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Sample records for bands on-orbit calibration

  1. MODIS On-orbit Spectral Calibration for the Reflective Solar Bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, X.; Che, N.; Barnes, W.

    2004-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) makes observations in 36 spectral bands with wavelengths from 0.41 to 14.5 microns. The bands with center wavelengths below 2.2 microns are referred as the reflective solar bands (RSB) with their radiometric calibration performed by a solar diffuser (SD) and a solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM). This paper focuses on the MODIS spectral calibration performed by its unique on-board calibrator (OBC): the Spectro-Radiometric Calibration Assembly (SRCA). When operated in the spectral mode, the SRCA acts as a monochromator with internal spherical integration source (SIS) that measures the spectral responses for all the reflective solar bands. A wavelength calibrator, a didymium filter with known spectral profile, is utilized to calibrate the wavelength scale for the grating positions during each SRCA spectral calibration activity. The capability of self-wavelength calibration allows the SRCA to track the center wavelength shifts and to monitor the spectral response changes throughout the instruments lifetime. The MODIS spectral calibration, same for both Terra and Aqua missions, is performed every three months on-orbit. An overview of MODIS spectral characterization approach and a summary of the on-orbit results will be presented in this paper.

  2. On-Orbit Calibration and Performance of Aqua MODIS Reflective Solar Bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Sun, Junqiang; Xie, Xiaobo; Barnes, William; Salomonson, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    Aqua MODIS has successfully operated on-orbit for more than 6 years since its launch in May 2002, continuously making global observations and improving studies of changes in the Earth's climate and environment. 20 of the 36 MODIS spectral bands, covering wavelengths from 0.41 to 2.2 microns, are the reflective solar bands (RSB). They are calibrated on-orbit using an on-board solar diffuser (SD) and a solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM). In addition, regularly scheduled lunar observations are made to track the RSB calibration stability. This paper presents Aqua MODIS RSB on-orbit calibration and characterization activities, methodologies, and performance. Included in this study are characterizations of detector signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), short-term stability, and long-term response change. Spectral wavelength dependent degradation of the SD bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) and scan mirror reflectance, which also varies with angle of incidence (AOI), are examined. On-orbit results show that Aqua MODIS onboard calibrators have performed well, enabling accurate calibration coefficients to be derived and updated for the Level 1B (L1B) production and assuring high quality science data products to be continuously generated and distributed. Since launch, the short-term response, on a scan-by-scan basis, has remained extremely stable for most RSB detectors. With the exception of band 6, there have been no new RSB noisy or inoperable detectors. Like its predecessor, Terra MODIS, launched in December 1999, the Aqua MODIS visible (VIS) spectral bands have experienced relatively large changes, with an annual response decrease (mirror side 1) of 3.6% for band 8 at 0.412 microns, 2.3% for band 9 at 0.443 microns, 1.6% for band 3 at 0.469 microns, and 1.2% for band 10 at 0.488 microns. For other RSB bands with wavelengths greater than 0.5 microns, the annual response changes are typically less than 0.5%. In general, Aqua MODIS optics degradation is smaller than Terra

  3. VIIRS reflective solar bands on-orbit calibration and performance: a three-year update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Junqiang; Wang, Menghua

    2014-11-01

    The on-orbit calibration of the reflective solar bands (RSBs) of VIIRS and the result from the analysis of the up-to-date 3 years of mission data are presented. The VIIRS solar diffuser (SD) and lunar calibration methodology are discussed, and the calibration coefficients, called F-factors, for the RSBs are given for the latest reincarnation. The coefficients derived from the two calibrations are compared and the uncertainties of the calibrations are discussed. Numerous improvements are made, with the major improvement to the calibration result come mainly from the improved bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) of the SD and the vignetting functions of both the SD screen and the sun-view screen. The very clean results, devoid of many previously known noises and artifacts, assures that VIIRS has performed well for the three years on orbit since launch, and in particular that the solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM) is functioning essentially without flaws. The SD degradation, or H-factors, for most part shows the expected decline except for the surprising rise on day 830 lasting for 75 days signaling a new degradation phenomenon. Nevertheless the SDSM and the calibration methodology have successfully captured the SD degradation for RSB calibration. The overall improvement has the most significant and direct impact on the ocean color products which demands high accuracy from RSB observations.

  4. VIIRS thermal emissive bands on-orbit calibration coefficient performance using vicarious calibration results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyer, D.; Moeller, C.; De Luccia, F.

    2013-09-01

    The Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS), a primary sensor on-board the Suomi-National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) spacecraft, was launched October 28, 2011. It has 22 bands: 7 thermal emissive bands (TEBs), 14 reflective solar bands (RSBs) and a Day Night Band (DNB). The TEBs cover the spectral wavelengths between 3.7 to 12 μm and have two 371 m and five 742 m spatial resolution bands. A VIIRS Key Performance Parameter (KPP) is the sea surface temperature (SST) which uses bands M12 (3.7 μm), M15 (10.8 μm) and M16's (12.0 μm) calibrated Science Data Records (SDRs). The TEB SDRs rely on pre-launch calibration coefficients used in a quadratic algorithm to convert the detector's response to calibrated radiance. This paper will evaluate the performance of these prelaunch calibration coefficients using vicarious calibration information from the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) also onboard the SNPP spacecraft and the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) on-board the Meteorological Operational (MetOp) satellite. Changes to the pre-launch calibration coefficients' offset term c0 to improve the SDR's performance at cold scene temperatures will also be discussed.

  5. Terra and Aqua MODIS Thermal Emissive Bands On-Orbit Calibration and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Wu, Aisheng; Wenny, Brian N.; Madhavan, Sriharsha; Wang, Zhipeng; Li, Yonghong; Chen, Na; Barnes, William L.; Salomonson, Vincent V.

    2015-01-01

    Since launch, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments on the Terra and Aqua spacecraft have operated successfully for more than 14 and 12 years, respectively. A key instrument for National Aeronautics and Space Administration Earth Observing System missions, MODIS was designed to make continuous observations for studies of Earth's land, ocean, and atmospheric properties and to extend existing data records from heritage Earth observing sensors. The 16 thermal emissive bands (TEBs) (3.75-14.24 micrometers) are calibrated on orbit using a temperature controlled blackbody (BB). Both Terra and Aqua MODIS BBs have displayed minimal drift over the mission lifetime, and the seasonal variations of the BB temperature are extremely small in Aqua MODIS. The long-term gain and noise equivalent difference in temperature performance of the 160 TEB detectors on both MODIS instruments have been well behaved and generally very stable. Small but noticeable variations of Aqua MODIS bands 33-36 (13.34-14.24 micrometer) response in recent years are primarily due to loss of temperature control margin of its passive cryoradiative cooler. As a result, fixed calibration coefficients, previously used by bands when the BB temperature is above their saturation temperatures, are replaced by the focal-plane-temperature-dependent calibration coefficients. This paper presents an overview of the MODIS TEB calibration, the on-orbit performance, and the challenging issues likely to impact the instruments as they continue operating well past their designed lifetime of six years.

  6. Performance of MODIS Thermal Emissive Bands On-orbit Calibration Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Chang, T.

    2009-01-01

    Two nearly identical copies of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are currently operated on-board the Terra and Aqua spacecrafts, launched in December 1999 and May 2002, respectively. Together, they have produced an unprecedented amount of science data products, which are widely used for the studies of changes in the Earth's system of land, oceans, and atmosphere. MODIS is a cross-track scanning radiometer, which uses a two-sided scan mirror and collects data continuously over a wide scan angle range (+/-55 degree relative to the instrument nadir) each scan of 1.47 seconds. It has 36 spectral bands with wavelengths ranging from visible (VIS) to long-wave infrared (LWIR). MODIS bands 1-19 and 26 are the reflective solar bands (RSB) and bands 20-25 and 27-36 are the thermal emissive bands (TEB). MODIS was developed and designed with improvements made over its heritage sensors (such as AVHRR and Landsat) and, in particular, with more stringent calibration requirements. Because of this, MODIS was built with a set of state-of-art on-board calibrators (OBC), which include a solar diffuser (SD), a solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM), a blackbody (BB), a spectroradiometric calibration assembly (SRCA), and a space view (SV) port. With the exception of view angle differences, MODIS OBC measurements and the Earth View (EV) observations are made via the same optical path. MODIS TEB have a total of 160 individual TEB detectors (10 per band), which are located on two cold focal plane assemblies (CFPA). For nominal on-orbit operation, the CFPA temperature is controlled at 83K via a passive radiative cooler. For the TEB, the calibration requirements at specified typical scene radiances are less than or equal to 1% with an exception for the fire detection (low gain) band. MODIS TEB on-orbit calibration is performed on a scan-by-scan basis using a quadratic calibration algorithm, and data collected from sensor responses to the onboard BB and SV. The BB

  7. VIIRS reflective solar bands on-orbit calibration coefficient performance using imagery and moderate band intercomparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyer, D.; Vandermierden, N.; Rausch, K.; De Luccia, F.

    2014-09-01

    A primary sensor on-board the Suomi-National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) spacecraft, the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) has 22 bands: 7 thermal emissive bands (TEBs), 14 reflective solar bands (RSBs) and a Day Night Band (DNB). The RSBs cover the spectral wavelengths between 0.412 to 2.25 μm and have three (I1-I3) 371m and eleven (M1-M11) 742m spatial resolution bands. A VIIRS Key Performance Parameter (KPP) is the Ocean Color/Chlorophyll (OCC) which uses moderate bands M1 (0.412μm) through M7's (0.865 μm) calibrated Science Data Records (SDRs). The RSB SDRs rely on prelaunch calibration coefficients which use a quadratic algorithm to convert the detector's response to calibrated radiance. This paper will evaluate the performance of these prelaunch calibration coefficients using SDR comparisons between bands with the same spectral characteristics: I2 with M7 (0.865 μm) and I3 with M10 (1.610 μm). Changes to the prelaunch calibration coefficient's offset term c0 to improve the SDR's performance at low radiance levels will also be discussed.

  8. Multiyear On-orbit Calibration and Performance of Terra MODIS Thermal Emissive Bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Chiang, Kwo-Fu; Wu, Aisheng; Barnes, William; Guenther, Bruce; Salomonson, Vincent

    2007-01-01

    Since launch in December 1999, Terra MODIS has been making continuous Earth observations for more than seven years. It has produced a broad range of land, ocean, and atmospheric science data products for improvements in studies of global climate and environmental change. Among its 36 spectral bands, there are 20 reflective solar bands (RSB) and 16 thermal emissive bands (TEB). MODIS thermal emissive bands cover the mid-wave infrared (MWIR) and long-wave infrared (LWIR) spectral regions with wavelengths from 3.7 to 14.4pm. They are calibrated on-orbit using an on-board blackbody (BB) with its temperature measured by a set of thermistors on a scan-by-scan basis. This paper will provide a brief overview of MODIS TEB calibration and characterization methodologies and illustrate on-board BB functions and TEB performance over more than seven years of on-orbit operation and calibration. Discussions will be focused on TEB detector short-term stability and noise characterization, and changes in long-term response (or system gain). Results show that Terra MODIS BB operation has been extremely stable since launch. When operated at its nominal controlled temperature of 290K, the BB temperature variation is typically less than +0.30mK on a scan-by-scan basis and there has been no time-dependent temperature drift. In addition to excellent short-term stability, most TEB detectors continue to meet or exceed their specified noise characterization requirements, thus enabling calibration accuracy and science data product quality to be maintained. Excluding the noisy detectors identified pre-launch and those that occurred post-launch, the changes in TEB responses have been less than 0.7% on an annual basis. The optical leak corrections applied to bands 32-36 have been effective and stable over the entire mission

  9. Landsat-7 ETM+ On-Orbit Reflective-Band Radiometric Stability and Absolute Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, Brian L.; Thome, Kurtis J.; Barsi, Julia A.; Kaita, Ed; Helder, Dennis L.; Barker, John L.

    2003-01-01

    The Landsat-7 spacecraft carries the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) instrument. This instrument images the Earth land surface in eight parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, termed spectral bands. These spectral images are used to monitor changes in the land surface, so a consistent relationship, i.e., calibration, between the image data and the Earth surface brightness, is required. The ETM+ has several on- board calibration devices that are used to monitor this calibration. The best on-board calibration source employs a flat white painted reference panel and has indicated changes of between 0.5% to 2% per year in the ETM+ response, depending on the spectral band. However, most of these changes are believed to be caused by changes in the reference panel, as opposed to changes in the instrument's sensitivity. This belief is based partially on on-orbit calibrations using instrumented ground sites and observations of "invariant sites", hyper-arid sites of the Sahara and Arabia. Changes determined from these data sets indicate are 0.1% - 0.6% per year. Tests and comparisons to other sensors also indicate that the uncertainty of the calibration is at the 5% level.

  10. Initial on-orbit radiometric calibration of the Suomi NPP VIIRS reflective solar bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Ning; Wang, Zhipeng; Fulbright, Jon; Lee, Shihyan; McIntire, Jeff; Chiang, Kwofu; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2012-09-01

    The on-orbit radiometric response calibration of the VISible/Near InfraRed (VISNIR) and the Short-Wave InfraRed (SWIR) bands of the Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) aboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite is carried out through a Solar Diffuser (SD). The transmittance of the SD screen and the SD's Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) are measured before launch and tabulated, allowing the VIIRS sensor aperture spectral radiance to be accurately determined. The radiometric response of a detector is described by a quadratic polynomial of the detector's digital number (dn). The coefficients were determined before launch. Once on orbit, the coefficients are assumed to change by a common factor: the F-factor. The radiance scattered from the SD allows the determination of the F-factor. In this Proceeding, we describe the methodology and the associated algorithms in the determination of the F-factors and discuss the results.

  11. Initial On-Orbit Radiometric Calibration of the Suomi NPP VIIRS Reflective Solar Bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lei, Ning; Wang, Zhipeng; Fulbright, Jon; Lee, Shihyan; McIntire, Jeff; Chiang, Vincent; Xiong, Jack

    2012-01-01

    The on-orbit radiometric response calibration of the VISible/Near InfraRed (VISNIR) and the Short-Wave InfraRed (SWIR) bands of the Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) aboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite is carried out through a Solar Diffuser (SD). The transmittance of the SD screen and the SD's Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) are measured before launch and tabulated, allowing the VIIRS sensor aperture spectral radiance to be accurately determined. The radiometric response of a detector is described by a quadratic polynomial of the detector?s digital number (dn). The coefficients were determined before launch. Once on orbit, the coefficients are assumed to change by a common factor: the F-factor. The radiance scattered from the SD allows the determination of the F-factor. In this Proceeding, we describe the methodology and the associated algorithms in the determination of the F-factors and discuss the results.

  12. Landsat-7 ETM+ on-orbit reflective-band radiometric stability and absolute calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Markham, B.L.; Thome, K.J.; Barsi, J.A.; Kaita, E.; Helder, Dennis L.; Barker, J. L.; Scaramuzza, Pat

    2004-01-01

    Launched in April 1999, the Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) instrument is in its sixth year of operation. The ETM+ instrument has been the most stable of any of the Landsat instruments. To date, the best onboard calibration source for the reflective bands has been the Full Aperture Solar Calibrator, a solar-diffuser-based system, which has indicated changes of between 1% to 2% per year in the ETM+ gain for bands 1-4 and 8 and less than 0.5%/year for bands 5 and 7. However, most of this change is believed to be caused by changes in the solar diffuser panel, as opposed to a change in the instrument's gain. This belief is based partially on vicarious calibrations and observations of "invariant sites", hyperarid sites of the Sahara and Arabia. Weighted average slopes determined from these datasets suggest changes of 0.0% to 0.4% per year for bands 1-4 and 8 and 0.4% to 0.5% per year for bands 5 and 7. Absolute calibration of the reflective bands of the ETM+ is consistent with vicarious observations and other sensors generally at the 5% level, though there appear to be some systematic differences.

  13. On-orbit performance and calibration improvements for the reflective solar bands of Terra and Aqua MODIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angal, Amit; Xiong, Xiaoxiong (Jack); Wu, Aisheng; Chen, Hongda; Geng, Xu; Link, Daniel; Li, Yonghong; Wald, Andrew; Brinkmann, Jake

    2016-05-01

    Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is the keystone instrument for NASA's EOS Terra and Aqua missions, designed to extend and improve heritage sensor measurements and data records of the land, oceans and atmosphere. The reflective solar bands (RSB) of MODIS covering wavelengths from 0.41 μm to 2.2 μm, are calibrated on-orbit using a solar diffuser (SD), with its on-orbit bi-directional reflectance factor (BRF) changes tracked using a solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM). MODIS is a scanning radiometer using a two-sided paddle-wheel mirror to collect earth view (EV) data over a range of +/-55° off instrument nadir. In addition to the solar calibration provided by the SD and SDSM system, lunar observations at nearly constant phase angles are regularly scheduled to monitor the RSB calibration stability. For both Terra and Aqua MODIS, the SD and lunar observations are used together to track the on-orbit changes of RSB response versus scan angle (RVS) as the SD and SV port are viewed at different angles of incidence (AOI) on the scan mirror. The MODIS Level 1B (L1B) Collection 6 (C6) algorithm incorporated several enhancements over its predecessor Collection 5 (C5) algorithm. A notable improvement was the use of the earth-view (EV) response trends from pseudo-invariant desert targets to characterize the on-orbit RVS for select RSB (Terra bands 1-4, 8, 9 and Aqua bands 8, 9) and the time, AOI, and wavelength-dependent uncertainty. The MODIS Characterization Support Team (MCST) has been maintaining and enhancing the C6 algorithm since its first update in November, 2011 for Aqua MODIS, and February, 2012 for Terra MODIS. Several calibration improvements have been incorporated that include extending the EV-based RVS approach to other RSB, additional correction for SD degradation at SWIR wavelengths, and alternative approaches for on-orbit RVS characterization. In addition to the on-orbit performance of the MODIS RSB, this paper also discusses in

  14. On-orbit calibration of Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite reflective solar bands and its challenges using a solar diffuser.

    PubMed

    Sun, Junqiang; Wang, Menghua

    2015-08-20

    nm, Band M11), respectively, since 20 January 2012. It is established that the SD calibration accurately catches the on-orbit RSB degradation according to the instrument design and the calibration algorithm. However, due to the inherent nonuniform degradation of the SD affecting especially the short wavelength bands and the lack of capability of the SDSM calibration to catch degradation beyond 935 nm, the direct and the unmitigated application of the SD calibration result will introduce nonnegligible error into the calibration coefficients resulting in long-term drifts in the sensor data records and consequently the high-level products. We explicitly unveil the effect of the nonuniformity in SD degradation in the RSB calibration coefficients but also briefly discuss a critical yet simple mitigation to restore the accuracy of the calibration coefficients based on lunar observations. The methodology presented here thus remains intact as the cornerstone of the RSB calibration, and our derived RSB calibration coefficients represent the optimal result. This work has the most impact on the quality of the ocean color products that sensitively depend on the moderate visible and NIR bands (M1-M7), as well as the SWIR bands (M8, M10, and M11). PMID:26368755

  15. MODIS On-orbit Calibration Uncertainty Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiang, Vincent; Sun, Junqiang; Wu, Aisheng

    2011-01-01

    MODIS has 20 reflective solar bands (RSB) and 16 thermal emissive bands (TEB). Compared to its heritage sensors, MODIS was developed with very stringent calibration uncertainty requirements. As a result, MODIS was designed and built with a set of on-board calibrators (OBC), which allow key sensor performance parameters and on-orbit calibration coefficients to be monitored and updated. In terms of its calibration traceability, MODIS RSB calibration is reflectance based using an on-board solar diffuser (SD) and the TEB calibration is radiance based using an on-board blackbody (BB). In addition to on-orbit calibration coefficients derived from its OBC, calibration parameters determined from sensor pre-launch calibration and characterization are used in both the RSB and TEB calibration and retrieval algorithms. This paper provides a brief description of MODIS calibration methodologies and an in-depth analysis of its on-orbit calibration uncertainties. Also discussed in this paper are uncertainty contributions from individual components and differences due to Terra and Aqua MODIS instrument characteristics and on-orbit performance.

  16. Radiometric calibration of GOSAT TANSO-FTS SWIR bands: comparison of vicarious to on-orbit results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, T. E.; O'Dell, C.; O'Brien, D. M.; Kataoka, F.; Kuze, A.; Bruegge, C.

    2012-12-01

    The Thermal And Near-infrared Sensor for carbon Observation - Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) aboard the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) has been providing global, space-based measurements of solar reflected radiances since early 2009. Several operational or semi-operational algorithms exist to invert the measured radiances, producing column-averaged carbon dioxide (CO2) dry air mole fraction (XCO2). The resulting XCO2 are used as inputs to flux inversion models to determine sources and sinks of CO2. An accurate radiometric calibration of the TANSO-FTS short wave infrared (SWIR) channels is required in order to yield results with high accuracy. In this work we summarize the latest estimation of ground-based vicarious calibration coefficients (VCC) from four separate field campaigns conducted at the Railroad Valley playa in June of 2009-2012. We then provide a comparison of the time-dependent VCC with the results from the radiometric calibration performed using on-orbit solar observations. While both approaches indicate some radiometric degradation in the SWIR bands, with the strongest decay in the Oxygen-A band, the magnitude of the changes disagree.

  17. Calibration effects on orbit determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madrid, G. A.; Winn, F. B.; Zielenbach, J. W.; Yip, K. B.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of charged particle and tropospheric calibrations on the orbit determination (OD) process are analyzed. The calibration process consisted of correcting the Doppler observables for the media effects. Calibrated and uncalibrated Doppler data sets were used to obtain OD results for past missions as well as Mariner Mars 1971. Comparisons of these Doppler reductions show the significance of the calibrations. For the MM'71 mission, the media calibrations proved themselves effective in diminishing the overall B-plane error and reducing the Doppler residual signatures.

  18. Aqua MODIS 8-Year On-Orbit Operation and Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Angal, Amit; Madhavan, Sriharsha; Choi, Taeyoung; Dodd, Jennifer; Geng, Xu; Wang, Zhipeng; Toller, Gary; Barnes, William

    2010-01-01

    Launched in May 2002, the NASA EOS Aqua MODIS has successfully operated for more than 8 years. Observations from Aqua MODIS and its predecessor, Terra MODIS, have generated an unprecedented amount of data products and made significant contributions to studies of changes in the Earth s system of land, oceans, and atmosphere. MODIS collects data in 36 spectral bands: 20 reflective solar bands (RSB) and 16 thermal emissive bands (TEB). It has a set of on-board calibrators (OBC), providing sensor on-orbit radiometric, spectral, and spatial calibration and characterization. This paper briefly summarizes Aqua MODIS on-orbit operation and calibration activities and illustrates instrument on-orbit performance from launch to present. Discussions are focused on OBC functions and changes in detector radiometric gains, spectral responses, and spatial registrations. With ongoing calibration effort, Aqua MODIS will continue serving the science community with high quality data products

  19. Early on-orbit calibration results from Aqua MODIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Barnes, William L.

    2003-04-01

    Aqua MODIS, also known as the MODIS Flight Model 1 (FM1), was launched on May 4, 2002. It opened its nadir aperture door (NAD) on June 24, 2002, beginning its Earth observing mission. In this paper, we present early results from Aqua MODIS on-orbit calibration and characterization and assess the instrument's overall performance. MODIS has 36 spectral bands located on four focal plane assemblies (FPAs). Bands 1-19, and 26 with wavelengths from 0.412 to 2.1 microns are the reflective solar bands (RSB) that are calibrated on-orbit by a solar diffuser (SD). The degradation of the SD is tracked using a solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM). The bands 20-25, and 27-36 with wavelengths from 3.75 to 14.5 microns are the thermal emissive bands (TEB) that are calibrated on-orbit by a blackbody (BB). Early results indicate that the on-orbit performance has been in good agreement with the predications determined from pre-launch measurements. Except for band 21, the low gain fire band, band 6, known to have some inoperable detectors from pre-launch characterization, and one noisy detector in band 36, all of the detectors' noise characterizations are within their specifications. Examples of the sensor's short-term and limited long-term responses in both TEB and RSB will be provided to illustrate the sensor's on-orbit stability. In addition, we will show some of the improvements that Aqua MODIS made over its predecessor, Terra MODIS (Protoflight Model - PFM), such as removal of the optical leak into the long-wave infrared (LWIR) photoconductive (PC) bands and reduction of electronic crosstalk and out-of-band (OOB) thermal leak into the short-wave infrared (SWIR) bands.

  20. VIIRS on-orbit calibration methodology and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Butler, James; Chiang, Kwofu; Efremova, Boryana; Fulbright, Jon; Lei, Ning; McIntire, Jeff; Oudrari, Hassan; Sun, Junqiang; Wang, Zhipeng; Wu, Aisheng

    2014-05-01

    The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) sensor aboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership spacecraft has successfully operated since its launch in October 2011. The VIIRS collects data in 22 spectral bands that are calibrated by a set of onboard calibrators (OBC). In addition, lunar observations are made to independently track VIIRS long-term calibration stability for the reflective solar bands (RSB). This paper provides an overview of VIIRS OBC functions as well as its on-orbit operation and calibration activities. It also describes sensor calibration methodologies and demonstrates VIIRS on-orbit performance from launch to present. Results reported in this paper include on-orbit changes in sensor spectral band responses, detector noise characterization, and key calibration parameters. Issues identified and their potential impacts on sensor calibration are also discussed. Since launch, the VIIRS instrument nominal operation temperature has been stable to within ±1.0 K. The cold focal plane temperatures have been well controlled, with variations of less than 20 mK over a period of 1.5 years. In general, changes in thermal emissive bands (TEB) detector responses have been less than 0.5%. Despite large response degradation in several near-infrared and short-wave infrared bands and large SD degradation at short visible wavelengths, the VIIRS sensor and OBC overall performance has been excellent postlaunch. The degradation caused by the telescope mirror coating contamination has been modeled and its impact addressed through the use of modulated relative spectral response in the improved calibration and the current sensor data record data production. Based on current instrument characteristics and performance, it is expected that the VIIRS calibration will continue to meet its design requirements, including RSB detector signal to noise ratio and TEB detector noise equivalent temperature difference, throughout its 7 year design lifetime.

  1. On-orbit noise characterization of MODIS reflective solar bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angal, Amit; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Sun, Junqiang; Geng, Xu

    2015-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), launched on the Terra and Aqua spacecrafts, was designed to collect complementary and comprehensive measurements of the Earth's properties on a global scale. The 20 reflective solar bands (RSBs), covering a wavelength range from 0.41 to 2.1 μm, are calibrated on-orbit using regularly scheduled solar diffuser (SD) observations. Although primarily used for on-orbit gain derivation, the SD observations also facilitate the characterization of the detector signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). In addition to the calibration requirement of 2% for the reflectance factors and 5% for the radiances, the required SNRs are also specified for all RSB at their typical scene radiances. A methodology to characterize the on-orbit SNR for the MODIS RSB is presented. Overall performance shows that a majority of the RSB continue to meet the specification, therefore performing well. A temporal decrease in the SNR, observed in the short-wavelength bands, is attributed primarily to the decrease in their detector responses. With the exception of the inoperable and noisy detectors in band 6 identified prelaunch, the detectors of Aqua MODIS RSB perform better than Terra MODIS. The approach formulated for on-orbit SNR characterization can also be used by other sensors that use on-board SDs for their on-orbit calibration (e.g., Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership [SNPP]-Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite).

  2. On-Orbit Noise Characterization of MODIS Reflective Solar Bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angal, Amit; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Sun, Junqiang; Geng, Xu

    2015-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), launched on the Terra and Aqua spacecrafts, was designed to collect complementary and comprehensive measurements of the Earth's properties on a global scale. The 20 reflective solar bands (RSBs), covering a wavelength range from 0.41 to 2.1 micrometers, are calibrated on-orbit using regularly scheduled solar diffuser (SD) observations. Although primarily used for on-orbit gain derivation, the SD observations also facilitate the characterization of the detector signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). In addition to the calibration requirement of 2% for the reflectance factors and 5% for the radiances, the required SNRs are also specified for all RSB at their typical scene radiances. A methodology to characterize the on-orbit SNR for the MODIS RSB is presented. Overall performance shows that a majority of the RSB continue to meet the specification, therefore performing well. A temporal decrease in the SNR, observed in the short-wavelength bands, is attributed primarily to the decrease in their detector responses. With the exception of the inoperable and noisy detectors in band 6 identified prelaunch, the detectors of AquaMODIS RSB perform better than TerraMODIS. The approach formulated for on-orbit SNR characterization can also be used by other sensors that use on-board SDs for their on-orbit calibration (e.g., Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership [SNPP]-Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite).

  3. VIIRS On-Orbit Calibration for Ocean Color Data Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eplee, Robert E., Jr.; Turpie, Kevin R.; Fireman, Gwyn F.; Meister, Gerhard; Stone, Thomas C.; Patt, Frederick S.; Franz, Bryan; Bailey, Sean W.; Robinson, Wayne D.; McClain, Charles R.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA VIIRS Ocean Science Team (VOST) has the task of evaluating Suomi NPP VIIRS ocean color data for the continuity of the NASA ocean color climate data records. The generation of science quality ocean color data products requires an instrument calibration that is stable over time. Since the VIIRS NIR Degradation Anomaly directly impacts the bands used for atmospheric correction of the ocean color data (Bands M6 and M7), the VOST has adapted the VIIRS on-orbit calibration approach to meet the ocean science requirements. The solar diffuser calibration time series and the solar diffuser stability monitor time series have been used to derive changes in the instrument response and diffuser reflectance over time for bands M1-M11.

  4. Landsat-7 ETM+ On-Orbit Radiometric Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, Brian L.; Kaita, Ed; Miller, Jeff; Barsi, Julia; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    As of July, 2000 the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) sensor on Landsat-7 has been operating on-orbit for about 15 months. The ETM+ images the Earth in has eight spectral bands in the visible, near-infrared (IR), short wavelength infrared (SWIR), and thermal portions of the spectrum. Three on-board calibration systems are available for the reflective bands: (1) the Internal Calibrator (IC), (2) the Partial Aperture Solar Calibrator (PASC), and (3) the Full Aperture Solar Calibrator (FASC). The Internal Calibrator also provides the thermal band calibration. Several investigators on the Landsat science team are also regularly performing vicarious calibrations. The internal calibrator, which during much of the pre-launch testing and early on-orbit check out period, showed up to 15% variability with time, has since stabilized as the instrument has assumed a regular schedule of operations and is now typically showing only a few percent variation with time, mostly associated with warm-up. The PASC has been the most variable of the sources: the response to the PASC has increased by as much as 50% is some bands and is oscillating with time, perhaps due to contamination. The FASC has been the most stable of the sources: mid scan response to the FASC diffuser have varied from -4%/yr for band 4 (0.83 microns) to -2%/yr for band 1 (0.49 microns) to +1%/yr for band 7 (2.2 microns). These decreases in response in bands 1-4 would have been about half as large if measured on the right (west) side of the panel and about twice as large if measured on the left side of the panel. The current interpretation is that the FASC diffuser panel is changing non-uniformly in its reflectance characteristics. Vicarious ground measurements have generally been consistent with the pre-launch measurements of the instrument responsivity and have not shown evidence of a change in responsivity with time. The FASC, IC, and vicarious results suggest the instrument has not changed by more than two

  5. MODIS On-Orbit Calibration and Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, Jack

    2012-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is a key instrument for NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra and Aqua missions. Since launch, Terra and Aqua MODIS have successfully operated for more than 12 and 10 years, respectively, and generated an unprecedented amount of data products for the science and user community over a wide range of applications. MODIS was developed with improved design and stringent calibration requirements over its heritage sensors in order . to extend and enhance their long-term data records. Its follow-on instrument, the Visible/Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS), was launched on-board the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) spacecraft October 28, 2011. MODIS collects data in 36 spectral bands, covering wavelengths from 0.41 to 14.S!Jlll, and at 250m, SOOm, and lkm spatial resolutions (nadir). MODIS on-orbit calibration is provided by a set of onboard calibrators (OBC), including a solar diffuser (SO), a solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM), a blackbody (BB), and a spectroradiometric calibration assembly (SRCA). In addition to the onboard calibrators, regular lunar observations are made by both Terra and Aqua MODIS to track their calibration stability in the reflective solar region. This tutorial session provides an overview of MODIS on-orbit calibration and characterization methodologies. It discusses challenging issues and lessons learned from sensor design, operation, calibration, and inter-comparisons. Examples of instrument on-orbit performance are illustrated with a focus on the improvements made based on various lessons learned. It is expected that MODIS experience and lessons will continue to provide valuable information for future earth observing missions/sensors.

  6. Status of Aqua MODIS On-orbit Calibration and Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, X.; Barnes, W.; Chiang, K.; Erives, H.; Che, N.; Sun, J.; Isaacman, A.; Salomonson, V.

    2004-01-01

    The MODIS Flight Model 1 (FM1) has been in operation for more than two years since its launch onboard the NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) Aqua spacecraft on May 4, 2002. The MODIS has 36 spectral bands: 20 reflective solar bands (RSB) with center wavelengths from 0.41 to 2.2 micron and 16 thermal emissive bands (TEB) from 3.7 to 14.5 micron. It provides the science community observations (data products) of the Earth's land, oceans, and atmosphere for a board range of applications. Its primary on-orbit calibration and characterization activities are performed using a solar diffuser (SD) and a solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM) system for the RSB and a blackbody for the TEB. Another on-board calibrator (OBC) known as the spectro-radiometric calibration assembly (SRCA) is used for the instrument's spatial (TEB and RSB) and spectral (RSB only) characterization. We present in this paper the status of Aqua MODIS calibration and characterization during its first two years of on-orbit operation. Discussions will be focused on the calibration activities executed on-orbit in order to maintain and enhance the instrument's performance and the quality of its Level 1B (L1B) data products. We also provide comparisons between Aqua MODIS and Terra MODIS (launched in December, 1999), including their similarity and difference in response trending and optics degradation. Existing data and results show that Aqua MODIS bands 8 (0.412 micron) and 9 (0.443 micron) have much smaller degradation than Terra MODIS bands 8 and 9. The most noticeable feature shown in the RSB trending is that the mirror side differences in Aqua MODIS are extremely small and stable (<0.1%) while the Terra MODIS RSB trending has shown significant mirror side difference and wavelength dependent degradation. The overall stability of the Aqua MODIS TEB is also better than that of the Terra MODIS during their first two years of on-orbit operation.

  7. Landsat-7 EMT+ On-Orbit Radiometric Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, Brian L.; Barker, J. L.; Kaita, E.; Seiferth, J.; Morfitt, Ron

    1999-01-01

    Landsat-7 was launched on April 15, 1999 and completed its on orbit initialization and verification period on June 28, 1999. The ETM+ payload is similar to the TM sensors on previous Landsat satellites and incorporates two new devices to improve its absolute radiometric calibration. The Full Aperture Solar Calibrator (FASC) is a deployable diffuser panel. This device has been deployed 9 times to date, with a normal deployment schedule of once per month. The initial analysis of the FASC data has given absolute calibration results within 5% of the prelaunch integrating sphere calibrations and a range of variation of 2% between dates. The Partial Aperture Solar Calibrator (PASC), is a set of auxiliary optics that allows the ETM+ to view the sun through a reduced aperture. Data have normally been acquired on a daily basis with the PASC. Initial results with the PASC were encouraging, despite some unexpected saturation in the shortest wavelength band. The response of the ETM+ short wavelength (silicon) bands to the PASC increased initially and has begun to decrease in some of these bands. The longer wavelength (InSb) bands have shown up to 30% oscillations that vary between detectors within the band. Studies are ongoing to better characterize the response to the PASC. The ETM+ also incorporates an internal calibrator (IC), a shutter that oscillates in front of the focal plane that directs light from the internal calibrator lamps to the focal plane. The responses to this device are also varying, though differently than the PASC results. Both the IC and PASC results are attributable to the calibration devices as opposed to the ETM+ itself.

  8. On-Orbit Noise Characterization for MODIS Reflective Solar Bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, X.; Xie, X.; Angal, A.

    2008-01-01

    Since launch, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) has operated successfully on-board the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra and EOS Aqua spacecraft. MODIS is a passive cross-track scanning radiometer that makes observations in 36 spectral bands with spectral wavelengths from visible (VIS) to long-wave infrared. MODIS bands 1-19 and 26 are the reflective solar bands (RSB) with wavelengths from 0.41 to 2.2 micrometers. They are calibrated on-orbit using an on-board solar diffuser (SD) and a SD stability monitor (SDSM) system. For MODIS RSB, the level 1B calibration algorithm produces top of the atmosphere reflectance factors and radiances for every pixel of the Earth view. The sensor radiometric calibration accuracy, specified at each spectral band's typical scene radiance, is 2% for the RSB reflectance factors and 5% for the RSB radiances. Also specified at the typical scene radiance is the detector signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), a key sensor performance parameter that directly impacts its radiometric calibration accuracy and stability, as well as the image quality. This paper describes an on-orbit SNR characterization approach developed to evaluate and track MODIS RSB detector performance. In order to perform on-orbit SNR characterization, MODIS RSB detector responses to the solar illumination reflected from the SD panel must be corrected for factors due to variations of the solar angles and the SD bi-directional reflectance factor. This approach enables RSB SNR characterization to be performed at different response levels for each detector. On-orbit results show that both Terra and Aqua MODIS RSB detectors have performed well since launch. Except for a few noisy or inoperable detectors which were identified pre-launch, most RSB detectors continue to meet the SNR design requirements and are able to maintain satisfactory short-term stability. A comparison of on-orbit noise characterization results with results derived from pre

  9. Landsat 8 on-orbit characterization and calibration system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Micijevic, Esad; Morfitt, Ron; Choate, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) is planning to launch the Landsat 8 satellite in December 2012, which continues an uninterrupted record of consistently calibrated globally acquired multispectral images of the Earth started in 1972. The satellite will carry two imaging sensors: the Operational Land Imager (OLI) and the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS). The OLI will provide visible, near-infrared and short-wave infrared data in nine spectral bands while the TIRS will acquire thermal infrared data in two bands. Both sensors have a pushbroom design and consequently, each has a large number of detectors to be characterized. Image and calibration data downlinked from the satellite will be processed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center using the Landsat 8 Image Assessment System (IAS), a component of the Ground System. In addition to extracting statistics from all Earth images acquired, the IAS will process and trend results from analysis of special calibration acquisitions, such as solar diffuser, lunar, shutter, night, lamp and blackbody data, and preselected calibration sites. The trended data will be systematically processed and analyzed, and calibration and characterization parameters will be updated using both automatic and customized manual tools. This paper describes the analysis tools and the system developed to monitor and characterize on-orbit performance and calibrate the Landsat 8 sensors and image data products.

  10. MODIS and SeaWIFS on-orbit lunar calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sun, Jielun; Eplee, R.E., Jr.; Xiong, X.; Stone, T.; Meister, G.; McClain, C.R.

    2008-01-01

    corrections to the SeaWiFS data, after more than ten years on orbit, are 19% at 865 nm, 8% at 765 nm, and 1-3% in the other bands. In this report, the lunar calibration algorithms are reviewed and the RSB gain changes observed by the lunar observations are shown for all three sensors. The lunar observations for the three instruments are compared using the USGS photometric model. The USGS lunar model facilitates the cross calibration of instruments with different spectra bandpasses whose measurements of the Moon differ in time and observing geometry.

  11. Absolute irradiance of the Moon for on-orbit calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, T.C.; Kieffer, H.H.

    2002-01-01

    The recognized need for on-orbit calibration of remote sensing imaging instruments drives the ROLO project effort to characterize the Moon for use as an absolute radiance source. For over 5 years the ground-based ROLO telescopes have acquired spatially-resolved lunar images in 23 VNIR (Moon diameter ???500 pixels) and 9 SWIR (???250 pixels) passbands at phase angles within ??90 degrees. A numerical model for lunar irradiance has been developed which fits hundreds of ROLO images in each band, corrected for atmospheric extinction and calibrated to absolute radiance, then integrated to irradiance. The band-coupled extinction algorithm uses absorption spectra of several gases and aerosols derived from MODTRAN to fit time-dependent component abundances to nightly observations of standard stars. The absolute radiance scale is based upon independent telescopic measurements of the star Vega. The fitting process yields uncertainties in lunar relative irradiance over small ranges of phase angle and the full range of lunar libration well under 0.5%. A larger source of uncertainty enters in the absolute solar spectral irradiance, especially in the SWIR, where solar models disagree by up to 6%. Results of ROLO model direct comparisons to spacecraft observations demonstrate the ability of the technique to track sensor responsivity drifts to sub-percent precision. Intercomparisons among instruments provide key insights into both calibration issues and the absolute scale for lunar irradiance.

  12. On-orbit instrument calibration of CALET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javaid, Amir; Calet Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The CALorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) is a high-energy cosmic ray experiment which will be placed on the International Space Station in 2015. Primary goals of CALET are measurement of cosmic ray electron spectra from 1 GeV to 20 TeV, gamma rays from 10 GeV to 10 TeV, and protons and nuclei from 10 GeV up to 1000 TeV. The detector consists of three main components: a Charge Detector (CHD), Imaging Calorimeter (IMC), and Total Absorption Calorimeter (TASC). As CALET is going to work in the ISS orbit space environment, it needs to be calibrated while it is in orbit. Penetrating non-showering protons and helium nuclei are prime candidates for instrument calibration, as they provide a known energy signal for calibrating the detector response. In the present paper, we discuss estimation of CALET's detector efficiency to protons and helium nuclei. Included is a discussion of different galactic cosmic ray and trapped proton models used for flux calculation and simulations performed for detector geometric area and trigger rate calculation. This paper also discusses the importance of the albedo proton flux for the CALET detector calibration. This research was supported by NASA at Louisiana State University under Grant Number NNX11AE01G.

  13. S-NPP VIIRS on-orbit Band to Band Registration Estimation using the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, T.

    2015-12-01

    The Soumi National Polar-orbit Partnership (S-NPP) was successfully launched and has been operational since October 28, 2011, which carries the Visible Infrared Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) with among other instruments. Since VIIRS does not include on-board spatial calibrator such as Spectroradiometric Calibration Assembly (SRCA) on the predecessor sensor called MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), the on-orbit estimation of the spatial parameters needs to be measured independently. As a well-known radiometric target, the moon is utilized to estimate Band-to-Band (BBR) results as a part of spatial quality factors using the lifetime scheduled lunar collections. The reference band of the BBR is chosen to be the VIIRS band of Imaging band 1 (I1), because of its high signal-to-noise ratio, and high spatial sampling frequency compared to other moderate (M) bands. In this study, the conventional BBR calculation applied MODIS called weighted sum method is applied providing along-track and along-scan direction results. The BBR differences based on the reference band I1 results are very stable over the 3 years of VIIRS operation. The along-scan direction BBR results are mostly within ± 0.5 nominal Ground Sampling Distance (GSD) and the along-track direction BBR values are mostly between + 0.1 and -0.4 GSD. The final BBR results are available publically at the National Oceanic Atmospheric Agency (NOAA) Integrated Calibration Validation System (ICVS) webpage.

  14. On-orbit lunar calibration compared with vicarious calibration for GOSAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiomi, K.; Kawakami, S.; kuze, A.; Suto, H.; Hashiguchi, T.; Kataoka, F.; Higuchi, R.; Bruegge, C.; Schwandner, F. M.

    2013-12-01

    JAXA's Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) is since 2009 in polar orbit to monitor greenhouse gases such as CO2 and CH4 from space. GOSAT consists of a Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) and a Cloud and Aerosol Imager (TANSO-CAI). The FTS has 3 polarized SWIR narrow bands and a TIR wide band. The FTS observes globally with gridded points of 10 km FOV using discrete pointing. The CAI carries 4 radiometers in the UV to SWIR with high spatial resolution of 0.5-1.5 km and a wide swath of 1000 km. In this study, we compare the lunar calibration results with the results of our annual vicarious calibration campaigns. For lunar calibrations, GOSAT observes a nearly full moon for the on-orbit radiometric calibration of the FTS SWIR bands and the CAI. Lunar calibrations are operated in April for investigation of continuous annual sensitivity trends and in July, corresponding to the annual Railroad Valley Cal/Val campaign. Since the 3rd year, lunar calibration has been planned to observe in a phase angle around 7 degrees to avoid the reflectance opposition surge in order to target the nearly-unchanged and brightest reflectance as a function of phase angle. The Railroad Valley vicarious calibration campaign is conducted by measuring the surface reflectance and atmospheric parameters coincident with a dedicated GOSAT target observation, to derive top-of-the-atmosphere radiance. The nadir surface reflectance is collected in 500x500 m areas corresponding to the CAI resolution. The off-nadir reflectance is obtained simultaneously with BRDF values, for correction. We will discuss the sensitivity study by comparison between the GOSAT lunar observation and the vicarious calibration.

  15. Overview of Aqua MODIS 10-year On-orbit Calibration and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, X.; Wenny, B.; Sun, J.; Wu, A.; Chen, H.; Angal, A.; Choi, T.; Madhavan, S.; Geng, X.; Link, D.; Toller, G.; Barnes, W.; Salomonson, V.

    2012-01-01

    Since launch in May 2002, Aqua MODIS has successfully operated for nearly 10 years, continuously collecting global datasets for scientific studies of key parameters of the earth's land, ocean, and atmospheric properties and their changes over time. The quality of these geophysical parameters relies on the input quality of sensor calibrated radiances. MODIS observations are made in 36 spectral bands with wavelengths ranging from visible (VIS) to longwave infrared (LWIR). Its reflective solar bands (RSB) are calibrated using data collected from its on-board solar diffuser and regularly scheduled lunar views. The thermal emissive bands (TEB) are calibrated using an on-board blackbody (BB). The changes in the sensor's spectral and spatial characteristics are monitored by an on-board spectroradiometric calibration assembly (SRCA). This paper presents an overview of Aqua MODIS 10-year on-orbit operation and calibration activities, from launch to present, and summarizes its on-orbit radiometric, spectral, and spatial calibration and characterization performance. In addition, it will illustrate and discuss on-orbit changes in sensor characteristics and corrections applied to continuously maintain the sensor level 1B (L1B) data quality, as well as lessons learned that could benefit future calibration efforts.

  16. On-orbit calibration of SeaWiFS.

    PubMed

    Eplee, Robert E; Meister, Gerhard; Patt, Frederick S; Barnes, Robert A; Bailey, Sean W; Franz, Bryan A; McClain, Charles R

    2012-12-20

    Ocean color climate data records (CDRs) require water-leaving radiances with 5% absolute and 1% relative accuracies as input. Because of the amplification of any sensor calibration errors by the atmospheric correction, the 1% relative accuracy requirement translates into a 0.1% long-term radiometric stability requirement for top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) radiances. The rigorous prelaunch and on-orbit calibration program developed and implemented for Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) by the NASA Ocean Biology Processing Group (OBPG) has led to the incorporation of significant changes into the on-orbit calibration methodology over the 13-year lifetime of the instrument. Evolving instrument performance and ongoing algorithm refinement have resulted in updates to approaches for the lunar, solar, and vicarious calibration of SeaWiFS. The uncertainties in the calibrated TOA radiances are addressed in terms of accuracy (biases in the measurements), precision (scatter in the measurements), and stability (repeatability of the measurements). The biases are 2%-3% from lunar calibration and 1%-2% from vicarious calibration. The precision is 0.16% from solar signal-to-noise ratios, 0.13% from lunar residuals, and 0.10% from vicarious gains. The long-term stability of the TOA radiances, derived from the lunar time series, is 0.13%. The stability of the vicariously calibrated TOA radiances, incorporating the uncertainties of the in situ measurements and the atmospheric correction, is 0.30%. This stability of the radiometric calibration of SeaWiFS over its 13-year on-orbit lifetime has allowed the OBPG to produce CDRs from the ocean color data set. PMID:23262612

  17. Aquarius Radiometer Performance: Early On-Orbit Calibration and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piepmeier, Jeffrey R.; LeVine, David M.; Yueh, Simon H.; Wentz, Frank; Ruf, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The Aquarius/SAC-D observatory was launched into a 657-km altitude, 6-PM ascending node, sun-synchronous polar orbit from Vandenberg, California, USA on June 10, 2011. The Aquarius instrument was commissioned two months after launch and began operating in mission mode August 25. The Aquarius radiometer meets all engineering requirements, exhibited initial calibration biases within expected error bars, and continues to operate well. A review of the instrument design, discussion of early on-orbit performance and calibration assessment, and investigation of an on-going calibration drift are summarized in this abstract.

  18. Results of MODIS Band-to-Band Registration Characterization Using On-Orbit Lunar Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Sun, Junqiang; Angal,Amit

    2011-01-01

    Since launch, lunar observations have been made regularly by both Terra and Aqua MODIS and used for a number of sensor calibration and characterization related applications, including radiometric stability monitoring, spatial characterization, optical leak and electronic cross-talk characterization, and calibration inter-comparison. MODIS has 36 spectral bands with a total of 490 individual detectors. They are located on four focal plane assemblies (FPA). This paper focuses on the use of MODIS lunar observations to characterize its band-to-band registration (BBR). In addition to BBR, the approach developed by the MODIS Characterization Support Team (MCST) can be used to characterize MODIS detector-to-detector registration (DDR). Long-term BBR results developed from this approach are presented and compared with that derived from a unique on-board calibrator (OBC). Results show that on-orbit changes of BBR have been very small for both Terra and Aqua MODIS and this approach can be applied to other remote sensing instruments.

  19. Terra MODIS RSB on-orbit calibration and performance: four years of data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erives, Hector; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Sun, Junqiang; Esposito, Joseph A.; Xiong, Sanxiong; Barnes, William L.

    2004-11-01

    Terra MODIS, also referred to as the MODIS Protoflight Model (PFM), was launched on-board the NASA's EOS Terra spacecraft on December 18, 1999. It has been in operation for more than four years and continuously providing the science community quality data sets for studies of the Earth's land, oceans, and atmosphere. It has also served as the primary source of information for the MODIS Land Rapid Response System for observing and reporting on natural disasters, and providing active fire information around the Earth. The MODIS instrument has 36 spectral bands with wavelengths ranging from 0.41mm to 14.5mm: 20 bands with wavelengths below 2.2mm are the reflective solar bands (RSB) and the other 16 bands are the thermal emissive bands (TEB). The RSB are calibrated on-orbit using a solar diffuser (SD) with the degradation of its bi-directional reflectance factor (BRF) tracked by an on-board solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM). The calibration coefficients are updated via Look-Up Tables (LUTs) for the Level 1B code that converts the sensor's Earth view response from digital counts to calibrated reflectance and radiance. In this paper we review the MODIS RSB on-orbit calibration algorithm and the methodology of computing and updating the calibration coefficients determined from the SD and SDSM data sets. We present examples of the sensor's long-term and short-term stability trending of key RSB calibration parameters using over four years of on-orbit calibration data sets. Special considerations due to changes in instrument configuration and sensor response are also discussed.

  20. Landsat 8 operational land imager on-orbit geometric calibration and performance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Storey, James C.; Choate, Michael J.; Lee, Kenton

    2014-01-01

    The Landsat 8 spacecraft was launched on 11 February 2013 carrying the Operational Land Imager (OLI) payload for moderate resolution imaging in the visible, near infrared (NIR), and short-wave infrared (SWIR) spectral bands. During the 90-day commissioning period following launch, several on-orbit geometric calibration activities were performed to refine the prelaunch calibration parameters. The results of these calibration activities were subsequently used to measure geometric performance characteristics in order to verify the OLI geometric requirements. Three types of geometric calibrations were performed including: (1) updating the OLI-to-spacecraft alignment knowledge; (2) refining the alignment of the sub-images from the multiple OLI sensor chips; and (3) refining the alignment of the OLI spectral bands. The aspects of geometric performance that were measured and verified included: (1) geolocation accuracy with terrain correction, but without ground control (L1Gt); (2) Level 1 product accuracy with terrain correction and ground control (L1T); (3) band-to-band registration accuracy; and (4) multi-temporal image-to-image registration accuracy. Using the results of the on-orbit calibration update, all aspects of geometric performance were shown to meet or exceed system requirements.

  1. Progress on alternative method of the on-orbit RVS characterization for MODIS reflective solar bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H.; Xiong, X.; Angal, A.; Geng, X.; Wu, A.

    2014-09-01

    MODIS Reflective Solar Bands (RSB) are calibrated on-orbit using its onboard calibrators, including a Solar Diffuser (SD), a Solar Diffuser Stability Monitor (SDSM), and a Spectroradiometric Calibration Assembly (SRCA). A Space View (SV) port is used to provide a background reference, and also facilitate near monthly lunar observations via a spacecraft roll. In every scan, the earth's surface, SV and onboard calibrators are viewed via a two sided scan mirror, whose reflectance depends on the angles of the incidence (AOI) as well as the wavelength of the incident light. Response versus Scan angle (RVS) is defined as a dependence function of the scan mirror's reflectance over AOI. An initial RVS for each RSB was measured prelaunch for both Terra and Aqua MODIS. Algorithms have been developed to track the on-orbit RVS variation using the measurements from the onboard calibrators, supplemented with the Earth View (EV) response from pseudo-invariant desert targets obtained at different AOI. The current approach, as implemented in Collection 6 (C6), uses EV responses from the Libyan desert sites to track the on-orbit RVS change. It strongly depends on the long-term temporal stability of the desert sites. As an effort to validate and, if necessary, to improve MODIS RSB RVS characterization for future applications, the MODIS Characterization Support Team (MCST) has developed and tested an alternative approach to monitor the on-orbit RVS change, using a response from a single desert site. The purpose of using data from one site is to avoid the impact of possible differences in the long-term temporal stability among multiple sites on the calculation of the on-orbit RVS. This paper updates recent progress in the formulation of the alternative RVS approach. Comprehensive comparisons were also performed with current C6 RVS results for both Terra and Aqua MODIS. Results demonstrate that this alternative method provides a supplemental means to track the on-orbit RVS for MODIS RSB.

  2. VIIRS On-Orbit Calibration and Performance Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, X.; Butler, J.; Chiang, K.; Efremova, B.; Fulbright, J.; Lei, N.; McIntire, J.; Wang, Z.

    2014-01-01

    The S-NPP VIIRS was launched on October 28, 2011 and activated on November 8, and then went through a series of intensive functional tests in order to establish the sensor's baseline characteristics and initial on-orbit performance. With the exception of large optical degradation in the NIR and SWIR spectral regions that is due to pre-launch mirror coating contamination, both the VIIRS instrument and its on-board calibrators continue to operate and function normally. With continuous dedicated effort, it is expected that most of the sensor calibration parameters will continue to meet their design requirements and that high quality data products will be continuously generated and used by the operational as well as research community.

  3. On-orbit radiometric performance characterization of S-NPP VIIRS reflective solar bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uprety, Sirish; Blonski, Slawomir; Cao, Changyong

    2016-05-01

    It has been nearly four years that the S-NPP was launched. In an effort to improve the VIIRS calibration, VIIRS has undergone a number of major look up table updates during this period. RSB bands such as M1 through M3 suggested higher solar diffuser degradation rate. Similarly, for higher wavelengths, even though the solar diffuser degradation is much smaller and even negligible for SWIR bands, bands such as M7 suffer from major degradation due to RTA throughput degradation. Even though the solar diffuser and mirror degradation is well characterized, the data quality needs to be independently validated to ensure that data are well within the specification. We have used on-orbit calibration/validation techniques such as extended SNOs to estimate the bias of these bands and quantify the radiometric performance since launch. Assuming MODIS as a standard reference, intercomparison was performed to analyze the VIIRS radiometric performance. It was observed that some of the VIIRS bands such as M5 and M7 suggest bias on the order of 1.5% or more for most of the time period since early launch. VIIRS bias trends keep changing over time which can be mainly correlated to calibration updates and instrument anomalies. Results on VIIRS on-orbit calibration performance and its bias since early launch will be presented during meeting to help users better understand the data quality and its impacts on broader scientific research and applications.

  4. Status of Aqua MODIS Instrument On-Orbit Operation and Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, Jack; Angal, Amit; Madhaven, Sri; Choi, Jason; Wenny, Brian; Sun, Junqiang; Wu, Aisheng; Chen, Hongda; Salomonson, Vincent; Barnes, William

    2011-01-01

    The Aqua MOderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) has successfully operated for nearly a decade, since its launch in May 2002. MODIS was developed and designed with improvements over its heritage sensors in terms of its overall spectral, spatial, and temporal characteristics, and with more stringent calibration requirements. MODIS carries a set of on-board calibrators that can be used to track and monitor its on-orbit radiometric, spectral, and spatial performance. Since launch, extensive instrument calibration and characterization activities have been scheduled and executed by the MODIS Characterization Support Team (MCST). These efforts are made to assure the quality of instrument calibration and L 1B data products, as well as support all science disciplines (land, ocean, and atmospheric) for continuous improvements of science data product quality. MODIS observations from both Terra and Aqua have significantly contributed to the science and user community over a wide range of research activities and applications. This paper provides an overview of Aqua MODIS on-orbit operation and calibration activities, instrument health status, and on-board calibrators (OBC) performance. On-orbit changes of key sensor parameters, such as spectral band radiometric responses, center wavelengths, and bandwidth, are illustrated and compared with those derived from its predecessor, Terra MODIS. Lessons and challenges identified from Aqua MODIS performance are also discussed in this paper. These lessons are not only critical to future improvements of Aqua MODIS on-orbit operation and calibration but also beneficial to its follow-on instrument, the Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) to be launched on NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) spacecraft.

  5. Suomi NPP VIIRS prelaunch and on-orbit geometric calibration and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, Robert E.; Lin, Guoqing; Nishihama, Masahiro; Tewari, Krishna P.; Tilton, James C.; Isaacman, Alice R.

    2013-10-01

    Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) sensor was launched 28 October 2011 on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite. VIIRS has 22 spectral bands covering the spectrum between 0.412 µm and 12.01 µm, including 16 moderate resolution bands (M-bands) with a nominal spatial resolution of 750 m at nadir, five imaging resolution bands (I-bands) with a nominal spatial resolution of 375 m at nadir, and a day-night band (DNB) with a near-constant nominal 750 m spatial resolution throughout the scan. These bands are located in a visible and near-infrared focal plane assembly (FPA), a shortwave and midwave infrared FPA, and a long-wave infrared FPA. All bands, except the DNB, are coregistered for proper environmental data records retrievals. Observations from VIIRS instrument provide long-term measurements of biogeophysical variables for climate research and polar satellite data stream for the operational community's use in weather forecasting and disaster relief and other applications. Well Earth-located (geolocated) instrument data are important to retrieving accurate biogeophysical variables. This paper describes prelaunch pointing and alignment measurements, and the two sets of on-orbit correction of geolocation errors, the first of which corrected error from 1300 m to within 75 m (20% I-band pixel size) and the second of which fine-tuned scan-angle dependent errors, bringing VIIRS geolocation products to high maturity in one and a half years of the SNPP VIIRS on-orbit operations. Prelaunch calibration and the on-orbit characterization of sensor spatial impulse responses and band-to-band coregistration are also described.

  6. Suomi NPP VIIRS Prelaunch and On-orbit Geometric Calibration and Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, Robert E.; Lin, Guoqing; Nishihama, Masahiro; Tewari, Krishna P.; Tilton, James C.; Isaacman, Alice R.

    2013-01-01

    The Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) sensor was launched 28 October 2011 on the Suomi National Polarorbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite. VIIRS has 22 spectral bands covering the spectrum between 0.412 m and 12.01 m, including 16 moderate resolution bands (M-bands) with a spatial resolution of 750 m at nadir, 5 imaging resolution bands (I-bands) with a spatial resolution of 375 m at nadir, and 1 day-night band (DNB) with a near-constant 750 m spatial resolution throughout the scan. These bands are located in a visible and near infrared (VisNIR) focal plane assembly (FPA), a short- and mid-wave infrared (SWMWIR) FPA and a long-wave infrared (LWIR) FPA. All bands, except the DNB, are co-registered for proper environmental data records (EDRs) retrievals. Observations from VIIRS instrument provide long-term measurements of biogeophysical variables for climate research and polar satellite data stream for the operational communitys use in weather forecasting and disaster relief and other applications. Well Earth-located (geolocated) instrument data is important to retrieving accurate biogeophysical variables. This paper describes prelaunch pointing and alignment measurements, and the two sets of on-orbit correction of geolocation errors, the first of which corrected error from 1,300 m to within 75 m (20 I-band pixel size), and the second of which fine tuned scan angle dependent errors, bringing VIIRS geolocation products to high maturity in one and a half years of the SNPP VIIRS on-orbit operations. Prelaunch calibration and the on-orbit characterization of sensor spatial impulse responses and band-to-band co-registration (BBR) are also described.

  7. Four years of Landsat-7 on-orbit geometric calibration and performance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, D.S.; Storey, J.C.; Choate, M.J.; Hayes, R.W.

    2004-01-01

    Unlike its predecessors, Landsat-7 has undergone regular geometric and radiometric performance monitoring and calibration since launch in April 1999. This ongoing activity, which includes issuing quarterly updates to calibration parameters, has generated a wealth of geometric performance data over the four-year on-orbit period of operations. A suite of geometric characterization (measurement and evaluation procedures) and calibration (procedures to derive improved estimates of instrument parameters) methods are employed by the Landsat-7 Image Assessment System to maintain the geometric calibration and to track specific aspects of geometric performance. These include geodetic accuracy, band-to-band registration accuracy, and image-to-image registration accuracy. These characterization and calibration activities maintain image product geometric accuracy at a high level - by monitoring performance to determine when calibration is necessary, generating new calibration parameters, and verifying that new parameters achieve desired improvements in accuracy. Landsat-7 continues to meet and exceed all geometric accuracy requirements, although aging components have begun to affect performance.

  8. CALET Data Processing and On-Orbit Detector Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asaoka, Yoichi

    2016-07-01

    The CALET (CALorimetric Electron Telescope), launched to the International Space Station (ISS) in August 2015 and accumulating scientific data since October 2015, aims at long duration observations of high-energy cosmic rays onboard the ISS. The CALET detector features the very thick calorimeter of 30 radiation-length which consists of imaging and total absorption calorimeters (IMC and TASC respectively). It will directly measure the cosmic-ray electron spectrum in the energy range of 1 GeV-20 TeV with 2% energy resolution. In addition, the instrument has capabilities to measure the spectra of gamma-rays, protons and nuclei well into the TeV range. Precise pointing direction is determined with an attached Advanced Stellar Camera (ASC). To operate the CALET onboard ISS, the CALET Ground Support Equipment (CALET-GSE) and Waseda CALET Operations Center (WCOC) have been established at JAXA and Waseda Univ., respectively. Scientific operations of CALET are planned in the WCOC taking into account the orbital variations of geomagnetic rigidity cutoff. Scheduled command sequence is utilized to control CALET observation mode on orbit. A calibration data trigger mode, such as recording pedestal and penetrating particle events, a low-energy electron trigger mode operating at high geomagnetic latitude, and other dedicated trigger modes are scheduled around the ISS orbit while maintaining the maximum exposure to high-energy electrons. Scientific raw data called CALET Level 0 data are generated from raw telemetry packets in the CALET-GSE on an hourly basis by correcting time-order and by completing the data set using stored data taken during loss of real-time telemetry downlink. Level 0 data are processed to CALET Level 1 data in the WCOC by interpreting all the raw packets and building cosmic-ray event data as well as house keeping data. Level 1 data are then distributed to the collaboration for scientific data analysis. Level 1 data analysis is focused on the detector

  9. The Algorithm for MODIS Wavelength On-Orbit Calibration Using the SRCA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Harry; Che, Nianzeng; Parker, Kirsten; Bowser, Jeff

    1998-01-01

    The Spectro-Radiometric Calibration Assembly (SRCA) provides on-orbit spectral calibration of the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) reflected solar bands and this paper describes how it is accomplished. The SRCA has two adjacent exit slits: 1) Main slit and 2) Calibration slit. The output from the main slit is measured by a reference silicon photo-diode (SIPD) and then passes through the MODIS. The output from the calibration slit passes through a piece of didymium transmission glass and then it is measured by a calibration SIPD. The centroids of the sharp spectral peaks of a didymium glass are utilized as wavelength standards. After normalization using the reference SIPD signal to eliminate the effects of the illuminating source spectra, the calibration SIPD establishes the relationship between the peaks of the didymium spectra and the grating angle; this is accomplished through the grating equation. In the grating equation the monochromator parameters, Beta (half angle between the incident and diffractive beams) and Theta(sub off) (offset angle of the grating motor) are determined by matching, in a least square sense, the known centroid wavelengths of the didymium peaks and the calculated centroid grating angles from the calibration SIPD signals for the peaks. A displacement between the calibration SIPD and the reference SIPD complicates the signal processing.

  10. An Overview of MODIS On-orbit Operation, Calibration, and Lessons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, Jack; Barnes, William; Salomonson, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Two nearly identical copies of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) have successfully operated onboard the Terra and Aqua spacecraft for more than II years and 9 years since their launch in December 1999 and May 2002, respectively. MODIS is a key instrument for the NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) missions. MODIS observations have produced an unprecedented amount and a broad range of data products and significantly benefited the science and user community. Its follow-on instrument, the Visible/Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on-board the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) spacecraft, is currently scheduled for launch in late October, 2011. The NPP serves as a bridge mission between EOS and the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). MODIS collects data in 36 spectral bands, covering spectral regions from visible (VIS) to long-wave infrared (L WIR), and at three different spatial resolutions. Because of its stringent design requirements, MODIS was built with a complete set of onboard calibrators, including a solar diffuser (SO), a solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM), a blackbody (BB), a spectroradiometric calibration assembly (SRCA), and a space view (SV) port. Except for tbe SRCA, VIlRS carries the same set of onboard calibrators as MODIS. The SD/SDSM system is used together to calibrate tbe reflective solar bands (RSB). The BB is designed for the thermal emissive bands (TEB) calibration. Similar to Terra and Aqua MODIS, VIlRS will also make regular lunar observations to monitor RSB radiometric calibration stability. In this paper, we provide an overview of MODIS on-orbit operation and calibration activities and present issues identified and lessons learned from mission-long instrument operations and implementation of various calibration and characterization strategies. Examples of both Terra and Aqua MODIS instrument on-orbit performance, including their similarities and unique characteristics, are discussed in tbe context of what

  11. NPP VIIRS on-orbit calibration and characterization using the moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, J.; Xiong, X.; Butler, J.

    2012-09-01

    The Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) is one of five instruments on-board the Suomi National Polarorbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite that launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif., on Oct. 28, 2011. VIIRS has been scheduled to view the Moon approximately monthly with a spacecraft roll maneuver after its NADIR door open on November 21, 2012. To reduce the uncertainty of the radiometric calibration due to the view geometry, the lunar phase angles of the scheduled lunar observations were confined in the range from -56° to -55° in the first three scheduled lunar observations and then changed to the range from -51.5° to -50.5°, where the negative sign for the phase angles indicates that the VIIRS views a waxing moon. Unlike the MODIS lunar observations, most scheduled VIIRS lunar views occur on the day side of the Earth. For the safety of the instrument, the roll angles of the scheduled VIIRS lunar observations are required to be within [-14°, 0°] and the aforementioned change of the phase angle range was aimed to further minimize the roll angle required for each lunar observation while keeping the number of months in which the moon can be viewed by the VIIRS instrument each year unchanged. The lunar observations can be used to identify if there is crosstalk in VIIRS bands and to track on-orbit changes in VIIRS Reflective Solar Bands (RSB) detector gains. In this paper, we report our results using the lunar observations to examine the on-orbit crosstalk effects among NPP VIIRS bands, to track the VIIRS RSB gain changes in first few months on-orbit, and to compare the gain changes derived from lunar and SD/SDSM calibration.

  12. NPP VIIRS On-Orbit Calibration and Characterization Using the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, J.; Xiong, X.; Butler, J.

    2012-01-01

    The Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) is one of five instruments on-board the Suomi National Polar orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite that launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif., on Oct. 28, 2011. VIIRS has been scheduled to view the Moon approximately monthly with a spacecraft roll maneuver after its NADIR door open on November 21, 2011. To reduce the uncertainty of the radiometric calibration due to the view geometry, the lunar phase angles of the scheduled lunar observations were confined in the range from -56 deg to -55 deg in the first three scheduled lunar observations and then changed to the range from -51.5 deg to -50.5 deg, where the negative sign for the phase angles indicates that the VIIRS views a waxing moon. Unlike the MODIS lunar observations, most scheduled VIIRS lunar views occur on the day side of the Earth. For the safety of the instrument, the roll angles of the scheduled VIIRS lunar observations are required to be within [-14 deg, 0 deg] and the aforementioned change of the phase angle range was aimed to further minimize the roll angle required for each lunar observation while keeping the number of months in which the moon can be viewed by the VIIRS instrument each year unchanged. The lunar observations can be used to identify if there is crosstalk in VIIRS bands and to track on-orbit changes in VIIRS Reflective Solar Bands (RSB) detector gains. In this paper, we report our results using the lunar observations to examine the on-orbit crosstalk effects among NPP VIIRS bands, to track the VIIRS RSB gain changes in first few months on-orbit, and to compare the gain changes derived from lunar and SD/SDSM calibration.

  13. NIR- and SWIR-based on-orbit vicarious calibrations for satellite ocean color sensors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Menghua; Shi, Wei; Jiang, Lide; Voss, Kenneth

    2016-09-01

    The near-infrared (NIR) and shortwave infrared (SWIR)-based atmospheric correction algorithms are used in satellite ocean color data processing, with the SWIR-based algorithm particularly useful for turbid coastal and inland waters. In this study, we describe the NIR- and two SWIR-based on-orbit vicarious calibration approaches for satellite ocean color sensors, and compare results from these three on-orbit vicarious calibrations using satellite measurements from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) onboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP). Vicarious calibration gains for VIIRS spectral bands are derived using the in situ normalized water-leaving radiance nLw(λ) spectra from the Marine Optical Buoy (MOBY) in waters off Hawaii. The SWIR vicarious gains are determined using VIIRS measurements from the South Pacific Gyre region, where waters are the clearest and generally stable. Specifically, vicarious gain sets for VIIRS spectral bands of 410, 443, 486, 551, and 671 nm derived from the NIR method using the NIR 745 and 862 nm bands, the SWIR method using the SWIR 1238 and 1601 nm bands, and the SWIR method using the SWIR 1238 and 2257 nm bands are (0.979954, 0.974892, 0.974685, 0.965832, 0.979042), (0.980344, 0.975344, 0.975357, 0.965531, 0.979518), and (0.980820, 0.975609, 0.975761, 0.965888, 0.978576), respectively. Thus, the NIR-based vicarious calibration gains are consistent with those from the two SWIR-based approaches with discrepancies mostly within ~0.05% from three data processing methods. In addition, the NIR vicarious gains (745 and 862 nm) derived from the two SWIR methods are (0.982065, 1.00001) and (0.981811, 1.00000), respectively, with the difference ~0.03% at the NIR 745 nm band. This is the fundamental basis for the NIR-SWIR combined atmospheric correction algorithm, which has been used to derive improved satellite ocean color products over open oceans and turbid coastal/inland waters. Therefore, a unified

  14. MODIS on-orbit thermal emissive bands lifetime performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madhavan, Sriharsha; Wu, Aisheng; Chen, Na; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2016-05-01

    MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), a leading heritage sensor in the fleet of Earth Observing System for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is in space orbit on two spacecrafts. They are the Terra (T) and Aqua (A) platforms. Both instruments have successfully continued to operate beyond the 6 year design life time, with the T-MODIS currently functional beyond 15 years and the A-MODIS operating beyond 13 years respectively. The MODIS sensor characteristics include a spectral coverage from 0.41 μm - 14.4 μm, of which wavelengths ranging from 3.7 μm - 14. 4 μm cover the thermal infrared region also referred to as the Thermal Emissive Bands (TEBs). The TEBs is calibrated using a v-grooved BlackBody (BB) whose temperature measurements are traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology temperature scales. The TEBs calibration based on the onboard BB is extremely important for its high radiometric fidelity. In this paper, we provide a complete characterization of the lifetime instrument performance of both MODIS instruments in terms of the sensor gain, the Noise Equivalent difference Temperature, key instrument telemetry such as the BB lifetime trends, the instrument temperature trends, the Cold Focal Plane telemetry and finally, the total assessed calibration uncertainty of the TEBs.

