day mascon block solutions from Goddard Space Flight Center. As the GRACE solutions are already corrected for gravity changes due to oceans, we have restored the contribution due to the Baltic Sea. We have also corrected for an effect due to leakage of continental water storage using the GLDAS hydrology model. The fundamental station Metsähovi is located 10 km from the nearest bay of the Baltic Sea and 15 km from the open sea. Using a single tide gauge at the distance of 30 km from SG at Metsähovi, very clear correlation is found between gravity and sea level. Superconducting gravity data has been corrected by tides and polar motion, atmospheric mass redistribution, local groundwater and drift. Hourly mass variations of sea are clearly separable. Theoretically one-meter even-layer water cause 30 nms-2

  3. Long-term trends of hypoxia in the coastal zone, north-western Baltic proper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrén, Thomas; Norbäck Ivarsson, Lena; Andrén, Elinor

    2015-04-01

    The Baltic Sea coastal zone contains over 20 % of all identified hypoxic sites worldwide and shows an increasing trend since 1950 (Conley et al. 2011). In the open Baltic Sea, hypoxia events are recorded during three time periods: about 8000-4000, 2000-800 cal. yr. BP, and from AD 1800 up to present, but in the coastal zone data on long-term trends are lacking (Zillén et al. 2008). Different views have been proposed of what caused the oscillation in the oxygen content at sea bottoms in the open Baltic Sea e.g. changes in agricultural practice, fluctuations in human population density and climate change. The role of humans and climate in driving the eutrophication and hypoxia in the Baltic Sea needs to be understood and there is an urgent need for increased knowledge of the historical extent of hypoxia and the driving forces for formation in the coastal zone. This project aims to disentangle the role of human induced and natural climate-driven processes that have resulted in times of eutrophication and hypoxia in the Baltic Sea during the last 2000 years. Research focus is put on the coastal zone and carefully selected estuaries along the Swedish east coast, where responses to changed human land-use can be expected to be first recorded. Eight sites, from the Stockholm archipelago to Bråviken, have been cored and sediments lithologically described and dated by radiocarbon using preferably terrestrial macrofossils. Preliminary results of age models, sedimentation rates, and lithologies will be presented. Lithological descriptions using laminated sediments as a proxy for hypoxic bottom water conditions will significantly increase the knowledge on the distribution of hypoxia and the extension of areas of laminated sediments in time and space in the coastal area. References: Conley, D.J., Carstensen, J., Aigars, J., Axe, P., Bonsdorff, E., Eremina, T., Haahti, B.-M., Humborg, C., Jonsson, P., Kotta, J., Lännegren, C., Larsson, U., Maximov, A., Rodriguez Medina, M

  4. Validation of ERA-Interim precipitation estimates over the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bumke, Karl

    2015-04-01

    The closing of the energy and water budgets of the Baltic Sea is only possible, when beside an accurate knowledge of the in- and outflows through the Danish Sounds, evaporation and precipitation are exactly known. Due to a lack of in-situ observations of precipitation over sea it is common to use data from numerical models or remote sensing, although e.g. Andersson et al. (2011) pointed out that even state-of-the-art satellite retrievals and reanalysis data sets still disagree with respect to amounts or variability compared to observations. In our study we validate ERA-Interim reanalysis data of total precipitation against ten years (1995-2004) of in-situ precipitation measurements onboard of ships. ERA-Interim data consist of three hourly surface forecast fields on a regular grid with a 0.75° x 0.75° resolution, which are initiated twice a day. Observations within the forecast period were collocated to the surrounding grid points of the reanalysis data. Since ship rain gauges are only suitable to measure rain, only measurements at air temperatures above 4°C were taken into account. The number of collocated data exceeds 200000. Comparing all data gives a good agreement of mean rain rates of measurements and reanalysis data. But a closer look reveals an underestimation of ERA-Interim precipitation in spring and an overestimation in autumn, related to atmospheric stability. The atmospheric stability is linked to turbulent heat fluxes and indeed it is found that ERA-Interim underestimates rain rates by up to 40 percent under situations with low latent heat fluxes and overestimates rain rates strongly up to about 150 percent under conditions with high latent heat fluxes. To ensure that this is not an artefact due to uncertainties in ERA-Interim fields of evaporation, meteorological data of ships have been extracted from the marine meteorological data archive of the Seewetteramt Hamburg, and were also collocated to the reanalysis data. These data were used to derive

  5. Improvement of Baltic proper water quality using large-scale ecological engineering.

    PubMed

    Stigebrandt, Anders; Gustafsson, Bo G

    2007-04-01

    Eutrophication of the Baltic proper has led to impaired water quality, demonstrated by, e.g., extensive blooming of cyanobacteria during the premium summer holiday season and severe oxygen deficit in the deepwater. Sustainable improvements in water quality by the reduction of phosphorus (P) supplies will take several decades before giving full effects because of large P storages both in soils in the watershed and in the water column and bottom sediments of the Baltic proper. In this article it is shown that drastically improved water quality may be obtained within a few years using large-scale ecological engineering methods. Natural variations in the Baltic proper during the last decades have demonstrated how rapid improvements may be achieved. The present article describes the basic dynamics of P, organic matter, and oxygen in the Baltic proper. It also briefly discusses the advantages and disadvantages of different classes of methods of ecological engineering aimed at restoring the Baltic proper from eutrophication effects. Preliminary computations show that the P content might be halved within a few years if about 100 kg O2 s(-1) are supplied to the upper deepwater. This would require 100 pump stations, each transporting about 100 m3 s(-1) of oxygen-rich so-called winter water from about 50 to 125 m depth where the water is released as a buoyant jet. Each pump station needs a power supply of 0.6 MW. Offshore wind power technology seems mature enough to provide the power needed by the pump stations. The cost to install 100 wind-powered pump stations, each with 0.6 MW power, at about 125-m depth is about 200 million Euros. PMID:17520945

  6. Significance of archaeal nitrification in hypoxic waters of the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, C.; Vandieken, V.; Thamdrup, B.; Jürgens, K.

    2012-04-01

    Marine oxygen deficient areas are sites of important microbially mediated transformations within the nitrogen cycle. In the Baltic Sea, suboxic waters (oxygen below 5 μmol L-1) are considered to be a major nitrification zone within the water column. Recent evidence indicates that Archaea and not Bacteria are here the major ammonium oxidizers. In a Baltic Sea pelagic redoxcline, the crenarchaeotal subcluster GD2 which is related to the first cultivated ammonia-oxidizing crenarchaeote Candidatus Nitrosopumilus maritimus occurs in high abundance. However, little is known about its function and importance for the nitrogen and carbon cycles in oxygen minimum zones of the Baltic Sea. To approach this question, we sampled pelagic redoxclines in the Baltic Sea and determined the rates of nitrification and light-independent, inorganic carbon fixation via 15N and 14C isotope incubations, and quantified the abundance of putative ammonia-oxidizing Crenarchaeota by catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH). Nitrification was detectable throughout the suboxic zone with maxima of 122-131 nmol L-1 d-1 in layers with 1.8-7.1 μmol oxygen L-1 and ammonium below 0.2 μmol L-1. However, a nitrification potential was detected even in the upper anoxic, sulfidic zone. Crenarchaeotal abundance correlated strongly with nitrification rates and accounted for up to 24% of total prokaryotic cells. In contrast, the CO2 fixation in the suboxic zone was with 1.6-19.6 nmol L-1 d-1 rather low when compared to the subjacent anoxic, sulfidic waters. Our study indicates that ammonia oxidation in the suboxic zone of the Baltic Sea is mainly driven by Crenarchaeota. Their occurrence also in the anoxic, sulfidic water masses and the maintained nitrification potential point to special adaptations in this habitat with a potentially reduced sensitivity against hydrogen sulfide.

  7. Study in 1790 Baltic men: FSHR Asn680Ser polymorphism affects total testes volume

    PubMed Central

    Grigorova, M; Punab, M; Poolamets, O; Sõber, S; Vihljajev, V; Žilaitienė, B; Erenpreiss, J; Matulevičius, V; Tsarev, I; Laan, M

    2013-01-01

    Follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) contains two common linked polymorphisms, Thr307Ala (rs6165) and Asn680Ser (rs6166), shown to modulate ovarian function in women. The effect on male fertility and reproductive parameters has been inconclusive. We studied FSHR Asn680Ser polymorphism in a large study group (n = 1790) from the Baltic countries. The population-based Baltic male cohort (Estonians, Latvians, Lithuanians; n = 1052) and Estonian oligo-/azoospermic (sperm concentration <20 × 106/mL) idiopathic infertile patients (n = 738) were genotyped for the FSHR Asn680Ser using PCR-RFLP. Genetic associations were tested using linear regression under additive model and results were combined in meta-analysis. No statistical difference was detected in allelic distribution of the FSHR Asn680Ser between the Baltic cohort and Estonian male infertility group. A consistent significant association was detected between the FSHR Ser680 allele and lower total testes volume in both, the Baltic cohort (p = 0.010, effect = −1.16 mL) and Estonian idiopathic infertility group (p = 0.007, effect = −1.77 mL). In meta-analysis, the statistical significance was enhanced (p = 0.000066, effect = −1.40 mL). Meta-analysis supported further associations with moderate effect between the FSHR Ser680 variant and higher serum FSH (p = 0.072), lower Inhibin B (p = 0.037) and total testosterone (p = 0.034). No statistically significant associations were identified with serum LH and estradiol, and sperm parameters. In conclusion, the study in 1790 Baltic men shows statistically highly significant association of the FSHR Asn680Ser with total testes volume and supportive association with serum reproductive hormone levels indicative to the functional effect of the alternative FSHR variants on male reproductive physiology. PMID:23413141

  8. BALTEX—an interdisciplinary research network for the Baltic Sea region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reckermann, Marcus; Langner, Joakim; Omstedt, Anders; von Storch, Hans; Keevallik, Sirje; Schneider, Bernd; Arheimer, Berit; Markus Meier, H. E.; Hünicke, Birgit

    2011-10-01

    BALTEX is an environmental research network dealing with the Earth system of the entire Baltic Sea drainage basin. Important elements include the water and energy cycle, climate variability and change, water management and extreme events, and related impacts on biogeochemical cycles. BALTEX was founded in 1993 as a GEWEX continental-scale experiment and is currently in its second 10 yr phase. Phase I (1993-2002) was primarily dedicated to hydrological, meteorological and oceanographic processes in the Baltic Sea drainage basin, hence mostly dealt with the physical aspects of the system. Scientific focus was on the hydrological cycle and the exchange of energy between the atmosphere, the Baltic Sea and the surface of its catchment. The BALTEX study area was hydrologically defined as the Baltic Sea drainage basin. The second 10 yr phase of BALTEX (Phase II: 2003-12) has strengthened regional climate research, water management issues, biogeochemical cycles and overarching efforts to reach out to stakeholders and decision makers, as well as to foster communication and education. Achievements of BALTEX Phase II have been the establishment of an assessment report of regional climate change and its impacts on the Baltic Sea basin (from hydrological to biological and socio-economic), the further development of regional physical climate models and the integration of biogeochemical and ecosystem models. BALTEX features a strong infrastructure, with an international secretariat and a publication series, and organizes various workshops and conferences. This article gives an overview of the BALTEX programme, with an emphasis on Phase II, with some examples from BALTEX-related research.

  9. The general circulation of the Baltic Sea in the context of climate variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getzlaff, K.; Lehmann, A.

    2012-04-01

    A detailed assessment of climate variability of the Baltic Sea area for the period 1958-2009 revealed that the recent changes in the warming trend since the mid-1980s are associated with changes in the large-scale atmospheric circulation over the North Atlantic. The analysis of winter sea level pressure (SLP) data highlighted considerable changes in the number and pathways of deep cyclones (<980 hPa) in parallel with the eastward shift of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) centres of action. Additionally, a seasonal shift of strong wind events from autumn to winter and early spring exists for the Baltic area. Earlier studies showed that different atmospheric climate regimes force different circulation regimes in the Baltic Sea. The analysis of the winter (DJFM) circulation patterns for the period 1970-2008 reveals changes in the general circulation of the Baltic Sea. While it is difficult to clearly link individual winter circulation patterns to one of the four dominant atmospheric climate regimes for the North Atlantic domain, the comparison of mean winter circulation patterns for 20-year periods (1970-1989 and 1990-2009) highlights that for the later 20-year period an intensified cyclonic circulation exists in the central Baltic Sea. This intensified circulation results from stronger westerly and north-westerly winds and is most likely connected to changes in the large-scale atmospheric circulation. As climate, to a large extent, controls patterns of water circulation and biophysical aspects relevant for biological production, such as the vertical distribution of temperature, salinity and oxygen, alterations in climate may severely impact the trophic structure and functioning of marine food webs.

  10. Assessment of PCDD/F source contributions in Baltic Sea sediment core records.

    PubMed

    Assefa, Anteneh T; Tysklind, Mats; Sobek, Anna; Sundqvist, Kristina L; Geladi, Paul; Wiberg, Karin

    2014-08-19

    Spatial and temporal trends of sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in the Baltic Sea were evaluated by positive matrix factorization (PMF) and principal component analysis (PCA). Sediment cores were sampled at eight coastal, one coastal reference, and six offshore sites covering the northern to the southern Baltic Sea. The cores, which covered the period 1919-2010, were sliced into 2-3 cm disks among which 8-11 disks per core (in total 141 disks) were analyzed for all tetra- through octa-CDD/Fs. Identification and apportionment of PCDD/F sources was carried out using PMF. Five stable model PCDD/F congener patterns were identified, which could be associated with six historically important source types: (i) atmospheric background deposition (ABD), (ii) use and production of penta-chlorophenol (PCP), (iii) use and production of tetra-chlorophenol (TeCP), (iv) high temperature processes (Thermal), (v) hexa-CDD-related sources (HxCDD), and (vi) chlorine-related sources (Chl), all of which were still represented in the surface layers. Overall, the last four decades of the period 1920-2010 have had a substantial influence on the Baltic Sea PCDD/F pollution, with 88 ± 7% of the total amount accumulated during this time. The 1990s was the peak decade for all source types except TeCP, which peaked in the 1980s in the northern Baltic Sea and has still not peaked in the southern part. The combined impact of atmospheric-related emissions (ABD and Thermal) was dominant in the open sea system throughout the study period (1919-2010) and showed a decreasing south to north trend (always >80% in the south and >50% in the north). Accordingly, to further reduce levels of PCDD/Fs in the open Baltic Sea ecosystem, future actions should focus on reducing atmospheric emissions. PMID:25103626

  11. Parasite diversity of sticklebacks from the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Zander, C Dieter

    2007-01-01

    In the brackish Baltic Sea, the species richness and diversity of parasite communities of three- (Gasterosteus aculeatus) and nine-spined sticklebacks (Pungitius pungitius) were investigated. The studies regarded four localities at the Schleswig-Holstein and Mecklenburg coasts, northern Germany, where salinities were between 10 and 18 per thousand. Species richness was relatively high, attaining 15 parasite species in G. aculeatus and 16 in P. pungitius, which are only surpassed by former investigations that lasted a year or more. An analysis of parasite species identity revealed clear differences in diverse localities referring to different supracommunities. The infracommunity comprised maximally of eight species in G. aculeatus and seven in P. pungitius, which corresponds to former investigations. The mean value of infracommunity with 5.3 parasites is the highest value ever found in small-sized fish. An infracommunity index revealed that the digenean Podocotyle atomon and Magnibursatus caudofilamentosa and the copepod Thersitina gasterostei were the most abundant parasites. The relationship of component community to mean infracommunity can judge about the threshold level, which allows parasite to settle successfully. An important factor to form parasite communities is the season of their appearance, which depends also on their reproduction and on the presence of intermediate hosts. In addition, the choice of prey (for passive infection) and quality of habitats (for active infection) influences the constitution of the parasite communities. The diversity values of parasites were low in all hosts, which is due to the brackish milieu and by different levels of eutrophication, which both create extreme environments. These do not mirror in every case the biodiversity of the respective habitats. The parasite community was in a level of early heterotrophic succession where low diversity is combined with high population density, which is characteristic for extreme

  12. Content of strontium-90 and cesium-137 in a number of regions of the Baltic Sea in 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarev, L.N.; Flegontov, V.M.; Gedenov, L.I.; Ivanova, L.M.; Orlova, T.B.; Stepanov, A.V.

    1985-07-01

    The authors present the data gathered from the samples of water and bed deposits taken at various sites in the Baltic Sea, the Gulf of Riga, and the Gulf of Finland. By means of the radiochemical method using ferrocyanide-carbonate concentration, they determine strotium-90 and cesium-137 content. The authors conclude by noting an increase in the cesium-137 content in the deep waters of the Baltic Sea and in bed deposits, and by cautioning that this development commands close attention.

  13. Recent trends and variations in Baltic Sea temperature, salinity, stratification and circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elken, Jüri; Lehmann, Andreas; Myrberg, Kai

    2015-04-01

    The presentation highlights the results of physical oceanography from BACC II (Second BALTEX Assessment of Climate Change for the Baltic Sea basin) book based on the review of recent literature published until 2013. We include also information from some more recent publications. A recent warming trend in sea surface waters has been clearly demonstrated by all available methods: in-situ measurements, remote sensing data and modelling tools. In particular, remote sensing data for the period 1990-2008 indicate that the annual mean SST has increased even by 1°C per decade, with the greatest increase in the northern Bothnian Bay and also with large increases in the Gulf of Finland, the Gulf of Riga, and the northern Baltic Proper. Although the increase in the northern areas is affected by the recent decline in the extent and duration of sea ice, and corresponding changes in surface albedo, warming is still evident during all seasons and with the greatest increase occurring in summer. The least warming of surface waters (0.3-0.5°C per decade) occurred northeast of Bornholm Island up to and along the Swedish coast, probably owing to an increase in the frequency of coastal upwelling forced by the westerly wind events. Comparing observations with the results of centennial-scale modelling, recent changes in sea water temperature appear to be within the range of the variability observed during the past 500 years. Overall salinity pattern and stratification conditions are controlled by river runoff, wind conditions, and salt water inflows through the Danish straits. The mean top-layer salinity is mainly influenced by the accumulated river runoff, with higher salinity during dry periods and lower salinity during wet periods. Observations reveal a low-salinity period above the halocline starting in the 1980s. The strength of stratification and deep salinity are reduced when the mean zonal wind stress increases, as it occurred since 1987. Major Baltic Inflows of highly saline

  14. A Framework of Knowledge Integration and Discovery for Supporting Pharmacogenomics Target Predication of Adverse Drug Events: A Case Study of Drug-Induced Long QT Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Guoqian; Wang, Chen; Zhu, Qian; Chute, Christopher G.

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge-driven text mining is becoming an important research area for identifying pharmacogenomics target genes. However, few of such studies have been focused on the pharmacogenomics targets of adverse drug events (ADEs). The objective of the present study is to build a framework of knowledge integration and discovery that aims to support pharmacogenomics target predication of ADEs. We integrate a semantically annotated literature corpus Semantic MEDLINE with a semantically coded ADE knowledgebase known as ADEpedia using a semantic web based framework. We developed a knowledge discovery approach combining a network analysis of a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network and a gene functional classification approach. We performed a case study of drug-induced long QT syndrome for demonstrating the usefulness of the framework in predicting potential pharmacogenomics targets of ADEs. PMID:24303306

  15. Effect of major Baltic inflows on the vertical distribution of hydrophysical parameters, oxygen and inorganic nutrients in the Baltic Proper and the Gulf of Finland: a numerical modelling experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lessin, Gennadi; Stips, Adolf

    2013-04-01

    Certain meteorological and oceanographic conditions cause episodic inflows of highly saline and usually oxygen-rich water into the Baltic Sea termed major Baltic inflows (MBI). These events ventilate the deep water of the Central Baltic Sea, but also increase stratification stability and suppress vertical mixing. During stagnation periods the deep water oxygen pool is exhausted and salinity is decreasing due to mixing processes. While the effect of MBIs on the deep area of the Central Baltic received much attention in the recent years, less is known about their influence on hydrophysical and ecological conditions in the Baltic sub-basins. It is a fact, that despite a reduction in nutrient discharge to the Baltic Sea from agricultural runoff and industrial production in the beginning of 1990s, in the Gulf of Finland (GoF) near-bottom oxygen conditions became worse and phosphate concentrations have even increased during the recent decade. This is raising the question of the role that MBIs play in the exchange of water and material between Baltic Proper and the GoF. To improve our understanding of the effects of MBIs on the interaction of the Gulf of Finland and the Baltic Proper, the hydrodynamic model GETM coupled with the ecosystem model ERGOM was applied to the Baltic Sea area for the period 1991-2009. Model performance was validated and showed good agreement with the available measurement data at HELCOM monitoring stations BY15, LL17, LL12, LL7 and LL3A, which represent a transition from the Gotland Deep to the eastern GoF. To exclude the effect of MBIs, an experimental model run without imposed sea-level variations at the open boundary in Kattegat was performed, thus excluding one of the major factors driving the barotropic inflows to the Baltic Sea. Model results have shown that in no-inflow situations, surface salinity is lower by about 1 PSU and near-bottom salinity by about 2 PSU in the Baltic Proper, while in the GoF the difference is about 0.5 and 1.5 PSU

  16. Reconstruction of the ancient zones of stress relaxation in the Earth's crust of the north-eastern Baltic Shield.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filatova, Valentina

    2014-05-01

    The research has been carried out on the basis of numerical simulation to reconstruct zones of high permeability of the basement, which formed in the Early Precambrian and determined the localization of tectonic and magmatic processes in the region. The study region is treated as a non-uniform elastic body affected by volume forces and stresses specified at the boundary. Three stages of the region development have been studied: (a) 3.0-2.8 Ga; (b) 2.8 - 2.5 Ga; (c) 2.5-1.6 Ga. At each stage a base model has been set. Every model describes the studied region in terms of geological structures formed by this time. Linear-elastic constants for rocks and direction of the compressive forces were specified in accordance with the available data. Performed investigation allowed to estimate stress values which could occur in the continental plate of the northeastern Baltic Shield by external tectonic forces. Quantitative models of the stress and strain state of the regional Earth's crust have been constructed with due regard of its evolution. It is proposed to apply calculations of maximum shear stress when identifying weak zones. The permeable zones of the crust are marked by anomalous values of shear stresses. Almost all tracing zones coincide with the areas, where tectonic and magmatic processes have performed. All marked zones are correlated with the known Archaean and Proterozoic and Palaeozoic geologic structures. The obtained results revealed a location heredity of magma feeding channels in the region from the Archaean up to the Early Proterozoic and Palaeozoic. Thus, the stress and strain state could affect the character of the geodynamic processes that determined the development of the mobile-permeable zones within the rigid blocks. The carried out investigation pioneers quantitative estimates and interrelation of geodynamic factors interpreting formation mechanisms of the deformed structures in the region. The obtained results give grounds to revise the existing

  17. Second Language Acquisition of Korean Evidentiality in Expressions of Psychological State of Mind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoades-Ko, Yun-Hee

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the second language acquisition of the evidentiality requirement in the Korean psychological state of mind expressions. When an experiencer of the psychological state of mind is different from the speaker, Korean language requires an evidential expression to the psychological predicate so that the speaker indicates the source…

  18. Stable Isotope Evidence for Late Medieval (14th–15th C) Origins of the Eastern Baltic Cod (Gadus morhua) Fishery

    PubMed Central

    Orton, David C.; Makowiecki, Daniel; de Roo, Tessa; Johnstone, Cluny; Harland, Jennifer; Jonsson, Leif; Heinrich, Dirk; Enghoff, Inge Bødker; Lõugas, Lembi; Van Neer, Wim; Ervynck, Anton; Hufthammer, Anne Karin; Amundsen, Colin; Jones, Andrew K. G.; Locker, Alison; Hamilton-Dyer, Sheila; Pope, Peter; MacKenzie, Brian R.; Richards, Michael; O'Connell, Tamsin C.; Barrett, James H.

    2011-01-01

    Although recent historical ecology studies have extended quantitative knowledge of eastern Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) exploitation back as far as the 16th century, the historical origin of the modern fishery remains obscure. Widespread archaeological evidence for cod consumption around the eastern Baltic littoral emerges around the 13th century, three centuries before systematic documentation, but it is not clear whether this represents (1) development of a substantial eastern Baltic cod fishery, or (2) large-scale importation of preserved cod from elsewhere. To distinguish between these hypotheses we use stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis to determine likely catch regions of 74 cod vertebrae and cleithra from 19 Baltic archaeological sites dated from the 8th to the 16th centuries. δ13C and δ15N signatures for six possible catch regions were established using a larger sample of archaeological cod cranial bones (n = 249). The data strongly support the second hypothesis, revealing widespread importation of cod during the 13th to 14th centuries, most of it probably from Arctic Norway. By the 15th century, however, eastern Baltic cod dominate within our sample, indicating the development of a substantial late medieval fishery. Potential human impact on cod stocks in the eastern Baltic must thus be taken into account for at least the last 600 years. PMID:22110675

  19. Trend Analysis of Nitrogen Deposition to Baltic Sea and its sub basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semeena, V. S.; Jerzy, Bartnicki

    2009-04-01

    Since the beginning of last century, Baltic Sea has changed from a clear-water sea into a eutrophic marine environment. Eutrophication is the major problem in the Baltic Sea. Excessive nitrogen and phosphorus loads coming from land-based sources within and outside the catchment area of the bordering countries of the Baltic Sea are the main cause of the eutrophication in the sea. Even though a major part of nitrogen(75%) and phosphorus load(95%) enter the sea via rivers or as water-born discharges, 25% of the nitrogen load comes as atmospheric deposition. Numerical models are the best tools to measure atmospheric deposition into sea waters. We have used the latest version of the Unified EMEP model - which has been developed at the EMEP/MSC-W (Meteorological Synthesizing Centre - West of EMEP) for simulating atmospheric transport and deposition of acidifying and eutrophying compounds as well as photo-oxidants in Europe- to study the trends in atmospheric deposition of nitrogen into Baltic Sea for the period 1995-2006. The model domain covers Europe and the Atlantic Ocean. The model grid (of the size 170×133) has a horizontal resolution of 50 km at 60o N, which is consistent with the resolution of emission data reported to CLRTAP. Approximately 10 of these layers are placed below 2 km to obtain high resolution of the boundary layer which is of special importance to the long range transport of air pollution. EMEP model has been thouroughly validated (Fagerli et.al.[1], Simpson et.al.[2], Simpson et.al.[3] ) The contribution of deposition of nitrogen into Baltic Sea from each of the bordering countries of the Baltic Sea and the deposition trends for the period 1995-2006 has been analysed and the results will be presented. References: [1]. Fagerli H., Simpson D. and Aas W.: Model performance for sulphur and nitrogen compounds for the period 1980 to 2000. [In:] L. Tarraśon, (editor), Transboundary Acidification, Eutrophication and Ground Level Ozone in Europe. EMEP

  20. Large spatial variations in coastal 14C reservoir age - a case study from the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lougheed, B. C.; Filipsson, H. L.; Snowball, I.

    2013-05-01

    Coastal locations are highly influenced by input from freshwater river runoff, including sources of terrestrial carbon, which can be expected to modify the 14C reservoir age, or R (t), associated with marine water. In this Baltic Sea case study, pre-bomb museum collection mollusc shells of known calendar age, from 30 locations across a strategic salinity transect of the Baltic Sea, were analysed for 14C, δ13C and δ18O. R (t) was calculated for all 30 locations. Seven locations, of which six are within close proximity of the coast, were found to have relatively higher R (t) values, indicative of hard-water effects. Whenever possible, the Macoma genus of mollusc was selected from the museum collections, in order to exclude species specific reservoir age effects as much as possible. When the Macoma samples are exclusively considered, and samples from hard-water locations excluded, a statistically significant correlation between Macoma R (t) and average salinity is found, indicating a two end-member linear mixing model between 14Cmarine and 14Crunoff. A map of Baltic Sea Macoma aragonite R (t) for the late 19th and early 20th centuries is produced. Such a map can provide an estimate for contemporary Baltic Sea Macoma R (t), although one must exercise caution when applying such estimates back in time or to 14C dates obtained from different sample material. A statistically significant correlation is found between δ18Oaragonite and Macoma R (t), suggesting that δ18Oaragonite can be used to estimate Macoma palaeo-R (t), due to the δ18Oaragonite signal being dominated by the salinity gradient of the Baltic Sea. A slightly increased correlation can be expected when δ18Oaragonite is corrected for temperature fractionation effects. The results of this Baltic Sea case study, which show that R (t) is affected by hydrographic conditions and local carbon inputs, have important consequences for other coastal and estuarine locations, where R (t) is also likely to significantly

  1. Iceberg ploughmark features on bottom surface of the South-Eastern Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorokhov, Dmitry; Sivkov, Vadim; Dorokhova, Evgenia; Krechik, Viktor

    2016-04-01

    A detail swath bathymetry, side-scan sonar and acoustic profiling combined with sediment sampling during the 64th cruise of RV "Academic Mstislav Keldysh" (October 2015) allowed to identify new geomorphological features of the South-Eastern Baltic Sea bottom surface. The extended chaotic ploughmarks (furrows) in most cases filled with thin layer of mud were discovered on surface of the Gdansk-Gotland sill glacial deposits. They are observed on the depth of more than 70 m and have depth and width from 1 to 10 m. Most of them are v- or u-shaped stepped depressions. The side-scan records of similar geomorpholoical features are extensively reported from Northern Hemisphere and Antarctica (Goodwin et al., 1985; Dowdeswell et al., 1993). Ploughmarks are attributed to the action of icebergs scouring into the sediment as they touch bottom. We are suggest that furrows discovered in the South-Eastern Baltic Sea are also the result of iceberg scouring during the Baltic Ice Lake stage (more than 11 600 cal yr BP (Bjorck, 2008)). This assumption confirmed by occurrence of fragmental stones and boulders on the sea bottom surface which are good indicators of iceberg rafting (Lisitzin, 2003). Ice ploughmarks at sea bottom surface were not occurred before in the South-Eastern Baltic Sea. The study was financed by Russian Scientific Fund, grant number 14-37-00047. References Bjorck S. The late Quaternary development of the Baltic Sea Basin. In: The BACC Author Team (eds) Assessment of climate change for the Baltic Sea Basin. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. 2008. Dowdeswell J. A., Villinger H., Whittington R. J., Marienfeld P. Iceberg scouring in Scoresby Sund and on the East Greenland continental shelf // Marine Geology. V. 111. N. 1-2. 1993. P. 37-53. Goodwin C. R., Finley J. C., Howard L. M. Ice scour bibliography. Environmental Studies Revolving Funds Report No. 010. Ottawa. 1985. 99 pp. Lisitzin A. P. Sea-Ice and Iceberg Sedimentation in the Ocean: Recent and Past. Springer

  2. To what extent does the salinity flux influence phytoplankton blooms? - Baltic Sea modeling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cieszyńska, Agata; Stramska, Małgorzata

    2016-04-01

    This work is focused on numerical modeling of biological-physical interactions and their influence on phytoplankton production and vertical distribution of biomass and its variability in the surface waters of the Baltic Sea. The area of interest is an inland sea with water salinity much smaller than observed in the global ocean (about one fifth of the open ocean value). Vertical distribution of the salinity has a significant influence on water column density stratification, and therefore influences intensity of mixing and the depth of mixed layer. This, in turn, defines environmental conditions for phytoplankton growth. Vertical distribution of water salinity in the basin is controlled by processes such as evaporation/precipitation, freezing/melting of sea ice and runoff of freshwater from land. There are a lot of different phytoplankton species in the area of the Baltic Sea. Every single one has its own characteristics and is sensitive to distinct complex environmental conditions. Biological-physical interactions controlling these microorganisms' life cycles are multiplicitous and because of their complexity difficult to quantify. The best and probably only way to study presented issue is the usage of numerical modeling tool. The results presented here are based on 1D numerical simulations carried out with Princeton Ocean Model (POM, http://www.ccpo.odu.edu/POMWEB/) merged with the Ecological Regional Ecosystem Model (ERGOM, http://ergom.net/) developed for the Baltic Sea research by German scientists from the Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research in Warnemünde. In model simulations surface salinity flux was determined from the difference between the precipitation and evaporation rate at the air-sea interface. Data for parameterization of atmospheric forcing were defined based on data sets from National Centers of Environmental Prediction (NCEP). We carried out systematic calculations using different values of surface fluxes encompassing the range of

  3. The petroleum system of the lower Palaeozoic strata in the central part of the Baltic basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazauskiene, Jurga; Zdanaviciute, Onyte

    2013-04-01

    The Baltic Basin is an intra-cratonic sedimentary basin with conspicuous Early Palaeozoic sections. In terms of hydrocarbon prospectively, the it has been perceived as a classical oil basin with several tens of relatively small oil and gas fields occur there over a wide stratigraphic interval, ranging from the crystalline basement through the entire Lower Palaeozoic succession. Until now conventional oil has been predominantly produced in the basin, i.e. only few conventional gas accumulations have been found in the Polish Baltic Sea offshore. Petroleum potential within the basin also is associated with Silurian reefogenic and carbonate build-ups. New organic geochemistry data as well revealed the potential for shale gas/oil in the basin. The analysis of the composition of the organic matter and crude oils from Kaliningrad region (Russia) and Lithuanian revealed genesis and the general trends of the migration of hydrocarbons in the Baltic Basin. The organic matter of the source rocks is of similar composition and represents typical marine type II, showing considerable variations of the maturity thought the basin: ranging from immature in the eastern Lithuania and Kaliningrad region of Russia to oil window to the south-west. In some places the anomalously high maturity of organic matter, indicating the lower part of the wet gas/condensate window have been recorded, most probably being related to the locally increased paleo-temperatures. Oils of the Baltic Basin have low densities (< 31,1 API; 790.5-870.0 kg/m3), and low asphaltene (<2.2%) and sulphur (<0.44%) contents. The saturated hydrocarbon content varies from 35.3 to 77.8%, and the ratio of saturate to aromatic hydrocarbons ranges in 2.1-5.2, indicating long-distance hydrocarbons migration or high thermal maturities. Oils of the Baltic Basin are not biodegraded, despite their early emplacement (e.g. by the Lower Palaeozoic age) and the relatively low present reservoir temperatures. Results of biomarker and

  4. Floating along buoyancy levels: Dispersal and survival of western Baltic fish eggs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petereit, C.; Hinrichsen, H.-H.; Franke, A.; Köster, F. W.

