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Sample records for banding nanotool evaluation

  1. Control Banding Nanotool: Evaluation of a qualitative risk assessment method for the control of nanoparticulate exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Zalk, D; Paik, S; Swuste, P

    2009-01-27

    Control Banding strategies offer a simplified control of worker exposures when there is an absence of firm toxicological and exposure information. The nanotechnology industry fits this classification as there are overwhelming uncertainties of work-related health risks posed by nanomaterials. Many experts have suggested Control Banding as a solution for these issues. A recent survey shows a majority of nanomaterial users are not performing a basic risk assessment of their product in use. A Control Banding Nanotool has been developed and implemented to afford a qualitative risk assessment toward the control of nanoparticle exposures. The international use of the Control Banding Nanotool reflects on both its need and its possibilities. By developing this dynamic Control Banding Nanotool within the realm of the scientific information available, this application of Control Banding appears to be a useful approach for assessing the risk of nanomaterial operations. This success can be seen in providing recommendations for appropriate engineering controls, facilitating the allocation of resources to the activities that most need them, and initiating an appropriate discussion of these risks with nonexperts. Experts have requested standardization of toxicological parameters, affording better utility and consistency of research. This database of toxicological research findings should be harnessed and presented in a format feeding directly into the Control Banding Nanotool severity and probability risk matrix. Making the latest research available for experts and practitioners alike will provide the best protection of workers in the nanotechnology industries. This presentation will also show the science behind the simplified Control Banding Nanotool approach, its structure, weighting of risks, utility for exposure mitigation, and the research needs to bolster its effectiveness.

  2. Application of a pilot control banding tool for risk level assessment and control of nanoparticle exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Paik, S Y; Zalk, D M; Swuste, P

    2008-03-03

    Control Banding (CB) strategies offer simplified solutions for controlling worker exposures to constituents that are found in the workplace in the absence of firm toxicological and exposure data. These strategies may be particularly useful in nanotechnology applications, considering the overwhelming level of uncertainty over what nanomaterials and nanotechnologies present as potential work-related health risks, what about these materials might lead to adverse toxicological activity, how risk related to these might be assessed, and how to manage these issues in the absence of this information. This study introduces a pilot CB tool or 'CB Nanotool' that was developed specifically for characterizing the health aspects of working with engineered nanoparticles and determining the level of risk and associated controls for five ongoing nanotechnology-related operations being conducted at two Department of Energy (DOE) research laboratories. Based on the application of the CB Nanotool, four of the five operations evaluated in this study were found to have implemented controls consistent with what was recommended by the CB Nanotool, with one operation even exceeding the required controls for that activity. The one remaining operation was determined to require an upgrade in controls. By developing this dynamic CB Nanotool within the realm of the scientific information available, this application of CB appears to be a useful approach for assessing the risk of nanomaterial operations, providing recommendations for appropriate engineering controls, and facilitating the allocation of resources to the activities that most need them.

  3. Design evaluation: S-band exciters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A design evaluation study was conducted to produce S-band exciter (SBE) system to provide a highly stable phase or modulated carrier for transmission to spacecraft. The exciter is part of an S-band receiver/exciter/ranging system at Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network (STDN) ground stations. The major features of the system are defined. Circuit diagrams of the electronic components are provided.

  4. LANDSAT-4 band 6 data evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The radiometric integrity of the LANDSAT-D thematic mapper (TM) thermal infrared channel (band 6) data was evaluated to develop improved radiometric preprocessing calibration techniques for removal of atmospheric effects. Primary data analysis was spent in evaluating the line to line and detector to detector variation in the thermal infrared data. The data studied was in the core area of Lake Ontario where very stable temperatures were expected. The detectors and the scan direction were taken as separate parameters and an analysis of variance was conducted. The data indicate that significant variability exists both between detectors and between scan directions.

  5. LANDSAT-D band 6 data evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A filter, fabricated to match the spectral response of the LANDSAT band 6 sensors, was received and the combined system response function computed. The half power points for the aircraft system are 10.5 micrometer and 11.55 micrometer compared to the 10.4 and 11.6 micrometer values for the satellite. These discrepancies are considered acceptable; their effect on the apparent temperature observed at the satellite is being evaluated. The filter was installed in the infrared line scanner and the line scanner was installed in the aircraft and field checked. A daytime underflight of the satellite is scheduled for the next clear overpass and the feasibility of a nightime overpass is being discussed with NASA. The LOWTRAN 5 computer code was obtained from the Air Force Geophysical Laboratory and is being implemented for use on this effort.

  6. Mechanisms of cell death in canine parvovirus-infected cells provide intuitive insights to developing nanotools for medicine.

    PubMed

    Nykky, Jonna; Tuusa, Jenni E; Kirjavainen, Sanna; Vuento, Matti; Gilbert, Leona

    2010-01-01

    Viruses have great potential as nanotools in medicine for gene transfer, targeted gene delivery, and oncolytic cancer virotherapy. Here we have studied cell death mechanisms of canine parvovirus (CPV) to increase the knowledge on the CPV life cycle in order to facilitate the development of better parvovirus vectors. Morphological studies of CPV-infected Norden laboratory feline kidney (NLFK) cells and canine fibroma cells (A72) displayed characteristic apoptotic events. Apoptosis was further confirmed by activation of caspases and cellular DNA damage. However, results from annexin V-propidium iodide (PI) labeling and membrane polarization assays indicated disruption of the plasma membrane uncommon to apoptosis. These results provide evidence that secondary necrosis followed apoptosis. In addition, two human cancer cell lines were found to be infected by CPV. This necrotic event over apoptotic cell death and infection in human cells provide insightful information when developing CPV as a nanotool for cancer treatments. PMID:20957163

  7. Mechanisms of cell death in canine parvovirus-infected cells provide intuitive insights to developing nanotools for medicine

    PubMed Central

    Nykky, Jonna; Tuusa, Jenni E; Kirjavainen, Sanna; Vuento, Matti; Gilbert, Leona

    2010-01-01

    Viruses have great potential as nanotools in medicine for gene transfer, targeted gene delivery, and oncolytic cancer virotherapy. Here we have studied cell death mechanisms of canine parvovirus (CPV) to increase the knowledge on the CPV life cycle in order to facilitate the development of better parvovirus vectors. Morphological studies of CPV-infected Norden laboratory feline kidney (NLFK) cells and canine fibroma cells (A72) displayed characteristic apoptotic events. Apoptosis was further confirmed by activation of caspases and cellular DNA damage. However, results from annexin V-propidium iodide (PI) labeling and membrane polarization assays indicated disruption of the plasma membrane uncommon to apoptosis. These results provide evidence that secondary necrosis followed apoptosis. In addition, two human cancer cell lines were found to be infected by CPV. This necrotic event over apoptotic cell death and infection in human cells provide insightful information when developing CPV as a nanotool for cancer treatments. PMID:20957163

  8. LANDSAT 4 band 6 data evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    A series of images of a portion of a TM frame of Lake Ontario are presented. The top left frame is the TM Band 6 image, the top right image is a conventional contrast stretched image. The bottom left image is a Band 5 to Band 3 ratio image. This image is used to generate a primitive land cover classificaton. Each land cover (Water, Urban, Forest, Agriculture) is assigned a Band 6 emissivity value. The ratio image is then combined with the Band 6 image and atmospheric propagation data to generate the bottom right image. This image represents a display of data whose digital count can be directly related to estimated surface temperature. The resolution appears higher because the process cell is the size of the TM shortwave pixels.

  9. Longwave Band-by-band Cloud Radiative Effect and its Application in GCM Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Xianglei; Cole, Jason N. S.; He, Fei; Potter, Gerald L.; Oreopoulos, Lazaros; Lee, Dongmin; Suarez, Max; Loeb, Norman G.

    2012-01-01

    The cloud radiative effect (CRE) of each longwave (LW) absorption band of a GCM fs radiation code is uniquely valuable for GCM evaluation because (1) comparing band-by-band CRE avoids the compensating biases in the broadband CRE comparison and (2) the fractional contribution of each band to the LW broadband CRE (f(sub CRE)) is sensitive to cloud top height but largely insensitive to cloud fraction, presenting thus a diagnostic metric to separate the two macroscopic properties of clouds. Recent studies led by the first author have established methods to derive such band ]by ]band quantities from collocated AIRS and CERES observations. We present here a study that compares the observed band-by-band CRE over the tropical oceans with those simulated by three different atmospheric GCMs (GFDL AM2, NASA GEOS-5, and CCCma CanAM4) forced by observed SST. The models agree with observation on the annual ]mean LW broadband CRE over the tropical oceans within +/-1W/sq m. However, the differences among these three GCMs in some bands can be as large as or even larger than +/-1W/sq m. Observed seasonal cycles of f(sub CRE) in major bands are shown to be consistent with the seasonal cycle of cloud top pressure for both the amplitude and the phase. However, while the three simulated seasonal cycles of f(sub CRE) agree with observations on the phase, the amplitudes are underestimated. Simulated interannual anomalies from GFDL AM2 and CCCma CanAM4 are in phase with observed anomalies. The spatial distribution of f(sub CRE) highlights the discrepancies between models and observation over the low-cloud regions and the compensating biases from different bands.

  10. The Effects of Band Labels on Evaluators' Judgments of Musical Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silvey, Brian A.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of band labels on evaluators' judgments of musical performance. High school concert band members (n = 72), wind ensemble members ( n = 77), and band directors (n = 8) were randomly assigned to a band label or no label group. Only the band label group was given evaluation forms that specified the group playing…

  11. Shuttle orbiter S-band communications equipment design evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Springett, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    An assessment of S-band communication equipment includes: (1) the review and analysis of the ability of the various subsystem avionic equipment designs to interface with, and operate on signals from/to adjoining equipment; (2) the performance peculiarities of the hardware against the overall specified system requirements; and (3) the evaluation of EMC EMI test results of the various equipment with respect to the possibility of mutual interferences.

  12. Shuttle orbiter Ku-band radar/communications system design evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodds, J.; Holmes, J.; Huth, G. K.; Iwasaki, R.; Maronde, R.; Polydoros, A.; Weber, C.; Broad, P.

    1980-01-01

    Tasks performed in an examination and critique of a Ku-band radar communications system for the shuttle orbiter are reported. Topics cover: (1) Ku-band high gain antenna/widebeam horn design evaluation; (2) evaluation of the Ku-band SPA and EA-1 LRU software; (3) system test evaluation; (4) critical design review and development test evaluation; (5) Ku-band bent pipe channel performance evaluation; (6) Ku-band LRU interchangeability analysis; and (7) deliverable test equipment evaluation. Where discrepancies were found, modifications and improvements to the Ku-band system and the associated test procedures are suggested.

  13. Dual-band infrared thermography for quantitative nondestructive evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Durbin, P.F.; Del Grande, N.K.; Dolan, K.W.; Perkins, D.E.; Shapiro, A.B.

    1993-04-01

    The authors have developed dual-band infrared (DBIR) thermography that is being applied to quantitative nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of aging aircraft. The DBIR technique resolves 0.2 degrees C surface temperature differences for inspecting interior flaws in heated aircraft structures. It locates cracks, corrosion sites, disbonds or delaminations in metallic laps and composite patches. By removing clutter from surface roughness effects, the authors clarify interpretation of subsurface flaws. To accomplish this, the authors ratio images recorded at two infrared bands, centered near 5 microns and 10 microns. These image ratios are used to decouple temperature patterns associated with interior flaw sites from spatially varying surface emissivity noise. They also discuss three-dimensional (3D) dynamic thermal imaging of structural flaws using dual-band infrared (DBIR) computed tomography. Conventional thermography provides single-band infrared images which are difficult to interpret. Standard procedures yield imprecise (or qualitative) information about subsurface flaw sites which are typically masked by surface clutter. They use a DBIR imaging technique pioneered at LLNL to capture the time history of surface temperature difference patterns for flash-heated targets. They relate these patterns to the location, size, shape and depth of subsurface flaws. They have demonstrated temperature accuracies of 0.2{degree}C, timing synchronization of 3 ms (after onset of heat flash) and intervals of 42 ms, between images, during an 8 s cooling (and heating) interval characterizing the front (and back) surface temperature-time history of an epoxy-glue disbond site in a flash-heated aluminum lap joint.

  14. Rational Design of Photonic Dust from Nanoporous Anodic Alumina Films: A Versatile Photonic Nanotool for Visual Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuting; Santos, Abel; Wang, Ye; Kumeria, Tushar; Ho, Daena; Li, Junsheng; Wang, Changhai; Losic, Dusan

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we present a systematic study on the development, optimisation and applicability of interferometrically coloured distributed Bragg reflectors based on nanoporous anodic alumina (NAA-DBRs) in the form of films and nanoporous microparticles as visual/colorimetric analytical tools. Firstly, we synthesise a complete palette of NAA-DBRs by galvanostatic pulse anodisation approach, in which the current density is altered in a periodic fashion in order to engineer the effective medium of the resulting photonic films in depth. NAA-DBR photonic films feature vivid colours that can be tuned across the UV-visible-NIR spectrum by structural engineering. Secondly, the effective medium of the resulting photonic films is assessed systematically by visual analysis and reflectometric interference spectroscopy (RIfS) in order to establish the most optimal nanoporous platforms to develop visual/colorimetric tools. Then, we demonstrate the applicability of NAA-DBR photonic films as a chemically selective sensing platform for visual detection of mercury(II) ions. Finally, we generate a new nanomaterial, so-called photonic dust, by breaking down NAA-DBRs films into nanoporous microparticles. The resulting microparticles (μP-NAA-DBRs) display vivid colours and are sensitive towards changes in their effective medium, opening new opportunities for developing advanced photonic nanotools for a broad range of applications. PMID:26245759

  15. Rational Design of Photonic Dust from Nanoporous Anodic Alumina Films: A Versatile Photonic Nanotool for Visual Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yuting; Santos, Abel; Wang, Ye; Kumeria, Tushar; Ho, Daena; Li, Junsheng; Wang, Changhai; Losic, Dusan

    2015-08-01

    Herein, we present a systematic study on the development, optimisation and applicability of interferometrically coloured distributed Bragg reflectors based on nanoporous anodic alumina (NAA-DBRs) in the form of films and nanoporous microparticles as visual/colorimetric analytical tools. Firstly, we synthesise a complete palette of NAA-DBRs by galvanostatic pulse anodisation approach, in which the current density is altered in a periodic fashion in order to engineer the effective medium of the resulting photonic films in depth. NAA-DBR photonic films feature vivid colours that can be tuned across the UV-visible-NIR spectrum by structural engineering. Secondly, the effective medium of the resulting photonic films is assessed systematically by visual analysis and reflectometric interference spectroscopy (RIfS) in order to establish the most optimal nanoporous platforms to develop visual/colorimetric tools. Then, we demonstrate the applicability of NAA-DBR photonic films as a chemically selective sensing platform for visual detection of mercury(II) ions. Finally, we generate a new nanomaterial, so-called photonic dust, by breaking down NAA-DBRs films into nanoporous microparticles. The resulting microparticles (μP-NAA-DBRs) display vivid colours and are sensitive towards changes in their effective medium, opening new opportunities for developing advanced photonic nanotools for a broad range of applications.

  16. Evaluation of Model Microphysics within Precipitation Bands of Extratropical Cyclones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colle, Brian A.; Yu, Ruyi; Molthan, Andrew L.; Nesbitt, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies evaluating the bulk microphysical schemes (BMPs) within cloud resolving models (CRMs) have indicated large uncertainties and errors in the amount and size distributions of snow and cloud ice aloft. The snow prediction is sensitive to the snow densities, habits, and degree of riming within the BMPs. Improving these BMPs is a crucial step toward improving both weather forecasting and climate predictions. Several microphysical schemes in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model down to 1.33-km grid spacing are evaluated using aircraft, radar, and ground in situ data from the Global Precipitation Mission Coldseason Precipitation Experiment (GCPEx) experiment, as well as a few years (15 winter storms) of surface measurements of riming, crystal habit, snow density, and radar measurements at Stony Brook, NY (SBNY on north shore of Long Island) during the 2009-2012 winter seasons. Surface microphysical measurements at SBNY were taken every 15 to 30 minutes using a stereo microscope and camera, and snow depth and snow density were also recorded. During these storms, a vertically-pointing Ku-band radar was used to observe the vertical evolution of reflectivity and Doppler vertical velocities. A Particle Size and Velocity (PARSIVEL) disdrometer was also used to measure the surface size distribution and fall speeds of snow at SBNY. For the 15 cases at SBNY, the WSM6, Morrison (MORR), Thompson (THOM2), and Stony Brook (SBU-YLIN) BMPs were validated. A non-spherical snow assumption (THOM2 and SBU-YLIN) simulated a more realistic distribution of reflectivity than spherical snow assumptions in the WSM6 and MORR schemes. The MORR, WSM6, and SBU-YLIN schemes are comparable to the observed velocity distribution in light and moderate riming periods. The THOM2 is approx 0.25 m/s too slow with its velocity distribution in these periods. In heavier riming, the vertical Doppler velocities in the WSM6, THOM2, and MORR schemes were approx 0.25 m/s too slow, while the

  17. Evaluation of Model Microphysics Within Precipitation Bands of Extratropical Cyclones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colle, Brian A.; Molthan, Andrew; Yu, Ruyi; Stark, David; Yuter, Sandra; Nesbitt, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies evaluating the bulk microphysical schemes (BMPs) within cloud resolving models (CRMs) have indicated large uncertainties and errors in the amount and size distributions of snow and cloud ice aloft. The snow prediction is sensitive to the snow densities, habits, and degree of riming within the BMPs. Improving these BMPs is a crucial step toward improving both weather forecasting and climate predictions. Several microphysical schemes in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model down to 1.33-km grid spacing are evaluated using aircraft, radar, and ground in situ data from the Global Precipitation Mission Coldseason Precipitation Experiment (GCPEx) experiment, as well as a few years (15 winter storms) of surface measurements of riming, crystal habit, snow density, and radar measurements at Stony Brook, NY (SBNY on north shore of Long Island) during the 2009-2012 winter seasons. Surface microphysical measurements at SBNY were taken every 15 to 30 minutes using a stereo microscope and camera, and snow depth and snow density were also recorded. During these storms, a vertically-pointing Ku-band radar was used to observe the vertical evolution of reflectivity and Doppler vertical velocities. A Particle Size and Velocity (PARSIVEL) disdrometer was also used to measure the surface size distribution and fall speeds of snow at SBNY. For the 15 cases at SBNY, the WSM6, Morrison (MORR), Thompson (THOM2), and Stony Brook (SBU-YLIN) BMPs were validated. A non-spherical snow assumption (THOM2 and SBU-YLIN) simulated a more realistic distribution of reflectivity than spherical snow assumptions in the WSM6 and MORR schemes. The MORR, WSM6, and SBU-YLIN schemes are comparable to the observed velocity distribution in light and moderate riming periods. The THOM2 is 0.25 meters per second too slow with its velocity distribution in these periods. In heavier riming, the vertical Doppler velocities in the WSM6, THOM2, and MORR schemes were 0.25 meters per second too

  18. Shuttle orbiter S-band payload communications equipment design evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Springett, J. C.; Maronde, R. G.

    1979-01-01

    The analysis of the design, and the performance assessment of the Orbiter S-band communication equipment are reported. The equipment considered include: network transponder, network signal processor, FM transmitter, FM signal processor, payload interrogator, and payload signal processor.

  19. Automatic quantitative evaluation of autoradiographic band films by computerized image analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Masseroli, M.; Messori, A.; Bendotti, C.; Ponti, M.; Forloni, G. )

    1993-01-01

    The present paper describes a new image processing method for automatic quantitative analysis of autoradiographic band films. It was developed in a specific image analysis environment (IBAS 2.0) but the algorithms and methods can be utilized elsewhere. The program is easy to use and presents some particularly useful features for evaluation of autoradiographic band films, such as the choice of whole film or single lane background determination; the possibility of evaluating bands with film scratch artifacts and the quantification in absolute terms or relative to reference values. The method was tested by comparison with laser-scanner densitometric quantifications of the same autoradiograms. The results show the full compatibility of the two methods and demonstrate the reliability and sensitivity of image analysis. The method can be used not only to evaluate autoradiographic band films, but to analyze any type of signal bands on other materials (e.g electrophoresis gel, chromatographic paper, etc.).

  20. Evaluation of Model Microphysics Within Precipitation Bands of Extratropical Cyclones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colle, Brian A.; Yu, Ruyi; Molthan, Andrew L.; Nesbitt, Steven

    2014-01-01

    It is hypothesized microphysical predictions have greater uncertainties/errors when there are complex interactions that result from mixed phased processes like riming. Use Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission ground validation studies in Ontario, Canada to verify and improve parameterizations. The WRF realistically simulated the warm frontal snowband at relatively short lead times (1014 h). The snowband structire is sensitive to the microphysical parameterization used in WRF. The Goddard and SBUYLin most realistically predicted the band structure, but overpredicted snow content. The double moment Morrison scheme best produced the slope of the snow distribution, but it underpredicted the intercept. All schemes and the radar derived (which used dry snow ZR) underpredicted the surface precipitation amount, likely because there was more cloud water than expected. The Morrison had the most cloud water and the best precipitation prediction of all schemes.

  1. Feasibility of quasi-random band model in evaluating atmospheric radiance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiwari, S. N.; Mirakhur, N.

    1980-01-01

    The use of the quasi-random band model in evaluating upwelling atmospheric radiation is investigated. The spectral transmittance and total band adsorptance are evaluated for selected molecular bands by using the line by line model, quasi-random band model, exponential sum fit method, and empirical correlations, and these are compared with the available experimental results. The atmospheric transmittance and upwelling radiance were calculated by using the line by line and quasi random band models and were compared with the results of an existing program called LOWTRAN. The results obtained by the exponential sum fit and empirical relations were not in good agreement with experimental results and their use cannot be justified for atmospheric studies. The line by line model was found to be the best model for atmospheric applications, but it is not practical because of high computational costs. The results of the quasi random band model compare well with the line by line and experimental results. The use of the quasi random band model is recommended for evaluation of the atmospheric radiation.

  2. Can Control Banding be Useful for the Safe Handling of Nanomaterials? A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Eastlake, Adrienne; Zumwalde, Ralph; Geraci, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Control banding (CB) is a risk management strategy that has been used to identify and recommend exposure control measures to potentially hazardous substances for which toxicological information is limited. The application of CB and level of expertise required for implementation and management can differ depending on knowledge of the hazard potential, the likelihood of exposure, and the ability to verify the effectiveness of exposure control measures. A number of different strategies have been proposed for using CB in workplaces where exposure to engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) can occur. However, it is unclear if the use of CB can effectively reduce worker exposure to nanomaterials. A systematic review of studies was conducted to answer the question “can control banding be useful to ensure adequate controls for the safe handling of nanomaterials.” Methods A variety of databases were searched to identify relevant studies pertaining to CB. Database search terms included ‘control’, ‘hazard’, ‘exposure’ and ‘risk’ banding as well as the use of these terms in the context of nanotechnology or nanomaterials. Other potentially relevant studies were identified during the review of articles obtained in the systematic review process. Identification of studies and the extraction of data were independently conducted by the reviewers. Quality of the studies was assessed using the Methodological Index for Non-Randomized Studies (MINORS). The quality of the evidence was evaluated using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE). Results A total of 235 records were identified in the database search in which 70 records were determined to be eligible for full-text review. Only two studies were identified that met the inclusion criteria. These studies evaluated the application of the CB Nanotool in workplaces where ENMs were being handled. A total of 32 different nanomaterial handling activities were evaluated in these

  3. Evaluating the Potential of Q-Band ESR Spectroscopy for Dose Reconstruction of Fossil Tooth Enamel.

    PubMed

    Guilarte, Verónica; Trompier, François; Duval, Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    The potential of Q-band Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) for quantitative measurements has been scarcely evaluated in the literature and its application for dose reconstruction of fossil tooth enamel with dating purposes remains still quite unknown. Hence, we have performed a comparative study based on several Early to Middle Pleistocene fossil tooth samples using both X- and Q-band spectroscopies. Our results show that Q-band offers a significant improvement in terms of sensitivity and signal resolution: it allows not only to work with reduced amounts of valuable samples (< 4 mg), but also to identify different components of the main composite ESR signal. However, inherent precision of the ESR intensity measurements at Q-band is clearly lower than that achieved at X-band, highlighting the necessity to carry out repeated measurements. All dose values derived from X- and Q-band are nevertheless systematically consistent at either 1 or 2 sigma. In summary, our results indicate that Q-band could now be considered as a reliable tool for ESR dosimetry/dating of fossil teeth although further work is required to improve the repeatability of the measurements. PMID:26930398

  4. Evaluating the Potential of Q-Band ESR Spectroscopy for Dose Reconstruction of Fossil Tooth Enamel

    PubMed Central

    Guilarte, Verónica; Trompier, François; Duval, Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    The potential of Q-band Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) for quantitative measurements has been scarcely evaluated in the literature and its application for dose reconstruction of fossil tooth enamel with dating purposes remains still quite unknown. Hence, we have performed a comparative study based on several Early to Middle Pleistocene fossil tooth samples using both X- and Q-band spectroscopies. Our results show that Q-band offers a significant improvement in terms of sensitivity and signal resolution: it allows not only to work with reduced amounts of valuable samples (< 4 mg), but also to identify different components of the main composite ESR signal. However, inherent precision of the ESR intensity measurements at Q-band is clearly lower than that achieved at X-band, highlighting the necessity to carry out repeated measurements. All dose values derived from X- and Q-band are nevertheless systematically consistent at either 1 or 2 sigma. In summary, our results indicate that Q-band could now be considered as a reliable tool for ESR dosimetry/dating of fossil teeth although further work is required to improve the repeatability of the measurements. PMID:26930398

  5. Self-Efficacy, Self-Evaluation, and Music Performance of Secondary-Level Band Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, relationships between two components of self-regulation (self-efficacy and self-evaluation) and gender, school level, instrument family, and music performance were examined. Participants were 340 middle and high school band students who participated in one of two summer music camps or who were members of a private middle…

  6. Locata Performance Evaluation in the Presence of Wide- and Narrow-Band Interference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Faisal A.; Rizos, Chris; Dempster, Andrew G.

    Classically difficult positioning environments often call for augmentation technology to assist the GPS, or more generally the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) technology. The ground-based ranging technology offers augmentation, and even replacement, to GPS in such environments. However, like any other system relying on wireless technology, a Locata positioning network also faces issues in the presence of RF interference (RFI). This problem is magnified due to the fact that Locata operates in the licence-free 2·4 GHz Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) band. The licence-free nature of this band attracts a much larger number of devices using a wider range of signal types than for licensed bands, resulting in elevation of the noise floor. Also, harmonics from out-of-band signals can act as potential interferers. WiFi devices operating in this band have been identified as the most likely potential interferer, due partially to their use of the whole ISM band, but also because Locata applications often also may use a wireless network. This paper evaluates the performance of Locata in the presence of both narrow- and wide-band interfering signals. Effects of received interference on both raw measurements and final solutions are reported and analysed. Test results show that Locata performance degrades in the presence of received interference. It is also identified that high levels of received interference can affect Locata carriers even if the interference is not in co-frequency situation with the affected carrier. Finally, Locata characteristics have been identified which can be exploited to mitigate RFI issues.

  7. Engineering evaluations and studies. Report for Ku-band studies, exhibit A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodds, J. G.; Huth, G. K.; Maronde, R. G.; Roberts, D.

    1981-01-01

    System performance aspects of the Ku band radar communication hardware and investigations into the Ku band/payload interfaces are discussed. The communications track problem caused by the excessive signal dynamic range at the servo input was investigated. The management/handover logic is discussed and a simplified description of the transmitter enable logic function is presented. Output noise produced by a voltage-controlled oscillator chip used in the SPA return-link channel 3 mid-bit detector is discussed. The deployed assembly (DA) and EA-2 critical design review data are evaluated. Cross coupling effects on antenna servo stability were examined. A series of meetings on the acceptance test specification for the deployed assembly is summarized.

  8. Application preliminary evaluation of HJ-1-C SAR satellite of S band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Lin, Yueguan

    2015-12-01

    On Nov 19, 2012, HJ-1-C launched successfully, which is belong to Environment and Disaster Monitoring and Prediction Small Satellite Constellation, and is the first civil Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) satellite in China and the first successful SAR satellite of S band on-orbit operation in the world. During the on-orbit test period, National Disaster Reduction Center of China (NDRCC) preliminarily evaluated its disaster reduction application ability in the ice, flood, drought, snow, landslide and debris flow, etc. The results show that SAR satellite of S band has more highlight advantage than the HJ-1-A and HJ-1-B in the detailed characterization, and has well disaster reduction potential.

  9. Evaluation of Q-band instrumentation requirements for Strategic Satellite System (SSS) program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raponi, D. J.

    1981-12-01

    Q-band instrumentation appropriate for testing the Strategic Satellite System (SSS) satellite terminal is evaluated in terms of current and projected availability; desired and practical measurement capabilities; required development; and schedule/cost impacts to the program. The Air Force is considering several approaches to increasing the strategic communications capability now provided by the recently deployed ultra high frequency (UHF) Air Force Satellite Communications (AFSATCOM) system. The Strategic Satellite System (SSS) was proposed to improve antijam (AJ) characteristics through the use of advanced modulation techniques and higher frequencies (8 and 44 GHz) on links between ground and airborne terminals and the satellites. This report is an assessment of Q-band (44 GHz) test instrumentation requirements, availability, and accuracy as these factors affect cost and schedule for the SSS satellite terminal development program. Though the SSS program has been cancelled, information presented in the report has applicability to the EHF MILSTAR program.

  10. Efficient evaluation of epitaxial MoS2 on sapphire by direct band structure imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hokwon; Dumcenco, Dumitru; Fregnaux, Mathieu; Benayad, Anass; Kung, Yen-Cheng; Kis, Andras; Renault, Olivier; Lanes Group, Epfl Team; Leti, Cea Team

    The electronic band structure evaluation of two-dimensional metal dichalcogenides is critical as the band structure can be greatly influenced by the film thickness, strain, and substrate. Here, we performed a direct measurement of the band structure of as-grown monolayer MoS2 on single crystalline sapphire by reciprocal-space photoelectron emission microscopy with a conventional laboratory ultra-violet He I light source. Arrays of gold electrodes were deposited onto the sample in order to avoid charging effects due to the insulating substrate. This allowed the high resolution mapping (ΔE = 0.2 eV Δk = 0.05 Å-1) of the valence states in momentum space down to 7 eV below the Fermi level. The high degree of the epitaxial alignment of the single crystalline MoS2 nuclei was verified by the direct momentum space imaging over a large area containing multiple nuclei. The derived values of the hole effective mass were 2.41 +/-0.05 m0 and 0.81 +/-0.05 m0, respectively at Γ and K points, consistent with the theoretical values of the freestanding monolayer MoS2 reported in the literature. HK acknowledges the french CEA Basic Technological Research program (RTB) for funding.