  15. On-Orbit Calibration of ADEOS OCTS with an AVIRIS Underflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert O.; Pavri, Betina; Boardman, Joseph W.; Shimada, Masanobu; Oaku, Hiromi

    2000-01-01

    The Ocean Color Temperature Scanner (OCTS) onboard the Advanced Earth Observation Satellite (ADEOS) was launched on August 17, 1996. Calibration of OCTS is required for use of the on-orbit measured data for retrieval of physical properties of the ocean. In the solar reflected portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, OCTS measures images with nominally 700-m spatial resolution through eight multispectral bands. The objective of this research was to establish the absolute radiometric calibration of OCTS on orbit through an underflight by the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS). AVIRIS is a NASA earth-observing imaging spectrometer designed, built and operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). AVIRIS acquires data from 20-km altitude on a NASA ER-2 aircraft, above most of the Earth's atmosphere. AVIRIS measures the solar reflected spectrum from 370 nm to 2500 nm through 224 contiguous spectral channels. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the spectral channels is nominally 10-nm. AVIRIS spectra are acquired as images of 11 km by up to 800 km extent with 20-m spatial resolution. The high spectral resolution of AVIRIS data allows direct convolution to the spectral response functions of the eight multispectral bands of OCTS. The high spatial resolution of AVIRIS data allows for spatial re-sampling of the data to match the ADEOS sensors spatial resolution. In addition, the AVIRIS high spatial resolution allows assessment of the scaling effects due to environmental factors of thin cirrus clouds, sub-pixel cloud cover, white caps, ocean foam, sun-glint, and bright-target adjacency. The platform navigation information recorded by AVIRIS allows calculation of the position and observation geometry of each spectrum for matching to the OCTS measurement. AVIRIS is rigorously characterized and calibrated in the laboratory prior to and following the flight season. The stability and repeatability of AVIRIS calibration have been validated through an

  16. Assessment of uncertainty in ROLO lunar irradiance for on-orbit calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, T.C.; Kieffer, H.H.

    2004-01-01

    A system to provide radiometric calibration of remote sensing imaging instruments on-orbit using the Moon has been developed by the US Geological Survey RObotic Lunar Observatory (ROLO) project. ROLO has developed a model for lunar irradiance which treats the primary geometric variables of phase and libration explicitly. The model fits hundreds of data points in each of 23 VNIR and 9 SWIR bands; input data are derived from lunar radiance images acquired by the project's on-site telescopes, calibrated to exoatmospheric radiance and converted to disk-equivalent reflectance. Experimental uncertainties are tracked through all stages of the data processing and modeling. Model fit residuals are ???1% in each band over the full range of observed phase and libration angles. Application of ROLO lunar calibration to SeaWiFS has demonstrated the capability for long-term instrument response trending with precision approaching 0.1% per year. Current work involves assessing the error in absolute responsivity and relative spectral response of the ROLO imaging systems, and propagation of error through the data reduction and modeling software systems with the goal of reducing the uncertainty in the absolute scale, now estimated at 5-10%. This level is similar to the scatter seen in ROLO lunar irradiance comparisons of multiple spacecraft instruments that have viewed the Moon. A field calibration campaign involving NASA and NIST has been initiated that ties the ROLO lunar measurements to the NIST (SI) radiometric scale.

  17. On Orbit Measurement of Response vs. Scan Angle for the Infrared Bands on TRMM/VIRS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, William L.; Lyu, Cheng-Hsuan; Barnes, Robert A.

    1999-01-01

    The Visible and Infrared Scanner on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM/VIRS) is a whiskbroom imaging radiometer with two reflected solar bands and three emissive infrared bands. All five detectors are on a single cooled focal plane. This configuration necessitated the use of a paddlewheel scan mirror to avoid the effects of focal plane rotation that arise when using a scan mirror that is inclined to its axis of rotation. System radiometric requirements led to the need for protected silver as the mirror surface. Unfortunately, the SiO(x) coatings currently used to protect silver from oxidation introduce a change in reflectance with angle of incidence (AOI). This AOI dependence results in a modulation of system level response with scan angle. Measurement of system response vs. scan angle (RVS) was not difficult for the VIRS reflected solar bands, but attaining the required accuracy for the IR bands in the laboratory was not possible without a large vacuum chamber and a considerable amount of custom designed testing apparatus. Therefore, the decision was made to conduct the measurement on-orbit. On three separate occasions, the TRMM spacecraft was rotated about its pitch axis and, after the nadir view passed over the Earth's limb, the VIRS performed several thousand scans while viewing deep space. The resulting data has been analyzed and the RVS curves generated for the three IR bands are being used in the VIRS radiometric calibration algorithm. This, to our knowledge, the first time this measurement has been made on-orbit. Similar measurements are planned for the EOS-AM and EOS-PM MODIS sensors and are being considered for several systems under development. The VIRS on-orbit results will be compared to VIRS and MODIS system level laboratory measurements, MODIS scan mirror witness sample measurements and modeled data.

  18. On-orbit Characterization of RVS for MODIS Thermal Emissive Bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, X.; Salomonson, V.; Chiang, K.; Wu, A.; Guenther, B.; Barnes, W.

    2004-01-01

    Response versus scan angle (RVS) is a key calibration parameter for remote sensing radiometers that make observations using a scanning optical system, such as a scan mirror in MODIS and GLI or a rotating telescope in SeaWiFS and VIIRS, since the calibration is typically performed at a fixed viewing angle while the Earth scene observations are made over a range of viewing angles. Terra MODIS has been in operation for more than four years since its launch in December 1999. It has 36 spectral bands covering spectral range from visible (VIS) to long-wave infrared (LWIR). It is a cross-track scanning radiometer using a two-sided paddle wheel scan mirror, making observations over a wide field of view (FOV) of +/-55 deg from the instrument nadir. This paper describes on-orbit characterization of MODIS RVS for its thermal emissive bands (TEB), using the Earth view data collected during Terra spacecraft deep space maneuvers (DSM). Comparisons with pre-launch analysis and early on-orbit measurements are also provided.

  19. Landsat-7 ETM+: 12 years on-orbit reflective-band radiometric performance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Markham, B.L.; Haque, M.O.; Barsi, J.A.; Micijevic, E.; Helder, D.L.; Thome, K.J.; Aaron, D.; Czapla-Myers, J. S.

    2012-01-01

    The Landsat-7 ETM+ sensor has been operating on orbit for more than 12 years, and characterizations of its performance have been ongoing over this period. In general, the radiometric performance of the instrument has been remarkably stable: 1) noise performance has degraded by 2% or less overall, with a few detectors displaying step changes in noise of 2% or less; 2) coherent noise frequencies and magnitudes have generally been stable, though the within-scan amplitude variation of the 20 kHz noise in bands 1 and 8 disappeared with the failure of the scan line corrector and a new similar frequency noise (now about 18 kHz) has appeared in two detectors in band 5 and increased in magnitude with time; 3) bias stability has been better than 0.25 DN out of a normal value of 15 DN in high gain; 4) relative gains, the differences in response between the detectors in the band, have generally changed by 0.1% or less over the mission, with the exception of a few detectors with a step response change of 1% or less; and 5) gain stability averaged across all detectors in a band, which is related to the stability of the absolute calibration, has been more stable than the techniques used to measure it. Due to the inability to confirm changes in the gain (beyond a few detectors that have been corrected back to the band average), ETM+ reflective band data continues to be calibrated with the prelaunch measured gains. In the worst case, some bands may have changed as much as 2% in uncompensated absolute calibration over the 12 years.

  20. On-orbit calibration and performance of S-NPP VIIRS DNB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H.; Sun, C.; Chen, X.; Chiang, K.; Xiong, X.

    2016-05-01

    The S-NPP VIIRS instrument has successfully operated since its launch in October 2011. The VIIRS Day-Night Band (DNB) is a panchromatic channel covering wavelengths from 0.5 to 0.9 μm that is capable of observing Earth scenes during both day and nighttime orbits at a spatial resolution of 750 m. To cover the large dynamic range, the DNB operates at low, mid, or high gain stages, and it uses an onboard solar diffuser (SD) for its low gain stage calibration. The SD observations also provide a means to compute gain ratios of low-to-mid and mid-to-high gain stages. This paper describes the DNB on-orbit calibration methodologies used by the VIIRS Characterization Support Team (VCST) in supporting the NASA earth science community with consistent VIIRS sensor data records (SDRs) made available by the Land Science Investigator-led Processing Systems (SIPS). It provides an assessment and update of DNB on-orbit performance, including the SD degradation in the DNB spectral range, detector gain and gain ratio trending, stray light contamination and its correction. Also presented in this paper are performance validations based on earth scenes and lunar observations.

  1. Challenging Issues for On-orbit Calibration in the VIS and NIR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, X.; Waluschka, E.; Salomonson, V. V.; Wolfe, R.; Barnes, W.; Guenther, B.

    2004-01-01

    On-orbit calibration of Earth-observing sensors in the VIS and NIR spectral regions is usually performed using the sensors on-board devices such as internal lamp(s) or solar diffuser plate(s) to provide calibration parameters. For sensors with no (or with less reliable) on-board calibrators, lunar calibration or ground validation approaches are often used. Each of these has its own set of problems that need to be fully addressed in order to support high quality on-orbit calibration and characterization. Some science products, such as Ocean color, may impose more stringent requirements that demand greater calibration precision. This paper uses MODIS as an example to illustrate challenging issues involved in VIS and NIR on-orbit calibration. It focuses on the solar diffuser (SD) calibration approach, including the effects due to SD BRF, SD attenuation screen(s), and earthshine. The impact of optics (solar diffuser and scan mirror) on-orbit degradation, including changes in the sensor s response versus scan angle (RVS), on the calibration and subsequent data quality is also discussed.

  2. Alternative method of on-orbit response-versus-scan-angle characterization for MODIS reflective solar bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hongda; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Angal, Amit; Geng, Xu; Wu, Aisheng

    2016-04-01

    The moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) has 20 reflective solar bands (RSB), covering a spectral range from 0.41 to 2.2 μm, which are calibrated on-orbit using its onboard calibrators, which include a solar diffuser, a solar diffuser stability monitor, and a spectroradiometric calibration assembly. A space view (SV) port is used to provide a background reference and also facilitates near-monthly lunar observations through a spacecraft roll. In every scan, the Earth's surface, SV, and onboard calibrators are viewed via a two-sided scan mirror, the reflectance of which depends on the angle of incidence (AOI) as well as the wavelength of the incident light. Response-versus-scan-angle (RVS) is defined as a dependence function of the scan mirror's reflectance over AOI. An initial RVS for each RSB was measured prelaunch for both Terra and Aqua MODIS. Algorithms have been developed to track the on-orbit RVS variation using the measurements from the onboard calibrators, supplemented with the earth view (EV) trends from pseudoinvariant desert targets obtained at different AOI. Since the mission beginning, the MODIS characterization support team (MCST) has dedicated efforts in evaluating approaches of characterizing the on-orbit RVS. A majority of the approaches focused on fitting the data at each AOI over time and then deriving the relative change at different AOI. The current version of the on-orbit RVS algorithm, as implemented in the collection 6 (C6) level-1B (L1B), is also based on the above rationale. It utilizes the EV response trends from the pseudoinvariant Libyan desert targets to supplement the gain derived from the onboard calibrators. The primary limitation of this approach is the assumption of the temporal stability of these desert sites. Consequently, MCST developed an approach that derives the on-orbit RVS change using measurements from a single desert site, combined with the on-orbit lunar measurements. In addition, the EV and onboard

  3. Alternative Method of On-Orbit Response-Versus-Scan-Angle Characterization for MODIS Reflective Solar Bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Hongda; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Angal, Amit; Geng, Xu; Wu, Aisheng

    2016-01-01

    The moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) has 20 reflective solar bands (RSB), covering a spectral range from 0.41 to 2.2 microns, which are calibrated on-orbit using its onboard calibrators, which include a solar diffuser, a solar diffuser stability monitor, and a spectroradiometric calibration assembly. A space view (SV) port is used to provide a background reference and also facilitates near-monthly lunar observations through a spacecraft roll. In every scan, the Earth's surface, SV, and onboard calibrators are viewed via a two-sided scan mirror, the reflectance of which depends on the angle of incidence (AOI) as well as the wavelength of the incident light. Response-versus-scan-angle (RVS) is defined as a dependence function of the scan mirror's reflectance over AOI. An initial RVS for each RSB was measured prelaunch for both Terra and Aqua MODIS. Algorithms have been developed to track the on-orbit RVS variation using the measurements from the onboard calibrators, supplemented with the earth view (EV) trends from pseudoinvariant desert targets obtained at different AOI. Since the mission beginning, the MODIS characterization support team (MCST) has dedicated efforts in evaluating approaches of characterizing the on-orbit RVS. A majority of the approaches focused on fitting the data at each AOI over time and then deriving the relative change at different AOI. The current version of the on-orbit RVS algorithm, as implemented in the collection 6 (C6) level-1B (L1B), is also based on the above rationale. It utilizes the EV response trends from the pseudoinvariant Libyan desert targets to supplement the gain derived from the onboard calibrators. The primary limitation of this approach is the assumption of the temporal stability of these desert sites. Consequently, MCST developed an approach that derives the on-orbit RVS change using measurements from a single desert site, combined with the on-orbit lunar measurements. In addition, the EV and onboard

  4. Cross-Calibration of the GOES-R SUVI with On-Orbit Solar EUV Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darnel, Jonathan; Seaton, Daniel B.

    2016-05-01

    Maintaining the calibration of on-orbit instruments has always been a challenge, but one which is crucial for the accuracy of the data record. This challenge is magnified for solar Extreme UltraViolet (EUV) instruments. Absolute calibration is out of the question as stable and known sources of EUV irradiance are not practical in on-orbit environments. This leaves relative calibration against other solar EUV instruments whose calibration has been well tracked. The need for such cross-calibration efforts is especially acute for an instrument like the Solar Ultraviolet Imager (SUVI), which will fly on the GOES-R spacecraft later this year and is expected to provide two decades of solar observation between four identical instruments. Not only must calibration between the four instruments in the SUVI line be maintained, but the relative calibration between SUVI and both present day imagers like SDO/AIA and PROBA2/SWAP and future instruments yet to be developed must be established as well. We present the methodology developed using current on-orbit solar EUV instruments in order to maintain the calibration of the SUVI instruments.

  5. The On-Orbit Calibrations for the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Abdo, Aous A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Ampe, J.; Anderson, B.; Atwood, W.B.; Axelsson, M.; Bagagli, R.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, Guido; Bartelt, J.; Bastieri, Denis; Baughman, B.M.; Bechtol, K.; Bederede, D.; Bellardi, F.; Bellazzini, R.; Belli, F.; Berenji, B.; Bisello, D.; /more authors..

    2011-11-17

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on-board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope began its on-orbit operations on June 23, 2008. Calibrations, defined in a generic sense, correspond to synchronization of trigger signals, optimization of delays for latching data, determination of detector thresholds, gains and responses, evaluation of the perimeter of the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA), measurements of live time, of absolute time, and internal and spacecraft boresight alignments. Here we describe on-orbit calibration results obtained using known astrophysical sources, galactic cosmic rays, and charge injection into the front-end electronics of each detector. Instrument response functions will be described in a separate publication. This paper demonstrates the stability of calibrations and describes minor changes observed since launch. These results have been used to calibrate the LAT datasets to be publicly released in August 2009.

  6. Degradation of MODIS Optics and its Reflective Solar Bands Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, X.; Sun, J.; Esposito, J.; Pan, C.; Xiong, S.; Guenther, B.; Barnes, W. L.; Degnan, John (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) has 36 spectral bands with wavelength ranging from 0.41 micron to 14.5 micron and spatial resolution between 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 km at Nadir. Its ProtoFlight Model (PFM) on the NASA EOS Terra spacecraft has been providing global coverage of the Land, Ocean, and Atmosphere for the science community since the instrument opened its Nadir door on 24 February 2000. The MODIS optical system consists of a 2-sided paddle wheel scan mirror, a fold mirror, a primary mirror, and other aft optics. The sensor's 20 reflective solar bands from 0.41 to 2.1 micron are calibrated on-orbit by a solar diffuser (SD) and a solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM). In addition to SD, degradation of the MODIS optics in the reflective solar bands has been observed, including variations in degradation between the two sides of the MODIS scan mirror. During MODIS first year of on-orbit operation, the overall degradations at the shortest wavelength (0.41 micron) are about 3% for SD, and in excess of 10% for the MODIS system. In this paper, we will present our degradation analysis results and discuss their impact on the reflective solar bands' on-orbit calibration.

  7. On-Orbit Calibration of a Multi-Spectral Satellite Satellite Sensor Using a High Altitude Airborne Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, R. O.; Shimada, M.

    1996-01-01

    Earth-looking satellites must be calibrated in order to quantitatively measure and monitor components of land, water and atmosphere of the Earth system. The inevitable change in performance due to the stress of satellite launch requires that the calibration of a satellite sensor be established and validated on-orbit. A new approach to on-orbit satellite sensor calibration has been developed using the flight of a high altitude calibrated airborne imaging spectrometer below a multi-spectral satellite sensor.

  8. On-orbit Metrology and Calibration Requirements for Space Station Activities Definition Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cotty, G. M.; Ranganathan, B. N.; Sorrell, A. L.

    1989-01-01

    The Space Station is the focal point for the commercial development of space. The long term routine operation of the Space Station and the conduct of future commercial activities suggests the need for in-space metrology capabilities analogous when possible to those on-Earth. The ability to perform periodic calibrations and measurements with proper traceability is imperative for the routine operation of the Space Station. An initial review, however, indicated a paucity of data related to metrology and calibration requirements for in-space operations. This condition probably exists because of the highly developmental aspect of space activities to date, their short duration, and nonroutine nature. The on-orbit metrology and calibration needs of the Space Station were examined and assessed. In order to achieve this goal, the following tasks were performed: an up-to-date literature review; identification of on-orbit calibration techniques; identification of sensor calibration requirements; identification of calibration equipment requirements; definition of traceability requirements; preparation of technology development plans; and preparation of the final report. Significant information and major highlights pertaining to each task is presented. In addition, some general (generic) conclusions/observations and recommendations that are pertinent to the overall in-space metrology and calibration activities are presented.

  9. On-orbit aqua MODIS modulation transfer function trending in along-scan from the Spectro-Radiometric Calibration Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Taeyoung; Che, Nianzeng; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2008-08-01

    The Spectro-Radiometric Calibration Assembly (SRCA) is one of the on-board calibrators for the MODIS instrument. The SRCA is operated in three modes: spectral, spatial, and radiometric. The spatial mode is used to track the changes in band-to-band registration both along-scan (band and detector) and along-track (band) and the MTF in the along-scan direction for all 36 MODIS bands over the MODIS lifetime. In the SRCA spatial mode, a rectangular knife-edge reticle, located at the focus of the SRCA collimator, is imaged onto four MODIS Focal Plane Assemblies (FPA). The reticle is illuminated by a spherical integration sphere and a glow-bar so that all bands can have an appropriate signal level. When the MODIS scan mirror rotates, the illuminated knife-edge scans across the bands/detectors. In addition, there are five electronic phase-delays so that the sampling spacing is reduced to 1/5 of the detector size, which results in dense data points. After combining detector responses from all phase-delays, a combined bell-shaped response profile is formed. The derivative of the detector response to the knife-edge is the Line Spread Function (LSF). In the frequency domain, the Modulation Transfer Functions (MTF) are calculated from the normalized Fourier transform of the LSF. The MTF results from the SRCA are validated by the pre-launch results from the Integrated Alignment Collimator (IAC) and a SRCA collection performed in the Thermal Vacuum (TV). The six-year plus on-orbit MTF trending results show very stable responses in the VIS and NIR FPAs, and meet the design specifications. Although there are noticeable MTF degradations over the instrument lifetime in bands 1 and 2, they are negligible with the large specification margins. In addition, a similar relationship is found between the band locations in the VIS and NIR FPAs versus MTF values.

  10. Early Assessment of VIIRS On-Orbit Calibration and Support Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Chiang, Kwofu; McIntire, Jeffrey; Oudrari, Hassan; Wu, Aisheng; Schwaller, Mathew; Butler, James

    2012-01-01

    The Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite, formally the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Preparatory Project (NPP), provides a bridge between current and future low-Earth orbiting weather and environmental observation satellite systems. The NASA s NPP VIIRS Characterization Support Team (VCST) is designed to assess the long term geometric and radiometric performance of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument onboard the S-NPP spacecraft and to support NPP Science Team Principal Investigators (PI) for their independent evaluation of VIIRS Environmental Data Records (EDRs). This paper provides an overview of Suomi NPP VIIRS on-orbit calibration activities and examples of sensor initial on-orbit performance. It focuses on the radiometric calibration support activities and capabilities provided by the NASA VCST.

  11. Landsat TM and ETM+ Thermal Band Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barsi, Julia A.; Hook, Simon J.; Palluconi, Frank D.; Schott, John R.; Raqueno, Nina G.

    2006-01-01

    Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) has been imaging the Earth since March 1984 and Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) was added to the series of Landsat instruments in April 1999. The stability and calibration of the ETM+ has been monitored extensively since launch. Though not monitored for many years, TM now has a similar system in place to monitor stability and calibration. University teams have been evaluating the on-board calibration of the instruments through ground-based measurements since 1999. This paper considers the calibration efforts for the thermal band, Band 6, of both the Landsat-5 and Landsat-7 instruments.

  12. EOS ASTER thermal infrared band vicarious calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palluconi, F.; Tonooka, H.; Hook, S.; Abtahi, A.; Alley, R.; Thompson, T.; Hoover, G.; Zadourian, S.

    2001-01-01

    Calibration of the 5 EOS ASTER instrument emission bands (90 m pixels at surface) is being checked during the operational life of the mission using field measurements simultaneous with the image acquisition.

  13. On-orbit performance of the Landsat-7 ETM+ radiometric calibrators

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Markham, Brian L; Barker, J. L.; Kaita, E.; Seiferth, J.; Morfitt, Ron

    2003-01-01

    The Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) incorporates two new devices to improve its absolute radiometric calibration: a Full Aperture Solar Calibrator (FASC) and a Partial Aperture Solar Calibrator (PASC). The FASC is a diffuser panel, typically deployed once per month. Initial FASC absolute calibration results were within 5% of the pre-launch calibrations. Over time, the responses of the ETM+ to the FASC have varied with the location viewed on the panel, suggesting a localized degradation or contamination of the panel. On the best part of the panel, the trends in response range from m 1.4% y m 1 (band 4) to +0.6% y m 1 (band 7), with band 5 showing the least change at m 0.4% y m 1 . Changes in the panel reflectance due to UV exposure are believed to be the origin of these trends. The PASC is a set of auxiliary optics that allows the ETM+ to image the Sun through reduced apertures. PASC data have normally been acquired on a daily basis. Unlike the FASC, the PASC has exhibited significant anomalies. During the first six months of operation, responses to the PASC increased up to 60%, sending bands 2, 3 and 8 into saturation (band 1 was saturated at launch). The short-wave infrared (SWIR) band individual detectors have shown variations up to - 20% in response to the PASC. The variation is different for each detector. After the first six months, the responses to the PASC have become more stable, with much of the variation related to the within-scan position of the solar image. Overall results to date for all calibrators and comparisons with vicarious calibrations indicate that most of the response variations have been due to the calibrators themselves and suggest that the instrument has been stable with changes in response of less than 0.5% y m 1 .

  14. Uncertainty Assessment of the SeaWiFS On-Orbit Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eplee, Robert E., Jr.; Meister, Gerhard; Patt, Frederick S.; Franz, Bryan A.; McClain, Charles R.

    2011-01-01

    Ocean color climate data records require water-leaving radiances with 5% absolute and 1% relative accuracies as input. Because of the amplification of any sensor calibration errors by the atmospheric correction, the 1% relative accuracy requirement translates into a 0.1% long-term radiometric stability requirement for top-of-the atmosphere radiances. The rigorous on-orbit calibration program developed and implemented for SeaWiFS by the NASA Ocean Biology Processing Group (OBPG) Calibration and Validation Team (CVT) has allowed the CVT to maintain the stability of the radiometric calibration of SeaWiFS at 0.13% or better over the mission. The uncertainties in the resulting calibrated top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) radiances can be addressed in terms of accuracy (biases in the measurements), precision (scatter in the measurements), and stability (repeatability of the measurements). The calibration biases of lunar observations relative to the USGS RObotic Lunar Observatory (ROLO) photometric model of the Moon are 2-3%. The biases from the vicarious calibration against the Marine Optical Buoy (MOBY) are 1-2%. The precision of the calibration derived from the solar calibration signal-tonoise ratios are 0.16%, from the lunar residuals are 0.13%, and from the vicarious gains are 0.10%. The long-term stability of the TOA radiances, derived from the lunar time series, is 0.13%. The stability of the vicariouslycalibrated TOA radiances, incorporating the uncertainties in the MOBY measurements and the atmospheric correction, is 0.30%. These results allow the OBPG to produce climate data records from the SeaWiFS ocean color data.

  15. Use of the moon to support on-orbit sensor calibration for climate change measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, T.C.; Kieffer, H.H.

    2006-01-01

    Production of reliable climate datasets from multiple observational measurements acquired by remote sensing satellite systems available now and in the future places stringent requirements on the stability of sensors and consistency among the instruments and platforms. Detecting trends in environmental parameters measured at solar reflectance wavelengths (0.3 to 2.5 microns) requires on-orbit instrument stability at a level of 1% over a decade. This benchmark can be attained using the Moon as a radiometric reference. The lunar calibration program at the U.S. Geological Survey has an operational model to predict the lunar spectral irradiance with precision ???1%, explicitly accounting for the effects of phase, lunar librations, and the lunar surface photometric function. A system for utilization of the Moon by on-orbit instruments has been established. With multiple lunar views taken by a spacecraft instrument, sensor response characterization with sub-percent precision over several years has been achieved. Meteorological satellites in geostationary orbit (GEO) capture the Moon in operational images; applying lunar calibration to GEO visible-channel image archives has the potential to develop a climate record extending decades into the past. The USGS model and system can provide reliable transfer of calibration among instruments that have viewed the Moon as a common source. This capability will be enhanced with improvements to the USGS model absolute scale. Lunar calibration may prove essential to the critical calibration needs to cover a potential gap in observational capabilities prior to deployment of NPP/NPOESS. A key requirement is that current and future instruments observe the Moon.

  16. Using Lunar Observations to Assess Terra MODIS Thermal Emissive Bands Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Chen, Hongda

    2010-01-01

    MODIS collects data in both the reflected solar and thermal emissive regions using 36 spectral bands. The center wavelengths of these bands cover the3.7 to 14.24 micron region. In addition to using its on-board calibrators (OBC), which include a full aperture solar diffuser (SD) and a blackbody (BB), lunar observations have been scheduled on a regular basis to support both Terra and Aqua MODIS on-orbit calibration and characterization. This paper provides an overview of MODIS lunar observations and their applications for the reflective solar bands (RSB) and thermal emissive bands (TEB) with an emphasis on potential calibration improvements of MODIS band 21 at 3.96 microns. This spectral band has detectors set with low gains to enable fire detection. Methodologies are proposed and examined on the use of lunar observations for the band 21 calibration. Also presented in this paper are preliminary results derived from Terra MODIS lunar observations and remaining challenging issues.

  17. On-Orbit Performance and Calibration of the Soft X-Ray Telescope on Yohkoh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acton, Loren W.

    2016-02-01

    This paper documents details of the on-orbit performance, data problem solving, and calibration of the Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT) experiment on Yohkoh. This information is important to a full understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of the SXT data set. The paper begins with summaries of SXT calibration issues and how they have been addressed, operational anomalies experienced during the mission, and a brief discussion of the SXT optical train. The following section on the accuracy of Yohkoh pointing determination provides information important for alignment of SXT images with each other and with other solar data. The remainder of the paper gives details of work by the experiment team to understand and ameliorate the many instrument anomalies and changes which impacted the scientific data.

  18. On-orbit calibration approach for star cameras based on the iteration method with variable weights.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mi; Cheng, Yufeng; Yang, Bo; Chen, Xiao

    2015-07-20

    To perform efficient on-orbit calibration for star cameras, we developed an attitude-independent calibration approach for global optimization and noise removal by least-square estimation using multiple star images, with which the optimal principal point, focal length, and the high-order focal plane distortion can be obtained in one step in full consideration of the interaction among star camera parameters. To avoid the problem when stars could be misidentified in star images, an iteration method with variable weights is introduced to eliminate the influence of misidentified star pairs. The approach can increase the precision of least-square estimation and use fewer star images. The proposed approach has been well verified to be precise and robust in three experiments. PMID:26367824

  19. On-Orbit Absolute Temperature Calibration for CLARREO Using Multiple Phase Change Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Best, F. A.; Adler, D. P.; Ellington, S. D.; Thielman, D. J.; Revercomb, H. E.; Perepezko, J. H.

    2008-12-01

    NASA's anticipated plan for a mission dedicated to Climate (CLARREO) will hinge upon the ability to fly SI traceable standards that provide irrefutable absolute measurement accuracy. As an example, instrumentation designed to measure spectrally resolved infrared radiances will require high-emissivity calibration blackbodies that have absolute temperature uncertainties of better than 0.045K (3 sigma). A novel scheme to provide absolute calibration of temperature sensors, suitable for CLARREO on-orbit operation, has been demonstrated in the laboratory at the University of Wisconsin, and is now undergoing refinement under NASA Instrument Incubator Program funding. In this scheme, small quantities of reference materials (mercury, water, and gallium - to date) are imbedded into the blackbody cavity wall, in a manner similar to the temperature sensors to be calibrated. As the blackbody cavity is slowly heated through a reference material melt temperature, the transient temperature signature of the imbedded thermistor sensors provides a very accurate indication of the melt temperature. Using small quantities of phase change material (less than half of a percent of the mass of the cavity), melt temperature accuracies of better than 10 mK have been demonstrated for mercury, water, and gallium (providing calibration from 233K to 303K). The flight implementation of this new scheme will involve special considerations for packaging the phase change materials to ensure long-term compatibility with the containment system, and design features that help ensure that the on-orbit melt behavior in a microgravity environment is unchanged from pre-flight full gravitational conditions under which the system is characterized.

  20. Using the Moon to Track MODIS Reflective Solar Bands Calibration Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Geng, Xu; Angal, Amit; Sun, Junqiang; Barnes, William

    2011-01-01

    MODIS has 20 reflective solar bands (RSB) in the visible (VIS), near infrared (NIR), and short-wave infrared (SWIR) spectral regions. In addition to instrument on-board calibrators (OBC), lunar observations have been used by both Terra and Aqua MODIS to track their reflective solar bands (RSB) on-orbit calibration stability. On a near monthly basis, lunar observations are scheduled and implemented for each instrument at nearly the same lunar phase angles. A time series of normalized detector responses to the Moon is used to monitor its on-orbit calibration stability. The normalization is applied to correct the differences of lunar viewing geometries and the Sun-Moon-Sensor distances among different lunar observations. Initially, the lunar calibration stability monitoring was only applied to MODIS bands (1-4 and 8-12) that do not saturate while viewing the Moon. As the mission continued, we extended the lunar calibration stability monitoring to other RSB bands (bands 13-16) that contain saturated pixels. For these bands, the calibration stability is monitored by referencing their non-saturated pixels to the matched pixels in a non-saturation band. In this paper, we describe this relative approach and apply it to MODIS regularly scheduled lunar observations. We present lunar trending results for both Terra and Aqua MODIS over their entire missions. Also discussed in the paper are the advantages and limitations of this approach and its potential applications to other earth-observing sensors. Keywords: Terra, Aqua, MODIS, sensor, Moon, calibration, stability

  1. Radiometric calibration stability of the EO-1 advanced land imager: 5 years on-orbit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Markham, B.L.; Ong, L.; Barsi, J.A.; Mendenhall, J.A.; Lencioni, D.E.; Helder, D.L.; Hollaren, D.M.; Morfitt, R.

    2006-01-01

    The Advanced Land Imager (ALI) was developed as a prototype sensor for follow on missions to Landsat-7. It was launched in November 2000 on the Earth Observing One (EO-1) satellite as a nominal one-year technology demonstration mission. As of this writing, the sensor has continued to operate in excess of 5 years. Six of the ALl's nine multi-spectral (MS) bands and the panchromatic band have similar spectral coverage as those on the Landsat-7 ETM+. In addition to on-board lamps, which have been significantly more stable than the lamps on ETM+, the ALI has a solar diffuser and has imaged the moon monthly since launch. This combined calibration dataset allows understanding of the radiometric stability of the ALI system, its calibrators and some differentiation of the sources of the changes with time. The solar dataset is limited as the mechanism controlling the aperture to the solar diffuser failed approximately 18 months after launch. Results over 5 years indicate that: the shortest wavelength band (443 nm) has degraded in response about 2%; the 482 nm and 565 nm bands decreased in response about 1%; the 660 nm, 790 nm and 868 nm bands each degraded about 5%; the 1250 nm and 1650 nm bands did not change significantly and the 2215 nm band increased in response about 2%.

  2. Calibration improvements for MODIS and VIIRS SWIR spectral bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Angal, Amit; Fulbright, Jon; Lei, Ning; Mu, Qiaozhen; Wang, Zhipeng; Wu, Aisheng

    2015-09-01

    Both MODIS and VIIRS use a solar diffuser (SD) to calibrate their reflective solar bands (RSB), covering wavelengths from 0.41 to 2.3 μm. On-orbit changes of the SD bi-directional reflectance factor (BRF) are tracked by an on-board solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM). The current SDSM design only covers the spectral range from 0.41 to 0.93 μm. In general, the SD degradation is strongly wavelength-dependent with larger degradation occurring at shorter wavelengths, and the degradation in the SWIR region is expected to be extremely small. As each mission continues, however, the impact due to SD degradation at SWIR needs to be carefully examined and the correction if necessary should be applied in order to maintain the calibration quality. For Terra MODIS, alternative approaches have been developed and used to estimate the SD degradation for its band 5 at 1.24 μm and a time-dependent correction has already been applied to the current level 1B (L1B) collection 6 (C6). In this paper, we present different methodologies that can be used to examine the SD degradation and their applications for both Terra and Aqua MODIS and S-NPP VIIRS SWIR calibration. These methodologies include but not limited to the use of lunar observations, Pseudo Invariant Calibration Sites (PICS), and deep convective clouds (DCC). A brief description of relative approaches and their use is also provided in this paper.

  3. MODIS thermal emissive band calibration stability derived from surface targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenny, B. N.; Xiong, X.; Dodd, J.

    2009-09-01

    The 16 MODIS Thermal Emissive Bands (TEB), with wavelengths covering from 3.7μm to 14.4μm, are calibrated using scan-by-scan observations of an on-orbit blackbody (BB). Select Earth surface targets can be used to track the long-term consistency, stability and relative bias between the two MODIS instruments currently in orbit. Measurements at Dome C, Antarctica have shown a relative bias of less than 0.01K over a 5 year period between Terra and Aqua MODIS Band 31 (11μm). Dome C surface temperatures are typically outside the MODIS BB calibration range. Sea surface temperature (SST) measurements from data buoys provide a useful reference at higher scene temperatures. This paper extends the techniques previously applied only to Band 31 to the remaining TEB using both Dome C and SST sites. The long-term calibration stability and relative bias between Terra and Aqua MODIS is discussed.

  4. The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) imaging spectrometer for lunar science: Instrument description, calibration, on-orbit measurements, science data calibration and on-orbit validation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Green, R.O.; Pieters, C.; Mouroulis, P.; Eastwood, M.; Boardman, J.; Glavich, T.; Isaacson, P.; Annadurai, M.; Besse, S.; Barr, D.; Buratti, B.; Cate, D.; Chatterjee, A.; Clark, R.; Cheek, L.; Combe, J.; Dhingra, D.; Essandoh, V.; Geier, S.; Goswami, J.N.; Green, R.; Haemmerle, V.; Head, J.; Hovland, L.; Hyman, S.; Klima, R.; Koch, T.; Kramer, G.; Kumar, A.S.K.; Lee, Kenneth; Lundeen, S.; Malaret, E.; McCord, T.; McLaughlin, S.; Mustard, J.; Nettles, J.; Petro, N.; Plourde, K.; Racho, C.; Rodriquez, J.; Runyon, C.; Sellar, G.; Smith, C.; Sobel, H.; Staid, M.; Sunshine, J.; Taylor, L.; Thaisen, K.; Tompkins, S.; Tseng, H.; Vane, G.; Varanasi, P.; White, M.; Wilson, D.

    2011-01-01

    , spatial, and uniformity validation effort has been pursued with selected data sets including an Earth-view data set. With this effort an initial validation of the on-orbit performance of the imaging spectrometer has been achieved, including validation of the cross-track spectral uniformity and spectral instantaneous field of view uniformity. The Moon Mineralogy Mapper is the first imaging spectrometer to measure a data set of this kind at the Moon. These calibrated science measurements are being used to address the full set of science goals and objectives for this mission. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  5. On-Orbit Performance Verification and End-To-End Characterization of the TDRS-H Ka-band Communications Payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toral, Marco; Wesdock, John; Kassa, Abby; Pogorelc, Patsy; Jenkens, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In June 2000, NASA launched the first of three next generation Tracking and Data Relay Satellites (TDRS-H) equipped with a Ka-band forward and return service capability. This Ka-band service supports forward data rates of up to 25 Mb/sec using the 22.55-23.55 GHz space-to-space allocation. Return services are supported via channel bandwidths of 225 and 650 MHz for data rates up to at least 800 Mb/sec using the 25.25 - 27.5 GHz space-to-space allocation. As part of NASA's acceptance of the TDRS-H spacecraft, an extensive on-orbit calibration, verification and characterization effort was performed to ensure that on-orbit spacecraft performance is within specified limits. This process verified the compliance of the Ka-band communications payload with all performance specifications, and demonstrated an end-to-end Ka-band service capability. This paper summarizes the results of the TDRS-H Ka-band communications payload on-orbit performance verification and end-to-end service characterization. Performance parameters addressed include antenna gain pattern, antenna Gain-to-System Noise Temperature (G/T), Effective Isotropically Radiated Power (EIRP), antenna pointing accuracy, frequency tunability, channel magnitude response, and Ka-band service Bit-Error-Rate (BER) performance.

  6. On-Orbit Performance Verification and End-to-End Characterization of the TDRS-H Ka-Band Communications Payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toral, Marco; Wesdock, John; Kassa, Abby; Pogorelc, Patsy; Jenkens, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In June 2000, NASA launched the first of three next generation Tracking and Data Relay Satellites (TDRS-H) equipped with a Ka-band forward and return service capability. This Ka-band service supports forward data rates up to 25 Mb/sec using the 22.55 - 23.55 GHz space-to-space allocation. Return services are supported via channel bandwidths of 225 and 650 MHz for data rates up to 800 Mb/sec (QPSK) using the 25.25 - 27.5 GHz space-to-space allocation. As part of NASA's acceptance of the TDRS-H spacecraft, an extensive on-orbit calibration, verification and characterization effort was performed to ensure that on-orbit spacecraft performance is within specified limits. This process verified the compliance of the Ka-band communications payload with all performance specifications and demonstrated an end-to-end Ka-band service capability. This paper summarizes the results of the TDRS-H Ka-band communications payload on-orbit performance verification and end-to-end service characterization. Performance parameters addressed include Effective Isotropically Radiated Power (EIRP), antenna Gain-to-System Noise Temperature (G/T), antenna gain pattern, frequency tunability and accuracy, channel magnitude response, and Ka-band service Bit-Error-Rate (BER) performance.

  7. The moon as a radiometric reference source for on-orbit sensor stability calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, T.C.

    2009-01-01

    The wealth of data generated by the world's Earth-observing satellites, now spanning decades, allows the construction of long-term climate records. A key consideration for detecting climate trends is precise quantification of temporal changes in sensor calibration on-orbit. For radiometer instruments in the solar reflectance wavelength range (near-UV to shortwave-IR), the Moon can be viewed as a solar diffuser with exceptional stability properties. A model for the lunar spectral irradiance that predicts the geometric variations in the Moon's brightness with ???1% precision has been developed at the U.S. Geological Survey in Flagstaff, AZ. Lunar model results corresponding to a series of Moon observations taken by an instrument can be used to stabilize sensor calibration with sub-percent per year precision, as demonstrated by the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS). The inherent stability of the Moon and the operational model to utilize the lunar irradiance quantity provide the Moon as a reference source for monitoring radiometric calibration in orbit. This represents an important capability for detecting terrestrial climate change from space-based radiometric measurements.

  8. On-orbit performance testing of the Pointing Calibration & Reference Sensor for the Spitzer Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mainzer, Amanda K.; Young, Erick T.; Swanson, Daniel S.

    2004-01-01

    We present the on-orbit performance results of the Pointing Calibration and Reference Sensor (PCRS) for the Spitzer Space Telescope. A cryogenic optical (center wavelength 0.55 mu) imager, the PCRS serves as the Observatory's fine guidance sensor by providing an alignment reference between the telescope boresight and the external spacecraft attitude determination system. The PCRS makes precision measurements of the positions of known guide stars; these are used to calibrate measurements from Spitzer's star tracker and gyroscopes to obtain the actual pointing of the Spitzer telescope. The PCRS calibrates out thermomoechanical drifts between the 300 K spacecraft bus and the 5.5 K telescope. By using only 16 pixels, the PCRS provides high precision centroiding with extremely low (`64 mu W) power dissipation, resulting in minimal impact to Spritzer's helium lifetime. We have demonstrated that the PCRS meets its centroiding accuracy requirement of 0.14 arcsec 1-sigma radial, which represents about1/100 pixel centroiding. The Spitzer Space Telescope was launched in 25 August, 2003 and completed its In-Orbit Checkout phase two months later; the PCRS has been operating failure free ever since.

  9. PREMOS Absolute Radiometer Calibration and Implications to on-orbit Measurements of the Total Solar Irradiance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fehlmann, A.; Kopp, G.; Schmutz, W. K.; Winkler, R.; Finsterle, W.; Fox, N.

    2011-12-01

    On orbit measurements starting in the late 1970's, have revealed the 11 year cycle of the Total Solar Irradiance (TSI). However, the absolute results from individual experiments differ although all instrument teams claim to measure an absolute value. Especially the data from the TIM/SORCE experiment confused the community as it measures 0.3 % lower than the other instruments, e.g. VIRGO/SOHO by PMOD/WRC, which clearly exceeds the uncertainty stated for the absolute characterization of the experiments. The PREMOS package on the PICARD platform launched in June 2010 is the latest space experiment by PMOD/WRC measuring the TSI. We have put great effort in the calibration and characterization of this instrument in order to resolve the inter-instrument differences. We performed calibrations at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) in London and the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP) in Boulder against national SI standards for radiant power using a laser beam with a diameter being smaller than the aperture of the instrument. These measurements together with the World Radiometric Reference (WRR) calibration in Davos allowed to compare the WRR and the SI radiant power scale. We found that the WRR lies 0.18 % above the SI radiant power scale which explains a part of the VIRGO-TIM difference. The Total solar irradiance Radiometer Facility (TRF) at the LASP allows to generate a beam that over fills the apertures of our instruments, giving the presently best available representation of solar irradiance in a laboratory. These irradiance calibrations revealed a stray light contribution between 0.09 and 0.3 % to the measurements which had been underestimated in the characterization of our instruments. Using the irradiance calibrations, we found that the WRR lies 0.32 % above the TRF scale which in turn explains the full VIRGO-TIM difference. The first light PREMOS measurements in space confirmed our findings. If we use the WRR calibration, PREMOS yields a TSI

  10. On-Orbit Absolute Temperature Calibration Using Multiple Phase Change Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Best, F. A.; Adler, D. P.; Pettersen, C.; Revercomb, H. E.; Perepezko, J. H.

    2009-12-01

    NASA’s anticipated plan for a mission dedicated to Climate (CLARREO) will hinge upon the ability to fly SI traceable standards that provide irrefutable absolute measurement accuracy. As an example, instrumentation designed to measure spectrally resolved infrared radiances will require high-emissivity calibration blackbodies that have absolute temperature uncertainties of better than 0.045K (3 sigma). A novel scheme to provide absolute calibration of temperature sensors, suitable for CLARREO on-orbit operation, has been demonstrated in the laboratory at the University of Wisconsin, and is now undergoing refinement under NASA Instrument Incubator Program funding. In this scheme, small quantities of reference materials (mercury, water, and gallium) are imbedded into the blackbody cavity wall, in a manner similar to the temperature sensors to be calibrated. As the blackbody cavity is slowly heated through the melt point of each reference material, the transient temperature signature from the imbedded thermistor sensors provides a very accurate indication of the melt temperature. Using small quantities of phase change material (less than half of a percent of the mass of the cavity), melt temperature accuracies of better than 10 mK have been demonstrated for mercury, water, and gallium (providing calibration from 233K to 303K). Refinements currently underway focus on ensuring that the melt materials in their sealed confinement housings perform as expected in the thermal and microgravity environment of a multi-year spaceflight mission. Thermal soak and cycling tests are underway to demonstrate that there is no dissolution from the housings into the melt materials that could alter melt temperature, and that there is no liquid metal embrittlement of the housings from the metal melt materials. In addition, NASA funding has been recently secured to conduct a demonstration of this scheme in the microgravity environment of the International Space Station.

  11. Radiometric calibration of Landsat Thematic Mapper Thermal Band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wukelic, G. E.; Gibbons, D. E.; Martucci, L. M.; Foote, H. P.

    1989-01-01

    Radiometric calibration of satellite-acquired data is essential for quantitative scientific studies, as well as for a variety of image-processing applications. This paper describes a multiyear, on-orbit radiometric calibration of the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) Band 6 conducted at DOE's Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Numerous Landsat TM scenes acquired and analyzed included day and night coverages at several geographical locations over several seasons. Concurrent with Landsat overpasses, thermal field and local meteorological (surface and radiosonde) measurements were collected. At-satellite (uncorrected) radiances and temperatures for water and nonwater land cover were compared to ground truth (GT) measurements after making adjustments for atmospheric (using LOWTRAN), mixed-pixel, and emissivity effects. Results indicate that, for both water and nonwater features, TM Band 6 average corrected temperature determinations using local radiosonde data to adjust for atmospheric effects, and using appropriate emissivities, are within 1.0 C of GT temperature values. Temperatures of water pixels derived from uncorrected TM Band 6 data varied roughly between 1 and 3 C of ground truth values for water temperatures ranging between 4 and 24 C. Moreover, corrections using nonlocal and noncoincident radiosonde data resulted in errors as large as 12 C. Corrections using the U.S. Standard Atmosphere gave temperature values within 1 to 2 C of GT. The average uncertainty for field instruments was + or - 0.2 C; average uncertainty for Landsat TM corrected temperature determinations was + or - 0.4 C.

  12. On-Orbit Cross-Calibration of AM Satellite Remote Sensing Instruments using the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, James J.; Kieffer, Hugh H.; Barnes, Robert A.; Stone, Thomas C.

    2003-01-01

    On April 14,2003, three Earth remote sensing spacecraft were maneuvered enabling six satellite instruments operating in the visible through shortwave infrared wavelength region to view the Moon for purposes of on-orbit cross-calibration. These instruments included the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection (ASTER) radiometer on the Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra spacecraft, the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) and Hyperion instrument on Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) spacecraft, and the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) on the SeaStar spacecraft. Observations of the Moon were compared using a spectral photometric mode for lunar irradiance developed by the Robotic Lunar Observatory (ROLO) project located at the United States Geological Survey in Flagstaff, Arizona. The ROLO model effectively accounts for variations in lunar irradiance corresponding to lunar phase and libration angles, allowing intercomparison of observations made by instruments on different spacecraft under different time and location conditions. The spacecraft maneuvers necessary to view the Moon are briefly described and results of using the lunar irradiance model in comparing the radiometric calibration scales of the six satellite instruments are presented here.

  13. On-Orbit Calibration of Redundant Spacecraft Gyros by Optimal Reduction to Three Axes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radomski, M. S.

    2001-01-01

    The Aqua spacecraft will carry four single-axis gyros configured with three orthogonal axes and one skew axis. This redundancy presents a challenge for batch methods of on-orbit gyro calibration that use a spacecraft rotation model deterministically related to gyro data, in that sensor data can respond to at most three angular velocity components. When the number of gyros, N, is greater than 3, the 3xN matrix, G, that reduces the N gyro measurements to three body-frame angular-velocity components cannot be fully determined by such methods; there are many such matrices that produce essentially the same angular velocity history. In such a case, spacecraft operators require information about the Nx3 gyro linear response matrix, R, that relates gyro outputs to the body-frame angular velocities causing them. This matrix provides sufficient information to determine multiple reduced-dimension G-matrices for use in case of failure or degradation of one or more gyros, as well as to determine an optimal 3xN G for the fully-functional configuration. A viable proposal is to apply a 3xN pre-filter matrix, F, to the N gyro outputs before carrying out a conventional gyro calibration procedure. The angular-velocity history emerging from conventional calibration may then be used as input data, together with the same gyro data that generated it, to fit the alignment, scale-factor, and bias parameters of each gyro axis in turn. A difficulty of such a proposal is the arbitrariness in the choice of F. Due to gyro noise, different pre-filter matrices produce different calibrations. This paper presents a method of choosing F that is based on optimizing gyro consistency in the limit of infinite weight on gyro data, as compared to sensor data. The choice of F is independent of a priori alignment and is based on the gyro data alone. The method is applicable to any N of three or more, but reduces to conventional batch-estimation methodologies when N = 3. Results of computational comparison

  14. Calibration of VIIRS F1 Sensor Fire Detection Band Using lunar Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McIntire, Jeff; Efremova, Boryana; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2012-01-01

    Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Fight 1 (Fl) sensor includes a fire detection band at roughly 4 microns. This spectral band has two gain states; fire detection occurs in the low gain state above approximately 345 K. The thermal bands normally utilize an on-board blackbody to provide on-orbit calibration. However, as the maximum temperature of this blackbody is 315 K, the low gain state of the 4 micron band cannot be calibrated in the same manner as the rest of the thermal bands. Regular observations of the moon provide an alternative calibration source. The lunar surface temperature has been recently mapped by the DIVINER sensor on the LRO platform. The periodic on-board high gain calibration along with the DIVINER surface temperatures was used to determine the emissivity and solar reflectance of the lunar surface at 4 microns; these factors and the lunar data are then used to fit the low gain calibration coefficients of the 4 micron band. Furthermore, the emissivity of the lunar surface is well known near 8.5 microns due to the Christiansen feature (an emissivity maximum associated with Si-O stretching vibrations) and the solar reflectance is negligible. Thus, the 8.5 micron band is used for relative calibration with the 4 micron band to de-trend any temporal variations. In addition, the remaining thermal bands are analyzed in a similar fashion, with both calculated emissivities and solar reflectances produced.

  15. Comparing On-Orbit and Ground Performance for an S-Band Software-Defined Radio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chelmins, David T.; Welch, Bryan W.

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Space Communications and Navigation Testbed was installed on an external truss of the International Space Station in 2012. The testbed contains several software-defined radios (SDRs), including the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) SDR, which underwent performance testing throughout 2013 with NASAs Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). On-orbit testing of the JPL SDR was conducted at S-band with the Glenn Goddard TDRSS waveform and compared against an extensive dataset collected on the ground prior to launch. This paper will focus on the development of a waveform power estimator on the ground post-launch and discuss the performance challenges associated with operating the power estimator in space.

  16. Comparing On-Orbit and Ground Performance for an S-Band Software-Defined Radio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chelmins, David; Welch, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Space Communications and Navigation Testbed was installed on an external truss of the International Space Station in 2012. The testbed contains several software-defined radios (SDRs), including the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) SDR, which underwent performance testing throughout 2013 with NASA's Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). On-orbit testing of the JPL SDR was conducted at S-band with the Glenn Goddard TDRSS waveform and compared against an extensive dataset collected on the ground prior to launch. This paper will focus on the development of a waveform power estimator on the ground post-launch and discuss the performance challenges associated with operating the power estimator in space.

  17. A Novel Error Model of Optical Systems and an On-Orbit Calibration Method for Star Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuang; Geng, Yunhai; Jin, Rongyu

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve the on-orbit measurement accuracy of star sensors, the effects of image-plane rotary error, image-plane tilt error and distortions of optical systems resulting from the on-orbit thermal environment were studied in this paper. Since these issues will affect the precision of star image point positions, in this paper, a novel measurement error model based on the traditional error model is explored. Due to the orthonormal characteristics of image-plane rotary-tilt errors and the strong nonlinearity among these error parameters, it is difficult to calibrate all the parameters simultaneously. To solve this difficulty, for the new error model, a modified two-step calibration method based on the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) and Least Square Methods (LSM) is presented. The former one is used to calibrate the main point drift, focal length error and distortions of optical systems while the latter estimates the image-plane rotary-tilt errors. With this calibration method, the precision of star image point position influenced by the above errors is greatly improved from 15.42% to 1.389%. Finally, the simulation results demonstrate that the presented measurement error model for star sensors has higher precision. Moreover, the proposed two-step method can effectively calibrate model error parameters, and the calibration precision of on-orbit star sensors is also improved obviously. PMID:26703599

  18. A Novel Error Model of Optical Systems and an On-Orbit Calibration Method for Star Sensors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuang; Geng, Yunhai; Jin, Rongyu

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve the on-orbit measurement accuracy of star sensors, the effects of image-plane rotary error, image-plane tilt error and distortions of optical systems resulting from the on-orbit thermal environment were studied in this paper. Since these issues will affect the precision of star image point positions, in this paper, a novel measurement error model based on the traditional error model is explored. Due to the orthonormal characteristics of image-plane rotary-tilt errors and the strong nonlinearity among these error parameters, it is difficult to calibrate all the parameters simultaneously. To solve this difficulty, for the new error model, a modified two-step calibration method based on the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) and Least Square Methods (LSM) is presented. The former one is used to calibrate the main point drift, focal length error and distortions of optical systems while the latter estimates the image-plane rotary-tilt errors. With this calibration method, the precision of star image point position influenced by the above errors is greatly improved from 15.42% to 1.389%. Finally, the simulation results demonstrate that the presented measurement error model for star sensors has higher precision. Moreover, the proposed two-step method can effectively calibrate model error parameters, and the calibration precision of on-orbit star sensors is also improved obviously. PMID:26703599

  19. On-Orbit Geometric Calibration Approach for High-Resolution Geostationary Optical Satellite GaoFen-4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mi; Cheng, Yufeng; Long, Xiaoxiang; Yang, Bo

    2016-06-01

    The GaoFen-4 (GF-4) remote sensing satellite is China's first civilian high-resolution geostationary optical satellite, which has been launched at the end of December 2015. To guarantee the geometric quality of imagery, this paper presents an on-orbit geometric calibration method for the area-array camera of GF-4. Firstly, we introduce the imaging features of area-array camera of GF-4 and construct a rigorous imaging model based on the analysis of the major error sources from three aspects: attitude measurement error, orbit measurement error and camera distortion. Secondly, we construct an on-orbit geometric calibration model by selecting and optimizing parameters of the rigorous geometric imaging model. On this basis, the calibration parameters are divided into two groups: external and internal calibration parameters. The external parameters are installation angles between the area-array camera and the star tracker, and we propose a two-dimensional direction angle model as internal parameters to describe the distortion of the areaarray camera. Thirdly, we propose a stepwise parameters estimation method that external parameters are estimated firstly, then internal parameters are estimated based on the generalized camera frame determined by external parameters. Experiments based on the real data of GF-4 shows that after on-orbit geometric calibration, the geometric accuracy of the images without ground control points is significantly improved.

  20. A Traceable Ground to On-Orbit Radiometric Calibration System for the Solar Reflective Wavelength Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heath, Donald F.; Georgiev, Georgi

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the combination of a Mie scattering spectral BSDF and BTDF albedo standard whose calibration is traceable to the NIST SIRCUS Facility or the NIST STARR II Facility. The Space-based Calibration Transfer Spectroradiometer (SCATS) sensor uses a simple, invariant optical configuration and dedicated narrow band spectral channel modules to provide very accurate, polarization-insensitive, stable measurements of earth albedo and lunar disk albedo. Optical degradation effects on calibration stability are eliminated through use of a common optical system for observations of the Sun, Earth, and Moon. The measurements from space would be traceable to SI units through preflight calibrations of radiance and irradiance at NIST's SIRCUS facility and the invariant optical system used in the sensor. Simultaneous measurements are made in multiple spectral channels covering the solar reflective wavelength range of 300 nm to 2.4 microns. The large dynamic range of signals is handled by use of single-element, highly-linear detectors, stable discrete electronic components, and a non imaging optical configuration. Up to 19 spectral modules can be mounted on a single-axis drive to give direct pointing at the Earth and at least once per orbit view of the Sun and Moon. By observing the Sun on every orbit, the most stringent stability requirements of the system are limited to short time periods. The invariant optical system for both radiance and irradiance measurements also give excellent transfer to-orbit SI traceability. Emerging instrumental requirements for remotely sensing tropospheric trace species have led to a rethinking by some of the paradigm for Systeme International d'Unites (SI) traceability of the spectral irradiance and radiance radiometric calibrations to spectral albedo (sr(exp -1)) which is not a SI unit. In the solar reflective wavelength region the spectral albedo calibrations are tied often to either the spectral albedo of a solar diffuser or the Moon

  1. The Importance of Post-Launch, On-Orbit Absolute Radiometric Calibration for Remote Sensing Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuester, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Remote sensing is a powerful tool for monitoring changes on the surface of the Earth at a local or global scale. The use of data sets from different sensors across many platforms, or even a single sensor over time, can bring a wealth of information when exploring anthropogenic changes to the environment. For example, variations in crop yield and health for a specific region can be detected by observing changes in the spectral signature of the particular species under study. However, changes in the atmosphere, sun illumination and viewing geometries during image capture can result in inconsistent image data, hindering automated information extraction. Additionally, an incorrect spectral radiometric calibration will lead to false or misleading results. It is therefore critical that the data being used are normalized and calibrated on a regular basis to ensure that physically derived variables are as close to truth as is possible. Although most earth observing sensors are well-calibrated in a laboratory prior to launch, a change in the radiometric response of the system is inevitable due to thermal, mechanical or electrical effects caused during the rigors of launch or by the space environment itself. Outgassing and exposure to ultra-violet radiation will also have an effect on the sensor's filter responses. Pre-launch lamps and other laboratory calibration systems can also fall short in representing the actual output of the Sun. A presentation of the differences in the results of some example cases (e.g. geology, agriculture) derived for science variables using pre- and post-launch calibration will be presented using DigitalGlobe's WorldView-3 super spectral sensor, with bands in the visible and near infrared, as well as in the shortwave infrared. Important defects caused by an incomplete (i.e. pre-launch only) calibration will be discussed using validation data where available. In addition, the benefits of using a well-validated surface reflectance product will be

  2. On-Orbit Geometric Calibration of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Wide Angle Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speyerer, E. J.; Wagner, R.; Robinson, M. S.

    2013-12-01

    Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) is equipped with a single Wide Angle Camera (WAC) [1] designed to collect monochromatic and multispectral observations of the lunar surface. Cartographically accurate image mosaics and stereo image based terrain models requires the position of each pixel in a given image be known to a corresponding point on the lunar surface with a high degree of accuracy and precision. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) team initially characterized the WAC geometry prior to launch at the Malin Space Science Systems calibration facility. After lunar orbit insertion, the LROC team recognized spatially varying geometric offsets between color bands. These misregistrations made analysis of the color data problematic and showed that refinements to the pre-launch geometric analysis were necessary. The geometric parameters that define the WAC optical system were characterized from statistics gathered from co-registering over 84,000 image pairs. For each pair, we registered all five visible WAC bands to a precisely rectified Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) image (accuracy <15 m) [2] to compute key geometric parameters. In total, we registered 2,896 monochrome and 1,079 color WAC observations to nearly 34,000 NAC observations and collected over 13.7 million data points across the visible portion of the WAC CCD. Using the collected statistics, we refined the relative pointing (yaw, pitch and roll), effective focal length, principal point coordinates, and radial distortion coefficients. This large dataset also revealed spatial offsets between bands after orthorectification due to chromatic aberrations in the optical system. As white light enters the optical system, the light bends at different magnitudes as a function of wavelength, causing a single incident ray to disperse in a spectral spread of color [3,4]. This lateral chromatic aberration effect, also known as 'chromatic difference in magnification' [5] introduces variation to the effective focal

  3. Suomi NPP VIIRS day-night band on-orbit performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, L. B.; Weiss, Stephanie; Mills, Steve; Hauss, Bruce

    2013-11-01

    Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (NPP) launched on 28 October 2011 hosts the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) sensor. The VIIRS sensor includes a day-night band (DNB) that covers almost 7 orders of magnitude in its dynamic range from full sunlit scenes to lunar-illuminated clouds. The DNB is panchromatic and covers the wavelengths from 500 nm to 900 nm. Since launch, extensive effort has gone into its characterization. We have shown that the DNB is performing extremely well, meeting most of its specifications with some minor exceedances. The DNB characteristics evaluated include the following: sampling and resolution across the swath, geolocation uncertainty, radiometric sensitivity, radiometric uncertainty, and stray light. The only significant deviation from specification involves the stray light specification. On-orbit, the characterization shows that the DNB suffers stray light level on the order of 100% Lmin or 3 × 10-9 W•cm-2•sr-1. After algorithmic correction, the residual radiometric error was reduced to approximately 4.5 × 10-10 W•cm-2•sr-1.

  4. Assessment of on-orbit crosstalk impact for SNPP VIIRS VisNIR bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Shihyan; Oudrari, Hassan; McIntire, Jeff; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2014-09-01

    Electronic and optical crosstalk is one of the major challenges facing space-based Earth observing sensors, the effects of which could pose serious risks to the successful retrieval of geophysical information. There was an extensive effort during the SNPP VIIRS design and testing phase to characterize the on-orbit VisNIR crosstalk and its impact on environmental products. This paper describes an approach to assess the level of optical and electronic crosstalk on the measured radiance, and thereafter the retrieved geophysical products. During SNPP VIIRS pre-launch testing, a set of electronic and optical cross-talk influence coefficients was derived from measurements, which represent the amount of signal contamination received by each detector when other detectors on the same focal plane were illuminated. These coefficients were used to assess the potential crosstalk and its uncertainty on typical SNPP VIIRS land, atmosphere and ocean scenes. The simulation results show SNPP VIIRS crosstalk contamination is very small, less than 0.3 % for the stressing scenes, except for bands M7 and I2 over the dark ocean regions. These results are encouraging and constitute further evidence that SNPP VIIRS produces high quality imagery. The simulation approach presented in this paper could also be used for early crosstalk impact assessments for future VIIRS instruments.

  5. Pre-flight and On-orbit Geometric Calibration of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speyerer, E. J.; Wagner, R. V.; Robinson, M. S.; Licht, A.; Thomas, P. C.; Becker, K.; Anderson, J.; Brylow, S. M.; Humm, D. C.; Tschimmel, M.

    2016-04-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) consists of two imaging systems that provide multispectral and high resolution imaging of the lunar surface. The Wide Angle Camera (WAC) is a seven color push-frame imager with a 90∘ field of view in monochrome mode and 60∘ field of view in color mode. From the nominal 50 km polar orbit, the WAC acquires images with a nadir ground sampling distance of 75 m for each of the five visible bands and 384 m for the two ultraviolet bands. The Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) consists of two identical cameras capable of acquiring images with a ground sampling distance of 0.5 m from an altitude of 50 km. The LROC team geometrically calibrated each camera before launch at Malin Space Science Systems in San Diego, California and the resulting measurements enabled the generation of a detailed camera model for all three cameras. The cameras were mounted and subsequently launched on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) on 18 June 2009. Using a subset of the over 793000 NAC and 207000 WAC images of illuminated terrain collected between 30 June 2009 and 15 December 2013, we improved the interior and exterior orientation parameters for each camera, including the addition of a wavelength dependent radial distortion model for the multispectral WAC. These geometric refinements, along with refined ephemeris, enable seamless projections of NAC image pairs with a geodetic accuracy better than 20 meters and sub-pixel precision and accuracy when orthorectifying WAC images.

  6. Modeling the Radiance of the Moon for On-orbit Calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, T.C.; Kieffer, H.H.; Becker, K.J.

    2003-01-01

    The RObotic Lunar Observatory (ROLO) project has developed radiometric models of the Moon for disk-integrated irradiance and spatially resolved radiance. Although the brightness of the Moon varies spatially and with complex dependencies upon illumination and viewing geometry, the surface photometric properties are extremely stable, and therefore potentially knowable to high accuracy. The ROLO project has acquired 5+ years of spatially resolved lunar images in 23 VNIR and 9 SWIR filter bands at phase angles up to 90??. These images are calibrated to exoatmospheric radiance using nightly stellar observations in a band-coupled extinction algorithm and a radiometric scale based upon observations of the star Vega. An effort is currently underway to establish an absolute scale with direct traceability to NIST radiometric standards. The ROLO radiance model performs linear fitting of the spatially resolved lunar image data on an individual pixel basis. The results are radiance images directly comparable to spacecraft observations of the Moon. Model-generated radiance images have been produced for the ASTER lunar view conducted on 14 April 2003. The radiance model is still experimental - simplified photometric functions have been used, and initial results show evidence of computational instabilities, particularly at the lunar poles. The ROLO lunar image dataset is unique and extensive and presents opportunities for development of novel approaches to lunar photometric modeling.

  7. On-orbit radiometric calibration of Earth-observing sensors using the Radiometric Calibration Test Site (RadCaTS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czapla-Myers, Jeffrey S.; Leisso, Nathan P.; Anderson, Nikolaus J.; Biggar, Stuart F.

    2012-06-01

    Vicarious techniques are used to provide supplemental radiometric calibration data for sensors with onboard calibration systems, and are increasingly important for sensors without onboard calibration systems. The Radiometric Calibration Test Site (RadCaTS) is located at Railroad Valley, Nevada. It is a facility that was developed with the goal of increasing the amount of ground-based radiometric calibration data that are collected annually while maintaining the current level of radiometric accuracy produced by traditional manned field campaigns. RadCaTS is based on the reflectance-based approach, and currently consists of a Cimel sun photometer to measure the atmosphere, a weather station to monitor meteorological conditions, and ground-viewing radiometers (GVRs) that are used the determine the surface reflectance throughout the 1 × 1-km area. The data from these instruments are used in MODTRAN5 to determine the at-sensor spectral radiance at the time of overpass. This work describes the RadCaTS concept, the instruments used to obtain the data, and the processing method used to determine the surface reflectance and top-of-atmosphere spectral radiance. A discussion on the design and calibration of three new eight-channel GVRs is introduced, and the surface reflectance retrievals are compared to in situ measurements. Radiometric calibration results determined using RadCaTS are compared to Landsat 7 ETM+, MODIS, and MISR.

  8. On-orbit calibration of soft X-ray detector on Chang'E-2 satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Hong; Peng, Wen-Xi; Wang, Huan-Yu; Cui, Xing-Zhu; Guo, Dong-Ya

    2015-10-01

    The X-ray spectrometer is one of the satellite payloads on the Chang'E-2 satellite. The soft X-ray detector is one of the devices on the X-ray spectrometer, designed to detect the major rock-forming elements within the 0.5-10 keV range on the lunar surface. In this paper, energy linearity and energy resolution calibration is done using a weak 55Fe source. Temperature and time effects are found not to give a large error. The total uncertainty of calibration is estimated to be within 5% after correction. Supported by National Science Foundation of Ministry of Education

  9. CLARREO: Reference Inter-Calibration on Orbit With Reflected Solar Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lukashin, C.; Roithmayr, C.; Currey, C.; Wielicki, B.; Goldin, D.; Sun, W.

    2016-01-01

    The CLARREO approach for reference intercalibration is based on obtaining coincident highly accurate spectral reflectance and reflected radiance measurements, and establish an on-orbit reference for existing Earth viewing reflected solar radiation sensors: CERES and VIIRS on JPSS satellites, AVHRR and follow-on imagers on MetOp, and imagers on GEO platforms. The mission goal is to be able to provide CLARREO RS reference observations that are matched in space, time, and viewing angles with measurements from the aforementioned instruments, with sampling sufficient to overcome the random error sources from imperfect data matching and instrument noise. The intercalibration method is to monitor over time changes in targeted sensor response function parameters: effective offset, gain, nonlinearity, spectral degradation, and sensitivity to polarization of optics.

  10. Status of use of lunar irradiance for on-orbit calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, T.C.; Kieffer, H.H.; Anderson, J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Routine observations of the Moon have been acquired by the Robotic Lunar Observatory (ROLO) for over four years. The ROLO instruments measure lunar radiance in 23 VNIR (Moon diameter ???500 pixels) and 9 SWIR (???250 pixels) passbands every month when the Moon is at phase angle less than 90 degrees. These are converted to exoatmospheric values at standard distances using an atmospheric extinction model based on observations of standard stars and a NIST-traceable absolute calibration source. Reduction of the stellar images also provides an independent pathway for absolute calibration. Comparison of stellar-based and lamp-based absolute calibrations of the lunar images currently shows unacceptably large differences. An analytic model of lunar irradiance as a function of phase angle and viewing geometry is derived from the calibrated lunar images. Residuals from models which fit hundreds of observations at each wavelength average less than 2%. Comparison with SeaWiFS observations over three years reveals a small quasi-periodic change in SeaWiFS responsivity that correlates with distance from the Sun for the first two years, then departs from this correlation.

  11. On-orbit absolute temperature calibration using multiple phase change materials: overview of recent technology advancements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Best, Fred A.; Adler, Douglas P.; Pettersen, Claire; Revercomb, Henry E.; Perepezko, John H.

