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1

The design of the CMOS wireless bar code scanner applying optical system based on ZigBee  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The traditional bar code scanner is influenced by the length of data line, but the farthest distance of the wireless bar code scanner of wireless communication is generally between 30m and 100m on the market. By rebuilding the traditional CCD optical bar code scanner, a CMOS code scanner is designed based on the ZigBee to meet the demands of market. The scan system consists of the CMOS image sensor and embedded chip S3C2401X, when the two dimensional bar code is read, the results show the inaccurate and wrong code bar, resulted from image defile, disturber, reads image condition badness, signal interference, unstable system voltage. So we put forward the method which uses the matrix evaluation and Read-Solomon arithmetic to solve them. In order to construct the whole wireless optics of bar code system and to ensure its ability of transmitting bar code image signals digitally with long distances, ZigBee is used to transmit data to the base station, and this module is designed based on image acquisition system, and at last the wireless transmitting/receiving CC2430 module circuit linking chart is established. And by transplanting the embedded RTOS system LINUX to the MCU, an applying wireless CMOS optics bar code scanner and multi-task system is constructed. Finally, performance of communication is tested by evaluation software Smart RF. In broad space, every ZIGBEE node can realize 50m transmission with high reliability. When adding more ZigBee nodes, the transmission distance can be several thousands of meters long.

Chen, Yuelin; Peng, Jian

2008-03-01

2

Bar Code Labels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

American Bar Codes, Inc. developed special bar code labels for inventory control of space shuttle parts and other space system components. ABC labels are made in a company-developed anodizing aluminum process and consecutively marketed with bar code symbology and human readable numbers. They offer extreme abrasion resistance and indefinite resistance to ultraviolet radiation, capable of withstanding 700 degree temperatures without deterioration and up to 1400 degrees with special designs. They offer high resistance to salt spray, cleaning fluids and mild acids. ABC is now producing these bar code labels commercially or industrial customers who also need labels to resist harsh environments.

1988-01-01

3

Bar Code Label Requirements  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... Blood and blood components must be labeled with with specific machine-readable bar code information by April 26th, 2006. ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/developmentapprovalprocess/advertisinglabelingpromotionalmaterials

4

Property Control through Bar Coding.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A public utility company uses laser wands to read bar-coded labels on furniture and equipment. The system allows an 80 percent savings of the time required to create reports for inventory control. (MLF)|

Kingma, Gerben J.

1984-01-01

5

Applications of hidden Markov models in bar code decoding  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a novel approach to edge detection in bar code signals using a hidden Markov model (HMM). We also present an algo- rithm for selection of an optimal filter scale used in smoothing the data. Experimental results show that the proposed HMM is superior in performance compared with existing algorithms in commercial scanners. 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

S. Kresic-juric; D. Madej; Fadil Santosa

2006-01-01

6

MOEM scan engine for bar code reading and factory automation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rockwell is in the state of technology transfer to manufacturing of a micro-opto-electro-mechanical scan engine with superior scanning performance for bar code reading and factory automation. The scan engine consists of three main components: actuator, mirrors, and control electronics. The first two components are fabricated on a silicon cantilever beam while the control electronics are presently hybrid. The actuator comprises of a bimorph layer covered with two metal layers. The mirror has a large area (several mm2) and it is micromachined with a surface flatness better than (lambda) /2. Actuator scan-angles greater than 22 degree(s) with high repeatability in performance are achieved. The scan engine was integrated with an existing Rockwell commercial bar code reader/decoder and successfully proven to read a two-character code 39 bar code. The system was capable of decoding the 13-mil label at 360 scans per second with a 100% successful read performance. Environmental testing of the device indicates that the scanner can operate at elevated temperatures up to 70 degree(s)C with minor fluctuations in frequency and scan angle. The scanner has also gone through a lifetime cycle test and it has survived more than 8 billion cycles during a period of 18 months. To increase the yield and the performance level of the device, theoretical study as well as dynamic simulation by finite elements modeling have been investigated and will be reported separately.

Motamedi, M. Edward; Park, Sangtae; Melendes, Robert; Wang, A.; Andrews, Angus P.; Garcia-Nunez, Dawn S.; Jinar, Dan; Richardson, Patti D.; Studer, J.; Chen, J. K.; Denatale, Jeffrey F.; Moranski, Jeffrey A.

1998-03-01

7

Handheld laser scanner automatic registration based on random coding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current research on Laser Scanner often focuses mainly on the static measurement. Little use has been made of dynamic measurement, that are appropriate for more problems and situations. In particular, traditional Laser Scanner must Keep stable to scan and measure coordinate transformation parameters between different station. In order to make the scanning measurement intelligently and rapidly, in this paper ,we developed a new registration algorithm for handleheld laser scanner based on the positon of target, which realize the dynamic measurement of handheld laser scanner without any more complex work. the double camera on laser scanner can take photograph of the artificial target points to get the three-dimensional coordinates, this points is designed by random coding. And then, a set of matched points is found from control points to realize the orientation of scanner by the least-square common points transformation. After that the double camera can directly measure the laser point cloud in the surface of object and get the point cloud data in an unified coordinate system. There are three major contributions in the paper. Firstly, a laser scanner based on binocular vision is designed with double camera and one laser head. By those, the real-time orientation of laser scanner is realized and the efficiency is improved. Secondly, the coding marker is introduced to solve the data matching, a random coding method is proposed. Compared with other coding methods,the marker with this method is simple to match and can avoid the shading for the object. Finally, a recognition method of coding maker is proposed, with the use of the distance recognition, it is more efficient. The method present here can be used widely in any measurement from small to huge obiect, such as vehicle, airplane which strengthen its intelligence and efficiency. The results of experiments and theory analzing demonstrate that proposed method could realize the dynamic measurement of handheld laser scanner. Theory analysis and experiment shows the method is reasonable and efficient.

He, Lei; Yu, Chun-Ping; Wang, Li

2011-06-01

8

Guidance for Industry: Bar Code Label Requirements  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... and the Agency's Bar-Code Working Group ... is the 2-year implementation date intended to work? ... technology, such as a radio frequency identification ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/biologicsbloodvaccines/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation

9

Superwide-angle coverage code-multiplexed optical scanner.  

PubMed

A superwide-angle coverage code-multiplexed optical scanner is presented that has the potential to provide 4 pi-sr coverage. As a proof-of-concept experiment, an angular scan range of 288 degrees for six randomly distributed beams is demonstrated. The proposed scanner achieves its superwide coverage by exploiting a combination of phase-encoded transmission and reflection holography within an in-line hologram recording-retrieval geometry. The basic scanner unit consists of one phase-only digital mode spatial light modulator for code entry (i.e., beam scan control) and a holographic material from which we obtained what we believe is the first-of-a-kind extremely wide coverage, low component count, high speed (e.g., microsecond domain), and large aperture (e.g., > 1-cm diameter) scanner. PMID:15143655

Riza, Nabeel A; Arain, Muzammil A

2004-05-01

10

Bar code usage in nuclear materials accountability  

SciTech Connect

The age old method of physically taking an inventory of materials by listing each item's identification number has lived beyond its usefulness. In this age of computerization, which offers the local grocery store a quick, sure, and easy means to inventory, it is time for nuclear materials facilities to automate accountability activities. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant began investigating the use of automated data collection devices in 1979. At that time, bar code and optical-character-recognition (OCR) systems were reviewed with the purpose of directly entering data into DYMCAS (Dynamic Special Nuclear Materials Control and Accountability System). Both of these systems appeared applicable; however, other automated devices already employed for production control made implementing the bar code and OCR seem improbable. However, the DYMCAS was placed on line for nuclear material accountability, a decision was made to consider the bar code for physical inventory listings. For the past several months a development program has been underway to use a bar code device to collect and input data to the DYMCAS on the uranium recovery operations. Programs have been completed and tested, and are being employed to ensure that data will be compatible and useful. Bar code implementation and expansion of its use for all nuclear material inventory activity in Y-12 is presented.

Mee, W.T.

1983-07-01

11

Materials management with a bar code reader.  

PubMed

A materials management system capable of inventory control, accounting and the automatic recording of supplies for a clinical department has been developed for the George Washington University Hospital Department of Anesthesia. This system combines a microprocessor-based computer for data storage and a hand-held bar code reader to record the bar code scan of each item in the inventory. A relational software program with easy-to-use menus and help keys was written. Bar code information stored for each item includes item number, quantity, date and time of issue. Accumulated bar code scans are loaded into the computer by use of a serial port and then used to update current inventory in the computer. Comparison between current inventory and reorder levels by the computer will initiate automatic printing of appropriate purchase orders. Reorder levels are adjusted regularly, by comparing previous year or month usage to current needs; items already on order, items on back order and delivery lag time are also taken into account. PMID:10104851

Kaplan, R S

12

Bar-code automated waste tracking system  

SciTech Connect

The Bar-Code Automated Waste Tracking System was designed to be a site-Specific program with a general purpose application for transportability to other facilities. The system is user-friendly, totally automated, and incorporates the use of a drive-up window that is close to the areas dealing in container preparation, delivery, pickup, and disposal. The system features ``stop-and-go`` operation rather than a long, tedious, error-prone manual entry. The system is designed for automation but allows operators to concentrate on proper handling of waste while maintaining manual entry of data as a backup. A large wall plaque filled with bar-code labels is used to input specific details about any movement of waste.

Hull, T.E.

1994-10-01

13

Applications of bar code technology at nuclear power plants  

SciTech Connect

Bar code is an emerging technology that can eliminate handwritten and keyboard data-entry errors. With application-specific software, bar code technology can provide inventory control, reducing staff time and paperwork. This paper summarizes bar code technology, describes hardware commercially available, and reviews application software systems for use in nuclear power plants.

Moose, T.N. Jr. (Sorrento Electronics, Inc., Cary, NC (USA)); Stegall, G. (Carolina Power and Light Company, New Hill, NC (USA))

1989-11-01

14

Bar-code verification: reducing but not eliminating medication errors.  

PubMed

Using observation, eye tracking, and clinical simulation with embedded errors, we studied the impact of bar-code verification on error identification and recovery during medication administration. Data supported that bar-code verification may reduce but does not eliminate patient identification (ID) and medication errors during clinical simulation of medication administration. PMID:23151928

Henneman, Philip L; Marquard, Jenna L; Fisher, Donald L; Bleil, Justin; Walsh, Brendan; Henneman, Justin P; Blank, Fidela S; Higgins, Ann Marie; Nathanson, Brian H; Henneman, Elizabeth A

2012-12-01

15

Objectivity in Grading: The Promise of Bar Codes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article proposes the use of a new technology to assure student anonymity and reduce bias hazards: identifying students by using bar codes. The limited finding suggests that the use of bar codes for assuring student anonymity could potentially cause students to perceive that grades are assigned more fairly and reassure teachers that they are…

Jae, Haeran; Cowling, John

2009-01-01

16

Machine-vision-based bar code scanning for long-range applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bar code labeling of products has become almost universal in most industries. However, in the steel industry, problems with high temperatures, harsh physical environments and the large sizes of the products and material handling equipment have slowed implementation of bar code based systems in the hot end of the mill. Typical laser-based bar code scanners have maximum scan distances of only 15 feet or so. Longer distance models have been developed which require the use of retro reflective paper labels, but the labels must be very large, are expensive, and cannot stand the heat and physical abuse of the steel mill environment. Furthermore, it is often difficult to accurately point a hand held scanner at targets in bright sunlight or at long distances. An automated product tag reading system based on CCD cameras and computer image processing has been developed by West Virginia University, and demonstrated at the Weirton Steel Corporation. The system performs both the pointing and reading functions. A video camera is mounted on a pan/tilt head, and connected to a personal computer through a frame grabber board. The computer analyzes the images, and can identify product ID tags in a wide-angle scene. It controls the camera to point at each tag and zoom for a closeup picture. The closeups are analyzed and the program need both a barcode and the corresponding alphanumeric code on the tag. This paper describes the camera pointing and bar-code reading functions of the algorithm. A companion paper describes the OCR functions.

Banta, Larry E.; Pertl, Franz A.; Rosenecker, Charles; Rosenberry-Friend, Kimberly A.

1998-10-01

17

Beating the system--pitfalls of bar code medication administration.  

PubMed

Beating the system to maximize efficiency will yield no positive return on a bar code investment, in terms of reducing medical errors. The critical success factor in the bar coding scenario is that of operational effectiveness. By shifting the nurses' focus from that of efficiency to that of operational effectiveness, the use of bar coding medication technology will reduce medication errors. CIOs looking for a quick fix to reducing medication errors through the use of bar coding technology need to understand that the technology alone won't solve their problem. Rather, it's the balance between operational efficiency and effectiveness among multiple departments working together, both vertically and horizontally, which will yield the greatest ROI. PMID:15537129

Phillips, M Thad; Berner, Eta S

2004-01-01

18

Bar Code Label Requirements for Blood and Blood ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... linear bar code - NDC number; Does not apply to hospitals, clinics or public health agencies. ... Drainage collected in OR or ER as part of trauma care. ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/newsevents/workshopsmeetingsconferences

19

Measuring and test equipment control through bar-code technology  

SciTech Connect

Over the past several years, the use, tracking, and documentation of measuring and test equipment (M TE) has become a major issue. New regulations are forcing companies to develop new policies for providing use history, traceability, and accountability of M TE. This paper discusses how the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company and located at the Hanford site in Rich- land, Washington, overcame these obstacles by using a computerized system exercising bar-code technology. A data base was developed to identify M TE containing 33 separate fields, such as manufacturer, model, range, bar-code number, and other pertinent information. A bar-code label was attached to each piece of M TE. A second data base was created to identify the employee using the M TE. The fields contained pertinent user information such as name, location, and payroll number. Each employee's payroll number was bar coded and attached to the back of their identification badge. A computer program was developed to automate certain tasks previously performed and tracked by hand. Bar-code technology was combined with this computer program to control the input and distribution of information, eliminate common mistakes, electronically store information, and reduce the time required to check out the M TE for use.

Crockett, J.D.; Carr, C.C. (Westinghouse Hanford Company, Richland, WA (United States))

1993-01-01

20

Applications of Bar Code Technology in the Construction Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Bar coding is a proven method utilized to enter information rapidly into a computer system. This technology has been in use for over fifteen years in the manufacturing and retail industries. It utilizes a series of wide and narrow bands and spaces to repr...

W. G. Grip

1991-01-01

21

Visual-response indicator for bar-code-reader input  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A prototype visual response indicator was designed, built, and tested. The indicator is designed to work in conjunction with a bar code reader for inputting data to the computer Aided Cable Tracking and Updating System. The indicator was tested using simulated production operations and was found to meet all design specification requirements.

Harte, J. R.

1983-03-01

22

Crossing Disciplinary Lines--Bar Codes and DNA Codes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses strategies that enable students to learn ideas and concepts in the context of how modern communication technology is designed and operates. Describes a course that integrates the study of math, science, and technology into topics that are engaging to students. Presents an activity that introduces students to digital coding and compares…

Liao, Thomas T.

1997-01-01

23

Bar code documentation of pharmacotherapy services in intensive care units.  

PubMed

Bar code technology has been used for 5 years to improve the efficiency of identifying and documenting clinical pharmacy services at our institution. Data for an entire year (1993) were analyzed to quantify the nature and magnitude of pharmacy services provided for critically ill patients in intensive care units (ICU). Patients in the medical (MICU), respiratory (RICU), intermediate (IMU), and surgical (SICU) units (3234/3743 patients, 86%) were reviewed. Clinical interventions and expected outcomes were documented by pharmacists using an automated bar code system. There were 11,628 pharmacotherapy interventions, 3.6/patient; 12/pharmacist work day. Of patients whose drug therapy was reviewed at least once, 50% (1610/3234) received at least one intervention. The mean number of interventions/patient was 7.2 in the MICU, 6.1 in RICU, 3.4 in IMU, and 2.4 in the SICU, corresponding to APACHE III scores of 71.2, 66.2, 42.8, and 43.3, respectively. The majority of interventions were to modify dosages of antimicrobial agents, and were performed to achieve optimum efficacy (42%) and to minimize toxicity (46.2%). These data support the necessity for pharmacists to provide individualized care to critically ill patients. PMID:8820470

Zarowitz, B J; Petitta, A; Rudis, M I; Horst, H M; Hyzy, R

24

Impact on retail checkout ergonomics of scanner technology evolution and package design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of bar code scanners has steadily improved scanning performances over the past 20 years. Changes in scan patterns, improvements in decode algorithms, and design features of the hardware user interface have resulted in scanners that are ergonomically superior both in biomechanics and overall performance. This study reviewed scanner performance and technological developments, and compare these to changes in

Mark S Hoffman

1998-01-01

25

CCD-based POSTNET bar-code reader  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A CCD based barcode reader has been developed to read the POSTNET barcode with a bar/space width as small as 13 mils. This barcode is currently being used by the united States Post Office. The system can decode barcodes up to a conveyor speed of 250 ft/min for bars travelling parallel to the CCD sensor array. The system consisting of a camera and a logic unit was designed to incorporate various lengths of linear CCD sensor arrays manufactured by EG&G Corporation. The length of the sensor is dependent upon the required field of view. The camera unit processes the analog signal from the CCD sensor and converts it into a binary signal, which is then transmitted to the logic unit. The logic unit uses a Texas Instrument TMS320C30 processor and does the actual signal processing and decoding of the POSTNET code. This paper describes the hardware and the software developed for this system using a 512 element CCD sensor.