  11. A Cooperative Distance Learning Method based on the Narrow-band Internet and Its Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilwaldi, Dilmurat; Takahashi, Toshiya; Takata, Akinobu; Koizumi, Hisao

    This paper describes the experimental evaluation of a cooperative distance learning method, which can be utilized on the narrow-band Internet. In this method, students of group-learning perform a series of study a couple of times, which create an on-line report, communicating through the chat about given theme. they try to gain improvement in the study effect with higher cooperative attitude. Teacher gives a short lecture at the first stage, and then gives supplementary explanation after grasping the degree of comprehension of students at the middle stage of the study. Teaching materials are distributed to students' PCs beforehand and the lecture could be carried out on the narrow-band environment by transmitting the commands. The teacher analyzes students' communication logs and gives advice for the next study. This paper describes the result of the evaluation of the proposed method by carrying out simulated installation of the environment within the campus supposing a trial of cooperative distance learning in overseas desert circumference area environment.

  12. Evaluation of a 433 MHz band body sensor network for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Kim, Saim; Brendle, Christian; Lee, Hyun-Young; Walter, Marian; Gloeggler, Sigrid; Krueger, Stefan; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    Body sensor networks (BSN) are an important research topic due to various advantages over conventional measurement equipment. One main advantage is the feasibility to deploy a BSN system for 24/7 health monitoring applications. The requirements for such an application are miniaturization of the network nodes and the use of wireless data transmission technologies to ensure wearability and ease of use. Therefore, the reliability of such a system depends on the quality of the wireless data transmission. At present, most BSNs use ZigBee or other IEEE 802.15.4 based transmission technologies. Here, we evaluated the performance of a wireless transmission system of a novel BSN for biomedical applications in the 433MHz ISM band, called Integrated Posture and Activity NEtwork by Medit Aachen (IPANEMA) BSN. The 433MHz ISM band is used mostly by implanted sensors and thus allows easy integration of such into the BSN. Multiple measurement scenarios have been assessed, including varying antenna orientations, transmission distances and the number of network participants. The mean packet loss rate (PLR) was 0.63% for a single slave, which is comparable to IEEE 802.15.4 BSNs in the proximity of Bluetooth or WiFi networks. Secondly, an enhanced version is evaluated during on-body measurements with five slaves. The mean PLR results show a comparable good performance for measurements on a treadmill (2.5%), an outdoor track (3.4%) and in a climate chamber (1.5%). PMID:23344383

  13. Evaluation of a 433 MHz Band Body Sensor Network for Biomedical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Saim; Brendle, Christian; Lee, Hyun-Young; Walter, Marian; Gloeggler, Sigrid; Krueger, Stefan; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    Body sensor networks (BSN) are an important research topic due to various advantages over conventional measurement equipment. One main advantage is the feasibility to deploy a BSN system for 24/7 health monitoring applications. The requirements for such an application are miniaturization of the network nodes and the use of wireless data transmission technologies to ensure wearability and ease of use. Therefore, the reliability of such a system depends on the quality of the wireless data transmission. At present, most BSNs use ZigBee or other IEEE 802.15.4 based transmission technologies. Here, we evaluated the performance of a wireless transmission system of a novel BSN for biomedical applications in the 433 MHz ISM band, called Integrated Posture and Activity NEtwork by Medit Aachen (IPANEMA) BSN. The 433 MHz ISM band is used mostly by implanted sensors and thus allows easy integration of such into the BSN. Multiple measurement scenarios have been assessed, including varying antenna orientations, transmission distances and the number of network participants. The mean packet loss rate (PLR) was 0.63% for a single slave, which is comparable to IEEE 802.15.4 BSNs in the proximity of Bluetooth or WiFi networks. Secondly, an enhanced version is evaluated during on-body measurements with five slaves. The mean PLR results show a comparable good performance for measurements on a treadmill (2.5%), an outdoor track (3.4%) and in a climate chamber (1.5%). PMID:23344383

  14. Structural evaluation of Marman V-band coupling and flange with conoseal gasket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oates, J. H.

    1972-01-01

    Results are described of a development test program directed at evaluating the structural capabilities of the Marman V-band coupling and flange with conoseal gasket. The intended end use was for the 75K NERVA flight engine propellant lines. Of major importance in the structural evaluation was the ability to predict stresses throughout the assembly for a variety of loading conditions. Computer finite element analysis was used to predict these stresses but, for the subject configuration, large uncertainties were introduced in modeling the complex geometry and boundary conditions. The purpose of the structural tests was to obtain actual stresses and deflections for correlation with, and updating of the finite element model. Results of the incomplete test program are inconclusive with respect to determining suitability for use on the NERVA engine.

  15. Multi-Temporal Evaluation of Landslide Movements and Impacts on Buildings in San Fratello (Italy) By Means of C-Band and X-Band PSI Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchini, Silvia; Ciampalini, Andrea; Raspini, Federico; Bardi, Federica; Di Traglia, Federico; Moretti, Sandro; Casagli, Nicola

    2015-11-01

    This work provides a multi-temporal and spatial investigation of landslide effects in the San Fratello area (Messina province within the Sicily region, Italy), by means of C-band and X-band Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) data, integrated with in situ field checks and a crack pattern survey. The Sicily region is extensively affected by hydrogeological hazards since several landslides regularly involved local areas across time. In particular, intense and catastrophic landslide phenomena have recently occurred in the San Fratello area; the last event took place in February 2010, causing large economic damage. Thus, the need for an accurate ground motions and impacts mapping and monitoring turns out to be significantly effective, in order to better identify active unstable areas and to help proper risk-mitigation measures planning. The combined use of historical and recent C-band satellites and current X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar sensors of a new generation permits spatially and temporally detection of landslide-induced motions on a local scale and to properly provide a complete multi-temporal evaluation of their effects on the area of interest. PSI ground motion rates are cross-compared with local failures and damage of involved buildings, recently recognized by in situ observations. As a result, the analysis of landslide-induced movements over almost 20 years and the validation of radar data with manufactured crack patterns, permits one to finally achieve a complete and reliable assessment in the San Fratello test site.

  16. Evaluating the impact of red-edge band from Rapideye image for classifying insect defoliation levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adelabu, Samuel; Mutanga, Onisimo; Adam, Elhadi

    2014-09-01

    The prospect of regular assessments of insect defoliation using remote sensing technologies has increased in recent years through advances in the understanding of the spectral reflectance properties of vegetation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the ability of the red edge channel of Rapideye imagery to discriminate different levels of insect defoliation in an African savanna by comparing the results of obtained from two classifiers. Random Forest and Support vector machine classification algorithms were applied using different sets of spectral analysis involving the red edge band. Results show that the integration of information from red edge increases classification accuracy of insect defoliation levels in all analysis performed in the study. For instance, when all the 5 bands of Rapideye imagery were used for classification, the overall accuracies increases about 19% and 21% for SVM and RF, respectively, as opposed to when the red edge channel was excluded. We also found out that the normalized difference red-edge index yielded a better accuracy result than normalized difference vegetation index. We conclude that the red-edge channel of relatively affordable and readily available high-resolution multispectral satellite data such as Rapideye has the potential to considerably improve insect defoliation classification especially in sub-Saharan Africa where data availability is limited.

  17. Evaluation of Spaceborne L-band Radiometer Measurements for Terrestrial Freeze/Thaw Retrievals in Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roy, A.; Royer, A.; Derksen, C.; Brucker, L.; Langlois, A.; Mailon, A.; Kerr, Y.

    2015-01-01

    The landscape freeze/thaw (FT) state has an important impact on the surface energy balance, carbon fluxes, and hydrologic processes; the timing of spring melt is linked to active layer dynamics in permafrost areas. L-band (1.4 GHz) microwave emission could allow the monitoring of surface state dynamics due to its sensitivity to the pronounced permittivity difference between frozen and thawed soil. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the performance of both Aquarius and Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) L-band passive microwave measurements using a polarization ratio-based algorithm for landscape FT monitoring. Weekly L-band satellite observations are compared with a large set of reference data at 48 sites across Canada spanning three environments: tundra, boreal forest, and prairies. The reference data include in situ measurements of soil temperature (Tsoil) and air temperature (Tair), and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land surface temperature (LST) and snow cover area (SCA) products. Results show generally good agreement between Lband FT detection and the surface state estimated from four reference datasets. The best apparent accuracies for all seasons are obtained using Tair as the reference. Aquarius radiometer 2 (incidence angle of 39.6) data gives the best accuracies (90.8), while for SMOS the best results (87.8 of accuracy) are obtained at higher incidence angles (55- 60). The FT algorithm identifies both freeze onset and end with a delay of about one week in tundra and two weeks in forest and prairies, when compared to Tair. The analysis shows a stronger FT signal at tundra sites due to the typically clean transitions between consistently frozen and thawed conditions (and vice versa) and the absence of surface vegetation. Results in the prairies were poorer because of the influence of vegetation growth in summer (which decreases the polarization ratio) and the high frequency of ephemeral thaw events during winter. Freeze onset

  18. The Use of Band Filtering in Multidimensional NMR. Evaluation of Two "User-Friendly" Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roumestand, Christian; Mispelter, Joël; Austruy, Christelle; Canet, Daniel

    1995-11-01

    The advantages of band-filtering schemes, based on the selection of an inversion profile, over selective 90° excitation pulse are presented. The performances of two "user-friendly" methods based on such a scheme, DANTE-Z and Spin Pinging, are evaluated. As expected, the two methods give similar results, but, among other things, DANTE-Z is easier to implement on a "routine" spectrometer than Spin Pinging and is less sensitive to relaxation phenomena, especially those related toT2. Moreover, the advantages of using high-power pulse-width-modulated DANTE trains instead of low-power "soft" pulse are emphasized. In association with DANTE-Z or Spin Pinging, this alternative avoids the tedious calibration of BURP pulses and amounts to the calibration of a conventional π/2 "hard" pulse.

  19. Classification method, spectral diversity, band combination and accuracy assessment evaluation for urban feature detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erener, A.

    2013-04-01

    Automatic extraction of urban features from high resolution satellite images is one of the main applications in remote sensing. It is useful for wide scale applications, namely: urban planning, urban mapping, disaster management, GIS (geographic information systems) updating, and military target detection. One common approach to detecting urban features from high resolution images is to use automatic classification methods. This paper has four main objectives with respect to detecting buildings. The first objective is to compare the performance of the most notable supervised classification algorithms, including the maximum likelihood classifier (MLC) and the support vector machine (SVM). In this experiment the primary consideration is the impact of kernel configuration on the performance of the SVM. The second objective of the study is to explore the suitability of integrating additional bands, namely first principal component (1st PC) and the intensity image, for original data for multi classification approaches. The performance evaluation of classification results is done using two different accuracy assessment methods: pixel based and object based approaches, which reflect the third aim of the study. The objective here is to demonstrate the differences in the evaluation of accuracies of classification methods. Considering consistency, the same set of ground truth data which is produced by labeling the building boundaries in the GIS environment is used for accuracy assessment. Lastly, the fourth aim is to experimentally evaluate variation in the accuracy of classifiers for six different real situations in order to identify the impact of spatial and spectral diversity on results. The method is applied to Quickbird images for various urban complexity levels, extending from simple to complex urban patterns. The simple surface type includes a regular urban area with low density and systematic buildings with brick rooftops. The complex surface type involves almost all

  20. Compressive asymmetry evaluation for M-Band Radiation generated from the interaction of high energy laser and the hohlraum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Shaoen; Huang, Yunbao; Li, Liling; Jing, Longfei; Lin, Zhiwei

    2015-11-01

    In indirect drive inertial confinement fusion, intense laser interacts with high-Z materials in the hohlraum and X-rays are generated to heat and drive the centrally located capsule. Most of these X-rays emitted from the wall of hohlraum are soft x-rays, but also a comparable fraction of them are high-energy X-rays (mainly from M band of wall material, >2keV for Au), which may lead to preheat and compressive asymmetry on the capsule, and affect final ignition result. Therefore, such preheat and compressive asymmetry needs to be characterized and evaluated, to enable it restrained or controlled. In this paper, by using one-dimensional multi-group radiation hydrodynamic codes and view-factor based radiation transport codes, we evaluate the compressive asymmetry on the centrally located capsule for various fractions of M-band X-rays. The result shows that: 1) The M-band X-rays may lead to significant compressive asymmetry when the thermal flux is symmetric,2) More fractions of M-band X-rays tends to result in more compressing asymmetry, and 3) 15% of M-band X-rays may result in 50% compressive asymmetry. Base on the above analysis, such significant compressive asymmetry due to M-band radiation may decrease the compressibility of the fuel or the capsule performance. Therefore, it motivates us to validate and measure such quantity of compressive asymmetry occurred on the capsule in recent experiments.

  1. Evaluation of Sentinel-2 Red-Edge Bands for Empirical Estimation of Green LAI and Chlorophyll Content

    PubMed Central

    Delegido, Jesús; Verrelst, Jochem; Alonso, Luis; Moreno, José

    2011-01-01

    ESA’s upcoming satellite Sentinel-2 will provide Earth images of high spatial, spectral and temporal resolution and aims to ensure continuity for Landsat and SPOT observations. In comparison to the latter sensors, Sentinel-2 incorporates three new spectral bands in the red-edge region, which are centered at 705, 740 and 783 nm. This study addresses the importance of these new bands for the retrieval and monitoring of two important biophysical parameters: green leaf area index (LAI) and chlorophyll content (Ch). With data from several ESA field campaigns over agricultural sites (SPARC, AgriSAR, CEFLES2) we have evaluated the efficacy of two empirical methods that specifically make use of the new Sentinel-2 bands. First, it was shown that LAI can be derived from a generic normalized difference index (NDI) using hyperspectral data, with 674 nm with 712 nm as best performing bands. These bands are positioned closely to the Sentinel-2 B4 (665 nm) and the new red-edge B5 (705 nm) band. The method has been applied to simulated Sentinel-2 data. The resulting green LAI map was validated against field data of various crop types, thereby spanning a LAI between 0 and 6, and yielded a RMSE of 0.6. Second, the recently developed “Normalized Area Over reflectance Curve” (NAOC), an index that derives Ch from hyperspectral data, was studied on its compatibility with simulated Sentinel-2 data. This index integrates the reflectance curve between 643 and 795 nm, thereby including the new Sentinel-2 bands in the red-edge region. We found that these new bands significantly improve the accuracy of Ch estimation. Both methods emphasize the importance of red-edge bands for operational estimation of biophysical parameters from Sentinel-2. PMID:22164004

  2. Evaluation of chlorophyll-a retrieval algorithms based on MERIS bands for optically varying eutrophic inland lakes.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Heng; Li, Xiaojun; Wang, Yannan; Jin, Qi; Cao, Kai; Wang, Qiao; Li, Yunmei

    2015-10-15

    Fourteen field campaigns were conducted in five inland lakes during different seasons between 2006 and 2013, and a total of 398 water samples with varying optical characteristics were collected. The characteristics were analyzed based on remote sensing reflectance, and an automatic cluster two-step method was applied for water classification. The inland waters could be clustered into three types, which we labeled water types I, II and III. From water types I to III, the effect of the phytoplankton on the optical characteristics gradually decreased. Four chlorophyll-a retrieval algorithms for Case II water, a two-band, three-band, four-band and SCI (Synthetic Chlorophyll Index) algorithm were evaluated for three water types based on the MERIS bands. Different MERIS bands were used for the three water types in each of the four algorithms. The four algorithms had different levels of retrieval accuracy for each water type, and no single algorithm could be successfully applied to all water types. For water types I and III, the three-band algorithm performed the best, while the four-band algorithm had the highest retrieval accuracy for water type II. However, the three-band algorithm is preferable to the two-band algorithm for turbid eutrophic inland waters. The SCI algorithm is recommended for highly turbid water with a higher concentration of total suspended solids. Our research indicates that the chlorophyll-a concentration retrieval by remote sensing for optically contrasted inland water requires a specific algorithm that is based on the optical characteristics of inland water bodies to obtain higher estimation accuracy. PMID:26057542

  3. Evaluation of Sentinel-2 red-edge bands for empirical estimation of green LAI and chlorophyll content.

    PubMed

    Delegido, Jesús; Verrelst, Jochem; Alonso, Luis; Moreno, José

    2011-01-01

    ESA's upcoming satellite Sentinel-2 will provide Earth images of high spatial, spectral and temporal resolution and aims to ensure continuity for Landsat and SPOT observations. In comparison to the latter sensors, Sentinel-2 incorporates three new spectral bands in the red-edge region, which are centered at 705, 740 and 783 nm. This study addresses the importance of these new bands for the retrieval and monitoring of two important biophysical parameters: green leaf area index (LAI) and chlorophyll content (Ch). With data from several ESA field campaigns over agricultural sites (SPARC, AgriSAR, CEFLES2) we have evaluated the efficacy of two empirical methods that specifically make use of the new Sentinel-2 bands. First, it was shown that LAI can be derived from a generic normalized difference index (NDI) using hyperspectral data, with 674 nm with 712 nm as best performing bands. These bands are positioned closely to the Sentinel-2 B4 (665 nm) and the new red-edge B5 (705 nm) band. The method has been applied to simulated Sentinel-2 data. The resulting green LAI map was validated against field data of various crop types, thereby spanning a LAI between 0 and 6, and yielded a RMSE of 0.6. Second, the recently developed "Normalized Area Over reflectance Curve" (NAOC), an index that derives Ch from hyperspectral data, was studied on its compatibility with simulated Sentinel-2 data. This index integrates the reflectance curve between 643 and 795 nm, thereby including the new Sentinel-2 bands in the red-edge region. We found that these new bands significantly improve the accuracy of Ch estimation. Both methods emphasize the importance of red-edge bands for operational estimation of biophysical parameters from Sentinel-2. PMID:22164004

  4. Performance evaluation of a W-band monopulse radar in rotorcraft brownout landing aid application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guoqing; Yang, Ken; Sykora, Brian; Salha, Imad

    2009-05-01

    BAE Systems recently developed a rotorcraft brownout landing aid system technology (BLAST) to satisfy the urgent need for brownout landing capability. BLAST uses a W-band monopulse (MP) radar in conjunction with radar signal processing and synthetic display techniques to paint a three-dimensional (3-D) perspective of the landing zone (LZ) in real time. Innovative radar signal processing techniques are developed to process the radar data and generate target data vectors for 3-D image synthesis and display. Field tests are conducted to characterize the performance of BLAST with MP and non-MP (only using the sum channel of the MP radar) modes in clear and brownout conditions. Data processing and analysis are performed to evaluate the system's performance in terms of visual effect, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), target height estimation, ground-mapping effect, and false alarm rate. Both MP and non-MP modes reveal abilities to sufficiently display the 3-D volume of the LZ; the former shows advantage over the latter in providing accurate ground mapping and object height determination.

  5. Multicenter Comparison of Three Different Analytical Systems for Evaluation of DNA Banding Patterns from Cryptococcus neoformans

    PubMed Central

    Cardinali, Gianluigi; Martini, Alessandro; Preziosi, Roberta; Bistoni, Francesco; Baldelli, Franco

    2002-01-01

    The enormous improvement of molecular typing techniques for epidemiological and clinical studies has not always been matched by an equivalent effort in applying optimal criteria for the analysis of both phenotypic and molecular data. In spite of the availability of a large collection of statistical and phylogenetic methods, the vast majority of commercial packages are limited by using only the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean algorithm to construct trees and by considering electrophoretic pattern only as migration distances. The latter method has serious drawbacks when different runs (separate gels) of the same molecular analysis are to be compared. This work presents a multicenter comparison of three different systems of banding pattern analysis on random amplified polymorphic DNA, (GACA)4, and contour-clamped homogeneous electric field patterns from strains of Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans isolated in different clinical and geographical situations and a standard Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain employed as an outgroup. The systems considered were evaluated for their actual ability to(i) recognize identities, (ii) define complete differences (i.e., the ability to place S. cerevisiae out of the C. neoformans cluster), and (iii) estimate the extent of similarity among different strains. The ability to cluster strains according to the patient from which they were isolated was also evaluated. The results indicate that different algorithms do indeed produce divergent trees, both in overall topology and in clustering of individual strains, thus suggesting that care must be taken by individual investigators to use the most appropriate procedure and by the scientific community in defining a consensus system. PMID:12037071

  6. Evaluation of SCIAMACHY Oxygen A band cloud heights using Cloudnet measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, P.; Stammes, P.

    2014-05-01

    Two SCIAMACHY (SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY) O2 A band cloud height products are evaluated using ground-based radar/lidar measurements between January 2003 and December 2011. The products are the ESA (European Space Agency) Level 2 (L2) version 5.02 cloud top height and the FRESCO (Fast Retrieval Scheme for Clouds from the Oxygen A band) version 6 cloud height. The radar/lidar profiles are obtained at the Cloudnet sites of Cabauw and Lindenberg, and are averaged for 1 h centered at the SCIAMACHY overpass time. In total we have 217 cases of single-layer clouds and 204 cases of multilayer clouds. We find that the ESA L2 cloud top height has a better agreement with the Cloudnet cloud top height than the Cloudnet cloud middle height. The ESA L2 cloud top height is on average 0.4 km higher than the Cloudnet cloud top height, with a standard deviation of 3.1 km. The FRESCO cloud height is closer to the Cloudnet cloud middle height than the Cloudnet cloud top height. The mean difference between the FRESCO cloud height and the Cloudnet cloud middle height is -0.1 km with a standard deviation of 1.9 km. The ESA L2 cloud top height is higher than the FRESCO cloud height. The differences between the SCIAMACHY cloud (top) height and the Cloudnet cloud top height are linked to cloud optical thickness. The SCIAMACHY cloud height products are further compared to the Cloudnet cloud top height and the Cloudnet cloud middle height in 1 km bins. For single-layer clouds, the difference between the ESA L2 cloud top height and the Cloudnet cloud top height is less than 1 km for each cloud bin at 3-7 km. The difference between the FRESCO cloud height and the Cloudnet cloud middle height is less than 1 km for each cloud bin at 0-6 km. The results are similar for multilayer clouds, but the percentage of cases having a bias within 1 km is smaller than for single-layer clouds. We may conclude that the FRESCO cloud height is accurate for low and middle

  7. Evaluation of Terra and Aqua MODIS thermal emissive band response versus scan angle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenny, B. N.; Wu, A.; Madhavan, S.; Xiong, X.

    2014-10-01

    Terra and Aqua MODIS have operated near-continuously for over 14 and 12 years, respectively, and are key instruments for NASA's Earth Observing System. Observations from the 16 thermal emissive bands (TEB), covering wavelengths from 3.5 to 14.4 μm with a nadir spatial resolution of 1 km are used to regularly generate a variety of atmosphere, ocean and land science products. The TEB detectors are calibrated using scan-by-scan observations of an on-board blackbody (BB). The current response versus scan angle (RVS) of the scan mirror was derived using a spacecraft deep-space pitch maneuver for Terra MODIS and characterized during prelaunch for Aqua MODIS. Earth view (EV) data over the complete range of angles of incidence (AOI) can be used to evaluate the on-orbit performance of the TEB RVS over the mission lifetime. Three approaches for tracking the TEB RVS on-orbit using EV observations are formulated. The first approach uses the multiple daily observations of Dome C BT at different AOI and their trend relative to coincident measurements from a ground temperature sensor. The second approach uses brightness temperatures (BT) retrieved over the cloud-free ocean to derive the trends at 13 AOI over the mission lifetime. The third approach tracks the dn response (normalized to the BB AOI) across the full swath width for Antarctic granules with the Dome C site at nadir. The viability of the three approaches is assessed and the long-term stability of the TEB RVS for both MODIS instruments is determined.

  8. Chlorophyll pigment concentration using spectral curvature algorithms - An evaluation of present and proposed satellite ocean color sensor bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoge, Frank E.; Swift, Robert N.

    1986-01-01

    During the past several years symmetric three-band (460-, 490-, 520-nm) spectral curvature algorithm (SCA) has demonstrated rather accurate determination of chlorophyll pigment concentration using low-altitude airborne ocean color data. It is shown herein that the in-water asymmetric SCA, when applied to certain recently proposed OCI (NOAA-K and SPOT-3) and OCM (ERS-1) satellite ocean color bands, can adequately recover chlorophyll-like pigments. These airborne findings suggest that the proposed new ocean color sensor bands are in general satisfactorily, but not necessarily optimally, positioned to allow space evaluation of the SCA using high-precision atmospherically corrected satellite radiances. The pigment concentration recovery is not as good when existing Coastal Zone Color Scanner bands are used in the SCA. The in-water asymmetric SCA chlorophyll pigment recovery evaluations were performed using (1) airborne laser-induced chlorophyll fluorescence and (2) concurrent passive upwelled radiances. Data from a separate ocean color sensor aboard the aircraft were further used to validate the findings.

  9. Preliminary geologic evaluation of L-band radar imagery: Arkansas test site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, H.; Waite, W. P.

    1977-01-01

    The relatively small angles of incidence (steep depression angles) of the L-band system provide minimal shadowing on terrain back-slopes and considerable foreshortening on terrain fore-slopes which sacrifice much of the topographic enhancement afforded by a more oblique angle of illumination. In addition, the dynamic range of the return from vegetated surfaces is substantially less for the L-band system, and many surface features defined primarily by subtle changes in vegetation are lost. In areas having terrain conditions similar to those of northern Arkansas, and where LANDSAT and shorter wavelength aircraft radar data are available, the value of the JPL L-band imagery as either a complimentary or supplementary geologic data source is not obvious.

  10. Simultaneous seeing measurement through the Subaru Telescope in the visible and near-infrared bands for the wavelength dependence evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oya, Shin; Terada, Hiroshi; Hayano, Yutaka; Watanabe, Makoto; Hattori, Masayuki; Minowa, Yosuke

    2016-07-01

    Stellar images have been obtained under natural seeing at visible and near-infrared wavelengths simultaneously through the Subaru Telescope at Mauna Kea. The image quality is evaluated by the full-width at the half-maximum (FWHM) of the stellar images. The observed ratio of FWHM in the V-band to the K-band is 1.54 ± 0.17 on average. The ratio shows tendency to decrease toward bad seeing as expected from the outer scale influence, though the number of the samples is still limited. The ratio is important for simulations to evaluate the performance of a ground-layer adaptive optics system at near-infrared wavelengths based on optical seeing statistics. The observed optical seeing is also compared with outside seeing to estimate the dome seeing of the Subaru Telescope.

  11. Shuttle orbiter KU-band radar/communications system design evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    An expanded introduction is presented which addresses the in-depth nature of the tasks and indicates continuity of the reported effort and results with previous work and related contracts, and the two major modes of operation which exist in the Ku-band system, namely, the radar mode and the communication mode, are described. The Ku-band radar system is designed to search for a target in a designated or undesignated mode, then track the detected target, which might be cooperative (active) or passive, providing accurate, estimates of the target range, range rate, angle and angle rate to enable the orbiter to rendezvous with this target. The radar mode is described along with a summary of its predicted performance. The principal sub-unit that implements the radar function is the electronics assembly 2(EA-2). The relationship of EA-2 to the remainder of the Ku-band system is shown. A block diagram of EA-2 is presented including the main command and status signals between EA-2 and the other Ku-band units.

  12. External Evaluation of the Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians' OSAP High Risk Youth Demonstration Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortune, Jim C.; Williams, John

    The Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians' OSAP High Risk Youth Demonstration Program seeks to prevent substance abuse through experiences offered in an after-school program. In 1990-91 the program served 710 students in grades K-8 in 7 of the reservation's 8 schools, each of which tailors the program to its own needs. Five components were common to…

  13. An Evaluation of Total Solar Reflectance and Spectral Band Ratioing Techniques for Estimating Soil Water Content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reginato, R. J.; Vedder, J. F.; Idso, S. B.; Jackson, R. D.; Blanchard, M. B.; Goettelman, R.

    1977-01-01

    For several days in March of 1975, reflected solar radiation measurements were obtained from smooth and rough surfaces of wet, drying, and continually dry Avondale loam at Phoenix, Arizona, with pyranometers located 50 cm above the ground surface and a multispectral scanner flown at a 300-m height. The simple summation of the different band radiances measured by the multispectral scanner proved equally as good as the pyranometer data for estimating surface soil water content if the multispectral scanner data were standardized with respect to the intensity of incoming solar radiation or the reflected radiance from a reference surface, such as the continually dry soil. Without this means of standardization, multispectral scanner data are most useful in a spectral band ratioing context. Our results indicated that, for the bands used, no significant information on soil water content could be obtained by band ratioing. Thus the variability in soil water content should insignificantly affect soil-type discrimination based on identification of type-specific spectral signatures. Therefore remote sensing, conducted in the 0.4- to 1.0-micron wavelength region of the solar spectrum, would seem to be much More suited to identifying crop and soil types than to estimating of soil water content.

  14. Experimental method for the evaluation of the susceptibility of materials to shear band formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tham, R.

    2012-08-01

    In order to characterize materials with respect to their susceptibility to shear band formation at high strain rates, a modified Hopkinson pressure bar apparatus and hat-shaped steel specimens with a shear zone having a width significantly larger than the typical width of adiabatic bands are used. The sample is directly impacted by the striker. The force acting on the sample is measured with a PVDF-gauge between the sample and the output bar. The displacement is recorded with an electro-optical extensometer. The energy absorbed by the shearing process up to failure can be used as a reference for the susceptibility of materials to shear band formation. The method is demonstrated comparing the shear behavior of two high-strength steels with similar metallic structure and strength. Differences were found in the transition region between quasi-static and fully adiabatic shearing conditions where the energy up to rupture differs by 40 %. For fully adiabatic shear band formation, the deformation process of both materials equals. At extreme rates, shear processes are mainly governed by the thermodynamic properties of the materials. On the other hand, strength and structural properties play a role for low and intermediate rates where global and localized shear mechanisms occur in parallel.