    2010-11-01

    NASA's anticipated plan for a mission dedicated to Climate (CLARREO) will hinge upon the ability to fly SI traceable standards that provide irrefutable absolute measurement accuracy. As an example, instrumentation designed to measure spectrally resolved infrared radiances will require high-emissivity calibration blackbodies that have absolute temperature uncertainties of better than 0.045K (3 sigma). A novel scheme to provide absolute calibration of temperature sensors onorbit, that uses the transient melt signatures from multiple phase change materials, has been demonstrated in the laboratory at the University of Wisconsin and is now undergoing technology advancement under NASA Instrument Incubator Program funding. Using small quantities of phase change material (less than half of a percent of the mass of the cavity), melt temperature accuracies of better than 10 mK have been demonstrated for mercury, water, and gallium (providing calibration from 233K to 303K). Refinements currently underway focus on ensuring that the melt materials in their sealed confinement housings perform as expected in the thermal and microgravity environment of a multi-year spaceflight mission. Thermal soak and cycling tests are underway to demonstrate that there is no dissolution from the housings into the melt materials that could alter melt temperature, and that there is no liquid metal embrittlement of the housings from the metal melt materials. In addition, NASA funding has been recently secured to conduct a demonstration of this scheme in the microgravity environment of the International Space Station.

  12. Landsat-5 TM reflective-band absolute radiometric calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Helder, D.L.; Markham, B.L.; Dewald, J.D.; Kaita, E.; Thome, K.J.; Micijevic, E.; Ruggles, T.A.

    2004-01-01

    The Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor provides the longest running continuous dataset of moderate spatial resolution remote sensing imagery, dating back to its launch in March 1984. Historically, the radiometric calibration procedure for this imagery used the instrument's response to the Internal Calibrator (IC) on a scene-by-scene basis to determine the gain and offset of each detector. Due to observed degradations in the IC, a new procedure was implemented for U.S.-processed data in May 2003. This new calibration procedure is based on a lifetime radiometric calibration model for the instrument's reflective bands (1-5 and 7) and is derived, in part, from the IC response without the related degradation effects and is tied to the cross calibration with the Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus. Reflective-band absolute radiometric accuracy of the instrument tends to be on the order of 7% to 10%, based on a variety of calibration methods.

  13. Automatic PCM guard-band selector and calibrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noda, T. T.

    1974-01-01

    Automatic method for selection of proper guard band eliminates human error and speeds up calibration process. There is also an option which allows a single channel to be calibrated, independently of other channels. Entire system is designed on 3- by 4-inch printed-circuit cards and may be used with any pulse code modulation system.

  14. Monitoring on-orbit calibration stability of the Terra MODIS and Landsat 7 ETM+ sensors using pseudo-invariant test sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Xiong, X.(J.); Choi, T.(J.); Angal, A.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to detect and quantify changes in the Earth's environment depends on sensors that can provide calibrated, consistent measurements of the Earth's surface features through time. A critical step in this process is to put image data from different sensors onto a common radiometric scale. This work focuses on monitoring the long-term on-orbit calibration stability of the Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Landsat 7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) sensors using the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) reference standard pseudo-invariant test sites (Libya 4, Mauritania 1/2, Algeria 3, Libya 1, and Algeria 5). These sites have been frequently used as radiometric targets because of their relatively stable surface conditions temporally. This study was performed using all cloud-free calibrated images from the Terra MODIS and the L7 ETM+ sensors, acquired from launch to December 2008. Homogeneous regions of interest (ROI) were selected in the calibrated images and the mean target statistics were derived from sensor measurements in terms of top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance. For each band pair, a set of fitted coefficients (slope and offset) is provided to monitor the long-term stability over very stable pseudo-invariant test sites. The average percent differences in intercept from the long-term trends obtained from the ETM + TOA reflectance estimates relative to the MODIS for all the CEOS reference standard test sites range from 2.5% to 15%. This gives an estimate of the collective differences due to the Relative Spectral Response (RSR) characteristics of each sensor, bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF), spectral signature of the ground target, and atmospheric composition. The lifetime TOA reflectance trends from both sensors over 10 years are extremely stable, changing by no more than 0.4% per year in its TOA reflectance over the CEOS reference standard test sites. ?? 2009 Elsevier Inc.

  15. On-orbit radiometric calibration over time and between spacecraft using the moon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kieffer, H.H.; Stone, T.C.; Barnes, R.A.; Bender, S.; Eplee, R.E., Jr.; Mendenhall, J.; Ong, L.

    2002-01-01

    The Robotic Lunar Observatory (ROLO) project has developed a spectral irradiance model of the Moon that accounts for variations with lunar phase through the bright half of a month, lunar librations, and the location of an Earth-orbiting spacecraft. The methodology of comparing spacecraft observations of the Moon with this model has been developed to a set of standardized procedures so that comparisons can be readily made. In the cases where observations extend over several years (e.g., SeaWiFS), instrument response degradation has been determined with precision of about 0.1% per year. Because of the strong dependence of lunar irradiance on geometric angles, observations by two spacecraft cannot be directly compared unless acquired at the same time and location. Rather, the lunar irradiance based on each spacecraft instrument calibration can be compared with the lunar irradiance model. Even single observations by an instrument allow inter-comparison of its radiometric scale with other instruments participating in the lunar calibration program. Observations by SeaWiFS, ALI, Hyperion and MTI are compared here.

  16. Twenty-Five Years of Landsat Thermal Band Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barsi, Julia A.; Markham, Brian L.; Schoff, John R.; Hook, Simon J.; Raqueno, Nina G.

    2010-01-01

    Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper+ (ETM+), launched in April 1999, and Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM), launched in 1984, both have a single thermal band. Both instruments thermal band calibrations have been updated previously: ETM+ in 2001 for a pre-launch calibration error and TM in 2007 for data acquired since the current era of vicarious calibration has been in place (1999). Vicarious calibration teams at Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT) and NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) have been working to validate the instrument calibration since 1999. Recent developments in their techniques and sites have expanded the temperature and temporal range of the validation. The new data indicate that the calibration of both instruments had errors: the ETM+ calibration contained a gain error of 5.8% since launch; the TM calibration contained a gain error of 5% and an additional offset error between 1997 and 1999. Both instruments required adjustments in their thermal calibration coefficients in order to correct for the errors. The new coefficients were calculated and added to the Landsat operational processing system in early 2010. With the corrections, both instruments are calibrated to within +/-0.7K.

  17. Aquarius L-Band Radiometers Calibration Using Cold Sky Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dinnat, Emmanuel P.; Le Vine, David M.; Piepmeier, Jeffrey R.; Brown, Shannon T.; Hong, Liang

    2015-01-01

    An important element in the calibration plan for the Aquarius radiometers is to look at the cold sky. This involves rotating the satellite 180 degrees from its nominal Earth viewing configuration to point the main beams at the celestial sky. At L-band, the cold sky provides a stable, well-characterized scene to be used as a calibration reference. This paper describes the cold sky calibration for Aquarius and how it is used as part of the absolute calibration. Cold sky observations helped establish the radiometer bias, by correcting for an error in the spillover lobe of the antenna pattern, and monitor the long-term radiometer drift.

  18. Characterization of radiometric calibration of LANDSAT-4 TM reflective bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, J. L.; Abrams, R. B.; Ball, D. L.; Leung, K. C.

    1984-01-01

    Prelaunch and postlaunch internal calibrator, image, and background data is to characterize the radiometric performance of the LANDSAT-4 TM and to recommend improved procedures for radiometric calibration. All but two channels (band 2, channel 4; band 5, channel 3) behave normally. Gain changes relative to a postlaunch reference for channels within a band vary within 0.5 percent as a group. Instrument gain for channels in the cold focal plane oscillates. Noise in background and image data ranges from 0.5 to 1.7 counts. Average differences in forward and reverse image data indicate a need for separate calibration processing of forward and reverse scans. Precision is improved by increasing the pulse integration width from 31 to 41 minor frames, depending on the band.

  19. Continued Monitoring of Landsat Reflective Band Calibration Using Pseudo-Invariant Calibration Sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barsi, Julia A.; Markham, Brian L.; Helder, Dennis L.

    2012-01-01

    Though both of the current Landsat instruments, Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper+ (ETM+) and Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM), include on-board calibration systems, since 2001, pseudo-invariant calibration sites (PICS) have been added to the suite of metrics to assess the instruments calibration. These sites do not provide absolute calibration data since there are no ground measurements of the sites, but in monitoring these PICS over time, the relative calibration can be tracked. The sites used by the Landsat instruments are primarily in the Saharan Desert. To date, the trending from the PICS sites has confirmed that most of the degradation seen in the ETM+ on-board calibration systems is likely not degradation of the instrument, but rather degradation of the calibration systems themselves. However, the PICS data show statistically significant degradation (at 2-sigma) in all the reflective spectral bands of up to -0.22%/year since July 2003. For the TM, the PICS were instrumental in updating the calibration in 2007 and now suggest two bands may require another update. The data show a statistically significant degradation (at 2-sigma) in Bands 1 and 3 of -0.27 and -0.15%/year, respectively, since March 1999. The data filtering and processing methods are currently being reviewed but these PICS results may lead to an update in the reflective band calibration of both Landsat-7 and Landsat-5.

  20. The GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager: detector spectral response effects on thermal emissive band calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearlman, Aaron J.; Padula, Francis; Cao, Changyong; Wu, Xiangqian

    2015-10-01

    another blackbody, the ABI on-board calibrator. Using the detector-level SRFs reduces the structure across the arrays but leaves some residual bias. Further understanding of this bias could lead to refinements of the blackbody thermal model. This work shows the calibration impacts of using an average SRF across many detectors instead of accounting for each detector SRF independently in the TEB calibration. Note that these impacts neglect effects from the spectral sampling of Earth scene radiances that include atmospheric effects, which may further contribute to artifacts post-launch and cannot be mitigated by processing with detector-level SRFs. This study enhances the ability to diagnose anomalies on-orbit and reduce calibration uncertainty for improved system performance.

  1. AN H-BAND SPECTROSCOPIC METALLICITY CALIBRATION FOR M DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Terrien, Ryan C.; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Bender, Chad F.; Deshpande, Rohit; Ramsey, Lawrence W.; Bochanski, John J.

    2012-03-10

    We present an empirical near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic method for estimating M dwarf metallicities, based on features in the H band, as well as an implementation of a similar published method in the K band. We obtained R {approx} 2000 NIR spectra of a sample of M dwarfs using the NASA IRTF-SpeX spectrograph, including 22 M dwarf metallicity calibration targets that have FGK companions with known metallicities. The H-band and K-band calibrations provide equivalent fits to the metallicities of these binaries, with an accuracy of {+-}0.12 dex. We derive the first empirically calibrated spectroscopic metallicity estimate for the giant planet-hosting M dwarf GJ 317, confirming its supersolar metallicity. Combining this result with observations of eight other M dwarf planet hosts, we find that M dwarfs with giant planets are preferentially metal-rich compared to those that host less massive planets. Our H-band calibration relies on strongly metallicity-dependent features in the H band, which will be useful in compositional studies using mid- to high-resolution NIR M dwarf spectra, such as those produced by multiplexed surveys like SDSS-III APOGEE. These results will also be immediately useful for ongoing spectroscopic surveys of M dwarfs.

  2. Impact of MODIS SWIR band calibration improvements on Level-3 atmospheric products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wald, Andrew; Levy, Robert C.; Angal, Amit; Geng, Xu; Xiong, Jack; Hoffman, Kurt

    2016-05-01

    The spectral reflectance measured by the MODIS reflective solar bands (RSB) is used for retrieving many atmospheric science products. The accuracy of these products depends on the accuracy of the calibration of the RSB. To this end, the RSB of the MODIS instruments are primarily calibrated on-orbit using regular solar diffuser (SD) observations. For λ <0.94 μm the SD's on-orbit bi-directional reflectance factor (BRF) change is tracked using solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM) observations. For λ <0.94 μm, the MODIS Characterization Support Team (MCST) developed, in MODIS Collection 6 (C6), a time-dependent correction using observations from pseudo-invariant earth-scene targets. This correction has been implemented in C6 for the Terra MODIS 1.24 μm band over the entire mission, and for the 1.38 μm band in the forward processing. As the instruments continue to operate beyond their design lifetime of six years, a similar correction is planned for other short-wave infrared (SWIR) bands as well. MODIS SWIR bands are used in deriving atmosphere products, including aerosol optical thickness, atmospheric total column water vapor, cloud fraction and cloud optical depth. The SD degradation correction in Terra bands 5 and 26 impact the spectral radiance and therefore the retrieval of these atmosphere products. Here, we describe the corrections to Bands 5 (1.24 μm) and 26 (1.38 μm), and produce three sets (B5, B26 correction = on/on, on/off, and off/off) of Terra-MODIS Level 1B (calibrated radiance product) data. By comparing products derived from these corrected and uncorrected Terra MODIS Level 1B (L1B) calibrations, dozens of L3 atmosphere products are surveyed for changes caused by the corrections, and representative results are presented. Aerosol and water vapor products show only small local changes, while some cloud products can change locally by >10%, which is a large change.

  3. L-band tone-code-data transponder calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brisken, A. F.

    1977-01-01

    The objectives of this program were to identify and quantify factors which affect the performance of the L-band tone-code-data ranging transponders. Specific objectives included the following: (1) assemble the L-band ranging transponder, previously deployed in Hawaii for the tracking of the ATS-5 satellite, at the GE Radio-Optical Observatory; (2) configure the observatory to conduct calibration exercises with the transponder; and (3) conduct sufficient calibration experiments to demonstrate factors which degrade transponder accuracy, precision, and reliability, to quantify these factors where possible, and to verify long term transponder stability under controlled conditions.

  4. Mission history of reflective solar band calibration performance of VIIRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moy, G.; Rausch, K.; Haas, E.; Wilkinson, T.; Cardema, J.; De Luccia, F.

    2015-09-01

    Environmental Data Records (EDR) from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) have a need for Reflective Solar Band (RSB) calibration errors of less than 0.1%. Throughout the mission history of VIIRS, the overall instrument calibrated response scale factor (F factor) has been calculated with a manual process that uses data at least one week old and up to two weeks old until a new calibration Look Up Table (LUT) is put into operation. This one to two week lag routinely adds more than 0.1% calibration error. In this paper, we discuss trending the solar diffuser degradation (H factor), a key component of the F factor, improving H factor accuracy with improved bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) and attenuation screen LUTs , trending F factor, and how using RSB Automated Calibration (RSBAutoCal) will eliminate the lag and look-ahead extrapolation error.

  5. Cross-Track Infrared Sounder Science Data Record Pre-launch Calibration and On-Orbit Validation Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagan, D. E.; Bingham, G. E.; Predina, J.; Gu, D.; Sabet-Peyman, F.; Wang, C.; de Amici, G.; Plonski, M.; Farrow, S. V.; Hohn, J.; Esplin, M.; Zavyalov, V.; Fish, C. S.; Glumb, R.; Wells, S.; Suwinski, L.; Strong, J.; Behrens, C.; Kilcoyne, H.; Feeley, J.; Kratz, G.; Tremblay, D. A.

    2009-12-01

    The Cross-Track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) together with the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder will provide retrievals of atmospheric moisture and temperature profiles for the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). The NPOESS is the next generation of low Earth orbiting weather and climate satellites managed by the tri-agency Integrated Program Office, which includes the Department of Commerce, Department of Defense and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The CrIS is a Fourier-transform Michelson interferometer covering the spectral range of 3.9 to 15.4 microns (650 to 2550 wavenumbers) developed by ITT under contract to Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems. The first deployment of the CrIS (Flight Model 1) is scheduled for 2010 on the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) satellite, an early instrument risk reduction component of the NPOESS mission. The analysis and data results from comprehensive TVAC testing of the CrIS FM1 sensor demonstrate a very accurate radiometric and spectral calibration system. We describe instrument performance parameters, and the end-to-end plans and analysis tools for on-orbit verification of sensor characteristics and validation of the SDR radiance products.

  6. Sensor-centric calibration and characterization of the VIIRS Ocean Color bands using Suomi NPP operational data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratt, P.

    2012-12-01

    Ocean color bands on VIIRS span the visible spectrum and include two NIR bands. There are sixteen detectors per band and two HAM (Half-angle mirror) sides giving a total of thirty two independent systems. For each scan, thirty two hundred pixels are collected and each has a fixed specific optical path and a dynamic position relative to the earth geoid. For a given calibration target where scene variation is minimized, sensor characteristics can be observed. This gives insight into the performance and calibration of the instrument from a sensor-centric perspective. Calibration of the blue bands is especially challenging since there are few blue targets on land. An ocean region called the South Pacific Gyre (SPG) was chosen for its known stability and large area to serve as a calibration target for this investigation. Thousands of pixels from every granule that views the SPG are collected daily through an automated system and tabulated along with the detector, HAM and scan position. These are then collated and organized in a sensor-centric set of tables. The data are then analyzed by slicing by each variable and then plotted in a number of ways over time. Trends in the data show that the VIIRS sensor is largely behaving as expected according to heritage data and also reveals weaknesses where additional characterization of the sensor is possible. This work by Northrop Grumman NPP CalVal Team is supporting the VIIRS on-orbit calibration and validation teams for the sensor and ocean color as well as providing scientists interested in performing ground truth with results that show which detectors and scan angles are the most reliable over time. This novel approach offers a comprehensive sensor-centric on-orbit characterization of the VIIRS instrument on the NASA Suomi NPP mission.

  7. Chasing the TIRS ghosts: calibrating the Landsat 8 thermal bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schott, John R.; Gerace, Aaron; Raqueno, Nina; Ientilucci, Emmett; Raqueno, Rolando; Lunsford, Allen W.

    2014-10-01

    The Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) on board Landsat 8 has exhibited a number of anomalous characteristics that have made it difficult to calibrate. These anomalies include differences in the radiometric appearance across the blackbody pre- and post-launch, variations in the cross calibration ratios between detectors that overlap on adjacent arrays (resulting in banding) and bias errors in the absolute calibration that can change spatially/temporally. Several updates to the TIRS calibration procedures were made in the months after launch to attempt to mitigate the impact of these anomalies on flat fielding (cosmetic removal of banding and striping) and mean level bias correction. As a result, banding and striping variations have been reduced but not eliminated and residual bias errors in band 10 should be less than 2 degrees for most targets but can be significantly more in some cases and are often larger in band 11. These corrections have all been essentially ad hoc without understanding or properly accounting for the source of the anomalies, which were, at the time unknown. This paper addresses the procedures that have been undertaken to; better characterize the nature of these anomalies, attempt to identify the source(s) of the anomalies, quantify the phenomenon responsible for them, and develop correction procedures to more effectively remove the impacts on the radiometric products. Our current understanding points to all of the anomalies being the result of internal reflections of energy from outside the target detector's field-of-view, and often outside the telescope field-of-view, onto the target detector. This paper discusses how various members of the Landsat calibration team discovered the clues that led to how; these "ghosts" were identified, they are now being characterized, and their impact can hopefully eventually be corrected. This includes use of lunar scans to generate initial maps of influence regions, use of long path overlap ratios to explore

  8. Using the Moon to evaluate the radiometric calibration performance of S-NPP VIIRS thermal emissive bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhipeng; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Efremova, Boryana V.; Chen, Hongda

    2014-09-01

    The Suomi-NPP VIIRS thermal emissive bands (TEB) are radiometrically calibrated on-orbit with reference to a blackbody (BB) operated at a nominal temperature of approximately 292.5 K. The quality of the calibration can be evaluated at other temperature ranges using independent thermal sources. The thermal properties of the lunar surface are extremely stable over time, making it a feasible target for the TEB calibration stability assessment for the space-borne sensors with regular lunar observations. VIIRS is scheduled to view the Moon on a nearly monthly basis at approximately the same phase angle since January 2012, before the cryo-cooler door was open and TEB started to collect data. In this paper, the brightness temperatures (BT) of the lunar surface retrieved using the calibration coefficients derived from the BB calibration are trended for VIIRS TEB to examine the calibration stability. The lunar surface temperature varies greatly with location and also oscillates seasonally with the solar illumination geometry. Radiance from many lunar locations saturates TEB detectors. Therefore, the trending must base on the regions of the Moon that do not saturate the detectors at any lunar observation event and thus their BT can be consistently retrieved. To achieve that, a temporally dynamic spatial mask is built for each detector to clip the locations of the Moon that may saturate the detector at any lunar event. Results show the radiometric calibration of all TEB detectors has been stable within 1 K range since being functional.

  9. Performance Demonstration of Miniature Phase Transition Cells in Microgravity as a Validation for their use in the Absolute Calibration of Temperature Sensors On-Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettersen, C.; Adler, D. P.; Best, F. A.; Aguilar, D. M.; Perepezko, J. H.

    2011-12-01

    The next generation of infrared remote sensing missions, including the climate benchmark missions, will require better absolute measurement accuracy than now available, and will most certainly rely on the emerging capability to fly SI traceable standards that provide irrefutable absolute measurement accuracy. As an example, instrumentation designed to measure spectrally resolved infrared radiances with an absolute brightness temperature error of better than 0.1 K will require high-emissivity (>0.999) calibration blackbodies requiring absolute temperature uncertainties of better than 0.045K (k=3). Key elements of an On-Orbit Absolute Radiance Standard (OARS) meeting these stringent requirements have been demonstrated in the laboratory at the University of Wisconsin and are undergoing further refinement under the NASA Instrument Incubator Program (IIP). In particular, the OARS has embedded thermistors that can be periodically calibrated on-orbit using the melt signatures of small quantities (<0.5g) of three reference materials - mercury, water, and gallium (providing calibration from 233K to 303K). One of the many tests to determine the readiness of this technology for on-orbit application is a demonstration of performance in microgravity. We present the details of a demonstration experiment to be conducted on the International Space Station later this year. The demonstration will use the configuration of the phase transition cells developed under our NASA IIP that has been tested extensively in the laboratory under simulated mission life cycle scenarios - these included vibration, thermal soaks, and deep cycling. The planned microgravity demonstration will compare melt signatures obtained pre-flight on the ground with those obtained on the ISS for three phase change materials (water, gallium-tin, and gallium). With a successful demonstration experiment the phase transition cells in a microgravity environment will have cleared the last hurdle before being ready for

  10. Assessment of MODIS on-orbit spatial performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Link, Daniel; Xiong, Xiaoxiong J.; Wang, Zhipeng

    2015-10-01

    The Terra and Aqua satellites are part of NASA's Earth Observing System and both satellites host a nearly-identical Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Of the 36 MODIS spectral bands mounted among four Focal Plane Assemblies (FPAs) two have a 250 meter spatial resolution at nadir. Five bands have a spatial resolution of 500 meters, while the remaining bands make observations at 1 kilometer resolution. MODIS is equipped with a suite of onboard calibrators to track on-orbit changes in key sensor performance parameters. The Spectro-Radiometric Calibration Assembly (SRCA) contains a calibration source that allows on-orbit assessment of MODIS spatial performance, providing information on current band-to-band registration (BBR), FPA-to-FPA registration (FFR), detector-to-detector registration (DDR), modulation transfer function (MTF), and instantaneous field-of-view (IFOV). In this paper, we present the methodology of the on-orbit spatial calibrations using SRCA and the results of these key spatial parameters. The MODIS spatial characteristics, measured on-orbit, are compared against design specifications and pre-launch measurements.

  11. Performance Demonstration of Miniature Phase Transition Cells in Microgravity as a Validation for their use in the Absolute Calibration of Temperature Sensors On-Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettersen, C.; Best, F. A.; Adler, D. P.; Aguilar, D. M.; Perepezko, J. H.

    2012-12-01

    The next generation of infrared remote sensing missions, including the climate benchmark missions, will require better absolute measurement accuracy than now available, and will most certainly rely on the emerging capability to fly SI traceable standards that provide irrefutable absolute measurement accuracy. As an example, instrumentation designed to measure spectrally resolved infrared radiances with an absolute brightness temperature error of better than 0.1 K will require high-emissivity (>0.999) calibration blackbodies requiring absolute temperature uncertainties of better than 0.045K (k=3). Key elements of an On-Orbit Absolute Radiance Standard (OARS) meeting these stringent requirements have been demonstrated in the laboratory at the University of Wisconsin and were further refined under the NASA Instrument Incubator Program (IIP). In particular, the OARS has imbedded thermistors that can be periodically calibrated on-orbit using the melt signatures of small quantities (<0.5g) of three reference materials - mercury, water, and gallium, providing calibration from 233K to 303K. One of the many tests to determine the readiness of this technology for on-orbit application is a demonstration of performance in microgravity to be conducted on the International Space Station (ISS). This demonstration will make use of an Experiment Support Package developed by Utah State Space Dynamics Laboratory to continuously run melt cycles on miniature phase change cells containing gallium, a gallium-tin eutectic, and water. The phase change cells will be mounted in a small aluminum block along with a thermistor temperature sensor. A thermoelectric cooler will be used to change the temperature of the block. The demonstration will use the configuration of the phase transition cells developed under our NASA IIP that has been tested extensively in the laboratory under simulated mission life cycle scenarios - these included vibration, thermal soaks, and deep cycling. Melt signatures

  12. Calibrated Landsat ETM+ nonthermal-band image mosaics of Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, the U.S. Agency for International Development and the U.S. Trade and Development Agency contracted with the U.S. Geological Survey to perform assessments of the natural resources within Afghanistan. The assessments concentrate on the resources that are related to the economic development of that country. Therefore, assessments were initiated in oil and gas, coal, mineral resources, water resources, and earthquake hazards. All of these assessments require geologic, structural, and topographic information throughout the country at a finer scale and better accuracy than that provided by the existing maps, which were published in the 1970s by the Russians and Germans. The very rugged terrain in Afghanistan, the large scale of these assessments, and the terrorist threat in Afghanistan indicated that the best approach to provide the preliminary assessments was to use remotely sensed, satellite image data, although this may also apply to subsequent phases of the assessments. Therefore, the first step in the assessment process was to produce satellite image mosaics of Afghanistan that would be useful for these assessments. This report discusses the production and characteristics of the fundamental satellite image databases produced for these assessments, which are calibrated image mosaics of all six Landsat nonthermal (reflected) bands.

  13. On-Orbit Performance of MODIS Solar Diffuser Stability Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Angal, Amit; Choi, Taeyoung; Sun, Jungiang; Johnson, Eric

    2014-01-01

    MODIS reflective solar bands (RSB) calibration is provided by an on-board solar diffuser (SD). On-orbit changes in the SD bi-directional reflectance factor (BRF) are tracked by a solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM). The SDSM consists of a solar integration sphere (SIS) with nine detectors covering wavelengths from 0.41 to 0.94 microns. It functions as a ratioing radiometer, making alternate observations of the sunlight through a fixed attenuation screen and the sunlight diffusely reflected from the SD during each scheduled SD/SDSM calibration event. Since launch, Terra and Aqua MODIS SD/SDSM systems have been operated regularly to support the RSB on-orbit calibration. This paper provides an overview of MODIS SDSM design functions, its operation and calibration strategies, and on-orbit performance. Changes in SDSM detector responses over time and their potential impact on tracking SD on-orbit degradation are examined. Also presented in this paper are lessons learned from MODIS SD/SDSM calibration system and improvements made to the VIIRS SD/SDSM system, including preliminary comparisons of MODIS and VIIRS SDSM on-orbit performance.

  14. On-orbit performance of MODIS solar diffuser stability monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong (Jack); Angal, Amit; Choi, Taeyoung; Sun, Junqiang; Johnson, Eric

    2012-09-01

    MODIS reflective solar bands (RSB) calibration is provided by an on-board solar diffuser (SD). On-orbit changes in the SD bi-directional reflectance factor (BRF) are tracked by a solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM). The SDSM consists of a solar integration sphere (SIS) with nine detectors covering wavelengths from 0.41 to 0.94 μm. It functions as a ratioing radiometer, making alternate observations of the sunlight through a fixed attenuation screen and the sunlight diffusely reflected from the SD during each scheduled SD/SDSM calibration event. Since launch, Terra and Aqua MODIS SD/SDSM systems have been operated regularly to support the RSB on-orbit calibration. This paper provides an overview of MODIS SDSM design functions, its operation and calibration strategies, and on-orbit performance. Changes in SDSM detector responses over time and their potential impact on tracking SD on-orbit degradation are examined. Also presented in this paper are lessons learned from MODIS SD/SDSM calibration system and improvements made to the VIIRS SD/SDSM system, including preliminary comparisons of MODIS and VIIRS SDSM on-orbit performance.

  15. 15 Years of Terra MODIS Instrument on-Orbit Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, X.; Salomonson, V.

    2014-12-01

    The first MODIS instrument, launched on-board the NASA EOS Terra spacecraft in December 1999, has successfully operated for nearly 15 years. MODIS observations have significantly contributed to the studies of many geophysical parameters of the earth's system and its changes over time. Dedicated effort made by the MODIS Characterization Support Team (MCST) to constantly monitor instrument operation, to calibrate changes in sensor response, to derive and update sensor calibration parameters, and to maintain and improve calibration algorithms has played an extremely important role to assure the quality of MODIS data products. MODIS was developed with overall improvements over its heritage sensors. Its observations are made in 36 spectral bands, covering wavelengths from visible to long-wave infrared. The reflective solar bands (1-19 and 26) are calibrated on-orbit by a solar diffuser (SD) panel and regularly scheduled lunar observations. The thermal emissive bands (20-25 and 27-36) calibration is referenced to an on-board blackbody (BB) source. On-orbit changes in the sensor spectral and spatial characteristics are tracked by a spectroradiometric calibration assembly (SRCA). This paper provides an overview of Terra MODIS on-orbit operation and calibration activities implemented from launch to present and the status of instrument health and functions. It demonstrates sensor on-orbit performance derived from its telemetry, on-board calibrators (OBC), and lunar observations. Also discussed in this paper are changes in sensor characteristics, corrections applied to maintain level 1B data quality, various challenging issues, and future improvements.

  16. GOES-R Space Environment In-Situ Suite: instruments overview, calibration results, and data processing algorithms, and expected on-orbit performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galica, G. E.; Dichter, B. K.; Tsui, S.; Golightly, M. J.; Lopate, C.; Connell, J. J.

    2016-05-01

    The space weather instruments (Space Environment In-Situ Suite - SEISS) on the soon to be launched, NOAA GOES-R series spacecraft offer significant space weather measurement performance advances over the previous GOES N-P series instruments. The specifications require that the instruments ensure proper operation under the most stressful high flux conditions corresponding to the largest solar particle event expected during the program, while maintaining high sensitivity at low flux levels. Since the performance of remote sensing instruments is sensitive to local space weather conditions, the SEISS data will be of be of use to a broad community of users. The SEISS suite comprises five individual sensors and a data processing unit: Magnetospheric Particle Sensor-Low (0.03-30 keV electrons and ions), Magnetospheric Particle Sensor-High (0.05-4 MeV electrons, 0.08-12 MeV protons), two Solar And Galactic Proton Sensors (1 to >500 MeV protons), and the Energetic Heavy ion Sensor (10-200 MeV for H, H to Fe with single element resolution). We present comparisons between the enhanced GOES-R instruments and the current GOES space weather measurement capabilities. We provide an overview of the sensor configurations and performance. Results of extensive sensor modeling with GEANT, FLUKA and SIMION are compared with calibration data measured over nearly the entire energy range of the instruments. Combination of the calibration results and model are used to calculate the geometric factors of the various energy channels. The calibrated geometric factors and typical and extreme space weather environments are used to calculate the expected on-orbit performance.

  17. Results and Lessons from a Decade of Terra MODIS On-Orbit Spectral Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, X.; Choi, T.; Che, N.; Wang, Z.; Dodd, J.

    2010-01-01

    Since its launch in December 1999, the NASA EOS Terra MODIS has successfully operated for more than a decade. MODIS makes observations in 36 spectral bands from visible (VIS) to longwave infrared (LWIR) and at three nadir spatial resolutions: 250m (2 bands), 500m (5 bands), and 1km (29 bands). In addition to its on-board calibrators designed for the radiometric calibration, MODIS was built with a unique device, called the spectro-radiometric calibration assembly (SRCA). It can be configured in three different modes: radiometric, spatial, and spectral. When it is operated in the spectral modes, the SRCA can monitor changes in Sensor spectral performance for the VIS and near-infrared (NIR) spectral bands. For more than 10 years, the SRCA operation has continued to provide valuable information for MODIS on-orbit spectral performance. This paper briefly describes SRCA on-orbit operation and calibration activities; it presents decade-long spectral characterization results for Terra MODIS VIS and NIR spectral bands in terms of chances in their center wavelengths (CW) and bandwidths (BW). It is shown that the SRCA on-orbit wavelength calibration capability remains satisfactory. For most spectral bands, the changes in CW and BW are less than 0.5 and 1 nm, respectively. Results and lessons from Terra MODIS on-orbit spectral characterization have and will continue to benefit its successor, Aqua MODIS, and other future missions.

  18. MTI Thermal Bands Calibration at Ivanpah Playa with a Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Villa-Aleman, E.

    2001-06-27

    The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) is currently calibrating the Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) satellite sponsored by the Department of Energy. The reflective bands of the MTI satellite are calibrated in desert playas such as Ivanpah Playa in the Nevada/California border. The five MTI thermal bands are calibrated with targets of known emissivity and temperature such as power plant heated lakes. In order to accomplish a full calibration at the desert playas, a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer was used to measure soil surface radiance and temperature during the satellite overpass. The results obtained with the mobile FTIR during the ground truth campaign at Ivanpah Playa will be presented.

  19. Calibration Adjustments to the MODIS Aqua Ocean Color Bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meister, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    After the end of the SeaWiFS mission in 2010 and the MERIS mission in 2012, the ocean color products of the MODIS on Aqua are the only remaining source to continue the ocean color climate data record until the VIIRS ocean color products become operational (expected for summer 2013). The MODIS on Aqua is well beyond its expected lifetime, and the calibration accuracy of the short wavelengths (412nm and 443nm) has deteriorated in recent years_ Initially, SeaWiFS data were used to improve the MODIS Aqua calibration, but this solution was not applicable after the end of the SeaWiFS mission_ In 2012, a new calibration methodology was applied by the MODIS calibration and support team using desert sites to improve the degradation trending_ This presentation presents further improvements to this new approach. The 2012 reprocessing of the MODIS Aqua ocean color products is based on the new methodology.

  20. Updated radiometric calibration for the Landsat-5 thematic mapper reflective bands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Helder, D.L.; Markham, B.L.; Thome, K.J.; Barsi, J.A.; Chander, G.; Malla, R.

    2008-01-01

    The Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) has been the workhorse of the Landsat system. Launched in 1984, it continues collecting data through the time frame of this paper. Thus, it provides an invaluable link to the past history of the land features of the Earth's surface, and it becomes imperative to provide an accurate radiometric calibration of the reflective bands to the user community. Previous calibration has been based on information obtained from prelaunch, the onboard calibrator, vicarious calibration attempts, and cross-calibration with Landsat-7. Currently, additional data sources are available to improve this calibration. Specifically, improvements in vicarious calibration methods and development of the use of pseudoinvariant sites for trending provide two additional independent calibration sources. The use of these additional estimates has resulted in a consistent calibration approach that ties together all of the available calibration data sources. Results from this analysis indicate a simple exponential, or a constant model may be used for all bands throughout the lifetime of Landsat-5 TM. Where previously time constants for the exponential models were approximately one year, the updated model has significantly longer time constants in bands 1-3. In contrast, bands 4, 5, and 7 are shown to be best modeled by a constant. The models proposed in this paper indicate calibration knowledge of 5% or better early in life, decreasing to nearly 2% later in life. These models have been implemented at the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) and are the default calibration used for all Landsat TM data now distributed through EROS. ?? 2008 IEEE.

  1. Optical design and system calibration for three-band spectral imaging system with interchangeable filters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The design and calibration of a three-band image acquisition system was reported. The prototype system developed in this research was a three-band spectral imaging system that acquired two visible (510 and 568 nm) images and a near-infrared (NIR) (800 nm) image simultaneously. The system was proto...

  2. On-Orbit Operation and Performance of MODIS Blackbody

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, X.; Chang, T.; Barnes, W.

    2009-01-01

    MODIS collects data in 36 spectral bands, including 20 reflective solar bands (RSB) and 16 thermal emissive bands (TES). The TEB on-orbit calibration is performed on a scan-by-scan basis using a quadratic algorithm that relates the detector response with the calibration radiance from the sensor on-board blackbody (BB). The calibration radiance is accurately determined each scan from the BB temperature measured using a set of 12 thermistors. The BB thermistors were calibrated pre-launch with traceability to the NIST temperature standard. Unlike many heritage sensors, the MODIS BB can be operated at a constant temperature or with the temperature continuously varying between instrument ambient (about 270K) and 315K. In this paper, we provide an overview of both Terra and Aqua MODIS on-board BB operations, functions, and on-orbit performance. We also examine the impact of key calibration parameters, such as BB emissivity and temperature (stability and gradient) determined from its thermistors, on the TEB calibration and Level I (LIB) data product uncertainty.

  3. Use of GPS TEC Maps for Calibrating Single Band VLBI Sessions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, David

    2010-01-01

    GPS TEC ionosphere maps were first applied to a series of K and Q band VLBA astrometry sessions to try to eliminate a declination bias in estimated source positions. Their usage has been expanded to calibrate X-band only VLBI observations as well. At K-band, approx.60% of the declination bias appears to be removed with the application of GPS ionosphere calibrations. At X-band however, it appears that up to 90% or more of the declination bias is removed, with a corresponding increase in RA and declination uncertainties of approx.0.5 mas. GPS ionosphere calibrations may be very useful for improving the estimated positions of the X-only and S-only sources in the VCS and RDV sessions.

  4. Radiometric calibration stability and inter-calibration of solar-band instruments in orbit using the moon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, T.C.

    2008-01-01

    With the increased emphasis on monitoring the Earth's climate from space, more stringent calibration requirements are being placed on the data products from remote sensing satellite instruments. Among these are stability over decade-length time scales and consistency across sensors and platforms. For radiometer instruments in the solar reflectance wavelength range (visible to shortwave infrared), maintaining calibration on orbit is difficult due to the lack of absolute radiometric standards suitable for flight use. The Moon presents a luminous source that can be viewed by all instruments in Earth orbit. Considered as a solar diffuser, the lunar surface is exceedingly stable. The chief difficulty with using the Moon is the strong variations in the Moon's brightness with illumination and viewing geometry. This mandates the use of a photometric model to compare lunar observations, either over time by the same instrument or between instruments. The U.S. Geological Survey in Flagstaff, Arizona, under NASA sponsorship, has developed a model for the lunar spectral irradiance that explicitly accounts for the effects of phase, the lunar librations, and the lunar surface reflectance properties. The model predicts variations in the Moon's brightness with precision ???1% over a continuous phase range from eclipse to the quarter lunar phases. Given a time series of Moon observations taken by an instrument, the geometric prediction capability of the lunar irradiance model enables sensor calibration stability with sub-percent per year precision. Cross-calibration of instruments with similar passbands can be achieved with precision comparable to the model precision. Although the Moon observations used for intercomparison can be widely separated in phase angle and/or time, SeaWiFS and MODIS have acquired lunar views closely spaced in time. These data provide an example to assess inter-calibration biases between these two instruments.

  5. MODIS Instrument Operation and Calibration Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, X.; Angal, A.; Madhavan, S.; Link, D.; Geng, X.; Wenny, B.; Wu, A.; Chen, H.; Salomonson, V.

    2014-01-01

    Terra and Aqua MODIS have successfully operated for over 14 and 12 years since their respective launches in 1999 and 2002. The MODIS on-orbit calibration is performed using a set of on-board calibrators, which include a solar diffuser for calibrating the reflective solar bands (RSB) and a blackbody for the thermal emissive bands (TEB). On-orbit changes in the sensor responses as well as key performance parameters are monitored using the measurements of these on-board calibrators. This paper provides an overview of MODIS on-orbit operation and calibration activities, and instrument long-term performance. It presents a brief summary of the calibration enhancements made in the latest MODIS data collection 6 (C6). Future improvements in the MODIS calibration and their potential applications to the S-NPP VIIRS are also discussed.

  6. NPP VIIRS early on-orbit geometric performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, Robert E.; Lin, Guoqing; Nishihama, Masahiro; Tewari, Krishna P.; Montano, Enrique

    2012-09-01

    The NASA/NOAA Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument on-board the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership satellite was launched in October 2011. Assessment of VIIRS' geometric performance includes measurements of the sensor's spatial response, band-to-band co-registration (BBR), and geolocation accuracy and precision. The instrument sensor (detector) spatial response is estimated by line spread functions (LSFs) in the scan and track directions. The LSFs are parameterized by dynamic field of view in the scan direction and instantaneous FOV in the track direction, modulation transfer function for the 16 moderate resolution bands (M-bands), and horizontal spatial resolution for the five imagery bands (I-bands). VIIRS BBR for the M and I bands is defined as the overlapped fractional area of angular pixel sizes from the corresponding detectors in a band pair, including nested I-bands into M-bands, and measured on-orbit using lunar and earth data. VIIRS geolocation accuracy and precision are affected by instrument parameters, ancillary data (i.e., ephemeris and attitude), and thermally induced pointing variations with respect to orbital position. These are being tracked by a ground control point matching program and corrected in geolocation parameter lookup tables in the ground data processing software. This on-orbit geometric performance assessment is an important aspect of the VIIRS sensor data record calibration and validation process. In this paper, we will discuss VIIRS' geometric performance based on the first seven-month of VIIRS' on-orbit earth and lunar data, and compare these results with the at-launch performance based on ground test data and numerical modeling results. Overall, VIIRS' on-orbit geometric performance is very good and matches the prelaunch performance, and is thus expected to meet the needs of both the long-term monitoring and operational communities.

  7. On-orbit spatial characterization of VIIRS using the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhipeng (Ben); Xiong, Xiaoxiong (Jack)

    2013-09-01

    The moon is a stable source for the on-orbit calibration of the space-borne sensors with regular lunar observation capability, such as MODIS on-board the Terra and Aqua satellites and VIIRS on-board the Suomi NPP satellite. The spectral bands of both sensors are located on multiple focal plane assemblies and spatially co-registered in both the along-scan and along-track directions. Any mis-registration, or the band-to-band registration (BBR) shift, can deteriorate the quality of the science products that are derived from the data of multiple spectral bands. In this paper, the VIIRS spatial performance, mainly focusing on its BBR, is characterized using its lunar observations via an algorithm developed and verified for MODIS. In this algorithm, the centroids of the lunar images of various bands are calculated and the BBR shift between bands is determined by differentiating these centroids. Results show that the on-orbit change of the BBR has been small for VIIRS reflective solar bands (RSB) since its launch in Oct. 2011. The modulation transfer function (MTF), a measure of the image sharpness of an optical system, is also derived for RSB from the same set of lunar images by an algorithm inherited from MODIS characterization. The VIIRS on-orbit MTF in the along-track direction is trended and shown to have been stable.

  8. A Self-Calibrating Multi-Band Region Growing Approach to Segmentation of Single and Multi-Band Images

    SciTech Connect

    Paglieroni, D W

    2002-12-20

    Image segmentation transforms pixel-level information from raw images to a higher level of abstraction in which related pixels are grouped into disjoint spatial regions. Such regions typically correspond to natural or man-made objects or structures, natural variations in land cover, etc. For many image interpretation tasks (such as land use assessment, automatic target cueing, defining relationships between objects, etc.), segmentation can be an important early step. Remotely sensed images (e.g., multi-spectral and hyperspectral images) often contain many spectral bands (i.e., multiple layers of 2D images). Multi-band images are important because they contain more information than single-band images. Objects or natural variations that are readily apparent in certain spectral bands may be invisible in 2D broadband images. In this paper, the classical region growing approach to image segmentation is generalized from single to multi-band images. While it is widely recognized that the quality of image segmentation is affected by which segmentation algorithm is used, this paper shows that algorithm parameter values can have an even more profound effect. A novel self-calibration framework is developed for automatically selecting parameter values that produce segmentations that most closely resemble a calibration edge map (derived separately using a simple edge detector). Although the framework is generic in the sense that it can imbed any core segmentation algorithm, this paper only demonstrates self-calibration with multi-band region growing. The framework is applied to a variety of AVIRIS image blocks at different spectral resolutions, in an effort to assess the impact of spectral resolution on segmentation quality. The image segmentations are assessed quantitatively, and it is shown that segmentation quality does not generally appear to be highly correlated with spectral resolution.

  9. A robust method for determining calibration coefficients for VIIRS reflective solar bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Qiang; McIntire, Jeffrey; Efremova, Boryana; Schwarting, Thomas; Oudrari, Hassan; Zeng, Jinan; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a robust method for determining the calibration coefficients in polynomial calibration equations, and discusses the corresponding calibration uncertainties. An attenuator method that takes into account all measurements with and without an attenuator screen was used to restrict the impact of the absolute calibration of the light source. The originally proposed procedure attempts to simultaneously determine all unknowns nonlinearly using polynomial curve fitting. The newly proposed method divides the task into two simpler parts. For example, in the case of a quadratic calibration equation, the first part becomes a quadratic equation solely for the transmittance of attenuator, which has an analytical solution using three or four sets of measurements. Additionally, it is straightforward to determine the median value and the standard deviation of the transmittance from the solutions using all combinations of measured data points. In conjunction, the second part becomes a linear fit, with the ratio of the zeroth-order to first-order calibration coefficients as the intercept and the ratio of the second-order to first-order calibration coefficients as the slope. These ratios are unaffected by the absolute calibration of the light source and are then used in the calibration equation to calculate the first-order calibration coefficient. How the new method works is straightforward to visualize, which makes its results easier to verify. This is demonstrated using measurements from the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) J1 Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) reflective solar bands (RSB) pre-launch testing.

  10. MODIS Radiometric Calibration and Uncertainty Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Chiang, Vincent; Sun, Junqiang; Wu, Aisheng

    2011-01-01

    Since launch, Terra and Aqua MODIS have collected more than II and 9 years of datasets for comprehensive studies of the Earth's land, ocean, and atmospheric properties. MODIS observations are made in 36 spectral bands: 20 reflective solar bands (RSB) and 16 thermal emissive bands (TEB). Compared to its heritage sensors, MODIS was developed with very stringent calibration and uncertainty requirements. As a result, MODIS was designed and built with a set of state of the art on-board calibrators (OBC), which allow key sensor performance parameters and on-orbit calibration coefficients to be monitored and updated if necessary. In terms of its calibration traceability, MODIS RSB calibration is reflectance based using an on-board solar diffuser (SD) and the TEB calibration is radiance based using an on-board blackbody (BB). In addition to on-orbit calibration coefficients derived from its OBC, calibration parameters determined from sensor pre-launch calibration and characterization are used in both the RSB and TEB calibration and retrieval algorithms. This paper provides a brief description of MODIS calibration methodologies and discusses details of its on-orbit calibration uncertainties. It assesses uncertainty contributions from individual components and differences between Terra and Aqua MODIS due to their design characteristics and on-orbit periormance. Also discussed in this paper is the use of MODIS LIB uncertainty index CUI) product.

  11. Radiometric calibration of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite reflective solar bands with robust characterizations and hybrid calibration coefficients.

    PubMed

    Sun, Junqiang; Wang, Menghua

    2015-11-01

    The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) is now entering its fourth year of in-orbit global environmental observation and is producing a wide range of scientific output. The ocean color products in particular require a level of accuracy from the reflective solar bands (RSBs) that is a magnitude higher than the specification. In this work, we present an updated and completed core calibration pipeline that achieves the best sensor data records (SDR) to date and helps the ocean color products to reach maturity. We review the core calibration methodology of the RSBs and describe each essential input, including the solar diffuser stability monitor, the solar diffuser (SD), and lunar calibrations. Their associated issues, along with the successful mitigation and improved results, are described and presented. In particular, we illuminate the inaccuracy suffered due to the evolving angular dependence in the degradation of the on-board SD that impacts the heart of the RSB calibration, but also show that lunar-based calibration instead provides the correct long-term baseline for the successful restoration of the core methodology. The new look-up tables, which combine the coefficients from the SD-based and lunar-based calibrations, produce the optimal result, with an estimated accuracy of ∼0.2%. This hybrid approach highlights significant progress in the VIIRS RSB calibration and marks a completion of the core calibration result upon which other physical impacts or scientific issues can then be more accurately examined. We demonstrate the significant improvement and its impact on the ocean color products by comparing the current official output to the newly generated result. Lastly, we point out that this hybrid calibration coefficients scheme is made possible by a VIIRS design and layout change over its predecessor, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, that allows both the SD and the moon to be viewed by the RSB at the same angle of incidence

  12. Third generation infrared system calibration using dual band thermoelectric thermal reference sources and test systems to calibrate uncooled IRFPAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finfrock, David K.; Kolander, William L.

    2008-04-01

    As dual band, 3rd generation FLIR systems progress from the research lab into the field, supporting technologies must also advance. This paper describes advances in Thermoelectric Thermal Reference Sources (TTRS) from single band (3 to 5 or 8 to 12 microns) to dual band in one assembly (3 to 5 and 8 to 12 microns). It will describe the optical, system, electrical, and mechanical parameters of dual band TTRS units. It provides IR system design engineers with the critical parameters of dual band TTRS units to aid in their design process. TTRS assemblies provide a temperature controllable radiometrically uniform surface. When viewed by theFLIR system detectors, the TTRS enables the system electronics to perform gain and offset calibration as well as DC restoration for each pixel's preamp Some of the parameters for 3rd Generation FLIR system TTRS units included in this paper will be: Emissivity of BB surfaces. Apparent thermal radiometric uniformity. How this is predicted and measured. Window material wavelength transmission (Hermetically sealed units only). TTRS emitter surface temperatures as a function of heat sink temperatures. Trade-off between uniformity, power consumption, and transient performance. Power consumption, Thermal interfaces and required heat sinking Types and accuracy of Temperature sensors mounted on emitter surface. Also included in this paper is a description of a Thermoelectric Black Body Test Apparatus that can be used to generate temperature coefficients needed to "burn" Proms for uncooled IRFPAs during their production and burn in processing.

  13. Applications of spectral band adjustment factors (SBAF) for cross-calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, Gyanesh

    2013-01-01

    To monitor land surface processes over a wide range of temporal and spatial scales, it is critical to have coordinated observations of the Earth's surface acquired from multiple spaceborne imaging sensors. However, an integrated global observation framework requires an understanding of how land surface processes are seen differently by various sensors. This is particularly true for sensors acquiring data in spectral bands whose relative spectral responses (RSRs) are not similar and thus may produce different results while observing the same target. The intrinsic offsets between two sensors caused by RSR mismatches can be compensated by using a spectral band adjustment factor (SBAF), which takes into account the spectral profile of the target and the RSR of the two sensors. The motivation of this work comes from the need to compensate the spectral response differences of multispectral sensors in order to provide a more accurate cross-calibration between the sensors. In this paper, radiometric cross-calibration of the Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) and the Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors was performed using near-simultaneous observations over the Libya 4 pseudoinvariant calibration site in the visible and near-infrared spectral range. The RSR differences of the analogous ETM+ and MODIS spectral bands provide the opportunity to explore, understand, quantify, and compensate for the measurement differences between these two sensors. The cross-calibration was initially performed by comparing the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectances between the two sensors over their lifetimes. The average percent differences in the long-term trends ranged from $-$5% to $+$6%. The RSR compensated ETM+ TOA reflectance (ETM+$^{ast}$) measurements were then found to agree with MODIS TOA reflectance to within 5% for all bands when Earth Observing-1 Hy- erion hyperspectral data were used to produce the SBAFs. These differences were later

  14. A Review of the Strategy for the Meteosat Solar Band Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, S. C.; Hewison, T.; Roebeling, R. A.

    2012-04-01

    One of the EUMETSAT missions is to operate European geostationary meteorological satellites. Up to now, 30 years of Meteosat observations in the visible and the infrared part of the spectrum have been retrieved and archived. These observations have been acquired first by the MVIRI instruments aboard Meteosat 2 to 7, and since 2004 by the SEVIRI radiometers on-board Meteosat 8 and 9. More data will come with Meteosat 10 and 11, and the future Meteosat Third Generation Flexible Combined Imager (MTG-FCI). During the course of the years, technology and data processing capabilities have improved significantly, leading to higher observation frequencies, pixel resolutions, and number of bands available in the visible part of the spectrum. Whereas MVIRI channels include only one broad solar band (ranging from 0.45 to 1μm), SEVIRI senses the Earth disc in four solar band channels (from a total of twelve channels), and the future FCI instrument will have eight solar band channels (from a total of sixteen channels). In order to support real-time, near real-time, and long-term applications such as climate monitoring, the definition of a framework for the operational calibration of the solar band channels is essential in order to ensure data quality and traceability to community agreed calibration references. This framework must integrate more and more stringent requirements on the calibration accuracy and on the long-term behaviour of the instruments. This paper describes the strategy adopted by EUMETSAT for the calibration of the solar band channels for the past, present and future geostationary imagers. This strategy includes the implementation of recommendations and standards as formulated by the Global Space-based Inter-Calibration System (GSICS) and QA4EO (a quality assurance framework for Earth Observation). We will present work done on the development of a vicarious calibration system that is based on the comparison between observed and modelled radiances over desert

  15. Adaptive digital calibration techniques for narrow band low-IF receivers with on-chip PLL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juan, Li; Huajiang, Zhang; Feng, Zhao; Zhiliang, Hong

    2009-06-01

    Digital calibration and control techniques for narrow band integrated low-IF receivers with on-chip frequency synthesizer are presented. The calibration and control system, which is adopted to ensure an achievable signal-to-noise ratio and bit error rate, consists of a digitally controlled, high resolution dB-linear automatic gain control (AGC), an inphase (I) and quadrature (Q) gain and phase mismatch calibration, and an automatic frequency calibration (AFC) of a wideband voltage-controlled oscillator in a PLL based frequency synthesizer. The calibration system has a low design complexity with little power and small die area. Simulation results show that the calibration system can enlarge the dynamic range to 72 dB and minimize the phase and amplitude imbalance between I and Q to 0.08° and 0.024 dB, respectively, which means the image rejection ratio is better than 60 dB. In addition, the calibration time of the AFC is 1.12 μs only with a reference clock of 100 MHz.

  16. Assessment of MODIS and VIIRS Solar Diffuser On-Orbit Degradation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Fulbright, Jon; Angal, Amit; Wang, Zhipeng; Geng, Xu; Butler, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Both MODIS and VIIRS instruments use a solar diffuser (SD) for their reflective solar bands (RSB) on-orbit calibration. On-orbit changes in SD bi-directional reflectance factor (BRF) are tracked by a solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM) using its alternate measurements of the sunlight reflected off the SD panel and direct sunlight through a fixed attenuation screen. The SDSM calibration data are collected by a number of filtered detectors, covering wavelengths from 0.41 to 0.94 micrometers. In this paper we describe briefly the Terra and Aqua MODIS and S-NPP VIIRS SDSM on-orbit operation and calibration activities and strategies, provide an overall assessment of their SDSM on-orbit performance, including wavelength-dependent changes in the SDSM detector responses and changes in their SD BRF, and discuss remaining challenging issues and their potential impact on RSB calibration quality. Due to different launch dates, operating configurations, and calibration frequencies, the Terra and Aqua MODIS and S-NPP VIIRS SD have experienced different amount of SD degradation. However, in general the shorter the wavelength, the larger is the SD on-orbit degradation. On the other hand, the larger changes in SDSM detector responses are observed at longer wavelengths in the near infrared (NIR).

  17. Assessment of MODIS and VIIRS solar diffuser on-orbit degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Fulbright, Jon; Angal, Amit; Wang, Zhipeng; Geng, Xu; Butler, Jim

    2015-09-01

    Both MODIS and VIIRS instruments use a solar diffuser (SD) for their reflective solar bands (RSB) on-orbit calibration. On-orbit changes in SD bi-directional reflectance factor (BRF) are tracked by a solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM) using its alternate measurements of the sunlight reflected off the SD panel and direct sunlight through a fixed attenuation screen. The SDSM calibration data are collected by a number of filtered detectors, covering wavelengths from 0.41 to 0.94μm. In this paper we describe briefly the Terra and Aqua MODIS and S-NPP VIIRS SDSM on-orbit operation and calibration activities and strategies, provide an overall assessment of their SDSM on-orbit performance, including wavelength-dependent changes in the SDSM detector responses and changes in their SD BRF, and discuss remaining challenging issues and their potential impact on RSB calibration quality. Due to different launch dates, operating configurations, and calibration frequencies, the Terra and Aqua MODIS and S-NPP VIIRS SD have experienced different amount of SD degradation. However, in general the shorter the wavelength, the larger is the SD on-orbit degradation. On the other hand, the larger changes in SDSM detector responses are observed at longer wavelengths in the near infrared (NIR).

  18. Recent progress of MODIS solar diffuser on-orbit degradation characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H.; Wang, Z.; Sun, J.; Angal, A.; Xiong, X.

    2012-09-01

    An on-board Solar Diffuser (SD) is used for the MODIS reflective solar bands (RSB) calibration. Its on-orbit bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) degradation is tracked using an on-board Solar Diffuser Stability Monitor (SDSM). The SDSM is a ratioing radiometer with nine detectors, covering wavelengths from 412 nm to 936 nm. During each scheduled SD calibration event, the SDSM makes alternate observations of the Sun and the sunlight reflected by the SD. To best match the SDSM detector signals from its Sun view and SD view, a fix attenuation screen is placed in its Sun view path. This paper provides a brief description of MODIS RSB on-orbit calibration and the use of its on-board SD and SDSM subsystem, including different approaches developed and used to track MODIS SD on-orbit degradation. It reports recent progress made to better characterize MODIS SD on-orbit degradation and to support MODIS Level 1B (L1B) calibration look-up table (LUT) updates for the upcoming collection 6 (C6) reprocessing. Results of both Terra and Aqua SD on-orbit degradation derived from newly improved SDSM Sun view screen vignetting function and response fitting strategy, and their impact on RSB calibration uncertainties are also presented.

  19. VIIRS Day-Night Band (DNB) calibration methods for improved uniformity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Stephen; Miller, Steven D.

    2014-10-01

    The Suomi-NPP VIIRS Day-Night Band (DNB) offers quantitative measurements of visible and near-infrared light over a dynamic range from full daylight to the dimmest nighttime scenes. This range presents a challenge to radiometric calibration, but the instrument has exceeded all of its absolute radiometric requirements. Nevertheless, striping and banding are still visible, day or night, but especially in low-light scenes. The causes may be cross talk, stray light or hysteresis in the data used for calibration. These issues combine to reduce the utility of these unique observations for gaining new insight on the nocturnal environment. This paper presents methods for improving gain and offset uniformity for both day and night scenes while maintaining absolute radiometric accuracy. We evaluate removal of fixed-pattern non-uniformity in dark scenes on a per orbit basis using three different techniques: i) tracking the darkest 25th percentile calibration sector signal; ii) taking the mean of filtered dark Earth-view scenes to determine offset; iii) minimizing correlated error for dark scenes within an aggregation zone. For gain uniformity we discuss some problems with the current calibration methods, and demonstrate a technique to minimize the correlated error between detectors and aggregation zones using the moment matching technique for moonlit scenes. A similar technique can be used for daytime and twilight scenes. An alternative cross-calibration technique between gain stages uses indirect illumination of solar diffuser view. The use of the space view and blackbody view for cross-calibration is also discussed. Histogram equalization is discussed for minimizing striping and banding. In all cases, data with stray light is filtered out to prevent contamination of the destriping process.

  20. Characterization and calibration of 8-channel E-band heterodyne radiometer system for SST-1 tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Siju, Varsha; Kumar, Dharmendra; Shukla, Praveena; Pathak, S. K.

    2014-05-15

    An 8-channel E-band heterodyne radiometer system (74–86 GHz) is designed, characterized, and calibrated to measure the radial electron temperature profile by measuring Electron Cyclotron Emission spectrum at SST-1 Tokamak. The developed radiometer has a noise equivalent temperature of 1 eV and sensitivity of 5 × 10{sup 9} V/W. In order to precisely measure the absolute value of electron temperature, a calibration measurement of the radiometer system is performed using hot-cold Dicke switch method, which confirms the system linearity.

  1. Radiometric calibration of a 100 cm sphere integrating source for VIIRS solar diffuser stability monitor bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Eugene D.; Murgai, Vijay; Menzel, Reinhard W.

    2012-09-01

    The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) sensor on the Joint Polar-orbiting Satellite System (JPSS) mission has a solar diffuser as a reflective band calibrator. Due to UV solarization of the solar diffuser, the Solar Diffuser Stability Monitor (SDSM) is on-board to track the reflectance change of the solar diffuser in visible to near IR wavelengths. A 100 cm Sphere Integrating Source (SIS) has been used to configure and test the SDSM on the ground since MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) programs. Recent upgrades of the radiance transfer and BRDF measurement instruments in Raytheon have enabled more spectral data and faster measurement time with comparable uncertainty to the previous methods. The SIS has a Radiance Monitor, which has been mainly used as a SIS real-time health checker. It has been observed that the Radiance Monitor response is sufficiently linear and stable thus the Radiance Monitor can be used as a calibrator for ground tests. This paper describes the upgraded SIS calibration instruments, and the changes in the calibration philosophy of the SIS for the SDSM bands.

  2. DSN 70-meter antenna X- and S-band calibration. Part 1: Gain measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richter, P. H.; Slobin, S. D.

    1989-01-01

    Aperture efficiency measurements made during 1988 on the three 70-m stations (DSS-14, DSS-43, and DSS-63) at X-band (8420 MHz) and S-band (2295 MHz) have been analyzed and reduced to yield best estimates of antenna gain versus elevation. The analysis has been carried out by fitting the gain data to a theoretical expression based on the Ruze formula. Newly derived flux density and source-size correction factors for the natural radio calibration sources used in the measurements have been used in the reduction of the data. Peak gains measured at the three stations were 74.18 (plus or minus 0.10) dBi at X-band, and 63.34 (plus or minus 0.03) dBi at S-band, with corresponding peak aperture efficiencies of 0.687 (plus or minus 0.015) and 0.762 (plus or minus 0.006), respectively. The values quoted assume no atmosphere is present, and the estimated absolute accuracy of the gain measurements is approximately plus or minus 0.2 dB at X-band and plus or minus 0.1 dB at S-band (1-sigma values).

  3. On-orbit calibration of the Special Sensor Ultraviolet Scanning Imager (SSUSI): a far-UV imaging spectrograph on DMSP F-16

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Daniel; Paxton, Larry J.; Humm, David C.; Wolven, Brian; Kil, Hyosub; Zhang, Yongliang; Ogorzalek, Bernard S.; Meng, Ching-I.

    2002-01-01

    The Special Sensor Ultraviolet Spectrographic Imager (SSUSI) is currently slated for launch on the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) F-16 in November 2001. This instrument consists of a scanning imaging spectrograph (SIS) whose field-of-view is scanned from horizon-to-horizon and a nadir-looking photometer system (NPS). It will provide operational information about the state of the atmosphere above 100 km. The unique problems incurred by the observational requirements (e.g. that we be able to make daytime and nighttime observations) and the design trade-offs needed to meet those requirements were strong drivers on calibration requirements. Those design trade-offs and the expectation that the instrument calibration will change appreciably in-flight have led to the requirement to perform a large instrument characterization in-flight using only natural sources. We focus, in this paper, on the flight characterization of the SSUSI instrument. This includes discussions of the stellar calibration approach for radiometric calibration, measurements of internally scattered light, sensitivity to the South Atlantic Anomaly, measurements of changing pulse height distributions, and measuring changing reflectivity of a nadir viewing scan mirror. In addition, the calibration of the NPS system using natural sources is addressed.

  4. Multitemporal Cross-Calibration of the Terra MODIS and Landsat 7 ETM+ Reflective Solar Bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angal, Amit; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Wu, Aisheng; Changler, Gyanesh; Choi, Taeyoyung

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a significant increase in the use of remotely sensed data to address global issues. With the open data policy, the data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) sensors have become a critical component of numerous applications. These two sensors have been operational for more than a decade, providing a rich archive of multispectral imagery for analysis of mutitemporal remote sensing data. This paper focuses on evaluating the radiometric calibration agreement between MODIS and ETM+ using the near-simultaneous and cloud-free image pairs over an African pseudo-invariant calibration site, Libya 4. To account for the combined uncertainties in the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance due to surface and atmospheric bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF), a semiempirical BRDF model was adopted to normalize the TOA reflectance to the same illumination and viewing geometry. In addition, the spectra from the Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) Hyperion were used to compute spectral corrections between the corresponding MODIS and ETM+ spectral bands. As EO-1 Hyperion scenes were not available for all MODIS and ETM+ data pairs, MODerate resolution atmospheric TRANsmission (MODTRAN) 5.0 simulations were also used to adjust for differences due to the presence or lack of absorption features in some of the bands. A MODIS split-window algorithm provides the atmospheric water vapor column abundance during the overpasses for the MODTRAN simulations. Additionally, the column atmospheric water vapor content during the overpass was retrieved using the MODIS precipitable water vapor product. After performing these adjustments, the radiometric cross-calibration of the two sensors was consistent to within 7%. Some drifts in the response of the bands are evident, with MODIS band 3 being the largest of about 6% over 10 years, a change that will be corrected in Collection 6 MODIS processing.

  5. NPP VIIRS Early On-Orbit Geometric Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, Robert E.; Lin, Guoqing; Nishihama, Masahiro; Tewari, Krishna; Montano, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    The NASA/NOAA Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument on-board the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite was launched in October, 2011. The instrument geometric performance includes sensor spatial response, band-to-band co-registration (BBR), and geolocation accuracy and precision. The geometric performance is an important aspect of sensor data record (SDR) calibration and validation. In this paper we will discuss geometric performance parameter characterization using the first seven-month of VIIRS' earth and lunar data, and compare with the at-launch performance using ground testing data and analysis of numerical modeling results as the first step in on-orbit geometric calibration and validation.

  6. Assessment of MODIS Reflected Solar Calibration Uncertainty

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Sun, Junqiang; Butler, James

    2011-01-01

    Determination of the calibration accuracy and traceability of a remote sensing instrument is a driving issue in the use of satellite data for calibration inter-comparisons and studying climate change. The Terra and Aqua MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments have successfully operated for more than 11 and 9 years, respectively. Twenty of the thirty six MODIS spectral bands are in the reflected solar region with center wavelengths ranging from 0.41 to 2.2 microns. MODIS reflective solar band (RSB) on-orbit calibration is reflectance based through the use of an on-board solar diffuser (SO). The calibration uncertainty requirements are +/-2.0% for the RSB reflectance factors at sensor specified typical scene reflectances or radiances. The SO bi-directional reflectance factor (BRF) was characterized pre-launch and its on-orbit changes are tracked by an on-board solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM). This paper provides an assessment of MODIS RSB on-orbit calibration traceability and uncertainty for its Level 1B (L1B) reflectance factors. It examines in details each of the uncertainty contributors, including those from pre-launch measurements as well as on-orbit observations. Common challenging issues and differences due to individual sensors' specific characteristics and on-orbit performance are also discussed in this paper. Guidance and recommendations are presented, based on lessons from MODIS RSB calibration uncertainty assessment, for the development of future instrument calibration and validation plans.

  7. Sensor Correction and Radiometric Calibration of a 6-BAND Multispectral Imaging Sensor for Uav Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelcey, J.; Lucieer, A.

    2012-07-01

    The increased availability of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has resulted in their frequent adoption for a growing range of remote sensing tasks which include precision agriculture, vegetation surveying and fine-scale topographic mapping. The development and utilisation of UAV platforms requires broad technical skills covering the three major facets of remote sensing: data acquisition, data post-processing, and image analysis. In this study, UAV image data acquired by a miniature 6-band multispectral imaging sensor was corrected and calibrated using practical image-based data post-processing techniques. Data correction techniques included dark offset subtraction to reduce sensor noise, flat-field derived per-pixel look-up-tables to correct vignetting, and implementation of the Brown- Conrady model to correct lens distortion. Radiometric calibration was conducted with an image-based empirical line model using pseudo-invariant features (PIFs). Sensor corrections and radiometric calibration improve the quality of the data, aiding quantitative analysis and generating consistency with other calibrated datasets.

  8. Preliminary assessment of Suomi-NPP VIIRS on-orbit radiometric performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oudrari, Hassan; McIntire, Jeff; Moyer, David; Chiang, Kwofu; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Butler, James

    2012-09-01

    The Visible-Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) is a key instrument on-board the Suomi National Polarorbiting Partnership (NPP) spacecraft that was launched on October 28th 2011. VIIRS was designed to provide moderate and imaging resolution of the planet Earth twice daily. It is a wide-swath (3,040 km) cross-track scanning radiometer with spatial resolutions of 375 m and 750 m at nadir for imaging and moderate bands, respectively. It has 22 spectral bands covering the spectrum between 0.4 μm and 12.5 μm, including 14 reflective solar bands (RSB), 7 thermal emissive bands (TEB), and 1 day-night band (DNB). VIIRS observations are used to generate 22 environmental data record (EDRs). This paper will briefly describe NPP VIIRS calibration strategies performed by the independent government team, for the initial on-orbit Intensive Calibration and Validation (ICV) activities. In addition, this paper will provide an early assessment of the sensor on-orbit radiometric performance, such as the sensor signal to noise ratios (SNRs), dual gain transition verification, dynamic range and linearity, reflective bands calibration based on the solar diffuser (SD) and solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM), emissive bands calibration based on the on-board blackbody calibration (OBC), and cross-comparison with MODIS. A comprehensive set of performance metrics generated during the pre-launch testing program will be compared to VIIRS early on-orbit performance, and a plan for future cal/val activities and performance enhancements will be presented.

  9. Preliminary Assessment of Suomi-NPP VIIRS On-orbit Radiometric Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oudrari, Hassan; DeLuccia, Frank; McIntire, Jeff; Moyer, David; Chiang, Vincent; Xiong, Xiao-xiong; Butler, James

    2012-01-01

    The Visible-Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) is a key instrument on-board the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) spacecraft that was launched on October 28th 2011. VIIRS was designed to provide moderate and imaging resolution of most of the globe twice daily. It is a wide-swath (3,040 km) cross-track scanning radiometer with spatial resolutions of 370.and 740 m at nadir for imaging and moderate bands, respectively. It has 22 spectral bands covering the spectrum between 0.412 11m and 12.01 11m, including 14 reflective solar bands (RSB), 7 thermal emissive bands (TEB), and 1 day-night band (ON B). VIIRS observations are used to generate 22 environmental data products (EORs). This paper will briefly describe NPP VIIRS calibration strategies performed by the independent government team, for the initial on-orbit Intensive Calibration and Validation (ICV) activities. In addition, this paper will provide an early assessment of the sensor on-orbit radiometric performance, such as the sensor signal to noise ratios (SNRs), dual gain transition verification, dynamic range and linearity, reflective bands calibration based on the solar diffuser (SO) and solar diffuser stability monitor (SOSM), and emissive bands calibration based on the on-board blackbody calibration (OBC). A comprehensive set of performance metrics generated during the pre-launch testing program will be compared to VIIRS on-orbit early performance, and a plan for future cal/val activities and performance enhancements will be presented.

  10. On-Orbit Spatial Characterization of MODIS with ASTER Aboard the Terra Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xie, Yong; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2011-01-01

    This letter presents a novel approach for on-orbit characterization of MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) band-to-band registration (BBR) using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) aboard the Terra spacecraft. The spatial resolution of ASTER spectral bands is much higher than that of MODIS, making it feasible to characterize MODIS on-orbit BBR using their simultaneous observations. The ground target selected for on-orbit MODIS BBR characterization in this letter is a water body, which is a uniform scene with high signal contrast relative to its neighbor areas. A key step of this approach is to accurately localize the measurements of each MODIS band in an ASTER measurement plane coordinate (AMPC). The ASTER measurements are first interpolated and aggregated to simulate the measurements of each MODIS band. The best measurement match between ASTER and each MODIS band is obtained when the measurement difference reaches its weighted minimum. The position of each MODIS band in the AMPC is then used to calculate the BBR. The results are compared with those derived from MODIS onboard Spectro-Radiometric Calibration Assembly. They are in good agreement, generally less than 0.1 MODIS pixel. This approach is useful for other sensors without onboard spatial characterization capability. Index Terms Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), band-to-band registration (BBR), MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), spatial characterization.