    2014-03-01

    Vertical distribution is an important feature of pelagic fish eggs and yolk sac larvae impacting their survival and dispersal, especially in heterogeneous and highly variable estuarine environments like the Baltic Sea. Egg densities determining the vertical distribution pattern were experimentally ascertained for cod (Gadus morhua), plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) and flounder (Platichthys flesus) from the western Baltic Sea. Plaice eggs floated at lower mean (±standard deviation) density range (1.0136 ± 0.0007 g cm-3) compared to cod (1.0146 ± 0.0009 g cm-3) and flounder eggs (1.0160 ± 0.0015 g cm-3), which floated on the highest density level. In flounder egg diameter was significantly related to egg density and in cod a weak correlation could be found between egg dry weight and density. All other relationships between female size, egg size, egg dry weight and egg density were not significant for any of the species. Available egg density data for Baltic Sea cod, plaice and flounder are summarized considering ICES subdivisions and stock management units. A hydrodynamic drift modeling approach was applied releasing drifters in the Belt Sea continuously from December to May, covering the species’ spawning seasons. The model implemented experimentally derived egg density ranges and included ontogenetic egg density modifications for cod eggs, increasing egg density from a late egg development stage to first hatch. A drifter was removed from the model, i.e. considered dead, when its initially prescribed density value exceeded the density range available at the temporally resolved geographical positions along the drift trajectories. Highest survival occurred during releases in April and May but no cohorts survived if they were drifted east into the central Arkona Basin or the central Baltic Sea, irrespective of whether a major Baltic Inflow (1992/1993) or a stagnation-year (1987/1988) was simulated. The dispersal characteristics of the surviving yolk sac larvae of

  5. What can ARGO's tell us on the processes in Baltic Sea?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roiha, Petra; Siiriä, Simo-Matti; Nummelin, Aleksi; Aro, Eemeli; Purokoski, Tero

    2014-05-01

    Finnish Meteorological Institute has been testing ARGO floats in the Baltic Sea as a mean for collecting data from the sea areas that are not easily reachable by research vessels or remote sensing. The observational data for Baltic Sea off-shore areas is very sparse and new observational methods are needed to fill the gaps in our knowledge and collect new data for different purposes, such as, operational activities, modelling and ocean science. The ARGO floats have been used successfully in the deep oceans. However, applying the ARGO floats in Baltic Sea is not straight forward, as the conditions differ greatly: the water is brackish, some areas are heavily trafficked and the northern parts freeze during the winter. In addition, the mean depth is only 54 metres, which is only a fraction of depths where ARGO floats have commonly been used. FMI has deployed three ARGO floats in Baltic Sea for different missions. The first ARGO was deployed in 2012 with normal diving algorithm, which checks the pressure hourly. The second float was modified by Aalto University so that the algorithm checks the pressure every 15 minutes. The first float was deployed in the Bothnian Sea in May 2013 and it measured over 200 profiles during its half year mission. The float with faster pressure detection was deployed in the Bothnian Sea in May 2013, and during it's 4 month mission it measured succesfully over 120 profiles. Another, longer test is ongoing on Eastern Gotland basin, where another ARGO float was deployed at Aug 2013, and still measures at Jan 2014. This one differs from earlier experiments as it has additional oxygen and scattering meters, also the area of measurements is deeper (200+ meters). The missions so far indicate, that with proper control and monitoring, ARGO's can be operated, and can measure long series of profiles. In addition to the actual measurements, the movement of ARGO floats gives possibilities to analyse currents in deeper areas of Baltic, and help

  6. The Baltic Sea: Geophysical and geochemical properties of Holocene sediment sequences as indicators of past environmental variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenz, Conny; Reinholdsson, Maja; Zillén, Lovisa; Conley, Daniel J.; Snowball, Ian

    2010-05-01

    The Baltic Sea has undergone large environmental changes since the retreat of the Weischselian Ice-sheet. In the Late Glacial Period and the early Holocene these changes were most likely caused by natural environmental changes (i.e. changes in the morphology and depths of the Baltic basin and the sills). In more recent time anthropogenic impacts have become more important as a possible and likely cause for changes. During the whole Holocene period climate variability played an important role. However, the relative importance between humans and nature is largely unknown. Here we present the results of a combined geophysical and geochemical study on selected sediment sequences from the Baltic Sea within the two BONUS (Baltic Organisations Network For Funding Science) funded projects HYPER (HYPoxia mitigation for Baltic Sea Ecosystem Restoration) and Baltic GAS (GAS storage and effects of climate change and eutrophication). The over-all aim of these projects is to understand large-scale Baltic Sea ecosystem responses to environmental, climate and anthropogenic forcing. During two Baltic Sea research cruises in 2009 long sediment cores from 8 different locations were recovered. We present preliminary results from one site (LL19) located in the north central Baltic Proper at 169 m water depth. The Littorina Sea sediment record (i.e. the last c. 8000 years) is characterised by alternating periods of homogenised sediments (indicative of oxic conditions) and laminated sediments (indicative of hypoxic/anoxic conditions). Mineral magnetic properties illustrate clear changes between laminated and non-laminated sections of the core. The concentration of ferrimagnetic minerals, as revealed by initial magnetic susceptibility (χ) and saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM) is variable. The laminated sections in particular show high concentrations and to reveal the origin of the ferrimagnetic signal additional magnetic properties were measured, specifically the

  7. Towards an improved understanding of Baltic Sea hypoxia during the Holocene: preliminary results from IODP Expedition 347

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slomp, Caroline; Dijkstra, Nikki; Egger, Matthias; Gustafsson, Bo; Ash, Jeanine; Bauersachs, Thorsten; Hardisty, Dalton; Martin, Ellen; Riedinger, Natascha; Andren, Thomas; Barker Jorgensen, Bo

    2015-04-01

    The Baltic Sea is a restricted brackish-marine basin that is highly sensitive to changes in climate and anthropogenic activity. Due to its salinity stratification, the Baltic Sea is particularly vulnerable to hypoxia (oxygen concentrations < 2 ml/L). Besides the modern, human-induced period of hypoxia (since A.D. 1960), there is evidence for two earlier major intervals of hypoxia since the transition of the Baltic Sea from the Ancylus freshwater phase to the Littorina brackish-marine phase. These are the Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM), ca. 8-4 ka, and the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA), ca. 1-0.7 ka (Zillen et al., 2008; Jilbert and Slomp, 2013). While changes in salinity, temperature and the input and recycling of nutrients all may contribute to the development of hypoxia in the Baltic Sea, their relative importance in driving the hypoxia during the MCA and HTM is still incompletely understood. Here, we use porewater and sediment geochemical data obtained during the IODP Expedition 347: Baltic Sea Paleoenvironment (September 13 - November 1, 2013) to obtain further insight into the role of changes in salinity and phosphorus recycling during the HTM. We focus on three sites along the modern salinity gradient in the Baltic Sea, Sites M0059, M0063 and M0065. Our results indicate that bottom water salinity in the Baltic Proper was higher during the HTM than at present, confirming previous studies that increased salinity stratification may have contributed to the development of hypoxia during the HTM. We also discuss evidence for temporal changes and spatial differences in primary productivity and phosphorus burial and recycling in the Baltic Sea and their potential role in contributing to the development of hypoxia during the HTM and MCA. References: Jilbert, T., and Slomp, C.P. (2013). Rapid high-amplitude variability in Baltic Sea hypoxia during the Holocene. Geology 41, 1183-1186. doi: 10.1130/g34804.1. Zillén, L., Conley, D.J., Andrén, T., Andrén, E., and Bj

  8. Dynamic State Estimation Utilizing High Performance Computing Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Kevin P.; Huang, Zhenyu; Yang, Bo; Hauer, Matthew L.; Nieplocha, Jaroslaw

    2009-03-18

    The state estimation tools which are currently deployed in power system control rooms are based on a quasi-steady-state assumption. As a result, the suite of operational tools that rely on state estimation results as inputs do not have dynamic information available and their accuracy is compromised. This paper presents an overview of the Kalman Filtering process and then focuses on the implementation of the predication component on multiple processors.

  9. Genetic diversity in Monoporeia affinis at polluted and reference sites of the Baltic Bothnian Bay.

    PubMed

    Guban, Peter; Wennerström, Lovisa; Elfwing, Tina; Sundelin, Brita; Laikre, Linda

    2015-04-15

    The amphipod Monoporeia affinis plays an important role in the Baltic Sea ecosystem as prey and as detritivore. The species is monitored for contaminant effects, but almost nothing is known about its genetics in this region. A pilot screening for genetic variation at the mitochondrial COI gene was performed in 113 individuals collected at six sites in the northern Baltic. Three coastal sites were polluted by pulp mill effluents, PAHs, and trace metals, and two coastal reference sites were without obvious connection to pollution sources. An off-coastal reference site was also included. Contaminated sites showed lower levels of genetic diversity than the coastal reference ones although the difference was not statistically significant. Divergence patterns measured as ΦST showed no significant differentiation within reference and polluted groups, but there was significant genetic divergence between them. The off-coastal sample differed significantly from all coastal sites and also showed lower genetic variation. PMID:25701944

  10. Infusorians as a component of the planktonic community in the Baltic Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Mamaeva, N.V.

    1985-09-01

    The authors' investigations of infusorians as a component of the planktonic community in the Baltic Sea coincided with the heterotrophic stage of seasonal succession, and as a result the infusorians were numerous. In the deep troughs of the Sea at a depth of more than 150 m, the water is saturated with hydrogen sulfide. A community of infusorians relating to the saprobionts and capable of living with the minimal amount of oxygen was discovered for the first time--in the upper boundary of the hydrogen sulfide zone. In its level of infusorian abundance, the Baltic Sea must be considered a eutrophic body of water where infusorians serve as one of the leading agents in its self-purification.

  11. Recent trends in Sea ice in the southern and western Baltic and the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holfort, Jürgen; Schmelzer, Natalija; Schwegmann, Sandra

    2016-04-01

    We analyzed sea ice charts and observations of a 50 year long period starting in 1961 to produce two climatological ice atlases, one for the western and southern Baltic and one for the German Bight and Limfjord. As the year to year variability is large we subdivided the 50 year into three overlapping 30 year periods (1961-1990, 1971-2000 and 1981-2010) to look for trends in the sea ice. In the southern and western Baltic as well as in the North Sea there was a clear decrease in the total frequency of ice occurrence. Other parameters like begin and end of the ice season, ice thickness, etc. did not show such clear signal and also showed larger regional differences. The ice conditions mainly changed in accordance with the changes in air temperature in the same period, although some more regional changes in some parameters were most probably also influenced by other factors like the deepening of fairways.

  12. Model estimates of the eutrophication of the Baltic Sea in the contemporary and future climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabchenko, V. A.; Karlin, L. N.; Isaev, A. V.; Vankevich, R. E.; Eremina, T. R.; Molchanov, M. S.; Savchuk, O. P.

    2016-01-01

    The St. Petersburg Baltic eutrophication model (SPBEM) is used to assess the ecological condition of the sea under possible changes in climate and nutrient loads in the 21st century. According to model estimates, in the future climate water quality will worsen, compared to modern conditions. This deterioration is stronger in the climate warming scenario with a stronger change in future near-surface air temperature. In the considered scenarios of climate change, climate warming will lead to an increase in the area of anoxic and hypoxic zones. Reduction of nutrient loading, estimated in accordance with the Baltic Sea Action Plan, will only be able to partially compensate for the negative effects of global warming.

  13. The use of bathymetric data in society and science: a review from the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Hell, Benjamin; Broman, Barry; Jakobsson, Lars; Jakobsson, Martin; Magnusson, Ake; Wiberg, Patrik

    2012-03-01

    Bathymetry, the underwater topography, is a fundamental property of oceans, seas, and lakes. As such it is important for a wide range of applications, like physical oceanography, marine geology, geophysics and biology or the administration of marine resources. The exact requirements users may have regarding bathymetric data are, however, unclear. Here, the results of a questionnaire survey and a literature review are presented, concerning the use of Baltic Sea bathymetric data in research and for societal needs. It is demonstrated that there is a great need for detailed bathymetric data. Despite the abundance of high-quality bathymetric data that are produced for safety of navigation purposes, the digital bathymetric models publicly available to date cannot satisfy this need. Our study shows that DBMs based on data collected for safety of navigation could substantially improve the base data for administrative decision making as well as the possibilities for marine research in the Baltic Sea. PMID:22396094

  14. Helmintofauna of turbot Scophthalmus maximus (Linnaeus, 1758) from the southern Baltic Sea including new data.

    PubMed

    Skrzypczak, M; Rolbiecki, L

    2015-01-01

    Turbot Scophthalmus maximus (Linnaeus, 1758) is a fish belonging to the Pleuronectiformes order. It is commonly observed in waters of the northern Atlantic, and also in the Baltic Sea. As an economically significant species, it is fished on an industrial scale, and also farmed in some European countries. Seventy-two turbots from the Gulf of Gdańsk (26th ICES zone) were examined for parasite presence in the years 2010-2012. The study revealed the presence of the tapeworm Bothriocephalus scorpii (Müller, 1776) and acanthocephalan Corynosoma semerme (Forssell, 1904). The overall (both parasites) prevalence of turbot infection was 100% with a mean intensity of 18.7. C. semerme is a parasite which has not been noted so far in turbot from the southern Baltic. The presence of C. semerme in turbot was emphasized in the context of possible infection of terrestrial mammals, including humans. PMID:26618593

  15. The potential of current- and wind-driven transport for environmental management of the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Soomere, Tarmo; Döös, Kristofer; Lehmann, Andreas; Meier, H E Markus; Murawski, Jens; Myrberg, Kai; Stanev, Emil

    2014-02-01

    The ever increasing impact of the marine industry and transport on vulnerable sea areas puts the marine environment under exceptional pressure and calls for inspired methods for mitigating the impact of the related risks. We describe a method for preventive reduction of remote environmental risks caused by the shipping and maritime industry that are transported by surface currents and wind impact to the coasts. This method is based on characterizing systematically the damaging potential of the offshore areas in terms of potential transport to vulnerable regions of an oil spill or other pollution that has occurred in a particular area. The resulting maps of probabilities of pollution to be transported to the nearshore and the time it takes for the pollution to reach the nearshore are used to design environmentally optimized fairways for the Gulf of Finland, Baltic Proper, and south-western Baltic Sea. PMID:24414808

  16. Effect of ocean acidification on marine fish sperm (Baltic cod: Gadus morhua)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frommel, A. Y.; Stiebens, V.; Clemmesen, C.; Havenhand, J.

    2010-12-01

    Ocean acidification, as a consequence of increasing marine pCO2, may have severe effects on the physiology of marine organisms. However, experimental studies remain scarce, in particular concerning fish. While adults will most likely remain relatively unaffected by changes in seawater pH, early life-history stages are potentially more sensitive - particularly the critical stage of fertilization, in which sperm motility plays a central role. In this study, the effects of ocean acidification (decrease of pHT to 7.55) on sperm motility of Baltic cod, Gadus morhua, were assessed. We found no significant effect of decreased pH on sperm speed, rate of change of direction or percent motility for the population of cod analyzed. We predict that future ocean acidification will probably not pose a problem for sperm behavior, and hence fertilization success, of Baltic cod.

  17. Effect of ocean acidification on marine fish sperm (Baltic cod: Gadus morhua)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frommel, A. Y.; Stiebens, V.; Clemmesen, C.; Havenhand, J.

    2010-08-01

    Ocean acidification, as a consequence of increasing marine pCO2, may have severe effects on the physiology of marine organisms. However, experimental studies remain scarce, in particular concerning fish. While adults will most likely remain relatively unaffected by changes in seawater pH, early life-history stages are potentially more sensitive - particularly the critical stage of fertilization, in which sperm motility plays a central role. In this study, the effects of ocean acidification (decrease of pH to 7.55) on sperm motility of Baltic cod, Gadus morhua, were assessed. We found no significant effect of decreased pH on sperm speed, rate of change of direction or percent motility for the population of cod analyzed. We predict that future ocean acidification will probably not pose a problem for sperm behavior, and hence fertilization success, of Baltic cod.

  18. On temporal wind variations forcing salt water inflows into the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lass, H. U.; Matthäus, W.

    1996-10-01

    Salt water inflows into the Baltic Sea are important processes for maintaining the general stratification and the ventilation of the bottom water in deep basins of the central Baltic. These events occur randomly during the winter season at intervals from one to several years. This pattern changed in the mid-seventies when only weak or no major inflows were observed. During that period a steady loss of salt together with a steady increase in hydrogen sulphide concentrations was observed in the central Baltic deep water.It is generally assumed that strong westerly winds force a salt water inflow. Long time series of daily wind records at the meteorological station Arkona and sea level observations at Landsort between 1951 and 1990 have been analyzed in order to find characteristic sequences being associated with inflow events. A necessary condition for a salt water inflow is for the wind to blow from west for several tens of days. The weighted mean of the yearly cycle of the wind components for years without and with salt water inflows revealed that this condition happens usually in November and December. However, in years with inflows, a long-lasting easterly wind occurs in October and early November just before the strengthening of westerly winds. A similar sequence is observed in the yearly cycle of the mean sea level of the Baltic Sea, i.e., in years with inflows a lowering of the mean sea level precedes the increase of the sea level in November to December. Hence, major salt water inflows are very likely forced by a sequence of easterly winds in late autumn lasting for 20 30days followed by strong to very strong westerly winds of similar duration.

  19. Satellite mapping of Baltic Sea Secchi depth with multiple regression models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stock, Andy

    2015-08-01

    Secchi depth is a measure of water transparency. In the Baltic Sea region, Secchi depth maps are used to assess eutrophication and as input for habitat models. Due to their spatial and temporal coverage, satellite data would be the most suitable data source for such maps. But the Baltic Sea's optical properties are so different from the open ocean that globally calibrated standard models suffer from large errors. Regional predictive models that take the Baltic Sea's special optical properties into account are thus needed. This paper tests how accurately generalized linear models (GLMs) and generalized additive models (GAMs) with MODIS/Aqua and auxiliary data as inputs can predict Secchi depth at a regional scale. It uses cross-validation to test the prediction accuracy of hundreds of GAMs and GLMs with up to 5 input variables. A GAM with 3 input variables (chlorophyll a, remote sensing reflectance at 678 nm, and long-term mean salinity) made the most accurate predictions. Tested against field observations not used for model selection and calibration, the best model's mean absolute error (MAE) for daily predictions was 1.07 m (22%), more than 50% lower than for other publicly available Baltic Sea Secchi depth maps. The MAE for predicting monthly averages was 0.86 m (15%). Thus, the proposed model selection process was able to find a regional model with good prediction accuracy. It could be useful to find predictive models for environmental variables other than Secchi depth, using data from other satellite sensors, and for other regions where non-standard remote sensing models are needed for prediction and mapping. Annual and monthly mean Secchi depth maps for 2003-2012 come with this paper as Supplementary materials.

  20. Age dependence of the concentrations of harmful substances in Baltic herring (Clupea harengus)

    SciTech Connect

    Perttila, M.; Tervo, V.; Parmanne, R.

    1982-01-01

    The age dependence of Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd, Hg, CH/sub 3/-Hg, DDT, DDD, DDE, HCH, HCB and the PCBs have been studied in Baltic herring of 1 to 6 years of age. Lead, cadmium, mercury and the organochlorine concentrations increase significantly with age. In the case of the DDTs and the PCBs, the variations can be attributed almost totally to the combined effect of age and variations in the lipid percentage.

  1. No observed effect of ocean acidification on nitrogen biogeochemistry in a summer Baltic Sea plankton community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Allanah J.; Achterberg, Eric P.; Bach, Lennart T.; Boxhammer, Tim; Czerny, Jan; Haunost, Mathias; Schulz, Kai-Georg; Stuhr, Annegret; Riebesell, Ulf

    2016-07-01

    Nitrogen fixation by filamentous cyanobacteria supplies significant amounts of new nitrogen (N) to the Baltic Sea. This balances N loss processes such as denitrification and anammox, and forms an important N source supporting primary and secondary production in N-limited post-spring bloom plankton communities. Laboratory studies suggest that filamentous diazotrophic cyanobacteria growth and N2-fixation rates are sensitive to ocean acidification, with potential implications for new N supply to the Baltic Sea. In this study, our aim was to assess the effect of ocean acidification on diazotroph growth and activity as well as the contribution of diazotrophically fixed N to N supply in a natural plankton assemblage. We enclosed a natural plankton community in a summer season in the Baltic Sea near the entrance to the Gulf of Finland in six large-scale mesocosms (volume ˜ 55 m3) and manipulated fCO2 over a range relevant for projected ocean acidification by the end of this century (average treatment fCO2: 365-1231 µatm). The direct response of diazotroph growth and activity was followed in the mesocosms over a 47 day study period during N-limited growth in the summer plankton community. Diazotrophic filamentous cyanobacteria abundance throughout the study period and N2-fixation rates (determined only until day 21 due to subsequent use of contaminated commercial 15N-N2 gas stocks) remained low. Thus estimated new N inputs from diazotrophy were too low to relieve N limitation and stimulate a summer phytoplankton bloom. Instead, regeneration of organic N sources likely sustained growth in the plankton community. We could not detect significant CO2-related differences in neither inorganic nor organic N pool sizes, or particulate matter N : P stoichiometry. Additionally, no significant effect of elevated CO2 on diazotroph activity was observed. Therefore, ocean acidification had no observable impact on N cycling or biogeochemistry in this N-limited, post-spring bloom

  2. No observed effect of ocean acidification on nitrogen biogeochemistry in a summer Baltic Sea plankton community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, A. J.; Achterberg, E. P.; Bach, L. T.; Boxhammer, T.; Czerny, J.; Haunost, M.; Schulz, K.-G.; Stuhr, A.; Riebesell, U.

    2015-10-01

    Nitrogen fixation by filamentous cyanobacteria supplies significant amounts of new nitrogen (N) to the Baltic Sea. This balances N loss processes such as denitrification and anammox and forms an important N source supporting primary and secondary production in N-limited post-spring bloom plankton communities. Laboratory studies suggest that filamentous diazotrophic cyanobacteria growth and N2-fixation rates are sensitive to ocean acidification with potential implications for new N supply to the Baltic Sea. In this study, our aim was to assess the effect of ocean acidification on diazotroph growth and activity as well as the contribution of diazotrophically-fixed N to N supply in a natural plankton assemblage. We enclosed a natural plankton community in a summer season in the Baltic Sea near the entrance to the Gulf of Finland in six large-scale mesocosms (volume ~ 55 m3) and manipulated fCO2 over a range relevant for projected ocean acidification by the end of this century (average treatment fCO2: 365-1231 μatm). The direct response of diazotroph growth and activity was followed in the mesocosms over a 47 day study period during N-limited growth in the summer plankton community. Diazotrophic filamentous cyanobacteria abundance throughout the study period and N2-fixation rates (determined only until day 21 due to subsequent use of contaminated commercial 15N-N2 gas stocks) remained low. Thus estimated new N inputs from diazotrophy were too low to relieve N limitation and stimulate a summer phytoplankton bloom. Instead regeneration of organic N sources likely sustained growth in the plankton community. We could not detect significant CO2-related differences in inorganic or organic N pools sizes, or particulate matter N : P stoichiometry. Additionally, no significant effect of elevated CO2 on diazotroph activity was observed. Therefore, ocean acidification had no observable impact on N cycling or biogeochemistry in this N-limited, post-spring bloom plankton

  3. The Ancylus Lake stage of the Baltic Sea in Fehmarn Belt: Indications of a new threshold?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldens, Peter; Schwarzer, Klaus

    2012-03-01

    The Baltic Ice Lake, Yoldia Sea, Ancylus Lake and Littorina Sea stages of regression and transgression controlled the history of the Baltic Sea since the last glacial period. Many details regarding their development remain unknown, including the question whether the regression of the Ancylus Lake (between 10,700 and 10,200 cal yr BP) took place west of the Darss Sill, or elsewhere. This study addresses whether a drowned river system in Fehmarn Belt (SW Baltic Sea) can be related to the drainage of the Ancylus Lake. The river channel is cut into glacial till in the western part of Fehmarn Belt. Here, the channel reaches an incision depth of up to 12 m at a base level of 40 m b.s.l. (below sea level). Near Mecklenburg Bay, the buried channel is incised down to 60 m b.s.l. and widens rapidly from several hundred meters to more than 1 km, fading towards east. It was mainly shaped as part of a glacial meltwater system at a maximum water level of 30 m b.s.l., and is therefore not related to the Ancylus Lake drainage. During the lowstand of the Baltic Ice Lake, local shallow water bodies covered the study area. A previously reported westward directed drainage of a lake in the eastern Fehmarn Belt could be restricted to a time interval between the highstand of the Ancylus Lake and prior to the Littorina Transgression. Timing, water level and potential water discharge of this event suggest a connection to a partial drainage of the Ancylus Lake. It is concluded that the threshold separating the Ancylus Lake from the North Sea needs to be located west of Fehmarn Belt.

  4. Precision and accuracy of spectrophotometric pH measurements at environmental conditions in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, Karoline; Schneider, Bernd; Kuliński, Karol; Schulz-Bull, Detlef E.

    2014-06-01

    The increasing uptake of anthropogenic CO2 by the oceans has raised an interest in precise and accurate pH measurement in order to assess the impact on the marine CO2-system. Spectrophotometric pH measurements were refined during the last decade yielding a precision and accuracy that cannot be achieved with the conventional potentiometric method. However, until now the method was only tested in oceanic systems with a relative stable and high salinity and a small pH range. This paper describes the first application of such a pH measurement system at conditions in the Baltic Sea which is characterized by a wide salinity and pH range. The performance of the spectrophotometric system at pH values as low as 7.0 (“total” scale) and salinities between 0 and 35 was examined using TRIS-buffer solutions, certified reference materials, and tests of consistency with measurements of other parameters of the marine CO2 system. Using m-cresol purple as indicator dye and a spectrophotometric measurement system designed at Scripps Institution of Oceanography (B. Carter, A. Dickson), a precision better than ±0.001 and an accuracy between ±0.01 and ±0.02 was achieved within the observed pH and salinity ranges in the Baltic Sea. The influence of the indicator dye on the pH of the sample was determined theoretically and is presented as a pH correction term for the different alkalinity regimes in the Baltic Sea. Because of the encouraging tests, the ease of operation and the fact that the measurements refer to the internationally accepted “total” pH scale, it is recommended to use the spectrophotometric method also for pH monitoring and trend detection in the Baltic Sea.

  5. Geodetic observation of sea-level change and crustal deformation in the Baltic Sea region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, A.; Groh, A.; Dietrich, R.

    Based on tide gauge observations spanning almost 200 years, homogeneous time series of the mean relative sea level were derived for nine sites at the southern coast of the Baltic Sea. Our regionally concentrated data were complemented by long-term relative sea-level records retrieved from the data base of the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL). From these records relative sea-level change rates were derived at 51 tide gauge stations for the period between 1908 and 2007. A minimum observation time of 60 years is required for the determination of reliable sea-level rates. At present, no anthropogenic acceleration in sea-level rise is detected in the tide gauge observations in the southern Baltic. The spatial variation of the relative sea-level rates reflects the fingerprint of GIA-induced crustal uplift. Time series of extreme sea levels were also inferred from the tide gauge records. They were complemented by water level information from historic storm surge marks preserved along the German Baltic coast. Based on this combined dataset the incidence and spatial variation of extreme sea levels induced by storm surges were analysed yielding important information for hazard assessments. Permanent GPS observations were used to determine recent crustal deformation rates for 44 stations in the Baltic Sea region. The GPS derived height change rates were applied to reduce the relative sea-level changes observed by tide gauges yielding an estimate for the eustatic sea-level change. For 13 tide gauge-GPS colocation sites a mean eustatic sea-level trend of 1.3 mm/a was derived for the last 100 years.

  6. Investigations of Wind Shear Distribution on the Baltic Shore of Latvia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezrukovs, V.; Zacepins, A.; Bezrukovs, Vl.; Komashilovs, V.

    2016-06-01

    The paper presents a review of wind parameter measurement complexes and investigation methods used for potential wind energy evaluation. Based on results of long-term investigations of wind shear distribution regularities are shown up to 160 m height on the Baltic Sea shore. Distribution of potential wind energy in Latvia is shown as a map and table of average and average cubic wind speed values. Database of wind parameter measurements is available at a public website.

  7. Shelf-to-basin iron shuttling enhances vivianite formation in deep Baltic Sea sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Daniel C.; Gustafsson, Bo G.; Slomp, Caroline P.

    2016-01-01

    Coastal hypoxia is a growing and persistent problem largely attributable to enhanced terrestrial nutrient (i.e., nitrogen and phosphorus) loading. Recent studies suggest phosphorus removal through burial of iron (II) phosphates, putatively vivianite, plays an important role in nutrient cycling in the Baltic Sea - the world's largest anthropogenic dead zone - yet the dynamics of iron (II) phosphate formation are poorly constrained. To address this, a reactive-transport model was used to reconstruct the diagenetic and depositional history of sediments in the Fårö basin, a deep anoxic and sulphidic region of the Baltic Sea where iron (II) phosphates have been observed. Simulations demonstrate that transport of iron from shelf sediments to deep basins enhances vivianite formation while sulphide concentrations are low, but that pyrite forms preferentially over vivianite when sulphate reduction intensifies due to elevated organic loading. Episodic reoxygenation events, associated with major inflows of oxic waters, encourage the retention of iron oxyhydroxides and iron-bound phosphorus in sediments, increasing vivianite precipitation as a result. Results suggest that artificial reoxygenation of the Baltic Sea bottom waters could sequester up to 3% of the annual external phosphorus loads as iron (II) phosphates, but this is negligible when compared to potential internal phosphorus loads due to dissolution of iron oxyhydroxides when low oxygen conditions prevail. Thus, enhancing vivianite formation through artificial reoxygenation of deep waters is not a viable engineering solution to eutrophication in the Baltic Sea. Finally, simulations suggest that regions with limited sulphate reduction and hypoxic intervals, such as eutrophic estuaries, could act as important phosphorus sinks by sequestering vivianite. This could potentially alleviate eutrophication in shelf and slope environments.

