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Sample records for banaras hindu university

  1. Medicinal plants in an urban environment: the medicinal flora of Banares Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Archana K; Kumar, Munesh; Bussmann, Rainer W

    2007-01-01

    Varanasi is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities of the world, and one of the most important Hindu pilgrimage sites. Despite this importance, very little information exits on the cities flora in general, and medicinal species found within its limit in particular. Traditional medicine plays a large role in Indian society. The presented study attempted to investigate if traditional plant use and availability of important common medicinal plants are maintained in urban environments. The paper presents information on the traditional uses of seventy-two plant species collected form the campus of Banares Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, and highlights the uses of these plants by the local inhabitants. PMID:17996050

  2. Is Banara Really a Word?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qiao, Xiaomei; Forster, Kenneth; Witzel, Naoko

    2009-01-01

    Bowers, Davis, and Hanley (Bowers, J. S., Davis, C. J., & Hanley, D. A. (2005). "Interfering neighbours: The impact of novel word learning on the identification of visually similar words." "Cognition," 97(3), B45-B54) reported that if participants were trained to type nonwords such as "banara", subsequent semantic categorization responses to…

  3. Is Banara Really a Word?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qiao, Xiaomei; Forster, Kenneth; Witzel, Naoko

    2009-01-01

    Bowers, Davis, and Hanley (Bowers, J. S., Davis, C. J., & Hanley, D. A. (2005). "Interfering neighbours: The impact of novel word learning on the identification of visually similar words." "Cognition," 97(3), B45-B54) reported that if participants were trained to type nonwords such as "banara", subsequent semantic categorization responses to

  4. Environmental Ethics: A Hindu Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asopa, Sheel K.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the Hindu religious scriptures as teachings about the human relationship with the environment and attitude toward ecology. Describes how religion has been a historical teacher of environmental ethics. Presents the Hindu view of humanity as it relates to the environment as portrayed in the Hindu theories. (10 references) (MCO)

  5. South African Hindu psychologists' perceptions of mental illness.

    PubMed

    Padayachee, Priyanka; Laher, Sumaya

    2014-04-01

    Conceptualisations of mental illness are not universally applicable, as culture shapes the expression, perceptions and treatment preferences thereof. By focusing on the perceptions of Hindu psychologists regarding mental illness, this study aimed to provide a deeper understanding of the impact that religious beliefs have on such conceptualisations. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with six Hindu psychologists around the Johannesburg area, South Africa. Responses were analysed using thematic content analysis. From the findings, it was evident that religion plays a critical role in the understanding and treatment of mental illness. Hindu beliefs around psychological disturbances were salient. Additionally, it was found that a tension existed between psychologists' awareness of the influential function of religion, particularly amongst collectivistic communities such as the Hindu community, and their occupational understandings and practices, which are deeply rooted in Western thought. Furthermore, it was suggested that the fear of stigma prevented Hindu clients from reaping the benefits of seeking help from culturally competent psychologists. PMID:23054478

  6. A part of life. The Hindu view.

    PubMed

    Srinivas, M N

    1993-10-27

    A leading social anthropologist and founder of the Center for Advanced Studies in Sociology at Delhi University presents a Hindu view on teachings about birth and population control. The article states that Hinduism accepts the sacred scriptures of the "shruti" whom are respected authorities revealed by God to man and the "smrities" which are divine recollections of revealed truth. Shruti have greater authority, and divine works include the vedas or hymns of the Indo-Aryans to their gods. Dharma shastras are smriti and provide legal opinion on religion and social matters. Learned men interpret these scriptures for the common people. The Hindu scriptures do not mention anything contrary to birth control. Sex is an accepted way of life without prudery. Householdership is said to be one of the universal stages of life. The Kama Sutra, written by Vatsyayana in the early fourth century, and other works digress on the celebration of love. Human lovemaking is celebrated in panels appearing in the Khajuraho temples in Madhya Pradesh and in temple chariots in south India. Ayurvedic medicine and literature on erotics explains many devices for preventing conception. High Hindu castes are reported in this article as placing great emphasis on patrilineage and the need for sons to continue the male line. Adoption or limiting family size to 1-2 children is resorted to when there is no apparent male heir. This emphasis on sons contributes to female infanticide and neglect of daughters. The belief in "karma" or reincarnation was once considered to be antagonistic to the practice of contraception and birth control. Education and literacy have increased the acceptance of modern contraception. Awareness of population growth as a potential problem is prevalent among educated Hindus. The government of Mysore was the first in the world to establish a birth control clinic. The National Planning Committee of the Indian National Congress advocated family planning and birth limiting since 1935. PMID:12345274

  7. Hindu Mythology: Gods, Goddesses and Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ring, Diane M.

    This unit on Hindu mythology is designed to help secondary students see beyond the exotic elements of another culture to the things its people have in common with people in the West: a continuous effort to find a purpose in existence, to explain the unknown, and to define good and bad, right and wrong. Students are asked to analyze Hindu religious…

  8. Puja: Expressions of Hindu Devotion. Guide for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridley, Sarah

    This teaching packet serves as a unit by itself or as part of preparation unit for a visit to the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery to see the exhibition "Puja: Expressions of Hindu Devotion." Focusing on Hindu religious objects found in an art museum, the packet suggests connections between art and world studies themes. In addition, these highly symbolic…

  9. Ischiopagus and diprosopus in India: two pairs of conjoined twins perceived as incarnations of Hindu deities.

    PubMed

    Tubbs, R Shane; Ditty, Benjamin; Bosmia, Anand N; Bosmia, Arpan N

    2015-02-01

    This article briefly reviews two specific types of conjoined twins, ischiopagus and diprosopus, and discusses recent cases of such twins born in India. Some members of the Hindu community worshiped these conjoined twins as incarnations of Hindu deities. In discussing this phenomenon, the authors aim to elucidate certain features of the faith tradition of Hinduism itself. The reception of these conjoined twins as incarnations of Hindu deities can be understood by examining two salient features of Hindu polytheism: the pictorial depiction of Hindu deities with multiple appendages and the concept of an incarnation, or avatar, of a Hindu deity. PMID:23733407

  10. Morality and moral development: Traditional Hindu concepts.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Chhitij; Dhingra, Vishal; Bhardwaj, Anupam; Srivastava, Alka

    2013-01-01

    Morality (from the Latin word moralitas that means "manner, character, proper behavior") is the differentiation of intentions, decisions, and actions between those that are good (or right) and those that are bad (or wrong). It is determined by how one's genetic makeup interacts with the environment. The development of morality has been a subject of investigation for a number of decades, and our understanding of neuro-biological and psychological mechanisms has increased manifolds in the last few decades. Development of morality has been of particular significance to psychiatric literature because of its significant contribution to the development of one's personality and it's aberration in various disorders. Cultures that have been just, equal and moral have been widely accepted and appreciated. In this review, we shall summarize the modern theories of moral development and then look into a part of our past and cultural heritage and review the traditional Hindu concepts of morality and their contribution to development of one's personality and their relevance in the current times. PMID:23858269

  11. Morality and moral development: Traditional Hindu concepts

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Chhitij; Dhingra, Vishal; Bhardwaj, Anupam; Srivastava, Alka

    2013-01-01

    Morality (from the Latin word moralitas that means “manner, character, proper behavior”) is the differentiation of intentions, decisions, and actions between those that are good (or right) and those that are bad (or wrong). It is determined by how one's genetic makeup interacts with the environment. The development of morality has been a subject of investigation for a number of decades, and our understanding of neuro-biological and psychological mechanisms has increased manifolds in the last few decades. Development of morality has been of particular significance to psychiatric literature because of its significant contribution to the development of one's personality and it's aberration in various disorders. Cultures that have been just, equal and moral have been widely accepted and appreciated. In this review, we shall summarize the modern theories of moral development and then look into a part of our past and cultural heritage and review the traditional Hindu concepts of morality and their contribution to development of one's personality and their relevance in the current times. PMID:23858269

  12. A Resource Guide for Teachers of Hindu Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meehan, John L., Ed.; And Others

    Focusing on Hinduism, India, and Indian literature, this course guide offers help in organizing a course or units of instruction. The guide contains a historical outline of the evolution of Hinduism over a period of 3,000 years; a glossary listing terms in the guide and in Hindu literature; five courses of different time lengths (the literature of…

  13. Promoting Education for Sustainability in a Vaishnava (Hindu) Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chauhan, Sheila; Rama das, Sita; Rita, Natalia; Haigh, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Education for a sustainable future aspires to increase pro-environmental behavior. This evaluates a project designed to help a British Vaishnava congregation reduce their ecological footprint by linking "Karma to Climate Change." It employs a tented educational experience fielded at major Hindu Festivals. Participants are guided through a linked…

  14. Multiculturalism and "American" Religion: The Case of Hindu Indian Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurien, Prema A.

    2006-01-01

    How non-Christian religious groups should be politically recognized within Western multicultural societies has proved to be a pressing contemporary issue. This article examines some ways in which American policies regarding religion and multiculturalism have shaped Hindu Indian American organizations, forms of public expression and activism.…

  15. Reasoning about Family Honour among Two Generations of Hindu Indian-Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Adam

    2012-01-01

    To investigate reasoning about family honour, 128 first generation (mean age = 27.2 years) and second generation Hindu Indian-American adults (mean age = 24.7 years) were presented hypothetical scenarios in which male or female protagonists defied common Hindu customs (e.g., arranged marriage, intra-religion marriage and premarital sexual…

  16. Precepts and Practices: Researching Identity Formation among Indian Hindu Adolescents in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Barbara D.

    1995-01-01

    Presents general comments on economic, political and demographic features of Indian Hindu community in the United States. Describes preliminary findings on precepts and practices related to identity formation among Indian Hindu youth. Highlights practices related to dress and hair behaviors and gender differences. Presents questions for further…

  17. A Room with a View: Accommodating Hindu Religious Practice on a College Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chander, Vineet

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the question of how to best accommodate Hindu practice on college campuses by contrasting the dedication of a prayer room with the hiring of a Hindu chaplain. The author suggests that this dichotomy--of an impersonal physical space ("a room") on the one hand, and a chaplain empowered to lead a community ("a view") on the…

  18. Hindu Responses to Darwinism: Assimilation and Rejection in a Colonial and Post-Colonial Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, C. Mackenzie

    2010-01-01

    Hindu responses to Darwinism, like Christian, have run the gamut from outright rejection to fairly robust but limited accommodations of the Darwinian perspective. Despite certain features of Hindu thought such as the enormous time-scales of traditional cosmogonies that may suggest considerable affinity with modern notions of organic evolution,

  19. Hindu Responses to Darwinism: Assimilation and Rejection in a Colonial and Post-Colonial Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, C. Mackenzie

    2010-01-01

    Hindu responses to Darwinism, like Christian, have run the gamut from outright rejection to fairly robust but limited accommodations of the Darwinian perspective. Despite certain features of Hindu thought such as the enormous time-scales of traditional cosmogonies that may suggest considerable affinity with modern notions of organic evolution,…

  20. Reasoning about Family Honour among Two Generations of Hindu Indian-Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Adam

    2012-01-01

    To investigate reasoning about family honour, 128 first generation (mean age = 27.2 years) and second generation Hindu Indian-American adults (mean age = 24.7 years) were presented hypothetical scenarios in which male or female protagonists defied common Hindu customs (e.g., arranged marriage, intra-religion marriage and premarital sexual

  1. Sacred rivers: their spiritual significance in Hindu religion.

    PubMed

    Agoramoorthy, Govindasamy

    2015-06-01

    The ancient civilizations in India, China, Egypt and Mesopotamia have flourished due to large rivers that provided water for agriculture over millennia. Egypt was able to grow well because of the Nile. Similarly, Mesopotamia had two rivers namely the Tigris and the Euphrates. Likewise, India and China have several great rivers that continue to support the agrarian culture. This article discusses the sacred significance of rivers in the ancient and contemporary Indian culture with examples from popular Hindu scriptures. It also presents the ancient model of an eco-friendly check dam and its modern application with potential to mitigate future water-related problems across the drylands of India and elsewhere. PMID:25183514

  2. Neotectonic inversion of the Hindu Kush-Pamir mountain region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruleman, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    The Hindu Kush-Pamir region of southern Asia is one of Earth's most rapidly deforming regions and it is poorly understood. This study develops a kinematic model based on active faulting in this part of the Trans-Himalayan orogenic belt. Previous studies have described north-verging thrust faults and some strike-slip faults, reflected in the northward-convex geomorphologic and structural grain of the Pamir Mountains. However, this structural analysis suggests that contemporary tectonics are changing the style of deformation from north-verging thrusts formed during the initial contraction of the Himalayan orogeny to south-verging thrusts and a series of northwest-trending, dextral strike-slip faults in the modern transpressional regime. These northwest-trending fault zones are linked to the major right-lateral Karakoram fault, located to the east, as synthetic, conjugate shears that form a right-stepping en echelon pattern. Northwest-trending lineaments with dextral displacements extend continuously westward across the Hindu Kush-Pamir region indicating a pattern of systematic shearing of multiple blocks to the northwest as the deformation effects from Indian plate collision expands to the north-northwest. Locally, east-northeast- and northwest-trending faults display sinistral and dextral displacement, respectively, yielding conjugate shear pairs developed in a northwest-southeast compressional stress field. Geodetic measurements and focal mechanisms from historical seismicity support these surficial, tectono-morphic observations. The conjugate shear pairs may be structurally linked subsidiary faults and co-seismically slip during single large magnitude (> M7) earthquakes that occur on major south-verging thrust faults. This kinematic model provides a potential context for prehistoric, historic, and future patterns of faulting and earthquakes.

  3. End-of-life care beliefs among Hindu physicians in the United States.

    PubMed

    Ramalingam, Vijaya Sivalingam; Saeed, Fahad; Sinnakirouchenan, Ramapriya; Holley, Jean L; Srinivasan, Sinnakirouchenan

    2015-02-01

    Several studies from the United States and Europe showed that physicians' religiosity is associated with their approach to end-of-life care beliefs. No such studies have focused exclusively on Hindu physicians practicing in the United States. A 34-item questionnaire was sent to 293 Hindu physicians in the United States. Most participants believed that their religious beliefs do not influence their practice of medicine and do not interfere with withdrawal of life support. The US practice of discussing end-of-life issues with the patient, rather than primarily with the family, seems to have been adopted by Hindu physicians practicing in the United States. It is likely that the ethical, cultural, and patient-centered environment of US health care has influenced the practice of end-of-life care by Hindu physicians in this country. PMID:24052431

  4. Snow cover changes in the Hindu-Kush Karakoram Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terzago, Silvia; Von Hardenberg, Jost; Palazzi, Elisa; Provenzale, Antonello

    2013-04-01

    Snow cover plays a key role in high-altitude environments, and changes in the snow spatial/temporal distribution and thickness affect energy, radiation and water budgets at the Earth's surface. In particular, a reduction in the snow amount has a direct effect on the availability and seasonal distribution of water resources. This is especially true in areas such as the Hindu-Kush Karakoram Himalaya (HKKH) region, which provides water to about 1.5 Billion peoples in India, Nepal, Pakistan and China. Despite its importance, knowledge on snow dynamics in the HKKH region is still incomplete, owing also to sparse and sporadic surface observations. In this work, we used simulations from Global Climate Models (GCMs) to gain information on snowpack characteristics and climatology in the HKKH region. We selected a set of GCM snow depth datasets from the CMIP5 ensemble, esploring snow abundance and distribution at monthly scale. In order to investigate how well Global Climate Models represent the snow climatology, we compared the results with the ERA-Interim reanalysis, used as an approximation to the real conditions. After exploring the average snow conditions in the last decades, we analyzed the effects of climate change in the HKKH region by using an ensemble of future snow projections obtained from different GCMs and in different climate change scenarios.

  5. Hindu Responses to Darwinism: Assimilation and Rejection in a Colonial and Post-Colonial Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKenzie Brown, C.

    2010-06-01

    Hindu responses to Darwinism, like Christian, have run the gamut from outright rejection to fairly robust but limited accommodations of the Darwinian perspective. Despite certain features of Hindu thought such as the enormous time-scales of traditional cosmogonies that may suggest considerable affinity with modern notions of organic evolution, more often than not traditional assumptions have worked against deep engagement with Darwinism, allowing only for superficial assimilation at best. Three fundamental factors have affected Hindu responses to Darwinism: the great diversity within the tradition spanning evolutionist and creationist perspectives, the encounter with Darwinism in the late nineteenth century as part of an alien culture, and the fact that this encounter occurred within a colonial context. This essay explores the complex interactions of these three factors, beginning with the diversity within the ancient and classical cosmological traditions, followed by consideration of colonial developments and the emergence of four representative Hindu approaches to Darwinism: Modern Vedic Evolutionism, Anthropic Vedic Evolutionism, Reactionary Vedic Evolutionism, and Modern Vedic Creationism. The essay concludes by discussing various epistemological issues in the attempts of modern Hindu apologists to legitimize Vedic world views. These issues include the appeal to modern science to confirm traditional ideals and values, while simultaneously subordinating scientific method to spiritual means of knowledge, or rejecting scientific methodology with its inbuilt skepticism entirely.

  6. North Indian Muslims: enclaves of foreign DNA or Hindu converts?

    PubMed

    Terreros, Maria C; Rowold, Diane; Luis, Javier R; Khan, Faisal; Agrawal, Suraksha; Herrera, Rene J

    2007-07-01

    The mtDNA composition of two Muslim sects from the northern Indian province of Uttar Pradesh, the Sunni and Shia, have been delineated using sequence information from hypervariable regions 1 and 2 (HVI and HVII, respectively) as well as coding region polymorphisms. A comparison of this data to that from Middle Eastern, Central Asian, North East African, and other Indian groups reveals that, at the mtDNA haplogroup level, both of these Indo-Sunni and Indo-Shia populations are more similar to each other and other Indian groups than to those from the other regions. In addition, these two Muslim sects exhibit a conspicuous absence of West Asian mtDNA haplogroups suggesting that their maternal lineages are of Indian origin. Furthermore, it is noteworthy that the maternal lineage data indicates differences between the Sunni and Shia collections of Uttar Pradesh with respect to the relative distributions of Indian-specific M sub-haplogroups (Indo Shia > Indo Sunni) and the R haplogroup (Indo Sunni > Indo Shia), a disparity that does not appear to be related to social status or geographic regions within India. Finally, the mtDNA data integrated with the Y-chromosome results from an earlier study, which indicated a major Indian genetic (Y-chromosomal) contribution as well, suggests a scenario of Hindu to Islamic conversion in these two populations. However, given the substantial level of the African/Middle Eastern YAP lineage in the Indo-Shia versus its absence in the Indo-Sunni, it is likely that this conversion was somewhat gender biased in favor of females in the Indo-Shia. PMID:17427927

  7. Gender and Religious Tradition: The Role-Learning of British Hindu Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesbitt, Eleanor

    1993-01-01

    Describes research among 8- through 13-year-old Hindu children of Punjabi and Gujarati origin in Coventry (England) between 1986 and 1989. Highlights areas of their experience in which their gender is decisive in relation to the role expectations enunciated by the children. Teachers must affirm the culture of their students. (JB)

  8. Death Beliefs and Practices from an Asian Indian American Hindu Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Rashmi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to explore Asian Indian American Hindu (AIAH) cultural views related to death and dying. Three focus group interviews were conducted with AIAH persons living in the southern region of United States. The focus group consisted of senior citizens, middle-aged adults, and young adults. Both open-ended and semistructured…

  9. Who Is to Blame? Rape of Hindu-Muslim Women in Interethnic Violence in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murthi, Meera

    2009-01-01

    This research examined attitudes that predict rape blame in contexts of interethnic violence between minority Muslims and dominant Hindu communities in Mumbai, India. I hypothesized that, in contexts of interethnic violence, prejudicial attitudes toward communities and attitudes that view rape as a conflict tool (i.e., an effective strategy to

  10. Who Is to Blame? Rape of Hindu-Muslim Women in Interethnic Violence in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murthi, Meera

    2009-01-01

    This research examined attitudes that predict rape blame in contexts of interethnic violence between minority Muslims and dominant Hindu communities in Mumbai, India. I hypothesized that, in contexts of interethnic violence, prejudicial attitudes toward communities and attitudes that view rape as a conflict tool (i.e., an effective strategy to…

  11. The Education of Hindu Priests in the Diaspora: Assessing the Value of Community of Practice Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verma, Michele

    2010-01-01

    The utility and limitations of Lave and Wenger's social theory of learning can be evaluated through specific case studies which enhance our understanding of how education proceeds in diverse contexts. Here I provide an ethnographic case study of the training of Caribbean-born Hindu "pandits" ("priests") living and working in Queens, New York.…

  12. Magmatism and metamorphism linked to the accretion of continental blocks south of the Hindu Kush, Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faryad, Shah Wali; Collett, Stephen; Petterson, Mike; Sergeev, Sergey A.

    2013-08-01

    Metamorphic basement rocks in the southern part of the Western Hindu Kush at contact with the Kabul and Helmand crustal blocks were investigated to elucidate pressure-temperature variation and relative time relations among different metamorphic rocks. The rocks are represented by Proterozoic amphibolite facies para-/orthogneisses and migmatites with low-grade Paleozoic volcano-sedimentary sequences. Major- and trace-element geochemistry from two orthogneiss bodies and geochronological data, including new SHRIMP analyses on zircon from one of these bodies shows that they are derived from granitic rocks that related to two different magmatic arcs of Triassic and Cretaceous ages. The Triassic granites are common in the Western Hindu Kush where they intrude basement units; the Cretaceous granitic belt crosses the Afghan Central blocks south of the Hindu Kush Mountains. Three different metamorphic events have been distinguished in the southern part of Western Hindu Kush. Based on an unconformity between basement units and Carboniferous cover sequences, the first two amphibolite and greenschist facies metamorphic events are Proterozoic and Pre-Carboniferous in age respectively. The third metamorphism was recognized in Triassic and Cretaceous granitic rocks near to contact with the Kabul Block. It is of Eocene age and reached medium pressure amphibolite facies conditions. This event is genetically linked to the collision of India and Eurasia which produced a series of trans-Afghan Central block magmatic arcs and crustal scale deformation.

  13. Evidence for deeply subducting Asian lithosphere beneath the Pamir-Hindu Kush region from lithospheric imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kufner, Sofia-Katerina; Schurr, Bernd; Sippl, Christian; Schneider, Felix; Yuan, Xiaohui; Ischuk, Anatoly; Arib, Arib; Murodkulov, Shohruhk; Haberland, Christian; Mechie, James; Bianchi, Marcelo; Tilmann, Frederik

    2014-05-01

    The Pamir-Hindu Kush region, located north of the western Himalayan syntaxis, remains one of the most puzzling regions in the Indian-Eurasian collision system. In contrast to the Himalaya and Tibet, the Pamir and Hindu Kush feature a narrow, curved zone of intense intermediate depth seismicity, reaching depths greater than 250 km. The Pamir seismicity has been linked to subduction of Eurasian lithosphere. The origin of the material hosting the Hindu Kush earthquakes as well as their relation to the Pamir seismic zone is still a topic of debate. Here we present results from a teleseismic tomography that puts new constraints on the deep structure of this region. We use teleseismic P-wave travel times of approx. 800 earthquakes recorded by 180 seismic stations of several temporary networks (mainly TIPAGE, FERGHANA, and TIPTIMON) that were deployed between 2008 to 2013 and cover significant parts of the western Tien Shan, Pamir and Hindu Kush. In total about 35.000 P-wave travel time residuals are inverted for P-wave velocity perturbation. Beneath the Pamir, our velocity model images an arcuate, slab-like high velocity structure, coinciding with the seismogenic plane at the upper level. In the eastern Pamir the high velocity structure does not extend much deeper than the local seismicity but in the south-western Pamir, the structure can be traced to the bottom of the transition zone at about 600 km, indicating the presence of dense, cold Eurasian lithosphere at much greater depths than the depth extent of the seismicity would suggest. The stress regime derived from source mechanisms of intermediate depth earthquakes suggests that the current driving force, pulling the Pamir slab down seems to be this seismically fast body deep in the mantle. In contrast to the Pamir, the Hindu Kush seismicity does not occur clearly connected to a high velocity structure, but to near average or even low velocities. However a fast anomaly is imaged just below the deepest Hindu Kush earthquakes. The down-dip extensional stress regime governing these earthquakes indicates that the deep, high velocity body is probably not completely detached so that it can still pull on the shallower structure where the earthquakes are occurring. The Hindu Kush fast anomaly merges at depth with the deepest part of the Pamir slab but both structures are clearly separated at shallower levels. This configuration as well as the common stress regime that drives the Pamir and Hindu Kush earthquakes cannot be easily reconciled with a purely (Greater)India origin of the Hindu Kush earthquakes and mantle anomaly. Nevertheless, it would allow two possible scenarios regarding the tectonic history of the region: either the Pamir and Hindu Kush form two separated down-going structures which only converge at depth or that both anomalies have been connected in the past also at shallower levels but later were torn apart e.g. by a salient in the advancing Indian indenter.

  14. Evidence for deeply subducting Asian lithosphere beneath the Pamir-Hindu Kush region from teleseismic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kufner, S.; Schurr, B.; Yuan, X.; Schneider, F.; Ischuk, A.; Murodkulov, S.; Bianchi, M.; Haberland, C. A.; Sippl, C.; Mechie, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Pamir - Hindu Kush mountain ranges are located north of the western syntax of the Indian-Eurasian collision system. The Pamir has been displaced at least 300 km to the north relative to Tibet based on e.g. the correlation of the offsets of major tectonic structures. The Pamir hosts a peculiar south-dipping intermediate depth (~80-250 km depth) earthquake zone that has been linked to subduction of Eurasian lithosphere. Under the Hindu Kush deep earthquakes also occur in steeply dipping compact and very active cluster. The Pamir and Hindu Kush seismic zones abut at the shallowest level, just below the Moho, but are clearly separated by a seismic gap deeper down. However, their structural connection, formation history and provenience are still puzzling. Here, we use teleseismic P-wave travel times from three temporary seismic networks and additional permanent seismic stations covering a significant part of the central Asian mountain zone for a regional tomography to illuminate their deep structure. Utilizing approx. 800 earthquakes at epicentral distances between 25 to 95 degree recorded from mid-2008 until now at more than 160 regional stations. Because the Hindu Kush in NE Afghanistan has no station coverage, we take advantage of station-receiver reciprocity, and supplement our data set with frequently occurring Hindu Kush earthquakes, recorded at teleseismic stations, there. For this purpose we extracted travel times for about 400 well located earthquakes between 1970 and 2006 from a global catalog. In the resulting tomographic model, the Pamir and the western Hindu-Kush are underlain by high velocity zones (HVZ) at shallow mantle depths. A pronounced low velocity anomaly separates both features. At depths below 300 to 400 km this low velocity zone diminishes allowing the regions of high velocity to connect beneath the Hindu-Kush. Associated with this, the orientation of the Pamir high velocity structure changes to be aligned in west-east direction at depths of 600 km. The shallow Pamir HVZ is connected to this deep structure only at its westernmost tip. The shape and orientation of these different high-velocity fragments suggest that they were once connected. As the Pamir started to shift towards the north, the already then southward subducting lithosphere was stretched and eventually started to break at the points where the stress was most intense or the lithosphere was weakest. Considering the high velocity anomalies in our model, the lithosphere could have ruptured at the transition between Pamir and Hindu-Kush and at depth in the eastern Pamir near its boundary with Tarim. If this assumption is true, it would possibly imply a longer history of one-sided lithospheric subduction in the Pamir-Hindu Kush region than was thought before, to account for the whole length of the imaged high velocity structures.

  15. Seismic Anisotropy and Mantle Deformation beneath the Hindu Kush-Pamir Mountains and the Tadjik Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, J. M.; Fischer, K. M.; MacDougall, J.

    2013-12-01

    With the goal of measuring seismic anisotropy and understanding mantle deformation at the western edge of the India-Eurasia collision zone, we measured shear-wave splitting in local S and teleseismic SKS/SKKS phases recorded by six stations of the Tajikistan National Seismic Network distributed in the Hindu Kush and Pamir mountains and the Tadjik Basin, which lies to their west. The Hindu Kush/Pamir seismic zone, with hypocenters as deep as 280 km, offers an unusual opportunity to resolve the distribution of anisotropy with depth using shear-wave splitting in a continental interior. Local S splitting times from earthquakes at depths of 90 to 268 km range from 0.13-0.62 s with an average of 0.32 s. Local S fast polarizations from phases that sample the mantle beneath the Hindu Kush mountains are aligned predominantly 45 - 60 E of N, roughly parallel to the strike of the mountains. In contrast, local S phases sampling the Tadjik Basin west of the Hindu Kush, produce fast polarizations at 90 - 150 degrees E of N. Teleseismic phase delay times are larger, ranging from 0.7-2.1 s. Teleseismic fast polarizations are 60 - 80 degrees E of N, except at the westernmost station in the Tadjik Basin where fast polarizations are 0 - 30 degrees E of N. Prior tomography studies indicate that local S paths primarily sample lithosphere. Local S polarizations for paths in Hindu Kush lithosphere are consistent with olivine lattice preferred orientation produced by upper plate compression due to India-Eurasia convergence. Local S fast polarizations from paths in Tadjik Basin lithosphere suggest a rotation of the orientation of lithospheric deformation between this region and the Hindu Kush, and they are not obviously consistent with the direction of recent shortening in the basin. Differences between teleseismic and local S splitting measurements are evidence for significant anisotropy in the asthenosphere and deep lithosphere. SKS/SKKS fast polarizations are in general consistent with the orientation of asthenospheric shear that would be predicted by plate motion in a no-net rotation reference frame. However, the more northerly teleseismic fast polarizations in the western Tadjik Basin suggest either a rotation in asthenospheric flow or very strong lithospheric anisotropy with north-oriented olivine a-axes.

  16. Death beliefs and practices from an Asian Indian American Hindu perspective.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rashmi

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this article was to explore Asian Indian American Hindu (AIAH) cultural views related to death and dying. Three focus group interviews were conducted with AIAH persons living in the southern region of United States. The focus group consisted of senior citizens, middle-aged adults, and young adults. Both open-ended and semistructured questions were asked to elicit discussions that would uncover the meanings respondents attribute to death, as well as their pre- and post-death practices. All the sessions were tape recorded. Two independent researchers examined the transcripts of the 3 sessions and generated common themes. The results of this qualitative study indicate that all 3 generations were believers in the afterlife and the karmic philosophy. However, they exhibited differences in the degree to which Hindu traditions surrounding death and bereavement have been influenced by the fact that they live in the United States. Implications for service providers are included. PMID:24501845

  17. Fasts, feasts and festivals in diabetes-1: Glycemic management during Hindu fasts.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Sanjay; Bajaj, Sarita; Gupta, Yashdeep; Agarwal, Pankaj; Singh, S K; Julka, Sandeep; Chawla, Rajeev; Agrawal, Navneet

    2015-01-01

    This communication is the first of a series on South Asian fasts, festivals, and diabetes, designed to spread awareness and stimulate research on this aspect of diabetes and metabolic care. It describes the various fasts observed as part of Hindu religion and offers a classification scheme for them, labeling them as infrequent and frequent. The infrequent fasts are further sub-classified as brief and prolonged, to facilitate a scientific approach to glycemic management during these fasts. Pre-fast counseling, non-pharmacological therapy, pharmacological modification, and post-fast debriefing are discussed in detail. All available drug classes and molecules are covered in this article, which provides guidance about necessary changes in dosage and timing of administration. While in no way exhaustive, the brief review offers a basic framework which diabetes care professionals can use to counsel and manage persons in their care who wish to observe various Hindu fasts. PMID:25729681

  18. Fasts, feasts and festivals in diabetes-1: Glycemic management during Hindu fasts

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Sanjay; Bajaj, Sarita; Gupta, Yashdeep; Agarwal, Pankaj; Singh, S. K.; Julka, Sandeep; Chawla, Rajeev; Agrawal, Navneet

    2015-01-01

    This communication is the first of a series on South Asian fasts, festivals, and diabetes, designed to spread awareness and stimulate research on this aspect of diabetes and metabolic care. It describes the various fasts observed as part of Hindu religion and offers a classification scheme for them, labeling them as infrequent and frequent. The infrequent fasts are further sub-classified as brief and prolonged, to facilitate a scientific approach to glycemic management during these fasts. Pre-fast counseling, non-pharmacological therapy, pharmacological modification, and post-fast debriefing are discussed in detail. All available drug classes and molecules are covered in this article, which provides guidance about necessary changes in dosage and timing of administration. While in no way exhaustive, the brief review offers a basic framework which diabetes care professionals can use to counsel and manage persons in their care who wish to observe various Hindu fasts. PMID:25729681

  19. Experiences in Sport, Physical Activity, and Physical Education Among Christian, Buddhist, and Hindu Asian Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Kodani, Iku; Gupta, Nidhi; Gill, Diane L.

    2013-01-01

    Multicultural scholarship in sport and exercise psychology should help us understand and apply cultural competencies for all to be physically active. In the present study, two Asian countries, Japan and Singapore, were chosen. The participation rate for physical activities among adolescent girls tends to be lower than that of boys in both countries. Thus, the purpose of the project was to gain knowledge and understanding about sociocultural factors that may explain adolescent girls' perceptions and behaviors toward sport, physical activity, and physical education (PE). A qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews with focus groups was used to understand meanings of physical activity among Buddhist Japanese, and Hindu Indians and Christian Chinese from Singapore. Each focus group consisted of four or five girls and female researchers. Based on the analysis, we created four themes which were "cultural identities," "Asian girls and sport/physical activities," "PE experiences," "motivation for future involvement." The Buddhist Japanese, Hindu Indian, and Christian Chinese participants each reported unique physical activity experiences, and all the participants were aware of how Asian culture may affect being physically active. Experiences of PE classes were similar but perceptions of their PE attire were different for Christian Chinese and Hindu Indian adolescent girls. Based on the results, the importance of nurturing cultural competencies and ways to encourage girls to be physically active throughout life were discussed. PMID:23412952

  20. Experiences in sport, physical activity, and physical education among Christian, Buddhist, and Hindu Asian adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Araki, Kaori; Kodani, Iku; Gupta, Nidhi; Gill, Diane L

    2013-01-01

    Multicultural scholarship in sport and exercise psychology should help us understand and apply cultural competencies for all to be physically active. In the present study, two Asian countries, Japan and Singapore, were chosen. The participation rate for physical activities among adolescent girls tends to be lower than that of boys in both countries. Thus, the purpose of the project was to gain knowledge and understanding about sociocultural factors that may explain adolescent girls' perceptions and behaviors toward sport, physical activity, and physical education (PE). A qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews with focus groups was used to understand meanings of physical activity among Buddhist Japanese, and Hindu Indians and Christian Chinese from Singapore. Each focus group consisted of four or five girls and female researchers. Based on the analysis, we created four themes which were "cultural identities," "Asian girls and sport/physical activities," "PE experiences," "motivation for future involvement." The Buddhist Japanese, Hindu Indian, and Christian Chinese participants each reported unique physical activity experiences, and all the participants were aware of how Asian culture may affect being physically active. Experiences of PE classes were similar but perceptions of their PE attire were different for Christian Chinese and Hindu Indian adolescent girls. Based on the results, the importance of nurturing cultural competencies and ways to encourage girls to be physically active throughout life were discussed. PMID:23412952

  1. Source-side splitting of S waves from Hindu Kush-Pamir earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoenecker, S. C.; Russo, R. M.; Silver, P. G.

    1997-09-01

    We present eight new measurements of source-side S shear wave splitting parameters derived from 20 earthquakes in the Hindu Kush region. For each event-station pair we corrected for receiver-side splitting in order to isolate the source-side contribution to observed splitting. The receiver correction splitting parameters were taken from published values, but we confirmed these values to ensure their accuracy, when possible, via our own observations of SKS splitting at the stations. For two events we found source-side splitting parameters that were identical within errors after correction for receiver splitting at two distant stations with different receiver splitting parameters. Fast polarization directions, ø, vary systematically both geographically along the Hindu Kush and Pamir subducted slabs, and with depth: at around 100 km depth in the transition region between the two slabs, ø's trend north; at >200 km depth in the Hindu Kush slab, ø's trend east-northeast, approximately parallel to the strike of the slab; one measurement at 120 km depth in the Pamir slab trends within 20° of the local slab strike. Delay times, δt, range from 2.3 to 3.7 s, indicating strong upper mantle deformation and alignment of olivine, and/or long source-side travel paths through the anisotropic medium. We interpret our results in the context of two subducted slabs of opposite dip (Hindu Kush slab dipping north, Pamir slab dipping southeast) and shear and compressional flattening around the two slabs caused by the India-Eurasia collision. Thus, north-trending ø's at 100 km depth in the transition zone between the two slabs probably represent shear-alignment of upper mantle olivine along the western boundary of the Indian continental lithosphere, now indenting Eurasia along reactivated Mesozoic sutures such as the Chaman Fault. ENE-trending ø's from events deeper in the Hindu Kush slab represent flattening and mantle flow along the slab below 200 km. A similar, horizontal slab-parallel flow or olivine alignment may occur beneath the Pamir slab, on the basis of our one measurement there.

  2. Geometry of the Pamir-Hindu Kush intermediate-depth earthquake zone from local seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sippl, C.; Schurr, B.; Yuan, X.; Mechie, J.; Schneider, F. M.; Gadoev, M.; Orunbaev, S.; Oimahmadov, I.; Haberland, C.; Abdybachaev, U.; Minaev, V.; Negmatullaev, S.; Radjabov, N.

    2013-04-01

    We present new seismicity images based on a two-year seismic deployment in the Pamir and SW Tien Shan. A total of 9532 earthquakes were detected, located, and rigorously assessed in a multistage automatic procedure utilizing state-of-the-art picking algorithms, waveform cross-correlation, and multi-event relocation. The obtained catalog provides new information on crustal seismicity and reveals the geometry and internal structure of the Pamir-Hindu Kush intermediate-depth seismic zone with improved detail and resolution. The relocated seismicity clearly defines at least two distinct planes: one beneath the Pamir and the other beneath the Hindu Kush, separated by a gap across which strike and dip directions change abruptly. The Pamir seismic zone forms a thin (approximately 10 km width), curviplanar arc that strikes east-west and dips south at its eastern end and then progressively turns by 90° to reach a north-south strike and a due eastward dip at its southwestern termination. Pamir deep seismicity outlines several streaks at depths between 70 and 240 km, with the deepest events occurring at its southwestern end. Intermediate-depth earthquakes are clearly separated from shallow crustal seismicity, which is confined to the uppermost 20-25 km. The Hindu Kush seismic zone extends from 40 to 250 km depth and generally strikes east-west, yet bends northeast, toward the Pamir, at its eastern end. It may be divided vertically into upper and lower parts separated by a gap at approximately 150 km depth. In the upper part, events form a plane that is 15-25 km thick in cross section and dips sub-vertically north to northwest. Seismic activity is more virile in the lower part, where several distinct clusters form a complex pattern of sub-parallel planes. The observed geometry could be reconciled either with a model of two-sided subduction of Eurasian and previously underthrusted Indian continental lithosphere or by a purely Eurasian origin of both Pamir and Hindu Kush seismic zones, which necessitates a contortion and oversteepening of the latter.

  3. Partitioning of India-Eurasia convergence in the Pamir-Hindu Kush from GPS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohadjer, S.; Bendick, R.; Ischuk, A.; Kuzikov, S.; Kostuk, A.; Saydullaev, U.; Lodi, S.; Kakar, D. M.; Wasy, A.; Khan, M. A.; Molnar, P.; Bilham, R.; Zubovich, A. V.

    2010-02-01

    Convergence of 29 ± 1 mm/yr between the NW corner of the Indian plate and Asia is accommodated by a combination of thrust and strike-slip faulting on prominent faults and apparent distributed deformation within the Hindu Kush, Pamir, South Tien Shan and Kohistan Ranges. An upper bound to the slip rate of known faults is obtained by ignoring distributed strain and rotation: convergence occurs on thrust faults north of the Peshawar Basin (13 ± 1 mm/yr) and in the Alai-South Tien Shan (12 ± 2 mm/yr), and shear on the northeast-trending northern Chaman-Gardiz-Konar system (18 ± 1mm/yr) and the Darvaz-Karakul fault zone (11 ± 2 mm/yr). Slip rates on the Herat and Talas-Ferghana faults are small (<2 mm/yr). Shortening not attributable to known active faults occurs within the Hindu Kush and central Pamir (16 ± 2 mm/yr) with concomitant east-west extension in the latter of 9 ± 2 mm/yr. This diversity of strain styles confirms the importance of mechanical heterogeneity to continental tectonics and shows that the Pamir, although less than half the size, behaves more like Tibet than like a linear belt of localized deformation.