  11. GEOS-C C-band transponder prelaunch calibration and test data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selser, A. R.

    1976-01-01

    The delay characteristics and spacecraft telemetry housekeeping data for the GEOS-C C-Band transponders are presented. The data are presented in graphical form to provide a convenient method for computing radar range measurement corrections as a function of signal strength at the transponder and spacecraft environment. The data are also presented in tabular form along with the mathematical models used to derive the curves. Also included are a list of the operating characteristics of each transponder and a description of the calibration test equipment set-up.

  12. Radiometric calibration of DMSP-OLS sensor using VIIRS day/night band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Xi; Cao, Changyong; Zhang, Bin; Qiu, Shi; Elvidge, Christopher; Von Hendy, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS) has been collecting global night light imaging data for more than 40 years. With the launch of Suomi-NPP satellite in 2011, the Day/Night Band (DNB) of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) represents a major advancement in night time imaging capabilities because it surpasses DMSP-OLS in having broader radiometric measurement range, more accurate radiometric calibration, finer spatial resolution, and better geometric quality. DMSP-OLS sensor does not have on-board calibration and data is recorded as digital number (DN). Therefore, VIIRS-DNB provides opportunities to perform quantitative radiometric calibration of DMSP-OLS sensor. In this paper, vicarious radiometric calibration of DMSP-OLS at night under lunar illumination is performed. Events were selected when satellite flies above Dome C in Antarctic at night and the moon illuminates the site with lunar phase being more than quarter moon. Additional event selection criteria to limit solar and lunar zenith angle range have been applied to ensure no influence of stray light effects and adequate lunar illumination. The data from DMSP-OLS and VIIRS-DNB were analyzed to derive the characteristic radiance or DN for the region of interest. The scaling coefficient for converting DMSP-OLS DN values into radiance is determined to optimally merge the observation of DMSP-OLS into VIIRS-DNB radiance data as a function of lunar phases. Calibrating the nighttime light data collected by the DMSP-OLS sensors into radiance unit can enable applications of using both sensor data and advance the applications of night time imagery data.

  13. Characterization of MODIS and SeaWiFS solar diffuser on-orbit degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, X.; Eplee, R. E., Jr.; Sun, J.; Patt, F. S.; Angal, A.; McClain, C. R.

    2009-08-01

    MODIS has 20 reflective solar bands (RSB), covering the VIS, NIR, and SWIR spectral regions. They are calibrated on-orbit using a solar diffuser (SD) panel, made of space-grade Spectralon. The SD bi-directional reflectance factor (BRF) was characterized pre-launch by the instrument vendor with reference to the NIST reflectance standard. Its on-orbit degradation is tracked by an on-board solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM). The SeaWiFS on-orbit calibration strategy uses monthly lunar observations to monitor the long-term radiometric stability of the instrument and applies daily observations of its solar diffuser (an aluminum plate coated with YB71 paint) to track the short-term changes in the instrument response. This paper provides an overview of MODIS and SeaWiFS SD observations, applications, and approaches used to track their on-orbit degradations. Results from both sensors are presented with emphasis on the spectral dependence and temporal trends of the SD degradation. Lessons and challenges from the use of SD for sensor on-orbit calibration are also discussed.

  14. Characterization of MODIS and SeaWiFS Solar Diffuser On-Orbit Degradation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, X.; Eplee, R. E., Jr.; Sun, J.; Patt, F. S.; Angal, A.; McClain, C. R.

    2009-01-01

    MODIS has 20 reflective solar bands (RSB), covering the VIS, NIR, and SWIR spectral regions. They are calibrated on-orbit using a solar diffuser (SD) panel, made of space-grade Spectralon. The SD bi-directional reflectance factor (BRF) was characterized pre-launch by the instrument vendor reference to the NIST reflectance standard. Its on-orbit degradation is tracked by an on-board solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM). The SeaWifS on-orbit calibration strategy uses monthly lunar observations to monitor the long-term radiometric stability of the instrument and applies daily observations of its solar diffuser (an aluminum plate coated with YB71 paint) to track the short-term changes in the instrument response. This paper provides an overview of MODIS and SeaWiFS SD observations, applications, and approaches used to track their on-orbit degradations. Results from sensors are presented with emphasis on the spectral dependence and temporal trends of the SD degradation. Lessons and challenges from the use of SD for sensor on-orbit calibration are also discussed.

  15. Broad band X-ray telescope (BBXRT) displacement monitor system (DMS) testing and calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagopian, John G.; Northcutt, William

    1989-01-01

    NASA's shuttle-borne Broad Band X-Ray Telescope (BBXRT) consists of two glancing incidence imaging mirror assemblies mounted on an optical bench which is bolted to the primary structure of the instrument. The X-ray detectors are located in the focal plane of the mirror assemblies approximately 3.5 meters away. It is desirable to monitor the relative alignment of these components throughout ground testing, and to determine the magnitude of launch or thermally induced perturbations to the alignment during flight. The Displacement Monitor System (DMS) was designed to accomplish this task. This paper describes the design of the DMS, the development and optimization of the DMS calibration facility, and the characterization of the system. The characterization of the DMS includes environmental qualification, displacement vs output calibration over the operating temperature range, a detailed error analysis, and the generation of a calibration polynomial which utilizes DMS detector output and thermocouple data to optimize system performance. The DMS accuracy exceeded the requirements of a 15 arc second limit of error, and passed the stringent environmental tests. As such, the DMS is one of the first flight qualified displacement monitor systems with this accuracy to be flown in space.

  16. Status of Terra and Aqua MODIS Instrument Operation and Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, X.; Wenny, B. N.; Sun, J.; Angal, A.; Salomonson, V. V.

    2013-12-01

    Terra and Aqua MODIS have successfully operated for more than 13 and 11 years since their respective launches in 1999 and 2002. Nearly 40 data products, developed for studies of the earth's land, ocean, and atmosphere, have been routinely generated from calibrated and geo-located MODIS observations and widely distributed to the science and user community. MODIS on-orbit calibration is performed by a set of on-board calibrators, which include a solar diffuser for the reflective solar bands calibration and a blackbody for the thermal emissive bands calibration. MODIS on-board calibrators are regularly operated to monitor on-orbit changes in sensor responses and key performance parameters, such as radiometric calibration coefficients. Since launch, extensive instrument calibration and characterization activities have been scheduled and executed by the MODIS Characterization Support Team (MCST). This presentation provides an overview of both Terra and Aqua MODIS instrument status, their on-orbit operation and calibration activities, and overall long-term performance. It reports calibration improvements (algorithms and look-up tables) made in the latest MODIS data collection (C6). Lessons learned from both Terra and Aqua MODIS and their applications to the S-NPP VIIRS on-orbit calibration are also discussed.

  17. Assess Calibration Consistency of MODIS and AVHRR Thermal Infrared Bands Using SNO Observations Corrected for Atmospheric Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Aisheng; Xie, Yong; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Chu, I-Wen

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring environmental changes from space requires extremely well-calibrated observations to achieve the necessary high accuracy and stability. The calibration differences between the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) thermal bands provide a valuable quality assessment of the instrument performance. This letter compares the calibration differences between the Aqua MODIS and NOAA-18 AVHRR bands at 11.0 and 12.0 /Lm using simultaneous nadir overpass observations obtained in nearly parallel orbits. Impacts due to the relative spectral-response differences between the two sensors are estimated by MODTRAN simulations with real-time atmospheric profiles of temperature, water vapor, atmospheric pressure and ozone, and surface skin temperatures. Results show that the temperature difference after the removal of atmospheric impacts is within 0.30 K (or 0.40% in radiance) across the effective calibration range (or the 1l.0 l'm band/channel. For the 12.0 pm band, the differences are OAO K (or 0.50%) at the typical radiance and up to 0.70 K (or 0.90%) close to the maximum radiance, indicating an excellent calibration consistency between MODIS and AVHRR for both bands.

  18. AN EMPIRICAL CALIBRATION TO ESTIMATE COOL DWARF FUNDAMENTAL PARAMETERS FROM H-BAND SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, Elisabeth R.; Charbonneau, David; Irwin, Jonathan; Mann, Andrew W.

    2015-02-20

    Interferometric radius measurements provide a direct probe of the fundamental parameters of M dwarfs. However, interferometry is within reach for only a limited sample of nearby, bright stars. We use interferometrically measured radii, bolometric luminosities, and effective temperatures to develop new empirical calibrations based on low-resolution, near-infrared spectra. We find that H-band Mg and Al spectral features are good tracers of stellar properties, and derive functions that relate effective temperature, radius, and log luminosity to these features. The standard deviations in the residuals of our best fits are, respectively, 73 K, 0.027 R {sub ☉}, and 0.049 dex (an 11% error on luminosity). Our calibrations are valid from mid K to mid M dwarf stars, roughly corresponding to temperatures between 3100 and 4800 K. We apply our H-band relationships to M dwarfs targeted by the MEarth transiting planet survey and to the cool Kepler Objects of Interest (KOIs). We present spectral measurements and estimated stellar parameters for these stars. Parallaxes are also available for many of the MEarth targets, allowing us to independently validate our calibrations by demonstrating a clear relationship between our inferred parameters and the stars' absolute K magnitudes. We identify objects with magnitudes that are too bright for their inferred luminosities as candidate multiple systems. We also use our estimated luminosities to address the applicability of near-infrared metallicity calibrations to mid and late M dwarfs. The temperatures we infer for the KOIs agree remarkably well with those from the literature; however, our stellar radii are systematically larger than those presented in previous works that derive radii from model isochrones. This results in a mean planet radius that is 15% larger than one would infer using the stellar properties from recent catalogs. Our results confirm the derived parameters from previous in-depth studies of KOIs 961 (Kepler-42

  19. FPGA-based data processing module design of on-board radiometric calibration in visible/near infrared bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Guoqing; Li, Chenyang; Yue, Tao; Liu, Na; Jiang, Linjun; Sun, Yue; Li, Mingyan

    2015-12-01

    FPGA technology has long been applied to on-board radiometric calibration data processing however the integration of FPGA program is not good enough. For example, some sensors compressed remote sensing images and transferred to ground station to calculate the calibration coefficients. It will affect the timeliness of on-board radiometric calibration. This paper designs an integrated flow chart of on-board radiometric calibration. Building FPGA-based radiometric calibration data processing modules uses system generator. Thesis focuses on analyzing the calculation accuracy of FPGA-based two-point method and verifies the feasibility of this method. Calibration data was acquired by hardware platform which was built using integrating sphere, CMOS camera (canon 60d), ASD spectrometers and light filter (center wavelength: 690nm, bandwidth: 45nm). The platform can simulate single-band on-board radiometric calibration data acquisition in visible/near infrared band. Making an experiment of calibration coefficients calculation uses obtained data and FPGA modules. Experimental results show that: the camera linearity is above 99% meeting the experimental requirement. Compares with MATLAB the calculation accuracy of two-point method by FPGA are as follows: the error of gain value is 0.0053%; the error of offset value is 0.00038719%. Those results meet experimental accuracy requirement.

  20. Suomi-NPP VIIRS day/night band calibration with stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulbright, Jon P.; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2015-09-01

    Observations of stars can be used to calibrate the radiometric performance of the Day/Night Band (DNB) of the Suomi-NPP instrument VIIRS. Bright stars are normally visible in the Space View window. In this paper, we describe several potential applications of stellar observations with preliminary results for several. These applications include routine trending of the gain of the highand mid-gain stages of the DNB and trending the gain ratio between those stages. Many of the stars observed by the VIIRS DNB have absolute flux curves available, allowing for an absolute calibration. Additionally, stars are visible during scheduled lunar roll observations. The electronic sector rotations applied during the scheduled lunar observations greatly increases the sky area recorded for a brief period, increasing the observing opportunities. Additionally, the DNB recorded data during the spacecraft pitch maneuver. This means the deep sky was viewed through the full Earth View. In this situation, thousands of stars (and the planet Mars) are recorded over a very short time period and over all aggregation zones. A possible application would be to create a gain curve by comparing the instrument response to the known apparent stellar brightness for a large number of stars of similar spectral shape. Finally, the DNB is especially affected the mirror degradation afflicting VIIRS. The degradation has shifted peak of the relative spectral response (RSR) of the DNB the blue and the effective band pass has been slightly reduced. The change in response for hot stars (effective temperatures of over 30,000 K) due to this degradation will differ by about 10 percent from the response change of cool stars (below 3500 K).

  1. Calibration/Validation of S-NPP/VIIRS Day-Night Band using Moon Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, X.; Cao, C.; Uprety, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Day Night Band (DNB) of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) onboard S-NPP represents a major advancement in night time imaging capabilities. The DNB of the VIIRS sensor utilizes a backside-illuminated charge coupled device (CCD) focal plane array (FPA) for sensing of radiances spanning 7 orders of magnitude in one panchromatic (0.5-0.9 μm) reflective solar band (RSB). In order to cover this extremely broad measurement range, the DNB employs four imaging arrays that comprise three gain stages. The low gain stage (LGS) gain values are determined by solar diffuser data. In operations, the medium and high gain stage values are determined by multiplying the LGS gains by the medium gain stage (MGS)/LGS and high gain stage (HGS)/LGS gain ratios, respectively. In this study, we demonstrate the radiometric calibration of DNB using moon light. This is performed by selecting events when S-NPP flies above the vicarious sites such as Dome C in Antarctic and Greenland in northern hemisphere at night and the moon illuminates the site with lunar phase being more than half moon. This helps to independently verify the radiometric accuracy of HGS of DNB. The calibration of DNB is performed using a lunar spectral irradiance model as a function of Sun-Earth-Moon distances and lunar phase to determine the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance at vicarious sites. Analysis of the vicariously-derived reflectance from DNB observations show general agreement with the reflectance derived from Hyperion observations of the vicarious sites. The stability of DNB is further verified from reflectance derived from observation of deep convective cloud with lunar illumination.

  2. An Analytical Calibration Approach for the Polarimetric Airborne C Band Radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pham, Hanh; Kim, Edward J.

    2004-01-01

    Passive microwave remote sensing is sensitive to the quantity and distribution of water in soil and vegetation. During summer 2000, the Microwave Geophysics Group a t the University of Michigan conducted the seventh Radiobrighness Energy Balance Experiment (REBEX-7) over a corn canopy in Michigan. Long time series of brightness temperatures, soil moisture and micrometeorology on the plot were taken. This paper addresses the calibration of the NASA GSFC polarimetric airborne C band microwave radiometer (ACMR) that participated in REBEX-7. These passive polarimeters are typically calibrated using an end-to-end approach based upon a standard artificial target or a well-known geophysical target. Analyzing the major internal functional subsystems offers a different perspective. The primary goal of this approach is to provide a transfer function that not only describes the system in its entire5 but also accounts for the contributions of each subsystem toward the final modified Stokes parameters. This approach does not assume that the radiometric system is linear as it does not take polarization isolation for granted, and it also serves as a realistic instrument simulator, a useful tool for future designs. The ACMR architecture can be partitioned into functional subsystems. The characteristics of each subsystem was extensively measured and the estimated parameters were imported into the overall dosed form system model. Inversion of the model yields a calibration for the modeled Stokes parameters with uncertainties of 0.2 K for the V and H polarizations and 2.4 K for the 3rd and 4th parameters. Application to the full Stokes parameters over a senescent cornfield is presented.

  3. C-band station coordinate determination for the GEOS-C altimeter calibration area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krabill, W. B.; Klosko, S. M.

    1974-01-01

    Dynamical orbital techniques were employed to estimate the center-of-mass station coordinates of six C-band radars located in the designated primary GEOS-C radar altimeter calibration area. This work was performed in support of the planned GEOS-C mission (December, 1974 launch). The sites included Bermuda, Grand Turk, Antigua, Wallops Island (Virginia), and Merritt Island (Florida). Two sites were estimated independently at Wallops Island yielding better than 40 cm relative height recovery, with better than 10 cm and 1 m (relative) recovery for phi and gamma respectively. Error analysis and comparisons with other investigators indicate that better than 2 m relative recovery was achieved at all sites. The data used were exclusively that from the estimated sites and included 18 orbital arcs which were less than two orbital revolutions in length, having successive tracks over the area. The techniques employed here, given their independence of global tracking support, can be effectively employed to improve various geodetic datums by providing very long and accurate baselines. The C-band data taken on GEOS-C should be employed to improve such geodetic datums as the European-1950 using similar techniques.

  4. On-orbit characterization of a solar diffuser"s bidirectional reflectance factor using spacecraft maneuvers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Sun, Junqiang; Esposito, Joe; Liu, Xiaojin; Barnes, William L.; Guenther, B.

    2003-11-01

    The MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) uses an on-board solar diffuser (SD) panel made of Spectralon for the radiometric calibration of its 20 reflective solar bands (RSB). The spectral wavelengths of the RSB range from 0.41 to 2.1 micrometers. The on-orbit calibration coefficients are determined from the sensor s responses to the diffusely reflected solar illumination from the SD. This method requires an accurate pre-launch characterization of solar diffuser s bi-directional reflectance factors (BRF) that should cover the sensor s spectral range and illumination/viewing angles and accurate on-orbit monitoring of SD degradation over time. The MODIS SD panel s bi-directional reflectance factors were characterized prior to the sensor s final system integration (pre-launch by the instrument vendor using reference samples traceable to the NIST reflectance standards at a number of wavelengths and carefully selected combinations of the illumination/viewing angles. The measured BRF values were fitted into smooth surfaces and then interpolated for each of the MODIS reflective solar bands. In this paper, we describe an approach designed for the MODIS on-orbit characterization and validation of its SD BRF using multiple SD solar observations at several spacecraft yaw angels. This approach has been successfully applied to both the Terra and Aqua MODIS. This paper presents the algorithm used to derive the SD s relative BRF from observations during spacecraft yaws and compares the on-orbit results with corresponding pre-launch values.

  5. Initial Stability Assessment of S-NPP VIIRS Reflective Solar Band Calibration Using Invariant Desert and Deep Convective Cloud Targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatt, Rajendra; Doelling, David R.; Wu, Aisheng; Xiong, Xiaoxiong (Jack); Scarino, Benjamin R.; Haney, Conor O.; Gopalan, Arun

    2014-01-01

    The latest CERES FM-5 instrument launched onboard the S-NPP spacecraft will use the VIIRS visible radiances from the NASA Land Product Evaluation and Analysis Tool Elements (PEATE) product for retrieving the cloud properties associated with its TOA flux measurement. In order for CERES to provide climate quality TOA flux datasets, the retrieved cloud properties must be consistent throughout the record, which is dependent on the calibration stability of the VIIRS imager. This paper assesses the NASA calibration stability of the VIIRS reflective solar bands using the Libya-4 desert and deep convective clouds (DCC). The invariant targets are first evaluated for temporal natural variability. It is found for visible (VIS) bands that DCC targets have half of the variability of Libya-4. For the shortwave infrared (SWIR) bands, the desert has less variability. The brief VIIRS record and target variability inhibits high confidence in identifying any trends that are less than 0.6yr for most VIS bands, and 2.5yr for SWIR bands. None of the observed invariant target reflective solar band trends exceeded these trend thresholds. Initial assessment results show that the VIIRS data have been consistently calibrated and that the VIIRS instrument stability is similar to or better than the MODIS instrument.

  6. ASTER 15 years challenging trail on-orbit operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Masakuni; Sakuma, Fumihiro; Tatsumi, Kenji; Inada, Hitomi; Itou, Yoshiyuki; Akagi, Shigeki; Ono, Hidehiko

    2015-10-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is a high-resolution optical sensor system that can observe in a wide region from the visible and near-infrared, the short wavelength infrared to the thermal infrared with 14 spectral bands on board of NASA's Terra spacecraft for Earth Observing System (EOS) "A mission to planet earth." ASTER achieved 5 years mission success on orbit operation normally which is the specified target after launched on December, 1999. And after through 10 years continuous orbit operation, ASTER has still operating the long life observation of extra success to be 15 years in total on December, 2014. As for ASTER instrument that is composed of 3 radiometers; the Visible and Near Infrared Radiometer (VNIR) with 3 bands, the Short Wavelength Infrared Radiometer (SWIR) with 6 bands, the Thermal Infrared Radiometer (TIR) with 5 bands, overall ASTER long life data taken by 15 years onboard operation has been reviewed from the point of view of the health and safety check by Telemetry (TLM) data trend, the function and performance evaluation by observation data trend, the onboard calibration and verification by periodic Calibration(CAL) data trend. As a result, the radiometric degradation of VNIR and TIR and the temperature rise of SWIR detector were identified as significant challenges. The countermeasure plan towards the end of mission was clarified and also the novel lessons learned was verified.

  7. DOMEX-2 Ground-Based Antarctic L-Band Emission Measurements: a Contribution to Smos Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drinkwater, M. R.; Macelloni, G.; Brogioni, M.; Pettinato, S.

    2010-12-01

    In recent years, interest has grown in the remote sensing community for using the Antarctic ice sheet for calibrating and validating data from low-frequency satellite-borne microwave radiometers such as SMOS, Aquarius and SMAP. In particular, the East Antarctic Plateau Dome-C region around the Concordia Station appears to be particularly suited for this purpose. The specific characteristics of this region of interest are its size, structure, spatial homogeneity and thermal stability as well as frequent overpasses of these polar-orbiting satellites. In-situ measurements indicate that the roughness is limited with respect to other Antarctic areas and the temperature of the firn below 10 m remains stable on multiyear timescales. This attribute is particularly interesting for low-frequency microwave radiometers since, due to the low extinction of dry snow, the upper ice sheet layer is almost transparent and the brightness temperature (Tb) variability therefore predicted to be extremely small. At the year-round Italian-French base of Concordia ancillary data such as atmospheric parameters and snow temperature at different depths are routinely acquired as a basis for the analysis and the interpretation of satellite microwave data. Meanwhile, a first pilot experiment, called DOMEX-1 carried out an austral summer Antarctic campaign in November 2004- December 2005 to demonstrate the short-term brightness temperature stability at monthly scale. With the November 2009 launch of the European Space Agency’s SMOS satellite, a corresponding second experiment called DOMEX-2 was initiated in the Austral summer 2008-2009 with the goal to verify the assumption of year-round stability and suitability of the ice sheet as an external calibration reference target. The primary objectives of DOMEX-2 are to provide an independent source of stable reference data for SMOS satellite calibration and in particular: continuous acquisition of a calibrated time series of microwave (L-band) and

  8. ASTER TIR subsystem and calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohmae, Hirokazu

    1992-01-01

    Viewgraphs are given on the purpose of TIR, major functions, characteristics and design of various components, and calibration. The major functions are to acquire image data on the earth's surface in thermal infrared wavelength band, using mercury cadmium telluride (HgCdTe) detectors; to convert the obtained image data into the digital data to meet the Common Signal Processor (CSP) interface, and output the signals; pointing function in cross-track direction to get the wide swath of 232 km; and to calibrate the whole TIR with the blackbody on orbit, then the amplifier and subsequent transmission units are calibrated electrically.

  9. Vicarious calibration of S-NPP/VIIRS day-night band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Xi; Cao, Changyong; Uprety, Sirish

    2013-09-01

    The Day Night Band (DNB) of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) onboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite provides imagery of clouds and other Earth features over illumination levels ranging from full sunlight to quarter moon. In order to cover this extremely broad measurement range, the DNB employs four imaging arrays that comprise three gain stages. The low gain stage (LGS) gain values are determined by solar diffuser data. In operation, the medium and high gain stage values are determined by multiplying the LGS gains by the medium gain stage (MGS)/LGS and high gain stage (HGS)/LGS gain ratios, respectively. This paper demonstrates a scheme of using DNB observation of ground vicarious sites under lunar illumination at night to independently verify the radiometric accuracy of HGS of DNB. We performed vicarious calibration of DNB when S-NPP flies above the vicarious site such as Dome C in Antarctic and Greenland in northern hemisphere at night and the moon illuminates the site with lunar phase being more than half moon. Lunar spectral irradiance model as a function of Sun-Earth-Moon distances and lunar phase is used to assist the determination of top-of-atmosphere reflectance at the vicarious site. Analysis of the vicariously-derived reflectance from DNB observations show agreement with the reflectance derived from Hyperion observations of the vicarious sites.

  10. The Landsat Data Continuity Mission Operational Land Imager (OLI) Radiometric Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, Brian L.; Dabney, Philip W.; Murphy-Morris, Jeanine E.; Knight, Edward J.; Kvaran, Geir; Barsi, Julia A.

    2010-01-01

    The Operational Land Imager (OLI) on the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) has a comprehensive radiometric characterization and calibration program beginning with the instrument design, and extending through integration and test, on-orbit operations and science data processing. Key instrument design features for radiometric calibration include dual solar diffusers and multi-lamped on-board calibrators. The radiometric calibration transfer procedure from NIST standards has multiple checks on the radiometric scale throughout the process and uses a heliostat as part of the transfer to orbit of the radiometric calibration. On-orbit lunar imaging will be used to track the instruments stability and side slither maneuvers will be used in addition to the solar diffuser to flat field across the thousands of detectors per band. A Calibration Validation Team is continuously involved in the process from design to operations. This team uses an Image Assessment System (IAS), part of the ground system to characterize and calibrate the on-orbit data.

  11. Performance of the Thermal Infrared Sensor on-board Landsat 8 over the first year on-orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montanaro, Matthew; Barsi, Julia; Lunsford, Allen; Rohrbach, Scott; Markham, Brian

    2014-10-01

    The Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) has completed over one year in Earth orbit following its launch onboard Landsat 8 in February 2013. During that time, TIRS has undergone initial on-orbit checkout and commissioning and has transitioned to an operational Landsat payload obtaining 500+ Earth scenes a day. The instrument was radiometrically calibrated during pre-flight characterization testing. A relative adjustment was made to the calibration during the on-orbit checkout of the instrument based on data from the onboard calibration sources to account for instrument changes that occurred through launch. The accuracy of the relative and absolute radiometric calibration depends in part on the stability of the instrument response over time. To monitor stability, TIRS routinely views its onboard calibration sources, which include a variable temperature blackbody and a port that allows the instrument to view deep space. The onboard calibration is validated by in situ measurements of large water bodies by instrumented buoys. In addition, the spacecraft is periodically slewed to image the moon across the field of view of TIRS. The moon provides a high contrast source which allows for studies of stray light and ghosting to be performed. These on-orbit methods provide the means to characterize the TIRS instrument performance post-launch. Analyses of these datasets over the first year on orbit indicate that while, internally, the instrument itself is far exceeding the noise and stability requirements, both bands were mis-calibrated by at least 2K (@300K) and had higher than expected variability in the in situ validation data. This is likely due to stray light which is also causing banding in Earth scenes. An initial bias correction was made on February 2014 and various approaches are being explored to correct the ghosting issues associated with the stray light.

  12. Characterization of MODIS Solar Diffuser On-Orbit Degradation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, X.; Chen, H.; Wang, Z.; Sun, J.; Angal, A.

    2010-01-01

    MODIS reflective solar bands (RSB) are calibrated using a solar diffuser (SD). The SD on-orbit degradation is determined by a solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM) at 9 wavelengths from 0.41 to 0.94 microns via alternate observations of its sunlight reflected from the SD (SD view) and direct sunlight through an attenuation screen (Sun view). For each SDSM detector, a time series of ratios of its SD view to its Sun view responses tracks on-orbit changes in the SD bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) at its wavelength. Due to an SDSM component design error, however, there exist large ripples in its Sun view responses, which have made it extremely difficult to use the original ratio approach for accurate characterization of SD on-orbit degradation. In order to mitigate the impact due to unexpected ripples, MODIS Characterization Support Team (MCST) developed a normalization approach. It relies on the fact that all SDSM detectors (D1 to D9) experience similar ripples and assumes that the SD degradation at its D9 wavelength (0.94 micron) is extremely small and can be ignored. As mission continues, the normalization approach becomes inadequate since the accumulated SD degradation at 0.94[tm can no longer be ignored. This paper presents a new approach to further improve on-orbit characterization of SD degradation. It uses a took-up table (LUT) with parameters derived from D9 observations made over a short period. Compared to other approaches, this approach can significantly reduce the impact due to ripples and that due to accumulated SD degradation at the reference detector wavelength.

  13. Model atmospheres broad-band colors, bolometric corrections and temperature calibrations for O - M stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bessell, M. S.; Castelli, F.; Plez, B.

    1998-05-01

    Broad band colors and bolometric corrections in the Johnson-Cousins-Glass system (Bessell, 1990; Bessell & Brett, 1988) have been computed from synthetic spectra from new model atmospheres of Kurucz (1995a), Castelli (1997), Plez, Brett & Nordlund (1992), Plez (1995-97), and Brett (1995a,b). These atmospheres are representative of larger grids that are currently being completed. We discuss differences between the different grids and compare theoretical color-temperature relations and the fundamental color temperature relations derived from: (a) the infrared-flux method (IRFM) for A-K stars (Blackwell & Lynas-Gray 1994; Alonso et al. 1996) and M dwarfs (Tsuji et al. 1996a); (b) lunar occultations (Ridgway et al. 1980) and (c) Michelson interferometry (Di Benedetto & Rabbia 1987; Dyck et al. 1996; Perrin et al. 1997) for K-M giants, and (d) eclipsing binaries for M dwarfs. We also compare color - color relations and color - bolometric correction relations and find good agreement except for a few colors. The more realistic fluxes and spectra of the new model grids should enable accurate population synthesis models to be derived and permit the ready calibration of non-standard photometric passbands. As well, the theoretical bolometric corrections and temperature - color relations will permit reliable transformation from observed color magnitude diagrams to theoretical HR diagrams. Tables 1-6 are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

  14. A Catalog of 1.5273 um Diffuse Interstellar Bands Based on APOGEE Hot Telluric Calibrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elyajouri, M.; Monreal-Ibero, A.; Remy, Q.; Lallement, R.

    2016-08-01

    High resolution stellar spectroscopic surveys provide massive amounts of diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) measurements. Data can be used to study the distribution of the DIB carriers and those environmental conditions that favor their formation. In parallel, recent studies have also proved that DIBs extracted from stellar spectra constitute new tools for building the 3D structure of the Galactic interstellar medium (ISM). The amount of details on the structure depends directly on the quantity of available lines of sight. Therefore there is a need to construct databases of high-quality DIB measurements as large as possible. We aim at providing the community with a catalog of high-quality measurements of the 1.5273 μm DIB toward a large fraction of the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) hot stars observed to correct for the telluric absorption and not used for ISM studies so far. This catalog would complement the extensive database recently extracted from the APOGEE observations and used for 3D ISM mapping. We devised a method to fit the stellar continuum of the hot calibration stars and extracted the DIB from the normalized spectrum. Severe selection criteria based on the absorption characteristics are applied to the results. In particular limiting constraints on the DIB widths and Doppler shifts are deduced from the H i 21 cm measurements, following a new technique of decomposition of the emission spectra. From ∼16,000 available hot telluric spectra we have extracted ∼6700 DIB measurements and their associated uncertainties. The statistical properties of the extracted absorptions are examined and our selection criteria are shown to provide a robust dataset. The resulting catalog contains the DIB total equivalent widths, central wavelengths and widths. We briefly illustrate its potential use for the stellar and interstellar communities.

  15. A Catalog of 1.5273 um Diffuse Interstellar Bands Based on APOGEE Hot Telluric Calibrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elyajouri, M.; Monreal-Ibero, A.; Remy, Q.; Lallement, R.

    2016-08-01

    High resolution stellar spectroscopic surveys provide massive amounts of diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) measurements. Data can be used to study the distribution of the DIB carriers and those environmental conditions that favor their formation. In parallel, recent studies have also proved that DIBs extracted from stellar spectra constitute new tools for building the 3D structure of the Galactic interstellar medium (ISM). The amount of details on the structure depends directly on the quantity of available lines of sight. Therefore there is a need to construct databases of high-quality DIB measurements as large as possible. We aim at providing the community with a catalog of high-quality measurements of the 1.5273 μm DIB toward a large fraction of the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) hot stars observed to correct for the telluric absorption and not used for ISM studies so far. This catalog would complement the extensive database recently extracted from the APOGEE observations and used for 3D ISM mapping. We devised a method to fit the stellar continuum of the hot calibration stars and extracted the DIB from the normalized spectrum. Severe selection criteria based on the absorption characteristics are applied to the results. In particular limiting constraints on the DIB widths and Doppler shifts are deduced from the H i 21 cm measurements, following a new technique of decomposition of the emission spectra. From ˜16,000 available hot telluric spectra we have extracted ˜6700 DIB measurements and their associated uncertainties. The statistical properties of the extracted absorptions are examined and our selection criteria are shown to provide a robust dataset. The resulting catalog contains the DIB total equivalent widths, central wavelengths and widths. We briefly illustrate its potential use for the stellar and interstellar communities.

  16. Station to instrumented aircraft L-band telemetry system and RF signal controller for spacecraft simulations and station calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scaffidi, C. A.; Stocklin, F. J.; Feldman, M. B.

    1971-01-01

    An L-band telemetry system designed to provide the capability of near-real-time processing of calibration data is described. The system also provides the capability of performing computerized spacecraft simulations, with the aircraft as a data source, and evaluating the network response. The salient characteristics of a telemetry analysis and simulation program (TASP) are discussed, together with the results of TASP testing. The results of the L-band system testing have successfully demonstrated the capability of near-real-time processing of telemetry test data, the control of the ground-received signal to within + or - 0.5 db, and the computer generation of test signals.

  17. Development of two-band infrared radiometer for irradiance calibration of target simulators

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Sen; Li, Chengwei

    2015-07-15

    A detector-based spectral radiometer has been developed for the calibration of target simulator. Unlike the conventional spectral irradiance calibration method based on radiance and irradiance, the new radiometer is calibrated using image-space temperature based method. The image-space temperature based method improves the reproducibility in the calibration of radiometer and reduces the uncertainties existing in the conventional calibration methods. The calibrated radiometer is then used to establish the irradiance transfer standard for the target simulator. With the designed radiometer in this paper, a highly accurate irradiance calibration for target simulators of wavelength from 2.05 to 2.55 μm and from 3.7 to 4.8 μm can be performed with an expanded uncertainty (k = 2) of calibration of 2.18%. Last but not least, the infrared radiation of the target simulator was measured by the infrared radiometer, the effectiveness and capability of which are verified through measurement of temperature and irradiance and a comparison with the thermal imaging camera.

  18. Ka-Band Monopulse Antenna Pointing Calibration Using Wideband Radio Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buu, C.; Calvo, J.; Cheng, T.-H.; Vazquez, M.

    2010-08-01

    A new method of performing a system end-to-end monopulse antenna calibration using widely available wideband astronomical radio sources is presented as an alternative to the current method of using a spacecraft signal. Current monopulse calibration requires a spacecraft carrier signal to measure amplitude and phase differences in the monopulse feed and low-noise amplifiers (LNAs). The alternative method presented here will allow the ground station to perform monopulse calibrations during maintenance periods instead of spacecraft track time, and provide an end-to-end system check-out capability without requiring a spacecraft signal. In this article, we give an overview of the current calibration approach, describe a new method for calibrating with radio sources, and present results from field testing of this new method.

  19. Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunze, Hans-Joachim

    Commercial spectrographic systems are usually supplied with some wave-length calibration, but it is essential that the experimenter performs his own calibration for reliable measurements. A number of sources emitting well-known emission lines are available, and the best values of their wavelengths may be taken from data banks accessible on the internet. Data have been critically evaluated for many decades by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) of the USA [13], see also p. 3. Special data bases have been established by the astronomy and fusion communities (Appendix B).

  20. Relative spectral response corrected calibration inter-comparison of S-NPP VIIRS and Aqua MODIS thermal emissive bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efremova, Boryana; Wu, Aisheng; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2014-09-01

    The S-NPP Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument is built with strong heritage from EOS MODIS, and has very similar thermal emissive bands (TEB) calibration algorithm and on-board calibrating source - a V-grooved blackbody. The calibration of the two instruments can be assessed by comparing the brightness temperatures retrieved from VIIRS and Aqua MODIS simultaneous nadir observations (SNO) from their spectrally matched TEB. However, even though the VIIRS and MODIS bands are similar there are still relative spectral response (RSR) differences and thus some differences in the retrieved brightness temperatures are expected. The differences depend on both the type and the temperature of the observed scene, and contribute to the bias and the scatter of the comparison. In this paper we use S-NPP Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) data taken simultaneously with the VIIRS data to derive a correction for the slightly different spectral coverage of VIIRS and MODIS TEB bands. An attempt to correct for RSR differences is also made using MODTRAN models, computed with physical parameters appropriate for each scene, and compared to the value derived from actual CrIS spectra. After applying the CrIS-based correction for RSR differences we see an excellent agreement between the VIIRS and Aqua MODIS measurements in the studied band pairs M13-B23, M15-B31, and M16- B32. The agreement is better than the VIIRS uncertainty at cold scenes, and improves with increasing scene temperature up to about 290K.

  1. Radiometric calibration and processing procedure for reflective bands on LANDSAT-4 protoflight Thematic Mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, J. L.; Abrams, R. B.; Ball, D. L.; Leung, K. C.

    1984-01-01

    The radiometric subsystem of NASA's LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor is described. Special emphasis is placed on the internal calibrator (IC) pulse shapes and timing cycle. The procedures for the absolute radiometric calibration of the TM channels with a 122-centimeter integrating sphere and the transfer of radiometric calibration from the channels to the IC are reviewed. The use of the IC to calibrate TM data in the ground processing system consists of pulse integration, pulse averaging, IC state identification, linear regression analysis, and histogram equalization. An overview of the SCROUNGE-era (before August 1983) method is presented. Procedural differences between SCROUNGE and the TIPS-era (after July 1983) and the implications of these differences are discussed.

  2. InGaAs tunnel diodes for the calibration of semi-classical and quantum mechanical band-to-band tunneling models

    SciTech Connect

    Smets, Quentin; Verreck, Devin; Vandervorst, Wilfried; Groeseneken, Guido; Heyns, Marc M.; Verhulst, Anne S.; Rooyackers, Rita; Merckling, Clément; Simoen, Eddy; Collaert, Nadine; Thean, Voon Y.; Van De Put, Maarten; Sorée, Bart

    2014-05-14

    Promising predictions are made for III-V tunnel-field-effect transistor (FET), but there is still uncertainty on the parameters used in the band-to-band tunneling models. Therefore, two simulators are calibrated in this paper; the first one uses a semi-classical tunneling model based on Kane's formalism, and the second one is a quantum mechanical simulator implemented with an envelope function formalism. The calibration is done for In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As using several p+/intrinsic/n+ diodes with different intrinsic region thicknesses. The dopant profile is determined by SIMS and capacitance-voltage measurements. Error bars are used based on statistical and systematic uncertainties in the measurement techniques. The obtained parameters are in close agreement with theoretically predicted values and validate the semi-classical and quantum mechanical models. Finally, the models are applied to predict the input characteristics of In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As n- and p-lineTFET, with the n-lineTFET showing competitive performance compared to MOSFET.

  3. Status of Terra MODIS Operation, Calibration, and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, X.; Wenny, B.; Wu, A.; Angal, A.; Geng, X.; Chen, H.; Dodd, J.; Link, D.; Madhavan, S.; Chen, N.; Li, Y.; Iacangelo, S.; Barnes, W.; Salomonson, V.

    2014-01-01

    Since launch in December 1999, Terra MODIS has successfully operated for nearly 15 years, making continuous observations. Data products derived from MODIS observations have significantly contributed to a wide range of studies of key geophysical parameters of the earth's eco-system of land, ocean, and atmosphere, and their changes over time. The quality of MODIS data products relies on the dedicated effort to monitor and sustain instrument health and operation, to calibrate and update sensor parameters and properties, and to improve calibration algorithms. MODIS observations are made in 36 spectral bands, covering wavelengths from visible to long-wave infrared. The reflective solar bands (1-19 and 26) are primarily calibrated by a solar diffuser (SD) panel and regularly scheduled lunar observations. The thermal emissive bands (20-25 and 27- 36) calibration is referenced to an on-board blackbody (BB) source. On-orbit changes in the sensor spectral and spatial characteristics are monitored by a spectroradiometric calibration assembly (SRCA). This paper provides an overview of Terra MODIS on-orbit operation and calibration activities and implementation strategies. It presents and summarizes sensor on-orbit performance using nearly 15 years of data from its telemetry, on-board calibrators, and lunar observations. Also discussed in this paper are changes in sensor characteristics, corrections applied to maintain MODIS level 1B (L1B) data quality, and efforts for future improvements.

  4. On-orbit coldwelding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dursch, Harry; Spear, Steve

    1991-01-01

    Spacecraft mechanisms are required to operate in the space environment for extended periods of time. A significant concern to the spacecraft designer is the possibility of metal to metal coldwelding or significant increases in friction. Coldwelding can occur between atomically clean metal surfaces when carefully prepared in a vacuum chamber on earth. The question is whether coldwelding occurs in orbit service conditions. The results of the System Special Investigation Group's (SIG's) investigation into whether coldwelding had occurred on any Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) hardware are presented. The results of a literature search into previous ground based anomalies is also presented. Results show that even though there have been no documented on-orbit coldwelding related failures, precautions should be taken to ensure that coldwelding does not occur in the space environment and that seizure does not occur in the prelaunch or launch environment.

  5. COSMICFLOWS-2: I-BAND LUMINOSITY-H I LINEWIDTH CALIBRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Tully, R. Brent; Courtois, Helene M.

    2012-04-10

    In order to measure distances with minimal systematics using the correlation between galaxy luminosities and rotation rates it is necessary to adhere to a strict and tested recipe. We now derive a measure of rotation from a new characterization of the width of a neutral hydrogen line profile. Additionally, new photometry and zero-point calibration data are available. Particularly the introduction of a new linewidth parameter necessitates the reconstruction and absolute calibration of the luminosity-linewidth template. The slope of the new template is set by 267 galaxies in 13 clusters. The zero point is set by 36 galaxies with Cepheid or tip of the red giant branch distances. Tentatively, we determine H{sub 0} {approx} 75 km s{sup -1} Mpc{sup -1}. Distances determined using the luminosity-linewidth calibration will contribute to the distance compendium Cosmicflows-2.

  6. Evaluation of the L-band scattering characteristics of volcanic terrain in aid of lithologic identification, assessment of SIR-B calibration, and development of planetary geomorphic analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaupp, V. H.; Waite, W. P.; Macdonald, H. C.; Mouginis-Mark, P. J.; Zisk, S. H.

    1984-01-01

    The objectives of the Shuttle Imaging Radar-B (SIR-B) scattering study and calibration investigation of volcanic terrain are to delineate textural and structural features, to evaluate the L-band scattering characteristics, and to assess SIR-B calibration. Specific tasks are outlined and expected results are summarized.

  7. Characterization of MODIS solar diffuser on-orbit degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, X.; Xie, X.; Angal, A.; Choi, J.; Sun, J.; Barnes, W. L.

    2007-09-01

    MODIS has 20 reflective solar bands (RSB) that are calibrated on-orbit using a solar diffuser (SD) and a solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM). The MODIS SD bi-directional reflectance factor (BRF) was characterized pre-launch. Its on-orbit degradation is regularly monitored by the SDSM at wavelengths ranging from 0.41 to 0.94μm. During each SD/SDSM calibration event, the SDSM views alternately the sunlight directly through a fixed attenuation screen and the sunlight diffusely reflected from the SD panel. The time series of SDSM measurements (ratios of the SD view response to the Sun view response) is used to determine the SD BRF degradation at SDSM wavelengths. Since launch Terra MODIS has operated for more than seven years and Aqua for over five years. The SD panel on each MODIS instrument has experienced noticeable degradation with the largest changes observed in the VIS spectral region. This paper provides a brief description of MODIS RSB calibration methodology and SD/SDSM operational activities, and illustrates the SD on-orbit degradation results for both Terra and Aqua MODIS. It also discusses the impact on the SD degradation due to sensor operational activities and SD solar exposure time. Aqua MODIS has been operated under nearly the same condition for more than five years. Its SD annual degradation rate is estimated to be 2.7% at 0.41μm, 1.7% at 0.47μm, and less than 1.0% at wavelengths above 0.53μm. Terra MODIS, on the other hand, has experienced two different SD solar exposure conditions due to an SD door (SDD) operation related anomaly that occurred in May 2003 that had led to a decision to keep the SDD permanently at its "open" position. Prior to this event, Terra MODIS SD degradation rates were very similar to Aqua MODIS. Since then its SD has experienced much faster degradation rates due to more frequent solar exposure.

  8. Landsat 8 thermal infrared sensor geometric characterization and calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Storey, James C.; Choate, Michael J.; Moe, Donald

    2014-01-01

    The Landsat 8 spacecraft was launched on 11 February 2013 carrying two imaging payloads: the Operational Land Imager (OLI) and the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS). The TIRS instrument employs a refractive telescope design that is opaque to visible wavelengths making prelaunch geometric characterization challenging. TIRS geometric calibration thus relied heavily on on-orbit measurements. Since the two Landsat 8 payloads are complementary and generate combined Level 1 data products, the TIRS geometric performance requirements emphasize the co-alignment of the OLI and TIRS instrument fields of view and the registration of the OLI reflective bands to the TIRS long-wave infrared emissive bands. The TIRS on-orbit calibration procedures include measuring the TIRS-to-OLI alignment, refining the alignment of the three TIRS sensor chips, and ensuring the alignment of the two TIRS spectral bands. The two key TIRS performance metrics are the OLI reflective to TIRS emissive band registration accuracy, and the registration accuracy between the TIRS thermal bands. The on-orbit calibration campaign conducted during the commissioning period provided an accurate TIRS geometric model that enabled TIRS Level 1 data to meet all geometric accuracy requirements. Seasonal variations in TIRS-to-OLI alignment have led to several small calibration parameter adjustments since commissioning.

  9. Landsat 8: status and on-orbit performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markham, Brian L.; Barsi, Julia A.; Morfitt, Ron; Choate, Mike; Montanaro, Matthew; Arvidson, Terry; Irons, James R.

    2015-10-01

    Landsat 8 and its two Earth imaging sensors, the Operational Land Imager (OLI) and Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) have been operating on-orbit for 2 ½ years. Landsat 8 has been acquiring substantially more images than initially planned, typically around 700 scenes per day versus a 400 scenes per day requirement, acquiring nearly all land scenes. Both the TIRS and OLI instruments are exceeding their SNR requirements by at least a factor of 2 and are very stable, degrading by at most 1% in responsivity over the mission to date. Both instruments have 100% operable detectors covering their cross track field of view using the redundant detectors as necessary. The geometric performance is excellent, meeting or exceeding all performance requirements. One anomaly occurred with the TIRS Scene Select Mirror (SSM) encoder that affected its operation, though by switching to the side B electronics, this was fully recovered. The one challenge is with the TIRS stray light, which affects the flat fielding and absolute calibration of the TIRS data. The error introduced is smaller in TIRS band 10. Band 11 should not currently be used in science applications.

  10. On-orbit stability and performance of the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument sensors onboard the Aqua and Terra Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shankar, Mohan; Priestley, Kory; Smith, Nitchie; Thomas, Susan; Walikainen, Dale

    2014-09-01

    The Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments onboard the Terra and Aqua spacecraft are part of the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) constellation to make long-term observations of the earth. CERES measures the earth-reflected shortwave energy as well as the earth-emitted thermal energy, which are two components of the earth's radiation energy budget. These measurements are made by five instruments- Flight Models (FM) 1 and 2 onboard Terra, FMs 3 and 4 onboard Aqua and FM5 onboard Suomi NPP. Each instrument comprises three sensors that measure the radiances in different wavelength bands- a shortwave sensor that measures in the 0.3 to 5 micron band, a total sensor that measures all the incident energy (0.3-200 microns) and a window sensor that measures the water-vapor window region of 8 to 12 microns. The stability of the sensors is monitored through on-orbit calibration and validation activities. On-orbit calibration is carried out using the Internal Calibration Module (ICM) that consists of a tungsten lamp, blackbodies, and a solar diffuser known as the Mirror Attenuator Mosaic (MAM). The ICM calibration provides information about the stability of the sensors' broadband radiometric gains on-orbit. Several validation studies are conducted in order to monitor the behavior of the instruments in various spectral bands. The CERES Edition-4 data products for FM1-FM4 incorporate the latest corrections to the sensor responses using the calibration techniques. In this paper, we present the on-orbit performance stability as well as some validation studies used in deriving the CERES Edition-4 data products from all four instruments.

  11. Spectral band difference effects on radiometric cross-calibration between multiple satellite sensors in the Landsat solar-reflective spectral domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teillet, Philippe M.; Fedosejevs, Gunar; Thome, Kurtis J.

    2004-11-01

    This paper reports on an investigation of radiometric calibration errors due to differences in spectral response functions between satellite sensors when attempting cross-calibration based on near-simultaneous imaging of common ground targets in analogous spectral bands. Five Earth observation sensors on three satellite platforms were included on the basis of their overpass times being within 45 minutes of each other on the same day (Landsat-7 ETM+; EO-1 ALI; Terra MODIS; Terra ASTER; Terra MISR). The simulation study encompassed spectral band difference effects (SBDE) on cross-calibration between all combinations of the sensors considered, using the Landsat solar reflective spectral domain as a framework. Scene content was simulated using ground target spectra for the calibration test sites at Railroad Valley Playa, Nevada and Niobrara Grassland, Nebraska. Results were obtained as a function of calibration test site, satellite sensor, and spectral region. Overall, in the absence of corrections for SBDE, the Railroad Valley Playa site is a "good" to "very good" ground target for cross-calibration between most but not all satellite sensors considered in most but not all spectral regions investigated. "Good" and "very good" are defined as SBDEs within +/- 3 % and +/- 1 %, respectively. Without SBDE corrections, the Niobrara test site is only "good" for cross-calibration between certain sensor combinations in some spectral regions. The paper includes recommendations for spectral data and tools that would facilitate cross-calibration between multiple satellite sensors.

  12. Landsat Data Continuity Mission Calibration and Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, Brian L.; Dabney, Philip W.; Storey, James C.; Morfitt, Ron; Knight, Ed; Kvaran, Geir; Lee, Kenton

    2008-01-01

    The primary payload for the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) is the Operational Land Imager (OLI), being built by Ball Aerospace and Technologies, under contract to NASA. The OLI has spectral bands similar to the Landsat-7 ETM+, minus the thermal band and with two new bands, a 443 nm band and 1375 nm cirrus detection band. On-board calibration systems include two solar diffusers (routine and pristine), a shutter and three sets of internal lamps (routine, backup and pristine). Being a pushbroom opposed to a whiskbroom design of ETM+, the system poses new challenges for characterization and calibration, chief among them being the large focal plane with 75000+ detectors. A comprehensive characterization and calibration plan is in place for the instrument and the data throughout the mission including Ball, NASA and the United States Geological Survey, which will take over operations of LDCM after on-orbit commissioning. Driving radiometric calibration requirements for OLI data include radiance calibration to 5% uncertainty (1 q); reflectance calibration to 3% uncertainty (1 q) and relative (detector-to-detector) calibration to 0.5% (J (r). Driving geometric calibration requirements for OLI include bandto- band registration of 4.5 meters (90% confidence), absolute geodetic accuracy of 65 meters (90% CE) and relative geodetic accuracy of 25 meters (90% CE). Key spectral, spatial and radiometric characterization of the OLI will occur in thermal vacuum at Ball Aerospace. During commissioning the OLI will be characterized and calibrated using celestial (sun, moon, stars) sources and terrestrial sources. The USGS EROS ground processing system will incorporate an image assessment system similar to Landsat-7 for characterization and calibration. This system will have the added benefit that characterization data will be extracted as part of the normal image data processing, so that the characterization data available will be significantly larger than for Landsat-7 ETM+.

  13. Characterization of MODIS VIS/NIR spectral band detector-to-detector differences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, X.; Sun, J.; Meister, G.; Kwiatkowska, E.; Barnes, W. L.

    2008-08-01

    MODIS has 36 spectral bands with wavelengths in the visible (VIS), near-infrared (NIR), short-wave infrared (SWIR), mid-wave infrared (MWIR), and long-wave infrared (LWIR). It makes observations at three nadir spatial resolutions: 0.25km for bands 1-2 (40 detectors per band), 0.5km for bands 3-7 (20 detectors per band), and 1km for bands 8-36 (10 detectors per band). The VIS, NIR, and SWIR are the reflective solar bands (RSB), which are calibrated on-orbit by a solar diffuser (SD) and a solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM). The bi-directional reflectance factor (BRF) of the SD provides a RSB calibration reference and its on-orbit changes are tracked by the SDSM. In addition, MODIS lunar observations are regularly scheduled and used to track the RSB calibration stability. On-orbit observations show that the changes in detector response are wavelength and scan angle dependent. In this study, we focus on detector-to-detector calibration differences in the MODIS VIS/NIR spectral bands, which are determined using SD and lunar observations, while the calibration performance is evaluated using the Earth view (EV) level 1B (L1B) data products. For Aqua MODIS, the detector calibration differences and their impact are also characterized using standard ocean color data products. The current calibration approach for MODIS RSB carries a band-averaged response versus scan angle (RVS) correction. The results from this study suggest that a detector-based RVS correction should, due to changes in the scan mirror's optical properties, be implemented in order to maintain and improve the current RSB L1B data product quality, particularly, for several VIS bands in Terra MODIS.

  14. An Overview of Lunar Calibration and Characterization for the EOS Terra and Aqua MODIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, X.; Salomonson, V. V.; Sun, J.; Chiang, K.; Xiong, S.; Humphries, S.; Barnes, W.; Guenther, B.

    2004-01-01

    The Moon can be used as a stable source for Earth-observing sensors on-orbit radiometric and spatial stability monitoring in the VIS and NIR spectral regions. It can also serve as a calibration transfer vehicle among multiple sensors. Nearly identical copies of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODE) have been operating on-board the NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra and Aqua satellites since their launches in December 1999 and May 2002, respectively. Terra and Aqua MODIS each make observations in 36 spectral bands covering the spectral range from 0.41 to 14.5 microns and are calibrated on-orbit by a set of on-board calibrations (OBCs) including: 1) a solar diffuser (SD), 2) a solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM), 3) a blackbody (BB), and 4) a spectro-radiometric calibration assembly (SRCA). In addition to fully utilizing the OBCs, the Moon has been used extensively by both Terra and Aqua MODIS to support their on-orbit calibration and characterization. A 4 This paper provides an overview of applications of lunar calibration and characterization from the MODIS perspective, including monitoring radiometric calibration stability for the reflective solar bands (RSBs), tracking changes of the sensors response versus scan-angle (RVS), examining the sensors spatial performance , and characterizing optical leaks and electronic crosstalk among different spectral bands and detectors. On-orbit calibration consistency between the two MODIS instruments is also addressed. Based on the existing on-orbit time series of the Terra and Aqua MODIS lunar observations, the radiometric difference between the two sensors is less than +/-1% for the RSBs. This method provides a powerful means of performing calibration comparisons among Earth-observing sensors and assures consistent data and science products for the long-term studies of climate and environmental changes.

  15. L-band scintillations and calibrated total electron content gradients over Brazil during the last solar maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesaroni, Claudio; Spogli, Luca; Alfonsi, Lucilla; De Franceschi, Giorgiana; Ciraolo, Luigi; Francisco Galera Monico, Joao; Scotto, Carlo; Romano, Vincenzo; Aquino, Marcio; Bougard, Bruno

    2015-12-01

    This work presents a contribution to the understanding of the ionospheric triggering of L-band scintillation in the region over São Paulo state in Brazil, under high solar activity. In particular, a climatological analysis of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) data acquired in 2012 is presented to highlight the relationship between intensity and variability of the total electron content (TEC) gradients and the occurrence of ionospheric scintillation. The analysis is based on the GNSS data acquired by a dense distribution of receivers and exploits the integration of a dedicated TEC calibration technique into the Ground Based Scintillation Climatology (GBSC), previously developed at the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia. Such integration enables representing the local ionospheric features through climatological maps of calibrated TEC and TEC gradients and of amplitude scintillation occurrence. The disentanglement of the contribution to the TEC variations due to zonal and meridional gradients conveys insight into the relation between the scintillation occurrence and the morphology of the TEC variability. The importance of the information provided by the TEC gradients variability and the role of the meridional TEC gradients in driving scintillation are critically described.

  16. PAU/RAD: Design and Preliminary Calibration Results of a New L-Band Pseudo-Correlation Radiometer Concept

    PubMed Central

    Bosch-Lluis, Xavier; Camps, Adriano; Ramos-Perez, Isaac; Marchan-Hernandez, Juan Fernando; Rodriguez-Alvarez, Nereida; Valencia, Enric

    2008-01-01

    The Passive Advanced Unit (PAU) for ocean monitoring is a new type of instrument that combines in a single receiver and without time multiplexing, a polarimetric pseudo-correlation microwave radiometer at L-band (PAU-RAD) and a GPS reflectometer (PAU-GNSS/R). These instruments in conjunction with an infra-red radiometer (PAU-IR) will respectively provide the sea surface temperature and the sea state information needed to accurately retrieve the sea surface salinity from the radiometric measurements. PAU will consist of an array of 4×4 receivers performing digital beamforming and polarization synthesis both for PAU-RAD and PAU-GNSS/R. A concept demonstrator of the PAU instrument with only one receiver has been implemented (PAU-One Receiver or PAU-OR). PAU-OR has been used to test and tune the calibration algorithms that will be applied to PAU. This work describes in detail PAU-OR's radiometer calibration algorithms and their performance.

  17. Compressively strained SiGe band-to-band tunneling model calibration based on p-i-n diodes and prospect of strained SiGe tunneling field-effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, Kuo-Hsing; Meyer, Kristin De; Verhulst, Anne S.; Rooyackers, Rita; Douhard, Bastien; Delmotte, Joris; Bender, Hugo; Richard, Olivier; Vandervorst, Wilfried; Simoen, Eddy; Hikavyy, Andriy; Loo, Roger; Arstila, Kai; Collaert, Nadine; Thean, Aaron; Heyns, Marc M.

    2014-12-07

    Band-to-band tunneling parameters of strained indirect bandgap materials are not well-known, hampering the reliability of performance predictions of tunneling devices based on these materials. The nonlocal band-to-band tunneling model for compressively strained SiGe is calibrated based on a comparison of strained SiGe p-i-n tunneling diode measurements and doping-profile-based diode simulations. Dopant and Ge profiles of the diodes are determined by secondary ion mass spectrometry and capacitance-voltage measurements. Theoretical parameters of the band-to-band tunneling model are calculated based on strain-dependent properties such as bandgap, phonon energy, deformation-potential-based electron-phonon coupling, and hole effective masses of strained SiGe. The latter is determined with a 6-band k·p model. The calibration indicates an underestimation of the theoretical electron-phonon coupling with nearly an order of magnitude. Prospects of compressively strained SiGe tunneling transistors are made by simulations with the calibrated model.

  18. Calibration of SeaWiFS. I. Direct techniques.

    PubMed

    Barnes, R A; Eplee, R E; Schmidt, G M; Patt, F S; McClain, C R

    2001-12-20

    We present an overview of the calibration of the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of View Sensor (SeaWiFS) from its performance verification at the manufacturer's facility to the completion of its third year of on-orbit measurements. These calibration procedures have three principal parts: a prelaunch radiometric calibration that is traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology; the Transfer-to-Orbit Experiment, a set of measurements that determine changes in the instrument's calibration from its manufacture to the start of on-orbit operations; and measurements of the sun and the moon to determine radiometric changes on orbit. To our knowledge, SeaWiFS is the only instrument that uses routine lunar measurements to determine changes in its radiometric sensitivity. On the basis of these methods, the overall uncertainty in the SeaWiFS top-of-the-atmosphere radiances is estimated to be 4-5%. We also show the results of comparison campaigns with aircraft- and ground-based measurements, plus the results of an experiment, called the Southern Ocean Band 8 Gain Study. These results are used to check the calibration of the SeaWiFS bands. To date, they have not been used to change the instrument's prelaunch calibration coefficients. In addition to these procedures, SeaWiFS is a vicariously calibrated instrument for ocean-color measurements. In the vicarious calibration of the SeaWiFS visible bands, the calibration coefficients are modified to force agreement with surface truth measurements from the Marine Optical Buoy, which is moored off the Hawaiian Island of Lanai. This vicarious calibration is described in a companion paper. PMID:18364980

  19. CARTEL: A method to calibrate S-band ranges with geostationary satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guitart, A.; Mesnard, R.; Nouel, F.

    1986-12-01

    An intersite tracking campaign was organized, with 4 S-band stations, for a period of 1 wk to show how the most precise orbit can be computed with the operational software. This precise orbit served as a reference in order to evaluate what can be achieved with one single station with range and angular measurements (a typical configuration used for stationkeeping of geostationary satellites). Orbit computation implied numerical integration with gravitational (Earth, Moon, and Sun) and solar radiation pressure as forces acting on the satellite. Arc lengths of 2 days gave initial state vectors which were compared every day. A precision of 10 m is achieved. However, an analysis of the influence of several parameters entering the orbit computations reveals that the absolute accuracy is of the order of 100 m, since modeling perturbations were neglected in the operational software (polar motion for example). This reference orbit allows estimation of systematic errors for other tracking antennas.

  20. Simulator spectral characterization using balloon calibrated solar cells with narrow band pass filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodelle, G. S.; Brooks, G. R.; Seaman, C. H.

    1981-01-01

    The development and implementation of an instrument for spectral measurement of solar simulators for testing solar cell characteristics is reported. The device was constructed for detecting changes in solar simulator behavior and for comparing simulator spectral irradiance to solar AM0 output. It consists of a standard solar cell equipped with a band pass filter narrow enough so that, when flown on a balloon to sufficient altitude along with sufficient numbers of cells, each equipped with filters of different bandpass ratings, the entire spectral response of the standard cell can be determined. Measured short circuit currents from the balloon flights thus produce cell devices which, when exposed to solar simulator light, have a current which does or does not respond as observed under actual AM0 conditions. Improvements of the filtered cells in terms of finer bandpass filter tuning and measurement of temperature coefficients are indicated.

  1. Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) radiometric performance on-orbit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morfitt, Ron; Barsi, Julia A.; Levy, Raviv; Markham, Brian L.; Micijevic, Esad; Ong, Lawrence; Scaramuzza, Pat; Vanderwerff, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    Expectations of the Operational Land Imager (OLI) radiometric performance onboard Landsat-8 have been met or exceeded. The calibration activities that occurred prior to launch provided calibration parameters that enabled ground processing to produce imagery that met most requirements when data were transmitted to the ground. Since launch, calibration updates have improved the image quality even more, so that all requirements are met. These updates range from detector gain coefficients to reduce striping and banding to alignment parameters to improve the geometric accuracy. This paper concentrates on the on-orbit radiometric performance of the OLI, excepting the radiometric calibration performance. Topics discussed in this paper include: signal-to-noise ratios that are an order of magnitude higher than previous Landsat missions; radiometric uniformity that shows little residual banding and striping, and continues to improve; a dynamic range that limits saturation to extremely high radiance levels; extremely stable detectors; slight nonlinearity that is corrected in ground processing; detectors that are stable and 100% operable; and few image artifacts.

  2. Cross-calibration of the reflective solar bands of Terra MODIS and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus over PICS using different approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angal, Amit; Brinkmann, Jake; Mishra, Nischal; Link, Daniel; Xiong, Xiaoxiong J.; Helder, Dennis

    2015-10-01

    Both Terra MODIS and Landsat 7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) have been successfully operating for over 15 years to collect valuable measurements of the earth's land, ocean, and atmosphere. The land-viewing bands of both sensors are widely used in several scientific products such as surface reflectance, normalized difference vegetation index, enhanced vegetation index etc. A synergistic use of the multi-temporal measurements from both sensors can greatly benefit the science community. Previous effort from the MODIS Characterization Support Team (MCST) was focused on comparing the top-of-atmosphere reflectance of the two sensors over Libya 4 desert target. Uncertainties caused by the site/atmospheric BRDF, spectral response mismatch, and atmospheric water-vapor were also characterized. In parallel, an absolute calibration approach based on empirical observation was also developed for the Libya 4 site by the South Dakota State University's (SDSU) Image Processing Lab. Observations from Terra MODIS and Earth Observing One (EO-1) Hyperion were used to model the Landsat ETM+ TOA reflectance. Recently, there has been an update to the MODIS calibration algorithm, which has resulted in the newly reprocessed Collection 6 Level 1B calibrated products. Similarly, a calibration update to some ETM+ bands has also resulted in long-term improvements of its calibration accuracy. With these updates, calibration differences between the spectrally matching bands of Terra MODIS and L7 ETM+ over the Libya 4 site are evaluated using both approaches.

  3. On-orbit GP-B Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhlfelder, B.; Green, G.; Keiser, G. M.; Smith, M.

    Gravity Probe B (GP-B) is a space-based experiment designed to measure two non-Newtonian precessions of precision gyroscopes in orbit about the Earth. The on-orbit mission is divided into three phases: initialization, science, and post-science calibration. The initialization phase configures the space vehicle for science and spans the first two months of the 18 month on-orbit dewar lifetime. Initialization consists of adjusting the vehicle's 640 km orbit to within 0.003 degrees of a nearly polar orbit, use of an on-board tracking telescope to point the vehicle to a distant fixed reference star, and spinning each of the science gyroscopes to approximately 100 Hz. After initialization, science data are collected for each gyroscope. A London Moment based gyroscope readout system provides a measurement of the precession of the gyroscope spin axis orientation. Following the collection of the science data, the Newtonian drift rates of the gyroscopes are intentionally enhanced. This calibration provides a bound of the amount of Newtonian gyroscope precession present in the science phase, gyroscope data. All vehicle commanding and data collection will be performed using the GP-B ground station. The team is now readying for the planned April 2004 launch.

  4. CARTEL: A method to calibrate S-band ranges with geostationary satellites. Results of orbit determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guitart, A.; Mesnard, B.

    1986-05-01

    A satellite tracking campaign was organized, with 4 S-band stations, for 1 wk. The relative geometry of the network with respect to the satellites was an opportunity to show how the most precise orbit can be computed with the operational software. This precise orbit served as a reference to evaluate what can be achieved with one station with range and angular measurements, a typical configuration used for stationkeeping of geostationary satellites. Orbit computation implied numerical integration with gravitational (Earth, Moon, and Sun) and solar radiation pressure forces acting on the satellite. Arc lengths of 2 days gave initial state vectors which were compared every day. Precision of 10 m is achieved. However, an analysis of the influence of parameters in the orbit computations reveals that the absolute accuracy is of the order of 100 m, since modeling perturbations were neglected in the operational software (e.g., polar motion). In a relative sense, the reference orbit allows estimation of systematic errors for other tracking antennas.

  5. Degradation of MODIS Optics During the First Year of On-Orbit Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guenther, B.; Xiong, X.; Esposito, J.; Pan, C.; Sun, J.; Barnes, William; Zukor, Dorothy J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) sensor on the NASA EOS (Earth Observing System) Terra spacecraft has completed more than one year of on-orbit operation since the instrument opened its Nadir door for the scene data collection on 24 February 2000. Its 20 reflective solar bands, from VIS (visible) to SWIR (shortwavelength infrared) (0.41 to 2.1 micron), are calibrated on-orbit by a solar diffuser (SD) and a solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM). Degradation in the reflective solar bands has been observed in the reflectance of the on board solar diffuser and for the MODIS optics. Variations in degradation of up to 3% are evident between the two sides of the MODIS scan mirror. Degradation of the SD is tracked with the solar diffuser stability monitor, and degradation of the entire MODIS system is tracked by SD observations, adjusted for SD changes. Overall degradation at the shortest wavelengths (near 400 nm) are up to 3% for SD, and in excess of 10% for the MODIS system. Degradation of the SD and full MODIS system for the sensor's reflective solar bands will be described in this report.

  6. First calibration and visible band observations of Khayyam, a Tunable Spatial Heterodyne Spectroscopy (SHS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini, S.; Harris, W.; Corliss, J.

    2013-12-01

    We present initial results from observations of wide-field targets using new instrumentation based on an all-reflective spatial heterodyne spectrometer (SHS). SHS instruments are quasi common path two-beam Fourier transform spectrometers that produce 2-D spatial interference patterns without the requirement for moving parts. The utility of SHS comes from its combination of a wide input acceptance angle (0.5-1°), high resolving power (of order ~10^5), compact format, high dynamic range, and relaxed optical tolerances compared with other interferometer designs. This combination makes them extremely useful for velocity resolved for observations of wide field targets from both small and large telescopes. We have constructed both narrow band pass and broadly tunable designs at fixed focal plane facilities on Mt Hamilton and Kitt Peak. This report focuses on the tunable instrument at Mt Hamilton, which is at the focus of the Coudé Auxiliary Telescope (CAT). The CAT provides a test case for on-axis use of SHS, and the impact of the resulting field non-uniformity caused by the spider pattern will be discussed. Observations of several targets will be presented that demonstrate the capabilities of SHS, including comet C/2012 S1 (ISON), Jupiter, and both the day sky and night glow. Raw interferometric data and transformed power spectra will be shown and evaluated in terms of instrumental stability. Khayyam, The Tunable all-reflective Special Heterodyne Spectrometer (SHS) that has being characterized at the Coudé Auxiliary Telescope (CAT) on Mt. Hamilton.

  7. An Overview of Suomi NPP VIIRS Calibration Maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, James J.; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Barnes, Robert A.; Patt, Frederick S.; Sun, Junqiang; Chiang, Kwofu

    2012-01-01

    The first Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument was successfully launched on-board the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) spacecraft on October 28, 2011. Suomi NPP VIIRS observations are made in 22 spectral bands, from the visible (VIS) to the long-wave infrared (LWIR), and are used to produce 22 Environmental Data Records (EDRs) with a broad range of scientific applications. The quality of these VIIRS EDRs strongly depends on the quality of its calibrated and geo-located Sensor Date Records (SDRs). Built with a strong heritage to the NASA's EOS MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument, the VIIRS is calibrated on-orbit using a similar set of on-board calibrators (OBC), including a solar diffuser (SD) and solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM) system for the reflective solar bands (RSB) and a blackbody (BB) for the thermal emissive bands (TEB). On-orbit maneuvers of the SNPP spacecraft provide additional calibration and characterization data from the VIIRS instrument which cannot be obtained pre-launch and are required to produce the highest quality SDRs. These include multi-orbit yaw maneuvers for the characterization of SD and SDSM screen transmission, quasi-monthly roll maneuvers to acquire lunar observations to track sensor degradation in the visible through shortwave infrared, and a driven pitch-over maneuver to acquire multiple scans of deep space to determine TEB response versus scan angle (RVS). This paper pro-vides an overview of these three SNPP calibration maneuvers. Discussions are focused on their potential calibration and science benefits, pre-launch planning activities, and on-orbit scheduling and implementation strategies. Results from calibration maneuvers performed during the Intensive Calibration and Validation (ICV) period for the VIIRS sensor are illustrated. Also presented in this paper are lessons learned regarding the implementation of calibration spacecraft maneuvers on follow

  8. Improvement of MODIS RSB calibration by minimizing the Earthshine impact on solar diffuser observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, X.; Xiong, X.; Wolfe, R.; Lyapustin, A.