  15. Evaluative and Behavioral Correlates to Intrarehearsal Achievement in High School Bands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montemayor, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships of teaching effectiveness, ensemble performance quality, and selected rehearsal procedures to various measures of intrarehearsal achievement (i.e., musical improvement exhibited by an ensemble during the course of a single rehearsal). Twenty-nine high school bands were observed in two…

  16. Evaluation of Deep Space Ka-Band Data Transfer using Radiometeorological Forecasts and Radiometer Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montopoli, Mario; Marzano, Frank S.; Biscarini, Marianna; Milani, Luca; Cimini, Domenico; De Sanctis, Klaide; Di Fabio, Saverio

    2016-04-01

    Deep space exploration is aimed at acquiring information about the solar system. In this scenario, telecommunications links between Earth ground receiving stations and extra-terrestrial satellite platforms have to be designed in order to ensure the optimal transfer of the acquired scientific data back to the Earth. A significant communication capacity has to be planned when very large distances, as those characterising deep space links, are involved thus fostering more ambitious scientific mission requirements. At the current state of the art, two microwave channel frequencies are used to perform the deep space data transfer: X band (~ 8.4 GHz) and Ka band (~ 32 GHz) channel. Ka-band transmission can offer an advantage over X-band in terms of antenna performance with the same antenna effective area and an available data transfer bandwidth (50 times higher at Ka band than X band). However, Earth troposphere-related impairments can affects the space-to-Earth carrier signals at frequencies higher than 10 GHz by degrading its integrity and thus reducing the deep space channel temporal availability. Such atmospheric impairments, especially in terms of path attenuation, their statistic and the possibility to forecast them in the next 24H at the Earth's receiving station would allow a more accurate design of the deep space link, promoting the mitigation of the detrimental effects on the link availability. To pursue this aim, meteorological forecast models and in situ measurements need to be considered in order to characterise the troposphere in terms of signal path attenuation at current and future time. In this work, we want to show how the synergistic use of meteorological forecasts, radiative transfer simulations and in situ measurements such as microwave radiometry observations, rain gauges and radiosoundings, can aid the optimisation of a deep space link at Ka band and improve its performance with respect to usual practices. The outcomes of the study are in the

  17. Evaluating the potential of X-band polarimetric radar observations in mountainous hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anagnostou, Marios; Kalogiros, John; Nikolopoulos, Efthymios; Anagnostou, Emmanouil; Marra, Francesco; Mair, Elisabeth; Bertolidi, Giacomo; Tappeiner, Ulrike; Borga, Marco

    2013-04-01

    Alpine catchments hydrology is strongly determined by orographic effects on the space-time structure of precipitation. Mountain precipitation results from a multitude of processes such as mechanical lifting, enhancement, shadowing etc. Many of these processes are poorly understood, especially at small spatial and temporal scales. Consequently, this limits the predictive capability of hydrological models and our understanding of the majority of the precipitation-related natural hazards occurring in both high- and lowlands. This lack of knowledge is mainly due to the intrinsic limitations of our best measurement techniques: raingauges and weather radars. Raingauges provide relatively accurate but only point-like observations, while weather radars produce instantaneous spatially distributed rainfall maps but their operation over complex terrain creates a number of limitations, which make their estimates reliable in a limited space-time domain. A solution to this limitation might be the use of a number of cost-effective short-range X-band radars as complement to raingauges and conventional, large and expensive weather radars. The study focuses on a 64 km2 mountainous basin located in Northern Italy. Rainfall observations from a dense network of raingauges located at different elevation, a C-band and an X-band polarimetric mobile unit are used to force a semi-distributed hydrologic model. A number of storm events are simulated and compared to investigate the potential of using high-res rainfall input from X-band polarimetric radar for simulating the hydrologic response. Events have been discriminated on the basis of rainfall intensity, snowfall limit and hydrological response. Results reveal that in contrast with the other two rainfall sources, X-band observations offer an improved representation of orographic enhancement of precipitation, which turns to have a significant impact in simulating peak flows.

  18. Evaluation of the caries-preventive effect of three orthodontic band cements in terms of fluoride release, retentiveness, and microleakage.

    PubMed

    Shimazu, Kisaki; Ogata, Kiyokazu; Karibe, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    This in vitro study was undertaken to evaluate the caries-preventive effect of three orthodontic band cements (a dual-curing resinmodified glass ionomer cement [RMGIC] and two light-curing polyacid-modified composite resin [compomer] cements) in terms of fluoride release, retentiveness, and microleakage after thermocycling. The RMGIC (Ortholy Band Paste [GC Ortholy, Inc., Tokyo, Japan]) showed a significantly higher amount of cumulative fluoride release over 180 days (p<0.001) and significantly greater tensile bond strength (p<0.001) than the compomer cements (Transbond Plus [3M Unitek, Monrovia, CA, USA] and Ultra Band-Lok [Reliance Orthodontic Products, Inc., Itasca, IL, USA]). Its bond strength was unaffected by thermocycling (2,000 cycles), indicating good retentiveness, whereas that of the compomer cements significantly decreased after thermocycling. Moreover, it had lower dyepenetration scores, indicative of less microleakage. These findings suggest that the RMGIC may have a better caries-preventive effect than the compomer cements and is suitable for long-term orthodontic banding. PMID:23718996

  19. Evaluation of the JPL X-band 32 element active array. [for deep space communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boreham, J. F.; Postal, R. B.; Conroy, B. L.

    1979-01-01

    Tests performed on an X-band 32-element active array are described. Antenna pattern characteristics of the array were tested in its standard operating mode as well as several degraded performance modes, including failures of 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 16, and 31 elements. Additionally, the array was characterized with the addition of a metallic shroud, and also characterized versus rf drive level and at a single off-axis electronic beamsteered position. Characterization was performed on several of the 3/4-watt, three-stage, X-band solid-state power amplifier modules. The characterization included swept amplitude response, amplitude and phase versus temperature from -20 to +60 C, and intermodulation distortion of selected modules. The array is described and conclusions and recommendations based upon the experience and results achieved are included.

  20. A portable Ka-band front-end test package for beam-waveguide antenna performance evaluation. Part 2: Tests on the antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otoshi, T. Y.; Stewart, S. R.; Franco, M. M.

    1991-01-01

    In part one of this article, a description was given of a Ka-band test package developed to enable testing of the Deep Space Station (DDS) 13 34-m beam-waveguide (BWG) antenna at 32 GHz. Test results were given for the Ka-band test package in an on-the-ground test configuration. This article is a companion article concerned with Ka-band test results for the test package in an on-the-antenna test configuration. Included are Ka-band zenith noise-temperature values, tipping-curve data, and subreflector test results obtained at the Cassegrain focal point, as well as at the final BWG focal point (located in a subterranean pedestal room). Test results show that, through the use of the Ka-band test package, the BWG antenna performance was successfully evaluated at Ka-band. The Ka-band test package operated well in all of the different antenna test configurations.

  1. Evaluation of C-band SAR data from SAREX 1992: Tapajos study site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimabukuro, Yosio Edemir; Filho, Pedro Hernandez; Lee, David Chung Liang; Ahern, F. J.; Paivadossantosfilho, Celio; Rolodealmeida, Rionaldo

    1993-01-01

    As part of the SAREX'92 (South American Radar Experiment), the Tapajos study site, located in Para State, Brazil was imaged by the Canada Center for Remote Sensing (CCRS) Convair 580 SAR system using a C-band frequency in HH and VV polarization and 3 different imaging modes (nadir, narrow, and wide swath). A preliminary analysis of this dataset is presented. The wide swath C-band HH polarized image was enlarged to 1:100,000 in a photographic form for manual interpretation. This was compared with a vegetation map produced primarily from Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data and with single-band and color composite images derived from a decomposition analysis of TM data. The Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image shows well the topography and drainage network defining the different geomorphological units, and canopy texture differences which appear to be related to the size and maturity of the forest canopy. Areas of recent clearing of the primary forest can also be identified on the SAR image. The SAR system appears to be a source of information for monitoring tropical forest which is complementary to the Landsat Thematic Mapper.

  2. Evaluation of Breast Cancer Polyclonality by Combined Chromosome Banding and Comparative Genomic Hybridization Analysis1

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Manuel R; Tsarouha, Haroula; Kraggerud, Sigrid M; Pandis, Nikos; Dimitriadis, Euthymios; Andersen, Johan A; Lothe, Ragnhild A; Heim, Sverre

    2001-01-01

    Abstract Cytogenetically unrelated clones have been detected by chromosome banding analysis in many breast carcinomas. Because these karyotypic studies were performed on short-term cultured samples, it may be argued that in vitro selection occurred or that small clones may have arisen during culturing. To address this issue, we analyzed 37 breast carcinomas by G-banding and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), a fluorescent in situ hybridization-based screening technique that does not require culturing or tumor metaphases. All but two of the 37 karyotypically abnormal cases presented copy number changes by CGH. The picture of genomic alterations revealed by the two techniques overlapped only partly. Sometimes the CGH analysis revealed genomic imbalances that belonged to cell populations not picked up by the cytogenetic analysis and in other cases, especially when the karyotypes had many markers and chromosomes with additional material of unknown origin, CGH gave a more reliable overall picture of the copy number gains and losses. However, besides sometimes revealing cell populations with balanced chromosome aberrations or unbalanced changes that nevertheless remained undetected by CGH, G-banding analysis was essential to understand how the genomic imbalances arose in the many cases in which both techniques detected the same clonal abnormalities. Furthermore, because CGH pictures only imbalances present in a significant proportion of the test sample, the very detection by this technique of imbalances belonging to apparently small, cytogenetically unrelated clones of cells proves that these clones must have been present in vivo. This constitutes compelling evidence that the cytogenetic polyclonality observed after short-term culturing of breast carcinomas is not an artifact. PMID:11494114

  3. Skylab program: Earth resources experiment package. Sensor performance evaluation. Volume 6: (S194) L-band radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenney, G. P.

    1975-01-01

    Analysis of the Skylab S194 L-band radiometer experiment data provided significant results pertaining to the actual realized performance during flight. Analysis of preflight test data provided a baseline from which to compare the experiment flight performance, although many radiometric data performance capabilities could only be demonstrated in the flight environment. The final results establish the overall hardware performance of the S194 system from which prospective users of the flight data can refer for various scientific applications. Instrument performance is presented in the areas of housekeeping and internal calibration parameters, antenna system integrity, dynamic range, linearity, precision, resolution, and absolute accuracy. Supplementary evaluations were included for an error analysis of system calibration stability. Results of the evaluation show that the instrument performance was generally as expected. Conclusions are drawn from the final evaluation results, and recommendations for improving the effectiveness of a future program are offered.

  4. Band-limited Green's Functions for Quantitative Evaluation of Acoustic Emission Using the Finite Element Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leser, William P.; Yuan, Fuh-Gwo; Leser, William P.

    2013-01-01

    A method of numerically estimating dynamic Green's functions using the finite element method is proposed. These Green's functions are accurate in a limited frequency range dependent on the mesh size used to generate them. This range can often match or exceed the frequency sensitivity of the traditional acoustic emission sensors. An algorithm is also developed to characterize an acoustic emission source by obtaining information about its strength and temporal dependence. This information can then be used to reproduce the source in a finite element model for further analysis. Numerical examples are presented that demonstrate the ability of the band-limited Green's functions approach to determine the moment tensor coefficients of several reference signals to within seven percent, as well as accurately reproduce the source-time function.

  5. Stability evaluation of femtosecond S-band linac with photocathode RF gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uesaka, Mitsuru; Watanabe, Takahiro; Kobayashi, Tetsuya; Ueda, Toru; Yoshii, Koji; Kinoshita, Kenichi; Hafz, Nasr; Okuda, Hiroyuki; Hemker, Roy G.; Nakajima, Kazuhisa

    2001-08-01

    Femtosecond S-band linac with the BNL/GUN IV of Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory, University of Tokyo, has recorded 240fs(FWHM), 6 pai mm. mrad(rms), 350pC/bunch. Maximum charge per bunch at the exit of the injector and QE were 7nC and 1.5×10-4, respectively. After the cathode damage was found, re-measured emittance was 20 pai mm. mrad. Timing jitter between the femtosecond electron bunch and the drive laser for the injector was 330fs for the minutes and 1.9ps for hours. Detailed of the system are described, including the electron bunch diagnosis system. Further, the plasma gun work to produce 10fs, 20 MeV electron single bunch without any timing jitter is also mentioned. Those date and information give important mile stones for development of future SASE-FEL including LCLS.

  6. Narrow-band imaging with magnifying endoscopy for the evaluation of gastrointestinal lesions

    PubMed Central

    Boeriu, Alina; Boeriu, Cristian; Drasovean, Silvia; Pascarenco, Ofelia; Mocan, Simona; Stoian, Mircea; Dobru, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Narrow band imaging (NBI) endoscopy is an optical image enhancing technology that allows a detailed inspection of vascular and mucosal patterns, providing the ability to predict histology during real-time endoscopy. By combining NBI with magnification endoscopy (NBI-ME), the accurate assessment of lesions in the gastrointestinal tract can be achieved, as well as the early detection of neoplasia by emphasizing neovascularization. Promising results of the method in the diagnosis of premalignant and malignant lesions of gastrointestinal tract have been reported in clinical studies. The usefulness of NBI-ME as an adjunct to endoscopic therapy in clinical practice, the potential to improve diagnostic accuracy, surveillance strategies and cost-saving strategies based on this method are summarized in this review. Various classification systems of mucosal and vascular patterns used to differentiate preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions have been reviewed. We concluded that the clinical applicability of NBI-ME has increased, but standardization of endoscopic criteria and classification systems, validation in randomized multicenter trials and training programs to improve the diagnostic performance are all needed before the widespread acceptance of the method in routine practice. However, published data regarding the usefulness of NBI endoscopy are relevant in order to recommend the method as a reliable tool in diagnostic and therapy, even for less experienced endoscopists. PMID:25685267

  7. Genotoxicity evaluation of electromagnetic fields generated by 835-MHz mobile phone frequency band.

    PubMed

    Chang, S-K; Choi, J-S; Gil, H-W; Yang, J-O; Lee, E-Y; Jeon, Y-S; Lee, Z-W; Lee, M; Hong, M-Y; Ho Son, T-; Hong, S-Y

    2005-04-01

    It is still unclear whether the exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) generated by mobile phone radiation is directly linked to cancer. We examined the biological effects of an EMF at 835 MHz, the most widely used communication frequency band in Korean CDMA mobile phone networks, on bacterial reverse mutation (Ames assay) and DNA stability (in vitro DNA degradation). In the Ames assay, tester strains alone or combined with positive mutagen were applied in an artificial mobile phone frequency EMF generator with continuous waveform at a specific absorption rate (SAR) of 4 W/kg for 48 h. In the presence of the 835-MHz EMF radiation, incubation with positive mutagen 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide and cumene hydroxide further increased the mutation rate in Escherichia coli WP2 and TA102, respectively, while the contrary results in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA1535 treated with 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide and sodium azide, respectively, were shown as antimutagenic. However, these mutagenic or co-mutagenic effects of 835-MHz radiation were not significantly repeated in other relevant strains with same mutation type. In the DNA degradation test, the exposure to 835-MHz EMF did not change the rate of degradation observed using plasmid pBluescript SK(+) as an indicator. Thus, we suggest that 835-MHz EMF under the conditions of our study neither affected the reverse mutation frequency nor accelerated DNA degradation in vitro. PMID:15785322

  8. Measurements methodology for evaluation of Digital TV operation in VHF high-band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pudwell Chaves de Almeida, M.; Vladimir Gonzalez Castellanos, P.; Alfredo Cal Braz, J.; Pereira David, R.; Saboia Lima de Souza, R.; Pereira da Soledade, A.; Rodrigues Nascimento Junior, J.; Ferreira Lima, F.

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes the experimental setup of field measurements carried out for evaluating the operation of the ISDB-TB (Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting, Terrestrial, Brazilian version) standard digital TV in the VHF-highband. Measurements were performed in urban and suburban areas in a medium-sized Brazilian city. Besides the direct measurements of received power and environmental noise, a measurement procedure involving the injection of Gaussian additive noise was employed to achieve the signal to noise ratio threshold at each measurement site. The analysis includes results of static reception measurements for evaluating the received field strength and the signal to noise ratio thresholds for correct signal decoding.

  9. Development and evaluation of a combined cultivator and band sprayer with a row-centering RTK-GPS guidance system.

    PubMed

    Perez-Ruiz, Manuel; Carballido, Jacob; Agüera, Juan; Rodríguez-Lizana, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Typically, low-pressure sprayers are used to uniformly apply pre- and post-emergent herbicides to control weeds in crop rows. An innovative machine for weed control in inter-row and intra-row areas, with a unique combination of inter-row cultivation tooling and intra-row band spraying for six rows and an electro-hydraulic side-shift frame controlled by a GPS system, was developed and evaluated. Two weed management strategies were tested in the field trials: broadcast spraying (the conventional method) and band spraying with mechanical weed control using RTK-GPS (the experimental method). This approach enabled the comparison between treatments from the perspective of cost savings and efficacy in weed control for a sugar beet crop. During the 2010-2011 season, the herbicide application rate (112 L ha(-1)) of the experimental method was approximately 50% of the conventional method, and thus a significant reduction in the operating costs of weed management was achieved. A comparison of the 0.2-trimmed means of weed population post-treatment showed that the treatments achieved similar weed control rates at each weed survey date. Sugar beet yields were similar with both methods (p = 0.92). The use of the experimental equipment is cost-effective on ≥20 ha of crops. These initial results show good potential for reducing herbicide application in the Spanish beet industry. PMID:23478600

  10. Evaluation of chemokines in gingival crevicular fluid in children with band and loop space maintainers: A clinico-biochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Naveen Kommineni; Reddy, Veera Kishore Kasa; Padakandla, Prathyusha; Togaru, Harshini; Kalagatla, Swathi; Reddy, Vinay Chand M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Chemokines are pro-inflammatory cells that can be induced during an immune response to recruit cells of the immune system to a site of infection. Aim: This study was conducted to detect the presence of chemokines, macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α), and 1β (MIP-1β) and estimate their levels in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in children with band and loop space maintainers. Materials and Methods: MIP-1α and MIP-1β levels were estimated in GCF samples from twenty healthy children and twenty children with band and loop space maintainers. Periodontal status was evaluated by measuring gingival index, plaque index, and Russell's periodontal index. The GCF samples were quantified by ELISA, and the levels of MIP-1α and MIP-1β were determined. Results: The mean MIP-1α concentrations in healthy children and those with space maintainers were 395.75 pg/µl and 857.85 pg/µl, respectively, and MIP-1β was 342.55 pg/µl and 685.25 pg/µl, respectively. MIP-1α and MIP-1β levels in GCF from children with space maintainers were significantly higher than in the healthy group, and statistically significant difference existed between these two groups. Conclusion: MIP-1α and MIP-1β can be considered as novel biomarkers in the biological mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of gingival inflammation in children with space maintainers.

  11. Multispectral techniques for general geological surveys evaluation of a four-band photographic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowder, D., F.

    1969-01-01

    A general geological survey at 1:62,500 scale of the well exposed rocks of the White Mountains and the adjacent volcanic desert plateau is reported. The tuffs, granites, sedimentary rocks and metavolcanic rocks in this arid region are varicolored and conventional black and white aerial photographs have been a useful mapping aid. A large number of true color and false color aerial photographs and multispectral viewer screen images of the study area are evaluated in order to consider what imagery is the most useful for distinguishing rock types. Photographs of true color film are judged the most useful for recognizing geographic locations.

  12. Control Banding and Nanotechnology Synergist

    SciTech Connect

    Zalk, D; Paik, S

    2009-12-15

    The average Industrial Hygienist (IH) loves a challenge, right? Okay, well here is one with more than a few twists. We start by going through the basics of a risk assessment. You have some chemical agents, a few workers, and the makings of your basic exposure characterization. However, you have no occupational exposure limit (OEL), essentially no toxicological basis, and no epidemiology. Now the real handicap is that you cannot use sampling pumps, cassettes, tubes, or any of the media in your toolbox, and the whole concept of mass-to-dose is out the window, even at high exposure levels. Of course, by the title, you knew we were talking about nanomaterials (NM). However, we wonder how many IHs know that this topic takes everything you know about your profession and turns it upside down. It takes the very foundations that you worked so hard in college and in the field to master and pulls it out from underneath you. It even takes the gold standard of our profession, the quantitative science of exposure assessment, and makes it look pretty darn rusty. Now with NM there is the potential to get some aspect of quantitative measurements, but the instruments are generally very expensive and getting an appropriate workplace personal exposure measurement can be very difficult if not impossible. The potential for workers getting exposures, however, is very real, as evidenced by a recent publication reporting worker exposures to polyacrylate nanoparticles in a Chinese factory (Song et al. 2009). With something this complex and challenging, how does a concept as simple as Control Banding (CB) save the day? Although many IHs have heard of CB, most of their knowledge comes from its application in the COSHH Essentials toolkit. While there is conflicting published research on COSHH Essentials and its value for risk assessments, almost all of the experts agree that it can be useful when no OELs are available (Zalk and Nelson 2008). It is this aspect of CB, its utility with

  13. Evaluation of ultrastructure and random effects band recovery models for estimating relationships between survival and harvest rates in exploited populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Otis, D.L.; White, Gary C.

    2004-01-01

    Increased population survival rate after an episode of seasonal exploitation is considered a type of compensatory population response. Lack of an increase is interpreted as evidence that exploitation results in added annual mortality in the population. Despite its importance to management of exploited species, there are limited statistical techniques for comparing relative support for these two alternative models. For exploited bird species, the most common technique is to use a fixed effect, deterministic ultrastructure model incorporated into band recovery models to estimate the relationship between harvest and survival rate. We present a new likelihood-based technique within a framework that assumes that survival and harvest are random effects that covary through time. We conducted a Monte Carlo simulation study under this framework to evaluate the performance of these two techniques. The ultrastructure models performed poorly in all simulated scenarios, due mainly to pathological distributional properties. The random effects estimators and their associated estimators of precision had relatively small negative bias under most scenarios, and profile likelihood intervals achieved nominal coverage. We suggest that the random effects estimation method approach has many advantages compared to the ultrastructure models, and that evaluation of robustness and generalization to more complex population structures are topics for additional research. ?? 2004 Museu de Cie??ncies Naturals.

  14. Theoretical and Experimental Evaluation of Multi-Band EPI for High-Resolution Whole Brain pCASL Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiufeng; Wang, Dingxin; Auerbach, Edward J.; Moeller, Steen; Ugurbil, Kamil; Metzger, Gregory J.

    2015-01-01

    Multi-Band Echo Planar Imaging (MB-EPI), a new approach to increase data acquisition efficiency and/or temporal resolution, has the potential to overcome critical limitations of standard acquisition strategies for obtaining high-resolution whole brain perfusion imaging using arterial spin labeling (ASL). However, the use of MB also introduces confounding effects, such as spatially varying amplified thermal noise and leakage contamination, which have not been evaluated to date as to their effect on cerebral blood flow (CBF) estimation. In this study, both the potential benefits and confounding effects of MB-EPI were systematically evaluated through both simulation and experimentally using a pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (pCASL) strategy. These studies revealed that the amplified noise, given by the geometry factor (g-factor), and the leakage contamination, assessed by the total leakage factor (TLF), have minimal impact on CBF estimation. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that MB-EPI greatly benefits high-resolution whole brain pCASL studies in terms of improved spatial and temporal signal-to-noise ratio efficiency, and increases compliance with the assumptions of the commonly used single blood compartment model, resulting in improved CBF estimates. PMID:25462690

  15. Evaluation of Detector-to-Detector and Mirror Side Differences for Terra MODIS Reflective Solar Bands Using Simultaneous MISR Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Aisheng; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Angal, A.; Barnes, W.

    2011-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is one of the five Earth-observing instruments on-board the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth-Observing System(EOS) Terra spacecraft, launched in December 1999. It has 36 spectral bands with wavelengths ranging from 0.41 to 14.4 mm and collects data at three nadir spatial resolutions: 0.25 km for 2 bands with 40 detectors each, 0.5 km for 5 bands with 20 detectors each and 1 km for the remaining 29 bands with 10 detectors each. MODIS bands are located on four separate focal plane assemblies (FPAs) according to their spectral wavelengths and aligned in the cross-track direction. Detectors of each spectral band are aligned in the along-track direction. MODIS makes observations using a two-sided paddle-wheel scan mirror. Its on-board calibrators (OBCs) for the reflective solar bands (RSBs) include a solar diffuser (SD), a solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM) and a spectral-radiometric calibration assembly (SRCA). Calibration is performed for each band, detector, sub-sample (for sub-kilometer resolution bands) and mirror side. In this study, a ratio approach is applied to MODIS observed Earth scene reflectances to track the detector-to-detector and mirror side differences. Simultaneous observed reflectances from the Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR), also onboard the Terra spacecraft, are used with MODIS observed reflectances in this ratio approach for four closely matched spectral bands. Results show that the detector-to-detector difference between two adjacent detectors within each spectral band is typically less than 0.2% and, depending on the wavelengths, the maximum difference among all detectors varies from 0.5% to 0.8%. The mirror side differences are found to be very small for all bands except for band 3 at 0.44 mm. This is the band with the shortest wavelength among the selected matching bands, showing a time-dependent increase for the mirror side difference. This

  16. Using the Moon to evaluate the radiometric calibration performance of S-NPP VIIRS thermal emissive bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhipeng; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Efremova, Boryana V.; Chen, Hongda

    2014-09-01

    The Suomi-NPP VIIRS thermal emissive bands (TEB) are radiometrically calibrated on-orbit with reference to a blackbody (BB) operated at a nominal temperature of approximately 292.5 K. The quality of the calibration can be evaluated at other temperature ranges using independent thermal sources. The thermal properties of the lunar surface are extremely stable over time, making it a feasible target for the TEB calibration stability assessment for the space-borne sensors with regular lunar observations. VIIRS is scheduled to view the Moon on a nearly monthly basis at approximately the same phase angle since January 2012, before the cryo-cooler door was open and TEB started to collect data. In this paper, the brightness temperatures (BT) of the lunar surface retrieved using the calibration coefficients derived from the BB calibration are trended for VIIRS TEB to examine the calibration stability. The lunar surface temperature varies greatly with location and also oscillates seasonally with the solar illumination geometry. Radiance from many lunar locations saturates TEB detectors. Therefore, the trending must base on the regions of the Moon that do not saturate the detectors at any lunar observation event and thus their BT can be consistently retrieved. To achieve that, a temporally dynamic spatial mask is built for each detector to clip the locations of the Moon that may saturate the detector at any lunar event. Results show the radiometric calibration of all TEB detectors has been stable within 1 K range since being functional.

  17. Summary of Turbulence Data Obtained During United Air Lines Flight Evaluation of an Experimental C Band (5.5 cm) Airborne Weather Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coe, E. C.; Fetner, M. W.

    1954-01-01

    Data on atmospheric turbulence in the vicinity of thunderstorms obtained during a flight evaluation of an experimental C band (5.5 cm) airborne radar are summarized. The turbulence data were obtained with an NACA VGH recorder installed in a United Air Lines DC-3 airplane.

  18. Evaluation of the L-band scattering characteristics of volcanic terrain in aid of lithologic identification, assessment of SIR-B calibration, and development of planetary geomorphic analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaupp, V. H.; Waite, W. P.; Macdonald, H. C.; Mouginis-Mark, P. J.; Zisk, S. H.

    1984-01-01

    The objectives of the Shuttle Imaging Radar-B (SIR-B) scattering study and calibration investigation of volcanic terrain are to delineate textural and structural features, to evaluate the L-band scattering characteristics, and to assess SIR-B calibration. Specific tasks are outlined and expected results are summarized.