  8. Air quality monitoring around oil refinery in the Baltic region. First results.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balträ--Naitä--, Edita; Erevičienä--, Vaida Å.; Balträ--Nas, Pranas; Pereira, Paulo

    2010-05-01

    One of the largest oil refineries in the eastern Baltic Region is situated in a northern, rural part of Lithuania, 10 km from a small city of Mažeikiai (Lithuania). The thermal power station serves as an energy source for an oil refinery and is located near the refinery. Both stations contribute to the air quality of the Mažeikiai region and are subjects of state and municipal monitoring. The present study is directed to assess the concentration of Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) Sulphur dioxide (SO2) and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) in Mažeikiai region and relate it with industrial and urban emissions. NO2, SO2 and VOC concentrations were sampled by passive sampling method. Sampling was carried out in 13 points distributed across study area, monitored since July 2009. The passive samplers were placed at 3.5 m from the ground and kept in a special shelter to protect them from rain and wind influence. The results showed that NO2 concentration ranged from 1.40 to 34.9 μg/m3, with an average value of 13.2 μg/m3. The highest concentrations were observed in the places nearby intensive traffic. SO2 concentration varied between 0.3 to 5.5 μg/m3 with a mean value of 3.85 μg/m3. The highest SO2 concentration was identified in the areas close to thermal power station and oil refining company. We studied also the concentration of the benzene, toluene and xylene in all area. The higher concentration of the first pollutant was 2.94 μg/m3 and the lower 0.90 μg/m3, with an average of 1.7 μg/m3. In relation to the second, the maximum value was 3.60 μg/m3 and the minimum 0.76 μg/m3, with a mean value of 1.69 μg/m3. In the last element, we identified a higher value of 3.2 μg/m3 and the lower 1.3 μg/m3, with an average value of 2.6 μg/m3. These VOC's were identified in higher concentration near major traffic areas. Non of the observed concentrations exceed the thresholds limited by European directives. The spatial pattern of pollutants accumulation is related with traffic

  9. Reconstructing ecosystem functions of the active microbial community of the Baltic Sea oxygen depleted sediments.

    PubMed

    Thureborn, Petter; Franzetti, Andrea; Lundin, Daniel; Sjöling, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Baltic Sea deep water and sediments hold one of the largest anthropogenically induced hypoxic areas in the world. High nutrient input and low water exchange result in eutrophication and oxygen depletion below the halocline. As a consequence at Landsort Deep, the deepest point of the Baltic Sea, anoxia in the sediments has been a persistent condition over the past decades. Given that microbial communities are drivers of essential ecosystem functions we investigated the microbial community metabolisms and functions of oxygen depleted Landsort Deep sediments by metatranscriptomics. Results show substantial expression of genes involved in protein metabolism demonstrating that the Landsort Deep sediment microbial community is active. Identified expressed gene suites of metabolic pathways with importance for carbon transformation including fermentation, dissimilatory sulphate reduction and methanogenesis were identified. The presence of transcripts for these metabolic processes suggests a potential for heterotrophic-autotrophic community synergism and indicates active mineralisation of the organic matter deposited at the sediment as a consequence of the eutrophication process. Furthermore, cyanobacteria, probably deposited from the water column, are transcriptionally active in the anoxic sediment at this depth. Results also reveal high abundance of transcripts encoding integron integrases. These results provide insight into the activity of the microbial community of the anoxic sediment at the deepest point of the Baltic Sea and its possible role in ecosystem functioning. PMID:26823996

  10. Microbial metagenomics in the Baltic Sea: Recent advancements and prospects for environmental monitoring.

    PubMed

    Ininbergs, Karolina; Bergman, Birgitta; Larsson, John; Ekman, Martin

    2015-06-01

    Metagenomics refers to the analysis of DNA from a whole community. Metagenomic sequencing of environmental DNA has greatly improved our knowledge of the identity and function of microorganisms in aquatic, terrestrial, and human biomes. Although open oceans have been the primary focus of studies on aquatic microbes, coastal and brackish ecosystems are now being surveyed. Here, we review so far published studies on microbes in the Baltic Sea, one of the world's largest brackish water bodies, using high throughput sequencing of environmental DNA and RNA. Collectively the data illustrate that Baltic Sea microbes are unique and highly diverse, and well adapted to this brackish-water ecosystem, findings that represent a novel base-line knowledge necessary for monitoring purposes and a sustainable management. More specifically, the data relate to environmental drivers for microbial community composition and function, assessments of the microbial biodiversity, adaptations and role of microbes in the nitrogen cycle, and microbial genome assembly from metagenomic sequences. With these discoveries as background, prospects of using metagenomics for Baltic Sea environmental monitoring are discussed. PMID:26022326

  11. Turbulence structure of the marine stable boundary layer over the Baltic Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Smedman, A.S.; Hoegstroem, U.

    1994-12-31

    For more than half of the year the land surfaces surrounding the Baltic Sea is warmer than the sea surface, and the marine boundary layer over the Baltic is stable. Observations, at various sites in the Baltic Sea area during the last decade. also indicate frequent occurrence of low-level jets at the top of the stable boundary layer. In many cases the marine jet can be considered as an analogy in space to the evolution of the nocturnal jet with time. The frictional decoupling occurs when warm air over the land is flowing out over the sea. Data from two areas together with model simulations are used in this study to characterize turbulence structure in the marine boundary layer. The measurements include profiles of wind and temperature on towers situated at two isolated islands, together with turbulence recordings and aircraft measurements. Also wave height and water surface temperature have been measured. The model simulations are performed with a second-order closure model.

  12. Legacy phosphorus in the Baltic Sea and implications for reversing eutrophication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCrackin, M. L.; Gustafsson, B.; Humborg, C.; Hong, B.; Svanbäck, A.; Swaney, D. P.; Viktorsson, L.

    2015-12-01

    Eutrophication has depleted concentrations of dissolved oxygen in bottom waters of the Baltic Sea, resulting in the world's largest "dead" zone. A number of measures have been implemented to reduce nutrient inputs and, indeed, between 1995 and 2012 phosphorus (P) loads to the sea deceased 19%. The long-term accumulation and subsequent release of P from both the catchment and marine sediments combined with 30-year water residence times could significantly delay recovery from eutrophication. We estimated net P accumulation (legacy P) for the Baltic Sea using the Net Anthropogenic Phosphorus Inputs (NAPI) approach and historical records of food and feed trade and riverine fluxes. Net P inputs to the catchment peaked at 0.7 million tons per year during the 1970's and since the political and economical changes in Eastern Europe during the 1990's, decreased to 0.2-0.3 million tons per year. P accumulation on land is ten times greater than accumulation in the sea (20 million and 2 million tons, respectively). Of the P retained on land, the majority (18-19 million tons) is in agricultural lands, with the balance in lake sediments. Of the 2 million tons in the sea, two-thirds are in sediments and one-third in the water column. The success of nutrient management actions in reducing river nutrient fluxes will lead to improvement in the Baltic Sea environment, but the massive accumulation of P on land will complicate efforts to achieve complete recovery.

  13. Deformation of the South-Eastern Baltic Shield from GNSS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorshkov, V.; Petrov, S.; Shcherbakova, N.; Smirnov, S.; Mohnatkin, A.; Trofimov, D.; Guseva, T.; Perederin, V.; Rosenberg, N.

    2015-08-01

    The Pulkovo observatory is situated in a unique geological setting. Within only 300 kilometres from Northern Karelian Isthmus to a few kilometres south from the observatory the Archean, Paleo and Neoproterozoic, Cambrian, Ordovician, Devonian, and Carboniferous rocks are sequentially surfacing. Thus these 300 kilometres in distance correspond to 3 billion years in geologic time. The city of St. Petersburg marks a transition zone from the Baltic Shield to the East European Platform, and the observatory is built on the Baltic Klint that in turn marks a transition from Ediacaran to Devonian. Such a rich geological constitution of the region summons a need for geodynamical studies. The authors have recently gathered the GNSS observations available in the region from 1993 until present, including those made by the authors, with permanent and high quality field GNSS stations. These measurements were processed with the GIPSY software using the PPP strategy. The resulting coordinates were then adjusted for atmospheric loading corrections, and station velocities were computed. The station velocities were then used for estimation of the regional deformation field. The resulting deformation field shows a weak meridional compression and possibly a slow counterclockwise rotation of the Baltic shield with respect to the East European platform.

  14. Reconstructing ecosystem functions of the active microbial community of the Baltic Sea oxygen depleted sediments

    PubMed Central

    Franzetti, Andrea; Lundin, Daniel; Sjöling, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Baltic Sea deep water and sediments hold one of the largest anthropogenically induced hypoxic areas in the world. High nutrient input and low water exchange result in eutrophication and oxygen depletion below the halocline. As a consequence at Landsort Deep, the deepest point of the Baltic Sea, anoxia in the sediments has been a persistent condition over the past decades. Given that microbial communities are drivers of essential ecosystem functions we investigated the microbial community metabolisms and functions of oxygen depleted Landsort Deep sediments by metatranscriptomics. Results show substantial expression of genes involved in protein metabolism demonstrating that the Landsort Deep sediment microbial community is active. Identified expressed gene suites of metabolic pathways with importance for carbon transformation including fermentation, dissimilatory sulphate reduction and methanogenesis were identified. The presence of transcripts for these metabolic processes suggests a potential for heterotrophic-autotrophic community synergism and indicates active mineralisation of the organic matter deposited at the sediment as a consequence of the eutrophication process. Furthermore, cyanobacteria, probably deposited from the water column, are transcriptionally active in the anoxic sediment at this depth. Results also reveal high abundance of transcripts encoding integron integrases. These results provide insight into the activity of the microbial community of the anoxic sediment at the deepest point of the Baltic Sea and its possible role in ecosystem functioning. PMID:26823996

  15. Tracing terrestrial DOC in the Baltic Sea—A 3-D model study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fransner, Filippa; Nycander, Jonas; Mörth, Carl-Magnus; Humborg, Christoph; Markus Meier, H. E.; Hordoir, Robinson; Gustafsson, Erik; Deutsch, Barbara

    2016-02-01

    The fate of terrestrial organic matter brought to the coastal seas by rivers and its role in the global carbon cycle are still not very well known. Here the degradation rate of terrestrial dissolved organic carbon (DOCter) is studied in the Baltic Sea, a subarctic semienclosed sea, by releasing it as a tracer in a 3-D circulation model and applying linear decay constants. A good agreement with available observational data is obtained by parameterizing the degradation in two rather different ways: one by applying a decay time on the order of 10 years to the whole pool of DOCter and one by dividing the DOCter into one refractory pool and one pool subject to a decay time on the order of 1 year. The choice of parameterization has a significant effect on where in the Baltic Sea the removal takes place, which can be of importance when modeling the full carbon cycle and the CO2 exchange with the atmosphere. In both cases the biogeochemical decay operates on time scales less than the water residence time. Therefore, only a minor fraction of the DOCter reaches the North Sea, whereas approximately 80% is removed by internal sinks within the Baltic Sea. This further implies that DOCter mineralization is an important link in land-sea-atmosphere cycling of carbon in coastal and shelf seas that are heavily influenced by riverine DOC.

  16. A dinoflagellate cyst record of Holocene climate and hydrological changes along the southeastern Swedish Baltic coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shi-Yong; Berglund, Björn E.

    2007-03-01

    A high-resolution, well-dated dinoflagellate cyst record from a lagoon of the southeastern Swedish Baltic Sea reveals climate and hydrological changes during the Holocene. Marine dinoflagellate cysts occurred initially at about 8600 cal yr BP, indicating the onset of the Littorina transgression in the southeastern Swedish lowland associated with global sea level rise, and thus the opening of the Danish straits. Both the species diversity and the total accumulation rates of dinoflagellate cysts continued to increase by 7000 cal yr BP and then decreased progressively. This pattern reveals the first-order change in local sea level as a function of ice-volume-equivalent sea level rise versus isostatic land uplift. Superimposed upon this local sea level trend, well-defined fluctuations of the total accumulation rates of dinoflagellate cysts occurred on quasi-1000- and 500-yr frequency bands particularly between 7500 and 4000 cal yr BP, when the connection between the Baltic basin and the North Atlantic was broader. A close correlation of the total accumulation rates of dinoflagellate cysts with GISP2 ice core sea-salt ions suggests that fluctuations of Baltic surface conditions during the middle Holocene might have been regulated by quasi-periodic variations of the prevailing southwesterly winds, most likely through a system similar to the dipole oscillation of the modern North Atlantic atmosphere.

  17. Baltic Sea Gastrotricha--one new species and one new record of Chaetonotida from Poland.

    PubMed

    Kolicka, Małgorzata; Jankowska, Emilia; Kotwicki, Lech

    2015-01-01

    Gastrotricha is a cosmopolitan phylum of aquatic and semi-aquatic invertebrates that comprise about 820 described species, which are divided into two orders: Chaetonotida Remane, 1925 [Rao & Clausen, 1970] and Macrodasyida Remane, 1925 [Rao & Clausen, 1970]. They inhabit natural as well as artificial habitats in diverse marine, freshwater, and semi-aquatic ecosystems (e.g. peatbogs, alder woods, riparian forests). Until now, 29 species of gastrotrichs from the Polish Baltic Sea region (including three freshwater species which were found in estuaries) were known. Sixteen species belong to Chaetonotida and thirteen to Macrodasyida. During this study we found two species, Heterolepidoderma sinus spec. nov., and Aspidiophorus lamellophorus Balsamo, Hummon, Todaro et Tongiorgi, 1997 which is new to the Baltic Sea fauna. H. sinus spec. nov. has distinct cuticular reinforcements in the anterior dilatation of the pharynx. Moreover, it is characterized by two kinds of lamellae: one type is represented by small triangular lamellae which aris from lateral scales, the second type is large and clearly visible and arises from ventral scales. None of the Heterolepidoderma species known so far has two types of lamellae. A. lamellophorus was previously known only from the Mediterranean Sea. The finding of two new gastrotrich species in the Baltic Sea shows that the knowledge of these small invertebrates in the area is still far from complete. PMID:26624193

  18. High resolution model studies of transport of sedimentary material in the south-western Baltic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifert, Torsten; Fennel, Wolfgang; Kuhrts, Christiane

    2009-02-01

    The paper presents high resolution model simulations of transport, deposition and resuspension of sedimentary material in the south-western Baltic, based on an upgrade of the sediment transport model described in the work of Kuhrts et al. [Kuhrts, C., Fennel, W., Seifert, T., 2004. Model studies of transport of sedimentary material in the Western Baltic. Journal of Marine Systems 52, 167.]. In the western Baltic, a grid spacing of at least 1 nautical mile is required to resolve the shallow and narrow bathymetry and the associated current patterns. A series of experimental model simulations is carried out with forcing data for the year 1993, which include a sequence of storms in January. Compared to earlier model versions, a more detailed description of potential deposition areas can be provided. The study quantifies the influence of enhanced bottom roughness caused by biological structures, like mussels and worm holes, provides estimates of the regional erosion risks for fine grained sediments, and analyses scenarios of the settling and spreading of material at dumping sites. Although the effects of changed bottom roughness, as derived from more detailed, re-classified sea floor data, are relatively small, the sediment transport and deposition patterns are clearly affected by the variation of the sea bed properties.

  19. Distribution and sources of organic matter in sediments of the south-eastern Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remeikaitė-Nikienė, Nijolė; Lujanienė, Galina; Malejevas, Vitalijus; Barisevičiūtė, Rūta; Žilius, Mindaugas; Garnaga-Budrė, Galina; Stankevičius, Algirdas

    2016-05-01

    Temporal and spatial distribution of sedimentary organic matter (SOM) as well as its sources in the south-eastern Baltic Sea were investigated. Organic matter was characterized by the organic carbon content, δ13C and δ15N signatures and C/N ratios. The sampling was performed in the coastal, offshore areas and in the Curonian Lagoon in the period from May 2012 to September 2014. The average elemental (C/N ~ 6.4) and isotopic composition (δ13C from - 29.6‰ to - 24.9‰) of SOM suggested that during most of the year it was composed of both freshwater and marine phytoplanktonic material. Elevated δ15N values (average ranging from 5.6‰ to 6.7‰) were detected in SOM from the Curonian Lagoon. This most likely reflected the increased isotopic signal of the Nemunas River (δ15N ~ 8‰) derived from the anthropogenic input in the basin area. At the Baltic Sea offshore sites, SOM had lower δ15N values (δ15N ~ 3.5‰ on average), indicating phytoplankton blooms. A two-end member mixing model based on the carbon stable isotopic composition showed that a large proportion (~ 90%) of SOM in the northern part of the Curonian Lagoon was of the freshwater origin. The allochthonous organic matter accounted for about 47% of SOM in the studied Baltic Sea area with the highest contribution (about 75%) within the Curonian Lagoon plume zone in the coastal waters.

  20. Chemical messages in 170-year-old champagne bottles from the Baltic Sea: Revealing tastes from the past

    PubMed Central

    Jeandet, Philippe; Heinzmann, Silke S.; Roullier-Gall, Chloé; Cilindre, Clara; Aron, Alissa; Deville, Marie Alice; Moritz, Franco; Karbowiak, Thomas; Demarville, Dominique; Brun, Cyril; Moreau, Fabienne; Michalke, Bernhard; Liger-Belair, Gérard; Witting, Michael; Lucio, Marianna; Steyer, Damien; Gougeon, Régis D.; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Archaeochemistry as the application of the most recent analytical techniques to ancient samples now provides an unprecedented understanding of human culture throughout history. In this paper, we report on a multiplatform analytical investigation of 170-y-old champagne bottles found in a shipwreck at the bottom of the Baltic Sea, which provides insight into winemaking practices used at the time. Organic spectroscopy-based nontargeted metabolomics and metallomics give access to the detailed composition of these wines, revealing, for instance, unexpected chemical characteristics in terms of small ion, sugar, and acid contents as well as markers of barrel aging and Maillard reaction products. The distinct aroma composition of these ancient champagne samples, first revealed during tasting sessions, was later confirmed using state-of-the-art aroma analysis techniques. After 170 y of deep sea aging in close-to-perfect conditions, these sleeping champagne bottles awoke to tell us a chapter of the story of winemaking and to reveal their extraordinary archaeometabolome and elemental diversity in the form of chemical signatures related to each individual step of champagne production. PMID:25897020

  1. Chemical messages in 170-year-old champagne bottles from the Baltic Sea: Revealing tastes from the past.

    PubMed

    Jeandet, Philippe; Heinzmann, Silke S; Roullier-Gall, Chloé; Cilindre, Clara; Aron, Alissa; Deville, Marie Alice; Moritz, Franco; Karbowiak, Thomas; Demarville, Dominique; Brun, Cyril; Moreau, Fabienne; Michalke, Bernhard; Liger-Belair, Gérard; Witting, Michael; Lucio, Marianna; Steyer, Damien; Gougeon, Régis D; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2015-05-12

    Archaeochemistry as the application of the most recent analytical techniques to ancient samples now provides an unprecedented understanding of human culture throughout history. In this paper, we report on a multiplatform analytical investigation of 170-y-old champagne bottles found in a shipwreck at the bottom of the Baltic Sea, which provides insight into winemaking practices used at the time. Organic spectroscopy-based nontargeted metabolomics and metallomics give access to the detailed composition of these wines, revealing, for instance, unexpected chemical characteristics in terms of small ion, sugar, and acid contents as well as markers of barrel aging and Maillard reaction products. The distinct aroma composition of these ancient champagne samples, first revealed during tasting sessions, was later confirmed using state-of-the-art aroma analysis techniques. After 170 y of deep sea aging in close-to-perfect conditions, these sleeping champagne bottles awoke to tell us a chapter of the story of winemaking and to reveal their extraordinary archaeometabolome and elemental diversity in the form of chemical signatures related to each individual step of champagne production. PMID:25897020

  2. The Baltic Macoma: abundance and distribution of an important winter food of diving ducks in Chesapeake Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jorde, D.G.; Haramis, G.M.

    1997-01-01

    Poor water quality and widespread depletion of wild celery (Vallisneria americana) and other submerged aquatic plants important as waterfowl foods has resulted in the continued dependence of canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) on Baltic clams (Macoma balthica) as their primary winter food. Despite this dependence, no information exists regarding the distribution and abundance of Baltic clams, and changes that occur in Baltic clam populations over time. We conducted benthic surveys to determine the distribution and abundance of Macoma balthica and M. mitchelli in major tributaries of the upper and middle Chesapeake Bay. Tributaries sampled included the Chester River south to Monie Bay on the Eastern Shore, and Middle River to the Potomac River on the western shore of Maryland. Data on depth, bottom type, shellfish, and submerged aquatic vegetation were recorded. The Baltic clam had the highest frequency of occurrence (50%), followed by M. mitchelli (36%). Other species of clams occurred in less than 14% of the 2995 sites sampled. In addition, every third month since June 1991, we have studied seasonal changes in Baltic clam abundance and recruitment at 13 high abundance sites. Recruitment was recorded at only one high density site (97% increase) between June and September transect surveys. Clam length histograms clearly indicated a new year class and depletion of older cohorts. Average summer decline in Baltic clam abundance at the other 12 sites was 59% and ranged from -11% to -97%. Based on clam length, younger cohorts were depleted at a higher rate. More than half of the Baltic clam population was depleted during the summer and spring recruitment was low.

  3. Nitrate source identification in the Baltic Sea using its isotopic ratios in combination with a Bayesian isotope mixing model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korth, F.; Deutsch, B.; Frey, C.; Moros, C.; Voss, M.

    2014-09-01

    Nitrate (NO3-) is the major nutrient responsible for coastal eutrophication worldwide and its production is related to intensive food production and fossil-fuel combustion. In the Baltic Sea NO3- inputs have increased 4-fold over recent decades and now remain constantly high. NO3- source identification is therefore an important consideration in environmental management strategies. In this study focusing on the Baltic Sea, we used a method to estimate the proportional contributions of NO3- from atmospheric deposition, N2 fixation, and runoff from pristine soils as well as from agricultural land. Our approach combines data on the dual isotopes of NO3- (δ15N-NO3- and δ18O-NO3-) in winter surface waters with a Bayesian isotope mixing model (Stable Isotope Analysis in R, SIAR). Based on data gathered from 47 sampling locations over the entire Baltic Sea, the majority of the NO3- in the southern Baltic was shown to derive from runoff from agricultural land (33-100%), whereas in the northern Baltic, i.e. the Gulf of Bothnia, NO3- originates from nitrification in pristine soils (34-100%). Atmospheric deposition accounts for only a small percentage of NO3- levels in the Baltic Sea, except for contributions from northern rivers, where the levels of atmospheric NO3- are higher. An additional important source in the central Baltic Sea is N2 fixation by diazotrophs, which contributes 49-65% of the overall NO3- pool at this site. The results obtained with this method are in good agreement with source estimates based upon δ15N values in sediments and a three-dimensional ecosystem model, ERGOM. We suggest that this approach can be easily modified to determine NO3- sources in other marginal seas or larger near-coastal areas where NO3- is abundant in winter surface waters when fractionation processes are minor.

  4. Nitrate source identification using its isotopic ratios in combination with a Bayesian isotope mixing model in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korth, F.; Deutsch, B.; Frey, C.; Moros, C.; Voss, M.

    2014-04-01

    Nitrate (NO3-) is the major nutrient responsible for coastal eutrophication worldwide and its production is related to intensive food production and fossil-fuel combustion. In the Baltic Sea NO3-inputs have increased four-fold over the last decades and now remain constantly high. NO3- source identification is therefore an important consideration in environmental management strategies. In this study focusing on the Baltic Sea, we used a method to estimate the proportional contributions of NO3- from atmospheric deposition, N2 fixation, and runoff from pristine soils as well as from agricultural land. Our approach combines data on the dual isotopes of NO3- (δ15N-NO3- and δ18O-NO3-) in winter surface waters with a Bayesian isotope mixing model (Stable Isotope Analysis in R, SIAR). Based on data gathered from 46 sampling locations over the entire Baltic Sea, the majority of the NO3- in the southern Baltic was shown to derive from runoff from agricultural land (30-70%), whereas in the northern Baltic, i.e., the Gulf of Bothnia, NO3- originates from nitrification in pristine soils (47-100%). Atmospheric deposition accounts for only a small percentage of NO3- levels in the Baltic Sea, except for contributions from northern rivers, where the levels of atmospheric NO3- are higher. An additional important source in the central Baltic Sea is N2 fixation by diazotrophs, which contributes 31-62% of the overall NO3- pool at this site. The results obtained with this method are in good agreement with source estimates based upon δ15N values in sediments and a three-dimensional ecosystem model, ERGOM. We suggest that this approach can be easily modified to determine NO3- sources in other marginal seas or larger near-coastal areas where NO3- is abundant in winter surface waters when fractionation processes are minor.

  5. Physical processes in the transition zone between North Sea and Baltic Sea. Numerical simulations and observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanev, Emil V.; Lu, Xi; Grashorn, Sebastian

    2015-09-01

    The dynamics in the transition zone between the North Sea and Baltic Sea are analyzed here using data from a 22-year-long climatic simulation with a focus on the periods 1992-1994 and 2001-2003 when two recent major inflow events occurred. Observations from gauges and in situ measurements are used to validate the model. Parameters, which cannot be easily measured, such as water and salt transports through straits, have been compared against similar previous estimates. The good performance of simulations is attributed to the finer resolution of the model compared to earlier set ups. The outflow in the Kattegat, which is an analogue of the tidal outflows, tends to propagate to the North over the shallows without showing a substantial deflection to the right due to the Earth's rotation. The inflow follows the topography. The different inflow and outflow pathways are explained as a consequence of the specific combination of bathymetry, axial and lateral processes. The circulation in Kattegat is persistently clockwise with an eastern intensification during inflow and a western one during outflow regimes. The tidal wave there propagates as Kelvin wave, keeping the coast on its right. The flows in the two main straits reveal very different responses to tides, which are also highly asymmetric during inflow and outflow conditions. The circulation has a typical two-layer structure, the correlation between salinity and velocity tends to increase the salt transport in the salinity conveyor belt. The transversal circulation in the entrance of the Sound enhances the vertical mixing of the saltier North Sea water. The long-term averaged ratio of the water transports through the Great Belt and the Sound is ∼2.6-2.7 but this number changes reaching lower values during the major inflow in 1993. The transports in the straits are asymmetric. During inflow events the repartition of water penetrating the Baltic Sea is strongly in favor of the pathway through the Sound, which provides

  6. Meteorological conditions influencing the formation of level ice within the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazur, A. K.; Krezel, A.

    2012-12-01

    The Baltic Sea is covered by ice every winter and on average, the ice-covered area is 45% of the total area of the Baltic Sea. The beginning of ice season usually starts in the end of November, ice extent is the largest between mid-February and mid-March and sea ice disappears completely in May. The ice covered areas during a typical winter are the Gulf of Bothnia, the Gulf of Finland and the Gulf of Riga. The studies of sea ice in the Baltic Sea are related to two aspects: climate and marine transport. Depending on the local weather conditions during the winter different types of sea ice can be formed. From the point of winter shipping it is important to locate level and deformed ice areas (rafted ice, ridged ice, and hummocked ice). Because of cloud and daylight independency as well as good spatial resolution, SAR data seems to be the most suitable source of data for sea ice observation in the comparatively small area of the Baltic Sea. We used ASAR Wide Swath Mode data with spatial resolution 150 m. We analyzed data from the three winter seasons which were examples of severe, typical and mild winters. To remove the speckle effect the data were resampled to 250 m pixel size and filtred using Frost filter 5x5. To detect edges we used Sobel filter. The data were also converted into grayscale. Sea ice classification was based on Object-Based Image Analysis (OBIA). Object-based methods are not a common tool in sea ice studies but they seem to accurately separate level ice within the ice pack. The data were segmented and classified using eCognition Developer software. Level ice were classified based on texture features defined by Haralick (Grey Level Co-Occurrence Matrix homogeneity, GLCM contrast, GLCM entropy and GLCM correlation). The long-term changes of the Baltic Sea ice conditions have been already studied. They include date of freezing, date of break-up, sea ice extent and some of work also ice thickness. There is a little knowledge about the relationship of

  7. Large spatial variations in coastal 14C reservoir age - a case study from the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lougheed, B. C.; Filipsson, H. L.; Snowball, I.

    2013-02-01

    Coastal locations are highly influenced by input from freshwater river runoff, including sources of terrestrial carbon, which can be expected to modify the 14C reservoir age, or R(t), associated with marine water. In this Baltic Sea case study, pre-bomb museum collection mollusc shells of known calendar age, from 30 locations across a strategic salinity transect of the Baltic Sea, were analysed for 14C, δ13C and δ18O. R(t) was calculated for all 30 locations. Seven locations, of which six are within close proximity of the coast, were found to have relatively higher R(t) values, indicative of hard-water effects. δ13Caragonite values were found to be indicative of hard-water influence only for certain locations, suggesting the possibility of different sources of old carbon in different locations. Whenever possible, the Macoma genus of mollusc was selected from the museum collections, in order to exclude species specific reservoir age effects as much as possible. When the Macoma samples are exclusively considered, and samples from hard-water locations excluded, a statistically significant correlation between Macoma R(t) and average salinity is found, indicating a two end-member linear mixing model between 14Cmarine and 14Crunoff. A map of Baltic Sea Macoma aragonite R(t) for the late 19th and early 20th centuries is produced. Such a map can provide an estimate for contemporary Baltic Sea Macoma R(t), although one must exercise caution when applying such estimates back in time or to 14C dates obtained from different sample material. A statistically significant correlation is also found between δ18Oaragonite and Macoma R(t), suggesting that δ18Oaragonite can be used to estimate Macoma palaeo-R(t). The results of this Baltic Sea case study, which show that R(t) is affected by hydrographic conditions and local carbon inputs, have important consequences for other coastal and estuarine locations, where R(t) is also likely to significantly vary on spatial and temporal

  8. The ecophysiology of Sprattus sprattus in the Baltic and North Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peck, Myron A.; Baumann, Hannes; Bernreuther, Matthias; Clemmesen, Catriona; Herrmann, Jens-Peter; Haslob, Holger; Huwer, Bastian; Kanstinger, Philipp; Köster, Fritz W.; Petereit, Christoph; Temming, Axel; Voss, Rudi

    2012-09-01

    The European sprat (Sprattus sprattus) was a main target species of the German GLOBEC program that investigated the trophodynamic structure and function of the Baltic and North Seas under the influence of physical forcing. This review summarizes literature on the ecophysiology of sprat with an emphasis on describing how environmental factors influence the life-history strategy of this small pelagic fish. Ontogenetic changes in feeding and growth, and the impacts of abiotic and biotic factors on vital rates are discussed with particular emphasis on the role of temperature as a constraint to life-history scheduling of this species in the Baltic Sea. A combination of field and laboratory data suggests that optimal thermal windows for growth and survival change during early life and are wider for eggs (5-17 °C) than in young (8- to 12-mm) early feeding larvae (5-12 °C). As larvae become able to successfully capture larger prey, thermal windows expand to include warmer waters. For example, 12- to 16-mm larvae can grow well at 16 °C and larger, transitional-larvae and early juveniles display the highest rates of feeding and growth at ∼18-22 °C. Gaps in knowledge are identified including the need for additional laboratory studies on the physiology and behavior of larvae (studies that will be particularly critical for biophysical modeling activities) and research addressing the role of overwinter survival as a factor shaping phenology and setting limits on the productivity of this species in areas located at the northern limits of its latitudinal range (such as the Baltic Sea). Based on stage- and temperature-specific mortality and growth potential of early life stages, our analysis suggests that young-of-the year sprat would benefit from inhabiting warmer, near-shore environments rather than the deeper-water spawning grounds such as the Bornholm Basin (central Baltic Sea). Utilization of warmer, nearshore waters (or a general increase in Baltic Sea temperatures) is

  9. Reprint of: The ecophysiology of Sprattus sprattus in the Baltic and North Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peck, Myron A.; Baumann, Hannes; Bernreuther, Matthias; Clemmesen, Catriona; Herrmann, Jens-Peter; Haslob, Holger; Huwer, Bastian; Kanstinger, Philipp; Köster, Fritz W.; Petereit, Christoph; Temming, Axel; Voss, Rudi

    2012-12-01

    The European sprat (Sprattus sprattus) was a main target species of the German GLOBEC program that investigated the trophodynamic structure and function of the Baltic and North Seas under the influence of physical forcing. This review summarizes literature on the ecophysiology of sprat with an emphasis on describing how environmental factors influence the life-history strategy of this small pelagic fish. Ontogenetic changes in feeding and growth, and the impacts of abiotic and biotic factors on vital rates are discussed with particular emphasis on the role of temperature as a constraint to life-history scheduling of this species in the Baltic Sea. A combination of field and laboratory data suggests that optimal thermal windows for growth and survival change during early life and are wider for eggs (5-17 °C) than in young (8- to 12-mm) early feeding larvae (5-12 °C). As larvae become able to successfully capture larger prey, thermal windows expand to include warmer waters. For example, 12- to 16-mm larvae can grow well at 16 °C and larger, transitional-larvae and early juveniles display the highest rates of feeding and growth at ∼18-22 °C. Gaps in knowledge are identified including the need for additional laboratory studies on the physiology and behavior of larvae (studies that will be particularly critical for biophysical modeling activities) and research addressing the role of overwinter survival as a factor shaping phenology and setting limits on the productivity of this species in areas located at the northern limits of its latitudinal range (such as the Baltic Sea). Based on stage- and temperature-specific mortality and growth potential of early life stages, our analysis suggests that young-of-the year sprat would benefit from inhabiting warmer, near-shore environments rather than the deeper-water spawning grounds such as the Bornholm Basin (central Baltic Sea). Utilization of warmer, nearshore waters (or a general increase in Baltic Sea temperatures) is

  10. Spatial sensitivity of inorganic carbon to model setup: North Sea and Baltic Sea with ECOSMO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castano Primo, Rocio; Schrum, Corinna; Daewel, Ute

    2015-04-01

    In ocean biogeochemical models it is critical to capture the key processes adequately so they do not only reproduce the observations but that those processes are reproduced correctly. One key issue is the choice of parameters, which in most cases are estimates with large uncertainties. This can be the product of actual lack of detailed knowledge of the process, or the manner the processes are implemented, more or less complex. In addition, the model sensitivity is not necessarily homogenous across the spatial domain modelled, which adds another layer of complexity to biogeochemical modelling. In the particular case of the inorganic carbon cycle, there are several sets of carbonate constants that can be chosen. The calculated air-sea CO2 flux is largely dependent on the parametrization chosen. In addition, the different parametrizations all the underlying processes that in some way impact the carbon cycle beyond the carbonate dissociation and fluxes give results that can be significantly different. Examples of these processes are phytoplankton growth rates or remineralization rates. Despite their geographical proximity, the North and Baltic Seas exhibit very different dynamics. The North Sea receives important inflows of Atlantic waters, while the Baltic Sea is an almost enclosed system, with very little exchange from the North Sea. Wind, tides, and freshwater supply act very differently, but dominantly structure the ecosystem dynamics on spatial and temporal scales. The biological community is also different. Cyanobacteria, which are important due to their ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen, and they are only present in the Baltic Sea. These differentiating features have a strong impact in the biogeochemical cycles and ultimately shape the variations in the carbonate chemistry. Here the ECOSMO model was employed on the North Sea and Baltic Sea. The model is set so both are modelled at the same time, instead of having them run separately. ECOSMO is a 3-D coupled

  11. Impact of change in climate and policy from 1988 to 2007 on environmental and microbial variables at the time series station Boknis Eck, Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoppe, H.-G.; Giesenhagen, H. C.; Koppe, R.; Hansen, H.-P.; Gocke, K.