    2006-08-01

    The MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroraiometer (MODIS) reflective solar bands (RSB) are calibrated on-orbit using solar illuminations reflected from its onboard solar diffuser (SD) plate. The specified calibration uncertainty requirements for MODIS RSB are +/-2% in reflectance and +/-5% in radiance at their typical top of atmosphere (TOA) radiances. The onboard SD bi-directional reflectance factor (BRF) was characterized pre-launch by the instrument vendor using reference samples traceable to NIST reflectance standard. The SD on-orbit degradation is monitored using a solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM). One of contributors to the RSB calibration uncertainty is the earthshine (ES) illumination on the SD plate during SD calibration. This effect was estimated pre-launch by the instrument vendor to be of 0.5% for all RSB bands. Analyses of on-orbit observations show that some of the SD calibration data sets have indeed been contaminated due to extra ES illumination and the degree of ES impact on the SD calibration is spectrally dependent and varies with geo-location and atmospheric conditions (ground surface type and cloudiness). This paper illustrates the observed ES impacts on the MODIS RSB calibration quality and compare them with the effects derived from an ES model based on the viewing geometry of MODIS SD aperture door and likelihood atmospheric conditions. It also describes an approach developed to minimize the ES impact on MODIS RSB calibration.

  9. On-Orbit Lunar Modulation Transfer Function Measurements for the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Taeyong; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Wang, Zhipeng

    2013-01-01

    Spatial quality of an imaging sensor can be estimated by evaluating its modulation transfer function (MTF) from many different sources such as a sharp edge, a pulse target, or bar patterns with different spatial frequencies. These well-defined targets are frequently used for prelaunch laboratory tests, providing very reliable and accurate MTF measurements. A laboratory-quality edge input source was included in the spatial-mode operation of the Spectroradiometric Calibration Assembly (SRCA), which is one of the onboard calibrators of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Since not all imaging satellites have such an instrument, SRCA MTF estimations can be used as a reference for an on-orbit lunar MTF algorithm and results. In this paper, the prelaunch spatial quality characterization process from the Integrated Alignment Collimator and SRCA is briefly discussed. Based on prelaunch MTF calibration using the SRCA, a lunar MTF algorithm is developed and applied to the lifetime on-orbit Terra and Aqua MODIS lunar collections. In each lunar collection, multiple scan-directionMoon-to-background transition profiles are aligned by the subpixel edge locations from a parametric Fermi function fit. Corresponding accumulated edge profiles are filtered and interpolated to obtain the edge spread function (ESF). The MTF is calculated by applying a Fourier transformation on the line spread function through a simple differentiation of the ESF. The lifetime lunar MTF results are analyzed and filtered by a relationship with the Sun-Earth-MODIS angle. Finally, the filtered lunarMTF values are compared to the SRCA MTF results. This comparison provides the level of accuracy for on-orbit MTF estimations validated through prelaunch SRCA measurements. The lunar MTF values had larger uncertainty than the SRCA MTF results; however, the ratio mean of lunarMTF fit and SRCA MTF values is within 2% in the 250- and 500-m bands. Based on the MTF measurement uncertainty range

  10. MODIS solar reflective calibration traceability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Butler, Jim

    2009-08-01

    Long-term climate data records often consist of observations made by multiple sensors. It is, therefore, extremely important to have instrument overlap, to be able to track instrument stability, to quantify measurement uncertainties, and to establish an absolute measurement scale traceable to the International System of Units (SI). The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is a key instrument for both the Terra and Aqua missions, which were launched in December 1999 and May 2002, respectively. It has 20 reflective solar bands (RSB) with wavelengths from 0.41 to 2.2μm and observes the Earth at three nadir spatial resolutions: 0.25km, 0.5km, and 1km. MODIS RSB on-orbit calibration is reflectance based with reference to the bi-directional reflectance factor (BRF) of its on-board solar diffuser (SD). The SD BRF characterization was made pre-launch by the instrument vendor using reference samples traceable directly to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). On-orbit SD reflectance degradation is tracked by an on-board solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM). This paper provides details of this calibration chain, from pre-launch to on-orbit operation, and associated uncertainty assessments. Using MODIS as an example, this paper also discusses challenges and key design requirements for future missions developed for accurate climate studies.

  11. MODIS Solar Reflective Calibration Traceability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Butler, Jim

    2009-01-01

    Long-term climate data records often consist of observations made by multiple sensors. It is, therefore, extremely important to have instrument overlap, to be able to track instrument stability, to quantify, measurement uncertainties, and to establish absolute scale traceable to the International System of Units (SI). The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is a key instrument for both the Terra and Aqua missions, which were launched in December 1999 and May 2002, respectively. It has 20 reflective solar bands (RSB) with wavelengths from 0.41 to 2.2 micrometers and observes the Earth at three nadir spatial resolutions: 0.25km, 0.5km, and 1km. MODIS RSB on-orbit calibration is reflectance based with reference to the bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) of its on-board solar diffuser (SD). The SD BRF characterization was made pre-launch by the instrument vendor using reference samples traceable directly to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). On-orbit SD reflectance degradation is tracked by an on-board solar diffuser monitor (SDSM). This paper provides details of this calibration chain, from prelaunch to on-orbit operation, and associated uncertainty assessments. Using MODIS as an example, this paper also discusses challenges and key design requirements for future missions developed for accurate climate studies.

  12. Operational Land Imager relative radiometric calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barsi, Julia A.; Markham, Brian L.

    2015-09-01

    The Operational Land Imager (OLI), on board the Landsat-8 satellite, is a pushbroom sensor with nearly 7000 detectors per band, divided between 14 separate modules. While rigorously characterized prior to launch, the shear number of individual detectors presents a challenge to maintaining the on-orbit relative calibration, such that stripes, bands and other artifacts are minimized in the final image products. On-orbit relative calibration of the OLI is primarily monitored and corrected by observing an on-board primary solar diffuser panel. The panel is the most uniform target available to the OLI, though as observed but the OLI, it has a slope across the field of view due to view angle effects. Just after launch, parameters were derived using the solar diffuser data, to correct for the angular effects across the 14 modules. The residual discontinuities between arrays and the detector-to-detector uniformity continue to be monitored on a weekly basis. The observed variations in the responses to the diffuser panel since launch are thought to be due to real instrument changes. Since launch, the Coastal/Aerosol (CA) and Blue bands have shown the most variation in relative calibration of the VNIR bands, with as much as 0.14% change (3-sigma) between consecutive relative gain estimates. The other VNIR bands (Green, Red and NIR) initially had detectors showing a slow drift of about 0.2% per year, though this stopped after an instrument power cycle about seven months after launch. The SWIR bands also exhibit variability between collects (0.11% 3-sigma) but the larger changes have been where individual detectors' responses change suddenly by as much as 1.5%. The mechanisms behind these changes are not well understood but in order to minimize impact to the users, the OLI relative calibration is updated on a quarterly basis in order to capture changes over time.

  13. Two-tier calibrated electro-optic sensing system for intense field characterization of high-power W-band gyrotron.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seok; Hong, Young-Pyo; Yang, Jong-Won; Lee, Dong-Joon

    2016-05-16

    We present a field-calibrated electro-optic sensing system for measurement of the electric field radiating from a high-power vacuum oscillator at ~95 GHz. The intense electric field is measured in absolute scale via two probe-calibration steps, associated with a photonic heterodyne scheme. First, a micro-electro-optic probe, fabricated to less than one-tenth the oscillation wavelength scale to minimize field-perturbation due to the probe, is placed on the aperture of a field-calculable WR-10 waveguide to calibrate the probe in V/m scale. Then, using this arrangement as a calibrated reference probe at the first-tier position, another probe-bulkier, and thus more robust and sensitive but not accessible to the aperture-is calibrated at the second-tier position away from the waveguide aperture. This two-tier calibrated probe was utilized to diagnose the sub-MV/m scale of intense electric fields and emissions from a high-power W-band gyrotron. The experimental results obtained proved consistent with calculated analytical results-verifying the efficacy of the developed system. PMID:27409877

  14. On-orbit spacecraft reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomquist, C.; Demars, D.; Graham, W.; Henmi, P.

    1978-01-01

    Operational and historic data for 350 spacecraft from 52 U.S. space programs were analyzed for on-orbit reliability. Failure rates estimates are made for on-orbit operation of spacecraft subsystems, components, and piece parts, as well as estimates of failure probability for the same elements during launch. Confidence intervals for both parameters are also given. The results indicate that: (1) the success of spacecraft operation is only slightly affected by most reported incidents of anomalous behavior; (2) the occurrence of the majority of anomalous incidents could have been prevented piror to launch; (3) no detrimental effect of spacecraft dormancy is evident; (4) cycled components in general are not demonstrably less reliable than uncycled components; and (5) application of product assurance elements is conductive to spacecraft success.

  15. ACTS Multibeam Antenna On-Orbit Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acosta, R.; Wright, D.; Mitchell, Kenneth

    1996-01-01

    The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) launched in September 1993 introduces several new technologies including a multibeam antenna (MBA) operating at Ka-band. The MBA with fixed and rapidly reconfigurable spot beams serves users equipped with small aperture terminals within the coverage area. The antenna produces spot beams with approximately 0.3 degrees beamwidth and gains of approximately 50 dBi. A number of MBA performance evaluations have been performed since the ACTS launch. These evaluations were designed to assess MBA performance (e.g., beam pointing stability, beam shape, gain, etc.) in the space environment. The on-orbit measurements found systematic environmental perturbation to the MBA beam pointing. These perturbations were found to be imposed by satellite attitude control system, antenna and spacecraft mechanical alignments, on-orbit thermal effects, etc. As a result, the footprint coverage of the MBA may not exactly cover the intended service area at all times. This report describes the space environment effects on the ACTS MBA performance as a function of time of the day and time of the year and compensation approaches for these effects.

  16. Broad-band calibration of marine seismic sources used by R/V Polarstern for academic research in polar regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breitzke, Monika; Boebel, Olaf; El Naggar, Saad; Jokat, Wilfried; Werner, Berthold

    2008-08-01

    Air guns and air-gun arrays of different volumes are used for scientific seismic surveys with R/V Polarstern in polar regions. To assess the potential risk of these research activities on marine mammal populations, knowledge of the sound pressure field of the seismic sources is essential. Therefore, a broad-band (0-80 kHz) calibration study was conducted at the Heggernes Acoustic Range, Norway. A GI (2.4 l), a G (8.5 l) and a Bolt gun (32.8 l) were deployed as single sources, 3 GI (7.4 l), 3 G (25.6 l) and 8 VLF™ Prakla-Seismos air guns (24.0 l) as arrays. Each configuration was fired along a line of 3-4 km length running between two hydrophone chains with receivers in 35, 100, 198 and 263 m depth. Peak-to-peak, zero-to-peak, rms and sound exposure levels (SEL) were analysed as functions of range. They show the typical dipole-like directivity of marine seismic sources with amplitude cancellation close to the sea surface, higher amplitudes in greater depths, and sound pressure levels which continuously decrease with range. Levels recorded during the approach are lower than during the departure indicating a shadowing effect of Polarsterns's hull. Backcalculated zero-to-peak source levels range from 224-240 dB re 1 μPa @ 1 m. Spectral source levels are highest below 100 Hz and amount to 182-194 dB re 1 μPa Hz-1. They drop off continuously with range and frequency. At 1 kHz they are ~30 dB, at 80 kHz ~60 dB lower than the peak level. Above 1 kHz amplitude spectra are dominated by Polarstern's self-noise. From the rms and sound exposure levels of the deepest hydrophone radii for different thresholds are derived. For a 180 dB rms-level threshold radii maximally vary between 200 and 600 m, for a 186 dB SEL threshold between 50 and 300 m.

  17. On-Orbit Software Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moran, Susanne I.

    2004-01-01

    The On-Orbit Software Analysis Research Infusion Project was done by Intrinsyx Technologies Corporation (Intrinsyx) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Center (ARC). The Project was a joint collaborative effort between NASA Codes IC and SL, Kestrel Technology (Kestrel), and Intrinsyx. The primary objectives of the Project were: Discovery and verification of software program properties and dependencies, Detection and isolation of software defects across different versions of software, and Compilation of historical data and technical expertise for future applications

  18. OLI Radiometric Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, Brian; Morfitt, Ron; Kvaran, Geir; Biggar, Stuart; Leisso, Nathan; Czapla-Myers, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Goals: (1) Present an overview of the pre-launch radiance, reflectance & uniformity calibration of the Operational Land Imager (OLI) (1a) Transfer to orbit/heliostat (1b) Linearity (2) Discuss on-orbit plans for radiance, reflectance and uniformity calibration of the OLI

  19. Relative radiometric correction of QuickBird imagery using the side-slither technique on-orbit.

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, B. G.; Krause, Keith S.

    2004-01-01

    The QuickBird commercial imaging satellite is a pushbroom system with four multispectral bands covering the visible through near-infrared region of the spectrum and a panchromatic band. 6972 detectors in each MS band and 27888 detectors in the pan band must be calibrated. In an ideal sensor, a uniform radiance target will produce a uniform image. Unfortunately, raw imagery generated from a pushbroom sensor contains vertical streaks caused by variability in detector response, variability in electronic gain and offset, lens falloff, and particulate contamination on the focal plane. Relative radiometric correction is necessary to account for the detector-to-detector non-uniformity seen in raw imagery. A relative gain is calculated for each detector while looking at a uniform target such as an integrating sphere during ground calibrations, diffuser panel, or large desert target on-orbit. A special maneuver developed for QuickBird called the 'Side-Slither' technique is discussed. This technique improves the statistics of a desert target and achieves superior non-uniformity correction in imagery. The 'Side-Slither' technique is compared to standard techniques for calculation of relative gain and shows a reduction in the streaking seen in imagery.

  20. GOSAT lunar calibration in two year operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiomi, K.; Hashiguchi, T.; Kataoka, F.; Higuchi, R.

    2011-12-01

    The Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) is a Japanese mission to monitor greenhouse gases such as CO_{2} and CH_{4} from space. The GOSAT carries the Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) and the Cloud and Aerosol Imager (TANSO-CAI). The FTS has 3 polarized SWIR narrow bands, which are 0.76, 1.6 and 2.0 microns and TIR wide band from 5.5 to 14.3 microns. The FTS observes globally with grid points of 10 km FOV by separate pointing. The CAI is carried 4 radiometers of 0.38, 0.67, 0.87, and 1.60 microns with high spatial resolution of 0.5-1.5 km and wide swath of 1000 km. The GOSAT observes the full moon for the radiometric calibration of the FTS SWIR bands and the CAI by the lunar calibration operation every year. Bottom of the satellite installed the sensors is oriented to the moon before moon rise of the satellite. The initial lunar calibration on orbit just after the launch was operated on March 11 and April 9, 2009. Every year calibrations were operated on April for continuous annual trend and July for corresponding to the Railroad Valley calibration and validation field campaign. In 3rd year operation, the specification of lunar calibration is optimized to observe in phase angle around 7 degrees to avoid the opposition surge and use the lunar model in good accuracy and brightest target. The FTS observes the moon by 0.6 IFOV. The FTS carries a high-resolution monitoring camera for checking the observation target. The moon position in the FTS IFOV is confirmed by the camera image. The CAI observes the moon by 12 pixels of Band 1-3, by 4 pixels of Band 4. The CAI scans the moon in 2 reciprocations with constant scan speed. This presentation shows the sensitivity study using the GOSAT lunar observation in two year operation.

  1. MODIS In-flight Calibration Methodologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, X.; Barnes, W.

    2004-01-01

    MODIS is a key instrument for the NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) currently operating on the Terra spacecraft launched in December 1999 and Aqua spacecraft launched in May 2002. It is a cross-track scanning radiometer, making measurements over a wide field of view in 36 spectral bands with wavelengths from 0.41 to 14.5 micrometers and providing calibrated data products for science and research communities in their studies of the Earth s system of land, oceans, and atmosphere. A complete suite of on-board calibrators (OBC) have been designed for the instruments in-flight calibration and characterization, including a solar diffuser (SD) and solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM) system for the radiometric calibration of the 20 reflective solar bands (RSB), a blackbody (BB) for the radiometric calibration of the 16 thermal emissive bands (TEB), and a spectro-radiometric calibration assembly (SRCA) for the spatial (all bands) and spectral (RSB only) characterization. This paper discusses MODIS in-flight Cali bration methodologies of using its on-board calibrators. Challenging issues and examples of tracking and correcting instrument on-orbit response changes are presented, including SD degradation (20% at 412nm, 12% at 466nm, and 7% at 530nm over four and a half years) and response versus scan angle changes (10%, 4%, and 1% differences between beginning of the scan and end of the scan at 412nm, 466nm, and 530nm) in the VIS spectral region. Current instrument performance and lessons learned are also provided.

  2. Langley method applied in study of aerosol optical depth in the Brazilian semiarid region using 500, 670 and 870 nm bands for sun photometer calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerqueira, J. G.; Fernandez, J. H.; Hoelzemann, J. J.; Leme, N. M. P.; Sousa, C. T.

    2014-10-01

    Due to the high costs of commercial monitoring instruments, a portable sun photometer was developed at INPE/CRN laboratories, operating in four bands, with two bands in the visible spectrum and two in near infrared. The instrument calibration process is performed by applying the classical Langley method. Application of the Langley’s methodology requires a site with high optical stability during the measurements, which is usually found in high altitudes. However, far from being an ideal site, Harrison et al. (1994) report success with applying the Langley method to some data for a site in Boulder, Colorado. Recently, Liu et al. (2011) show that low elevation sites, far away from urban and industrial centers can provide a stable optical depth, similar to high altitudes. In this study we investigated the feasibility of applying the methodology in the semiarid region of northeastern Brazil, far away from pollution areas with low altitudes, for sun photometer calibration. We investigated optical depth stability using two periods of measurements in the year during dry season in austral summer. The first one was in December when the native vegetation naturally dries, losing all its leaves and the second one was in September in the middle of the dry season when the vegetation is still with leaves. The data were distributed during four days in December 2012 and four days in September 2013 totaling eleven half days of collections between mornings and afternoons and by means of fitted line to the data V0 values were found. Despite the high correlation between the collected data and the fitted line, the study showed a variation between the values of V0 greater than allowed for sun photometer calibration. The lowest V0 variation reached in this experiment with values lower than 3% for the bands 500, 670 and 870 nm are displayed in tables. The results indicate that the site needs to be better characterized with studies in more favorable periods, soon after the rainy season.

  3. Using Dome C for Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Calibration Stability and Consistency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Wu, Aisheng; Wenny, Brian N.

    2009-01-01

    Currently, there are two nearly identical moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments operated in space: one on the Terra spacecraft launched in December 1999 and another on the Aqua spacecraft launched in May 2002. MODIS has 36 spectral bands with wavelengths covering from visible (VIS) to long-wave infrared (LWIR). Since launch, M0DIS observations and data products have significantly enabled studies of changes in the Earth system of land, oceans, and atmosphere. In order to maintain its on-orbit calibration and data product quality, MODIS was built with a comprehensive set of on-board calibrators. MODIS reflective solar bands (RSB) are calibrated on-orbit by a system that consists of a solar diffuser (SD) and a solar diffuser stability monitor(SDSM) on a regular basis. Its thermal emissive bands (TEB) calibration is executed on a scan-by-scan basis using an on-board blackbody (BB). The MODIS Characterization Support Team (MCST) at NASA/GSFC has been responsible for supporting sensor calibration and characterization tasks from pre-launch to post launch. In this paper,we describe current MCST efforts and progress made to examine sensor stability and intercalibration consistency using observations over Dome Concordia, Antarctica. Results show that this site can provide useful calibration reference for Earth-observing sensors.

  4. Absolute radiometric calibration of Landsat using a pseudo invariant calibration site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Helder, D.; Thome, K.J.; Mishra, N.; Chander, G.; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Angal, A.; Choi, Tae-young

    2013-01-01

    Pseudo invariant calibration sites (PICS) have been used for on-orbit radiometric trending of optical satellite systems for more than 15 years. This approach to vicarious calibration has demonstrated a high degree of reliability and repeatability at the level of 1-3% depending on the site, spectral channel, and imaging geometries. A variety of sensors have used this approach for trending because it is broadly applicable and easy to implement. Models to describe the surface reflectance properties, as well as the intervening atmosphere have also been developed to improve the precision of the method. However, one limiting factor of using PICS is that an absolute calibration capability has not yet been fully developed. Because of this, PICS are primarily limited to providing only long term trending information for individual sensors or cross-calibration opportunities between two sensors. This paper builds an argument that PICS can be used more extensively for absolute calibration. To illustrate this, a simple empirical model is developed for the well-known Libya 4 PICS based on observations by Terra MODIS and EO-1 Hyperion. The model is validated by comparing model predicted top-of-atmosphere reflectance values to actual measurements made by the Landsat ETM+ sensor reflective bands. Following this, an outline is presented to develop a more comprehensive and accurate PICS absolute calibration model that can be Système international d'unités (SI) traceable. These initial concepts suggest that absolute calibration using PICS is possible on a broad scale and can lead to improved on-orbit calibration capabilities for optical satellite sensors.

  5. Broad-band efficiency calibration of ITER bolometer prototypes using Pt absorbers on SiN membranes.

    PubMed

    Meister, H; Willmeroth, M; Zhang, D; Gottwald, A; Krumrey, M; Scholze, F

    2013-12-01

    The energy resolved efficiency of two bolometer detector prototypes for ITER with 4 channels each and absorber thicknesses of 4.5 μm and 12.5 μm, respectively, has been calibrated in a broad spectral range from 1.46 eV up to 25 keV. The calibration in the energy range above 3 eV was performed against previously calibrated silicon photodiodes using monochromatized synchrotron radiation provided by five different beamlines of Physikalische Technische Bundesanstalt at the electron storage rings BESSY II and Metrology Light Source in Berlin. For the measurements in the visible range, a setup was realised using monochromatized halogen lamp radiation and a calibrated laser power meter as reference. The measurements clearly demonstrate that the efficiency of the bolometer prototype detectors in the range from 50 eV up to ≈6 keV is close to unity; at a photon energy of 20 keV the bolometer with the thick absorber detects 80% of the photons, the one with the thin absorber about 50%. This indicates that the detectors will be well capable of measuring the plasma radiation expected from the standard ITER scenario. However, a minimum absorber thickness will be required for the high temperatures in the central plasma. At 11.56 keV, the sharp Pt-L3 absorption edge allowed to cross-check the absorber thickness by fitting the measured efficiency to the theoretically expected absorption of X-rays in a homogeneous Pt-layer. Furthermore, below 50 eV the efficiency first follows the losses due to reflectance expected for Pt, but below 10 eV it is reduced further by a factor of 2 for the thick absorber and a factor of 4 for the thin absorber. Most probably, the different histories in production, storage, and operation led to varying surface conditions and additional loss channels. PMID:24387428

  6. Broad-band efficiency calibration of ITER bolometer prototypes using Pt absorbers on SiN membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meister, H.; Willmeroth, M.; Zhang, D.; Gottwald, A.; Krumrey, M.; Scholze, F.

    2013-12-01

    The energy resolved efficiency of two bolometer detector prototypes for ITER with 4 channels each and absorber thicknesses of 4.5 μm and 12.5 μm, respectively, has been calibrated in a broad spectral range from 1.46 eV up to 25 keV. The calibration in the energy range above 3 eV was performed against previously calibrated silicon photodiodes using monochromatized synchrotron radiation provided by five different beamlines of Physikalische Technische Bundesanstalt at the electron storage rings BESSY II and Metrology Light Source in Berlin. For the measurements in the visible range, a setup was realised using monochromatized halogen lamp radiation and a calibrated laser power meter as reference. The measurements clearly demonstrate that the efficiency of the bolometer prototype detectors in the range from 50 eV up to ≈6 keV is close to unity; at a photon energy of 20 keV the bolometer with the thick absorber detects 80% of the photons, the one with the thin absorber about 50%. This indicates that the detectors will be well capable of measuring the plasma radiation expected from the standard ITER scenario. However, a minimum absorber thickness will be required for the high temperatures in the central plasma. At 11.56 keV, the sharp Pt-L3 absorption edge allowed to cross-check the absorber thickness by fitting the measured efficiency to the theoretically expected absorption of X-rays in a homogeneous Pt-layer. Furthermore, below 50 eV the efficiency first follows the losses due to reflectance expected for Pt, but below 10 eV it is reduced further by a factor of 2 for the thick absorber and a factor of 4 for the thin absorber. Most probably, the different histories in production, storage, and operation led to varying surface conditions and additional loss channels.

  7. On-orbit coldwelding: Fact or friction?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dursch, Harry; Spear, Steve

    1992-01-01

    A study into the potential of on-orbit coldwelding occurring was completed. No instances of cold welding were found during deintegration and subsequent testing and analysis of LDEF hardware. This finding generated wide interest and indicated the need to review previous on-orbit coldwelding experiments and on-orbit spacecraft anomalies to determine whether the absence of coldwelding on LDEF was to be expected. Results show that even though there have been no documented cases of significant on-orbit coldwelding events occurring, precautions should be taken to ensure that neither coldwelding nor galling occurs in the space or prelaunch environment.

  8. On-Orbit Compressor Technology Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deffenbaugh, Danny M.; Svedeman, Steven J.; Schroeder, Edgar C.; Gerlach, C. Richard

    1990-01-01

    A synopsis of the On-Orbit Compressor Technology Program is presented. The objective is the exploration of compressor technology applicable for use by the Space Station Fluid Management System, Space Station Propulsion System, and related on-orbit fluid transfer systems. The approach is to extend the current state-of-the-art in natural gas compressor technology to the unique requirements of high-pressure, low-flow, small, light, and low-power devices for on-orbit applications. This technology is adapted to seven on-orbit conceptual designs and one prototype is developed and tested.

  9. Improvements of VIIRS and MODIS solar diffuser and lunar calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Butler, James; Lei, Ning; Sun, Junqiang; Fulbright, Jon; Wang, Zhipeng; McIntire, Jeff; Angal, Amit

    2013-09-01

    Both VIIRS and MODIS instruments use solar diffuser (SD) and lunar observations to calibrate their reflective solar bands (RSB). A solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM) is used to track the SD on-orbit degradation. On-orbit observations have shown similar wavelength-dependent SD degradation (larger at shorter VIS wavelengths) and SDSM detector response degradation (larger at longer NIR wavelengths) for both VIIRS and MODIS instruments. In general, the MODIS scan mirror has experienced more degradation in the VIS spectral region whereas the VIIRS rotating telescope assembly (RTA) mirrors have seen more degradation in the NIR and SWIR spectral region. Because of this wavelength dependent mirror degradation, the sensor's relative spectral response (RSR) needs to be modulated. Due to differences between the solar and lunar spectral irradiance, the modulated RSR could have different effects on the SD and lunar calibration. In this paper, we identify various factors that should be considered for the improvements of VIIRS and MODIS solar and lunar calibration and examine their potential impact. Specifically, we will characterize and assess the calibration impact due to SD and SDSM attenuation screen transmission (uncertainty), SD BRF uncertainty and onorbit degradation, SDSM detector response degradation, and modulated RSR resulting from the sensor's optics degradation. Also illustrated and discussed in this paper are the calibration strategies implemented in the VIIRS and MODIS SD and lunar calibrations and efforts that could be made for future improvements.

  10. Improvements of VIIRS and MODIS Solar Diffuser and Lunar Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Butler, James J.; Lei, Ning; Sun, Junqiang; Fulbright, Jon; Wang, Zhipeng; McIntire, Jeff; Angal, Amit Avinash

    2013-01-01

    Both VIIRS and MODIS instruments use solar diffuser (SD) and lunar observations to calibrate their reflective solar bands (RSB). A solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM) is used to track the SD on-orbit degradation. On-orbit observations have shown similar wavelength-dependent SD degradation (larger at shorter VIS wavelengths) and SDSM detector response degradation (larger at longer NIR wavelengths) for both VIIRS and MODIS instruments. In general, the MODIS scan mirror has experienced more degradation in the VIS spectral region whereas the VIIRS rotating telescope assembly (RTA) mirrors have seen more degradation in the NIR and SWIR spectral region. Because of this wavelength dependent mirror degradation, the sensor's relative spectral response (RSR) needs to be modulated. Due to differences between the solar and lunar spectral irradiance, the modulated RSR could have different effects on the SD and lunar calibration. In this paper, we identify various factors that should be considered for the improvements of VIIRS and MODIS solar and lunar calibration and examine their potential impact. Specifically, we will characterize and assess the calibration impact due to SD and SDSM attenuation screen transmission (uncertainty), SD BRF uncertainty and onorbit degradation, SDSM detector response degradation, and modulated RSR resulting from the sensor's optics degradation. Also illustrated and discussed in this paper are the calibration strategies implemented in the VIIRS and MODIS SD and lunar calibrations and efforts that could be made for future improvements.

  11. Status of MODIS Instruments and Future Calibration Improvements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, X.; Angal, A.; Wu, A.; Salomonson, V. V.

    2015-12-01

    MODIS is one of the key instruments currently operated on two major missions for the NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) program: Terra and Aqua launched in 1999 and 2002, respectively. Nearly 40 data products have been routinely generated from both Terra and Aqua MODIS observations and widely distributed to the science community and users worldwide for their studies of the earth's system and changes in its geophysical properties. To date, each MODIS instrument operation remains nominal and its on-board calibrators (OBC) continue to function satisfactorily. On a regular basis, MODIS reflective solar bands (RSB) calibration is performed by a solar diffuser (SD) and a solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM). For the thermal emissive bands (TEB), an on-board blackbody (BB) provides a scan-by-scan calibration reference. Since launch, extensive calibration and characterization activities have been scheduled and implemented by the MODIS Characterization Support Team (MCST) to produce and update calibration look-up tables (LUT). This presentation provides an overview of both Terra and Aqua MODIS instrument status, their on-orbit operation and calibration activities, and radiometric, spectral, and spatial performance. It describes calibration changes (algorithms and look-up tables) made for the MODIS Level 1B (L1B) data collection 6 (C6) and discusses remaining challenging issues and ongoing effort for future improvements. As expected, lessons from both Terra and Aqua MODIS have benefitted and will continue to help the S-NPP and JPSS VIIRS instruments in terms of on-orbit operation strategies and calibration enhancements.

  12. Radiometric calibration of the reflective bands of NS001-Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) and modular multispectral radiometers (MMR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, Brian L.; Wood, Frank M., Jr.; Ahmad, Suraiya P.

    1988-01-01

    The NS001 Thematic Mapper Simulator scanner (TMS) and several modular multispectral radiometers (MMRs) are among the primary instruments used in the First ISLSCP (International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project) Field Experiment (FIFE). The NS001 has a continuously variable gain setting. Calibration of the NS001 data is influenced by drift in the dark current level of up to six counts during a mirror scan at typical gain settings. The MMR instruments are being used in their 1 deg FOV configuration on the helicopter and 15 deg FOV on the ground.

  13. Calibration of GOES-VISSR, visible-band satellite data and its application to the analysis of a dust storm at Owens Lake, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacKinnon, D.J.; Chavez, P.S., Jr.; Fraser, R. S.; Niemeyer, T.C.; Gillette, Dale A.

    1996-01-01

    As part of a joint Russian/American dust-storm experiment, GOES-VISSR (Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite, Visible-Infrared Spin-Scan Radiometer), data from a visible-band satellite image of a large dust storm emanating from Owens Lake, California were acquired on March 10 and 11, 1993. The satellite data were calibrated to targets of known ground reflectance factors and processed with radiative transfer techniques to yield aerosol (dust) optical depth at those stages of the dust storm when concurrent ground-based measurements of optical depth were made. Calibration of the satellite data is crucial for comparing surficial changes in remotely sensed data acquired over a period of time from the same area and for determining accurate concentrations of atmospheric aerosols using radiative transfer techniques. The calibration procedure forces the distribution of visible-band, DN (digital number) values, acquired on July 1, 1992, at 1731 GMT from the GOES-VISSR sensor over a large test area, to match the distribution of visible-band, DN values concurrently acquired from a Landsat MSS (Multispectral Scanner) sensor over the same test area; the Landsat MSS DN values were directly associated with reflectance factors measured from ground targets. The calibrated GOES-VISSR data for July 1, 1992, were then used to calibrate other GOES-VISSR data acquired on March 10 and 11, 1993, during the dust storm. Uncertainties in location of ground targets, bi-directional reflectance and atmospheric attenuation contribute an error of approximately ??0.02 in the satellite-inferred ground reflectance factors. On March 11 at 1031 PST the satellite-received radiances during the peak of the storm were 3 times larger than predicted by our radiative transfer model for a pure clay dust plume of infinite optical depth. This result supported ground-based measurements that the plume at that time was composed primarily of large salt grains, probably sodium sulfate, which could not be

  14. On-Orbit Performance of the COS Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahnow, David; McPhate, Jason; Ake, Thomas B.; Massa, Derck; Penton, Steven V.; Burgh, Eric; Zheng, Wei

    2010-07-01

    The Cosmic Origins Spectrograph includes two microchannel plate detectors. The FUV channel uses a two-segment cross delay line (XDL) device, while the the NUV channel uses a MAMA, similar to those used by other HST instruments. Since SM4, both detectors have been characterized in detail, using data collected as part of specific calibration programs and in the course of normal science observations. We will describe the on-orbit performance of both detectors since the installation of COS, and describe ongoing detector characterization work.

  15. Comparison of site calibration and cross calibration of Gao Fen (GF)-1 Wide Field of View (WFV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Li; Xu, Wen; Lu, Shuning; Fu, Qiaoyan; Pan, Zhiqiang; Shi, Tingting

    2015-10-01

    The Wide Field of View (WFV) is one of the key instruments for China's high resolution earth observing system, operating on the Gao Fen-1 (GF-1) satellite which was launched on April 26, 2013. WFV has 4 typical reflective solar bands from 0.45-0.89 μm with 16m nadir spatial resolution. Because of GF-1's lacking in onboard calibrators, on-orbit radiometric calibration is mainly relies on site calibration. The reflectance-based method of site calibration has been used for the absolute radiometric calibration of the GF-1 WFV on June 26th, 2013 and August 3rd, 2014. The reflectance-based method relies on ground-based measurements of the surface reflectance and atmospheric conditions at Dunhuang test site nearly coincident with the imaging of the test site by the WFV. Site calibration is a time consuming and hard sledding method, which is also difficult to reveal or adequately correct for the deficiency of instrument calibration by its own calibration subsystem. Cross-calibration can be a powerful method to remedy the insufficient of the site calibration. Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) with its high accuracy onboard calibration system has been selected as reference sensor. Cross calibration between GF-1/WFV and Terra/MODIS are based on the near-simultaneous and cloud-free image pairs over Dunhuang test site on the same day with site calibration. Spectral band adjustment factors (SBAF) for the cross calibration are determined by SRF, solar zenith and azimuth angle, sensors' zenith and azimuth angle and a typical reflectance spectrum over the Dunhuang test site obtained by in-situ measurements. The percentage difference between the site calibrations is within 5% which reflects that the GF-1/WFV is stable after the launch and the reflectance-based method itself is reliable. The comparison of site calibration and cross calibration shows that site calibration has higher accuracy than the cross calibration, the cross calibration is affected by

  16. Status of the MODIS Level 1B Algorithms and Calibration Tables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, X; Salomonson, V V; Kuyper, J; Tan, L; Chiang, K; Sun, J; Barnes, W L

    2005-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) makes observations using 36 spectral bands with wavelengths from 0.41 to 14.4 m and nadir spatial resolutions of 0.25km, 0.5km, and 1km. It is currently operating onboard the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra and Aqua satellites, launched in December 1999 and May 2002, respectively. The MODIS Level 1B (L1B) program converts the sensor's on-orbit responses in digital numbers to radiometrically calibrated and geo-located data products for the duration of each mission. Its primary data products are top of the atmosphere (TOA) reflectance factors for the sensor's reflective solar bands (RSB) and TOA spectral radiances for the thermal emissive bands (TEB). The L1B algorithms perform the TEB calibration on a scan-by-scan basis using the sensor's response to the on-board blackbody (BB) and other parameters which are stored in Lookup Tables (LUTs). The RSB calibration coefficients are processed offline and regularly updated through LUTs. In this paper we provide a brief description of the MODIS L1B calibration algorithms and associated LUTs with emphasis on their recent improvements and updates developed for the MODIS collection 5 processing. We will also discuss sensor on-orbit calibration and performance issues that are critical to maintaining L1B data product quality, such as changes in the sensor's response versus scan-angle.

  17. Measurements of Ocean Surface Scattering Using an Airborne 94-GHz Cloud Radar: Implication for Calibration of Airborne and Spaceborne W-band Radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Li-Hua; Heymsfield, Gerald M.; Tian, Lin; Racette, Paul E.

    2004-01-01

    Scattering properties of the Ocean surface have been widely used as a calibration reference for airborne and spaceborne microwave sensors. However, at millimeter-wave frequencies, the ocean surface backscattering mechanism is still not well understood, in part, due to the lack of experimental measurements. During the Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers-Florida Area Cirrus Experiment (CRYSTAL-FACE), measurements of ocean surface backscattering were made using a 94-GHz (W-band) cloud radar onboard a NASA ER-2 high-altitude aircraft. The measurement set includes the normalized Ocean surface cross section over a range of the incidence angles under a variety of wind conditions. Analysis of the radar measurements shows good agreement with a quasi-specular scattering model. This unprecedented dataset enhances our knowledge about the Ocean surface scattering mechanism at 94 GHz. The results of this work support the proposition of using the Ocean surface as a calibration reference for airborne millimeter-wave cloud radars and for the ongoing NASA CloudSat mission, which will use a 94-GHz spaceborne cloud radar for global cloud measurements.

  18. Feasibility demonstration for calibrating Suomi-National Polar-Orbiting Partnership Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite day/night band using Dome C and Greenland under moon light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Shi; Shao, Xi; Cao, Changyong; Uprety, Sirish

    2016-01-01

    The day/night band (DNB) of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) onboard Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (Suomi-NPP) represents a major advancement in night time imaging capabilities. DNB covers almost seven orders of magnitude in its dynamic range from full sunlight to half-moon. To achieve this large dynamic range, it uses four charge-coupled device arrays in three gain stages. The low gain stage (LGS) gain is calibrated using the solar diffuser. In operations, the medium and high gain stage values are determined by multiplying the gain ratios between the medium gain stage, and LGS, and high gain stage (HGS) and LGS, respectively. This paper focuses on independently verifying the radiometric accuracy and stability of DNB HGS using DNB observations of ground vicarious calibration sites under lunar illumination at night. Dome C in Antarctica in the southern hemisphere and Greenland in the northern hemisphere are chosen as the vicarious calibration sites. Nadir observations of these high latitude regions by VIIRS are selected during perpetual night season, i.e., from April to August for Dome C and from November to January for Greenland over the years 2012 to 2013. Additional selection criteria, such as lunar phase being more than half-moon and no influence of straylight effects, are also applied in data selection. The lunar spectral irradiance model, as a function of Sun-Earth-Moon distances and lunar phase, is used to determine the top-of-atmosphere reflectance at the vicarious site. The vicariously derived long-term reflectance from DNB observations agrees with the reflectance derived from Hyperion observations. The vicarious trending of DNB radiometric performance using DOME-C and Greenland under moon light shows that the DNB HGS radiometric variability (relative accuracy to lunar irradiance model and Hyperion observation) is within 8%. Residual variability is also discussed.

  19. Radiometric trend of lunar calibration compared with vicarious calibration for GOSAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiomi, K.; Kawakami, S.; Kuze, A.; Suto, H.; Hashiguchi, T.; Kataoka, F.; Higuchi, R.; Bruegge, C. J.; Schwandner, F. M.; Chapsky, L.

    2014-12-01

    GOSAT observes a nearly full moon for the on-orbit radiometric calibration of the FTS SWIR bands and the CAI. Lunar calibrations are operated in April/May for investigation of continuous annual radiometric trends and in June/July, corresponding to the annual Railroad Valley Cal/Val campaign. JAXA's Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) is since 2009 in polar orbit to monitor greenhouse gases such as CO2 and CH4 from space. GOSAT consists of a Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) and a Cloud and Aerosol Imager (TANSO-CAI). The FTS has 3 polarized SWIR narrow bands and a TIR wide band. The FTS observes globally with gridded points of 10 km FOV using discrete pointing. The CAI carries 4 radiometers in the UV to SWIR with high spatial resolution of 0.5-1.5 km and a wide swath of 1000 km. Since the 3rd year, lunar calibration has been planned to observe at a phase angle around 7 degrees from normal incidence. This choice avoids the reflectance opposition surge in order to target the nearly-unchanged and brightest reflectance as a function of phase angle. The Railroad Valley vicarious calibration campaign is conducted by measuring the surface reflectance and atmospheric parameters coincident with a dedicated GOSAT target observation, to derive top-of-the-atmosphere radiance. The nadir surface reflectance is collected in 500x500 m areas corresponding to the CAI resolution. The off-nadir reflectance is measured simultaneously with BRDF values, for correction. We will summarize the radiometric study of the GOSAT lunar calibration compared with the vicarious calibration. In-flight coincident calibration activities will continue with GOSAT and OCO-2.

  20. Posterior uncertainty of GEOS-5 L-band radiative transfer model parameters and brightness temperatures after calibration with SMOS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Lannoy, G. J.; Reichle, R. H.; Vrugt, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    Simulated L-band (1.4 GHz) brightness temperatures are very sensitive to the values of the parameters in the radiative transfer model (RTM). We assess the optimum RTM parameter values and their (posterior) uncertainty in the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS-5) land surface model using observations of multi-angular brightness temperature over North America from the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission. Two different parameter estimation methods are being compared: (i) a particle swarm optimization (PSO) approach, and (ii) an MCMC simulation procedure using the differential evolution adaptive Metropolis (DREAM) algorithm. Our results demonstrate that both methods provide similar "optimal" parameter values. Yet, DREAM exhibits better convergence properties, resulting in a reduced spread of the posterior ensemble. The posterior parameter distributions derived with both methods are used for predictive uncertainty estimation of brightness temperature. This presentation will highlight our model-data synthesis framework and summarize our initial findings.

  1. On-Orbit Performance of the TRMM Mission Mode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Brent; Placanica, Sam; Morgenstern, Wendy; Hashmall, Joseph A.; Glickman, Jonathan; Natanson, Gregory

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Attitude Control System along with detailed in-flight performance results of the TRMM Mission mode. The TRMM spacecraft is an Earth-pointed, zero momentum bias satellite launched on November 27, 1997 from Tanegashima Space Center, Japan. TRMM is a joint mission between NASA and the National Space Development Agency of Japan designed to monitor and study tropical rainfall and the associated release of energy. Prior to calibration, the spacecraft attitude showed larger Sun sensor yaw updates than expected. This was traced to not just sensor misalignment but also to a misalignment between the two heads within each Sun sensor. In order to avoid alteration of the flight software, Sun sensor transfer function coefficients were determined to minimize the error due to head misalignment. This paper describes the design, on-orbit checkout, calibration and performance of the TRMM Mission Mode with respect to the mission level requirements.

  2. An X-Band Radar Terrain Feature Detection Method for Low-Altitude SVS Operations and Calibration Using LiDAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Steve; UijtdeHaag, Maarten; Campbell, Jacob

    2004-01-01

    To enable safe use of Synthetic Vision Systems at low altitudes, real-time range-to-terrain measurements may be required to ensure the integrity of terrain models stored in the system. This paper reviews and extends previous work describing the application of x-band radar to terrain model integrity monitoring. A method of terrain feature extraction and a transformation of the features to a common reference domain are proposed. Expected error distributions for the extracted features are required to establish appropriate thresholds whereby a consistency-checking function can trigger an alert. A calibration-based approach is presented that can be used to obtain these distributions. To verify the approach, NASA's DC-8 airborne science platform was used to collect data from two mapping sensors. An Airborne Laser Terrain Mapping (ALTM) sensor was installed in the cargo bay of the DC-8. After processing, the ALTM produced a reference terrain model with a vertical accuracy of less than one meter. Also installed was a commercial-off-the-shelf x-band radar in the nose radome of the DC-8. Although primarily designed to measure precipitation, the radar also provides estimates of terrain reflectivity at low altitudes. Using the ALTM data as the reference, errors in features extracted from the radar are estimated. A method to estimate errors in features extracted from the terrain model is also presented.

  3. Earth Observing-1 Advanced Land Imager: Imaging Performance On-Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hearn, D. R.

    2002-01-01

    This report analyzes the on-orbit imaging performance of the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) on the Earth Observing-1 satellite. The pre-flight calibrations are first summarized. The methods used to reconstruct and geometrically correct the image data from this push-broom sensor are described. The method used here does not refer to the position and attitude telemetry from the spacecraft. Rather, it is assumed that the image of the scene moves across the focal plane with a constant velocity, which can be ascertained from the image data itself. Next, an assortment of the images so reconstructed is presented. Color images sharpened with the 10-m panchromatic band data are shown, and the algorithm for producing them from the 30-m multispectral data is described. The approach taken for assessing spatial resolution is to compare the sharpness of features in the on-orbit image data with profiles predicted on the basis of the pre-flight calibrations. A large assortment of bridge profiles is analyzed, and very good fits to the predicted shapes are obtained. Lunar calibration scans are analyzed to examine the sharpness of the edge-spread function at the limb of the moon. The darkness of the space beyond the limb is better for this purpose than anything that could be simulated on the ground. From these scans, we find clear evidence of scattering in the optical system, as well as some weak ghost images. Scans of planets and stars are also analyzed. Stars are useful point sources of light at all wavelengths, and delineate the point-spread functions of the system. From a quarter-speed scan over the Pleiades, we find that the ALI can detect 6th magnitude stars. The quality of the reconstructed images verifies the capability of the ALI to produce Landsat-type multi spectral data. The signal-to-noise and panchromatic spatial resolution are considerably superior to those of the existing Landsat sensors. The spatial resolution is confirmed to be as good as it was designed to be.

  4. Onboard calibration status of the ASTER instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakuma, Fumihiro; Kikuchi, Masakuni; Inada, Hitomi; Akagi, Shigeki; Ono, Hidehiko

    2012-11-01

    The ASTER Instrument is one of the five sensors on the NASA's Terra satellite on orbit since December 1999. ASTER consists of three radiometers, VNIR, SWIR and TIR whose spatial resolutions are 15 m, 30 m and 90 m, respectively. Unfortunately SWIR stopped taking images since May 2008 due to the offset rise caused by the detector temperature rise, but VNIR and TIR are taking Earth images of good quality. VNIR and TIR experienced responsivity degradation while SWIR showed little change. Band 1 (0.56 μm) decreased most among three VNIR bands and 30 % in twelve years. Band 12 (9.1 μm) decreased 40 % and most among five TIR bands. There are some discussions of the causes of the responsivity degradation of VNIR and TIR. Possible causes are contamination accretion by silicone outgas, thruster plume and plasma interaction. We marked hydrazine which comes out unburned in the thruster plume during the inclination adjust maneuver (IAM). Hydrazine has the absorption spectra corresponding to the TIR responsivity degradation in the infrared region. We studied the IAM effect on the ASTER by allocating the additional onboard calibration activities just before and after the IAM while the normal onboard calibration activity is operated once in 49 days. This experiment was carried out three times in fiscal year 2011.

  5. On-orbit characterization of the VIIRS solar diffuser and solar diffuser screen.

    PubMed

    Sun, Junqiang; Wang, Menghua

    2015-01-10

    We analyze bidirectional reflectance factors (BRF) of the solar diffuser (SD) and vignetting function (VF) of the SD screen (SDS) for on-board calibration of the visible infrared imaging radiometer suite (VIIRS). Specific focus is placed on the products of the BRF and VF, which are the main inputs for calibration of the SD and its accompanying solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM), which tracks SD degradation. A set of 14 spacecraft yaw maneuvers for the Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership satellite, which houses the VIIRS instrument, was carefully planned and carried out over many orbits to provide the necessary information on the dependence of VIIRS instrument response on solar angles. Along with the prelaunch measurements for the SDS VF and SD BRF, the absolute form of the BRF-VF product is determined for each of the reflective solar bands (RSB) and the SDSM detectors. Consequently, the absolute form of the SDS VF also is obtained from the RSB and SDSM detectors using the yaw maneuver data. The results show that the BRF-VF product for an RSB is independent of the detector, gain status, and half-angle mirror side. The derived VFs from the RSB and the SDSM detectors also show reasonable agreement with each other, as well as with the prelaunch VF measurements, and further demonstrate only geometrical dependence, which, in this work, is characterized by solar angles. The derived calibration coefficients, called the F-factors, from the application of the derived functions in this study show a significantly improved pattern. A small band-dependent residual seasonal fluctuation on the level of ∼0.2%-0.4% remains in the F-factors for each RSB and is further improved by a corrective function with linear dependence on the solar azimuth angle in the nominal attitude instrument coordinate system to the VF. For satellite ocean color remote sensing, on-orbit instrument calibration and characterization are particularly important for producing accurate and consistent

  6. Comparison of two methodologies for calibrating satellite instruments in the visible and near infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Robert A.; Brown, Steven W.; Lykke, Keith R.; Guenther, Bruce; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Butler, James J.

    2010-10-01

    Traditionally, satellite instruments that measure Earth-reflected solar radiation in the visible and near infrared wavelength regions have been calibrated for radiance response in a two-step method. In the first step, the spectral response of the instrument is determined using a nearly monochromatic light source, such as a lamp-illuminated monochromator. Such sources only provide a relative spectral response (RSR) for the instrument, since they do not act as calibrated sources of light nor do they typically fill the field-of-view of the instrument. In the second step, the instrument views a calibrated source of broadband light, such as a lamp-illuminated integrating sphere. In the traditional method, the RSR and the sphere spectral radiance are combined and, with the instrument's response, determine the absolute spectral radiance responsivity of the instrument. More recently, an absolute calibration system using widely tunable monochromatic laser systems has been developed. Using these sources, the absolute spectral responsivity (ASR) of an instrument can be determined on a wavelength-by-wavelength basis. From these monochromatic ASRs, the responses of the instrument bands to broadband radiance sources can be calculated directly, eliminating the need for calibrated broadband light sources such as integrating spheres. Here we describe the laser-based calibration and the traditional broad-band sourcebased calibration of the NPP VIIRS sensor, and compare the derived calibration coefficients for the instrument. Finally, we evaluate the impact of the new calibration approach on the on-orbit performance of the sensor.

  7. Comparison of Two Methodologies for Calibrating Satellite Instruments in the Visible and Near Infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Robert A.; Brown, Steven W.; Lykke, Keith R.; Guenther, Bruce; Xiong, Xiaoxiong (Jack); Butler, James J.

    2010-01-01

    Traditionally, satellite instruments that measure Earth-reflected solar radiation in the visible and near infrared wavelength regions have been calibrated for radiance response in a two-step method. In the first step, the spectral response of the instrument is determined using a nearly monochromatic light source, such a lamp-illuminated monochromator. Such sources only provide a relative spectral response (RSR) for the instrument, since they do not act as calibrated sources of light nor do they typically fill the field-of-view of the instrument. In the second step, the instrument views a calibrated source of broadband light, such as lamp-illuminated integrating sphere. In the traditional method, the RSR and the sphere spectral radiance are combined and, with the instrument's response, determine the absolute spectral radiance responsivity of the instrument. More recently, an absolute calibration system using widely tunable monochromatic laser systems has been developed, Using these sources, the absolute spectral responsivity (ASR) of an instrument can be determined on a wavelength-hy-wavelength basis. From these monochromatic ASRs. the responses of the instrument bands to broadband radiance sources can be calculated directly, eliminating the need for calibrated broadband light sources such as integrating spheres. Here we describe the laser-based calibration and the traditional broad-band source-based calibration of the NPP VIIRS sensor, and compare the derived calibration coefficients for the instrument. Finally, we evaluate the impact of the new calibration approach on the on-orbit performance of the sensor.

  8. Calibrating transition-metal energy levels and oxygen bands in first-principles calculations: Accurate prediction of redox potentials and charge transfer in lithium transition-metal oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Dong-Hwa; Urban, Alexander; Ceder, Gerbrand

    2015-09-01

    Transition-metal (TM) oxides play an increasingly important role in technology today, including applications such as catalysis, solar energy harvesting, and energy storage. In many of these applications, the details of their electronic structure near the Fermi level are critically important for their properties. We propose a first-principles-based computational methodology for the accurate prediction of oxygen charge transfer in TM oxides and lithium TM (Li-TM) oxides. To obtain accurate electronic structures, the Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof (HSE06) hybrid functional is adopted, and the amount of exact Hartree-Fock exchange (mixing parameter) is adjusted to reproduce reference band gaps. We show that the HSE06 functional with optimal mixing parameter yields not only improved electronic densities of states, but also better energetics (Li-intercalation voltages) for LiCo O2 and LiNi O2 as compared to the generalized gradient approximation (GGA), Hubbard U corrected GGA (GGA +U ), and standard HSE06. We find that the optimal mixing parameters for TM oxides are system specific and correlate with the covalency (ionicity) of the TM species. The strong covalent (ionic) nature of TM-O bonding leads to lower (higher) optimal mixing parameters. We find that optimized HSE06 functionals predict stronger hybridization of the Co 3 d and O 2 p orbitals as compared to GGA, resulting in a greater contribution from oxygen states to charge compensation upon delithiation in LiCo O2 . We also find that the band gaps of Li-TM oxides increase linearly with the mixing parameter, enabling the straightforward determination of optimal mixing parameters based on GGA (α =0.0 ) and HSE06 (α =0.25 ) calculations. Our results also show that G0W0@GGA +U band gaps of TM oxides (M O ,M =Mn ,Co ,Ni ) and LiCo O2 agree well with experimental references, suggesting that G0W0 calculations can be used as a reference for the calibration of the mixing parameter in cases when no experimental band gap has been

  9. Broad-band photometric colors and effective temperature calibrations for late-type giants. II. Z < 0.02

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kučinskas, A.; Hauschildt, P. H.; Brott, I.; Vansevičius, V.; Lindegren, L.; Tanabé, T.; Allard, F.

    2006-06-01

    We investigate the effects of metallicity on the broad-band photometric colors of late-type giants, and make a comparison of synthetic colors with observed photometric properties of late-type giants over a wide range of effective temperatures (T_eff=3500-4800 K) and gravities (log g=0.0-2.5), at [M/H]=-1.0 and -2.0. The influence of metallicity on the synthetic photometric colors is small at effective temperatures above 3800 K, but the effects grow larger at lower T_eff, due to the changing efficiency of molecule formation which reduces molecular opacities at lower [M/H]. To make a detailed comparison of the synthetic and observed photometric colors of late type giants in the T_eff-color and color-color planes (which is done at two metallicities, [M/H]=-1.0 and -2.0), we derive a set of new T_eff-log g-color relations based on synthetic photometric colors, at [M/H]=-0.5, -1.0, -1.5, and -2.0. These relations are based on the T_eff-log g scales that we derive employing literature data for 178 late-type giants in 10 Galactic globular clusters (with metallicities of the individual stars between [M/H]=-0.7 and -2.5), and synthetic colors produced with the PHOENIX, MARCS and ATLAS stellar atmosphere codes. Combined with the T_eff-log g-color relations at [M/H]=0.0 (Kučinskas et al. 2005), the set of new relations covers metallicities [M/H]=0.0dots-2.0 (Δ[M/H]=0.5), effective temperatures T_eff=3500dots4800 K (Δ T_eff=100 K), and gravities log g=-0.5dots3.0. The new T_eff-log g-color relations are in good agreement with published T_eff-color relations based on observed properties of late-type giants, both at [M/H]=-1.0 and -2.0. The differences in all T_eff-color planes are typically well within 100 K. We find, however, that effective temperatures predicted by the scales based on synthetic colors tend to be slightly higher than those resulting from the T_eff-color relations based on observations, with the offsets up to 100 K. This is clearly seen both at [M/H]=-1

  10. Global space-based inter-calibration system reflective solar calibration reference: from Aqua MODIS to S-NPP VIIRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Angal, Amit; Butler, James; Cao, Changyong; Doelling, David; Wu, Aisheng; Wu, Xiangqian

    2016-05-01

    The MODIS has successfully operated on-board the NASA's EOS Terra and Aqua spacecraft for more than 16 and 14 years, respectively. MODIS instrument was designed with stringent calibration requirements and comprehensive on-board calibration capability. In the reflective solar spectral region, Aqua MODIS has performed better than Terra MODIS and, therefore, has been chosen by the Global Space-based Inter- Calibration System (GSICS) operational community as the calibration reference sensor in cross-sensor calibration and calibration inter-comparisons. For the same reason, it has also been used by a number of earth-observing sensors as their calibration reference. Considering that Aqua MODIS has already operated for nearly 14 years, it is essential to transfer its calibration to a follow-on reference sensor with a similar calibration capability and stable performance. The VIIRS is a follow-on instrument to MODIS and has many similar design features as MODIS, including their on-board calibrators (OBC). As a result, VIIRS is an ideal candidate to replace MODIS to serve as the future GSICS reference sensor. Since launch, the S-NPP VIIRS has already operated for more than 4 years and its overall performance has been extensively characterized and demonstrated to meet its overall design requirements. This paper provides an overview of Aqua MODIS and S-NPP VIIRS reflective solar bands (RSB) calibration methodologies and strategies, traceability, and their on-orbit performance. It describes and illustrates different methods and approaches that can be used to facilitate the calibration reference transfer, including the use of desert and Antarctic sites, deep convective clouds (DCC), and the lunar observations.

  11. History of on-orbit satellite fragmentations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, N. L.; Gabbard, J. R.; Devere, G. T.; Johnson, E. E.

    1984-01-01

    The causes of on-orbit fragmentations are varied and may be intentional or accidental. The cause of many fragmentations remains unknown. While a few cases are currently under investigation as on-orbit collision candidates, man is directly responsible for the vast majority of artificial debris polluting the near-Earth space environment. It should be emphasized that the number of fragments listed with each event in this document represent only those debris officially cataloged by NORAD. Each known on-orbit satellite fragementation is described within this document in module format. Also listed are pertinent characteristics of each fragmentation event. Comments regarding the nature of the satellite and additional details of the events are given.

  12. The Preflight Calibration of the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) on the Landsat Data Continuity Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Ramsey; Reuter, Dennis; Irons, James; Lunsford, Allen; Montanero, Matthew; Tesfaye, Zelalem; Wenny, Brian; Thome, Kurtis

    2011-01-01

    The preflight calibration testing of TIRS evaluates the performance of the instrument at the component, subsystem and system level, The overall objective is to provide an instrument that is well calibrated and well characterized with specification compliant data that will ensure the data continuity of Landsat from the previous missions to the LDCM, The TIRS flight build unit and the flight instrument were assessed through a series of calibration tests at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Instrument-level requirements played a strong role in defining the test equipment and procedures used for the calibration in the thermal/vacuum chamber. The calibration ground support equipment (CGSE), manufactured by MEI and ATK Corporation, was used to measure the optical, radiometric and geometric characteristics of TIRS, The CGSE operates in three test configurations: GeoRad (geometric, radiometric and spatial), flood source and spectral, TIRS was evaluated though the following tests: bright target recovery, radiometry, spectral response, spatial shape, scatter, stray light, focus, and uniformity, Data were obtained for the instrument and various subsystems under conditions simulating those on orbit In the spectral configuration, a monochromator system with a blackbody source is used for in-band and out-of-band relative spectral response characterization, In the flood source configuration the entire focal plane array is illuminated simultaneously to investigate pixel-to-pixel uniformity and dead or inoperable pixels, The remaining tests were executed in the GeoRad configuration and use a NIST calibrated cavity blackbody source, The NIST calibration is transferred to the TIRS sensor and to the blackbody source on-board TIRS, The onboard calibrator will be the primary calibration source for the TIRS sensor on orbit.

  13. Forward Technology Solar Cell Experiment First On-Orbit Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walters, R. J.; Garner, J. C.; Lam, S. N.; Vazquez, J. A.; Braun, W. R.; Ruth, R. E.; Warner, J. H.; Lorentzen, J. R.; Messenger, S. R.; Bruninga, R.; Jenkins, P. P.; Flatico, J. M.; Wilt, D. M.; Piszczor, M. F.; Greer, L. C.; Krasowski, M. J.

    2007-01-01

    and receives in the Amateur Radio band providing a node on the Amateur Radio Satellite Service. This paper presents an overview of the various aspects of MISSE-5 and a sample of the first measured on orbit data.

  14. Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) and uncertainty in the ocean color calibration methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turpie, Kevin R.; Eplee, Robert E.; Meister, Gerhard

    2015-09-01

    During the first few years of the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) mission, the NASA Ocean Color calibration team continued to improve on their approach to the on-orbit calibration of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS). As the calibration was adjusted for changes in ocean band responsitivity, the team also estimated a theoretic residual error in the calibration trends well within a few tenths of a percent, which could be translated into trend uncertainties in regional time series of surface reflectance and derived products, where biases as low as a few tenths of a percent in certain bands can lead to significant effects. This study looks at effects from spurious trends inherent to the calibration and biases that arise between reprocessing efforts because of extrapolation of the timedependent calibration table. With the addition of new models for instrument and calibration system trend artifacts, new calibration trends led to improved estimates of ocean time series uncertainty. Table extrapolation biases are presented for the first time. The results further the understanding of uncertainty in measuring regional and global biospheric trends in the ocean using VIIRS, which better define the roles of such records in climate research.

  15. On-Orbit Propulsion OMS/RCS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurlbert, Eric A.

    2001-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Space Shuttle's On-Orbit Propulsion systems: the Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) and the Reaction Control System (RCS). The functions of each of the systems is described, and the diagrams of the systems are presented. The OMS/RCS thruster is detailed and a trade study comparison of non-toxic propellants is presented.

  16. Early On-Orbit Performance of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite Onboard the Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cao, Changyong; DeLuccia, Frank J.; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Wolfe, Robert; Weng, Fuzhong

    2014-01-01

    The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) is one of the key environmental remote-sensing instruments onboard the Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership spacecraft, which was successfully launched on October 28, 2011 from the Vandenberg Air Force Base, California. Following a series of spacecraft and sensor activation operations, the VIIRS nadir door was opened on November 21, 2011. The first VIIRS image acquired signifies a new generation of operational moderate resolution-imaging capabilities following the legacy of the advanced very high-resolution radiometer series on NOAA satellites and Terra and Aqua Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer for NASA's Earth Observing system. VIIRS provides significant enhancements to the operational environmental monitoring and numerical weather forecasting, with 22 imaging and radiometric bands covering wavelengths from 0.41 to 12.5 microns, providing the sensor data records for 23 environmental data records including aerosol, cloud properties, fire, albedo, snow and ice, vegetation, sea surface temperature, ocean color, and nigh-time visible-light-related applications. Preliminary results from the on-orbit verification in the postlaunch check-out and intensive calibration and validation have shown that VIIRS is performing well and producing high-quality images. This paper provides an overview of the onorbit performance of VIIRS, the calibration/validation (cal/val) activities and methodologies used. It presents an assessment of the sensor initial on-orbit calibration and performance based on the efforts from the VIIRS-SDR team. Known anomalies, issues, and future calibration efforts, including the long-term monitoring, and intercalibration are also discussed.

  17. GOSAT lunar calibration in three years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiomi, K.; Hashiguchi, T.; Kataoka, F.; Higuchi, R.

    2012-12-01

    The Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) is a Japanese mission to monitor greenhouse gases such as CO2 and CH4 from space. The GOSAT carries the Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) and the Cloud and Aerosol Imager (TANSO-CAI). The FTS has 3 polarized SWIR narrow bands, which are 0.76, 1.6 and 2.0 microns and TIR wide band from 5.5 to 14.3 microns. The FTS observes globally with grid points of 10 km FOV by separate pointing. The CAI is carried 4 radiometers of 0.38, 0.67, 0.87, and 1.60 microns with high spatial resolution of 0.5-1.5 km and wide swath of 1000 km. The GOSAT observes the full moon for the radiometric calibration of the FTS SWIR bands and the CAI by the lunar calibration operation every year. Bottom of the satellite installed the sensors is oriented to the moon before moon rise of the satellite. The initial lunar calibration on orbit just after the launch was operated on March 11 and April 9, 2009. Every year calibrations were operated on April for continuous annual trend and July for corresponding to the Railroad Valley calibration and validation field campaign. Since 3rd year operation, lunar calibration has been planned to observe in phase angle around 7 degrees to avoid the opposition surge and use the lunar albedo model in good accuracy and brightest target. However, we lost the lunar full disk entirely within the field of view of the FTS because of the pointing mirror offset issue. Since this year, it has been planned to add the offset from the latest geometric evaluation result. Perfect dataset were obtained in 2012. The FTS observes the moon by 0.6 IFOV. The FTS carries a high-resolution monitoring camera for checking the observation target. The moon position in the FTS IFOV is confirmed by the camera image. The CAI observes the moon by 12 pixels of Band 1-3, by 4 pixels of Band 4. The CAI scans the moon in 2 reciprocations with constant scan speed. This presentation shows the sensitivity study using the GOSAT lunar observation

  18. WFPC2 Filters after 16 Years on Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, P. L.; Quijada, M.; Baggett, S.; Biretta, J.; MacKenty, J.; Boucarut, R.; Rice, S.; Del Hoyo, J.

    2010-12-01

    In a joint investigation by GSFC and STScI, the Selectable Optical Filter Assembly (SOFA) of WFPC2 was extracted and the filter wheels removed and examined for any on-orbit changes. The filters were inspected, photographed and scanned with a spectrophotometer at GSFC. The data have been analyzed at STScI with a view towards understanding how prolonged exposure to the HST space environment affected the filters and what the resultant impacts are to WFPC2 calibrations. We summarize our results from these post-SM4 laboratory studies, including a comparison of pre- to post-mission filter throughput measurements, evaluations of the UV filter red leaks, and assessment of the condition of the filter coatings.

  19. SeaWiFS Technical Report Series. Volume 39; SeaWiFS Calibration Topics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Barnes, Robert A.; Yeh, Eueng-nan; Eplee, Robert E.

    1996-01-01

    For Earth-observing satellite instruments, it was standard to consider each instrument band to have a spectral response that is infinitely narrow, i.e., to have a response from a single wavelength. The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) bands, however, have nominal spectral bandwidths of 20 and 40nm. These bandwidths affect the SeaWiFS measurements on orbit. The effects are also linked to the manner in which the instrument was calibrated and to the spectral shape of the radiance that SeaWiFS views. Currently, SeaWiFS is calibrated such that the digital counts from each instrument band are linked to the Earth-exiting radiance at an individual center wavelength. Before launch, SeaWiFS will be recalibrated so that the digital counts from each band will be linked to the Earth-exiting radiance integrated over the spectral response of that band. In this technical memorandum, the effects of the instrument calibration and the source spectral shape on SeaWiFS measurements, including the in-band and out-of-band responses, and the center wavelengths are discussed.

  20. METALLICITY AND TEMPERATURE INDICATORS IN M DWARF K-BAND SPECTRA: TESTING NEW AND UPDATED CALIBRATIONS WITH OBSERVATIONS OF 133 SOLAR NEIGHBORHOOD M DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Rojas-Ayala, Barbara; Covey, Kevin R.; Lloyd, James P.; Muirhead, Philip S.

    2012-04-01

    We present K-band spectra for 133 nearby (d < 33 ps) M dwarfs, including 18 M dwarfs with reliable metallicity estimates (as inferred from an FGK type companion), 11 M dwarf planet hosts, more than 2/3 of the M dwarfs in the northern 8 pc sample, and several M dwarfs from the LSPM catalog. From these spectra, we measure equivalent widths of the Ca and Na lines, and a spectral index quantifying the absorption due to H{sub 2}O opacity (the H{sub 2}O-K2 index). Using empirical spectral type standards and synthetic models, we calibrate the H{sub 2}O-K2 index as an indicator of an M dwarf's spectral type and effective temperature. We also present a revised relationship that estimates the [Fe/H] and [M/H] metallicities of M dwarfs from their Na I, Ca I, and H{sub 2}O-K2 measurements. Comparisons to model atmosphere provide a qualitative validation of our approach, but also reveal an overall offset between the atomic line strengths predicted by models as compared to actual observations. Our metallicity estimates also reproduce expected correlations with Galactic space motions and H{alpha} emission line strengths, and return statistically identical metallicities for M dwarfs within a common multiple system. Finally, we find systematic residuals between our H{sub 2}O-based spectral types and those derived from optical spectral features with previously known sensitivity to stellar metallicity, such as TiO, and identify the CaH1 index as a promising optical index for diagnosing the metallicities of near-solar M dwarfs.

  1. Autonomous On-Board Calibration of Attitude Sensors and Gyros

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pittelkau, Mark E.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the state of the art and future prospects for autonomous real-time on-orbit calibration of gyros and attitude sensors. The current practice in ground-based calibration is presented briefly to contrast it with on-orbit calibration. The technical and economic benefits of on-orbit calibration are discussed. Various algorithms for on-orbit calibration are evaluated, including some that are already operating on board spacecraft. Because Redundant Inertial Measurement Units (RIMUs, which are IMUs that have more than three sense axes) are almost ubiquitous on spacecraft, special attention will be given to calibration of RIMUs. In addition, we discuss autonomous on board calibration and how it may be implemented.

  2. On-orbit technology experiment facility definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Richard A.; Buchan, Robert W.; Gates, Richard M.

    1988-01-01

    A study was conducted to identify on-orbit integrated facility needs to support in-space technology experiments on the Space Station and associated free flyers. In particular, the first task was to examine the proposed technology development missions (TDMX's) from the model mission set and other proposed experimental facilities, both individually and by theme, to determine how and if the experiments might be combined, what equipment might be shared, what equipment might be used as generic equipment for continued experimentation, and what experiments will conflict with the conduct of other experiments or Space Station operations. Then using these results, to determine on-orbit facility needs to optimize the implementation of technology payloads. Finally, to develop one or more scenarios, design concepts, and outfitting requirements for implementation of onboard technology experiments.

  3. Flowmeter evaluation for on-orbit operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baird, R. S.

    1988-01-01

    Various flowmetering concepts were flow tested to characterize the relative capabilities and limitations for on-orbit fluid-transfer operations. Performance results and basic operating principles of each flowmetering concept tested are summarized, and basic considerations required to select the best flowmeter(s) for fluid system application are discussed. Concepts tested were clamp-on ultrasonic, area averaging ultrasonic, offset ultrasonic, coriolis mass, vortex shedding, universal venturi tube, turbine, bearingless turbine, turbine/turbine differential-pressure hybrid, dragbody, and dragbody/turbine hybrid flowmeters. Fluid system flowmeter selection considerations discussed are flowmeter performance, fluid operating conditions, systems operating environments, flowmeter packaging, flowmeter maintenance, and flowmeter technology. No one flowmetering concept tested was shown to be best for all on-orbit fluid systems.