  19. Nanotools for Neuroscience and Brain Activity Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Andrews, Anne M.; Boyden, Edward S.; Chun, Miyoung; Church, George M.; Deisseroth, Karl; Donoghue, John P.; Fraser, Scott E.; Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer; Looger, Loren L.; Masmanidis, Sotiris; McEuen, Paul L.; Nurmikko, Arto V.; Park, Hongkun; Peterka, Darcy S.; Reid, Clay; Roukes, Michael L.; Scherer, Axel; Schnitzer, Mark; Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Shepard, Kenneth L.; Tsao, Doris; Turrigiano, Gina; Weiss, Paul S.; Xu, Chris; Yuste, Rafael; Zhuang, Xiaowei

    2013-01-01

    Neuroscience is at a crossroads. Great effort is being invested into deciphering specific neural interactions and circuits. At the same time, there exist few general theories or principles that explain brain function. We attribute this disparity, in part, to limitations in current methodologies. Traditional neurophysiological approaches record the activities of one neuron or a few neurons at a time. Neurochemical approaches focus on single neurotransmitters. Yet, there is an increasing realization that neural circuits operate at emergent levels, where the interactions between hundreds or thousands of neurons, utilizing multiple chemical transmitters, generate functional states. Brains function at the nanoscale, so tools to study brains must ultimately operate at this scale, as well. Nanoscience and nanotechnology are poised to provide a rich toolkit of novel methods to explore brain function by enabling simultaneous measurement and manipulation of activity of thousands or even millions of neurons. We and others refer to this goal as the Brain Activity Mapping Project. In this Nano Focus, we discuss how recent developments in nanoscale analysis tools and in the design and synthesis of nanomaterials have generated optical, electrical, and chemical methods that can readily be adapted for use in neuroscience. These approaches represent exciting areas of technical development and research. Moreover, unique opportunities exist for nanoscientists, nanotechnologists, and other physical scientists and engineers to contribute to tackling the challenging problems involved in understanding the fundamentals of brain function. PMID:23514423

  20. Exploring novel bands and key index for evaluating leaf equivalent water thickness in wheat using hyperspectra influenced by nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xia; Jia, Wenqing; Si, Haiyang; Guo, Ziqing; Tian, Yongchao; Liu, Xiaojun; Cao, Weixing; Zhu, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Leaf equivalent water thickness (LEWT) is an important indicator of crop water status. Effectively monitoring the water status of wheat under different nitrogen treatments is important for effective water management in precision agriculture. Trends in the variation of LEWT in wheat plants during plant growth were analyzed based on field experiments in which wheat plants under various water and nitrogen treatments in two consecutive growing seasons. Two-band spectral indices [normalized difference spectral indices (NDSI), ratio spectral indices (RSI), different spectral indices (DSI)], and then three-band spectral indices were established based on the best two-band spectral index within the range of 350-2500 nm to reduce the noise caused by nitrogen and saturation. Then, optimal spectral indices were selected to construct models of LEWT monitoring in wheat. The results showed that the two-band spectral index NDSI(R1204, R1318) could be used for LEWT monitoring throughout the wheat growth season, but the model performed differently before and after anthesis. Therefore, further two-band spectral indices NDSIb(R1445, R487), NDSIa(R1714, R1395), and NDSI(R1429, R416), were constructed for the two developmental phases, with NDSI(R1429, R416) considered to be the best index. Finally, a three-band index (R1429-R416-R1865)/(R1429+R416+R1865), which was superior for monitoring LEWT and reducing the noise caused by nitrogen, was formed on the best two-band spectral index NDSI(R1429, R416) by adding the 1,865 nm wavelenght as the third band. This produced more uniformity and stable performance compared with the two-band spectral indices in the LEWT model. The results are of technical significance for monitoring the water status of wheat under different nitrogen treatments in precision agriculture. PMID:24914778

  1. Exploring Novel Bands and Key Index for Evaluating Leaf Equivalent Water Thickness in Wheat Using Hyperspectra Influenced by Nitrogen

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Xia; Jia, Wenqing; Si, Haiyang; Guo, Ziqing; Tian, Yongchao; Liu, Xiaojun; Cao, Weixing; Zhu, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Leaf equivalent water thickness (LEWT) is an important indicator of crop water status. Effectively monitoring the water status of wheat under different nitrogen treatments is important for effective water management in precision agriculture. Trends in the variation of LEWT in wheat plants during plant growth were analyzed based on field experiments in which wheat plants under various water and nitrogen treatments in two consecutive growing seasons. Two-band spectral indices [normalized difference spectral indices (NDSI), ratio spectral indices (RSI), different spectral indices (DSI)], and then three-band spectral indices were established based on the best two-band spectral index within the range of 350–2500 nm to reduce the noise caused by nitrogen and saturation. Then, optimal spectral indices were selected to construct models of LEWT monitoring in wheat. The results showed that the two-band spectral index NDSI(R1204, R1318) could be used for LEWT monitoring throughout the wheat growth season, but the model performed differently before and after anthesis. Therefore, further two-band spectral indices NDSIb(R1445, R487), NDSIa(R1714, R1395), and NDSI(R1429, R416), were constructed for the two developmental phases, with NDSI(R1429, R416) considered to be the best index. Finally, a three-band index (R1429−R416−R1865)/(R1429+R416+R1865), which was superior for monitoring LEWT and reducing the noise caused by nitrogen, was formed on the best two-band spectral index NDSI(R1429, R416) by adding the 1,865 nm wavelenght as the third band. This produced more uniformity and stable performance compared with the two-band spectral indices in the LEWT model. The results are of technical significance for monitoring the water status of wheat under different nitrogen treatments in precision agriculture. PMID:24914778

  2. Evaluation of out-of-core computer programs for the solution of symmetric banded linear equations. [simultaneous equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunham, R. S.

    1976-01-01

    FORTRAN coded out-of-core equation solvers that solve using direct methods symmetric banded systems of simultaneous algebraic equations. Banded, frontal and column (skyline) solvers were studied as well as solvers that can partition the working area and thus could fit into any available core. Comparison timings are presented for several typical two dimensional and three dimensional continuum type grids of elements with and without midside nodes. Extensive conclusions are also given.

  3. Structural, electronic structure, and band alignment properties at epitaxial NiO/Al2O3 heterojunction evaluated from synchrotron based X-ray techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S. D.; Nand, Mangla; Das, Arijeet; Ajimsha, R. S.; Upadhyay, Anuj; Kamparath, Rajiv; Shukla, D. K.; Mukherjee, C.; Misra, P.; Rai, S. K.; Sinha, A. K.; Jha, S. N.; Phase, D. M.; Ganguli, Tapas

    2016-04-01

    The valence band offset value of 2.3 ± 0.2 eV at epitaxial NiO/Al2O3 heterojunction is determined from photoelectron spectroscopy experiments. Pulsed laser deposited thin film of NiO on Al2O3 substrate is epitaxially grown along [111] direction with two domain structures, which are in-plane rotated by 60° with respect to each other. Observation of Pendellosung oscillations around Bragg peak confirms high interfacial and crystalline quality of NiO layer deposited on Al2O3 substrate. Surface related feature in Ni 2p3/2 core level spectra along with oxygen K-edge soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy results indicates that the initial growth of NiO on Al2O3 substrate is in the form of islands, which merge to form NiO layer for the larger coverage. The value of conduction band offset is also evaluated from the measured values of band gaps of NiO and Al2O3 layers. A type-I band alignment at NiO and Al2O3 heterojunction is also obtained. The determined values of band offsets can be useful in heterojunction based light emitting devices.

  4. Comparison of high resolution chromosome banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for the laboratory evaluation of Prader-Willi syndrome and Angelman syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Delach, J.A.; Rosengren, S.S.; Kaplan, L.; Greenstein, R.M.; Cassidy, S.B.; Benn, P.A.

    1994-08-01

    The development of probes containing segments of DNA from chromosome region 15q11-q13 provides the opportunity to confirm the diagnosis of Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and Angelman syndrome (AS) by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). We have evaluated FISH studies and high resolution chromosome banding studies in 14 patients referred to confirm or rule out AS. In four patients (three from the PWS category and 1 from the AS group) chromosome analysis suggested that a deletion was present but FISH failed to confirm the finding. In one AS group patient, FISH identified a deletion not detectable by high resolution banding. Review of the clinical findings in the discrepant cases suggested that FISH results were correct and high resolution findings were erroneous. Studies with a chromosome 15 alpha satellite probe (D15Z) on both normal and abnormal individuals suggested that incorrect interpretation of chromosome banding may occasionally be attributable to alpha satellite polymorphism but other variation of 15q11-q13 chromosome bands also contributes to misinterpretation. We conclude that patients who have been reported to have a cytogenetic deletion of 15q11-q13 and who have clinical findings inconsistent with PWS and AS should be re-evaluated by molecular genetic techniques. 31 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Study to investigate and evaluate means of optimizing the Ku-band communication function for the space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, M. K.; Udalov, S.; Huth, G. K.

    1976-01-01

    The forward link of the overall Ku-band communication system consists of the ground- TDRS-orbiter communication path. Because the last segment of the link is directed towards a relatively low orbiting shuttle, a PN code is used to reduce the spectral density. A method is presented for incorporating code acquisition and tracking functions into the orbiter's Ku-band receiver. Optimization of a three channel multiplexing technique is described. The importance of Costas loop parameters to provide false lock immunity for the receiver, and the advantage of using a sinusoidal subcarrier waveform, rather than square wave, are discussed.

  6. Evaluating the potential use of a high-resolution X-band polarimetric radar observations in Urban Hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anagnostou, Marios N.; Kalogiros, John; Marzano, Frank S.; Anagnostou, Emmanouil N.; Baldini, Luca; Nikolopoulos, EfThymios; Montopoli, Mario; Picciotti, Errico

    2014-05-01

    The Mediterranean area concentrates the major natural risks related to the water cycle, including heavy precipitation and flash-flooding during the fall season. Every year in central and south Europe we witness several fatal and economical disasters from severe storm rainfall triggering Flash Floods, and its impacts are increasing worldwide, but remain very difficult to manage. The spatial scale of flash flood occurrence is such that its vulnerability is often focused on dispersed urbanization, transportation and tourism infrastructures (De Marchi and Scolobig 2012). Urbanized and industrialized areas shows peculiar hydrodynamic and meteo-oceanographic features and they concentrate the highest rates of flash floods and fatal disasters. The main causes of disturbance being littoral urban development and harbor activities, the building of littoral rail- and highways, and the presence of several polluted discharges. All the above mentioned characteristics limit our ability to issue timely flood warnings. Precipitation estimates based on raingauge networks are usually associated with low coverage density, particularly at high altitudes. On the other hand, operational weather radar networks may provide valuable information of precipitation at these regimes but reliability of their estimates is often limited due to retrieval (e.g. variability in the reflectivity-to-rainfall relationship) and spatial extent constrains (e.g. blockage issues, overshooting effects). As a result, we currently lack accurate precipitation estimates over urban complex terrain areas, which essentially means that we lack accurate knowledge of the triggering factor for a number of hazards like flash floods and debris flows/landslides occurring in those areas. A potential solution to overcome sampling as well as retrieval uncertainty limitations of current observational networks might be the use of network of low-power dual-polarization X-band radars as complement to raingauges and gap-filling to

  7. Gastric Banding

    MedlinePlus

    ... gastric banding before deciding to have the procedure. Advertisements for a device or procedure may not include ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  8. Determination of polymer size distribution by combination of quasielastic light scattering and band transport: evaluation of the effect of diffusion.

    PubMed

    Wei, G J; Bloomfield, V A

    1979-01-01

    In this paper we report a computer simulation study of the effect of diffusion on the size distribution obtained by combining light scattering with isokinetic band sedimentation or electrophoresis. We find that, under typical experimental conditions, the method yields reasonably accurate size distributions for samples of particles greater than 10 nm radius. However, caution should be exercised in interpreting the results for smaller particles, for which the distortion due to diffusion can be considerable. PMID:16997189

  9. Evaluation of shock mitigating materials in a V-band pyroshock environment simulated with a resonant fixture

    SciTech Connect

    Bateman, V.I.; Brown, F.A.

    1993-12-31

    An explosively activated V-band joint is used on a multistage rocket payload to release components at prescribed times in the rocket`s flight and creates a pyroshock environment that the other payload components must survive. Accelerometer response data was measured close to an actual V-band pyroshock. With the shock spectra calculated from these data, a resonant fixture was designed to simulate a V-band pyroshock event. The characteristics of the data and the design process are described. Laboratory tests were conducted to determine that the desired shock spectra with an unusually high knee at about 8,000 Hz. was produced with the resonant fixture. The fixture was then mounted on a 29 in. diameter, 2 in. thick plate simulation of a payload plate. Simulated electronic components were also mounted on the plate. The pyroshock environment simulation was created by the resonant fixture response to a projectile impact, and the component response to the environment was measured at the electronic components. The component responses to the pyroshock were measured with five different shock mitigating materials inserted between the resonant fixture and the payload plate simulation, and the peak response values were tabulated.

  10. Demonstration and Evaluation of the Ka-Band Array Feed Compensation System on the 70-Meter Antenna at DSS 14

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilnrotter, V.; Fort, D.

    1999-07-01

    This article documents the results of experiments designed to verify the gravity-compensation and tracking performance of a novel seven-channel 32-GHz (Ka-band) array feed compensation system (AFCS) for the DSN's 70-m antennas. The AFCS (along with other proposed compensation systems) was installed on the spare holography cone that was placed temporarily on the 70-m antenna in place of the X-band K-band radar (XKR) cone, which has been removed for repairs. These experiments took place from November 1998 through February 1999 and consisted of both quasar and spacecraft observations. Compensation performance was characterized in terms of both antenna-efficiency improvement and total signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) gain, while simultaneous-tracking capability was demonstrated by means of a least-squares tracking algorithm. A combined system consisting of the AFCS together with a deformable flat plate (DFP), designed to refocus divergent rays back in the array, also was examined briefly at low elevations. The results indicate that a properly designed real-time compensation system regains most of the SNR lost to deformations at low elevations and has the potential for similar improvements at high elevations, although this remains to be demonstrated.

  11. Evaluation of a QAA-based algorithm using MODIS land bands data for retrieval of IOPs in the Eastern China Seas.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shuguo; Zhang, Tinglu

    2015-06-01

    A quasi-analytical algorithm (QAA)-based algorithm which is applied to moderate imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) land band data (469, 555, and 645 nm) is proposed and named QAA-RGR (Red-Green-bands-Ratio). The performance has been evaluated using in situ measurements data and MODIS data from the Eastern China Seas (ECS). The QAA-RGR algorithm uses the ratio of the remote sensing reflectance at 645nm (Rrs645) to the Rrs555 to estimate the absorption coefficient at 555nm. In addition, the spectral slope of the backscattering coefficient (bb) is estimated using a statistical relationship based on bb555. The other steps of the retrieval algorithm are the same as those of the extensively used QAA version 5 (QAAv5). First, the QAA-RGR algorithm was applied to an in situ measurement data set for the ECS to retrieve inherent optical properties (IOPs), and the results were compared with the QAAv5. The results demonstrate that, the two algorithms exhibit similar performance for in situ measurements. Second, the algorithm was applied to the land bands data and ocean bands data of MODIS over the ECS to obtain the distribution of IOPs at 500m and 1000m resolutions. The results of the retrieval algorithm were evaluated against the corresponding in situ measurements and compared to those from QAAv5. The results demonstrate that, the QAA-RGR algorithm is characterized by a better performance than QAAv5 for MODIS data. For QAAv5, the averaged mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) values of retrieval results of absorption coefficients and backscattering coefficients compared with in situ match-up measurements are 25.2% and 22.2%, respectively. For QAA-RGR, the averaged MAPE values are 15.9% and 18.3%, respectively. The QAAv5 retrieval results are often significantly underestimated especially for turbid coastal waters because of the easy saturation at 667nm band in addition to a large uncertainty in the estimation of Rrs of the

  12. Evaluation of SAR in a human body model due to wireless power transmission in the 10 MHz band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laakso, Ilkka; Tsuchida, Shogo; Hirata, Akimasa; Kamimura, Yoshitsugu

    2012-08-01

    This study discusses a computational method for calculating the specific absorption rate (SAR) due to a wireless power transmission system in the 10 MHz frequency band. A two-step quasi-static method comprised of the method of moments and the scalar potential finite-difference method are proposed. The applicability of the quasi-static approximation for localized exposure in this frequency band is discussed by comparing the SAR in a lossy dielectric cylinder computed with a full-wave electromagnetic analysis and the quasi-static approximation. From the computational results, the input impedance of the resonant coils was affected by the existence of the cylinder. On the other hand, the magnetic field distribution in free space and considering the cylinder and an impedance matching circuit were in good agreement; the maximum difference in the amplitude of the magnetic field was 4.8%. For a cylinder-coil distance of 10 mm, the difference between the peak 10 g averaged SAR in the cylinder computed with the full-wave electromagnetic method and our quasi-static method was 7.8%. These results suggest that the quasi-static approach is applicable for conducting the dosimetry of wireless power transmission in the 10 MHz band. With our two-step quasi-static method, the SAR in the anatomically based model was computed for different exposure scenarios. From those computations, the allowable input power satisfying the limit of a peak 10 g averaged SAR of 2.0 W kg-1 was 830 W in the worst case exposure scenario with a coil positioned at a distance of 30 mm from the chest.

  13. Noise exposure in marching bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keefe, Joseph

    2005-09-01

    Previous studies involving orchestras have shown that music ensembles can produce hazardous noise levels. There are no similar data for marching bands and pep bands. In order to evaluate the noise levels produced by marching and pep bands, 1/3-octave-band sound-pressure levels were measured while these groups rehearsed and performed. Data were collected while marching with the bands to ensure a realistic environment. Comparing these data to OSHA and NIOSH criteria, marching and pep band exposures often exceed safe values. For typical exposures, OSHA doses range from 11% to 295%, while NIOSH doses range from 35% to 3055%. Exposures that would be considered hazardous in the workplace are common in marching and pep bands; students and band directors should take steps to recognize the risk posed by various instruments and various locations, and should implement hearing conservation efforts.

  14. Evaluation of band offset at amorphous-Si/BaSi2 interfaces by hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takabe, Ryota; Takeuchi, Hiroki; Du, Weijie; Ito, Keita; Toko, Kaoru; Ueda, Shigenori; Kimura, Akio; Suemasu, Takashi

    2016-04-01

    The 730 nm-thick undoped BaSi2 films capped with 5 nm-thick amorphous Si (a-Si) intended for solar cell applications were grown on Si(111) by molecular beam epitaxy. The valence band (VB) offset at the interface between the BaSi2 and the a-Si was measured by hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to understand the carrier transport properties by the determination of the band offset at this heterointerface. We performed the depth-analysis by varying the take-off angle of photoelectrons as 15°, 30°, and 90° with respect to the sample surface to obtain the VB spectra of the BaSi2 and the a-Si separately. It was found that the barrier height of the a-Si for holes in the BaSi2 is approximately -0.2 eV, whereas the barrier height for electrons is approximately 0.6 eV. This result means that the holes generated in the BaSi2 layer under solar radiation could be selectively extracted through the a-Si/BaSi2 interface, promoting the carrier separation in the BaSi2 layer. We therefore conclude that the a-Si/BaSi2 interface is beneficial for BaSi2 solar cells.

  15. Band Together!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Cathy Applefeld

    2011-01-01

    After nearly a decade as band director at St. James High School in St. James, Missouri, Derek Limback knows that the key to building a successful program is putting the program itself above everything else. Limback strives to augment not only his students' musical prowess, but also their leadership skills. Key to his philosophy is instilling a…

  16. C-Band Airport Surface Communications System Standards Development. Phase II Final Report. Volume 2: Test Bed Performance Evaluation and Final AeroMACS Recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Edward; Magner, James

    2011-01-01

    This report is provided as part of ITT s NASA Glenn Research Center Aerospace Communication Systems Technical Support (ACSTS) contract NNC05CA85C, Task 7: New ATM Requirements-Future Communications, C-Band and L-Band Communications Standard Development and was based on direction provided by FAA project-level agreements for New ATM Requirements-Future Communications. Task 7 included two subtasks. Subtask 7-1 addressed C-band (5091- to 5150-MHz) airport surface data communications standards development, systems engineering, test bed and prototype development, and tests and demonstrations to establish operational capability for the Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS). Subtask 7-2 focused on systems engineering and development support of the L-band digital aeronautical communications system (L-DACS). Subtask 7-1 consisted of two phases. Phase I included development of AeroMACS concepts of use, requirements, architecture, and initial high-level safety risk assessment. Phase II builds on Phase I results and is presented in two volumes. Volume I is devoted to concepts of use, system requirements, and architecture, including AeroMACS design considerations. Volume II (this document) describes an AeroMACS prototype evaluation and presents final AeroMACS recommendations. This report also describes airport categorization and channelization methodologies. The purposes of the airport categorization task were (1) to facilitate initial AeroMACS architecture designs and enable budgetary projections by creating a set of airport categories based on common airport characteristics and design objectives, and (2) to offer high-level guidance to potential AeroMACS technology and policy development sponsors and service providers. A channelization plan methodology was developed because a common global methodology is needed to assure seamless interoperability among diverse AeroMACS services potentially supplied by multiple service providers.

  17. Polygonal deformation bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonellini, Marco; Mollema, Pauline Nella

    2015-12-01

    We report for the first time the occurrence of polygonal faults in sandstone, which is compelling given that layer-bound polygonal fault systems have been observed so far only in fine-grained sediments such as clay and chalk. The polygonal faults are shear deformation bands that developed under shallow burial conditions via strain hardening in dm-wide zones. The edges of the polygons are 1-5 m long. The shear deformation bands are organized as conjugate faults along each edge of the polygon and form characteristic horst-like structures. The individual deformation bands have slip magnitudes ranging from a few mm to 1.5 cm; the cumulative average slip magnitude in a zone is up to 10 cm. The deformation bands heaves, in aggregate form, accommodate a small isotropic horizontal extension (strain <0.005). The individual shear deformation bands show abutting T-junctions, veering, curving, and merging where they mechanically interact. Crosscutting relationships are rare. The interactions of the deformation bands are similar to those of mode I opening fractures. The documented fault networks have important implications for evaluating the geometry of km-scale polygonal fault systems in the subsurface, top seal integrity, as well as constraining paleo-tectonic stress regimes.

  18. Rural Appalachian Band Directors' Academic Preparation/Musical Preparation, Facilities, Monetary Resources, and Methods of Student Evaluation, and Their Students' Musical Independence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobbett, Gordon C.

    Six band directors and three assistant directors from "good" rural schools in Kentucky and Tennessee participated in a study designed to investigate: (1) the influence of the band directors' musical and academic background on their band program's musical independence; (2) the band's facilities and sources of revenue; (3) the musical independence…

  19. Development and evaluation of automated systems for detection and classification of banded chromosomes: current status and future perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xingwei; Zheng, Bin; Wood, Marc; Li, Shibo; Chen, Wei; Liu, Hong

    2005-08-01

    Automated detection and classification of banded chromosomes may help clinicians diagnose cancers and other genetic disorders at an early stage more efficiently and accurately. However, developing such an automated system (including both a high-speed microscopic image scanning device and related computer-assisted schemes) is quite a challenging and difficult task. Since the 1980s, great research efforts have been made to develop fast and more reliable methods to assist clinical technicians in performing this important and time-consuming task. A number of computer-assisted methods including classical statistical methods, artificial neural networks and knowledge-based fuzzy logic systems, have been applied and tested. Based on the initial test using limited datasets, encouraging results in algorithm and system development have been demonstrated. Despite the significant research effort and progress made over the last two decades, computer-assisted chromosome detection and classification systems have not been routinely accepted and used in clinical laboratories. Further research and development is needed.

  20. Insight from Frogs: Sonic Hedgehog Gene Expression and a Re-evaluation of the Vertebrate Odontogenic Band.

    PubMed

    Grieco, Theresa M; Hlusko, Leslea J

    2016-08-01

    While the identification of conserved processes across multiple taxa leads to an understanding of fundamental developmental mechanisms, the ways in which different animals fail to conform to common developmental processes can elucidate how evolution modifies development to result in the vast array of morphologies seen today-the developmental mechanisms that lead to anatomical variation. Odontogenesis-how teeth are initiated and formed-is well suited to the examination of both developmental conservation and phenotypic diversity. We suggest here that the study of early tooth development, the period of odontogenic band development, reveals departures from conserved mechanisms that question the role of players in the developmental process. In the earliest stages of odontogenesis, Sonic hedgehog (Shh) gene expression is interpreted as critical evidence of tooth initiation prior to any histological indication. However, a detailed examination of studies of tooth development across a wide range of taxa reveals that several vertebrate species fail to conform to the expectations of the Shh Consensus Model, calling for a reconsideration of the assumed causality of epithelial Shh in tooth initiation. We present new Shh gene expression data for an amphibian, the frog Silurana (Xenopus) tropicalis. In these animals, craniofacial and odontogenic developmental processes are more disjunct, and thereby provide a natural test of the hypothesis that Shh is immediately required for subsequent tooth development. Our results suggest that Shh expression may actually be related to the formation of the mouth rather than a required precursor to subsequent tooth formation. Anat Rec, 299:1099-1109, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27262165

  1. Evaluation of valence band top and electron affinity of SiO2 and Si-based semiconductors using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimura, Nobuyuki; Ohta, Akio; Makihara, Katsunori; Miyazaki, Seiichi

    2016-08-01

    An evaluation method for the energy level of the valence band (VB) top from the vacuum level (VL) for metals, dielectrics, and semiconductors from the results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is presented for the accurate determination of the energy band diagram for materials of interest. In this method, the VB top can be determined by the energy difference between the onset of VB signals and the cut-off energy for secondary photoelectrons by considering the X-ray excitation energy (hν). The energy level of the VB top for three kinds of Si-based materials (H-terminated Si, wet-cleaned 4H-SiC, and thermally grown SiO2) has been investigated by XPS under monochromatized Al Kα radiation (hν = 1486.6 eV). We have also demonstrated the determination of the electron affinity for the samples by this measurement technique in combination with the measured and reported energy bandgaps (E g).

  2. GPR signal enhancement using band-pass and K-L filtering: a case study for the evaluation of grout in a shielded tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Xiongyao; Zeng, Chenchao; Wang, Zhigao

    2013-06-01

    The rapidness, non-destructiveness and high precision of ground penetrating radar (GPR) technology has enabled it to be widely and increasingly used in tunnel detection. However, data acquisition was usually restricted by physical and many other limitations. In order to improve the signal-to-noise ratio, band-pass and Karhunen-Loève (K-L) filtering are recommended. An evaluation of Yingbin No. 3 Road Tunnel is presented to illustrate the effectiveness of GPR in the inspection of the thickness of the grouting layer behind the segment and the function of the two methods mentioned above. The advantages and limitations of these two processing methods are discussed in this paper and suggestions are provided.

  3. Performance evaluation of high-resolution rainfall estimation by X-band dual-polarization radar for flash flood applications in mountainous basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anagnostou, Marios N.; Kalogiros, John; Anagnostou, Emmanouil N.; Tarolli, Michele; Papadopoulos, Anastasios; Borga, Marco

    2010-11-01

    SummaryDifferent relations between surface rainfall rate, R, and high-resolution polarimetric X-band radar observations were evaluated using a dense network of rain gauge measurements over complex terrain in Central Italian Alps. The specific differential phase shift, KDP, rainfall algorithm (RKDP) although associated with low systematic error it exhibits low sensitivity to the spatial variability of rainfall as compared to the standard algorithm (RSTD) that is based on the reflectivity-to-rainfall (Z-R) relationship. On the other hand, the dependence of the reflectivity measurement on the absolute radar calibration and the rain-path radar signal attenuation introduces significant systematic error on the RSTD rainfall estimates. The study shows that adjusting the Z-R relationship for mean-field bias determined using the RKDP estimates as reference is the best technique for acquiring unbiased radar-rainfall estimates at fine space-time scales. Overall, the bias of the RKDP-adjusted Z-R estimator is shown to be lower than 10% for both storm cases, while the relative root-mean-square error is shown to range from 0.6 (convective storm) to 0.9 (stratiform storm). A vertical rainfall profile correction (VPR) technique is tested in this study for the stratiform storm case. The method is based on a newly developed VPR algorithm that uses the X-band polarimetric information to identify the properties of the melting layer and devices a precipitation profile that varies for each radar volume scan to correct the radar-rainfall estimates. Overall, when accounting for the VPR effect there is up to 70% reduction in the systematic error of the 3° elevation estimates, while the reduction in terms of relative root-mean-square error is limited to within 10%.

  4. On the use of the post-closure methods uncertainty band to evaluate the performance of land surface models against eddy covariance flux data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingwersen, J.; Imukova, K.; Högy, P.; Streck, T.

    2015-04-01

    The energy balance of eddy covariance (EC) flux data is normally not closed. Therefore, at least if used for modelling, EC flux data are usually post-closed, i.e. the measured turbulent fluxes are adjusted so as to close the energy balance. At the current state of knowledge, however, it is not clear how to partition the missing energy in the right way. Eddy flux data therefore contain some uncertainty due to the unknown nature of the energy balance gap, which should be considered in model evaluation and the interpretation of simulation results. We propose to construct the post-closure methods uncertainty band (PUB), which essentially designates the differences between non-adjusted flux data and flux data adjusted with the three post-closure methods (Bowen ratio, latent heat flux (LE) and sensible heat flux (H) method). To demonstrate this approach, simulations with the NOAH-MP land surface model were evaluated based on EC measurements conducted at a winter wheat stand in southwest Germany in 2011, and the performance of the Jarvis and Ball-Berry stomatal resistance scheme was compared. The width of the PUB of the LE was up to 110 W m-2 (21% of net radiation). Our study shows that it is crucial to account for the uncertainty in EC flux data originating from lacking energy balance closure. Working with only a single post-closing method might result in severe misinterpretations in model-data comparisons.

  5. On the use of the post-closure method uncertainty band to evaluate the performance of land surface models against eddy covariance flux data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingwersen, J.; Imukova, K.; Högy, P.; Streck, T.

    2014-12-01

    The energy balance of eddy covariance (EC) flux data is normally not closed. Therefore, at least if used for modeling, EC flux data are usually post-closed, i.e. the measured turbulent fluxes are adjusted so as to close the energy balance. At the current state of knowledge, however, it is not clear how to partition the missing energy in the right way. Eddy flux data therefore contain some uncertainty due to the unknown nature of the energy balance gap, which should be considered in model evaluation and the interpretation of simulation results. We propose to construct the post-closure method uncertainty band (PUB), which essentially designates the differences between non-adjusted flux data and flux data adjusted with the three post-closure methods (Bowen ratio, latent heat flux (LE) and sensible heat flux (H) method). To demonstrate this approach, simulations with the NOAH-MP land surface model were evaluated based on EC measurements conducted at a winter wheat stand in Southwest Germany in 2011, and the performance of the Jarvis and Ball-Berry stomatal resistance scheme was compared. The width of the PUB of the LE was up to 110 W m-2 (21% of net radiation). Our study shows that it is crucial to account for the uncertainty of EC flux data originating from lacking energy balance closure. Working with only a single post-closing method might result in severe misinterpretations in model-data comparisons.

  6. Colloquium: Topological band theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bansil, A.; Lin, Hsin; Das, Tanmoy

    2016-04-01

    The first-principles band theory paradigm has been a key player not only in the process of discovering new classes of topologically interesting materials, but also for identifying salient characteristics of topological states, enabling direct and sharpened confrontation between theory and experiment. This review begins by discussing underpinnings of the topological band theory, which involve a layer of analysis and interpretation for assessing topological properties of band structures beyond the standard band theory construct. Methods for evaluating topological invariants are delineated, including crystals without inversion symmetry and interacting systems. The extent to which theoretically predicted properties and protections of topological states have been verified experimentally is discussed, including work on topological crystalline insulators, disorder and interaction driven topological insulators (TIs), topological superconductors, Weyl semimetal phases, and topological phase transitions. Successful strategies for new materials discovery process are outlined. A comprehensive survey of currently predicted 2D and 3D topological materials is provided. This includes binary, ternary, and quaternary compounds, transition metal and f -electron materials, Weyl and 3D Dirac semimetals, complex oxides, organometallics, skutterudites, and antiperovskites. Also included is the emerging area of 2D atomically thin films beyond graphene of various elements and their alloys, functional thin films, multilayer systems, and ultrathin films of 3D TIs, all of which hold exciting promise of wide-ranging applications. This Colloquium concludes by giving a perspective on research directions where further work will broadly benefit the topological materials field.

  7. S and Ku band frequency source development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The results of the two part S- and Ku-band source development program are described. The S- and Ku-band sources were designed, fabricated, and evaluated. A high performance S- and Ku-band microwave signal source using state-of-the-art oscillator and microwave source technology was developed.