  4. Once in Contact, Always in Contact: Contagious Essence and Conceptions of Purification in American and Hindu Indian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hejmadi, Ahalya; Rozin, Paul; Siegal, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Cultural and age differences in responses to contamination and conceptions of purification were examined in Hindu Indian (N = 125) and American (N = 106) 4- to 5-year-olds and 8-year-olds, who were provided with stories of juice contaminated by contact with a cockroach, a human hair, and a stranger (via sipping). Children who rejected the juice as…

  5. Once in Contact, Always in Contact: Contagious Essence and Conceptions of Purification in American and Hindu Indian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hejmadi, Ahalya; Rozin, Paul; Siegal, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Cultural and age differences in responses to contamination and conceptions of purification were examined in Hindu Indian (N = 125) and American (N = 106) 4- to 5-year-olds and 8-year-olds, who were provided with stories of juice contaminated by contact with a cockroach, a human hair, and a stranger (via sipping). Children who rejected the juice as

  6. Corresponding Values and Colonising Discourses: Situating "Hindu Children" and Their Values in Relation to Hegemonic Norwegian Discourses about Religious Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicolaisen, Tove

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the relationship between values expressed by "Hindu children" in Norway and hegemonic "Norwegian values". The discussion is based on interviews with children from the Indian Punjabi and the Sri Lankan Tamil traditions and on observations in religious education (RE) lessons. The children emphasise the culture of their…

  7. Thandai and chilam: traditional Hindu beliefs about the proper uses of Cannabis.

    PubMed

    Morningstar, P J

    1985-01-01

    Hindu beliefs about appropriate use of cannabis illustrate the capacity of cultural systems to order and direct the course of complex phenomenal events. Cannabis manifests diverse and contradictory effects. These depend not only on dose, frequency and route of administration, but also on subjective and cultural contexts (e.g., Pihl, Shea & Costa 1979). It may very well be that the contradictory results of modern research investigations on cannabis stem from the intricacy of these interactions. Given the current state of the art, paradigms of research methodology may very well be inadequate to develop an understanding of such a paradoxical drug. The Hindu cultural system, on the other hand, accommodates the ambiguities of cannabis through its own complex nature. It provides diverse niches through which antithetical effects of the drug are expressed. Cannabis is said to both interfere with motivation to work and facilitate it. A closer examination reveals that these actions are probably related to the way in which this motivation toward action is defined, and the level of use of the drug. While cannabis appears to interfere with execution of highly complex tasks and the long-range planning that accompanies them, it may facilitate concentrated focus on repetitive endeavors. In some commonsense way, it may be quite simply that it changes a user's sense of time and the span of the present as well as the sense of relative importance of present and future. So long as an individual is under the influence of this effect (and living in the context that s/he has structured as a result of it), the urgency of accomplishment in the Western sense is diminished. The Hindu belief system accommodates this by prescribing use in such a way that this effect becomes beneficial. A key factor is that low potency preparations (bhang, thandai) are available. It allows individuals with complex life tasks, goals and obligations to indulge in moderation. The drug is also taken in a ritualized context, facilitating concentration and relaxation. It is taken at times, such as in the evening or on holidays, in which focus on the immediate present is a welcome change. Use of the more potent preparations (ganja, charas) is not condoned for this group. Above all, moderation is enjoined and popular folk belief warns of the potential problems of excess. Ganja and charas are regarded more ambivalently as poisons or semipoisons.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3903086

  8. Anasakti, the Hindu ideal, and its relationship to well-being and orientations to happiness.

    PubMed

    Banth, Sudha; Talwar, Charu

    2012-09-01

    Anasakti, a Sanskrit term for traits like non-attachment, equipoise, selfless duty orientation, and effort in the absence of concern for the outcome, can be regarded as a Hindu-ideal cluster of personality traits. The relationship of Anasakti with well-being and the three distinct happiness orientations was explored through a study of 676 college students and a sample of 65 yogic practitioners in India. The findings revealed that the yogic practitioners were markedly higher in Anasakti than the secular population. For the yogic population, there was a large correlation between Anasakti and the Orientation to Meaningful Life, and it accounted for more than 20% of the variance in the regression of Anasakti against all the measures of well-being. The yogic population's scores also correlated with several other measures of well-being. The scores of the secular population were less strongly related to the well-being scores; though, several correlation coefficients were statistically significant. PMID:20953711

  9. Muslim and Hindu Women's public and private behaviors: gender, family, and communalized politics in India.

    PubMed

    Desai, Sonalde; Temsah, Gheda

    2014-12-01

    Prior research on fundamentalist religious movements has focused attention on the complicated relationship among gender, family, and religion. Using data from a nationally representative survey of 30,000 Hindu and Muslim women, this study compares the daily public and private behaviors of women in India to examine how gender and family norms are shaped in the context of communalized identity politics. Building on the theoretical framework of "doing gender," we argue that because communal identities are expressed through externally visible behaviors, greater religious differences are expected in external markers of gendered behaviors and family norms. Results indicate that Muslim women are more likely to engage in veiling and less likely to venture outside the home for recreation and employment. However, religious differences are absent when attention is directed at private behaviors, such as household decision-making power, gender segregation within households, and discrimination against daughters. Results underscore the multidimensionality of gender. PMID:25143018

  10. Remarkable recurrence of M~7- intermediate-depth earthquakes beneath the Hindu Kush

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, T.; Ishibashi, K.

    2012-04-01

    Recurrent activity of intermediate-depth earthquakes (h60-300km) is remarkable beneath the Hindu Kush, the western vicinity of the Himalayas where the Indian plate is colliding against the Eurasian plate. Utsu (1994) pointed out that beneath the Hindu Kush (around 36.4 degrees north, 70.8 degrees east, h220km) M7-class earthquakes had recurred five times about every nine years; 1956 (mb6.5), 1965 (mb7.5), 1974 (mb7.1), 1983 (Mw7.4), and 1993 (Mw7.0). Moreover, a Mw7.3 earthquake occurred at the same place in 2002. In order to examine whether these are characteristic earthquakes or not and to discuss the mechanism of their occurrence, we first relocated the 1956 main shock and the earthquakes beneath the Hindu Kush during the period from 1964 through 2007 by the Hurukawa's (1995) Modified Joint Hypocenter Determination method. The main shocks and aftershocks of later five large events are included in these events. Out of 4,103 earthquakes with depth range of 100-300km, 3,372 hypocenters were well relocated. The results show (1) a southward steeply dipping hypocenter distribution around the depth of 190 to 220 km, while the overall intermediate-depth seismicity shows almost vertical shape with slight northward-dipping. (2) The 1956, 1965, 1974, and 1983 main shocks occurred at almost the same place. The 1993 main shock took place about 15 km southeast of the formers. The 2002 main shock took place about 30 km northwest of the earlier four events. (3) These five hypocenters are within about 35 km alignment striking in the ESE-WNW direction. Focal mechanisms of all the five large earthquakes are very similar, showing ESE-WNW running and southward-dipping high-angle reverse faulting with a down-dip tension. We investigated their rupture processes by inversion analyses of teleseismic body-waves (Kikuchi and Kanamori, 2003) and obtained the following results: (1) Main slips of the 1965, 1974, and 1983 events existed almost at the same place. (2) The 1993 rupture propagated toward northwest and deep direction. The largest slip took place on the northeastern deep area near the initial rupture point. (3) The 2002 largest slip took place about 40 km southeast from the initial rupture point. (4) Concerning Mw and slip amounts, the 1965 (Mw 7.6/4.9m) event was the largest, the 1983 (7.4/2.7m) and 2002 (7.3/1.4m) ones were also large, but the 1974 (7.1/0.8m) and 1993 (7.1/0.8m) events were relatively small. Thus, these five large earthquakes are not considered to be exactly characteristic earthquakes, although their asperities were overlapping considerably. However, their rupture zones concentrated within a very narrow area, and if we take errors of hypocenter location and waveform analyses into account, it may be possible that they were repeating ruptures of an identical fault plane. Beneath the Hindu Kush, nearly vertical slab is inferred to exist down to 300 km or so, by seismic tomography. Probably there exists a certain mechanism of concentration of slab-pull tensional force to a narrow zone (h200-220km), which controls a surprisingly regular recurrence of M7-class earthquakes with a remarkably short repeat time. The next event may be imminent in this region.

  11. Devaki syndrome: a culture-bound psychological reaction in Indian Hindu women in response to repeated pregnancy loss?

    PubMed

    Nath, Kamal; Bhattacharya, Arnab; Sinha, Prakriti; Praharaj, Samir Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Depression and anxiety are observed in pregnant women with previous foetal loss due to spontaneous abortions. Culture has important influence on the expression of psychopathology. We report two Hindu women during second trimester of pregnancy with symptoms of depression and anxiety along with identification with a mythological figure - Devaki, with extreme preoccupations with child Krishna and expecting a male child, which precipitated after a series of unfortunate foetal losses. PMID:25583112

  12. Complex deformation pattern of the Pamir-Hindu Kush region inferred from multi-scale double-difference earthquake relocations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Ling; Zhang, Tianzhong

    2015-01-01

    The wide range of focal depths and the corresponding fault plane mechanisms in the Pamir-Hindu Kush region are believed to reflect the ongoing deformation along the Indian-Eurasian continental collision zone. Here we develop a multi-scale double-difference earthquake location algorithm to combine traveltime data recorded at local, regional and teleseismic distances. The 2906 relocated intermediate-depth earthquakes of MW ≥ 4.5 we studied beneath the Hindu Kush show two groups of seismicity, with a separation of ca. 20-30 km; these two groups exhibit thrust faults with different P-axes and different locations, reflecting the lateral geometry change of the seismic zone. Earthquakes beneath the Pamir present a clear south-dipping layer and unusual horizontal T-axes. There is a clear transition in direction of stress between the Hindu Kush and the Pamir regions. Here we focus on the complex deformation pattern beneath the continental collision zone arising from a combination of compression, tension, shearing and necking states.

  13. Deep India meets deep Asia: Lithospheric indentation, delamination and break-off under Pamir and Hindu Kush (Central Asia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kufner, Sofia-Katerina; Schurr, Bernd; Sippl, Christian; Yuan, Xiaohui; Ratschbacher, Lothar; Akbar, Arib s./of Mohammad; Ischuk, Anatoly; Murodkulov, Shohrukh; Schneider, Felix; Mechie, James; Tilmann, Frederik

    2016-02-01

    Subduction of buoyant continental lithosphere is one of the least understood plate-tectonic processes. Yet under the Pamir-Hindu Kush, at the northwestern margin of the India-Asia collision zone, unusual deep earthquakes and seismic velocity anomalies suggest subduction of Asian and Indian lithosphere. Here, we report new precise earthquake hypocenters, detailed tomographic images and earthquake source mechanisms, which allow distinguishing a narrow sliver of Indian lithosphere beneath the deepest Hindu Kush earthquakes and a broad, arcuate slab of Asian lithosphere beneath the Pamir. We suggest that this double subduction zone arises by contrasting modes of convergence under the Pamir and Hindu Kush, imposed by the different mechanical properties of the three types of lithosphere involved. While the buoyant northwestern salient of Cratonic India bulldozes into Cratonic Asia, forcing delamination and rollback of its lithosphere, India's thinned western continental margin separates from Cratonic India and subducts beneath Asia. This torn-off narrow plate sliver forms a prominent high-velocity anomaly down to the mantle transition zone. Our images show that its uppermost section is thinned or already severed and that intermediate depth earthquakes cluster at the neck connecting it to the deeper slab, providing a rare glimpse at the ephemeral process of slab break-off.

  14. Prevalences of diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk factors in Hindu Indian subcommunities in Tanzania.

    PubMed Central

    Ramaiya, K L; Swai, A B; McLarty, D G; Bhopal, R S; Alberti, K G

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To seek differences in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and other coronary heart disease risk factors, and to identify factors associated with these differences within a Hindu Indian community. DESIGN--Population based cross sectional survey. SETTING--Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania. SUBJECTS--Of 20 Hindu subcommunities categorised by caste in Dar-es-Salaam, seven were randomly selected. 1147 (76.7%) of 1495 subjects aged 15 or over participated. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Blood glucose concentrations (fasting and two hours after oral glucose loading), serum total cholesterol and serum triglyceride concentrations, blood pressure, and height and weight. RESULTS--The subcommunities differed substantially in socioeconomic characteristics and lifestyle. Overall, 9.8% of subjects (109/1113) had diabetes, 17.0% (189/1113) impaired glucose tolerance, 14.5% (166/1143) hypertension, and 13.3% (151/1138) were obese. The mean fasting blood glucose concentration was 4.9 mmol/l, the blood glucose concentration two hours after oral loading (75 g) 6.0 mmol/l, the total cholesterol concentration 4.9 mmol/l, the serum triglyceride concentration 1.4 mmol/l, and body mass index (weight/height: kg/m2) 24.3. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were 121 and 77 mm Hg respectively. There were important intercommunity differences even after standardisation for age, sex, and body mass index--for example, in mean fasting blood glucose concentration (range 4.5 (Jains) to 5.9 mmol/l (Patels)), serum total cholesterol concentration (range 4.5 (Jains) to 6.2 mmol/l (Suthars)), systolic blood pressure (range 110 (Limbachias) to 127 mm Hg (Bhatias)), and prevalences of diabetes (range 3.4% (3/87 Limbachias) to 18% (20/111 Navnats)) and hypertension (range 5.7% (5/87 Limbachias) to 19.4% (43/222 Bhatias). Variables which showed significant linear correlation with subcommunity variations were entered into a multiple regression model. Intercommunity variations persisted. The Limbachia and Jain communities had the lowest prevalence of and mean values for coronary heart disease risk factors and the Bhatia and Patel communities had the highest. CONCLUSIONS--In this series intercommunity variations in disease and risk factors might have been related to genetic, dietary, socioeconomic, and lifestyle differences but could not be explained by the characteristics studied. Studies of Indian subcommunities are warranted to confirm and extend these descriptive findings and explore the genetic basis of diabetes. Communities of Indian origin should not be perceived as homogeneous. PMID:1888926

  15. The Status of Glaciers in the Hindu Kush-Himalayas from satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajracharya, S. R.; Maharjan, S.; Shrestha, F.; Shrestha, B.; Wanqin, G.; Shiyin, L.; Xiaojun, Y.; Khattak, G. A.

    2011-12-01

    In contrary to general glacier retreat in this vast Hindu Kush-Himalayan (HKH) region, some of the glaciers are advancing in the Karakorum (Hewitt, 1985). To understand the climate change impacts on glaciers, it is crucial to update the glacier status. The bigger concern in the HKH region, however, is the lack of long-term information on glaciers at the regional level for any kind of credible baseline or assessment of change. Hence to provide the up to date glacier information the glacier inventory was carried out using a single source satellite images of latest date so far possible. The present mapping of glaciers is the first effort of homogeneous glacier inventory of entire Hindu Kush-Himalayan region, which made the first time reporting of glaciers from Myanmar and first generation of glacier mapping and inventory of Afghanistan and Jammu & Kashmir and Arunachal states of India for ICIMOD. For Nepal, Bhutan, Pakistan, some states of India (Himachal, Uttarakhand and Sikkim) and Ganges basin in China will be the second generation glacier mapping and inventory of ICIMOD. The inventory is based on Landsat 7 ETM+ satellite images from 2005±3 years and SRTM DEM. The methodology of semi-automatic mapping and inventory is developed and implemented in the present study for quick delivery of glacier database. A first attempt is also made to map and deliver the Clean Ice and Debris Cover glaciers data separately. The glacier parameters like Glacier ID (Watershed and GLIMS), Area (Debris Cover and Clean Ice), Elevation, Slope, Aspect, Thickness, Ice reserve and 100m Glacier Area-Altitude bins are generated. The glaciers with sizes larger than 0.02 km2 are mapped. From the entire HKH region about 54,800 glaciers are mapped with about 60,400 km2 glacier area and 6,100 km3 estimated ice reserves. It was found that the average glacier area of the HKH region is 1.10 km2 per glacier (Bajracharya and others 2011).

  16. Earthquakes initiation and thermal shear instability in the Hindu Kush intermediate depth nest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poli, Piero; Prieto, German; Rivera, Efrain; Ruiz, Sergio

    2016-02-01

    Intermediate depth earthquakes often occur along subducting lithosphere, but despite their ubiquity the physical mechanism responsible for promoting brittle or brittle-like failure is not well constrained. Large concentrations of intermediate depth earthquakes have been found to be related to slab break-off, slab drip, and slab tears. The intermediate depth Hindu Kush nest is one of the most seismically active regions in the world and shows the correlation of a weak region associated with ongoing slab detachment process. Here we study relocated seismicity in the nest to constraint the geometry of the shear zone at the top of the detached slab. The analysis of the rupture process of the Mw 7.5 Afghanistan 2015 earthquake and other several well-recorded events over the past 25 years shows an initially slow, highly dissipative rupture, followed by a dramatic dynamic frictional stress reduction and corresponding large energy radiation. These properties are typical of thermal driven rupture processes. We infer that thermal shear instabilities are a leading mechanism for the generation of intermediated-depth earthquakes especially in presence of weak zone subjected to large strain accumulation, due to ongoing detachment process.

  17. The Mechanism of Intermediate-Depth Earthquakes in the Hindu Kush

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, W.; Warren, L. M.

    2011-12-01

    The Hindu Kush mountains, located near the borders of Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Pakistan, and China, formed from the collision of India with Eurasia beginning in the Eocene (~55 Ma). The collision resulted in the subduction of the Indian plate. The subduction history has been inferred from seismic tomography, earthquake locations, and thermal modeling. Some of these studies have suggested that the Indian plate subducted northward, started to overturn, and then gradually broke off towards the east. Earthquakes in this region occur down to ~250 km depth, but why they occur is unknown. They may be related to slab break-off or dehydration in the oceanic crust. To distinguish between these mechanisms, we investigate the rupture processes of 22 intermediate-depth earthquakes with Mw between 5.5 and 7.4 that occurred from 1991 to 2005. The ruptures tend to propagate subhorizontally. The earthquakes are located in 3 main clusters. Cluster I is located <150 km depth and has variable focal mechanism orientations. In Cluster II, which is located between 185 and 225 km depth, the focal mechanisms change their orientation gradually with the shape of the slab. Cluster III, located between 210 and 240 km depth to the east of Cluster II, is the most consistent one: most of the focal mechanisms are similar to one another and the rupture vectors tend to point outwards from the slab.

  18. Regional Water Security in the Hindu Kush Himalayan Region: Role of Geospatial Science and Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahid, S. M.; Shrestha, A. B.; Murthy, M. S. R.; Matin, M.; Zhang, J.; Siddiqui, O.

    2014-11-01

    The Hindu Kush Himalayan (HKH) region is the source of ten large Asian river systems - the Amu Darya, Indus, Ganges, Brahmaputra (Yarlungtsanpo), Irrawaddy, Salween (Nu), Mekong (Lancang), Yangtse (Jinsha), Yellow River (Huanghe), and Tarim (Dayan), - and provides water, ecosystem services, and the basis for livelihoods to a population of around 0.2 billion people in the region. The river basins of these rivers provide water to 1.3 billion people, a fifth of the world's population. Against this background, a comprehensive river basin program having current focus on the Koshi and Indus basins is launched at the International Center for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) as a joint scientific endeavour of several participating institutions from four regional countries of the HKH region. The river basin approach aims is to maximize the economic and social benefits derived from water resources in an equitable manner while conserving and, where necessary, restoring freshwater ecosystems, and improved understanding of upstream-downstream linkages. In order to effectively support river basin management satellite based multi sensor and multi temporal data is used to understand diverse river basin related aspects. We present here our recent experiences and results on satellite based rainfall and run off assessments, land use and land cover change and erosion dynamics, multi thematic water vulnerability assessments, space based data streaming systems for dynamic hydrological modelling, and potential applications of agent based models in effective local water use management.

  19. Afghan Hindu Kush: Where Eurasian Sub-Continent Gene Flows Converge

    PubMed Central

    Mazières, Stéphane; Myres, Natalie M.; Lin, Alice A.; Temori, Shah Aga; Metspalu, Mait; Metspalu, Ene; Witzel, Michael; King, Roy J.; Underhill, Peter A.; Villems, Richard; Chiaroni, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Despite being located at the crossroads of Asia, genetics of the Afghanistan populations have been largely overlooked. It is currently inhabited by five major ethnic populations: Pashtun, Tajik, Hazara, Uzbek and Turkmen. Here we present autosomal from a subset of our samples, mitochondrial and Y- chromosome data from over 500 Afghan samples among these 5 ethnic groups. This Afghan data was supplemented with the same Y-chromosome analyses of samples from Iran, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia and updated Pakistani samples (HGDP-CEPH). The data presented here was integrated into existing knowledge of pan-Eurasian genetic diversity. The pattern of genetic variation, revealed by structure-like and Principal Component analyses and Analysis of Molecular Variance indicates that the people of Afghanistan are made up of a mosaic of components representing various geographic regions of Eurasian ancestry. The absence of a major Central Asian-specific component indicates that the Hindu Kush, like the gene pool of Central Asian populations in general, is a confluence of gene flows rather than a source of distinctly autochthonous populations that have arisen in situ: a conclusion that is reinforced by the phylogeography of both haploid loci. PMID:24204668

  20. Western weather patterns and winter precipitation in the Hindu-Kush Karakoram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippi, Luca; Palazzi, Elisa; von Hardenberg, Jost; Provenzale, Antonello

    2013-04-01

    In this work we study western weather patterns (WWP), westerly perturbations responsible for most of the precipitation falling over the Hindu-Kush Karakoram (HKK) during winter, and the mechanisms responsible for their regulation. WWP originate from the northeastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean, move eastward and often intensify east of about 40°E before they reach the HKK region. Particular attention is given to the analysis of the link between the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and these systems. To this end, we use 1) an ensemble of precipitation datasets, including satellite TRMM observations, three raingauge-based datasets (APHRODITE, CRU and GPCC), the ERA40 reanalyses and the global climate model EC-Earth, 2) evaporation, specific humidity, geopotential and wind data from ERA40 and EC-Earth, 3) a NAO index computed for ERA40 and EC-Earth from sea level pressure data. Our analysis shows that winter precipitation over the HKK exhibits a high interannual variability and above (below) than normal precipitation is found in correspondence of the positive (negative) NAO phase. The Persian Gulf, the northern Arabian Sea and the Red Sea are important moisture sources for winter precipitation in the HKK and enhanced evaporation from these reservoirs occurs during the positive NAO phase. We investigate the association between enhanced evaporation, changes in surface wind intensity and humidity transport towards the HKK. EC-Earth is able to capture the NAO-precipitation signal over the HKK and the mechanisms associated with the WWP described above. Further investigations will include the possibility to repeat the WWP analysis with EC-Earth for the last century (from 1850) and for the future (until 2100) under different emission scenarios, in order to investigate possible changes that occurred and might occur in the WWP activity and the consequences for precipitation in the Karakoram.

  1. The deep structure beneath the Pamir - Hindu Kush region from teleseismic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kufner, Sofia-Katerina; Schurr, Bernd; Yuan, Xiaohui; Bianchi, Marcelo; Haberland, Christian; Sippl, Christian; Schneider, Felix; Ischuk, Anatoly

    2013-04-01

    The Pamir - Hindu Kush orogenic system is surely one of the least studied corners along the India-Eurasia collisional belt despite featuring several tectonically unique features. The lack of modern geophysical data from the region left the deep processes and structures that cause and host the unique intermediate depth earthquakes here mostly in the dark. To shed light on some of these processes we image the seismic velocity structure in the upper mantle and transition zone. We implemented a tomographic inversion for P-wave velocities based on teleseismic earthquakes recorded at temporal and permanent seismic stations within the study region. Our study is mainly based on the temporary seismic deployments from the TIPAGE (Tien Shan Pamir Geodynamic Project), FERGHANA and TIPTIMON (Tien Shan Pamir Monitoring Program) projects. Within the framework of these projects, 40, 20 and 25 mostly broadband stations were deployed from mid-2008 to mid-2010 and from June 2012 onwards within Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan. These data were complemented by a similar number of permanent stations covering in the course most of central Asia. We measured so far more than 30,000 phase arrivals from approx. 700 earthquakes occurring at epicentral distances between 20 to 180 degree. This data set is inverted simultaneously for velocity anomalies and station corrections. To account for the large variations of crustal thickness beneath the study region, we implemented a newly determined Moho model for the Pamir and surroundings, which is based on receiver function analysis. The resulting tomographic model extends to depths of approximately 500 km and covers the area between 67 to 79 degree East and 36 to 44 degree North. We will present preliminary P wave velocity images based on the currently available data set.

  2. Changing food habits in a South Indian Hindu Brahmin community: a case of transitioning gender roles and family dynamics.

    PubMed

    Mahadevan, Meena; Blair, Dorothy; Raines, Emily Rose

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore the perceptions of 20 South Indian Hindu Brahmin women on the factors influencing their food habits upon immigrating to America. The competing demands of juggling a new career and managing their family's nutritional needs at the same time, all without the support of extended family members, played an important role in steering these women away from cooking traditional healthy meals, and resorting to fast foods instead. Intervention strategies should be directed toward improving the barriers to eating healthy that were specifically identified within the confines of shifting gender roles and limited family support networks. PMID:25357267

  3. The important role for nurses in supporting the Asian Hindu patient and family at end of life: providing culturally sensitive end-of-life care.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anuradha; Freeman, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    As cultural ecology of Canada evolves with daily arrival of new immigrants, Canadians welcome them and feel very proud of preserving their multicultural heritage. As minority groups, especially South Asian Hindus, continue to grow, there is a need to understand their cultural perspectives and accommodate their cultural preferences for end-of-life care. This article addresses end-of-life care from a point of view of Hindu culture and religion and provides a brief overview of their beliefs and rituals related to it. This article also guides nurses to understand diverse Hindu cultural practices and beliefs to help support their patients and families at this difficult time of life. PMID:21462877

  4. Gene diversity for haptoglobin and transferrin classical markers among Hindu and Muslim populations of Aligarh City, India.

    PubMed

    Ara, G; Siddique, Y H; Afzal, M

    2011-06-01

    The present paper reports the distribution of serum protein markers viz. haptoglobin and transferrin in two major groups of Aligarh city of North India. In present study we have undertaken a survey of 538 individuals belonging to eight different populations, four from the Hindu community i.e. Brahmin, Bania, Rajput and Jatav, and the rest four among the Muslim community i.e. Syed, Sheikh, Pathan and Ansari. The heterozygosity ranged from 0.2939 (Ansari) to 0.4873 (Brahmin) for haptoglobin and from 0.000 (Rajput) to 0.1498 (Pathan) for transferrin. The values of D(ST) are 0.4122 and 0.4406, and that of G(ST) are 0.5059 and 0.9726 for haptoglobin and transferrin markers respectively. Through F(ST) test, it has been concluded that there is a high genetic differentiation of populations within Hindu and Muslim groups, though there is absence of any significant differences between these groups. PMID:21866866

  5. The meaning of widowhood and health to older middle-class Hindu widows living in a South Indian community.

    PubMed

    Czerenda, A Judith

    2010-10-01

    Indian widowhood has long been associated with victimization and vulnerability, but traditional attitudes toward widowhood are changing and reflect the rapid changes occurring in India. Using Caring Inquiry, a phenomenological-hermeneutic methodology that places caring at its center, this article presents a study that explores the meaning of health and widowhood to 14 older middle-class Hindu widows living in urban South India. From the data emerge six metathemes that are pertinent to nursing praxis and the delivery of health care to widows in South India: (a) Drawing From Within, (b) Seeking Help and Guidance, (c) Accepting the Role, (d) Challenging Tradition, (e) Serving Others, and (f) Finding Companionship. The findings reveal that all the widows share a common desire to move on with life, articulated by one widow as "The Show Must Go On," which serves as a foundation for a theory and model of the meaning of widowhood and health to older middle-class South Indian Hindu widows. This study advances the limited body of knowledge on the lives and health of these widows. PMID:20592065

  6. A two-step underthrusting and delamination model that explains deep structures beneath Pamir and Hindu Kush

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sippl, Christian; Schurr, Bernd; Schneider, Felix; Yuan, Xiaohui; Gadoev, Mustafo; Orunbaev, Sagynbek; Negmatullaev, Sobit; Haberland, Christian

    2013-04-01

    The Pamir-Hindu Kush region, situated at the western Himalayan syntaxis, is one of the tectonically most complex and least well understood regions on earth. Frequently occurring intermediate-depth earthquakes, which define two seismic zones at mantle depth, attest to ongoing subduction or delamination processes during continental collision. The presence of deep seismicity and the complexity of mantle structures set the Pamir-Hindu Kush apart from Tibet, i.e. imply a different tectonic style between the front and the syntaxes of the Indian indenter. Automatically identified and located local earthquakes from the TIPAGE data set (2008-2010) outline two distinct, seismically active zones at mantle depths. Beneath the Hindu Kush, earthquake locations to first order define a subvertically northward dipping planar structure with high internal complexity. At depths greater than 150 km, this plane appears to be broken into several fragments. Focal mechanisms of intermediate-depth earthquakes uniformly show downdip extension, i.e. T axes oriented around vertical, whereas retrieved P axes are horizontal, perpendicular to the strike of the Hindu Kush seismic zone. The Pamir seismic zone, in contrast, resembles a single, strongly curved slab dipping southward at its eastern termination towards the Tarim Basin and progressively changes its dip direction to purely eastward at its southwestern end. Focal mechanisms of Pamir deep seismicity are less uniform than for the Hindu Kush, but show a prevalence of along-arc extensive mechanisms in the shallower part of the slab, where earthquake hypocenters outline an along-strike continuous structure. At deeper levels, where the slab might be torn (which could be indicated by an absence of seismic activity), T axes are oriented more steeply. A local earthquake tomography study, utilizing a selection of 56,229 P and 25,221 S phases to perform an inversion for vp and vp-vs throughout the Pamir and its surroundings, clearly shows the arcuate Pamir slab as a high-wavespeed anomaly (vp = 8.2-8.3 km/s). The hypocentral locations of earthquakes outline the upper edge of this lithospheric slab, in fact appear to be confined to an about 10 km wide low-velocity channel atop it, which has been identified with receiver function analysis. Directly above the updip end of seismicity (at depths of 70-80 km), very low values of vp (around 7.1 km/s) and high vp-vs ratios (>1.80) are retrieved, probably indicative of the entrainment of upper or middle crustal material in the subduction process, which leads to the burial of buoyant material to mantle depths. South of the Pamir slab, velocities around or slightly below normal mantle values are observed, no indication of cold underthrusted Indian lithosphere is found. We interpret the obtained seismological evidence with a two-step model of continental overthrusting of the Pamir over the basin material to the north and west of it, followed by the delamination of the underthrusted material into the mantle, possibly due to the acquisition of negative buoyancy by phase transformation reactions (e.g. eclogitization). The entrained upper or middle crustal material imaged with tomography is not involved in the delamination process due to its low density. However, a thin layer of possibly eclogitized lower crustal material sits atop the sinking lithospheric slab and hosts the intermediate-depth seismicity. A pure delamination scenario could not explain the observed presence of slow material at mantle depths, whereas the retrieved stress axis orientations in the Pamir slab are hard to reconcile with a classical subduction process.

  7. Arrack Drinking Patterns among Muslim, Hindu, Santal, and Oraon Communities in the Rasulpur Union of Bangladesh: A Cross-Cultural Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uddin, MD Emaj

    2008-01-01

    Arrack is produced from palm and date juice which is commonly consumed by the lower class of all religious communities in rural Bangladesh. Previous studies could not cross-culturally investigate arrack drinking patterns. The present study examined and compared arrack drinking patterns among the Muslim, Hindu, Santal, and Oraon communities'…

  8. Arrack Drinking Patterns among Muslim, Hindu, Santal, and Oraon Communities in the Rasulpur Union of Bangladesh: A Cross-Cultural Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uddin, MD Emaj

    2008-01-01

    Arrack is produced from palm and date juice which is commonly consumed by the lower class of all religious communities in rural Bangladesh. Previous studies could not cross-culturally investigate arrack drinking patterns. The present study examined and compared arrack drinking patterns among the Muslim, Hindu, Santal, and Oraon communities'

  9. Hindu, Muslim and Sikh Religious Education Teachers' Use of Personal Life Knowledge: The Relationship between Biographies, Professional Beliefs and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everington, Judith

    2014-01-01

    The article reports the findings of a qualitative study of Hindu, Muslim and Sikh teachers of religious education and the relationship between their biographies, professional beliefs and use of personal life knowledge in English, secondary school classrooms. This relationship was explored through a study of five beginning teachers and provided

  10. Hindu, Muslim and Sikh Religious Education Teachers' Use of Personal Life Knowledge: The Relationship between Biographies, Professional Beliefs and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everington, Judith

    2014-01-01

    The article reports the findings of a qualitative study of Hindu, Muslim and Sikh teachers of religious education and the relationship between their biographies, professional beliefs and use of personal life knowledge in English, secondary school classrooms. This relationship was explored through a study of five beginning teachers and provided…

  11. Muslim and Hindu Women’s Public and Private Behaviors: Gender, Family and Communalized Politics in India

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Sonalde; Temsah, Gheda

    2015-01-01

    Prior research on fundamentalist religious movements has focused attention on the complicated relationship between gender, family and religion. Using data from a nationally representative survey of 30,000 Hindu and Muslim women, this study compares the daily public and private behaviors of women in India to examine how gender and family norms are shaped in the context of communalized identity politics. Building on the theoretical framework of “doing gender”, it argues that because communal identities are expressed through externally visible behaviors, greater religious differences are expected in external markers of gendered behaviors and family norms. Results indicate that Muslim women are more likely to engage in veiling and less likely to venture outside the home for recreation and employment. However, religious differences are absent when attention is directed at private behaviors such as household decision making power, gender segregation within households, and discrimination against daughters. Results underscore the multidimensionality of gender. PMID:25143018

  12. The Caspian Sea-Hindu Kush Index (CasHKI): A regulatory factor for dust activity over southwest Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaskaoutis, D. G.; Houssos, E. E.; Rashki, A.; Francois, P.; Legrand, M.; Goto, D.; Bartzokas, A.; Kambezidis, H. D.; Takemura, T.

    2016-02-01

    This work investigates the modulation in dust activity over southwest (SW) Asia attributed to changes in the mean sea level pressure (MSLP) between the Caspian Sea (CS) and Hindu Kush (HK) during the summer months (June-July-August-September, JJAS) of the period 2000-2014. The MSLP anomalies obtained via NCEP/NCAR re-analysis are evaluated via a new climatology index, the Caspian Sea-Hindu Kush Index (CasHKI), which is defined as CasHKI = MSLPanom.CS - MSLPanom.HK, over specific domains taken over the CS and HK. The changes in CasHKI intensity are examined against dust activity and rainfall distributions over south Asia. The satellite remote sensing (Meteosat, OMI, MODIS) analyses show that high CasHKI values corresponding to enhanced pressure gradient between the CS and the HK, are associated with intensification of northerly winds, increased dust emissions and transportation over SW Asia and north Arabian Sea. In contrast, variations in CasHKI intensity do not seem to have a significant effect on the Indian summer monsoon. Only a slight decrease of precipitation over the southern Indian peninsula and the neighboring oceanic areas and an increase of precipitation along the Ganges Basin and Himalayan range are found to be related to high CasHKI values. Model (MIROC-SPRINTARS) simulations of dust concentration and dust AOD (Aerosol Optical Depth) over SW Asia are consistent with the satellite observations, highlighting for the first time the modulation of the SW Asian dust activity by CasHKI.

  13. Hazards Associated with High Altitude Rain-Fed Lakes (HARL) in the Overdeepened Deglaciated Region of Hindu Kush and Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haritashya, U. K.; Hess, T. G.

    2014-12-01

    Mountain regions are changing rapidly as a result of climate change. It has been well established that these mountain regions are experiencing rapid glacier retreat. With accelerated retreat, glacial melt runoff can accumulate in an overdeepened glacier bed left behind by the receding glacier and can be bound by the walls of unstable frontal and lateral moraines to form a hazardous lake. However, when smaller glaciers retreat and downwaste they no longer contain enough ice to sustain the flow of water and maintain level of the lake. Furthermore, some smaller glaciers in the Hindu Kush and Himalayan region are observing extreme downwasting, which are either turning them into a rock glacier or heavily debris covered glacier leading to the reduced ice melt. Consequently, it is important to study these overdeepened beds, which are contained by the unstable mass. This is especially significant considering the great degree of complexity in the mountain weather system and recent examples of high intensity and short duration rainfall in the Hindu Kush region of Afghanistan, Karakoram region of Pakistan, and Central Himalayan region of India and Nepal. A precise understanding of mountain climate system is necessary, but so does these potentially deglaciated overdeepened beds where rain-fed lakes can form and increase systems hydrostatic pressure that can breach moraine containment and flood entire downstream region. Once lake has formed it possesses hydrological characteristics that are similar to the glacial lakes, which are known to put lives and infrastructure in danger. Therefore, in this study we evaluated overdeepened beds that are located in the complex topography and contained by abandoned or unstable lateral moraine using field and remote sensing satellite images. Our results provide degree of failure associated with these lakes based on the complex spatial and topological analysis as well as orographic distribution of the region. Such studies are not common in the region owing to the lack of field observations, high degree of uncertainty associated with whatever limited field data is available, difficulty in satellite-based assessment, unpredictability with the precipitation pattern, and inadequate local or fine resolution downscaled climate models.

  14. Padma Kant Shukla 1950-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingham, Robert; Eliasson, Bengt; Mendonca, Tito; Stenflo, Lennart; Stenflo

    2013-03-01

    Professor Padma Kant Shukla passed away on the 26th of January in New Delhi, India, just after receiving the prestigious Hind Rattan (Jewel of India) Award. He was born in the village Tulapur, Uttar Pradesh (UP), India and was educated there. After his Ph.D. in Physics from Banaras Hindu University in Varanasi, he obtained his second doctorate degree in Theoretical Plasma Physics from Umea University under the supervision of one of us (Lennart Stenflo). He worked at the Faculty of Physics & Astronomy, Ruhr-University Bochum, Germany since January 1973, where he was a permanent faculty member and Professor of International Affairs, a position that was created for him to honour his international accomplishments and reputation.

  15. Preface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliasson, B.; Stenflo, L.; Bingham, R.; Mendonça, J. T.; Mendonça

    2013-12-01

    This special issue is devoted to the memory of Professor Padma Kant Shukla, who passed away 26 January 2013 on his travel to New Delhi, India to receive the prestigious Hind Rattan (Jewel of India) award. Padma was born in Tulapur, Uttar Pradesh, India, 7 July 1950, where he grew up and got his education. He received a PhD degree in Physics at the Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India, in 1972, under the supervision of late Prof. R. N. Singh, and a second PhD degree in Theoretical Plasma Physics from Umeå University in Sweden in 1975, under the supervision of Prof. Lennart Stenflo. He worked at the Faculty of Physics & Astronomy, Ruhr-University Bochum, Germany since January 1973, where he was a permanent faculty member and Professor of International Affairs, a position that was created for him to honour his international accomplishments and reputation.

  16. Participation in Mass Gatherings Can Benefit Well-Being: Longitudinal and Control Data from a North Indian Hindu Pilgrimage Event

    PubMed Central

    Tewari, Shruti; Khan, Sammyh; Hopkins, Nick; Srinivasan, Narayanan; Reicher, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    How does participation in a long-duration mass gathering (such as a pilgrimage event) impact well-being? There are good reasons to believe such collective events pose risks to health. There are risks associated with communicable diseases. Moreover, the physical conditions at such events (noise, crowding, harsh conditions) are often detrimental to well-being. Yet, at the same time, social psychological research suggests participation in group-related activities can impact well-being positively, and we therefore investigated if participating in a long-duration mass gathering can actually bring such benefits. In our research we studied one of the world's largest collective events – a demanding month-long Hindu religious festival in North India. Participants (comprising 416 pilgrims who attended the gathering for the whole month of its duration, and 127 controls who did not) completed measures of self-assessed well-being and symptoms of ill-health at two time points. The first was a month before the gathering commenced, the second was a month after it finished. We found that those participating in this collective event reported a longitudinal increase in well-being relative to those who did not participate. Our data therefore imply we should reconceptualise how mass gatherings impact individuals. Although such gatherings can entail significant health risks, the benefits for well-being also need recognition. Indeed, an exclusive focus on risk is misleading and limits our understanding of why such events may be so attractive. More importantly, as our research is longitudinal and includes a control group, our work adds robust evidence to the social psychological literature concerning the relationship between participation in social group activities and well-being. PMID:23082155

  17. Participation in mass gatherings can benefit well-being: longitudinal and control data from a North Indian Hindu pilgrimage event.

    PubMed

    Tewari, Shruti; Khan, Sammyh; Hopkins, Nick; Srinivasan, Narayanan; Reicher, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    How does participation in a long-duration mass gathering (such as a pilgrimage event) impact well-being? There are good reasons to believe such collective events pose risks to health. There are risks associated with communicable diseases. Moreover, the physical conditions at such events (noise, crowding, harsh conditions) are often detrimental to well-being. Yet, at the same time, social psychological research suggests participation in group-related activities can impact well-being positively, and we therefore investigated if participating in a long-duration mass gathering can actually bring such benefits. In our research we studied one of the world's largest collective events - a demanding month-long Hindu religious festival in North India. Participants (comprising 416 pilgrims who attended the gathering for the whole month of its duration, and 127 controls who did not) completed measures of self-assessed well-being and symptoms of ill-health at two time points. The first was a month before the gathering commenced, the second was a month after it finished. We found that those participating in this collective event reported a longitudinal increase in well-being relative to those who did not participate. Our data therefore imply we should reconceptualise how mass gatherings impact individuals. Although such gatherings can entail significant health risks, the benefits for well-being also need recognition. Indeed, an exclusive focus on risk is misleading and limits our understanding of why such events may be so attractive. More importantly, as our research is longitudinal and includes a control group, our work adds robust evidence to the social psychological literature concerning the relationship between participation in social group activities and well-being. PMID:23082155

  18. Effects of absorbing aerosols on accelerated melting of snowpack in the Hindu-Kush-Himalayas-Tibetan Plateau region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, W. K.; Kim, K.; Yasunari, T. J.; Gautam, R.; Hsu, N. C.