  4. Techniques for on-orbit cryogenic servicing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLee, C. H.; Barfknecht, P.; Breon, S.; Boyle, R.; DiPirro, M.; Francis, J.; Huynh, J.; Li, X.; McGuire, J.; Mustafi, S.; Tuttle, J.; Wegel, D.

    2014-11-01

    NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) has a renewed interest in on-orbit cryogen storage and transfer to support its mission to explore near-earth objects such as asteroids and comets. The Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer Technology Demonstration Mission (CPST-TDM), managed by the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) and scheduled for launch in 2018, will demonstrate numerous key technologies applicable to a cryopropellant fuel depot. As an adjunct to the CPST-TDM work, experiments at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) will support the development of techniques to manage and transfer cryogens on-orbit and expand these techniques as they may be applicable to servicing science missions using solid cryogens such as the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). The results of several ground experiments are described, including autogenous pressurization used for transfer of liquid nitrogen and argon, characterization of the transfer and solidification of argon, and development of robotic tools for cryogen transfer.

  5. Flowmeter evaluation for on-orbit operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baird, R. S.

    1988-08-01

    Various flowmetering concepts were flow tested to characterize the relative capabilities and limitations for on-orbit fluid-transfer operations. Performance results and basic operating principles of each flowmetering concept tested are summarized, and basic considerations required to select the best flowmeter(s) for fluid system application are discussed. Concepts tested were clamp-on ultrasonic, area averaging ultrasonic, offset ultrasonic, coriolis mass, vortex shedding, universal venturi tube, turbine, bearingless turbine, turbine/turbine differential-pressure hybrid, dragbody, and dragbody/turbine hybrid flowmeters. Fluid system flowmeter selection considerations discussed are flowmeter performance, fluid operating conditions, systems operating environments, flowmeter packaging, flowmeter maintenance, and flowmeter technology. No one flowmetering concept tested was shown to be best for all on-orbit fluid systems.

  6. MOOSE: Manned On-Orbit Servicing Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budinoff, J. (Editor); Leontsinis, N. (Editor); Lane, J. (Editor); Singh, R. (Editor); Angelone, K.; Boswell, C.; Chamberlain, I.; Concha, M.; Corrodo, M.; Custodio, O.

    1993-01-01

    The ability to service satellites has thus far been limited to low earth orbit platforms within reach of the Space Shuttle. Other orbits, such as geosynchronous orbits containing high-value spacecraft have not been attainable by a servicing vehicle. The useful life of a satellite can be extended by replacing spent propellant and damaged orbital replacement units, forestalling the need for eventual replacement. This growing need for satellite on-orbits servicing can be met by the Manned On-Orbit Servicing Equipment (MOOSE). Missions requiring orbit transfer capability, precision manipulation and maneuvering, and man-in-the-loop control can be accomplished using MOOSE. MOOSE is a flexible, reusable, single operator, aerobraking spacecraft designed to refuel, repair, and service orbiting spacecraft. MOOSE will be deployed from Space Station Freedom, (SSF), where it will be stored, resupplied, and refurbished.

  7. On-orbit performance and level 1 data processing of TANSO-FTS and CAI on GOSAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuze, Akihiko; Suto, Hiroshi; Shiomi, Kei; Nakajima, Masakatsu; Hamazaki, Takashi

    2009-09-01

    The Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) monitors carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) globally from space. It is a joint project of Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Ministry of the Environment (MOE) and National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES). GOSAT is placed in a sun-synchronous orbit of 666km and 12:48 local time, with an inclination angle of 98 deg. It was launched on January 23, 2009 from Tanegashima Space Center. There are two instruments on GOSAT. The Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation Fourier- Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) detects the Short wave infrared (SWIR) reflected on the earth's surface as well as the thermal infrared (TIR) radiated from the ground and the atmosphere. TANSO-FTS is capable of detecting wide spectral coverage; three narrow bands (0.76, 1.6, and 2 μm) and a wide band (5.5-14.3 μm) with 0.27 cm-1 spectral resolution. The TANSO Cloud and Aerosol Imager (TANSO-CAI) is a radiometer of ultraviolet (UV), visible, and SWIR to correct cloud and aerosol interference. For three months after the launch, the on-orbit function and performance have been checked out. Now level 1A (raw interferogram) and level 2B (spectra) are now being processed and provided regularly with calibration data.

  8. On-orbit characterization of hyperspectral imagers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCorkel, Joel

    Remote Sensing Group (RSG) at the University of Arizona has a long history of using ground-based test sites for the calibration of airborne- and satellite-based sensors. Often, ground-truth measurements at these tests sites are not always successful due to weather and funding availability. Therefore, RSG has also employed automated ground instrument approaches and cross-calibration methods to verify the radiometric calibration of a sensor. The goal in the cross-calibration method is to transfer the calibration of a well-known sensor to that of a different sensor. This dissertation presents a method for determining the radiometric calibration of a hyperspectral imager using multispectral imagery. The work relies on a multispectral sensor, Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), as a reference for the hyperspectral sensor Hyperion. Test sites used for comparisons are Railroad Valley in Nevada and a portion of the Libyan Desert in North Africa. A method to predict hyperspectral surface reflectance using a combination of MODIS data and spectral shape information is developed and applied for the characterization of Hyperion. Spectral shape information is based on RSG's historical in situ data for the Railroad Valley test site and spectral library data for the Libyan test site. Average atmospheric parameters, also based on historical measurements, are used in reflectance prediction and transfer to space. Results of several cross-calibration scenarios that differ in image acquisition coincidence, test site, and reference sensor are found for the characterization of Hyperion. These are compared with results from the reflectance-based approach of vicarious calibration, a well-documented method developed by the RSG that serves as a baseline for calibration performance for the cross-calibration method developed here. Cross-calibration provides results that are within 2% of those of reflectance-based results in most spectral regions. Larger disagreements exist

  9. On-orbit modulation transfer function characterization of terra MODIS using the moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhipeng; Choi, Taeyoung; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2011-10-01

    The on-orbit Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) of MODIS instrument can be accurately measured by its on-board SpectroRadiometirc Calibration Assembly (SRCA). For other Earth observing instruments without calibrators similar to SRCA, the sharp edge of moon provides a reasonable high-contrast target for their on-orbit MTF characterization. In this paper, we propose a procedure to measure MODIS on-orbit MTF from the moon image. For Terra MODIS, lunar calibration was performed nearly every month since its launch in 2000. For each lunar calibration, the images of the moon from multiple scans are taken and traced across the right edge to form an edge spread function (ESF). The ESF is used to calculate a line spread function (LSF) through differentiation. The MTF in along-scan direction is then derived through the Fourier Transform of the LSF. The same procedure can also be applied to MTF calculation in along-track direction. The results are compared with SRCA measured MTF, and the long-term trending of both MTF agrees. Lunar MTF characterization appears noisier mainly because of the non-uniformity of the moon surface and moderate spatial resolution of the moon image, which makes it difficult to accurately locate the circular lunar edge in sub-pixel level. Improvement of the current method is discussed in the end.

  10. ACTS on-orbit multibeam antenna pattern measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acosta, R.; Wright, D.; Regier, F.

    1995-01-01

    The Advanced Communication Technology (ACTS) is a key to NASA's goal of developing high-risk, advanced communications technology using multiple frequency bands to support the nation's future communication needs. Using the multiple, dynamic hopping spot beams and advanced on board switching and processing systems, ACTS will open a new era in communications satellite technology. One of the key technologies to be validated as part of the ACTS program is the multibeam antenna (MBA) with rapidly reconfigurable hopping and fixed spot beams to serve users equipped with small-aperture terminals within the coverage areas. The MBA test program is designed to evaluate the on-orbit ACTS antenna performance. The main parameters measured are beam shape, beam center location and gain.

  11. Potential for calibration of geostationary meteorological satellite imagers using the Moon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, T.C.; Kieffer, H.H.; Grant, I.F.

    2005-01-01

    Solar-band imagery from geostationary meteorological satellites has been utilized in a number of important applications in Earth Science that require radiometric calibration. Because these satellite systems typically lack on-board calibrators, various techniques have been employed to establish "ground truth", including observations of stable ground sites and oceans, and cross-calibrating with coincident observations made by instruments with on-board calibration systems. The Moon appears regularly in the margins and corners of full-disk operational images of the Earth acquired by meteorological instruments with a rectangular field of regard, typically several times each month, which provides an excellent opportunity for radiometric calibration. The USGS RObotic Lunar Observatory (ROLO) project has developed the capability for on-orbit calibration using the Moon via a model for lunar spectral irradiance that accommodates the geometries of illumination and viewing by a spacecraft. The ROLO model has been used to determine on-orbit response characteristics for several NASA EOS instruments in low Earth orbit. Relative response trending with precision approaching 0.1% per year has been achieved for SeaWiFS as a result of the long time-series of lunar observations collected by that instrument. The method has a demonstrated capability for cross-calibration of different instruments that have viewed the Moon. The Moon appears skewed in high-resolution meteorological images, primarily due to satellite orbital motion during acquisition; however, the geometric correction for this is straightforward. By integrating the lunar disk image to an equivalent irradiance, and using knowledge of the sensor's spectral response, a calibration can be developed through comparison against the ROLO lunar model. The inherent stability of the lunar surface means that lunar calibration can be applied to observations made at any time, including retroactively. Archived geostationary imager data

  12. On-orbit structural health monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogowski, Robert S.

    1990-01-01

    On-orbit structural health monitoring aboard space platforms requires the development of sensor systems for assessing impact damage from particles and debris, the effects of atomic oxygen erosion, and the integrity of power systems, storage tanks, pressure vessels, and major structural elements. The task of implementing such a smart structure diagnostic system during the initial phase of the NASA Space Station Freedom is evaluated, with a view to more complete smart structures implementation in the course of station evolution. The data processing/cataloguing task may ultimately require AI and neural networks.

  13. On-Orbit Degradation of Solar Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    BenMoussa, A.; Gissot, S.; Schühle, U.; Del Zanna, G.; Auchère, F.; Mekaoui, S.; Jones, A. R.; Walton, D.; Eyles, C. J.; Thuillier, G.; Seaton, D.; Dammasch, I. E.; Cessateur, G.; Meftah, M.; Andretta, V.; Berghmans, D.; Bewsher, D.; Bolsée, D.; Bradley, L.; Brown, D. S.; Chamberlin, P. C.; Dewitte, S.; Didkovsky, L. V.; Dominique, M.; Eparvier, F. G.; Foujols, T.; Gillotay, D.; Giordanengo, B.; Halain, J. P.; Hock, R. A.; Irbah, A.; Jeppesen, C.; Judge, D. L.; Kretzschmar, M.; McMullin, D. R.; Nicula, B.; Schmutz, W.; Ucker, G.; Wieman, S.; Woodraska, D.; Woods, T. N.

    2013-11-01

    We present the lessons learned about the degradation observed in several space solar missions, based on contributions at the Workshop about On-Orbit Degradation of Solar and Space Weather Instruments that took place at the Solar Terrestrial Centre of Excellence (Royal Observatory of Belgium) in Brussels on 3 May 2012. The aim of this workshop was to open discussions related to the degradation observed in Sun-observing instruments exposed to the effects of the space environment. This article summarizes the various lessons learned and offers recommendations to reduce or correct expected degradation with the goal of increasing the useful lifespan of future and ongoing space missions.

  14. On-orbit flight control algorithm description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Algorithms are presented for rotational and translational control of the space shuttle orbiter in the orbital mission phases, which are external tank separation, orbit insertion, on-orbit and de-orbit. The program provides a versatile control system structure while maintaining uniform communications with other programs, sensors, and control effectors by using an executive routine/functional subroutine format. Software functional requirements are described using block diagrams where feasible, and input--output tables, and the software implementation of each function is presented in equations and structured flow charts. Included are a glossary of all symbols used to define the requirements, and an appendix of supportive material.

  15. On-orbit structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogowski, Robert S.

    1990-12-01

    On-orbit structural health monitoring aboard space platforms requires the development of sensor systems for assessing impact damage from particles and debris, the effects of atomic oxygen erosion, and the integrity of power systems, storage tanks, pressure vessels, and major structural elements. The task of implementing such a smart structure diagnostic system during the initial phase of the NASA Space Station Freedom is evaluated, with a view to more complete smart structures implementation in the course of station evolution. The data processing/cataloguing task may ultimately require AI and neural networks.

  16. SHOOT flowmeter and pressure transducers. [for Superfluid Helium On-Orbit Transfer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kashani, A.; Wilcox, R. A.; Spivak, A. L.; Daney, D. E.; Woodhouse, C. E.

    1990-01-01

    A venturi flowmeter has been designed and constructed for the Superfluid Helium On-Orbit Transfer (SHOOT) experiment. The calibration results obtained from the SHOOT venturi demonstrate the ability of the flowmeter to meet the requirements of the SHOOT experiment. Flow rates as low as 20 cu dm/h and as high as 800 cu dm/h have been measured. Performances of the SHOOT differential and absolute pressure transducers, which have undergone calibration and vibration tests, are also included. Throughout the tests, the responses of the transducers remained linear and repeatable to within + or - 1 percent of the full scales of the transducers.

  17. NextSat on-orbit experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randall, Christopher R.; Porter, Bradley S.; Stokley, Catherine; Epstein, Kenneth; Kaufman, David

    2008-04-01

    The NextSat spacecraft was designed and built by Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp. as part of the DARPA-funded Orbital Express mission. Orbital Express, launched in March of 2007, was a highly successful demonstration mission proving the feasibility of autonomous on-orbit refueling and servicing of spacecraft. The Orbital Express mission consisted of the Ball-built NextSat/CSC satellite and the Boeing-built ASTRO satellite. Both satellites launched mated into a 492km circular orbit on board a Lockheed-Martin Atlas V 401 launch vehicle from Cape Canaveral. The NextSat satellite acted as both the next generation "serviceable" satellite and the commodities satellite. This paper discusses the on-orbit mission experiences of the NextSat satellite. Key experiences include: launch and early orbit operations in which the NextSat satellite was called on to perform critical attitude control functions for the mated stack, functionality which was never tested or planned for; autonomous fluid transfers between ASTRO and NextSat; autonomous ORU transfers between ASTRO and NextSat; autonomous separation, free-flying and rendezvous operations; and end-of-life operations.

  18. TRMM On Orbit Attitude Control System Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Brent; Placanica, Sam; Morgenstern, Wendy

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Attitude Control System (ACS) along with detailed in-flight performance results for each operational mode. The TRMM spacecraft is an Earth-pointed, zero momentum bias satellite launched on November 27, 1997 from Tanegashima Space Center, Japan. TRMM is a joint mission between NASA and the National Space Development Agency (NASDA) of Japan designed to monitor and study tropical rainfall and the associated release of energy. Launched to provide a validation for poorly known rainfall data sets generated by global climate models, TRMM has demonstrated its utility by reducing uncertainties in global rainfall measurements by a factor of two. The ACS is comprised of Attitude Control Electronics (ACE), an Earth Sensor Assembly (ESA), Digital Sun Sensors (DSS), Inertial Reference Units (IRU), Three Axis Magnetometers (TAM), Coarse Sun Sensors (CSS), Magnetic Torquer Bars (MTB), Reaction Wheel Assemblies (RWA), Engine Valve Drivers (EVD) and thrusters. While in Mission Mode, the ESA provides roll and pitch axis attitude error measurements and the DSS provide yaw updates twice per orbit. In addition, the TAM in combination with the IRU and DSS can be used to provide pointing in a contingency attitude determination mode which does not rely on the ESA. Although the ACS performance to date has been highly successful, lessons were learned during checkout and initial on-orbit operation. This paper describes the design, on-orbit checkout, performance and lessons learned for the TRMM ACS.

  19. Spectrally and Radiometrically Stable Wide-Band on Board Calibration Source for In-Flight Data Validation in Imaging Spectroscopy Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coles, J. B.; Richardson, Brandon S.; Eastwood, Michael L.; Sarture, Charles M.; Quetin, Gregory R.; Hernandez, Marco A.; Kroll, Linley A.; Nolte, Scott H.; Porter, Michael D.; Green, Robert O.

    2011-01-01

    The quality of the quantitative spectral data collected by an imaging spectrometer instrument is critically dependent upon the accuracy of the spectral and radiometric calibration of the system. In order for the collected spectra to be scientifically useful, the calibration of the instrument must be precisely known not only prior to but during data collection. Thus, in addition to a rigorous in-lab calibration procedure, the airborne instruments designed and built by the NASA/JPL Imaging Spectroscopy Group incorporate an on board calibrator (OBC) system with the instrument to provide auxiliary in-use system calibration data. The output of the OBC source illuminates a target panel on the backside of the foreoptics shutter both before and after data collection. The OBC and in-lab calibration data sets are then used to validate and post-process the collected spectral image data. The resulting accuracy of the spectrometer output data is therefore integrally dependent upon the stability of the OBC source. In this paper we describe the design and application of the latest iteration of this novel device developed at NASA/JPL which integrates a halogen-cycle source with a precisely designed fiber coupling system and a fiber-based intensity monitoring feedback loop. The OBC source in this Airborne Testbed Spectrometer was run over a period of 15 hours while both the radiometric and spectral stabilities of the output were measured and demonstrated stability to within 1% of nominal.

  20. Time-Dependent Response Versus Scan Angle for MODIS Reflective Solar Bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Junqiang; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Angal, Amit; Chen, Hongda; Wu, Aisheng; Geng, Xu

    2014-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments currently operate onboard the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA's) Terra and Aqua spacecraft, launched on December 18, 1999 and May 4, 2002, respectively. MODIS has 36 spectral bands, among which 20 are reflective solar bands (RSBs) covering a spectral range from 0.412 to 2.13 µm. The RSBs are calibrated on orbit using a solar diffuser (SD) and an SD stability monitor and with additional measurements from lunar observations via a space view (SV) port. Selected pseudo-invariant desert sites are also used to track the RSB on-orbit gain change, particularly for short-wavelength bands. MODIS views the Earth surface, SV, and the onboard calibrators using a two-sided scan mirror. The response versus scan angle (RVS) of the scan mirror was characterized prior to launch, and its changes are tracked using observations made at different angles of incidence from onboard SD, lunar, and Earth view (EV) measurements. These observations show that the optical properties of the scan mirror have experienced large wavelength-dependent degradation in both the visible and near infrared spectral regions. Algorithms have been developed to track the on-orbit RVS change using the calibrators and the selected desert sites. These algorithms have been applied to both Terra and Aqua MODIS Level 1B (L1B) to improve the EV data accuracy since L1B Collection 4, refined in Collection 5, and further improved in the latest Collection 6 (C6). In C6, two approaches have been used to derive the time-dependent RVS for MODIS RSB. The first approach relies on data collected from sensor onboard calibrators and mirror side ratios from EV observations. The second approach uses onboard calibrators and EV response trending from selected desert sites. This approach is mainly used for the bands with much larger changes in their time-dependent RVS, such as the Terra MODIS bands 1-4, 8, and 9 and the Aqua MODIS bands 8- and 9

  1. Line drawing titled 'TDRS Spacecraft On-Orbit Configuration'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Line drawing titled 'TDRS Spacecraft On-Orbit Configuration' identifies the various tracking and data relay satellite (TDRS) components (solar arrays, C-Band antenna, K-Band antenna, space ground link (SGL) antenna, single access antennas, multiple access antenna, omni antenna, solar sail). A TDRS will be deployed during the STS-26 mission. Including the space shuttle, the TDRS will be equipped to support up to 26 user spacecraft simultaneously. It will provide two types of service: 1) multiple access which can relay data from as many as 20 low data rate (100 bits per second to 50 kilobits per second) user satellites simultaneously and; 2) single access which will provide two high data rate (to 300 megabits per second) communication relays. The TDRS is three-axis stabilizrd with the body fixed antennas pointing constantly at the Earth while the solar arrays track the Sun. TDR satellites do no processing of user traffic in either direction. Rather, they operate as 'bent pipe' repeaters,

  2. On-Orbit Autonomous Assembly from Nanosatellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murchison, Luke S.; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The On-Orbit Autonomous Assembly from Nanosatellites (OAAN) project will demonstrate autonomous control algorithms for rendezvous and docking maneuvers; low-power reconfigurable magnetic docking technology; and compact, lightweight and inexpensive precision relative navigation using carrier-phase differential (CD) GPS with a three-degree of freedom ground demonstration. CDGPS is a specific relative position determination method that measures the phase of the GPS carrier wave to yield relative position data accurate to.4 inch (1 centimeter). CDGPS is a technology commonly found in the surveying industry. The development and demonstration of these technologies will fill a current gap in the availability of proven autonomous rendezvous and docking systems for small satellites.

  3. Research on Orbital Plasma Electrodynamics (ROPE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Intriligator, Devrie S.

    1998-01-01

    This final report summarizes some of the important scientific contributions to the Research on Orbital Plasma Electrodynamics (ROPE) investigation, to the Tethered Satellite System (TSS) mission, and to NASA that resulted from the work carried out under this contract at Carmel Research Center. These include Dr. Intriligator's participation in the PIT for the TSS-1R simulations and flight, her participation in ROPE team meetings and IWG meetings, her scientific analyses, and her writing and submitting technical papers to scientific journals. The scientific analyses concentrated on the characterization of energetic ions and their possible relation to pickup ion effects, correlation of particle and other effects (e.g., magnetic field, satellite surface), and collaboration with theorists including with ROPE co-investigators. In addition, scientific analyses were carried out of the effects due to satellite gas releases.

  4. Method for Ground-to-Satellite Laser Calibration System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lukashin, Constantine (Inventor); Wielicki, Bruce A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention comprises an approach for calibrating the sensitivity to polarization, optics degradation, spectral and stray light response functions of instruments on orbit. The concept is based on using an accurate ground-based laser system, Ground-to-Space Laser Calibration (GSLC), transmitting laser light to instrument on orbit during nighttime substantially clear-sky conditions. To minimize atmospheric contribution to the calibration uncertainty the calibration cycles should be performed in short time intervals, and all required measurements are designed to be relative. The calibration cycles involve ground operations with laser beam polarization and wavelength changes.

  5. Method for Ground-to-Space Laser Calibration System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lukashin, Constantine (Inventor); Wielicki, Bruce A. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention comprises an approach for calibrating the sensitivity to polarization, optics degradation, spectral and stray light response functions of instruments on orbit. The concept is based on using an accurate ground-based laser system, Ground-to-Space Laser Calibration (GSLC), transmitting laser light to instrument on orbit during nighttime substantially clear-sky conditions. To minimize atmospheric contribution to the calibration uncertainty the calibration cycles should be performed in short time intervals, and all required measurements are designed to be relative. The calibration cycles involve ground operations with laser beam polarization and wavelength changes.

  6. Chandra mission scheduling on-orbit experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucher, Sabina; Williams, Brent; Pendexter, Misty; Balke, David

    2008-07-01

    Scheduling observatory time to maximize both day-to-day science target integration time and the lifetime of the observatory is a formidable challenge. Furthermore, it is not a static problem. Of course, every schedule brings a new set of observations, but the boundaries of the problem change as well. As spacecraft ages, its capabilities may degrade. As in-flight experience grows, capabilities may expand. As observing programs are completed, the needs and expectations of the science community may evolve. Changes such as these impact the rules by which a mission scheduled. In eight years on orbit, the Chandra X-Ray Observatory Mission Planning process has adapted to meet the challenge of maximizing day-to-day and mission lifetime science return, despite a consistently evolving set of scheduling constraints. The success of the planning team has been achieved, not through the use of complex algorithms and optimization routines, but through processes and home grown tools that help individuals make smart short term and long term Mission Planning decisions. This paper walks through the processes and tools used to plan and produce mission schedules for the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. Nominal planning and scheduling, target of opportunity response, and recovery from on-board autonomous safing actions are all addressed. Evolution of tools and processes, best practices, and lessons learned are highlighted along the way.

  7. Microsats for On-Orbit Support Missions

    SciTech Connect

    Ledebuhr, A G

    2001-03-15

    I appreciate the opportunity to address this conference and describe some of our work and plans for future space missions and capabilities. My presentation will consist of a short overview of our program, some potential missions and enabling technologies, as well as, a description of some of our test vehicles and ongoing docking experiments. The Micro-Satellite Technology Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is developing technologies for a new generation of a very highly capable autonomous microsats. A microsat is defined here as a vehicle that's less than 100 kilograms in mass. We're looking at a number of different microsat design configurations, between 0.5 to 1 meter in length and less than 40 kg in mass. You'll see several ground-test vehicles that we have been building that are modeled after potential future on-orbit systems. In order to have very aggressive missions, these microsats will require new integrated proximity operation sensors, advanced propulsion, avionics and guidance systems. Then to make this dream a reality a new approach to high fidelity ''hardware-in-the-loop'' ground testing, will be discussed that allows repeated tests with the same vehicle multiple times. This will enable you to ''get it right'' before going into space. I'll also show some examples of our preliminary docking work completed as of today.

  8. Superfluid helium on orbit transfer (SHOOT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dipirro, Michael J.

    1987-01-01

    A number of space flight experiments and entire facilities require superfluid helium as a coolant. Among these are the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), the Large Deployable Reflector (LDR), the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), the Particle Astrophysics Magnet Facility (PAMF or Astromag), and perhaps even a future Hubble Space Telescope (HST) instrument. Because these systems are required to have long operational lifetimes, a means to replenish the liquid helium, which is exhausted in the cooling process, is required. The most efficient method of replenishment is to refill the helium dewars on orbit with superfluid helium (liquid helium below 2.17 Kelvin). To develop and prove the technology required for this liquid helium refill, a program of ground and flight testing was begun. The flight demonstration is baselined as a two flight program. The first, described in this paper, will prove the concepts involved at both the component and system level. The second flight will demonstrate active astronaut involvement and semi-automated operation. The current target date for the first launch is early 1991.

  9. On-orbit analysis of radiation shielding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shavers, M. R.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Golightly, M. J.; Zapp, N.; Petrov, V.; Wilson, J. W.; Nealy, J. E.; Miller, J.; Zeitlin, C.; Heilbronn, L.

    Ground- and space-based experiments have validated the selection of polyethylene as an effective shield for radiation protection of humans from cosmic radiation exposure during spaceflight. Theoretical models that describe the physical interactions and transport of energetic ions through matter first identified the superior shielding performance of hydrogenous materials. Analytical transport models of space-like particle beams predicted that water would out-perform materials with higher effective charge, and plastics with low effective charge, particularly polyethylene (CH2), appeared to be even more promising. Experiments with accelerated particle beams confirmed the analytical predictions, and experimental measurements continue to provide validation of the use of polyethylene and other proposed shield materials for radiation protection during spaceflight. Due to the anisotropic radiation environment in low Earth orbit, vector flux models of incident radiation field and careful measurements on-orbit are required to definitively assess the effectiveness of polyethylene to protect the skin, eyes, and deeper tissues in that setting. An experiment is proposed herein in which operational and scientific detectors already aboard the ISS can be used to characterize the effectiveness of polyethylene as a radiation shield for reducing risks from geomagnetically trapped protons, cosmic ions, and albedo neutrons. Results are necessary for optimization of retrofit shield design, ab initio design of spacecraft, and development of analytical tools used in these activities and other operational aspects of radiation health and protection for human spaceflight.

  10. Performance Assessment and Geometric Calibration of RESOURCESAT-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radhadevi, P. V.; Solanki, S. S.; Akilan, A.; Jyothi, M. V.; Nagasubramanian, V.

    2016-06-01

    Resourcesat-2 (RS-2) has successfully completed five years of operations in its orbit. This satellite has multi-resolution and multi-spectral capabilities in a single platform. A continuous and autonomous co-registration, geo-location and radiometric calibration of image data from different sensors with widely varying view angles and resolution was one of the challenges of RS-2 data processing. On-orbit geometric performance of RS-2 sensors has been widely assessed and calibrated during the initial phase operations. Since then, as an ongoing activity, various geometric performance data are being generated periodically. This is performed with sites of dense ground control points (GCPs). These parameters are correlated to the direct geo-location accuracy of the RS-2 sensors and are monitored and validated to maintain the performance. This paper brings out the geometric accuracy assessment, calibration and validation done for about 500 datasets of RS-2. The objectives of this study are to ensure the best absolute and relative location accuracy of different cameras, location performance with payload steering and co-registration of multiple bands. This is done using a viewing geometry model, given ephemeris and attitude data, precise camera geometry and datum transformation. In the model, the forward and reverse transformations between the coordinate systems associated with the focal plane, payload, body, orbit and ground are rigorously and explicitly defined. System level tests using comparisons to ground check points have validated the operational geo-location accuracy performance and the stability of the calibration parameters.

  11. Research on On-Orbit Storage Scheme of Cryogenic Propellant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiaolin, Dong

    2016-07-01

    For manned deep space explorations as lunar and mars exploration,the cryogenic propellant is required to be on-orbit for a long time, from several days to years. However, because of the low boiling point of cryogenic propellant, it is easy to be boiled off. We should pay attention to the heat transfer path and influencing factors of cryogenic propellant on-orbit storage. This Paper proposed a scheme of cryogenic propellant on-orbit storage and gave an analysis of the key technologies, in order to promote the on-orbit application of cryogenic propellant.

  12. Assessment of MODIS Scan Mirror Reflectance Changes On-Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Wu, A.; Angal, A.

    2008-01-01

    Since launch, the NASA EOS Terra and Aqua MODIS have operated successfully for more than 8 and 6 years, respectively. MODIS collects data using a two-sided scan mirror over a large scan angular range. The scan mirror is made of a polished, nickel-plated beryllium base coated with high purity silver, which is then over-coated with the Denton proprietary silicon monoxide and silicon dioxide mixture. The scan mirror's reflectance was characterized pre-launch using its witness samples, and the response versus scan angle was measured at the sensor system level. In this study, we present an assessment of MODIS scan mirror on-orbit degradation by examining changes of spectral band response over each sensor's mission lifetime. Results show that the scan mirror's optical properties for both Terra and Aqua MODIS have experienced significant degradation since launch in the VIS spectral region, which is mirror side dependent as well as scan angle dependent. In general, the mirror degradation is more severe for Terra MODIS than Aqua MODIS, especially during recent years. For Terra MODIS, the degradation rate is noticeably different between the mirror sides. On the other hand, there has been little mirror side dependent difference for Aqua MODIS.

  13. [On-Orbit Multispectral Sensor Characterization Based on Spectral Tarps].

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Zhang, Li-ming; Chen, Hong-yao; Xu, Wei-wei

    2016-03-01

    The multispectral remote sensing technology has been a primary means in the research of biomass monitoring, climate change, disaster prediction and etc. The spectral sensitivity is essential in the quantitative analysis of remote sensing data. When the sensor is running in the space, it will be influenced by cosmic radiation, severe change of temperature, chemical molecular contamination, cosmic dust and etc. As a result, the spectral sensitivity will degrade by time, which has great implication on the accuracy and consistency of the physical measurements. This paper presents a characterization method of the degradation based on man-made spectral targets. Firstly, a degradation model is established in the paper. Then, combined with equivalent reflectance of spectral targets measured and inverted from image, the degradation characterization can be achieved. The simulation and on orbit experiment results showed that, using the proposed method, the change of center wavelength and band width can be monotored. The method proposed in the paper has great significance for improving the accuracy of long time series remote sensing data product and comprehensive utilization level of multi sensor data products. PMID:27400529

  14. On-Orbit ACDS Performance of the Landsat 7 Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabelhaus, Phillip; Bolek, Joseph; Scott, Steve; Holmes, Eric; O'Donnell, James R., Jr.; Storey, James

    2001-01-01

    Landsat 7 is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise (ESE). The ESE is committed to developing an understanding of the total Earth system, the effects of natural and human-induced changes on the global environment, and how natural processes affect humans and how humans affect them. The Landsat 7 satellite consists of the spacecraft bus which was provided under a NASA contract with Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space in Philadelphia, PA, and the Enhanced Thematic Mapper-Plus (ETM+) instrument, procured under a NASA contract with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing, in Santa Barbara, CA. The Landsat 7 Attitude Control and Determination System (ACDS) provides many essential functions for the operation of the spacecraft bus and for ETM+. The ACDS maintains the required attitude and orbit at the degree of accuracy necessary for power generation, command and telemetry, thermal balance, image acquisition, Gimbaled X-Band Antenna (GXA) pointing and data for image post-processing. Descriptions of the Landsat 7 mission and the ACDS modes and requirements are presented. A brief summary of significant events of the on-orbit initialization and validation period are provided. Finally, the Landsat 7 product generation system is described and the impact that the ACDS performance has on the ground based image processing system is explored.

  15. Radiometric calibration and stability of the Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager (OLI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markham, Brian L.; Barsi, Julia A.; Kaita, Edward; Ong, Lawrence; Morfitt, Ron A.; Haque, Md. O.

    2015-09-01

    Landsat-8 and its two Earth imaging sensors, the Operational Land Imager (OLI) and Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) have been operating on-orbit for 2 1/2 years. The OLI radiometric calibration, which is monitored using on-board lamps, on-board solar diffusers, the moon and vicarious calibration techniques has been stable to within 1% over this period of time. The Coastal Aerosol band, band 1, shows the largest change at about 1% over the period; all other bands have shown no significant trend. OLI bands 1- 4 show small discontinuities in response (+0.1% to 0.2%) beginning about 7 months after launch and continuing for about 1 month associated with a power cycling of the instrument, though the origin of the recovery is unclear. To date these small changes have not been compensated for, but this will change with a reprocessing campaign that is currently scheduled for Fall 2015. The calibration parameter files (each typically covering a 3 month period) will be updated for these observed gain changes. A fitted response to an adjusted average of the lamps, solar and lunar results will represent the trend, sampled at the rate of one value per CPF.

  16. Absolute radiometric calibration of the RapidEye multispectral imager using the reflectance-based vicarious calibration method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naughton, Denis; Brunn, Andreas; Czapla-Myers, Jeff; Douglass, Scott; Thiele, Michael; Weichelt, Horst; Oxfort, Michael

    2011-01-01

    RapidEye AG is a commercial provider of geospatial information products and customized solutions derived from Earth observation image data. The source of the data is the RapidEye constellation consisting of five low-earth-orbit imaging satellites. We describe the rationale, methods, and results of a reflectance-based vicarious calibration campaign that was conducted between April 2009 and May 2010 at Railroad Valley Playa and Ivanpah Playa to determine the on-orbit radiometric accuracy of the RapidEye sensor. In situ surface spectral reflectance measurements of known ground targets and an assessment of the atmospheric conditions above the sites were taken during spacecraft overpasses. The ground data are used as input to a radiative transfer code to compute a band-specific top-of-atmosphere spectral radiance. A comparison of these predicted values based on absolute physical data to the measured at-sensor spectral radiance provide the absolute calibration of the sensor. Initial assessments show that the RapidEye sensor response is within 8% of the predicted values. Outcomes from this campaign are then used to update the calibration parameters in the ground segment processing system. Subsequent verification events confirmed that the measured RapidEye response improved to within 4% of the predictions based on the vicarious calibration method.

  17. LANDSAT 7: Early on-Orbit Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, D. L.; Irons, J. R.; Barker, J. L.; Markham, B. L.; Pedelty, J, A.

    1999-01-01

    As this article was being submitted in mid-March, 1999, Landsat 7 had been cleared for an official launch date of April, 15, 1999, approximately 4 - 5 weeks prior to the Portland ASPRS conference. Although it is hoped that the presentation in Portland will be the first public status report on the in-orbit performance of the Landsat 7 spacecraft and the ETM+ instrument, it is impossible to discuss "early on-orbit performance" prior to launch. Therefore, we have chosen to summarize the overarching salient features of the Landsat 7 program, and we will point to some web sites where additional information about the program can be found (e.g., http://geo.arc.nasa.gov/sge/landsat/landsat. html). At this time, the Landsat Project Science Office is pleased to report that the performance of the ETM+ instrument appears to be very good. In addition to excellent instrument performance, a robust data acquisition plan has been developed with the goal of acquiring a seasonally-refreshed archive of global land observations at the EROS Data Center annually. A ground processing system is being implemented at EROS that will be capable of capturing, processing and archiving 250 Landsat scenes per day, and delivering 100 scene products to users each day. The cost of a systematically-processed Level 1 product will be less than $600, and there will be no copyright protection on the data. The net result is that the use of remote sensing data in our daily lives is expected to grow dramatically. This growth is expected to benefit all facets of the land remote sensing community.

  18. On-Orbit Absolute Radiance Standard for Future IR Remote Sensing Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Best, F. A.; Adler, D. P.; Pettersen, C.; Revercomb, H. E.; Gero, P. J.; Taylor, J. K.; Knuteson, R. O.; Perepezko, J. H.

    2010-12-01

    Future NASA infrared remote sensing missions, including the climate benchmark CLARREO mission will require better absolute measurement accuracy than now available, and will most certainly rely on the emerging capability to fly SI traceable standards that provide irrefutable absolute measurement accuracy. As an example, instrumentation designed to measure spectrally resolved infrared radiances with an absolute brightness temperature error of better than 0.1 K will require high-emissivity (>0.999) calibration blackbodies with emissivity uncertainty of better than 0.06%, and absolute temperature uncertainties of better than 0.045K (3 sigma). Key elements of an On-Orbit Absolute Radiance Standard (OARS) meeting these stringent requirements have been demonstrated in the laboratory at the University of Wisconsin and are undergoing Technology Readiness Level (TRL) advancement under the NASA Instrument Incubator Program (IIP). We present the new technologies that underlie the OARS and the results of laboratory testing that demonstrate the required accuracy is being met. The underlying technologies include on-orbit absolute temperature calibration using the transient melt signatures of small quantities (<1g) of reference materials (gallium, water, and mercury) imbedded in the blackbody cavity; and on-orbit cavity spectral emissivity measurement using a heated halo. For these emissivity measurements, a carefully baffled heated cylinder is placed in front of a blackbody in the infrared spectrometer system, and the combined radiance of the blackbody and Heated Halo reflection is observed. Knowledge of key temperatures and the viewing geometry allow the blackbody cavity spectral emissivity to be calculated. This work will culminate with an integrated subsystem that can provide on-orbit end-to-end radiometric accuracy validation for infrared remote sensing instruments.

  19. On-Orbit Absolute Radiance Standard for the Next Generation of IR Remote Sensing Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Best, F. A.; Adler, D. P.; Pettersen, C.; Revercomb, H. E.; Gero, P.; Taylor, J. K.; Knuteson, R. O.; Perepezko, J. H.

    2011-12-01

    The next generation of infrared remote sensing satellite instrumentation, including climate benchmark missions will require better absolute measurement accuracy than now available, and will most certainly rely on the emerging capability to fly SI traceable standards that provide irrefutable absolute measurement accuracy. As an example, instrumentation designed to measure spectrally resolved infrared radiances with an absolute brightness temperature error of better than 0.1 K will require high-emissivity (>0.999) calibration blackbodies with emissivity uncertainty of better than 0.06%, and absolute temperature uncertainties of better than 0.045K (k=3). Key elements of an On-Orbit Absolute Radiance Standard (OARS) meeting these stringent requirements have been demonstrated in the laboratory at the University of Wisconsin and are undergoing further refinement under the NASA Instrument Incubator Program (IIP). This work will culminate with an integrated subsystem that can provide on-orbit end-to-end radiometric accuracy validation for infrared remote sensing instruments. We present the new technologies that underlie the OARS and updated results of laboratory testing that demonstrate the required accuracy. The underlying technologies include on-orbit absolute temperature calibration using the transient melt signatures of small quantities (<1g) of reference materials (gallium, water, and mercury) imbedded in the blackbody cavity; and on-orbit cavity spectral emissivity measurement using a heated halo. For these emissivity measurements, a carefully baffled heated cylinder is placed in front of a blackbody in the infrared spectrometer system, and the combined radiance of the blackbody and Heated Halo reflection is observed. Knowledge of key temperatures and the viewing geometry allow the blackbody cavity spectral emissivity to be calculated.

  20. On-Orbit Absolute Radiance Standard for the Next Generation of IR Remote Sensing Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Best, F. A.; Adler, D. P.; Pettersen, C.; Revercomb, H. E.; Gero, P. J.; Taylor, J. K.; Knuteson, R. O.; Perepezko, J. H.

    2012-12-01

    The next generation of infrared remote sensing satellite instrumentation, including climate benchmark missions will require better absolute measurement accuracy than now available, and will most certainly rely on the emerging capability to fly SI traceable standards that provide irrefutable absolute measurement accuracy. As an example, instrumentation designed to measure spectrally resolved infrared radiances with an absolute brightness temperature error of better than 0.1 K will require high-emissivity (>0.999) calibration blackbodies with emissivity uncertainty of better than 0.06%, and absolute temperature uncertainties of better than 0.045K (k=3). Key elements of an On-Orbit Absolute Radiance Standard (OARS) meeting these stringent requirements have been demonstrated in the laboratory at the University of Wisconsin and are undergoing further refinement under the NASA Instrument Incubator Program (IIP). This work will culminate with an integrated subsystem that can provide on-orbit end-to-end radiometric accuracy validation for infrared remote sensing instruments. We present the new technologies that underlie the OARS and updated results of laboratory testing that demonstrate the required accuracy. The underlying technologies include on-orbit absolute temperature calibration using the transient melt signatures of small quantities (<1g) of reference materials (gallium, water, and mercury) imbedded in the blackbody cavity; and on-orbit cavity spectral emissivity measurement using a heated halo. For these emissivity measurements, a carefully baffled heated cylinder is placed in front of a blackbody in the infrared spectrometer system, and the combined radiance of the blackbody and Heated Halo reflection is observed. Knowledge of key temperatures and the viewing geometry allow the blackbody cavity spectral emissivity to be calculated.

  1. Monitoring NPP VIIRS on-orbit radiometric performance from TOA reflectance time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, A.; Xiong, X.; Cao, C.; Sun, C.

    2013-09-01

    The recently launched (October 28, 2011) Suomi NPP (National Polar-orbiting Partnership) satellite has been operating nominally to daily collect global data. The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) is a key NPP sensor onboard the spacecraft. Similar to the heritage sensor MODIS, VIIRS has on-board calibration components including a solar diffuser (SD) and a solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM) for the reflective solar bands (RSB), a V-groove blackbody for the thermal emissive bands (TEB), and a space view (SV) port for background. This study examines VIIRS reflective solar bands (RSB) calibration stability and performance using observed top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance time series collected from two approaches. The first is from comparison with a well-calibrated Aqua MODIS and the second is from overpasses over the widely used Liby-4 desert site. The VIIRS and MODIS comparison data is obtained from simultaneous nadir overpasses (SNO) for their spectrally matched bands. The reflectance trends over the Libya-4 site are extracted from 16-day repeatable orbits so each data point has the same viewing geometry relative to the site. The impact due to the band spectral differences between the two instruments is corrected based on MODTRAN5 simulations. Results of this study provide useful information on NPP VIIRS post-launch calibration assessment and preliminary analysis of its calibration stability and consistency for the first 1.5 years.

  2. The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Microwave Imager (GMI): Instrument Overview and Early On-Orbit Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Draper, David W.; Newell, David A.; Wentz, Frank J.; Krimchansky, Sergey; Jackson, Gail

    2015-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission is an international satellite mission that uses measurements from an advanced radar/radiometer system on a core observatory as reference standards to unify and advance precipitation estimates made by a constellation of research and operational microwave sensors. The GPM core observatory was launched on February 27, 2014 at 18:37 UT in a 65? inclination nonsun-synchronous orbit. GPM focuses on precipitation as a key component of the Earth's water and energy cycle, and has the capability to provide near-real-time observations for tracking severe weather events, monitoring freshwater resources, and other societal applications. The GPM microwave imager (GMI) on the core observatory provides the direct link to the constellation radiometer sensors, which fly mainly in polar orbits. The GMI sensitivity, accuracy, and stability play a crucial role in unifying the measurements from the GPM constellation of satellites. The instrument has exhibited highly stable operations through the duration of the calibration/validation period. This paper provides an overview of the GMI instrument and a report of early on-orbit commissioning activities. It discusses the on-orbit radiometric sensitivity, absolute calibration accuracy, and stability for each radiometric channel. Index Terms-Calibration accuracy, passive microwave remote sensing, radiometric sensitivity.

  3. On-orbit performance of the Hubble Space Telescope fine guidance sensors.

    PubMed

    Eaton, D J; Whittlesey, R A; Allen, B W; Stoll, R; Abramowicz-Reed, L; Margulies, M

    1993-04-01

    The observed and measured on-orbit performance of various aspects of the fine guidance sensors is presented and discussed in the light of the original requirements and predictions. The fine guidance sensors are shown to meet or exceed the original requirements concerning dynamic pointing errors, photometric repeatability, and moving-target tracking capability. Calibration accuracy has been sufficient for observations to date, and fine-lock acquisitions are approaching a 100% success rate. Improvements to the fine-guidance-sensor tolerance of telescope spherical aberration, the South Atlantic anomaly, and solar-panel vibrations have been made, and further improvements are expected. PMID:20820301

  4. Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment: Calibration Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, Robert C.; Nicholson, John Y.; Ritter, James R.; Larman, Kevin T.

    1995-01-01

    The Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE), which has flown on STS-40, STS-50, and STS-58, contains a three-axis accelerometer with a single, nonpendulous, electrostatically suspended proofmass, which can resolve accelerations to the 10(sub -9) g level. The experiment also contains a full calibration station to permit in situ bias and scale-factor calibration. This on-orbit calibration capability eliminates the large uncertainty of ground-based calibrations encountered with accelerometers flown in the past on the Orbiter, and thus provides absolute acceleration measurement accuracy heretofore unachievable. This is the first time accelerometer scale-factor measurements have been performed on orbit. A detailed analysis of the calibration process is given, along with results of the calibration factors from the on-orbit OARE flight measurements on STS-58. In addition, the analysis of OARE flight-maneuver data used to validate the scale-factor measurements in the sensor's most sensitive range are also presented. Estimates on calibration uncertainties are discussed. These uncertainty estimates provides bounds on the STS-58 absolute acceleration measurements for future applications.

  5. SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series. Volume 5; The SeaWiFS Solar Radiation-Based Calibration and the Transfer-to-Orbit Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Barnes, Robert A.; Eplee, Robert E., Jr.; Biggar, Stuart F.; Thome, Kurtis J.; Zalewski, Edward F.; Slater, Philip N.; Holmes, Alan W.

    1999-01-01

    The solar radiation-based calibration (SRBC) of the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) was performed on 1 November 1993. Measurements were made outdoors in the courtyard of the instrument manufacturer. SeaWiFS viewed the solar irradiance reflected from the sensor's diffuser in the same manner as viewed on orbit. The calibration included measurements using a solar radiometer designed to determine the transmittances of principal atmospheric constituents. The primary uncertainties in the outdoor measurements are the transmission of the atmosphere and the reflectance of the diffuser. Their combined uncertainty is about 5 or 6%. The SRBC also requires knowledge of the extraterrestrial solar spectrum. Four solar models are used. When averaged over the responses of the SeaWiFS bands, the irradiance models agree at the 3.6% level, with the greatest difference for SeaWiFS band 8. The calibration coefficients from the SRBC are lower than those from the laboratory calibration of the instrument in 1997. For a representative solar model, the ratios of the SRBC coefficients to laboratory values average 0.962 with a standard deviation of 0.012. The greatest relative difference is 0.946 for band 8. These values are within the estimated uncertainties of the calibration measurements. For the transfer-to-orbit experiment, the measurements in the manufacturer's courtyard are used to predict the digital counts from the instrument on its first day on orbit (August 1, 1997). This experiment requires an estimate of the relative change in the diffuser response for the period between the launch of the instrument and its first solar measurements on orbit (September 9, 1997). In relative terms, the counts from the instrument on its first day on orbit averaged 1.3% higher than predicted, with a standard deviation of 1.2% and a greatest difference of 2.4% or band 7. The estimated uncertainty for the transfer-to-orbit experiment is about 3 or 4%.

  6. Status of time-dependent response versus scan-angle (RVS) for Terra and Aqua MODIS reflective solar bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Xu; Angal, Amit; Sun, Junqiang; Chen, Hongda; Wu, Aisheng; Li, Yonghong; Link, Daniel; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2014-09-01

    The MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) has 20 reflective solar bands (RSB), which are calibrated using a solar diffuser (SD) and near-monthly scheduled lunar observations via a space view (SV) port. The sensor responses observed at two different angles of incidence (AOI) from the SD and lunar measurements are used to track the on-orbit RSB gain changes as well as the response versus scan-angle (RVS) changes. The MODIS RSB have experienced wavelength dependent degradation since launch with the larger degradation observed at the shorter wavelengths. In addition to the SD and lunar observations, the MODIS Characterization Support Team (MCST) regularly monitors the response trending at multiple AOI over selected desert sites. In Collection 6 (C6), a new algorithm using the EV measurements from pseudoinvariant desert sites was developed to better characterize the MODIS scan-angle dependence and it led to a significant improvement in the long-term calibration consistency of the MODIS Level 1B (L1B) products. This approach is formulated for all RSB, and its application was recently extended to Terra band 10, leading to a significant improvement in the ocean-color products. This paper discusses the current status and performance of the on-orbit RVS characterization as applied in C6. Also, the various challenges and future improvement strategies associated with trending the EV response for the high-gain ocean bands are discussed.

  7. Radiometric calibration and performance trends of the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument sensors onboard the Terra and Aqua spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shankar, Mohan; Priestley, Kory; Smith, Nathaniel; Smith, Nitchie; Thomas, Susan; Walikainen, Dale

    2015-10-01

    The Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments help to study the impact of clouds on the earth's radiation budget. There are currently five instruments- two each on board Aqua and Terra spacecraft and one on the Suomi NPP spacecraft to measure the earth's reflected shortwave and emitted longwave energy, which represent two components of the earth's radiation energy budget. Flight Models (FM) 1 and 2 are on Terra, FM 3 and 4 are on Aqua, and FM5 is on Suomi NPP. The measurements are made by three sensors on each instrument: a shortwave sensor that measures the 0.3-5 microns wavelength band, a window sensor that measures the water vapor window between 8-12 microns, and a total sensor that measures all incident energy (0.3- >100 microns). The required accuracy of CERES measurements of 0.5% in the longwave and 1% in the shortwave is achieved through an extensive pre-launch ground calibration campaign as well as on-orbit calibration and validation activities. Onorbit calibration is carried out using the Internal Calibration Module (ICM) that consists of a tungsten lamp, blackbodies, and a solar diffuser known as the Mirror Attenuator Mosaic (MAM). The ICM calibration provides information about the stability of the sensors' broadband radiometric gains on-orbit. Several validation studies are conducted in order to monitor the behavior of the instruments in various spectral bands. The CERES Edition-4 data products for the FM1-FM4 instruments incorporate the latest calibration methodologies to improve on the Edition-3 data products. In this paper, we discuss the updated calibration methodology and present some validation studies to demonstrate the improvement in the trends using the CERES Edition-4 data products for all four instruments.

  8. JPSS-1 VIIRS DNB nonlinearity and its impact on SDR calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Shihyan; Wang, Wenhui; Cao, Changyong

    2015-09-01

    During JPSS-1 VIIRS testing at Raytheon El Segundo, a larger than expected radiometric response nonlinearity was discovered in Day-Nigh Band (DNB). In addition, the DNB nonlinearity is aggregation mode dependent, where the most severe non-linear behavior are the aggregation modes used at high scan angles (<~50 degree). The DNB aggregation strategy was subsequently modified to remove modes with the most significant non-linearity. We characterized the DNB radiometric response using pre-launch tests with the modified aggregation strategy. The test data show the DNB non-linearity varies at each gain stages, detectors and aggregation modes. The non-linearity is most significant in the Low Gain Stage (LGS) and could vary from sample-to-sample. The non-linearity is also more significant in EV than in calibration view samples. The HGS nonlinearity is difficult to quantify due to the higher uncertainty in determining source radiance. Since the radiometric response non-linearity is most significant at low dn ranges, it presents challenge in DNB cross-stage calibration, an critical path to calibration DNB's High Gain Stage (HGS) for nighttime imagery. Based on the radiometric characterization, we estimated the DNB on-orbit calibration accuracy and compared the expected DNB calibration accuracy using operational calibration approaches. The analysis showed the non-linearity will result in cross-stage gain ratio bias, and have the most significant impact on HGS. The HGS calibration accuracy can be improved when either SD data or only the more linearly behaved EV pixels are used in cross-stage calibration. Due to constrain in test data, we were not able to achieve a satisfactory accuracy and uniformity for the JPSS-1 DNB nighttime imagery quality. The JPSS-1 DNB nonlinearity is a challenging calibration issue which will likely require special attention after JPSS-1 launch.

  9. ISS Crew Quarters On-Orbit Performance and Sustaining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriquez, Branelle R.; Borrego, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Crew Quarters (CQ) is a permanent personal space for crewmembers to sleep, perform personal recreation and communication, as well as provide on-orbit stowage of personal belongings. The CQs provide visual, light, and acoustic isolation for the crewmember. Over a two year period, four CQs were launched to the ISS and currently reside in Node 2. Since their deployment, all CQs have been occupied and continue to be utilized. After four years on-orbit, this paper will review failures that have occurred and the investigations that have resulted in successful on-orbit operations. This paper documents the on-orbit performance and sustaining activities that have been performed to maintain the integrity and utilization of the CQs.

  10. Principles for Robust On-orbit Uncertainties Traceable to the SI (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirley, E. L.; Dykema, J. A.; Fraser, G. T.; Anderson, J.

    2009-12-01

    artifacts; (2.) developing a variety of approaches to measure a given physical quantity; (3.) conducting intercomparisons of measurements performed by different institutions; (4.) perpetually seeking complete understanding of all sources of measurement bias and uncertainty; (5.) rigorously analyzing measurement uncertainties; and (6.) maintaining a high level of transparency that permits peer review of measurement practices. It is imperative to establish SI-traceability at the beginning of an environmental satellite program. This includes planning for system-level pre-launch and, in particular, on-orbit instrument calibration. On-orbit calibration strategies should be insensitive to reasonably expected perturbations that arise during launch or on orbit, and one should employ strategies to validate on-orbit traceability. As a rule, optical systems with simple designs tend to be more amenable to robust calibration schemes.

  11. Shuttle on-orbit rendezvous targeting: Circular orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bentley, E. L.

    1972-01-01

    The strategy and logic used in a space shuttle on-orbit rendezvous targeting program are described. The program generates ascent targeting conditions for boost to insertion into an intermediate parking orbit, and generates on-orbit targeting and timeline bases for each maneuver to effect rendezvous with a space station. Time of launch is determined so as to eliminate any plane change, and all work was performed for a near-circular space station orbit.

  12. Analysis of spacecraft on-orbit anomalies and lifetimes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomquist, C.; Graham, W.

    1983-01-01

    Analyses of the on-orbit performance of forty-four unmanned NASA spacecraft are presented. Included are detailed descriptions and classifications of over 600 anomalies; each anomalous incident represents one reported deviation from expected spacecraft performance. Charts depicting satellite lifetimes and the performance of their major subsystems are included. Engineering analyses to further investigate the kinds and frequencies of various classes of anomalies have been conducted. An improved method for charting spacecraft capability as a function of time on orbit is explored.

  13. On-orbit absolute radiance standard for the next generation of IR remote sensing instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Best, Fred A.; Adler, Douglas P.; Pettersen, Claire; Revercomb, Henry E.; Gero, P. Jonathan; Taylor, Joseph K.; Knuteson, Robert O.; Perepezko, John H.

    2012-11-01

    The next generation of infrared remote sensing satellite instrumentation, including climate benchmark missions will require better absolute measurement accuracy than now available, and will most certainly rely on the emerging capability to fly SI traceable standards that provide irrefutable absolute measurement accuracy. As an example, instrumentation designed to measure spectrally resolved infrared radiances with an absolute brightness temperature error of better than 0.1 K will require high-emissivity (<0.999) calibration blackbodies with emissivity uncertainty of better than 0.06%, and absolute temperature uncertainties of better than 0.045K (k=3). Key elements of an On-Orbit Absolute Radiance Standard (OARS) meeting these stringent requirements have been demonstrated in the laboratory at the University of Wisconsin (UW) and refined under the NASA Instrument Incubator Program (IIP). This work recently culminated with an integrated subsystem that was used in the laboratory to demonstrate end-to-end radiometric accuracy verification for the UW Absolute Radiance Interferometer. Along with an overview of the design, we present details of a key underlying technology of the OARS that provides on-orbit absolute temperature calibration using the transient melt signatures of small quantities (<1g) of reference materials (gallium, water, and mercury) imbedded in the blackbody cavity. In addition we present performance data from the laboratory testing of the OARS.

  14. SAR antenna calibration techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carver, K. R.; Newell, A. C.

    1978-01-01

    Calibration of SAR antennas requires a measurement of gain, elevation and azimuth pattern shape, boresight error, cross-polarization levels, and phase vs. angle and frequency. For spaceborne SAR antennas of SEASAT size operating at C-band or higher, some of these measurements can become extremely difficult using conventional far-field antenna test ranges. Near-field scanning techniques offer an alternative approach and for C-band or X-band SARs, give much improved accuracy and precision as compared to that obtainable with a far-field approach.

  15. ACTS Battery and Solar Array Assembly On-Orbit Measured Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilderman, Don R.

    2005-01-01

    The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) is a NASA experimental communications satellite system designed to demonstrate on-orbit Ka-band communications and switching technologies that will be used by NASA and the commercial sector in the 21st century. The ACTS was launched on September 12, 1993, and has performed over 10 years of successful experimental operations. The purpose of this report is to describe the ACTS power subsystem and the ACTS solar array and battery assemblies located within the power subsystem and then to document on-orbit measured performance from launch to mission end on April 28, 2004. Solar array and battery performance data is presented, and respective conclusions are drawn. The total solar array power available to the spacecraft was measured each year at the same time, and battery voltage performance was measured twice per year at the same times during peak solar eclipse. At the highest spacecraft power demand, the ACTS uses approximately 1113 W of electrical power during the low-burstrate experiment to operate all six satellite subsystems. After 10 years of on-orbit operation, solar array available output power normal to the Sun measured 1508 W, which represents 395 W of excess margin. The ACTS batteries have successfully supported the ACTS experiment program for over 10 years and operated in excess of 900 charge and discharge cycles through 21 eclipse seasons.

  16. On-orbit checkout of satellites, volume 2. Part 3 of on-orbit checkout study. [space maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pritchard, E. I.

    1978-01-01

    Early satellite failures significantly degrading satellite operations are reviewed with emphasis on LANDSAT D, the Technology Demonstration Satellite, the ATREX/AEM spacecraft, STORMSAT 2, and the synchronous meteorological satellite. Candidates for correction with on-orbit checkout and appropriate actions are analyzed. On-orbit checkout subsystem level studies are summarized for electrical power, attitude control, thermal control, reaction control and propulsion, instruments, and angular rate matching for alignment of satellite IRU.

  17. Use of Radiometrically Calibrated Flat-Plate Calibrators in Calibration of Radiation Thermometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cárdenas-García, D.; Méndez-Lango, E.

    2015-08-01

    Most commonly used, low-temperature, infrared thermometers have large fields of view sizes that make them difficult to be calibrated with narrow aperture blackbodies. Flat-plate calibrators with large emitting surfaces have been proposed for calibrating these infrared thermometers. Because the emissivity of the flat plate is not unity, its radiance temperature is wavelength dependent. For calibration, the wavelength pass band of the device under test should match that of the reference infrared thermometer. If the device under test and reference radiometer have different pass bands, then it is possible to calculate the corresponding correction if the emissivity of the flat plate is known. For example, a correction of at is required when calibrating a infrared thermometer with a "" radiometrically calibrated flat-plate calibrator. A method is described for using a radiometrically calibrated flat-plate calibrator that covers both cases of match and mismatch working wavelength ranges of a reference infrared thermometer and infrared thermometers to be calibrated with the flat-plate calibrator. Also, an application example is included in this paper.

  18. Results from Solar Reflective Band End-to-End Testing for VIIRS F1 Sensor Using T-SIRCUS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McIntire, Jeff; Moyer, David; McCarthy, James K.; DeLuccia, Frank; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Butler, James J.; Guenther, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Verification of the Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) End-to-End (E2E) sensor calibration is highly recommended before launch, to identify any anomalies and to improve our understanding of the sensor on-orbit calibration performance. E2E testing of the Reflective Solar Bands (RSB) calibration cycle was performed pre-launch for the VIIRS Fight 1 (F1) sensor at the Ball Aerospace facility in Boulder CO in March 2010. VIIRS reflective band calibration cycle is very similar to heritage sensor MODIS in that solar illumination, via a diffuser, is used to correct for temporal variations in the instrument responsivity. Monochromatic light from the NIST T-SIRCUS was used to illuminate both the Earth View (EV), via an integrating sphere, and the Solar Diffuser (SD) view, through a collimator. The collimator illumination was cycled through a series of angles intended to simulate the range of possible angles for which solar radiation will be incident on the solar attenuation screen on-orbit. Ideally, the measured instrument responsivity (defined here as the ratio of the detector response to the at-sensor radiance) should be the same whether the EV or SD view is illuminated. The ratio of the measured responsivities was determined at each collimator angle and wavelength. In addition, the Solar Diffuser Stability Monitor (SDSM), a ratioing radiometer designed to track the temporal variation in the SD BRF by direct comparison to solar radiation, was illuminated by the collimator. The measured SDSM ratio was compared to the predicted ratio. An uncertainty analysis was also performed on both the SD and SDSM calibrations.

  19. Evaluation of Detector-to-Detector and Mirror Side Differences for Terra MODIS Reflective Solar Bands Using Simultaneous MISR Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Aisheng; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Angal, A.; Barnes, W.

    2011-01-01

    study is part of the effort by the MODIS Characterization Support Team (MCST) in order to track the RSB on-orbit performance for MODIS collection 5 data products. To support MCST efforts for future data re-processing, this analysis will be extended to include more spectral bands and temporal coverage.

  20. JMR Noise Diode Stability and Recalibration Methodology after Three Years On-Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Shannon; Desai, Shailen; Keihm, Stephen; Ruf, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    The Jason Microwave Radiometer (JMR) is included on the Jason-1 ocean altimeter satellite to measure the wet tropospheric path delay (PD) experienced by the radar altimeter signal. JMR is nadir pointing and measures the radiometric brightness temperature (T(sub B)) at 18.7, 23.8 and 34.0 GHz. JMR is a Dicke radiometer and it is the first radiometer to be flown in space that uses noise diodes for calibration. Therefore, monitoring the long term stability of the noise diodes is essential. Each channel has three redundant noise diodes which are individually coupled into the antenna signal to provide an estimate of the gain. Two significant jumps in the JMR path delays, relative to ground truth, were observed around 300 and 700 days into the mission. Slow drifts in the retrieved products were also evident over the entire mission. During a recalibration effort, it was determined that a single set of calibration coefficients was not able to remove the calibration jumps and drifts, suggesting that there was a change in the hardware and time dependent coefficients would be required. To facilitate the derivation of time dependent coefficients, an optimal estimation based calibration system was developed which iteratively determines that set of calibration coefficients which minimize the RMS difference between the JMR TBs and on-Earth hot and cold absolute references. This optimal calibration algorithm was used to fine tune the front end path loss coefficients and derive a time series of the JMR noise diode brightness temperatures for each of the nine diodes. Jumps and drifts, on the order of 1% to 2%, are observed among the noise diodes in the first three years on-orbit.

  1. Comparison of two methodologies for calibrating satellite instruments in the visible and near-infrared.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Robert A; Brown, Steven W; Lykke, Keith R; Guenther, Bruce; Butler, James J; Schwarting, Thomas; Turpie, Kevin; Moyer, David; DeLuccia, Frank; Moeller, Christopher

    2015-12-10

    Traditionally, satellite instruments that measure Earth-reflected solar radiation in the visible and near infrared wavelength regions have been calibrated for radiance responsivity in a two-step method. In the first step, the relative spectral response (RSR) of the instrument is determined using a nearly monochromatic light source such as a lamp-illuminated monochromator. These sources do not typically fill the field of view of the instrument nor act as calibrated sources of light. Consequently, they only provide a relative (not absolute) spectral response for the instrument. In the second step, the instrument views a calibrated source of broadband light, such as a lamp-illuminated integrating sphere. The RSR and the sphere's absolute spectral radiance are combined to determine the absolute spectral radiance responsivity (ASR) of the instrument. More recently, a full-aperture absolute calibration approach using widely tunable monochromatic lasers has been developed. Using these sources, the ASR of an instrument can be determined in a single step on a wavelength-by-wavelength basis. From these monochromatic ASRs, the responses of the instrument bands to broadband radiance sources can be calculated directly, eliminating the need for calibrated broadband light sources such as lamp-illuminated integrating spheres. In this work, the traditional broadband source-based calibration of the Suomi National Preparatory Project Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite sensor is compared with the laser-based calibration of the sensor. Finally, the impact of the new full-aperture laser-based calibration approach on the on-orbit performance of the sensor is considered. PMID:26836861

  2. Long-term drift induced by the electronic crosstalk in Terra MODIS Band 29

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Junqiang; Madhavan, Sriharsha; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Wang, Menghua

    2015-10-01

    Terra MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is one of the key sensors in the NASA's Earth Observing System, which has successfully completed 15 years of on-orbit operation. Terra MODIS continues to collect valuable information of the Earth's energy radiation from visible to thermal infrared wavelengths. The instrument has been well characterized over its lifetime using onboard calibrators whose calibration references are traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology standards. In this paper, we focus on the electronic crosstalk effect of Terra MODIS band 29, a thermal emissive band (TEB) whose center wavelength is 8.55 µm. Previous works have established the mechanism to describe the effect of the electronic crosstalk in the TEB channels of Terra MODIS. This work utilizes the established methodology to apply to band 29. The electronic crosstalk is identified and characterized using the regularly scheduled lunar observations. The moon being a near-pulse-like source allowed easy detection of extraneous signals around the actual Moon surface. First, the crosstalk-transmitting bands are identified along with their amplitudes. The crosstalk effect then is characterized using a moving average mechanism that allows a high fidelity of the magnitude to be corrected. The lunar-based analysis unambiguously shows that the crosstalk contamination is becoming more severe in recent years and should be corrected in order to maintain calibration quality for the affected spectral bands. Finally, two radiometrically well-characterized sites, Pacific Ocean and Libya 1 desert, are used to assess the impact of crosstalk effect. It is shown that the crosstalk contamination induces a long-term upward drift of 1.5 K in band 29 brightness temperature of MODIS Collection 6 L1B, which could significantly impact the science products. The crosstalk effect also induces strong detector-to-detector differences, which result in severe stripping in the Earth view

  3. On-orbit support of DARPA-301 payload. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Imhof, W.L.; Datlowe, D.W.; Mobilia, J.; Nakano, G.H.; Gaines, E.E.

    1984-09-28

    This report covers the DARPA-301 payload on the P78-1 satellite. Several gamma-ray detectors with high sensitivity continue to perform well and are completely capable of fulfilling the mission objectives. These objectives are: (1) Provide the technical planning and liaison with the Air Force Satellite Control Facility and other government agencies as required for the on-orbit satellite support of the DARPA-301 payload; (2) Assess the on-orbit operation and quality of data from the DARPA-301 payload on the P78-1 satellite; (3) Provide support, including quick-look analysis and interactions with the Air Force Satellite Control Facility, for a regional event; and, (4) Perform regular analyses of the on-orbit data to maintain updated evaluations of the sensitivities and optimum configurations of the payload for mapping gamma-ray sources.

  4. Robotic on-orbit fueling of SEI vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Margaret M.; Haines, David E.; Mauceri, A. J.

    Research to investigate the feasibility of, and to develop concepts for, the robotic supply of consumables on orbit is examined, with emphasis on Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) assets. Principal methods for effecting propellant transfer on orbit are summarized, and the pros and cons of applying robotics to each method are discussed. Methods include direct transfer of fuel and oxidizer, assembly of tanks to the vehicle, and assembly of propulsion modules to the vehicles. Guidelines are developed for the automated/robotic cryogenic propellant transfer mechanism to accomplish on-orbit consumable supply of SEI vehicles by direct fluid transfer. The development of initial design concepts for the LEO fueling of the Mars Transfer System is traced.

  5. An Overview of NPP VIIRS Pre-Launch and On-Orbit Calibration and Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Jim; Gleason, Jim; Xiong, Jack; Chang, Vincent; Lee, Shih Yan

    2011-01-01

    NPP Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) test program at the instrument and observatory level is complete and has provided an extensive amount of high quality data to enable the assessment of sensor performance.

  6. The Fermi Large Area Telescope on Orbit: Event Classification, Instrument Response Functions, and Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Albert, A.; Allafort, A.; Atwood, W. B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Bissaldi, E.; Blandford, R. D.; Celik, Q.; Cobet, R.; Davis, D. S.; Ferrara, E. C.; Gehrels, N.; Guiriec, S.; McConville, W.; McEnery, J. E.; Nemmen, R.; Perkins, J. S.; Thompson, D. J.

    2012-01-01

    The Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT, hereafter LAT), the primary instrument on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) mission, is an imaging, wide field-of-view, high-energy -ray telescope, covering the energy range from 20 MeV to more than 300 GeV. During the first years of the mission the LAT team has gained considerable insight into the in-flight performance of the instrument. Accordingly, we have updated the analysis used to reduce LAT data for public release as well as the Instrument Response Functions (IRFs), the description of the instrument performance provided for data analysis. In this paper we describe the effects that motivated these updates. Furthermore, we discuss how we originally derived IRFs from Monte Carlo simulations and later corrected those IRFs for discrepancies observed between flight and simulated data. We also give details of the validations performed using flight data and quantify the residual uncertainties in the IRFs. Finally, we describe techniques the LAT team has developed to propagate those uncertainties into estimates of the systematic errors on common measurements such as fluxes and spectra of astrophysical sources.

  7. Telerobotic on-orbit remote fluid resupply system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The development of a telerobotic on-orbit fluid resupply demonstration system is described. A fluid transfer demonstration system was developed which functionally simulates operations required to remotely transfer fluids (liquids or gases) from a servicing spacecraft to a receiving spacecraft through the use of telerobotic manipulations. The fluid system is representative of systems used by current or planned spacecraft and propulsion stages requiring on-orbit remote resupply. The system was integrated with an existing MSFC remotely controlled manipulator arm to mate/demate couplings for demonstration and evaluation of a complete remotely operated fluid transfer system.

  8. Response versus scan-angle corrections for MODIS reflective solar bands using deep convective clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatt, Rajendra; Angal, Amit; Doelling, David R.; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Wu, Aisheng; Haney, Conor O.; Scarino, Benjamin R.; Gopalan, Arun

    2016-05-01

    The absolute radiometric calibration of the reflective solar bands (RSBs) of Aqua- and Terra-MODIS is performed using on-board calibrators. A solar diffuser (SD) panel along with a solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM) system, which tracks the degradation of the SD over time, provides the baseline for calibrating the MODIS sensors. MODIS also views the moon and deep space through its space view (SV) port for lunar-based calibration and computing the background, respectively. The MODIS instrument views the Earth's surface using a two-sided scan mirror, whose reflectance is a function of the angle of incidence (AOI) and is described by response versus scan-angle (RVS). The RVS for both MODIS instruments was characterized prior to launch. MODIS also views the SD and the moon at two different AOIs. There is sufficient evidence that the RVS is changing on orbit over time and as a function of wavelength. The SD and lunar observation scans can only track the RVS variation at two AOIs. Consequently, the MODIS Characterization Support Team (MCST) developed enhanced approaches that supplement the onboard calibrator measurements with responses from the pseudo-invariant desert sites. This approach has been implemented in Level 1B (L1B) Collection 6 (C6) for select short-wavelength bands. This paper presents an alternative approach of characterizing the mirror RVS to derive the time-dependent RVS correction factors for MODIS RSBs using tropical deep convective cloud (DCC) targets. An initial assessment of the DCC response from Aqua-MODIS band 1 C6 data indicates evidence of RVS artifacts, which are not uniform across the scans and are more prevalent at the beginning of the earth-view scan.