Patel, Mehul; Shreesha, Vasanth; Hecht, Kurt; Cox, Jim; Schultz, John

1995-12-01

26

Vision-based reading system for color-coded bar codes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Barcode systems are used to mark commodities, articles and products with price and article numbers. The advantage of the barcode systems is the safe and rapid availability of the information about the product. The size of the barcode depends on the used barcode system and the resolution of the barcode scanner. Nevertheless, there is a strong correlation between the information content and the length of the barcode. To increase the information content, new 2D-barcode systems like CodaBlock or PDF-417 are introduced. In this paper we present a different way to increase the information content of a barcode and we would like to introduce the color coded barcode. The new color coded barcode is created by offset printing of the three colored barcodes, each barcode with different information. Therefore, three times more information content can be accommodated in the area of a black printed barcode. This kind of color coding is usable in case of the standard 1D- and 2D-barcodes. We developed two reading devices for the color coded barcodes. First, there is a vision based system, consisting of a standard color camera and a PC-based color frame grabber. Omnidirectional barcode decoding is possible with this reading device. Second, a bi-directional handscanner was developed. Both systems use a color separation process to separate the color image of the barcodes into three independent grayscale images. In the case of the handscanner the image consists of one line only. After the color separation the three grayscale barcodes can be decoded with standard image processing methods. In principle, the color coded barcode can be used everywhere instead of the standard barcode. Typical applications with the color coded barcodes are found in the medicine technique, stock running and identification of electronic modules.

Schubert, Erhard; Schroeder, Axel

1996-02-01

27

CCD-based POSTNET bar-code reader  

Microsoft Academic Search

A CCD based barcode reader has been developed to read the POSTNET barcode with a bar\\/space width as small as 13 mils. This barcode is currently being used by the united States Post Office. The system can decode barcodes up to a conveyor speed of 250 ft\\/min for bars travelling parallel to the CCD sensor array. The system consisting of

Mehul Patel; Vasanth Shreesha; Kurt Hecht; Jim Cox; John Schultz

1995-01-01

28

Star Library: Breaking the Code -- A Graphical Exploration Using Bar Charts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Caesar Shift is a translation of the alphabet; for example, a five-letter shift would code the letter a as f, b as g, ... z as e. We describe a five-step process for decoding an encrypted message. First, groups of size 4 construct a frequency table of the letters in two lines of a coded message. Second, students construct a bar chart for a reference message of the frequency of letters in the English language. Third, students create a bar chart of the coded message. Fourth, students visually compare the bar chart of the reference message (step 2) to the bar chart of the coded message (step 3). Based on this comparison, students hypothesize a shift. Fifth, students apply the shift to the coded message. After decoding the message, students are asked a series of questions that assess their ability to see patterns. The questions are geared for higher levels of cognitive reasoning.

Gabrosek, John; Schuckers, Michael E.

2001-01-01

29

The study of watermark bar code recognition with light transmission theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Watermark bar code is one of the latest anti-counterfeiting technologies, which is applicable to a series of security documents, especially banknotes. With watermark bar codes embedded euro banknotes as an example, a system is designed for watermark bar code detection and recognition based on light transmission theory. We obtain light transmission curves of different denominations along different sampling lines which are paralleled to the latitudinal axis of the banknote. By calculating the correlation coefficient between different light transmission curves, the system can not only distinguish the reference banknote from either the counterfeit ones or other denominations, but also demonstrates high consistency and repeatability.

Zhang, Fan; Liu, Tiegen; Zhang, Lianxiang; Zhang, Xiaojun

2004-10-01

30

21 CFR 201.25 - Bar code label requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...distributor directly to patients, but versions of the...code that meets European Article Number/Uniform Code...adversely affect the safety, effectiveness, purity...code unnecessary for patient safety. (2)...

2009-04-01

31

21 CFR 201.25 - Bar code label requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...distributor directly to patients, but versions of the...code that meets European Article Number/Uniform Code...adversely affect the safety, effectiveness, purity...code unnecessary for patient safety. (2)...

2010-04-01

32

A simple and inexpensive bar-coding technique for denture identification  

PubMed Central

A number of commercial methods for identifying dentures are available. They can be either invasive or noninvasive techniques. The less sophisticated procedures include simple engraving with bur, and more sophisticated procedures use labels or chips. Bar coding system is a way of transferring data to the computer and huge data can be stored as a record. Bar coding can be easily incorporated during acrylization of the denture and thus could be used in individual identification.

Nalawade, Sonali N; Lagdive, Sanjay B; Gangadhar, SA; Bhandari, Aruna J

2011-01-01

33

A simple and inexpensive bar-coding technique for denture identification.  

PubMed

A number of commercial methods for identifying dentures are available. They can be either invasive or noninvasive techniques. The less sophisticated procedures include simple engraving with bur, and more sophisticated procedures use labels or chips. Bar coding system is a way of transferring data to the computer and huge data can be stored as a record. Bar coding can be easily incorporated during acrylization of the denture and thus could be used in individual identification. PMID:22408329

Nalawade, Sonali N; Lagdive, Sanjay B; Gangadhar, Sa; Bhandari, Aruna J

2011-07-01

34

Machine readable identification systems: An overview. [Bar code and other labeling methods  

SciTech Connect

The application of automated identification of an item by the use of machine readable methods is improving the accuracy and speed of data capture. Bar codes, optical character recognition, magnetic strips, and magnetic-ink recognition are all current machine readable methods which are used for data collection. Bar code data collection is the most used technology for real time inventory control, tracking, and point of sale applications. Magnetic strip coding is used for highly compact data identification on ID cards and on tags. Optical character recognition is generally used today to capture documents for computer storage and recall. Magnetic-ink character recognition, though used widely in banking, has limited applications elsewhere. Bar code methods are currently experiencing a faster rate of growth than the other technologies. Emphasis of this paper is on bar coding because of its popularity. The fundamentals of bar coding are discussed and labeling and scanning techniques are presented. New, automatic data-collection techniques are being developed, utilizing microcircuits and compact-disk memory media. The greatly increased memory capacity of these systems will likely lead to identification in terms of definitive characteristics of the item.

Smith, F.J.; Cantor, S.

1987-09-01

35

Integrating bar-code devices with computerized MC and A systems  

SciTech Connect

Over the past seven years, Los Alamos National Laboratory developed several generations of computerized nuclear materials control and accountability (MC and A) systems for tracking and reporting the storage, movement, and management of nuclear materials at domestic and international facilities. During the same period, Oak Ridge National Laboratory was involved with automated data acquisition (ADA) equipment, including installation of numerous bar-code scanning stations at various facilities to serve as input devices to computerized systems. Bar-code readers, as well as other ADA devices, reduce input errors, provide faster input, and allow the capture of data in remote areas where workstations do not exist. Los Alamos National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory teamed together to implement the integration of bar-code hardware technology with computerized MC and A systems. With the expertise of both sites, the two technologies were successfully merged with little difficulty. Bar-code input is now available with several functions of the MC and A systems: material movements within material balance areas (MBAs), material movements between MBAs, and physical inventory verification. This paper describes the various components required for the integration of these MC and A systems with the installed bar-code reader devices and the future directions for these technologies.

Anderson, L.K.; Boor, M.G.; Hurford, J.M. [and others

1998-12-31

36

The design and implementation of the Property Verification System (bar code based) at Westinghouse Hanford Company  

SciTech Connect

The use of bar code reading technology to record items that require regular inventory has been available for several years. The development and implementation of a system that uses this technology was an opportunity to save money and provide for the involvement in several levels of the company to improve the process. The Property Verification System not only uses bar code reading devices to inventory property, but also to correct data in the records. Cost savings were realized in many parts of the process. This presentation discusses the requirements definition, system design solution, implementation testing, and improvements recognized to date.

Utz, J.L.

1993-05-01

37

Multilevel 2D Bar Codes: Towards High Capacity Storage Modules for Multimedia Security and Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we deal with the design of high-rate multilevel two-dimensional (2D) bar codes for the print-and- scan channel. Firstly, we derive an upper bound on the maximum achievable rate of these codes by studying an inter-symbol interference (ISI) free, perfectly synchronized, and noiseless print-and-scan channel, in which the printer device uses halftoning to simulate multiple gray levels. Secondly,

Renato Villan; Sviatoslav Voloshynovskiy; Oleksiy Koval; Thierry Pun

38

DNA bar coding and pyrosequencing to identify rare HIV drug resistance mutations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment of HIV-infected individuals with antire- troviral agents selects for drug-resistant mutants, resulting in frequent treatment failures. Although the major antiretroviral resistance mutations are routinely characterized by DNA sequencing, treat- ment failures are still common, probably in part because undetected rare resistance mutations facilitate viral escape. Here we combined DNA bar coding and massively parallel pyrosequencing to quantify rare drug

Christian Hoffmann; Nana Minkah; Jeremy Leipzig; Gary Wang; Max Q. Arens; Pablo Tebas; Frederic D. Bushman

2007-01-01

39

Improving Patient Safety by Identifying Side Effects from Introducing Bar Coding in Medication Administration  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveIn addition to providing new capabilities, the introduction of technology in complex, sociotechnical systems, such as health care and aviation, can have unanticipated side effects on technical, social, and organizational dimensions. To identify potential accidents in the making, the authors looked for side effects from a natural experiment, the implementation of bar code medication administration (BCMA), a technology designed to

EMILY S. PATTERSON; RICHARD I. COOK; MARTA L. RENDER

2002-01-01

40

The Impact of Bar Code Medication Administration Technology on Reported Medication Errors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of bar-code medication administration technology is on the rise in acute care facilities in the United States. The technology is purported to decrease medication errors that occur at the point of administration. How significantly this technology affects actual rate and severity of error is unknown. This descriptive, longitudinal research…

Holecek, Andrea

2011-01-01

41

Laser bar code applied in computer aided design of power fittings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A computer aided process planning system is developed based on laser bar code technology to automatize and standardize processing-paper making. The system sorts fittings by analyzing their types, structures, dimensions, materials, and technics characteristics, groups and encodes the fittings with similar technology characteristics base on the theory of Group Technology (GT). The system produces standard technology procedures using integrative-parts method and stores them into technics databases. To work out the technology procedure of fittings, the only thing for users need to do is to scan the bar code of fittings with a laser code reader. The system can produce process-paper using decision trees method and then print the process-cards automatically. The software has already been applied in some power stations and is praised by the users.

Yang, Xiaohong; Yang, Fan

2010-05-01

42

A critical evaluation of grid-by-number sediment sampling using laser scanner derived clast population statistics across a gravel bar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water flow level in river channels is moderated by the interaction with the roughness of the surface over which it flows. The interaction is highly complex and remains poorly understood despite its economic and social importance in flood level forecasting. The empirical and semi-rational nature of approaches used to estimate hydraulic roughness makes them very difficult to apply and much of the hydraulic resistance has been attributed to grain roughness using various forms of the Colebrook-White equation where the grain diameter is modified by a multiplier to account for the non-uniform nature of gravel-bed surfaces. Fundamental to the accuracy of the particle size approaches is the sampling of river-bed gravels where sample size, operator bias, particle shape and surface heterogeneity can greatly affect the result. Despite these problems a standard surface sample of the intermediate axis of 100 clasts remains the accepted method for grain-size characterisation amongst scientists and engineers concerned with channel hydraulics. Surface roughness has also been measured using a random field of spatial elevation data. The success of this approach has been tempered by the lack of high-resolution topographic data covering all roughness scales, however, improved data-point resolution is now achievable using terrestrial laser scanning technology. The aim here is to reliably quantify the population grain-size distribution of a natural gravel surface using random field terrestrial laser scanner x,y,z data and by direct comparison to demonstrate the errors inherent in the conventional particle-size approach. Application of the random field approach, using a terrestrial laser scanner, across a gravel bar surface on the River South Tyne at Lambley, UK, generated an effective sample of 120,000 clasts yielding a D84 for use in the Colebrook White equation of 0.110m. Monte Carlo sampling within the 12000 measured clasts from the bar surface generated 560 simulated grid-by-number D84 estimates. Grain-size D84 values ranged from 0.100m to 0.195m with a median value of 0.130m. This represents an average 18% and a maximum 77% over-estimation of the grain-size value in the flow resistance equation. Such potential errors, inherent with the conventional grid-by-number sampling technique, impact significantly on flood level estimation options.

Milan, D. J.; Heritage, G. L.

2007-12-01

43

Chromosomal Bar Codes Produced by Multicolor Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization with Multiple YAC Clones and Whole Chromosome Painting Probes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colored chromosome staining patterns, termed chromosomal ‘bar codes’ (CBCs), were obtained on human chromosomes by fluorescence in situhybridization (FISH) with pools of Alu-PCR products from YAC dones containing human DNA inserts ranging from 100 kbp to 1 Mbp. In contrast to conventional G- or R-bands, the chromosomal position, extent, Individual color and relative signal intensity of each ‘bar’ could be

Christoph Lengauer; Michael R. Speicher; Susanne Popp; Anna Jauch; Masafumi Taniwaki; Ramaiah Nagaraja; Harold C. Riethman; Helen Donis-Keller; Michele DUrso; David Schelssinger; Thomas Cremer

1993-01-01

44

Large tandem repeats make up the chromosome bar code: a hypothesis.  

PubMed

Much of tandem repeats' functional nature in any genome remains enigmatic because there are only few tools available for dissecting and elucidating the functions of repeated DNA. The large tandem repeat arrays (satellite DNA) found in two mouse whole-genome shotgun assemblies were classified into 4 superfamilies, 8 families, and 62 subfamilies. With the simplified variant of chromosome positioning of different tandem repeats, we noticed the nonuniform distribution instead of the positions reported for mouse major and minor satellites. It is visible that each chromosome possesses a kind of unique code made up of different large tandem repeats. The reference genomes allow marking only internal tandem repeats, and even with such a limited data, the colored "bar code" made up of tandem repeats is visible. We suppose that tandem repeats bare the mechanism for chromosomes to recognize the regions to be associated. The associations, initially established via RNA, become fixed by histone modifications (the histone or chromatin code) and specific proteins. In such a way, associations, being at the beginning flexible and regulated, that is, adjustable, appear as irreversible and inheritable in cell generations. Tandem repeat multiformity tunes the developed nuclei 3D pattern by sequential steps of associations. Tandem repeats-based chromosome bar code could be the carrier of the genome structural information; that is, the order of precise tandem repeat association is the DNA morphogenetic program. Tandem repeats are the cores of the distinct 3D structures postulated in "gene gating" hypothesis. PMID:23582200

Podgornaya, Olga; Gavrilova, Ekaterina; Stephanova, Vera; Demin, Sergey; Komissarov, Aleksey

2013-01-01

45

Electrical detection of DNA using gold and magnetic nanoparticles and bio bar-code DNA between nanogap electrodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an electrical detection method on a DNA biochip that employs a novel approach for ultra sensitive detection of DNA using self-assembled gold nanoparticles and bio-bar-code-based amplification (BCA) DNA. The experimental study relies on three-components oligonucleotide-modified gold nanoparticles, single-component oligonucleotide-modified magnetic nanoparticles and subsequent detection of amplified target DNA in the form of bio-bar-code ssDNA (single strand DNA)

Tien-Li Chang; Chien-Ying Tsai; Chih-Chen Sun; Ramesh Uppala; Chun-Chi Chen; Chun-Hung Lin; Ping-Hei Chen

2006-01-01

46

ITS4: A Static Vulnerability Scanner for C and C++ Code  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe ITS4, a tool for statically scanning security-critical C source code for vulnerabilities. Com- pared to other approaches, our scanning technique stakes out a new middle ground between accuracy and efficiency. This method is efficient enough to offer real-time feedback to developers during coding while producing few false neg- atives. Unlike other techniques, our method is also simple enough

John Viega; J. T. Bloch; Yoshi Kohno; Gary Mcgraw

2000-01-01

47

PCR-free quantitative detection of genetically modified organism from raw materials. An electrochemiluminescence-based bio bar code method.  

PubMed

A bio bar code assay based on oligonucleotide-modified gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) provides a PCR-free method for quantitative detection of nucleic acid targets. However, the current bio bar code assay requires lengthy experimental procedures including the preparation and release of bar code DNA probes from the target-nanoparticle complex and immobilization and hybridization of the probes for quantification. Herein, we report a novel PCR-free electrochemiluminescence (ECL)-based bio bar code assay for the quantitative detection of genetically modified organism (GMO) from raw materials. It consists of tris-(2,2'-bipyridyl) ruthenium (TBR)-labeled bar code DNA, nucleic acid hybridization using Au-NPs and biotin-labeled probes, and selective capture of the hybridization complex by streptavidin-coated paramagnetic beads. The detection of target DNA is realized by direct measurement of ECL emission of TBR. It can quantitatively detect target nucleic acids with high speed and sensitivity. This method can be used to quantitatively detect GMO fragments from real GMO products. PMID:18386909

Zhu, Debin; Tang, Yabing; Xing, Da; Chen, Wei R

2008-04-03

48

Evaluation of the Personalized Bar-code Identification Card to Verify High-Risk, High-Alert Medications.  