  8. Proposal and performance evaluation of a Fiber-To-The-Antenna system for video distribution operating in the S-band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaldívar-Huerta, I. E.; García-Juárez, A.; Pérez-Montaña, D. F.; Hernández-Nava, P.; Vera-Marquina, A.

    2015-08-01

    It is well known that fiber-radio schemes merge the high speed of the optical links with the wide-coverage and mobility features of wireless systems. In this regard, we present the performance evaluation of a hybrid fiber-radio communication system for video distribution operating in the S-band. We demonstrate experimentally the generation of a series of microwave passband windows over 0.01-10 GHz range obtained by the interaction of an externally modulated multimode laser diode emitting at 1.55 μm associated to the chromatic dispersion parameter of an optical fiber as well as the length of the optical link. Also, demonstrated experimentally is the transmission of TV-signal coded on the microwave signals located at 2.27 GHz and 4.54 GHz, its propagation over an optical link of 25.24 km, and finally its distribution to multiple users by using an antenna. The originality of this work resides in the fact that the filtered microwave signals used as electrical carriers are function of the distance between the central site and the antenna; therefore it is possible to assign a particular microwave passband for certain services. Experimental results allow us to demonstrate that the Fiber-To-The-Antenna scheme is a promising technique for multiservice distribution.

  9. Study to investigate and evaluate means of optimizing the Ku-band combined radar/communication functions for the space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, C. L.; Alem, W. K.; Simon, M. K.

    1977-01-01

    The Ku band radar system on the shuttle orbiter operates in both a search and a tracking mode, and its transmitter and antennas share time with the communication mode in the integrated system. The power allocation properties and the Costa subloop subcarrier tracking performance associated with the baseline digital phase shift implementation of the three channel orbiter Ku band modulator are discussed.

  10. Evaluation of the predicted error of the soil moisture retrieval from C-band SAR by comparison against modelled soil moisture estimates over Australia.

    PubMed

    Doubková, Marcela; Van Dijk, Albert I J M; Sabel, Daniel; Wagner, Wolfgang; Blöschl, Günter

    2012-05-15

    The Sentinel-1 will carry onboard a C-band radar instrument that will map the European continent once every four days and the global land surface at least once every twelve days with finest 5 × 20 m spatial resolution. The high temporal sampling rate and operational configuration make Sentinel-1 of interest for operational soil moisture monitoring. Currently, updated soil moisture data are made available at 1 km spatial resolution as a demonstration service using Global Mode (GM) measurements from the Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) onboard ENVISAT. The service demonstrates the potential of the C-band observations to monitor variations in soil moisture. Importantly, a retrieval error estimate is also available; these are needed to assimilate observations into models. The retrieval error is estimated by propagating sensor errors through the retrieval model. In this work, the existing ASAR GM retrieval error product is evaluated using independent top soil moisture estimates produced by the grid-based landscape hydrological model (AWRA-L) developed within the Australian Water Resources Assessment system (AWRA). The ASAR GM retrieval error estimate, an assumed prior AWRA-L error estimate and the variance in the respective datasets were used to spatially predict the root mean square error (RMSE) and the Pearson's correlation coefficient R between the two datasets. These were compared with the RMSE calculated directly from the two datasets. The predicted and computed RMSE showed a very high level of agreement in spatial patterns as well as good quantitative agreement; the RMSE was predicted within accuracy of 4% of saturated soil moisture over 89% of the Australian land mass. Predicted and calculated R maps corresponded within accuracy of 10% over 61% of the continent. The strong correspondence between the predicted and calculated RMSE and R builds confidence in the retrieval error model and derived ASAR GM error estimates. The ASAR GM and Sentinel-1 have

  11. Evaluation of the predicted error of the soil moisture retrieval from C-band SAR by comparison against modelled soil moisture estimates over Australia

    PubMed Central

    Doubková, Marcela; Van Dijk, Albert I.J.M.; Sabel, Daniel; Wagner, Wolfgang; Blöschl, Günter

    2012-01-01

    The Sentinel-1 will carry onboard a C-band radar instrument that will map the European continent once every four days and the global land surface at least once every twelve days with finest 5 × 20 m spatial resolution. The high temporal sampling rate and operational configuration make Sentinel-1 of interest for operational soil moisture monitoring. Currently, updated soil moisture data are made available at 1 km spatial resolution as a demonstration service using Global Mode (GM) measurements from the Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) onboard ENVISAT. The service demonstrates the potential of the C-band observations to monitor variations in soil moisture. Importantly, a retrieval error estimate is also available; these are needed to assimilate observations into models. The retrieval error is estimated by propagating sensor errors through the retrieval model. In this work, the existing ASAR GM retrieval error product is evaluated using independent top soil moisture estimates produced by the grid-based landscape hydrological model (AWRA-L) developed within the Australian Water Resources Assessment system (AWRA). The ASAR GM retrieval error estimate, an assumed prior AWRA-L error estimate and the variance in the respective datasets were used to spatially predict the root mean square error (RMSE) and the Pearson's correlation coefficient R between the two datasets. These were compared with the RMSE calculated directly from the two datasets. The predicted and computed RMSE showed a very high level of agreement in spatial patterns as well as good quantitative agreement; the RMSE was predicted within accuracy of 4% of saturated soil moisture over 89% of the Australian land mass. Predicted and calculated R maps corresponded within accuracy of 10% over 61% of the continent. The strong correspondence between the predicted and calculated RMSE and R builds confidence in the retrieval error model and derived ASAR GM error estimates. The ASAR GM and Sentinel-1 have

  12. A Simple Band for Gastric Banding.

    PubMed

    Broadbent

    1993-08-01

    The author has noted that flexible gastric bands have occasionally stenosed the gastric stoma or allowed it to dilate. A band was developed using a soft outer silicone rubber tube over a holding mechanism made out of a nylon cable tie passed within the silicone tube. This simple, easily applied band is rigid, resisting scar contracture and dilatation. PMID:10757939

  13. A portable X-band front-end test package for beam-waveguide antenna performance evaluation. Part 2: Tests on the antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otoshi, T. Y.; Stewart, S. R.; Franco, M. M.

    1991-01-01

    Results are given for an X-band (8.45 GHz) test package for testing the new 34-m beam-waveguide antenna at Goldstone in an 'on-the-antenna' configuration. Included are X-band zenith noise temperature values and tipping-curve data obtained at the Cassegrain focal point F1 as well as at the pedestal room focal point F3. Subreflector Z-defocus test results for both F1 and F3 are also presented. The X-band test package operated well in all of the different test configurations and exceeded expected performance.

  14. COMPARATIVE THERAPEUTIC EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT TOPICALS AND NARROW BAND ULTRAVIOLET B THERAPY COMBINED WITH SYSTEMIC METHOTREXATE IN THE TREATMENT OF PALMOPLANTAR PSORIASIS

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sunil K; Singh, K K; Lalit, Mohan

    2011-01-01

    Background: The incidence of uncomplicated psoriasis is 1–3% in the general population. The involvement of palm and sole is seen in 7–14.5% of cases. There are different topicals and systemic therapies available for treating the case of psoriasis but none is satisfactory for longer duration. Aim: The study involved the comparative therapeutic evaluation of the different topical regimens and narrow band ultraviolet B (NB-UVB) therapy in combination with systemic methotrexate. Materials and Methods: The study was held in out-patient department of Skin, VD and Leprosy of B.R.D. Medical College, Gorakhpur, from July 2007 to December 2008. The group included 98 new cases of palmoplantar psoriasis. These cases were divided into eight groups according to the eight regimens involved in the study. The severity of psoriasis was assessed by the ESIF (erythema, scaling, induration and fissuring) score. Results: The study showed that all the regimens had significant response rates. The combination of NB-UVB with systemic methotrexate had maximum response rate (64.85±4.52%) that was statistically significant (paired “t” at 16d.f. = 33.329, P<0.001) with minimum number of recurrences after stopping the treatment. The combination of halobetasol ointment with systemic methotrexate also had significant response rate (paired “t” at 19d.f. = 13.5183, P<0.001) but had maximum number of cases with recurrence (70%) after stopping the treatment. Conclusion: These results suggest that the combination of every regimen with systemic methotrexate resulted in an early and a good improvement in the quality of life of patients suffering from psoriasis. It also shows that NB-UVB in combination with systemic methotrexate is more efficacious and has minimum recurrence rate and side effects in the treatment of palmoplantar psoriasis. PMID:21716541

  15. Prevalence of Comorbidities and Baseline Characteristics of LAP-BAND AP® Subjects in the Helping Evaluate Reduction in Obesity (HERO) Study

    PubMed Central

    Dreyer, Nancy; Dixon, John B.; Okerson, Ted; Finkelstein, Eric A.; Globe, Denise

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the baseline characteristics in patients who chose placement of a LAP-BAND AP® System (LBAP) and participated in the Helping Evaluate Reduction in Obesity (HERO) Study across regions. Patients and Methods HERO is a five- year, prospective, multicenter, international study of patients with LBAP placement between July 22, 2009 and January 31, 2011. In addition to baseline and peri-surgery clinical data, seven follow up visits are scheduled at 3, 6 and 12 months, and annually through year five. Data collection included family and medical history, clinical outcomes, laboratory data, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), productivity, healthcare resource utilization, and adverse events. Results LBAP were placed in 1106 enrolled patients; 56.6% from the US, 26.3% from Europe, 7.1% from Canada, and 10.0% from Australia. The majority were female (n = 877 (79.3%)) with a mean age of 43 years (s.d. = 11.4) and mean body mass index of 45.1 kg/m2 (s.d. = 6.9). The most common comorbidities were hypertension (HTN) (overall  = 42.9%) and diabetes (overall 22.2%, with 27% from the US and 14% from Europe). Overall, less than 5% had a history of cardiovascular disease. The prevalence rates of HTN, diabetes and cardiovascular disease were significantly (p<0.001) higher in men than in women across all regions. Overall HRQoL also worsened with increasing BMI. Conclusions The HERO study is the first large, multinational and long-term registry with the LBAP. This study will provide real-world outcomes data on LAGB that will help inform patient choice, clinician treatment strategies, and payer reimbursement decisions. PMID:24260140

  16. Evaluating Patterns of a White-Band Disease (WBD) Outbreak in Acropora palmata Using Spatial Analysis: A Comparison of Transect and Colony Clustering

    PubMed Central

    Lentz, Jennifer A.; Blackburn, Jason K.; Curtis, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite being one of the first documented, there is little known of the causative agent or environmental stressors that promote white-band disease (WBD), a major disease of Caribbean Acropora palmata. Likewise, there is little known about the spatiality of outbreaks. We examined the spatial patterns of WBD during a 2004 outbreak at Buck Island Reef National Monument in the US Virgin Islands. Methodology/Principal Findings Ripley's K statistic was used to measure spatial dependence of WBD across scales. Localized clusters of WBD were identified using the DMAP spatial filtering technique. Statistics were calculated for colony- (number of A. palmata colonies with and without WBD within each transect) and transect-level (presence/absence of WBD within transects) data to evaluate differences in spatial patterns at each resolution of coral sampling. The Ripley's K plots suggest WBD does cluster within the study area, and approached statistical significance (p = 0.1) at spatial scales of 1100 m or less. Comparisons of DMAP results suggest the transect-level overestimated the prevalence and spatial extent of the outbreak. In contrast, more realistic prevalence estimates and spatial patterns were found by weighting each transect by the number of individual A. palmata colonies with and without WBD. Conclusions As the search for causation continues, surveillance and proper documentation of the spatial patterns may inform etiology, and at the same time assist reef managers in allocating resources to tracking the disease. Our results indicate that the spatial scale of data collected can drastically affect the calculation of prevalence and spatial distribution of WBD outbreaks. Specifically, we illustrate that higher resolution sampling resulted in more realistic disease estimates. This should assist in selecting appropriate sampling designs for future outbreak investigations. The spatial techniques used here can be used to facilitate other coral disease studies

  17. Come Join the Band

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Cathy Applefeld

    2011-01-01

    A growing number of students in Blue Springs, Missouri, are joining the band, drawn by a band director who emphasizes caring and inclusiveness. In the four years since Melissia Goff arrived at Blue Springs High School, the school's extensive band program has swelled. The marching band alone has gone from 100 to 185 participants. Also under Goff's…

  18. Free-carrier dynamics and band tails in C u2ZnSn (SxSe1-x) 4 : Evaluation of factors determining solar cell efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phuong, Le Quang; Okano, Makoto; Yamashita, Genki; Nagai, Masaya; Ashida, Masaaki; Nagaoka, Akira; Yoshino, Kenji; Kanemitsu, Yoshihiko

    2015-09-01

    We investigated the composition-dependent photocarrier dynamics in C u2ZnSn (SxSe1-x) 4 (CZTSSe) single crystals using various types of steady-state and time-resolved optical spectroscopy. Photoluminescence spectroscopy shows that the band-tail states formed below the band edge decrease monotonically with increasing Se content. THz time-resolved spectroscopy clarifies that an increase in the Se content leads to a shorter lifetime of the free photocarriers. A trade-off between the composition-dependent band-tail density and the free-carrier lifetime occurs in CZTSSe single crystals. Our experimental results provide insights into the physics behind the low and composition-dependent conversion efficiency of CZTSSe-based solar cells.

  19. Shuttle Ku-band and S-band communications implementations study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huth, G. K.; Nessibou, T.; Nilsen, P. W.; Simon, M. K.; Weber, C. L.

    1979-01-01

    The interfaces between the Ku-band system and the TDRSS, between the S-band system and the TDRSS, GSTDN and SGLS networks, and between the S-band payload communication equipment and the other Orbiter avionic equipment were investigated. The principal activities reported are: (1) performance analysis of the payload narrowband bent-pipe through the Ku-band communication system; (2) performance evaluation of the TDRSS user constraints placed on the S-band and Ku-band communication systems; (3) assessment of the shuttle-unique S-band TDRSS ground station false lock susceptibility; (4) development of procedure to make S-band antenna measurements during orbital flight; (5) development of procedure to make RFI measurements during orbital flight to assess the performance degradation to the TDRSS S-band communication link; and (6) analysis of the payload interface integration problem areas.

  20. X-Band/Ka-Band Dichroic Plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Jacqueline C.

    1993-01-01

    Dichroic plate designed nearly transparent to circularly polarized microwaves at frequencies between 31.8 and 34.7 GHz (in and near Ka band) and reflective at frequencies between 8.4 and 8.5 GHz (in the X band). Made of electrically conductive material and contains rectangular holes in staggered pattern.

  1. Evaluation of the operational Aerosol Layer Height retrieval algorithm for Sentinel-5 Precursor: application to O2 A band observations from GOME-2A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, A. F. J.; de Haan, J. F.; Sneep, M.; Apituley, A.; Stammes, P.; Vieitez, M. O.; Tilstra, L. G.; Tuinder, O. N. E.; Koning, C. E.; Veefkind, J. P.

    2015-06-01

    An algorithm setup for the operational Aerosol Layer Height product for TROPOMI on the Sentinel-5 Precursor mission is described and discussed, applied to GOME-2A data, and evaluated with lidar measurements. The algorithm makes a spectral fit of reflectance at the O2 A band in the near-infrared and the fit window runs from 758 to 770 nm. The aerosol profile is parameterized by a scattering layer with constant aerosol volume extinction coefficient and aerosol single scattering albedo and with a fixed pressure thickness. The algorithm's target parameter is the height of this layer. In this paper, we apply the algorithm to observations from GOME-2A in a number of systematic and extensive case studies and we compare retrieved aerosol layer heights with lidar measurements. Aerosol scenes cover various aerosol types, both elevated and boundary layer aerosols, and land and sea surfaces. The aerosol optical thicknesses for these scenes are relatively moderate. Retrieval experiments with GOME-2A spectra are used to investigate various sensitivities, in which particular attention is given to the role of the surface albedo. From retrieval simulations with the single-layer model, we learn that the surface albedo should be a fit parameter when retrieving aerosol layer height from the O2 A band. Current uncertainties in surface albedo climatologies cause biases and non-convergences when the surface albedo is fixed in the retrieval. Biases disappear and convergence improves when the surface albedo is fitted, while precision of retrieved aerosol layer pressure is still largely within requirement levels. Moreover, we show that fitting the surface albedo helps to ameliorate biases in retrieved aerosol layer height when the assumed aerosol model is inaccurate. Subsequent retrievals with GOME-2A spectra confirm that convergence is better when the surface albedo is retrieved simultaneously with aerosol parameters. However, retrieved aerosol layer pressures are systematically low (i

  2. Evaluation of the operational Aerosol Layer Height retrieval algorithm for Sentinel-5 Precursor: application to O2 A band observations from GOME-2A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, A. F. J.; de Haan, J. F.; Sneep, M.; Apituley, A.; Stammes, P.; Vieitez, M. O.; Tilstra, L. G.; Tuinder, O. N. E.; Koning, C. E.; Veefkind, J. P.

    2015-11-01

    An algorithm setup for the operational Aerosol Layer Height product for TROPOMI on the Sentinel-5 Precursor mission is described and discussed, applied to GOME-2A data, and evaluated with lidar measurements. The algorithm makes a spectral fit of reflectance at the O2 A band in the near-infrared and the fit window runs from 758 to 770 nm. The aerosol profile is parameterised by a scattering layer with constant aerosol volume extinction coefficient and aerosol single scattering albedo and with a fixed pressure thickness. The algorithm's target parameter is the height of this layer. In this paper, we apply the algorithm to observations from GOME-2A in a number of systematic and extensive case studies, and we compare retrieved aerosol layer heights with lidar measurements. Aerosol scenes cover various aerosol types, both elevated and boundary layer aerosols, and land and sea surfaces. The aerosol optical thicknesses for these scenes are relatively moderate. Retrieval experiments with GOME-2A spectra are used to investigate various sensitivities, in which particular attention is given to the role of the surface albedo. From retrieval simulations with the single-layer model, we learn that the surface albedo should be a fit parameter when retrieving aerosol layer height from the O2 A band. Current uncertainties in surface albedo climatologies cause biases and non-convergences when the surface albedo is fixed in the retrieval. Biases disappear and convergence improves when the surface albedo is fitted, while precision of retrieved aerosol layer pressure is still largely within requirement levels. Moreover, we show that fitting the surface albedo helps to ameliorate biases in retrieved aerosol layer height when the assumed aerosol model is inaccurate. Subsequent retrievals with GOME-2A spectra confirm that convergence is better when the surface albedo is retrieved simultaneously with aerosol parameters. However, retrieved aerosol layer pressures are systematically low (i

  3. CSF oligoclonal banding

    MedlinePlus

    ... the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). CFS is the clear fluid that flows in the space around the spinal cord and brain. Oligoclonal bands are proteins called immunoglobulins. The ... system. Oligoclonal bands may be a sign of multiple sclerosis.

  4. Photonic band gap materials

    SciTech Connect

    Soukoulis, C.M. |

    1993-12-31

    An overview of the theoretical and experimental efforts in obtaining a photonic band gap, a frequency band in three-dimensional dielectric structures in which electromagnetic waves are forbidden, is presented.

  5. Status of the NOAO evaluation of the Hughes 20x64 Si:As impurity band conduction array. [for ground and space-based astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fowler, A. M.; Joyce, R. R.

    1990-01-01

    The Hughes 20 x 64 Si:As impurity band conduction arrays designed for ground-based and spaceborne astronomy observations is described together with experiments performed at NOAO to test these arrays. Special attention is given to the design and the characteristics of the test system and to the test methods. The initial tests on two columns of one array indicate that the array is easy to operate and performed satisfactorily.

  6. Flat Band Quastiperiodic Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodyfelt, Joshua; Flach, Sergej; Danieli, Carlo

    2014-03-01

    Translationally invariant lattices with flat bands (FB) in their band structure possess irreducible compact localized flat band states, which can be understood through local rotation to a Fano structure. We present extension of these quasi-1D FB structures under incommensurate lattices, reporting on the FB effects to the Metal-Insulator Transition.

  7. Banded ion morphology

    SciTech Connect

    Frahm, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    Bands of ions have been observed at constant pitch angle by the Dynamics Explorer High- and Low-Altitude Plasma Instruments at auroral latitudes. The observed ion-dispersion pattern shows lower-energy ions toward the equatorward side of the band and higher-energy ions toward the poleward side of the band. Ion bands have their highest-energy flux at small pitch angles. The observed bands have been correlated with storm phase (by Dst) and substorm phase (by AE). Bands are more likely to occur during main-storm phase than during recovery storm phase. Substorm correlations are statistically significant, but there is a hint that most bands occur during substorm recovery phase. Two models have the potential of producing ion signatures that are similar to the band feature. They are the time-of-flight mechanism and the convective dispersion mechanism. Under a time-of-flight mechanism, ions are dispersed along a magnetic filed line with higher-energy particles outrunning lower energy particles. Ions are dispersed perpendicular to the magnetic field under convective dispersion. A time-of-flight effect does not explain the band energy-latitude dependence observed in the southern night or northern day very well, whereas the convective dispersion mechanism easily accomplishes this.

  8. Study to investigate and evaluate means of optimizing the Ku-band combined radar/communication functions for the space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, C. L.; Udalov, S.; Alem, W.

    1977-01-01

    The performance of the space shuttle orbiter's Ku-Band integrated radar and communications equipment is analyzed for the radar mode of operation. The block diagram of the rendezvous radar subsystem is described. Power budgets for passive target detection are calculated, based on the estimated values of system losses. Requirements for processing of radar signals in the search and track modes are examined. Time multiplexed, single-channel, angle tracking of passive scintillating targets is analyzed. Radar performance in the presence of main lobe ground clutter is considered and candidate techniques for clutter suppression are discussed. Principal system parameter drivers are examined for the case of stationkeeping at ranges comparable to target dimension. Candidate ranging waveforms for short range operation are analyzed and compared. The logarithmic error discriminant utilized for range, range rate and angle tracking is formulated and applied to the quantitative analysis of radar subsystem tracking loops.

  9. Wide Band to ''Double Band'' upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Kasper, P.; Currier, R.; Garbincius, P.; Butler, J.

    1988-06-01

    The Wide Band beam currently uses electrons obtained from secondary photon conversions to produce the photon beam incident on the experimental targets. By transporting the positrons produced in these conversions as well as the electrons it is possible to almost double the number of photons delivered to the experiments per primary beam proton. 11 figs.

  10. ANATOMICAL RECONSTRUCTION OF ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT OF THE KNEE: DOUBLE BAND OR SINGLE BAND?

    PubMed Central

    Zanella, Luiz Antonio Zanotelli; Junior, Adair Bervig; Badotti, Augusto Alves; Michelin, Alexandre Froes; Algarve, Rodrigo Ilha; de Quadros Martins, Cesar Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the double-band and single-band techniques for anatomical reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament of the knee and demonstrate that the double-band technique not only provides greater anterior stability but also causes less pain and a better subjective patient response. Methods: We selected 42 patients who underwent anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, by means of either the single-band anatomical reconstruction technique, using flexor tendon grafts with two tunnels, or the double-band anatomical reconstruction technique, using four tunnels and grafts from the semitendinosus and gracilis tendons. All fixations were performed using interference screws. There was no variation in the sample. Before the operation, the objective and subjective IKDC scores, Lysholm score and length of time with the injury were evaluated. All these variables were reassessed six months later, and the KT-1000 correlation with the contralateral knee was also evaluated. Results: There was no significant difference between the two groups in subjective evaluations, but the single-band group showed better results in relation to range of motion and objective evaluations including KT-1000 (with statistical significance). Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that there was no difference between the two groups in subjective evaluations, but better results were found using the single-band anatomical technique, in relation to objective evaluations. PMID:27042621

  11. Rubber Band Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowens, John

    2005-01-01

    Not only are rubber bands great for binding objects together, but they can be used in a simple science experiment that involves predicting, problem solving, measuring, graphing, and experimenting. In this article, the author describes how rubber bands can be used to teach the force of mass.

  12. Stretch Band Exercise Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skirka, Nicholas; Hume, Donald

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how to use stretch bands for improving total body fitness and quality of life. A stretch band exercise program offers a versatile and inexpensive option to motivate participants to exercise. The authors suggest practical exercises that can be used in physical education to improve or maintain muscular strength and endurance,…

  13. Singing with the Band

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altman, Timothy Meyer; Wright, Gary K.

    2012-01-01

    Usually band, orchestra, and choir directors work independently. However, the authors--one a choral director, the other a band director--have learned that making music together makes friends. Not only can ensemble directors get along, but joint concerts may be just the way to help students see how music can reach the heart. Combined instrumental…

  14. Progressive Band Selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Kevin; Chang, Chein-I

    2009-01-01

    Progressive band selection (PBS) reduces spectral redundancy without significant loss of information, thereby reducing hyperspectral image data volume and processing time. Used onboard a spacecraft, it can also reduce image downlink time. PBS prioritizes an image's spectral bands according to priority scores that measure their significance to a specific application. Then it uses one of three methods to select an appropriate number of the most useful bands. Key challenges for PBS include selecting an appropriate criterion to generate band priority scores, and determining how many bands should be retained in the reduced image. The image's Virtual Dimensionality (VD), once computed, is a reasonable estimate of the latter. We describe the major design details of PBS and test PBS in a land classification experiment.

  15. Evaluation of near-surface soil moisture data from an AAFC monitoring network in Manitoba, Canada: Implications for L-band satellite validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Justin R.; McNairn, Heather; Berg, Aaron A.; Champagne, Catherine

    2015-02-01

    This paper examines near-surface soil moisture data (top ∼6 cm) from an Agriculture and Agri-food Canada (AAFC) monitoring network in southern Manitoba, Canada, over the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons. This network is intended for use (in part) as a core validation site for the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission. The network currently consists of 9 stations sited within agricultural fields. Each station uses a triplicate configuration of horizontally installed Hydra Probe soil moisture sensors at near-surface (∼5 cm) to root-zone soil depths, in addition to permanently installed vertical surface sensors (0-5.7 cm). This domain was studied intensively over the 6.5 week SMAPVEX12 ground campaign in June/July 2012, providing coincident soil moisture datasets to assess network up-scaling over the domain. Results demonstrate that statistical differences exist between the network-level data from the horizontal (θ3.5-6.5cm) and vertical (θ0-5.7cm) surface Hydra Probes over 2012-13. Bootstrap resampling shows that a mean difference of 0.018 m3 m-3 (at 99% confidence) is observed between θ3.5-6.5cm and θ0-5.7cm measurement depths (θ0-5.7cm sensors exhibit dry bias). Individual station analysis shows that the largest differences between θ3.5-6.5cm and θ0-5.7cm measurement depth occur at sites with higher clay content, whereas sensors located in sandy soils exhibit negligible differences. Up-scaling comparisons of the AAFC network to field-sampled data and a dense temporary network over SMAPVEX12 demonstrate that it is representative of the domain within 0.04 m3 m-3 RMSE. This suggests that the AAFC network is suitable for coarse resolution L-band microwave soil moisture validation. Comparison of Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) Level 2 soil moisture product data to the up-scaled AAFC network data over 2012-13 shows that superior temporal correlation is found with the θ0-5.7cm dataset. The difference in RMSEs between the SMOS comparisons to θ3.5-6.5cm

  16. Comparison of X-Band, L-Band and C-Band Radar Images in Monitoring Subsidence in Agricultural Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motagh, Mahdi; Haghshenas Haghighi, Mahmud; Shamshiri, Roghaye; Esmaeili, Mustapha

    2015-05-01

    The ongoing pattern of groundwater induced land subsidence in major valleys and agricultural regions of Iran has been recently documented by several studies (e.g. [1-4]) using C-band Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) observations. In this article we present the results of our research in which we evaluated the performance of C-band, L-band and X-band SAR data, using time-series method of small baseline subset (SBAS), to retrieve long time series of ground subsidence in agricultural regions in the country. Two major groundwater basins have been selected for this purpose: (1) Rafsanjan Valley in the Kerman province of central Iran and (2) Tehran Plain (capital of Iran). We also report on our experience using dualpolarimetry (HH/VV) X-band SAR data for Persistent Scatterer (PS) deformation analysis in natural terrains subject to high rate of deformation.

  17. Dynamic gauge adjustment of high-resolution X-band radar data for convective rain storms: Model-based evaluation against measured combined sewer overflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borup, Morten; Grum, Morten; Linde, Jens Jørgen; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2016-08-01

    Numerous studies have shown that radar rainfall estimates need to be adjusted against rain gauge measurements in order to be useful for hydrological modelling. In the current study we investigate if adjustment can improve radar rainfall estimates to the point where they can be used for modelling overflows from urban drainage systems, and we furthermore investigate the importance of the aggregation period of the adjustment scheme. This is done by continuously adjusting X-band radar data based on the previous 5-30 min of rain data recorded by multiple rain gauges and propagating the rainfall estimates through a hydraulic urban drainage model. The model is built entirely from physical data, without any calibration, to avoid bias towards any specific type of rainfall estimate. The performance is assessed by comparing measured and modelled water levels at a weir downstream of a highly impermeable, well defined, 64 ha urban catchment, for nine overflow generating rain events. The dynamically adjusted radar data perform best when the aggregation period is as small as 10-20 min, in which case it performs much better than static adjusted radar data and data from rain gauges situated 2-3 km away.

  18. Spectral band selection for classification of soil organic matter content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Tracey L.; Szilagyi, Andrea; Baumgardner, Marion F.; Chen, Chih-Chien Thomas; Landgrebe, David A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the spectral-band-selection (SBS) algorithm of Chen and Landgrebe (1987, 1988, and 1989) and uses the algorithm to classify the organic matter content in the earth's surface soil. The effectiveness of the algorithm was evaluated comparing the results of classification of the soil organic matter using SBS bands with those obtained using Landsat MSS bands and TM bands, showing that the algorithm was successful in finding important spectral bands for classification of organic matter content. Using the calculated bands, the probabilities of correct classification for climate-stratified data were found to range from 0.910 to 0.980.

  19. Ku-band miniature modulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ernst, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    Ku-band microminiature modulators were designed to convert a 10 mW signal at 400 MHz to a 10 mW signal at 15 GHz. The designs incorporate gallium arsenide Schottky barrier varactors used in upper-sideband up-converters. The use of Ku-band microstrip circulators and hairpin resonator bandpass filters at 2.1 GHz and 2.5 GHz is included. The design and fabrication of a single up-conversion unit with a double up-conversion unit are compared. Various filter configurations are studies, and the use of both alumina and quartz substrates are considered. The various impedance matching networks are evaluated using computer aided design techniques.