  9. SeaWiFS Technical Report Series. Volume 40; SeaWiFS Calibration Topics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Robert A.; Eplee, Robert E., Jr.; Yeh, Eueng-nan; Esaias, Wayne E.

    1997-01-01

    For Earth-observing satellite instruments, it was standard to consider each instrument band to have a spectral response that is infinitely narrow, i.e., to have a response from a single wavelength. The SeaWiFS bands, however, have nominal spectral bandwidths of 20 and 40 nm. These bandwidths effect the SeaWiFS measurements on orbit. The effects are also linked to the manner in which the instrument was calibrated and to the spectral shape of the radiance that SeaWiFS views. The spectral shape of that radiance will not be well known on orbit. In this technical memorandum, two source spectra are examined. The first is a 12,000 K Planck function, and the second is based on the modeling results of H. Gordon at the University of Miami. By comparing these spectra, the best available corrections to the SeaWiFS measurements for source spectral shape, plus estimates of the uncertainties in these corrections, can be tabulated.

  10. Biofilms On Orbit and On Earth: Current Methods, Future Needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vega, Leticia

    2013-01-01

    Biofilms have played a significant role on the effectiveness of life support hardware on the Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS). This presentation will discuss how biofilms impact flight hardware, how on orbit biofilms are analyzed from an engineering and research perspective, and future needs to analyze and utilize biofilms for long duration, deep space missions.

  11. Reproduction on orbit by plants in the Brassicaceae family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musgrave, Mary E.; Kuang, Anxiu; Xiao, Ying; Matthews, Sharon W.

    1999-01-01

    Previous studies on growth and development during spaceflight had indicated that the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth was particularly difficult for plants. Our objective has been to study how the spaceflight environment impacts the different steps in plant reproduction. This goal has been pursued in two general ways: by using plants that had been pre-grown to the flowering stage on earth, and by using plants that developed completely on orbit. Our objectives have been met by a combination of experiments that required essentially no crew time on orbit, and those that required an extensive commitment of crew time. The plants chosen for the studies were closely related members of the family Brassicaceae: Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica rapa. In a series of short-duration experiments with Arabidopsis on the space shuttle we found that depletion of carbon dioxide in closed chambers resulted in aborted development of both the male and female reproductive apparatus in microgravity. Normal development was restored by addition of carbon dioxide or by providing air flow. A subsequent shuttle experiment with Brassica utilizing hardware that provides a vigorous air flow confirmed embryo development following pollination on orbit. Brassica plants grown from seed on the Mir space station produced seed that germinated and grew when replanted on orbit. Future experiments will determine effects of multiple generations in space.

  12. Computer simulation of on-orbit manned maneuvering unit operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, G. M.; Garcia, K. D.

    1986-01-01

    Simulation of spacecraft on-orbit operations is discussed in reference to Martin Marietta's Space Operations Simulation laboratory's use of computer software models to drive a six-degree-of-freedom moving base carriage and two target gimbal systems. In particular, key simulation issues and related computer software models associated with providing real-time, man-in-the-loop simulations of the Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU) are addressed with special attention given to how effectively these models and motion systems simulate the MMU's actual on-orbit operations. The weightless effects of the space environment require the development of entirely new devices for locomotion. Since the access to space is very limited, it is necessary to design, build, and test these new devices within the physical constraints of earth using simulators. The simulation method that is discussed here is the technique of using computer software models to drive a Moving Base Carriage (MBC) that is capable of providing simultaneous six-degree-of-freedom motions. This method, utilized at Martin Marietta's Space Operations Simulation (SOS) laboratory, provides the ability to simulate the operation of manned spacecraft, provides the pilot with proper three-dimensional visual cues, and allows training of on-orbit operations. The purpose here is to discuss significant MMU simulation issues, the related models that were developed in response to these issues and how effectively these models simulate the MMU's actual on-orbiter operations.

  13. Statistical analysis of the electronic crosstalk correction in Terra MODIS Band 27

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madhavan, Sriharsha; Sun, Junqiang; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Wenny, Brian N.; Wu, Aisheng

    2014-10-01

    The first MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), also known as the Proto-Flight model (PFM), is on-board the Terra spacecraft and has completed 14 years of on orbit flight as of December 18, 2013. MODIS remotely senses the Earth in 36 spectral bands, with a wavelength range from 0.4 μm to 14.4 μm. The 36 bands can be subdivided into two groups based on their spectral responsivity as Reflective Solar Bands (RSBs) and Thermal Emissive Bands (TEBs). Band 27 centered at 6.77 μm is a TEB used to study the global water vapor distribution. It was found recently that this band has been severely affected by electronic crosstalk. The electronic crosstalk magnitude, its on-orbit change and calibration impact have been well characterized in our previous studies through the use of regularly scheduled lunar observations. Further, the crosstalk correction was implemented in Earth view (EV) images and quantified the improvements of the same. However, improvements remained desirable on several fronts. Firstly, the effectiveness of the correction needed to be analyzed spatially and radiometrically over a number of scenes. Also, the temporal aspect of the correction had to be investigated in a rigorous manner. In order to address these issues, a one-orbit analysis was performed on the Level 1A (L1A) scene granules over a ten year period from 2003 through 2012. Results have been quantified statistically and show a significant reduction of image striping, as well as removal of leaked signal features from the neighboring bands. Statistical analysis was performed by analyzing histograms of the one-orbit granules at a scene and detector level before and after correction. The comprehensive analysis and results reported in this paper will be very helpful to the scientific community in understanding the impacts of crosstalk correction on various scenes and could potentially be applied for future improvements of band 27 calibration and, therefore, its retrieval for the

  14. Determination of On-Orbit Cabin Air Loss from the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.; Leonard, Daniel J.; Smith, Patrick J.

    2004-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) loses cabin atmosphere mass at some rate. Due to oxygen partial pressures fluctuations from metabolic usage, the total pressure is not a good data source for tracking total pressure loss. Using the nitrogen partial pressure is a good data source to determine the total on-orbit cabin atmosphere loss from the ISS, due to no nitrogen addition or losses. There are several important reasons to know the daily average cabin air loss of the ISS including logistics planning for nitrogen and oxygen. The total average daily cabin atmosphere loss was estimated from January 14 to April 9 of 2003. The total average daily cabin atmosphere loss includes structural leakages, Vozdukh losses, Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) losses, and other component losses. The total average daily cabin atmosphere loss does not include mass lost during Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVAs), Progress dockings, Space Shuttle dockings, calibrations, or other specific one-time events.

  15. Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope - Science Highlights for the First Two Years on Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moiseev, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Fermi science objectives cover probably everything in high energy astrophysics: How do super massive black holes in Active Galactic Nuclei create powerful jets of material moving at nearly light speed? What are the jets made of? What are the mechanisms that produce Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) explosions? What is the energy budget? How does the Sun generate high-energy gamma-rays in flares? How do the pulsars operate? How many of them are around and how different are they? What are the unidentified gamma-ray sources found by EGRET? What is the origin of the cosmic rays that pervade the Galaxy? What is the nature of dark matter? Fermi LAT successfully operates on the orbit for more than 2 years and demonstrates excellent performance, which is continuously monitored and calibrated. LAT collected> 100 billion on-orbit triggers

  16. Characterization of NPP Visible/Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Reflective Solar Bands Dual Gain Anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Shihyan; McIntire, Jeff; Oudari, Hassan

    2012-01-01

    The Visible/Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) contains six dual gain bands in the reflective solar spectrum. The dual gain bands are designed to switch gain mode at pre-defined thresholds to achieve high resolution at low radiances while maintaining the required dynamic range for science. During pre-launch testing, an anomaly in the electronic response before transitioning from high to low gain was discovered and characterized. On-orbit, the anomaly was confirmed using MODIS data collected during Simultaneous Nadir Overpasses (SNOs). The analysis of the Earth scene data shows that dual gain anomaly can be determined at the orbital basis. To characterize the dual gain anomaly, the anomaly region and electronic offsets were tracked per week during the first 8 month of VIIRS operation. The temporal analysis shows the anomaly region can drift 20 DN and is impacted by detectors DC Restore. The estimated anomaly flagging regions cover 2.5 % of the high gain dynamic range and are consistent with prelaunch and on-orbit LUT. The prelaunch results had a smaller anomaly range (30-50 DN) and are likely the results of more stable electronics from the shorter data collection time. Finally, this study suggests future calibration efforts to focus on the anomaly's impact on science products and possible correction method to reduce uncertainties.

  17. Postlaunch calibration of spacecraft attitude instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, W.; Hashmall, J.; Garrick, J.; Harman, R.

    1993-01-01

    The accuracy of both onboard and ground attitude determination can be significantly enhanced by calibrating spacecraft attitude instruments (sensors) after launch. Although attitude sensors are accurately calibrated before launch, the stresses of launch and the space environment inevitably cause changes in sensor parameters. During the mission, these parameters may continue to drift requiring repeated on-orbit calibrations. The goal of attitude sensor calibration is to reduce the systematic errors in the measurement models. There are two stages at which systematic errors may enter. The first occurs in the conversion of sensor output into an observation vector in the sensor frame. The second occurs in the transformation of the vector from the sensor frame to the spacecraft attitude reference frame. This paper presents postlaunch alignment and transfer function calibration of the attitude sensors for the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO), the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS), and the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE).

  18. The Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS): First Year On-Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, E. J.; Lyu, C.; Blackwell, W. J.; Leslie, V.; Baker, N.; Mo, T.; Sun, N.; Bi, L.; Anderson, K.; Landrum, M.; De Amici, G.; Gu, D.; Foo, A.; Ibrahim, W.; Robinson, K.

    2012-12-01

    The Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) is a new satellite microwave sounding sensor designed to provide operational weather agencies with atmospheric temperature and moisture profile information for global weather forecasting and climate applications. ATMS will continue the microwave sounding capabilities first provided by its predecessors, the Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) and Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU). The first ATMS was launched October 28, 2011 on board the Suomi-NPOESS Preparatory Project (S-NPP) satellite and has just finished its first year on orbit. Microwave soundings by themselves are the highest-impact input data used by Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models; and ATMS, when combined with the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS), forms the Cross-track Infrared and Microwave Sounding Suite (CrIMSS). The microwave soundings help meet NWP sounding requirements under cloudy sky conditions and provide key profile information near the surface. Designed & built by Aerojet Corporation in Azusa, California, (now Northrop Grumman Electronic Systems), ATMS has 22 channels spanning 23—183 GHz, closely following the channel set of the MSU, AMSU-A1 and A2, AMSU-B, Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS), and Humidity Sounder for Brazil (HSB). It continues their cross-track scanning geometry, but for the first time, provides Nyquist sample spacing. All this is accomplished with approximately one quarter the volume, one half the mass, and one half the power of the three AMSUs. A summary description of the ATMS design will be presented. Post-launch calibration/validation activities include geolocation determination, radiometric calibration using the on-board warm targets and cold space views, simultaneous observations by microwave sounders on other satellites, comparison vs. pre-launch thermovacuum test performance; observations vs. atmospheric model predicted radiances, and comparisons of soundings vs. radiosondes. Brief descriptions of these

  19. RF performance measurement of the DSS-14 70-meter antenna at C-band/L-band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatti, M. S.; Freiley, A. J.; Girdner, D.

    1989-01-01

    The calibration of the 70-meter antenna at C-band (5.01 GHz) and L-band (1.668 GHz) is described. This calibration comes after a modification to an existing L-band feed to include the C-band frequencies. The test technique employs noise-adding radiometers and associated equipment running simultaneously at both frequencies. The test procedure is described including block diagrams, and results are presented for efficiency, system temperature, and pointing.

  20. VIIRS On-Orbit Optical Anomaly - Investigation, Analysis, Root Cause Determination and Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iona, Glenn; Butler, James; Guenther, Bruce; Graziani, Larissa; Johnson, Eric; Kennedy, Brian; Kent, Criag; Lambeck, Robert; Waluschka, Eugne; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2012-01-01

    A gradual, but persistent, decrease in the optical throughput was detected during the early commissioning phase for the Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (SNPP) Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Near Infrared (NIR) bands. Its initial rate and unknown cause were coincidently coupled with a decrease in sensitivity in the same spectral wavelength of the Solar Diffuser Stability Monitor (SDSM) raising concerns about contamination or the possibility of a system-level satellite problem. An anomaly team was formed to investigate and provide recommendations before commissioning could resume. With few hard facts in hand, there was much speculation about possible causes and consequences of the degradation. Two different causes were determined as will be explained in this paper. This paper will describe the build and test history of VIIRS, why there were no indicators, even with hindsight, of an on-orbit problem, the appearance of the on-orbit anomaly, the initial work attempting to understand and determine the cause, the discovery of the root cause and what Test-As-You-Fly (TAYF) activities, can be done in the future to greatly reduce the likelihood of similar optical anomalies. These TAYF activities are captured in the lessons learned section of this paper.

  1. VIIRS on-orbit optical anomaly: investigation, analysis, root cause determination and lessons learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iona, Glenn; Butler, James; Guenther, Bruce; Graziani, Larissa; Johnson, Eric; Kennedy, Brian; Kent, Craig; Lambeck, Robert; Waluschka, Eugene; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2012-09-01

    A gradual, but persistent, decrease in the optical throughput was detected during the early commissioning phase for the Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (SNPP) Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Near Infrared (NIR) bands. Its initial rate and unknown cause were coincidently coupled with a decrease in sensitivity in the same spectral wavelength of the Solar Diffuser Stability Monitor (SDSM) raising concerns about contamination or the possibility of a system-level satellite problem. An anomaly team was formed to investigate and provide recommendations before commissioning could resume. With few hard facts in hand, there was much speculation about possible causes and consequences of the degradation. Two different causes were determined as will be explained in this paper. This paper will describe the build and test history of VIIRS, why there were no indicators, even with hindsight, of an on-orbit problem, the appearance of the on-orbit anomaly, the initial work attempting to understand and determine the cause, the discovery of the root cause and what Test-As-You-Fly (TAYF) activities, can be done in the future to greatly reduce the likelihood of similar optical anomalies. These TAYF activities are captured in the "lessons learned" section of this paper.

  2. Risk Mitigation for Managing On-Orbit Anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    La, Jim

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews strategies for managing risk mitigation that occur with anomalies in on-orbit spacecraft. It reviews the risks associated with mission operations, a diagram of the method used to manage undesirable events that occur which is a closed loop fault analysis and until corrective action is successful. It also reviews the fish bone diagram which is used if greater detail is required and aids in eliminating possible failure factors.

  3. On-Orbit Performance of the RHESSI Cryocooler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, Robert F.

    2004-01-01

    The Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) spacecraft was launched on February 5,2002. With more than a year of operation on-orbit, its Sunpower M77 cryocooler continues to maintain the array of nine germanium detectors at 7% Trends have begun to emerge in cryocooler power and vibration, suggesting that the cooler's operating point is slowly changing. Possible causes are identified and discussed.

  4. Making on-orbit structural repairs to Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haber, Harry S.; Quinn, Alberta

    1989-01-01

    One of the key factors dictating the safety and durability of the proposed U.S. Space Station is the ability to repair structural damage while remaining in orbit. Consequently, studies are conducted to identify the engineering problems associated with accomplishing structural repairs on orbit, due to zero gravity environment and exposure to extreme temperature variations. There are predominant forms of structural failure, depending on the metallic or composite material involved. Aluminum is the primary metallic material used in space vehicle applications. Welding processes on aluminum alloy structures were tested, resulting in final selection of electron beam welding as the primary technique for metallic material repair in Space. Several composite structure repair processes were bench-tested to define their applicability to on-orbit EVA requirements: induction heating prevailed. One of the unique problems identified as inherent in the on-orbit repair process is that of debris containment. The Maintenance Work Station concept provides means to prevent module contamination from repair debris and ensure the creation of a facility for crew members to work easily in a microgravity environment. Different technologies were also examined for application to EVA repair activities, and the concept selected was a spring-loaded, collapsible, box-like Debris Containement and Collection Device with incorporated fold-down tool boards and handholes in the front panel.

  5. On-Orbit Asset Management System, September 1995. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-10

    Declining budgets have prompted the need to decrease launch cost, increase satellite lifetime, and accomplish more with each satellite. This study evaluates an OOAMS system for its ability to lengthen lifetime of on-orbit assets, decrease the number of satellites required to perform a mission, increase responsiveness, and provide increased mission capability/tactical advantage. Lifetime analysis suggest that the larger satellite systems (NASA and military communication systems, surveillance satellites and earth observing satellites) would benefit most from a nuclear bimodal OOAMS. Evaluation of satellite constellations indicate that a modest reduction in the number of satellites could be realized using OOAMS if the thermal restart capability was at least ten. An OOAMS could improve the responsiveness (launching of new assets) using on-orbit reconstitution of assets. A top level utility assessment was done to address system cost issues relating to funding profiles, first unit cost, and break-even analysis. From mission capture and orbital lifetime criteria, the recommended minimum orbital altitude is 900 km. The on-orbit thermal restart capability should be increased from five to ten. Analysis of total impulse vs propellant consumed for selected missions suggests that total impulse be increased from 40 million to 48 million Newton-seconds.

  6. MODIS Radiometric Calibration Program, Methods and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Guenther, Bruce; Angal, Amit; Barnes, William; Salomonson, Vincent; Sun, Junqiang; Wenny, Brian

    2012-01-01

    As a key instrument for NASA s Earth Observing System (EOS), the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) has made significant contributions to the remote sensing community with its unprecedented amount of data products continuously generated from its observations and freely distributed to users worldwide. MODIS observations, covering spectral regions from visible (VIS) to long-wave infrared (LWIR), have enabled a broad range of research activities and applications for studies of the earth s interactive system of land, oceans, and atmosphere. In addition to extensive pre-launch measurements, developed to characterize sensor performance, MODIS carries a set of on-board calibrators (OBC) that can be used to track on-orbit changes of various sensor characteristics. Most importantly, dedicated and continuous calibration efforts have been made to maintain sensor data quality. This paper provides an overview of the MODIS calibration program, on-orbit calibration activities, methods, and performance. Key calibration results and lessons learned from the MODIS calibration effort are also presented in this paper.

  7. Calibration method for radiometric and wavelength calibration of a spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granger, Edward M.

    1998-12-01

    A new calibration target or Certified Reference Material (CRM) has been designed that uses violet, orange, green and cyan dyes ont cotton paper. This paper type was chosen because it has a relatively flat spectral response from 400 nm to 700 nm and good keeping properties. These specific dyes were chosen because the difference signal between the orange, cyan, green and purple dyes have certain characteristics that then a low the calibration of an instrument. The ratio between the difference readings is a direct function of the center wavelength of a given spectral band. Therefore, the radiometric and spectral calibration can be determined simultaneously from the physical properties of the reference materials.

  8. Ku-band terminal design tradeoffs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straus, T. M.; Godwin, J. P.

    Ku-band RF terminals for satellite business systems are currently being manufactured and installed. Each terminal provides the up/down converters, low noise amplifier, and antenna subsystem required to access the SBS spacecraft now on-orbit. This paper describes the numerous tradeoff studies performed to arrive at the RF terminal design in production, and outlines installation procedures and progress.

  9. Greenhouse gases observation from space -initial operation and calibration results of TANSO on GOSAT- (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuze, A.; Shiomi, K.; Suto, H.; Nakajima, M.

    2009-12-01

    The Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) observes carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) globally from space. It is a joint project of Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Ministry of the Environment (MOE) and National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES). GOSAT was launched on January 23, 2009 from Tanegashima Space Center and placed in a 666 km sun-synchronous orbit of 12:48 local time, with an inclination angle of 98 deg. There are two instruments: the Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation Fourier-Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) detects gas absorption spectra of Short Wave InfraRed (SWIR) reflected on the earth's surface as well as of Thermal InfraRed (TIR) radiated from the ground and the atmosphere. TANSO-FTS is capable of detecting wide spectral coverage; three narrow bands (0.76, 1.6, and 2μm) and a wide band (5.5-14.3 μm) with 0.27 cm-1 spectral resolution. The TANSO Cloud and Aerosol Imager (TANSO-CAI) is a radiometer of ultraviolet (UV), visible, and SWIR to detect cloud and aerosol interference. TANSO-FTS and CAI acquire global data every three days. For the first six months after the launch, on-orbit function, performance, calibration, and validation have been checked-out. The presentation includes instrument design, pre-launch test results, observation plan, onboard calibration schemes, and the initial on-orbit results of radiometric, geometric and spectroscopic performances. The data processing on the ground is also presented.

  10. Anemometer calibrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bate, T.; Calkins, D. E.; Price, P.; Veikins, O.

    1971-01-01

    Calibrator generates accurate flow velocities over wide range of gas pressure, temperature, and composition. Both pressure and flow velocity can be maintained within 0.25 percent. Instrument is essentially closed loop hydraulic system containing positive displacement drive.

  11. Weed Control Sprayers: Calibration and Maintenance. Special Circular 81.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Arthur L.

    This manual covers aspects of calibration and maintenance of weed control sprayers including variables affecting application rate, the pre-calibration check, calculations, band spraying, nozzle tip selection, agitation, and cleaning. (BB)

  12. Using NPOL (the NASA S-band polarimetric radar), and a network of 2D video disdrometers for external radar calibration and rain rate estimation, and to determine spatial correlation of rain drop size distribution parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thurai, M.; Bringi, V. N.; Tolstoy, L.; Petersen, W. A.

    2012-12-01

    On two days during the MC3E campaign in northern Oklahoma, NASA's S-band polarimetric radar (NPOL) performed repeated PPI scans over a network of six 2D video disdrometer (2DVD) sites, located 20 to 30 km from the radar. The scans were repeated approximately every 40 seconds. We consider here the two cases, one a rapidly evolving multi-cell rain event (with large drops) on 24 April 2011 and the second a somewhat more uniform rain event on 11 May 2011. For both events, the external calibration offsets for radar reflectivity and differential reflectivity were determined by comparing the radar data extracted over the disdrometer sites with those determined from scattering simulations using the 2DVD data. Time series comparisons show excellent agreement for all six sites, and a technique was developed to determine the offsets for the NPOL data quantitatively from the comparisons. The radar data were then used to determine the rain rates over the six sites and compared with those derived from the 2DVD measurements. Once again, excellent agreement was obtained for all six sites, both in terms of rain fall rates and rain accumulations (see Fig. 1). Comparisons have also been made over many rain gauges located within ground validation network area. The repeated PPI scans were also used to determine the spatial correlations of two of the main rain drop-size distribution (DSD) parameters (Do and log Nw) as well as rainfall rate (R). The correlations were determined along the radial over the whole azimuthal range of the PPI scans. The spatial correlation of R shows azimuthal dependence particularly for the first event. However, the 50 percentile levels are similar between the two events, at least up to 4 km. For the DSD parameters, reasonable agreement with 2DVD-based spatial correlations were obtained As part of the abovementioned scan sequence, the NPOL had also made repeated RHI scans along one azimuth. These scans were used to determine the vertical correlations of the

  13. Chandra X-Ray Observatory Pointing Control System Performance During Transfer Orbit and Initial On-Orbit Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quast, Peter; Tung, Frank; West, Mark; Wider, John

    2000-01-01

    The Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO, formerly AXAF) is the third of the four NASA great observatories. It was launched from Kennedy Space Flight Center on 23 July 1999 aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia and was successfully inserted in a 330 x 72,000 km orbit by the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS). Through a series of five Integral Propulsion System burns, CXO was placed in a 10,000 x 139,000 km orbit. After initial on-orbit checkout, Chandra's first light images were unveiled to the public on 26 August, 1999. The CXO Pointing Control and Aspect Determination (PCAD) subsystem is designed to perform attitude control and determination functions in support of transfer orbit operations and on-orbit science mission. After a brief description of the PCAD subsystem, the paper highlights the PCAD activities during the transfer orbit and initial on-orbit operations. These activities include: CXO/IUS separation, attitude and gyro bias estimation with earth sensor and sun sensor, attitude control and disturbance torque estimation for delta-v burns, momentum build-up due to gravity gradient and solar pressure, momentum unloading with thrusters, attitude initialization with star measurements, gyro alignment calibration, maneuvering and transition to normal pointing, and PCAD pointing and stability performance.

  14. OARE flight maneuvers and calibration measurements on STS-58

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, Robert C.; Nicholson, John Y.; Ritter, James R.; Larman, Kevin T.

    1994-01-01

    The Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE), which has flown on STS-40, STS-50, and STS-58, contains a three axis accelerometer with a single, nonpendulous, electrostatically suspended proofmass which can resolve accelerations to the nano-g level. The experiment also contains a full calibration station to permit in situ bias and scale factor calibration. This on-orbit calibration capability eliminates the large uncertainty of ground-based calibrations encountered with accelerometers flown in the past on the orbiter, thus providing absolute acceleration measurement accuracy heretofore unachievable. This is the first time accelerometer scale factor measurements have been performed on orbit. A detailed analysis of the calibration process is given along with results of the calibration factors from the on-orbit OARE flight measurements on STS-58. In addition, the analysis of OARE flight maneuver data used to validate the scale factor measurements in the sensor's most sensitive range is also presented. Estimates on calibration uncertainties are discussed. This provides bounds on the STS-58 absolute acceleration measurements for future applications.

  15. Calibration Lessons Learned from Hyperion Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casement, S.; Ho, K.; Sandor-Leahy, S.; Biggar, S.; Czapla-Myers, J.; McCorkel, J.; Thome, K.

    2009-12-01

    The use of hyperspectral imagers to provide climate-quality data sets, such as those expected from the solar reflective sensor on the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO), requires stringent radiometric calibration requirements. These stringent requirements have been nearly met with broadband radiometers such as CERES, but high resolution spectrometers pose additional challenges. A review of the calibration processes for past space-based HSIs provide guidance on the calibration processes that will be needed for future sensors. In November 2000, the Earth Observer-1 (EO-1) platform was launched onboard a Boeing Delta II launch vehicle. The primary purpose of the EO-1 mission was to provide a technological testbed for spaceborne components. The platform has three sensors onboard, of which, the hyperspectral imager (HSI) Hyperion, is discussed here. The Hyperion sensor at the time had no comparable sensor in earth orbit, being the first grating-based, hyperspectral, civilian sensor in earth orbit. Ground and on-orbit calibration procedures including all cross-calibration activities have achieved an estimated instrument absolute radiometric error of 2.9% in the Visible channel (0.4 - 1.0 microns) and 3.4% in the shortwave infrared (SWIR, 0.9 - 2.5 microns) channel (EO-1/Hyperion Early Orbit Checkout Report Part II On-Orbit Performance Verification and Calibration). This paper describes the key components of the Hyperion calibration process that are applicable to future HSI missions. The pre-launch methods relied on then newly-developed, detector-based methods. Subsequent vicarious methods including cross-calibration with other sensors and the reflectance-based method showed significant differences from the prelaunch calibration. Such a difference demonstrated the importance of the vicarious methods as well as pointing to areas for improvement in the prelaunch methods. We also identify areas where lessons learned from Hyperion regarding

  16. On-orbit assembly/servicing task definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vargo, Rick

    1990-01-01

    The OEXP vehicles being envisioned to carry out the Presidential space goals of a lunar outpost and human exploration of Mars will require on-orbit assembly, refurbishment, checkout, and launch. The On-orbit Assembly/Servicing Task Definition Study applies the space vehicle processing experience and procedures archives resident at NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC) to determine the task flows, and resources/facilities necessary to process the OEXP vehicles at Space Station Freedom (SSF). This data base is examined to find the closest analogies to OEXP vehicle components and assembly/refurbishment tasks. Transition tables are generated to provide traceability from KSC hardware processing experience to analogous on-orbit processing of the OEXP vehicles. Iterations in which the task flows are broken down into realistic extravehicular activity (EVA) primitive subtasks and times, and to apply automation and robotic technology to reduce crew risks and minimize EVA time, will enhance the value and accuracy of the predicted flows. These processing scenarios and the resulting resource/facility requirements are used to determine impacts of SSF, resulting in change requests to SSF requirements for provision of 'hooks and scars' to evolve the assembly complete Space Station into a transportation node. Study results to date include assembly analysis of the Martin Marietta Phobos Gateway Vehicle, refurbishment analysis of the Martin Marietta Lunar Evolution Piloted and Cargo Vehicles, and assembly analysis of the Boeing Mars Evolution Vehicle. The results of this study will be accumulated into the vehicle processing operations data base for subsequent modeling, life cycle cost, vehicle growth, and SSF impact analysis.

  17. Results from solar reflective band end-to-end testing for VIIRS F1 sensor using T-SIRCUS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntire, Jeff; Moyer, David; McCarthy, James K.; Brown, Steven W.; Lykke, Keith R.; De Luccia, Frank; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Butler, James J.; Guenther, Bruce

    2011-10-01

    Verification of the Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) End-to-End (E2E) sensor calibration is highly recommended before launch, to identify any anomalies and to improve our understanding of the sensor onorbit calibration performance. E2E testing of the Reflective Solar Bands (RSB) calibration cycle was performed pre-launch for the VIIRS Flight 1 (F1) sensor at the Ball Aerospace facility in Boulder CO in March 2010. VIIRS reflective band calibration cycle is very similar to heritage sensor MODIS in that solar illumination, via a diffuser, is used to correct for temporal variations in the instrument responsivity. Monochromatic light from the NIST T-SIRCUS (Traveling Spectral Irradiance and Radiance Responsivity Calibrations using Uniform Sources) was used to illuminate both the Earth View (EV), via an integrating sphere, and the Solar Diffuser (SD) view, through a collimator. The collimator illumination was cycled through a series of angles intended to simulate the range of possible angles for which solar radiation will be incident on the solar attenuation screen on-orbit. Ideally, the measured instrument responsivity (defined here as the ratio of the detector response to the at-sensor radiance) should be the same whether the EV or SD view is illuminated. The ratio of the measured responsivities was determined at each collimator angle and wavelength. In addition, the Solar Diffuser Stability Monitor (SDSM), a ratioing radiometer designed to track the temporal variation in the SD Bidirectional Reflectance Factor (BRF) by direct comparison to solar radiation, was illuminated by the collimator. The measured SDSM ratio was compared to the predicted ratio. An uncertainty analysis was also performed on both the SD and SDSM calibrations.

  18. AIRS radiometric calibration validation for climate research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aumann, Hartmut H.; Pagano, Thomas S.; Elliott, Denis; Gaiser, Steve; Gregorich, Dave; Broberg, Steve

    2005-01-01

    Climate research using data from satellite based radiometers makes extreme demands on the traceability and stability of the radiometric calibration. The selection of a cooled grating array spectrometer for the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder, AIRS, is key, but does not ensured that AIRS data will be of climate quality. Additional design features, plus additional pre-launch testing, and extensive on-orbit calibration subsystem monitoring beyond what would suffice for application of the data to weather forecasting were required to ensure the radiometric data quality required for climate research. Validation that climate data quality are being generated makes use of the sea surface skin temperatures (SST and (obs-calc).

  19. Superfluid Helium On-Orbit Transfer (SHOOT) operatons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kittel, P.; Dipirro, M. J.

    1988-01-01

    The in-flight tests and the operational sequences of the Superfluid Helium On-Orbit Transfer (SHOOT) experiment are outlined. These tests include the transfer of superfluid helium at a variety of rates, the transfer into cold and warm receivers, the operation of an extravehicular activity coupling, and tests of a liquid acquisition device. A variety of different types of instrumentation will be required for these tests. These include pressure sensors and liquid flow meters that must operate in liquid helium, accurate thermometry, two types of quantity gauges, and liquid-vapor sensors.

  20. General Dynamic (GD) Launch Waveform On-Orbit Performance Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briones, Janette C.; Shalkhauser, Mary Jo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present the results from the GD SDR on-orbit performance testing using the launch waveform over TDRSS. The tests include the evaluation of well-tested waveform modes, the operation of RF links that are expected to have high margins, the verification of forward return link operation (including full duplex), the verification of non-coherent operational models, and the verification of radio at-launch operational frequencies. This report also outlines the launch waveform tests conducted and comparisons to the results obtained from ground testing.

  1. The on-orbit performance of the STIS detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimble, Randy A.

    1997-01-01

    The Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS), successfully installed into the Hubble Space Telescope in February 1997, achieves its advances over the first-generation HST spectrographs primarily through the use of modern large-format, two-dimensional array detectors. The performance of the STIS detectors, two Multi-Anode Microchannel Arrays (MAMAS) and one CCD, has been evaluated on-orbit as part of the Servicing Mission Orbital Verification (SMOV) program. All three detectors are functioning well. We report highlights of the results to date here.

  2. Concepts for on-orbit servicing of SIRTF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mord, A. J.; Urbach, A. R.; Poyer, M. E.; Andreozzi, L. C.; Snyder, H. A.

    1986-01-01

    The usable lifetime of the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) has been assumed to be limited to about two years by the lifetime of the superfluid helium carried in the telescope dewar. Concepts are presented for extending the system life by replenishing the cryogen on orbit, and for replacing the focal plane instruments. The operational aspects and the modifications to the baseline SIRTF are examined. It appears to be feasible to perform these servicing operations based on either the Space Shuttle or on the Space Station.

  3. NICMOS in the Cryo-Cooler Era: Expectations for On-Orbit Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neil, E. J.; Schneider, G.; Ferro, A. J.; Hubbard, W. P.; Barg, M. I.; Stobie, E. B.; Thompson, R. I.; Boeker, Torsten; Holfeltz, S. T.; Petro, L. D.

    2000-12-01

    During Servicing Mission 3B for the Hubble Space Telescope, a reverse-Brayton cycle turbine cooler will be installed in conjunction with a new external radiator to recool the Near Infrared Camera Multi-Object Spectrometer's (NICMOS) MgCdTe focal plane arrays to operational temperatures of approximately 75K. The new NICMOS Cooling System (NCS) will circulate cold Neon gas through the cooling coils in the NICMOS cryostat (originally used to freeze out the now depleted solid Nitrogen cryogen). Today, NICMOS remains passively functional, and should return to full usability with all observing modes intact with the advent of the NCS. Here, we report on the expectations for the performance of NICMOS once integrated with and cooled by the NCS based on an extensive series of flight and ground experiments and our experience with flight spare detectors operated at these temperatures. We discuss the results from the shuttle-born HOST mission, laboratory experiments at the Steward Observatory NICMOS detector Laboratory emulating the on-orbit warm-up of the detectors, and system level and electro-magnetic susceptibility and interference tests at the Goddard Space Flight Center. From these, and our experience with the NICMOS both during its pre-launch testing and calibration, and on-orbit use during HST Cycle 7, we re-evaluate expectations for systemic read-noise, dark currents, thermal backgrounds, quantum efficiencies, and optical and mechanical stability of the instrument platform. We discuss the expected changes in these characteristics, with respect to HST Cycle 7, both in terms of established performance metrics and their effects on the formulation and conduction of effective observational strategies for conducting NICMOS science observations. This work is supported, in part, by NASA grant NAG5-3042 to the NICMOS Instrument Definition Team.

  4. LOFAR Facet Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Weeren, R. J.; Williams, W. L.; Hardcastle, M. J.; Shimwell, T. W.; Rafferty, D. A.; Sabater, J.; Heald, G.; Sridhar, S. S.; Dijkema, T. J.; Brunetti, G.; Brüggen, M.; Andrade-Santos, F.; Ogrean, G. A.; Röttgering, H. J. A.; Dawson, W. A.; Forman, W. R.; de Gasperin, F.; Jones, C.; Miley, G. K.; Rudnick, L.; Sarazin, C. L.; Bonafede, A.; Best, P. N.; Bîrzan, L.; Cassano, R.; Chyży, K. T.; Croston, J. H.; Ensslin, T.; Ferrari, C.; Hoeft, M.; Horellou, C.; Jarvis, M. J.; Kraft, R. P.; Mevius, M.; Intema, H. T.; Murray, S. S.; Orrú, E.; Pizzo, R.; Simionescu, A.; Stroe, A.; van der Tol, S.; White, G. J.

    2016-03-01

    LOFAR, the Low-Frequency Array, is a powerful new radio telescope operating between 10 and 240 MHz. LOFAR allows detailed sensitive high-resolution studies of the low-frequency radio sky. At the same time LOFAR also provides excellent short baseline coverage to map diffuse extended emission. However, producing high-quality deep images is challenging due to the presence of direction-dependent calibration errors, caused by imperfect knowledge of the station beam shapes and the ionosphere. Furthermore, the large data volume and presence of station clock errors present additional difficulties. In this paper we present a new calibration scheme, which we name facet calibration, to obtain deep high-resolution LOFAR High Band Antenna images using the Dutch part of the array. This scheme solves and corrects the direction-dependent errors in a number of facets that cover the observed field of view. Facet calibration provides close to thermal noise limited images for a typical 8 hr observing run at ∼ 5\\prime\\prime resolution, meeting the specifications of the LOFAR Tier-1 northern survey.

  5. Calibration beads containing luminescent lanthanide ion complexes

    EPA Science Inventory

    The reliability of lanthanide luminescence measurements, by both flow cytometry and digital microscopy, will be enhanced by the availability of narrow-band emitting lanthanide calibration beads. These beads can also be used to characterize spectrographic instruments, including mi...

  6. Image Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peay, Christopher S.; Palacios, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Calibrate_Image calibrates images obtained from focal plane arrays so that the output image more accurately represents the observed scene. The function takes as input a degraded image along with a flat field image and a dark frame image produced by the focal plane array and outputs a corrected image. The three most prominent sources of image degradation are corrected for: dark current accumulation, gain non-uniformity across the focal plane array, and hot and/or dead pixels in the array. In the corrected output image the dark current is subtracted, the gain variation is equalized, and values for hot and dead pixels are estimated, using bicubic interpolation techniques.

  7. Investigating the Use of Deep Convective Clouds (DCCT) to Monitor On-orbit Performance of the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) using Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buechler, Dennis E.; Christian, Hugh J.; Koshak, William J.; Goodman, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    There is a need to monitor the on-orbit performance of the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) on the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite R (GOES-R) for changes in instrument calibration that will affect GLM's lightning detection efficiency. GLM has no onboard calibration so GLM background radiance observations (available every 2.5 min) of Deep Convective Clouds (DCCs) are investigated as invariant targets to monitor GLM performance. Observations from the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) and the Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS) onboard the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite are used as proxy datasets for GLM and ABI 11 m measurements.

  8. On-orbit assembly and servicing of future space observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lillie, C. F.

    2006-06-01

    NASA's experience servicing the Hubble Space Telescope, including the installation of optical elements to compensate for a mirror manufacturing error; replacement of failed avionics and worn-out batteries, gyros, thermal insulation and solar arrays; upgrades to the data handling subsystem; installation of far more capable instruments; and retrofitting the NICMOS experiment with a mechanical cryocooler has clearly demonstrated the advantages of on-orbit servicing. This effort has produced a unique astronomical observatory that is orders of magnitude more capable than when it was launched and can be operated for several times its original design life. The in-space operations capabilities that are developed for NASA's Exploration Program will make it possible to assemble and service spacecraft in space and to service them in cis-lunar and L2 orbits. Future space observatories should be designed to utilize these capabilities. This paper discusses the application of the lessons learned from HST and our plans for servicing the Advanced X-ray Astrophysical Observatory with the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle and the Space Station Freedom Customer Servicing Facility to future space observatories, such as SAFIR and LifeFinder that are designed to operate in heliocentric orbits. It addresses the use of human and robotic in-space capabilities that would be required for on-orbit assembly and servicing for future space observatories, and describes some of our design concepts for these activities.

  9. On-Orbit Propulsion System Performance of ISS Visiting Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Mary Regina M.; Swanson, Robert A.; Kamath, Ulhas P.; Hernandez, Francisco J.; Spencer, Victor

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) represents the culmination of over two decades of unprecedented global human endeavors to conceive, design, build and operate a research laboratory in space. Uninterrupted human presence in space since the inception of the ISS has been made possible by an international fleet of space vehicles facilitating crew rotation, delivery of science experiments and replenishment of propellants and supplies. On-orbit propulsion systems on both ISS and Visiting Vehicles are essential to the continuous operation of the ISS. This paper compares the ISS visiting vehicle propulsion systems by providing an overview of key design drivers, operational considerations and performance characteristics. Despite their differences in design, functionality, and purpose, all visiting vehicles must adhere to a common set of interface requirements along with safety and operational requirements. This paper addresses a wide variety of methods for satisfying these requirements and mitigating credible hazards anticipated during the on-orbit life of propulsion systems, as well as the seamless integration necessary for the continued operation of the ISS.

  10. Preliminary on-orbit results of trigger system for DAMPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yongqiang; Chang, Jin; Guo, Jian hua; Dong, TieKuang; Liu, Yang

    2016-07-01

    The Dark Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE), Chinese first high energy cosmic ray explorer in space, has been successfully launched at Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center, with the mission of searching dark matter particle. Large energy range for electron/gamma, good energy resolution, and excellent PID ability, make DAMPE to be the most promising detector so far to find the signal of dark matter. DAMPE consists of four sub-detectors: Plastic Scintillation detector, Silicon-Tungsten tracker, BGO calorimeter and Neutron detector. The hit signals generated by the BGO calorimeter and the trigger board (in DAQ) constitute the trigger system of DAMPE, which will generate trigger signals for the four sub-detectors to start data acquisition. The trigger system reduces the trigger rates on orbit from about 1kHz to 70~100Hz, that releases the stress of DAQ transmitting data to ground. In this paper, we will introduce the trigger system of DAMPE, and present some preliminary on-orbit results e.g. trigger efficiency, together with the beam test results at CERN and the simulation results as comparison.

  11. On-orbit deployment anamolies: What can be done?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, Michael

    1992-01-01

    Modern communications satellites rely heavily upon deployable appendage (i.e., solar arrays, communications antennas, etc.) to perform vital functions that enable the spacecraft to effectively conduct mission objectives. Communications and telemetry antennas provide the radio-frequency link between the spacecraft and the earth ground station, permitting data to be transmitted and received from the satellite. Solar arrays serve as the principle source of electrical energy to the satellite, and re-charge internal batteries during operation. However, since satellites cannot carry back-up systems, if a solar array fails to deploy, the mission is lost. The subject of on-orbit anomalies related to the deployment of spacecraft appendage, and possible causes of such failures are examined. Topics discussed include mechanical launch loading, on-orbit thermal and solar concerns, reliability of spacecraft pyrotechnics, and practical limitations of ground-based deployment testing. Of particular significance, the article features an in-depth look at the lessons learned from the successful recovery of the Telesat Canada Anik-E2 satellite in 1991.

  12. Environmental testing to prevent on-orbit TDRS failures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutler, Robert M.

    1994-01-01

    Can improved environmental testing prevent on-orbit component failures such as those experienced in the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) constellation? TDRS communications have been available to user spacecraft continuously for over 11 years, during which the five TDRS's placed in orbit have demonstrated their redundancies and robustness by surviving 26 component failures. Nevertheless, additional environmental testing prior to launch could prevent the occurrence of some types of failures, and could help to maintain communication services. Specific testing challenges involve traveling wave tube assemblies (TWTA's) whose lives may decrease with on-off cycling, and heaters that are subject to thermal cycles. The development of test conditions and procedures should account for known thermal variations. Testing may also have the potential to prevent failures in which components such as diplexers have had their lives dramatically shortened because of particle migration in a weightless environment. Reliability modeling could be used to select additional components that could benefit from special testing, but experience shows that this approach has serious limitations. Through knowledge of on-orbit experience, and with advances in testing, communication satellite programs might avoid the occurrence of some types of failures, and extend future spacecraft longevity beyond the current TDRS design life of ten years. However, determining which components to test, and how must testing to do, remain problematical.

  13. Employing lighting techniques during on-orbit operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheelwright, Charles D.; Toole, Jennifer R.

    1991-01-01

    As a result of past space missions and evaluations, many procedures have been established and shown to be prudent applications for use in present and future space environment scenarios. However, recent procedures to employ the use of robotics to assist crewmembers in performing tasks which require viewing remote and obstructed locations have led to a need to pursue alternative methods to assist in these operations. One of those techniques which is under development entails incorporating the use of suitable lighting aids/techniques with a closed circuit television (CCTV) camera/monitor system to supervise the robotics operations. The capability to provide adequate lighting during grappling, deploying, docking and berthing operations under all on-orbit illumination conditions is essential to a successful mission. Using automated devices such as the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) to dock and berth a vehicle during payload retrieval, under nighttime, earthshine, solar, or artificial illumination conditions can become a cumbersome task without first incorporating lighting techniques that provide the proper target illumination, orientation, and alignment cues. Studies indicate that the use of visual aids such as the CCTV with a pretested and properly oriented lighting system can decrease the time necessary to accomplish grappling tasks. Evaluations have been and continue to be performed to assess the various on-orbit conditions in order to predict and determine the appropriate lighting techniques and viewing angles necessary to assist crewmembers in payload operations.

  14. Space Station on-orbit solar array loads during assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghofranian, S.; Fujii, E.; Larson, C. R.

    This paper is concerned with the closed-loop dynamic analysis of on-orbit maneuvers when the Space Shuttle is fully mated to the Space Station Freedom. A flexible model of the Space Station in the form of component modes is attached to a rigid orbiter and on-orbit maneuvers are performed using the Shuttle Primary Reaction Control System jets. The traditional approach for this type of problems is to perform an open-loop analysis to determine the attitude control system jet profiles based on rigid vehicles and apply the resulting profile to a flexible Space Station. In this study a closed-loop Structure/Control model was developed in the Dynamic Analysis and Design System (DADS) program and the solar array loads were determined for single axis maneuvers with various delay times between jet firings. It is shown that the Digital Auto Pilot jet selection is affected by Space Station flexibility. It is also shown that for obtaining solar array loads the effect of high frequency modes cannot be ignored.

  15. An investigation of selected on-orbit satellite servicing issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Stephen J.

    1986-01-01

    The results of three separate investigations performed by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) between August 1985 and October 1986 as the second phase of the two-phase Satellite Services System Program Plan contract for the Engineering Directorate of the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center are discussed. The objectives of the first phase of this contract (reported in SAIC-85/1762) were to determine the potential for servicing a diverse range of spacecraft from the Space Shuttle Orbiter and to assess NASA's role as the catalyst in enabling routine on-orbit servicing. The second area of investigation was prompted by the need to understand satellite servicing requirements in the far term (1995 to 2010) and how results from the first phase of this contract could support these requirements. The mission model developed during the first phase was extended using new data and information from studies which address the later time period. The third area of investigation looked at a new servicing mode which had not been studied previously. This mode involves the on-orbit exchange of very large modules with masses greater than approximately 9,000 kilograms and/or lengths greater than approximately nine meters. The viewgraphs used for the final briefing for each of the three investigations, as presented to NASA are given.

  16. MERIS/ENVISAT vicarious calibration over land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kneubuehler, Mathias; Schaepman, Michael E.; Thome, Kurtis J.; Schlapfer, Daniel R.

    2004-02-01

    The launch of ESA"s ENVISAT in March 2002 was followed by a commissioning phase for all ENVISAT instruments to verify the performance of ENVISAT instruments and recommend possible adjustments of the calibration or the product algorithms before the data was widely distributed. The focus of this paper is on the vicarious calibration of the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) radiance product (Level 1b) over land. From August to October 2002, several vicarious calibration (VC) experiments for MERIS were performed by the Optical Sciences Center, University of Arizona, and the Remote Sensing Laboratories, University of Zurich. The purpose of these activities was the acquisition of in-situ measurements of surface and atmospheric conditions over a bright, uniform land target, preferably during the time of MERIS data acquisition. The experiment was performed on a dedicated desert site (Railroad Valley Playa, Nevada, USA), which has previously been used to calibrate most relevant satellite instruments (e.g., MODIS, ETM+, etc.). In-situ data were then used to compute top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiances which were compared to the MERIS TOA radiances (Level 1b full resolution product) to determine the in-flight radiometric response of the on-orbit sensor. The absolute uncertainties of the vicarious calibration experiment are found between 3.36-7.15%, depending on the accuracies of the available ground truth data. Based on the uncertainties of the vicarious calibration method and the calibration accuracies of MERIS, no recommendation to update the MERIS calibration is given.

  17. The On-Orbit Performance of the CALIOP Lidar on CALIPSO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winker, David; Hunt, William; Weimer, Carl

    2008-01-01

    CALIPSO is a joint NASA - CNES satellite currently in its third year of operation in low earth orbit. The satellite is making optical measurements of the Earth s atmosphere to help quantify the impact of aerosols and clouds on the Earth s radiation budget. To do this, it carries three instruments: CALIOP, a two-wavelength polarization-sensitive elastic backscatter lidar; the IIR a three band thermal imaging radiometer; and the WFC a visible single-band imager. CALIOP utilizes a Nd:YAG laser which incorporates a harmonic crystal to provide laser light at both 1064 nm and 532 nm. This beam is expanded and transmitted into the atmosphere at near nadir. The laser light scattered from clouds and aerosols back to the satellite, along with any solar background light, is collected by a one meter diameter beryllium telescope. The captured light is separated into its two wavelengths and optically filtered. The 1064 nm component is detected with an avalanche photodiode, while the 532 nm component is further resolved into two linear polarization components which are then detected by matching photomultiplier tubes. This presentation will describe the lidar and give examples of its on-orbit performance.

  18. The solar vector error within the SNPP Common GEO code, the correction, and the effects on the VIIRS SDR RSB calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulbright, Jon; Anderson, Samuel; Lei, Ning; Efremova, Boryana; Wang, Zhipeng; McIntire, Jeffrey; Chiang, Kwofu; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2014-11-01

    Due to a software error, the solar and lunar vectors reported in the on-board calibrator intermediate product (OBC-IP) files for SNPP VIIRS are incorrect. The magnitude of the error is about 0.2 degree, and the magnitude is increasing by about 0.01 degree per year. This error, although small, has an effect on the radiometric calibration of the reflective solar bands (RSB) because accurate solar angles are required for calculating the screen transmission functions and for calculating the illumination of the Solar Diffuser panel. In this paper, we describe the error in the Common GEO code, and how it may be fixed. We present evidence for the error from within the OBC-IP data. We also describe the effects of the solar vector error on the RSB calibration and the Sensor Data Record (SDR). In order to perform this evaluation, we have reanalyzed the yaw-maneuver data to compute the vignetting functions required for the on-orbit SD RSB radiometric calibration. After the reanalysis, we find effect of up to 0.5% on the shortwave infrared (SWIR) RSB calibration.

  19. Updated Global Data from the Guvi Instrument: New Products, Updated Calibration, and a New Web Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, R. K.; Paxton, L. J.; Romeo, G.; Wolven, B. C.; Zhang, Y.; Comberiate, J.

    2014-12-01

    With it's high inclination orbit, GUVI provides global coverage of the ionosphere/thermosphere system, revisiting each polar region 15 times a day. The GUVI instrument has long been a resource for the ITM community with a panoply of data products available from the GUVI website (http://guvi.jhuapl.edu). GUVI is in a high inclination orbit and so provides coverage of both hemispheres. With the release last year of the data products from the DMSO/SSUSI instrument, particularly more detailed auroral zone products (Q, E0, Hemispheric Power, discrete auroral arcs, proton precipitation regions), new equatorial ionospheric products (3D electron densities, bubbles), a whole new set of UV data products has become available. SSUSI are available from http://ssusi.jhuapl.edu. To leverage the experience and knowledge gained from running all of these instruments we have adapted the SSUSI products so they can be made from GUVI telemetry. There are now updated versions of GUVI legacy products as well as brand new products. In addition, better on-orbit calibration techniques developed for SSUSI have now been applied to the GUVI instrument calibration - there is now a common set of software for calibrating both instruments. With a common data format, calibration, and product definition, the data from all SSUSI and GUVI instruments can now be easily combined to get multiple instruments to cover the hemispheres to do a variety of global studies. In addition, the GUVI spectrographic mode data provides great detail about spectrographic features (e.g. O/N2 ratios, NO band emission) that are important for understanding dynamical processes in the thermosphere. A new version of the GUVI website (with the same interface as the SSUSI website) has been launched from guvi.jhuapl.edu to showcase the legacy products made with the new calibration and also highlight the newly developed products for the GUVI imaging and spectrographic modes.

  20. Telerobotic architecture for an on-orbit servicer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marzwell, Neville I.

    1989-01-01

    An on-orbit servicer system has unique functional and human factors requirements. The servicing, whether it be teleoperation task, a supervised control task or an autonomous robotic task, the man-machine interface function is likely to be a bottleneck to the operation of the whole system. The man-machine interface system for a space servicer, namely the operator control station, includes several subsystems with a hierarchical architecture. Those subsystems include a reasoning and planning subsystem (also known as the artificial intelligence planner), a run-time control subsystem, a manipulator control and mechanization subsystem, and a sensing and perception subsystem. Indicative of these potentials, certain generic tasks, suggestive of space assembly, maintenance and repair, were performed in a testbed environment. Through performance in several modes: direct teleoperation, shared control, traded control, and robotic operation, the benefits of the individual technology contributions to the operation were quantized and recommendations for use in telerobotic systems were established.

  1. OrbView-3 Initial On-Orbit Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Kent; Blonski, Slawomir; Holekamp, Kara; Pagnutti, Mary; Zanoni, Vicki; Carver, David; Fendley, Debbie; Smith, Charles

    2004-01-01

    NASA at Stennis Space Center (SSC) established a Space Act Agreement with Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC) and ORBIMAGE Inc. to collaborate on the characterization of the OrbView-3 system and its imagery products and to develop characterization techniques further. In accordance with the agreement, NASA performed an independent radiometric, spatial, and geopositional accuracy assessment of OrbView-3 imagery acquired before completion of the system's initial on-orbit checkout. OSC acquired OrbView-3 imagery over SSC from July 2003 through January 2004, and NASA collected ground reference information coincident with many of these acquisitions. After evaluating all acquisitions, NASA deemed two multispectral images and five panchromatic images useful for characterization. NASA then performed radiometric, spatial, and geopositional characterizations.

  2. Cosmic Origins Spectrograph: On-Orbit Performance of Target Acquisitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penton, Steven V.

    2010-07-01

    COS is a slit-less spectrograph with a very small aperture (R=1.2500). To achieve the desired wavelength accuracies, HST+COS must center the target to within 0.100 of the center of the aperture for the FUV channel, and 0.0400 for NUV. During SMOV and early Cycle 17 we fine-tuned the COS target acquisition (TA) procedures to exceed this accuracy for all three COS TA modes; NUV imaging, NUV spectroscopic, and FUV spectroscopic. In Cycle 17, we also adjusted the COSto- FGS offsets in the SIAF file. This allows us to recommend skipping the time consuming ACQ/SEARCH in cases where the target coordinates are well known. Here we will compare the on-orbit performance of all COS TA modes in terms of centering accuracy, efficiency, and required signal-to-noise (S/N).

  3. On-Orbit Model Refinement for Controller Redesign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whorton, Mark S.; Calise, Anthony J.

    1998-01-01

    High performance control design for a flexible space structure is challenging since high fidelity plant models are difficult to obtain a priori. Uncertainty in the control design models typically require a very robust, low performance control design which must be tuned on-orbit to achieve the required performance. A new procedure for refining a multivariable open loop plant model based on closed-loop response data is presented. Using a minimal representation of the state space dynamics, a least squares prediction error method is employed to estimate the plant parameters. This control-relevant system identification procedure stresses the joint nature of the system identification and control design problem by seeking to obtain a model that minimizes the difference between the predicted and actual closed-loop performance. This paper presents an algorithm for iterative closed-loop system identification and controller redesign along with illustrative examples.

  4. Technology for increased human productivity and safety on orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambrus, Judith; Gartrell, Charles F.

    1991-01-01

    Technologies are addressed that can facilitate the efficient performance of station operations on the Space Station Freedom (SSF) and thereby optimize the utilization of SSF for scientific research. The dedication of SSF capabilities to scientific study and to the payload-user community is a key goal of the program. Robotics applications are discussed in terms of automating the processing of experiment materials on-orbit by transferring ampules to a furnace system or by handling plant-tissue cultures. Noncontact temperature measurement and medical support technology are considered important technologies for maximizing time for scientific purposes. Detailed examinations are conducted of other technologies including advanced data systems and furnace designs. The addition of the listed technologies can provide an environment in which scientific research is more efficient and accurate.

  5. International Space Station Major Constituent Analyzer On-Orbit Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Ben D.; Erwin, Phillip M.; Thoresen, Souzan; Granahan, John; Matty, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The Major Constituent Analyzer is a mass spectrometer based system that measures the major atmospheric constituents on the International Space Station. A number of limited-life components require periodic changeout, including the ORU 02 analyzer and the ORU 08 Verification Gas Assembly. Over the past two years, two ORU 02 analyzer assemblies have operated nominally while two others have experienced premature on-orbit failures. These failures as well as nominal performances demonstrate that ORU 02 performance remains a key determinant of MCA performance and logistical support. It can be shown that monitoring several key parameters can maximize the capacity to monitor ORU health and properly anticipate end of life. Improvements to ion pump operation and ion source tuning are expected to improve lifetime performance of the current ORU 02 design.

  6. Enabling Exploration Missions Now: Applications of On-orbit Staging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David C.; Vaughn, Frank; Westmeyer, Paul; Rawitscher, Gary; Bordi, Francesco

    2005-01-01

    Future NASA Exploration goals are difficult to meet using current launch vehicle implementations and techniques. We introduce a concept of On-Orbit Staging (OOS) using multiple launches into a Low Earth orbit (LEO) staging area to increase payload mass and reduce overall cost for exploration initiative missions. This concept is a forward-looking implementation of ideas put forth by Oberth and Von Braun to address the total mission design. Applying staging throughout the mission and utilizing technological advances in propulsion efficiency and architecture enable us to show that exploration goals can be met in the next decade. As part of this architecture, we assume the readiness of automated rendezvous, docking, and assembly technology.

  7. A Comparison of Three Catastrophic On-Orbit Collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stansbery, Gene; Matney, Mark; Liou, J. C.; Whitlock, Dave

    2007-01-01

    Orbital debris environment models, such as NASA's LEGEND model, show that accidental collisions between satellites will begin to be the dominant cause for future debris population growth within the foreseeable future. The collisional breakup models employed are obviously a critical component of the environment models. The Chinese Anti-Satellite (ASAT) test which destroyed the Fengyun-1C weather satellite provided a rare, but not unique, chance to compare the breakup models against an actual on-orbit collision. Measurements from the U.S. Space Surveillance Network (SSN), for debris larger than 10-cm, and from Haystack, for debris larger than 1-cm, show that the number of fragments created from Fengyun significantly exceeds model predictions using the NASA Standard Collisional Breakup Model. However, it may not be appropriate to alter the model to match this one, individual case. Two other on-orbit collisions have occurred in the past which have produced significant numbers of debris fragments. In September 1985, the U.S. conducted an ASAT test against the Solwind P-78 spacecraft at an altitude of approximately 525 km. A year later, in September 1986, the Delta 180 payload was struck by its Delta II rocket body in a planned collision at 220 km altitude. Although no Haystack data is available in 1985-6 and very few debris pieces were cataloged from Delta 180 due to its low altitude, measurements were collected in dedicated tests by phased array radars in the SSN in the days after each test. This paper will examine the available radar data from each test and compare and contrast the results with model predictions and with the results from the more recent Fengyun ASAT test.

  8. A Comparison of Catastrophic On-Orbit Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stansbery, G.; Matney, M.; Liou, J.; Whitlock, D.

    Orbital debris environment models, such as NASA's LEGEND model, show that accidental collisions between satellites will begin to be the dominant cause for future debris population growth within the foreseeable future. The collisional breakup models employed are obviously a critical component of the environment models. The Chinese Anti-Satellite (ASAT) test which destroyed the Fengyun-1C weather satellite provided a rare, but not unique, chance to compare the breakup models against an actual on-orbit collision. Measurements from the U.S. Space Surveillance Network (SSN), for debris larger than 10-cm, and from Haystack, for debris larger than 1-cm, show that the number of fragments created from Fengyun significantly exceeds model predictions using the NASA Standard Collision Breakup Model. However, it may not be appropriate to alter the model to match this one, individual case. At least three other on-orbit collisions have occurred which have produced significant numbers of debris fragments. In September 1985, the U.S. conducted an ASAT test against the Solwind P-78 spacecraft at an altitude of approximately 525 km. A year later, in September 1986, the Delta 180 payload was struck by its Delta II rocket body in a planned collision at 220 km altitude. And, in February 2008, the USA-193 satellite was destroyed by a ship launched missile in order to eliminate risk to humans on the ground from an on-board tank of frozen hydrazine. Although no Haystack data was available in 1985-6 and very few debris pieces were cataloged from Delta 180 due to its low altitude, measurements were collected sensors in the days after each test. This paper will examine the available data from each test and compare and contrast the results with model predictions and with the results from the more recent Fengyun ASAT test.

  9. Considerations for ultrasonic testing application for on-orbit NDE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshti, Ajay M.

    2015-04-01

    The paper addresses some on-orbit nondestructive evaluation (NDE) needs of NASA for International Space Station (ISS). The presentation gives NDE requirements for inspecting suspect damage due to micro-meteoroids and orbital debris (MMOD) impact on the pressure wall of the ISS. This inspection is meant to be conducted from inside of the ISS module. The metallic wall of the module has a fixed wall thickness but also has integral orthogrid ribs for reinforcement. Typically, a single MMOD hit causes localized damage in a small area causing loss of material similar to pitting corrosion, but cracks may be present too. The impact may cause bulging of the wall. Results of the ultrasonic and eddy current demonstration scans on test samples are provided. The ultrasonic technique uses shear wave scans to interrogate the localized damage area from the surrounding undamaged area. The scanning protocol results in multiple scans, each with multiple "vee" paths. A superimposition and mosaic of the three-dimensional ultrasonic data from individual scans is desired to create C-scan images of the damage. This is a new data reduction process which is not currently implemented in state-of-art ultrasonic instruments. Results of ultrasonic scans on the simulated MMOD damage test plates are provided. The individual C-scans are superimposed manually creating mosaic of the inspection. The resulting image is compared with visibly detected damage boundaries, X-ray images, and localized ultrasonic and eddy current scans for locating crack tips to assess effectiveness of the ultrasonic scanning. The paper also discusses developments needed in improving ergonomics of the ultrasonic testing for on-orbit applications.

  10. Assessment of the NPP VIIRS RVS for the thermal emissive bands using the first pitch maneuver observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, A.; Xiong, X.; Chiang, K.; Sun, C.

    2012-09-01

    The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) is a key sensor carried on Suomi NPP (National Polar-orbiting Partnership) satellite (http://npp.gsfc.nasa.gov/viirs.html) (launched in October 2011). VIIRS sensor design draws on heritage instruments including AVHRR, OLS, SeaWiFS and MODIS. It has on-board calibration components including a solar diffuser (SD) and a solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM) for the reflective solar bands (RSB), a V-groove blackbody for the thermal emissive bands (TEB), and a space view (SV) port for background subtraction. These on-board calibrators are located at fixed scan angles. The VIIRS response versus scan angle (RVS) was characterized prelaunch in lab ambient conditions and is currently used to characterize the on-orbit response for all scan angles relative to the calibrator scan angle (SD for RSB and blackbody for TEB). Since the RVS is vitally important to the quality of calibrated radiance products, several independent studies were performed to analyze the prelaunch RVS measurement data. A spacecraft level pitch maneuver was scheduled during the first three months of intensive Cal/Val. The NPP pitch maneuver provided a rare opportunity for VIIRS to make observations of deep space over the entire range of scan angles, which can be used to characterize the TEB RVS. This study will provide our analysis of the pitch maneuver data and assessment of the derived TEB RVS. A comparison between the RVS determined by the pitch maneuver observations and prelaunch lab tests will be conducted for each band, detector, and half angle mirror (HAM) side.

  11. Revised Landsat-5 TM Radiometrie Calibration Procedures and Postcalibration Dynamic Ranges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Markham, B.

    2003-01-01

    Effective May 5, 2003, Landsat-5 (L5) Thematic Mapper (TM) data processed and distributed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation System (EROS) Data Center (EDC) will be radiometrically calibrated using a new procedure and revised calibration parameters. This change will improve absolute calibration accuracy, consistency over time, and consistency with Landsat-7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) data. Users will need to use new parameters to convert the calibrated data products to radiance. The new procedure for the reflective bands (1-5,7) is based on a lifetime radiometric calibration curve for the instrument derived from the instrument's internal calibrator, cross-calibration with the ETM+, and vicarious measurements. The thermal band will continue to be calibrated using the internal calibrator. Further updates to improve the relative detector-to-detector calibration and thermal band calibration are being investigated, as is the calibration of the Landsat-4 (L4) TM.

  12. The on-orbit optical performance of STIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Charles W.

    1997-01-01

    The Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) is a versatile, general purpose instrument installed aboard the Hubble Space Telescope in February, 1997. During the following Servicing Mission Orbital Verification (SMOV) period, STIS has been made operational and aligned, and initial checkout and calibration completed. The overall optical performance goals have largely been achieved and a summary of these results is presented.

  13. Forty-Year Calibrated Record of Earth-Surface Reflected Radiance from Landsat: A Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, Brian; Helder, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    Sensors on Landsat satellites have been collecting images of the Earth's surface for nearly 40 years. These images have been invaluable for characterizing and detecting changes in the land cover and land use of the world. Although initially conceived as primarily picture generating sensors, even the early sensors were radiometrically calibrated and spectrally characterized prior to launch and incorporated some capabilities to monitor their radiometric calibration once on orbit. Recently, as the focus of studies has shifted to monitoring Earth surface parameters over significant periods of time, serious attention has been focused toward bringing the data from all these sensors onto a common radiometric scale over this 40-year period. This effort started with the most recent systems and then was extended back in time. Landsat-7 ETM+, the best-characterized sensor of the series prior to launch and once on orbit, and the most stable system to date, was chosen to serve as the reference. The Landsat-7 project was the first of the series to build an image assessment system into its ground system, allowing systematic characterization of its sensors and data. Second, the Landsat-5 TM (still operating at the time of the Landsat-7 launch and continues to operate) calibration history was reconstructed based on its internal calibrator, vicarious calibrations, pseudo-invariant sites and a tie to Landsat-7 ETM+ at the time of the commissioning of Landsat-7. This process was performed in two iterations: the earlier one relied primarily on the TM internal calibrator. When this was found to have some deficiencies, a revised calibration was based more on pseudo-invariant sites, though the internal calibrator was still used to establish the short-term variations in response due to icing build up on the cold focal plane. As time progressed, a capability to monitor the Landsat-5 TM was added to the image assessment system. The Landsat-4 TM, which operated from 1982-1992, was the third

  14. A Study of TRMM Static Earth Sensor Performance Using On-Orbit Sensor Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Natanson, Gregory; Glickman, Jonathan

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study of the Barnes static Earth sensor assembly (ESA) using on-orbit data collected from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) spacecraft. It is shown that there exist strong correlations between the large penetration angle residuals and the voltages produced by the Offset Radiation Source (ORS). It is conjectured that at certain times in the TRMM orbit the ORS is operating out of its calibrated range, and consequently corrupts the penetration angle information observed and processed by the ESA. The observed yaw drift between Digital Sun Sensor (DSS) observations is shown to be consistent with predictions by a simple roll-yaw coupling computation. This would explain the large drifts seen on TRMM, where the propagation of the yaw angle between DSS updates does not take into account the possibility of a non-zero roll angle error. Finally, the accuracy of the onboard algorithm used when only three of the four quadrants supply valid penetration angles is assessed. In terms of procedures used to perform this study, the analysis of ESA penetration angle residuals is discovered to be a very useful and insightful tool for assessing, the health and functionality of the ESA.

  15. On-orbit performance of the Compact Infrared Camera (CIRC) with uncooled infrared detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Haruyoshi; Sakai, Michito; Kato, Eri.; Nakajima, Yasuhoiro; Nakau, Koji.; Kimura, Toshiyoshi

    2015-06-01

    We have developed the Compact Infrared Camera (CIRC) with an uncooled infrared array detector (microbolometer) for space application. Microbolometers have an advantage of not requiring cooling system such as a mechanical cooler, and is suitable for resource-limited sensor system. Another characteristic of the CIRC is its use of athermal optics. The athermal optics system compensates for defocus owing to temperature changes. We also employ a shutter-less system which is a method to correct non-uniformity of the detector without a mechanical shutter. The CIRC achieves a small size (approximately 200 mm), light mass (approximately 3 kg), and low electrical power consumption (<20 W) by employing athermal optics and a shutterless system. The CIRC is launched in May 2014 as a technology-demonstration payload of Advanced Land Observation Satellite-2 (ALOS-2). Since the initial functional verification phase (July 4-14, 2014), the CIRC was demonstrated a function according to its intended design. We also confirmed the temperature accuracy of the CIRC observation data is within +/-4K in the calibration validation phase after the initial functional verification phase. The CIRC also detected wildfires in various areas and observed the volcano activities in the operational phase. In this paper, we present the on-orbit performance of the CIRC onboard ALOS-2.

  16. Landsat Data Continuity Mission, now Landsat-8: six months on-orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markham, Brian L.; Storey, James C.; Irons, James R.

    2013-09-01

    The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) with two pushbroom Earth-imaging sensors, the Operational Land Imager (OLI) and the Thermal InfraRed Sensor (TIRS), was launched on February 11, 2013. Its on-orbit check out period or commissioning phase lasted about 90 days. During this phase the spacecraft and its instruments were activated, operationally tested and their performance verified. In addition, during this period, the spacecraft was temporarily placed in an intermediary orbit where it drifted relative to the Landsat-7 spacecraft, providing near simultaneous imaging for about 3 days, allowing data comparison and cross calibration. After this tandem-imaging period, LDCM was raised to its final altitude and placed in the position formerly occupied by Landsat-5, i.e., 8 days out of phase with Landsat-7, with about a 10:10 AM equatorial crossing time. At the end of commissioning, the satellite was transferred to the United States Geological Survey (USGS), officially renamed Landsat-8 and declared operational. Data were made available to the public beginning May 31, 2013. The performance of the satellite and two instruments has generally been excellent as evidenced in the quality of the distributed data products.

  17. Non-Toxic Dual Thrust Reaction Control Engine Development for On-Orbit APS Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Philip J.; Veith, Eric M.