PubMed

An effective intervention to decrease medication errors related to high-risk, high-alert medications is to implement double checks and second verification using the five rights of medication administration. To evaluate the effectiveness and use of the Personalized Bar-Code Identification card in verifying high-risk, high-alert medications, the High-Risk, High-Alert Medication Verification Audit Tool was used to collect data from the medical records of patients who received high-risk, high-alert medications in four ICUs. Data were collected for administered high-risk, high-alert medication, primary registered nurses who administered the high-risk, high-alert medication, and secondary registered nurses who verified the medication. The percentage of medications that were "not verified," "Personalized Bar-Code Identification verified," and "verified" using a method other than the Personalized Bar-Code Identification was calculated and compared using Z tests for two proportions. The percentage of Personalized Bar-Code Identification-verified medications (83.5%) was significantly higher than the percentage of medications that were not verified (10.9%) (Z = 38.43, P < .05). Also, the difference between the proportion of the Personalized Bar-Code Identification-verified medications and those that were verified using another method (5.6%) was significant (Z = 41.42, P < .05). The results show that nurses generally tend to follow the standardized procedure for verifying high-risk, high-alert medications in the four ICUs. PMID:24080750

Thomas, Maria

2013-09-01

49

Exhaustive measurement of food items in the home using a universal product code scanner  

PubMed Central

Objective We aimed to develop, test and describe the Exhaustive Home Food Inventory (EHFI), which measures foods in the home using scanning of the universal product code (UPC) and EHFI software to link codes to food identities and energy values. Design Observational design with up to three repeated measures in each household yielded a total of 218 inventories. Setting Eighty private households in North Carolina. Subjects Low-income African-American women with an infant between the ages of 12 and 18 months. Recruitment rate was 71%. Results Approximately 12 200 different food items were successfully recorded using the EHFI method. The average number of food items within a household was 147. The time required for the first measurement in a home declined from 157 to 136 min (P<0·05) for the first third compared to the last third of homes measured. In the sixty-four households in which three assessments were performed, the time required decreased from 145 to 97 min as did the time per item from 1·10 to 0·73 min. Conclusions It is feasible to record all foods and drinks in the home using UPC scanning. Further development and enhancement of databases linking UPC to food identification, nutrients and other information are needed.

Stevens, June; Bryant, Maria; Wang, Lily; Borja, Judith; Bentley, Margaret E

2011-01-01

50

The effects of media color and laser wavelength on bar code symbol contrast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of media color and laser wavelength as they relate to bar code symbol contrast. The research employed a balanced 2 x 2 x 6 factorial experiment design. A random sample of 216 specimens was drawn from a population of 910 colors from the 1998 Pantone Color Formula Guide and assigned to one of 24 hue-saturation-wavelength cells. Hue was defined based on the CIE 1964 chromaticity diagram and standard illuminant D65. The chromaticity diagram was divided into six regions: blue, green, yellow, orange, red, and purple. The chromaticity coordinates (Yxy) of each Pantone specimen were transformed such that the coordinates of D65 was the origin. Lines extended from D65 to the spectral locus defined hue regions. Specimens whose transformed coordinates fell within a particular region were assigned that hue. Next, all specimens were classified as highly saturated if their white content was less than 50%. Otherwise, their saturation was defined as low. Finally, specimens from each hue-saturation group were randomly assigned to one of two wavelength levels: 633 or 670 rim. The measurement apparatus was constructed according the geometry defined in the ANSI Bar Code Print Quality Guideline-X3.182-1990. Data were collected following a random cell-order pattern to minimize the effect of any systematic, investigator-induced error. An analysis of variance was performed to test seven hypotheses: the main effects for each of the three independent variables and all possible interactions between them. The analysis indicated the ANOVA model of hue, saturation, and wavelength with all possible interactions was significant (p =.0001; R2 = 74.1) in explaining the variance in symbol contrast. Hue (p =.0001; R2 = 39.3) and saturation (p =.0001; R2 = 28.2) were significant independent variables. There was no significant difference detected between 633 nm and 670 nm wavelengths. The only significant interaction was between hue and saturation (p =.0001; R2 = 5.3). The effect of the interaction was relatively weak and indicated that when specimen hues were less saturated, the effect of hue on symbol contrast was diminished. Recommendations for future research are offered.

Sutton, Mathias Joseph

51

Wide host ranges of herbivorous beetles? Insights from DNA bar coding.  

PubMed

There are very few studies that have investigated host-specificity among tropical herbivorous insects. Indeed, most of the trophic interactions of herbivorous insects in Southeast Asian tropical rainforests remain unknown, and whether polyphagous feeding is common in the herbivores of this ecosystem has not been determined. The present study employed DNA bar coding to reveal the trophic associations of adult leaf-chewing chrysomelid beetles in a Bornean rainforest. Plant material ingested by the adults was retrieved from the bodies of the insects, and a portion of the chloroplast rbcL sequence was then amplified from this material. The plants were identified at the family level using an existing reference database of chloroplast DNA. Our DNA-based diet analysis of eleven chrysomelid species successfully identified their host plant families and indicated that five beetle species fed on more than two families within the angiosperms, and four species fed on several families of gymnosperms and/or ferns together with multiple angiosperm families. These findings suggest that generalist chrysomelid beetles associated with ecologically and taxonomically distant plants constitute a part of the plant-insect network of the Bornean rainforest. PMID:24073210

Kishimoto-Yamada, Keiko; Kamiya, Koichi; Meleng, Paulus; Diway, Bibian; Kaliang, Het; Chong, Lucy; Itioka, Takao; Sakai, Shoko; Ito, Motomi

2013-09-20

52

Wide Host Ranges of Herbivorous Beetles? Insights from DNA Bar Coding  

PubMed Central

There are very few studies that have investigated host-specificity among tropical herbivorous insects. Indeed, most of the trophic interactions of herbivorous insects in Southeast Asian tropical rainforests remain unknown, and whether polyphagous feeding is common in the herbivores of this ecosystem has not been determined. The present study employed DNA bar coding to reveal the trophic associations of adult leaf-chewing chrysomelid beetles in a Bornean rainforest. Plant material ingested by the adults was retrieved from the bodies of the insects, and a portion of the chloroplast rbcL sequence was then amplified from this material. The plants were identified at the family level using an existing reference database of chloroplast DNA. Our DNA-based diet analysis of eleven chrysomelid species successfully identified their host plant families and indicated that five beetle species fed on more than two families within the angiosperms, and four species fed on several families of gymnosperms and/or ferns together with multiple angiosperm families. These findings suggest that generalist chrysomelid beetles associated with ecologically and taxonomically distant plants constitute a part of the plant-insect network of the Bornean rainforest.

Kishimoto-Yamada, Keiko; Kamiya, Koichi; Meleng, Paulus; Diway, Bibian; Kaliang, Het; Chong, Lucy; Itioka, Takao; Sakai, Shoko; Ito, Motomi

2013-01-01

53

Thin-layer immunoaffinity chromatography with bar code quantitation of C-reactive protein.  

PubMed

A rapid thin-layer immunoaffinity chromatographic method for quantitation in serum of an acute phase reactant, C-reactive protein (CRP), which can differentiate between viral and bacteria] infections, is described, where material and reagent costs are minimal. The analysis is based on the "sandwich" assay format using monoclonal antibodies directed against two sites of CRP. One of the antibodies is covalently bound to defined zones on a thin-layer immunoaffinity chromatography membrane, while the other antibody is covalently bound to deeply dyed blue latex particles. After incubation (CRP sample and latex particles), the CRP-latex immunocomplex is allowed to migrate along the immunoaffinity chromatography membrane. In the presence of antigen, a sandwich is formed between the CRP-latex immunocomplex and membrane-bound antibodies, which results in the appearance of blue lines on the membrane. Antibody immobilization on the TLC membrane is made with a redesigned piezoelectric-driven ink-jet printer. The time required for the analysis is less than 10 min. Quantitation is achieved either by counting the lines visually, with scanning reflectometry, or with a modified bar code reader. The limit of detection was estimated in the low femtomolar range using the naked eye as detector. PMID:8779423

Nilsson, S; Lager, C; Laurell, T; Birnbaum, S

1995-09-01

54

Evaluation of the use of bar-code medication administration in nursing practice using an evidence-based checklist.  

PubMed

The goal of this project was to determine whether the use of bar-code medication administration complied with current evidence as to how it should be used. Using an evidence-based checklist, we performed a gap analysis on bar-code medication administration (BCMA) in an acute care setting. Compliance with current evidence was identified through observation and unstructured nurse interviews. Based on findings from the initial gap analysis, quality improvement initiatives were implemented followed by a reassessment to identify possible improvement of the identified gaps. Initially, there was 72% compliance with current evidence-based practices using BCMA. After implementation of initial quality improvement initiatives targeting 3 of 9 areas with deficits in compliance, compliance was found to be 81%. The evidence-based checklist was helpful in identifying gaps in current performance and opportunities for improvement with BCMA. PMID:24153204

Harrington, Linda; Clyne, Kurt; Fuchs, Mary Ann; Hardison, Van; Johnson, Constance

2013-11-01

55

A Versatile, Bar-Coded Nuclear Marker/Reporter for Live Cell Fluorescent and Multiplexed High Content Imaging  

PubMed Central

The screening of large numbers of compounds or siRNAs is a mainstay of both academic and pharmaceutical research. Most screens test those interventions against a single biochemical or cellular output whereas recording multiple complementary outputs may be more biologically relevant. High throughput, multi-channel fluorescence microscopy permits multiple outputs to be quantified in specific cellular subcompartments. However, the number of distinct fluorescent outputs available remains limited. Here, we describe a cellular bar-code technology in which multiple cell-based assays are combined in one well after which each assay is distinguished by fluorescence microscopy. The technology uses the unique fluorescent properties of assay-specific markers comprised of distinct combinations of different ‘red’ fluorescent proteins sandwiched around a nuclear localization signal. The bar-code markers are excited by a common wavelength of light but distinguished ratiometrically by their differing relative fluorescence in two emission channels. Targeting the bar-code to cell nuclei enables individual cells expressing distinguishable markers to be readily separated by standard image analysis programs. We validated the method by showing that the unique responses of different cell-based assays to specific drugs are retained when three assays are co-plated and separated by the bar-code. Based upon those studies, we discuss a roadmap in which even more assays may be combined in a well. The ability to analyze multiple assays simultaneously will enable screens that better identify, characterize and distinguish hits according to multiple biologically or clinically relevant criteria. These capabilities also enable the re-creation of complex mixtures of cell types that is emerging as a central area of interest in many fields.

Krylova, Irina; Kumar, Rachit R.; Kofoed, Eric M.; Schaufele, Fred

2013-01-01

56

Code blue in the MR suite – a drill to rescue a patients with cardiac arrest from the MR scanner  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\u000a   Dobutamine stress MR (DSMR) is increasingly used in the clinical routine. Due to the limitations inherent to MR, i.e. the\\u000a distance of the personnel to the patient during imaging, it is necessary to set up an emergency training to rescue a patient\\u000a from the scanner room in the shortest possible time.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods\\u000a   We placed a volunteer in the 1.5

Olaf M. Muehling; Armin Huber; Denise Friedrich; Michael Nabauer; Maximilian Reiser; Stefan O. Schoenberg

2006-01-01

57

A Simple X-Y Scanner.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes an X-Y scanner used to create acoustic holograms. Scanner is computer controlled and can be adapted to digitize pictures. Scanner geometry is discussed. An appendix gives equipment details. The control program in ATOM BASIC and 6502 machine code is available from the authors. (JM)|

Halse, M. R.; Hudson, W. J.

1986-01-01

58

Ct scanner  

SciTech Connect

A ct scanner is described in which the data acquisition components, I.E. The radiation source and detectors, are mounted in an apertured housing which can be deployed generally vertically, for the examination of recumbent patients, or generally horizontally, for the examination of patients seated, or standing, with their torsos upright.

Bernardi, R.T.

1982-02-16

59

Bio-bar-code dendrimer-like DNA as signal amplifier for cancerous cells assay using ruthenium nanoparticle-based ultrasensitive chemiluminescence detection.  

PubMed

Bio-bar-code dendrimer-like DNA (bbc-DL-DNA) is employed as a label for the amplification assay of cancer cells in combination with the newly explored chemiluminescence (CL) system of luminol-H(2)O(2)-Ru(3+) and specificity of structure-switching aptamers selected by cell-based SELEX. PMID:20652188

Bi, Sai; Hao, Shuangyuan; Li, Li; Zhang, Shusheng

2010-07-23

60

Reducing the number of dispensing errors by implementing a combination of a CPOE system and a bar-code-assisted dispensing system: the BAP concept  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Medication errors occur frequently in hospitals. A computerised prescriber order entry (CPOE) system together with bar-code-assisted dispensing can reduce the error rate. Method: A complete business process redesign was undertaken and evaluated in two steps. Using a direct observer method to detect dispensing errors by nurses, the impact on patient safety of the implementation of a CPOE system (step

Hans Ros; Elsbeth de Vreeze-Wesselink

2009-01-01

61

Nanogold-based bio-bar codes for label-free immunosensing of proteins coupling with an in situ DNA-based hybridization chain reaction.  

PubMed

A label-free, non-enzyme immunosensing strategy is designed for ultrasensitive electronic detection of disease-related proteins (carcinoembryonic antigen as a model) by using gold nanoparticle-based bio-bar codes and an in situ amplified DNA-based hybridization chain reaction. PMID:23147220

Zhou, Jun; Xu, Mingdi; Tang, Dianping; Gao, Zhuangqiang; Tang, Juan; Chen, Guonan

2012-12-28

62

Alloy nanowires bar codes based on nondestructive X-ray fluorescence readout.  

PubMed

We demonstrate here the ability to generate ternary Co-Ni-Cu alloy nanowires with distinct X-ray fluorescence (XRF) barcode patterns using a one-step template-guided electrodeposition. Such coupling of one-step templated synthesis with a nondestructive XRF readout of the composition patterns greatly simplifies practical applications of barcoded nanomaterials. The new protocol leads to alloy nanowires with broad composition range and hence to an extremely large number of distinguishable XRF signatures. The resulting fluorescence barcodes correlate well with the composition of the metal mixture plating solution, indicating a reproducible plating processes. Factors affecting the coding capacity and identification accuracy are examined, and potential tracking and authenticity applications involving embedding the nanowires within plastics or inks are demonstrated and discussed. PMID:17715995

Sattayasamitsathit, Sirilak; Burdick, Jared; Bash, Ralph; Kanatharana, Proespichaya; Thavarungkul, Panote; Wang, Joseph

2007-08-24

63

Development of a Magnetic Electrochemical Bar Code Array for Point Mutation Detection in the H5N1 Neuraminidase Gene  

PubMed Central

Since its first official detection in the Guangdong province of China in 1996, the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of H5N1 subtype (HPAI H5N1) has reportedly been the cause of outbreaks in birds in more than 60 countries, 24 of which were European. The main issue is still to develop effective antiviral drugs. In this case, single point mutation in the neuraminidase gene, which causes resistance to antiviral drug and is, therefore, subjected to many studies including ours, was observed. In this study, we developed magnetic electrochemical bar code array for detection of single point mutations (mismatches in up to four nucleotides) in H5N1 neuraminidase gene. Paramagnetic particles Dynabeads® with covalently bound oligo (dT)25 were used as a tool for isolation of complementary H5N1 chains (H5N1 Zhejin, China and Aichi). For detection of H5N1 chains, oligonucleotide chains of lengths of 12 (+5 adenine) or 28 (+5 adenine) bp labeled with quantum dots (CdS, ZnS and/or PbS) were used. Individual probes hybridized to target molecules specifically with efficiency higher than 60%. The obtained signals identified mutations present in the sequence. Suggested experimental procedure allows obtaining further information from the redox signals of nucleic acids. Moreover, the used biosensor exhibits sequence specificity and low limits of detection of subnanogram quantities of target nucleic acids.

Krejcova, Ludmila; Hynek, David; Kopel, Pavel; Merlos Rodrigo, Miguel Angel; Adam, Vojtech; Hubalek, Jaromir; Babula, Petr; Trnkova, Libuse; Kizek, Rene

2013-01-01

64

Identification of Internal Transcribed Spacer Sequence Motifs in Truffles: a First Step toward Their DNA Bar Coding? †  

PubMed Central

This work presents DNA sequence motifs from the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of the nuclear rRNA repeat unit which are useful for the identification of five European and Asiatic truffles (Tuber magnatum, T. melanosporum, T. indicum, T. aestivum, and T. mesentericum). Truffles are edible mycorrhizal ascomycetes that show similar morphological characteristics but that have distinct organoleptic and economic values. A total of 36 out of 46 ITS1 or ITS2 sequence motifs have allowed an accurate in silico distinction of the five truffles to be made (i.e., by pattern matching and/or BLAST analysis on downloaded GenBank sequences and directly against GenBank databases). The motifs considered the intraspecific genetic variability of each species, including rare haplotypes, and assigned their respective species from either the ascocarps or ectomycorrhizas. The data indicate that short ITS1 or ITS2 motifs (?50 bp in size) can be considered promising tools for truffle species identification. A dot blot hybridization analysis of T. magnatum and T. melanosporum compared with other close relatives or distant lineages allowed at least one highly specific motif to be identified for each species. These results were confirmed in a blind test which included new field isolates. The current work has provided a reliable new tool for a truffle oligonucleotide bar code and identification in ecological and evolutionary studies.