  20. Chiral Bands and Triaxiality

    SciTech Connect

    Petrache, C.M.

    2004-02-27

    The results obtained with the GASP array in the A=130 mass region are reviewed, emphasizing the discovery excited highly-deformed bands and their decay out, the study of the odd-odd Pr nuclei up to high spins, the discovery of stable triaxial bands in Nd nuclei close to the N=82 shell closure. The very recent studies of nuclei near the proton drip line are described. A discussion of the origin of the various doublet bands observed in odd-odd nuclei of the A=130 mass region is presented.

  1. The Use of the Johnson-Neyman Confidence Bands and Multiple Regression Models To Investigate Interaction Effects: Important Tools for Educational Researchers and Program Evaluators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraas, John W.; Newman, Isadore

    When investigating the impact of predictor variables on an outcome variable or measuring the effectiveness of an educational program, educational researchers and program evaluators cannot ignore the possible influences of interaction effects. The purpose of this paper is to present a procedure that educational researchers can follow in order to…

  2. Laparoscopic gastric banding

    MedlinePlus

    ... lining), heartburn , or stomach ulcers Infection in the port, which may need antibiotics or surgery Injury to ... may not be able to reach the access port to tighten or loosen the band (you would ...

  3. Decay of superdeformed bands

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, M.P.; Khoo, T.L.; Lauritsen, T.

    1995-12-31

    One of the major challenges in the study of superdeformation is to directly connect the large number of superdeformed bands now known to the yrast states. In this way, excitation energies, spins and parities can be assigned to the levels in the second well which is essential to establish the collective and single-particle components of these bands. This paper will review some of the progress which has been made to understand the decay of superdeformed bands using the new arrays including the measurement of the total decay spectrum and the establishment of direct one-step decays from the superdeformed band to the yrast line in {sup 194}Hg. 42 refs., 5 figs.

  4. Laparoscopic gastric banding

    MedlinePlus

    ... gastric banding is not a "quick fix" for obesity. It will greatly change your lifestyle. You must ... panel on weight loss surgery: executive report update. Obesity . 2009;17:842-62. PMID: 19396063 www.ncbi. ...

  5. CSF oligoclonal banding - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... presentations/100145.htm CSF oligoclonal banding - series—Normal anatomy ... Overview The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) serves to supply nutrients to the central nervous system (CNS) and collect waste products, as well as ...

  6. CSF oligoclonal banding

    MedlinePlus

    ... system. Oligoclonal bands may be a sign of multiple sclerosis. How the Test is Performed A sample of ... Performed This test helps support the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS). However, it does not confirm the diagnosis. ...

  7. Hyperspectral band selection based on parallel particle swarm optimization and impurity function band prioritization schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yang-Lang; Liu, Jin-Nan; Chen, Yen-Lin; Chang, Wen-Yen; Hsieh, Tung-Ju; Huang, Bormin

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, satellite imaging technologies have resulted in an increased number of bands acquired by hyperspectral sensors, greatly advancing the field of remote sensing. Accordingly, owing to the increasing number of bands, band selection in hyperspectral imagery for dimension reduction is important. This paper presents a framework for band selection in hyperspectral imagery that uses two techniques, referred to as particle swarm optimization (PSO) band selection and the impurity function band prioritization (IFBP) method. With the PSO band selection algorithm, highly correlated bands of hyperspectral imagery can first be grouped into modules to coarsely reduce high-dimensional datasets. Then, these highly correlated band modules are analyzed with the IFBP method to finely select the most important feature bands from the hyperspectral imagery dataset. However, PSO band selection is a time-consuming procedure when the number of hyperspectral bands is very large. Hence, this paper proposes a parallel computing version of PSO, namely parallel PSO (PPSO), using a modern graphics processing unit (GPU) architecture with NVIDIA's compute unified device architecture technology to improve the computational speed of PSO processes. The natural parallelism of the proposed PPSO lies in the fact that each particle can be regarded as an independent agent. Parallel computation benefits the algorithm by providing each agent with a parallel processor. The intrinsic parallel characteristics embedded in PPSO are, therefore, suitable for parallel computation. The effectiveness of the proposed PPSO is evaluated through the use of airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer hyperspectral images. The performance of PPSO is validated using the supervised K-nearest neighbor classifier. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed PPSO/IFBP band selection method can not only improve computational speed, but also offer a satisfactory classification performance.

  8. S-Band propagation measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briskman, Robert D.

    1994-01-01

    A geosynchronous satellite system capable of providing many channels of digital audio radio service (DARS) to mobile platforms within the contiguous United States using S-band radio frequencies is being implemented. The system is designed uniquely to mitigate both multipath fading and outages from physical blockage in the transmission path by use of satellite spatial diversity in combination with radio frequency and time diversity. The system also employs a satellite orbital geometry wherein all mobile platforms in the contiguous United States have elevation angles greater than 20 deg to both of the diversity satellites. Since implementation of the satellite system will require three years, an emulation has been performed using terrestrial facilities in order to allow evaluation of DARS capabilities in advance of satellite system operations. The major objective of the emulation was to prove the feasibility of broadcasting from satellites 30 channels of CD quality programming using S-band frequencies to an automobile equipped with a small disk antenna and to obtain quantitative performance data on S-band propagation in a satellite spatial diversity system.

  9. Game theory based band selection for hyperspectral images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Aiye; He, Zhenyu; Huang, Fengchen

    2015-12-01

    This paper proposes a new evaluation criterion for band selection for hyperspectral imagery. The combination of information and class separability is used to be as a new evaluation criterion, at the same time, the correlation between bands is used as a constraint condition. In addition, the game theory is introduced into the band selection to coordinate the potential conflict of search the optimal band combination using information and class separability these two evaluation criteria. The experimental results show that the proposed method is effective on AVIRIS hyperspectral data.

  10. Banded transformer cores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, C. W. T. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A banded transformer core formed by positioning a pair of mated, similar core halves on a supporting pedestal. The core halves are encircled with a strap, selectively applying tension whereby a compressive force is applied to the core edge for reducing the innate air gap. A dc magnetic field is employed in supporting the core halves during initial phases of the banding operation, while an ac magnetic field subsequently is employed for detecting dimension changes occurring in the air gaps as tension is applied to the strap.

  11. Synthesizing folded band chaos.

    PubMed

    Corron, Ned J; Hayes, Scott T; Pethel, Shawn D; Blakely, Jonathan N

    2007-04-01

    A randomly driven linear filter that synthesizes Lorenz-like, reverse-time chaos is shown also to produce Rössler-like folded band wave forms when driven using a different encoding of the random source. The relationship between the topological entropy of the random source, dissipation in the linear filter, and the positive Lyapunov exponent for the reverse-time wave form is exposed. The two drive encodings are viewed as grammar restrictions on a more general encoding that produces a chaotic superset encompassing both the Lorenz butterfly and Rössler folded band paradigms of nonlinear dynamics. PMID:17500950

  12. Validation of Landsat 7 ETM+ band 6 radiometric performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palluconi, Frank; Hook, Simon; Abtahi, Ali; Alley, Ron

    2005-01-01

    Since shortly after launch the radiometric performance of band 6 of the ETM+ instrument on Landsat 7 has been evaluated using vicarious calbiration techniques for both land and water targets. This evaluation indicates the radiometric performance of band 6 has been both highly stable and accurate.

  13. The Steel Band.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weil, Bruce

    1996-01-01

    Describes studying the steel drum, an import from Trinidad, as an instrument of intellectual growth. Describes how developing a steel drum band provided Montessori middle school students the opportunity to experience some important feelings necessary to emotional growth during this difficult age: competence, usefulness, independence, and…

  14. Multi-Band-SWIFT

    PubMed Central

    Corum, Curtis A.; Garwood, Michael

    2015-01-01

    A useful extension to SWIFT (SWeep Imaging with Fourier Transformation) utilizing sidebands of the excitation pulse is introduced. This MRI method, called Multi-Band-SWIFT, achieves much higher bandwidth than standard SWIFT by using multiple segmented excitations (bands) of the field of view. A description of the general idea and variants of the pulse sequence are presented. From simulations and semi-phenomenological theory, estimations of power deposition and signal-to-noise ratio are made. MB-SWIFT and ZTE (zero-TE) sequences are compared based on images of a phantom and human mandible. Multi-Band-SWIFT provides a bridge between SWIFT and ZTE sequences and allows greatly increased excitation and acquisition bandwidths relative to standard SWIFT for the same hardware switching parameters and requires less peak amplitude of the radiofrequency field (or greater flip angle at same peak amplitude) as compared to ZTE. Multi-Band-SWIFT appears to be an attractive extension of SWIFT for certain musculoskeletal and other medical imaging applications, as well as for imaging materials. PMID:25557859

  15. Multi-Band-SWIFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idiyatullin, Djaudat; Corum, Curtis A.; Garwood, Michael

    2015-02-01

    A useful extension to SWIFT (SWeep Imaging with Fourier Transformation) utilizing sidebands of the excitation pulse is introduced. This MRI method, called Multi-Band-SWIFT, achieves much higher bandwidth than standard SWIFT by using multiple segmented excitations (bands) of the field of view. A description of the general idea and variants of the pulse sequence are presented. From simulations and semi-phenomenological theory, estimations of power deposition and signal-to-noise ratio are made. MB-SWIFT and ZTE (zero-TE) sequences are compared based on images of a phantom and human mandible. Multi-Band-SWIFT provides a bridge between SWIFT and ZTE sequences and allows greatly increased excitation and acquisition bandwidths relative to standard SWIFT for the same hardware switching parameters and requires less peak amplitude of the radiofrequency field (or greater flip angle at same peak amplitude) as compared to ZTE. Multi-Band-SWIFT appears to be an attractive extension of SWIFT for certain musculoskeletal and other medical imaging applications, as well as for imaging materials.

  16. Multiscale image enhancement of chromosome banding patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qiang; Castleman, Kenneth R.

    1996-10-01

    Visual examination of chromosome banding patterns is an important means of chromosome analysis. Cytogeneticists compare their patient's chromosome image against the prototype normal/abnormal human chromosome banding patterns. Automated chromosome analysis instruments facilitate this by digitally enhancing the chromosome images. Currently available systems employing traditional highpass/bandpass filtering and/or histogram equalization are approximately equivalent to photomicroscopy in their ability to support the detection of band pattern alterations. Improvements in chromosome image display quality, particularly in the detail of the banding pattern, would significantly increase the cost-effectiveness of these systems. In this paper we present our work on the use of multiscale transform and derivative filtering for image enhancement of chromosome banding patterns. A steerable pyramid representation of the chromosome image is generated by a multiscale transform. The derivative filters are designed to detect the bands of a chromosome, and the steerable pyramid transform is chosen based on its desirable properties of shift and rotation invariance. By processing the transform coefficients that correspond to the bands of the chromosome in the pyramid representation, contrast enhancement of the chromosome bands can be achieved with designed flexibility in scale, orientation and location. Compared with existing chromosome image enhancement techniques, this new approach offers the advantage of selective chromosome banding pattern enhancement that allows designated detail analysis. Experimental results indicate improved enhancement capabilities and promise more effective visual aid to comparison of chromosomes to the prototypes and to each other. This will increase the ability of automated chromosome analysis instruments to assist the evaluation of chromosome abnormalities in clinical samples.

  17. Europa Triple Band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This picture of Europa, a moon of Jupiter, was obtained on February 20, 1997, by the Solid State Imaging system onboard the Galileo spacecraft during its sixth orbit around Jupiter. The area is centered at 9.3 degrees north latitude, 275.7 degrees west longitude, on the trailing hemisphere of Europa. As Europa moves in its orbit around Jupiter, the trailing hemisphere is the portion which is always on the moon's backside opposite to its direction of motion. The area depicted is about 32 kilometers by 40 kilometers (20 miles by 25 miles). Resolution is 54 meters (59 yards). The Sun illuminates the scene from the right (east).

    A section of a triple band crosses the upper left of the picture and extends for hundreds of miles across the surface. Triple bands derive their name from their appearance at lower resolution as a narrow bright band flanked by a pair of darker bands. At the high resolution of this picture, however, the triple band is much more complex and is composed of a system of ridges 6 kilometers (4 miles) across. Some ridges reach heights of about 180 meters (200 yards). Other features include a hill in the center of the picture about 480 meters (500 yards) high. Two mounds about 6 kilometers across (4 miles) are seen in the bottom of the picture. The ridges, hills and mounds probably all represent uplifts of the icy crust of Europa by processes originating from the interior.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington D.C. This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web Galileo mission home page at: http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

  18. TDRS Ku band gateway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Cynthia; Lecha, Javier; Principe, Caleb M.; Ross, Douglas

    1987-01-01

    The Wideband Transport Frame Formatter (WTFF) is the tracking and data relay satellite (TDRS) ku-band return link gateway. The WTFF system is a multiplexing device developed to process and downlink the high rate data generated by a wide variety of users. The WTFF is designed to frame and format high data rate user channels into transport frames and multiplex according to a predefined schedule into two bit streams that are compatible with TDRS Ku I and Q band service. The combined data rate will be 300 Mbps. The WTFF will service up to eight input channels generating data in the range of 10 to 150 Mbps. In addition to these input channels, audio data will be accepted by the WTFF system and inserted in the downlink. A second function of the WTFF is to provide telecommunication coding as assigned to each virtual channel to ensure a given quality of service.

  19. Banded electromagnetic stator core

    DOEpatents

    Fanning, A.W.; Gonzales, A.A.; Patel, M.R.; Olich, E.E.

    1996-06-11

    A stator core for an electromagnetic pump includes a plurality of circumferentially adjoining groups of flat laminations disposed about a common centerline axis and collectively defining a central bore and a discontinuous outer perimeter, with adjacent groups diverging radially outwardly to form V-shaped gaps. An annular band surrounds the groups and is predeterminedly tensioned to clamp together the laminations, and has a predetermined flexibility in a radial direction to form substantially straight bridge sections between the adjacent groups. 5 figs.

  20. Banded electromagnetic stator core

    DOEpatents

    Fanning, A.W.; Gonzales, A.A.; Patel, M.R.; Olich, E.E.

    1994-04-05

    A stator core for an electromagnetic pump includes a plurality of circumferentially adjoining groups of flat laminations disposed about a common centerline axis and collectively defining a central bore and a discontinuous outer perimeter, with adjacent groups diverging radially outwardly to form V-shaped gaps. An annular band surrounds the groups and is predeterminedly tensioned to clamp together the laminations, and has a predetermined flexibility in a radial direction to form substantially straight bridge sections between the adjacent groups. 5 figures.

  1. Banded electromagnetic stator core

    DOEpatents

    Fanning, Alan W.; Gonzales, Aaron A.; Patel, Mahadeo R.; Olich, Eugene E.

    1994-01-01

    A stator core for an electromagnetic pump includes a plurality of circumferentially adjoining groups of flat laminations disposed about a common centerline axis and collectively defining a central bore and a discontinuous outer perimeter, with adjacent groups diverging radially outwardly to form V-shaped gaps. An annular band surrounds the groups and is predeterminedly tensioned to clamp together the laminations, and has a predetermined flexibility in a radial direction to form substantially straight bridge sections between the adjacent groups.

  2. Banded electromagnetic stator core

    DOEpatents

    Fanning, Alan W.; Gonzales, Aaron A.; Patel, Mahadeo R.; Olich, Eugene E.

    1996-01-01

    A stator core for an electromagnetic pump includes a plurality of circumferentially adjoining groups of flat laminations disposed about a common centerline axis and collectively defining a central bore and a discontinuous outer perimeter, with adjacent groups diverging radially outwardly to form V-shaped gaps. An annular band surrounds the groups and is predeterminedly tensioned to clamp together the laminations, and has a predetermined flexibility in a radial direction to form substantially straight bridge sections between the adjacent groups.

  3. Micromechanics of shear banding

    SciTech Connect

    Gilman, J.J.

    1992-08-01

    Shear-banding is one of many instabilities observed during the plastic flow of solids. It is a consequence of the dislocation mechanism which makes plastic flow fundamentally inhomogeneous, and is exacerbated by local adiabatic heating. Dislocation lines tend to be clustered on sets of neighboring glide planes because they are heterogeneously generated; especially through the Koehler multiple-cross-glide mechanism. Factors that influence their mobilities also play a role. Strain-hardening decreases the mobilities within shear bands thereby tending to spread (delocalize) them. Strain-softening has the inverse effect. This paper reviews the micro-mechanisms of these phenomena. It will be shown that heat production is also a consequence of the heterogeneous nature of the microscopic flow, and that dislocation dipoles play an important role. They are often not directly observable, but their presence may be inferred from changes in thermal conductivity. It is argued that after deformation at low temperatures dipoles are distributed a la Pareto so there are many more small than large ones. Instability at upper yield point, the shapes of shear-band fronts, and mechanism of heat generation are also considered. It is shown that strain-rate acceleration plays a more important role than strain-rate itself in adiabatic instability.

  4. LANDSAT 4 band 6 data evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Computer modelled atmospheric transmittance and path radiance values were compared with empirical values derived from aircraft underflight data. Aircraft thermal infrared imagery and calibration data were available on two dates as were corresponding atmospheric radiosonde data. The radiosonde data were used as input to the LOWTRAN 5A code. The aircraft data were calibrated and utilized to generate analogous measurements. The results of the analysis indicate that there is a tendancy for the LOWTRAN model to underestimate atmospheric path radiance and overestimate atmospheric transmittance.

  5. LANDSAT 4 band 6 data evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Multiple altitude TM thermal infrared images were analyzed and the observed radiance values were computed. The data obtained represent an experimental relation between preceived radiance and altitude. A LOWTRAB approach was tested which incorporates a modification to the path radiance model. This modification assumes that the scattering out of the optical path is equal in magnitude and direction to the scattering into the path. The radiance observed at altitude by an aircraft sensor was used as input to the model. Expected radiance as a function of altitude was then computed down to the ground. The results were not very satisfactory because of somewhat large errors in temperature and because of the difference in the shape of the modeled and experimental curves.

  6. Landsat TM and ETM+ Thermal Band Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barsi, Julia A.; Hook, Simon J.; Palluconi, Frank D.; Schott, John R.; Raqueno, Nina G.

    2006-01-01

    Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) has been imaging the Earth since March 1984 and Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) was added to the series of Landsat instruments in April 1999. The stability and calibration of the ETM+ has been monitored extensively since launch. Though not monitored for many years, TM now has a similar system in place to monitor stability and calibration. University teams have been evaluating the on-board calibration of the instruments through ground-based measurements since 1999. This paper considers the calibration efforts for the thermal band, Band 6, of both the Landsat-5 and Landsat-7 instruments.

  7. Broad band waveguide spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Goldman, Don S.

    1995-01-01

    A spectrometer for analyzing a sample of material utilizing a broad band source of electromagnetic radiation and a detector. The spectrometer employs a waveguide possessing an entry and an exit for the electromagnetic radiation emanating from the source. The waveguide further includes a surface between the entry and exit portions which permits interaction between the electromagnetic radiation passing through the wave guide and a sample material. A tapered portion forms a part of the entry of the wave guide and couples the electromagnetic radiation emanating from the source to the waveguide. The electromagnetic radiation passing from the exit of the waveguide is captured and directed to a detector for analysis.

  8. VIIRS reflective solar bands on-orbit calibration coefficient performance using imagery and moderate band intercomparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyer, D.; Vandermierden, N.; Rausch, K.; De Luccia, F.

    2014-09-01

    A primary sensor on-board the Suomi-National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) spacecraft, the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) has 22 bands: 7 thermal emissive bands (TEBs), 14 reflective solar bands (RSBs) and a Day Night Band (DNB). The RSBs cover the spectral wavelengths between 0.412 to 2.25 μm and have three (I1-I3) 371m and eleven (M1-M11) 742m spatial resolution bands. A VIIRS Key Performance Parameter (KPP) is the Ocean Color/Chlorophyll (OCC) which uses moderate bands M1 (0.412μm) through M7's (0.865 μm) calibrated Science Data Records (SDRs). The RSB SDRs rely on prelaunch calibration coefficients which use a quadratic algorithm to convert the detector's response to calibrated radiance. This paper will evaluate the performance of these prelaunch calibration coefficients using SDR comparisons between bands with the same spectral characteristics: I2 with M7 (0.865 μm) and I3 with M10 (1.610 μm). Changes to the prelaunch calibration coefficient's offset term c0 to improve the SDR's performance at low radiance levels will also be discussed.

  9. High power W-band klystrons

    SciTech Connect

    Caryotakis, George; Scheitrum, Glenn; Jongewaard, Erik; Vlieks, Arnold; Fowkes, Randy; Li, Jeff

    1999-05-01

    The development of W-band klystrons is discussed. Modeling of the klystron performance predicts 100 kW output power from a single klystron. The permanent magnet focusing and small size of the circuit permit combination of multiple klystrons in a module. A six-klystron module in a single vacuum envelope is expected to produce 500 kW peak power and up to 5 kW average power. The critical issues in the W-band klystron development are the electron beam transport and the fabrication of the klystron circuit. Two microfabrication techniques, EDM and LIGA, are being evaluated to produce the W-band circuit. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  10. Dark Bands on Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Dark crisscrossing bands on Jupiter's moon Europa represent widespread disruption from fracturing and the possible eruption of gases and rocky material from the moon's interior in this four-frame mosaic of images from NASA's Galileo spacecraft. These and other features suggest that soft ice or liquid water was present below the ice crust at the time of disruption. The data do not rule out the possibility that such conditions exist on Europa today. The pictures were taken from a distance of 156,000 kilometers (about 96,300 miles) on June 27, 1996. Many of the dark bands are more than 1,600 kilometers (1,000 miles) long, exceeding the length of the San Andreas fault of California. Some of the features seen on the mosaic resulted from meteoritic impact, including a 30- kilometer (18.5 mile) diameter crater visible as a bright scar in the lower third of the picture. In addition, dozens of shallow craters seen in some terrains along the sunset terminator zone (upper right shadowed area of the image) are probably impact craters. Other areas along the terminator lack craters, indicating relatively youthful surfaces, suggestive of recent eruptions of icy slush from the interior. The lower quarter of the mosaic includes highly fractured terrain where the icy crust has been broken into slabs as large as 30 kilometers (18.5 miles) across. The mosaic covers a large part of the northern hemisphere and includes the north pole at the top of the image. The sun illuminates the surface from the left. The area shown is centered on 20 degrees north latitude and 220 degrees west longitude and is about as wide as the United States west of the Mississippi River. The Galileo mission is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  11. Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAnany, Emile G.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Two lead articles set the theme for this issue devoted to evaluation as Emile G. McAnany examines the usefulness of evaluation and Robert C. Hornik addresses four widely accepted myths about evaluation. Additional articles include a report of a field evaluation done by the Accion Cultural Popular (ACPO); a study of the impact of that evaluation by…

  12. Dead pixel correction techniques for dual-band infrared imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Chuong T.; Mould, Nick; Regens, James L.

    2015-07-01

    We present two new dead pixel correction algorithms for dual-band infrared imagery. Specifically, we address the problem of repairing unresponsive elements in the sensor array using signal processing techniques to overcome deficiencies in image quality that are present following the nonuniformity correction process. Traditionally, dead pixel correction has been performed almost exclusively using variations of the nearest neighbor technique, where the value of the dead pixel is estimated based on pixel values associated with the neighboring image structure. Our approach differs from existing techniques, for the first time we estimate the values of dead pixels using information from both thermal bands collaboratively. The proposed dual-band statistical lookup (DSL) and dual-band inpainting (DIP) algorithms use intensity and local gradient information to estimate the values of dead pixels based on the values of unaffected pixels in the supplementary infrared band. The DSL algorithm is a regression technique that uses the image intensities from the reference band to estimate the dead pixel values in the band undergoing correction. The DIP algorithm is an energy minimization technique that uses the local image gradient from the reference band and the boundary values from the affected band to estimate the dead pixel values. We evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms with 50 dual-band videos. Simulation results indicate that the proposed techniques achieve perceptually and quantitatively superior results compared to existing methods.

  13. Shuttle Ku-band and S-band communications implementation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodds, J. G.; Huth, G. K.; Nilsen, P. W.; Polydoros, A.; Simon, M. K.; Weber, C. L.

    1980-01-01

    Various aspects of the shuttle orbiter S-band network communication system, the S-band payload communication system, and the Ku-band communication system are considered. A method is proposed for obtaining more accurate S-band antenna patterns of the actual shuttle orbiter vehicle during flight because the preliminary antenna patterns using mock-ups are not realistic that they do not include the effects of additional appendages such as wings and tail structures. The Ku-band communication system is discussed especially the TDRS antenna pointing accuracy with respect to the orbiter and the modifications required and resulting performance characteristics of the convolutionally encoded high data rate return link to maintain bit synchronizer lock on the ground. The TDRS user constraints on data bit clock jitter and data asymmetry on unbalanced QPSK with noisy phase references are included. The S-band payload communication system study is outlined including the advantages and experimental results of a peak regulator design built and evaluated by Axiomatrix for the bent-pipe link versus the existing RMS-type regulator. The nominal sweep rate for the deep-space transponder of 250 Hz/s, and effects of phase noise on the performance of a communication system are analyzed.

  14. [Antimicrobial activity of orthodontic band cements].

    PubMed

    Pavic, J; Arriagada, M; Elgueta, J; García, C

    1990-01-01

    The prevalence of enamel decalcification and caries beneath orthodontic bands, has indicated the need for a new enamel binding adhesive orthodontic cement. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity, in vitro, on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus, acidophillus, of three materials used to cements the orthodontic bands. The cements studied were: Zinc phosphate cement, Glass-ionomer cement, and Policarboxylate cement. Thirty petri plates were seeded with S. mutans, and thirty with L. acidophillus; on each plate three pellet were placed, one of each cement studied. Petri plates were incubated under microaerophilic conditions at 37 C, and checked at 72 hrs. for Streptococcus, mutans, and four days for Lactobacillus acidophillus to evaluate the inhibition zone. The results were tabulated for each material. It was demonstrated that exists important variations in the antimicrobial properties of the materials studied, as in the microbial sensitivity to these cements. PMID:2135908

  15. Development of Wide Band Feeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ujihara, H.; Ichikawa, R.

    2012-12-01

    Wide Band feeds are being developed at NICT, NAOJ, and some universities in Japan for VLBI2010, SKA, and MARBLE. SKA, the Square Kilometre Array, will comprise thousands of radio telescopes with square kilometer aperture size for radio astronomy. MARBLE consists of small portable VLBI stations developed at NICT and GSI in Japan. They all need wide band feeds with a greater than 1:10 frequency ratio. Thus we have been studying wide band feeds with dual linear polarization for these applications.

  16. Intersecting kink bands quantified by laser scanning and differential geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunham, R. E.; Crider, J. G.

    2010-12-01

    Microtopography derived from laser scanning is expressed by DEMs that can be analyzed using differential geometry. We apply this technique to rock hand samples containing intersecting kink bands in order to quantitatively describe the shape of a folded surface and understand the localization of strain in deformed rocks. This study is the first to apply laser scanning and geometric curvature analysis to intersecting kink bands in order to better describe the variation of kink band geometries and intersections in plan view and to evaluate relationships between different kink band parameters. A complex set of monoclinal contractional kink bands is well exposed in outcrops of the Darrington Phyllite on Samish Island, northwestern Washington, which provide a three-dimensional view of kink band geometries. Kink bands in cross section have straight, parallel boundaries that deform a well-defined foliation; in plan view, however, kink band hinges curve and anastomose across the foliation surface, and adjacent bands commonly intersect. Three types of intersections are common: crossing (X), bifurcating (Y), and obliquely truncating (λ); many kink bands also taper out along strike. Geometric curvature analyses were performed on millimeter-resolution DEMs of hand samples containing intersecting kink bands. Maps of different curvature parameters (e.g. mean curvature, geologic curvature) clearly outline kink bands in the samples and illuminate the behavior of kink band hinges in each type of intersection. In X-type intersections, curvature increases where two hinges of similar kink sense cross (i.e. anticlinal/anticlinal hinges), increasing strain; where two hinges of opposing sense cross (anticlinal/synclinal), curvature decreases and the surface is effectively unfolded. In Y-type intersections, a single parent band widens and splits into two equally narrow daughter bands, and new inner hinges are nucleated below the bifurcation point. The two daughter bands accommodate

  17. Shuttle orbiter C-band beacon antenna location study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsey, J. F.

    1975-01-01

    A recommendation for the location of the Space Shuttle C-Band Beacon Antenna(s) to be used during Approach and Landing Tests was made. The study has included an Orbiter-to-ground radar look angle evaluation, a vehicle shadowing evaluation and extensive 1/10-scale antenna pattern measurements. Locations were limited to the cutouts for the S-Band Quads and Hemis to minimize skin perturbation. The results show that a single C-Band Antenna located in the lower Hemi cutout will provide optimum coverage and eliminate the need for switching and the undesirable interferometer effects of two antennas.

  18. Broad-band UHF dipole array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, M. C.

    1985-01-01

    A 6X6 array of fan-dipoles was designed to operate in the 510 to 660 MHz frequency range for aircraft flight test and evaluation of a UHF radiometer system. A broad-band dipole design operating near the first resonance is detailed. Measured VSWR and radiation patterns for the dipole array demonstrate achievable bandwidths in the 35 percent to 40 percent range.

  19. Garage Band or GarageBand[R]? Remixing Musical Futures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vakeva, Lauri

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, I suggest that it is perhaps time to consider the pedagogy of popular music in more extensive terms than conventional rock band practices have to offer. One direction in which this might lead is the expansion of the informal pedagogy based on a "garage band" model to encompass various modes of digital artistry wherever this artistry…

  20. Neck-band retention for Canada geese in the Mississippi (USA) flyway

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, M.D.; Weiss, N.T.; Rusch, D.H.; Craven, S.R.; Trost, R.E.; Caswell, F.D.