    2013-07-01

    Phytoplankton and bacteria are sensitive indicators of environmental change. The temporal development of these key organisms was monitored from 1988 to the end of 2007 at the time series station Boknis Eck in the western Baltic Sea. This period was characterized by the adaption of the Baltic Sea ecosystem to changes in the environmental conditions caused by the conversion of the political system in the southern and eastern border states, accompanied by the general effects of global climate change. Measured variables were chlorophyll, primary production, bacteria number, -biomass and -production, glucose turnover rate, macro-nutrients, pH, temperature and salinity. Negative trends with time were recorded for chlorophyll, bacteria number, bacterial biomass and bacterial production, nitrate, ammonia, phosphate, silicate, oxygen and salinity while temperature, pH, and the ratio between bacteria numbers and chlorophyll increased. Strongest reductions with time occurred for the annual maximum values, e.g. for chlorophyll during the spring bloom or for nitrate during winter, while the annual minimum values remained more stable. In deep water above sediment the negative trends of oxygen, nitrate, phosphate and bacterial variables as well as the positive trend of temperature were similar to those in the surface while the trends of salinity, ammonia and silicate were opposite to those in the surface. Decreasing oxygen, even in the surface layer, was of particular interest because it suggested enhanced recycling of nutrients from the deep hypoxic zones to the surface by vertical mixing. The long-term seasonal patterns of all variables correlated positively with temperature, except chlorophyll and salinity. Salinity correlated negatively with all bacterial variables (as well as precipitation) and positively with chlorophyll. Surprisingly, bacterial variables did not correlate with chlorophyll, which may be inherent with the time lag between the peaks of phytoplankton and

  12. Baltic Salmon, Salmo salar, from Swedish River Lule Älv Is More Resistant to Furunculosis Compared to Rainbow Trout

    PubMed Central

    Holten-Andersen, Lars; Dalsgaard, Inger; Buchmann, Kurt

    2012-01-01

    Background Furunculosis, caused by Aeromonas salmonicida, continues to be a major health problem for the growing salmonid aquaculture. Despite effective vaccination programs regular outbreaks occur at the fish farms calling for repeated antibiotic treatment. We hypothesized that a difference in natural susceptibility to this disease might exist between Baltic salmon and the widely used rainbow trout. Study Design A cohabitation challenge model was applied to investigate the relative susceptibility to infection with A. salmonicida in rainbow trout and Baltic salmon. The course of infection was monitored daily over a 30-day period post challenge and the results were summarized in mortality curves. Results A. salmonicida was recovered from mortalities during the entire test period. At day 30 the survival was 6.2% and 34.0% for rainbow trout and Baltic salmon, respectively. Significant differences in susceptibility to A. salmonicida were demonstrated between the two salmonids and hazard ratio estimation between rainbow trout and Baltic salmon showed a 3.36 higher risk of dying from the infection in the former. Conclusion The finding that Baltic salmon carries a high level of natural resistance to furunculosis might raise new possibilities for salmonid aquaculture in terms of minimizing disease outbreaks and the use of antibiotics. PMID:22276121

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of Flavobacterium sp. 316, a Baltic Sea Isolate Exhibiting a High Level of Resistance to Marine Stress Conditions.

    PubMed

    Karczewska-Golec, Joanna; Kochanowska-Łyżen, Maja; Olszewski, Paweł; Bałut, Magdalena; Moskot, Marta; Piotrowski, Arkadiusz; Golec, Piotr; Szalewska-Pałasz, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    Here, we present the draft genome sequence ofFlavobacteriumsp. 316, isolated from brackish water of the Gulf of Gdańsk, southern Baltic Sea. The assembly contains 3,971,755 bp in 17 scaffolds. The sequence will facilitate postgenomic studies on bacterial stress responses in the challenging habitat of the Baltic Sea. PMID:27034490

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of Flavobacterium sp. 316, a Baltic Sea Isolate Exhibiting a High Level of Resistance to Marine Stress Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Kochanowska-Łyżen, Maja; Olszewski, Paweł; Bałut, Magdalena; Moskot, Marta; Piotrowski, Arkadiusz; Golec, Piotr; Szalewska-Pałasz, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    Here, we present the draft genome sequence of Flavobacterium sp. 316, isolated from brackish water of the Gulf of Gdańsk, southern Baltic Sea. The assembly contains 3,971,755 bp in 17 scaffolds. The sequence will facilitate postgenomic studies on bacterial stress responses in the challenging habitat of the Baltic Sea. PMID:27034490

  15. The resilience of structure built around the predicate: Homesign gesture systems in Turkish and American deaf children

    PubMed Central

    Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Namboodiripad, Savithry; Mylander, Carolyn; Özyürek, Aslı; Sancar, Burcu

    2013-01-01

    Deaf children whose hearing losses prevent them from accessing spoken language and whose hearing parents have not exposed them to sign language develop gesture systems, called homesigns, that have many of the properties of natural language—the so-called resilient properties of language. We explored the resilience of structure built around the predicate—in particular, how manner and path are mapped onto the verb—in homesign systems developed by deaf children in Turkey and the United States. We also asked whether the Turkish homesigners exhibit sentence-level structures previously identified as resilient in American and Chinese homesigners. We found that the Turkish and American deaf children used not only the same production probability and ordering patterns to indicate who does what to whom, but also the same segmentation and conflation patterns to package manner and path. The gestures that the hearing parents produced did not, for the most part, display the patterns found in the children’s gestures. Although co-speech gesture may provide the building blocks for homesign, it does not provide the blueprint for these resilient properties of language. PMID:25663828

  16. Coorientation in the Network Television Newsprocessing System: Coverage of the United States House of Representatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foote, Joe S.

    A coorientation methodology was used to examine attitudes toward reporting news about the United States House of Representatives. Coorientation models are predicated upon the interrelationships of individuals in a communication system, measuring participants' attitudes in terms of agreement, accuracy, and congruency. Subjects included three…

  17. Utö Atmospheric and Marine Research Station - a new Baltic Sea ICOS-site for sea-atmosphere research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laakso, Lauri; Laurila, Tuomas; Mäkelä, Timo; Hatakka, Juha; Purokoski, Tero; Hietala, Riikka; Roine, Tuomo; Jämsen, Pertti; Kielosto, Sami; Asmi, Eija; Lonka, Harry; Alenius, Pekka; Drebs, Achim; Seppälä, Jukka; Ylöstalo, Pasi; Tamminen, Timo

    2015-04-01

    Atmospheric research has developed a concept of focused, multidisciplinary, automated observation platforms with continuous high time resolution observations. This approach containing state-of-the-art equipment has enabled research on physical, chemical and biological processes and seasonal variability and showed up new, previously unknown phenomena. New technical and engineering solutions allowing, such approach is also state-of-the-art in marine research through projects like US Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI), European Multidisciplinary Seafloor Observatory (EMSO), JERICO-NEXT and Japanese DONET. At the Baltic Sea, on Island of Utö (59° 46'50N, 21° 22'23E), Finnish Meteorological Institute has observed meteorology since 1881, marine parameters since 1900 and a diversity of atmospheric chemical and physical variables since 1980. Recent years the stations has also been upgraded with aerosol observations, and together with Finnish Environment Institute, on marine observations. The current and observations under construction at Utö Atmospheric and Marine Research Station (en.ilmatieteenlaitos.fi/uto. Marine observations: surface waves, ice-cover radar, temperature and salinity and oxygen at different depths, chlorophyll, cyanobacteria, underwater flows, turbidity, pCO2 and nutrients. Atmospheric observations: T, WS, WD, visibility, cloud height, boundary layer wind profiles and turbulence, weather and underwater camera, aerosol particle size distributions, aerosol light scattering and absorption, SO2, NOx, CO, O3, CO2, CH4, sea-atmosphere CO2- and heat fluxes. In our presentation, we present for the first time some 100 years of climate relevant atmospheric and marine observations from Utö.

  18. Spatial variation of statistical properties of extreme water levels along the eastern Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pindsoo, Katri; Soomere, Tarmo; Rocha, Eugénio

    2016-04-01

    Most of existing projections of future extreme water levels rely on the use of classic generalised extreme value distributions. The choice to use a particular distribution is often made based on the absolute value of the shape parameter of the Generalise Extreme Value distribution. If this parameter is small, the Gumbel distribution is most appropriate while in the opposite case the Weibull or Frechet distribution could be used. We demonstrate that the alongshore variation in the statistical properties of numerically simulated high water levels along the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea is so large that the use of a single distribution for projections of extreme water levels is highly questionable. The analysis is based on two simulated data sets produced in the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute. The output of the Rossby Centre Ocean model is sampled with a resolution of 6 h and the output of the circulation model NEMO with a resolution of 1 h. As the maxima of water levels of subsequent years may be correlated in the Baltic Sea, we also employ maxima for stormy seasons. We provide a detailed analysis of spatial variation of the parameters of the family of extreme value distributions along an approximately 600 km long coastal section from the north-western shore of Latvia in the Baltic Proper until the eastern Gulf of Finland. The parameters are evaluated using maximum likelihood method and method of moments. The analysis also covers the entire Gulf of Riga. The core parameter of this family of distributions, the shape parameter of the Generalised Extreme Value distribution, exhibits extensive variation in the study area. Its values evaluated using the Hydrognomon software and maximum likelihood method, vary from about -0.1 near the north-western coast of Latvia in the Baltic Proper up to about 0.05 in the eastern Gulf of Finland. This parameter is very close to zero near Tallinn in the western Gulf of Finland. Thus, it is natural that the Gumbel

  19. The water budget of a coastal low-lying wetland area at the German Baltic Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bronstert, Axel; Graeff, Thomas; Selle, Benny; Salzmann, Thomas; Franck, Christian; Miegel, Konrad

    2016-04-01

    Coastal wetlands along the German Baltic Sea coastline and the Bodden waters are characteristic elements of the landscape of this region. Their hydrological dynamic is characterized by a significant groundwater flow from the hinterland towards the landscapes areas close to the coast, a direct hydrological intertwining of groundwater and surface waters (creeks, ponds, lakes and fens) in those near-coast areas and a potential for exchange between the fens and the Baltic Sea. Due to human interventions, e.g. the construction of dunes and dykes, drainage systems and lately also renaturation measures, their hydrological regime has undergone several transitions during the last centuries. We present the results of studies at a catchment "Hütelmoor und Heiligensee" close to the city of Rostock, aimed at understanding and quantification the relevant hydrological process dynamics of such catchments. This area has formerly been used for pasture and has recently been restored as a nature reserve, which allows the investigation of past changes and the evaluation of possible and future developments. The investigations are based on a monitoring network measuring groundwater levels and electric conductivity within the fen since 2009, as well as on measurements of the flow and of meteorological variables. We have conducted a general water budgeting, i.e. the balancing of the different water flows across the system's borders, such as precipitation, evapotranspiration, inflows from the neighboring parts of the catchment area, subterranean exchange processes with the Baltic Sea and the area's surface discharge. The analysis of the general hydrological characterization showed that the internal processes of those fens can only be understood if the groundwater flow from the hinterland is taken into consideration. The surface discharge out of the area is mainly generated within the catchment, whereby this area is also a transfer zone with considerable retention effects. It is surprising

  20. Artificial radionuclides in the surface waters of the Baltic Sea and the North Sea in the fall of 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Kadzhene, G.I.; Kleiza, I.V.; Korotkov, V.P.; Lukinskene, M.V.; Mironov, V.K.; Styro, D.B.

    1987-10-01

    The authors compare data from the literature with data taken in the fall of 1984 on the concentrations of cesium 137, strontium 90, cesium 144, and tritium in the waters of the Baltic and North seas. Sampling was conducted along the coastal regions as well as offshore and the consequent concentration and distribution profiles are mapped. They attempt to assess the weight of meteorological and water current as well as seasonal factors on the determined levels and also point to possible sources of the isotopes, including nuclear power plants situated along Baltic and North Sea shorelines and an atmospheric test of a thermonuclear bomb carried out by China.

  1. Peculiarities of distribution of oil polution in the Southeastern Baltic by satellite data and in situ measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulycheva, E. V.; Krek, A. V.; Kostianoy, A. G.

    2016-01-01

    The results of satellite monitoring of oil pollution of the sea surface and field measurements of the concentration of oil products in the water column and bottom sediments for the first time allowed the establishment of a relation between the surface pollution from ships and the general characteristics of spatial and temporal distribution of oil products in the Southeastern Baltic Sea. Areas with increased concentrations of oil products in the surface and bottom layers were determined in the southeastern Baltic Sea. The basic directions of pollution spread, which are consistent with the main direction of annual mean transport of substances in the Gdansk Basin, are determined.

  2. Mapping present and future potential distribution patterns for a meso-grazer guild in the Baltic Sea

    PubMed Central

    Leidenberger, Sonja; De Giovanni, Renato; Kulawik, Robert; Williams, Alan R; Bourlat, Sarah J; Maggs, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Aim The Baltic Sea is one of the world's largest semi-enclosed brackish water bodies characterized by many special features, including endemic species that may be particularly threatened by climate change. We mapped potential distribution patterns under present and future conditions for a community with three trophic levels. We analysed climate-induced changes in the species' distribution patterns and examined possible consequences for the chosen food web. Location Baltic Sea and northern Europe. Methods We developed two open-source workflow-based analytical tools: one for ecological niche modelling and another for raster layer comparison to compute the extent and intensity of change in species' potential distributions. Individual ecological niche models were generated under present conditions and then projected into a future climate change scenario (2050) for a food web consisting of a guild of meso-grazers (Idotea spp.), their host algae (Fucus vesiculosus and Fucus radicans) and their fish predator (Gasterosteus aculeatus). We used occurrence data from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF), literature and museum collections, together with five environmental layers at a resolution of 5 and 30 arc-minutes. Results Habitat suitability for Idotea balthica and Idotea chelipes in the Baltic Sea seems to be mostly determined by temperature and ice cover rather than by salinity. 2050 predictions for all modelled species show a northern/north-eastern shift in the Baltic Sea. The distribution ranges for Idotea granulosa and G. aculeatus are predicted to become patchier in the Baltic than in the rest of northern Europe, where the species will gain more suitable habitats. Main conclusions For the Baltic Sea, climate-induced changes resulted in a gain of suitable habitats for F. vesiculosus,I. chelipes and I. balthica, whereas lower habitat suitability was predicted for I. granulosa,F. radicans and G. aculeatus. The predicted north-eastern shift of I. balthica

  3. Long and Short Term Variability of the Main Physical Parameters in the Coastal Area of the SE Baltic Proper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mingelaite, Toma; Rukseniene, Viktorija; Dailidiene, Inga

    2015-04-01

    Keywords: SE Baltic Sea, coastal upwelling, IR Remote Sensing The memory of the ocean and seas of atmospheric forcing events contributes to the long-term climate change. Intensifying climate change processes in the North Atlantic region including Baltic Sea has drawn widespread interest, as a changing water temperature has ecological, economic and social impact in coastal areas of the Europe seas. In this work we analyse long and short term variability of the main physical parameters in the coastal area of the South Eastern Baltic Sea Proper. The analysis of long term variability is based on monitoring data measured in the South Eastern Baltic Sea for the last 50 years. The main focus of the long term variability is changes of hydro meteorological parameters relevant to the observed changes in the climate.The water salinity variations in the Baltic Sea near the Lithuanian coast and in the Curonian Lagoon, a shallow and enclosed sub-basin of the Baltic Sea, were analysed along with the time series of some related hydroclimatic factors. The short term water temperature and salinity variations were analysed with a strong focus on coastal upwelling events. Combining both remote sensing and in situ monitoring data physical parameters such as vertical salinity variations during upwelling events was analysed. The coastal upwelling in the SE Baltic Sea coast, depending on its scale and intensity, may lead to an intrusion of colder and saltier marine waters to the Curonian Lagoon resulting in hydrodynamic changes and pronounced temperature drop extending for 30-40 km further down the Lagoon. The study results show that increasing trends of water level, air and water temperature, and decreasing ice cover duration are related to the changes in meso-scale atmospheric circulation, and more specifically, to the changes in regional and local wind regime climate. That is in a good agreement with the increasing trends in local higher intensity of westerly winds, and with the winter

  4. Seal dynamics on the Swedish west coast: Scenarios of competition as Baltic grey seal intrude on harbour seal territory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svensson, Carl Johan

    2012-07-01

    The Kattegat-Skagerrak region on the Swedish west coast is home to an abundant harbour seal population (Phoca vitulina) and a small scattered grey seal population (Halichoerus grypus). In addition, grey seal from the growing population in the Baltic Sea frequently migrate into the Kattegat-Skagerrak. Harbour seals on the west coast of Sweden show relatively high population growth (approximately 9%) compared to the Baltic grey seal in ice-free habitats (approximately 6%), which, in theory, makes harbour seal the stronger competitor of the two in this region. However, incidents of disease in harbour seals that lower population growth are becoming more frequent. These epidemics are primarily caused by the Phocine Distemper Virus (PDV), and may reduce population size with up to 70%. This study models the average development under potential scenarios of competing harbour- and Baltic grey seal populations using Leslie matrices and the Lotka-Volterra model of inter-specific competition. The model is parameterised with previously published data, and resource overlap is incorporated through density dependent pup survival. Using numerical methods short- and long-term abundances are simulated under weak, moderate and strong competition and for different frequencies of PDV epidemics. Results show that the harbour seals are resilient to competition while exerting a negative effect on grey seal abundance under moderate to strong competition. Hence Baltic grey seal benefit from weaker levels of competition. Under moderate and strong competition grey seal abundance is a direct function of the PDV frequency as this reduces the competitive strength of harbour seals. Theoretically this means that higher frequencies of PDV or other pathogens epidemics could facilitate an expansion of Baltic grey seal into Kattegat-Skagerrak. Independent of interaction strength and frequency of epidemics the projected changes to abundances are slow (50-100 years), and even in exceedingly stable

  5. Divergence within and among Seaweed Siblings (Fucus vesiculosus and F. radicans) in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Ardehed, Angelica; Johansson, Daniel; Sundqvist, Lisa; Schagerström, Ellen; Zagrodzka, Zuzanna; Kovaltchouk, Nikolaj A; Bergström, Lena; Kautsky, Lena; Rafajlovic, Marina; Pereyra, Ricardo T; Johannesson, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    Closely related taxa provide significant case studies for understanding evolution of new species but may simultaneously challenge species identification and definition. In the Baltic Sea, two dominant and perennial brown algae share a very recent ancestry. Fucus vesiculosus invaded this recently formed postglacial sea 8000 years ago and shortly thereafter Fucus radicans diverged from this lineage as an endemic species. In the Baltic Sea both species reproduce sexually but also recruit fully fertile new individuals by asexual fragmentation. Earlier studies have shown local differences in morphology and genetics between the two taxa in the northern and western Bothnian Sea, and around the island of Saaremaa in Estonia, but geographic patterns seem in conflict with a single origin of F. radicans. To investigate the relationship between northern and Estonian distributions, we analysed the genetic variation using 9 microsatellite loci in populations from eastern Bothnian Sea, Archipelago Sea and the Gulf of Finland. These populations are located in between earlier studied populations. However, instead of bridging the disparate genetic gap between N-W Bothnian Sea and Estonia, as expected from a simple isolation-by-distance model, the new populations substantially increased overall genetic diversity and showed to be strongly divergent from the two earlier analysed regions, showing signs of additional distinct populations. Contrasting earlier findings of increased asexual recruitment in low salinity in the Bothnian Sea, we found high levels of sexual reproduction in some of the Gulf of Finland populations that inhabit extremely low salinity. The new data generated in this study supports the earlier conclusion of two reproductively isolated but very closely related species. However, the new results also add considerable genetic and morphological complexity within species. This makes species separation at geographic scales more demanding and suggests a need for more

  6. Sewage derive [sup 15]N in the Baltic traced in fucus

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbie, J.E.; Fry, B. ); Larsson, U.; Elmgren, R. )

    1990-01-09

    Himmerfjarden, a fjord-like bay on the eastern shore of the Baltic, receives treated sewage from 250,000 inhabitants. Because the inorganic N in the effluent is enriched in [sup 15]N through denitrification, nitrification, and ammonia volatilization, an analysis of the distribution of [sup 15]N in the Bay tells how far from the source the sewage nitrogen moves. The attached macroalga Fucus vesiculosus was collected in early May from rocky shore at 0-0.5 m depth and the [sup 15]N content of the tips of the fronds analyzed. This N represents uptake and storage during the previous six months and growth during March and April. The [delta][sup 15]N was uniformly high (11-13[per thousand]) in the main body of the Bay within 15 km from the sewage source. Beyond 15 km values decreased with distance to a low of 4.6[per thousand] at 35 km, where the Bay ends and the coastal waters begin. Using the 11-13 and 4.6[per thousand] as endmembers, the percentage of sewage N making up the Fucus at any point may be calculated. The [delta][sub 15]N of particulate organic matter in the offshore Baltic waters was around 0[per thousand] and Fucus had an [delta][sup 15]N about 1.5[per thousand] higher than the POM. From this and other evidence we conclude that there is a belt of coastal water with an elevated [delta][sup 15]N lying along the east coast of the Baltic. This presumably derives from sewage and perhaps from agriculture and is potentially of use as a tracer of coastal zone/pelagic zone interactions.

  7. Divergence within and among Seaweed Siblings (Fucus vesiculosus and F. radicans) in the Baltic Sea

    PubMed Central

    Ardehed, Angelica; Johansson, Daniel; Sundqvist, Lisa; Schagerström, Ellen; Zagrodzka, Zuzanna; Kovaltchouk, Nikolaj A.; Bergström, Lena; Kautsky, Lena; Rafajlovic, Marina; Pereyra, Ricardo T.

    2016-01-01

    Closely related taxa provide significant case studies for understanding evolution of new species but may simultaneously challenge species identification and definition. In the Baltic Sea, two dominant and perennial brown algae share a very recent ancestry. Fucus vesiculosus invaded this recently formed postglacial sea 8000 years ago and shortly thereafter Fucus radicans diverged from this lineage as an endemic species. In the Baltic Sea both species reproduce sexually but also recruit fully fertile new individuals by asexual fragmentation. Earlier studies have shown local differences in morphology and genetics between the two taxa in the northern and western Bothnian Sea, and around the island of Saaremaa in Estonia, but geographic patterns seem in conflict with a single origin of F. radicans. To investigate the relationship between northern and Estonian distributions, we analysed the genetic variation using 9 microsatellite loci in populations from eastern Bothnian Sea, Archipelago Sea and the Gulf of Finland. These populations are located in between earlier studied populations. However, instead of bridging the disparate genetic gap between N-W Bothnian Sea and Estonia, as expected from a simple isolation-by-distance model, the new populations substantially increased overall genetic diversity and showed to be strongly divergent from the two earlier analysed regions, showing signs of additional distinct populations. Contrasting earlier findings of increased asexual recruitment in low salinity in the Bothnian Sea, we found high levels of sexual reproduction in some of the Gulf of Finland populations that inhabit extremely low salinity. The new data generated in this study supports the earlier conclusion of two reproductively isolated but very closely related species. However, the new results also add considerable genetic and morphological complexity within species. This makes species separation at geographic scales more demanding and suggests a need for more

  8. Scyphozoa in the Bornholm Basin (central Baltic Sea) The role of advection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barz, Kristina; Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald; Hirche, Hans-Jürgen

    2006-04-01

    The usual absence of ephyrae and late appearance of medusae of the Scyphozoa Aurelia aurita and Cyanea capillata in the Bornholm Basin (BB; central Baltic Sea) indicate that these species are not strobilating in the region and their presence depends on advection. To study their potential origin we compared drift from historically known strobilation areas derived from a circulation model with spatial distributions observed during 19 cruises in the BB during 2002 and 2003. The model results are in good accordance with the field observations. According to the model results inter-annual differences in the timing of first appearance and life stage at appearance of A. aurita were clearly related to differences in the hydrodynamic regime during the investigation periods. During the stagnation regime in 2002 young medusae occurred first in June in the BB. In contrast, in 2003 fast transport due to several inflow events advected ephyrae released between January and March in the western Baltic already in April to the BB. Although the Gullmar Fjord (western Sweden) is the nearest known strobilation area for C. capillata, the model did not support advection from there in numbers explaining the occurrence of this species in the BB in 2002 and 2003. If the model works adequately in this regions we have to assume that the Gullmar Fjord is not a main source region of C. capillata in the BB, but other strobilation areas in the Kattegat or the North Sea appear more important. Our results imply that advection and inflow events are critical for the occurrence and distribution of early stages of jellyfish in the central Baltic Sea. They demonstrate the potential of circulation models as tools to study the effect of long-range transport on the spatial composition of these organisms.

  9. Genesis, distribution, and dynamics of lagoon marl extrusions along the Curonian Spit, southeast Baltic Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeev, Alexander; Zhamoida, Vladimir; Ryabchuk, Daria; Buynevich, Ilya; Sivkov, Vadim; Dorokhov, Dmitry; Bitinas, Albertas; Pupienis, Donatas

    2016-04-01

    The unique geological process of extrusion of lagoon marl from beneath the massive migrating sand dunes is characteristic for large segments of the Curonian Spit - a ~100-km-long sandy barrier that separates the Curonian Lagoon from the Baltic Sea. The exposures of a composite set of Holocene organic sediments such as gyttja, clayey gyttja, and gyttja clay, commonly referred to as "lagoon marl", are common along the northern half of the lagoon coast of the spit. These outcrops of lagoon marl rise up to 3-4 m above the lagoon level and were formed by extrusion from their 7-8 m in situ depth beneath the present regional water table. New detailed investigations of the Baltic Sea bottom along the southern half of the Curonian Spit using side-scan sonar, multibeam echosounder, seismic imaging, sediment sampling, and video observations allowed identification and mapping of a unique underwater landscape formed by extensive outcrops of laminated and folded lagoon marl at water depths of 5-15 m. The combined onshore-offshore database indicates that the relict lagoon marl was deformed, compacted, and dehydrated by a massive dune-covered coastal barrier migrating landward (retrograding) over these sediments during the Litorina Sea transgression in a processes termed "dune tectonics". Spatial analysis of structures of the relict sediments traced in offshore geophysical data help constrain the rates of the southeastly migration of the dune massif. A conceptual dynamic model is presented to explain the present occurrence of marl exposures above the regional water table, as well as the occurrence of relict lagoon marl extrusions (diapirs) on the underwater marine slope of the Curonian Spit. This research was funded by a RFBR project 13-05-90711 and RSF project 14-37-00047 «Geoenvironmental conditions of marine management of natural recourses of the Russian sector of South-Eastern Baltic».

  10. Seasonal variations of hydroxylated and methoxylated brominated diphenyl ethers in blue mussels from the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Löfstrand, Karin; Liu, Xitao; Lindqvist, Dennis; Jensen, Sören; Asplund, Lillemor

    2011-07-01

    Hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) and methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) found at high levels in the Baltic biota are mainly natural products, but can also be formed through metabolism or abiotic oxidation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The formation of OH-PBDEs is of concern since there is growing evidence of phenolic toxicity. This study investigates seasonal variations in levels of OH-PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs, focusing on an exposed species, the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis), sampled in the Baltic Sea in May, June, August and October of 2008. Both the OH-PBDE and MeO-PBDE levels in the mussels showed seasonal variations from May to October, the highest concentration of each congener appearing in June. The seasonal variation was more marked for OH-PBDEs than in MeO-PBDEs, but all congeners showed the same trends, except 6-MeO-BDE47 and 2'-MeO-BDE68, which did not significantly decline in concentrations after June. Biotic or abiotic debromination is suggested as a possible reason for the rapid decrease in methoxylated penta- and hexa-BDE concentrations observed in blue mussels from June to August, while the tetraBDE concentrations were stable. In addition, 1,3,7/1,3,8-tribrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins showed the same seasonal variation. The seasonal variations indicates natural formation and are unlikely to be due to transformation of anthropogenic precursors. The levels of PBDEs were fairly constant over time and considerably lower than those of the OH-PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs. The timing of the peaks in concentrations suggests that filamentous macro-algae may be important sources of these compounds found in the blue mussels from this Baltic Sea location. PMID:21288551

  11. Significance of archaeal nitrification in hypoxic waters of the Baltic Sea

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Carlo; Vandieken, Verona; Thamdrup, Bo; Jürgens, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) of the phylum Thaumarchaeota are widespread, and their abundance in many terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems suggests a prominent role in nitrification. AOA also occur in high numbers in oxygen-deficient marine environments, such as the pelagic redox gradients of the central Baltic Sea; however, data on archaeal nitrification rates are scarce and little is known about the factors, for example sulfide, that regulate nitrification in this system. In the present work, we assessed the contribution of AOA to ammonia oxidation rates in Baltic deep basins and elucidated the impact of sulfide on this process. Rate measurements with 15N-labeled ammonium, CO2 dark fixation measurements and quantification of AOA by catalyzed reporter deposition–fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that among the three investigated sites the highest potential nitrification rates (122–884 nmol l−1per day) were measured within gradients of decreasing oxygen, where thaumarchaeotal abundance was maximal (2.5–6.9 × 105 cells per ml) and CO2 fixation elevated. In the presence of the archaeal-specific inhibitor GC7, nitrification was reduced by 86–100%, confirming the assumed dominance of AOA in this process. In samples spiked with sulfide at concentrations similar to those of in situ conditions, nitrification activity was inhibited but persisted at reduced rates. This result together with the substantial nitrification potential detected in sulfidic waters suggests the tolerance of AOA to periodic mixing of anoxic and sulfidic waters. It begs the question of whether the globally distributed Thaumarchaeota respond similarly in other stratified water columns or whether the observed robustness against sulfide is a specific feature of the thaumarchaeotal subcluster present in the Baltic Deeps. PMID:25423026

  12. Model simulations of dense bottom currents in the Western Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burchard, Hans; Janssen, Frank; Bolding, Karsten; Umlauf, Lars; Rennau, Hannes

    2009-01-01

    Only recently, medium intensity inflow events into the Baltic Sea have gained more awareness because of their potential to ventilate intermediate layers in the Southern Baltic Sea basins. With the present high-resolution model study of the Western Baltic Sea a first attempt is made to obtain model based realistic estimates of turbulent mixing in this area where dense bottom currents resulting from medium intensity inflow events are weakened by turbulent entrainment. The numerical model simulation which is carried out using the General Estuarine Transport Model (GETM) during nine months in 2003 and 2004 is first validated by means of three automatic stations at the Drogden and Darss Sills and in the Arkona Sea. In order to obtain good agreement between observations and model results, the 0.5×0.5 nautical mile bathymetry had to be adjusted in order to account for the fact that even at that scale many relevant topographic features are not resolved. Current velocity, salinity and turbulence observations during a medium intensity inflow event through the Øresund are then compared to the model results. Given the general problems of point to point comparisons between observations and model simulations, the agreement is fairly good with the characteristic features of the inflow event well represented by the model simulations. Two different bulk measures for mixing activity are then introduced, the vertically integrated decay of salinity variance, which is equal to the production of micro-scale salinity variance, and the vertically integrated turbulent salt flux, which is related to an increase of potential energy due to vertical mixing of stably stratified flow. Both measures give qualitatively similar results and identify the Drogden and Darss Sills as well as the Bornholm Channel as mixing hot spots. Further regions of strong mixing are the dense bottom current pathways from these sills into the Arkona Sea, areas around Kriegers Flak (a shoal in the western Arkona Sea

  13. Does the zooplankton prey availability limit the larval habitats of pike in the Baltic Sea?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallasvuo, Meri; Salonen, Maiju; Lappalainen, Antti

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) investigate whether the availability of suitable zooplankton prey limits the distribution of the coastal larval areas of pike ( Esox lucius) in two archipelago areas of the northern Baltic Sea and (2) compare the availability of zooplankton prey in spring between different types of coastal littoral habitat. According to the results, reed belt habitats formed by Phragmites australis constitute hot spots for zooplankton prey in the coastal ecosystem. During the spring, reed-covered shores of the inner archipelago maintained more than 10 times higher densities of copepods and cladocerans, the preferred prey for larval pike, compared to the other studied shores. Temperature conditions were also most favourable in the reed belt habitat. Thus, the reed belts of the inner and middle archipelago were shown to form the best habitat for larval pike in the coastal area of the northern Baltic Sea, and this was also the only habitat where pike larvae were found. Our results suggest that the poor survival and recruitment of pike in the outer archipelago, however, cannot exclusively be explained by sub-optimal feeding conditions of the larvae. There are also other important factors, presumably connected to the exposure to the open sea, that affect the distribution of the pike larvae. Our results, however, highlight the importance of sheltered coastal reed belt shores as reproduction habitat for spring-spawning fish in the northern Baltic Sea. Further, this study disproves the assumption that the seaweed bladder wrack ( Fucus vesiculosus) forms a reproduction habitat for pike in the coastal area.