    2011-12-01

    The impacts of absorbing aerosol on melting of snowpack in the Hindu-Kush-Himalayas-Tibetan Plateau (HKHT) region are studied using in-situ, satellite observations, and GEOS-5 GCM. Based on atmospheric black carbon measurements from the Pyramid observation (~ 5 km elevation) in Mt. Everest, we estimate that deposition of black carbon on snow surface will give rise to a reduction in snow surface albedo of 2- 5 %, and an increased annual runoff of 12-34% for a typical Tibetan glacier. Examination of multi-year satellite reflectivity and re-analysis data reveals signals of possible impacts of dust and black carbon in darkening the snow surface, and accelerating spring melting of snowpack in the HKHT, following a build-up of absorbing aerosols in the Indo-Gangetic Plain. Results from GCM experiments show that a 8-10% increase in the rate of melting of snowpack over the western Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau can be attributed to the elevated-heat-pump (EHP) feedback effect, initiated from the absorption of solar radiation by dust and black carbon accumulated to great height (~ 5 km) over the Indo-Gangetic Plain and Himalayas foothills in the pre-monsoon season (April-May). The accelerated melting of the snowpack is enabled by an EHP-induced atmosphere-land-snowpack positive feedback involving a) orographic forcing of the monsoon flow by the complex terrain of the HKHT region, leading to increased moisture, cloudiness and rainfall over the Himalayas foothills and northern India, b) warming of the upper troposphere over the Tibetan Plateau, and c) a transfer of latent and sensible heat from atmosphere to the snow surface. Ongoing modeling work in assessing the relative roles of EHP vs. snow-darkening effects on accelerated melting of snowpack in HKHT region will be discussed.

  19. Using Morphological, Molecular and Climatic Data to Delimitate Yews along the Hindu Kush-Himalaya and Adjacent Regions

    PubMed Central

    Poudel, Ram C.; Möller, Michael; Gao, Lian-Ming; Ahrends, Antje; Baral, Sushim R.; Liu, Jie; Thomas, Philip; Li, De-Zhu

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite the availability of several studies to clarify taxonomic problems on the highly threatened yews of the Hindu Kush-Himalaya (HKH) and adjacent regions, the total number of species and their exact distribution ranges remains controversial. We explored the use of comprehensive sets of morphological, molecular and climatic data to clarify taxonomy and distributions of yews in this region. Methodology/Principal Findings A total of 743 samples from 46 populations of wild yew and 47 representative herbarium specimens were analyzed. Principle component analyses on 27 morphological characters and 15 bioclimatic variables plus altitude and maximum parsimony analysis on molecular ITS and trnL-F sequences indicated the existence of three distinct species occurring in different ecological (climatic) and altitudinal gradients along the HKH and adjacent regions Taxus contorta from eastern Afghanistan to the eastern end of Central Nepal, T. wallichiana from the western end of Central Nepal to Northwest China, and the first report of the South China low to mid-elevation species T. mairei in Nepal, Bhutan, Northeast India, Myanmar and South Vietnam. Conclusion/Significance The detailed sampling and combination of different data sets allowed us to identify three clearly delineated species and their precise distribution ranges in the HKH and adjacent regions, which showed no overlap or no distinct hybrid zone. This might be due to differences in the ecological (climatic) requirements of the species. The analyses further provided the selection of diagnostic morphological characters for the identification of yews occurring in the HKH and adjacent regions. Our work demonstrates that extensive sampling combined with the analysis of diverse data sets can reliably address the taxonomy of morphologically challenging plant taxa. PMID:23056501

  20. Effects of Absorbing Aerosols on Accelerated Melting of Snowpack in the Hindu-Kush-Himalayas-Tibetan Plateau Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, William K.; Kyu-Myong, Kim; Yasunari, Teppei; Gautam, Ritesh; Hsu, Christina

    2011-01-01

    The impacts of absorbing aerosol on melting of snowpack in the Hindu-Kush-Himalayas-Tibetan Plateau (HKHT) region are studied using in-situ, satellite observations, and GEOS-5 GCM. Based on atmospheric black carbon measurements from the Pyramid observation ( 5 km elevation) in Mt. Everest, we estimate that deposition of black carbon on snow surface will give rise to a reduction in snow surface albedo of 2- 5 %, and an increased annual runoff of 12-34% for a typical Tibetan glacier. Examination of satellite reflectivity and re-analysis data reveals signals of possible impacts of dust and black carbon in darkening the snow surface, and accelerating spring melting of snowpack in the HKHT, following a build-up of absorbing aerosols in the Indo-Gangetic Plain. Results from GCM experiments show that 8-10% increase in the rate of melting of snowpack over the western Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau can be attributed to the elevated-heat-pump (EHP) feedback effect, initiated from the absorption of solar radiation by dust and black carbon accumulated to great height ( 5 km) over the Indo-Gangetic Plain and Himalayas foothills in the pre-monsoon season (April-May). The accelerated melting of the snowpack is enabled by an EHP-induced atmosphere-land-snowpack positive feedback involving a) orographic forcing of the monsoon flow by the complex terrain, and thermal forcing of the HKHT region, leading to increased moisture, cloudiness and rainfall over the Himalayas foothills and northern India, b) warming of the upper troposphere over the Tibetan Plateau, and c) an snow albedo-temperature feedback initiated by a transfer of latent and sensible heat from a warmer atmosphere over the HKHT to the underlying snow surface. Results from ongoing modeling work to assess the relative roles of EHP vs. snow-darkening effects on accelerated melting of snowpack in HKHT region will also be discussed.

  1. Assessment of permafrost distribution maps in the Hindu Kush Himalayan region using rock glaciers mapped in Google Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, M.-O.; Baral, P.; Gruber, S.; Shahi, S.; Shrestha, T.; Stumm, D.; Wester, P.

    2015-11-01

    The extent and distribution of permafrost in the mountainous parts of the Hindu Kush Himalayan (HKH) region are largely unknown. A long tradition of permafrost research, predominantly on rather gentle relief, exists only on the Tibetan Plateau. Two permafrost maps are available digitally that cover the HKH and provide estimates of permafrost extent, i.e., the areal proportion of permafrost: the manually delineated Circum-Arctic Map of Permafrost and Ground Ice Conditions (Brown et al., 1998) and the Global Permafrost Zonation Index, based on a computer model (Gruber, 2012). This article provides a first-order assessment of these permafrost maps in the HKH region based on the mapping of rock glaciers. Rock glaciers were used as a proxy, because they are visual indicators of permafrost, can occur near the lowermost regional occurrence of permafrost in mountains, and can be delineated based on high-resolution remote sensing imagery freely available on Google Earth. For the mapping, 4000 square samples (~ 30 km2) were randomly distributed over the HKH region. Every sample was investigated and rock glaciers were mapped by two independent researchers following precise mapping instructions. Samples with insufficient image quality were recorded but not mapped. We use the mapping of rock glaciers in Google Earth as first-order evidence for permafrost in mountain areas with severely limited ground truth. The minimum elevation of rock glaciers varies between 3500 and 5500 m a.s.l. within the region. The Circum-Arctic Map of Permafrost and Ground Ice Conditions does not reproduce mapped conditions in the HKH region adequately, whereas the Global Permafrost Zonation Index does so with more success. Based on this study, the Permafrost Zonation Index is inferred to be a reasonable first-order prediction of permafrost in the HKH. In the central part of the region a considerable deviation exists that needs further investigations.

  2. Ensemble Predictions of Future Snowfall Scenarios in the Karakorum and Hindu-Kush Mountains Using Downscaled GCM Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosier, T. M.; Hill, D. F.; Sharp, K. V.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change is affecting the seasonality and mass of snow, and impacting the water resources of hundreds of millions of people who depend on streamflow originating in High Asia. Global climate model (GCM) outputs are the primary forcing data used to investigate future projections of changes in snow and glacier processes; however, these processes occur at a much finer spatial scale than the resolution of current GCMs. To facilitate studying the cryosphere in High Asia, we developed a software package to downscale monthly GCM data to 30-arcseconds for any global land area. Using this downscaling package, we produce an ensemble of downscaled GCM data from 2020-2100, corresponding to representative concentration pathways (RCPs) 4.5 and 8.5. We then use these data to model changes to snowfall in the Karakorum and Hindu Kush (KHK) region, which is located in High Asia. The ensemble mean of these data predict that total annual snowfall in 2095 will decrease by 22% under RCP 4.5 and 46% under RCP 8.5, relative to 1950-2000 climatological values. For both scenarios, the changes in snowfall are dependent on elevation, with the maximum decreases in snowfall occurring at approximately 2,300 m. While total snowfall decreases, an interesting feature of snowfall change for the RCP 8.5 scenario is that the ensemble mean projection shows an increase in snowfall for elevations between 3,000- 5,000 m relative to historic values. These fine-scale spatial, temporal, and elevation-dependent patterns of changes in projected snowfall significantly affect the energy balance of the snowpack, in turn affecting timing of melt and discharge. Therefore, our work can be coupled with a glacio-hydrological model to assess effects of these snowfall patterns on other processes or compared to existing model results to assess treatment of snow processes in the existing model. Our method is designed to downscale climate data for any global land area, allowing for the production of these fine-scale climate and cryosphere forcing data for other high altitude areas as well.

  3. Kala-azar epidemic in Varanasi district, India.

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, R.; Kumar, P.; Chowdhary, R. K.; Pai, K.; Mishra, C. P.; Kumar, K.; Pandey, H. P.; Singh, V. P.; Sundar, S.

    1999-01-01

    Reports at the Sir Sunder Lal Hospital, Banaras Hindu University, of a large number of kala-azar cases from one particular village in Varanasi district, Uttar Pradesh, led us to carry out an epidemiological study of the situation using standard techniques. The overall prevalence and case fatality of the disease were 12.9% and 10.5%, respectively. A history of fever and hepatosplenomegaly was noted for all the cases. The case definition was the presence of parasites in bone marrow or splenic aspirate smears. The disease was more prevalent among adults, but occurred also among children. However, there was no clear linear relationship between the prevalence of the disease and age group. Kala-azar occurred among males and females, and its prevalence did not correlate significantly with income. Since the disease vector continues to be present in the study area, the health authorities should take strong steps to control the disease. PMID:10361752

  4. Correlation of Oxidative Damage with Pro-Inflammatory Markers (IL-6, TNF-α) in Meningocele

    PubMed Central

    Mukhopadhyay, Bedabrata; Gavel, Roshni; Gongopadhyay, Ajay N.; Vashistha, Pooja; Rani, Anjali

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Oxidative damage induces alteration in the status of pro-inflammatory markers like IL-6 and TNF-α in meningocele. The study was performed with estimation of the levels of MDA (Malonyldialdehyde), SOD (Superoxide dismutase) taken as oxidative damage markers and IL-6 (interleukin 6) and TNF-α (Tumour necrosis factor alpha) taken as inflammatory markers, in the serum of meningocele patients and age, sex matched normal neonates. Correlation among the different serum levels of MDA, SOD, IL-6 and TNF-α was determined. Materials and Methods It is a case-control study, comprising of 153 participants: 101 newborns with meningocele and 52 healthy newborns. The study was conducted in the Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, in collaboration with the Department of Paediatric Surgery and Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sir Sunderlal Hospital, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi. The study was conducted during the period of 2012 to 2014. Serum was extracted from blood collected from both groups i.e. meningocele patient group and healthy neonatal control group. The levels of MDA and SOD were determined by spectrophotometric method. IL-6 was determined by the Human IL-6 High Sensitivity ELISA Kit and TNF-α was determined by the Human TNF-α ELISA KIT. Results The levels of MDA, TNF-α and IL-6 were found to be much higher and level of SOD was found lower in the patients with meningocele as compared to the normal healthy neonates. Conclusion Increased MDA (oxidative damage product), IL-6, and TNF-α (inflammatory marker) and low level of SOD shows an increased inflammatory response in Meningocele. Our study shows Negative Correlation between MDA and SOD in case & control groups, while a Positive Correlation between TNF alpha and IL-6 in control & case groups.

  5. The Cosmology Gallery: Unity through diversity in a vast and awe-inspiring universe.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldsmith, John

    2011-06-01

    Scientists, artists, religious and cultural leaders have come together to create the Cosmology Gallery at the Gravity Discovery Centre (GDC) located 70 km north of Perth, Western Australia. The Cosmology Gallery exhibitions include the multicultural cosmology artworks, Celestial Visions astronomical photography exhibition and the Timeline of the Universe. The multicultural cosmology artworks are new artworks inspired by Australian Indigenous, Christian, Buddhist, Islamic, Hindu, scientific and technological perspectives of the universe. The Celestial Visions exhibition features astronomical events above famous landmarks, including Stonehenge and the Pyramids. The AUD 400,000+ project was funded by Lotterywest, Western Australia and the Cosmology Gallery was officially opened in July 2008 by the Premier of Western Australia.

  6. Identifying and Evaluating Possible Trigger Mechanisms for Glacial Lake Outburst Floods in the Hindu Kush Himalayas Using Remote Sensing Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, T. G.; Haritashya, U. K.

    2014-12-01

    Glacierized basins in high-altitude and mountainous areas, such as the Himalayas, have seen an increase in the number of glacial lakes over the years as a result of a changing climate. As the meltwater becomes more prevalent, the runoff can accumulate in a depression left behind by the receding glacier and can be bound by the walls of frontal and lateral moraines. These moraines, however, often are comprised of loose, unconsolidated sediment and can prove to be unstable dam structures for proglacial lakes. The factor of instability associated with the moraines poses a serious threat for failure and severe flooding. If the moraines were to be breached by the lake water, a phenomenon known as a glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) can occur, potentially putting lives and infrastructure in harm's way. Consequently, this study examines the likelihood of a GLOF occurrence by analyzing potential trigger mechanisms associated with three proglacial lakes in the Hindu Kush Himalayan region. Using ASTER satellite imagery, one lake from Nepal, India, and Bhutan have each been assessed for possible trigger mechanisms. Our results suggest that steep-sided moraines, rugged topography, unstable masses on the upper reaches of steep slopes, and smaller lakes perched high above can all be classified as possible trigger mechanisms for the areas of study. It is imperative to be able to successfully identify potential trigger mechanisms using satellite data so that further ground observations can be made and mitigation efforts can be incorporated where needed. As lakes continue to grow, so does the cause for concern for possible GLOFs. Glacial lake outburst floods are being studied more extensively now due to the greater number of glacial lakes in high-mountainous areas. It is vitally important to understand the dynamics of a GLOF, especially the potential trigger mechanisms associated with it.

  7. Operationalizing land cover/land use data products to support decision making in the forestry sector of Hindu Kush Himalaya region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qamer, F. M.; Gilani, H.; Uddin, K.; Pradhan, S.; Murthy, M.; Bajracharya, B.

    2014-12-01

    The Himalayan mountain ecosystem is under severe stress due to population pressure and overexploitation, which is now being further compounded by climate change. Particularly the Himalayan mountain forests has been degrading since the 1850s, in the early years of British administration. Consistent country-wide and local level data are needed to show the patterns and processes of degradation as a basis for developing management strategies to halt degradation and ensure long-term sustainability. Realizing the need for developing consistent national and regional databases in the Hindu Kush-Himalayan region, with adequate spatial and temporal resolutions to be used by resource managers for informed decision making, time series land cover maps were developed for 1990, 2000, and 2010 based on the Landsat images. Considering forest sector as a primary user, a special attention was given to forest cover interpretation and relevant professional from national forestry institutions of Bangladesh, Bhutan, Myanmar, Nepal and Pakistan were closely engaged in developing standardized data products. With the use of consistent datasets and interpretation methods, this study provides first systematic assessment on forest cover distribution and change patterns during last two decades in these countries. At the same time, the results compiled at sub-district administrative unit, may facilitate institutions in developing appropriate forest conservation strategies, ecosystem vulnerability assessment and ecosystem services valuation at local level. To promote such usages, national forestry institutions are being closely engaged in a number of capacity building activities at national and regional level. In context of Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) initiatives, these datasets are also being evaluated to be considered as baseline for deforestation and degradation rates in the respective countries. To promote easy and open access, a web system was developed which provides functions to understand land cover dynamics in relations to country's ecological distribution and administrative structure.

  8. Association of food patterns, central obesity measures and metabolic risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD) in middle aged Bengalee Hindu men, Calcutta, India.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Arnab; Bose, Kaushik; Das Chaudhuri, Asit Baran

    2003-01-01

    The association of central obesity measures and food patterns with metabolic risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD) were studied among middle aged (>or =30 years) Bengalee Hindu men of Calcutta, India. CHD risk factors included total cholesterol (TC), fasting triglyceride (FTG), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-c). The total sample size in the study was 212 male individuals. Anthropometric measurements, metabolic and food pattern variables were collected from each participant. The relative role of central obesity measures and food pattern variables in explaining metabolic risk factors of CHD were also made in this study. The results revealed that body mass index (BMI) had no significant relation with any of the metabolic risk factors of CHD. Whereas almost all-central obesity measures, namely waist circumference (WC), waist-hip ratio (WHR), and conicity index (CI) were significantly and positively related with TC, FTG, FPG and VLDL-c. Of the food pattern variables, only the frequency of egg, fried snacks and Bengalee sweets consumption were positively and significantly related with all central obesity measures. In contrast, frequency of chicken and fish consumption was negatively associated with central obesity measures. Conicity index (CI) was found to be the most consistent in explaining metabolic variables of CHD. Percent of variance explained by central obesity measures and food patterns were TC (10%), FPG (16%), FTG (6.6%) and VLDL-c (6.7%). Significant negative association of chicken and fish consumption with central obesity measures indicates the beneficial effect of both these items in this population. PMID:12810406

  9. Universal Usability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, Sarah; Leventhal, Laura

    Universal usability of World Wide Web (Web) environments—that is, having 90% of households as successful users—requires universal access, usability, and universal design. Factors such as Web technology and user-centered design contribute to universal access and usability, but key to universal usability is a universal design methodology. Universal design principles for the Web follow from universal design principles for the built environment, and emphasize perceptibility, self-explanation, and tailorability for the user. Universally usable Web environments offer the benefit of expanded participation, as well as the unanticipated benefits that generally follow from innovative design initiatives. However, to achieve Web universal usability, Web designers need tools that facilitate the design of intuitive interfaces without sacrificing universal access.

  10. "Consuming Children." Reading the Impacts of Tourism in the City of Banaras

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huberman, Jenny

    2005-01-01

    What makes corrupt children such efficacious or nodal symbols? How and why is it that certain groups of children take on this signifying function? How do narratives about corrupt children provide people with a way of mediating and articulating more general anxieties about social change or rupture? This article begins to explore these questions by

  11. "Consuming Children." Reading the Impacts of Tourism in the City of Banaras

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huberman, Jenny

    2005-01-01

    What makes corrupt children such efficacious or nodal symbols? How and why is it that certain groups of children take on this signifying function? How do narratives about corrupt children provide people with a way of mediating and articulating more general anxieties about social change or rupture? This article begins to explore these questions by…

  12. Cerebrovascular manifestations and alteration of coagulation profile in scorpion sting: a case series.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Suman; Bhattacharya, Prithwis; Paswan, Anil

    2008-01-01

    Cerebrovascular manifestations are uncommon presentations of scorpion sting in the Indian subcontinent. A prospective study was carried out on 42 patients with scorpion sting in the intensive care unit (ICU) of the Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-05, INDIA, during the period of May 2005 to October 2007. In all the patients detailed history, physical examination with a specific neurological examination and routine biochemical testing and fundus examination were done. Computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were done in cases with neurological deficit. All these patients also underwent a complete hematological, rheumatologic and cardiovascular work-up for stroke. Cerebrovascular involvement was noted in three patients (7.15%). Hemorrhagic stroke was noted in two patients (4.77%) and thrombotic stroke was noted in one patient (2.39%). The mean time of presentation of neurological symptoms was 3 days. Contrary to world literature, there have been no reports of cranial nerve palsies or neuromuscular involvement in our series. PMID:19826585

  13. Fresh Water Cyanobacteria Geitlerinema sp. CCC728 and Arthrospira sp. CCC729 as an Anticancer Drug Resource

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Ratnakar; Srivastava, Vikas

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of cancer patients worldwide, especially in third world countries, have raised concern to explore natural drug resources, such as the less explored fresh water filamentous cyanobacteria. Six strains of cyanobacteria (Phormidium sp. CCC727, Geitlerinema sp. CCC728, Arthrospira sp. CCC729, Phormidium sp. CCC731, Phormidium sp. CCC730, and Leptolyngbya sp. CCC732) were isolated (paddy fields and ponds in the Banaras Hindu University, campus) and five strains screened for anticancer potential using human colon adenocarcinoma (HT29) and human kidney adenocarcinoma (A498) cancer cell lines. Geitlerinema sp. CCC728 and Arthrospira sp. CCC729 were the most potent as determined by examination of morphological features and by inhibition of growth by graded concentrations of crude extracts and thin-layer chromatography (TLC) eluates. Cell cycle analysis and multiplex assays using cancer biomarkers also confirmed Geitlerinema sp. CCC728 and Arthrospira sp. CCC729 as cancer drug resources. Apoptotic studies in the cells of A498 (cancer) and MCF-10A (normal human epithelial) exposed to crude extracts and TLC fractions revealed no significant impact on MCF-10A cells emphasizing its importance in the development of anticancer drug. Identification of biomolecules from these extracts are in progress. PMID:26325186

  14. University Architecture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Brian

    This book explores how universities relate their built environment to academic discourse, asserting that the character of universities is often a charming dialogue between order and disarray. It contains numerous photographs and building plans for example campuses throughout the world. In part 1, "The Campus," chapters are: (1) "Academic Mission…

  15. Universal Expansion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArdle, Heather K.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a week-long activity for general to honors-level students that addresses Hubble's law and the universal expansion theory. Uses a discrepant event-type activity to lead up to the abstract principles of the universal expansion theory. (JRH)

  16. University Futures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Recent radical changes to university education in England have been discussed largely in terms of the arrangements for transferring funding from the state to the student as consumer, with little discussion of what universities are for. It is important, while challenging the economic rationale for the new system, to resist talking about higher…

  17. Overseas Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inter-University Council for Higher Education Overseas, London (England).

    The following articles and reports are presented in this publication of "Overseas Universities:""Appropriate Technology and University Education," by John Twidell; "The Training of Engineering Staff for Higher Education Institutions in Developing Countries," by D. W. Daniel, C. A. Leal, J. H. Maynes and T. Wilmore; "A Case Study of an Academic…

  18. University Futures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Recent radical changes to university education in England have been discussed largely in terms of the arrangements for transferring funding from the state to the student as consumer, with little discussion of what universities are for. It is important, while challenging the economic rationale for the new system, to resist talking about higher

  19. Our Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Alan

    2001-03-01

    The Universe in which we live is unimaginably vast and ancient, with countless star systems, galaxies, and extraordinary phenomena such as black holes, dark matter, and gamma ray bursts. What phenomena remain mysteries, even to seasoned scientists? Our Universe is a fascinating collection of essays by some of the world's foremost astrophysicists. Some are theorists, some computational modelers, some observers, but all offer their insights into the most cutting-edge, difficult, and curious aspects of astrophysics. Compiled, the essays describe more than the latest techniques and findings. Each of the ten contributors offers a more personal perspective on their work, revealing what motivates them and how their careers and lives have been shaped by their desire to understand our universe. S. Alan Stern is Director of the Department of Space Studies at Southwest Research Institute in Boulder, Colorado. He is a planetary scientist and astrophysicist with both observational and theoretical interests. Stern is an avid pilot and a principal investigator in NASA's planetary research program, and he was selected to be a NASA space shuttle mission specialist finalist. He is the author of more than 100 papers and popular articles. His most recent book is Pluto & Charon (Wiley, 1997). Contributors: Dr. John Huchra, Harvard University Dr. Esther Hu, University of Hawaii, Honolulu Dr. John Mather, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Dr. Nick Gnedin, University of Colorado, Boulder Dr. Doug Richstone, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor Dr. Bohdan Paczynski, Princeton University, NJ Dr. Megan Donahue, Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD Dr. Jerry Ostriker, Princeton University, New Jersey G. Bothun, University of Oregon, Eugene

  20. Universe Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankatsing Nava, Tibisay; Russo, Pedro

    2015-08-01

    Universe Awareness (UNAWE) is an educational programme coordinated by Leiden University that uses the beauty and grandeur of the Universe to encourage young children, particularly those from an underprivileged background, to have an interest in science and technology and foster their sense of global citizenship from the earliest age.UNAWE's twofold vision uses our Universe to inspire and motivate very young children: the excitement of the Universe provides an exciting introduction to science and technology, while the vastness and beauty of the Universe helps broaden the mind and stimulate a sense of global citizenship and tolerance. UNAWE's goals are accomplished through four main activities: the coordination of a global network of more than 1000 astronomers, teachers and educators from more than 60 countries, development of educational resources, teacher training activities and evaluation of educational activities.Between 2011 and 2013, EU-UNAWE, the European branch of UNAWE, was funded by the European Commission to implement a project in 5 EU countries and South Africa. This project has been concluded successfully. Since then, the global project Universe Awareness has continued to grow with an expanding international network, new educational resources and teacher trainings and a planned International Workshop in collaboration with ESA in October 2015, among other activities.

  1. Universal Truths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horgan, John

    1990-01-01

    Described is a symposium of Nobel laureates held in the summer of 1990 to discuss cosmology. Different views on the structure and evolution of the universe are presented. Evidence for different theories of cosmology is discussed. (CW)

  2. Plasma universe

    SciTech Connect

    Alfven, H.

    1986-09-01

    A model based on the emissions and behavior of the most prevalent material in the universe leads one to view the world as an active and rapidly changing place, and helps one analyze the development of its components.

  3. Einstein's Universe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Eric; Wald, Robert

    1979-01-01

    Presents a guide to be used by students and teachers in conjunction with a television program about Einstein. Provides general information about special and general relativity, and the universe. Includes questions for discussion after each section and a bibliography. (MA)

  4. Expanding Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    A universe that expands with time. Although the possibility had been raised earlier through theoretical work carried out by Willem de Sitter (1872-1934), Aleksandr Friedmann (1888-1925), and the Abbé Georges Lemaître (1894-1966), that our universe is expanding was first demonstrated observationally in 1929 by Edwin P Hubble (1889-1953), through his measurements of the redshifts in the spectra of ...

  5. Undulant Universe

    SciTech Connect

    Barenboim, Gabriela; Mena, Olga; Quigg, Chris; /Fermilab

    2004-12-01

    If the equation of state for ''dark energy'' varies periodically, the expansion of the Universe may have undergone alternating eras of acceleration and deceleration. We examine a specific form that survives existing observational tests, does not single out the present state of the Universe as exceptional, and suggests a future much like the matter-dominated past: a smooth expansion without a final inflationary epoch.

  6. Plasma universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alfven, H.

    1986-01-01

    Traditionally the views on the cosmic environent have been based on observations in the visual octave of the electromagnetic spectrum, during the last half-century supplemented by infrared and radio observations. Space research has opened the full spectrum. Of special importance are the X-ray-gamma-ray regions, in which a number of unexpected phenomena have been discovered. Radiations in these regions are likely to originate mainly from magnetised cosmic plasmas. Such a medium may also emit synchrotron radiation which is observable in the radio region. If a model of the universe is based on the plasma phenomena mentioned it is found that the plasma universe is drastically different from the traditional visual universe. Information about the plasma universe can also be obtained by extrapolation of laboratory experiments and magnetospheric in situ measurements of plasmas. This approach is possible because it is likely that the basic properties of plasmas are the same everywhere. In order to test the usefulness of the plasma universe model it is applied to cosmogony. Such an approach seems to be rather successful. For example, the complicated structure of the Saturnian C ring can be accounted for. It is possible to reconstruct certain phenomena 4 to 5 billions of years ago with an accuracy of better than 1%.

  7. Widener University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valesey, Brigitte; Allen, Jo

    2009-01-01

    Founded in 1821, Widener University is a two-state (Pennsylvania and Delaware), four-campus, eight-college private institution serving approximately 6,700 students. Following arrival of the new senior vice president and provost in 2004 and subsequent reorganization of vice presidential responsibilities, Student Affairs is now led by a dean of…

  8. Universal Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobryn, Nancy M.

    Universal Studies, a study program designed to help students develop emotionally, intellectually, and spiritually, is described. Development of the personality and character of the individual is emphasized, as are innovation, creativity, individualized instruction, independent learning, and realizing human potential. These goals are characterized…

  9. University Builders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Martin

    This publication explores a diverse collection of new university buildings. Ranging from the design of vast new campuses, such as that by Wilford and Stirling at Temasek, Singapore, through to the relatively modest yet strategically important, such as the intervention by Allies and Morrison at Southampton, this book examines the new higher…

  10. Universities 2035

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thrift, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the future of Western higher education. Situated midway between an analysis and a polemic, it concerns itself with how we might begin to actively design the universities of the future. That will require a productionist account of higher education which is so far sadly lacking. But there are signs that such an account might be…

  11. New Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgett, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    The public-private alliance signals a future in which self-serving agreements could become the coin of the realm. Such a future would be a betrayal of the historical promise of public universities to innovate in ways that expand access to higher education. Given the rise of market-based models in educational policy circles, the threat of the

  12. New Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgett, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    The public-private alliance signals a future in which self-serving agreements could become the coin of the realm. Such a future would be a betrayal of the historical promise of public universities to innovate in ways that expand access to higher education. Given the rise of market-based models in educational policy circles, the threat of the…

  13. Universal Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rydeen, James E.

    1999-01-01

    Examines universal school design that is both user-friendly for all students and compliant with the Americans with Disabilities Act. This approach provides the basic functional design issues for easy traffic control, as well as orientation and classrooms that are adaptable to future curricular changes. Discusses new standards that impact design

  14. Holographic Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakur, Sunil

    2012-03-01

    Theory of relativity prohibits faster-than-light communication; we assume information must be transmitted from the sender to the receiver for it to be communicated; however, experimental evidences presented in this paper show waves, be it electromagnetic waves or sound waves, do not carry and communicate information. Information can be communicated instantly without violating of law of causality. Law of causality only suggests that every effect has a cause; it does not suggest cause must precede the effect. This paradigm-shifting paper fully backed up by overwhelming experimental evidences and observations directly from nature shows universe is a hologram and information becomes available across the universe as soon as it is produced.

  15. Universal randomness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dotsenko, Viktor S.

    2011-03-01

    In the last two decades, it has been established that a single universal probability distribution function, known as the Tracy-Widom (TW) distribution, in many cases provides a macroscopic-level description of the statistical properties of microscopically different systems, including both purely mathematical ones, such as increasing subsequences in random permutations, and quite physical ones, such as directed polymers in random media or polynuclear crystal growth. In the first part of this review, we use a number of models to examine this phenomenon at a simple qualitative level and then consider the exact solution for one-dimensional directed polymers in a random environment, showing that free energy fluctuations in such a system are described by the universal TW distribution. The second part provides detailed appendix material containing the necessary mathematical background for the first part.

  16. University lobbying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    In the past year, an increasing number of individual academic institutions have lobbied in Congress for new science facilities funds thus circumventing the traditional peer review process of evaluating the merits of such facilities. As an attempt to stem this rising tide, the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) governing council and the Association of American Universities (AAU) recently and independently issued strong statements condemning lobbying by individual universities and enthusiastically supporting the peer review system.“Informed peer judgments on the scientific merits of specific proposals, in open competition, should be a central element in the awarding of all federal funds for science,” the NAS resolution stated. AAU, meanwhile, implored “scientists, leaders of America's universities, and members of Congress” to “refrain from actions that would make scientific decisions a test of political influence rather than a judgment on the quality of the work to be done.” Roughly 50 research institutions constitute AAU; the two AAU Canadian members did not vote on the consortium's statement.

  17. Recapturing the Universal in the University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Ronald

    2005-01-01

    The idea of "the university" has stood for universal themes--of knowing, of truthfulness, of learning, of human development, and of critical reason. Through its affirming and sustaining of such themes, the university came itself to stand for universality in at least two senses: the university was neither partial (in its truth criteria) nor local…

  18. Open University

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-04-25

    Michel Pentz est née en Afrique du Sud et venu au Cern en 1957 comme physicien et président de l'associaion du personnel. Il est également fondateur du mouvement Antiapartheid de Genève et a participé à la fondation de l'Open University en Grande-Bretagne. Il nous parle des contextes pédagogiques, culturels et nationaux dans lesquels la méthode peut s'appliquer.

  19. Universal overgroup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnal, Didier; Selmi, Mohamed; Zergane, Amel

    2011-01-01

    A way to separate irreducible unitary representations π for a Lie group G by moment sets is to use an infinite-dimensional overgroup G˜ and extensions of each representation π to a representation π˜ of G˜, in such a manner that the moment set of π˜ characterizes π. In this paper we propose a universal overgroup G˜, which is an infinite-dimensional Fréchet-Lie group. We extend each π to a Hamiltonian action π˜ of G˜. The moment set of π˜ characterizes π.

  20. Neutrinoful universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higaki, Tetsutaro; Kitano, Ryuichiro; Sato, Ryosuke

    2014-07-01

    The Standard Model of particle physics fails to explain the important pieces in the standard cosmology, such as inflation, baryogenesis, and dark matter of the Universe. We consider the possibility that the sector to generate small neutrino masses is responsible for all of them; the inflation is driven by the Higgs field to break B - L gauge symmetry which provides the Majorana masses to the right-handed neutrinos, and the reheating process by the decay of the B - L Higgs boson supplies the second lightest right-handed neutrinos whose CP violating decays produce B - L asymmetry, à la, leptogenesis. The lightest right-handed neutrinos are also produced by the reheating process, and remain today as the dark matter of the Universe. In the minimal model of the inflaton potential, one can set the parameter of the potential by the data from CMB observations including the BICEP2 and the Planck experiments. In such a scenario, the mass of the dark matter particle is predicted to be of the order of PeV. We find that the decay of the PeV right-handed neutrinos can explain the high-energy neutrino flux observed at the IceCube experiments if the lifetime is of the order of 1028 s.

  1. The New Universities: Introduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brawne, Michael

    1970-01-01

    A discussion of the functions and purposes of universities, with reference to their respective importance in England and the United States. The first of 10 articles studying the following English universities in depth--(1) University of Sussex, (2) University of York, (3) University of East Anglia, (4) University of Essex, (5) University of Kent

  2. The New Universities: Introduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brawne, Michael

    1970-01-01

    A discussion of the functions and purposes of universities, with reference to their respective importance in England and the United States. The first of 10 articles studying the following English universities in depth--(1) University of Sussex, (2) University of York, (3) University of East Anglia, (4) University of Essex, (5) University of Kent…

  3. Manyfold universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Dimopoulos, Savas; Kaloper, Nemanja; Dvali, Gia

    2000-12-01

    We propose that our world is a brane folded many times inside the sub-millimeter extra dimensions. The folding produces many connected parallel branes or folds with identical microphysics - a Manyfold. Nearby matter on other folds can be detected gravitationally as dark matter since the light it emits takes a long time to reach us traveling around the fold. Hence dark matter is microphysically identical to ordinary matter; it can dissipate and clump possibly forming dark replicas of ordinary stars which are good MACHO candidates. Its dissipation may lead to far more frequent occurrence of gravitational collapse and consequently to a significant enhancement in gravitational wave signals detectable by LIGO and LISA. Sterile neutrinos find a natural home on the other folds. Since the folded brane is not a BPS state, it gives a new geometric means for supersymmetry breaking in our world. It may also offer novel approach for the resolution of the cosmological horizon problem, although it still requires additional dynamics to solve the flatness problem. Although there are constraints from BBN, structure formation, the enormity of galactic halos and the absence of stars and globular clusters with a discernible dark matter component, we show that the model is consistent with current observational limits. It presents us with a new dark matter particle and a new framework for the evolution of structure in our universe.

  4. Effect of dust load on the leaf attributes of the tree species growing along the roadside.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, R K; Prasad, Shikha; Rana, Savita; Obaidullah, S M; Pandey, Vijay; Singh, Hema

    2013-01-01

    Dust is considered as one of the most widespread air pollutants. The objective of the study was to analyse the effect of dust load (DL) on the leaf attributes of the four tree species planted along the roadside at a low pollution Banaras Hindu University (BHU) campus and a highly polluted industrial area (Chunar, Mirzapur) of India. The studied leaf attributes were: leaf area, specific leaf area (SLA), relative water content (RWC), leaf nitrogen content (LNC), leaf phosphorus content (LPC), chlorophyll content (Chl), maximum stomatal conductance (Gs(max)), maximum photosynthetic rate (A (max)) and intrinsic water-use efficiency (WUEi). Results showed significant effect of sites and species for DL and the leaf attributes. Average DL across the four tree species was greater at Chunar, whereas, the average values of leaf attributes were greater at the BHU campus. Maximum DL was observed for Tectona grandis at Chunar site and minimum for Syzygium cumini at BHU campus. Across the two sites, maximum value of SLA, Chl and Gs(max) were exhibited by S. cumini, whereas, the greatest value of RWC, LNC, LPC, A (max) and WUEi were observed in Anthocephalus cadamba. A. cadamba and S. cumini exhibited 28 and 27 times more dust accumulation, respectively, at the most polluted Chunar site as compared to the BHU campus. They also exhibited less reduction in A (max) due to dust deposition as compared to the other two species. Therefore, both these species may be promoted for plantation along the roadside of the sites having greater dust deposition. PMID:22367367

  5. Clemson University: College and University Systems Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CAUSE/EFFECT, 1980

    1980-01-01

    The administrative computing operation of Clemson University is discussed. The university's computing history, computer hardware, and computing organization (including the Computer Center, administrative programing services, and information systems development) are described. (MLW)

  6. The New Universities. (Architectural Character)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brawne, Michael

    1970-01-01

    Photographs and comparative statistics are given for each of the following--(1) University of Sussex, (2) University of York, (3) University of East Anglia, (4) University of Essex, (5) University of Kent at Canterbury, (6) University of Warwick, (7) University of Lancaster, (8) University of Technology, Loughborough, (9) Brunel University, (10)

  7. The New Universities. (Architectural Character)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brawne, Michael

    1970-01-01

    Photographs and comparative statistics are given for each of the following--(1) University of Sussex, (2) University of York, (3) University of East Anglia, (4) University of Essex, (5) University of Kent at Canterbury, (6) University of Warwick, (7) University of Lancaster, (8) University of Technology, Loughborough, (9) Brunel University, (10)…

  8. The Global University Press

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    The modern world's understanding of American university press has long been shaped by university-press books. American university-press books are good international advertisements for the universities whose logos grace their spines. The growth of transnational scholarship and the expansion of digital communications networks are converging in ways…

  9. The Global University Press

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    The modern world's understanding of American university press has long been shaped by university-press books. American university-press books are good international advertisements for the universities whose logos grace their spines. The growth of transnational scholarship and the expansion of digital communications networks are converging in ways

  10. Universities That Litigate Patents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rooksby, Jacob H.

    2012-01-01

    American research universities frequently obtain and license patents to their faculty members' inventions. While university licensing is carefully tracked and thoroughly studied, little is known about university decisions to assertively litigate their patents through filing patent infringement lawsuits in federal court. Which universities

  11. Adult Learners in Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Janette, Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Theories on adult development and learning and some of the Ontario universities' programs and services for the adult learner are examined, and Athabasca University, Alberta's answer to the British Open University, is described. Peter O'Donnell discusses adult learners' needs and explains how Athabasca University serves this specific type of…

  12. Universities as Management Arenas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Donald E.

    1973-01-01

    The process of university leadership is examined in terms of (1) the development of more sophisticated models of the kind of organization a university is, and (2) the development of more precise delineations of the nature of the multiple leadership tasks that must be performed in a university setting. The university is viewed as an "organized…

  13. Motivating University Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendriks, Paul; Sousa, Celio

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical investigation into how universities approach the need and means for motivating university researchers through their management practices. The role of work motivation for this group deserves attention because pressures from outside and within the universities are said to have made university research less of a

  14. The Open University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braybrook, Susan

    This booklet describes Governors State University, an open university responding to the needs of junior/community college graduates and others working towards a baccalaureate and master's degree. Emphasis is placed on the concept of the open university, planning of the open university, who are the students and how they influence the planning…

  15. Metaphor and Universal Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blown, Eric; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Attempts to identify elements of universal language and probes the limitations of the communication metaphor. Universal language is discussed in terms of the theory of quantum nonlocality and the implications of this theory for communication with extraterrestrial beings. (PCB)

  16. Gambling with the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawking, Stephen

    2002-05-01

    This is an excerpt from Stephen Hawking's book The Universe in a Nutshell. Roger Penrose and Stephen Hawking, Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge, were able to show that Einstein's General Theory of Relativity implied that the universe and time itself must have had a beginning in a tremendous explosion. The discovery of the expansion of the universe is one of the great intellectual revolutions of the twentieth century.