    1990-01-01

    We used capture, harvest, and observation histories of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) banded in the Mississippi flyway, 1974-88, to examine the problem of neck-band retention. Methods for the analysis of survival data were used to estimate rates of neck-band retention and to evaluate factors associated with neck-band loss. Sex, age of bird at banding, rivet use, and neck-band type significantly influenced neck-band retention. For most of the resulting cohorts (e.g., sex, age, rivet, and neck-band type categories), neck-band retention rates decreased through time. We caution against using small samples or data collected during short-term studies to determine retention rates. We suggest that observation data be used in neck-band retention studies to increase the efficiency of estimating retention time.

  1. Band of Rubble

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This artist's animation illustrates a massive asteroid belt in orbit around a star the same age and size as our Sun. Evidence for this possible belt was discovered by NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope when it spotted warm dust around the star, presumably from asteroids smashing together.

    The view starts from outside the belt, where planets like the one shown here might possibly reside, then moves into to the dusty belt itself. A collision between two asteroids is depicted near the end of the movie. Collisions like this replenish the dust in the asteroid belt, making it detectable to Spitzer.

    The alien belt circles a faint, nearby star called HD 69830 located 41 light-years away in the constellation Puppis. Compared to our own solar system's asteroid belt, this one is larger and closer to its star - it is 25 times as massive, and lies just inside an orbit equivalent to that of Venus. Our asteroid belt circles between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter.

    Because Jupiter acts as an outer wall to our asteroid belt, shepherding its debris into a series of bands, it is possible that an unseen planet is likewise marshalling this belt's rubble. Previous observations using the radial velocity technique did not locate any large gas giant planets, indicating that any planets present in this system would have to be the size of Saturn or smaller.

    Asteroids are chunks of rock from 'failed' planets, which never managed to coalesce into full-sized planets. Asteroid belts can be thought of as construction sites that accompany the building of rocky planets.

  2. Paleomagnetic dating of liesegang bands

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, K.A.; Elmore, R.

    1985-01-01

    Paleomagnetic analysis, in conjunction with petrographic studies, was used to date the formation of hematite liesegang bands in the Ordovician Upper Arbuckle Group in southern Oklahoma. The hematite bands form symmetrical patterns on both sides of calcite-filled fractures in dolomite beds. The bands decrease in abundance and become more diffuse away from the fractures. Dedolomite is common near the fractures. Samples from distinctly banded dolomite near the fractures contain a relatively strong chemical remanent magnetization (CRM) with a southeasterly declination and shallow inclination. Samples farther from the fractures that are less distinctly banded or have no bands contain a weaker and less table CRM. Petrographic evidence and stable demagnetization to 600/sup 0/C indicate that the CRM resides in hematite. Samples were collected from both flanks of the Arbuckle Anticline (late Pennsylvanian folding), and a fold test demonstrates that the CRM is post-folding. The pole position for the CRM corresponds to the Early Permian (approx. 280 Ma) part of the Apparent Polar Wander Path for stable North America. These results suggest that the liesegang bands formed in the Early Permian, probably by rhythmic precipitation of hematite from fluids that moved out from the fractures. The fluids also apparently caused dedolomitization and precipitation of calcite in intercrystalline pore spaces. These fluids were probably the source of iron for the bands, although iron released from dedolimitization of ferroan dolomite may have been a local source.

  3. Orbiter KU-band transmitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halterman, R.

    1976-01-01

    The design, build, and test of an engineering breadboard Ku band quadraphase shift keyed and wideband frequency modulated transmitter are described. This orbiter Ku band transmitter drawer is to simulate the orbiter transmitter and meet the functional requirements of the orbiter communication link.

  4. The Moral Ends of Band

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allsup, Randall Everett

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a theoretical framework through which to reimagine and revitalize contemporary music education practices, using the large ensemble paradigm called "band" as the primary unit of analysis. Literature suggests that band places too much emphasis on teacher control and external measures of validation. Critics propose replacing…

  5. Band anticrossing in dilute nitrides

    SciTech Connect

    Shan, W.; Yu, K.M.; Walukiewicz, W.; Wu, J.; Ager III, J.W.; Haller, E.E.

    2003-12-23

    Alloying III-V compounds with small amounts of nitrogen leads to dramatic reduction of the fundamental band-gap energy in the resulting dilute nitride alloys. The effect originates from an anti-crossing interaction between the extended conduction-band states and localized N states. The interaction splits the conduction band into two nonparabolic subbands. The downward shift of the lower conduction subband edge is responsible for the N-induced reduction of the fundamental band-gap energy. The changes in the conduction band structure result in significant increase in electron effective mass and decrease in the electron mobility, and lead to a large enhance of the maximum doping level in GaInNAs doped with group VI donors. In addition, a striking asymmetry in the electrical activation of group IV and group VI donors can be attributed to mutual passivation process through formation of the nearest neighbor group-IV donor nitrogen pairs.

  6. Investigation of TM Band-to-band Registration Using the JSC Registration Processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yao, S. S.; Amis, M. L.

    1985-01-01

    When the Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery was first received and displayed in the fall of 1982, its radiometric lucidity and geometric fidelity was judged far superior to the multispectral scanner (MSS) imagery. The MSS data from the LANDSAT series of satellites have served well as the mainstay of satellite imagery for the remote sensing community up to now. Therefore, there is great anticipation as to the utility of this new IM imagery to advance the field of remote sensing. The thematic mapper (TM) band to band registration accuracy evaluation was discussed. In particular, the band to band registration accuracies of the TM data in the subpixel region were evaluated using the Johnson Space Center (JSC) registration processor which is ideally suited for this task. The JSC registration processor was also used to register one acquisition to another acquisition of multitemporal TM data acquired over the same ground track. The approach and the rationale behind the task, the description of the data set, the evaluation results, and the preliminary conclusions are discussed.

  7. Effects of Conductor Expressivity on Secondary School Band Members' Performance and Attitudes toward Conducting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silvey, Brian A.; Koerner, Bryan D.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of expressive and unexpressive conducting on secondary school band members' and experts' audio evaluations of band performance expressivity. A conductor, who demonstrated either expressive or unexpressive conducting techniques, led both an eighth-grade and a high school band in four separate "run-throughs" of…

  8. Effects of microstructure banding on hydrogen assisted fatigue crack growth in X65 pipeline steels

    SciTech Connect

    Ronevich, Joseph A.; Somerday, Brian P.; San Marchi, Chris W.

    2015-09-10

    Banded ferrite-pearlite X65 pipeline steel was tested in high pressure hydrogen gas to evaluate the effects of oriented pearlite on hydrogen assisted fatigue crack growth. Test specimens were oriented in the steel pipe such that cracks propagated either parallel or perpendicular to the banded pearlite. The ferrite-pearlite microstructure exhibited orientation dependent behavior in which fatigue crack growth rates were significantly lower for cracks oriented perpendicular to the banded pearlite compared to cracks oriented parallel to the bands. Thus the reduction of hydrogen assisted fatigue crack growth across the banded pearlite is attributed to a combination of crack-tip branching and impeded hydrogen diffusion across the banded pearlite.

  9. X-Band Photoinjector Beam Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Feng; Adolphsen, Chris; Ding, Yuantao; Li, Zenghai; Vlieks, Arnold; /SLAC

    2011-12-13

    SLAC is studying the feasibility of using an X-band RF photocathode gun to produce low emittance bunches for applications such as a mono-energetic MeV {gamma} ray source (in collaboration with LLNL) and a photoinjector for a compact FEL. Beam dynamics studies are being done for a configuration consisting of a 5.5-cell X-band gun followed by several 53-cell high-gradient X-band accelerator structures. A fully 3D program, ImpactT, is used to track particles taking into account space charge forces, short-range longitudinal and transverse wakefields, and the 3D rf fields in the structures, including the quadrupole component of the couplers. The effect of misalignments of the various elements, including the drive-laser, gun, solenoid and accelerator structures, are evaluated. This paper presents these results and estimates of the expected bunch emittance vs cathode gradient, and the effects of mixing between the fundamental and off-frequency longitudinal modes. An X-band gun at SLAC has been shown to operate reliably with a 200 MV/m acceleration gradient at the cathode, which is nearly twice the 115 MV/m acceleration gradient in the LCLS gun. The higher gradient should roughly balance the space charge related transverse emittance growth for the same bunch charge but provide a 3-4 times shorter bunch length. The shorter length would make the subsequent bunch compression easier and allow for a more effective use of emittance exchange. Such a gun can also be used with an X-band linac to produce a compact FEL or g ray source that would require rf sources of only one frequency for beam generation and acceleration. The feasibility of using an X-band rf photocathode gun and accelerator structures to generate high quality electron beams for compact FELs and g ray sources is being studied at SLAC. Results from the X-band photoinjector beam dynamics studies are reported in this paper.

  10. Rotational Bands in 172W

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenberg, J.; Guess, C. J.; Tandel, S.; Chowdhury, P.; Carpenter, M. P.; Hartley, D. J.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Khoo, T. L.; Lauritsen, T.; Lister, C. J.; Seweryniak, D.; Shirwadkar, U.; Wang, X.; Zhu, S.

    2015-10-01

    Studying the structure of rotational bands in 172W is valuable for gaining a better understanding of deformed nuclei. Highly excited states of the isotope were populated from a 230 MeV 50Ti beam incident on a 128Te target at Argonne National Laboratory using the ATLAS accelerator. γ emissions from 172W in the range were measured using Compton suppressed germanium detectors in the Gammasphere array. Using this data, three new rotational bands were found, and several other bands were expanded. Swarthmore College Summer Research Fellowship.

  11. Dilatational band formation in bone

    PubMed Central

    Poundarik, Atharva A.; Diab, Tamim; Sroga, Grazyna E.; Ural, Ani; Boskey, Adele L.; Gundberg, Caren M.; Vashishth, Deepak

    2012-01-01

    Toughening in hierarchically structured materials like bone arises from the arrangement of constituent material elements and their interactions. Unlike microcracking, which entails micrometer-level separation, there is no known evidence of fracture at the level of bone’s nanostructure. Here, we show that the initiation of fracture occurs in bone at the nanometer scale by dilatational bands. Through fatigue and indentation tests and laser confocal, scanning electron, and atomic force microscopies on human and bovine bone specimens, we established that dilatational bands of the order of 100 nm form as ellipsoidal voids in between fused mineral aggregates and two adjacent proteins, osteocalcin (OC) and osteopontin (OPN). Laser microdissection and ELISA of bone microdamage support our claim that OC and OPN colocalize with dilatational bands. Fracture tests on bones from OC and/or OPN knockout mice (OC−/−, OPN−/−, OC-OPN−/−;−/−) confirm that these two proteins regulate dilatational band formation and bone matrix toughness. On the basis of these observations, we propose molecular deformation and fracture mechanics models, illustrating the role of OC and OPN in dilatational band formation, and predict that the nanometer scale of tissue organization, associated with dilatational bands, affects fracture at higher scales and determines fracture toughness of bone. PMID:23129653

  12. Isogeometric analysis of shear bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger-Vergiat, Luc; McAuliffe, Colin; Waisman, Haim

    2014-08-01

    Numerical modeling of shear bands present several challenges, primarily due to strain softening, strong nonlinear multiphysics coupling, and steep solution gradients with fine solution features. In general it is not known a priori where a shear band will form or propagate, thus adaptive refinement is sometimes necessary to increase the resolution near the band. In this work we explore the use of isogeometric analysis for shear band problems by constructing and testing several combinations of NURBS elements for a mixed finite element shear band formulation. Owing to the higher order continuity of the NURBS basis, fine solution features such as shear bands can be resolved accurately and efficiently without adaptive refinement. The results are compared to a mixed element formulation with linear functions for displacement and temperature and Pian-Sumihara shape functions for stress. We find that an element based on high order NURBS functions for displacement, temperature and stress, combined with gauss point sampling of the plastic strain leads to attractive results in terms of rate of convergence, accuracy and cpu time. This element is implemented with a -bar strain projection method and is shown to be nearly locking free.

  13. Band formation in coupled-resonator slow-wave structures.

    PubMed

    Möller, Björn M; Woggon, Ulrike; Artemyev, Mikhail V

    2007-12-10

    Sequences of coupled-resonator optical waveguides (CROWs) have been examined as slow-wave structures. The formation of photonic bands in finite systems is studied in the frame of a coupled oscillator model. Several types of resonator size tuning in the system are evaluated in a systematical manner. We show that aperiodicities in sequences of coupled microspheres provide an additional degree of freedom for the design of photonic bands. PMID:19551030

  14. Chemically induced compaction bands: Triggering conditions and band thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanou, Ioannis; Sulem, Jean

    2014-02-01

    During compaction band formation, various mechanisms can be involved at different scales. Mechanical and chemical degradation of the solid skeleton and grain damage are important factors that may trigger instabilities in the form of compaction bands. Here we explore the conditions of compaction band formation in quartz- and carbonate-based geomaterials by considering the effect of chemical dissolution and grain breakage. As the stresses/deformations evolve, the grains of the material break, leading to an increase of their specific surface. Consequently, their dissolution is accelerated and chemical softening is triggered. By accounting for (a) the mass diffusion of the system, (b) a macroscopic failure criterion with dissolution softening, and (c) the reaction kinetics at the microlevel, a model is proposed and the conditions for compaction instabilities are investigated. Distinguishing the microscale (grain level) from the macrolevel (representative elementary volume) and considering the heterogeneous microstructure of the representative elementary volume, it is possible to discuss the thickness and periodicity of compaction bands. Two case studies are investigated. The first one concerns a sandstone rock reservoir which is water flooded and the second one a carbonate rock in which CO2 is injected for storage. It is shown that compaction band instabilities are possible in both cases.

  15. Band loss by nestling mourning doves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kaczynski, C.F.; Kiel, W.H.

    1963-01-01

    Nestling mourning doves (Zenaidura macroura) were banded and checked for band loss prior to fledging at Parchman, Mississippi, during the months of June-August, 1960. Three hundred seventy-seven nestlings 4-6 days of age were banded, 117 with size 3 bands, 120 with size 3A bands, and 140 with size 3A bands secured by Dalzoflex tape. Two hundred twenty nestlings 7-9 days of age were banded, 114 with size 3 bands and 106 with size 3A bands. In the 4- to 6-day age group, 66.3 percent of the size 3A bands were lost. This was a statistically significant departure from the 7.7 percent loss of size 3 bands. No taped bands were lost. However, predators ate 13.8 percent of the nestlings with taped bands and significantly fewer of the nestlings banded without tape. In the 4- to 6-day age group, percentages of nestlings known to be available for band recovery at 9 days or older were: size 3, 69.2 percent; size 3A with tape, 59.0 percent; size 3A, 25.8 percent. In the 7-to 9-day age group, there was a 3.3 percent loss of size 3A bands and no loss of size 3 bands. The minimum age at which nestlings were banded without subsequent loss of bands was 6 days for size 3 and 8 days for size 3A.

  16. An automated nudged elastic band method.

    PubMed

    Kolsbjerg, Esben L; Groves, Michael N; Hammer, Bjørk

    2016-09-01

    A robust, efficient, dynamic, and automated nudged elastic band (AutoNEB) algorithm to effectively locate transition states is presented. The strength of the algorithm is its ability to use fewer resources than the nudged elastic band (NEB) method by focusing first on converging a rough path before improving upon the resolution around the transition state. To demonstrate its efficiency, it has been benchmarked using a simple diffusion problem and a dehydrogenation reaction. In both cases, the total number of force evaluations used by the AutoNEB method is significantly less than the NEB method. Furthermore, it is shown that for a fast and robust relaxation to the transition state, a climbing image elastic band method where the full spring force, rather than only the component parallel to the local tangent to the path, is preferred especially for pathways through energy landscapes with multiple local minima. The resulting corner cutting does not affect the accuracy of the transition state as long as this is located with the climbing image method. Finally, a number of pitfalls often encountered while locating the true transition state of a reaction are discussed in terms of systematically exploring the multidimensional energy landscape of a given process. PMID:27608989

  17. Bonds, bands and elasticity of smithsonite rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouibes, A.; Zaoui, A.; Tunega, D.

    2013-07-01

    The objective here is to spread out in detail the various fundamental state properties of smithsonite rock (ZnCO3) for which the most intrinsic quantities remain still unknown. First-principles electronic structure calculations based on the density functional theory with the pseudopotential method were performed using diverse functionals. A number of mechanical quantities were evaluated such as bulk modulus, elastic constants, Young's and shear moduli, and transversal and longitudinal sound velocities (VS and VP). Fitting the compression data of smithsonite to the third-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state gives a bulk modulus of 124.17 GPa, which reflects an important rigidity compared to the other carbonates. The analysis of the band structure reveals a band-gap energy of 3.36 eV that is close enough to some semiconductors rather than insulators. Finally the chemical bonding was analyzed through the electronic charge density of the total contributions of the valence bands. A pronounced charge transfer was observed towards the carbonate ion, indicating thereby the ionic character of ZnCO3.

  18. Shuttle Ku-band signal design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsey, W. C.; Braun, W. R.; Mckenzie, T. M.

    1978-01-01

    Carrier synchronization and data demodulation of Unbalanced Quadriphase Shift Keyed (UQPSK) Shuttle communications' signals by optimum and suboptimum methods are discussed. The problem of analyzing carrier reconstruction techniques for unbalanced QPSK signal formats is addressed. An evaluation of the demodulation approach of the Ku-Band Shuttle return link for UQPSK when the I-Q channel power ratio is large is carried out. The effects that Shuttle rocket motor plumes have on the RF communications are determined also. The effect of data asymmetry on bit error probability is discussed.

  19. GEOS-3 C-Band radar investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, D. J.

    1978-01-01

    The absolute accuracy of instrumentation radar systems, refined methods of calibrating these systems, and the techniques employed in processing the associated data. A world-wide network of C-Band instrumentation radars augmented by lasers and other tracking instrumentation systems were used. The NASA WFC AN/FPQ-6 instrumentation radar and the AN/FPS-16 instrumentation radar also located at NASA WFC were the primary instruments used in the accuracy and calibration evaluations. The results achieved at WFC were then disseminated to other Ranges where they were verified, augmented and used as part of routine operations.

  20. Single-Band and Dual-Band Infrared Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, David Z. (Inventor); Gunapala, Sarath D. (Inventor); Soibel, Alexander (Inventor); Nguyen, Jean (Inventor); Khoshakhlagh, Arezou (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Bias-switchable dual-band infrared detectors and methods of manufacturing such detectors are provided. The infrared detectors are based on a back-to-back heterojunction diode design, where the detector structure consists of, sequentially, a top contact layer, a unipolar hole barrier layer, an absorber layer, a unipolar electron barrier, a second absorber, a second unipolar hole barrier, and a bottom contact layer. In addition, by substantially reducing the width of one of the absorber layers, a single-band infrared detector can also be formed.

  1. Ka-band study: 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Layland, J. W.; Horttor, R. L.; Clauss, R. C.; Wilcher, J. H.; Wallace, R. J.; Mudgway, D. J.

    1989-01-01

    The Ka-band study team was chartered in late 1987 to bring together all the planning elements for establishing 32 GHz (Ka-band) as the primary downlink frequency for deep-space operation, and to provide a stable baseline from which to pursue that development. This article summarizes the results of that study at its conclusion in mid-1988, and corresponds to material presented to NASA's Office of Space Operations on July 14, 1988. For a variety of reasons, Ka-band is the right next major step in deep-space communications. It offers improved radio metric accuracy through reduced plasma sensitivity and increased bandwidth. Because of these improvements, it offers the opportunity to reduce costs in the flight radio system or in the DSN by allocating part of the overall benefits of Ka-band to this cost reduction. A mission scenario is being planned that can drive at least two and possibly all three of the DSN subnets to provide a Ka-band downlink capability by the turn of the century. The implementation scenario devised by the study team is believed to be feasible within reasonable resource expectations, and capable of providing the needed upgrade as a natural follow-on to the technology development which is already underway.

  2. William Band at Yenching University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Danian

    2008-04-01

    William Band (1906-1993) has been widely remembered by his American colleagues and students as ``a fine physicist and teacher,'' who taught at Washington State University in Pullman between 1949 and 1971 and authored Introduction to Quantum Statistics (1954) and Introduction to Mathematical Physics (1959). Not many, however, knew much about Band's early career, which was very ``uncommon and eventful.'' Born in England, Band graduated from University of Liverpool in 1927 with an MsSc degree in physics. Instead of pursuing his Ph.D. at Cambridge, he chose to teach physics at Yenching University, a prestigious Christian university in Beijing, China. Arriving in 1929, Band established his career at Yenching, where he taught and researched the theory of relativity and quantum mechanics, pioneered the study on low-temperature superconductivity in China, founded the country's first graduate program in physics, and chaired the Physics Department for 10 years until he fled from Yenching upon hearing of the attack on Pearl Harbor. It took him two years to cross Japanese occupied areas under the escort of the Communist force; he left China in early 1945. This presentation will explore Band's motivation to work in China and his contributions to the Chinese physics research and education.

  3. Correlations in a Band Insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sentef, Michael; Kunes, Jan; Kampf, Arno P.; Werner, Philipp

    2010-03-01

    Using DMFT we find a discontinuous band-to-Mott insulator transition upon an increase in the local Coulomb repulsion in a covalent band insulator [1,2], defined as a band insulator with partially filled local orbitals. The corresponding band gap is a hybridization gap arising from a particular pattern of hopping integrals. Similar characteristics apply to materials such as FeSi, FeSb2 or CoTiSb [3], some of which exhibit temperature dependent magnetic and transport properties reminiscent of Kondo insulators. Both charge and spin gaps in the covalent band insulator shrink with increasing Coulomb repulsion. At moderate interaction strengths the gap renormalization is well described by a renormalization factor analogous to the quasiparticle weight in a Fermi liquid. [4pt] [1] M. Sentef, J. Kunes, P. Werner, and A.P. Kampf, Phys. Rev. B 80, 155116 (2009) [0pt] [2] A.P. Kampf, M. Kollar, J. Kunes, M. Sentef, and D. Vollhardt, arXiv:0910.5126

  4. A reward band study of mallards to estimate band reporting rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, C.J.; Burnham, K.P.

    1976-01-01

    Reward bands ($10) were placed on 2,122 hatching-year mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and an additional 11,490 received conventional bands (controls) to estimate band reporting rates. An analysis of band recoveries indicated that the reporting rate was dependent primarily upon three factors: (1) the distance banded birds were recovered from the banding site, (2) band collecting activities of conservation agencies (usually near banding sites), and ( 3) the intensity of banding effort in the region (frequency of banded birds in the population of the region). Reporting rates were uniformly depressed near the banding sites, but they showed an east-west cline at distances greater than 80 km from the banding sites. The reporting rate was highest in the west. Limited data on historical band reporting rates were compiled. Recommendations are given for adjusting band recoveries to account for the nonreporting of bands for 1957-73.

  5. Shear Banding of Complex Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Divoux, Thibaut; Fardin, Marc A.; Manneville, Sebastien; Lerouge, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Even in simple geometries, many complex fluids display nontrivial flow fields, with regions where shear is concentrated. The possibility for such shear banding has been known for several decades, but in recent years, we have seen an upsurge in studies offering an ever-more precise understanding of the phenomenon. The development of new techniques to probe the flow on multiple scales with increasing spatial and temporal resolution has opened the possibility for a synthesis of the many phenomena that could only have been thought of separately before. In this review, we bring together recent research on shear banding in polymeric and soft glassy materials and highlight their similarities and disparities.

  6. Banded Terrain in East Hellas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-460, 22 August 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) narrow angle camera image shows banded terrain in easternmost Hellas Planitia, between the distal ends of Dao and Harmakhis valleys. These bands probably indicate the location of eroded, layered bedrock that has been covered by a mantling deposit that, itself, became eroded to form the very small pits and bumps that pervade the region. This picture is located near 41.1oS, 275.0oW. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the left/upper left.

  7. Resistive band for turbomachine blade

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Herbert Chidsey; Taxacher, Glenn Curtis

    2015-08-25

    A turbomachine system includes a rotor that defines a longitudinal axis of the turbomachine system. A first blade is coupled to the rotor, and the first blade has first and second laminated plies. A first band is coupled to the first blade and is configured to resist separation of the first and second laminated plies.

  8. Band structure in 113Sn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, P.; Ganguly, S.; Pradhan, M. K.; Sharma, H. P.; Muralithar, S.; Singh, R. P.; Bhowmik, R. K.

    2016-07-01

    The structure of collective bands in 113Sn, populated in the reaction 100Mo(19F,p 5 n ) at a beam energy of 105 MeV, has been studied. A new positive-parity sequence of eight states extending up to 7764.9 keV and spin (39 /2+) has been observed. The band is explained as arising from the coupling of the odd valence neutron in the g7 /2 or the d5 /2 orbital to the deformed 2p-2h proton configuration of the neighboring even-A Sn isotope. Lifetimes of six states up to an excitation energy of 9934.9 keV and spin 47 /2-belonging to a Δ I =2 intruder band have been measured for the first time, including an upper limit for the last state, from Doppler-shift-attenuation data. A moderate average quadrupole deformation β2=0.22 ±0.02 is deduced from these results for the five states up to spin 43 /2- . The transition quadrupole moments decrease with increase in rotational frequency, indicating a reduction of collectivity with spin, a feature common for terminating bands. The behavior of the kinematic and dynamic moments of inertia as a function of rotational frequency has been studied and total Routhian surface calculations have been performed in an attempt to obtain an insight into the nature of the states near termination.

  9. K-Band Latching Switches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piotrowski, W. S.; Raue, J. E.

    1984-01-01

    Design, development, and tests are described for two single-pole-double-throw latching waveguide ferrite switches: a K-band switch in WR-42 waveguide and a Ka-band switch in WR-28 waveguide. Both switches have structurally simple junctions, mechanically interlocked without the use of bonding materials; they are impervious to the effects of thermal, shock, and vibration stresses. Ferrite material for the Ka-band switch with a proper combination of magnetic and dielectric properties was available and resulted in excellent low loss, wideband performance. The high power handling requirement of the K-band switch limited the choice of ferrite to nickel-zinc compositions with adequate magnetic properties, but with too low relative dielectric constant. The relative dielectric constant determines the junction dimensions for given frequency responses. In this case the too low value unavoidably leads to a larger than optimum junction volume, increasing the insertion loss and restricting the operating bandwidth. Efforts to overcome the materials-related difficulties through the design of a composite junction with increased effective dielectric properties efforts to modify the relative dielectric constant of nickel-zinc ferrite are examined.

  10. Curriculum Guide for Beginners Band.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazar, W. Gayre

    This curriculum guide for beginners band is the product of a team of teachers, administrators, and supervisory personnel. The prime objectives in the beginning instrument class is the development of correct playing habits, with emphasis on posture, holding position, embouchure, breathing, tonguing, good tone production and intonation. Subjects…

  11. Tolerance bands for functional data.

    PubMed

    Rathnayake, Lasitha N; Choudhary, Pankaj K

    2016-06-01

    Often the object of inference in biomedical applications is a range that brackets a given fraction of individual observations in a population. A classical estimate of this range for univariate measurements is a "tolerance interval." This article develops its natural extension for functional measurements, a "tolerance band," and proposes a methodology for constructing its pointwise and simultaneous versions that incorporates both sparse and dense functional data. Assuming that the measurements are observed with noise, the methodology uses functional principal component analysis in a mixed model framework to represent the measurements and employs bootstrapping to approximate the tolerance factors needed for the bands. The proposed bands also account for uncertainty in the principal components decomposition. Simulations show that the methodology has, generally, acceptable performance unless the data are quite sparse and unbalanced, in which case the bands may be somewhat liberal. The methodology is illustrated using two real datasets, a sparse dataset involving CD4 cell counts and a dense dataset involving core body temperatures. PMID:26574904

  12. Wide band data collection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turkiewicz, J. M.

    1988-01-01

    The Incorporated Research Institutes for Seismology (IRIS) approached NASA Headquarters in 1986 about the need to collect data daily from seismic stations around the world as part of the Earth Observing System (EOS) mission. A typical IRIS Seismic Station generates 16 Megabytes of data per day when there is seismic activity. The Preliminary Design Parameters of the Wide Band Data Collection System are summarized.

  13. Broad-band beam buncher

    DOEpatents

    Goldberg, David A.; Flood, William S.; Arthur, Allan A.; Voelker, Ferdinand

    1986-01-01

    A broad-band beam buncher is disclosed, comprising an evacuated housing, an electron gun therein for producing an electron beam, a buncher cavity having entrance and exit openings through which the beam is directed, grids across such openings, a source providing a positive DC voltage between the cavity and the electron gun, a drift tube through which the electron beam travels in passing through such cavity, grids across the ends of such drift tube, gaps being provided between the drift tube grids and the entrance and exit grids, a modulator for supplying an ultrahigh frequency modulating signal to the drift tube for producing velocity modulation of the electrons in the beam, a drift space in the housing through which the velocity modulated electron beam travels and in which the beam is bunched, and a discharge opening from such drift tube and having a grid across such opening through which the bunched electron beam is discharged into an accelerator or the like. The buncher cavity and the drift tube may be arranged to constitute an extension of a coaxial transmission line which is employed to deliver the modulating signal from a signal source. The extended transmission line may be terminated in its characteristic impedance to afford a broad-band response and the device as a whole designed to effect broad-band beam coupling, so as to minimize variations of the output across the response band.

  14. 47 CFR 90.531 - Band plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Band plan. 90.531 Section 90.531 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND...-805 MHz Bands § 90.531 Band plan. This section sets forth the band plan for the 763-775 MHz and...

  15. 47 CFR 90.531 - Band plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Band plan. 90.531 Section 90.531...-805 MHz Bands § 90.531 Band plan. This section sets forth the band plan for the 763-775 MHz and 793... and portables subject to Commission-approved regional planning committee regional plans....

  16. 47 CFR 90.531 - Band plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Band plan. 90.531 Section 90.531...-805 MHz Bands § 90.531 Band plan. This section sets forth the band plan for the 758-775 MHz and 788... and portables subject to Commission-approved regional planning committee regional plans....

  17. 47 CFR 90.531 - Band plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Band plan. 90.531 Section 90.531...-805 MHz Bands § 90.531 Band plan. This section sets forth the band plan for the 758-775 MHz and 788... and portables subject to Commission-approved regional planning committee regional plans....

  18. 47 CFR 90.531 - Band plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Band plan. 90.531 Section 90.531...-805 MHz Bands § 90.531 Band plan. This section sets forth the band plan for the 763-775 MHz and 793... and portables subject to Commission-approved regional planning committee regional plans....