  14. Fecundity of flounder, Pleuronectes flesus, in the Baltic Sea — Reproductive strategies in two sympatric populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nissling, Anders; Dahlman, Gry

    2010-10-01

    Two sympatric flounder populations with different reproductive strategies, offshore spawning at 10-20 psu producing pelagic eggs and coastal spawning at 5-7 psu with demersal eggs respectively, inhabit the brackish water Baltic Sea. Salinity governs the reproductive success by irregular saline water inflows and hence stock abundance and distribution. The potential fecundity (the standing stock of vitellogenic oocytes in the pre-spawning ovary) was assessed for fish sampled at five locations (two for offshore spawners and three for coastal spawners) along the salinity gradient (ICES SD 25, 27/28, 28 and 29). Multiple linear regression analysis resulted in r2-values of 0.698-0.894 for the respective sampling location with somatic weight or total fish length as the main predictor, and otolith weight (proxy for age) and oocyte density (by gravimetric counting) as additional predictors. Analysis by univariate regressions using GLM revealed significantly higher fecundity for coastal spawning- than offshore spawning flounder (˜ 69% more oocytes for an intermediate sized fish) but no intra-population differences. Similarly, gonad dry weight was significantly higher for coastal spawning flounder. Further, growth estimations indicated higher growth in offshore spawning- than in coastal spawning flounder suggesting that the coastal spawning population allocate relatively more resources into reproductive growth than somatic, potentially a result of strong selection for high fecundity of flounder producing demersal eggs due to poor egg survival for this spawning strategy. Earlier studies on fecundity of Baltic flounder are reviewed and discussed with consideration of inter-population differences questioning the idea of in general higher fecundity of flounder in the Baltic Sea.

  15. Significance of archaeal nitrification in hypoxic waters of the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Berg, Carlo; Vandieken, Verona; Thamdrup, Bo; Jürgens, Klaus

    2015-06-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) of the phylum Thaumarchaeota are widespread, and their abundance in many terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems suggests a prominent role in nitrification. AOA also occur in high numbers in oxygen-deficient marine environments, such as the pelagic redox gradients of the central Baltic Sea; however, data on archaeal nitrification rates are scarce and little is known about the factors, for example sulfide, that regulate nitrification in this system. In the present work, we assessed the contribution of AOA to ammonia oxidation rates in Baltic deep basins and elucidated the impact of sulfide on this process. Rate measurements with (15)N-labeled ammonium, CO(2) dark fixation measurements and quantification of AOA by catalyzed reporter deposition-fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that among the three investigated sites the highest potential nitrification rates (122-884 nmol l(-1)per day) were measured within gradients of decreasing oxygen, where thaumarchaeotal abundance was maximal (2.5-6.9 × 10(5) cells per ml) and CO(2) fixation elevated. In the presence of the archaeal-specific inhibitor GC(7), nitrification was reduced by 86-100%, confirming the assumed dominance of AOA in this process. In samples spiked with sulfide at concentrations similar to those of in situ conditions, nitrification activity was inhibited but persisted at reduced rates. This result together with the substantial nitrification potential detected in sulfidic waters suggests the tolerance of AOA to periodic mixing of anoxic and sulfidic waters. It begs the question of whether the globally distributed Thaumarchaeota respond similarly in other stratified water columns or whether the observed robustness against sulfide is a specific feature of the thaumarchaeotal subcluster present in the Baltic Deeps. PMID:25423026

  16. Active nitrogen-fixing heterotrophic bacteria at and below the chemocline of the central Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Farnelid, Hanna; Bentzon-Tilia, Mikkel; Andersson, Anders F; Bertilsson, Stefan; Jost, Günter; Labrenz, Matthias; Jürgens, Klaus; Riemann, Lasse

    2013-07-01

    The Baltic Sea receives large nitrogen inputs by diazotrophic (N2-fixing) heterocystous cyanobacteria but the significance of heterotrophic N2 fixation has not been studied. Here, the diversity, abundance and transcription of the nifH fragment of the nitrogenase enzyme in two basins of the Baltic Sea proper was examined. N2 fixation was measured at the surface (5 m) and in anoxic water (200 m). Vertical sampling profiles of >10 and <10 μm size fractions were collected in 2007, 2008 and 2011 at the Gotland Deep and in 2011 in the Bornholm Basin. Both of these stations are characterized by permanently anoxic bottom water. The 454-pyrosequencing nifH analysis revealed a diverse assemblage of nifH genes related to alpha-, beta- and gammaproteobacteria (nifH cluster I) and anaerobic bacteria (nifH cluster III) at and below the chemocline. Abundances of genes and transcripts of seven diazotrophic phylotypes were investigated using quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealing abundances of heterotrophic nifH phylotypes of up to 2.1 × 10(7) nifH copies l(-1). Abundant nifH transcripts (up to 3.2 × 10(4) transcripts l(-1)) within nifH cluster III and co-occurring N2 fixation (0.44±0.26 nmol l(-1) day(-1)) in deep water suggests that heterotrophic diazotrophs are fixing N2 in anoxic ammonium-rich waters. Our results reveal that N2 fixation in the Baltic Sea is not limited to illuminated N-deplete surface waters and suggest that N2 fixation could also be of importance in other suboxic regions of the world's oceans. PMID:23446833

  17. A Eulerian nutrient to fish model of the Baltic Sea — A feasibility-study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radtke, Hagen; Neumann, Thomas; Fennel, Wolfgang

    2013-09-01

    A nutrient-to-fish-model with an explicit two-way interaction between a biogeochemical model of the lower food web and a fish model component is presented for the example of the Baltic Sea, demonstrating the feasibility of a consistent coupling of the upper and lower parts of the food web in a Eulerian model system. In the Baltic Sea, the fish stock is dominated by two prey species (sprat and herring) and one predator (cod). The dynamics of the fish model is driven by size (mass-class) dependent predator-prey interactions while the interaction between the biogeochemical and Fish model component is established through feeding of prey fish on zooplankton and recycling of fish biomass to nutrients and detritus. The fish model component is coupled to an advanced three dimensional biogeochemical model (ERGOM, Neumann et al., 2002). A horizontally explicit representation of fish requires the implementation of fish behavior. As a first step, we propose an algorithm to stimulate fish migration by letting the fish follow the food. Moreover, fish species are guided to their respective spawning areas. Results of first three-dimensional simulations are presented with emphasis on the transport of matter by moving fish. The spawning areas of cod and sprat are in the deep basins, which are not well reached by advective transport. Hence the deposition of matter in these areas by spawning fish could play some role in the distribution of matter. The approach is not limited to applications for the Baltic and the model can be transferred also to other systems.

  18. Understanding salt dynamics for a restored coastal wetland at the Baltic Sea in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selle, Benny; Gräff, Thomas; Salzmann, Thomas; Oswald, Sascha; Walther, Marc; Miegel, Konrad

    2016-04-01

    Coastal fens like the nature reserve „Hütelmoor und Heiligensee"(north-eastern Germany) are important landscape elements along the southern Baltic coast, which exchange fresh water and brackish water with the Baltic Sea. These exchange processes can be understood as experiments with a natural tracer, which may be used to investigate the hydrologic behaviour of these fen systems. With the establishment of coastal protection measures such as dunes and dikes, the installation of surface drainage and, more recently, also nature conservation measures, the hydrologic regime of these coastal wetlands constantly altered over the last centuries. The rehabilitated wetland „Hütelmoor und Heiligensee" is suitable for an analysis of hydrologic change as it was monitored over the time period since nature conservation measures started in the 1990s. Collected data sets include observation of groundwater levels and electrical conductivities, weather data as well as discharge at the outlet of the drainage catchment. In this study, we identifed processes and quantify process magnitudes that govern the salt balance of the study area including its variability in space and time. We found that - over the period of rehabilitation - salt water entered the catchment with episodic storm surges by wave overtopping of dunes. The intruded brackish water was then diluted, which is a slow process occurring over decades. It is governed by local groundwater recharge from precipitation and the inflow of relatively fresh groundwater from the hinterland. It is concluded that salt inputs from the Baltic Sea provide a natural tracer of hydrological processes, which can be readily monitored via electrical conductivity measurements.

  19. The Baltic dental programme at the Faculty of Dentistry of The Karolinska Institute: first evaluation.

    PubMed

    Röding, K

    1997-02-01

    In 1992, The Faculty of Dentistry of The Karolinska Institute (KI) introduced a dental undergraduate programme specifically for Baltic students. Initiative for this programme came from both the Ministries of Health in Estonia and Latvia and a Member's Bill in the Swedish Committee for Foreign Affairs. The first 10 students were admitted in January 1992, and in 1994, a further 8 students were accepted. The main objective is to train Baltic students according to the Scandinavian model of dental education, in order to facilitate a positive development in dentistry in these countries. Candidates for the programme, dental students in Latvia or Estonia who had completed several preclinical years, were interviewed and tested in their home countries by a Swedish Admissions Committee. The curriculum comprises 7 semesters at the School of Dentistry, and includes complementary courses in basic science, preventive dentistry, and theoretical and practical courses in all fields of clinical dentistry. The students work with increasing independence, treating patients with a great variety of oral diseases and from different age groups. A course in Informatics is central and forms a base for a research-based assignment in collaboration with the respective home universities. The Baltic Programme is the first time KI has designed and implemented a specially tailored dental undergraduate curriculum in English for a selected group of foreign undergraduates. The students have proved to be ambitious and industrious, with very high academic standards. Their results in the written examinations were equal to or better than those of the home students. Of the 9 students who to date have completed the course, all are working as dentists in their respective countries and 6 are associated with their university. PMID:9567911

  20. Evaluation of the operational SAR based Baltic sea ice concentration products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karvonen, Juha

    Sea ice concentration is an important ice parameter both for weather and climate modeling and sea ice navigation. We have developed an fully automated algorithm for sea ice concentration retrieval using dual-polarized ScanSAR wide mode RADARSAT-2 data. RADARSAT-2 is a C-band SAR instrument enabling dual-polarized acquisition in ScanSAR mode. The swath width for the RADARSAT-2 ScanSAR mode is about 500 km, making it very suitable for operational sea ice monitoring. The polarization combination used in our concentration estimation is HH/HV. The SAR data is first preprocessed, the preprocessing consists of geo-rectification to Mercator projection, incidence angle correction fro both the polarization channels. and SAR mosaicking. After preprocessing a segmentation is performed for the SAR mosaics, and some single-channel and dual-channel features are computed for each SAR segment. Finally the SAR concentration is estimated based on these segment-wise features. The algorithm is similar as introduced in Karvonen 2014. The ice concentration is computed daily using a daily RADARSAT-2 SAR mosaic as its input, and it thus gives the concentration estimated at each Baltic Sea location based on the most recent SAR data at the location. The algorithm has been run in an operational test mode since January 2014. We present evaluation of the SAR-based concentration estimates for the Baltic ice season 2014 by comparing the SAR results with gridded the Finnish Ice Service ice charts and ice concentration estimates from a radiometer algorithm (AMSR-2 Bootstrap algorithm results). References: J. Karvonen, Baltic Sea Ice Concentration Estimation Based on C-Band Dual-Polarized SAR Data, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, in press, DOI: 10.1109/TGRS.2013.2290331, 2014.

  1. Residential Folk High Schools in Eastern Europe and the Baltic States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulich, Jindra

    2002-01-01

    In Eastern Europe, Poland has the longest history of folk high schools. Although closed in Hungary during the 1950s, folk high schools have recently reemerged. There were attempts to establish them in Estonia, Lithuania, and Latvia following independence. Although the residential aspect of folk schools is desirable, economic and social conditions…

  2. Structures and Activity of New Anabaenopeptins Produced by Baltic Sea Cyanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Spoof, Lisa; Błaszczyk, Agata; Meriluoto, Jussi; Cegłowska, Marta; Mazur-Marzec, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Anabaenopeptins, bioactive cyclic hexapeptides, were isolated by preparative reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography from an extract of Baltic Sea cyanobacterial bloom material composed of Nodularia spumigena (50%), Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (40%) and Dolichospermum spp. (10%). Five new anabaenopeptins and nine previously known anabaenopeptins were isolated, and their putative structures were determined by tandem mass spectrometry. The activity of the peptides against carboxypeptidase A and protein phosphatase 1 as well as chymotrypsin, trypsin and thrombin was tested. All anabaenopeptins inhibited carboxypeptidase A (apart from one anabaenopeptin variant) and protein phosphatase 1 with varying potency, but no inhibition against chymotrypsin, trypsin and thrombin was observed. PMID:26729139

  3. Phosphorus recycling and burial in Baltic Sea sediments with contrasting redox conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slomp, Caroline P.; Mort, Haydon P.; Reed, Dan C.; Jilbert, Tom; Gustafsson, Bo G.

    2010-05-01

    The Baltic Sea is a classical example of a coastal system that is subject to an increased intensity and spatial extent of hypoxia due to human activities. The expansion of hypoxia since the 1960s is the result of increased inputs of nutrients from land (both from fertilizer and wastewater) and is negatively affecting living conditions for benthic organisms. In addition, the biogeochemical cycling of carbon and nutrients has been significantly altered. Water column studies have shown that the availability of dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) is positively correlated with hypoxia due to release of phosphorus from sediment Fe-oxides and from organic matter upon the transition from oxic to hypoxic conditions. Thus, a large internal source of phosphorus exists in the sediment that largely controls short-term variability in water column DIP concentrations. In this presentation, we focus on results of recent field and modeling work for various parts of the Baltic Sea that confirm the role of Fe-bound P from seasonally hypoxic sediments at intermediate water depths as a major source of DIP. We also show that extended hypoxia and anoxia leads to depletion of sediment Fe-bound P and, ultimately, lower rates of sediment-water exchange of P. Authigenic Ca-P minerals appear to be only a relatively minor burial sink for P. The lack of major inorganic P burial makes the Baltic Sea sensitive to the feedback loop between increased hypoxia, enhanced regeneration of P and increased primary productivity. Historical records of bottom water oxygen at two sites (Bornholm, Northern Gotland) show a decline over the past century which is accompanied by a rise in values of typical sediment proxies for anoxia (total sulfur, molybdenum and organic C/P ratios). While sediment reactive P concentrations in anoxic basins are equal to or higher than at oxic sites, burial rates of P at hypoxic and anoxic sites are up to 20 times lower because of lower sedimentation rates. Nevertheless, burial of

  4. Baroclinic internal wave energy distribution in the Baltic Sea derived from 45 years of circulation simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybin, Artem; Soomere, Tarmo; Kurkina, Oxana; Kurkin, Andrey; Rouvinskaya, Ekaterina; Markus Meier, H. E.

    2016-04-01

    Internal waves and internal tides are an essential component of the functioning of stratified shelf seas. They carry substantial amounts of energy through the water masses, drive key hydrophysical processes such as mixing and overturning and support the functioning of marine ecosystem in many ways. Their particular impact becomes evident near and at the bottom where they often create substantial loads to engineering structures and exert a wide range of impacts on the bottom sediments and evolution of the seabed. We analyse several properties of spatio-temporal distributions of energy of relatively long-period large-scale internal wave motions in the Baltic Sea. The analysis is based on numerically simulated pycnocline variations that are extracted from the hydrographic data calculated by the Rossby Centre Ocean circulation model (RCO) for the entire Baltic Sea for 1961-2005. This model has a horizontal resolution of 2 nautical miles and uses 41 vertical layers with a thickness between 3 m close to the surface and 12 m in 250 m depth. The model is forced with atmospheric data derived from the ERA-40 re-analysis using a regional atmosphere model with a horizontal resolution of 25 km. It also accounts for river inflow and water exchange through the Danish Straits. See (Meier, H.E.M., Höglund, A., 2013. Studying the Baltic Sea circulation with Eulerian tracers, in Soomere, T., Quak, E., eds., Preventive Methods for Coastal Protection, Springer, Cham, Heidelberg, 101-130) for a detailed description of the model and its forcing. The resolution of the model output used in this study (once in 6 hours) is sufficient for estimates of spectral amplitudes of the displacements of isopycnal surfaces with a typical period of 2-12 days. We provide the analysis of kinetic and potential energy of motions with these periods. The resulting maps of the maxima of energy and spatial distributions of near-bottom velocities have been evaluated for the entire simulation interval of 45

  5. Possibilities of utilizing alternative energy sources for combined heat supply systems in the Baltic

    SciTech Connect

    Shipkovs, P.; Grislis, V.; Zebergs, V. )

    1991-01-01

    The problem of alternative energy sources is an issue of major importance for the Baltic republics because of the limited supply of conventional energy resources. One of the ways to solve this problem could be the introduction of combined heat supply systems (CHSS). The combined heat supply systems are such systems where various energy sources in different regimes are made use of to ensure the optimum temperature on residential and industrial premises. The influence of climatic conditions on the selection of heat supply systems has been studied at large. In the present paper the use of alternative energy sources (AES) in combined heat supply systems (CHSS) is described.

  6. The influence of dissolved organic matter on the acid-base system of the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuliński, Karol; Schneider, Bernd; Hammer, Karoline; Machulik, Ulrike; Schulz-Bull, Detlef

    2014-04-01

    To assess the influence of dissolved organic matter (DOM) on the acid-base system of the Baltic Sea, 19 stations along the salinity gradient from Mecklenburg Bight to the Bothnian Bay were sampled in November 2011 for total alkalinity (AT), total inorganic carbon concentration (CT), partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2), and pH. Based on these data, an organic alkalinity contribution (Aorg) was determined, defined as the difference between measured AT and the inorganic alkalinity calculated from CT and pH and/or CT and pCO2. Aorg was in the range of 22-58 μmol kg- 1, corresponding to 1.5-3.5% of AT. The method to determine Aorg was validated in an experiment performed on DOM-enriched river water samples collected from the mouths of the Vistula and Oder Rivers in May 2012. The Aorg increase determined in that experiment correlated directly with the increased DOC concentration caused by enrichment of the > 1 kDa DOM fraction. To examine the effect of Aorg on calculations of the marine CO2 system, the pCO2 and pH values measured in Baltic Sea water were compared with calculated values that were based on the measured alkalinity and another variable of the CO2 system, but ignored the existence of Aorg. Large differences between measured and calculated pCO2 and pH were obtained when the computations were based on AT and CT. The calculated pCO2 was 27-56% lower than the measured value whereas the calculated pH was overestimated by more than 0.4 pH units. Since biogeochemical models are based on the transport and transformations of AT and CT, the acid-base properties of DOM should be included in calculations of the CO2 system in DOM-rich basins like the Baltic Sea. In view of our limited knowledge about the composition and acid/base properties of DOM, this is best achieved using a bulk dissociation constant, KDOM, that represents all weakly acidic functional groups present in DOM. Our preliminary results indicated that the bulk KDOM in the Baltic Sea is 2.94 · 10- 8 mol kg- 1

  7. Transformation of the Lake Ladoga-Baltic Sea water connection during the Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subetto, D.; Kuznetsov, D.; Ludikova, A.; Sapelko, T.; Averichkin, O.

    2009-04-01

    1. In this presentation we will present results of complex paleolimnological and archeological studies several lakes in the Karelian Isthmus, NW Russia, located along the former Ladoga-Baltic water-system connection. Complementary field expeditions were organized in 2007 and 2008 in order to core lakes Volojarvi, Makarovskoye, Lamskoye, Uzlovoye and a lake on the Isl.Puutsaari, Northern Ladoga. 2. The ancient water connection between Lake Ladoga and the Baltic in the northern lowland of the Karelian Isthmus has been originated after the ice retreating ca 14,000-12,000 cal BP. At that time, until the catastrophic dropping of the Baltic Ice Lake (BIL) water-level happened ca 11,500 cal BP, Lake Ladoga was a deep easternmost bay of the BIL. During the BIL stage the highest shoreline reached c. 50-60 m a.s.l. in the northern part of the Karelian Isthmus. All studied lakes were flooded the BIL waters. Varved-type clay sediments were formed at that time 3. Arctic climatic and environmental conditions with stagnant ice/permafrost and sparse shrub, herb and grass vegetation on barren soils characterized the central highland of the Karelian Isthmus prior to 12,650 cal yrs BP. Steppe-tundra and cold, dry conditions are inferred between 12,650-11,200/11,000 cal yrs BP. 4. After 11,500 cal BP a straight/river existed in the northern part of the Karelian Isthmus during ca 7000 years. 5. During the Yoldia Sea regression of the Baltic (11500-11 000 cal. BP) Lake Ladoga was re-connected with the Baltic. Water level of Lake Ladoga and lakes in its basin was dropped. The vegetation was arctic tundra with sparse vegetation, which made the soils susceptible to erosion as reflected by the silty clayey sediments in Lake Ladoga. Most of the studied lakes were isolated. 6. The earliest evidence of human settlement in north-eastern Baltic Area is attested at Antrea-Korpilahti (11,200-10,250 cal BP) where artifacts were found in the deposits of a channel between the Baltic and the Ladoga

  8. CO2 Storage Capacity of Saline Aquifers in the Swedish Sector of the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sopher, Daniel; Juhlin, Christopher

    2014-05-01

    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is one of a range of options to reduce CO2 emissions in order to mitigate climate change in the future. The Intra-cratonic Baltic Sea Basin contains several saline aquifers which could be suitable for CO2 storage. In this study the CO2 storage capacity of the Cambrian När and Faludden sandstone members is evaluated within the Swedish sector of the Baltic Sea Basin. A probabilistic approach is adopted to characterise both the most likely storage capacity estimate as well as the associated uncertainty. The storage capacity within structural closures and stratigraphic traps is considered. Depth structure maps generated using a dense grid of vintage 2D marine seismic data are used to assess the storage potential in structural traps for both potential reservoirs. A regional scale stratigraphic trap is also considered for the Faludden reservoir. Key input properties for the CO2 storage capacity calculations such as porosity, CO2 density and storage efficiency factor are characterised based on available well log and core data. CO2 storage capacities for the structural and stratigraphic traps are then calculated using a Monte Carlo type approach where the input parameters are randomly perturbed within a set range. A statistical analysis of the input parameters is used to define the range within which these properties are allowed to vary, both spatially and at a given point. Finally these results are compared to others for the greater Baltic Sea region. This approach allows a most likely CO2 storage capacity estimate as well as low and high estimates to be obtained for the Swedish sector of the Baltic Sea in the investigated formations. Based on these results it appears that the largest storage capacity lies within the regional stratigraphic trap of the Faludden reservoir. The structural traps provide significantly smaller volumes when compared to the Faludden stratigraphic trap. The majority of the structural traps are also less certain

  9. Holocene Sedimentation in the Ångermanälven River Estuary, the northern Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotilainen, Aarno; Hyttinen, Outi; Obrochta, Stephen; Andrén, Thomas; Ryabchuk, Daria; Snowball, Ian; IODP Expedition 347 Science Party, The

    2015-04-01

    In the IODP Expedition 347 - "Baltic Sea Paleoenvironment" - two sites in the Ångermanälven River estuary were drilled. Sites M0061 and M0062 are located at about 62°47'N, in an area which was deglaciated ca. 10 ka ago. It has long been known that varve deposition is an ongoing process in Ångermanälven estuary, and that it has continued so several thousand years back in time. It has also been shown that a correlation exists between maximum daily discharge and mean varve thickness at least AD 1901-1971 in the Ångermanälven River (Sander et al. 2002). Studying varve thickness and sediment geochemistry potentially yield estimations on past changes in precipitation and sedimentation processes in the estuary. In this presentation, the preliminary results from site M0062 are shown. The core recovery was approximately 36 m and the sediment sequence was divided into two lithological units (Expedition 347 Scientists, 2014). The lowest Unit 2 (17.09-35.9 mbsf) consists of well-sorted sand, deposited by a (glacio)fluvial system. Unit 1 (0-17.09 mbsf) showed transition from glacial lake varves to brackish marine couplets. The uppermost 18 metres were analysed for grain-size and elemental geochemistry every 0.3-0.5 m. From selected intervals, a 1mm-resolution XRF-scanning of the split core surface was done to compare changes in the relative abundance of light elements. Results from Ångermanälven were compared with measurements from glacial varved sediments, retrieved from the eastern Gulf of Finland. This work is also part of "Climate - ice sheet - sea interactions - evolution of the Baltic Sea Basin over the past 60000 years (CISU)" which is a new joint research project with The Academy of Finland and The Russian Foundation for Basic Research. The CISU project is coordinated by Geological Survey of Finland and the other partners are Helsinki University and A.P. Karpinsky Russian Geological Research Institute (VSEGEI), Russia. The project bases on the IODP Expedition

  10. Subfamily Limoniinae Speiser, 1909 (Diptera, Limoniidae) from Baltic Amber (Eocene): The Genus Elephantomyia Osten Sacken, 1860

    PubMed Central

    Kania, Iwona

    2015-01-01

    A revision of the genus Elephantomyia Osten Sacken (Diptera: Limoniidae) from Baltic amber (Eocene) is presented. Four species—E. baltica Alexander, E. brevipalpa Loew, E. longirostris Loew, and E. pulchella Loew—are redescribed and documented with photographs and drawings. In addition, two new species of the genus are described: Elephantomyia bozenae sp. nov., and Elephantomyia irinae sp. nov. All these fossil species are placed within the subgenus Elephantomyia. A key to the extinct species of Elephantomyia is provided, and the genus’ ecological pattern and evolutionary aspects are discussed. PMID:25706127

  11. Fine spatial structure of flows on satellite radar image of the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavrova, O. Yu.; Sabinin, K. D.

    2016-04-01

    Satellite images of the sea surface demonstrate different dynamic processes at the water-air boundary and in the water layer. The objective of this investigation is to identify the fine structure of flows in the mesoscale vortex with the help of a specially developed method for flow estimation by ship wakes in the sea. The method described in this work made it possible to identify the jet nature and surges of flows in the mesoscale cyclonic vortex in the southern part of the Baltic Sea after long western and southwestern winds.

  12. Vertical distribution of (241)Pu in the southern Baltic Sea sediments.

    PubMed

    Strumińska-Parulska, Dagmara I

    2014-12-15

    The vertical distribution of plutonium (241)Pu in marine sediments can assist in determining the deposition history and sedimentation process of analyzed regions. In addition, (241)Pu/(239+240)Pu activity ratio could be used as a sensitive fingerprint for radioactive source identification. The present preliminary studies on vertical distribution of (241)Pu in sediments from four regions of the southern Baltic Sea are presented. The distribution of (241)Pu was not uniform and depended on sediment geomorphology and depth as well as location. The highest concentrations of plutonium were found in the surface layers of all analyzed sediments and originated from the Chernobyl accident. PMID:25455816

  13. Eonandeva gen. nov., a new distinctive genus from Eocene Baltic amber (Diptera: Chironomidae).

    PubMed

    Zakrzewska, Marta; Giłka, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    A new fossil genus, Eonandeva gen. nov., with two new species: E. helva sp. nov. (type for the genus) and E. latistyla sp. nov., is described from Eocene Baltic amber (~45-40 Ma). Adult males of both new species show the wing venation pattern, shape and chaetotaxy typical for the tribe Tanytarsini. The characters defined as prior apomorphies for the new genus--the gonostylus with a subapical flattened lobe and the stout, strongly elongated superior volsella--separate Eonandeva from the closely related extant genus Nandeva Wiedenbrug, Reiss et Fittkau, 1998. PMID:26624727

  14. Fate of excess phosphorus in the Baltic Sea: A real driving force for cyanobacterial blooms?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raateoja, M.; Kuosa, H.; Hällfors, S.

    2011-02-01

    The wintertime ratio of inorganic dissolved nitrogen to phosphorus (DIN/DIP) in the surface waters of the Baltic Sea is typically below the molar Redfield ratio of 16, which expresses the presence of an excess inorganic dissolved phosphorus (eDIP) reserve compared to DIN. We assessed the role of the vernal phytoplankton bloom period (VPBP) in the consumption of the potential wintertime eDIP reserve, and the role of eDIP after the VPBP as a nutritional agent for the summertime growth of the cyanobacteria in the Baltic Sea. We employed a high-frequency dataset collected by the unattended monitoring systems on board merchant ships. The dataset encompasses the Baltic basins from the Arkona Basin to the Western Gulf of Finland and the time period from 1993 to 2009. All the observed values of the wintertime DIN/DIP ratio were below the molar Redfield ratio; the ratio showed a declining trend during the study, suggesting that there is a pronounced wintertime stock of the potential eDIP in the waters of the Baltic Sea, and that this stock has lately increased in magnitude. The VPBP took up excessively DIP to DIN than calculated according to the uptake in the molar Redfield ratio, thus reducing the potential eDIP reserve. On average, 59% of the potential eDIP reserve was left in the water after the VPBP as eDIP. eDIP was typically exhausted in the time frame early June-early July, matching well the timing of the appearance of cyanobacteria in substantial numbers in the water-column. eDIP clearly fueled the cyanobacterial growth in every instance in which it was possible to clarify their relationship. The cyanobacteria must still have another DIP source than eDIP to form extensive late-summer blooms, except in the western Gulf of Finland, where eDIP remained detectable up to early August. The annual role of eDIP for cyanobacterial growth depends greatly on the weather of late spring and early summer: this may sometimes launch the cyanobacterial growth much earlier than is

  15. Genetic differentiation of brackish water populations of cod Gadus morhua in the southern Baltic, inferred from genotyping using SNP-arrays.

    PubMed

    Poćwierz-Kotus, A; Kijewska, A; Petereit, C; Bernaś, R; Więcaszek, B; Arnyasi, M; Lien, S; Kent, M P; Wenne, R

    2015-02-01

    The Baltic is a semi-enclosed sea characterised by decreasing salinity in the eastern and northern direction with only the deeper parts of the southern Baltic suitable as spawning grounds for marine species like cod. Baltic cod exhibits various adaptations to brackish water conditions, yet the inflow of salty North Sea water near the bottom remains an influence on the spawning success of the Baltic cod. The eastern Baltic population has been very weakly studied in comparison with the western population. The aim of this study is to demonstrate for the first time genetic differentiation by the use of a large number of SNPs between eastern and western Baltic populations existing in differentiated salinity conditions. Two cod samples were collected from the Bay of Gdańsk, Poland and one from the Kiel Bight, Germany. Samples were genotyped using a cod derived SNP-array (Illumina) with 10 913 SNPs. A selection of diagnostic SNPs was performed. A set of 7944 validated SNPs were analysed to assess the differentiation of three samples of cod. Results indicated a clear distinctness of the Kiel Bight from the populations of the eastern Baltic. FST comparison between both eastern samples was non-significant. Clustering analysis, principal coordinates analysis and assignment test clearly indicated that the eastern samples should be considered as one subpopulation, well differentiated from the western subpopulation. With the SNP approach, no differentiation between groups containing 'healthy' and 'non-healthy' cod individuals was observed. PMID:24910372

  16. Quantifying the heterogeneity of hypoxic and anoxic areas in the Baltic Sea by a simplified coupled hydrodynamic-oxygen consumption model approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, Andreas; Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald; Getzlaff, Klaus; Myrberg, Kai

    2014-06-01

    The Baltic Sea deep waters suffer from extended areas of hypoxia and anoxia. Their intra- and inter-annual variability is mainly determined by saline inflows which transport oxygenated water to deeper layers. During the last decades, oxygen conditions in the Baltic Sea have generally worsened and thus, the extent of hypoxic as well as anoxic bottom water has increased considerably. Climate change may further increase hypoxia due to changes in the atmospheric forcing conditions resulting in less deep water renewal Baltic inflows, decreased oxygen solubility and increased respiration rates. Feedback from climate change can amplify effects from eutrophication. A decline in oxygen conditions has generally a negative impact on marine life in the Baltic Sea. Thus, a detailed description of the evolution of oxygenated, hypoxic and anoxic areas is particularly required when studying oxygen-related processes such as habitat utilization of spawning fish, survival rates of their eggs as well as settlement probability of juveniles. One of today's major challenges is still the modeling of deep water dissolved oxygen, especially for the Baltic Sea with its seasonal and quasi-permanent extended areas of oxygen deficiency. The detailed spatial and temporal evolution of the oxygen concentrations in the entire Baltic Sea have been simulated for the period 1970-2010 by utilizing a hydrodynamic Baltic Sea model coupled to a simple pelagic and benthic oxygen consumption model. Model results are in very good agreement with CTD/O2-profiles taken in different areas of the Baltic Sea. The model proved to be a useful tool to describe the detailed evolution of oxygenated, hypoxic and anoxic areas in the entire Baltic Sea. Model results are further applied to determine frequencies of the occurrence of areas of oxygen deficiency and cod reproduction volumes.

  17. PAH and PCB in the Baltic -- A budget approach including fluxes, occurrence and concentration variability in air, suspended and settling particulates in water, surface sediments and river water

    SciTech Connect

    Broman, D.; Axelman, J.; Bandh, C.; Ishaq, R.; Naef, C.; Pettersen, H.; Zebuehr, Y.