  17. University-Community Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Ira

    1986-01-01

    Common issues in university-community relationships, such as neighborhood problems and their solutions, facility expansion, traffic and parking, crime, housing, recreation facilities, and city services, are discussed. Findings from a study of the university-community relationship at Ohio State University are outlined. (MSE)

  18. John Carroll University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Kathleen Lis; Rombalski, Patrick; O'Dell, Kyle

    2009-01-01

    John Carroll University (JCU) is a Jesuit Catholic institution located in University Heights, approximately 10 miles east of Cleveland, Ohio. Founded in 1888, the university has a population of 3,400 undergraduates and 800 graduate students. The Division of Student Affairs at JCU comprises 11 units. The mission of the division is the same as that…

  19. Universities That Litigate Patents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rooksby, Jacob H.

    2012-01-01

    American research universities frequently obtain and license patents to their faculty members' inventions. While university licensing is carefully tracked and thoroughly studied, little is known about university decisions to assertively litigate their patents through filing patent infringement lawsuits in federal court. Which universities…

  20. Antimatter in the universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stigman, G.

    1973-01-01

    The means of detecting the presence of antimatter in the universe are discussed. Both direct, annihilation processes, and indirect, cosmic ray particles, were analyzed. All results were negative and it was concluded that no antimatter exists, if the universe is in fact symmetric. If the universe is not symmetric then matter and antimatter are well separated from each other.

  1. Northern Arizona University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butcher, Michael F.; Saltonstall, Margot; Bickel, Sarah; Brandel, Rick

    2009-01-01

    Northern Arizona University (NAU) is a public university nestled below the San Francisco Peaks in Flagstaff, Arizona. It enrolls more than 21,000 undergraduate and graduate students at its main campus in Flagstaff, through its 35 statewide sites, and via online program offerings. Within the university organizational system, Student Affairs has a…

  2. International Space University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kassler, Maggie (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    The International Space University (ISU) is described in this video, hosted by Marina Sirtis from the 'Star Trek' television show's Starship Enterprise. A complete explanation of what ISU is, how the university functions, and the benefits that the university provides are described. Included are brief comments from former ISU graduates.

  3. The Moral University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berube, Maurice R.; Berube, Clair T.

    2010-01-01

    The Moral University examines the ways that universities act morally toward students, faculty, their communities and the nation. It considers the effectiveness of moral reasoning courses in the curriculum and the growth of leadership courses. The book deals with the myriad ways in which universities act positively toward their communities. It also…

  4. Sierra University in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celis, Francisco Manuel Orozco

    2003-01-01

    Sierra University was designed to promote the development of the mountain communities in the State of Sonora, Mexico. The university offers high school graduates an opportunity to pursue their studies in their home region, in order to stimulate economic development and contribute to social cohesion in the highlands area. The university is equipped…

  5. Our Listless Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Allan

    1983-01-01

    Students in the best universities do not believe in anything, and those universities are doing nothing about it. The great questions--God, freedom, and immortality--hardly touch the young. The universities have no vision, no view of what a human being must know in order to be considered educated. (MLW)

  6. The University Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simplicio, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    In this article the author discusses the role university culture can play on a campus and how it can impact policy and practice. The article explores how a university's history, values, and vision form its culture and how this culture in turn affects its stability and continuity. The article discusses how newcomers within the university are…

  7. Directory of African Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of African Universities, Accra-North (Ghana).

    The Association of African Universities have been concerned with the lack of adequate and up-to-date information on African Universities. This document is a directory of information on African universities that includes entrance requirements, fees, courses, and student and staff numbers. The data for the directory was compiled from calendars and…

  8. Program Budgeting: Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Board of Regents, Columbus. Management Improvement Program.

    This manual recognizes there is a wide spectrum of budgeting practices in today's colleges and universities. In particular, universities in Ohio are at different stages in their utilization of program budgeting principles and also have different needs. Thus, this program budgeting manual was written to meet the specific needs of universities in…

  9. Situated University, Situated Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Ann M.

    2009-01-01

    This article argues that teaching as a situated, civic activity must be a core intellectual activity in the engaged metropolitan university. Situated writing provides the key pedagogy for the Chicago Civic Leadership Certificate Program at the University of Illinois at Chicago, an engaged public research university. The role of writing, or

  10. The German University System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, R. T.

    In an attempt to familiarize interested persons with the German university system, the German system of higher education is described including recent changes. Covered are: (1) degrees granted; (2) the organization of the universities; and (3) the social role of the professions. The German universities, in the present changing situation, are…

  11. Virtual Universe & Its Interface to Physical Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asija, Pal

    2005-04-01

    This paper postulates a virtual universe and compares and contrasts its properties to that of our known physical universe. A particular attention is paid to the interface between the two and challenges for transition from one to the other. Also discussed is the relationship of the virtual universe to such entities and concepts as dark matter, black holes, time travel, speed of light, mass, gravity just to name just a few. The paper also discusses interface between us physical beings and temporary virtual beings and eventually ultra beings. It also tangentially discusses relationship between body, brain, mind of physical beings with that of virtual and ultra beings. The paper also discusses why virtual beings do not have the same limitations and capabilities as we do. The past, present, elsewhere and potential of physical and virtual universes is compared. Finally possible pathways to discovery of TOE (Theory of Everything) is hypothesized.

  12. Evolution of Universal Grammar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, Martin A.; Komarova, Natalia L.; Niyogi, Partha

    2001-01-01

    Universal grammar specifies the mechanism of language acquisition. It determines the range of grammatical hypothesis that children entertain during language learning and the procedure they use for evaluating input sentences. How universal grammar arose is a major challenge for evolutionary biology. We present a mathematical framework for the evolutionary dynamics of grammar learning. The central result is a coherence threshold, which specifies the condition for a universal grammar to induce coherent communication within a population. We study selection of grammars within the same universal grammar and competition between different universal grammars. We calculate the condition under which natural selection favors the emergence of rule-based, generative grammars that underlie complex language.

  13. The Molecular Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tielens, A. G. G. M.

    2011-12-01

    Over the last 20 years, we have discovered that we live in a molecular Universe: A Universe with a rich and varied organic inventory; A Universe where molecules are abundant and widespread; A Universe where molecules play a central role in key processes that dominate the structure and evolution of galaxies; A Universe where molecules provide convenient thermometers and barometers to probe local physical conditions; A Universe where molecules can work together to form such complex species as you and me. Understanding the origin and evolution of interstellar and circumstellar molecules is thus key to understanding the Universe around us and our place in it and has become a fundamental goal of modern astrophysics. This review focuses on the organic inventory and the chemical processes that may play a role in stablishing molecular complexity in regions of planet formation.

  14. Selling University Reform: The University of Melbourne and the Press

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potts, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Since the advent of the "Times Higher Education Supplement World University Rankings" and the "Academic Rankings of World Universities" by Shanghai Jiao Tong University, some Australian universities have become especially concerned with being ranked among the 100 leading universities. The University of Melbourne, Australia's second oldest

  15. Selling University Reform: The University of Melbourne and the Press

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potts, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Since the advent of the "Times Higher Education Supplement World University Rankings" and the "Academic Rankings of World Universities" by Shanghai Jiao Tong University, some Australian universities have become especially concerned with being ranked among the 100 leading universities. The University of Melbourne, Australia's second oldest…

  16. On universal knot polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironov, A.; Mkrtchyan, R.; Morozov, A.

    2016-02-01

    We present a universal knot polynomials for 2- and 3-strand torus knots in adjoint representation, by universalization of appropriate Rosso-Jones formula. According to universality, these polynomials coincide with adjoined colored HOMFLY and Kauffman polynomials at SL and SO/Sp lines on Vogel's plane, respectively and give their exceptional group's counterparts on exceptional line. We demonstrate that [m,n]=[n,m] topological invariance, when applicable, take place on the entire Vogel's plane. We also suggest the universal form of invariant of figure eight knot in adjoint representation, and suggest existence of such universalization for any knot in adjoint and its descendant representations. Properties of universal polynomials and applications of these results are discussed.

  17. University of Colorado.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devine, Gary D.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The management information system used at the University of Colorado is described, outlining its history, administrative organization, administrative systems, hardware, budgets, software, and future plans. (MSE)

  18. Typical universal entanglers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Feng; Luo, MingXing; Chen, XiuBo; Yang, YiXian; Wang, XiaoJun

    2014-10-01

    A universal entangler is a very powerful fault-tolerant entangling device for generating quantum entanglements from any joint states. Our paper aims to address the construction of universal entanglers. We prove that universal entanglers may be obtained from random unitary gates according to the Harr measure. The success probability is close to 1 for large system spaces. This result represents the typical density of entanglement subspaces in large state spaces. It also partially solves an open problem of universal bipartite entanglers and is explained by some experiment simulations.

  19. From Universal Access to Universal Proficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Anne C.

    2003-01-01

    Panel of five education experts--Elliot Eisner, John Goodlad, Patricia Graham, Phillip Schlechty, and Warren Simons--answer questions related to recent school reform efforts, such as the No Child Left Behind Act, aimed at achieving universal educational proficiency. (PKP)

  20. Arizona State University. Exemplars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wegner, Gregory R.

    This report discusses how the Arizona Board of Regents, which has governing authority over the state's three public universities, dealt with the inability of the universities to respond to new societal needs in a timely manner; a major impediment was felt to be tenure. After a series of meetings of administrators and faculty leaders, the Board…

  1. Modelling University Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trakman, Leon

    2008-01-01

    Twentieth century governance models used in public universities are subject to increasing doubt across the English-speaking world. Governments question if public universities are being efficiently governed; if their boards of trustees are adequately fulfilling their trust obligations towards multiple stakeholders; and if collegial models of…

  2. Marketing University Outreach Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Ralph S., Jr., Ed.; And Others

    A collection of 12 essays and model program descriptions addresses issues in the marketing of university extension, outreach, and distance education programs. They include: (1) "Marketing and University Outreach: Parallel Processes" (William I. Sauser, Jr. and others); (2) "Segmenting and Targeting the Organizational Market" (Vaughan C. Judd); (3)

  3. University Freedom in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolasir, Semiyha

    2006-01-01

    Freedom means the right of the universities to do their scientific activities and to regulate and do the higher education through their organs. The three feet that make up the university freedom are scientific freedom, administrative freedom and financial freedom. Scientific freedom is realized by the freedom of the faculty and teaching staff and…

  4. Universe: Thermal History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, M.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    HUBBLE's discovery of the expansion of the universe in 1929 revealed our beginning from a much smaller and much denser initial state (BIG BANG THEORY). Penzias and Wilson's discovery of the COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND radiation (CMBR) in 1964 implied further that just after creation the universe was a hot soup of the fundamental particles whose dynamics was controlled by the energy density of the...

  5. A Virtual University Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittington, C. D.; Sclater, N.

    In developing any Virtual University it is important to clarify the differences between organizational structure, technical infrastructure, and content. This paper introduces a model for virtual universities that consists of three layers. The organizational layer defines the structure of the organization and addresses issues such as copyright and…

  6. Universal Design Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Mary C.

    2004-01-01

    Universal design is made up of four elements: accessibility, adaptability, aesthetics, and affordability. This article addresses the concept of universal design problem solving through experiential learning for an interior design studio course in postsecondary education. Students' experiences with clients over age 55 promoted an understanding of…

  7. University Patent Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latker, Norman J.

    The relationship between university research and public need is discussed from both a historical and contemporary perspective. Examples are cited of European experiences in which there has been obvious industrial motivation for research performed by the universities. The author notes that there are no difficulties with the level of government…

  8. Family Bonding with Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meer, Jonathan; Rosen, Harvey S.

    2010-01-01

    One justification offered for legacy admissions policies at universities is that that they bind entire families to the university. Proponents maintain that these policies have a number of benefits, including increased donations from members of these families. We use a rich set of data from an anonymous selective research institution to investigate…

  9. Universals, Typologies and Interlanguage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckman, Fred R.

    Two questions are raised: Is it possible to characterize the notion human language in terms of absolute and typological universals? And if so, what is the relationship between these universals and those formulated for primary languages? Given these questions, the purpose of the paper is to: (1) investigate some of the methodological considerations…

  10. University-industry interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, Daniel E.

    1990-01-01

    It is posited that university industry interaction is highly desirable from the viewpoint of the long term economic development of the country as well as being desirable for the Space Grant Programs. The present and future possible interactions are reviewed for the three university levels namely, undergraduate, graduate, and faculty research.

  11. Modelling University Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trakman, Leon

    2008-01-01

    Twentieth century governance models used in public universities are subject to increasing doubt across the English-speaking world. Governments question if public universities are being efficiently governed; if their boards of trustees are adequately fulfilling their trust obligations towards multiple stakeholders; and if collegial models of

  12. The Pennsylvania State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burlingame, Philip J.; Dowhower, Andrea L.

    2009-01-01

    Founded in 1855 as the Farmer's High School, the Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) began as a small college in Centre County providing agricultural education to young men from regional farm families. Penn State became a land-grant university in 1863 following passage of the Morrill Act. Today, Penn State enrolls more than 83,000 students

  13. The United Nations University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salam, Abdus

    1973-01-01

    Reports the progress already made toward the establishment of a postgraduate international university under United Nations auspices. The resolution adopted by the U.N. General Assembly provides a concise statement of the nature and aims of the United Nations University, which is likely to start operating in 1974. (JR)

  14. University Rankings in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Nian Cai; Liu, Li

    2005-01-01

    Since the mid 1990s of last Century, university rankings have become very popular in China. Six institutions have published such rankings; some of them have also detailed their ranking methodologies. This paper features a general introduction to university ranking in China, and to the methodologies of each ranking discussed. The paper also

  15. Slippery Rock University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnhold, Robert W.

    2008-01-01

    Slippery Rock University (SRU), located in western Pennsylvania, is one of 14 state-owned institutions of higher education in Pennsylvania. The university has a rich tradition of providing professional preparation programs in special education, therapeutic recreation, physical education, and physical therapy for individuals with disabilities.…

  16. Reeducation at Heidelberg University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, Geoffrey J.

    1997-01-01

    Utilizes German archival records to illuminate crucial post-war events at Heidelberg University. The university became the focal point of attempts to define the theoretical and practical meaning of "geistige Umerziehung" (spiritual reeducation). Discusses the conflict between U.S. authorities and such esteemed German scholars as Karl Jaspers and…

  17. The Pennsylvania State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burlingame, Philip J.; Dowhower, Andrea L.

    2009-01-01

    Founded in 1855 as the Farmer's High School, the Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) began as a small college in Centre County providing agricultural education to young men from regional farm families. Penn State became a land-grant university in 1863 following passage of the Morrill Act. Today, Penn State enrolls more than 83,000 students…

  18. Talent Management for Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores human resource management practices in the university sector with a specific focus on talent pools and talent management more generally. The paper defines talent management in the context of the university sector and then explores its interdependence with organisational strategy, the metrics used to measure academic performance…

  19. Asian Open Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, John

    1983-01-01

    The appearance of open universities in Asia is of interest to Australian educators, particularly since the Asian institutions differ in some respects from the British model which combined open entry to all and extensively employed the electronic media. The Asian Open Universities have provided access to higher education for many. (SSH)

  20. Marketing University Outreach Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Ralph S., Jr., Ed.; And Others

    A collection of 12 essays and model program descriptions addresses issues in the marketing of university extension, outreach, and distance education programs. They include: (1) "Marketing and University Outreach: Parallel Processes" (William I. Sauser, Jr. and others); (2) "Segmenting and Targeting the Organizational Market" (Vaughan C. Judd); (3)…

  1. Universality or Specialisation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allies, Christian; Troquet, Michel

    2004-01-01

    Trade globalisation is beginning to affect universities worldwide. In response to this outside pressure, institutions have become more geared to gaining international repute through research than to maintaining their reputation at home for the quality of their teaching. As a result of this focus on research, French universities, for example, are…

  2. Creating the African University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dafaala, E. N.

    1974-01-01

    An address summarizing the content of a workshop of the Association of African Universities in Accra, July 1972. The African University is defined in terms of its objectives for the 1970s including its role in the society, the development of indigenous staff, its relationship to Government, and research and development. [Resume in French…

  3. Managing Tomorrow's University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michalak, Craig L., Ed.

    The issues addressed in this conference report concern budgeting, the resourceful manager, extramural funding, employer-employee interaction, management information systems, and management of the university in the future. Contents include: the keynote address by F. E. Balderston; "University Budgeting in an Era of Scarce Resources," by F. M. Bowen…

  4. Universal Semantics in Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Zhenying

    2009-01-01

    What and how we translate are questions often argued about. No matter what kind of answers one may give, priority in translation should be granted to meaning, especially those meanings that exist in all concerned languages. In this paper the author defines them as universal sememes, and the study of them as universal semantics, of which…

  5. Universal Symbols and Cartography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modley, Rudolf

    The broad use of maps by non-cartographers imposes on the cartographer the burden to make maps not only accurate, but to use symbols which make map-reading easier for the public. The latter requirement implies a need for universal symbols. Although there are no universal symbols today (letters, words, and figures, to a lesser extent, are dependent…

  6. The universal propagator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klauder, John R.

    1993-01-01

    For a general Hamiltonian appropriate to a single canonical degree of freedom, a universal propagator with the property that it correctly evolves the coherent-state Hilbert space representatives for an arbitrary fiducial vector is characterized and defined. The universal propagator is explicitly constructed for the harmonic oscillator, with a result that differs from the conventional propagators for this system.

  7. Understanding University Technology Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of American Universities, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Federal government agencies provide about $33 billion a year to universities to conduct scientific research. That continuing investment expands human knowledge and helps educate the next generation of science and technology leaders. New discoveries from university research also form the basis for many new products and processes that benefit the…

  8. Universal Playground Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ensign, Arselia, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This publication presents principles of universal playgrounds, designed to maximize accessibility for all children, with and without disabilities. First, the rationale for the universal playground is given including the importance of play and the value of integration. Next current guidelines for playground design are discussed including safety,…

  9. Privatizing University Properties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doctrow, Jerry; And Others

    1996-01-01

    The University of Maryland at College Park has taken an unusual step in turning over management of some student residences (two graduate student apartment complexes) to a private property management firm. The realty group found ways to convert necessary expenditures for property improvement into substantial revenue for the university. Suggestions…

  10. New Openings in University-Industry Cooperation: Aalto University as the Forerunner of European University Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markkula, Markku; Lappalainen, Pia

    2009-01-01

    The Innovation University (IU)--to be called the Aalto University after Alvav Aalto, a famous Finnish architect and MIT professor--is a new university which will be created through a merger of three existing universities: the Helsinki University of Technology (TKK), the Helsinki School of Economics (HSE) and the University of Art and Design…

  11. New Openings in University-Industry Cooperation: Aalto University as the Forerunner of European University Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markkula, Markku; Lappalainen, Pia

    2009-01-01

    The Innovation University (IU)--to be called the Aalto University after Alvav Aalto, a famous Finnish architect and MIT professor--is a new university which will be created through a merger of three existing universities: the Helsinki University of Technology (TKK), the Helsinki School of Economics (HSE) and the University of Art and Design

  12. Evolution of universal grammar.

    PubMed

    Nowak, M A; Komarova, N L; Niyogi, P

    2001-01-01

    Universal grammar specifies the mechanism of language acquisition. It determines the range of grammatical hypothesis that children entertain during language learning and the procedure they use for evaluating input sentences. How universal grammar arose is a major challenge for evolutionary biology. We present a mathematical framework for the evolutionary dynamics of grammar learning. The central result is a coherence threshold, which specifies the condition for a universal grammar to induce coherent communication within a population. We study selection of grammars within the same universal grammar and competition between different universal grammars. We calculate the condition under which natural selection favors the emergence of rule-based, generative grammars that underlie complex language. PMID:11141560

  13. Imagine the Universe. 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Nicholas

    1999-01-01

    This CD-ROM contains compilations of three NASA Website pages from the Laboratory for High Energy Astrophysics at the Goddard Space Flight Center. The three sites on the CD-ROM are: (1) the Imagine the Universe!, (for ages 14 on up), which is dedicated to discussion of the Universe, what we know, how it is evolving and the kinds of objects and phenomena it contains; (2) StarChild: A learning center for young astronomers, (for ages 4-14), contains information about the Solar System, the Universe and space explorations; and (3) the Astronomy picture of the day, which offers a new astronomical image and caption for each calendar day.

  14. Type II universal spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hervik, S.; Málek, T.; Pravda, V.; Pravdová, A.

    2015-12-01

    We study type II universal metrics of the Lorentzian signature. These metrics simultaneously solve vacuum field equations of all theories of gravitation with the Lagrangian being a polynomial curvature invariant constructed from the metric, the Riemann tensor and its covariant derivatives of an arbitrary order. We provide examples of type II universal metrics for all composite number dimensions. On the other hand, we have no examples for prime number dimensions and we prove the non-existence of type II universal spacetimes in five dimensions. We also present type II vacuum solutions of selected classes of gravitational theories, such as Lovelock, quadratic and L({{Riemann}}) gravities.

  15. Seismology examined at university

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Robert B.; Thiruvathukal, John V.

    1988-03-01

    The early 1980s were a time of introspection and restructuring for universities. Faced with demographic projections indicating a decrease in university enrollment during the 1980s, many universities raised the possibility of cutting back on programs and faculty in order to survive into the 1990s, when the next mini-baby boom is expected.This period was also marked by changes in emphasis in federally funded research, as well as by new initiatives in the Earth sciences. Industry requirements for trained seismologists were very high initially but were substantially reduced in later years.

  16. Red Sprites as the source of ELF emission from lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, J.

    2013-12-01

    Jagdish Rai Invertis University, NH-24, Bareilly, India and Manoj K. Paras Department of Applied Sciences, DIT University, Dehradun, India. ABSTRACT Rai (1974) discussed the possibility of upper atmospheric lightning discharges. These discharges were observed experimentally by sertman et al (1995), Lyons (1996), Stenback- Nielsen and Mc Harg (2008) and many others. Cummer et al (1998) and Cummer (2003) observed that the radiation from red sprites lie in the ELF range. From the knowledge of velocity and current expressions obtained by Paras and Rai (2011) for red sprites, authors obtained the frequency spectrum of emitted radiation. The radiation lies mainly in ELF range and peaks around 40Hz. A comparative study of radio emissions from red sprite and return stroke- lateral corona current system shows that the power radiated from the former is higher than the later. When subjected to the propagation in earth -ionosphere waveguide, authors find that the Schumann resonances are caused by red sprites and not by return strokes. References:- 1. Cummer, S.A., U.S. Inan, T.F. Bell and C.P. Barrington-Leigh, 1998, ELF radiation produced by electrical currents in sprites, Geophys. Res. Letters 25, 8. 2. Cummer, S.A. 2003, Current moment in sprite producing lightning , J. Atmos. Solar Terr. Phys., 65, 499-908. 3. Lyons W.A., 1996 Sprite observations above the U.S. high plains in relation to their parent thunderstorm systems, J. Geophys. Res. D101, 29641. 4. Paros M.K. and J. Rai, 2011 Electric and magnetic fields from return stroke- lateral corona system and red sprites J. Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications, 3. 5. Rai J., 1974 some studies on lighting, Ph.D. Thesis Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India. 6. Sentman D.D., E.M. Wescott, D.L. Osborne, D.L. Hampton and M.J. Heazener, 1995, Preliminary results from the sprites 94 Campaign, Red Sprites, Geophy. Res. Letters, 22, 1205. 7. Stenback- Nielson H.C. and Mc Harg M.G., 2008, High time resolution sprite imaging. Observations and implications J.Phys. D, 41,234009.

  17. Northern Studies at Northern Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northern Review: A Multidisciplinary Journal of the Arts and Social Sciences of the North, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Describes college programs and research projects focused on the Arctic, northern studies, or northern concerns at Athabasca University (Alberta), the University of British Columbia, the University of Alaska Anchorage, the University of Alaska Fairbanks, the Scott Polar Institute at the University of Cambridge (England), and Kent State University…

  18. University of Florida Campus, Plaza of the Americas, University of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    University of Florida Campus, Plaza of the Americas, University of Florida Campus Quad Bounded by West University Avenue, US 441/Southwest 13th Street, Stadium Road, and North-South Drive, Gainesville, Alachua County, FL

  19. Improved universal electrical connector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, B. W.

    1972-01-01

    Universal electrical connector for use with various types of electric cable, inserts, and pin styles is described. Connector may be used over variety of environmental conditions. Details of construction are discussed. Illustrations of connector are included.

  20. Universality and Particularity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Lawrence

    1990-01-01

    Highlights Kohlberg's multiple views on the universality of moral reasoning. Attention to particular aspects of persons, contexts, and emotions is presented as an important aspect of morality. (Author/BB)

  1. University Presidents: Academic Chameleons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buxton, Thomas H.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Sampling the opinions of at least one college or university president in each state and at schools of all sizes, the authors measure the degree of job satisfaction experienced by presidents. (Editor/LBH)

  2. Berkeley College, Yale University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, James S.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the controversial architectural technique of combining contemporary features with traditional designs at Yale University's Berkeley College, and discusses whether there is a place for this type of juxtaposition in architectural design. Photos and diagrams are included. (GR)

  3. The hidden universe

    SciTech Connect

    Disney, M.

    1985-01-01

    Astronomer Disney has followed a somewhat different tack than that of most popular books on cosmology by concentrating on the notion of hidden (as in not directly observable by its own radiation) matter in the universe.

  4. Women in Swiss Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiederkehr-Benz, Katrin

    1982-01-01

    Discusses how early socialization creates later role conflicts for Swiss women who pursue university educations. Role conflicts can adversely affect the self-image, choice of field study, and academic aspirations of female students. (AM)

  5. Unity in the University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallis, W. Allen

    1975-01-01

    The author discusses the governing order of the university. Focus is placed upon a hierarchical organization in which the administration remains at the pinnacle. Communication and unity among administration, faculty, and student are emphasized. (DE)

  6. The universal path integral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, Seth; Dreyer, Olaf

    2016-02-01

    Path integrals calculate probabilities by summing over classical configurations of variables such as fields, assigning each configuration a phase equal to the action of that configuration. This paper defines a universal path integral, which sums over all computable structures. This path integral contains as sub-integrals all possible computable path integrals, including those of field theory, the standard model of elementary particles, discrete models of quantum gravity, string theory, etc. The universal path integral possesses a well-defined measure that guarantees its finiteness. The probabilities for events corresponding to sub-integrals can be calculated using the method of decoherent histories. The universal path integral supports a quantum theory of the universe in which the world that we see around us arises out of the interference between all computable structures.

  7. California's "Free" Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cudhea, David

    1974-01-01

    Heliotrope, Orpheus, and Communiversity, San Francisco's three free universities, offer curricula with combinations of alchemy, magic, Volkswagen repairs, options in education, dance, conversational Mandarin, basic plumbing, and brain wave experiences. (Author/PG)

  8. Karma, reincarnation, and medicine: Hindu perspectives on biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Janis Faye; Sharp, Richard

    2008-12-01

    Prior to the completion of the Human Genome Project, bioethicists and other academics debated the impact of this new genetic information on medicine, health care, group identification, and peoples' lives. A major issue is the potential for unintended and intended adverse consequences to groups and individuals. When conducting research in, for instance, American Indian and Alaskan native (AI/AN) populations, political, cultural, religious and historical issues must be considered. Among African Americans, the Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment is a reminder of racism and discrimination in this country. The goal of the current study is to understand reasons for participating, or not, in genetic research such as the HapMap project and other genetic/medical research from the perspective of the Indian American community in Houston, Texas. In this article, we report on a topic central to this discussion among Indian Americans: karma and reincarnation. Both concepts are important beliefs when considering the body and what should happen to it. Karma and reincarnation are also important considerations in participation in medical and genetic research because, according to karma, what is done to the body can affect future existences and the health of future descendants. Such views of genetic and medical research are culturally mediated. Spiritual beliefs about the body, tissue, and fluids and what happens to them when separated from the body can influence ideas about the utility and acceptability of genetic research and thereby affect the recruitment process. Within this community it is understood that genetic and environmental factors contribute to complex diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, and cancer; and acknowledgment of the significance of environmental stressors in the production of disease. A commitment to service, i.e. "betterment of humanity," karmic beliefs, and targeting environmental stressors could be prominent avenues for public health campaigns in this population. This study suggests that minority status does not automatically indicate unwillingness to participate in genetic or medical research. Indian Americans were not skeptical about the potential benefits of biomedical research in comparison to other ethnic minority communities in the United States. PMID:19479363

  9. Physics of the universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachs, Mendel

    ch. 1. Physics of the universe. Introduction. Is Newton's theory an explanation of gravity? The expanding universe. The oscillating universe cosmology. The theory of general relativity. The role of space and time. Geometry and matter. Generalization of Einstein's field equations. A unified field theory -- ch. 2. A language of cosmology: the mathematical basis of general relativity. Introduction. Einstein's tensor formulation. The Riemann curvature tensor. The geodesic equation. The vacuum equation. The crucial tests of general relativity. The logic of the spacetime language -- ch. 3. A unified field theory in general relativity: extension from the tensor to the quaternion language. Introduction. Factorization of Einstein's tensor field equations. The Riemann curvature tensor in quaternion form. The quaternion metrical field equations. A symmetric tensor-antisymmetric tensor representation of general relativity - gravity and electromagnetism. The Einstein field equations from the symmetric tensor part. The Maxwell field equations from the antisymmetric tensor part. Conclusions -- ch. 4. An oscillating, spiral universe cosmology. introduction. Dynamics of the expansion and contraction of the universe. Dynamics of the oscillating universe cosmology. Derivation of the Hubble law as an approximation. The spiral structure of the universe. Concluding remarks -- ch. 5. Dark matter. Introduction. The field equations and the ground state solution for the bound particle-antiparticle pair. Olber's paradox -- ch. 6. Concluding remarks. Black holes. Pulsars. On the human race and cosmology -- ch. 7. Philosophical considerations. On truth. Positivism versus realism, subjectivity versus objectivity. On Mach's influence in physics and cosmology. References and notes -- Postscript. Physics in the 21st century. Holism. The universe. The Mach principle and the origin of inertia from general relativity.

  10. The Endless Universe

    SciTech Connect

    Steinhardt, Paul

    2003-09-24

    This talk will introduce the Cyclic Model of the Universe, a radical alternative to standard big bang/inflationary cosmology in which space and time exist indefinitely, high energy inflation is avoided, dark energy is given a prominent role, and the universe undergoes periodic epochs of expansion and cooling. The model, which is motivated by recent ideas in superstring theory, seems capable of reproducing all of the successes of the standard picture and leads to distinctive predictions.

  11. The Runaway Universe

    SciTech Connect

    Blanford, Roger

    2004-10-26

    The Universe appears to be flat, accelerating and lightweight. In this talk, I will explain what these terms mean, how we developed this view and its implications. I will also discuss the connection between cosmology and particle physics experiments being conducted at accelerators and in underground laboratories. I will conclude with a description of some proposed telescopes that will help us understand much more about the geometry, expansion and contents of our Universe.

  12. University contracts summary book

    SciTech Connect

    1980-08-01

    The principal objectives of the Fossil Energy Program are to seek new ideas, new data, fundamental knowledge that will support the ongoing programs, and new processes to better utilize the nation's fossil energy resources with greater efficiency and environmental acceptability. Toward this end, the Department of Energy supports research projects conducted by universities and colleges to: Ensure a foundation for innovative technology through the use of the capabilities and talents in our academic institutions; provide an effective, two-way channel of communication between the Department of Energy and the academic community; and ensure that trained technical manpower is developed to carry out basic and applied research in support of DOE's mission. Fossil Energy's university activities emphasize the type of research that universities can do best - research to explore the potential of novel process concepts, develop innovative methods and materials for improving existing processes, and obtain fundamental information on the structure of coal and mechanisms of reactions of coal, shale oil, and other fossil energy sources. University programs are managed by different Fossil Energy technical groups; the individual projects are described in greater detail in this book. It is clear that a number of research areas related to the DOE Fossil Energy Program have been appropriate for university involvement, and that, with support from DOE, university scientific and technical expertise can be expected to continue to play a significant role in the advancement of fossil energy technology in the years to come.

  13. The University-Industry Relations of an Entrepreneurial University: The Case of the University of Twente.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schutte, Frits

    1999-01-01

    Describes the development of the University of Twente from a regional teaching university to a national research university, the "entrepreneurial university" of the Netherlands. Focuses on spinoffs from the university, an incubator in a business and science park and the generation of venture capital. Estimates the regional impact of such

  14. The University-Industry Relations of an Entrepreneurial University: The Case of the University of Twente.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schutte, Frits

    1999-01-01

    Describes the development of the University of Twente from a regional teaching university to a national research university, the "entrepreneurial university" of the Netherlands. Focuses on spinoffs from the university, an incubator in a business and science park and the generation of venture capital. Estimates the regional impact of such…

  15. The entangled accelerating universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Díaz, Pedro F.; Robles-Pérez, Salvador

    2009-08-01

    Using the known result that the nucleation of baby universes in correlated pairs is equivalent to spacetime squeezing, we show in this Letter that there exists a T-duality symmetry between two-dimensional warp drives, which are physically expressible as localized de Sitter little universes, and two-dimensional Tolman-Hawking and Gidding-Strominger baby universes respectively correlated in pairs, so that the creation of warp drives is also equivalent to spacetime squeezing. Perhaps more importantly, it has been also seen that the nucleation of warp drives entails a violation of the Bell's inequalities, and hence the phenomena of quantum entanglement, complementarity and wave function collapse. These results are generalized to the case of any dynamically accelerating universe filled with dark or phantom energy whose creation is also physically equivalent to spacetime squeezing and to the violation of the Bell's inequalities, so that the universe we are living in should be governed by essential sharp quantum theory laws and must be a quantum entangled system.

  16. The Universe Revealed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spence, Pam

    1998-10-01

    The Universe is a bewildering place to the uninitiated. The concepts and theories that govern space seem complex and often contradictory. The Universe Revealed provides the keys to unlocking the wonders of the cosmos. Elegantly written and lavishly illustrated, it begins with the Sun and stretches through our solar system into deepest space. Lucid prose, written by many of the people who have shaped our current thinking on space, and spectacular photographs make the physics of the Universe accessible and provide a solid background for understanding the most recent astronomical discoveries. Covering the most intriguing features of the cosmos, the topics discussed range from the Earth and global warming to cosmic collisions and the size of the Universe. Major sections examine the Solar System, stars, galaxies, cosmology, and the observational techniques used by astronomers, both amateur and professional. The Universe Revealed represents the collaboration of internationally renowned experts in astronomy and cosmology, with contributions from authors including David Malin, F. Duccio Macchetto, Iain Nicholson, Neil Bone, Ian Ridpath, Seth Shostak, Mike Lancaster, Steve Miller, Ken Croswell, Geoff McNamara, and Steven Young. This extraordinary blend of astronomy, astrophysics, and cosmology, will appeal to amateur and armchair astronomers alike.

  17. University teaching - where next?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-03-01

    A one-day workshop will take place on 23 April 1999 at the University of Edinburgh's Conference and Training Centre to consider the topic `The future of university teaching? Multimedia, web and new technologies'. The workshop is being organized by Edinburgh Parallel Computing Centre and will be attended by experts in distance learning from various institutions including the Clyde Virtual University and the Open University, plus a speaker from the USA. They will present case studies of the opportunities new technologies provide for higher education, covering all aspects from development of electronic courses through delivery mechanisms to user feedback. There is certainly an increasing need for quality teaching materials and new ways of learning. The workshop will aim to discuss how those involved in university teaching can benefit from new developments such as multimedia, the Internet, as well as new computing and networking technologies. Participation is free, with lunch and refreshments provided. More information and registration details can be found at http://www.epcc.ed.ac.uk/epcc-tec/JTAP/workshop/ or by e-mail to epcc-tec@epcc.ed.ac.uk.

  18. University surgical group.

    PubMed

    Karp, R B

    1995-11-01

    The medical marketplace and various forms of contracted care place academic medical centers at a potential disadvantage. Recruitment of patients and maintenance of the academic mission may at times have disparate agendas. The university surgeon traditionally has embraced patient care, education, research, and administration with relative ease. Major price constraints and new forms of market competition now threaten the centralization of technology, the creativity, and the educational mission of university surgical practices. The university must deal with this new order by being proactive and flexible in negotiation. Faculty should conduct their business among themselves and with outside entities under a practice plan. Business management and physicians must try vigorously to understand each other. Finally, universities should use their expertise to lead in clinical outcomes research. The ideal university practice must show leadership in technological advances, retain the scientific method, and produce useful precise outcomes analysis. The academic surgeon must help solve problems involving excessive costs, assaults on creativity, and the business-medical interface. Time management will be essential. PMID:8526672

  19. University-Community Engagement: Case Study of University Social Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chile, Love M.; Black, Xavier M.

    2015-01-01

    Corporatisation of universities has drawn parallels between contemporary universities and business corporations, and extended analysis of corporate social responsibility to universities. This article reports on a case study of university-community engagement with schools and school communities through youth engagement programmes to enhance

  20. University-Community Engagement: Case Study of University Social Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chile, Love M.; Black, Xavier M.

    2015-01-01

    Corporatisation of universities has drawn parallels between contemporary universities and business corporations, and extended analysis of corporate social responsibility to universities. This article reports on a case study of university-community engagement with schools and school communities through youth engagement programmes to enhance…

  1. Music of the Universe

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    Scientists are quite familiar with what a supernova looks like — when these stars are destroyed in the most massive explosions in the universe, they leave their mark as one of the brightest objects in space, at least for several weeks. While the supernova can be seen, it cant be heard, as sound waves cannot travel through space. But what if the light waves emitted by the exploding star and other cosmological phenomena could be translated into sound? Thats the idea behind a Rhythms of the Universe, a musical project to sonify the universe by Grateful Dead percussionist and Grammy award-winning artist Mickey Hart that caught the attention of Nobel Prize-winning astrophysicist George Smoot of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Sounds courtesy of Keith Jackson. Images courtesy of NASA

  2. The Biological Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Steven J.

    1999-12-01

    Throughout the twentieth century, from the furor over Percival Lowell's claim of canals on Mars to the sophisticated Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, otherworldly life has often intrigued and occasionally consumed science and the public. The Biological Universe provides a rich and colorful history of the attempts during the twentieth century to answer questions such as whether "biological law" reigns throughout the universe and whether there are other histories, religions, and philosophies outside those on Earth. Covering a broad range of topics, including the search for life in the solar system, the origins of life, UFOs, and aliens in science fiction, Steven J. Dick shows how the concept of extraterrestrial intelligence is a world view of its own, a "biophysical cosmology" that seeks confirmation no less than physical views of the universe. This book will fascinate astronomers, historians of science, biochemists, and science fiction readers.

  3. Phonology without universal grammar

    PubMed Central

    Archangeli, Diana; Pulleyblank, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    The question of identifying the properties of language that are specific human linguistic abilities, i.e., Universal Grammar, lies at the center of linguistic research. This paper argues for a largely Emergent Grammar in phonology, taking as the starting point that memory, categorization, attention to frequency, and the creation of symbolic systems are all nonlinguistic characteristics of the human mind. The articulation patterns of American English rhotics illustrate categorization and systems; the distribution of vowels in Bantu vowel harmony uses frequencies of particular sequences to argue against Universal Grammar and in favor of Emergent Grammar; prefix allomorphy in Esimbi illustrates the Emergent symbolic system integrating phonological and morphological generalizations. The Esimbi case has been treated as an example of phonological opacity in a Universal Grammar account; the Emergent analysis resolves the pattern without opacity concerns. PMID:26388791

  4. The Classification of Universes

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorken, J.D.

    2004-02-18

    We define a universe as the contents of a spacetime box with comoving walls, large enough to contain measurable phenomena, but not much larger. This allows the construction of a local ensemble of such universes, given modest extrapolations of the observed properties of the cosmos. We then assume that further out similar universes can be constructed, but with different standard model parameters, strongly correlated with the size in a definite way, where by size is meant the Hubble scale at late times. This allows an estimate of the range of sizes supporting life as we know it. The result allows some understanding of the hierarchy problems of particle physics. Other possible implications of the assumptions made will be discussed, including a possible connection between the QCD vacuum structure and cosmological horizon structure. In all cases, our approach is as bottoms-up and as phenomenological as possible, suggesting that theories of the multiverse may eventually lay some claim of being scientific.

  5. The anamorphic universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ijjas, Anna; Steinhardt, Paul J.

    2015-10-01

    We introduce ``anamorphic'' cosmology, an approach for explaining the smoothness and flatness of the universe on large scales and the generation of a nearly scale-invariant spectrum of adiabatic density perturbations. The defining feature is a smoothing phase that acts like a contracting universe based on some Weyl frame-invariant criteria and an expanding universe based on other frame-invariant criteria. An advantage of the contracting aspects is that it is possible to avoid the multiverse and measure problems that arise in inflationary models. Unlike ekpyrotic models, anamorphic models can be constructed using only a single field and can generate a nearly scale-invariant spectrum of tensor perturbations. Anamorphic models also differ from pre-big bang and matter bounce models that do not explain the smoothness. We present some examples of cosmological models that incorporate an anamorphic smoothing phase.