El Karkouri, Khalid; Murat, Claude; Zampieri, Elisa; Bonfante, Paola

2007-01-01

65

Development of a magnetic electrochemical bar code array for point mutation detection in the H5N1 neuraminidase gene.  

PubMed

Since its first official detection in the Guangdong province of China in 1996, the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of H5N1 subtype (HPAI H5N1) has reportedly been the cause of outbreaks in birds in more than 60 countries, 24 of which were European. The main issue is still to develop effective antiviral drugs. In this case, single point mutation in the neuraminidase gene, which causes resistance to antiviral drug and is, therefore, subjected to many studies including ours, was observed. In this study, we developed magnetic electrochemical bar code array for detection of single point mutations (mismatches in up to four nucleotides) in H5N1 neuraminidase gene. Paramagnetic particles Dynabeads® with covalently bound oligo (dT)?? were used as a tool for isolation of complementary H5N1 chains (H5N1 Zhejin, China and Aichi). For detection of H5N1 chains, oligonucleotide chains of lengths of 12 (+5 adenine) or 28 (+5 adenine) bp labeled with quantum dots (CdS, ZnS and/or PbS) were used. Individual probes hybridized to target molecules specifically with efficiency higher than 60%. The obtained signals identified mutations present in the sequence. Suggested experimental procedure allows obtaining further information from the redox signals of nucleic acids. Moreover, the used biosensor exhibits sequence specificity and low limits of detection of subnanogram quantities of target nucleic acids. PMID:23860384

Krejcova, Ludmila; Hynek, David; Kopel, Pavel; Rodrigo, Miguel Angel Merlos; Adam, Vojtech; Hubalek, Jaromir; Babula, Petr; Trnkova, Libuse; Kizek, Rene

2013-07-15

66

Bar codes and intrinsic-surface-roughness tag: Accurate and low-cost accountability for CFE. [Conventional force equipment (CFE)  

SciTech Connect

CFE poses a number of verification challenges that could be met in part by an accurate and low-cost means of aiding in accountability of treaty-limited equipment. Although the treaty as signed does not explicitly call for the use of tags, there is a provision for recording serial numbers'' and placing special marks'' on equipment subject to reduction. There are approximately 150,000 residual items to be tracked for CFE-I, about half for each alliance of state parties. These highly mobile items are subject to complex treaty limitations: deployment limits and zones, ceilings subceilings, holdings and allowances. There are controls and requirements for storage, conversion, and reduction. In addition, there are national security concerns regarding modernization and mobilization capability. As written into the treaty, a heavy reliance has been placed on human inspectors for CFE verification. Inspectors will mostly make visual observations and photographs as the means of monitoring compliance; these observations can be recorded by handwriting or keyed into a laptop computer. CFE is now less a treaty between two alliances than a treaty among 22 state parties, with inspection data an reports to be shared with each party in the official languages designated by CSCE. One of the potential roles for bar-coded tags would be to provide a universal, exchangable, computer-compatible language for tracking TLE. 10 figs.

DeVolpi, A.; Palm, R.

1990-01-01

67

BAR-CODE BASED WEIGHT MEASUREMENT STATION FOR PHYSICAL INVENTORY TAKING OF PLUTONIUM OXIDE CONTAINERS AT THE MINING AND CHEMICAL COMBINE RADIOCHEMICAL REPROCESSING PLANT NEAR KRASNOYARSK, SIBERIA.  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the technical tasks being implemented to computerize the physical inventory taking (PIT) at the Mining and Chemical Combine (Gorno-Khimichesky Kombinat, GKhK) radiochemical plant under the US/Russian cooperative nuclear material protection, control, and accounting (MPC and A) program. Under the MPC and A program, Lab-to-Lab task agreements with GKhK were negotiated that involved computerized equipment for item verification and confirmatory measurement of the Pu containers. Tasks under Phase I cover the work for demonstrating the plan and procedures for carrying out the comparison of the Pu container identification on the container with the computerized inventory records. In addition to the records validation, the verification procedures include the application of bar codes and bar coded TIDs to the Pu containers. Phase II involves the verification of the Pu content. A plan and procedures are being written for carrying out confirmatory measurements on the Pu containers.

SUDA,S.

1999-09-20

68

Small RNAs and Small Proteins Involved in Resistance to Cell Envelope Stress and Acid Shock in Escherichia coli: Analysis of a Bar-Coded Mutant Collection? †  

PubMed Central

More than 80 small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) and 60 proteins of 16 to 50 amino acids (small proteins) are encoded in the Escherichia coli genome. The vast majority of the corresponding genes have no known function. We screened 125 DNA bar-coded mutants to identify novel cell envelope stress and acute acid shock phenotypes associated with deletions of genes coding for sRNAs and small proteins. Nine deletion mutants (ssrA, micA, ybaM, ryeF, yqcG, sroH, ybhT, yobF, and glmY) were sensitive to cell envelope stress and two were resistant (rybB and blr). Deletion mutants of genes coding for four small proteins (yqgB, mgrB, yobF, and yceO) were sensitive to acute acid stress. We confirmed each of these phenotypes in one-on-one competition assays against otherwise-wild-type lacZ mutant cells. A more detailed investigation of the SsrA phenotype suggests that ribosome release is critical for resistance to cell envelope stress. The bar-coded deletion collection we generated can be screened for sensitivity or resistance to virtually any stress condition.

Hobbs, Errett C.; Astarita, Jillian L.; Storz, Gisela

2010-01-01

69

Small RNAs and small proteins involved in resistance to cell envelope stress and acid shock in Escherichia coli: analysis of a bar-coded mutant collection.  

PubMed

More than 80 small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) and 60 proteins of 16 to 50 amino acids (small proteins) are encoded in the Escherichia coli genome. The vast majority of the corresponding genes have no known function. We screened 125 DNA bar-coded mutants to identify novel cell envelope stress and acute acid shock phenotypes associated with deletions of genes coding for sRNAs and small proteins. Nine deletion mutants (ssrA, micA, ybaM, ryeF, yqcG, sroH, ybhT, yobF, and glmY) were sensitive to cell envelope stress and two were resistant (rybB and blr). Deletion mutants of genes coding for four small proteins (yqgB, mgrB, yobF, and yceO) were sensitive to acute acid stress. We confirmed each of these phenotypes in one-on-one competition assays against otherwise-wild-type lacZ mutant cells. A more detailed investigation of the SsrA phenotype suggests that ribosome release is critical for resistance to cell envelope stress. The bar-coded deletion collection we generated can be screened for sensitivity or resistance to virtually any stress condition. PMID:19734312

Hobbs, Errett C; Astarita, Jillian L; Storz, Gisela

2010-01-01

70

Fabrication of Optical Micro Scanner Driven by PZT Actuators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have designed, simulated, fabricated and tested microelectromechanical system (MEMS) based one-dimensional (1D) optical micro scanners driven by piezoelectric actuators. The designed micro scanners have a micro mirror (1 mm × 1 mm) supported by rotation bars connected to hinges and piezoelectric cantilevers. Pt/Ti/PZT/Pt/Ti/SiO2/SOI multi-layered structure was subjected to MEMS fabrication to form the micro scanners. Through the fabrication, we have obtained 3 types of scanners with 5, 10 and 20 ?m-wide hinges. The resonant frequency corresponding to a torsional mode was measured to be 4100, 5563 and 6025 Hz, respectively. We also compared the optical scanning angle of the micro scanners actuated at the resonant frequency. The micro scanner with 10 ?m-wide hinge actuated at 5563 Hz showed the widest scanning angle. The scanning angle reaches 25 deg at the actuation voltage of 20 V.

Kobayashi, Takeshi; Tsaur, Jiunnjye; Maeda, Ryutaro

2005-09-01

71

A post-labeling method for multiplexed and multicolored genotyping analysis of SSR, indel and SNP markers in single tube with bar-coded split tag (BStag)  

PubMed Central

Background Genotyping analysis using capillary DNA sequencing with fluorescently labeled primer pairs obtained by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is widely used, but is expensive. The post-PCR labeling method using fluorescently labeled short oligonucleotides and nested PCR of the amplified product obtained from unlabeled primer pairs is a simple and inexpensive alternative. However, previously reported protocols often produced spurious peaks or inconsistent amplification under multiplexed analysis as a result of simultaneous progress of both the amplification and labeling reactions and local homology of the attached tag sequence. Results A set of 16 bp-long oligonucleotide sequences termed bar-coded split tag (BStag), comprising a common basal region, a three-nucleotide 'bar-code' sequence, and a mismatched nucleotide at the middle position were designed for selective post-PCR labeling. The BStag was attached at the 5' end of the forward primer of interest. The melting temperature of the BStag was low enough to separate the labeling reaction from initial PCR amplification, and each sequence was minimally divergent but maintained maximum selectivity. Post-PCR labeling of the amplified product was achieved by extending for three cycles at a lower annealing temperature after the conventional amplification program with the appropriate fluorescently labeled BStag primer. No amplification was confirmed with BStag primers for 12 plant species. The electropherogram of the labeled product obtained using this method was consistent with that of prelabeled primer, except for their apparent size. Conclusions BStag enabled multiplexed post-PCR labeling of simple sequence repeat or insertion/deletion markers with different dyes in a single tube. BStag in conjunction with locus specific oligo and allele specific oligo was also useful for single nucleotide polymorphism analysis. The labeling protocol was simple and no additional operation was required. Single-tube multiplexed post-PCR labeling is useful for a wide variety of genotyping studies with maximal flexibility and minimal costs.

2011-01-01

72

Underwater Radiance Scanner.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Underwater Radiance Scanner was developed to measure radiance distributions of natural light fields underwater. It was deployed in a series of experiments designed to validate a model describing propagation of optical energy from a satellite to an und...

R. D. Anderson

1976-01-01

73

A foreign invader or a reclusive native? DNA bar coding reveals a distinct European lineage of the zoonotic parasite Schistosoma turkestanicum (syn. Orientobilharzia turkestanicum ()).  

PubMed

Natural foci of Schistosoma turkestanicum (syn. Orientobilharzia turkestanicum) has been identified in the Gemenc Forest regions of Hungary utilising red deer as the definitive host. In order to identify the origins of this parasite in Europe standard DNA bar coding techniques were employed to sequence fragments of the cytochrome oxidase 1 (cox1) and the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed region (ITS) from 10 individual adult male worms. Phylogenetic reconstruction using maximum likelihood phylogenetic reconstruction and haplotype networks of the cox1 showed all the worms to be of a distinct unique Hungarian lineage although some ITS haplotypes were shared with worms from populations in China and Iran. Molecular clock analysis suggests an early divergence event around 270,000years before present (YBP) between all S. turkestanicum populations giving rise to the Chinese, Iranian and Hungarian lineages. However, divergence of the sequences within the Hungarian population appears to have occurred approximately 63,000 YBP suggesting a long established population of S. turkestanicum in Europe. This suggests that the Hungarian population of S. turkestanicum has been native since the Ice Age and probably established itself during the last interglacial period as red deer moved into Europe from North Africa and the Middle East. This may also indicate that the parasite may have unknown populations established in several other countries in Eastern, Central and Southern Europe. PMID:23220360

Lawton, Scott P; Majoros, Gábor

2012-12-07

74

That's nice, but what does IT do? Evaluating the impact of bar coded medication administration by measuring changes in the process of care  

PubMed Central

Health information technology (IT) is widely endorsed as a way to improve key health care outcomes, particularly patient safety. Applying a human factors approach, this paper models more explicitly how health IT might improve or worsen outcomes. The human factors model specifies that health IT transforms the work system, which transforms the process of care, which in turn transforms the outcome of care. This study reports on transformations of the medication administration process that resulted from the implementation of one type of IT: bar coded medication administration (BCMA). Registered nurses at two large pediatric hospitals in the US participated in a survey administered before and after one of the hospitals implemented BCMA. Nurses’ perceptions of the administration process changed at the hospital that implemented BCMA, whereas perceptions of nurses at the control hospital did not. BCMA appeared to improve the safety of the processes of matching medications to the medication administration record and checking patient identification. The accuracy, usefulness, and consistency of checking patient identification improved as well. In contrast, nurses’ perceptions of the usefulness, time efficiency, and ease of the documentation process decreased post-BCMA. Discussion of survey findings is supplemented by observations and interviews at the hospital that implemented BCMA. By considering the way that IT transforms the work system and the work process a practitioner can better predict the kind of outcomes that the IT might produce. More importantly, the practitioner can achieve or prevent outcomes of interest by using design and redesign aimed at controlling work system and process transformations.

Holden, Richard J.; Brown, Roger L.; Alper, Samuel J.; Scanlon, Matthew C.; Patel, Neal R.; Karsh, Ben-Tzion

2011-01-01

75

Biochip scanner device  

DOEpatents

A biochip scanner device used to detect and acquire fluorescence signal data from biological microchips or biochips and method of use are provided. The biochip scanner device includes a laser for emitting a laser beam. A modulator, such as an optical chopper modulates the laser beam. A scanning head receives the modulated laser beam and a scanning mechanics coupled to the scanning head moves the scanning head relative to the biochip. An optical fiber delivers the modulated laser beam to the scanning head. The scanning head collects the fluorescence light from the biochip, launches it into the same optical fiber, which delivers the fluorescence into a photodetector, such as a photodiode. The biochip scanner device is used in a row scanning method to scan selected rows of the biochip with the laser beam size matching the size of the immobilization site.

Perov, Alexander (Troitsk, RU); Belgovskiy, Alexander I. (Mayfield Heights, OH); Mirzabekov, Andrei D. (Darien, IL)

2001-01-01

76

Portable biochip scanner device  

DOEpatents

A portable biochip scanner device used to detect and acquire fluorescence signal data from biological microchips (biochips) is provided. The portable biochip scanner device employs a laser for emitting an excitation beam. An optical fiber delivers the laser beam to a portable biochip scanner. A lens collimates the laser beam, the collimated laser beam is deflected by a dichroic mirror and focused by an objective lens onto a biochip. The fluorescence light from the biochip is collected and collimated by the objective lens. The fluorescence light is delivered to a photomultiplier tube (PMT) via an emission filter and a focusing lens. The focusing lens focuses the fluorescence light into a pinhole. A signal output of the PMT is processed and displayed.

Perov, Alexander (Troitsk, RU); Sharonov, Alexei (Moscow, RU); Mirzabekov, Andrei D. (Darien, IL)

2002-01-01

77

Optical fuel pin scanner  

DOEpatents

An optical scanner for indicia arranged in a focal plane at a cylindrical outside surface by use of an optical system including a rotatable dove prism. The dove prism transmits a rotating image of an encircled cylindrical surface area to a stationary photodiode array.

Kirchner, Tommy L. (Richland, WA); Powers, Hurshal G. (Richland, WA)

1983-01-01

78

Electrochemical determination of microRNA-21 based on graphene, LNA integrated molecular beacon, AuNPs and biotin multifunctional bio bar codes and enzymatic assay system.  

PubMed

MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a kind of small, endogenous, noncoding RNAs (?22 nucleotides), might play a crucial role in early cancer diagnose due to its abnormal expression in many solid tumors. As a result, label-free and PCR-amplification-free assay for miRNAs is of great significance. In this work, a highly sensitive biosensor for sequence specific miRNA-21 detection without miRNA-21 labeling and enrichment was constructed based on the substrate electrode of dendritic gold nanostructure (DenAu) and graphene nanosheets modified glassy carbon electrode. Sulfydryl functionalized locked nucleic acid (LNA) integrated hairpin molecule beacon (MB) probe was used as miRNA-21 capture probe. After hybridized with miRNA-21 and reported DNA loading in gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and biotin multi-functionalized bio bar codes, streptavidin-HRP was brought to the electrode through the specific interaction with biotin to catalyze the chemical oxidation of hydroquinone by H(2)O(2) to form benzoquinone. The electrochemical reduction signal of benzoquinone was utilized to monitor the miRNA-21 hybridization event. The effect of experimental variables on the amperometric response was investigated and optimized. Based on the specific confirmation of probe and signal amplification, the biosensor showed excellent selectivity and high sensitivity with low detection limit of 0.06 pM. Successful attempts are made in miRNA-21 expression analysis of human hepatocarcinoma BEL-7402 cells and normal human hepatic L02 cells. PMID:22317835

Yin, Huanshun; Zhou, Yunlei; Zhang, Haixia; Meng, Xiaomeng; Ai, Shiyun

2012-01-23

79

High throughput optical scanner  

DOEpatents

A scanning apparatus is provided to obtain automated, rapid and sensitive scanning of substrate fluorescence, optical density or phosphorescence. The scanner uses a constant path length optical train, which enables the combination of a moving beam for high speed scanning with phase-sensitive detection for noise reduction, comprising a light source, a scanning mirror to receive light from the light source and sweep it across a steering mirror, a steering mirror to receive light from the scanning mirror and reflect it to the substrate, whereby it is swept across the substrate along a scan arc, and a photodetector to receive emitted or scattered light from the substrate, wherein the optical path length from the light source to the photodetector is substantially constant throughout the sweep across the substrate. The optical train can further include a waveguide or mirror to collect emitted or scattered light from the substrate and direct it to the photodetector. For phase-sensitive detection the light source is intensity modulated and the detector is connected to phase-sensitive detection electronics. A scanner using a substrate translator is also provided. For two dimensional imaging the substrate is translated in one dimension while the scanning mirror scans the beam in a second dimension. For a high throughput scanner, stacks of substrates are loaded onto a conveyor belt from a tray feeder.