    1995-12-31

    In order to study the fate and occurrence of two groups of hydrophobic compounds in the Baltic aquatic environment a large number of samples were collected from the southern Baltic proper to the northern Bothnian Bay for the analyses of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The following sample matrices were collected; bottom surface sediments (0--1 cm, collected with gravity corer), settling particulate matter (collected with sediment traps), open water samples and over water samples (suspended particulates and dissolved fraction sampled by filtration) and air samples (aerosols and vapor phase sampled by filtration). All samples (except over water and air) were collected at open sea in the Baltic. The analyses results have been used to make a model approach on the whole Baltic and to elucidate different aspects of the behavior of PAHs and PCBs in the Baltic, such as the occurrence of the compounds in water and sediment, the total content as well as the concentration variabilities over such a large geographical area, Further, the data on settling particulate matter as well as the air concentration data were used to estimate the total fluxes of PAHs and PCBs to the bottoms of the Baltic and t o the total water area of the Baltic, respectively. Further, data on the PAH and PCB content in river water from four major rivers provides rough estimates of the riverine input to the Baltic. The dynamics of PAHs and PCBs within the water mass have also been studied in terms of settling velocities and residence times in the water mass for these type of compounds in the open Baltic.

  18. PREFACE: 12th Russia/CIS/Baltic/Japan Symposium on Ferroelectricity and 9th International Conference on Functional Materials and Nanotechnologies (RCBJSF-2014-FM&NT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sternberg, Andris; Grinberga, Liga; Sarakovskis, Anatolijs; Rutkis, Martins

    2015-03-01

    The joint International Symposium RCBJSF-2014-FM&NT successfully has united two international events - 12th Russia/CIS/Baltic/Japan Symposium on Ferroelectricity (RCBJSF-12) and 9th International Conference Functional Materials and Nanotechnologies (FM&NT-2014). The RCBJSF symposium is a continuation of series of meetings on ferroelectricity, the first of which took place in Novosibirsk (USSR) in 1976. FM&NT conferences started in 2006 and have been organized by Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia in Riga. In 2012 the International program committee decided to transform this conference into a traveling Baltic State conference and the FM&NT-2013 was organized by the Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Estonia. In 2014 the joint international symposium RCBJSF-2014-FM&NT was organized by the Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia and was part of Riga - 2014, the European Capital of Culture event. The purpose of the joint Symposium was to bring together scientists, students and high-level experts in solid state physics, materials science, engineering and related disciplines. The number of the registered participants from 26 countries was over 350. During the Symposium 128 high quality scientific talks (5 plenary, 42 invited, 81 oral) and over 215 posters were presented. All presentations were divided into 4 parallel sessions according to 4 main topics of the Symposium: Ferroelectricity, including ferroelectrics and multiferroics, pyroelectrics, piezoelectrics and actuators, integrated ferroelectrics, relaxors, phase transitions and critical phenomena. Multifunctional Materials, including theory, multiscale and multiphenomenal material modeling and simulation, advanced inorganic, organic and hybrid materials. Nanotechnologies, including progressive methods, technologies and design for production, investigation of nano- particles, composites, structures, thin films and coatings. Energy, including perspective materials and

  19. Picocyanobacteria containing a novel pigment gene cluster dominate the brackish water Baltic Sea

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, John; Celepli, Narin; Ininbergs, Karolina; Dupont, Christopher L; Yooseph, Shibu; Bergman, Bigitta; Ekman, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Photoautotrophic picocyanobacteria harvest light via phycobilisomes (PBS) consisting of the pigments phycocyanin (PC) and phycoerythrin (PE), encoded by genes in conserved gene clusters. The presence and arrangement of these gene clusters give picocyanobacteria characteristic light absorption properties and allow the colonization of specific ecological niches. To date, a full understanding of the evolution and distribution of the PBS gene cluster in picocyanobacteria has been hampered by the scarcity of genome sequences from fresh- and brackish water-adapted strains. To remediate this, we analysed genomes assembled from metagenomic samples collected along a natural salinity gradient, and over the course of a growth season, in the Baltic Sea. We found that while PBS gene clusters in picocyanobacteria sampled in marine habitats were highly similar to known references, brackish-adapted genotypes harboured a novel type not seen in previously sequenced genomes. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the novel gene cluster belonged to a clade of uncultivated picocyanobacteria that dominate the brackish Baltic Sea throughout the summer season, but are uncommon in other examined aquatic ecosystems. Further, our data suggest that the PE genes were lost in the ancestor of PC-containing coastal picocyanobacteria and that multiple horizontal gene transfer events have re-introduced PE genes into brackish-adapted strains, including the novel clade discovered here. PMID:24621524

  20. Picocyanobacteria containing a novel pigment gene cluster dominate the brackish water Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Larsson, John; Celepli, Narin; Ininbergs, Karolina; Dupont, Christopher L; Yooseph, Shibu; Bergman, Bigitta; Ekman, Martin

    2014-09-01

    Photoautotrophic picocyanobacteria harvest light via phycobilisomes (PBS) consisting of the pigments phycocyanin (PC) and phycoerythrin (PE), encoded by genes in conserved gene clusters. The presence and arrangement of these gene clusters give picocyanobacteria characteristic light absorption properties and allow the colonization of specific ecological niches. To date, a full understanding of the evolution and distribution of the PBS gene cluster in picocyanobacteria has been hampered by the scarcity of genome sequences from fresh- and brackish water-adapted strains. To remediate this, we analysed genomes assembled from metagenomic samples collected along a natural salinity gradient, and over the course of a growth season, in the Baltic Sea. We found that while PBS gene clusters in picocyanobacteria sampled in marine habitats were highly similar to known references, brackish-adapted genotypes harboured a novel type not seen in previously sequenced genomes. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the novel gene cluster belonged to a clade of uncultivated picocyanobacteria that dominate the brackish Baltic Sea throughout the summer season, but are uncommon in other examined aquatic ecosystems. Further, our data suggest that the PE genes were lost in the ancestor of PC-containing coastal picocyanobacteria and that multiple horizontal gene transfer events have re-introduced PE genes into brackish-adapted strains, including the novel clade discovered here. PMID:24621524

  1. Determination of /sup 239,240/Pu in bottom sediments of the Baltic Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Kuznetsov, Yu.V.; Legin, V.K.; Pospelov, Yu.N.; Simonyak, Z.N.

    1988-11-01

    We present a technique for determining the /sup 239,240/Pu content, using /sup 236/Pu as the monitor of chemical yield, in samples of soils and bottom sediments - objects of the external environment. Plutonium is extracted from the matrix material by leaching with a mixture of concentrated acids HCl-HNO/sub 3/, after which it is separated by ion-exchange methods. After electrodeposition onto stainless steel discs the activity of the nuclides of plutonium is measured by the method of alpha-spectrometry. The average chemical yields during the analysis of the samples was 40-60%, the relative standard deviation was 10%, and the lower limit of detectability was 0.3 Bq. We present results of the determination of the /sup 239,240/Pu content in surface samples of bottom sediments from the Gulf of Finland and that past of the Baltic Sea which adjoins the territory of the USSR. It is found that the unit activity of /sup 239,240/Pu in the bottom sediments varies within the limits of 0.4-1.2 Bq/kg and lies at the global level. Global genesis of /sup 239,240/Pu in the bottom sediments of the Gulf of Finland and the open parts of the Baltic Sea is also confirmed by the values which are found for the ratios /sup 238/Pu//sup 239,240/Pu and /sup 239,240/Pu//sup 137/Cs.

  2. Arctic Oscillation impact on thermal regime of the Baltic region Eastern part

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gecaite, Indre; Pogoreltsev, Aleksandr; Ugryumov, Aleksandr

    2016-04-01

    Statistical estimations of Arctic Oscillation (AO) impact on air temperature regime in the Eastern part of Baltic region are presented. The region is characterized by high inter-annual and inter-seasonal variabilities. It is important to note that in the region of global warming extremely low winter temperatures can be observed on the European territory of Russia. AO is one of large-scale global structures of atmospheric circulation closely associated with weather variability in Northern Europe. AO anomalies occur in the upper atmosphere (stratosphere) and only then transferred to tropospheric lower layers. The anomalies can be preserved during long period up to two months, so they can be predictors in long-range weather forecast. In turn, changes in stratospheric polar vortex and sudden stratospheric warmings can be related to the geomagnetic activity. Perhaps, the geomagnetic activity influences the meridional temperature gradient and then changes in the structure of the stratospheric zonal wind. In turn, the changes have an impact on the tropospheric circulation. The stratosphere-troposphere connection occurs during winter months. Therefore, the paper presents the analysis of extremely cold winter anomalies in the Eastern part of Baltic Sea region. At the same time, we considered atmospheric circulation peculiarities related to AO phase change. The analyzable time interval covers 1951-2014.

  3. Sea-surface altimetry airborne observations using synoptic GNSS reflectometry at the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribó, Serni; Fabra, Fran; Cardellach, Estel; Li, Weiqiang; Rius, Antonio; Praks, Jaan; Rouhe, Erkka; Seppänen, Jaakko; Martín-Neira, Manuel

    2016-04-01

    Recent GNSS-R (Global Navigation Satellite System-Reflections) observations over the Baltic Sea have been taken using the SPIR (Software PARIS Interferometric Receiver) from an airborne platform at 3 km altitude. This newly developed instrument is capable of acquiring GNSS signals transmitted by multiple satellites simultaneously that have been reflected of the sea-surface. Reflections are usually gathered in off-nadir configuration using the instrument's beam-forming capabilities, which results in an increase of the instrument's swath. In this way, this technique opens the door to densify in space and time sea-altimetry observations to enhance future mesoscale and sub-mesoscale ocean altimetry. The altimetric observations collected during the Baltic Sea campaign have been analysed in terms of their power spectral densities. We consider the sequence of observations as an ergodic process that has contributions from the actual true altimetry as well as the observation noise. In this way it is possible to relate the expected ground resolution of the observations with the obtainable altimetric uncertainty. Results will be presented.

  4. Electrochemical and microbiological characterization of biofilm formation on stainless steels in Baltic seawater

    SciTech Connect

    Carpen, L.; Raaska, L.; Mattila, K.; Salkinoja-Salonen, M.; Hakkarainen, T.

    1997-08-01

    Electrochemical and microbiological effects of biofilms formed on different types of stainless steels in natural sea water were studied. A flow-through model ecosystem was used to generate biofilms in the laboratory. The ecosystem was modeled to maintain the levels of organic and inorganic carbon close to those in the sea by periodical illumination. Natural brackish water was used. The open circuit potentials in the laboratory were recorded for 6 to 10 weeks. The biofilms formed were analyzed by microbial cultivation, measurement of Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and by different microscopical methods (epifluorescence and scanning electron microscopy). Four field tests were performed in Baltic Sea during the period of May 1993 to April 1996. Ennoblement of the all stainless steels studied occurred in Baltic Sea at the depth of 15 m irrespective of the season and the temperature of the sea water. Only when immersed close to the surface (at the depth of 0.4 m) the increase of open circuit potential of material S31600 was not observed. One reason for that might be the dominance of algae in the biofilm. The experiments showed that the ennoblement of stainless steels occurred in the laboratory reproducibly and similarly to that observed in the field provided that the flow rate was sufficiently high (5 to 30 mm/s). These laboratory tests did not indicate an enhancement of corrosion due to potential ennoblement.

  5. Immunosuppression in harbour seals fed fish from the contaminated Baltic Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, P.S. |; Swart, R.L. de |; Timmerman, H.H.; Loveren, H. van; Vos, J.G.; Vedder, L.J.; Reijnders, P.J.H.; Osterhaus, A.D.M.E.

    1994-12-31

    Environmental contaminants including dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls have been shown to be immunotoxic in laboratory animals, but little information exists as to their possible effect on mammals in the natural environment. Recent virus-induced mass mortalities among marine mammals occupying high trophic levels have led to much speculation regarding a possible contributory role of pollutants in these events. The authors undertook a two-year captive feeding experiment with harbor seals, Phoca vitulina, where one group was fed herring from the contaminated Baltic Sea and a second group was fed relatively uncontaminated herring from the Atlantic Ocean. During the course of the experiment, they regularly sampled blood and undertook a series of immune function tests. They observed a significant impairment of natural killer cell activity and T-lymphocyte function, in vitro, in the group of seals fed the Baltic Sea fish. In addition, seals of this group were less able to mount a specific humoral and delayed type hypersensitivity response to a protein antigen, ovalbumin, upon immunization. Increased numbers of granulocytes in this group may have reflected periodic bacterial infections as a consequence of impaired immune function. Their results suggest that pollutants accumulated through the food chain in contaminated marine waters may suppress normal immune responses in marine mammals and lead to an increased susceptibility to opportunistic infection.

  6. Champacyclin, a new cyclic octapeptide from Streptomyces strain C42 isolated from the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Pesic, Alexander; Baumann, Heike I; Kleinschmidt, Katrin; Ensle, Paul; Wiese, Jutta; Süssmuth, Roderich D; Imhoff, Johannes F

    2013-12-01

    New isolates of Streptomyces champavatii were isolated from marine sediments of the Gotland Deep (Baltic Sea), from the Urania Basin (Eastern Mediterranean), and from the Kiel Bight (Baltic Sea). The isolates produced several oligopeptidic secondary metabolites, including the new octapeptide champacyclin (1a) present in all three strains. Herein, we report on the isolation, structure elucidation and determination of the absolute stereochemistry of this isoleucine/leucine (Ile/Leu = Xle) rich cyclic octapeptide champacyclin (1a). As 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy could not fully resolve the structure of (1a), additional information on sequence and configuration of stereocenters were obtained by a combination of multi stage mass spectrometry (MSn) studies, amino acid analysis, partial hydrolysis and subsequent enantiomer analytics with gas chromatography positive chmical ionization/electron impact mass spectrometry (GC-PCI/EI-MS) supported by comparison to reference dipeptides. Proof of the head-to-tail cyclization of (1a) was accomplished by solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) compared to an alternatively side chain cyclized derivative (2). Champacyclin (1a) is likely synthesized by a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS), because of its high content of (D)-amino acids. The compound (1a) showed antimicrobial activity against the phytopathogen Erwinia amylovora causing the fire blight disease of certain plants. PMID:24317473

  7. Newly Digitized Historical Climate Data of the German Bight and the Southern Baltic Sea Coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Röhrbein, Dörte; Tinz, Birger; von Storch, Hans

    2015-04-01

    The detection of historical climate information plays an important role with regard to the discussion on climate change, particularly on storminess. The German Meteorological Service houses huge archives of historical handwritten journals of weather observations. A considerable number of original observation sheets from stations along the coast of the German Bight and the southern Baltic Sea exists which has been until recently almost unnoticed. These stations are called signal stations and are positioned close to the shore. However, for this region meteorological observation data of 128 stations exist from 1877 to 1999 and are partly digitized. In this study we show an analysis of firstly newly digitized wind and surface air pressure data of 15 stations from 1877 to 1939 and we also present a case study of the storm surge at the coast of the southern Baltic Sea in December 1913. The data are quality controlled by formal, climatological, temporal and consistency checks. It is shown that these historical climate data are usable in consistency and quality for further investigations on climate change, e.g. as input for regional and global reanalysis.

  8. Solar Assisted Ground Source Heat Pump Performance in Nearly Zero Energy Building in Baltic Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Januševičius, Karolis; Streckienė, Giedrė

    2013-12-01

    In near zero energy buildings (NZEB) built in Baltic countries, heat production systems meet the challenge of large share domestic hot water demand and high required heating capacity. Due to passive solar design, cooling demand in residential buildings also needs an assessment and solution. Heat pump systems are a widespread solution to reduce energy use. A combination of heat pump and solar thermal collectors helps to meet standard requirements and increases the share of renewable energy use in total energy balance of country. The presented paper describes a simulation study of solar assisted heat pump systems carried out in TRNSYS. The purpose of this simulation was to investigate how the performance of a solar assisted heat pump combination varies in near zero energy building. Results of three systems were compared to autonomous (independent) systems simulated performance. Different solar assisted heat pump design solutions with serial and parallel solar thermal collector connections to the heat pump loop were modelled and a passive cooling possibility was assessed. Simulations were performed for three Baltic countries: Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia.

  9. Active bacterial community structure along vertical redox gradients in Baltic Sea sediment

    SciTech Connect

    Jansson, Janet; Edlund, Anna; Hardeman, Fredrik; Jansson, Janet K.; Sjoling, Sara

    2008-05-15

    Community structures of active bacterial populations were investigated along a vertical redox profile in coastal Baltic Sea sediments by terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and clone library analysis. According to correspondence analysis of T-RFLP results and sequencing of cloned 16S rRNA genes, the microbial community structures at three redox depths (179 mV, -64 mV and -337 mV) differed significantly. The bacterial communities in the community DNA differed from those in bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-labeled DNA, indicating that the growing members of the community that incorporated BrdU were not necessarily the most dominant members. The structures of the actively growing bacterial communities were most strongly correlated to organic carbon followed by total nitrogen and redox potentials. Bacterial identification by sequencing of 16S rRNA genes from clones of BrdU-labeled DNA and DNA from reverse transcription PCR (rt-PCR) showed that bacterial taxa involved in nitrogen and sulfur cycling were metabolically active along the redox profiles. Several sequences had low similarities to previously detected sequences indicating that novel lineages of bacteria are present in Baltic Sea sediments. Also, a high number of different 16S rRNA gene sequences representing different phyla were detected at all sampling depths.

  10. Biomarkers in the stratified water column of the Landsort Deep (Baltic Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berndmeyer, C.; Thiel, V.; Schmale, O.; Wasmund, N.; Blumenberg, M.

    2014-06-01

    The water column of the Landsort Deep, central Baltic Sea, is stratified into an oxic, suboxic and anoxic zone. This stratification controls the distributions of individual microbial communities and biogeochemical processes. In summer 2011, particulate organic matter was filtered from these zones using an in~situ pump. Lipid biomarkers were extracted from the filters to establish water column profiles of individual hydrocarbons, alcohols, phospholipid fatty acids, and bacteriohopanepolyols (BHPs). As a reference, a cyanobacterial bloom sampled in summer 2012 in the central Baltic Sea Gotland Deep was analyzed for BHPs. The biomarker data from the surface layer of the oxic zone showed major inputs from different cyanobacteria and eukaryotes such as dinoflagellates and ciliates, while the underlying cold winter water layer was characterized by a low diversity and abundance of organisms, with copepods as a major group. The suboxic zone supported bacterivorous ciliates, type I aerobic methanotrophic bacteria, sulfate reducing bacteria, and, most likely, methanogenic archaea. In the anoxic zone, sulfate reducers and archaea were the dominating microorganisms as indicated by the presence of distinctive branched fatty acids, archaeol and PMI derivatives, respectively. Our study of in situ biomarkers in the Landsort Deep thus provided an integrated insight into the distribution of relevant players and the related biogeochemical processes in stratified water columns of marginal seas.

  11. Tracing edges of Baltic Shield and Karelia craton by means of seismic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plomerova, Jaroslava; Vecsey, Ludek; Munzarova, Helena; Babuska, Vladislav

    2016-04-01

    Several passive seismic experiments as well new stations of permanent networks provided data for detail studies of upper mantle anisotropy, particularly anisotropy of the mantle lithosphere. Joint interpretation of lateral variations of teleseismic P-sphere patterns and shear-wave splitting detected domains of mantle lithosphere with differently oriented fossil fabrics (Babuska and Plomerova, Phys. Earth Planet. Int., 2006) and delimited their extent in the mantle (e.g., Plomerova et al., Tectonophysics 2001; Vecsey et al., Tectonophysics, 2007; Plomerova et al., Solid Earth, 2011). The south-western edge of the Baltic Shield, adjacent to the Sorgenfrei - Tornquist Zone separating the Precambrian and Phanerozoic parts of Europe, is characterised by a sharp change of the lithosphere thickness as well as of the anisotropy pattern. Change of the lithosphere thickness around the contact of the Proterozoic and Archean parts of the Shield is insignificant and the contact appears as a broad transition in the south-central Fennoscandia, which can be modelled as the Archean wedge penetrating into the Proterozoic mantle (Vecsey et al., Tectonophysics, 2007). Further northward the Archean-Proterozoic boundary looks narrow in the mantle and follows the surface trace of the Baltic-Bothnia Megashear Zone. It can be interpreted as a steep contact of two mantle lithosphere domains retaining their own fossil fabric.

  12. (137)Cs, (40)K and (210)Po in marine mammals from the southern Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Ciesielski, Tomasz; Góral, Marta; Szefer, Piotr; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro; Bojanowski, Ryszard

    2015-12-15

    This study provides information on baseline concentrations of the radionuclides Cesium-137, Potassium-40 and Polonium-210 in sea mammals from the Baltic Sea. The radionuclides were analyzed in the liver, kidney and muscle of harbor porpoises, striped dolphins, and gray and ringed seals from the Polish coast by γ- and α-spectrometry. Median (137)Cs activities were 14.8, 13.2 and 23.2 Bq kg(-1) w.w. in the liver, kidney and muscles, respectively. Activities of (40)K and (210)Po in the respective tissues were found to be 79.1, 79.8 and 111 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K and 58.1, 59.2 and 32.9 Bq kg(-1) for (210)Po. The measured (137)Cs concentrations were extraordinarily high in comparison to those reported in sea mammals from other locations. However, dose assessments did not imply health effects from (137)Cs exposure in Baltic Sea mammals. Correlations between (137)Cs tissue activities and reported sea water concentrations highlight the potential use of marine mammals for biomonitoring purposes. PMID:26456908

  13. The dynamics of postovulatory follicle degeneration and oocyte growth in Baltic sprat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haslob, H.; Kraus, G.; Saborido-Rey, F.

    2012-01-01

    Ovaries of Baltic sprat ( Sprattus sprattus balticus S.) were analysed histologically to identify stages of postovulatory follicles (POF) and to assess the oocyte development pattern. Samples were taken every 3 h during a 24 h trawl survey conducted in the Bornholm Basin in April 2007. Gonad histology revealed spawning of sprat throughout the day which hampered the exact ageing of POFs by the postovulatory follicle method and therefore did not allow direct estimation of spawning frequency. However, it was possible to define four stages of POFs, according to their histological features. The occurrence of these POF stages (I to IV) corresponded clearly to the development of the leading oocyte cohort. Further, the oocyte recruitment pattern revealed that the spawning batch can be identified prior to hydration. The POF stages I and II were present almost exclusively in vitellogenic ovaries, POF III were found in ovaries in the germinal vesicle stage, and the most deteriorated POF stage IV was found in actively spawning fish with hydrated oocytes. Since POF were absent only in very few ovaries (5%), and in each ovary in general only one POF stage was present, the duration of POF degeneration approximately equals the average batch interval, i.e. the time lag between subsequent spawning events. The results of the present study will serve as basis for future studies on Baltic sprat oocyte recruitment and daily spawning fraction.

  14. Alkylphenols in Surface Sediments of the Gulf of Gdansk (Baltic Sea).

    PubMed

    Koniecko, Iga; Staniszewska, Marta; Falkowska, Lucyna; Burska, Dorota; Kielczewska, Joanna; Jasinska, Anita

    2014-01-01

    The widespread use of alkylphenols in European industry has led to their presence in the environment and the living organisms of the Baltic Sea. The present study (2011-2012) was designed to determine the concentrations of alkylphenols, 4-nonylphenol (NP) and 4-tert-octylphenol (OP), in surface sediments of the Gulf of Gdansk, a section of the Baltic that lies in close proximity to industrial and agricultural areas and borders with an agglomeration of nearly one million inhabitants. It is also where the Vistula, the largest Polish river, ends its course. In spring, large concentrations of 4-nonylphenol and 4-tert-octylphenol were washed off into the coastal zone with meltwater. In summertime, sediments near the beach had the highest alkylphenol concentrations (NP-2.31 ng g(-1) dw, OP-13.09 ng g(-1) dw), which was related to tourism and recreational activity. In silt sediments located off the coast, the highest NP (1.46 ng g(-1) dw) and OP (6.56 ng g(-1) dw) amounts were observed in autumn. The origin of OP and NP at those test stations was linked to atmospheric transport of black carbon along with adsorbed alkylphenols. PMID:25132692

  15. Arsenic concentrations in Baltic Sea sediments close to chemical munitions dumpsites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bełdowski, Jacek; Szubska, Marta; Emelyanov, Emelyan; Garnaga, Galina; Drzewińska, Anna; Bełdowska, Magdalena; Vanninen, Paula; Östin, Anders; Fabisiak, Jacek

    2016-06-01

    In addition to natural sources and land-originated pollution, the Baltic Sea has another anthropogenic source of arsenic in bottom sediments-arsenic-based Chemical Warfare Agents (CWA). To examine the potential usage of arsenic contents results for monitoring the leakage from chemical weapons, sediment samples were collected from officially reported and potential chemical weapon dumpsites located in the Baltic Sea, and total and inorganic arsenic concentrations were analyzed. Results showed an elevated arsenic content in dumpsite areas compared to reference areas. Correlations of arsenic with other metals and organic matter were studied to elucidate any unusual behavior of arsenic in the dumpsites. In the area of the Bornholm Deep, such behavior was observed for inorganic arsenic. It appears that in close vicinity of dumped munitions, the inorganic arsenic concentration of sediments is not correlated with either organic matter content or authigenic minerals formation, as is commonly observed elsewhere. Investigations on CWA concentrations, performed within the CHEMSEA (Chemical Munition Search and Assesment) project, allowed us to compare the results of arsenic concentrations with the occurrence of arsenic-containing CWA.

  16. Champacyclin, a New Cyclic Octapeptide from Streptomyces Strain C42 Isolated from the Baltic Sea

    PubMed Central

    Pesic, Alexander; Baumann, Heike I.; Kleinschmidt, Katrin; Ensle, Paul; Wiese, Jutta; Süssmuth, Roderich D.; Imhoff, Johannes F.

    2013-01-01

    New isolates of Streptomyces champavatii were isolated from marine sediments of the Gotland Deep (Baltic Sea), from the Urania Basin (Eastern Mediterranean), and from the Kiel Bight (Baltic Sea). The isolates produced several oligopeptidic secondary metabolites, including the new octapeptide champacyclin (1a) present in all three strains. Herein, we report on the isolation, structure elucidation and determination of the absolute stereochemistry of this isoleucine/leucine (Ile/Leu = Xle) rich cyclic octapeptide champacyclin (1a). As 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy could not fully resolve the structure of (1a), additional information on sequence and configuration of stereocenters were obtained by a combination of multi stage mass spectrometry (MSn) studies, amino acid analysis, partial hydrolysis and subsequent enantiomer analytics with gas chromatography positive chmical ionization/electron impact mass spectrometry (GC-PCI/EI-MS) supported by comparison to reference dipeptides. Proof of the head-to-tail cyclization of (1a) was accomplished by solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) compared to an alternatively side chain cyclized derivative (2). Champacyclin (1a) is likely synthesized by a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS), because of its high content of (d)-amino acids. The compound (1a) showed antimicrobial activity against the phytopathogen Erwinia amylovora causing the fire blight disease of certain plants. PMID:24317473

  17. Unstructured-grid model for the North Sea and Baltic Sea: Validation against observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yinglong J.; Stanev, E. V.; Grashorn, S.

    2016-01-01

    A new unstructured-grid model and its application to the North Sea and Baltic Sea are described. The research focus is on the dynamics in the two basins and in the multiple straits connecting them and more specifically on how the model replicates the temporal and spatial variability of physical processes. The comparison against observed data indicates the realism in the simulations of the exchange flows. The simulations demonstrated that in contrast to the tidal variability which decreases in the strait, the role of the barotropic forcing due to weather systems increases. In this zone reversal of transport is well manifested by the increased difference between the surface and bottom salinity values. Small sub-basins like Arkona and Bornholm play the role of reservoirs for denser water which under specific conditions cascades on its way to the Gotland Deep. Unlike the intermediate and deep water salinity in the Baltic Sea, which is strongly affected by fluxes in the straits, the simulated winter-refill and evolution of cold intermediate water are rather driven by surface cooling and processes in the upper mixed layer.

  18. Environmental response of living benthic foraminifera in Kiel Fjord, SW Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikulina, A.; Polovodova, I.; Schönfeld, J.

    2007-12-01

    The living benthic foraminiferal assemblages in the Kiel Fjord (SW Baltic Sea) were investigated in the years 2005 and 2006. The faunal studies were accomplished by geochemical analyses of surface sediments. In general, sediment pollution by copper, zinc, tin and lead was assessed as moderate in comparison with levels reported from other areas of the Baltic Sea. However, the inner Kiel fjord is still exposed to a high load of metals and organic matter due to enhanced accumulation of fine-grained sediments in conjunction with a concentration of pollution sources as shipyards, harbours and intensive traffic. The results of our survey showed that the dominant environmental forcing of benthic foraminifera is nutrients availability coupled with human impact. A comparison with data from the 1960s revealed apparent changes in species composition and population densities over the past decades. The stress-tolerant species Ammonia beccarii invaded Kiel Fjord whereas Ammotium cassis disappeared, possibly due to low salinity that prevailed 10 years ago. These changes in foraminiferal community and a significant increase of test abnormalities indicate enforced environmental stress since the 1960s.

  19. Foraminiferal response to environmental changes in Kiel Fjord, SW Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikulina, A.; Polovodova, I.; Schönfeld, J.

    2008-08-01

    The living benthic foraminiferal assemblages in Kiel Fjord (SW Baltic Sea) were investigated in the years 2005 and 2006. The faunal studies were accomplished by geochemical analyses of surface sediments. In general, sediment pollution by copper, zinc, tin and lead is assessed as moderate in comparison with levels reported from other areas of the Baltic Sea. However, the inner Kiel Fjord is still exposed to a high load of metals and organic matter due to enhanced accumulation of fine-grained sediments in conjunction with potential pollution sources as shipyards, harbours and intensive traffic. The results of our survey show that the dominant environmental forcing of benthic foraminifera is nutrients availability coupled with human impact. A comparison with faunal data from the 1960s reveals apparent changes in species composition and population densities. The stress-tolerant species Ammonia beccarii invaded Kiel Fjord. Ammotium cassis had disappeared that reflects apparently the changes in salinity over the last 10 years. These changes in foraminiferal community and a significant increase of test abnormalities indicate an intensified environmental stress since the 1960s.

  20. Aerosol-cloud interaction determined by satellite data over the Baltic Sea countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saponaro, Giulia; Kolmonen, Pekka; Sogacheva, Larisa; de Leeuw, Gerrit

    2015-04-01

    The present study investigates the use of long-term satellite data to assess the influence of aerosols upon cloud parameters over the Baltic Sea region. This particular area offers the contrast of a very clean environment (Fennoscandia) against a more polluted one (Germany, Poland). The datasets consists of Collection 6 Level 3 daily observations from 2002 to 2014 collected by the NASA's Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) instrument on-board the Aqua platform. The MODIS aerosol optical depth (AOD) product is used as a proxy for the number concentration of aerosol particles while the cloud effective radius (CER) and cloud optical thickness (COT) describe cloud microphysical and optical properties respectively. Satellite data have certain limitations, such as the restriction to summer season due to solar zenith angle restrictions and the known problem of the ambiguity of the aerosol-cloud interface, for instance. Through the analysis of a 12-years dataset, distribution maps provide information on a regional scale about the first aerosol indirect effect (AIE) by determining the aerosol-cloud interaction (ACI). The ACI is defined as the change in cloud optical depth or effective radius as a function of aerosol load for a fixed liquid water path (LWP). The focusing point of the current study is the evaluation of regional trends of ACI over the observed area of the Baltic Sea.

  1. Atmospheric pathways of chlorinated pesticides and natural bromoanisoles in the northern Baltic Sea and its catchment.