  6. Universal Heliophysical Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk

    2011-01-01

    The physical processes in the heliospace are a direct consequence of the Sun s mass and electromagnetic emissions. There has been enormous progress in studying these processes since the dawn of the space age half a century ago. The heliospace serves as a great laboratory to study numerous physical processes, using the vast array of ground and spacebased measurements of various physical quantities. The observational capabilities collectively form the Great Observatory to make scientific investigations not envisioned by individual instrument teams. The International Heliophysical Year (IHY) program has been promoting scientific investigations on the universality of physical processes such as shocks, particle acceleration, dynamo, magnetic reconnection, magnetic flux ropes, plasma-neutral matter interactions, turbulence, and several other topics. This chapter highlights scientific deliberations on these and related topics that took place during the IAGA session on "Universal Heliophysical Processes" in Sopron, Hungary. The session featured several invited and contributed papers that focused on observations, theory and modeling of the universal heliophysical processes.

  7. The apparent Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binétruy, P.; Helou, A.

    2015-10-01

    We exploit the parallel between dynamical black holes and cosmological spacetimes to describe the evolution of Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker universes from the point of view of an observer in terms of the dynamics of the apparent horizon. Using the Hayward-Kodama formalism of dynamical black holes, we clarify the role of the Clausius relation to derive the Friedmann equations for a Universe, in the spirit of Jacobson’s work on the thermodynamics of spacetime. We also show how dynamics at the horizon naturally leads to the quantum-mechanical process of Hawking radiation. We comment on the connection of this work with recent ideas to consider our observable Universe as a Bose-Einstein condensate and on the corresponding role of vacuum energy.

  8. The Biological Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Steven J.

    1996-09-01

    Introduction; 1. From the physical world to the biological universe: Democritus to Lowell; 2. Plurality of worlds and the decline of anthropocentrism; 3. The solar system: the limits of observation; 4. Solar systems beyond: the limits of theory; 5. Extraterrestrials in literature and the arts: the role of imagination; 6. The UFO controversy: on perception and deception; 7. The origin and evolution of life in the extraterrestrial context; 8. SETI: the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence; 9. The convergence of disciplines: birth of a new science; 10. The meaning of life; Summary and conclusion: the biological universe and the limits of science.

  9. The Biological Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Steven J.

    2000-03-01

    Introduction; 1. From the physical world to the biological universe: Democritus to Lowell; 2. Plurality of worlds and the decline of anthropocentrism; 3. The solar system: the limits of observation; 4. Solar systems beyond: the limits of theory; 5. Extraterrestrials in literature and the arts: the role of imagination; 6. The UFO controversy: on perception and deception; 7. The origin and evolution of life in the extraterrestrial context; 8. SETI: the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence; 9. The convergence of disciplines: birth of a new science; 10. The meaning of life; Summary and conclusion: the biological universe and the limits of science.

  10. Reconstructing the Universe

    SciTech Connect

    Ambjoern, J.; Jurkiewicz, J.; Loll, R.

    2005-09-15

    We provide detailed evidence for the claim that nonperturbative quantum gravity, defined through state sums of causal triangulated geometries, possesses a large-scale limit in which the dimension of spacetime is four and the dynamics of the volume of the universe behaves semiclassically. This is a first step in reconstructing the universe from a dynamical principle at the Planck scale, and at the same time provides a nontrivial consistency check of the method of causal dynamical triangulations. A closer look at the quantum geometry reveals a number of highly nonclassical aspects, including a dynamical reduction of spacetime to two dimensions on short scales and a fractal structure of slices of constant time.

  11. An Early Cyclic Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duhe, William; Biswas, Tirthibir

    2014-03-01

    We provide a comprehensive numerical study of the Emergent Cyclic Inflation scenario. This is a scenario where instead of traditional monotonic slow roll inflation, the universe expands over numerous short asymmetric cycles due to the production of entropy via interactions among different species. This is one of the very few scenarios of inflation which provides a nonsingular geodesically complete space-time and does not require any ``reheating'' mechanism. A special thanks to Loyola University for an excellent community to help this project grow.

  12. Anisotropically inflating universes

    SciTech Connect

    Barrow, John D.; Hervik, Sigbjoern

    2006-01-15

    We show that in theories of gravity that add quadratic curvature invariants to the Einstein-Hilbert action there exist expanding vacuum cosmologies with positive cosmological constant which do not approach the de Sitter universe. Exact solutions are found which inflate anisotropically. This behavior is driven by the Ricci curvature invariant and has no counterpart in the general-relativistic limit. These examples show that the cosmic no-hair theorem does not hold in these higher-order extensions of general relativity and raises new questions about the ubiquity of inflation in the very early universe and the thermodynamics of gravitational fields.

  13. Beyond the Mechanical Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olenick, Richard P.; Apostol, Tom M.; Goodstein, David L.

    2008-04-01

    Preface; 31. Beyond the mechanical universe; 32. Static electricity; 33. The electric field; 34. Potential and capacitance; 35. Voltage, energy and force; 36. The electric battery; 37. Electric circuits; 38. Magnetism; 39. The magnetic field; 40. Vector fields and hydrodynamics; 41. Electromagnetic induction; 42. Alternating currents; 43. Maxwell's equations; 44. Optics; 45. The Michelson-Morley experiment; 46. The Lorentz transformation; 47. Velocity and time; 48. Mass, momentum, energy; 49. Atoms; 50. Particles and waves; 51. Atoms to quarks; 52. The quantum mechanical universe; Appendix A. The international system of units; Appendix B. Conversion factors; Appendix C. The periodic table of the elements; Appendix D. Astronomical data; Appendix E. Physical constants; Index.

  14. A universal functional object

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, J. P.

    1972-01-01

    A scheme is presented for realizing any function, combinational or sequential, in a single universal function scheme, termed the universal function object UF. This scheme is addressed to the problem of the proliferation of the number of parts (cards, chips) necessary for conventional implementation in an LSI technology of a computer system. The UF implementation will use about ten times more circuits than a conventional implementation regardless of the size of the design. The UF approach also includes general-purpose spares for failing circuits. The procedure could be used both at manufacture to increase yields, as well as to achieve automatic repair.

  15. Imaging the early universe

    SciTech Connect

    Krupa, Tyler J.

    2000-07-01

    An international team of cosmologists has released the first detailed images of the universe in its infancy. The images reveal the structure that existed when the universe was a tiny fraction of its current age and 1,000 times smaller and hotter than it is today. Research carried out as part of this project is shedding light on some of cosmology's long-standing mysteries, such as the nature of the matter and energy that dominate intergalactic space and whether space is ''curved'' or ''flat.''(c) 2000 Optical Society of America.

  16. Universal phosphorescence immunoassay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantrova, Ekaterina Y.; Demcheva, Marina V.; Savitsky, Alexander P.; Ponomarev, Gely V.

    1993-05-01

    Pd-coproporphyrin I (Pd-CP) has optimum phosphorescence characteristics for application in immunoassay. The aim of this study is to work out a universal phosphorescence immunoassay method (UniPhIA) using monoclonal antibodies to Pd-CP and conjugates of various proteins with Pd-CP for detection of insulin. Pd-CP and monoclonal antibodies obtained allow a convenient method for determination of various antigens to be developed, which combines the universal character of the amplified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (a-ELISA) with a high sensitivity and the simplicity of the time-resolved phosphorescence immunoassay.

  17. Universals in the World's Musics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Steven; Jordania, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Many decades of skepticism have prevented the field of musicology from embracing the importance of musical universals. When universals "have" been discussed, it has generally been in the form of meta-critiques about the concept of universals, rather than in positive proposals about actual universals. We present here a typology of four categories

  18. Universals in the World's Musics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Steven; Jordania, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Many decades of skepticism have prevented the field of musicology from embracing the importance of musical universals. When universals "have" been discussed, it has generally been in the form of meta-critiques about the concept of universals, rather than in positive proposals about actual universals. We present here a typology of four categories…

  19. Universities Venture into Venture Capitalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desruisseaux, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Reports that some universities are starting their own venture-capital funds to develop campus companies, or are investing endowment funds with established venture-capital firms inclined to finance potential spinoffs from campus research. Examples cited are from the University of Alabama, Vanderbilt University (Tennessee), University of

  20. Universal Design for Academic Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmen, John P. S.

    2011-01-01

    Universal design (UD) can play a role in many aspects of academic life and is often thought of in the context of learning. However, this chapter focuses on the impact of UD on the design of facilities in a university or campus setting. Universal design has the potential for transforming universities into truly egalitarian institutions that…

  1. State University System of Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Board of Governors, State University System of Florida, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents some information about the State University System of Florida. The following are presented in this paper: (1) University Work Plans and Annual Reports; (2) State University System 2009 Annual Report; (3) Quick Facts: Planned New Degree Programs--2010 to 2013; (4) State University System Tuition Differential Summary, FY…

  2. Universities Venture into Venture Capitalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desruisseaux, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Reports that some universities are starting their own venture-capital funds to develop campus companies, or are investing endowment funds with established venture-capital firms inclined to finance potential spinoffs from campus research. Examples cited are from the University of Alabama, Vanderbilt University (Tennessee), University of…

  3. Universal Teller Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuPage Area Vocational Education Authority, Addison, IL.

    This curriculum guide has been designed to provide the teacher with a basis for planning a comprehensive program in the career field of universal teller, and to allow the teacher and learner maximum flexibility. The teaching or instruction, in both educational and financial institutions, can be accomplished through large formal groups, small…

  4. Teaching Geomorphology at University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugden, David; Hamilton, Patrick

    1978-01-01

    Geomorphology courses in British universities emphasize the main landform/process systems rather than more abstract concepts. Recommends a more theoretical focus on fundamental geomorphic processes and methodological problems. Available from: Faculty of Modern Studies, Oxford Polytechnic, Headington, Oxford OX3 OBP, England. (Author/AV)

  5. Entropy of the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Humitaka

    2010-06-01

    Charles Darwin's calculation of a life of Earth had ignited Kelvin's insight on a life of Sun, which had eventually inherited to the physical study of stellar structure and energy source. Nuclear energy had secured a longevity of the universe and the goal of the cosmic evolution has been secured by the entropy of black holes.

  6. Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracken, Bruce A.; McCallum, R. Steve

    This kit presents all components of the Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test (UNIT), a newly developed instrument designed to measure the general intelligence and cognitive abilities of children and adolescents (ages 5 through 17) who may be disadvantaged by traditional verbal and language-loaded measures such as children with speech, language,…

  7. Universities Are Funny Places!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawless, Ann

    2006-01-01

    Universities are funny places. They have a strong sense of hierarchy and rank. They have an amazing disparity in salary levels and status between staff, are class conscious, and are run by a large bureaucracy that oils and keeps the machinery going. They operate as educational institutions and yet also are entrepreneurial, marketing themselves in…

  8. The Universal Aspiration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, James Q.

    1993-01-01

    Argues that the most remarkable change in the moral history of humankind has been the rise (and the occasional application) of the view that all people, not just one's own kind, are entitled to fair treatment. Ethnic conflict and the role of universal dispositions of human behavior are discussed. (SLD)

  9. Universities in Their Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Fred

    2012-01-01

    Universities often seem to be far more concerned about their international connections than their local relationships. The local context seems not to matter much either to their jetsetting vice-chancellors or to their lecturers and researchers under pressure to get papers published in obscure journals. That is how it may seem, but it is not…

  10. University Study in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada, Ottawa (Ontario). International Programmes Div.

    These notes for overseas students intending to attend university in Canada contain information on admission requirements and application and registration procedures. A sample budget for a 1967-68 undergraduate as well as a discussion of medical and other insurance are included in the summary of possible financial expenditures. Although there are…

  11. Howard University Bookstore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxon, Hazel Carter; Negron, Jaime

    1977-01-01

    Two full-time university bookstores, with three satellites helping during rush period, serve the Howard students and faculty. Solutions to problems of space, acquiring used books, and communications with faculty members are discussed, and the successful retailing of black studies books is described. (LBH)

  12. Toward the Multicultural University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowser, Benjamin P., Ed.; And Others

    This book is about the growing need for a more inclusive curriculum and university. The debate about multicultural education is moved from an ideological debate to the realm of the practical in these selections. The first part of the book outlines the demographic and historic realities that make multiculturalism imperative. The second part gives…

  13. Universality of particle multiplicities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goulianos, K.

    1994-09-01

    We discuss the scaling properties and universality aspects of the rapidity and multiplicity distributions of particles produced in high energy hadronic and e(+)e(-) interactions. This paper is based on material presented in three lectures on pomeron phenomenology, which included a review of traditional soft pomeron physics and selected topics on hard diffraction processes probing the structure function of the pomeron.

  14. The Changing University?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuller, Tom, Ed.

    This collection of papers investigates change and compares university education experiences worldwide, looking at it from the perspective of numbers of students, range of institutions, funding, institutional functions, boundaries, and directions, orientation of students and staff, and institutional change. After an introduction by Tom Schuler,…

  15. Antimatter in the universe

    SciTech Connect

    Dolgov, A. D.

    2011-03-15

    The models leading to a high abundance of antimatter in the universe are discussed. Special attention is payed to the model of antimatter creation in the form of compact stellar-like objects. Such objects can contribute significantly to the cosmological dark matter. Observational signatures of antimatter in the Galaxy are discussed.

  16. Radiation in the universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuhlinger, Ernst; Truemper, Joachim; Weisskopf, Martin

    When Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen discovered radiation one hundred years ago, it seemed that what was discovered was one of the rarest and most volatile members of the family of the basic modules of our natural world. Today cosmologists report that a substantial part of the universe's radiation energy consists of X-rays, which travel through cosmic space with the speed of light.

  17. Organizing University Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Thomas E.

    During a period of projected declining enrollments some years ago, colleges and universities began looking to business and industry for models and methods to achieve stability and exhibit accountability. Zero-based budgeting, computerized record keeping, and planned-programmed-budgeting systems found their way to college campuses. A trend to…

  18. Universal voice processor development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The development of a universal voice processor is discussed. The device is based on several circuit configurations using hybrid techniques to satisfy the electrical specifications. The steps taken during the design process are described. Circuit diagrams of the final design are presented. Mathematical models are included to support the theoretical aspects.

  19. Revisiting the University Front

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lock, Grahame; Lorenz, Chris

    2007-01-01

    The article argues that the most important trends in the recent metamorphosis of higher education, especially of university teaching and research, cannot be understood without placing them in the context of general developments in political life. Both processes reveal alarming features and there is a link between them. In recent decades a religion

  20. Radiation in the universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuhlinger, Ernst; Truemper, Joachim; Weisskopf, Martin

    1992-01-01

    When Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen discovered radiation one hundred years ago, it seemed that what was discovered was one of the rarest and most volatile members of the family of the basic modules of our natural world. Today cosmologists report that a substantial part of the universe's radiation energy consists of X-rays, which travel through cosmic space with the speed of light.

  1. The Universal Access System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Neil G.

    This final report discusses the outcomes of a project that created a Universal Access System (UAS), a system that gives students with disabilities access to the same computers as their classmates. The project developed a new approach in which the needs of the individual with disabilities are handled separately from the computers and other devices…

  2. Ethics in the University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettit, Lawrence K.

    1991-01-01

    The reputation of higher education has been tarnished by some well-publicized incidents of unethical behavior in the academy. When the university's internal politics lack integrity and honor and its players succumb to competition among institutions, higher education relinquishes its moral leadership. Unethical behavior can only be solved at the…

  3. Public University Fund Raising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann, Janet C. Lukomski; Herrmann, Siegfried E.

    Fund-raising by public colleges and universities has been important in their founding and operation throughout U.S. history. At first, fund-raising was the responsibility of the president, and later also of trustees and regents. The term "development" came into use in the 1920s, when private donations were solicited to supplement public funding.…

  4. Explorers of the Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvarez, Marino C.; Busby, Michael R.; Sotoohi, Goli; Rodriguez, William J.; Hennig, Lee Ann; Berenty, Jerry; King, Terry; Grener, Doreen; Kruzan, John

    1998-01-01

    The Explorers of the Universe is a multifaceted scientific/literacy project that involves teachers and their students with problem oriented situations using authentic materials. This paper presents examples of self-directed cases researched by high school students and the met acognitive tools they use in the planning, carrying out, and finalizing their reports.

  5. A Universal Phylogenetic Tree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Offner, Susan

    2001-01-01

    Presents a universal phylogenetic tree suitable for use in high school and college-level biology classrooms. Illustrates the antiquity of life and that all life is related, even if it dates back 3.5 billion years. Reflects important evolutionary relationships and provides an exciting way to learn about the history of life. (SAH)

  6. Organizing University Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Thomas E.

    During a period of projected declining enrollments some years ago, colleges and universities began looking to business and industry for models and methods to achieve stability and exhibit accountability. Zero-based budgeting, computerized record keeping, and planned-programmed-budgeting systems found their way to college campuses. A trend to

  7. Universal Cable Brackets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanvalkenburgh, C.

    1985-01-01

    Concept allows routing easily changed. No custom hardware required in concept. Instead, standard brackets cut to length and installed at selected locations along cable route. If cable route is changed, brackets simply moved to new locations. Concept for "universal" cable brackets make it easy to route electrical cable around and through virtually any structure.

  8. University City Core Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philadelphia City Planning Commission, PA.

    A redevelopment plan for an urban core area of about 300 acres was warranted by--(1) unsuitable building conditions, (2) undesirable land usage, and (3) faulty traffic circulation. The plan includes expansion of two universities and creation of a regional science center, high school, and medical center. Guidelines for proposed land use and zoning…

  9. The Classification of Universes

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorken, J

    2004-04-09

    We define a universe as the contents of a spacetime box with comoving walls, large enough to contain essentially all phenomena that can be conceivably measured. The initial time is taken as the epoch when the lowest CMB modes undergo horizon crossing, and the final time taken when the wavelengths of CMB photons are comparable with the Hubble scale, i.e. with the nominal size of the universe. This allows the definition of a local ensemble of similarly constructed universes, using only modest extrapolations of the observed behavior of the cosmos. We then assume that further out in spacetime, similar universes can be constructed but containing different standard model parameters. Within this multiverse ensemble, it is assumed that the standard model parameters are strongly correlated with size, i.e. with the value of the inverse Hubble parameter at the final time, in a manner as previously suggested. This allows an estimate of the range of sizes which allow life as we know it, and invites a speculation regarding the most natural distribution of sizes. If small sizes are favored, this in turn allows some understanding of the hierarchy problems of particle physics. Subsequent sections of the paper explore other possible implications. In all cases, the approach is as bottoms up and as phenomenological as possible, and suggests that theories of the multiverse so constructed may in fact lay some claim of being scientific.

  10. Discovering the Invisible Universe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Herbert

    1991-01-01

    The discovery of radio waves, infrared, and x-rays and their importance in describing the universe and its origins is discussed. Topics include radio waves from space, the radio pioneers of World War II, radio telescopes, infrared radiation, satellites, space missions, and x-ray telescopes. (KR)

  11. Community University Research Agreement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Settee, Priscilla; Thomas-Prokop, Shelley

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the process of engaging the extended Indigenous community within Saskatoon and the surrounding First Nations communities in what would be a first major research project between Indigenous communities and the University of Saskatchewan. A management committee was established comprised of all the major Saskatoon/Saskatchewan…

  12. A Universe of Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeldovich, Yakov

    1992-01-01

    Reprinted from the original Russian manuscript of Yakov Zeldovich, this article chronicles his studies of the universe and his attempts to construct a theory of its evolution. He provides the high school student with compelling cosmological discussions about uniformity, galactic clusters, radiation, evolution, the big bang, and gravitational…

  13. A University Admissions System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ittig, Peter T.

    1977-01-01

    Presents a mathematical programming model that will make admit/reject decisions for freshman university applicants. The model is intended to aid reviewers in producing better, more consistent decisions. The author shows that a linear programming formulation will provide an efficient and practical solution for all but a very few applicants.…

  14. Islamist Movement Challenges Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsey, Ursula

    2013-01-01

    In Tunisian and Egyptian universities, scholars face a growing Islamist resolve to remake their countries on the basis of religious principles. Both Tunisia and Egypt face questions that could affect higher education across the Middle East and North Africa: Can their new Islamist governments spread conservative religious values and also create…

  15. The Open University Opens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunstall, Jeremy, Ed.

    Conceived by the British Labor Government in the 1960's the Open University was viewed as a way to extend higher education to Britain's working class, but enrollment figures in classes that represent traditional academic disciplines show that the student population is predominantly middle class. Bringing education into the home presents numerous

  16. Can Universities Change?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elton, Lewis

    1981-01-01

    A theory of change is applied to change in universities, which may be peculiarly resistant because of their structure of single-discipline departments and economic pressures. It is proposed that forms of faculty development are significant in bringing about positive change. (MSE)

  17. Life in the Universe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowman, Paul D., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    The belief that life exists in the universe is an optimism shared by many. With several manned missions expected to be carried out in the future, the possibility of discovering life in outer space will revolutionize the field of astrobiology. In this article, the author presents a summary of recent developments and discoveries made in the search

  18. University for Masses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Motilal

    Education, a basic need, is the foundation of developing countries such as Bangladesh. Ignorance and illiteracy are obstacles to growth and technological progress. Formal schooling must be supplemented with nonformal education, distance education, and out-of-school education for workers who want to continue their studies. Universities must develop…

  19. Community University Research Agreement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Settee, Priscilla; Thomas-Prokop, Shelley

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the process of engaging the extended Indigenous community within Saskatoon and the surrounding First Nations communities in what would be a first major research project between Indigenous communities and the University of Saskatchewan. A management committee was established comprised of all the major Saskatoon/Saskatchewan

  20. PARKING PROGRAMS FOR UNIVERSITIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KINNE, W.S., JR.

    PARKING FACILITIES WERE SURVEYED AT 83 REPRESENTATIVE UNIVERSITIES AND COLLEGES, AND THE METHODS USED IN ADMINISTERING, CONTROLLING AND FINANCING WERE EVALUTED. GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS WERE MADE CONCERNING (1) THE LOCATION AND DESIGN OF PARKING LOTS AND GARAGES, (2) THE PRACTICE OF CURB PARKING ON CAMPUS, AND (3) THE FINANCING OF PARKING…

  1. A Universe of Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeldovich, Yakov

    1992-01-01

    Reprinted from the original Russian manuscript of Yakov Zeldovich, this article chronicles his studies of the universe and his attempts to construct a theory of its evolution. He provides the high school student with compelling cosmological discussions about uniformity, galactic clusters, radiation, evolution, the big bang, and gravitational

  2. University research in aeronautics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duberg, J. E.

    1975-01-01

    The contributions which universities can make to aeronautical research projects are discussed. The activities of several facilities are presented to show the effectiveness of the educational and research programs. Reference is made to the Intergovernmental Personnel Act of 1970 which permits an exchange of federal agency personnel with state and local governments and with public and private higher education schools.

  3. Colorado State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKelfresh, David A.; Bender, Kim K.

    2009-01-01

    Colorado State University (CSU) is located in Fort Collins, which is a midsize city of 134,000 situated in Northern Colorado at the western edge of the Great Plains and at the base of the Rocky Mountains. CSU's total enrollment is approximately 25,000 students. The Division of Student Affairs comprises 30 departments organized into programmatic

  4. Evolution of the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Primack, Joel

    2006-04-01

    Cosmology is in the midst of a scientific revolution that is establishing its lasting foundations. The good agreement between many different sorts of observations and the predictions of the now-standard Lambda Cold Dark Matter (LCDM) theory gives us hope that this is humanity's first picture of the history of the universe as a whole that might actually be true. An unexpected feature of this new picture is that we humans appear to be central or special in many ways -- for example, we are made of the rarest stuff in the universe (stardust); we are intermediate in size between the smallest possible size (the Planck length) and the largest size (the cosmic horizon); and we are living at a pivotal time: the period in the history of the universe when its expansion began to accelerate rather than slow down, and in the middle of the ten-billion-year lifetime of our solar system and of the billion year most habitable period of our planet, and at what must be the end of the exponential growth of human impact on the earth. This talk will review key observations that support modern cosmology, describe some symbolic ways of understanding the modern cosmos, and discuss some possible implications of a cosmic perspective for our 21st century worldview. Based on a new book, The View from the Center of the Universe: Discovering Our Extraordinary Place in the Cosmos, by Joel R. Primack and Nancy Ellen Abrams (Riverhead Books, April 2006).

  5. NRC Targets University Reactors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Eliot

    1984-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) wants universities to convert to low-grade fuel in their research reactions. Researchers claim the conversion, which will bring U.S. reactors in line with a policy the NRC is trying to impress on foreigners, could be financially and scientifically costly. Impact of the policy is considered. (JN)

  6. The Catholic University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danneels, Godfried

    2001-01-01

    Explores the nature and mission of the Catholic university, addressing a wide range of topics, including the search for truth, the full depth of humanity, institutional autonomy, harmonization of knowledge, ties to the church, cross-cultural dialogue, evangelization, academic freedom, pluralism, the Catholic sensibility, and leadership. (EV)

  7. Creating Adaptable Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spanier, Graham B.

    2010-01-01

    Shifting demographics, rising costs of operations, a changing competitive landscape, reductions in state appropriations, pressures for accountability, and a widespread economic decline characterize the environment in which today's colleges and universities operate. This article examines some of the current responses to these challenges and…

  8. Entrepreneurial Planning: Tufts University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, John A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper focuses on key strategic decisions taken at Tufts University (Massachusetts) under President Jean Mayer noting the role of formal planning and institutional research. Initiatives in the following areas are described: the School of Veterinary Medicine, nutrition, environmental management, entrepreneurial liberation, fund raising, and a…

  9. University Reactor Instrumentation Grant

    SciTech Connect

    S. M. Bajorek

    2000-02-01

    A noble gas air monitoring system was purchased through the University Reactor Instrumentation Grant Program. This monitor was installed in the Kansas State TRIGA reactor bay at a location near the top surface of the reactor pool according to recommendation by the supplier. This system is now functional and has been incorporated into the facility license.

  10. Personnel Management. Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Board of Regents, Columbus. Management Improvement Program.

    This manual is one of 10 completed in the Ohio Management Improvement Program (MIP) during the 1971-73 biennium. In this project, Ohio's 34 public universities and colleges, in an effort directed and staffed by the Ohio Board of Regents, have developed manuals of management practices, in this case, concerning personnel management. Emphasis in this

  11. Universal Index System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, Steve; Roussopoulos, Nick; Sellis, Timos; Wallace, Sarah

    1993-01-01

    The Universal Index System (UIS) is an index management system that uses a uniform interface to solve the heterogeneity problem among database management systems. UIS provides an easy-to-use common interface to access all underlying data, but also allows different underlying database management systems, storage representations, and access methods.

  12. Images of the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stott, Carole

    1991-11-01

    Images of the Universe is a special collection of essays written to celebrate astronomy and the inauguration of the British Astronomical Association. Colin Ronan opens the book with a fascinating account of developments over the past hundred years. Next, the solar system is explored by Richard Baum, John Rogers, Richard McKim, and Patrick Moore. Comets and meteors are explained by David Hughes. The stars, birthplace of the elements, are examined by Jacqueline Mitton and John Isles. Paul Murdin gives an account of the brightest supernova to be seen from Earth since 1604. Iain Nicolson explores G2, the single dwarf called the Sun. Heather Couper and Nigel Henbest look at the Milky Way, the hazy band of light that is the edge on view of our galaxy. Malcolm Longair looks beyond our own galaxy into the deep sky. Paul Davies gives an account of the first one second of the existence of our expanding Universe. How did it all happen? Martin Rees, the cosmologist, speculates on the origin of the Universe. The ensuing narrative by many famous astronomers and science writers is written at a general level and will be accessible to anyone with a passing interest in the astronomical wonders of our universe. Carole Stott is the author of The Greenwich Guide to Stargazing (1990), and The Greenwich Guide to Astronomy in Action (1990).

  13. Mapping the Universe.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landy, S. D.

    1999-06-01

    Galaxies congregate into clusters, clusters amass into superclusters and so on - at every observed scale, as astronomers build maps of the sky, they find matter organized into clumps. Yet taken as a whole, the texture of the universe is smooth, in keeping with theory. A new "music of the spheres" may explain how ordered structures emerged from the original smooth chaos.

  14. Universities in Their Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Fred

    2012-01-01

    Universities often seem to be far more concerned about their international connections than their local relationships. The local context seems not to matter much either to their jetsetting vice-chancellors or to their lecturers and researchers under pressure to get papers published in obscure journals. That is how it may seem, but it is not

  15. Should Universities Promote Employability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCowan, Tristan

    2015-01-01

    Employability is becoming increasingly central to the mission and functioning of universities, spurred on by national and supranational agencies, and the demands of marketisation. This article provides a response to the normative dimensions of the question, progressing through four stages: first, there is a brief consideration of the meaning and…

  16. Life in the Universe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowman, Paul D., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    The belief that life exists in the universe is an optimism shared by many. With several manned missions expected to be carried out in the future, the possibility of discovering life in outer space will revolutionize the field of astrobiology. In this article, the author presents a summary of recent developments and discoveries made in the search…

  17. University Instruction in HRD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1996

    This document contains three papers presented at a symposium on university instruction in human resource development (HRD) moderated by Janice Black at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development (AHRD). "Facilitating Transfer of Learning from the Classroom to the Workplace" (Brenda S. Gardner, Sharon J. Korth) examines a…

  18. University Student Online Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yu-mei

    2008-01-01

    This article reports a study investigating university student online plagiarism. The following questions are investigated: (a) What is the incidence of student online plagiarism? (b) What are student perceptions regarding online plagiarism? (c) Are there any differences in terms of student perceptions of online plagiarism and print plagiarism? (d)…

  19. Revisiting the University Front

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lock, Grahame; Lorenz, Chris

    2007-01-01

    The article argues that the most important trends in the recent metamorphosis of higher education, especially of university teaching and research, cannot be understood without placing them in the context of general developments in political life. Both processes reveal alarming features and there is a link between them. In recent decades a religion…

  20. Communities in University Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biza, Irene; Jaworski, Barbara; Hemmi, Kirsti

    2014-01-01

    This paper concerns communities of learners and teachers that are formed, develop and interact in university mathematics environments through the theoretical lens of "Communities of Practice." From this perspective, learning is described as a process of participation and reification in a community in which individuals belong and form…

  1. The University Needs "You"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Allen

    2009-01-01

    Colleges and universities need English education professors who know what it is to teach five classes a day, accommodate IEPs, and still take on extracurricular activities. They need English education professors who not only present at NCTE Annual Conventions, but who also want to be in schools talking to teachers on a regular basis. They need…

  2. Alternatives to Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gellert, Claudius; And Others

    This report charts the recent development of the non-university sector of higher education in some OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries. It shows that during the 1980s this sector most often succeeded in enhancing its standing and recognition among students, employers, and the academic world alike. Its progress in…

  3. The Universe's First Fireworks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Poster VersionFigure 1Figure 2

    This is an image from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope of stars and galaxies in the Ursa Major constellation. This infrared image covers a region of space so large that light would take up to 100 million years to travel across it. Figure 1 is the same image after stars, galaxies and other sources were masked out. The remaining background light is from a period of time when the universe was less than one billion years old, and most likely originated from the universe's very first groups of objects -- either huge stars or voracious black holes. Darker shades in the image on the left correspond to dimmer parts of the background glow, while yellow and white show the brightest light.

    Brief History of the Universe In figure 2, the artist's timeline chronicles the history of the universe, from its explosive beginning to its mature, present-day state.

    Our universe began in a tremendous explosion known as the Big Bang about 13.7 billion years ago (left side of strip). Observations by NASA's Cosmic Background Explorer and Wilkinson Anisotropy Microwave Probe revealed microwave light from this very early epoch, about 400,000 years after the Big Bang, providing strong evidence that our universe did blast into existence. Results from the Cosmic Background Explorer were honored with the 2006 Nobel Prize for Physics.

    A period of darkness ensued, until about a few hundred million years later, when the first objects flooded the universe with light. This first light is believed to have been captured in data from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope. The light detected by Spitzer would have originated as visible and ultraviolet light, then stretched, or redshifted, to lower-energy infrared wavelengths during its long voyage to reach us across expanding space. The light detected by the Cosmic Background Explorer and the Wilkinson Anisotropy Microwave Probe from our very young universe traveled farther to reach us, and stretched to even lower-energy microwave wavelengths.

    Astronomers do not know if the very first objects were either stars or quasars. The first stars, called Population III stars (our star is a Population I star), were much bigger and brighter than any in our nearby universe, with masses about 1,000 times that of our sun. These stars first grouped together into mini-galaxies. By about a few billion years after the Big Bang, the mini-galaxies had merged to form mature galaxies, including spiral galaxies like our own Milky Way. The first quasars ultimately became the centers of powerful galaxies that are more common in the distant universe.

    NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has captured stunning pictures of earlier galaxies, as far back as ten billion light-years away.

  4. The Artful Universe Expanded

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrow, John D.

    2005-07-01

    Our love of art, writes John Barrow, is the end product of millions of years of evolution. How we react to a beautiful painting or symphony draws upon instincts laid down long before humans existed. Now, in this enhanced edition of the highly popular The Artful Universe , Barrow further explores the close ties between our aesthetic appreciation and the basic nature of the Universe. Barrow argues that the laws of the Universe have imprinted themselves upon our thoughts and actions in subtle and unexpected ways. Why do we like certain types of art or music? What games and puzzles do we find challenging? Why do so many myths and legends have common elements? In this eclectic and entertaining survey, Barrow answers these questions and more as he explains how the landscape of the Universe has influenced the development of philosophy and mythology, and how millions of years of evolutionary history have fashioned our attraction to certain patterns of sound and color. Barrow casts the story of human creativity and thought in a fascinating light, considering such diverse topics as our instinct for language, the origins and uses of color in nature, why we divide time into intervals as we do, the sources of our appreciation of landscape painting, and whether computer-generated fractal art is really art. Drawing on a wide variety of examples, from the theological questions raised by St. Augustine and C.S. Lewis to the relationship between the pure math of Pythagoras and the music of the Beatles, The Artful Universe Expanded covers new ground and enters a wide-ranging debate about the meaning and significance of the links between art and science.

  5. Universe or Multiverse?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Bernard

    2009-08-01

    Part I. Overviews: 1. Introduction and overview Bernard Carr; 2. Living in the multiverse Steven Weinberg; 3. Enlightenment, knowledge, ignorance, temptation Frank Wilczek; Part II. Cosmology and Astrophysics: 4. Cosmology and the multiverse Martin J. Rees; 5. The anthropic principle revisited Bernard Carr; 6. Cosmology from the top down Stephen Hawking; 7. The multiverse hierarchy Max Tegmark; 8. The inflationary universe Andrei Linde; 9. A model of anthropic reasoning: the dark to ordinary matter ratio Frank Wilczek; 10. Anthropic predictions: the case of the cosmological constant Alexander Vilenkin; 11. The definition and classification of universes James D. Bjorken; 12. M/string theory and anthropic reasoning Renata Kallosh; 13. The anthropic principle, dark energy and the LHC Savas Dimopoulos and Scott Thomas; Part III. Particle Physics and Quantum Theory: 14. Quarks, electrons and atoms in closely related universes Craig J. Hogan; 15. The fine-tuning problems of particle physics and anthropic mechanisms John F. Donoghue; 16. The anthropic landscape of string theory Leonard Susskind; 17. Cosmology and the many worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics Viatcheslav Mukhanov; 18. Anthropic reasoning and quantum cosmology James B. Hartle; 19. Micro-anthropic principle for quantum theory Brandon Carter; Part IV. More General Philosophical Issues: 20. Scientific alternatives to the anthropic principle Lee Smolin; 21. Making predictions in a multiverse: conundrums, dangers, coincidences Anthony Aguirre; 22. Multiverses: description, uniqueness and testing George Ellis; 23. Predictions and tests of multiverse theories Don N. Page; 24. Observation selection theory and cosmological fine-tuning Nick Bostrom; 25. Are anthropic arguments, involving multiverses and beyond, legitimate? William R. Stoeger; 26. The multiverse hypothesis: a theistic perspective Robin Collins; 27. Living in a simulated universe John D. Barrow; 28. Universes galore: where will it all end? Paul Davies; Index.

  6. Beyond universal precautions.

    PubMed Central

    Osterman, J W

    1995-01-01

    Universal precautions have gained wide acceptance in the literature and are promoted by major health care regulatory bodies as a measure to prevent nosocomial transmission of bloodborne diseases. Nevertheless, Dr. James G. Wright and associates (see pages 1089 to 1095 of this issue) provide evidence of the infrequent use of universal precautions by surgeons in Toronto. Their findings are consistent with those of similar studies and point to the limitations of any safety approach that relies on the active compliance of individuals rather than on passive, environmental controls. Successful approaches to optimizing workplace safety should first emphasize passive measures for risk abatement, including firm policies, the use of safer equipment and techniques, procedural safeguards and regular monitoring. Routine voluntary screening of patients undergoing procedures that pose a high risk of contamination may improve compliance to safety procedures by health care personnel. Further study is required. PMID:7712416

  7. University Reactor Sharing Program

    SciTech Connect

    W.D. Reese

    2004-02-24

    Research projects supported by the program include items such as dating geological material and producing high current super conducting magnets. The funding continues to give small colleges and universities the valuable opportunity to use the NSC for teaching courses in nuclear processes; specifically neutron activation analysis and gamma spectroscopy. The Reactor Sharing Program has supported the construction of a Fast Neutron Flux Irradiator for users at New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology and the University of Houston. This device has been characterized and has been found to have near optimum neutron fluxes for A39/Ar 40 dating. Institution final reports and publications resulting from the use of these funds are on file at the Nuclear Science Center.

  8. Universality in intermediary metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Eric; Morowitz, Harold J.

    2004-01-01

    We analyze the stoichiometry, energetics, and reaction concentration dependence of the reductive tricarboxylic acid (rTCA) cycle as a universal and possibly primordial metabolic core. The rTCA reaction sequence is a network-autocatalytic cycle along the relaxation pathway for redox couples in nonequilibrium reducing environments, which provides starting organic compounds for the synthesis of all major classes of biomolecules. The concentration dependence of its reactions suggests it as a precellular bulk process. We propose that rTCA is statistically favored among competing redox relaxation pathways under early-earth conditions and that this feature drove its emergence and also accounts for its evolutionary robustness and universality. The ability to enhance the rate of core reactions creates an energetic basis for selection of subsequent layers of biological complexity. PMID:15340153

  9. Universal Test Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laughery, Mike

    A universal test facility (UTF) for Space Station Freedom is developed. In this context, universal means that the experimental rack design must be: automated, highly marketable, and able to perform diverse microgravity experiments according to NASA space station requirements. In order to fulfill these broad objectives, the facility's customers, and their respective requirements, are first defined. From these definitions, specific design goals and the scope of the first phase of this project are determined. An examination is first made into what types of research are most likely to make the UTF marketable. Based on our findings, the experiments for which the UTF would most likely be used included: protein crystal growth, hydroponics food growth, gas combustion, gallium arsenide crystal growth, microorganism development, and cell encapsulation. Therefore, the UTF is designed to fulfill all of the major requirements for the experiments listed above. The versatility of the design is achieved by taking advantage of the many overlapping requirements presented by these experiments.

  10. Universal newborn hearing screening

    PubMed Central

    Patel, H; Feldman, M

    2011-01-01

    The present statement reviews the evidence for universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS). A systematic review of the literature was conducted using Medline and using search dates from 1996 to the third week of August 2009. The following search terms were used: neonatal screening AND hearing loss AND hearing disorders. The key phrase “universal newborn hearing screening” was also searched. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and systematic reviews was searched. Three systematic reviews, one controlled non-randomized trial and multiple cohort studies were found. It was determined that there was satisfactory evidence to support UNHS. The results of the available literature are consistent and indicate clear evidence that without UNHS, delayed diagnosis leads to significant harm for children and their families; with UNHS, diagnosis and intervention occur earlier; earlier intervention translates to improved language outcomes; and in well-run programs, there is negligible harm from screening. PMID:22547950

  11. Life in the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-10-01

    Live Webcast from Europe's Leading Research Organisations Summary Is there life elsewhere in the Universe? Are we alone? These questions have always fascinated humanity and for more than 50 years, physicists, biologists, chemists, cosmologists, astronomers and other scientists have worked tirelessly to answer these fundamental questions. And now this November via webcast, all the world will have the opportunity to see and hear the latest news on extraterrestrial life from the most prestigious research centers and how for the past three months, European students have had the chance to jump into the scientists' shoes and explore these questions for themselves. The event is being sponsored by the European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN) , the European Space Agency (ESA) and the European Southern Observatory (ESO) , in cooperation with the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL) and the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) and the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE). "Life in the Universe" is being mounted in collaboration with the Research Directorate-General of the European Commission for the European Week of Science and Technology in November 2001 . "Life in the Universe" competitions are already underway in 23 European countries to find the best projects from school students between 14 and 18. Two winning teams from each country will be invited to a final event at CERN in Geneva on 8-11 November 2001 to present their projects and discuss them with a panel of International Experts at a special three-day event. They will also compete for the "Super Prize" - a free visit to ESA's and ESO's research and technology facilities at Kourou and Paranal in South America. Students participating in the programme are encouraged to present their views on extraterrestrial life creatively. The only requirement is that the views be based upon scientific evidence. Many projects are being submitted just now - among them are scientific essays, pieces of art, theatrical performance and CD-Roms. The best of these will be presented worldwide during the "Life in the Universe" webcast live from CERN on November 10th at 7 pm CET (18 UT). The webcast - during which the "Super Prizes" for the two best works will be announced - will also feature interviews, video clips and animations on the latest scientific findings on the subject of extraterrestrial life. The webcast is truly an around-the-world event that will actively engage even geographically distant audiences. During the webcast, anyone on the planet can send questions via e-mail to the real experts with live connections in European laboratories who will answer live during the broadcast. Tuning in is easy too. All people have to do is enter http://www.lifeinuniverse.org into their browser and they will get full instructions on how to connect up. The home base of "Life in the Universe" - http://www.lifeinuniverse.org - is a vibrant web space where details of the programme can be found. It has a wealth of information and links to the national websites, where all entries will be posted. Is there other life in the Universe? We do not know - but the search is on and you'll know much more about it by just following the webcast! "Life in the Universe" webpage at ESO More information and related links may also be found on the dedicated "Life in the Universe"-webpage at the ESO Outreach website.