Basiji, David A. (Seattle, WA); van den Engh, Gerrit J. (Seattle, WA)

2001-01-01

80

51. View of upper radar scanner switch in radar scanner ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

51. View of upper radar scanner switch in radar scanner building 105 from upper catwalk level showing emanating waveguides from upper switch (upper one-fourth of photograph) and emanating waveguides from lower radar scanner switch in vertical runs. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

81

Laser Scanner Demonstration  

SciTech Connect

In the Summer of 2004 a request for proposals went out to potential vendors to offer a three-dimensional laser scanner for a number of unique metrology tasks at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). Specifications were established including range, accuracy, scan density, resolution and field of view in consideration of anticipated department requirements. Four vendors visited the site to present their system and they were asked to perform three unique tests with their system on a two day visit to SLAC. Two of the three tests were created to emulate real-world applications at SLAC while the third was an accuracy and resolution series of experiments. The scope of these tests is presented and some of the vendor's results are included.

Fuss, B.

2005-09-06

82

Counting Rates Modeling for PET Scanners With GATE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several developments were made in the GATE simulation platform to allow accurate modeling of the count rate performances of PET scanners over a wide range of activity concentrations. A background noise module, a dead time and limited bandwidth modeling for the coincidences, and a delayed coincidence builder were added in the code. The results obtained for the modeling of the

David Guez; Frédéric Bataille; Claude Comtat; Pierre-Francois Honore; Sébastien Jan; Sophie Kerhoas

2008-01-01

83

Sushi Bar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An innovative website where customers order from a realistic sushi bar menu to learn about international fisheries resources and impacts. Select shrimp, tuna, squid, octopus, or sea urchin to learn where resources are harvested, current fisheries methods, population status and concerns. This on-line activity also demonstrates how global our use of resources has become, with a single country dependent on seafood imports from around the world. The site also contains lesson plans on natural resources and resource management. Appropriate for grades 6 and up.

2010-12-02

84

Microfabrication of fiber optic scanners  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cantilevered optical fiber is micromachined to function as a miniature resonant opto-mechanical scanner. By driving the base of the cantilevered fiber at a resonance frequency using a piezoelectric actuator, the free end of the cantilever beam becomes a scanned light source. The fiber scanners are designed to achieve wide field-of-view (FOV) and high scan frequency. We employ a non-linearly

Mark Fauver; Janet L. Crossman-Bosworth; Eric J. Seibel

2002-01-01

85

TEST AND CALIBRATION PROCEDURES FOR IMAGE SCANNERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to present general, possibly device independent, testing procedures for high precision, high resolution scanning. The tests refer mostly to flatbed scanners employing linear or area CCDs. Thus, they are applicable to photogrammetric scanners and flatbed DTP scanners. For drum scanners similar tests and test patterns on stable Estar thick base film could be used.

Emmanuel P. Baltsavias

1994-01-01

86

What's behind Orion's Bar?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose to obtain deep spectra of the outer region of the Orion Nebula. The area of particular interest is SE of the Bar where archival Spitzer spectra have shown high signal-to-noise lines of [S IV] 10.5 and [Ne III] 15.6 microns. We were staggered with astonishment to see such S/N in high ionization species well beyond the Bright Bar, given the conventional view of the Bar as the boundary between ionized and photodissociated regions (PDR). Previous IR missions observed only the inner few arcmin, the so-called Huygens region. The extreme sensitivity of Spitzer's IRS short-high (SH) and long-high (LH) modules in the 10-37 micron spectral range will permit us to measure the above lines and many others of interest to much larger distances from the exciting star theta1 Ori C. Orion is the benchmark for studies of the interstellar medium, particularly for elemental abundances. In the case of the Orion Nebula, the best way to obtain abundances from observations has been through detailed photoionization modeling. These new Spitzer spectra will provide a unique, legacy dataset for new science, including improved current and future models of Orion. Indeed we will use our own modeling codes for this purpose, one of which self-consistently treats the H II region and the PDR. The Orion Bar is the defining interface by which all H+ - H0 - H2 regions are judged. Because there must be extra emission along this sight line, we need to understand this contribution and remove what is not physically a part of the Bar. Our program will permit a more reliable set of line emission that actually arises from the Bar that can rigorously be used to define the interface problem. Our spectra will be the deepest ever taken in these outer regions of Orion over the 10-37 micron range. Tracking the changes in ionization structure via the line emission to larger distances provides much more leverage for understanding the far less studied outer regions. The outer Veil is likely to provide a new, benchmark HIIR-PDR interface.

Rubin, Robert; Colgan, Sean; Erickson, Edwin; Ferland, Gary; O'Dell, C. Robert; Simpson, Janet

2008-03-01

87

Math Bars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These interactive learning tools are color-coded in graduated lengths based on rods by Georges Cuisenaire allow users to explore concepts and relationships with concrete objects. The lengths and orientation of the rods can be manipulated for placement on the gridded or non-gridded work area.

King, Colleen

2013-01-01

88

Ceramic Bar-on-Bar Impact Experiments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ceramic bar-on-bar (uniaxial stress) experiments are performed to extend uniaxial strain deformation states imposed in flyer plate impact experiments. The major objective of these experiments is to generate a variety of multi axial deformation states for ...

N. S. Brar

2003-01-01

89

Miniaturized micro-optical scanners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optical beam scanners are critical components for airborne and space-based laser radar, on- machine-inspection systems, factory automation systems, and optical communication systems. We describe here a laser beam steering system based on dithering two complementary (positive and negative) microlens arrays. When the two microlens arrays are translated relative to one another in the plane parallel to their surfaces, the transmitted

M. Edward Motamedi; Angus P. Andrews; William J. Gunning; Moshen Khoshnevisan

1994-01-01

90

Design considerations for PET scanners.  

PubMed

In 2-D PET scanners employing septa, scattered radiation is reduced by the septa, placing less importance on good energy resolution. Additionally, the reduced sensitivity in 2-D limits the maximum countrates encountered in clinical FDG studies. In contrast, 3-D PET scanners rely on good energy resolution to reduce the scattered radiation and also must deal with countrates, which are typically 5 times higher than in 2-D mode. To achieve good energy resolution, 3 factors must be considered: 1) choice of a scintillator with good intrinsic energy resolution, 2) choice of a crystal dimension which transmits a uniform amount of light to the PMT in order to avoid light loss along the length of the crystal and 3) choice of a crystal-to-PMT coupling which collects a uniform amount of light from all crystals. As PET scanners are being designed using new, faster scintillators for 3-D imaging, the appropriate trade-off between energy resolution and countrate capability must be found to give the best overall system performance. An example of a fully 3-D PET scanner is the Allegro (ADAC Laboratories), which uses GSO as the detector material. Given the right choice of material and design parameters, good quality, high contrast images can be obtained in 3-D in a relatively short time. PMID:12072842

Muehllrhner, G; Karp, J S; Surti, S

2002-03-01

91

Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of Barred Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic fields are pervasive in barred galaxies, especially in gaseous substructures such as dust lanes and nuclear rings. To explore the effects of magnetic fields on the formation of the substructures as well as on the mass inflow rates to the galaxy center, we run two-dimensional, ideal magnetohydrodynamic simulations. We use a modified version of the Athena code whose numerical magnetic diffusivity is shown to be of third order in space. In the bar regions, magnetic fields are compressed and abruptly bent around the dust-lane shocks. The associated magnetic stress not only reduces the peak density of the dust-lane shocks but also removes angular momentum further from the gas that is moving radially in. Nuclear rings that form at the location of centrifugal barrier rather than resonance with the bar are smaller and more radially distributed, and the mass flow rate to the galaxy center is correspondingly larger in models with stronger magnetic fields. Outside the bar regions, the bar potential and strong shear conspire to amplify the field strength near the corotation resonance. The amplified fields transport angular momentum outward, producing trailing magnetic arms with strong fields and low density. The base of the magnetic arms are found to be unstable to a tearing-mode instability of magnetic reconnection. This produces numerous magnetic islands that eventually make the outer regions highly chaotic.

Kim, W.-T.

2013-04-01

92

Nano-scanner for scanning probe microscopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A two-axes nano-scanner for a scanning probe microscope (SPMs) was developed. The flexure-guided nano-scanner can move SPM samples or the probe itself along the x and y axes. The theoretical stiffness and resonant frequency of the flexure guide were obtained by using Castigliano's theorem. An optimal nano-scanner that maximize the scanning speed under appropriate constraints was designed. The optimal results were compared with the results of a finite element analysis. The scanner performance was evaluated by using various experiments and was compared with the optimal design results. Finally, atomic force microscope images obtained by using the proposed nano-scanner are presented.

Park, Jae Hong; Lee, Dong-Yeon

2012-11-01

93

Large-area aircraft scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A program to determine the feasibility of present state-of-the-art NDI technology to produce a large-area scanner and to identify commercial equipment available to construct the desired system is presented. Work performed to attain these objectives is described, along with suggested modifications to the existing commercial equipment in order to meet the design criteria as closely as possible. Techniques that show the most promise at present are: D-sight, shearography, and pulse IR thermography (PIRT). D-sight is argued to be inadequate alone, but may well help form a system in conjunction with another technique. Shearography requires additional development in the area of stress application along with interpretation and overall application. PIRT is argued to be satisfactory as a large-area scanner system, at least for thin composite and metal panels.

Iddings, Frank A.

94

Microfabrication of fiber optic scanners  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cantilevered optical fiber is micromachined to function as a miniature resonant opto-mechanical scanner. By driving the base of the cantilevered fiber at a resonance frequency using a piezoelectric actuator, the free end of the cantilever beam becomes a scanned light source. The fiber scanners are designed to achieve wide field-of-view (FOV) and high scan frequency. We employ a non-linearly tapered profile fiber to achieve scan amplitudes of 1 mm at scan frequencies above 20 KHz. Scan angles of over 120 degree(s) (full angle) have been achieved. Higher order modes are also employed for scanning applications that require compactness while maintaining large angular FOV. Etching techniques are used to create the non-linearly tapered sections in single mode optical fiber. Additionally, micro-lenses are fabricated on the tips of the etched fibers, with lens diameters as small as 15 microns. Such lenses are capable of reducing the divergence angle of the emitted light to 5 degree(s) (full angle), with greater reduction expected by employing novel lens shaping techniques. Microfabricated optical fiber scanners have display applications ranging from micro-optical displays to larger panoramic displays. Applications for micro-image acquisition include small barcode readers to medical endoscopes.

Fauver, Mark; Crossman-Bosworth, Janet L.; Seibel, Eric J.

2002-06-01

95

Subspace Arrangement Codes and Cryptosystems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Errors often occur in transferring electronic data, ranging from sensitive government information to everyday bar codes. Encoding information with an error-correcting code can alleviate the problem of corrupt or lost data. In order to not overburden compu...

J. A. Berg

2011-01-01

96

Tow Bar for Aircraft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The tow bar includes a rigid, elongated beam having a hitch located at each of its opposite ends for accommodating a coupling of the tow bar between a gear truck and a towing vehicle. Interposed between the center mass of the tow bar and the end thereof t...

P. Baldridge

1978-01-01

97

DNA bar-coding for phytoplasma identification.  

PubMed

Phytoplasma identification has proved difficult due to their inability to be maintained in vitro. DNA barcoding is an identification method based on comparison of a short DNA sequence with known sequences from a database. A DNA barcoding tool has been developed for phytoplasma identification. While other sequence-based methods may be well adapted to identification of particular strains of phytoplasmas, often they cannot be used for the simultaneous identification of phytoplasmas from different groups. The phytoplasma DNA barcoding protocol in this chapter, based on the tuf and 16SrRNA genes, can be used to identify the following phytoplasma groups: 16SrI, 16SrII, 16SrIII, 16SrIV, 16SrV, 16SrVI, 16SrVII, 16SrIX, 16SrX, 16SrXI, 16SrXII, 16SrXV, 16SrXX, 16SrXXI. PMID:22987426

Makarova, Olga; Contaldo, Nicoletta; Paltrinieri, Samanta; Bertaccini, Assunta; Nyskjold, Henriette; Nicolaisen, Mogens

2013-01-01

98

Diffraction grating scanners using polysilicon micromotors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes polysilicon micromotors with diffraction gratings fabricated on the polished surface of the polysilicon rotor for optical scanning applications. Such micromotor optical scanners have high quality scan profiles, good efficiency, meter working distances, and multiple out of plane beam diffraction orders. Above all, the scanner design takes full advantage of planar processing. Chemical-mechanical polishing is used to reduce

A. A. Yasseen; S. W. Smith; M. Mehregany; F. L. Merat

1995-01-01

99

ID scanners in the night time economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

ID scanners are quickly emerging as a new technological fix to long-standing problems of security and safety within licensed venues. Yet at this point in time detailed research of this rapidly expanding security technology is remarkably limited. To address this analytical deficit we are currently examining the uptake of ID scanners in licensed venues operating in the nighttime economy. We

Darren Palmer; Ian Warren; Peter Miller

2010-01-01

100

Spatial Calibration Procedure for Infrared Line Scanners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermographic devices which are able to acquire images, such as infrared line scanners, are becoming increasingly popular. One of the major issues when working with this kind of devices is accurate spatial calibration, necessary in order to extract metric information from images. In this work, a spatial calibration procedure for infrared line scanners is proposed. The proposed procedure is based

Rubén Usamentiaga; Daniel F. García; Diego González; Julio Molleda

2006-01-01

101

Combined PET/MRI scanner  

DOEpatents

A combined PET/MRI scanner generally includes a magnet for producing a magnetic field suitable for magnetic resonance imaging, a radiofrequency (RF) coil disposed within the magnetic field produced by the magnet and a ring tomograph disposed within the magnetic field produced by the magnet. The ring tomograph includes a scintillator layer for outputting at least one photon in response to an annihilation event, a detection array coupled to the scintillator layer for detecting the at least one photon outputted by the scintillator layer and for outputting a detection signal in response to the detected photon and a front-end electronic array coupled to the detection array for receiving the detection signal, wherein the front-end array has a preamplifier and a shaper network for conditioning the detection signal.

Schlyer, David (Bellport, NY); Woody, Craig L. (Setauket, NY); Rooney, William (Miller Place, NY); Vaska, Paul (Sound Beach, NY); Stoll, Sean (Wading River, NY); Pratte, Jean-Francois (Stony Brook, NY); O' Connor, Paul (Bellport, NY)

2007-10-23

102

Non-Destructive Testing Scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bio-Imaging Research's technology that originated in an aerospace program has come full circle with a new aerospace adaptation called the Advanced Computed Tomography Inspection System, or ACTIS. The medical version of CT scans the human body for tumors or other abnormalities, the ACTIS system finds imperfections in aerospace structures and components, such as castings, assemblies, rocket motors and nozzles. ACTIS is described by its developer as the most versatile CT scanner available for non-destructive testing applications. ACTIS is a variable geometry system. ACTIS source and detectors can be moved closer together or farther apart to optimize the geometry for different sizes of test objects. The combination of variable geometry, three sources, and focusing detectors makes ACTIS cost effective for a broad range of applications. System can scan anything from very small turbine blades to large rocket assemblies.

1990-01-01

103

Use of scatterometry for scanner matching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the high volume manufacturing at the 45nm node and beyond it is crucial to match the OPC behaviour of all scanners used at a given process step. For this task the ASML LithoTuner PatternMatcher software was used. LithoTuner PatternMatcher is a tool to improve the proximity differences between a reference scanner and one or more so called 'to be matched' scanners. The optimization uses the concept of sensitivities of CDs of critical features towards adjustable scanner parameters in combination with the delta CD's of those critical features. To perform the scanner matching it is very important to have accurate and repeatable CD data. Therefore we investigated the use of scatterometry as a replacement for the traditional CDSEM measurement. Scatterometry significantly enhances the measurement precision while simultaneously reduces the measurement time. In a first step we determined the sensitivities of the structures by measuring the CD response to small perturbations of the individual scanner parameter settings. CD through pitch and repeating 2 dimensional line end structures were measured using the ASML YieldStar tool and a Hitachi CDSEM. The scatterometry- and CDSEM based sensitivities of the scanner parameter settings are compared. Finally a scanner matching based on both sets of sensitivities has been performed. In this article we will show that both methods are suited to perform the scanner matching. We will also present the differences between the two sets of sensitivities obtained with scatterometry and CDSEM. At the end we will present the results of the tool matching and show the results of a cross check. In the cross check sensitivities obtained with the use of scatterometry were used for the scanner matching next to SEM metrology used for verification.