    PubMed

    Bidleman, Terry; Agosta, Kathleen; Andersson, Agneta; Brorström-Lundén, Eva; Haglund, Peter; Hansson, Katarina; Laudon, Hjalmar; Newton, Seth; Nygren, Olle; Ripszam, Matyas; Tysklind, Mats; Wiberg, Karin

    2015-06-01

    Long-range atmospheric transport is a major pathway for delivering persistent organic pollutants to the oceans. Atmospheric deposition and volatilization of chlorinated pesticides and algae-produced bromoanisoles (BAs) were estimated for Bothnian Bay, northern Baltic Sea, based on air and water concentrations measured in 2011-2012. Pesticide fluxes were estimated using monthly air and water temperatures and assuming 4 months ice cover when no exchange occurs. Fluxes were predicted to increase by about 50 % under a 2069-2099 prediction scenario of higher temperatures and no ice. Total atmospheric loadings to Bothnian Bay and its catchment were derived from air-sea gas exchange and "bulk" (precipitation + dry particle) deposition, resulting in net gains of 53 and 46 kg year(-1) for endosulfans and hexachlorocyclohexanes, respectively, and net loss of 10 kg year(-1) for chlordanes. Volatilization of BAs releases bromine to the atmosphere and may limit their residence time in Bothnian Bay. This initial study provides baseline information for future investigations of climate change on biogeochemical cycles in the northern Baltic Sea and its catchment. PMID:26022329

  2. Application of Empirical Wave Run-Up Formulas to the Polish Baltic Sea Coast

    PubMed Central

    Paprotny, Dominik; Andrzejewski, Paweł; Terefenko, Paweł; Furmańczyk, Kazimierz

    2014-01-01

    Advanced, multidimensional models are typically applied when researching processes occurring in the nearshore. Relatively simple, empirical equations are commonly used in coastal engineering practice in order to estimate extreme wave run-up on beaches and coastal structures. However, they were mostly calibrated to the characteristics of oceanic coasts, which have different wave regime than a semi-enclosed basin like the Baltic Sea. In this paper we apply the formulas to the Polish Baltic Sea coast. The equations were adjusted to match local conditions in two test sites in Międzyzdroje and Dziwnówek, where beaches are under continuous video surveillance. Data from WAM wave model and coastal gauge stations were used, as well as precise measurements of the beaches' cross-sections. More than 600 run-up events spanning from June to December 2013 were analysed, including surges causing dune erosion. Extreme wave run-up R2% was calculated and presented as a percentage value indicating what part of the beach was inundated. The method had a root-mean-square error of 6.1 and 6.5 percentage points depending on the test site. We consider it is a fast and computationally undemanding alternative to morphodynamic models. It will constitute a part of the SatBałtyk Operating System-Shores, delivering forecasts of wave run-up on the beaches for the entire Polish coastline. PMID:25137155

  3. Coastal erosion as a source of mercury into the marine environment along the Polish Baltic shore.

    PubMed

    Bełdowska, Magdalena; Jędruch, Agnieszka; Łęczyński, Leszek; Saniewska, Dominika; Kwasigroch, Urszula

    2016-08-01

    The climate changes in recent years in the southern Baltic have been resulting in an increased frequency of natural extreme phenomena (i.e. storms, floods) and intensification of abrasion processes, which leads to introduction of large amounts of sedimentary deposits into the marine environment. The aim of this study was to determine the mercury load introduced to the Baltic Sea with deposits crumbling off the cliffs-parts of the coast that are the most exposed to abrasion. The studies were carried out close to five cliffs located on the Polish coast in the years 2011-2014. The results show that coastal erosion could be an important Hg source into the marine environment. This process is the third most important route, after riverine and precipitation input, by which Hg may enter the Gulf of Gdańsk. In the Hg budget in the gulf, the load caused by erosion (14.3 kg a(-1)) accounted for 80 % of the wet deposition and was 50 % higher than the amount of mercury introduced with dry deposition. Although the Hg concentration in the cliff deposits was similar to the natural background, due to their large mass, this problem could be significant. In addition, the preliminary studies on the impact of coastal erosion on the Hg level in the marine ecosystem have shown that this process may be one of the Hg sources into the trophic chain. PMID:27164873

  4. Complex lithospheric structure under the central Baltic Shield from surface wave tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruneton, Marianne; Pedersen, Helle A.; Farra, VéRonique; Arndt, Nicholas T.; Vacher, Pierre; Achauer, U.; Alinaghi, A.; Ansorge, J.; Bock, G.; Friederich, W.; Grad, M.; Guterch, A.; Heikkinen, P.; Hjelt, S.-E.; HyvöNen, T. L.; Ikonen, J.-P.; Kissling, E.; Komminaho, K.; Korja, A.; Kozlovskaya, E.; Nevsky, M. V.; Paulssen, H.; Pavlenkova, N. I.; Plomerová, J.; Raita, T.; Riznichenko, O. Y.; Roberts, R. G.; Sandoval, S.; Sanina, I. A.; Sharov, N. V.; Shomali, Z. H.; Tiikkainen, J.; Wielandt, E.; Wilegalla, K.; Yliniemi, J.; Yurov, Y. G.

    2004-10-01

    Regional seismic tomography provides valuable information on the structure of shields, thereby gaining insight to the formation and stabilization of old continents. Fennoscandia (known as the Baltic Shield for its exposed part) is a composite shield for which the last recorded tectonic event is the intrusion of the Rapakivi granitoids around 1.6 Ga. A seismic experiment carried out as part of the European project Svecofennian-Karelia-Lapland-Kola (SVEKALAPKO) was designed to study the upper mantle of the Finnish part of the Baltic Shield, especially the boundary between Archean and Proterozoic domains. We invert the fundamental mode Rayleigh waves to obtain a three-dimensional shear wave velocity model using a ray-based method accounting for the curvature of wave fronts. The experiment geometry allows an evaluation of lateral variations in velocities down to 150 km depth. The obtained model exhibits variations of up to ±3% in S wave velocities. As the thermal variations beneath Finland are very small, these lateral variations must be caused by different rock compositions. The lithospheres beneath the Archean and Proterozoic domains are not noticeably different in the S wave velocity maps. A classification of the velocity profiles with depth yields four main families and five intermediate regions that can be correlated with surface features. The comparison of these profiles with composition-based shear wave velocities implies both lateral and vertical variations of the mineralogy.

  5. Faunistic review of the cuckoo wasps of Fennoscandia, Denmark and the Baltic countries (Hymenoptera: Chrysididae).

    PubMed

    Paukkunen, Juho; Rosa, Paolo; Soon, Villu; Johansson, Niklas; Ødegaard, Frode

    2014-01-01

    A critical and annotated review of published records of the Chrysididae of the Nordic and Baltic countries and the Russian part of Fennoscandia is presented with some taxonomic and faunistic notes. A total of 73 species are listed from the region. Additionally, 17 species are deleted. Three species are recorded for the first time from Denmark, six species from Estonia, one from Finland, eleven from Latvia, four from Norway, one from Sweden and 15 from Russian Fennoscandia. Elampus foveatus and Chrysis pulcherrima are reported for the first time from the Nordic and Baltic countries. Lectotypes are designated for Hedychrum cupreum Dahlbom, 1845, Chrysis zetterstedti Dahlbom, 1845, Chrysis succincta var. chrysoprasina Trautmann, 1927, Chrysis succincta var. virideocincta Trautmann, 1927 and Chrysis succincta var. nordstromi Trautmann, 1927. Information and images of the holotypes of Hedychrum metallicum Dahlbom, 1854, Chrysis var. westerlundi Trautmann, 1927 are given. Chrysis integra Dahlbom, 1829 is found to be a new synonym of Hedychridium ardens (Coquebert, 1801) and Chrysis scintillans Valkeila, 1971 a new synonym of Chrysis solida Haupt, 1957. Chrysis terminata Dahlbom, 1854 is reported for the first time as the valid name for C. ignita Form A sensu Linsenmaier, 1959. PMID:25283536

  6. Biomarkers in the stratified water column of the Landsort Deep (Baltic Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berndmeyer, C.; Thiel, V.; Schmale, O.; Wasmund, N.; Blumenberg, M.

    2014-12-01

    The water column of the Landsort Deep, central Baltic Sea, is stratified into an oxic, suboxic, and anoxic zone. This stratification controls the distributions of individual microbial communities and biogeochemical processes. In summer 2011, particulate organic matter was filtered from these zones using an in situ pump. Lipid biomarkers were extracted from the filters to establish water-column profiles of individual hydrocarbons, alcohols, phospholipid fatty acids, and bacteriohopanepolyols (BHPs). As a reference, a cyanobacterial bloom sampled in summer 2012 in the central Baltic Sea Gotland Deep was analyzed for BHPs. The biomarker data from the surface layer of the oxic zone showed major inputs from cyanobacteria, dinoflagellates, and ciliates, while the underlying cold winter water layer was characterized by a low diversity and abundance of organisms, with copepods as a major group. The suboxic zone supported bacterivorous ciliates, type I aerobic methanotrophic bacteria, sulfate-reducing bacteria, and, most likely, methanogenic archaea. In the anoxic zone, sulfate reducers and archaea were the dominating microorganisms as indicated by the presence of distinctive branched fatty acids: archaeol and pentamethylicosane (PMI) derivatives, respectively. Our study of in situ biomarkers in the Landsort Deep thus provided an integrated insight into the distribution of relevant compounds and describes useful tracers to reconstruct stratified water columns in the geological record.

  7. Influence of the arrival of radioactive industrially contaminated North Sea water upon the radiation conditions in the Baltic Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Vakulovskii, S.M.; Nikitin, A.I.; Chumichev, V.B.

    1987-08-01

    The authors present and evaluate data from a four-year period of monitoring the movement of radioactive effluents from the radiochemical plants of Western Europe from the North Sea to the Baltic Sea and determine the concentrations at various regions along this pathway for cesium 134 and 137 and strontium 90 isotopes.

  8. Bacteriohopanepolyols record stratification, nitrogen fixation and other biogeochemical perturbations in Holocene sediments of the Central Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blumenberg, M.; Berndmeyer, C.; Moros, M.; Muschalla, M.; Schmale, O.; Thiel, V.

    2012-12-01

    The Baltic Sea, one of the world's largest brackish-marine basins, established after deglaciation of Scandinavia about 17 000 to 15 000 yr ago. In the changeable history of the Baltic Sea, the initial freshwater system was connected to the North Sea about 8000 yr ago and the modern brackish-marine setting (Littorina Sea) was established. Today, a relatively stable stratification developed in the water column of the deep basins due to salinity differences. Stratification is only occasionally interrupted by mixing events, and controls nutrient availability and growth of specifically adapted microorganisms and algae. We studied bacteriohopanepolyols (BHPs), lipids of specific bacterial groups, in a sediment core from the Central Baltic Sea (Gotland Deep) and found considerable differences between the distinct stages of the Baltic Sea's history. Individual BHP structures indicate contributions from as yet unknown redoxcline-specific bacteria (bacteriohopanetetrol isomer), methanotrophic bacteria (35-aminobacteriohopanetetrol), cyanobacteria (bacteriohopanetetrol cyclitol ether isomer) and, through allochthonous input after the Littorina transgression, from soil bacteria (adenosylhopane), whereas the origin of other BHPs in the core has still to be identified. Notably high BHP abundances were observed in the deposits of the brackish-marine Littorina phase, particularly in laminated sediment layers. Because these sediments record periods of stable water column stratification, bacteria specifically adapted to these conditions may account for the high portions of BHPs. An additional and/or accompanying source may be nitrogen-fixing (cyano)bacteria, which is indicated by a good correlation of BHP abundances with Corg and δ15N.

  9. Organohalogen concentrations and feeding status in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) of the Baltic Sea during the spawning run.

    PubMed

    Vuorinen, Pekka J; Kiviranta, Hannu; Koistinen, Jaana; Pöyhönen, Outi; Ikonen, Erkki; Keinänen, Marja

    2014-01-15

    Changes in the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Baltic salmon muscle were studied during the spawning migration from the southern Baltic Sea to rivers flowing into the northern Gulf of Bothnia and during the spawning period. The aim was to obtain information to facilitate the arrangement of salmon fisheries such that the human dioxin intake is taken into account. The EC maximum allowable total toxic equivalent concentration (WHO-TEQPCDD/F+PCB) was exceeded in the muscle of the majority of the migrating salmon, except in the Baltic Proper. The fresh-weight-based concentrations of all toxicant groups in salmon tended to be the lowest in the Baltic Proper and the Northern Quark, and all toxicant concentrations, except PCDDs and PCDFs, were significantly higher in the spawning salmon than in the salmon caught during the spawning run. The fat content of the salmon muscle decreased by 60% during the spawning run, and the lipid-based total toxicant concentrations were consequently 4.2-6.2 times higher during the spawning period than during the spawning migration. However, the toxicants were concentrated just before spawning, and thus there is no essential difference related to whether the salmon are caught in the sea or the recreational river fishery. PMID:24056447

  10. Factors influencing the acid-base (pH) balance in the Baltic Sea: a sensitivity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omstedt, Anders; Edman, Moa; Anderson, Leif G.; Laudon, Hjalmar

    2010-09-01

    Using calculations based on the marine carbon system and on modelling, the sensitivity of Baltic Sea surface pH was examined. Transient long-term calculations demonstrated that the marine carbon system adjusts to lateral boundary conditions within some decades, as does salinity. Climate changes in temperature or salinity will only marginally affect the acid-base (pH) balance. Wetter or dryer climate will also play a minor role in the pH balance. The direct effect on seawater pH of acid precipitation over the Baltic Sea surface was demonstrated to be small. Acidification due to river transport of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) into the marine system seems marginal although mineralization of terrestrial DOC may cause extra marine acidification, but the effect has yet to be quantified. Increased nutrient load may increase the amplitude in the pH seasonal cycle and increase the acidification during winter time. Fossil fuel burning is likely to have both a direct and indirect effect through increased CO2 levels, altering seawater pH as well as changing the river chemistry. This may severely threaten some species in the Baltic Sea, particularly in the Northern Baltic.

  11. Pragmatist Aesthetics and New Visions of the Contemporary Art Museum: The Tate Modern and the Baltic Center for Contemporary Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Angela

    2004-01-01

    This essay considers the current impetus toward "democratizing" contemporary art exhibition practice with regards to Deweyan/Shusterman pragmatist aesthetics. The author proposes that Dewey might regard fondly new initiatives at museums and art centers such at the Tate Modern and the Baltic, both which, through various curatorial and programming…

  12. A Metagenomics Transect into the Deepest Point of the Baltic Sea Reveals Clear Stratification of Microbial Functional Capacities

    PubMed Central

    Poole, Anthony M.; Sjöberg, Britt-Marie; Sjöling, Sara

    2013-01-01

    The Baltic Sea is characterized by hyposaline surface waters, hypoxic and anoxic deep waters and sediments. These conditions, which in turn lead to a steep oxygen gradient, are particularly evident at Landsort Deep in the Baltic Proper. Given these substantial differences in environmental parameters at Landsort Deep, we performed a metagenomic census spanning surface to sediment to establish whether the microbial communities at this site are as stratified as the physical environment. We report strong stratification across a depth transect for both functional capacity and taxonomic affiliation, with functional capacity corresponding most closely to key environmental parameters of oxygen, salinity and temperature. We report similarities in functional capacity between the hypoxic community and hadal zone communities, underscoring the substantial degree of eutrophication in the Baltic Proper. Reconstruction of the nitrogen cycle at Landsort deep shows potential for syntrophy between archaeal ammonium oxidizers and bacterial denitrification at anoxic depths, while anaerobic ammonium oxidation genes are absent, despite substantial ammonium levels below the chemocline. Our census also reveals enrichment in genetic prerequisites for a copiotrophic lifestyle and resistance mechanisms reflecting adaptation to prevalent eutrophic conditions and the accumulation of environmental pollutants resulting from ongoing anthropogenic pressures in the Baltic Sea. PMID:24086414

  13. Investigation of LANDSAT imagery on correlations between ore deposits and major shield structures in Finland. [Baltic Shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuominen, H. V. (Principal Investigator); Kuosmanen, V.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. On the central Baltic Shield, the concept of drainage patterns can be extended to smaller scales in which case many cultural features become involved to the spatial patterns influenced by bedrock structure. Features resulting from agriculture activity and timbering often exaggerate the influence of the bedrock on the image texture.

  14. Groundfish overfishing, diatom decline, and the marine silica cycle: Lessons from Saanich Inlet, Canada, and the Baltic Sea cod crash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Timor; Yahel, Gitai; Yahel, Ruthy; Tunnicliffe, Verena; Herut, Barak; Snelgrove, Paul; Crusius, John; Lazar, Boaz

    2009-12-01

    In this study, we link groundfish activity to the marine silica cycle and suggest that the drastic mid-1980s crash of the Baltic Sea cod (Gadus morhua) population triggered a cascade of events leading to decrease in dissolved silica (DSi) and diatom abundance in the water. We suggest that this seemingly unrelated sequence of events was caused by a marked decline in sediment resuspension associated with reduced groundfish activity resulting from the cod crash. In a study in Saanich Inlet, British Columbia, Canada, we discovered that, by resuspending bottom sediments, groundfish triple DSi fluxes from the sediments and reduce silica accumulation therein. Using these findings and the available oceanographic and environmental data from the Baltic Sea, we estimate that overfishing and recruitment failure of Baltic cod reduced by 20% the DSi supply from bottom sediments to the surface water leading to a decline in the diatom population in the Baltic Sea. The major importance of the marginal ocean in the marine silica cycle and the associated high population density of groundfish suggest that groundfish play a major role in the silica cycle. We postulate that dwindling groundfish populations caused by anthropogenic perturbations, e.g., overfishing and bottom water anoxia, may cause shifts in marine phytoplankton communities.

  15. Development of interdisciplinary model of microplastics transport and transformation in the Baltic sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagaev, Andrei; Chubarenko, Irina; Mizyuk, Artem; Zobkov, Mikhail; Esiukova, Elena; Isachenko, Igor; Stepanova, Natalya

    2016-04-01

    Nowadays, anthropogenic pressure from the coastal areas comes up in many aspects of marine environment changes, decreasing the aesthetics of the underwater world, threatening the sustainability of marine ecosystems and influencing the quality of human life. Microplastics are pervasive throughout the marine environment, are ingested by many marine organisms, and enter a food chain that includes humans. A certain fraction of microplastics in marine environment results from breakdown of larger items in numerous tiny fragments due to mechanical forces and photochemical processes, as well as from other degradation sources. Microplastics can absorb high levels of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) and other toxins. Deep-sea sediments are a likely, but yet unquantified, sink for microplastics (Cole et al., 2011). Since the MARBLE ('MicroplAstics Research in the BaLtic Environment') project started, three expeditions and multiple on-shore field experiments have been conducted in the South-Eastern Baltic. The samples were collected from the surface, deep water layers and bottom sediments. The samples were processed and physical parameters of the microparticles were established. In parallel, laboratory experiments under controllable conditions over the particles of regular shapes were conducted in order to test the empirical formulas for the sinking velocity. PLEX ('PLastics EXplorer') -- a device for efficiently collecting microparticles in marine environment -- was developed, built and tested. An attempt was made to quantify some geometrical properties of particles, to compare their surface areas, fouling rates, sinking velocities, and finally provide some estimates for the main spatial and temporal scales, describing the behaviour of the particles of different densities and shapes in the Baltic Sea (Chubarenko et al., 2016). An original 3D model of Microplastics dynamics is under development now. Its aim is to provide a robust numerical predictive tool to study pathways

  16. Sea-level changes and the Middle-Upper Devonian sequence in the Baltic basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukševičs, E.; Stinkulis, Ä.¢.

    2012-04-01

    Lithostratigraphic succession of the Middle-Upper Devonian of Baltic, represented by siliciclastic and carbonate deposits of the wide shallow epeiric sea, is well-established. The sequence of biotic and sea-level changes has been studied in detail for about half a century. However, it was rarely tried to compare the sea-level curve for the Baltic with the curve of the global sea-level changes and correlate the succession with the sequence of the Devonian global events well established mainly in the marine record. New facies analysis and biostratigraphical and taphonomical studies together with the re-evaluation of signatures of the world-wide events using sedimentological and palaeontological data enables better understanding of the development of the Middle-Late Devonian basins of the Baltic area. Indications of such events as eustatic fall of the sea-level close to the Givetian-Frasnian and Frasnian-Famennian boundaries, several small-scale transgressions during Famennian interglacials are rather clearly traceable within the sequence. Distribution of deposits, biotas and facies suggests diminishing of the depositional area since the maximum transgression in the earliest Frasnian thus demonstrating good coincidence with the global sea level curve (Haq & Schutter 2008). The retreat of depocentre of the palaeobasin in westerly direction during the late Frasnian and the Famennian likely was caused by tectonic subsidence at the western part of the east Baltics. The most significant event levels identified within the section are the extended Taghanic onlap (middle Givetian) evidenced by dolocretes in the upper part of the Burtnieki Fm; significant drop of the sea level during the earliest Frasnian indicated by widely distributed dolocretes in the top of the Amata Fm that points to the possible position of the Givetian/Frasnian boundary below the Amata; level of the Dubnik RS with extensive gypsum deposits and non-oxidised organic matter of the Salaspils Fm evidencing

  17. Qualitative and quantitative composition of microplastics particles during the expeditionary measurement program in the South-Eastern Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esiukova, Elena; Bagaeva, Margarita; Chubarenko, Natalia

    2016-04-01

    According to the tasks of the Russian Science Foundation project "Physical and dynamical properties of marine microplastics particles and their transport in a basin with vertical and horizontal salinity gradient on the example of the Baltic Sea" number 15-17-10020, a comprehensive expeditionary program of measurements in the South-Eastern Baltic started. The project is aimed at finding solutions for a number of problems caused by superfluous plastic pollution in the World Ocean and, in particular, in the Baltic Sea. This pollution has been accumulating for years and just recently it has become obvious that only multidisciplinary approach (geographical, biological, chemical, etc.) to the issues related to the processes of transformation of properties and propagation of plastic particles will allow the study of physical aspects of the problem. During the first stage of the study samples should be selected from the water surface, water column at various horizons, bottom sediments in the Baltic Sea, from different areas at the beaches - in order to further examine the qualitative and quantitative composition of microplastic particles in different seasons for different hydrophysical situations. Reconnaissance survey was begun to choose the fields for research close to point and distributed sources of microplastics. Preference is given to those beaches that are exposed to maximum anthropogenic pollution: areas around the town of Baltiysk, the northern part of the Vistula Spit (near the settlement of Kosa), and the Sambia peninsula coast (settlements of Yantarny, Donskoye, Primorye, Kulikovo, towns of Svetlogorsk, Pionersky, Zelenogradsk). Locations for experimental sites were found in order to assess time for formation of microplastics (Vistula Spit, Kosa settlement). In June-November, 2015 there were 5 expeditions in the waters of the South-Eastern Baltic, 7 expeditions along the coast line of the Baltic Sea (in Kaliningrad Oblast), and 5 expeditions to the Vistula

  18. Impaired immune function in seals and laboratory rats exposed to dioxin-like compounds from Baltic herring

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, P.S. |; Swart, R.L. de |; Timmerman, H.H.; Loveren, H. van; Osterhaus, A.D.M.E. ||

    1995-12-31

    Complex mixtures of lipophilic contaminants have been shown to affect certain top predators in the aquatic food chain, including seals. A recent demonstration that harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) fed Baltic Sea herring displayed impaired natural killer cell activity and T-lymphocyte function represented the first demonstration of immunotoxicity induced by ambient levels of contaminants in the environment. While these animals had a lower ability to respond to immunizations with inactivated vaccines, specific antibody responses, and in vitro antigen-specific lymphoproliferative responses, obvious constraints limited the ability to extend these results with host resistance tests or an evaluation of thymus and other lymphoid organs. The authors therefore set up a parallel study by exposing pregnant laboratory rats to the same Baltic herring contaminant mixture as received the seals. They then examined immune function parameters and host resistance to virus infection. As in the seals, rat pups of the Baltic group had impaired T-lymphocyte function. In addition, thymus cells and/or their precursors appeared to be targeted, as their numbers and function were reduced in the rats. Following challenge with rat cytomegalovirus in a host resistance study, rat pups in the Baltic group had impaired natural killer cell responses to the virus infection, and lower specific CD8 + (cytotoxic T-lymphocyte) responses following in vitro stimulation. By extrapolation, these results suggest that the impaired immune responses observed in the Baltic group of seals may lead to a less effective defense against virus infections in marine mammals inhabiting polluted coastal waters. Toxicological profiles and results of both the captive seal and laboratory rat experiments tend to implicate the 2,3,7,8-TCDD-like PCB, dioxin and furan congeners in the immunosuppression, and point to a major role for the PCBs.

  19. Modelling the contributions to marine acidification from deposited SOx, NOx, and NHx in the Baltic Sea: Past and present situations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omstedt, Anders; Edman, Moa; Claremar, Björn; Rutgersson, Anna

    2015-12-01

    We have examined the effects of historical atmospheric depositions of sulphate, nitrate, and ammonium from land and shipping on the acid-base balance in the Baltic Sea. The modelling considers the 1750-2014 period, when land and ship emissions changed greatly, with increasing carbon dioxide concentrations, SOx, NOx, and NHx emissions, and nutrient loads. The present results indicate that Baltic Sea acidification due to the atmospheric deposition of acids peaked around 1980, with a pH cumulative decrease of approximately 10-2 in surface waters. This is one order of magnitude less than the cumulative acidification due to increased atmospheric CO2. The acidification contribution of shipping is one order of magnitude less than that of land emissions. However, the pH trend due to atmospheric acids has started to reverse due to reduced land emissions, though the effect of shipping is ongoing. The effect of strong atmospheric acids on Baltic Sea water depends on the region and period studied. The largest total alkalinity sink per surface area is in the south-western Baltic Sea where shipping is intense. Considering the entire Baltic Sea over the 2001-2010 period, the pH changes are approximately -3×10-3 to -11×10-3 and -4×10-4 to -16×10-4 pH units attributable to all emissions and ship emissions only, respectively. The corresponding changes in total alkalinity are approximately -10 to -30 μmol kg-1 and -1 to -4 μmol kg-1 attributable to all emissions and ship emissions only, respectively.

  20. SU-E-J-270: Repeated 18F-FDG PET/CTs Based Feature Analysis for the Predication of Anal Cancer Recurrence

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J; Chuong, M; Choi, W; Lu, W; Latifi, K; Saeed, N; Hoffe, S; Shridhar, R; Moros, E; Tan, S

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To identify PET/CT based imaging predictors of anal cancer recurrence and evaluate baseline vs. mid-treatment vs. post-treatment PET/CT scans in the tumor recurrence prediction. Methods: FDG-PET/CT scans were obtained at baseline, during chemoradiotherapy (CRT, midtreatment), and after CRT (post-treatment) in 17 patients of anal cancer. Four patients had tumor recurrence. For each patient, the mid-treatment and post-treatment scans were respectively aligned to the baseline scan by a rigid registration followed by a deformable registration. PET/CT image features were computed within the manually delineated tumor volume of each scan to characterize the intensity histogram, spatial patterns (texture), and shape of the tumors, as well as the changes of these features resulting from CRT. A total of 335 image features were extracted. An Exact Logistic Regression model was employed to analyze these PET/CT image features in order to identify potential predictors for tumor recurrence. Results: Eleven potential predictors of cancer recurrence were identified with p < 0.10, including five shape features, five statistical texture features, and one CT intensity histogram feature. Six features were indentified from posttreatment scans, 3 from mid-treatment scans, and 2 from baseline scans. These features indicated that there were differences in shape, intensity, and spatial pattern between tumors with and without recurrence. Recurrent tumors tended to have more compact shape (higher roundness and lower elongation) and larger intensity difference between baseline and follow-up scans, compared to non-recurrent tumors. Conclusion: PET/CT based anal cancer recurrence predictors were identified. The post-CRT PET/CT is the most important scan for the prediction of cancer recurrence. The baseline and mid-CRT PET/CT also showed value in the prediction and would be more useful for the predication of tumor recurrence in early stage of CRT. This work was supported in part by the

  1. Disentangling the role of atmospheric and oceanic conditions in the occurrence of major Baltic inflows: The importance of haline stratification in the Belt Sea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höflich, Katharina; Lehmann, Andreas; Myrberg, Kai

    2016-04-01

    The Baltic Sea is a semi-enclosed body of water connected to the North Sea only via the shallow and narrow Danish Straits. Of special importance to the salinity dynamics of the Baltic Sea are so-called major Baltic inflows (highly saline barotropic inflows), that also comprise the only process by which oxygen is supplied to below halocline water masses. Large barotropic inflows (or large volume changes) of the Baltic Sea can be identified from the sea level at Landsort, where the number of large barotropic inflows is found to exceed the number of major Baltic inflows. The occurrence of major Baltic inflows is typically attributed to a sequence of large-scale easterly and westerly atmospheric circulation patterns, that have recently also been linked to the occurrence of large barotropic inflows in general. In this context the widely accepted view that atmospheric conditions (and hence the evolution of the sea level in the North Sea - Baltic Sea system) are of exclusive importance to the occurrence of major Baltic inflows becomes questionable. In this study we attempt to disentangle the role of oceanic and atmospheric conditions to the occurrence of highly saline barotropic inflows, with special focus on the role of the hydrographic conditions in the Belt Sea. For the period 1979 - 2015 and using a realistic three-dimensional numerical ocean model of the Baltic Sea we find that the salinity of the barotropic inflow significantly depends on the availability of saline water masses in the Belt Sea. However, detailed investigation on the time evolution of the single barotropic inflow reveals differences in the rapidness and magnitude of the inflow events. Both are in fact good predictors for the salinity of the inflow, highlighting that within the set of large barotropic inflows also differing atmospheric conditions must play some role in the formation of the salinity of the inflowing water mass. In order to further specify the importance of the hydrographic conditions

  2. (90)Sr in fish from the southern Baltic Sea, coastal lagoons and freshwater lake.

    PubMed

    Zalewska, Tamara; Saniewski, Michał; Suplińska, Maria; Rubel, Barbara

    2016-07-01

    Activity concentrations of radioactive (90)Sr were studied in four fish species: herring, flounder, sprat and cod caught in the southern Baltic Sea in two periods: 2005-2009 and 2013-2014. The study included also perch from the coastal lagoons - Vistula Lagoon and Szczcin Lagoon and a freshwater lake - Żarnowieckie Lake as well as additional lake species: pike and bream. (90)Sr activity concentrations were compared in relation to species and to particular tissue: muscle, whole fish (eviscerated) and bones. In 2014, in the Baltic, the maximal (90)Sr concentrations were found in fishbones: herring - 0.39 Bq kg(-1) w.w., cod - 0.48 Bq kg(-1) w.w., and flounder - 0.54 Bq kg(-1) w.w. In the whole fish the maximal concentrations were found in flounder - 0.16 Bq kg(-1) w.w. and cod - 0.15 Bq kg(-1) w.w., while in herring - 0.022 Bq kg(-1) w.w. and sprat - 0.026 Bq kg(-1) w.w. they stayed at lower level. Relatively high (90)Sr concentrations were detected in whole fish from freshwater Lake Żarnowieckie: perch - 0.054 Bq kg(-1) w.w., pike - 0.062 Bq kg(-1) w.w. and bream - 0.140 Bq kg(-1) w.w. Concentration ratio (CR) determined for particular fish tissues and for whole eviscerated fish in relation to (90)Sr concentrations in seawater and lake water were showing significant variability unlike the corresponding (137)Cs concentration ratios which are stable and specific for fish species. The study corroborates with the conviction of the growing role of (90)Sr in the overall radioactivity in the southern Baltic Sea as compared to (137)Cs. PMID:27061778

  3. Characterization of OMI tropospheric NO2 over the Baltic Sea region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ialongo, I.; Hakkarainen, J.; Hyttinen, N.; Jalkanen, J.-P.; Johansson, L.; Boersma, K. F.; Krotkov, N.; Tamminen, J.

    2014-08-01

    Satellite-based data are very important for air-quality applications in the Baltic Sea region, because they provide information on air pollution over the sea and where ground-based and aircraft measurements are not available. Both the emissions from urban sites over land and ships over sea, contribute to tropospheric NO2 levels. Tropospheric NO2 monitoring at high latitudes using satellite data is challenging because of the reduced light hours in winter and the weak signal due to the low Sun, which make the retrieval complex. This work presents a characterization of tropospheric NO2 columns based on case-study analysis in the Baltic Sea region, using the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) tropospheric NO2 standard product. Previous works have focused on larger seas and lower latitudes. The results of this paper showed that, despite the regional area of interest, it is possible to distinguish the signal from the main coastal cities and from the ships by averaging the data over a~seasonal time range. The summertime NO2 emission and lifetime values (E' = (1.5 ± 0.6) mol s-1 and τ = (3 ± 1) h, respectively) in Helsinki were estimated from the decay of the signal with distance from the city center. These results agree within the uncertainties with the emissions from the existing database. For comparison, the results for the cities of Saint Petersburg and Stockholm are also shown. The method developed for megacities was successfully applied to smaller-scale sources, in both size and intensity, which are located at high latitudes (~60° N). The same methodology could be applied to similar-scale cities elsewhere, as long as they are relatively isolated from other sources. Transport by the wind plays an important role in the Baltic Sea region. The NO2 spatial distribution is mainly determined by the contribution of westerly winds, which dominate the wind patterns during summer. The comparison between the ship emissions from model calculations and OMI NO2 tropospheric

  4. Characterization of OMI tropospheric NO2 over the Baltic Sea region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ialongo, I.; Hakkarainen, J.; Hyttinen, N.; Jalkanen, J.-P.; Johansson, L.; Boersma, F.; Krotkov, N.; Tamminen, J.