  12. The Dark Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livio, Mario

    2010-04-01

    1. A brief history of dark matter Vera Rubin; 2. Microlensing towards the Magellanic Clouds Kailash Sahu; 3. Searching for galactic dark matter Harvey Richer; 4. Hot gas in clusters of galaxies and Omega Megan Donahue; 5. Tracking the Baryon density from the Big Bang to the present Gary Steigman; 6. Modified Newtonian dynamics and its implications Bob Sanders; 7. Cosmological parameters and quintessence from radio galaxies Ruth Daly and Eric Guerra; 8. The mass density of the Universe Neta Bahcall; 9. Growth of structure in the Universe John Peacock; 10. Cosmological implications of the most distant supernova (known) Adam Riess; 11. Dynamical probes of the Halo mass function Chris Kochanek; 12. Detection of gravitational waves from inflation Marc Kamionkowski and Andrew Jaffe; 13. Cosmological constant problems and their solution Alex Vilenkin; 14. Dark Matter and dark energy: a physicist's perspective Michael Dine.

  13. The Dark Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livio, Mario

    2004-02-01

    1. A brief history of dark matter Vera Rubin; 2. Microlensing towards the Magellanic Clouds Kailash Sahu; 3. Searching for galactic dark matter Harvey Richer; 4. Hot gas in clusters of galaxies and Omega Megan Donahue; 5. Tracking the Baryon density from the Big Bang to the present Gary Steigman; 6. Modified Newtonian dynamics and its implications Bob Sanders; 7. Cosmological parameters and quintessence from radio galaxies Ruth Daly and Eric Guerra; 8. The mass density of the Universe Neta Bahcall; 9. Growth of structure in the Universe John Peacock; 10. Cosmological implications of the most distant supernova (known) Adam Riess; 11. Dynamical probes of the Halo mass function Chris Kochanek; 12. Detection of gravitational waves from inflation Marc Kamionkowski and Andrew Jaffe; 13. Cosmological constant problems and their solution Alex Vilenkin; 14. Dark Matter and dark energy: a physicist's perspective Michael Dine.

  14. Universality classes of inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Roest, Diederik

    2014-01-01

    We investigate all single-field, slow-roll inflationary models whose slow-roll parameters scale as 1/N in the limit of a large number of e-folds N. We proof that all such models belong to two universality classes, characterised by a single parameter. One class contains small field models like hilltop inflation, while the other class consists of large field models like chaotic inflation. We give the leading expressions for the spectral index and tensor-to-scalar ratio r, which are universal for each class, plus subleading corrections for a number of models. This predicts r either to be unobservably small, r < 0.01, or close to the present observational limit, r ≈ 0.07.

  15. Universal quantum interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, Seth; Landahl, Andrew J.; Slotine, Jean-Jacques E.

    2004-01-01

    To observe or control a quantum system, one must interact with it via an interface. This article exhibits simple universal quantum interfaces--quantum input/output ports consisting of a single two-state system or quantum bit that interacts with the system to be observed or controlled. It is shown that under very general conditions the ability to observe and control the quantum bit on its own implies the ability to observe and control the system itself. The interface can also be used as a quantum communication channel, and multiple quantum systems can be connected by interfaces to become an efficient universal quantum computer. Experimental realizations are proposed, and implications for controllability, observability, and quantum information processing are explored.

  16. Universal Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laughery, Mike

    1994-01-01

    A universal test facility (UTF) for Space Station Freedom is developed. In this context, universal means that the experimental rack design must be: automated, highly marketable, and able to perform diverse microgravity experiments according to NASA space station requirements. In order to fulfill these broad objectives, the facility's customers, and their respective requirements, are first defined. From these definitions, specific design goals and the scope of the first phase of this project are determined. An examination is first made into what types of research are most likely to make the UTF marketable. Based on our findings, the experiments for which the UTF would most likely be used included: protein crystal growth, hydroponics food growth, gas combustion, gallium arsenide crystal growth, microorganism development, and cell encapsulation. Therefore, the UTF is designed to fulfill all of the major requirements for the experiments listed above. The versatility of the design is achieved by taking advantage of the many overlapping requirements presented by these experiments.

  17. Inflation in the universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, M. S.

    1987-05-01

    The big bang cosmology is a highly successful model, providing a reliable and tested accounting of the Universe from 0.01 sec after the bang until today, some 15 Gyr later. However, very special initial data seem to be required in order to account for the observed smoothness and flatness of our Hubble volume and for the existence of the small primeval density inhomogeneities required for the formation of structure in the Universe. Inflation offers a means of accounting for these special initial data, which is based on physics at sub-planck energy scales (much less than mpl approx. = 10 to the 19th power GeV) and is motivated by contemporary ideas in particle theory. Here the status of the Inflationary Paradigm is reviewed. At present essentially all inflationary models involve a very weakly-coupled (quantified by the presence of a dimensionless parameter of order 10 to the -12 or so) scalar field which is displaced from the minimum of its potential. Regions of the Universe where the scalar field is initially displaced from its minimum undergo inflation as the scalar field relaxes, resulting in a Universe today which resembles ours in regions much larger than our present Hubble volume (approx. = 10 to the 28 cm), may be highly irregular. The most conspicuous blemish on the paradigm is the lack of a compelling particle physics model to implement it. Also reviewed are some other unresolved issues, and the all important confrontation between inflation and observational data is fully discussed. Finally, the possibility that inflation leads to large-scale, primeval magnetic fields of sufficient strength to be of astrophysical interest is covered.

  18. Imagine the Universe!

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Welcome to Imagine the Universe! Contained on this CD-ROM you will find three astronomy and space science learning centers, individually captured from the World Wide Web in December of 2000. Each site contains its own learning adventure full of facts, fun, beautiful images, movies, and excitement. (1) Imagine The Universe: this site is dedicated to a discussion about our Universe... what we know about it, how it is evolving, and the kinds of objects and phenomena it contains. Emphasizing the X-ray and gamma-ray parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, it also discusses how scientists know what they know, what mysteries remain, and how the answers to remaining mysteries may one day be found. Lots of movies, quizzes, and a special section for educators. Geared for ages 14 and up. This site can be viewed on-line at http://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/. (2) StarChild- a learning center for young astronomers: the 1998 Webby Award Winner for Best Education Website, StarChild is aimed at ages 4-14. It contains easy-to-understand information about our Solar System, the Universe, and space exploration. There are also activities, songs, movies, and puzzles. This site can be viewed on-line at http://starchild.gsfc.nasa.gov/. (3) Astronomy Picture of the Day: APOD offers a new astronomical image and caption each calendar day. We have captured the year 2000 entries of this award-winning site and included them on the disk. The images and information provide a wonderful resource for all ages. This site can be viewed on-line at http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/astropix.html.

  19. Our Static Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pressler, David

    2008-04-01

    There are two astronomical cause of redshift; motion, which leads to the Big Bang Theory, and the presence of an ubiquitous gravity field, which leads to a Static Universe Theory. Our position in the universe, which is considered to be at its center or in a null vector condition, where the net vectors of all the gravity field components equal zero, having no or undefined direction, is not related to the concept of potential energy. If there were no mass in the universe there would be no redshift. Herein lies the secret of redshift; the wavelength or frequency of light is altered by time dilation while traveling great distances from the emission source through 3-directional strained or deformed space, C-space. The gravitational field intensity inside a geometrical sphere of homogeneous matter is directly proportional to the radial distance (R) from its center and is at maximum at the outer surface. We remotely collect the light at the surface or outer shell of the sphere where the remote light source is at the center. The mass-distance ratio, with the increasing distance, to the resulting increasing mass (M), where redshift is directly proportional to M/R, is demonstrated mathematically by the gravity redshift formula: z = G M /cR. I.e. z = 0.202 for Hydra with distance of 3.2 billion light year. Thus, the estimated constant density of our universe is 7.4 x 10--29gm/cu/cm. or where omega equals 1.

  20. A Universal Syntax Checker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leahy, John Francis, III

    A universal syntax checker was constructed to be utilized with a text editor in a time-sharing environment. This syntax checker is a top-down, left-right, slow-back parser that will provide, when supplied the syntax of any language in the Backus-normal form, a syntax check for any string written in a language described. The procedure is capable of…

  1. Dark matter universe.

    PubMed

    Bahcall, Neta A

    2015-10-01

    Most of the mass in the universe is in the form of dark matter--a new type of nonbaryonic particle not yet detected in the laboratory or in other detection experiments. The evidence for the existence of dark matter through its gravitational impact is clear in astronomical observations--from the early observations of the large motions of galaxies in clusters and the motions of stars and gas in galaxies, to observations of the large-scale structure in the universe, gravitational lensing, and the cosmic microwave background. The extensive data consistently show the dominance of dark matter and quantify its amount and distribution, assuming general relativity is valid. The data inform us that the dark matter is nonbaryonic, is "cold" (i.e., moves nonrelativistically in the early universe), and interacts only weakly with matter other than by gravity. The current Lambda cold dark matter cosmology--a simple (but strange) flat cold dark matter model dominated by a cosmological constant Lambda, with only six basic parameters (including the density of matter and of baryons, the initial mass fluctuations amplitude and its scale dependence, and the age of the universe and of the first stars)--fits remarkably well all the accumulated data. However, what is the dark matter? This is one of the most fundamental open questions in cosmology and particle physics. Its existence requires an extension of our current understanding of particle physics or otherwise point to a modification of gravity on cosmological scales. The exploration and ultimate detection of dark matter are led by experiments for direct and indirect detection of this yet mysterious particle. PMID:26417091

  2. Universality of particle multiplicities

    SciTech Connect

    Goulianos, K. |

    1994-09-01

    We discuss the scaling properties and universality aspects of the rapidity and multiplicity distributions of particles produced in high energy hadronic and e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} interactions. This paper is based on material presented in three lectures on pomeron phenomenology, which included a review of traditional soft pomeron physics and selected topics on hard diffraction processes probing the structure function of the pomeron.

  3. Dark matter universe

    PubMed Central

    Bahcall, Neta A.

    2015-01-01

    Most of the mass in the universe is in the form of dark matter—a new type of nonbaryonic particle not yet detected in the laboratory or in other detection experiments. The evidence for the existence of dark matter through its gravitational impact is clear in astronomical observations—from the early observations of the large motions of galaxies in clusters and the motions of stars and gas in galaxies, to observations of the large-scale structure in the universe, gravitational lensing, and the cosmic microwave background. The extensive data consistently show the dominance of dark matter and quantify its amount and distribution, assuming general relativity is valid. The data inform us that the dark matter is nonbaryonic, is “cold” (i.e., moves nonrelativistically in the early universe), and interacts only weakly with matter other than by gravity. The current Lambda cold dark matter cosmology—a simple (but strange) flat cold dark matter model dominated by a cosmological constant Lambda, with only six basic parameters (including the density of matter and of baryons, the initial mass fluctuations amplitude and its scale dependence, and the age of the universe and of the first stars)—fits remarkably well all the accumulated data. However, what is the dark matter? This is one of the most fundamental open questions in cosmology and particle physics. Its existence requires an extension of our current understanding of particle physics or otherwise point to a modification of gravity on cosmological scales. The exploration and ultimate detection of dark matter are led by experiments for direct and indirect detection of this yet mysterious particle. PMID:26417091

  4. Inflation in the universe

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, M.S.

    1987-05-01

    The hot big bang cosmology, or the standard cosmology as it is appropriately known, is a highly successful model, providing a reliable and tested accounting of the Universe from 0.01 sec after the bang until today, some 15 Gyr later. However, very special initial data seem to be required in order to account for the observed smoothness and flatness of our Hubble volume and for the existence of the small primeval density inhomogeneities required for the formation of structure in the Universe. Inflation offers a means of accounting for these special initial data, which is based upon physics at sub-planck energy scales (<< m/sub pl/ approx. = 10/sup 19/ GeV) and is motivated by contemporary ideas in particle theory. Here I review the status of the 'Inflationary Paradigm'. At present essentially all inflationary models involve a very weakly-coupled (quantified by the presence of a dimensionless parameter of order 10/sup -12/ or so) scalar field which is displaced from the minimum of its potential. Regions of the Universe where the scalar field is initially displaced from its minimum undergo inflation as the scalar field relaxes, resulting in a Universe today which resembles ours in regions much larger than our present Hubble volume (approx. = 10/sup 28/ cm), but which on very large scales (>> 10/sup 28/ cm) may be highly irregular. The most conspicuous blemish on the paradigm is the lack of a compelling particle physics model to implement it. I also review some other unresolved issues, and discuss in detail the all important confrontation between inflation and observational data. Finally, I discuss the possibility that inflation leads to large-scale, primeval magnetic fields of sufficient strength to be of astrophysical interest. 123 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Universal Stoppers Are Rupert

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerrard, Richard P.; Wetzel, John E.

    2008-01-01

    A stopper is called "universal" if it can be used to plug pipes whose cross-sections are a circle, a square, and an isosceles triangle, with the diameter of the circle, the side of the square, and the base and altitude of the triangle all equal. Echoing the well-known result for equal cubes that is attributed to Prince Rupert, we show that it is…

  6. The Thermodynamic Universe

    SciTech Connect

    Sidharth, B. G.

    2008-05-29

    Using Planck scale oscillators in the background dark energy in a model that parallels the theory of phonons, we deduce the Planck mass, the elementary particle mass scale, the mass of the Universe and a recently discovered residual energy in the cosmic background. We also deduce the Beckenstein temperature formula for black holes. Finally we show that the model explains the four minute time lag in the arrival of gamma photons from a recently observed gamma flare by the MAGIC telescope.

  7. The Thermodynamic Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidharth, B. G.

    2008-05-01

    Using Planck scale oscillators in the background dark energy in a model that parallels the theory of phonons, we deduce the Planck mass, the elementary particle mass scale, the mass of the Universe and a recently discovered residual energy in the cosmic background. We also deduce the Beckenstein temperature formula for black holes. Finally we show that the model explains the four minute time lag in the arrival of gamma photons from a recently observed gamma flare by the MAGIC telescope.

  8. The International Space University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elaerts, Roger; Peeters, Walter

    2006-05-01

    The International Space University (ISU) offers, with the support of the world space community and within an international and intercultural environment, interdisciplinary post-graduate programmes in space studies. These graduate programmes prepare professionals from all sectors to meet the challenges of international space cooperation and the restructuring of the space sector. Although it was created as recently as 1987, the ISU is remarkably successful: by 2005 it had around 2400 alumni, forming a strong network in the space community.

  9. On separate universes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Liang; Pajer, Enrico; Schmidt, Fabian

    2015-10-01

    The separate universe conjecture states that in General Relativity a density perturbation behaves locally (i.e. on scales much smaller than the wavelength of the mode) as a separate universe with different background density and curvature. We prove this conjecture for a spherical compensated tophat density perturbation of arbitrary amplitude and radius in ΛCDM. We then use Conformal Fermi Coordinates to generalize this result to scalar perturbations of arbitrary configuration and scale in a general cosmology with a mixture of fluids, but to linear order in perturbations. In this case, the separate universe conjecture holds for the isotropic part of the perturbations. The anisotropic part on the other hand is exactly captured by a tidal field in the Newtonian form. We show that the separate universe picture is restricted to scales larger than the sound horizons of all fluid components. We then derive an expression for the locally measured matter bispectrum induced by a long-wavelength mode of arbitrary wavelength, a new result which in standard perturbation theory is equivalent to a relativistic second-order calculation. We show that nonlinear gravitational dynamics does not generate observable contributions that scale like local-type non-Gaussianity flocNL, and hence does not contribute to a scale-dependent galaxy bias Δ b propto k-2 on large scales; rather, the locally measurable long-short mode coupling assumes a form essentially identical to subhorizon perturbation theory results, once the long-mode density perturbation is replaced by the synchronous-comoving gauge density perturbation. Apparent flocNL-type contributions arise through projection effects on photon propagation, which depend on the specific large-scale structure tracer and observable considered, and are in principle distinguishable from the local mode coupling induced by gravity. We conclude that any observation of flocNL beyond these projection effects signals a departure from standard single-clock inflation.

  10. Isolation and Genetic Analysis of Multidrug Resistant Bacteria from Diabetic Foot Ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Shahi, Shailesh K.; Kumar, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Severe diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) patients visiting Sir Sunderlal Hospital, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, were selected for this study. Bacteria were isolated from swab and deep tissue of 42 patients, for examining their prevalence and antibiotic sensitivity. DFUs of majority of the patients were found infected with Enterococcus spp. (47.61%), Escherichia coli (35.71%), Staphylococcus spp. (33.33%), Alcaligenes spp. (30.95%), Pseudomonas spp. (30.95%), and Stenotrophomonas spp. (30.95%). Antibiotic susceptibility assay of 142 bacteria with 16 antibiotics belonging to eight classes showed the presence of 38 (26.76%) isolates with multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotypes. MDR character appeared to be governed by integrons as class 1 integrons were detected in 26 (68.42%) isolates. Altogether six different arrays of genes (aadA1, aadB, aadAV, dhfrV, dhfrXII, and dhfrXVII) were found within class 1 integron. Gene cassette dhfrAXVII-aadAV (1.6 kb) was present in 12 (3 Gram positive and 9 Gram negative) isolates and was conserved across all the isolates as evident from RFLP analysis. In addition to the presence of class 1 integron, six β-lactamase resistance encoding genes namely blaTEM, blaSHV, blaOXA, blaCTX−M−gp1, blaCTX−M−gp2, and blaCTX−M−gp9 and two methicillin resistance genes namely mecA and femA and vancomycin resistance encoding genes (vanA and vanB) were identified in different isolates. Majority of the MDR isolates were positive for blaTEM (89.47%), blaOXA (52.63%), and blaCTX−M−gp1 (34.21%). To our knowledge, this is the first report of molecular characterization of antibiotic resistance in bacteria isolated from DFUs from North India. In conclusion, findings of this study suggest that class-1 integrons and β-lactamase genes contributed to the MDR in above bacteria. PMID:26779134

  11. Utilisation of referral services by high risk pregnant population in rural Varanasi.

    PubMed

    Swain, S; Prakash, A

    1992-01-01

    Poor utilization of maternal-child health care is an important cause of high perinatal and maternal mortality and morbidity in rural areas of India. The study was conducted in the Cholapur Primary Health Center area, about 35 km from the Banaras Hindu University Hospital and about 30 km from the District Hospital, Varanasi, which institutions are the main centers of referral in this locality. Cholapur block is connected to the hospitals by road. 9 subcenters were selected at random for the study, each subcenter serving a population of about 5000. The antenatal registers maintained at the subcenters were analyzed and high-risk pregnant referrals were personally interviewed. The study period lasted for 1 year from July 1988. The records pertained to 1047 pregnant women, of these, 466 (44.50%) who registered for antenatal care at the subcenters were high-risk cases. Out of these 466 high-risk cases, 167 cases were referred: 82 (49%) to the primary health care (PHC), 56 (33.5%) to the district hospital, and 29 (17.3%) to the medical college hospital. Grand multigravida status in 57 cases (34.13%) and bad obstetric history in 41 cases (24.56%) were the main risk factors for referral. Only 15 (9%) cases out of the 167 cases took advantage of the referral services: 5 (33.3%) were seen by the doctors at PHC, 7 (46.6%) at the district hospital, and 3 (20%) at the medical college hospital. Those women who did not benefit from the referral services stated financial exigency to be the major factor for nonuse of the referral services (34.2%). In rural areas, screening can be done by health workers after considering age, parity, previous obstetric history, nutritional parameters (such as height, weight, and hemoglobin status), abdominal examination findings (fundal height, suspicion of big or small baby, twins, and malpresentations). The health worker should refer these high-risk cases to the nearest physician or the primary health center. PMID:12288814

  12. The Universal Ancestor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woese, Carl

    1998-06-01

    A genetic annealing model for the universal ancestor of all extant life is presented; the name of the model derives from its resemblance to physical annealing. The scenario pictured starts when ``genetic temperatures'' were very high, cellular entities (progenotes) were very simple, and information processing systems were inaccurate. Initially, both mutation rate and lateral gene transfer levels were elevated. The latter was pandemic and pervasive to the extent that it, not vertical inheritance, defined the evolutionary dynamic. As increasingly complex and precise biological structures and processes evolved, both the mutation rate and the scope and level of lateral gene transfer, i.e., evolutionary temperature, dropped, and the evolutionary dynamic gradually became that characteristic of modern cells. The various subsystems of the cell ``crystallized,'' i.e., became refractory to lateral gene transfer, at different stages of ``cooling,'' with the translation apparatus probably crystallizing first. Organismal lineages, and so organisms as we know them, did not exist at these early stages. The universal phylogenetic tree, therefore, is not an organismal tree at its base but gradually becomes one as its peripheral branchings emerge. The universal ancestor is not a discrete entity. It is, rather, a diverse community of cells that survives and evolves as a biological unit. This communal ancestor has a physical history but not a genealogical one. Over time, this ancestor refined into a smaller number of increasingly complex cell types with the ancestors of the three primary groupings of organisms arising as a result.

  13. The Flying University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friesen, Catherine

    The Flying University is solo theater performance framed as an academic lecture about Marie Curie and her discovery of radium, delivered to a group of women who have gathered in secret to further their education. As the lecture proceeds, the professor brings in her own research based on a study of Esther Horsch (1905-1991) who lived on a farm in central Illinois. She introduces data from Esther's journals, personal memories, and dreams about Esther's life. The professor's investigation of radium plays at the intersections of magical and mundane, decay and the transformation of life, and the place of ambition in these two women's lives. The intention of this piece is to explore these themes, which are full of mystery, through the traces of the daily lives of Mme. Curie and Esther. Their words and photos are used as roots from which to imagine the things that echo beyond their familiar work; elemental and also fantastically radiant. The Flying University was written and performed by Catherine Friesen April 27-29, 2012 in the Center for Performance Experiment at Hamilton College as part of the University of South Carolina MFA Acting Class of 2013 showcase, Pieces of Eight.

  14. [Universal electrogustometer EG-2].

    PubMed

    Wałkanis, Andrzej; Czesak, Michał; Pleskacz, Witold A

    2011-01-01

    Electrogustometry is a method for taste diagnosis and measurement. The EG-2 project is being developed in cooperation between Warsaw University of Technology and Military institute of Medicine in Warsaw. The device is an evolution of the recent universal electrogustometer EG-1 prototype. Due to considerations and experiences acquired during prototype usage, many enhancements have been incorporated into device. The aim was to create an easy-to-use, portable, battery powered device, enabled for fast measurements. Developed electrogustometer is using innovative, low-power microprocessor system, which control whole device. User interface is based on 5.7" graphical LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) and touchscreen. It can be directly operated by finger or with optional stylus. Dedicated GUI (Graphical User Interface) offers simple, predefined measurements and advance settings of signal parameters. It is also possible to store measurements results and patients data in an internal memory. User interface is multilanguage. Signals for patients examinations, supplied with bipolar electrode, are generated by an on-board circuit using DDS (Direct-Digital Synthesis) and DAC (Digital-to-Analog Converter). Electrogustometer is able to generate DC, sinus, triangle or rectangle signals with current amplitude from 0 to 500 pA and frequency form 0 to 500 Hz. Device is designed for manual and automeasurement modes. By using USB (Universal Serial Bus) port it is possible to retrieve data stored in internal memory and charging of built-in Li-lon battery as a source of power. PMID:21735666

  15. The universal ancestor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woese, C.

    1998-01-01

    A genetic annealing model for the universal ancestor of all extant life is presented; the name of the model derives from its resemblance to physical annealing. The scenario pictured starts when "genetic temperatures" were very high, cellular entities (progenotes) were very simple, and information processing systems were inaccurate. Initially, both mutation rate and lateral gene transfer levels were elevated. The latter was pandemic and pervasive to the extent that it, not vertical inheritance, defined the evolutionary dynamic. As increasingly complex and precise biological structures and processes evolved, both the mutation rate and the scope and level of lateral gene transfer, i.e., evolutionary temperature, dropped, and the evolutionary dynamic gradually became that characteristic of modern cells. The various subsystems of the cell "crystallized," i.e., became refractory to lateral gene transfer, at different stages of "cooling," with the translation apparatus probably crystallizing first. Organismal lineages, and so organisms as we know them, did not exist at these early stages. The universal phylogenetic tree, therefore, is not an organismal tree at its base but gradually becomes one as its peripheral branchings emerge. The universal ancestor is not a discrete entity. It is, rather, a diverse community of cells that survives and evolves as a biological unit. This communal ancestor has a physical history but not a genealogical one. Over time, this ancestor refined into a smaller number of increasingly complex cell types with the ancestors of the three primary groupings of organisms arising as a result.

  16. Unfolding our Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolson, Iain

    1999-10-01

    The beauty of the stars, the planets, and other faraway objects of wonder is readily apparent, while the reason for their splendor is not. Now, there exists a source of expert advice that amateur astronomers and interested stargazers can actually understand: Unfolding Our Universe. Popular science writer and award winning author Iain Nicolson opens the world of astronomy to a wide audience. He takes readers into the heart of the Universe, clearly detailing the facts, concepts, methods, and current findings of astronomical science. This unique book strikes a perfect balance between the fundamentals of the subject and cutting-edge research. Step by step, the volume leads to a complete understanding of astronomy. Readers can access the material without referring to any mathematical principles or formulas. The well-designed text allows more ambitious readers to easily delve more deeply into key points and consult basic mathematics found within self-contained boxes. More than 100 full-color photographs beautifully and clearly illustrate all concepts. The wealth of color illustrations and very readable chapters make this book a delight for the casual reader to browse, while the clear and concise explanations will appeal to anyone with an interest in the science of astronomy. Iain Nicolson is the author or co-author of some 17 books, including The Universe (with Patrick Moore) and Heavenly Bodies. In 1995, he received the Eric Zucker Award from the Federation of Astronomical Societies (UK) for his work in popularizing the subject.

  17. Universality and string theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachlechner, Thomas Christian

    The first run at the Large Hadron Collider has deeply challenged conventional notions of naturalness, and CMB polarization experiments are about to open a new window to early universe cosmology. As a compelling candidate for the ultraviolet completion of the standard model, string theory provides a prime opportunity to study both early universe cosmology and particle physics. However, relating low energy observations to ultraviolet physics requires knowledge of the metastable states of string theory through the study of vacua. While it is difficult to directly obtain infrared data from explicit string theory constructions, string theory imposes constraints on low energy physics. The study of ensembles of low energy theories consistent with ultra-violet constraints provides insight on generic features we might expect to occur in string compactifications. In this thesis we present a statistical treatment of vacuum stability and vacuum properties in the context of random supergravity theories motivated by string theory. Early universe cosmology provides another avenue to high energy physics. From the low energy perspective large field inflation is typically considered highly unnatural: the scale relevant for the diameter of flat regions in moduli space is sub-Planckian in regions of perturbative control. To approach this problem, we consider generic Calabi-Yau compactifications of string theory and find that super-Planckian diameters of axion fundamental domains in fact arise generically. We further demonstrate that such super-Planckian flat regions are plausibly consistent with theWeak Gravity Conjecture.

  18. From Teacher-Education University to Comprehensive University: Case Studies of East China Normal University, Southwest University and Yanbian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Mei

    2010-01-01

    Three different "logics"--that of the internal strategies of the institutions, the economic pressures of the socialist market economy and the political policies of the state drive the development of a university. The dynamic interaction and coexistence of the three logics has determined the transformation models of teacher-education or normal

  19. From Teacher-Education University to Comprehensive University: Case Studies of East China Normal University, Southwest University and Yanbian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Mei

    2010-01-01

    Three different "logics"--that of the internal strategies of the institutions, the economic pressures of the socialist market economy and the political policies of the state drive the development of a university. The dynamic interaction and coexistence of the three logics has determined the transformation models of teacher-education or normal…

  20. Green University Initiatives in China: A Case of Tsinghua University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Wanxia; Zou, Yonghua

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine green university initiatives in the context of China, using Tsinghua University, which is China's green university pioneer, as a case study. Design/methodology/approach: The research method used for this paper is a case study based on participant observation and document analysis. The approach to…

  1. Who Should Go to University? Justice in University Admissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotzee, Ben; Martin, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Current debates regarding justice in university admissions most often approach the question of access to university from a technical, policy-focussed perspective. Despite the attention that access to university receives in the press and policy literature, ethical discussion tends to focus on technical matters such as who should pay for university…

  2. Towards Universities as Learning Organisations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Peter; Hodgkinson, Myra; Stewart, Jim

    1998-01-01

    Asserts that universities, as providers of management education, have an opportunity and critical responsibility to adopt the practices of learning organizations. Suggests strategies for developing learning organizations in British universities. (SK)

  3. The University of Southern California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Dawn Marie

    1985-01-01

    The University of Southern California's commitment to excellence as well as the significance of the Reserve Officers' Training Corps program in the university's mission to prepare the community's future leaders are discussed. ROTC faculty selection criteria are identified. (MLW)

  4. Management Science and University Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cyert, Richard M.

    1981-01-01

    The analytic approach developed in management-science can play a significant role in improving university management. Areas of university management discussed include: admissions, tuition, financial aid, accounting, strategic planning, tenure, and organizational structure. (Author/MLW)

  5. [Patients' University, illness and learning].

    PubMed

    Tourette-Turgis, Catherine

    2015-10-01

    The Patients' University, a pilot project at the Université Pierre et Marie Curie, in Paris, enables patients-experts to follow a degree program in patient therapeutic education (University Diploma and Master). Recently, graduate patients and patients directly concerned proposed to co-create a new university certificate for treatment pathway coordinators for breast cancer, rounding out the 120-hour university certificate program on healthcare democracy and meeting the recommendations of the new cancer plan. PMID:26455618

  6. Remembering the University of Utah.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haglund, Elizabeth, Ed.

    Nineteen essays comprise this personal and historical look at the University of Utah and the relationship between the university, its people, and the community. Essays include: "One Cannot Live Long Enough to Outgrow a University" (Ramona Wilcox Cannon); "Ever in the Freshness of Its Youth" (G. Homer Durham); "The Final Payoff" (David W. Evans);…

  7. Education in a Research University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arrow, Kenneth J. Ed.; And Others

    This collection of 30 essays on the character, administration, and management of research universities research university emphasizes the perspective of statistics and operations research: The essays are: "A Robust Faculty Planning Model" (Frederick Biedenweg); "Looking Back at Computer Models Employed in the Stanford University Administration"

  8. University Relations: The HP Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, W. C.

    2003-01-01

    Hewlett-Packard benefited from one of the earliest examples of knowledge transfer in a strategic relationship, with the investment by Stanford University professor Frederick Terman in the work of former students Dave Packard and Bill Hewlett. Today, HP University Relations (UR) works with university partners to create similar valuable synergy. UR…

  9. Collapse of simple harmonic universe

    SciTech Connect

    Mithani, Audrey T.; Vilenkin, Alexander E-mail: vilenkin@cosmos.phy.tufts.edu

    2012-01-01

    In a recent paper Graham et al constructed oscillating and static universe models which are stable with respect to all classical perturbations. Here we show that such universes are quantum-mechanically unstable and can collapse by quantum tunneling to zero radius. We also present instantons describing nucleation of oscillating and static universes from nothing.

  10. Widening Participation in University Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rissman, Barbara; Carrington, Suzanne; Bland, Derek

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports how one Australian university and the Queensland Department of Education and Training (DET) are working together to increase the number of school students from low socio-economic backgrounds enrolling in undergraduate university degrees. This innovative program involves university lecturers and school teachers working together…

  11. Education in a Research University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arrow, Kenneth J. Ed.; And Others

    This collection of 30 essays on the character, administration, and management of research universities research university emphasizes the perspective of statistics and operations research: The essays are: "A Robust Faculty Planning Model" (Frederick Biedenweg); "Looking Back at Computer Models Employed in the Stanford University Administration"…

  12. Organization and Governance of Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleiklie, Ivar; Kogan, Maurice

    2007-01-01

    The article analyses how the dominant ideals about the actual organizational patterns of university governance have changed over the past few decades away from the classical notion of the university as a republic of scholars towards the idea of the university as a stakeholder organization. In this article, we first look at some general…

  13. Quality Assurance for University Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Roger, Ed.

    This book, written from a British perspective, presents 17 papers on quality assurance in teaching at the university level. The first eight papers address issues of assuring quality and include: (1) "Quality Assurance for University Teaching; Issues and Approaches" (Roger Ellis); (2) "A British Standard for University Teaching?" (Roger Ellis); (3)…

  14. The RAE and University Efficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mace, John

    2000-01-01

    Evaluates effects of the new British funding formula for universities, based on the research assessment exercise (RAE). Compares effects of the RAE on two contrasting universities and finds the RAE has dramatically affected university organization, teaching, and research. RAE may have increased efficiency in teaching and research but encourages…

  15. Do Universities Have "Successful" Brands?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapleo, Chris

    2005-01-01

    Branding in universities is a topical issue, but arguably few UK universities have fully developed "successful" brands in the manner of commercial organizations. This qualitative paper explores the opinions of 40 opinion formers on which UK universities have successful brands and the associations these brands have. Current literature on what…

  16. A Look at the Universe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nature Scope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Provides: (1) background information on what makes up the universe, ways astronomers study the universe, and theories about how the universe began; (2) six activities; and (3) four read-to-duplicate pages. Activities include objective(s), recommended age level(s), subject area(s), list of materials needed, and procedures. (JN)

  17. The Finance of University Computing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolton, Peter J.

    1989-01-01

    British university expenditure patterns for computing in the last 20 years are explored and current spending and facilities are surveyed. The recent Computers in Teaching initiative is described and present trends in computing with implications for universities are outlined. Some assessment of the overall finance of university computing is…

  18. Downsizing the University: Bonne Chance!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appelbaum, Steven H.; Patton, Eric

    2002-01-01

    Begins with a general discussion of downsizing and its outcomes, then offers an analysis of downsizing in higher education with an emphasis on three points: the factors causing universities to consider downsizing, the special nature of universities that makes downsizing particularly difficult, and the downsizing methods used by universities. (EV)

  19. Texas A&M University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osters, Sandi

    2009-01-01

    Texas A&M University is a research extensive institution located in College Station. More than 45,000 students attend the university (about 20% are graduate or professional students). Academically, the university is known for its engineering, business, and agricultural and veterinary medicine programs, although there are more than 150 programs of…

  20. The University and Social Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godon, Rafal

    2004-01-01

    The article focuses on the problem of a crisis in contemporary European universities. The key question is whether the crisis in university education is a calamity or a challenge in these times of social transformation. Adapting a metaphor of health to the university education in the contexts of "politics", "knowledge" and "self-understanding", the…

  1. Symbiosis: University/School Partnerships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skeele, Rosemary W.; Daly, James K.

    1999-01-01

    Describes technology integration at Seton Hall. Discusses new teaching roles and methods; technology and popular culture; technological equity; and school and university needs. Focuses on several technology-based partnerships between the university and schools, including summer programs; technology training; connecting university faculty and…

  2. Nigerian University Libraries: What Future?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguolu, I. E.

    1996-01-01

    Nigerian university libraries are threatened by underfunding and inadequate collections and facilities. This article examines factors influencing the future prospects of Nigerian university libraries. Discusses Nigeria's mineral oil resources; political instability and stratification of ethnic groups; and the National Universities Commission, the…

  3. Reflections on Commercializing University Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hum, Derek

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the extent of commercialization of research in Canadian universities, explains why copyright enforcement is difficult, and discusses the benefits and disadvantages of licensing an innovation versus creating a spinoff company to exploit university discoveries. Explores issues related to sharing benefits of university discoveries. (SLD)

  4. A University of the Air

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanistreet, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The term "open university" was coined by that visionary "seedsman" of reformist ideas Michael Young in an article for a 1962 number of "Where?" magazine. He proposed an "open university" to prepare people for external degrees at London University, with three key functions: (1) to organise new and better correspondence courses for the degree; (2)…

  5. Scaling the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankel, Norman E.

    2014-04-01

    A model is presented for the origin of the large scale structure of the universe and their Mass-Radius scaling law. The physics is conventional, orthodox, but it is used to fashion a highly unorthodox model of the origin of the galaxies, their groups, clusters, super-clusters, and great walls. The scaling law fits the observational results and the model offers new suggestions and predictions. These include a largest, a supreme, cosmic structure, and possible implications for the recently observed pressing cosmological anomalies.

  6. Drexel University Temperature Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    K. L. Davis; D. L. Knudson; J. L. Rempe; B. M. Chase

    2014-09-01

    This document summarizes background information and presents results related to temperature measurements in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) Drexel University Project 31091 irradiation. The objective of this test was to assess the radiation performance of new ceramic materials for advanced reactor applications. Accordingly, irradiations of transition metal carbides and nitrides were performed using the Hydraulic Shuttle Irradiation System (HSIS) in the B-7 position and in static capsules inserted into the A-3 and East Flux Trap Position 5 locations of the ATR.

  7. Alone in the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Howard

    Recent measurements of over 1056 confirmed exoplanets reveal details about their masses, compositions, orbital parameters, possible evolutionary histories, and even their atmospheres. These results, though marking just the beginnings of a dramatic new period of exoplanet discovery, suggest that for all practical purposes we are alone in the universe, at least in the sense implied by SETI: extraterrestrial intelligence. This talk will summarize the evidence to date, offer conclusions about the critical importance of increased exoplanet research, and emphasize the need for a renewed appreciation of the rare value of the Earth, its fragile environment, and its inhabitants.

  8. Mapping the Baby Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wanjek, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    In June, NASA plans to launch the Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) to survey the ancient radiation in unprecedented detail. MAP will map slight temperature fluctuations within the microwave background that vary by only 0.00001 C across a chilly radiation that now averages 2.73 C above absolute zero. The temperature differences today point back to density differences in the fiery baby universe, in which there was a little more matter here and a little less matter there. Areas of slightly enhanced density had stronger gravity than low-density areas. The high-density areas pulled back on the background radiation, making it appear slightly cooler in those directions.

  9. Physics in our Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conn Henry, Richard

    2016-06-01

    The recent detection of gravitational waves from the merger of two massive black holes means that we must now take Newton's approach to the Universe even more seriously than we have taken it since Principia: General Relativity has now been tested, as never before, and GR has passed with flying colors! In my poster I try to summarize all of fundamental physics taken together --- gravitation, dark energy, and particles. But the whole job is not yet done: mass + energy remains as a final frontier. It may be that the topology of 4-space is the answer: how I wish I were a mathematical topologist of great ability!

  10. Universal signal conditioning amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, William E.; Hallberg, Carl; Medelius, Pedro J.

    1994-01-01

    Engineers at NASA's Kennedy Space Center have designed a signal conditioning amplifier which automatically matches itself to almost any kind of transducer. The product, called Universal Signal Conditioning Amplifier (USCA), uses state-of-the-art technologies to deliver high accuracy measurements. USCA's features which can be either programmable or automated include: voltage, current, or pulsed excitation, unlimited resolution gain, digital filtering and both analog and digital output. USCA will be used at Kennedy Space Center's launch pads for environmental measurements such as vibrations, strains, temperatures and overpressures. USCA is presently being commercialized through a co-funded agreement between NASA, the State of Florida, and Loral Test and Information Systems, Inc.

  11. VLSI Universal Noiseless Coder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, Robert F.; Lee, Jun-Ji; Fang, Wai-Chi

    1989-01-01

    Proposed universal noiseless coder (UNC) compresses stream of data signals for efficient transmission in channel of limited bandwidth. Noiseless in sense original data completely recoverable from output code. System built as very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuit, compressing data in real time at input rates as high as 24 Mb/s, and possibly faster, depending on specific design. Approach yields small, lightweight system operating reliably and consuming little power. Constructed as single, compact, low-power VLSI circuit chip. Design of VLSI circuit chip made specific to code algorithms. Entire UNC fabricated in single chip, worst-case power dissipation less than 1 W.

  12. Hydrogen Research at Florida Universities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Block, David L.; T-Raissi, Ali

    2009-01-01

    This final report describes the R&D activities and projects conducted for NASA under the 6-year NASA Hydrogen Research at Florida Universities grant program. Contained within this report are summaries of the overall activities, one-page description of all the reports funded under this program and all of the individual reports from each of the 29 projects supported by the effort. The R&D activities cover hydrogen technologies related to production, cryogenics, sensors, storage, separation processes, fuel cells, resource assessments and education. In the span of 6 years, the NASA Hydrogen Research at Florida Universities program funded a total of 44 individual university projects, and employed more than 100 faculty and over 100 graduate research students in the six participating universities. Researchers involved in this program have filed more than 20 patents in all hydrogen technology areas and put out over 220 technical publications in the last 2 years alone. This 6 year hydrogen research program was conducted by a consortium of six Florida universities: Florida International University (FIU) in Miami, Florida State University (FSU) and Florida A&M University (FAMU) in Tallahassee, University of Central Florida (UCF) in Orlando, University of South Florida (USF) in Tampa, and University of Florida (UF) in Gainesville. The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) of the University of Central Florida managed the research activities of all consortium member universities except those at the University of Florida. This report does not include any of the programs or activities conducted at the University of Florida, but can be found in NASA/CR-2008-215440-PART 1-3.