Bald, Holger; Seltmann, Rolf; Bubke, Karsten; Ruhm, Matthias; Noot, Marc; Woischke, Dieter; van Adrichem, Paul; Luehrmann, Paul

2011-02-01

104

Design study for MOX fuel rod scanner for ATR fuel fabrication. Phase I: Design of active neutron scanner. Phase II: Design of passive neutron scanner. Phase III: Design of passive gamma-ray scanner  

SciTech Connect

An active neutron fuel-rod scanner has been designed for the assay of fissile materials in mixed oxide fuel rods. A {sup 252}Cf source is located at the center of the scanner very near the through-hole for the fuel rods. Spontaneous fission neutrons from the californium are moderated and induce fissions within the passing fuel rod. The rod continues past a combined gamma-ray and neutron shield where delayed gamma rays above 1 MeV are detected. The authors used the Monte Carlo neutron-photon (MCNP) code to design the scanner and review optimum materials and geometries. Applications of the rod scanner include accountability of fissile material for safeguards applications, quality control of the fissile content in a fuel rod, and the verification of reactivity potential for mixed oxide fuels. A passive neutron fuel-rod scanner has been designed for the assay of the plutonium in mixed oxide fuel rods. The {sup 240}Pu-effective is measured by counting the spontaneous fission neutrons using a high-efficiency thermal-neutron detector. This passive neutron detector would be combined with a high-resolution gamma-ray system (HRGS) measurement to obtain the total plutonium from the plutonium isotopic ratios. A passive gamma-ray scanner has been designed for the measurement of the {sup 241}Am and plutonium uniformity in mixed oxide fuel rods. The passive gamma-ray emissions from {sup 241}Am (60 keV) and plutonium (150-400 keV) are used to verify the unformity of the fuel enrichment zones and to check for any pellets that are out of specification. The fuel rod is moved through the interior of an NaI(Tl) or a bismuth germanate detector to measure the passive gamma-ray emissions. A tungsten sleeve collimator is used in the through-hole to improve the pellet-to-pellet spatial resolution. The same detector is used to verify the plutonium uniformity in the pellets with a 13-mm tungsten collimator. The low-resolution passive gamma system would be used in the unattended mode.

Griffith, G.W.; Menlove, H.O.

1997-09-01

105

21 CFR 892.1330 - Nuclear whole body scanner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Nuclear whole body scanner. 892.1330 ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL...892.1330 Nuclear whole body scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear whole body scanner is a device...

2013-04-01

106

21 CFR 882.1925 - Ultrasonic scanner calibration test block.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Ultrasonic scanner calibration test block. 882.1925 Section...882.1925 Ultrasonic scanner calibration test block. (a) Identification. An ultrasonic scanner calibration test block is a block of...

2013-04-01

107

Bar Graph Sorter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students make bar graphs by sorting shapes either by shape or by color. This activity allows students to explore how to sort data to make bar graphs. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

2010-01-01

108

Ring Bar Grizzly.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application relates to a ring bar grizzly used as a materials handling device to enable the jam-free transfer of loose rocks or other materials at the discharge end of a generally horizontal conveyor. Normally, this ring bar grizzly is used in ...

A. T. Fisk

1980-01-01

109

Multi Bar Graph  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students enter in data to be represented in a double bar graph. Multi bar graphs allow the student to compare multiple characteristics of different subjects like population for different continents over time. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

2010-01-01

110

A novel optical scanner for laser radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser radar are ideally suitable for recognizing objects, detection, target tracking or obstacle avoidance, because of the high angular and range resolution. In recent years, scannerless ladar has developed rapidly. In contrast with traditional scanner ladar, scannerless ladar has distinct characteristics such as small, compact, high frame rate, wide field of view and high reliability. However, the scannerless ladar is still in the stage of laboratory and the performance cannot meet the demands of practical applications. Hence, traditional scanner laser radar is still mainly applied. In scanner ladar system, optical scanner is the key component which can deflect the direction of laser beam to the target. We investigated a novel scanner based on the characteristic of fiber's light-conductive. The fiber bundles are arranged in a special structure which connected to a motor. When motor working properly, the laser passes through the fibers on incident plane and the location of laser spot on output plane will move along with a straight line in a constant speed. The direction of light will be deflected by taking advantage of transmitting optics, then the linear sweeping of the target can be achieved. A laser radar scheme with high speed and large field of view can be realized. Some researches on scanner are simply introduced on section1. The structure of the optical scanner will be described and the practical applications of the scanner in transmitting and receiving optical paths are discussed in section2. Some characteristic of scanner is calculated in section3. In section4, we report the simulation and experiment of our prototype.

Yao, Shunyu; Peng, Renjun; Gao, Jianshuang

2013-09-01

111

Oskri Recalls “Coconut Bar Dark Chocolate”, “Coconut Bar ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... of Lake Mills, WI is recalling “Coconut Bar Dark Chocolate”, “Coconut Bar Dark Chocolate Minis”, “Fig Dark Chocolate Bars” and “Almond Dark ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/recallsoutbreaksemergencies/recalls

112

Pulsed Doppler lidar airborne scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report covers the work accomplished during the reporting period on Pulsed Doppler Lidar Airborne Scanner and describes plans for the next reporting period. The objectives during the current phase of the contract are divided into four phases. Phase 1 includes ground testing of the system and analysis of data from the 1981 Severe Storms Test Flights. Phase 2 consists of preflight preparation and planning for the 1983 flight series. The flight test itself will be performed during Phase 3, and Phase 4 consists of post-flight analysis and operation of the system after that flight test. The range profile from five samples taken during Flight 10, around 1700 Z is given. The lowest curve is taken from data collected upwind of Mt. Shasta at about 10,000 feet of altitude, in a clear atmosphere, where no signals were observed. It thus is a good representation of the noise level as a function of range. The next curve was taken downwind of the mountain, and shows evidence of atmospheric returns. There is some question as to whether the data are valid at all ranges, or some ranges are contaminated by the others.

Dimarzio, C. A.; McVicker, D. B.; Morrow, C. E.; Negus, C. C.

1985-10-01

113

Hand-held optical fuel pin scanner  

DOEpatents

An optical scanner for indicia arranged in a focal plane perpendicular to an optical system including a rotatable dove prism. The dove prism transmits a rotating image to a stationary photodiode array.

Kirchner, Tommy L. (Richland, WA); Powers, Hurshal G. (Richland, WA)

1987-01-01

114

Changes in Smoking-Related Norms in Bars Resulting from California's Smoke-Free Workplace Act  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

California's Smoke-Free Workplace Act--CA Labor Code Sec. 6404.5(a)--was extended to bars in 1998. This article analyzes changes in normative beliefs and behaviors related to bar smoking in the decade following the adoption of the Act. In a series of studies evaluating the smoke-free workplace law in bars, researchers conducted extensive…

Satterlund, Travis D.; Lee, Juliet P.; Moore, Roland S.

2012-01-01

115

Changes in Smoking-Related Norms in Bars Resulting from California's Smoke-Free Workplace Act  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|California's Smoke-Free Workplace Act--CA Labor Code Sec. 6404.5(a)--was extended to bars in 1998. This article analyzes changes in normative beliefs and behaviors related to bar smoking in the decade following the adoption of the Act. In a series of studies evaluating the smoke-free workplace law in bars, researchers conducted extensive…

Satterlund, Travis D.; Lee, Juliet P.; Moore, Roland S.

2012-01-01

116

Iron Currency-Bars  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN NATURE of May 19, p. 372, reference is made to iron currency-bars and ``early British water-clocks.'' The discovery of the true nature of the currency-bars is not, as is implied, a recent one, but was made in 1905 by Mr. Reginald Smith (see his paper, Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries, vol. xx., pp. 179-94). Similarly, the ``early British

O. G. S. Crawford

1921-01-01

117

LANSCE-R WIRE-SCANNER SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

The National Instruments cRIO platform is used for the new LANSCE-R wire-scanner systems. All wire-scanner electronics are integrated into a single BiRa BiRIO 4U cRIO chassis specifically designed for the cRIO crate and all interface electronics. The BiRIO chassis, actuator and LabVIEW VIs provide a complete wire-scanner system integrated with EPICS. The new wire-scanner chassis includes an 8-slot cRIO crate with Virtex-5 LX 110 FPGA and Power-PC real-time controller, the LANL-developed cRIO 2-axis wire-sensor analog interface module (AFE), NI9222 cRIO 4-channel 16-bit digitizer, cRIO resolver demodulator, cRIO event receiver, front-panel touch panel display, motor driver, and all necessary software, interface wiring, connectors and ancillary components. This wirescanner system provides a complete, turn-key, 2-axis wire-scanner system including 2-channel low-noise sensewire interface with variable DC wire bias and wireintegrity monitor, 16-bit signal digitizers, actuator motor drive and control, actuator position sensing, limit-switch interfaces, event receiver, LabVIEW and EPICS interface, and both remote operation and full stand-alone operation using the touch panel.

Gruchalla, Michael E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-01

118

A fully 3D small PET scanner.  

PubMed

A fully 3D small PET scanner based on a novel detection principle for gamma rays is described. It uses BaF2 scintillator and photosensitive wire chambers. Extensive tests with technical prototypes have shown that such a system will have a detection efficiency for gamma rays comparable with what can be obtained with the more traditional approach, and a spatial resolution determined by the size of the crystals. The expected performances of the scanner, based on our measurements and on simulations, are given. PMID:1565695

Tavernier, S; Bruyndonckx, P; Shuping, Z

1992-03-01

119

LANSCE Wire Scanner System Prototype: Switchyard Test  

SciTech Connect

On November 19, 2011, the beam diagnostics team of Los Alamos National Laboratory's LANSCE accelerator facility conducted a test of a prototype wire scanner system for future deployment within the accelerator's switchyard area. The primary focus of this test was to demonstrate the wire scanner control system's ability to extend its functionality beyond acquiring lower energy linac beam profile measurements to acquiring data in the switchyard. This study summarizes the features and performance characteristics of the electronic and mechanical implementation of this system with details focusing on the test results.

Sedillo, James D [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-04-11

120

Mechanical properties of weightlifting bars.  

PubMed

Weightlifting training and competition involves lifting a revolving shaft bar loaded with weights. The design of a bar and the location of the weights result in bar deformation during lifting tasks. Because there are many manufacturers of weightlifting bars, the actual deformation of a bar may vary, depending on the steel alloys used. A modified 4-point static bending test was used to assess deformation of 8 weightlifting bars and 1 general purpose weight training bar. The apparent stiffness of the bars was determined by plotting bending moment vs. bar deformation (the vertical height difference between the center vs. ends of the bar). All bars tested had an absence of hysteresis during cyclic loading and unloading in 50-kg increments (up to 220-kg total barbell weight), demonstrating pure elastic properties. At maximum loading, bar deformation was 4-5 cm. A large range existed for apparent stiffness. Based on apparent stiffness calculations, recommendations are made for which bars are suitable for weightlifting training and competition. The deformable nature of weightlifting and weight training bars should be considered before their use in exercise, sport, or research. PMID:20683350

Chiu, Loren Z F

2010-09-01

121

Toll Bar on Sea  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the summer of 2007 the United Kingdom experienced some of the heaviest rainfall since records began. Toll Bar in South Yorkshire featured prominently in media coverage as the village and the homes surrounding it began to flood. Many people lost everything: their homes, their furniture, their possessions. In an effort to come to terms with what…

Hunter, Dave

2008-01-01

122

Candy Bar Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students model Earth's interior and plate tectonics (movement at the boundaries) by manipulating taffy and a Milky Way candy bar. This is a worksheet-led activity to help students "visualize" the movement of the plates and to relate Earth's interior to objects they see on a regular basis.

Workshop, Rocks A.

2009-05-04

123

Toll Bar on Sea  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the summer of 2007 the United Kingdom experienced some of the heaviest rainfall since records began. Toll Bar in South Yorkshire featured prominently in media coverage as the village and the homes surrounding it began to flood. Many people lost everything: their homes, their furniture, their possessions. In an effort to come to terms with what…

Hunter, Dave

2008-01-01

124

Comb Actuated resonant torsional scanner for microdisplays  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comb-actuated 1D torsional MEMS scanner is developed for high resolution projection display systems using mechanical coupling principle. 64deg TOSA (total optical scan angle) is achieved at 22.1 kHz with 170 V peak-to-peak excitation voltages.

Aslihan Arslan; Sven Holmstrom; S. Kutal Gokce; Hakan Urey

2009-01-01

125

Dedicated PET scanners for breast imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have used computer simulations to compare two designs for a PET scanner dedicated to breast imaging with a whole-body PET scanner. The new designs combine high spatial resolution, high sensitivity, and good energy resolution to detect small, low-contrast masses. The detectors are position sensitive NaI(Tl) scintillators. The first design is a ring scanner surrounding the breast and the second consists of two planar detectors placed on opposite sides of the breast. We have employed standard performance measures to compare the different designs: contrast, percentage standard deviation of the background, and signal-to-noise ratios of reconstructed images. The results of the simulations show that both of the proposed designs have better lesion detectability than a whole-body scanner. The results also show that contrast is higher in the ring breast system but that the noise is lower in the planar breast system. Overall, the ring system yields images with the best signal-to-noise ratios, although the planar system offers practical advantages for imaging the breast and axilla.

Freifelder, Richard; Karp, Joel S.

1997-12-01

126

Coastal Zone Color Scanner Studies. Abstract Only.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Activities over the past year have included cooperative work with a summer faculty fellow using the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) imagery to study the effects of gradients in trophic resources on coral reefs in the Caribbean. Other research included c...

J. Elrod

1988-01-01

127

Wire scanner software and firmware issues  

SciTech Connect

The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center facility presently has 110 slow wire scanning profile measurement instruments located along its various beam lines. These wire scanners were developed and have been operating for at least 30 years. While the wire scanners solved many problems to operate and have served the facility well they have increasingly suffered from several problems or limitations, such as maintenance and reliability problems, antiquated components, slow data acquisition, and etc. In order to refurbish these devices, these wire scanners will be replaced with newer versions. The replacement will consist of a completely new beam line actuator, new cables, new electronics and brand new software and firmware. This note describes the functions and modes of operation that LabVIEW VI software on the real time controller and FPGA LabVIEW firmware will be required. It will be especially interesting to understand the overall architecture of these LabVIEW VIs. While this note will endeavor to describe all of the requirements and issues for the wire scanners, undoubtedly, there will be missing details that will be added as time progresses.

Gilpatrick, John Doug [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

128

Holographic Three Dimensional Printer Using Galvanometer Scanners  

Microsoft Academic Search

To make holograms from computer graphic (CG) in a short time, a new holographic three dimensional (3D) printer is proposed here. This printer consists of galvanometer scanners, a micro computer and a laser, and uses a holographic contact duplicating method. Experiments have shown that a hologram of 39 × 41 mm can be obtained in 4 min.

Masahide Monde; Tsuyoshi Uematsu; Toshiki Toda; Kazuhiko Ohnuma; Yoshizumi Yasuda

1995-01-01

129

The ClearPEM breast imaging scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results on the characterization of the ClearPEM breast imaging scanner. ClearPEM is a dual-head positron emission mammography scanner using APD-based detector modules that are capable of measuring the depth-of-interaction (DOI) with a resolution of 2 mm in LYSO:Ce crystals. The full system comprises 192 detector modules with a total of 6144 LYSO:Ce crystals and 384 32-pixel APD arrays read out by ASICs with 192 input channels. The scanner includes front-end and data acquisition electronics and a robotic gantry for detector placement and rotation. The software implements calibration (energy, time and DOI), normalization and image reconstruction algorithms. In this conference, the scanner main technical characteristics, the calibration strategies and the spectrometric performance in clinical environment were presented as well as the images obtained with point sources and with a microDerenzo phantom. The image resolution was found to be of the order of 1.3 mm FWHM (center of field-of-view) and the DOI capability has shown to have a strong impact on the image sharpness. An assessment of the first clinical experience was also presented at the conference.

Neves, Jorge A.; ClearPEM Collaboration

2011-02-01

130

Holographic Three Dimensional Printer Using Galvanometer Scanners  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To make holograms from computer graphic (CG) in a short time, a new holographic three dimensional (3D) printer is proposed here. This printer consists of galvanometer scanners, a micro computer and a laser, and uses a holographic contact duplicating method. Experiments have shown that a hologram of 39 × 41 mm can be obtained in 4 min.