    2014-01-01

    Satellite-based data are very important for air quality applications in the Baltic Sea area, because they provide information on air pollution over sea and there where ground-based network and aircraft measurements are not available. Both the emissions from urban sites over land and ships over sea, contribute to the tropospheric NO2 levels. The tropospheric NO2 monitoring at high latitudes using satellite data is challenging because of the reduced light hours in winter and the snow-covered surface, which make the retrieval complex, and because of the reduced signal due to low Sun. This work presents a detailed characterization of the tropospheric NO2 columns focused on part of the Baltic Sea region using the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) tropospheric NO2 standard product. Previous works have focused on larger seas and lower latitudes. The results showed that, despite the regional area of interest, it is possible to distinguish the signal from the main coastal cities and from the ships by averaging the data over a seasonal time range. The summertime NO2 emission and lifetime values (E = (1.0 ± 0.1) × 1028 molec. and τ = (3.0 ± 0.5) h, respectively) in Helsinki were estimated from the decay of the signal with distance from the city center. The method developed for megacities was successfully applied to a smaller scale source, in both size and intensity (i.e., the city of Helsinki), which is located at high latitudes (∼60° N). The same methodology could be applied to similar scale cities elsewhere, as far as they are relatively isolated from other sources. The transport by the wind plays an important role in the Baltic Sea area. The NO2 spatial distribution is mainly determined by the contribution of strong westerly winds, which dominate the wind patterns during summer. The comparison between the emissions from model calculations and OMI NO2 tropospheric columns confirmed the applicability of satellite data for ship emission monitoring. In particular

  5. Spatial and temporal habitat partitioning by zooplankton in the Bornholm Basin (central Baltic Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Jan; Peck, Myron A.; Barz, Kristina; Schmidt, Jörn Oliver; Hansen, Frank C.; Peters, Janna; Renz, Jasmin; Dickmann, Miriam; Mohrholz, Volker; Dutz, Jörg; Hirche, Hans-Jürgen

    2012-12-01

    The deep basins in the Baltic Sea such as the Bornholm Basin (BB) are subject to seasonal changes in the strength of physico-chemical stratification. These depth-related changes in key abiotic factors are strong drivers of habitat partitioning by the autochthonous zooplankton community. Species-specific ecophysiological preferences often result in both seasonal and inter-annual changes in vertical abundance that, when combined with depth-specific water currents, also lead to horizontal differences in spatial distribution. The present study documented the seasonal and depth-specific changes in the abundance and species composition of zooplankton in the BB based upon broad-scale survey data: 832 vertically-resolved (10 m) multinet samples collected at nine stations between March 2002 and May 2003. Changes in the zooplankton community were significantly correlated with changes in ambient hydrography. Each of five taxa (Bosmina coregoni maritima, Acartia spp., Pseudocalanus spp., Temora longicornis, Synchaeta spp.) contributed >10% to the zooplankton community composition. The appearance of cladocerans was mainly correlated with the phenology of thermocline development in the spring. The cladoceran B. coregoni maritima was a dominant member of this community during the warmest periods, preferring the surface waters above the thermocline. Copepods exhibited distinct, ontogenetic and seasonal changes in their distribution. The rotifers (Synchaeta sp.) were the most abundant zooplankton in May. Based on a multivariate approach and the evaluation of vertical distribution patterns, five major habitat utilisation modes were identified that were based, to a large extent, on the dynamics of thermal and haline stratification of the Baltic Sea. Our statistical analysis of one of the most thorough datasets collected on Baltic zooplankton in recent decades reveals some of the factors that make this stratified system highly dynamic with respect to the spatial overlap between

  6. Submerged terrestrial landscapes in the Baltic Sea: Evidence from multiproxy analyses of sediment cores from Fehmarnbelt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enters, Dirk; Wolters, Steffen; Blume, Katharina; Segschneider, Martin; Lücke, Andreas; Theuerkauf, Martin; Hübener, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Five sediment cores were taken from the southern part of the Fehmarn Belt (Baltic Sea) in the context of an environmental impact study for the intended fixed traverse between Germany and Denmark. The lithologies of the 8m long cores reveal dramatic changes in sedimentary environments which reflect the early Holocene history of the southern Baltic Sea. A succession of terrestrial, semiterrestrial and limnic facies from glacial sediments to peat, lacustrine/estuarine deposits and finally marine sediments document the interplay of eustatic sea level rise and isostatic rebound, which finally lead to the establishment of marine conditions during the Littorina transgression. An age control of the observed changes was established by dating over 50 C-14 samples of different fractions. During the Lateglacial minerogenic varves with thicknesses of several centimeters verify the existence of a proglacial lake in the Fehmarnbelt. Peat development started around 11.250 cal. BP and terminated ca. 10.600 cal. BP which is roughly contemporaneous with the end of the Yoldia Phase in the central Baltic Sea. The oldest peat layers consist of undecomposed sedges and reed. Woody remains of willows appear not before 10.700 cal BP and indicate a stagnant or slowly decreasing water table. This semi-terrestrial phase is followed by a shallow inland lake which existed until the Littorina transgression around 8.300 cal. BP. Initially the lacustrine sediments exhibit high C/N ratios, low low δ13Corg values and contain numerous wood fragments as well as other botanical macro remains. This indicates shallow conditions close to the lake shore. Later, the occurrence of planktonic diatom species such as Aulacoseira ambigua suggest greater water depths. We did not find any indications of the often postulated catastrophic outburst of the Ancylus Lake via Fehmarnbelt and the Great Belt into the North Sea. Likewise, XRF scanning does not show conspicuous peaks in Ti or K which would have been

  7. Iron oxide reduction in deep Baltic Sea sediments: the potential role of anaerobic oxidation of methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egger, Matthias; Slomp, Caroline P.; Dijkstra, Nikki; Sapart, Célia J.; Risgaard-Petersen, Nils; Kasten, Sabine; Riedinger, Natascha; Barker Jørgensen, Bo

    2015-04-01

    Methane is a powerful greenhouse gas and its emission from marine sediments to the atmosphere is largely controlled by anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). Traditionally, sulfate is considered to be the most important electron acceptor for AOM in marine sediments. However, recent studies have shown that AOM may also be coupled to the reduction of iron (Fe) oxides (Beal et al., 2009; Riedinger et al., 2014; Egger et al., 2014). In the Baltic Sea, the transition from the Ancylus freshwater phase to the Littorina brackish/marine phase (A/L-transition) ca. 9-7 ka ago (Zillén et al., 2008) resulted in the accumulation of methanogenic brackish/marine sediments overlying Fe-oxide rich lacustrine deposits. The downward diffusion of methane from the brackish/marine sediments into the lake sediments leads to an ideal diagenetic system to study a potential coupling between Fe oxide reduction and methane oxidation. Here, we use porewater and sediment geochemical data obtained at sites M0063 and M0065 during the IODP Baltic Sea Paleoenvironment Expedition 347 in 2013 to identify the potential mechanisms responsible for the apparent Fe oxide reduction in the non-sulfidic limnic sediments below the A/L transition. In this presentation, we will review the various explanations for the elevated ferrous Fe in the porewater in the lake sediments and we will specifically address the potential role of the reaction of methane with Fe-oxides. References: Beal E. J., House C. H. and Orphan V. J. (2009) Manganese- and iron-dependent marine methane oxidation. Science 325, 184-187. Egger M., Rasigraf O., Sapart C. J., Jilbert T., Jetten M. S. M., Röckmann T., van der Veen C., Banda N., Kartal B., Ettwig K. F. and Slomp C. P. (2014) Iron-mediated anaerobic oxidation of methane in brackish coastal sediments. Environ. Sci. Technol. 49, 277-283. Riedinger N., Formolo M. J., Lyons T. W., Henkel S., Beck A. and Kasten S. (2014) An inorganic geochemical argument for coupled anaerobic oxidation of

  8. Coastal processes of the Russian Baltic - modern trends, driving forces and human impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabchuk, Daria; Sivkov, Vadim; Kovaleva, Olga; Sergeev, Alexander; Zhamoida, Vladimir; Dorokhov, Dmitry

    2016-04-01

    In frame of EMODNET-geology project and Russian Science Foundation (project 14-37-00047), the Coastal Behavior maps for the Russian parts of Baltic were compiled. Several areas of the Baltic Sea coastal zone were chosen as case studies for more detailed mapping and analyses. According to annual observations rates of coastal erosion within some areas of the easternmost part of the Gulf of Finland are recently accelerated due to both natural (increasing of the extreme storm events frequency, accompanied by high water level) and anthropogenic (impact of St. Petersburg Flood Protection Facility, submarine sand mining, ineffective coast protection etc.) factors. The geological and geomorphic factors determine the long-term coastal zone development. The coasts mostly consist of easily erodible Quaternary deposits (clays and sands). They evolve under overall sediment deficiency. Moreover, some specific, small-scale features of the near-shore bottom, found by investigations using multibeam and side-scan sonar study, play a very important role in the entire erosion process. Average rates of coastal erosion is 0.5-1.0 m/year, but during the extreme storms, coastal escarpment can retreat for the distance up to 5 m at once. During late autumn and winter seasons of 2006-2007, 2011-2012 and 2013 years severe storms caused extreme erosion events damaged the coastal dunes with forming of active escarpment, destruction of coast protection and recreation infrastructure, complete transformation of sand accretion spits. In the southern coastal zone of the Gulf processes of long-shore sand waves occurred. Prognoses of coastal processes development based on annual observations (since 2004), remote sensing data analyses and modeling has shown that depending on different climate change scenarios coastal line of the study area can retreat for the distance from 50 to 100 m. The most intense coastal processes of the Russian part of the South-Eastern Baltic are observe within attached part of

  9. Host size-dependent anisakid infection in Baltic cod Gadus morhua associated with differential food preferences.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Shaozhi; Huwer, Bastian; Bahlool, Qusay; Al-Jubury, Azmi; Daugbjerg Christensen, Nanna; Korbut, Rozalia; Kania, Per; Buchmann, Kurt

    2016-06-15

    A significant increase in the infection level of Baltic cod Gadus morhua with the anisakid nematode larvae Contracaecum osculatum and Pseudoterranova decipiens has been recorded during recent years due to the expanding local population of grey seals Halichoerus grypus, which act as final hosts for these parasites. Here, we report from an investigation of 368 cod (total length [TL] 6-49 cm; caught in ICES Subdivision 25) that the infection level of juvenile cod (TL 6-30 cm) with larvae of C. osculatum and P. decipiens is absent or very low, whereas it increases drastically in larger cod (TL 31-48 cm). A third nematode Hysterothylacium aduncum was rarely found. The study indicates that the prey animals for large cod act as transport hosts for the parasite larvae. Analyses of stomach contents of cod caught in the same area (2007-2014) showed that small benthic organisms (including polychaetes Harmothoë sarsi) are preferred food items by small cod, the isopod Saduria entomon is taken by all size classes, and sprat Sprattus sprattus are common prey items for cod larger than 30 cm. Parasitological investigations (microscopic and molecular analyses) of H. sarsi (100 specimens) and S. entomon (40 specimens) did not reveal infection in these invertebrates, but 11.6% of sprat (265 specimens examined) was shown to be infected with 1-8 C. osculatum third stage larvae per fish. Analyses of sprat stomach contents confirmed that copepods and cladocerans are the main food items of sprat. These observations suggest that the C. osculatum life cycle in the Baltic Sea includes grey seals as final hosts, sprat as the first transport host and cod as second transport host. It may be speculated that sprat obtain infection by feeding on copepods and/or cladocerans, which could serve as the first intermediate hosts. One cannot exclude the possibility that the size-dependent C. osculatum infection of cod may contribute (indirectly or directly) to the differential mortality of larger cod

  10. Microbial decomposition of terrigenic organic matter discharged into the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manecki, M.; Herlemann, D.; Pollehne, F.; Labrenz, M.; Zimmermann, R.; Dittmar, T.; Schulz-Bull, D.; Jürgens, K.

    2012-04-01

    The permafrost soils in arctic regions contain a large amount of the worldwide organic carbon and global warming is expected to increase drainage of dissolved organic matter (DOM) into the adjacent oceans. It is yet unclear how this terrigenic organic matter will influence the global carbon cycle and the feedback effects to the climate. We used the Baltic Sea as a model system to investigate the role of abiotic factors on the degradation of terrigenic dissolved organic matter (tDOM) upon discharge into a brackish system as well as the response of the microbial community. Water from the Kalix River in Northern Sweden, which drains also permafrost soils, was used as the tDOM source in incubation experiments with Baltic Sea water. Different qualities of tDOM were compared by applying concentration procedures: tDOM was added to fresh Baltic Sea water as untreated Kalix River water or concentrated by commonly use DOC concentration procedures (lyophilization, ultrafiltration, solid phase extraction). We investigated the TDOC degradation by parallel measurements of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) consumption, DOM composition (using a 15 Tesla Fourier Transformation Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer (FT-ICR-MS)), microbial activities and microbial community structure. FT-ICR-MS measurements showed qualitative differences in the DOM compositions for the different treatments and a drastic change in DOM composition between the third and fourth week of the incubation experiment. Despite the qualitative differences in DOM composition, the results obtained so far revealed that the added tDOC had, independent of the previous enrichment procedure, only little influence on bacterial activities, bacterial community structure and DOC decomposition dynamics. This indicates that the major portion of the added tDOC is of refractory nature. Instead, bacterial predation by heterotrophic protists had a strong impact on both bacterial community structure and DOC decomposition

  11. Stratigraphic correlation for the IODP Expedition 347 - toward an integrated Baltic Sea Basin stratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotilainen, Aarno; Hyttinen, Outi; Andrén, Thomas; Cotterill, Carol; Hale, Walter; IODP Expedition 347 Science Party, the

    2014-05-01

    The IODP Expedition 347 - "Baltic Sea Paleoenvironment" completed in September - November 2013 (offshore phase) was the 5th and the final mission-specific platform (MSP) expedition of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program. The expedition used a geotechnical drillship, the Greatship Manisha equipped with a Geoquip Marine coring rig, to core and wireline-log several sub-basins within the Baltic Sea, aiming to produce new information on the history of the Baltic Sea and climate change during the last glacial cycle. During the IODP Expedition 347 altogether over 1900 meters were successfully drilled at 8 Sites (M0059 - M0067) in the Lille Belt, Kattegat, Ångermanälven Estuary, Landsort Deep, Hanö Basin and Bornholm Basin with core recovery of approximately 1600 m (expansion adjusted core recovery of 91.46%). In this presentation, we show the preliminary results of regional stratigraphic correlation and splice results for the Expedition. That information provides a solid base for stratigraphic and high-resolution paleoenvironmental studies. Stratigraphic correlation consisted of the following: (1) ensuring the maximum core recovery on site, (2) seismic-core (sedimentary facies) correlation and (3) generating composite depth scales and splice records to each site. To obtain a complete sedimentary record, multiple adjacent holes were cored with an offset in depth of 0.5-1.5 m between cores from different holes. The continuity of recovery was assessed by generating composite sections that align prominent features in physical property data from adjacent holes. With the information gained by Fast Track Multi-Sensor Core Logger (MSCL) data, it was possible to adjust coring plan before the new hole, to ensure that intervals missing in previous cores could be recovered from an adjacent hole. Correlation between seismic profiles and cores used a simple estimation sound velocity vs. sediment type. Acquired depth was tested by comparison with major core surfaces, downhole logs

  12. Phylogeographical structure, distribution and genetic variation of the green algae Ulva intestinalis and U. compressa (Chlorophyta) in the Baltic Sea area.

    PubMed

    Leskinen, E; Alstrom-Rapaport, C; Pamilo, P

    2004-08-01

    The marine algae Ulva intestinalis and U. compressa are morphologically plastic with many overlapping characters and are therefore difficult to distinguish from each other. The present distribution of U. intestinalis and U. compressa is investigated along the salinity gradient in the Baltic Sea area through analyses of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence data. Also, the amount and distribution of intraspecific genetic polymorphism in the ITS region is studied allowing inferences on the phylogeographical pattern and postglacial recolonization of the Baltic Sea area. The data show that of the two species only U. intestinalis occurs in the Baltic Sea. The distribution of U. compressa is more restricted than previously reported, and it was not found in salinities lower than 15 ppt. All of Scandinavia and the Baltic Sea were covered with ice during the last ice age and the organisms in the Baltic Sea must have colonized the area after the ice had started to melt. The genetic diversity of U. intestinalis and U. compressa in the Baltic Sea and the neighbouring area was found to be reduced compared to that in the British Isles. This reduction may be the result of either a historical reduction of diversity or an adaptation of specific clones to the northern environmental conditions. PMID:15245399

  13. Local adaptation and oceanographic connectivity patterns explain genetic differentiation of a marine diatom across the North Sea–Baltic Sea salinity gradient

    PubMed Central

    Sjöqvist, C; Godhe, A; Jonsson, P R; Sundqvist, L; Kremp, A

    2015-01-01

    Drivers of population genetic structure are still poorly understood in marine micro-organisms. We exploited the North Sea–Baltic Sea transition for investigating the seascape genetics of a marine diatom, Skeletonema marinoi. Eight polymorphic microsatellite loci were analysed in 354 individuals from ten locations to analyse population structure of the species along a 1500-km-long salinity gradient ranging from 3 to 30 psu. To test for salinity adaptation, salinity reaction norms were determined for sets of strains originating from three different salinity regimes of the gradient. Modelled oceanographic connectivity was compared to directional relative migration by correlation analyses to examine oceanographic drivers. Population genetic analyses showed distinct genetic divergence of a low-salinity Baltic Sea population and a high-salinity North Sea population, coinciding with the most evident physical dispersal barrier in the area, the Danish Straits. Baltic Sea populations displayed reduced genetic diversity compared to North Sea populations. Growth optima of low salinity isolates were significantly lower than those of strains from higher native salinities, indicating local salinity adaptation. Although the North Sea–Baltic Sea transition was identified as a barrier to gene flow, migration between Baltic Sea and North Sea populations occurred. However, the presence of differentiated neutral markers on each side of the transition zone suggests that migrants are maladapted. It is concluded that local salinity adaptation, supported by oceanographic connectivity patterns creating an asymmetric migration pattern between the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, determines genetic differentiation patterns in the transition zone. PMID:25892181

  14. Subdivision of Holocene Baltic sea sediments by their physical properties [Gliederung holozaner ostseesedimente nach physikalischen Eigenschaften

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harff, Jan; Bohling, G.C.; Endler, R.; Davis, J.C.; Olea, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    The Holocene sediment sequence of a core taken within the centre of the Eastern Gotland Basin was subdivided into 12 lithostratigraphic units based on MSCL-data (sound velocity, wet bulk density, magnetic susceptibility) using a multivariate classification method. The lower 6 units embrace the sediments until the Litorina transgression, and the upper 6 units subdivide the brackish-marine Litorina- and post-Litorina sediments. The upper lithostratigraphic units reflect a change of anoxic (laminated) and oxic (non-laminated) sediments. By application of a numerical stratigraphic correlation method the zonation was extended laterally onto contiguous sediment cores within the central basin. Consequently the change of anoxic and oxic sediments can be used for a general lithostratigraphic subdivision of sediments of the Gotland Basin. A quantitative criterion based on the sediment-physical lithofacies is added to existing subdivisions of the Holocene in the Baltic Sea.

  15. Cross-correlations between Baltic Dry Index and crude oil prices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruan, Qingsong; Wang, Yao; Lu, Xinsheng; Qin, Jing

    2016-07-01

    This paper examines the cross-correlation properties of Baltic Dry Index (BDI) and crude oil prices using cross-correlation statistics test and multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis (MF-DCCA). The empirical results show that the cross-correlations between BDI and crude oil prices are significantly multifractal. By introducing the concept of a "crossover", we find that the cross-correlations are strongly persistent in the short term and weakly anti-persistent in the long term. Moreover, cross-correlations of all kinds of fluctuations are persistent in the short time while cross-correlations of small fluctuations are persistent and those of large fluctuations are anti-persistent in the long term. We have also verified that the multifractality of the cross-correlations of BDI and crude oil prices is both attributable to the persistence of fluctuations of time series and fat-tailed distributions.

  16. Climate change in the Baltic sea region: a cross-country analysis of institutional stakeholder perceptions.

    PubMed

    Piwowarczyk, Joanna; Hansson, Anders; Hjerpe, Mattias; Chubarenko, Boris; Karmanov, Konstantin

    2012-09-01

    Before climate change is considered in long-term coastal management, it is necessary to investigate how institutional stakeholders in coastal management conceptualize climate change, as their awareness will ultimately affect their actions. Using questionnaires in eight Baltic Sea riparian countries, this study examines environmental managers' awareness of climate change. Our results indicate that problems related to global warming are deemed secondary to short-term social and economic issues. Respondents agree that problems caused by global warming will become increasingly important, but pay little attention to adaptation and mitigation strategies. Current environmental problems are expected to continue to be urgent in the future. We conclude that an apparent gap exists between decision making, public concerns, and scientific consensus, resulting in a situation in which the latest evidence rarely influences commonly held opinions. PMID:22926886

  17. Experimental study of bioelectrochemical fuel cell using bacteria from baltic sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halme, A.; Zhang, X.

    1995-02-01

    A bioelectrochemical fuel cell using bacteria as catalyst was investigated in this paper. The bacteria were obtained from the bottom sediment of Baltic Sea, and then cultivated in a 1 liter bioreactor. Raw material for fermentation were glucose first and then fish meat or plankton biomass. After certain fermentation time, broth was used as fuel for the fuel cell. A steady power output (200 microW/ml anodic volume) was obtained by using stainless steel net packing with graphite particles as the anode electrode. Different fermentation conditions were tested for maximum electroactive substance output. The experimental study of the fuel cell were carried out as follows: (1) characteristics of the fuel cell; (2) mediator effect on the current output; and (3) mode of the fuel flow.

  18. Water protection in the Baltic Sea and the Chesapeake Bay: institutions, policies and efficiency.

    PubMed

    Iho, Antti; Ribaudo, Marc; Hyytiäinen, Kari

    2015-04-15

    The Baltic Sea and the Chesapeake Bay share many characteristics. Both are shallow, brackish marine areas that suffer from eutrophication. Successful policies targeting point source pollution have lowered nutrient loads in both areas, but achieving the desired marine quality will require further abatement: efforts may be extended to more complicated and expensive pollution sources, notably agricultural nonpoint loads. Despite their ecological similarities, the two watersheds have different histories and institutional settings and have thus adopted different policies. Comparing and contrasting the policies reveal ways to improve the efficiency of each and ways to avoid the path of trial and error. No comparison of the parallel protection efforts, which involve expenditures of hundreds of millions of dollars annually, has been carried out to date. The present paper analyzes the policies applied in the two regions, distilling the results into six recommendations for future steps in preserving what are valuable sea areas. PMID:25752532

  19. Uncertainties in a Baltic sea food-web model reveal challenges for future projections.

    PubMed

    Niiranen, Susa; Blenckner, Thorsten; Hjerne, Olle; Tomczak, Maciej T

    2012-09-01

    Models that can project ecosystem dynamics under changing environmental conditions are in high demand. The application of such models, however, requires model validation together with analyses of model uncertainties, which are both often overlooked. We carried out a simplified model uncertainty and sensitivity analysis on an Ecopath with Ecosim food-web model of the Baltic Proper (BaltProWeb) and found the model sensitive to both variations in the input data of pre-identified key groups and environmental forcing. Model uncertainties grew particularly high in future climate change scenarios. For example, cod fishery recommendations that resulted in viable stocks in the original model failed after data uncertainties were introduced. In addition, addressing the trophic control dynamics produced by the food-web model proved as a useful tool for both model validation, and for studying the food-web function. These results indicate that presenting model uncertainties is necessary to alleviate ecological surprises in marine ecosystem management. PMID:22926883

  20. Modeling the Role of pH on Baltic Sea Cyanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Hinners, Jana; Hofmeister, Richard; Hense, Inga

    2015-01-01

    We simulate pH-dependent growth of cyanobacteria with an ecosystem model for the central Baltic Sea. Four model components—a life cycle model of cyanobacteria, a biogeochemical model, a carbonate chemistry model and a water column model—are coupled via the framework for aquatic biogeochemical models. The coupled model is forced by the output of a regional climate model, based on the A1B emission scenario. With this coupled model, we perform simulations for the period 1968–2098. Our simulation experiments suggest that in the future, cyanobacteria growth is hardly affected by the projected pH decrease. However, in the simulation phase prior to 1980, cyanobacteria growth and N2-fixation are limited by the relatively high pH. The observed absence of cyanobacteria before the 1960s may thus be explained not only by lower eutrophication levels, but also by a higher alkalinity. PMID:25830591

  1. NEMO-Nordic : A NEMO based ocean modelling configuration for Baltic & North Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hordoir, Robinson; Schimanke, Semjon; Axell, Lars; Gröger, Matthias; Dieterich, Christian; Liu, Ye; Höglund, Anders; Kuznetsov, Ivan; Ljungemyr, Patrik; Nygren, Petter; Jönsson, Anette; Meier, Markus

    2015-04-01

    Based on the NEMO ocean engine, three regional setups for the North Sea and Baltic Sea domain have been developed : the NEMO-Nordic configuration is declined in an operational setup, a stand-alone version used for climate and process studies, and a NEMO-Nordic-RCA4 atmosphere/ocean coupled configuration used for downscalling climate scenarios. We give a brief overview of the options chosen within the NEMO engine to design the configurations. Based on the results provided by each of the three configurations, we also provide an assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of NEMO-Nordic. Finally, a validation of the configurations is provided based on an extensive comparison between in-situ measurements and model results for temperature, salinity, sea-ice extent, sea level and mean circulation.

  2. The effects of hypoxia on sediment nitrogen cycling in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Jäntti, Helena; Hietanen, Susanna

    2012-03-01

    Primary production in the eutrophic Baltic Sea is limited by nitrogen availability; hence denitrification (natural transformation of nitrate to gaseous N(2)) in the sediments is crucial in mitigating the effects of eutrophication. This study shows that dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) process, where nitrogen is not removed but instead recycled in the system, dominates nitrate reduction in low oxygen conditions (O(2) <110 μM), which have been persistent in the central Gulf of Finland during the past decade. The nitrogen removal rates measured in this study show that nitrogen removal has decreased in the Gulf of Finland compared to rates measured in mid-1990s and the decrease is most likely caused by the increased bottom water hypoxia. PMID:22246635

  3. Preventing the collapse of the Baltic cod stock through an ecosystem-based management approach

    PubMed Central

    Lindegren, Martin; Möllmann, Christian; Nielsen, Anders; Stenseth, Nils C.

    2009-01-01

    Worldwide a number of fish stocks have collapsed because of overfishing and climate-induced ecosystem changes. Developing ecosystem-based fisheries management (EBFM) to prevent these catastrophic events in the future requires ecological models incorporating both internal food-web dynamics and external drivers such as fishing and climate. Using a stochastic food-web model for a large marine ecosystem (i.e., the Baltic Sea) hosting a commercially important cod stock, we were able to reconstruct the history of the stock. Moreover we demonstrate that in hindsight the collapse could only have been avoidable by adapting fishing pressure to environmental conditions and food-web interactions. The modeling approach presented here represents a significant advance for EBFM, the application of which is important for sustainable resource management in the future. PMID:19706557

  4. In-air spectral signatures of the Baltic Sea macrophytes and their statistical separability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotta, Jonne; Remm, Kalle; Vahtmäe, Ele; Kutser, Tiit; Orav-Kotta, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Many macroalgal species potentially have distinctive spectral signatures detectable using remote sensing. In order to map the spatial distribution of these species, their spectral properties have to be quantified and statistical differences between species need to be assessed. In the present study, we collected a spectral library of the key benthic macrophyte species in the Baltic Sea area and presented the methodology that allows quantifying statistical differences between their reflectance spectra. The results indicate that three broad groups of algae-green, brown, and red algae-can be separated based on their optical signatures. In general, the between-species differences are too small to allow easy recognition of benthic algae based on their untransformed reflectance spectra. However, the distinctness of the studied species and taxa improves if standardized reflectance values are used. The best indicative spectral range was at 530 to 570 nm for the separation of species and of larger taxonomic units.

  5. Vortex dynamics in the southeastern Baltic Sea from satellite radar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginzburg, A. I.; Bulycheva, E. V.; Kostianoy, A. G.; Solovyov, D. M.

    2015-11-01

    The analysis of radar satellite images shows that vortex dipoles are a typical element of the water circulation in the southeastern part of the Baltic Sea. The wide range of spatial dimensions of observed vortices (from approximately 2 to 25 km) corresponds to mesoscale and submesoscale vortex formations (signifying whether the diameter is respectively larger or smaller than the baroclinic Rossby radius of deformation, equal to 5-6 km). Vortex dipoles typical for different areas and their spatial characteristics are considered. These areas were the Hel Spit, the Taran Cape, the central part of the Gulf of Gdañsk and the area northward of the Gulf. It is shown that the mesoscale vortex dipoles and the associated jets condition horizontal water exchange in an area comparable with the size of the considered water area. The differences in the appearance of the cyclonic and anticyclonic components of vortex dipoles revealed in satellite radar images are discussed.

  6. Nitrogen concentrations and losses from agricultural streams in the Nordic and Baltic countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stålnacke, Per; Bechmann, Marianne; Blicher-Mathiesen, Gitte; Iital, Arvo; Kyllmar, Katarina; Koskiaho, Jari; Lagzdins, Ainis; Povilaitis, Arvydas

    2015-04-01

    Assessment of long-term trends is one of the key objectives in most national water quality monitoring programmes. It is for example essential that we know how long it can take to detect the response in agricultural streams to changes in agriculture and implemented measures, because such information is needed to allow environmental authorities and decision and policy makers to establish realistic goals. Thus, long-term monitoring data is the key to cover future management needs and demands such as implementation of various EU-Directives (e.g., WFD, the Nitrates Directive). This paper in a uniform fashion examines the levels and temporal trends of nitrogen concentrations and losses in streams draining agricultural catchment areas in the Nordic and Baltic countries. 35 catchments (range 0.1-33km2) in Norway (9), Denmark (5), Sweden (8), Finland (4), Estonia (3), Latvia (3) and Lithuania (3) were selected for the study. Most of these catchments are part of national water quality monitoring programmes and initially selected to represent the major crops, soil types and climatic conditions in each country. The longest time series where 23 years (1988-2010) while the shortest one was 10 years (2002-2011). The reasons for these identified trends and no-trends will be discussed during the oral presentation in relation to land use, agricultural management and implementation of mitigation measures. Furthermore, the difference in mean level concentrations and losses will be discussed in relation to differences in climate, land use and agricultural management Overall the results show that agricultural catchments in the Nordic and Baltic countries exhibit different levels of nitrogen concentrations and losses, with a large interannual variability in all catchments. For example, the overall range in annual long-term mean TN losses was 6-102 kg N ha-1. Nearly one third of the investigated agricultural catchments showed statistically significant downward trends in nitrogen losses or

  7. Plastic ingestion by pelagic and demersal fish from the North Sea and Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Rummel, Christoph D; Löder, Martin G J; Fricke, Nicolai F; Lang, Thomas; Griebeler, Eva-Maria; Janke, Michael; Gerdts, Gunnar

    2016-01-15

    Plastic ingestion by marine biota has been reported for a variety of different taxa. In this study, we investigated 290 gastrointestinal tracts of demersal (cod, dab and flounder) and pelagic fish species (herring and mackerel) from the North and Baltic Sea for the occurrence of plastic ingestion. In 5.5% of all investigated fishes, plastic particles were detected, with 74% of all particles being in the microplastic (<5mm) size range. The polymer types of all found particles were analysed by means of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Almost 40% of the particles consisted of polyethylene (PE). In 3.4% of the demersal and 10.7% of the pelagic individuals, plastic ingestion was recorded, showing a significantly higher ingestion frequency in the pelagic feeders. The condition factor K was calculated to test differences in the fitness status between individuals with and without ingested plastic, but no direct effect was detected. PMID:26621577

  8. Assimilating NOAA SST data into BSH operational circulation model for North and Baltic Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losa, Svetlana; Schroeter, Jens; Nerger, Lars; Janjic, Tijana; Danilov, Sergey; Janssen, Frank

    A data assimilation (DA) system is developed for BSH operational circulation model in order to improve forecast of current velocities, sea surface height, temperature and salinity in the North and Baltic Seas. Assimilated data are NOAA sea surface temperature (SST) data for the following period: 01.10.07 -30.09.08. All data assimilation experiments are based on im-plementation of one of the so-called statistical DA methods -Singular Evolutive Interpolated Kalman (SEIK) filter, -with different ways of prescribing assumed model and data errors statis-tics. Results of the experiments will be shown and compared against each other. Hydrographic data from MARNET stations and sea level at series of tide gauges are used as independent information to validate the data assimilation system. Keywords: Operational Oceanography and forecasting

  9. Baltic Sea ecosystem-based management under climate change: Synthesis and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Blenckner, Thorsten; Österblom, Henrik; Larsson, Per; Andersson, Agneta; Elmgren, Ragnar

    2015-06-01

    Ecosystem-based management (EBM) has emerged as the generally agreed strategy for managing ecosystems, with humans as integral parts of the managed system. Human activities have substantial effects on marine ecosystems, through overfishing, eutrophication, toxic pollution, habitat destruction, and climate change. It is important to advance the scientific knowledge of the cumulative, integrative, and interacting effects of these diverse activities, to support effective implementation of EBM. Based on contributions to this special issue of AMBIO, we synthesize the scientific findings into four components: pollution and legal frameworks, ecosystem processes, scale-dependent effects, and innovative tools and methods. We conclude with challenges for the future, and identify the next steps needed for successful implementation of EBM in general and specifically for the Baltic Sea. PMID:26022332

  10. Certified Reference Material IAEA-446 for radionuclides in Baltic Sea seaweed.