  13. Law of universal mortality.

    PubMed

    Azbel', Mark Ya

    2002-07-01

    Mortality is arguably the best statistically quantified biological phenomenon. This allows for a physical approach to its study. I establish that in well protected populations, a dominant fraction of mortality at a given age depends on a single parameter only. Such invariance to any other time and space changes is known only in general relativity. It is so mathematically restrictive that, with no other knowledge of experimental data, it is sufficient to predict the exact law. It is universal for species as remote as humans and flies. The law unravels its biologically nonspecific thermodynamic mechanism. It implies that within a couple of years human mortality may be reset to its value at a much younger age. The reversal (albeit not yet as rapid) is consistent with demographic data. For instance, Swedish females, born in 1916, at 48 yr restored their mortality rate 28 yr earlier. The law and its other predictions and implications are also verified. The universal law suggests that a dominant fraction of mortality in well protected populations is just a by-product, which may be eliminated. Total mortality can be significantly decreased. PMID:12241426

  14. Universality of fragment shapes

    PubMed Central

    Domokos, Gábor; Kun, Ferenc; Sipos, András Árpád; Szabó, Tímea

    2015-01-01

    The shape of fragments generated by the breakup of solids is central to a wide variety of problems ranging from the geomorphic evolution of boulders to the accumulation of space debris orbiting Earth. Although the statistics of the mass of fragments has been found to show a universal scaling behavior, the comprehensive characterization of fragment shapes still remained a fundamental challenge. We performed a thorough experimental study of the problem fragmenting various types of materials by slowly proceeding weathering and by rapid breakup due to explosion and hammering. We demonstrate that the shape of fragments obeys an astonishing universality having the same generic evolution with the fragment size irrespective of materials details and loading conditions. There exists a cutoff size below which fragments have an isotropic shape, however, as the size increases an exponential convergence is obtained to a unique elongated form. We show that a discrete stochastic model of fragmentation reproduces both the size and shape of fragments tuning only a single parameter which strengthens the general validity of the scaling laws. The dependence of the probability of the crack plan orientation on the linear extension of fragments proved to be essential for the shape selection mechanism. PMID:25772300

  15. Universality of fragment shapes.

    PubMed

    Domokos, Gábor; Kun, Ferenc; Sipos, András Árpád; Szabó, Tímea

    2015-01-01

    The shape of fragments generated by the breakup of solids is central to a wide variety of problems ranging from the geomorphic evolution of boulders to the accumulation of space debris orbiting Earth. Although the statistics of the mass of fragments has been found to show a universal scaling behavior, the comprehensive characterization of fragment shapes still remained a fundamental challenge. We performed a thorough experimental study of the problem fragmenting various types of materials by slowly proceeding weathering and by rapid breakup due to explosion and hammering. We demonstrate that the shape of fragments obeys an astonishing universality having the same generic evolution with the fragment size irrespective of materials details and loading conditions. There exists a cutoff size below which fragments have an isotropic shape, however, as the size increases an exponential convergence is obtained to a unique elongated form. We show that a discrete stochastic model of fragmentation reproduces both the size and shape of fragments tuning only a single parameter which strengthens the general validity of the scaling laws. The dependence of the probability of the crack plan orientation on the linear extension of fragments proved to be essential for the shape selection mechanism. PMID:25772300

  16. Is the Universe transparent?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Kai; Avgoustidis, A.; Li, Zhengxiang

    2015-12-01

    We present our study on cosmic opacity, which relates to changes in photon number as photons travel from the source to the observer. Cosmic opacity may be caused by absorption or scattering due to matter in the Universe, or by extragalactic magnetic fields that can turn photons into unobserved particles (e.g., light axions, chameleons, gravitons, Kaluza-Klein modes), and it is crucial to correctly interpret astronomical photometric measurements like type Ia supernovae observations. On the other hand, the expansion rate at different epochs, i.e., the observational Hubble parameter data H (z ), are obtained from differential ageing of passively evolving galaxies or from baryon acoustic oscillations and thus are not affected by cosmic opacity. In this work, we first construct opacity-free luminosity distances from H (z ) determinations, taking into consideration correlations between different redshifts for our error analysis. Moreover, we let the light-curve fitting parameters, accounting for distance estimation in type Ia supernovae observations, free to ensure that our analysis is authentically cosmological-model independent and gives a robust result. Any nonzero residuals between these two kinds of luminosity distances can be deemed as an indication of the existence of cosmic opacity. While a transparent Universe is currently consistent with the data, our results show that strong constraints on opacity (and consequently on physical mechanisms that could cause it) can be obtained in a cosmological-model-independent fashion.

  17. Universality of fragment shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domokos, Gábor; Kun, Ferenc; Sipos, András Árpád; Szabó, Tímea

    2015-03-01

    The shape of fragments generated by the breakup of solids is central to a wide variety of problems ranging from the geomorphic evolution of boulders to the accumulation of space debris orbiting Earth. Although the statistics of the mass of fragments has been found to show a universal scaling behavior, the comprehensive characterization of fragment shapes still remained a fundamental challenge. We performed a thorough experimental study of the problem fragmenting various types of materials by slowly proceeding weathering and by rapid breakup due to explosion and hammering. We demonstrate that the shape of fragments obeys an astonishing universality having the same generic evolution with the fragment size irrespective of materials details and loading conditions. There exists a cutoff size below which fragments have an isotropic shape, however, as the size increases an exponential convergence is obtained to a unique elongated form. We show that a discrete stochastic model of fragmentation reproduces both the size and shape of fragments tuning only a single parameter which strengthens the general validity of the scaling laws. The dependence of the probability of the crack plan orientation on the linear extension of fragments proved to be essential for the shape selection mechanism.

  18. Universal Memcomputing Machines.

    PubMed

    Traversa, Fabio Lorenzo; Di Ventra, Massimiliano

    2015-11-01

    We introduce the notion of universal memcomputing machines (UMMs): a class of brain-inspired general-purpose computing machines based on systems with memory, whereby processing and storing of information occur on the same physical location. We analytically prove that the memory properties of UMMs endow them with universal computing power (they are Turing-complete), intrinsic parallelism, functional polymorphism, and information overhead, namely, their collective states can support exponential data compression directly in memory. We also demonstrate that a UMM has the same computational power as a nondeterministic Turing machine, namely, it can solve nondeterministic polynomial (NP)-complete problems in polynomial time. However, by virtue of its information overhead, a UMM needs only an amount of memory cells (memprocessors) that grows polynomially with the problem size. As an example, we provide the polynomial-time solution of the subset-sum problem and a simple hardware implementation of the same. Even though these results do not prove the statement NP = P within the Turing paradigm, the practical realization of these UMMs would represent a paradigm shift from the present von Neumann architectures, bringing us closer to brain-like neural computation. PMID:25667360

  19. Carbon in the Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allamandola, Louis J.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past few decades, NASA missions have revealed that we live in a Universe that is not a hydrogen-dominated, physicist's paradise, but in a molecular Universe with complex molecules directly interwoven into its fabric. These missions have shown that molecules are an abundant and important component of astronomical objects at all stages of their evolution and that they play a key role in many processes that dominate the structure and evolution of galaxies. Closer to home in our galaxy, the Milky Way, they have revealed a unique and complex organic inventory of regions of star and planet formation that may well represent some of the prebiotic roots to life. Astrobiology emerges from the great interest in understanding astrochemical evolution from simple to complex molecules, especially those with biogenic potential and the roles they may play as primordial seeds in the origin of life on habitable worlds. The first part of this talk will highlight how infrared spectroscopic studies of interstellar space, combined with dedicated laboratory simulations, have revealed the widespread presence of complex organics across deep space. The remainder of the presentation will focus on the evolution of these materials and astrobiology.

  20. Variable gravity Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetterich, C.

    2014-01-01

    For variable gravity models the strength of gravity, as measured by Newton's "constant" or the Planck mass, depends on the value of a scalar field, the cosmon. We discuss two simple four-parameter models with a quadratic or constant cosmon potential. They are compatible with all presently available cosmological observations, including inflation. The inflaton and the scalar field of quintessence are the same cosmon field. Dark energy constitutes a small, almost constant fraction of the energy density during the radiation- and matter-dominated epochs (early dark energy). In the present epoch we witness a transition to a new dark energy-dominated epoch. Our models are free of a big bang singularity. The stability of solutions generates an arrow of time. Our picture of the Universe is unusual, with a shrinking or static scale factor, while the masses of particles increase and the size of atoms shrinks. The evolution of the Universe can be very slow for all cosmological epochs including inflation, with typical time scale 1010 yr, and in sharp contrast to the usual big bang picture. The map to the equivalent Einstein frame with constant particle masses and expanding scale factor can be singular at the big bang.

  1. Quantum Universe Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Bruce

    2009-11-01

    The Initial Condition (that which existed prior to the universe) is compared as an infinite thermodynamic system (reservoir and system) to a two-component blackbody system, where one component, composed of unbound bosons, contained a symmetry breaking potential. Symmetry breaking resulted in the moment of inflation in a subsystem (small part) of one component, which in turn ignited an unloading wave. The ensuing Big Bang Unloading Wave created a continuously expanding cavity in that component. The cavity is the universe. Within the expanding unloading wave, the first energy cascade has continuously produced intense plasma effects, superelectric fields, and supermagnetic effects. The intense plasma produces violent pinch effects propelling superelectric-magnetic particles to the speed of light c impacting them within the other component (bound boson Fermi-Dirac particles) as original energy particles representing the apex of the spectral ladder and the beginning of the second energy cascade. Here quench factors freeze persistent superconducting current vibrations into place prior to application of the algorithmic ladder of the quantum field theory time line. Energies evolve to include the formation of std model physics (QM,QED,QCD) general theory of relativity (GRT), special theory (SRT), linear momentum, and angular momentum, etc.

  2. [The geriatric university clinic].

    PubMed

    Stähelin, H B

    1995-01-01

    The very old are the fastest growing population group. Medical progress allows more autonomy and better quality of life for the elderly. Traditional medical concepts are, however, only partly suited for dealing with age-associated problems. Medical education responds to these new requirements in a limited way. Interdisciplinary teamwork is a prerequisite in treating the multimorbid, acutely ill elderly patient. The task of the university is not only the development and implementation of high-tech medicine, but first of all a comprehensive training in medicine, including geriatrics. The Geriatric University Clinic therefore offers pre- and postgraduate training in geriatrics, but also in related disciplines by promoting teaching and research. In order to attain these goals, the geriatric acute ward was created for acutely ill, very old, multimorbid, frail elderly patients. A geriatric ward for rehabilitation complements this ward. A consultation service offers geriatric know-how to all other services. A special task is the early diagnosis and treatment of dementia in an outpatient service. The aim is to prevent chronification by early intervention and to reestablish satisfactory function and autonomy. PMID:7780809

  3. Universal Payload Information Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elmore, Ralph B.

    2003-01-01

    As the overall manager and integrator of International Space Station (ISS) science payloads, the Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC) at Marshall Space Flight Center has a critical need to provide an information management system for exchange and control of ISS payload files as well as to coordinate ISS payload related operational changes. The POIC's information management system has a fundamental requirement to provide secure operational access not only to users physically located at the POIC, but also to remote experimenters and International Partners physically located in different parts of the world. The Payload Information Management System (PIMS) is a ground-based electronic document configuration management and collaborative workflow system that was built to service the POIC's information management needs. This paper discusses the application components that comprise the PIMS system, the challenges that influenced its design and architecture, and the selected technologies it employs. This paper will also touch on the advantages of the architecture, details of the user interface, and lessons learned along the way to a successful deployment. With PIMS, a sophisticated software solution has been built that is not only universally accessible for POIC customer s information management needs, but also universally adaptable in implementation and application as a generalized information management system.

  4. Craft v. Vanderbilt University.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    Court Decision: 18 Federal Supplement, 2d Series 786; 1998 Aug 19 (date of decision). In a memorandum opinion, the U.S. District Court for the Middle District of Tennessee detailed the reasoning behind an earlier decision to allow the research subjects of radiation experiments to continue their case against a private university, a private foundation, and the state. The subjects were pregnant women who were not informed of the risks of ingesting radioactive iron isotopes in a series of experiments at Vanderbilt University between 1945-1947. Nor were they informed in a later follow-up study about the involuntary exposure, nor contacted later when another follow-up study showed a disproportionately high incidence of cancer among the subjects. Because actions by both Vanderbilt and the Rockefeller Foundation in this joint project were so entwined with those by Tennessee, they could be found liable under federal civil rights law. The claims were not time-barred under Tennessee's medical malpractice statutes, because "the experiments did not constitute medical care." Instead the court concluded that the statute of limitations may be tolled because of fraudulent concealment, noting that "[w]here a confidential relationship exists, as between a physician and a patient, there is an affirmative duty to disclose, and that duty renders silence or failure to disclose known facts fraudulent. PMID:15751149

  5. Separate universe simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Christian; Schmidt, Fabian; Chiang, Chi-Ting; Komatsu, Eiichiro

    2015-03-01

    The large-scale statistics of observables such as the galaxy density are chiefly determined by their dependence on the local coarse-grained matter density. This dependence can be measured directly and efficiently in N-body simulations by using the fact that a uniform density perturbation with respect to some fiducial background cosmology is equivalent to modifying the background and including curvature, i.e. by simulating a `separate universe'. We derive this mapping to fully non-linear order, and provide a step-by-step description of how to perform and analyse the separate universe simulations. This technique can be applied to a wide range of observables. As an example, we calculate the response of the non-linear matter power spectrum to long-wavelength density perturbations, which corresponds to the angle-averaged squeezed limit of the matter bispectrum and higher n-point functions. Using only a modest simulation volume, we obtain simulation results for the bispectrum and trispectrum with per cent-level precision over a wide range of scales.

  6. Open Universities in India 2000: Brief Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhushan, Bharat, Comp.; Lele, Nalini A., Comp.; Rausaria, R. R., Comp.

    This report contains information on the following open universities in India: (1) Indira Gandhi National Open University; (2) Dr. B.R. Ambedkar Open University; (3) Kota Open University; (4) Nalanda Open University; (5) Yashwantrao Chavan Maharashtra Open University; (6) Madhya Pradesh Bhoj (Open) University; (7) Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Open

  7. Wikipedia ranking of world universities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lages, José; Patt, Antoine; Shepelyansky, Dima L.

    2016-03-01

    We use the directed networks between articles of 24 Wikipedia language editions for producing the wikipedia ranking of world Universities (WRWU) using PageRank, 2DRank and CheiRank algorithms. This approach allows to incorporate various cultural views on world universities using the mathematical statistical analysis independent of cultural preferences. The Wikipedia ranking of top 100 universities provides about 60% overlap with the Shanghai university ranking demonstrating the reliable features of this approach. At the same time WRWU incorporates all knowledge accumulated at 24 Wikipedia editions giving stronger highlights for historically important universities leading to a different estimation of efficiency of world countries in university education. The historical development of university ranking is analyzed during ten centuries of their history.

  8. Physics in Universe's Youth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-05-01

    Using a quasar located 12.3 billion light-years away as a beacon, a team of astronomers detected the presence of molecular hydrogen in the farthest system ever, an otherwise invisible galaxy that we observe when the Universe was less than 1.5 billion years old, that is, about 10% of its present age. The astronomers find that there is about one hydrogen molecule for 250 hydrogen atoms. A similar set of observations for two other quasars, together with the most precise laboratory measurements, allows scientists to infer that the ratio of the proton to electron masses may have changed with time. If confirmed, this would have important consequences on our understanding of physics. "Detecting molecular hydrogen and measuring its properties in the most remote parts of the Universe is important to understand the gas environment and determine the rate of star formation in the early Universe", said Cédric Ledoux, lead-author of the paper presenting the results [1]. Although molecular hydrogen is the most abundant molecule in the Universe, it is very difficult to detect directly. For the time being, the only way to detect it directly in the far Universe is to search for its telltale signatures in the spectra of quasars or gamma-ray burst afterglows. This requires high spectral resolution and large telescopes to reach the necessary precision. A team of astronomers, comprised of Cédric Ledoux (ESO), Patrick Petitjean (IAP, Paris, France) and Raghunathan Srianand (IUCAA, Pune, India), is conducting a survey for molecular hydrogen at high redshift using the Ultraviolet and Visible Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) at ESO's Very Large Telescope. Out of the 75 systems observed up to now, 14 have firm detection of molecular hydrogen. Among these, one is found having a redshift of 4.224. While using the 12.3 billion light-years distant quasar PSS J 1443+2724 as a beacon, the astronomers detected several features belonging to an unseen galaxy having a redshift of 4.224. In particular, many lines from molecular hydrogen were found, breaking the record for the detection of this element in the farthest object in the Universe. This also implies that the gas in this galaxy must be rather cold, about -90 to -180 degrees Celsius. ESO PR Photo 1r/06 Molecular Hydrogen in Distant Galaxy In addition, several lines from 'metals' are also seen, allowing the researchers to deduce the amount of various chemical elements. "From the abundance of Nitrogen observed, we argue that it had to be produced in the late stage of the life of 4 to 8 solar mass stars," said Patrick Petitjean. "Thus, star-formation activity must have formed at least 200 to 500 million years before we are observing the galaxy, that is, when the Universe was about one billion years old" [2]. If the galaxy went through a phase of intense star-formation activity, it is now, at the time of the observations, in a rather quiescent state. "These observations demonstrate the possibility to perform these studies at the highest redshift with ESO's VLT", said Raghunathan Srianand. "In particular, the possibility to observe the interstellar medium of distant galaxies revealed by using gamma-ray bursts as beacons will boost this field in the near future." [3] A similar set of accurate measurements of molecular hydrogen lines was made by the astronomers [4] with UVES on the VLT towards two others quasars, Q 0405-443 and Q 0347-383. This set of data allowed the scientists to compare the ratio of the mass of a proton to that of an electron in molecular hydrogen as it is now and how it was about 12 billion years ago [5]. To this aim, they performed extremely accurate measurements of spectral lines of hydrogen molecules in the laboratory and compared the results with the same lines observed in the spectra of these quasars. These measurements show that the mass ratio of the proton and the electron may have changed, becoming 0.002% smaller in the past twelve billion years. Albeit such a change may look tiny, it would have important consequences on our understanding of physics. The scientists stress however that their result is just an 'indication', not yet a 'proof' and that it should be confirmed by further measurements, both astronomical and in the laboratory.

  9. Imagine the Universe!

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, N.

    2003-01-01

    Welcome to the 2004 edition of the education CD from the Laboratory for High Energy Astrophysics at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. We hope that you will find it to be an exciting and fun learning experience. We have tried very hard to make this CD as user-friendly as possible and along the way we have discovered some things that every user may need to know. Please read the README file found on the CD if you have any questions or problems using the disk. Then, after that, if you still have problems, email us at itu@athena.gsfc.nasa.gov. We will be happy to help you 'get going'! Below are links to all of the sites included on the CD. You will also find the addresses for the on-line version of each of these sites. If you have a good Internet connection available, we recommend that you view the sites on-line. There you will find the latest updated information, interactive activities, and active links to other sites. Included on the disk are: Imagine The Universe! This site is dedicated to a discussion about our Universe... what we know about it, how it is evolving, and the kinds of objects and phenomena it contains. Emphasizing the X-ray and gamma-ray parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, it also discusses how scientists know what they know, what mysteries remain, and how the answers to remaining mysteries may one day be found. Lots of movies, quizzes, and a special section for educators. Geared for ages 14 and up. This site can be viewed on-line at http://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/. StarChild: A learning center for young astronomers The 1998 Webby Award Winner for Best Education Website, StarChild is aimed at ages 4-14. It contains easy-to-understand information about our Solar System, the Universe, and space exploration. There are also activities, songs, movies, and puzzles! This site can be viewed on-line at http://starchild.gsfc.nasa.gov/. Astronomy Picture of the Day APOD offers a new astronomical image and caption each calendar day. We have captured the year 2003 entries of this award-winning site and included them on the disk. The images and information provide a wonderful resource for all ages. This site can be viewed on-line at http://apod.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/astropix.html.

  10. Revealing the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornell, James; Lightman, Alan

    1983-05-01

    Contributors include Owen Gingerich, Kenneth Bracher, Robert F. C. Vessot, Fred L. Whipple, Fred Franklin, Robert W. Noyes, Robert Rosner, Harvey Tananbaum, Alan P. Lightman, Walter H. G. Lewin, William H. Press, John Huchra, and George B. Field. Alan Lightman, a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences since 1996, is adjunct professor of humanities at MIT. He is the author of several books on science, including "Ancient Light: Our Changing View of the Universe" (1991) and "Origins: The Lives and Worlds of Modern Cosmologists" (with R. Brawer, 1990). His works of fiction include "Einstein's Dreams" (1993), "The Diagnosis" (2000), which was a finalist for the National Book Award, and, most recently, "Reunion" (2003).

  11. European Universe Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, P.; Miley, G.; Westra van Holthe, F.; Schrier, W.; Reed, S.

    2011-10-01

    The European Universe Awareness (EU-UNAWE) programme uses the beauty and grandeur of the cosmos to encourage young children, particularly those from underprivileged backgrounds, to develop an interest in science and technology and to foster a sense of global citizenship. EU-UNAWE is already active in 40 countries and comprises a global network of almost 500 astronomers, teachers and other educators. The programme was recently awarded a grant of 1.9 million euros by the European Union so that it can be further developed in five European countries and South Africa. The grant will be used to organise teacher training workshops and to develop educational materials, such as an astronomy news service for children and games. During this presentation we will outline some of the biggest achievements of EU-UNAWE to date and discuss future plans for the programme.

  12. Zöllner's Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kragh, Helge

    2012-12-01

    The idea that space is not Euclidean by necessity, and that there are other kinds of "curved" spaces, diffused slowly to the physical and astronomical sciences. Until Einstein's general theory of relativity, only a handful of astronomers contemplated a connection between non-Euclidean geometry and real space. One of them, the German astrophysicist Johann Carl Friedrich Zöllner (1834-1882), suggested in 1872 a remarkable cosmological model describing a finite universe in closed space. I examine Zöllner's little-known contribution to cosmology and also his even more unorthodox speculations of a four-dimensional space including both physical and spiritual phenomena. I provide an overview of Zöllner's scientific work, of his status in the German scientific community, and of the controversies caused by his polemical style of science. Zöllner's cosmology was effectively forgotten, but there is no reason why it should remain an unwritten chapter in the history of science.

  13. University Engagement at INL

    SciTech Connect

    Morrell, Sean Robert; Rynes, Amanda Renee

    2014-07-01

    There are currently over 900 facilities in over 170 countries which fall under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards. As additional nations look to purse civilian nuclear programs or to expand infrastructure already in place, the number of reactors and accompanying facilities as well as the quantity of material has greatly increased. Due to the breadth of the threat and the burden placed on the IAEA as nuclear applications expand, it has become increasingly important that safeguards professionals have a strong understanding of both the technical and political aspects of nonproliferation starting early in their career. To begin overcoming this challenge, Idaho National Laboratory, has partnered with local universities to deliver a graduate level nuclear engineering course that covers both aspects of the field with a focus on safeguards applications. To date over 60 students across multiple disciplines have participated in this course with many deciding to transition into a nonproliferation area of focus in both their academic and professional careers.

  14. Universal Steering Criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Huangjun; Hayashi, Masahito; Chen, Lin

    2016-02-01

    We propose a general framework for constructing universal steering criteria that are applicable to arbitrary bipartite states and measurement settings of the steering party. The same framework is also useful for studying the joint measurement problem. Based on the data-processing inequality for an extended Rényi relative entropy, we then introduce a family of steering inequalities, which detect steering much more efficiently than those inequalities known before. As illustrations, we show unbounded violation of a steering inequality for assemblages constructed from mutually unbiased bases and establish an interesting connection between maximally steerable assemblages and complete sets of mutually unbiased bases. We also provide a single steering inequality that can detect all bipartite pure states of full Schmidt rank. In the course of study, we generalize a number of results intimately connected to data-processing inequalities, which are of independent interest.

  15. Universal Steering Criteria.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Huangjun; Hayashi, Masahito; Chen, Lin

    2016-02-19

    We propose a general framework for constructing universal steering criteria that are applicable to arbitrary bipartite states and measurement settings of the steering party. The same framework is also useful for studying the joint measurement problem. Based on the data-processing inequality for an extended Rényi relative entropy, we then introduce a family of steering inequalities, which detect steering much more efficiently than those inequalities known before. As illustrations, we show unbounded violation of a steering inequality for assemblages constructed from mutually unbiased bases and establish an interesting connection between maximally steerable assemblages and complete sets of mutually unbiased bases. We also provide a single steering inequality that can detect all bipartite pure states of full Schmidt rank. In the course of study, we generalize a number of results intimately connected to data-processing inequalities, which are of independent interest. PMID:26943513

  16. Language universals at birth

    PubMed Central

    Gómez, David Maximiliano; Berent, Iris; Benavides-Varela, Silvia; Bion, Ricardo A. H.; Cattarossi, Luigi; Nespor, Marina; Mehler, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of human languages is driven both by primitive biases present in the human sensorimotor systems and by cultural transmission among speakers. However, whether the design of the language faculty is further shaped by linguistic biological biases remains controversial. To address this question, we used near-infrared spectroscopy to examine whether the brain activity of neonates is sensitive to a putatively universal phonological constraint. Across languages, syllables like blif are preferred to both lbif and bdif. Newborn infants (2–5 d old) listening to these three types of syllables displayed distinct hemodynamic responses in temporal-perisylvian areas of their left hemisphere. Moreover, the oxyhemoglobin concentration changes elicited by a syllable type mirrored both the degree of its preference across languages and behavioral linguistic preferences documented experimentally in adulthood. These findings suggest that humans possess early, experience-independent, linguistic biases concerning syllable structure that shape language perception and acquisition. PMID:24706790

  17. Inflating an inhomogeneous universe

    SciTech Connect

    Easther, Richard; Price, Layne C.; Rasero, Javier E-mail: lpri691@aucklanduni.ac.nz

    2014-08-01

    While cosmological inflation can erase primordial inhomogeneities, it is possible that inflation may not begin in a significantly inhomogeneous universe. This issue is particularly pressing in multifield scenarios, where even the homogeneous dynamics may depend sensitively on the initial configuration. This paper presents an initial survey of the onset of inflation in multifield models, via qualitative lattice-based simulations that do not include local gravitational backreaction. Using hybrid inflation as a test model, our results suggest that small subhorizon inhomogeneities do play a key role in determining whether inflation begins in multifield scenarios. Interestingly, some configurations which do not inflate in the homogeneous limit ''succeed'' after inhomogeneity is included, while other initial configurations which inflate in the homogeneous limit ''fail'' when inhomogeneity is added.

  18. Brane Universe: Global Geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Berezin, Victor

    2010-06-23

    The global geometries of bulk vacuum space-times in the brane-universe models are investigated and classified in terms of geometrical invariants. The corresponding Carter-Penrose diagrams and embedding diagrams are constructed. It is shown that for a given energy-momentum induced on the brane there can be different types of global geometries depending on the signs of a bulk cosmological term and surface energy density of the brane (the sign of the latter does not influence the internal cosmological evolution). It is shown that in the Randall-Sundrum scenario it is possible to have an asymmetric hierarchy splitting even with a Z{sub 2}-symmetric matching of 'our' brane to the bulk.

  19. Rocket University at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    "Rocket University" is an exciting new initiative at Kennedy Space Center led by NASA's Engineering and Technology Directorate. This hands-on experience has been established to develop, refine & maintain targeted flight engineering skills to enable the Agency and KSC strategic goals. Through "RocketU", KSC is developing a nimble, rapid flight engineering life cycle systems knowledge base. Ongoing activities in RocketU develop and test new technologies and potential customer systems through small scale vehicles, build and maintain flight experience through balloon and small-scale rocket missions, and enable a revolving fresh perspective of engineers with hands on expertise back into the large scale NASA programs, providing a more experienced multi-disciplined set of systems engineers. This overview will define the Program, highlight aspects of the training curriculum, and identify recent accomplishments and activities.

  20. The International Space University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidian, Kenneth J.

    1990-01-01

    The International Space University (ISU) was founded on the premise that any major space program in the future would require international cooperation as a necessary first step toward its successful completion. ISU is devoted to being a leading center for educating future authorities in the world space industry. ISU's background, goals, current form, and future plans are described. The results and benefits of the type of education and experience gained from ISU include technical reports describing the design projects undertaken by the students, an exposure to the many different disciplines which are a part of a large space project, an awareness of the existing activities from around the world in the space community, and an international professional network which spans all aspects of space activities and covers the globe.

  1. Fred Hoyle's Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregory, Jane

    2005-08-01

    Fred Hoyle was a Yorkshire truant who became the voice of British astronomy. For fifty years, he spoke out for astronomy in the newspapers, on government committees, at scientific meetings, in popular books and on the radio. He devised a never-ending history of the universe, and worked out how the elements were made. He founded a prestigious institute for theoretical astronomy and built a giant telescope, and if it rained on his summer holiday, he sat in his caravan and wrote science fiction novels for his legions of fans around the world. Fred Hoyle also claimed that diseases fall from the sky, that the big bang never happened, and that the Astronomer Royal should be abolished. When the outspoken Fred Hoyle spoke out for astronomy, some astronomers really wished he had kept his mouth shut. This book tells the behind-the-scenes story of Hoyle's widely acclaimed and deeply controversial role in the ideas, organization and public face of astronomy in post-war Britain. It chronicles the triumphs, acrimony, jealousies, rewards and bitter feuds of a field in turmoil, and meets the astronomers, contemplating cosmic questions, keeping secrets, losing their tempers, winkling information out of distant stars and, over tea on the lawn, discussing the finer points of libel law. Fred Hoyle's Universe draws on previously confidential government documents, recently released personal correspondence and interviews with Hoyle's friends, colleagues and critics, as well as with Hoyle himself, to bring you the man, the science, and the scandal behind the genial and genteel facade of the most exciting period in the history of astronomy.

  2. Austin Peay State University: College and University Computing Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CAUSE/EFFECT, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Planning for information technology, computer services, computer hardware, administrative computing, academic computing, and office automation/networking at Austin Peay State University are described. (MLW)

  3. Is the Universe logotropic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavanis, Pierre-Henri

    2015-07-01

    We consider the possibility that the universe is made of a single dark fluid described by a logotropic equation of state P = A ln( ρ/ρ*, where ρ is the rest-mass density, ρ * is a reference density, and A is the logotropic temperature. The energy density ɛ is the sum of two terms: a rest-mass energy term ρ c 2 that mimics dark matter and an internal energy term u( ρ) = - P( ρ) - A that mimics dark energy. This decomposition leads to a natural, and physical, unification of dark matter and dark energy, and elucidates their mysterious nature. In the early universe, the rest-mass energy dominates and the dark fluid behaves as pressureless dark matter ( P ≃ 0, ɛ ∝ a -3. In the late universe, the internal energy dominates and the dark fluid behaves as dark energy ( P ˜ - ɛ, ɛ ∝ ln a. The logotropic model depends on a single parameter B = A / ρ Λ c 2 (dimensionless logotropic temperature), where ρ Λ = 6.72 × 10-24 g m-3 is the cosmological density. For B = 0, we recover the ΛCDM model with a different justification. For B > 0, we can describe deviations from the ΛCDM model. Using cosmological constraints, we find that 0 ≤ B ≤ 0.09425. We consider the possibility that dark matter halos are described by the same logotropic equation of state. When B > 0, pressure gradients prevent gravitational collapse and provide halo density cores instead of cuspy density profiles, in agreement with the observations. The universal rotation curve of logotropic dark matter halos is consistent with the observational Burkert profile (Burkert, Astrophys. J. 447, L25 (1995)) up to the halo radius. It decreases as r -1 at large distances, similarly to the profile of dark matter halos close to the core radius (Burkert, arXiv:1501.06604). Interestingly, if we assume that all the dark matter halos have the same logotropic temperature B, we find that their surface density Σ 0 = ρ0 r h is constant. This result is in agreement with the observations (Donato et al., Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 397, 1169 (2009)) where it is found that Σ 0 = 141 M ⊙/pc2 for dark matter halos differing by several orders of magnitude in size. Using this observational result, we obtain B = 3.53 × 10-3. Then, we show that the mass enclosed within a sphere of fixed radius r u = 300 pc has the same value M 300 1.93 × 107 M ⊙ for all the dwarf halos, in agreement with the observations (Strigari et al., Nature 454, 1096 (2008)). Finally, assuming that ρ * = ρ P , where ρ P = 5.16 × 1099 g m-3 is the Planck density, we predict B = 3.53 × 10-3, in perfect agreement with the value obtained from the observations. We approximately have B ≃ 1/ln( ρ P / ρ Λ ˜ 1/[123ln(10)], where 123 is the famous number occurring in the ratio ρ P / ρ Λ ˜ 10123 between the Planck density and the cosmological density. This value of B is sufficiently low to satisfy the cosmological bound 0 ≤ B ≤ 0.09425 and sufficiently large to differ from CDM ( B = 0 and avoid density cusps in dark matter halos. It leads to a Jeans length at the beginning of the matter era of the order of Λ J =40.4 pc which is consistent with the minimum size of dark matter halos observed in the universe. Therefore, a logotropic equation of state is a good candidate to account both for galactic and cosmological observations. This may be a hint that dark matter and dark energy are the manifestation of a single dark fluid. If we assume that the dark fluid is made of a self-interacting scalar field, representing for example Bose-Einstein condensates, we find that the logotropic equation of state arises from the Gross-Pitaevskii equation with an inverted quadratic potential, or from the Klein-Gordon equation with a logarithmic potential. We also relate the logotropic equation of state to Tsallis generalized thermodynamics and to the Cardassian model motivated by the existence of extra-dimensions.

  4. Inter-Universal Quantum Entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robles-Pérez, S. J.; González-Díaz, P. F.

    2015-01-01

    The boundary conditions to be imposed on the quantum state of the whole multiverse could be such that the universes would be created in entangled pairs. Then, interuniversal entanglement would provide us with a vacuum energy for each single universe that might be fitted with observational data, making testable not only the multiverse proposal but also the boundary conditions of the multiverse. Furthermore, the second law of the entanglement thermodynamics would enhance the expansion of the single universes.

  5. The photino and the universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silk, J.

    1985-01-01

    In a photino-dominated universe, significant fluxes of sub-GeV cosmic-ray antiprotons are produced by photino annihilations in the dark halo of the Galaxy. The key assumptions made are that the universe contains a critical density of dark matter in massive photinos, and that the Galactic halo is dominated by the same form of dark matter as dominates the density of the universe.

  6. Excellence in the Pluralistic University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wharton, Clifton R., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The pluralistic university must explore the relationship between educational equity and individual excellence, and between egalitarianism and the excellence of societal and educational institutions. (Author)

  7. Universe acceleration and nonlinear electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruglov, S. I.

    2015-12-01

    A new model of nonlinear electrodynamics with a dimensional parameter β coupled to gravity is considered. We show that an accelerated expansion of the universe takes place if the nonlinear electromagnetic field is the source of the gravitational field. A pure magnetic universe is investigated, and the magnetic field drives the universe to accelerate. In this model, after the big bang, the universe undergoes inflation and the accelerated expansion and then decelerates approaching Minkowski spacetime asymptotically. We demonstrate the causality of the model and a classical stability at the deceleration phase.

  8. University Intercommunication. The Nine Universities Research Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Brian, Ed.

    Many universities have already begun to explore the use of closed-circuit television (CCTV) for internal purposes. Provided that the equipment installed is of adequate quality and technically compatible with that of other universities, CCTV, supplemented by arrangements for recording on magnetic tape or on film, can provide a basis for

  9. Chemistry Inreach: University Employees' Children Experiencing University Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Amanda J.; Harrison, Timothy G.; Shallcross, Dudley E.; Medley, Marcus I.

    2009-01-01

    Many university departments provide public engagement activities, often referred to as "outreach" to school students, their teachers and other members of the public. It is less common for University Departments to run activities for their employees let alone the children of these employees. This paper looks at the value put on an…

  10. The European System for Electing University Presidents and University Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Huaide

    2014-01-01

    The system of electing university presidents in Spain, Switzerland, Italy, and the United Kingdom has distinctive characteristics. Almost all university presidents are elected by teachers and students, either directly or indirectly through elections with government approval of the appointment a mere formality. Principles of these elections include

  11. McMaster University`s artificial computing system

    SciTech Connect

    Dawes, A.; Bentley, M.

    1996-12-31

    This will be McMaster University`s first entry into the AAAI Mobile Robotics competition. As such, this year will serve as a testing ground for future developments. It is the goal of the designers to experiment with new techniques and approaches based on their engineering background.

  12. Running Universities as Enterprises: University Governance Changes in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, David; Lo, William

    2007-01-01

    University entrepreneurialism has been adopted as a way of promoting quality education in Hong Kong. In light of the role of the state in Hong Kong's changing higher education governance, this article critically reviews the rationale for privatising and corporatising the university sector. With a focus on the current trends of privatisation and…

  13. International University Ranking Systems and the Idea of University Excellence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Paul; Braddock, Richard

    2007-01-01

    We look at some of the theoretical and methodological issues underlying international university ranking systems and, in particular, their conceptual connection with the idea of excellence. We then turn to a critical examination of the two best-known international university ranking systems--the "Times Higher Education Supplement (THES)" World

  14. The European System for Electing University Presidents and University Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Huaide

    2014-01-01

    The system of electing university presidents in Spain, Switzerland, Italy, and the United Kingdom has distinctive characteristics. Almost all university presidents are elected by teachers and students, either directly or indirectly through elections with government approval of the appointment a mere formality. Principles of these elections include…

  15. Assessing Civic Engagement at Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pike, Gary R.; Bringle, Robert G.; Hatcher, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Faculty and staff at Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) have developed several tools to assess campus civic engagement initiatives. This chapter describes the IUPUI Faculty Survey and the Civic-Minded Graduate Scale, and reports on findings from campus-based assessment and research.

  16. International University Ranking Systems and the Idea of University Excellence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Paul; Braddock, Richard

    2007-01-01

    We look at some of the theoretical and methodological issues underlying international university ranking systems and, in particular, their conceptual connection with the idea of excellence. We then turn to a critical examination of the two best-known international university ranking systems--the "Times Higher Education Supplement (THES)" World…

  17. Building Effective Community-University Partnerships: Are Universities Truly Ready?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curwood, Susan Eckerle; Munger, Felix; Mitchell, Terry; Mackeigan, Mary; Farrar, Ashley

    2011-01-01

    Community service learning and community-based research necessitate the development of strong community-university partnerships. In this paper, students, faculty, and a community partner critically reflect upon the process of establishing a long-term community-university partnership through the integration of a community service learning component…

  18. Universal Cluster Deposition System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiang, You; Sun, Zhiguang; Sellmyer, David J.

    2001-03-01

    We have developed a universal cluster deposition system (UCDS), which combines a new kind of sputtering-gas-aggregation (SGA) cluster beam source with two atom beams from magnetron sputtering. A highly intense, very stable beam of nanoclusters (like Co, Fe, Ni, Si, CoSm or CoPt) are produced. A quadrupole and/or a new high transmission infinite range mass selector have been designed for the cluster beam. The size distribution (Δd/d) is between 0.05+/-0.10, measured in situ by TOF. A range of mean cluster size is 2 to 10 nm. Usually the deposition rate is about 5 deg/s. The cluster concentration in the film is adjusted through the ratio of cluster and atomic beam deposition rates, as measured in situ with a rotatable quartz microbalance. The UCDS can be used to prepare coated clusters. After exiting from the cluster source, the clusters can be coated first with an atomic or molecular species in an evaporation chamber, and deposited alone or co-deposited with another material. This system is used to deposit simultaneously or alternately mesoscopic thin films or multilayers, and offers the possibility to control independently the incident cluster size and concentration, and thereby the interaction between clusters and cluster-matrix material which is of interest for fundamental research and industry applications. Magnetic properties of Co cluster-assembled materials will be discussed. * Research supported by NSF, DARPA through ARO, and CMRA

  19. Future Coordinated Universal Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, Dennis D.

    Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), created by adjusting International Atomic Time (TAI) by the appropriate number of leap seconds, is the uniform time scale that is the basis of most civil timekeeping in the world. The concept of a leap second was introduced to ensure that UTC would not differ by more than 0.9 seconds from UT1, the time determined by the rotation of the Earth. The principal reason for this was to meet the requirements of celestial navigation. However, with the proliferation in the use of satellite navigation, it is appropriate to reconsider this historical position. In view of emerging problems with the current definition of UTC in navigation and communications, user dissatisfaction with leap seconds is beginning to surface. Even with accurate estimates of the deceleration of the Earth's rotation there remain significant variations in the Earth's rate of rotation, which prevent the prediction of leap seconds beyond a few months in advance. The inability to predict leap seconds coupled with the growing urgency for a uniform time scale without discontinuities make it appropriate to examine the future definition of UTC.