Monde, Masahide; Uematsu, Tsuyoshi; Toda, Toshiki; Ohnuma, Kazuhiko; Yasuda, Yoshizumi

1995-05-01

131

Dynamics of barred galaxies: effects of disc height  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study dynamics of bars in models of disc galaxies embedded in realistic dark matter haloes. We find that disc thickness plays an important, if not dominant, role in the evolution and structure of the bars. We also make extensive numerical tests of different N-body codes used to study bar dynamics. Models with thick discs typically used in this type of modelling (height-to-length ratio hz/Rd = 0.2) produce slowly rotating, and very long, bars. In contrast, more realistic thin discs with the same parameters as in our Galaxy (hz/Rd ~ 0.1) produce bars with normal length Rbar ~ Rd, which rotate quickly with the ratio of the corotation radius to the bar radius compatible with observations. Bars in these models do not show a tendency to slow down, and may lose as little as 2-3 per cent of their angular momentum due to dynamical friction with the dark matter over cosmological time. We attribute the differences between the models to a combined effect of high phase-space density and smaller Jeans mass in the thin-disc models, which result in the formation of a dense central bulge. Special attention is paid to numerical effects, such as the accuracy of orbital integration, force and mass resolution. Using three N-body codes - GADGET, adaptive refinement tree (ART) and PKDGRAV - we find that numerical effects are very important and, if not carefully treated, may produce incorrect and misleading results. Once the simulations are performed with sufficiently small time-steps and with adequate force and mass resolution, all the codes produce nearly the same results: we do not find any systematic deviations between the results obtained with TREE codes (GADGET and PKDGRAV) and with the adaptive mesh refinement (ART) code.

Klypin, Anatoly; Valenzuela, Octavio; Colín, Pedro; Quinn, Thomas

2009-09-01

132

23. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING RADAR CONTROL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

23. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - RADAR CONTROL INTERFACE "RCL NO. 2" WITH COMPUTER CONTROL DISC DRIVE UNITS IN FOREGROUND. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

133

11. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING EVAPORATIVE COOLING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - EVAPORATIVE COOLING TOWER SYSTEM IN FOREGROUND. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

134

2. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING VIEW IS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - VIEW IS LOOKING NORTH 80° WEST "B" FACE ALONG BUILDING "A" FACE. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

135

4. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING SOUTH 30° ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - SOUTH 30° WEST - VIEW IS LOOKING AT "B" FACE. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

136

1. SITE BUILDING 022 SCANNER BUILDING VIEW IS LOOKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. SITE BUILDING 022- SCANNER BUILDING - VIEW IS LOOKING NORTH 70°WEST AT "B" AND "A" FACES. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

137

3. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING VIEW IS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - VIEW IS LOOKING NORTH 30° WEST AT "A" FACE. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

138

21 CFR 892.1330 - Nuclear whole body scanner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Diagnostic Devices § 892.1330 Nuclear whole body scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear whole body scanner is a device intended to measure and image the distribution of radionuclides in the body by means of a wide-aperture...

2009-04-01

139

21 CFR 892.1330 - Nuclear whole body scanner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Diagnostic Devices § 892.1330 Nuclear whole body scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear whole body scanner is a device intended to measure and image the distribution of radionuclides in the body by means of a wide-aperture...

2010-04-01

140

22. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING RADAR CONTROL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

22. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - RADAR CONTROL ROOM. RECEIVER EQUIPMENT ON RIGHT WITH RF RADIATION MONITOR CABINET. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

141

NECR analysis of 3D brain PET scanner designs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dedicated 3D brain PET scanner has several advantages, most notably increased sensitivity, over a whole body scanner for neurological studies. However, brain scanners have higher scatter fractions, random count-rates and deadtime for the same activity concentration. We have used noise effective count-rate (NECR) analysis to compare brain scanners of 53, 60, and 66 cm diameter with the GE ADVANCE

Charles W. Stearns; Simon R. Cherry; C. J. Thompson

1995-01-01

142

An ultra fast electron beam x-ray tomography scanner  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces the design of an ultra fast x-ray tomography scanner based on electron beam technology. The scanner has been developed for two-phase flow studies where frame rates of 1 kHz and higher are required. Its functional principle is similar to that of the electron beam x-ray CT scanners used in cardiac imaging. Thus, the scanner comprises an electron

143

A High Spatial Resolution CT Scanner for Small Animal Imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have built a micro-CT system that will be integrated with a small animal PET scanner. The components are: an X-ray source with a peak voltage of up to 60 kV, a power of 10 W and a focal spot size of 30 ?m; a CCD coupled to CsI(Tl) scintillator, subdivided into 128×3072 square pixels, each with a size of 48 ?m; stepping motors for the sample roto-translation; a PCI acquisition board; electronic boards to control and read-out the CCD. A program in Lab VIEW controls the data acquisition. Reconstruction algorithms have been implemented for fan-beam and cone-beam configurations. Images of a bar pattern have been acquired to evaluate the detector performance: the CTF curve has been extracted from the data, obtaining a value of 10 % at 5 lp/mm and about 3 % at 10 lp/mm. Tomographic acquisitions have been performed with a test phantom consisting of a Plexiglas cylinder, 3 cm in diameter, with holes ranging from 3 mm down to 0.6 mm in diameter, filled with different materials. The contrast resolution has been extracted from the reconstructed images: a value of 6 % (in water) for a cubic voxel size of 80 ?m has been obtained.

Cicalini, E.; Baldazzi, G.; Belcari, N.; Del Guerra, A.; Gombia, M.; Motta, A.; Panetta, D.

2006-01-01

144

Increment Thresholds on Black Bars.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Under conditions that isolate rod vision, increment thresholds were measured on black bars of various widths, and compared to the increment threshold measured on a homogeneously illuminated field without the bar. Thresholds were found to be elevated in th...

D. Y. Teller

1968-01-01

145

Active chatter control system for long-overhang boring bars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some machining processes, such as boring, have been historically limited by excessive bar vibration, often resulting in poor surface finish and reduced tool life. A unique boring bar system has been developed to suppress bar vibration, or chatter, during machining using active control technology. Metal cutting test programs have shown proven, repeatable performance on hard-to-cut, aircraft industry high-temperature nickel alloys as well as more easily cut carbon steels. Critical bar length-to-diameter (L/D) ratios, depths-of-cuts, feed rates and cutting speeds far exceed those attainable from the best available passively-damped boring bars. This industry-ready system consists of three principle subsystems: active clamp, instrumented bar, and control electronics. The active clamp is a lathe-mountable body capable of supporting bars of varying sizes and articulating them in orthogonal directions from the base of the bar shank. The instrumented bar consists of a steel shank, standard insert head and imbedded accelerometers. Wire harnesses from both the bar and clamp connect to control electronics comprised of highly-efficient switched- capacitor amplifiers that drive the piezoelectric actuators, sensor signal conditioning, a PC-based program manager and two 32-bit floating-point DSPs. The program manager code runs on the host PC and distributes system identification and control functions to the two DSPs. All real-time signal processing is based on the principles of adaptive filter minimization. For the described system, cutting performance has extended existing chatter thresholds (cutting parameter combinations) for nickel alloys by as much as 400% while maintaining precision surface finish on the machined part. Bar L/D ratios as high as 11 have enabled deep boring operations on nickel workpieces that otherwise could not be performed free of chatter.

Browning, Douglas R.; Golioto, Igor; Thompson, Norman B.

1997-05-01

146

NECR analysis of 3D brain PET scanner designs  

SciTech Connect

A dedicated 3D brain PET scanner has several advantages, most notably increased sensitivity, over a whole body scanner for neurological studies. However brain scanners have higher scatter fractions, random count-rates and deadtime for the same activity concentration. The authors have used noise effective count-rate (NECR) analysis to compare brain scanners of 53, 60, and 66 cm diameter with the GE Advance whole body scanner (93 cm diameter). Monte Carlo simulations of a brain-sized phantom (16 cm diameter, 13 cm length) in the Advance geometry were used to develop a model for NECR performance, which was reconciled to results from a decay series measurement. The model was then used to predict the performance of the brain scanner designs. The brain scanners have noise effective sensitivities (the slope of the NECR curve at zero activity) as much as 40% higher than the body scanner. However, their NECR advantage diminishes quickly as the activity concentration increases. The brain scanners` NECR equals the body scanner with about 0.7--0.8 mCi in the phantom; the body scanner has superior NECR performance at higher activity levels. An imaging center concentrating on only very low activity imaging tasks would find the efficiency advantage of a smaller detector diameter valuable, while a center performing higher activity studies such as bolus water injections or 5 mCi FDG injections might prefer the count rate performance of a whole body scanner.

Stearns, C.W. [GE Medical Systems, Milwaukee, WI (United States). Applied Science Lab.; Cherry, S.R. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). School of Medicine; Thompson, C.J. [Montreal Neurological Inst., Quebec (Canada)

1995-08-01

147

Measurements of vertical bar Vcb vertical bar and vertical bar Vub vertical bar at BaBar  

SciTech Connect

We report results from the BABAR Collaboration on the semileptonic B decays, highlighting the measurements of the magnitude of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements Vub and Vcb. We describe the techniques used to obtain the matrix element |Vcb| using the measurement of the inclusive B {yields} Xclv process and a large sample of exclusive B {yields} D*lv decays. The vertical bar Vub vertical bar matrix elements has been measured studying different kinematic variables of the B {yields} Xulv process, and also with the exclusive reconstruction of B {yields} {pi}({rho})lv decays.

Rotondo, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica Galileo Galilei, Via Marzolo 8, Padova 35131 (Italy)

2005-10-12

148

Kolsky Bar Impact Test Facility  

SciTech Connect

Testing for the Kolsky Bar is conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico. The Kolsky bar is operated by the Dynamic testing team of NMT-11, (Nuclear Material Technology Division) to enable measurements of stress-strain characteristics for the MST-8 (Material Science and Technology) personnel. The Kolsky Bar is located at the Plutonium Facility at TA-55 (Tech Area).

Contreras, P.; Montoya, J.

1998-12-31

149

Multidimensional B-spline parameterization of the detection probability of the PET scanner Biograph 16 using GATE  

Microsoft Academic Search

GATE (Geant4 Application for Emission Tomography) is a widespread, well validated and very versatile application for Monte Carlo simulations in emission tomography. It allows very detailed simulations of positron emission tomography (PET) or single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scanners using the general purpose Monte Carlo code Geant4. We present a method to accelerate GATE simulations when on the one

Niklas S. Rehfeld; S. Vauclin; S. Stute; I. Buvat

2009-01-01

150

Water under the BAR.  

PubMed

Many cellular processes require the generation of highly curved regions of cell membranes by interfacial membrane proteins. A number of such proteins are now known, and several mechanisms of curvature generation have been suggested, but so far a quantitative understanding of the importance of the various potential mechanisms remains elusive. Following previous theoretical work, we consider the electrostatic attraction that underlies the scaffold mechanism of membrane bending in the context of the N-BAR domain of amphiphysin. Analysis of atomistic molecular dynamics simulations reveals considerable water between the membrane and the positively charged concave face of the BAR, even when it is tightly bound to highly curved membranes. This results in significant screening of electrostatic interactions, suggesting that electrostatic attraction is not the main driving force behind curvature sensing, supporting recent experimental work. These results also emphasize the need for care when building coarse-grained models of protein-membrane interactions. These results are emphasized by simulations of oligomerized amphiphysin N-BARs at the atomistic and coarse-grained level. In the coarse-grained simulations, we find a strong dependence of the induced curvature on the dielectric screening. PMID:20858422

Lyman, Edward; Cui, Haosheng; Voth, Gregory A

2010-09-22

151

Water under the BAR  

PubMed Central

Many cellular processes require the generation of highly curved regions of cell membranes by interfacial membrane proteins. A number of such proteins are now known, and several mechanisms of curvature generation have been suggested, but so far a quantitative understanding of the importance of the various potential mechanisms remains elusive. Following previous theoretical work, we consider the electrostatic attraction that underlies the scaffold mechanism of membrane bending in the context of the N-BAR domain of amphiphysin. Analysis of atomistic molecular dynamics simulations reveals considerable water between the membrane and the positively charged concave face of the BAR, even when it is tightly bound to highly curved membranes. This results in significant screening of electrostatic interactions, suggesting that electrostatic attraction is not the main driving force behind curvature sensing, supporting recent experimental work. These results also emphasize the need for care when building coarse-grained models of protein-membrane interactions. These results are emphasized by simulations of oligomerized amphiphysin N-BARs at the atomistic and coarse-grained level. In the coarse-grained simulations, we find a strong dependence of the induced curvature on the dielectric screening.

Lyman, Edward; Cui, Haosheng; Voth, Gregory A.

2010-01-01

152

Detector Position Estimation for PET Scanners  

PubMed Central

Physical positioning of scintillation crystal detector blocks in Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scanners is not always exact. We test a proof of concept methodology for the determination of the six degrees of freedom for detector block positioning errors by utilizing a rotating point source over stepped axial intervals. To test our method, we created computer simulations of seven Micro Crystal Element Scanner (MiCES) PET systems with randomized positioning errors. The computer simulations show that our positioning algorithm can estimate the positions of the block detectors to an average of one-seventh of the crystal pitch tangentially, and one-third of the crystal pitch axially. Virtual acquisitions of a point source grid and a distributed phantom show that our algorithm improves both the quantitative and qualitative accuracy of the reconstructed objects. We believe this estimation algorithm is a practical and accurate method for determining the spatial positions of scintillation detector blocks.

Pierce, Larry; Miyaoka, Robert; Lewellen, Tom; Alessio, Adam; Kinahan, Paul

2012-01-01

153

Ghost signals in Allison emittance scanners  

SciTech Connect

For over 20 years, Allison scanners have been used to measure emittances of low-energy ion beams. We show that scanning large trajectory angles produces ghost signals caused by the sampled beamlet impacting on an electric deflection plate. The ghost signal strength is proportional to the amount of beam entering the scanner. Depending on the ions, and their velocity, the ghost signals can have the opposite or the same polarity as the main beam signals. The ghost signals cause significant errors in the emittance estimates because they appear at large trajectory angles. These ghost signals often go undetected because they partly overlap with the real signals, are mostly below the 1% level, and often hide in the noise. A simple deflection plate modification is shown to reduce the ghost signal strength by over 99%.

Stockli, Martin P.; /SNS Project, Oak Ridge /Tennessee U.; Leitner, M.; /LBL, Berkeley; Moehs, D.P.; /Fermilab; Keller, R.; /LBL, Berkeley; Welton, R.F.; /SNS Project, Oak Ridge /Tennessee U.

2004-12-01

154

The Galileo star scanner observations at Amalthea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In November of 2002, the Galileo spacecraft passed within 250 km of Jupiter's moon Amalthea. An onboard telescope, the star scanner, observed a series of bright flashes near the moon. It is believed that these flashes represent sunlight reflected from 7 to 9 small moonlets located within about 3000 km of Amalthea. From star scanner geometry considerations and other arguments, we can constrain the diameter of the observed bodies to be between 0.5 m to several tens of kilometers. In September of 2003, while crossing Amalthea's orbit just prior to Galileo's destruction in the jovian atmosphere, a single additional body seems to have been observed. It is suspected that these bodies are part of a discrete rocky ring embedded within Jupiter's Gossamer ring system.

Fieseler, Paul D.; Adams, Olen W.; Vandermey, Nancy; Theilig, E. E.; Schimmels, Kathryn A.; Lewis, George D.; Ardalan, Shadan M.; Alexander, Claudia J.

2004-06-01

155

Compact conscious animal positron emission tomography scanner  

DOEpatents

A method of serially transferring annihilation information in a compact positron emission tomography (PET) scanner includes generating a time signal for an event, generating an address signal representing a detecting channel, generating a detector channel signal including the time and address signals, and generating a composite signal including the channel signal and similarly generated signals. The composite signal includes events from detectors in a block and is serially output. An apparatus that serially transfers annihilation information from a block includes time signal generators for detectors in a block and an address and channel signal generator. The PET scanner includes a ring tomograph that mounts onto a portion of an animal, which includes opposing block pairs. Each of the blocks in a block pair includes a scintillator layer, detection array, front-end array, and a serial encoder. The serial encoder includes time signal generators and an address signal and channel signal generator.