    2003-01-01

    A non-toxic dual thrust proof-of-concept demonstration engine was successfully tested at the Aerojet Sacramento facility under a technology contract sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The goals of the NASA MSFC contract (NAS8-01109) were to develop and expand the technical maturity of a non-toxic, on-orbit auxiliary propulsion system (APS) thruster under the Next Generation Launch Technology (NGLT) program. The demonstration engine utilized the existing Kistler K-1 870 lbf LOX/Ethanol orbital maneuvering engine ( O m ) coupled with some special test equipment (STE) that enabled engine operation at 870 lbf in the primary mode and 25 lbf in the vernier mode. Ambient testing in primary mode varied mixture ratio (MR) from 1.28 to 1.71 and chamber pressure (P(c) from 110 to 181 psia, and evaluated electrical pulse widths (EPW) of 0.080, 0.100 and 0.250 seconds. Altitude testing in vernier mode explored igniter and thruster pulsing characteristics, long duration steady state operation (greater than 420 sec) and the impact of varying the percent fuel film cooling on vernier performance and chamber thermal response at low PC (4 psia). Data produced from the testing provided calibration of the performance and thermal models used in the design of the next version of the dual thrust Reaction Control Engine (RCE).

  18. Jitter Test Program and On-Orbit Mitigation Strategies for Solar Dynamic Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Kuo-Chia; Kenney, Thomas; Maghami, Peiman; Mule, Pete; Blaurock, Carl; Haile, William B.

    2007-01-01

    The Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO) aims to study the Sun's influence on the Earth, the source, storage, and release of the solar energy, and the interior structure of the Sun. During science observations, the jitter stability at the instrument focal plane must be maintained to less than a fraction of an arcsecond for two of the SDO instruments. To meet these stringent requirements, a significant amount of analysis and test effort has been devoted to predicting the jitter induced from various disturbance sources. This paper presents an overview of the SDO jitter analysis approach and test effort performed to date. It emphasizes the disturbance modeling, verification, calibration, and validation of the high gain antenna stepping mechanism and the reaction wheels, which are the two largest jitter contributors. This paper also describes on-orbit mitigation strategies to protect the system from analysis model uncertainties. Lessons learned from the SDO jitter analyses and test programs are included in the paper to share the knowledge gained with the community.

  19. A New Approach for Spectroradiometric Calibration Consistency on the Ground and in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heath, Donald F.; Geprgoev. Geprgo

    2013-01-01

    A Space-based Calibration Transfer Spectroradiometer (SCATS) is combined with a ground calibration spectral albedo radiometric standard which consists of an opaque quartz glass Mie scattering diffuser (MSD) which has very good Lambertian scattering properties in both reflectance and transmittance modes. This system provides the capability for determining long term changes in the spectral albedo calibrations which operate in the solar reflective wavelength region. The spectral albedo calibration would be traceable to the SIRCUS and STARR NIST calibration facilities. The on-orbit radiometric standard is the Sun. The NIST traceable ground spectral albedo calibration is invariant between the ground and on-orbit over the instrument lifetime due to the use of a field of view defining mechanical baffle to differentiate between radiance and irradiance.

  20. International Space Station Major Constituent Analyzer On-Orbit Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Ben D.; Erwin, Philip M.; Thoresen, Souzan; Granahan, John; Matty, Chris

    2010-01-01

    The Major Constituent Analyzer is a mass spectrometer based system that measures the major atmospheric constituents on the International Space Station. A number of limited-life components require periodic changeout, including the analyzer (ORU 02) and the verification gas assembly (ORU 08). The longest lasting ORU 02 was recently replaced after a record service length of 1033 days. The comparatively high performance duration may be attributable to a reduced inlet flow rate into the analyzer, resulting in increased ion pump lifetime; however, there may be other factors as well. A recent schedule slip for delivery of replacement verification gas led to a demonstration that the calibration interval could be extended on a short-term basis. An analysis of ORU 08 performance characteristics indicates that it is possible to temporarily extend the calibration interval from 6 weeks to 12 weeks if necessary.

  1. ALTEA calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaconte, V.; Altea Team

    The ALTEA project is aimed at studying the possible functional damages to the Central Nervous System (CNS) due to particle radiation in space environment. The project is an international and multi-disciplinary collaboration. The ALTEA facility is an helmet-shaped device that will study concurrently the passage of cosmic radiation through the brain, the functional status of the visual system and the electrophysiological dynamics of the cortical activity. The basic instrumentation is composed by six active particle telescopes, one ElectroEncephaloGraph (EEG), a visual stimulator and a pushbutton. The telescopes are able to detect the passage of each particle measuring its energy, trajectory and released energy into the brain and identifying nuclear species. The EEG and the Visual Stimulator are able to measure the functional status of the visual system, the cortical electrophysiological activity, and to look for a correlation between incident particles, brain activity and Light Flash perceptions. These basic instruments can be used separately or in any combination, permitting several different experiments. ALTEA is scheduled to fly in the International Space Station (ISS) in November, 15th 2004. In this paper the calibration of the Flight Model of the silicon telescopes (Silicon Detector Units - SDUs) will be shown. These measures have been taken at the GSI heavy ion accelerator in Darmstadt. First calibration has been taken out in November 2003 on the SDU-FM1 using C nuclei at different energies: 100, 150, 400 and 600 Mev/n. We performed a complete beam scan of the SDU-FM1 to check functionality and homogeneity of all strips of silicon detector planes, for each beam energy we collected data to achieve good statistics and finally we put two different thickness of Aluminium and Plexiglas in front of the detector in order to study fragmentations. This test has been carried out with a Test Equipment to simulate the Digital Acquisition Unit (DAU). We are scheduled to

  2. Fastener Capture Plate Technology to Contain On-Orbit Debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisenhower, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    The Fastener Capture Plate technology was developed to solve the problem of capturing loose hardware and small fasteners, items that were not originally intended to be disengaged in microgravity, thus preventing them from becoming space debris. This technology was incorporated into astronaut tools designed and successfully used on NASA s Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Mission #4. The technology s ultimate benefit is that it allows a very time-efficient method for disengaging fasteners and removing hardware while minimizing the chances of losing parts or generating debris. The technology aims to simplify the manual labor required of the operator. It does so by optimizing visibility and access to the work site and minimizing the operator's need to be concerned with debris while performing the operations. It has a range of unique features that were developed to minimize task time, as well as maximize the ease and confidence of the astronaut operator. This paper describes the technology and the astronaut tools developed specifically for a complicated on-orbit repair, and it includes photographs of the hardware being used in outer space.

  3. On-Orbit Engineering and Vehicle Integration Poster Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heimerdinger, Madison

    2014-01-01

    One of the duties of the MER Managers is getting the consoles to review and sign Electronic Flight Notes (EFN) and Mission Action Requests (Chit) before they are due. Chits and EFNs and are accessible through the Mission Control Center - Houston (MCC-H) Gateway. Chits are the official means of documenting questions and answers, technical direction, real-time changes to Flight Rules (FR) and procedures, request for analysis, etc. between various consoles concerning on-orbit operations. EFNs are documents used by the Flight Control Team (FCT) to communicate precise details between console positions and manage real time changes to FR and Systems Operation Data File (SODF) procedures. On GMT 2013/345 the External Active Thermal Control System (EATCS) on the Columbus (COL) Moderate Temperature Loop (MTL) Interface Heat Exchanger (IFHX) shut down due to low temperatures. Over the next couple of days, the core temperature of COL MT IFHX dropped due to the failure of the Flow Control Valve (FCV). After the temperature drop was discovered, heaters were turned on to bring the temperatures back to nominal. After the incident occurred, a possible freeze threat was discovered that could have ruptured the heat exchanger. The COL MT IFHX rupturing would be considered a catastrophic failure and potentially result in a loss of the vehicle and/or the lives of the International Space Station (ISS) crew members

  4. Chandra X-Ray Observatory (CXO) on Orbit Animation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This is an on-orbit animation of the Chandra X-Ray Observatory (CXO), formerly Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF). In 1999, the AXAF was renamed the CXO in honor of the late Indian-American Novel Laureate Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar. The CXO is the most sophisticated and the world's most powerful x-ray telescope ever built. It is designed to observe x-rays from high energy regions of the Universe, such as hot gas in the remnants of exploded stars. It produces picture-like images of x-ray emissions analogous to those made in visible light, as well as gathers data on the chemical composition of x-ray radiating objects. The CXO helps astronomers worldwide better understand the structure and evolution of the universe by studying powerful sources of x-rays such as exploding stars, matter falling into black holes, and other exotic celestial objects. TRW, Inc. was the prime contractor for the development of the CXO and NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center was responsible for its project management. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory controls science and flight operations of the CXO for NASA from Cambridge, Massachusetts. The Observatory was launched July 22, 1999 aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia, STS-93 mission.

  5. Developing a safe on-orbit cryogenic depot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahr, Nicholas J.

    1992-01-01

    New U.S. space initiatives will require technology to realize planned programs such as piloted lunar and Mars missions. Key to the optimal execution of such missions are high performance orbit transfer vehicles and propellant storage facilities. Large amounts of liquid hydrogen and oxygen demand a uniquely designed on-orbit cryogenic propellant depot. Because of the inherent dangers in propellant storage and handling, a comprehensive system safety program must be established. This paper shows how the myriad and complex hazards demonstrate the need for an integrated safety effort to be applied from program conception through operational use. Even though the cryogenic depot is still in the conceptual stage, many of the hazards have been identified, including fatigue due to heavy thermal loading from environmental and operating temperature extremes, micrometeoroid and/or depot ancillary equipment impact (this is an important problem due to the large surface area needed to house the large quantities of propellant), docking and maintenance hazards, and hazards associated with extended extravehicular activity. Various safety analysis techniques were presented for each program phase. Specific system safety implementation steps were also listed. Enhanced risk assessment was demonstrated through the incorporation of these methods.

  6. On orbit performance of the ALEXIS EUV telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Bloch, J.; Edwards, B.; Priedhorsky, W.

    1994-08-01

    The Array of Low Energy X-ray Imaging Sensors (ALEXIS) satellite is Los Alamos` first attempt at building and flying a low cost, rapid development, technology demonstration and scientific space mission. The ALEXIS satellite contains the two experiments: the ALEXIS telescope array, (which consists of six EUV/ultrasoft x-ray telescopes utilizing multilayer mirrors, each with a 33 degree field-of-view), and a VHF ionospheric experiment called Blackbeard. A ground station located at Los Alamos exclusively controls the spacecraft. The 248 pound ALEXIS satellite was launched by a Pegasus booster into a 400 {times} 450 nautical mile, 70 degree inclination orbit on April 25, 1993. Images from a video system on the rocket indicated that ALEXIS had been severely damaged during launch with one of the 4 solar panels breaking away from its mounting. (It later turned out that the solar paddle was still attached to the spacecraft but only through cable bundles.) Attempts at communicating with the satellite were unsuccessful until a surprised ground crew received a short transmission on June 2. By mid July, ground station operators had regained full control of the satellite and began to initiate scientific operations with both the telescope array and the VHF experiment. In this paper we will discuss a preliminary analysis of the on-orbit performance of EUV telescopes on ALEXIS.

  7. Autonomous robotic operations for on-orbit satellite servicing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogilvie, Andrew; Allport, Justin; Hannah, Michael; Lymer, John

    2008-04-01

    The Orbital Express Demonstration System (OEDS) flight test successfully demonstrated technologies required to autonomously service satellites on-orbit. The mission's integrated robotics solution, the Orbital Express Demonstration Manipulator System (OEDMS) developed by MDA, performed critical flight test operations. The OEDMS comprised a six-jointed robotic manipulator arm and its avionics, non-proprietary servicing and ORU (Orbital Replacement Unit) interfaces, a vision and arm control system for autonomous satellite capture, and a suite of Ground Segment and Flight Segment software allowing script generation and execution under supervised or full autonomy. The arm was mounted on ASTRO, the servicer spacecraft developed by Boeing. The NextSat, developed by Ball Aerospace, served as the client satellite. The OEDMS demonstrated two key goals of the OEDS flight test: autonomous free-flyer capture and berthing of a client satellite, and autonomous transfer of ORUs from servicer to client and back. The paper provides a description of the OEDMS and the key operations it performed.

  8. Code Blue on Orbit: Treating Cardiac Arrest on the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacal, Kira; Redmond, Melissa

    2004-01-01

    As a result of the Columbia tragedy on February 1,2003, the International Space Station (ISS) crew size has been temporarily reduced from three to two. This change forces adaptations in many operational procedures used by the crew, including medical protocols which were designed for scenarios involving one casualty and two caregivers. The Office of Space Medicine directed that the procedure for the resuscitation of a crewmember in cardiac arrest be rewritten for use by a single care provider. Methods: Adaptation of this procedure made use of current American Heart Association Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) procedures and reflects necessary compromises between the realities of the operational environment and prompt provision of medical care. Results: Numerous changes were incorporated due to the diminution in available personnel, including substitution of endotracheal rather than intravenous delivery of drugs, more rapid defibrillation, addition of a precordial thump, removal of transcutaneous pacing, streamlining of procedural steps, and clarification of termination criteria. Discussion: The on-orbit care available to the ISS crewmembers is constrained by numerous factors, including crew medical training, minimal medical assets, limited air/ground communication , and a single caregiver for the foreseeable future. All of these combine to make a successful resuscitation unlikely, however, this procedure must ultimately deal with not only the patient's welfare, but also that of the caregiver, the mission, and the program.

  9. Landsat 7: An Early Look at On-Orbit Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, D. L.; Irons, J. R.; Barker, J. L.; Markham, B. L.; Pedelty, J. A.

    1999-01-01

    As this article was being submitted in mid-March, 1999, Landsat 7 had been cleared for an official launch date of April 15, 1999, approximately 2 and 1/2 months prior to the 21st Canadian Symposium on Remote Sensing. Since it is impossible to discuss "early on-orbit performance" prior to the actual launch of the satellite, we have chosen to briefly summarize the major features of the Landsat 7 program. Additional information can be found at several web sites which will summarized at the end of this paper. At this time, the Landsat Project Science Office is pleased to report that the performance of the ETM+ instrument appears to be very good. In addition to excellent instrument performance, a robust data acquisition plan has been developed with the goal of acquiring and systematically refreshing a global archive of land observations at the EROS Data Center annually. A ground processing system is being implemented at EROS that will be capable of capturing, processing and archiving 250 Landsat scenes per day, and delivering 100 scene products to users daily. In addition, the cost of a systematically-processed Level 1 product will be less than $600, and there will be no copyright protection on the data. The net result is that the use of remote sensing data in our daily lives is expected to grow dramatically. This growth is expected to benefit all facets of the land remote sensing community.

  10. Risk Analysis of On-Orbit Spacecraft Refueling Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cirillo, William M.; Stromgren, Chel; Cates, Grant R.

    2010-01-01

    On-orbit refueling of spacecraft has been proposed as an alternative to the exclusive use of Heavy-lift Launch Vehicles to enable human exploration beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO). In these scenarios, beyond LEO spacecraft are launched dry (without propellant) or partially dry into orbit, using smaller or fewer element launch vehicles. Propellant is then launched into LEO on separate launch vehicles and transferred to the spacecraft. Refueling concepts are potentially attractive because they reduce the maximum individual payload that must be placed in Earth orbit. However, these types of approaches add significant complexity to mission operations and introduce more uncertainty and opportunities for failure to the mission. In order to evaluate these complex scenarios, the authors developed a Monte Carlo based discrete-event model that simulates the operational risks involved with such strategies, including launch processing delays, transportation system failures, and onorbit element lifetimes. This paper describes the methodology used to simulate the mission risks for refueling concepts, the strategies that were evaluated, and the results of the investigation. The results of the investigation show that scenarios that employ refueling concepts will likely have to include long launch and assembly timelines, as well as the use of spare tanker launch vehicles, in order to achieve high levels of mission success through Trans Lunar Injection.

  11. International Space Station Major Constituent Analyzer On-Orbit Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Ben D.; Erwin, Philip M.; Thoresen, Souzan; Granahan, John; Matty, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The Major Constituent Analyzer (MCA) is an integral part of the International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS). The MCA is a mass spectrometer-based instrument designed to provide critical monitoring of six major atmospheric constituents; nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, methane, and water vapor. These gases are sampled continuously and automatically in all United States On-Orbit Segment (USOS) modules via the Sample Distribution System (SDS). The MCA is the primary tool for management of atmosphere constituents and is therefore critical for ensuring a habitable ISS environment during both nominal ISS operations and campout EVA preparation in the Airlock. The MCA has been in operation in the US Destiny Laboratory Module for over 10 years, and a second MCA has been delivered to the ISS for Node 3 operation. This paper discusses the performance of the MCA over the two past year, with particular attention to lessons learned regarding the operational life of critical components. Recent data have helped drive design upgrades for a new set of orbit-replaceable units (ORUs) currently in production. Several ORU upgrades are expected to increase expected lifetimes and reliability.

  12. On-orbit performance of the ALEXIS EUV telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloch, Jeffrey J.; Edwards, Bradley C.; Priedhorsky, William C.; Roussel-Dupre, Diane C.; Smith, Barham W.; Siegmund, Oswald H.; Carone, Timothy; Cully, Scott; Rodriguez-Bell, T.; Warren, John K.; Vallerga, John V.

    1994-09-01

    The Array of Low Energy X-ray Imaging Sensors (ALEXIS) satellite is Los Alamos' first attempt at building and flying a low cost, rapid development, technology demonstration and scientific space mission. The ALEXIS satellite contains the two experiments: the ALEXIS telescope array, (which consists of six EUV/ultrasoft x- ray telescopes utilizing multilayer mirrors, each with a 33 degree field-of-view), and a VHF ionospheric experiment called Blackbeard. A ground station located at Los Alamos exclusively controls the spacecraft. The 248 pound ALEXIS satellite was launched by a Pegasus booster into a 400 x 450 nautical mile, 70 degree inclination orbit on April 25, 1993. Images from a video system on the rocket indicated that ALEXIS had been severely damaged during launch with one of the 4 solar panels breaking away from its mounting. (It later turned out that the solar paddle was still attached to the spacecraft but only through cable bundles.) Attempts at communicating with the satellite were unsuccessful until a surprised ground crew received a short transmission on June 2. By mid July, ground station operators had regained full control of the satellite and began to initiate scientific operations with both the telescope array and the VHF experiment. In this paper we will discuss a preliminary analysis of the on-orbit performance of EUV telescopes on ALEXIS.

  13. The International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) End-to-End On-Orbit Maintenance Process Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zingrebe, Kenneth W., II

    1995-01-01

    As a tool for construction and refinement of the on-orbit maintenance system to sustain the International Space Station Alpha (ISSA), the Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) developed an end to-end on-orbit maintenance process flow. This paper discusses and demonstrates that process flow. This tool is being used by MOD to identify areas which require further work in preparation for MOD's role in the conduct of on-orbit maintenance operations.

  14. Design and Stability of an On-Orbit Attitude Control System Using Reaction Control Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Robert A.; Hough, Steven; Orphee, Carolina; Clements, Keith

    2016-01-01

    NASA is providing preliminary design and requirements for the Space Launch System Exploration Upper Stage (EUS). The EUS will provide upper stage capability for vehicle ascent as well as on-orbit control capability. Requirements include performance of on-orbit burn to provide Orion vehicle with escape velocity. On-orbit attitude control is accommodated by a on-off Reaction Control System (RCS). Paper provides overview of approaches for design and stability of an attitude control system using a RCS.

  15. Gastric Banding

    MedlinePlus

    ... gastric banding before deciding to have the procedure. Advertisements for a device or procedure may not include ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  16. On-orbit performance of the 12 GHz, 200 watt transmitter experiment package for CTS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexovich, R. E.

    1977-01-01

    Performance characteristics from on-orbit tests of the Transmitter Experiment Package (TEP) for the Communications Technology Satellite (CTS) are presented. The TEP consists of a Power Processing System (PPS), an Output Stage Tube (OST), and a Variable Conductance Heat Pipe System (VCHPS), all of which are described. The OST is a coupled-cavity traveling-wave tube with a multistage depressed collector and a stepped velocity-tapered slow-wave structure for efficiency enhancement. It has an RF output power of 240 W and an overall efficiency of 51.5% at a center band frequency of 12.080 GHz. The PPS provides the required operating voltages, regulation, control, and protection for the OST. It has a measured dc-dc conversion efficiency of 86.5% to 88.5%. The VCHPS consists of a fin radiator and three dual-artery stainless steel heat pipes using methanol and a mixture of inert gases. Test results presented include efficiencies, RF output power, frequency response, and performance with single and multiple (two) carriers frequency-modulated by video signals.

  17. On Orbit Commissioning of the Earth Observing System Microwave Limb Sounder (EOS MLS) On the Aura Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lay, Richard R.; Lee, Karen A.; Holden, James R.; Oswald, John E.; Jarnot, Robert F.; Pickett, Herbert M.; Stek, Paul C.; Cofield, Richard E., III; Flower, Dennis A.; Schwartz, Michael J.; Shoemaker, Candace M.

    2005-01-01

    The Microwave Limb Sounder instrument was launched aboard NASA's EOS AURA satellite in July, 2004. The overall scientific objectives for MLS are to measure temperature, pressure, and several important chemical species in the upper troposphere and stratosphere relevant to ozone processes and climate change. MLS consists of a suite of radiometers designed to operate from 11 8 GHz to 2.5 THz, with two antennas (one for 2.5 THz, the other for the lower frequencies) that scan vertically through the atmospheric limb, and spectrometers with spectral resolution of 6 MHz at spectral line centers. This paper describes the on-orbit commissioning the MLS instrument which includes activation and engineering functional verifications and calibrations.

  18. TET-1- A German Microsatellite for Technology On -Orbit Verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Föckersperger, S.; Lattner, K.; Kaiser, C.; Eckert, S.; Bärwald, W.; Ritzmann, S.; Mühlbauer, P.; Turk, M.; Willemsen, P.

    2008-08-01

    Due to the high safety standards in the space industry every new product must go through a verification process before qualifying for operation in a space system. Within the verification process the payload undergoes a series of tests which prove that it is in accordance with mission requirements in terms of function, reliability and safety. Important verification components are the qualification for use on the ground as well as the On-Orbit Verification (OOV), i.e. proof that the product is suitable for use under virtual space conditions (on-orbit). Here it is demonstrated that the product functions under conditions which cannot or can only be partially simulated on the ground. The OOV-Program of the DLR serves to bridge the gap between the product tested and qualified on the ground and the utilization of the product in space. Due to regular and short-term availability of flight opportunities industry and research facilities can verify their latest products under space conditions and demonstrate their reliability and marketability. The Technologie-Erprobungs-Tr&äger TET (Technology Experiments Carrier) comprises the core elements of the OOV Program. A programmatic requirement of the OOV Program is that a satellite bus already verified in orbit be used in the first segment of the program. An analysis of suitable satellite buses showed that a realization of the TET satellite bus based on the BIRD satellite bus fulfilled the programmatic requirements best. Kayser-Threde was selected by DLR as Prime Contractor to perform the project together with its major subcontractors Astro- und Feinwerktechnik, Berlin for the platform development and DLR-GSOC for the ground segment development. TET is now designed to be a modular and flexible micro-satellite for any orbit between 450 and 850 km altitude and inclination between 53° and SSO. With an overall mass of 120 kg TET is able to accommodate experiments of up to 50 kg. A multipurpose payload supply systemThere is

  19. On-Orbit Prospective Echocardiography on International Space Station Crew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, Douglas R.; Sargsyan, Ashot E.; Martin, David S.; Garcia, Kathleen M.; Melton, Shannon L.; Feiveson, Alan; Dulchavsky, Scott A.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction A prospective trial of echocardiography was conducted on of six crewmembers onboard the International Space Station. The main objective was to determine the efficacy of remotely guided tele-echocardiography, including just-in-time e-training methods and determine what "space normal" echocardiographic data is. Methods Each crewmember operator (n=6) had 2-hour preflight training. Baseline echocardiographic data were collected 55 to 167days preflight. Similar equipment was used in each 60-minute in-flight session (mean microgravity exposure - 114 days (34 -- 190)). On Orbit ultrasound operators used an e-learning system within 24h of these sessions. Expert assistance was provided using ultrasound video downlink and two-way voice. Testing was repeated 5 to 16 days after landing. Separate ANOVA was used on each echocardiographic variable (n=33). Within each ANOVA, three tests were made: a) effect of mission phase (preflight, in-flight, post flight); b) effect of echo technician (two technicians independently analyzed the data); c) interaction between mission phase and technician. Results Nine rejections of the null hypothesis (mission phase or technician or both had no effect) were discovered and considered for follow up. Of these, six rejections were for significant technician effects, not as a result of space flight. Three rejections of the null hypothesis (Aortic Valve time velocity integral, Mitral E wave Velocity and heart rate) were attributable to space flight, however determined not to be clinically significant. No rejections were due to the interaction between technician and space flight. Conclusion No consistent clinically significant effects of long-duration space flight were seen in echocardiographic variables of the given group of subjects.

  20. Autonomous intelligent robotic manipulator for on-orbit servicing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larouche, Benoit P.

    The doctoral research is to develop an autonomous intelligent robotic manipulator technology for on-orbit servicing (OOS). More specifically, the research is focused on one of the most critical tasks in OOS- the capture of a non-cooperative object whilst minimizing impact forces and accelerations. The objective of the research is: the development of a vision-based control theory, and the implementation and testing of the developed theory by designing and constructing a custom non-redundant holonomic robotic manipulator. The research validated the newly developed control theory and its ability to (i) capture a moving target autonomously and (ii) minimize unfavourable contact dynamics during the most critical parts of the capture operations between the capture satellite and a non-cooperative/tumbling object. A custom robotic manipulator functional prototype has been designed, assembled, constructed, and programmed from concept to completion in order to provide full customizability and controllability in both the hardware and the software. Based on the test platform, a thorough experimental investigation has been conducted to validate the newly developed control methodologies to govern the behaviour of the robotic manipulators (RM) in an autonomous capture. The capture itself is effected on non-cooperative targets in zero-gravity simulated environment. The RM employs a vision system, force sensors, and encoders in order to sense its environment. The control is effected through position and pseudo-torque inputs to three stepper motors and three servo motors. The controller is a modified hybrid force/neural network impedance controller based on N. Hogan's original work. The experimental results demonstrate the set objectives of this thesis have been successfully achieved.

  1. New Attitude Sensor Alignment Calibration Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hashmall, Joseph A.; Sedlak, Joseph E.; Harman, Richard (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Accurate spacecraft attitudes may only be obtained if the primary attitude sensors are well calibrated. Launch shock, relaxation of gravitational stresses and similar effects often produce large enough alignment shifts so that on-orbit alignment calibration is necessary if attitude accuracy requirements are to be met. A variety of attitude sensor alignment algorithms have been developed to meet the need for on-orbit calibration. Two new algorithms are presented here: ALICAL and ALIQUEST. Each of these has advantages in particular circumstances. ALICAL is an attitude independent algorithm that uses near simultaneous measurements from two or more sensors to produce accurate sensor alignments. For each set of simultaneous observations the attitude is overdetermined. The information content of the extra degrees of freedom can be combined over numerous sets to provide the sensor alignments. ALIQUEST is an attitude dependent algorithm that combines sensor and attitude data into a loss function that has the same mathematical form as the Wahba problem. Alignments can then be determined using any of the algorithms (such as the QUEST quaternion estimator) that have been developed to solve the Wahba problem for attitude. Results from the use of these methods on active missions are presented.

  2. ASTER system operating achievement for 15 years on orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inada, Hitomi; Ito, Yoshiyuki; Kikuchi, Masakuni; Sakuma, Fumihiro; Tatsumi, Kenji; Akagi, Shigeki; Ono, Hidehiko

    2015-10-01

    ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) System is operating more than 15 years since launched on board of NASA's Terra spacecraft in December 1999. ASTER System is composed of 3 radiometers (VNIR (Visible and Near Infrared Radiometer), SWIR (Short-Wave Infrared Radiometer), and TIR (Thermal Infrared Radiometer)), CSP (Common Signal Processor) and MSP (Master Power Supply). This paper describes the ASTER System operating history and the achievement of ASTER System long term operation since the initial checkout operation, the normal operation, and the continuous operation. Through the 15 years operation, ASTER system had totally checked the all subsystems (MPS, VNIR, TIR, SWIR, and CSP) health and safety check using telemetry data trend evaluation, and executed the necessary action. The watch items are monitored as the life control items. The pointing mechanics for VNIR, SWIR and TIR, and the cooler for SWIR and TIR are all operating with any problem for over 15 years. In 2003, ASTER was successfully operated for the lunar calibration. As the future plan, ASTER team is proposing the 2nd lunar calibration before the end of mission.

  3. An overview of in-orbit radiometric calibration of typical satellite sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, G. Q.; Li, C. Y.; Yue, T.; Jiang, L. J.; Liu, N.; Sun, Y.; Li, M. Y.

    2015-06-01

    This paper reviews the development of in-orbit radiometric calibration methods in the past 40 years. It summarizes the development of in-orbit radiometric calibration technology of typical satellite sensors in the visible/near-infrared bands and the thermal infrared band. Focuses on the visible/near-infrared bands radiometric calibration method including: Lamp calibration and solar radiationbased calibration. Summarizes the calibration technology of Landsat series satellite sensors including MSS, TM, ETM+, OLI, TIRS; SPOT series satellite sensors including HRV, HRS. In addition to the above sensors, there are also summarizing ALI which was equipped on EO-1, IRMSS which was equipped on CBERS series satellite. Comparing the in-orbit radiometric calibration technology of different periods but the same type satellite sensors analyzes the similarities and differences of calibration technology. Meanwhile summarizes the in-orbit radiometric calibration technology in the same periods but different country satellite sensors advantages and disadvantages of calibration technology.

  4. An SLF magnetic antenna calibration system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimin, Feng; Suihua, Zhou; Zhiyi, Chen; Hongxin, Zhang

    2014-05-01

    Calibrating the super low frequency (SLF) magnetic antenna in magnetic free space or an outdoor environment is difficult and complicated due to the large size calibration instruments and lots of measurement times. Aiming to calibrate the SLF magnetic antenna simply and efficiently, a calibration system comprised of a multi-frequency source, an AC constant-current source and a solenoid is proposed according to the characteristic of an SLF magnetic antenna. The static magnetic transfer coefficient of the designed solenoid is calibrated. The measurement of the frequency response characteristics suggests the transfer coefficient remains unchanged in the range of the SLF band and is unaffected by the magnetic antenna internally installed. The CORDIC algorithm implemented in an FPGA is realized to generate a linear evenly-spaced multi-frequency signal with equal energy at each frequency. An AC constant weak current source circuit is designed in order to avoid the impact on the magnetic induction intensity of a calibration system affected by impedance variation when frequency changing, linearity and the precision of the source are measured. The frequency characteristic of a magnetic antenna calibrated by the proposed calibration system agrees with the theoretical result and the standard Glass ring calibration result. The calibration precision satisfies the experimental requirement.

  5. MPLM On-Orbit Interface Dynamic Flexibility Modal Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bookout, Paul S.; Rodriguez, Pedro I.; Tinson, Ian; Fleming, Paolo

    2001-01-01

    Now that the International Space Station (ISS) is being constructed, payload developers have to not only verify the Shuttle-to-payload interface, but also the interfaces their payload will have with the ISS. The Multi Purpose Logistic Module (MPLM) being designed and built by Alenia Spazio in Torino, Italy is one such payload. The MPLM is the primary carrier for the ISS Payload Racks, Re-supply Stowage Racks, and the Resupply Stowage Platforms to re-supply the ISS with food, water, experiments, maintenance equipment and etc. During the development of the MPLM there was no requirement for verification of the on-orbit interfaces with the ISS. When this oversight was discovered, all the dynamic test stands had already been disassembled. A method was needed that would not require an extensive testing stand and could be completed in a short amount of time. The residual flexibility testing technique was chosen. The residual flexibility modal testing method consists of measuring the free-free natural frequencies and mode shapes along with the interface frequency response functions (FRF's). Analytically, the residual flexibility method has been investigated in detail by, MacNeal, Martinez, Carne, and Miller, and Rubin, but has not been implemented extensively for model correlation due to difficulties in data acquisition. In recent years improvement of data acquisition equipment has made possible the implementation of the residual flexibility method as in Admire, Tinker, and Ivey, and Klosterman and Lemon. The residual flexibility modal testing technique is applicable to a structure with distinct points (DOF) of contact with its environment, such as the MPLM-to-Station interface through the Common Berthing Mechanism (CBM). The CBM is bolted to a flange on the forward cone of the MPLM. During the fixed base test (to verify Shuttle interfaces) some data was gathered on the forward cone panels. Even though there was some data on the forward cones, an additional modal test was

  6. Systems engineering studies of on-orbit assembly operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgenthaler, George W.

    1991-01-01

    While the practice of construction has a long history, the underlying theory of construction is relatively young. Very little has been documented as to techniques of logistic support, construction planning, construction scheduling, construction testing, and inspection. The lack of 'systems approaches' to construction processes is certainly one of the most serious roadblocks to the construction of space structures. System engineering research efforts at CSC are aimed at developing concepts and tools which contribute to a systems theory of space construction. The research is also aimed at providing means for trade-offs of design parameters for other research areas in CSC. Systems engineering activity at CSC has divided space construction into the areas of orbital assembly, lunar base construction, interplanetary transport vehicle construction, and Mars base construction. A brief summary of recent results is given. Several models for 'launch-on-time' were developed. Launch-on-time is a critical concept to the assembly of such Earth-orbiting structures as the Space Station Freedom, and to planetary orbiters such as the Mars transfer vehicle. CSC has developed a launch vehicle selection model which uses linear programming to find optimal combinations of launch vehicles of various sizes (Atlas, Titan, Shuttles, HLLV's) to support SEI missions. Recently, the Center developed a cost trade-off model for studying on orbit assembly logistics. With this model it was determined that the most effective size of the HLLV would be in the range of 120 to 200 metric tons to LEO, which is consistent with the choices of General Stafford's Synthesis Group Report. A second-generation Dynamic Construction Activities Model ('DYCAM') process model has been under development, based on our past results in interruptability and our initial DYCAM model. This second-generation model is built on the paradigm of knowledge-based expert systems. It is aimed at providing answers to two questions: (1

  7. On-Orbit Performance of the Spitzer Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roellig, Thomas; Werner, Michael; Gallagher, David; Irace, William; Fazio, Giovanni; Houck, James; Rieke, George; Wilson, Robert; Soifer, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    The Spitzer Space Telescope (formally known as SIRTF) was successfully launched on August 25, 2003, and has completed its initial in-orbit checkout and science validation and calibration period. The measured performance of the observatory has met or exceeded all of its high-level requirements, it has entered normal operations, and is beginning to return high-quality science data. A superfluid-helium cooled 85 cm diameter telescope provides extremely low infrared backgrounds and feeds three science instruments covering wavelengths ranging from 3.2 to 180 microns. The telescope optical quality is excellent, providing diffraction-limited performance down to wavelengths below 6.5 microns. Based on the first helium mass and boil-off rate measurements, a cryogenic lifetime in excess of 5 years is expected. This presentation will provide a summary of the overall performance of the observatory, with an emphasis on those performance parameters that have the greatest impact on its ultimate science return.

  8. On-orbit performance of the Compact Infrared Camera (CIRC) onboard ALOS-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Michito; Katayama, Haruyoshi; Kato, Eri; Nakajima, Yasuhiro; Kimura, Toshiyoshi; Nakau, Koji

    2015-10-01

    Compact Infrared Camera (CIRC) is a technology demonstration instrument equipped with an uncooled infrared array detector (microbolometer) for space application. Microbolometers have an advantage of not requiring cooling system such as a mechanical cooler and are suitable for resource-limited sensor systems. Another characteristic of the CIRC is its use of an athermal optical system and a shutterless system. The CIRC is small in size (approximately 200 mm), is light weight (approximately 3 kg), and has low electrical power consumption (<20 W) owing to these characteristics. The main objective of CIRC is to detect wildfires, which are major and chronic disasters affecting various countries of Southeast Asia, particularly considering the effects of global warming and climate change. One of the CIRCs was launched in May 24, 2014 as a technology demonstration payload of the Advanced Land Observation Satellite-2 (ALOS- 2). Since the initial functional verification phase (July 4-14, 2014), the CIRC has demonstrated functions according to its intended design. We also confirmed that the noise equivalent differential temperature of the CIRC observation data is less than 0.2 K, the temperature accuracy is within ±4 K, and the spatial resolution is less than 210 m in the calibration validation phase after the initial functional verification phase. The CIRC also detects wildfires in various areas and observes volcano activities and urban heat islands in the operational phase. The other CIRC will be launched in 2015 onboard the CALorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) of the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) of the International Space Station. Installation of the CIRCs on the ALOS-2 and on the JEM/CALET is expected to increase the observation frequency. In this study, we present the on-orbit performance including observational results of the CIRC onboard the ALOS-2 and the current status of the CIRC onboard the JEM/CALET.

  9. Overview of the Advanced Camera for Surveys on-orbit performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Holland C.; Clampin, Mark; Hartig, George F.; Illingworth, Garth D.; Sirianni, Marco; Martel, Andre R.; Meurer, Gerhardt R.; McCann, William J.; Sullivan, Pamela C.; Bartko, Frank; Benitez, Narcisco; Blakeslee, John; Bouwens, Rychard; Broadhurst, Tom; Brown, Robert A.; Burrows, Christopher J.; Campbell, Douglas; Cheng, Edward S.; Feldman, Paul D.; Franx, Marijn; Golimowski, David A.; Gronwall, Caryl; Kimble, Randy A.; Krist, John E.; Lesser, Michael P.; Magee, Dan; Miley, George; Postman, Marc; Rafal, Marc D.; Rosati, Piero; Sparks, William B.; Tran, Hien D.; Tsvetanov, Zlatan I.; Volmer, Paul; White, Richard L.; Woodruff, Robert A.

    2003-02-01

    We present an overview of the ACS on-orbit performance based on the calibration observations taken during the first three months of ACS operations. The ACS meets or exceeds all of its important performance specifications. The WFC and HRC FWHM and 50% encircled energy diameters at 555 nm are 0.088" and 0.14", and 0.050" and 0.10". The average rms WFC and HRC read noises are 5.0 e- and 4.7 e-. The WFC and HRC average dark currents are ~ 7.5 and ~ 9.1 e-/pixel/hour at their operating temperatures of - 76°C and - 80°C. The SBC + HST throughput is 0.0476 and 0.0292 through the F125LP and F150LP filters. The lower than expected SBC operating temperature of 15 to 27°C gives a dark current of 0.038 e-/pix/hour. The SBC just misses its image specification with an observed 50% encircled energy diameter of 0.24" at 121.6 nm. The ACS HRC coronagraph provides a 6 to 16 direct reduction of a stellar PSF, and a ~1000 to ~9000 PSF-subtracted reduction, depending on the size of the coronagraphic spot and the wavelength. The ACS grism has a position dependent dispersion with an average value of 3.95 nm/pixel. The average resolution λ/Δλ for stellar sources is 65, 87, and 78 at wavelengths of 594 nm, 802 nm, and 978 nm.

  10. On-orbit jitter control in momentum actuators using a three-flywheel system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagabhushan, Vivek; Fitz-Coy, Norman G.

    2014-02-01

    Vibrations on-board a spacecraft have degrading effects on the performance of certain payloads like astronomical telescopes, Earth observation systems, optical communication equipment, etc. The major source of these vibrations include momentum actuators used for attitude control, thrusters, solar array drives and other rotary mechanical equipment. The effect of these vibrations is spacecraft jitter which causes for example, smearing of images in a telescope. Spacecraft jitter due to rotor imbalance in momentum actuators is considered. Publications to date have researched isolation and suppression of vibration thus caused. This paper investigates the dynamics of jitter due to rotor imbalance and proposes a modification to the momentum actuators that provides a long term jitter management solution. The modification involves replacing a flywheel/rotor in the momentum actuator by a three-flywheel system. This method overcomes the need for prior precision balancing of individual flywheels and is capable of achieving a balanced system on orbit. It also provides limited redundancy against flywheel failure and may help accelerate testing and calibration. The dynamics of the three-flywheel system are developed and elaborate simulations are performed to verify the validity of the method. The performances of the proposed three-flywheel system and an equivalent single-flywheel system are compared. The effect of single/multiple flywheel failure in the three-flywheel system is investigated. An indicative design of the three-flywheel system and other implementation aspects are discussed to evidence its practicality. The potential increase in the mass, and power consumption of the three-flywheel system is discussed using a power and mass analysis based on the indicative design.

  11. a Method for Self-Calibration in Satellite with High Precision of Space Linear Array Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Qian, Fangming; Miao, Yuzhe; Wang, Rongjian

    2016-06-01

    At present, the on-orbit calibration of the geometric parameters of a space surveying camera is usually processed by data from a ground calibration field after capturing the images. The entire process is very complicated and lengthy and cannot monitor and calibrate the geometric parameters in real time. On the basis of a large number of on-orbit calibrations, we found that owing to the influence of many factors, e.g., weather, it is often difficult to capture images of the ground calibration field. Thus, regular calibration using field data cannot be ensured. This article proposes a real time self-calibration method for a space linear array camera on a satellite using the optical auto collimation principle. A collimating light source and small matrix array CCD devices are installed inside the load system of the satellite; these use the same light path as the linear array camera. We can extract the location changes of the cross marks in the matrix array CCD to determine the real-time variations in the focal length and angle parameters of the linear array camera. The on-orbit status of the camera is rapidly obtained using this method. On one hand, the camera's change regulation can be mastered accurately and the camera's attitude can be adjusted in a timely manner to ensure optimal photography; in contrast, self-calibration of the camera aboard the satellite can be realized quickly, which improves the efficiency and reliability of photogrammetric processing.

  12. The molecular branching ratio method for calibration of optical systems in the vacuum ultraviolet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mumma, M. J.

    1972-01-01

    The intensity distribution of bands belonging to six molecular band systems is discussed with special emphasis on their usefulness for intensity calibration of optical systems in the vacuum ultraviolet (1000A Lambda 3000A). The theory of molecular band intensities is outlined and the technique of measuring the spectral response curve is described. Several methods for establishing an absolute intensity calibration are discussed.

  13. The DSS-14 C-band exciter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowan, D. R.

    1989-01-01

    The development and implementation of a C-band exciter for use with the Block IV Receiver-Exciter Subsystem at Deep Space Station 14 (DSS-14) has been completed. The exciter supplements the standard capabilities of the Block IV system by providing a drive signal for the C-band transmitter while generating coherent translation frequencies for C-band (5-GHz) to S-band (2.2- to 2.3-GHz) Doppler extraction, C-band to L-band (1.6-GHz) zero delay measurements, and a level calibrated L-band test signal. Exciter functions are described, and a general explanation and description of the C-band uplink controller is presented.

  14. The DSS-14 C-band exciter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowan, D. R.

    1989-05-01

    The development and implementation of a C-band exciter for use with the Block IV Receiver-Exciter Subsystem at Deep Space Station 14 (DSS-14) has been completed. The exciter supplements the standard capabilities of the Block IV system by providing a drive signal for the C-band transmitter while generating coherent translation frequencies for C-band (5-GHz) to S-band (2.2- to 2.3-GHz) Doppler extraction, C-band to L-band (1.6-GHz) zero delay measurements, and a level calibrated L-band test signal. Exciter functions are described, and a general explanation and description of the C-band uplink controller is presented.

  15. Towards Automating Spacecraft Attitude Sensor Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sedlak, Joseph; Welter, Gary; Ottenstein, Neil

    2003-01-01

    With a view towards reducing cost and complexity for spacecraft early mission support at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), efforts are being made to automate the attitude sensor calibration process. This paper addresses one of the major components needed by such a system. The beneficiaries of an improved calibration process are missions that demand moderate to high precision attitude knowledge or that need to perform accurate attitude slews. Improved slew accuracy reduces the time needed for re-acquisition of fine-pointing after each attitude maneuver, Rapid target acquisition can be very important for astronomical targeting or for off-nadir surface feature targeting by Earth-oriented spacecraft. The normal sequence of on-orbit calibration starts with alignment calibration of the star trackers and possibly the Sun sensor. Their relative alignment needs to be determined using a sufficiently large data set so their fields of view are adequately sampled. Next, the inertial reference unit (IRU) is calibrated for corrections to its alignment and scale factors. The IRU biases are estimated continuously by the onboard attitude control system, but the IRU alignment and scale factors are usually determined on the ground using a batch-processing method on a data set that includes several slews sufficient to give full observability of all the IRU calibration parameters. Finally, magnetometer biases, alignment, and its coupling to the magnetic torquers are determined in order io improve momentum management and occasionally for use in the attitude determination system. The detailed approach used for automating calibrations will depend on whether the automated system resides on the ground or on the spacecraft with an ultimate goal of autonomous calibration. Current efforts focus on a ground-based system driving subsystems that could run either on the ground or onboard. The distinction is that onboard calibration should process the data sequentially rather than in a

  16. Band Together!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Cathy Applefeld

    2011-01-01

    After nearly a decade as band director at St. James High School in St. James, Missouri, Derek Limback knows that the key to building a successful program is putting the program itself above everything else. Limback strives to augment not only his students' musical prowess, but also their leadership skills. Key to his philosophy is instilling a…

  17. Sentinel-2 diffuser on-ground calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazy, E.; Camus, F.; Chorvalli, V.; Domken, I.; Laborie, A.; Marcotte, S.; Stockman, Y.

    2013-10-01

    The Sentinel-2 multi-spectral instrument (MSI) will provide Earth imagery in the frame of the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) initiative which is a joint undertaking of the European Commission and the Agency. MSI instrument, under Astrium SAS responsibility, is a push-broom spectro imager in 13 spectral channels in VNIR and SWIR. The instrument radiometric calibration is based on in-flight calibration with sunlight through a quasi Lambertian diffuser. The diffuser covers the full pupil and the full field of view of the instrument. The on-ground calibration of the diffuser BRDF is mandatory to fulfil the in-flight performances. The diffuser is a 779 x 278 mm2 rectangular flat area in Zenith-A material. It is mounted on a motorised door in front of the instrument optical system entrance. The diffuser manufacturing and calibration is under the Centre Spatial of Liege (CSL) responsibility. The CSL has designed and built a completely remote controlled BRDF test bench able to handle large diffusers in their mount. As the diffuser is calibrated directly in its mount with respect to a reference cube, the error budget is significantly improved. The BRDF calibration is performed directly in MSI instrument spectral bands by using dedicated band-pass filters (VNIR and SWIR up to 2200 nm). Absolute accuracy is better than 0.5% in VNIR spectral bands and 1% in SWIR spectral bands. Performances were cross checked with other laboratories. The first MSI diffuser for flight model was calibrated mid 2013 on CSL BRDF measurement bench. The calibration of the diffuser consists mainly in thermal vacuum cycles, BRDF uniformity characterisation and BRDF angular characterisation. The total amount of measurement for the first flight model diffuser corresponds to more than 17500 BRDF acquisitions. Performance results are discussed in comparison with requirements.

  18. On-Orbit Constraints Test - Performing Pre-Flight Tests with Flight Hardware, Astronauts and Ground Support Equipment to Assure On-Orbit Success

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddad, Michael E.

    2008-01-01

    On-Orbit Constraints Test (OOCT's) refers to mating flight hardware together on the ground before they will be mated on-orbit. The concept seems simple but it can be difficult to perform operations like this on the ground when the flight hardware is being designed to be mated on-orbit in a zero-g and/or vacuum environment of space. Also some of the items are manufactured years apart so how are mating tasks performed on these components if one piece is on-orbit before its mating piece is planned to be built. Both the Internal Vehicular Activity (IVA) and Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) OOCT's performed at Kennedy Space Center will be presented in this paper. Details include how OOCT's should mimic on-orbit operational scenarios, a series of photographs will be shown that were taken during OOCT's performed on International Space Station (ISS) flight elements, lessons learned as a result of the OOCT's will be presented and the paper will conclude with possible applications to Moon and Mars Surface operations planned for the Constellation Program.

  19. WFC3: Improved WFC3 Calibration Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunning, Heather C.; Sosey, M. L.; Anderson, J.; Lee, J. C.; Pirzkal, N.; MacKenty, J. W.; Kozhurina-Platais, V.; Deustua, S. E.; Hammer, D.; Dahlen, T.; Sabbi, E.; Mack, J.; Baggett, S. M.; WFC3 Team

    2014-01-01

    The Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) is a fourth-generation UV/visible and IR imaging instrument on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Installed in May 2009, during HST servicing mission 4, both channels have been performing very well on-orbit. To provide optimum calibrated data, the WFC3 team routinely updates and refines the calibration software and associated files, designated as calibration products. We present some of the recently improved calibration products that will be of interest to current and future users of WFC3, including information on the chip-dependent zeropoints and flat fields, post-flash calibrations, and detector-to-image distortion corrections. The latter results in four new extensions (two per chip and dimension), in all UVIS FLTs retrieved from MAST after September 10, 2013. The D2IMFILE contains astrometric corrections for shifts of the raw X and Y positions induced by the lithographic-mask pattern. We discuss the migration of CALWF3 from the STSDAS package to HSTCAL, a package independent of IRAF; as a consequence, the IRAF/STSDAS version of CALWF3 is no longer being updated. Finally, we summarize recent improvements to aXe, a PyRAF/IRAF software package that enables automated extraction of spectra from WFC3 slitless spectral (grism) images. Updated versions of aXe are made available as part of the STSDAS testing environment (SSBX).

  20. Calibration of sound calibrators: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milhomem, T. A. B.; Soares, Z. M. D.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents an overview of calibration of sound calibrators. Initially, traditional calibration methods are presented. Following, the international standard IEC 60942 is discussed emphasizing parameters, target measurement uncertainty and criteria for conformance to the requirements of the standard. Last, Regional Metrology Organizations comparisons are summarized.

  1. Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Microwave Radiometer Radio-Frequency Interference (RFI) Mitigation: Initial On-Orbit Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohammed, Priscilla N.; Piepmeier, Jeffrey R.; Johnson, Joel T.; Aksoy, Mustafa; Bringer, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission, launched in January 2015, provides global measurements of soil moisture using a microwave radiometer. SMAPs radiometer passband lies within the passive frequency allocation. However, both unauthorized in-band transmitters as well as out-of-band emissions from transmitters operating at frequencies adjacent to this allocated spectrum have been documented as sources of radio frequency interference (RFI) to the L-band radiometers on SMOS and Aquarius. The spectral environment consists of high RFI levels as well as significant occurrences of low level RFI equivalent to 0.1 to 10 K. The SMAP ground processor reports the antenna temperature both before and after RFI mitigation is applied. The difference between these quantities represents the detected RFI level. The presentation will review the SMAP RFI detection and mitigation procedure and discuss early on-orbit RFI measurements from the SMAP radiometer. Assessments of global RFI properties and source types will be provided, as well as the implications of these results for SMAP soil moisture measurements.

  2. Revised landsat-5 thematic mapper radiometric calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Markham, B.L.; Barsi, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Effective April 2, 2007, the radiometric calibration of Landsat-5 (L5) Thematic Mapper (TM) data that are processed and distributed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) will be updated. The lifetime gain model that was implemented on May 5, 2003, for the reflective bands (1-5, 7) will be replaced by a new lifetime radiometric-calibration curve that is derived from the instrument's response to pseudoinvariant desert sites and from cross calibration with the Landsat-7 (L7) Enhanced TM Plus (ETM+). Although this calibration update applies to all archived and future L5 TM data, the principal improvements in the calibration are for the data acquired during the first eight years of the mission (1984-1991), where the changes in the instrument-gain values are as much as 15%. The radiometric scaling coefficients for bands 1 and 2 for approximately the first eight years of the mission have also been changed. Users will need to apply these new coefficients to convert the calibrated data product digital numbers to radiance. The scaling coefficients for the other bands have not changed. ?? 2007 IEEE.

  3. Prelaunch absolute radiometric calibration of LANDSAT-4 protoflight Thematic Mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, J. L.; Ball, D. L.; Leung, K. C.; Walker, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    Results are summarized and analyzed from several prelaunch tests with a 122 cm integrating sphere used as part of the absolute radiometric calibration experiments for the protoflight TM sensor carried on the LANDSAT-4 satellite. The calibration procedure is presented and the radiometric sensitivity of the TM is assessed. The internal calibrator and dynamic range after calibration are considered. Tables show dynamic range after ground processing, spectral radiance to digital number and digital number to spectral radiance values for TM bands 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7 and for channel 4 of band 6.

  4. On-orbit Performance Of The Suzaku/XRS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, Richard

    2006-01-01

    The Suzaku high-resolution X-Ray Spectrometer (XRS) is the first orbiting x-ray microcalorimeter. This instrument, which maintains the sensor at less than 0.1K and utilizes liquid He and solid Ne cryogens, is capable of providing very high, non-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. The microcalorimeter approach enables increasing spectral resolving power toward increasing energy. This fundamental characteristic makes it the instrument of choice for a variety of spectral diagnostics that can be uniquely obtained from studies of Fe K-line features common in such objects as cluster of galaxies and active galaxies, to name only two important classes out of many. The array aspect allows for imaging spectroscopy of extended sources without spectral degradation. Unfortunately, a design flaw in the XRS dewar/spacecraft interface caused the premature loss of liquid helium and rendered the instrument miusable. Nonetheless, during the three weeks following the launch of Suzaku, the instrument performed extremely well and demonstrated that the basic microcalorimeter concept is sound for space applications. An energy resolution of 7 eV FWHM at 6keV was obtained in orbit as measured using internal calibration sources. We will describe the XRS design and operation, explain what happened, and then present some lessons learned for future space missions utilizing this powerful technology.

  5. Comparison of On-Orbit Performance of Rate Sensing Gyroscopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sedlak, Joseph; Hashmall, Joseph; Airapetian, Vladimir

    2000-01-01

    This work presents results from the study of a large volume of spacecraft flight data pertaining to gyroscope performance. We have examined long and short term trends of gyroscope biase of first, an exact solution for the time-dependence of the attitude part of the state error covariance, averaged over the three spacecraft axes, is given. This solution is more complete than the usual cubic polynomial for the variance in that it includes coupling among the three gyroscope axes and includes an important term arising from the initial correlations. Second, several continuous 24-hour spans of gyroscope data are examined to verify the short-term statistical model. This analysis demonstrates that in-flight data can be used to determine the strength of the white noise driving the random walk of the gyroscope bias. This may be useful for postlaunch improvement to the noise model and for diagnosing the health of the gyroscope. Third, the long-term trends in gyroscope biases show a nearly linear systematic variation over time scales of years. This has been found on three different missions. While the random walk model is adequate as a basis for onboard Kalman filters or for state estimation using relatively short time spans, these trends indicate that some applications could benefit by accounting for the secular changes in the biases. One example is a new gyroscope calibration method that is under development that allows for multi-epoch bias solutions.

  6. International Workshop on Orbital and Spin Magnetism of Actinides (IWOSMA-3)

    SciTech Connect

    Temmerman, W; Tobin, J; der Laan, G v

    2006-11-08

    This International Workshop on Orbital and Spin Magnetism of Actinides (IWOSMA) is the third in a series. The first workshop took place in Daresbury in 1999 and the second in Berkeley, CA, USA in 2002. These workshops are informal gatherings of theoreticians and experimentalists addressing the latest issues in the electronic and magnetic properties of actinides. The magnetism of transition metal systems and lanthanide systems is now fairly well understood, where d and f electrons can be described in a delocalized and localized model, respectively. On the other hand, actinide systems do not fit in such a description. The localization of the 5f is in between that of the 3d and 4f and the strong spin-orbit interaction necessitates a relativistic approach. Furthermore, electron correlation effects play a major role in these compounds. Recently, it has become possible to determine element-specific magnetic moments using neutron diffraction and x-ray scattering and absorption. The latter technique makes it even possible to separate the orbital and spin contribution to the total magnetic moment. The results are very interesting but difficult to reproduce with present state-of-art calculations. Not only a very large orbital polarization but also a large magnetic dipole term has been measured in cubic compounds, such as US. This allows for severe testing of the extra terms included in band theory to account for orbital polarization. It is also clear that deeper insight in magnetism can be obtained by studying the unusual behavior of the actinides. The recent development and application of such techniques as DMFT could contribute to the understanding of magnetism in actinides. Despite the fact that actinides for health reasons will find less application in technological market products, the understanding of their magnetic and electronic properties will no doubt provide key elements for a general description of electron correlation and relativistic effects.

  7. Thermodynamic Vent System for an On-Orbit Cryogenic Reaction Control Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurlbert, Eric A.; Romig, Kris A.; Jimenez, Rafael; Flores, Sam

    2012-01-01

    A report discusses a cryogenic reaction control system (RCS) that integrates a Joule-Thompson (JT) device (expansion valve) and thermodynamic vent system (TVS) with a cryogenic distribution system to allow fine control of the propellant quality (subcooled liquid) during operation of the device. It enables zero-venting when coupled with an RCS engine. The proper attachment locations and sizing of the orifice are required with the propellant distribution line to facilitate line conditioning. During operations, system instrumentation was strategically installed along the distribution/TVS line assembly, and temperature control bands were identified. A sub-scale run tank, full-scale distribution line, open-loop TVS, and a combination of procured and custom-fabricated cryogenic components were used in the cryogenic RCS build-up. Simulated on-orbit activation and thruster firing profiles were performed to quantify system heat gain and evaluate the TVS s capability to maintain the required propellant conditions at the inlet to the engine valves. Test data determined that a small control valve, such as a piezoelectric, is optimal to provide continuously the required thermal control. The data obtained from testing has also assisted with the development of fluid and thermal models of an RCS to refine integrated cryogenic propulsion system designs. This system allows a liquid oxygenbased main propulsion and reaction control system for a spacecraft, which improves performance, safety, and cost over conventional hypergolic systems due to higher performance, use of nontoxic propellants, potential for integration with life support and power subsystems, and compatibility with in-situ produced propellants.

  8. An atlas of selected calibrated stellar spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Russell G.; Cohen, Martin

    1992-01-01

    Five hundred and fifty six stars in the IRAS PSC-2 that are suitable for stellar radiometric standards and are brighter than 1 Jy at 25 microns were identified. In addition, 123 stars that meet all of our criteria for calibration standards, but which lack a luminosity class were identified. An approach to absolute stellar calibration of broadband infrared filters based upon new models of Vega and Sirius due to Kurucz (1992) is presented. A general technique used to assemble continuous wide-band calibrated infrared spectra is described and an absolutely calibrated 1-35 micron spectrum of alpha(Tau) is constructed and the method using new and carefully designed observations is independently validated. The absolute calibration of the IRAS Low Resolution Spectrometer (LRS) database is investigated by comparing the observed spectrum of alpha(Tau) with that assumed in the original LRS calibration scheme. Neglect of the SiO fundamental band in alpha(Tau) has led to the presence of a specious 'emission' feature in all LRS spectra near 8.5 microns, and to an incorrect spectral slope between 8 and 12 microns. Finally, some of the properties of asteroids that effect their utility as calibration objects for the middle and far infrared region are examined. A technique to determine, from IRAS multiwaveband observations, the basic physical parameters needed by various asteroid thermal models that minimize the number of assumptions required is developed.

  9. TRMM On-Orbit Performance Reassessed After Control Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilanow, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) spacecraft, a joint mission between the U.S. and Japan, launched onboard an H-I1 rocket on November 27, 1997, and transitioned in August, 2001, from an average operating altitude of 350 kilometers to 402.5 kilometers. Due to problems using the Earth Sensor Assembly (ESA) at the higher altitude, TRMM switched to a backup attitude control mode. Prior to the orbit boost TRMM controlled pitch and roll to the local vertical using ESA measurements while using gyro data to propagate yaw attitude between yaw updates from the Sun sensors. After the orbit boost, a Kalman filter used 3-axis gyro data with Sun sensor and magnetometers to estimate onboard attitude. While originally intended to meet a degraded attitude accuracy of 0.7 degrees, the new control mode met the original 0.2 degree attitude accuracy requirement after improving onboard ephemeris prediction and adjusting the magnetometer calibration onboard. Independent roll attitude checks using a science instrument, the Precipitation Radar (PR) which was built in Japan, provided a novel insight into the pointing performance. The PR data helped identify the pointing errors after the orbit boost, track the performance improvements, and show subtle effects from ephemeris errors and gyro bias errors. It also helped identify average bias trends throughout the mission. Roll errors tracked by the PR from sample orbits pre-boost and post-boost are shown in Figure 1. Prior to the orbit boost, the largest attitude errors were due to occasional interference in the ESA. These errors were sometime larger than 0.2 degrees in pitch and roll, but usually less, as estimated from a comprehensive review of the attitude excursions using gyro data. Sudden jumps in the onboard roll show up as spikes in the reported attitude since the control responds within tens of seconds to null the pointing error. The PR estimated roll tracks well with an estimate of the roll history propagated using gyro

  10. Landsat-8 Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) Vicarious Radiometric Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barsi, Julia A.; Shott, John R.; Raqueno, Nina G.; Markham, Brian L.; Radocinski, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    Launched in February 2013, the Landsat-8 carries on-board the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS), a two-band thermal pushbroom imager, to maintain the thermal imaging capability of the Landsat program. The TIRS bands are centered at roughly 10.9 and 12 micrometers (Bands 10 and 11 respectively). They have 100 m spatial resolution and image coincidently with the Operational Land Imager (OLI), also on-board Landsat-8. The TIRS instrument has an internal calibration system consisting of a variable temperature blackbody and a special viewport with which it can see deep space; a two point calibration can be performed twice an orbit. Immediately after launch, a rigorous vicarious calibration program was started to validate the absolute calibration of the system. The two vicarious calibration teams, NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT), both make use of buoys deployed on large water bodies as the primary monitoring technique. RIT took advantage of cross-calibration opportunity soon after launch when Landsat-8 and Landsat-7 were imaging the same targets within a few minutes of each other to perform a validation of the absolute calibration. Terra MODIS is also being used for regular monitoring of the TIRS absolute calibration. The buoy initial results showed a large error in both bands, 0.29 and 0.51 W/sq m·sr·micrometers or -2.1 K and -4.4 K at 300 K in Band 10 and 11 respectively, where TIRS data was too hot. A calibration update was recommended for both bands to correct for a bias error and was implemented on 3 February 2014 in the USGS/EROS processing system, but the residual variability is still larger than desired for both bands (0.12 and 0.2 W/sq m·sr·micrometers or 0.87 and 1.67 K at 300 K). Additional work has uncovered the source of the calibration error: out-of-field stray light. While analysis continues to characterize the stray light contribution, the vicarious calibration work proceeds. The additional data have

  11. Shuttle S-band communications technical concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seyl, J. W.; Seibert, W. W.; Porter, J. A.; Eggers, D. S.; Novosad, S. W.; Vang, H. A.; Lenett, S. D.; Lewton, W. A.; Pawlowski, J. F.

    1985-01-01

    Using the S-band communications system, shuttle orbiter can communicate directly with the Earth via the Ground Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network (GSTDN) or via the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). The S-band frequencies provide the primary links for direct Earth and TDRSS communications during all launch and entry/landing phases of shuttle missions. On orbit, S-band links are used when TDRSS Ku-band is not available, when conditions require orbiter attitudes unfavorable to Ku-band communications, or when the payload bay doors are closed. the S-band communications functional requirements, the orbiter hardware configuration, and the NASA S-band communications network are described. The requirements and implementation concepts which resulted in techniques for shuttle S-band hardware development discussed include: (1) digital voice delta modulation; (2) convolutional coding/Viterbi decoding; (3) critical modulation index for phase modulation using a Costas loop (phase-shift keying) receiver; (4) optimum digital data modulation parameters for continuous-wave frequency modulation; (5) intermodulation effects of subcarrier ranging and time-division multiplexing data channels; (6) radiofrequency coverage; and (7) despreading techniques under poor signal-to-noise conditions. Channel performance is reviewed.

  12. Investigating On-Orbit Attitude Determination Anomalies for the Solar Dynamics Observatory Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vess, Melissa F.; Starin, Scott R.; Chia-Kuo, Alice Liu

    2011-01-01

    following the oscillating biases, resulting in movement of the spacecraft on the order of plus or minus 20 arcsec. Though this level of error met the ACS attitude knowledge requirement of [35, 70, 70] arcsec, 3 sigma, the desire of the ACS and instrument teams was to remove as much of the oscillation as possible. The Kearfott IRUs have an internal temperature controller, designed to maintain the IRU temperature at a constant temperature of approximately 70 C, thus minimizing the change in the bias drift and scale factors of the mechanical gyros. During ground testing of the observatory, it was discovered that the 83-Hz control cycle of the IRU heaters put a tremendous amount of stress on the spacecraft battery. Analysis by the power systems team indicated that the constant charge/discharge on the battery due to the IRU thermal control cycle could potentially limit the life of the battery. After much analysis, the decision was made not to run the internal IRU heaters. Analysis of on orbit data revealed that the oscillations in the IRU bias had a connection to the temperature of the IRU; changes in IRU temperature resulted in changes in the amplitude and period of the IRU biases. Several mitigating solutions were investigated, the result of which was to tune the KF with larger IRU noise assumptions which allows the KF to follow and correct for the time-varying IRU biases.

  13. Calibrating the PAU Survey's 46 Filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, A.; Castander, F.; Gaztañaga, E.; Serrano, S.; Sevilla, N.; Tonello, N.; PAU Team

    2016-05-01

    The Physics of the Accelerating Universe (PAU) Survey, being carried out by several Spanish institutions, will image an area of 100-200 square degrees in 6 broad and 40 narrow band optical filters. The team is building a camera (PAUCam) with 18 CCDs, which will be installed in the 4 meter William Herschel Telescope at La Palma in 2013. The narrow band filters will each cover 100Å, with the set spanning 4500-8500Å. The broad band set will consist of standard ugriZy filters. The narrow band filters will provide low-resolution (R˜50) photometric "spectra" for all objects observed in the survey, which will reach a depth of ˜24 mag in the broad bands and ˜22.5 mag (AB) in the narrow bands. Such precision will allow for galaxy photometric redshift errors of 0.0035(1+z), which will facilitate the measurement of cosmological parameters with precision comparable to much larger spectroscopic and photometric surveys. Accurate photometric calibration of the PAU data is vital to the survey's science goals, and is not straightforward due to the large and unusual filter set. We outline the data management pipelines being developed for the survey, both for nightly data reduction and coaddition of multiple epochs, with emphasis on the photometric calibration strategies. We also describe the tools we are developing to test the quality of the reduction and calibration.

  14. Vicarious calibration of KOMPSAT-3 AEISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Hoyong; Kim, Jinsoo; Jin, Cheonggil; Choi, Chuluong

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents a vicarious radiometric calibration of the Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite-3 (KOMPSAT-3) performed by the Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) and the Pukyong National University Remote Sensing Group (PKNU RSG) in 2012 and 2014. Correlations between top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiances and the spectral band responses of the KOMPSAT-3 sensors at the Zuunmod, Mongolia and Goheung, South Korea sites were significant for multispectral bands. KOMPSAT-3 calibration coefficients for all bands estimated in 2012 continued to agree well with calibration coefficients estimated in 2014 (within 1.5%). The average difference in TOA reflectance between KOMPSAT-3 and Landsat-8 image over the Libya 4, Libya site in the red-green-blue (RGB) region was under 3%, whereas in the NIR band, the TOA reflectance of KOMPSAT-3 was lower than the that of Landsat-8 due to the difference in the band passes of two sensors. The KOMPSAT-3 sensor includes a band pass near 940 nm that can be strongly absorbed by water vapor and therefore displayed low reflectance. To overcome this, we need to undertake a detailed analysis using rescale methods, such as the spectral bandwidth adjustment factor (SBAF).

  15. Calibration and operation of a large space-based optical interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laskin, R. A.; Breckenridge, W. G.; Shao, M.; Redding, D. C.

    1990-01-01

    The on-orbit calibration of the optics, structure, and control systems of the CSI Focus Mission Interferometer (FMI) is described. The calibration involves the estimation and propagation of both positional and rotational parameters and the propagation of both positional and rotational parameters at the nanometer/nanoradian level. It is shown that, given a nanometer class metrology system to monitor positional changes of critical optical elements, this calibration procedure should enable the FMI to perform 50 picoradian astrometry. The same Kalman filter that implements the initializing calibration of the interferometer baselines and internal pathlengths will also participate in the astrometric measurements of stellar positions.

  16. International Space Station (ISS) Crew Quarters On-Orbit Performance and Sustaining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlesinger, Thilini P.; Rodriquez, Branelle R.

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Crew Quarters (CQ) is a permanent personal space for crew members to sleep, perform personal recreation and communication, as well as provide on-orbit stowage of personal belongings. The CQs provide visual, light, and acoustic isolation for the crew member. Over a 2-year period, four CQs were launched to the ISS and currently reside in Node 2. Since their deployment, all CQs have been occupied and continue to be utilized. This paper will review failures that have occurred after 4 years on-orbit, and the investigations that have resulted in successful on-orbit operations. This paper documents the on-orbit performance and sustaining activities that have been performed to maintain the integrity and utilization of the CQs.

  17. International Space Station (ISS) Crew Quarters On-Orbit Performance and Sustaining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlesinger, Thilini; Rodriquez, Branelle R.; Borrego, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Crew Quarters (CQ) is a permanent personal space for crewmembers to sleep, perform personal recreation and communication, as well as provide on-orbit stowage of personal belongings. The CQs provide visual, light, and acoustic isolation for the crewmember. Over a two year period, four CQs were launched to the ISS and currently reside in Node 2. Since their deployment, all CQs have been occupied and continue to be utilized. After five years on-orbit, this paper will review failures that have occurred and the investigations that have resulted in successful on-orbit operations. This paper documents the on-orbit performance and sustaining activities that have been performed to maintain the integrity and utilization of the CQs.

  18. A Modular Artificial Intelligence Inference Engine System (MAIS) for support of on orbit experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hancock, Thomas M., III

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a Modular Artificial Intelligence Inference Engine System (MAIS) support tool that would provide health and status monitoring, cognitive replanning, analysis and support of on-orbit Space Station, Spacelab experiments and systems.

  19. Extremely Accurate On-Orbit Position Accuracy using TDRSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stocklin, Frank; Toral, Marco; Bar-Sever, Yoaz; Rush, John

    2006-01-01

    NASA is planning to launch a new service for Earth satellites providing them with precise GPS differential corrections and other ancillary information enabling decimeter level orbit determination accuracy and nanosecond time-transfer accuracy, onboard, in real-time. The TDRSS Augmentation Service for Satellites (TASS) will broadcast its message on the S-band multiple access forward channel of NASA s Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). The satellite's phase array antenna has been configured to provide a wide beam, extending coverage up to 1000 km altitude over the poles. Global coverage will be ensured with broadcast from three or more TDRSS satellites. The GPS differential corrections are provided by the NASA Global Differential GPS (GDGPS) System, developed and operated by JPL. The GDGPS System employs global ground network of more than 70 GPS receivers to monitor the GPS constellation in real time. The system provides real-time estimates of the GPS satellite states, as well as many other real-time products such as differential corrections, global ionospheric maps, and integrity monitoring. The unique multiply redundant architecture of the GDGPS System ensures very high reliability, with 99.999% demonstrated since the inception of the system in early 2000. The estimated real time GPS orbit and clock states provided by the GDGPS system are accurate to better than 20 cm 3D RMS, and have been demonstrated to support sub-decimeter real time positioning and orbit determination for a variety of terrestrial, airborne, and spaceborne applications. In addition to the GPS differential corrections, TASS will provide real-time Earth orientation and solar flux information that enable precise onboard knowledge of the Earth-fixed position of the spacecraft, and precise orbit prediction and planning capabilities. TASS will also provide 5 seconds alarms for GPS integrity failures based on the unique GPS integrity monitoring service of the GDGPS System.

  20. Lambe