  20. Universal Uncertainty Relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gour, Gilad

    2014-03-01

    Uncertainty relations are a distinctive characteristic of quantum theory that imposes intrinsic limitations on the precision with which physical properties can be simultaneously determined. The modern work on uncertainty relations employs entropic measures to quantify the lack of knowledge associated with measuring non-commuting observables. However, I will show here that there is no fundamental reason for using entropies as quantifiers; in fact, any functional relation that characterizes the uncertainty of the measurement outcomes can be used to define an uncertainty relation. Starting from a simple assumption that any measure of uncertainty is non-decreasing under mere relabeling of the measurement outcomes, I will show that Schur-concave functions are the most general uncertainty quantifiers. I will then introduce a novel fine-grained uncertainty relation written in terms of a majorization relation, which generates an infinite family of distinct scalar uncertainty relations via the application of arbitrary measures of uncertainty. This infinite family of uncertainty relations includes all the known entropic uncertainty relations, but is not limited to them. In this sense, the relation is universally valid and captures the essence of the uncertainty principle in quantum theory. This talk is based on a joint work with Shmuel Friedland and Vlad Gheorghiu. This research is supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) of Canada and by the Pacific Institute for Mathematical Sciences (PIMS).

  1. Universal Quantum Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brody, Dorje C.; Hughston, Lane P.

    2015-06-01

    We introduce a family of operations in quantum mechanics that one can regard as “universal quantum measurements” (UQMs). These measurements are applicable to all finite dimensional quantum systems and entail the specification of only a minimal amount of structure. The first class of UQM that we consider involves the specification of the initial state of the system—no further structure is brought into play. We call operations of this type “tomographic measurements”, since given the statistics of the outcomes one can deduce the original state of the system. Next, we construct a disentangling operation, the outcome of which, when the procedure is applied to a general mixed state of an entangled composite system, is a disentangled product of pure constituent states. This operation exists whenever the dimension of the Hilbert space is not a prime, and can be used to model the decay of a composite system. As another example, we show how one can make a measurement of the direction along which the spin of a particle of spin s is oriented (s = 1/2, 1,...). The required additional structure in this case involves the embedding of CP1 as a rational curve of degree 2s in CP2s.

  2. Universality and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, D. R.

    2010-04-01

    I discuss the impact of a finite effective range, r, on systems with a large two-body scattering length, a. In particular, I show how observables can be written as an expansion around the “universal”, or large-scatteringlength limit. The parameter governing this expansion is the ratio r/a. In few-nucleon systems the ratio r/a has a value of about 1/3, and so such corrections are essential in producing good agreement between theory and data. Hence, I first show how these effects range play a key role in making the so-called “pionless” effective field theory a successful descriptor of low-energy processes in the NN system. I then move to the NNN system, and review predictions for the energy-dependence of observables there. However, the beautiful Efimov physics associated with the presence of a large scattering length is not fully revealed in the NNN system, precisely because r/a corrections are large. I therefore turn to cold atomic gases and show that there are some important recent experiments where physics “beyond universality” affects the data. In the process I demonstrate that an additional piece of short-distance physics is necessary to renormalize scattering-length-dependent observables in the three-body system once corrections ˜ r are considered. Finally, I discuss recent initial efforts to compute r/a corrections to the predictions of universality for the four-body system.

  3. Universal Signal Conditioning Amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinney, Frank

    1997-01-01

    The Technological Research and Development Authority (TRDA) and NASA-KSC entered into a cooperative agreement in March of 1994 to achieve the utilization and commercialization of a technology development for benefiting both the Space Program and U.S. industry on a "dual-use basis". The technology involved in this transfer is a new, unique Universal Conditioning Amplifier (USCA) used in connection with various types of transducers. The project was initiated in partnership with I-Net Corporation, Lockheed Martin Telemetry & Instrumentation (formerly Loral Test and Information Systems) and Brevard Community College. The project consists of designing, miniaturizing, manufacturing, and testing an existing prototype of USCA that was developed for NASA-KSC by the I-Net Corporation. The USCA is a rugged and field-installable self (or remotely)- programmable amplifier that works in combination with a tag random access memory (RAM) attached to various types of transducers. This summary report comprises performance evaluations, TRDA partnership tasks, a project summary, project milestones and results.

  4. Hydrogen fuel - Universal energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prince, A. G.; Burg, J. A.

    The technology for the production, storage, transmission, and consumption of hydrogen as a fuel is surveyed, with the physical and chemical properties of hydrogen examined as they affect its use as a fuel. Sources of hydrogen production are described including synthesis from coal or natural gas, biomass conversion, thermochemical decomposition of water, and electrolysis of water, of these only electrolysis is considered economicially and technologically feasible in the near future. Methods of production of the large quantities of electricity required for the electrolysis of sea water are explored: fossil fuels, hydroelectric plants, nuclear fission, solar energy, wind power, geothermal energy, tidal power, wave motion, electrochemical concentration cells, and finally ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC). The wind power and OTEC are considered in detail as the most feasible approaches. Techniques for transmission (by railcar or pipeline), storage (as liquid in underwater or underground tanks, as granular metal hydride, or as cryogenic liquid), and consumption (in fuel cells in conventional power plants, for home usage, for industrial furnaces, and for cars and aircraft) are analyzed. The safety problems of hydrogen as a universal fuel are discussed, noting that they are no greater than those for conventional fuels.

  5. Viscous dark fluid universe

    SciTech Connect

    Hipolito-Ricaldi, W. S.; Velten, H. E. S.; Zimdahl, W.

    2010-09-15

    We investigate the cosmological perturbation dynamics for a universe consisting of pressureless baryonic matter and a viscous fluid, the latter representing a unified model of the dark sector. In the homogeneous and isotropic background the total energy density of this mixture behaves as a generalized Chaplygin gas. The perturbations of this energy density are intrinsically nonadiabatic and source relative entropy perturbations. The resulting baryonic matter power spectrum is shown to be compatible with the 2dFGRS and SDSS (DR7) data. A joint statistical analysis, using also Hubble-function and supernovae Ia data, shows that, different from other studies, there exists a maximum in the probability distribution for a negative present value q{sub 0{approx_equal}}-0.53 of the deceleration parameter. Moreover, while previous descriptions on the basis of generalized Chaplygin-gas models were incompatible with the matter power-spectrum data since they required a much too large amount of pressureless matter, the unified model presented here favors a matter content that is of the order of the baryonic matter abundance suggested by big-bang nucleosynthesis.

  6. Universal signal conditioning amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medelius, Pedro J.; Hallberg, Carl; Cecil, Jim

    1994-01-01

    A state-of-the-art instrumentation amplifier capable of being used with most types of transducers has been developed at the Kennedy Space Center. This Universal Signal Conditioning Amplifier (USCA) can eliminate costly measurement setup item and troubleshooting, improve system reliability and provide more accurate data than conventional amplifiers. The USCA can configure itself for maximum resolution and accuracy based on information read from a RAM chip attached to each transducer. Excitation voltages or current are also automatically configured. The amplifier uses both analog and digital state-of-the-art technology with analog-to-digital conversion performed in the early stages in order to minimize errors introduced by offset and gain drifts in the analog components. A dynamic temperature compensation scheme has been designed to achieve and maintain 12-bit accuracy of the amplifier from 0 to 70 C. The digital signal processing section allows the implementation of digital filters up to 511th order. The amplifier can also perform real-time linearizations up to fourth order while processing data at a rate of 23.438 kS/s. Both digital and analog outputs are available from the amplifier.

  7. Universal ripper miner

    DOEpatents

    Morrell, Roger J.; Larson, David A.

    1991-01-01

    A universal ripper miner used to cut, collect and transfer material from an underground mine working face includes a cutter head that is vertically movable in an arcuate cutting cycle by means of drive members, such as hydraulically actuated pistons. The cutter head may support a circular cutter bit having a circular cutting edge that may be indexed to incrementally expose a fresh cutting edge. An automatic indexing system is disclosed wherein indexing occurs by means of a worm gear and indexing lever mechanism. The invention also contemplates a bi-directional bit holder enabling cutting to occur in both the upstroke and the downstroke cutting cycle. Another feature of the invention discloses multiple bits arranged in an in-line, radially staggered pattern, or a side-by-side pattern to increase the mining capacity in each cutting cycle. An on-board resharpening system is also disclosed for resharpening the cutting edge at the end of cutting stroke position. The aforementioned improvement features may be used either singly, or in any proposed combination with each other.

  8. Is the Universe homogeneous?

    PubMed

    Maartens, Roy

    2011-12-28

    The standard model of cosmology is based on the existence of homogeneous surfaces as the background arena for structure formation. Homogeneity underpins both general relativistic and modified gravity models and is central to the way in which we interpret observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and the galaxy distribution. However, homogeneity cannot be directly observed in the galaxy distribution or CMB, even with perfect observations, since we observe on the past light cone and not on spatial surfaces. We can directly observe and test for isotropy, but to link this to homogeneity we need to assume the Copernican principle (CP). First, we discuss the link between isotropic observations on the past light cone and isotropic space-time geometry: what observations do we need to be isotropic in order to deduce space-time isotropy? Second, we discuss what we can say with the Copernican assumption. The most powerful result is based on the CMB: the vanishing of the dipole, quadrupole and octupole of the CMB is sufficient to impose homogeneity. Real observations lead to near-isotropy on large scales--does this lead to near-homogeneity? There are important partial results, and we discuss why this remains a difficult open question. Thus, we are currently unable to prove homogeneity of the Universe on large scales, even with the CP. However, we can use observations of the cosmic microwave background, galaxies and clusters to test homogeneity itself. PMID:22084298

  9. Local Universe Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carignan, Claude

    2015-08-01

    One of the outstanding problems in cosmology is addressing the "small-scale crisis" and understanding structure formation at the smallest scales. Standard Lambda Cold Dark Matter cosmological simulations of Milky Way-size DM halos predict many more DM sub-halos than the number of dwarf galaxies observed. This is the so-called Missing Satellites Problem. The most popular interpretation of the Missing Satellites Problem is that the smallest dark matter halos in the universe are extremely inefficient at forming stars. The virialized extent of the Milky Way's halo should contain ~500 satellites, while only ˜100 satellites and dwarfs are observed in the whole Local Group. Despite the large amount of theoretical work and new optical observations, the discrepancy, even if reduced, still persists between observations and hierarchical models, regardless of the model parameters. It may be possible to find those isolated ultra-faint missing dwarf galaxies via their neutral gas component, which is one of the goals we are pursuing with the SKA precursor KAT-7 in South Africa, and soon with the SKA pathfinder MeerKAT.

  10. The Medieval German University: Transformation and Innovation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwinges, Rainer Christoph

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the development of the university system within the Holy Roman Empire, especially in Germany, explaining that the University of Prague in 1348 was the Empire's first university. Reports that after the University of Prague, the new university type, or the "German type," developed by combining types of universities in Bologna and Paris.…

  11. TIGER: the universal biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofstadler, Steven A.; Sampath, Rangarajan; Blyn, Lawrence B.; Eshoo, Mark W.; Hall, Thomas A.; Jiang, Yun; Drader, Jared J.; Hannis, James C.; Sannes-Lowery, Kristin A.; Cummins, Lendell L.; Libby, Brian; Walcott, Demetrius J.; Schink, Amy; Massire, Christian; Ranken, Raymond; Gutierrez, Jose; Manalili, Sheri; Ivy, Cristina; Melton, Rachael; Levene, Harold; Barrett-Wilt, Greg; Li, Feng; Zapp, Vanessa; White, Neill; Samant, Vivek; McNeil, John A.; Knize, Duane; Robbins, David; Rudnick, Karl; Desai, Anjali; Moradi, Emily; Ecker, David J.

    2005-03-01

    In this work, we describe a strategy for the detection and characterization of microorganisms associated with a potential biological warfare attack or a natural outbreak of an emerging infectious disease. This approach, termed TIGER (Triangulation Identification for the Genetic Evaluation of Risks), relies on mass spectrometry-derived base composition signatures obtained from PCR amplification of broadly conserved regions of the microbial genome(s) in a sample. The sample can be derived from air filtration devices, clinical samples, or other sources. Core to this approach are "intelligent PCR primers" that target broadly conserved regions of microbial genomes that flank variable regions. This approach requires that high-performance mass measurements be made on PCR products in the 80-140 bp size range in a high-throughput, robust modality. As will be demonstrated, the concept is equally applicable to bacteria and viruses and could be further applied to fungi and protozoa. In addition to describing the fundamental strategy of this approach, several specific examples of TIGER are presented that illustrate the impact this approach could have on the way biological weapons attacks are detected and the way that the etiologies of infectious diseases are determined. The first example illustrates how any bacterial species might be identified, using Bacillus anthracis as the test agent. The second example demonstrates how DNA-genome viruses are identified using five members of Poxviridae family, whose members includes Variola virus, the agent responsible for smallpox. The third example demonstrates how RNA-genome viruses are identified using the Alphaviruses (VEE, WEE, and EEE) as representative examples. These examples illustrate how the TIGER technology can be applied to create a universal identification strategy for all pathogens, including those that infect humans, livestock, and plants.

  12. The age of universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Zeeshan

    The presence of short-lived isotope Curium-247 in the early Solar System complicates the job of dating the earliest events in the solar nebula. Primitive components in meteorites contain a detailed record of the conditions and processes in the solarnebula, the cloud of dust and gas surrounding the infant Sun. Determining accurately when the first materialsformed re-quires the lead-lead (Pb-Pb) dating method, a method based on the decay of uranium (U) isotopes toPb isotopes. The initial ratio of U-238 to U-235 is critical to determining theages correctly, and many studies have concluded that the ratio is constant for any given age. How-ever, my colleagues at Arizona State University(Frankfurt, Germany), and the Senckenberg Forschungsinstitut und Naturmuseum (also in Frankfurt) and I have found that some calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) in chondritic meteorites deviate from the conventional value for the U-238/U-235 ratio. This could lead to inaccuracies of up to 5 million years in the age of these objects, if no correction is made.Variations in the concentrations of thorium and neodymium with the U-238/U-235 ratio suggest that the ratio may have been lowered by the decay of curium-247, which decays to U-235 with a half-life of 15.6 million years. Curium-247 is created in certain types of energetic supernovae, so its presence suggests that a supernova added material to the pre-solar interstellar cloud between 110 and 140 million years before theSolar System began to form.

  13. University cardiology clinic.

    PubMed

    Borozanov, V

    2013-01-01

    In distant 1972, within framework of the Internal Clinic, a cardiologic department was organized which was soon, on 29.XII.1974, transformed into the Cardiology Clinic, later the Institute for Heart Diseases, and in 2008 was renamed the University Cardiology Clinic. The greater part of its foundation was possible owing to Prof. Dimitar Arsov and Prof. Radovan Percinkovski, who was the clinic's first director in the period from 1974 to 1984. In 1985, the Clinic moved into its own new building, and in that way was physically detached from the Internal Clinics. Until its move to the new building, the Clinic functioned in the Internal Clinics building, organized as an outpatient polyclinic and inpatient infirmary department with clinical beds, a coronary intensive care unit and a haemodynamics laboratory equipped with the most modern equipment of that time. Today the Clinic functions through two integral divisions: an inpatient infirmary department which comprises an intensive coronary care unit and fourteen wards which altogether have 139 clinical beds, and the diagnostic centre which comprises an emergency clinic and day hospital, a communal and consultative outpatients' clinic functioning on a daily basis, through which some 300-350 patients pass every day, and diagnostic laboratories with a capacity of nearly 100 non-invasive and 20-30 invasive diagnostic procedures daily. The Clinic is a teaching base, and its doctors are educators of students at the Medical, Dental and Pharmacy Faculties, and also of students at the High School for Nurses and X-ray technicians, but also for those in Internal Medicine and especially Cardiology. The Clinic is also a base for scientific Masters' and post-doctoral studies, and such higher degrees are achieved not only by doctors who work here, but also by doctors from Medical Centres both in the country and abroad. Doctors working in this institution publish widely, not only a great number of books and monographs, but also original scientific papers published in indexed medical journals. PMID:23921478

  14. Kennedy at Rice University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    President Kennedy speaks before a crowd of 35,000 people at Rice University in the football field. The following are excerpts from his speech. ' ...We set sail on his new sea because there is a new knowledge to begained, and new rights to be won, and they must be won and used for the progress of all people. Whether it will become a force for good or ill depends on man, and only if the United States occupies a position of pre-eminence can we help decide whether this new ocean will be a sea of peace or a new terrifying theater of war. But I do say space can be explored and mastered without feeding the fires of war, without repeating the mistakes that man has made with extending his wirt around this globe of ours. There is no strife, no prejudice, no national conflict in outer space as yet. Its conquest deserves the best of all mankind, and its opportunity for peaceful cooperation may never come again. But why, some say the Moon? Why choose this as our goal? And they may well ask, why climb the highest mountain? Why 35 years ago why fly the Atlantic? Why does Rice play Texas? We choose to go to the Moon, we choose to go to the moon in this decade and do the other things, not because they are easy, but because they are hard, because that goal will serve to organize and measure the best of our energies and skills, because that challenge is one that we are willing to accept, one we are unwilling to postpone, and one in which we attend to win, and the others , too.'

  15. Kennedy at Rice University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    President Kennedy speaks before a crowd of 35,000 people at Rice University in the football field. The following are excerpts from his speech. ' ...We set sail on his new sea because there is a new knowledge to be gained, and new rights to be won, and they must be won and used for the progress of all people. ...Whether it will become a force for good or ill depends on man, and only if the United States occupies a position of pre-eminence can we help decide whether this new ocean will be a sea of peace or a new terrifying theater of war. But I do say space can be explored and mastered without feeding the fires of war, without repeating the mistakes that man has made with extending his writ around this globe of ours. ...There is no strife, no prejudice, no national conflict in outer space as yet. Its conquest deserves the best of all mankind, and its opportunity for peaceful cooperation may never come again. But why, some say the Moon? Why choose this as our goal? And they may well ask, why climb the highest mountian? Why - 35 years ago - why fly the Atlantic? Why does Rice play Texas? We choose to go to the Moon, we choose to go to the Moon in this decade and do the other things, not because they are easy, but because they are hard, because that goal will serve to organize and measure the best of our energies and skills, because that challenge is one that we are willing to accept, one we are unwilling to postpone, and one in which we intend to win, and the others too.'

  16. Growing an Emerging Research University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birx, Donald L.; Anderson-Fletcher, Elizabeth; Whitney, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The emerging research college or university is one of the most formidable resources a region has to reinvent and grow its economy. This paper is the first of two that outlines a process of building research universities that enhance regional technology development and facilitate flexible networks of collaboration and resource sharing. Although the…

  17. University--Science Fair Partnership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tallman, Erika; Taylor, Karen

    1997-01-01

    Describes a partnership between a fifth-grade teacher and a university methods professor that involved developing an elementary science fair project mentored by university students. Provides opportunities for elementary students to conduct scientific investigations to learn about science, and opportunities for education majors to have firsthand

  18. University Rankings and Social Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marginson, Simon

    2014-01-01

    University rankings widely affect the behaviours of prospective students and their families, university executive leaders, academic faculty, governments and investors in higher education. Yet the social science foundations of global rankings receive little scrutiny. Rankings that simply recycle reputation without any necessary connection to real

  19. Trends in University Summer Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Raymond J.; McDougall, William P.

    1988-01-01

    Data from a nationwide study of the summer term for all public and nonpublic research, doctoral granting, and comprehensive universities are presented. The extent to which summer operations are part of university structure is examined, trends are noted, and recommendations are presented. (Author/MLW)

  20. A University for the People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Sue

    2010-01-01

    Over the past year lifelong learning in universities has come under the spotlight of politicians, educationalists, journalists and adult learners. For some, the concern has been about countering the fall-out from changes in public funding and challenging the reduction in provision--and even closure--of university departments. A number of…

  1. Stress in University Law Enforcement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewell, James D.

    1984-01-01

    Although police stress has been a major concern in urban communities, little has been done to analyze and confront it in university communities. Sources of stress unique to university police are identified and ways administrators can mitigate them are discussed. (Author/MLW)

  2. Forecasting College and University Revenues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Primary Research Group, Inc., New York, NY.

    This report examines issues and trends in college and university revenues. An introduction describes the study's organization and identifies data sources. An overview chapter summarizes major findings, including a forecast of college and university revenues from 1997 through 2001; trends in consumer spending on higher education; trends in tuition…

  3. University Ranking as Social Exclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amsler, Sarah S.; Bolsmann, Chris

    2012-01-01

    In this article we explore the dual role of global university rankings in the creation of a new, knowledge-identified, transnational capitalist class and in facilitating new forms of social exclusion. We examine how and why the practice of ranking universities has become widely defined by national and international organisations as an important

  4. Integrating Environmental Sustainability into Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ralph, Meredith; Stubbs, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    Universities play a fundamental role in addressing global environmental challenges as their education, research and community involvement can produce long-lasting environmental effects and societal change. By demonstrating best practice in their operations, research and teaching, universities have both multiple and multiplier effects on society.…

  5. Islamic Universities Spread through Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindow, Megan

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on new universities for Muslims, many supported by groups in the Middle East, which are spreading through the sub-Saharan region. The Islamic University in Uganda is a prime example of a new kind of institution that has slowly been spreading its way across the continent. Embracing both conservative Muslim values and modern

  6. Towards a Cosmopolitan African University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waghid, Y.

    2009-01-01

    In this article I offer a defence of cosmopolitanism as an enabling condition for university education in Africa. Recent xenophobic outbursts in South Africa suggests that the enactment of defensible virtues in societies remain distant from the practices of many people. My contention is that university education ought to take seriously the…

  7. Gifted Students' Transition to University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendaglio, Sal

    2013-01-01

    The transition from school to university presents novel demands for all students. Although this educational milestone has been addressed by scholars, particularly those interested in the study of higher education, there is a dearth of literature regarding gifted students' experience of their handling demands of first-year university. In the…

  8. University Rankings and Social Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marginson, Simon

    2014-01-01

    University rankings widely affect the behaviours of prospective students and their families, university executive leaders, academic faculty, governments and investors in higher education. Yet the social science foundations of global rankings receive little scrutiny. Rankings that simply recycle reputation without any necessary connection to real…

  9. Islamic Universities Spread through Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindow, Megan

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on new universities for Muslims, many supported by groups in the Middle East, which are spreading through the sub-Saharan region. The Islamic University in Uganda is a prime example of a new kind of institution that has slowly been spreading its way across the continent. Embracing both conservative Muslim values and modern…

  10. Reading Neoliberalism at the University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shear, Boone W.; Zontine, Angelina I.

    2010-01-01

    Ongoing transformations of the university--from changing working conditions to issues of affordability and access, increasing "accountability" measures and commodification of academic production--are increasingly referred to as university corporatisation and are unfolding within and concomitant to neoliberal globalisation. In this paper we outline…

  11. The Philosophy of University Housing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, James A.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines a stated philosophy of university housing and the philosophy's effect on the facilitation of the personal and intellectual growth of students residing in the residence halls and the development of a sense of community. This particular philosophy governs the housing operations at Southern Illinois University at Carbondale.…

  12. On evolution of the universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slavnov, D. A.

    2016-01-01

    We consider the model of evolution of the Universe where the Big Bang is regarded as an explosion of a photon superstar. The inflationary epoch is not necessary in the model. The model describes the fundamental phenomena observed: the Universe is expanding at an increasing rate, it is homogeneous and isotropic and contains no antimatter, and its metrics is almost flat.

  13. Positioning the Undervalued Metropolitan University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Herbert E.

    1993-01-01

    It is noted that "undervalued metropolitan universities," which generally have open enrollment, low tuition, and a large proportion of nontraditional students, often also have a diffuse and unclear public image. A model positioning concept for these institutions, used by Wright State University (Ohio) is proposed and described. (MSE)

  14. Research and the Universities' Image

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santiago, Rui; Carvalho, Teresa; Relva, Rosario

    2008-01-01

    Traditionally, and from a Humboltian perspective, research was conceived as an important part of the tripartite mission of universities, with teaching and services to the community being the other two. The traditional idea of universities as cultural and social institutions is increasingly being replaced by another: the entrepreneurial, capitalist

  15. University Ranking as Social Exclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amsler, Sarah S.; Bolsmann, Chris

    2012-01-01

    In this article we explore the dual role of global university rankings in the creation of a new, knowledge-identified, transnational capitalist class and in facilitating new forms of social exclusion. We examine how and why the practice of ranking universities has become widely defined by national and international organisations as an important…

  16. Quantum entanglement of baby universes

    SciTech Connect

    Essman, Eric P.; Aganagic, Mina; Okuda, Takuya; Ooguri, Hirosi

    2006-12-07

    We study quantum entanglements of baby universes which appear in non-perturbative corrections to the OSV formula for the entropy of extremal black holes in type IIA string theory compactified on the local Calabi-Yau manifold defined as a rank 2 vector bundle over an arbitrary genus G Riemann surface. This generalizes the result for G=1 in hep-th/0504221. Non-perturbative terms can be organized into a sum over contributions from baby universes, and the total wave-function is their coherent superposition in the third quantized Hilbert space. We find that half of the universes preserve one set of supercharges while the other half preserve a different set, making the total universe stable but non-BPS. The parent universe generates baby universes by brane/anti-brane pair creation, and baby universes are correlated by conservation of non-normalizable D-brane charges under the process. There are no other source of entanglement of baby universes, and all possible states are superposed with the equal weight.

  17. Unitarian Universalism as a Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Daniel Ross

    this paper uses an interdisciplinary research methodology to engage the resources provided by the humanities and the liberal arts in a discourse analysis of Unitarian Universalism. The paper describes Unitarian Universalism as a contemporary religious-rhetorical movement and distinctive persuasion which nurtures an evolving, enriching religious…

  18. Technical Pitfalls in University Rankings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bougnol, Marie-Laure; Dul, Jose H.

    2015-01-01

    Academicians, experts, and other stakeholders have contributed extensively to the literature on university rankings also known as "league tables". Often the tone is critical usually focused on the subjective aspects of the process; e.g., the list of the universities' attributes used in the rankings, their respective weights, and the size

  19. What Is the University Today?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heaney, Conor

    2015-01-01

    What is the University today? In this paper, a Foucault and Deleuzo-Guattarian inspired approach is taken. I argue that the University is, today, a site of "neoliberal governmentality," which governs students and academics as sites of human capital. That is, students and academics are governed to self-govern themselves as sites of human…

  20. Internationalization and the Cosmopolitical University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britez, Rodrigo; Peters, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses some of the issues that surround the internationalization of higher education as a way to open discussion about the construction of an alternative cosmopolitical vision of the university, necessary if the university is to fulfill any historic tasks concerning the creation of globally aware citizens. The authors indicate that…

  1. Baryogenesis in the Early Universe

    SciTech Connect

    Karczewska, Danuta M.

    2010-12-22

    The Universe we observe is baryon-antibaryon asymmetric. There is a negligible amount of primordial antimatter. The presented theoretical scenarios provide a possible mechanism of baryogenesis which could have taken place in the Early Universe, and which may explain the observed asymmetry.

  2. CARES: Mentoring through University Outreach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergerson, Amy Aldous; Petersen, Kari K.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether a university outreach program featuring peer mentoring and offering a social support network can impact college-going aspirations. Study participants were middle school students of color and low SES students and their university student mentors. Purposeful selection was used to identify six mentors and six proteges and…

  3. Research and the Universities' Image

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santiago, Rui; Carvalho, Teresa; Relva, Rosario

    2008-01-01

    Traditionally, and from a Humboltian perspective, research was conceived as an important part of the tripartite mission of universities, with teaching and services to the community being the other two. The traditional idea of universities as cultural and social institutions is increasingly being replaced by another: the entrepreneurial, capitalist…

  4. The Architect as University President

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, James F.

    2008-01-01

    Architecture blends the arts and sciences in a vigorous way--one well suited to a university presidency. In this article, the author shares how his architectural education and background prepared and helped him for his responsibility as president of Clemson University. A big part of his responsibility is to help plan, financially support, build,

  5. Sustainability in Brazilian Federal Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palma, Lisiane Celia; de Oliveira, Lessandra M.; Viacava, Keitiline R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify the number of courses related to sustainability offered in bachelor degree programs of business administration in Brazilian federal universities. Design/methodology/approach: An exploratory research was carried out based on a descriptive scope. The process of mapping federal universities in Brazil…

  6. Millersville University Secondary Education PDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcum-Dietrich, Nanette I.; Mahoney, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Millersville University of Pennsylvania (MU) has over 150 years of proud heritage in the preparation of teachers. This article describes how the Secondary Education Professional Development School (PDS) Program model has transformed Millersville University's secondary teacher education from a traditional teacher preparation program into a dynamic…

  7. Visualising the "Internationalisation" of Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkin, Graham; Devjee, Faiyaz; Farnsworth, John

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: There are few means of measuring whether universities have effective international programmes or policies in response to increasing globalisation. The purpose of this paper is to report on the development and testing of a model for measuring the internationalisation of universities and to assist with the strategic planning of

  8. Managing University Research Microdata Collections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolfrey, Lynn; Fry, Jane

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the management of microdata collections in a university context. It is a cross-country analysis: Collection management at data services in Canada and South Africa are considered. The case studies are of two university sub-contexts: One collection is located in a library; the other at a Faculty-based Data Service. Stages in…

  9. Water Recycling in Schools & Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeten, Nick

    2013-01-01

    Consider the waste streams generated in schools and universities. So what is in the typical used water generated in schools and universities? It is typically about 99 percent water, with the remaining 1 percent mainly made up of organic compounds. Used water contains nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorous. When one judges it on its quality, it

  10. Marshall University Bucks the Trend.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilley, J. Wade

    1997-01-01

    While other universities are selling, privatizing, or downsizing hospitals, Marshall University (West Virginia) has joined with a local hospital to construct a rural health center and library, ambulatory care center, and cancer center. The arrangement will achieve efficiency for the medical school and other laboratory users, integrate education…

  11. Student Leadership at the University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilliard, Ann T.

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this article is about the utilization of student leadership at the University. Based on research, student leadership opportunities at the university have been frequently at a low percentage (Zimmerman, Burkhart, 2002). The researcher identifies practical ways to involve students in various leadership activities. Emphases are placed on…

  12. Outdoor Recreation at Brock University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breunig, Mary; O'Connell, Tim; Hutson, Garrett

    2007-01-01

    Brock University offers both undergraduate and graduate programs and is host to approximately 17,000 students. It is the only Canadian university located in a World Biosphere Reserve--the Niagara Escarpment. The Bruce Trail passes through campus, and offers ample opportunities for hiking, mountain biking, nature interpretation and outdoor…

  13. Integrating Environmental Sustainability into Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ralph, Meredith; Stubbs, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    Universities play a fundamental role in addressing global environmental challenges as their education, research and community involvement can produce long-lasting environmental effects and societal change. By demonstrating best practice in their operations, research and teaching, universities have both multiple and multiplier effects on society.

  14. The Overseas University Leadership Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Haibo

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the content and format of the Overseas University Leadership Program organized by the National Academy of Education Administration in Beijing, China. Universities provide the country with scientific and technological expertise, pave the path to individual advancement, and are major economic engines. China's new mission

  15. Student Leadership at the University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilliard, Ann T.

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this article is about the utilization of student leadership at the University. Based on research, student leadership opportunities at the university have been frequently at a low percentage (Zimmerman, Burkhart, 2002). The researcher identifies practical ways to involve students in various leadership activities. Emphases are placed on

  16. Universities: Engaging with Local Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Universities UK, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This leaflet illustrates the many ways in which universities impact on the local area. Universities are a major contributor to the economy in their own right, both as employers and purchasers of goods. Their social and cultural influence is also felt through their provision of: (1) art galleries, museums and exhibitions; (2) cinemas and theatres;

  17. University Satellite Campus Management Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Doug; Stott, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Among the 60 or so university satellite campuses in Australia are many that are probably failing to meet the high expectations of their universities and the communities they were designed to serve. While in some cases this may be due to the demand driven system, it may also be attributable in part to the ways in which they are managed. The…

  18. The Work of the University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Richard C.

    The essays and speeches in this collection, published on Richard Levins 10th anniversary as president of Yale University, reflects his intellectual passions and the depth of his understanding of the work of the university.The first section, "From the Beginning," contains: (1) "Calm Seas, Auspicious Gales"; and (2) "Beyond the Ivy Walls: Our…

  19. The Overseas University Leadership Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Haibo

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the content and format of the Overseas University Leadership Program organized by the National Academy of Education Administration in Beijing, China. Universities provide the country with scientific and technological expertise, pave the path to individual advancement, and are major economic engines. China's new mission…

  20. Infra-red soft universality

    SciTech Connect

    Jack, I.

    1997-06-15

    In a special class of supersymmetric grand unified theories, the commonly assumed universal form of the soft supersymmetry-breaking terms is approached in the infra-red limit. The resulting universal scalar mass and trilinear coupling are predicted in terms of the gaugino mass.

  1. The Future of the Universe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Don N.; McKee, M. Randall

    1983-01-01

    The future of the universe is discussed in terms of several models. These include the closed, open, and critical models of the universe. Black holes and speculation on what may happen to life in the cosmological models are also discussed. (JN)

  2. Language Alternation in University Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taha, T. A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the alternate use of Arabic and English in the context of a university classroom, where a policy to use the former language in place of the latter was being implemented. Analysis of a sample of recorded university lectures of English and Arabic medium classes in sciences and humanities reveals that teachers use code switching,…

  3. Water Recycling in Schools & Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeten, Nick

    2013-01-01

    Consider the waste streams generated in schools and universities. So what is in the typical used water generated in schools and universities? It is typically about 99 percent water, with the remaining 1 percent mainly made up of organic compounds. Used water contains nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorous. When one judges it on its quality, it…

  4. Reformation Comes to the University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffer, Susan M.

    1992-01-01

    The lessons from the corporate experience of the 1980s, carefully applied, can strengthen the university in support of its mission. Those experiences, sifted and shaped for higher education, can help with the difficult tasks of downsizing, rightsizing, restructuring, streamlining, and decentralizing that confront the university in the 1990s. (MSE)

  5. Technical Pitfalls in University Rankings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bougnol, Marie-Laure; Dulá, Jose H.

    2015-01-01

    Academicians, experts, and other stakeholders have contributed extensively to the literature on university rankings also known as "league tables". Often the tone is critical usually focused on the subjective aspects of the process; e.g., the list of the universities' attributes used in the rankings, their respective weights, and the size…

  6. Employability and Finnish University Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puhakka, Antero; Rautopuro, Juhani; Tuominen, Visa

    2010-01-01

    In this article the authors concentrate on the change in the concept of employability during the Bologna process. They show that employability has gradually moved from a peripheral to a core presence in the most recent Bologna process documents. Using a Finnish university merger (University of Eastern Finland) as an example, the authors

  7. University Autonomy: The Ethiopian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gebru, Demewoz Admasu

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses and analyzes the state of university autonomy in Ethiopia at a time when the country has embarked on massive expansion of the sector, and universities are established out of urban centers based on regional equity. Legislative provisions and case study reports were reviewed, and lived experiences documented with emphasis on…

  8. Employability and Finnish University Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puhakka, Antero; Rautopuro, Juhani; Tuominen, Visa

    2010-01-01

    In this article the authors concentrate on the change in the concept of employability during the Bologna process. They show that employability has gradually moved from a peripheral to a core presence in the most recent Bologna process documents. Using a Finnish university merger (University of Eastern Finland) as an example, the authors…

  9. Universities: Engaging with Local Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Universities UK, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This leaflet illustrates the many ways in which universities impact on the local area. Universities are a major contributor to the economy in their own right, both as employers and purchasers of goods. Their social and cultural influence is also felt through their provision of: (1) art galleries, museums and exhibitions; (2) cinemas and theatres;…

  10. University Research: Understanding Its Role

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of American Universities, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Since World War II, the federal government has maintained a partnership with the nation's research universities, based on the bipartisan consensus that (1) the nation needs to invest its resources in curiosity-driven, competitively awarded basic research, and (2) basic research is best conducted at the nation's universities. As a result of that…

  11. Environmental Management at Swedish Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arvidsson, Karin

    2004-01-01

    Since 1996, all Swedish public authorities, which includes most universities, have been made responsible for contributing to the sustainable development of the society. Swedish universities are thus required to submit annual environmental reports about their policies, structures and actions. This study provides a review of the activities that…

  12. Governing Universities. Changing the Culture?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bargh, Catherine; Scott, Peter; Smith, David

    This book reports on a British research project involving a questionnaire survey of 494 university governors and a multi-site case study analysis to examine how different types of higher education institutions (especially "old" and "new" universities and colleges) converge and/or diverge in their governance styles. Chapter 1 introduces the study…

  13. Are German Universities Still Competitive?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobkowicz, Nikolaus

    1979-01-01

    Evaluates reform of higher educational systems in Germany beginning with the University Law of Berlin (1969) and temporarily ending with the framework Higher Education law (1976). Concludes that given the fact that Germany relies not on resources but on know-how, German universities must realize that even in an age of mass education they should be…

  14. The Universities and Federal Regulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowley, John C.

    The impact of increasing federal regulation on American universities is discussed based on an informal survey of senior academic and administrative officials in 13 public and private universities. As government regulation is becoming more intensive and compliance more resource- and time-consuming, government is perceived as having little…

  15. Industry-University Research Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Kenneth A.

    1984-01-01

    Points out advantages and disadvantages of industry-university research programs from industry and university viewpoints. Identifies conditions essential for long-term success of such arrangements. Also provides a case study of practices at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), discussing policy guidelines and giving examples of joint…

  16. University Macro Analytic Simulation Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron, Robert; Gulko, Warren

    The University Macro Analytic Simulation System (UMASS) has been designed as a forecasting tool to help university administrators budgeting decisions. Alternative budgeting strategies can be tested on a computer model and then an operational alternative can be selected on the basis of the most desirable projected outcome. UMASS uses readily…

  17. The Architect as University President

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, James F.

    2008-01-01

    Architecture blends the arts and sciences in a vigorous way--one well suited to a university presidency. In this article, the author shares how his architectural education and background prepared and helped him for his responsibility as president of Clemson University. A big part of his responsibility is to help plan, financially support, build,…

  18. The Black Hole Universe Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tianxi

    2014-06-01

    The black hole universe model is a multiverse model of cosmology recently developed by the speaker. According to this new model, our universe is a fully grown extremely supermassive black hole, which originated from a hot star-like black hole with several solar masses, and gradually grew up from a supermassive black hole with million to billion solar masses to the present state with trillion-trillion solar masses by accreting ambient matter or merging with other black holes. The entire space is structured with infinite layers or universes hierarchically. The innermost three layers include the universe that we live, the inside star-like and supermassive black holes called child universes, and the outside space called mother universe. The outermost layer is infinite in mass, radius, and entropy without an edge and limits to zero for both the matter density and absolute temperature. All layers are governed by the same physics and tend to expand physically in one direction (outward or the direction of increasing entropy). The expansion of a black hole universe decreases its density and temperature but does not alter the laws of physics. The black hole universe evolves iteratively and endlessly without a beginning. When one universe expands out, a new similar one is formed from inside star-like and supermassive black holes. In each of iterations, elements are resynthesized, matter is reconfigurated, and the universe is renewed rather than a simple repeat. The black hole universe is consistent with the Mach principle, observations, and Einsteinian general relativity. It has only one postulate but is able to explain all phenomena occurred in the universe with well-developed physics. The black hole universe does not need dark energy for acceleration and an inflation epoch for flatness, and thus has a devastating impact on the big bang model. In this talk, I will present how this new cosmological model explains the various aspects of the universe, including the origin, structure, evolution, expansion, background radiation, acceleration, anisotropy, quasars, gamma-ray bursts, nucleosynthesis, etc., and compares to the big bang model.

  19. The University for Older Adults: On Cuba's Universalization of the University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rangel, Clara Lig Long; Proenza, Antonia Zenaida Sanchez

    2006-01-01

    In this study we focus on a new program in Cuba, university studies for older adults or seniors. Specifically, we look at the Special Municipality of the Isla de la Juventud (Isle of Youth) in the context of the larger policy of "universalization of higher education." We provide information about Cuban perspectives on adult education, discuss the…

  20. Astrobiology and the Biological Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, S. J.

    2002-12-01

    Four hundred years ago two astronomical world views hung in the balance: the geocentric and the heliocentric. Today astronomy faces a similar choice between two grand world views: a purely physical universe, in which cosmic evolution commonly ends in planets, stars and galaxies, and a biological universe, in which cosmic evolution routinely results in life, mind and intelligence. Astrobiology is the science providing the data to make this critical choice. This 20th century overview shows how we have arrived at the view that cosmic evolution may have resulted in life and intelligence in the universe. It examines how our astronomical world view has changed over the last century, recalls the opinions of astronomical pioneers like Russell, Shapley, and Struve on life in the universe, and shows how planetary science, planetary systems science, origins of life studies and SETI have combined to form a new discipline. Astrobiology now commands \\$50 million in direct funding from NASA, funds 15 Astrobiology Institute members around the country and four affiliates around the world, and seeks to answer one of astronomy's oldest questions. Whether we live in a mostly physical universe, as exemplified in Isaac Asimov's Foundation series, or in a biological universe, as portrayed in Arthur C. Clarke's works, this reality will have profound consequences, no less than the Copernican theory. Astrobiology also looks to the future of life; taking a long-term ``Stapledonian" view, it is possible we may live in a postbiological universe.