  19. Septic complications of hemorrhoidal banding.

    PubMed

    Quevedo-Bonilla, G; Farkas, A M; Abcarian, H; Hambrick, E; Orsay, C P

    1988-05-01

    Rubber band ligation is an efficacious and cost-effective alternative to conventional hemorrhoidectomy for symptomatic internal hemorrhoids. Even though the well-recognized complications of bleeding and thrombosis occur infrequently, far more serious septic complications have only recently been described, as evidenced in five of our patients: four cases were serious enough to necessitate surgical intervention, and one patient died. Pain followed by urinary dysfunction with or without toxic symptoms should alert the physician to the probability of localized perianal or systemic sepsis. Acute awareness of these rare but potentially life-threatening complications and immediate aggressive treatment is mandatory if death is to be prevented. Rubber band ligation of internal hemorrhoids need not be abandoned; however, the indications should be clear, the technique mastered, and a close patient follow-up maintained. PMID:3358691

  20. ALMA Band 5 Cartridge Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billade, Bhushan; Lapkin, I.; Nystrom, O.; Sundin, E.; Fredrixon, M.; Finger, R.; Rashid, H.; Desmaris, V.; Meledin, D.; Pavolotsky, A.; Belitsky, Victor

    2010-03-01

    Work presented here concerns the design and performance of the ALMA Band 5 cold cartridge, one of the 10 frequency channels of ALMA project, a radio interferometer under construction at Atacama Desert in Chile. The Band 5 cartridge is a dual polarization receiver with the polarization separation performed by orthomode transducer (OMT). For each polarization, Band 5 receiver employs sideband rejection (2SB) scheme based on quadrature layout, with SIS mixers covering 163-211 GHz with 4-8 GHz IF. The LO injection circuitry is integrated with mixer chip and is implemented on the same substrate, resulting in a compact 2SB assembly. Amongst the other ALMA bands, the ALMA Band 5 being the lowest frequency band that uses all cold optics, has the largest mirror. Consequently, ALMA Band 5 mirror along with its support structure leaves very little room for placing OMT, mixers and IF subsystems. The constraints put by the size of cold optics and limited cartridge space, required of us to revise the original 2SB design and adopt a design where all the components like OMT, mixer, IF hybrid, isolators and IF amplifier are directly connected to each other without using any co-ax cables in-between. The IF subsystem uses the space between 4 K and 15 K stage of the cartridge and is thermally connected to 4 K stage. Avoiding co-ax cabling required use of custom designed IF hybrid, furthermore, due to limited cooling capacity at 4 K stage, resistive bias circuitry for the mixers is moved to 15 K stage and the IF hybrid along with an integrated bias-T is implemented using superconducting micro-strip lines. The E-probes for both LO and RF waveguide-to-microstrip transitions are placed perpendicular to the wave direction (back-piece configuration). The RF choke at the end of the probes provides a virtual ground for the RF/LO signal, and the choke is DC grounded to the chassis. The on-chip LO injection is done using a microstrip line directional coupler with slot-line branches in the

  1. ASTRONOMY: Researchers Get Spectrum Bands.

    PubMed

    Taubes, G

    2000-06-23

    Radio astronomers have been in danger of losing a precious band of the electromagnetic spectrum--the millimeter wavelengths, which promise insight into subjects as diverse as the origins of life and the birth of stars--to the burgeoning telecommunications industry, as millimeter wavelengths also look promising for transmitting high-bandwidth wireless information over relatively short distances. Earlier this month, however, astronomers won an international agreement that guarantees critical wavelengths safe for research. PMID:17758893

  2. Nonzero Quadrupole Moments of Candidate Tetrahedral Bands

    SciTech Connect

    Bark, R. A.; Lawrie, E. A.; Lawrie, J. J.; Mullins, S. M.; Murray, S. H. T.; Ncapayi, N. J.; Smit, F. D.; Sharpey-Schafer, J. F.; Lindsay, R.

    2010-01-15

    Negative-parity bands in the vicinity of {sup 156}Gd and {sup 160}Yb have been suggested as candidates for the rotation of tetrahedral nuclei. We report the observation of the odd and even-spin members of the lowest energy negative-parity bands in {sup 160}Yb and {sup 154}Gd. The properties of these bands are similar to the proposed tetrahedral band of {sup 156}Gd and its even-spin partner. Band-mixing calculations are performed and absolute and relative quadrupole moments deduced for {sup 160}Yb and {sup 154}Gd. The values are inconsistent with zero, as required for tetrahedral shape, and the bands are interpreted as octupole vibrational bands. The failure to observe the in-band E2 transitions of the bands at low spins can be understood using the measured B(E1) and B(E2) values.

  3. Band-selective radiofrequency pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geen, Helen; Freeman, Ray

    A theoretical treatment is given of the general problem of designing amplitude-modulated radiofrequency pulses that will excite a specified band of frequencies within a high-resolution NMR spectrum with uniform intensity and phase but with negligible excitation elsewhere. First a trial pulse envelope is defined in terms of a finite Fourier series and its frequency-domain profile calculated through the Bloch equations. The result is compared with the desired target profile to give a multidimensional error surface. The method of simulated annealing is then used to find the global minimum on this surface and the result refined by standard gradient-descent optimization. In this manner, a family of new shaped radio-frequency pulses, known as BURP ( band-selective, uniform response, pure-phase) pulses, has been created. These are of two classes—pulses that excite or invert z magnetization and those that act as general-rotation πr/2 or π pulses irrespective of the initial condition of the nuclear magnetization. It was found convenient to design the latter class as amplitude-modulated time-symmetric pulses. Tables of Fourier coefficients and pulse-shape ordinates are given for practical implementation of BURP pulses, together with the calculated frequency-domain responses and experimental verifications. Examples of the application of band-selective pulses in conventional and multidimensional spectroscopy are given. Pure-phase pulses of this type should also find applications in magnetic resonance imaging where refocusing schemes are undesirable.

  4. Resistance of sweetpotato genotypes to spotted and banded cucumber beetles.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioassay techniques were developed for evaluating the resistance of sweetpotato germplasm to larvae and adults of the banded and spotted cucumber beetles. For the adult bioassay, individual beetles were placed on pieces of sweetpotato peel (periderm and cortex with stele removed) that was embedded ...

  5. Status of Ka-band TWT transmitter technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dayton, James A., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The TWT types that are available for application to SEI are reviewed and evaluated in terms of their level of development and their suitability for use in space. The NASA OAET program for enhancement of efficiency and lifetime of TWT's is reviewed and the application of this technology to Ka-band devices is illustrated.

  6. Optical band gaps of organic semiconductor materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, José C. S.; Taveira, Ricardo J. S.; Lima, Carlos F. R. A. C.; Mendes, Adélio; Santos, Luís M. N. B. F.

    2016-08-01

    UV-Vis can be used as an easy and forthright technique to accurately estimate the band gap energy of organic π-conjugated materials, widely used as thin films/composites in organic and hybrid electronic devices such as OLEDs, OPVs and OFETs. The electronic and optical properties, including HOMO-LUMO energy gaps of π-conjugated systems were evaluated by UV-Vis spectroscopy in CHCl3 solution for a large number of relevant π-conjugated systems: tris-8-hydroxyquinolinatos (Alq3, Gaq3, Inq3, Al(qNO2)3, Al(qCl)3, Al(qBr)3, In(qNO2)3, In(qCl)3 and In(qBr)3); triphenylamine derivatives (DDP, p-TTP, TPB, TPD, TDAB, m-MTDAB, NPB, α-NPD); oligoacenes (naphthalene, anthracene, tetracene and rubrene); oligothiophenes (α-2T, β-2T, α-3T, β-3T, α-4T and α-5T). Additionally, some electronic properties were also explored by quantum chemical calculations. The experimental UV-Vis data are in accordance with the DFT predictions and indicate that the band gap energies of the OSCs dissolved in CHCl3 solution are consistent with the values presented for thin films.

  7. Table of superdeformed nuclear bands and fission isomers

    SciTech Connect

    Firestone, R.B.; Singh, B.

    1994-06-01

    A minimum in the second potential well of deformed nuclei was predicted and the associated shell gaps are illustrated in the harmonic oscillator potential shell energy surface calculations shown in this report. A strong superdeformed minimum in {sup 152}Dy was predicted for {beta}{sub 2}-0.65. Subsequently, a discrete set of {gamma}-ray transitions in {sup 152}DY was observed and, assigned to the predicted superdeformed band. Extensive research at several laboratories has since focused on searching for other mass regions of large deformation. A new generation of {gamma}-ray detector arrays is already producing a wealth of information about the mechanisms for feeding and deexciting superdeformed bands. These bands have been found in three distinct regions near A=l30, 150, and 190. This research extends upon previous work in the actinide region near A=240 where fission isomers were identified and also associated with the second potential well. Quadrupole moment measurements for selected cases in each mass region are consistent with assigning the bands to excitations in the second local minimum. As part of our committment to maintain nuclear structure data as current as possible in the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Reference File (ENSDF) and the Table of Isotopes, we have updated the information on superdeformed nuclear bands. As of April 1994, we have complied data from 86 superdeformed bands and 46 fission isomers identified in 73 nuclides for this report. For each nuclide there is a complete level table listing both normal and superdeformed band assignments; level energy, spin, parity, half-life, magneto moments, decay branchings; and the energies, final levels, relative intensities, multipolarities, and mixing ratios for transitions deexciting each level. Mass excess, decay energies, and proton and neutron separation energies are also provided from the evaluation of Audi and Wapstra.

  8. Hyperspectral band selection based on a variable precision neighborhood rough set.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yao; Xie, Hong; Wang, Liguo; Tan, Kezhu

    2016-01-20

    Band selection is a well-known approach for reducing dimensionality in hyperspectral images. We propose a band-selection method based on the variable precision neighborhood rough set theory to select informative bands from hyperspectral images. A decision-making information system was established by hyperspectral data derived from soybean samples between 400 and 1000 nm wavelengths. The dependency was used to evaluate band significance. The optimal band subset was selected by a forward greedy search algorithm. After adjusting appropriate threshold values, stable optimized results were obtained. To assess the effectiveness of the proposed band-selection technique, two classification models were constructed. The experimental results showed that admitting inclusion errors could improve classification performance, including band selection and generalization ability. PMID:26835918

  9. Evaluation of Cloud Microphysics Simulated using a Meso-Scale Model Coupled with a Spectral Bin Microphysical Scheme through Comparison with Observation Data by Ship-Borne Doppler and Space-Borne W-Band Radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iguchi, T.; Nakajima, T.; Khain, A. P.; Saito, K.; Takemura, T.; Okamoto, H.; Nishizawa, T.; Tao, W.-K.

    2012-01-01

    Equivalent radar reflectivity factors (Ze) measured by W-band radars are directly compared with the corresponding values calculated from a three-dimensional non-hydrostatic meso-scale model coupled with a spectral-bin-microphysical (SBM) scheme for cloud. Three case studies are the objects of this research: one targets a part of ship-borne observation using 95 GHz Doppler radar over the Pacific Ocean near Japan in May 2001; other two are aimed at two short segments of space-borne observation by the cloud profiling radar on CloudSat in November 2006. The numerical weather prediction (NWP) simulations reproduce general features of vertical structures of Ze and Doppler velocity. A main problem in the reproducibility is an overestimation of Ze in ice cloud layers. A frequency analysis shows a strong correlation between ice water contents (IWC) and Ze in the simulation; this characteristic is similar to those shown in prior on-site studies. From comparing with the empirical correlations by the prior studies, the simulated Ze is overestimated than the corresponding values in the studies at the same IWC. Whereas the comparison of Doppler velocities suggests that large-size snowflakes are necessary for producing large velocities under the freezing level and hence rules out the possibility that an overestimation of snow size causes the overestimation of Ze. Based on the results of several sensitivity tests, we conclude that the source of the overestimation is a bias in the microphysical calculation of Ze or an overestimation of IWC. To identify the source of the problems needs further validation research with other follow-up observations.

  10. Multitude multicolor chromosome banding (mMCB) - a comprehensive one-step multicolor FISH banding method.

    PubMed

    Weise, A; Heller, A; Starke, H; Mrasek, K; Kuechler, A; Pool-Zobel, B L; Claussen, U; Liehr, T

    2003-01-01

    Multicolor chromosome banding (MCB) using one single chromosome-specific MCB probe set per experiment was previously reported as powerful tool in molecular cytogenetics for the characterization of all kinds of human marker chromosomes. However, a quick analysis of karyotypes with highly complex chromosomal changes was hampered by the problem that up to 24 MCB experiments were necessary for a comprehensive karyotype description. To overcome that limitation the 138 available region-specific microdissection-derived libraries for all human chromosomes were combined to one single probe set, called multitude MCB (mMCB). A typical fluorescence banding pattern along the human karyotype is produced, which can be evaluated either by transforming these profiles into chromosome region-specific pseudo-colors or more reliably by studying the fluorescence profiles. The mMCB probe set has been applied on chromosomes of normal male and female probands, two primary myelodysplastic syndromes and two solid tumor cell lines. Additionally, a cell line of Gorilla gorilla (GGO) studied previously by single chromosome-specific MCB was reevaluated by the mMCB method. All results were in concordance with those obtained in parallel or by other cytogenetic and molecular cytogenetic approaches indicating that mMCB is a powerful multicolor FISH banding tool for fast characterization of complex karyotypes. PMID:15004461

  11. Ku-band system design study and TDRSS interface analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsey, W. C.; Mckenzie, T. M.; Choi, H. J.; Tsang, C. S.; An, S. H.

    1983-01-01

    The capabilities of the Shuttle/TDRSS link simulation program (LinCsim) were expanded to account for radio frequency interference (RFI) effects on the Shuttle S-band links, the channel models were updated to reflect the RFI related hardware changes, the ESTL hardware modeling of the TDRS communication payload was reviewed and evaluated, in LinCsim the Shuttle/TDRSS signal acquisition was modeled, LinCsim was upgraded, and possible Shuttle on-orbit navigation techniques was evaluated.

  12. Plasmon Nano-Optics: Designing Novel Nano-Tools for Biology and Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quidant, Romain

    Light plays a growing role in health science especially with the recent developments of new optical techniques that enable imaging biological processes down to the molecular scale and monitor dynamically physiological mechanisms in patients. In parallel, recent groundbreaking advances in nanotechnologies have opened new perspectives in medicine, for instance in creating new therapies or designing novel compact and highly sensitive diagnostic platforms. In this chapter, the aim is to discuss recent research that sits at the convergence of photonics, nanotechnology, and health. This research is based on the extraordinary optical properties of metallic nanoparticles (MNP) supporting Localized Surface Plasmon (LSP) (see Chap. 4 10.1007/978-3-642-28079-5_4".. We discuss how plasmonic MNP can be used as nano-sources of either light or heat for biological and medical applications.

  13. A multi-scale micromechanics framework for shale using the nano-tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, J.; Ulm, F.; Abousleiman, Y.

    2009-12-01

    The successful prediction of poroelastic properties of fine-grained rocks such as shale continues to be a formidable challenge for the geophysics community. The highly heterogeneous nature of shale in terms of its compositional and microstructural features translates into a complex anisotropic behavior observed at macroscopic length scales. The recent application of instrumented indentation for the mechanical characterization of shale has revealed the granular response and intrinsic anisotropy of its porous clay phase at nanometer length scales [1-2]. This discovered mechanical behavior at the grain scale has been incorporated into the development of a multi-scale, micromechanics model for shale poroelasticity [3]. The only inputs to the model are two volumetric parameters synthesizing the mineralogy and porosity information of a shale sample. The model is meticulously calibrated and validated, as displayed in Fig. 1, with independent data sets of anisotropic elasticity obtained from nanoindentation experiments and standard laboratory acoustic measurements for shale specimens with and without organic content. The treatment of the elastic anisotropy corresponding to the porous clay fabric, as sensed by nanoindentation, delineates the contribution of the intrinsic anisotropy in shale to its overall anisotropy observed at macroscales. Furthermore, the proposed poroelastic formulation provides access to intrinsic rock parameters such as Biot pore pressure coefficients that are of importance for problems of flow in porous media. In addition, the model becomes a useful tool in geophysics applications for the prediction of shale acoustic properties from material-specific information such as porosity, mineralogy, and density measurements. References: [1] Ulm, F.-J., Abousleiman, Y. (2006) ‘The nanogranular nature of shale.’ Acta Geot. 1(2), 77-88. [2] Bobko, C., Ulm, F.-J. (2008) ‘The nano-mechanical morphology of shale.’ Mech. Mat. 40(4-5), 318-337. [3] Ortega, J. A., Ulm, F.-J., Abousleiman, Y. (2009) ‘The nanogranular acoustic signature of shale.’ Geophysics 74(3), D65-D84. Fig. 1. Comparisons between predicted and experimental elasticity obtained from nanoindentation experiments (left) and acoustic measurements (right) for shale with and without organic content (hollow and solid data points). Nanoindentation elasticity of the porous clay in shale is presented as a function of the clay packing density (one minus the nanoporosity). The x-1, x-3 directions correspond to parallel and normal-to-bedding plane properties, respectively. All nanoindentation data and acoustic measurements for organic-rich shale from [2-3]. Acoustic measurements for organic-free shale were gathered from literature sources compiled in [3].

  14. Exploiting the Terahertz Band for Radionavigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, John Scott; Mickelson, Pascal; Yeak, Jeremy; Kremeyer, Kevin; Rife, Jason

    2016-06-01

    This paper demonstrates the feasibility of GPS-like ranging at terahertz (THz) frequencies. It is well established that GPS carrier signals are vulnerable to jamming via radio-frequency interference (RFI). As a result, there is a need for alternative radionavigation systems. THz signals offer a compelling option. Because of their high frequency (roughly ×100 higher than GPS), THz signals can be used to make highly precise range measurements. In addition, the large separation between the GPS and THz frequencies means that interference at GPS frequencies is very unlikely to impact the THz band. This paper lays the groundwork for a GPS-like ranging capability at THz frequencies. To this end, we identify key differences between THz hardware and GPS (radio frequency) hardware; we experimentally evaluate performance of a 0.30-THz system on a compact outdoor test range, and we introduce a measurement error model that highlights the distinctive role that multipath interference plays at THz frequencies.

  15. Lessons Learned from Laparoscopic Gastric Banding.

    PubMed

    Broadbent

    1993-11-01

    The author reviews 27 laparoscopic gastric banding operations, of which 19 cases were completed. Of the 27 operations, eight were revisions of earlier laparoscopic banding. The lessons learned from these cases are highlighted. PMID:10757955

  16. The DSS-14 C-band exciter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowan, D. R.

    1989-01-01

    The development and implementation of a C-band exciter for use with the Block IV Receiver-Exciter Subsystem at Deep Space Station 14 (DSS-14) has been completed. The exciter supplements the standard capabilities of the Block IV system by providing a drive signal for the C-band transmitter while generating coherent translation frequencies for C-band (5-GHz) to S-band (2.2- to 2.3-GHz) Doppler extraction, C-band to L-band (1.6-GHz) zero delay measurements, and a level calibrated L-band test signal. Exciter functions are described, and a general explanation and description of the C-band uplink controller is presented.

  17. The DSS-14 C-band exciter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowan, D. R.

    1989-05-01

    The development and implementation of a C-band exciter for use with the Block IV Receiver-Exciter Subsystem at Deep Space Station 14 (DSS-14) has been completed. The exciter supplements the standard capabilities of the Block IV system by providing a drive signal for the C-band transmitter while generating coherent translation frequencies for C-band (5-GHz) to S-band (2.2- to 2.3-GHz) Doppler extraction, C-band to L-band (1.6-GHz) zero delay measurements, and a level calibrated L-band test signal. Exciter functions are described, and a general explanation and description of the C-band uplink controller is presented.

  18. Qualification of S-glass/epoxy thermal isolator bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Jerry

    1987-01-01

    Unidirectional fiberglass reinforced epoxy structures have been evaluated as thermal isolator tension straps for the charge-coupled devices on the Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field/Planetary Camera. Mechanical and thermal properties are reported for filament-wound S-2 glass in a generic epoxy resin and compared to S-901 glass bands used on a previous camera. Measurements were performed on very small paper clip-shaped bands. Probably the smallest in length and have a load carrying mean cross sectional area of only 0.00024 square inches.

  19. Identification of the UIR bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Fred M.

    2016-06-01

    Starlight undergoing multiple scattering processes within fluffy grains results in extinction, UV 2175A bump, DIBs and the UIR bands. Spectroscopic lab and DIB data has identified the highly fluorescent molecule Dipyridyl Magnesium Tetrabenzoporphyrin (MgTBP). Reflection and Raman scattering experimental data will be presented which designates this molecule as the primary source for UIR signals. MgTBP sublimes at about 500OC. It is produced via high temperature plasma synthesis within and subsequently ejected from comets which in turn are by-products of solar system-planetary development. Interstellar dust is the left-over refuse which implies prodigious solar system evolution in each galaxy.

  20. Vestibular Findings in Military Band Musicians

    PubMed Central

    Zeigelboim, Bianca Simone; Gueber, Crislaine; Silva, Thanara Pruner da; Liberalesso, Paulo Breno Noronha; Gonçalves, Claudia Giglio de Oliveira; Faryniuk, João Henrique; Marques, Jair Mendes; Jurkiewicz, Ari Leon

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Exposure to music is the subject of many studies because it is related to an individual's professional and social activities. Objectives Evaluate the vestibular behavior in military band musicians. Methods A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed. Nineteen musicians with ages ranging from 21 to 46 years were evaluated (average = 33.7 years and standard deviation = 7.2 years). They underwent anamnesis and vestibular and otolaryngologic evaluation through vectoelectronystagmography. Results The most evident otoneurologic symptoms in the anamnesis were tinnitus (84.2%), hearing difficulties (47.3%), dizziness (36.8%), headache (26.3%), intolerance to intense sounds (21.0%), and earache (15.7%). Seven musicians (37.0%) showed vestibular abnormality, which occurred in the caloric test. The abnormality was more prevalent in the peripheral vestibular system, and there was a predominance of irritative peripheral vestibular disorders. Conclusion The alteration in vestibular exam occurred in the caloric test (37.0%). There were changes in the prevalence of peripheral vestibular system with a predominance of irritative vestibular dysfunction. Dizziness was the most significant symptom for the vestibular test in correlation with neurotologic symptoms. The present study made it possible to verify the importance of the labyrinthine test, which demonstrates that this population should be better studied because the systematic exposure to high sound pressure levels may cause major vestibular alterations. PMID:25992076

  1. Joint Skewness and Its Application in Unsupervised Band Selection for Small Target Detection

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Xiurui; Sun, Kang; Ji, Luyan; Tang, Hairong; Zhao, Yongchao

    2015-01-01

    Few band selection methods are specially designed for small target detection. It is well known that the information of small targets is most likely contained in non-Gaussian bands, where small targets are more easily separated from the background. On the other hand, correlation of band set also plays an important role in the small target detection. When the selected bands are highly correlated, it will be unbeneficial for the subsequent detection. However, the existing non-Gaussianity-based band selection methods have not taken the correlation of bands into account, which generally result in high correlation of obtained bands. In this paper, combining the third-order (third-order tensor) and second-order (correlation) statistics of bands, we define a new concept, named joint skewness, for multivariate data. Moreover, we also propose an easy-to-implement approach to estimate this index based on high-order singular value decomposition (HOSVD). Based on the definition of joint skewness, we present an unsupervised band selection for small target detection for hyperspectral data, named joint skewness band selection (JSBS). The evaluation results demonstrate that the bands selected by JSBS are very effective in terms of small target detection. PMID:25873018

  2. Joint Skewness and Its Application in Unsupervised Band Selection for Small Target Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Xiurui; Sun, Kang; Ji, Luyan; Tang, Hairong; Zhao, Yongchao

    2015-04-01

    Few band selection methods are specially designed for small target detection. It is well known that the information of small targets is most likely contained in non-Gaussian bands, where small targets are more easily separated from the background. On the other hand, correlation of band set also plays an important role in the small target detection. When the selected bands are highly correlated, it will be unbeneficial for the subsequent detection. However, the existing non-Gaussianity-based band selection methods have not taken the correlation of bands into account, which generally result in high correlation of obtained bands. In this paper, combining the third-order (third-order tensor) and second-order (correlation) statistics of bands, we define a new concept, named joint skewness, for multivariate data. Moreover, we also propose an easy-to-implement approach to estimate this index based on high-order singular value decomposition (HOSVD). Based on the definition of joint skewness, we present an unsupervised band selection for small target detection for hyperspectral data, named joint skewness band selection (JSBS). The evaluation results demonstrate that the bands selected by JSBS are very effective in terms of small target detection.

  3. Prenatal diagnosis of amniotic band syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Padmanabhan, Laxmi Devi; Hamza, Zareena V; Thampi, Madhavan Venugopalan; Nampoothiri, Sheela

    2016-01-01

    Amniotic band can cause a broad spectrum of anomalies ranging from simple band constrictions to major craniofacial and visceral defects. It can cause significant neonatal morbidity. Accurate diagnosis will help in the management of the present pregnancy and in counseling with regard to future pregnancies. Here we report three cases of amniotic band syndrome detected in the prenatal period. PMID:27081225

  4. Black Scholes’ model and Bollinger bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Huang, Xudong; Zheng, Weian

    2006-11-01

    Bollinger bands are well-known in stock market as a popular technical analysis tool. We found that Black-Scholes stock price model had this Bollinger bands property also. In this paper, we give the proof of this phenomenon, and give a new distribution of a statistics generated by the Bollinger bands.

  5. Nylon cable band reactions in ovariohysterectomized bitches.

    PubMed

    Werner, R E; Straughan, A J; Vezin, D

    1992-01-01

    Nylon cable bands used as ligatures caused postsurgical complications in 5 ovariohysterectomized bitches. Clinical signs included fever, stiffness, strangury, draining fistulae, vaginal discharge, and tenesmus. Most signs first appeared several years after surgery, and all signs were resolved after removal of the bands. On the basis of our experience, we suggest that nylon cable bands not be used for ovariohysterectomy ligations. PMID:1537693

  6. Tap Teens' Curiosity with Lab Band.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Jane

    2002-01-01

    Describes the Lab Band project used with 12th grade students at the Westgate Collegiate and Vocational Institute in Thunder Bay, Ontario (Canada). Explains that each band student taught a peer how to play their instrument which created versatility in the band. States that all students kept a reflective journal. (CMK)

  7. The PSIG procedure to Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) using X-band and C-band Sentinel-1 data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuevas-González, María.; Devanthéry, Núria; Crosetto, Michele; Monserrat, Oriol; Crippa, Bruno

    2015-10-01

    A new approach to Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) data processing and analysis implemented in the PSI chain of the Geomatics (PSIG) Division of CTTC is used in this work. The flexibility of the PSIG procedure allowed evaluating two different processing chains of the PSIG procedure. A full PSIG procedure was implemented in the TerraSAR-X dataset while a reduced PSIG procedure was applied to the nine Sentinel-1 images available at the time of processing. The performance of the PSIG procedure is illustrated using X-band and C-band Sentinel-1 data and several examples of deformation maps covering different types of deformation phenomena are shown.

  8. V-band IMPATT transmitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, D.; Ying, R. S.

    1983-01-01

    A V-band transmitter for communication application was developed that has 30 dB gain and consists of six stages of IMPATT amplifiers. The low and medium power stages are stable amplifiers while the two high power stages are triggered oscillators. Hybrid couplers in the form of Magic Tees were used for power combining two single diode IMPATT modules in the high driver stage and for a single diode IMPATT modules at the output stage. Output power of 4 watts CW across a 2.5 GHz band centered at 60 GHz was achieved with an input power of 4 mW. Dynamic range of the amplifier chain is in excess of 7 dB. A single diode one watt stable amplifier over a bandwidth greater than 2.5 GHz, a high power ( 1 watt) stable amplifier capable of operating in either the constant current or constant voltage mode and verification of the advantages of the latter mode of operation; and a 10 channel modulator with built in test equipment (specifically protective circuitry, failure monitoring, and mode of failure indicated) were also developed. The performance requirements of circulators/isolators for reflection amplifiers were also defined and verified.

  9. Reconfigurable L-Band Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rincon, Rafael F.

    2008-01-01

    The reconfigurable L-Band radar is an ongoing development at NASA/GSFC that exploits the capability inherently in phased array radar systems with a state-of-the-art data acquisition and real-time processor in order to enable multi-mode measurement techniques in a single radar architecture. The development leverages on the L-Band Imaging Scatterometer, a radar system designed for the development and testing of new radar techniques; and the custom-built DBSAR processor, a highly reconfigurable, high speed data acquisition and processing system. The radar modes currently implemented include scatterometer, synthetic aperture radar, and altimetry; and plans to add new modes such as radiometry and bi-static GNSS signals are being formulated. This development is aimed at enhancing the radar remote sensing capabilities for airborne and spaceborne applications in support of Earth Science and planetary exploration This paper describes the design of the radar and processor systems, explains the operational modes, and discusses preliminary measurements and future plans.

  10. Band structure of 235U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, D.; Macchiavelli, A. O.; Clark, R. M.; Cline, D.; Cromaz, M.; Deleplanque, M. A.; Diamond, R. M.; Fallon, P.; Görgen, A.; Hayes, A. B.; Lane, G. J.; Lee, I.-Y.; Nakatsukasa, T.; Schmidt, G.; Stephens, F. S.; Svensson, C. E.; Teng, R.; Vetter, K.; Wu, C. Y.

    2012-12-01

    Over a period of several years we have performed three separate experiments at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's 88-Inch Cyclotron in which 235U (thick target) was Coulomb-excited. The program involved stand-alone experiments with Gammmasphere and with the 8pi Spectrometer using 136Xe beams at 720 MeV, and a CHICO-Gammasphere experiment with a 40Ca beam at 184 MeV. In addition to extending the known negative-parity bands to high spin, we have assigned levels in some seven positive-parity bands which are in some cases (e.g., [631]1/2, [624]7/2, and [622]5/2) strongly populated by E3 excitation. The CHICO data have been analyzed to extract E2 and E3 matrix elements from the observed yields. Additionally, many M1 matrix elements could be extracted from the γ-ray branching ratios. A number of new features have emerged, including the unexpected attenuation of magnetic transitions between states of the same Nilsson multiplet, the breakdown of Coriolis staggering at high spin, and the effect of E3 collectivity on Coriolis interactions.