Schyler, David J. (Bellport, NY); O' Connor, Paul (Bellport, NY); Woody, Craig (Setauket, NY); Junnarkar, Sachin Shrirang (Sound Beach, NY); Radeka, Veljko (Bellport, NY); Vaska, Paul (Sound Beach, NY); Pratte, Jean-Francois (Stony Brook, NY); Volkow, Nora (Chevy Chase, MD)

2006-10-24

156

Microarray scanner calibration curves: characteristics and implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Microarray-based measurement of mRNA abundance assumes a linear relationship between the fluorescence intensity and the dye concentration. In reality, however, the calibration curve can be nonlinear. RESULTS: By scanning a microarray scanner calibration slide containing known concentrations of fluorescent dyes under 18 PMT gains, we were able to evaluate the differences in calibration characteristics of Cy5 and Cy3. First,

Leming M. Shi; Weida Tong; Zhenqiang Su; Tao Han; Jing Han; Raj K. Puri; Hong Fang; Felix W. Frueh; Federico M. Goodsaid; Lei Guo; William S. Branham; James J. Chen; Z. Alex Xu; Stephen C. Harris; Huixiao Hong; Qian Xie; Roger G Perkins; James C. Fuscoe

2005-01-01

157

Piezoelectric Transducer Based 3D Intraoral Scanner  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are not so many 3D profile tools specially designed for specifically narrow space, for example, to scan the tooth shape of a human jaw. In this paper, a real-time 3D intraoral scanner based on piezoelectric transducer is presented for the measurement of tooth profile in the mouth cavity. The proposed system comprises a laser diode beam, a micro charge-coupled

Furqan Ullah; Gun Soo Lee; Kang Park

2012-01-01

158

JAS: The Next Generation Digital Aerial Scanner  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the experience from the spaceborne multi-spectral camera MKF-6 and the airborne MSK-4, Jena-Optronik now returns with the advanced and reliable JAS-150 to the market. Based on Jena-Optronik developments in the area of multi-line CCD sensors and know-how from other camera and spectrometer projects, the company has developed the most capable pushbroom scanner for remote sensing and photogrammetry. With nine

CARSTEN GEORGI; RALF STOGNIENKO; SVEN KNUTH; GERALD ALBE

159

Full-Body Scanners: TSA's New \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the world of commercial air transportation has seen major improvements in many technologies over the last decade, nothing has caused a stir quite like the implementation of full-body scanners (FBS) as a one of the first lines of defense in aviation security at U.S. airports. FBS and “enhanced” pat-downs have been the source of much debate and scrutiny among

Stuart A. Hindman

2011-01-01

160

Biomedical applications of a real-time terahertz color scanner  

PubMed Central

A real-time THz color scanner has the potential to further expand the application scope of THz spectral imaging based on its rapid image acquisition rate. We demonstrated three possible applications of a THz color scanner in the biomedical field: imaging of pharmaceutical tablets, human teeth, and human hair. The first application showed the scanner’s potential in total inspection for rapid quality control of pharmaceutical tablets moving on a conveyor belt. The second application demonstrated that the scanner can be used to identify a potential indicator for crystallinity of dental tissue. In the third application, the scanner was successfully used to visualize the drying process of wet hairs. These demonstrations indicated the high potential of the THz color scanner for practical applications in the biomedical field.

Schirmer, Markus; Fujio, Makoto; Minami, Masaaki; Miura, Jiro; Araki, Tsutomu; Yasui, Takeshi

2010-01-01

161

Development of a composite boring bar  

Microsoft Academic Search

A composite boring bar, whose stability against chattering is superior to not only conventional steel bars but also cemented carbide bars, has recently been developed. The main material of this composite bar is pitch-based carbon fiber reinforced plastic. Carbon fibers aligned unidirectionally in the longitudinal direction of the bars give high bending stiffness. Four types of bar having different shaped

Shuzo Nagano; Takayuki Koizumi; Toru Fujii; Nobutaka Tsujiuchi; Hiroki Ueda; Kobe Steel

1997-01-01

162

Bar press and bar release as avoidance responses1  

PubMed Central

Two experiments were performed in which rats had to avoid shock by both pressing and releasing a bar within specified intervals. When the release-shock interval was held constant and the press-shock interval was increased, response rate decreased and bar holding increased. When the press-shock interval was held constant and the release-shock interval was increased, both response rate and bar holding decreased.

Meltzer, Donald; Tiller, James E.

1979-01-01

163

bar Knn Resonance bar Knn - ? yn Coupled Channel Faddeev Equation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The three-body resonance of bar KNN system is investigated by using the bar KNN - ? YN coupled channels Faddeev equation. The resonance energy is determined from the pole of S-matrix on the unphysical sheet. It is found that the pole positions of the predicted amplitudes are significantly modified when the three-body dynamics is approximately treated by introducing the effective bar KN two-body interaction.

Sato, T.; Ikeda, Y.

164

Number Line Bars--Fractions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use these virtual fraction bars to model fractional addition, subtraction, multiplication (of fractions by whole numbers), and division on a number line. Students can create bars in positive or negative fractional lengths; align, stack, or remove bars; and change the number line marks in increments between 1/2 and 1/15. Applet instructions and teaching ideas are included in the links at the top of the page.

2005-01-01

165

A numerical performance comparison of a dual-phase steel and aluminium alloy bumper bar system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bumper bar systems are important automotive structures to help protect passengers during frontal and rear collisions. This paper presents the outcomes of a numerical modelling study of a simple rectangular cross section bumper bar system using the explicit finite element code LS Dyna for a low velocity (16 km\\/h) centre pole frontal impact. The study utilises and compares a dual-phase

Peter Simon; Peter D. Beggs

2010-01-01

166

Stellar bar in NGC 1068  

SciTech Connect

High-resolution 2-micron mapping of the inner disk of NGC 1068 reveals a bar extending to + or - 16 arcsec from the nucleus at position angle 48 deg. The stellar mass distribution, presumably traced by the near-infrared light, is therefore strongly nonaxisymmetric with a contrast of approximately 3:1 between the major and minor axes of the bar. This large-scale galactic structure is probably responsible for the concentration of molecular clouds in a ring just outside the bar. The massive bar may also drive noncircular motions in the inner disk of the galaxy as possibly seen in the gaseous emission lines. 21 references.

Scoville, N.Z.; Matthews, K.; Carico, D.P.; Sanders, D.B.

1988-04-01

167

52. View from ground level showing lower radar scanner switch ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

52. View from ground level showing lower radar scanner switch with open port door in radar scanner building 105 showing emanating waveguides from lower switch in vertical run; photograph also shows catwalk to upper scanner switch in upper left side of photograph and structural supports. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

168

Performance Measurement of the microPET Focus 120 Scanner  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microPET Focus 120 scanner is a third-generation animal PET scanner dedicated to rodent imaging. Here, we report the results of scanner performance testing. Methods: A 68Ge point sourcewasusedtomeasureenergyresolution,whichwasdeter- mined for each crystal and averaged. Spatial resolution was measured using a 22Na point source with a nominal size of 0.25 mm at the system center and various off-center positions. Abso-

Jin Su Kim; Jae Sung Lee; Ki Chun Im; Su Jin Kim; Seog-Young Kim; Dong Soo Lee; Dae Hyuk Moon

2007-01-01

169

Novel micro-scanner for optical communications: architecture and performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two-dimensional (2D) scanners have a variety of applications in displays, barcode readers, optical data storage devices, and free-space optical interconnects. In this paper, we will describe the modeling and simulation of a novel MEMS-based cantilever micro-scanner design. The micro-scanner is actuated using electrostatic force. The cantilever beam connects to the top electrode. The bottom four electrodes on the substrate provide

Dong Yan; Bai Xu; James Castracane

2002-01-01

170

Monitoring and correcting spatio-temporal variations of the MR scanner’s static magnetic field  

Microsoft Academic Search

The homogeneity and stability of the static magnetic field are of paramount importance to the accuracy of MR procedures that are sensitive to phase errors and magnetic field inhomogeneity. It is shown that intense gradient utilization in clinical horizontal-bore superconducting MR scanners of three different vendors results in main magnetic fields that vary on a long time scale both spatially

AbdEl Monem El-Sharkawy; Michael Schär; Paul A. Bottomley; Ergin Atalar

2006-01-01

171

New holographic technology for a compact POS scanner.  

PubMed

A new holographic technique has been used to make a compact, accurate, and reliable point-of-sale scanner. Our holo-window technique is capable of changing the scan direction, collecting the signal light, and equalizing the scan velocity. At present, compact scanners tend to sacrifice read operation accuracy, speed, and reliability for size. Our technique permits the miniaturization of the optical system of a scanner while preserving performance. Using the holo-window, we have developed a new scanner that has a letter-size footprint and is only 8 cm high. PMID:20563059

Yamazaki, K; Ichikawa, T; Aritake, H; Yamagishi, F; Ikeda, H; Inagaki, T

1990-04-10

172

Evaluating scanner lens spherical aberration using scatterometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lens spherical error is an important lens aberration used to characterize lens quality and also has a significant contribution to across chip line width variation (ACLV). It also impacts tool-to-tool matching efforts especially when the optical lithography approaches sub-half wavelength geometry. Traditionally, spherical error is measured by using CD SEM with known drawbacks of poor accuracy and long cycle time. At Texas Instruments, an in-house scatterometer-based lens fingerprinting technique (ScatterLith) performs this tedious job accurately and quickly. This paper presents across slit spherical aberration signatures for ArF scanners collected using this method. The technique can successfully correlate these signatures with Litel lens aberration data and Nikon OCD data for spherical aberration errors as small as 10m?. ACLV contributions from such small spherical errors can be quantified using this method. This provides the lithographer with an important tool to evaluate, qualify and match advanced scanners to improve across chip line width variation control.

Wang, Changan; Zhang, Gary; Tan, Colin L.; Atkinson, Chris; Boehm, Mark A.; Brown, Jay M.; Godfrey, David; Littau, Michael E.; Raymond, Christopher J.

2003-06-01

173

A circularly focused and scanned acoustic scanner.  

PubMed

This paper describes a new type of electronically scanned and focused acoustic imaging device called the cylindrical grating acoustic scanner. With this device, a new transducer called the circular-edge-bonded transducer (CEBT) is devised that is bonded on one end of a cylindrical substrate and can generate a surface acoustic wave propagating along the cylindrical surface of the substrate. An array of grooves is fabricated on the cylindrical surface of the substrate to serve as a scattering grating. The periodical grooves scatter a chirped surface-wave pulse coherently into a focused bulk-wave "ring" that scans at the surface-wave velocity. The focal length and resolution can be adjusted by changing the chirp rate and time-bandwidth product of the chirp, respectively. A 2.3-MHz circular scanner with 25-cm field of view and 2.6-mm resolution has been constructed and studied. Acoustic image of an artificial defect in an aluminum pipe is obtained. PMID:18244300

Chen, W H

1999-01-01

174

Implementation of viscoelastic Hopkinson bars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge of the properties of soft, viscoelastic materials at high strain rates are important in furthering our understanding of their role during blast or impact events. Testing these low impedance materials using a metallic split Hopkinson pressure bar setup results in poor signal to noise ratios due to impedance mismatching. These difficulties are overcome by using polymeric Hopkinson bars. Conventional Hopkinson bar analysis cannot be used on the polymeric bars due to the viscoelastic nature of the bar material. Implementing polymeric Hopkinson bars requires characterization of the viscoelastic properties of the material used. In this paper, 30 mm diameter Polymethyl Methacrylate bars are used as Hopkinson pressure bars. This testing technique is applied to polymeric foam called Divinycell H80 and H200. Although there is a large body of of literature containing compressive data, this rarely deals with strain rates above 250s-1 which becomes increasingly important when looking at the design of composite structures where energy absorption during impact events is high on the list of priorities. Testing of polymeric foams at high strain rates allows for the development of better constitutive models.

Curry, R.; Cloete, T.; Govender, R.

2012-08-01

175

Properties of barred spiral galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blue and near-infrared surface photometry of 15 barred spiral galaxies, combined with results from photometric and kinematic studies of barred galaxies, reveals that: (1) early Hubble types have flat bars with uniform intensities along their lengths and stellar spiral arms with amplitudes that decrease with radius, and (2) late Hubble types have bars with exponential-like intensity profiles and spiral arm amplitudes that increase or remain constant with radius. Relative bar luminosities are derived using Fourier decompositions of the bar azimuthal profiles. It is concluded that bars in early-type galaxies probably contain highly elongated stellar orbits out to the corotation vicinity and also stimulate stellar spiral structure either by continuously growing, in the case of a non-self-gravitating stellar disk, or by exciting a wave mode at a resonance, in the case of a strongly self-gravitating stellar disk. It is shown that bars in some late-type galaxies may extend out only to the inner Lindbald resonances and that they appear to be too short or too weak to drive prominent stellar spirals because the spirals in these galaxies are often irregular.

Elmegreen, B. G.; Elmegreen, D. M.

1985-01-01

176

Barred Galaxies: Intrinsic or Extrinsic?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A unified picture is presented of the formation of bar structures in disk galaxies of various morphological types. In order to discuss bar formation in the context of galactic disk formation, a simple analytic model is constructed of the growth of galactic disks by infall of primordial gas from halos and subsequent star formation in the disks. It is monitored during the course of disk growth whether or not the condition for spontaneous bar formation (i.e., bar instability) is fulfilled for the stellar disk component. It is found that the infall timescale is a key parameter that controls the dynamical property of the resulting stellar disk. Disks that grow fast by rapid infall experience gas-rich phases, in which massive gas clumps arising from gravitational instability in the gas disk heat the stellar disk component dynamically. When the disk has fully grown and becomes mostly stellar, it has already acquired enough random motions to suppress bar instability. On the other hand, when the gas infall from the halo region proceeds slowly, star formation (though less intense than in rapid infall cases) keeps gas mass in the disk low, leading to a dynamically cold stellar component due to lack of strong heating by massive gas clumps. Therefore, the stellar disk becomes unstable and forms a bar once its mass fraction relative to the total galaxy mass reaches a critical value. Based on this result, we propose that late-type barred galaxies, the disks of which are considered to have formed by slow accretion of the halo gas, have intrinsic origin, whereas the bars in early-type galaxies, whose disks are likely to have grown quickly, have been formed in tidal interactions with other galaxies. Numerical simulations have been carried out which show that the bars created by tidal perturbations tend to have a relatively flat density profile along the bar major axis with "shoulders" (abrupt steepening of the gradient) at the bar ends, whereas spontaneous bars have a steeper profile. The formation scenario described above, combined with this numerical result, can explain the observed dichotomy that early-type galaxies generally have a flat bar, while late-type galaxies have a bar of exponential type.

Noguchi, Masafumi

1996-10-01

177

How large are the bars in barred galaxies?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I present a study of the sizes (semimajor axes) of bars in disc galaxies, combining a detailed R-band study of 65 S0-Sb galaxies with the B-band measurements of 70 Sb-Sd galaxies from Martin (1995). As has been noted before with smaller samples, bars in early-type (S0-Sb) galaxies are clearly larger than bars in late-type (Sc-Sd) galaxies; this is true both for relative sizes (bar length as fraction of isophotal radius R25 or exponential disc scalelength h) and absolute sizes (kpc). S0-Sab bars extend to ~1-10 kpc (mean ~ 3.3 kpc), ~0.2-0.8R25 (mean ~ 0.38R25) and ~0.5-2.5h (mean ~ 1.4h). Late-type bars extend to only ~0.5-3.5 kpc, ~0.05-0.35R25 and 0.2-1.5h their mean sizes are ~1.5 kpc, ~ 0.14R25 and ~0.6h. Sb galaxies resemble earlier-type galaxies in terms of bar size relative to h; their smaller R25-relative sizes may be a side effect of higher star formation, which increases R25 but not h. Sbc galaxies form a transition between the early- and late-type regimes. For S0-Sbc galaxies, bar size correlates well with disc size (both R25 and h); these correlations are stronger than the known correlation with MB. All correlations appear to be weaker or absent for late-type galaxies; in particular, there seems to be no correlation between bar size and either h or MB for Sc-Sd galaxies. Because bar size scales with disc size and galaxy magnitude for most Hubble types, studies of bar evolution with redshift should select samples with similar distributions of disc size or magnitude (extrapolated to present-day values); otherwise, bar frequencies and sizes could be mis-estimated. Because early-type galaxies tend to have larger bars, resolution-limited studies will preferentially find bars in early-type galaxies (assuming no significant differential evolution in bar sizes). I show that the bars detected in Hubble Space Telescope (HST) near-infrared(IR) images at z~ 1 by Sheth et al. have absolute sizes consistent with those in bright, nearby S0-Sb galaxies. I also compare the sizes of real bars with those produced in simulations and discuss some possible implications for scenarios of secular evolution along the Hubble sequence. Simulations often produce bars as large as (or larger than) those seen in S0-Sb galaxies, but rarely any as small as those in Sc-Sd galaxies.

Erwin, Peter

2005-11-01

178

Backscatter body scanners – A strip search by other means  

Microsoft Academic Search

Backscatter body scanners have only recently been deployed at airports across the US and used as an optional alternative to patdowns – the open hand form of body search. This paper will essentially outline the statutory law and case-law of special relevance in the US to backscatter body scanners and determine the deficiencies and dilemmas of the legal framework with

Demetrius Klitou

2008-01-01

179

Linearization of electrostatically actuated surface micromachined 2-D optical scanner  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an effective method of linearizing the electrostatic transfer characteristics of micromachined two-dimensional (2-D) scanners. The orthogonal scan angles of surface micromachined polysilicon scanner are controlled by using quadrant electrodes for electrostatic actuation. By using a pair of differential voltages over a bias voltage, we could improve the distortion of projected images from 72% to only 13%. A

Hiroshi Toshiyoshi; Wibool Piyawattanametha; Cheng-Ta Chan; Ming C. Wu

2001-01-01

180

Design of a compact 3D laser scanner  

Microsoft Academic Search

A design study for a compact 3D scanner, called Coplan, is presented. The Coplan is intended to be used for high speed, in-line coplanarity and shape measurement of electronic components, like Ball Grid Arrays and Surface Mount Devices. The scanner should have a scan length of at least 2 inches and a resolution of 5 micrometers in all 3 dimensions.

Mark Geusen; Willem D. van Amstel; Stefan M. Baeumer; Jef L. Horijon

1999-01-01

181

ENGINEERING AND ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS OF LASER SCANNER TECHNIQUES  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACTS: The recent introduction of laser scanning devices has led to a set of new surveying products for the field of civil engineering and environmental analysis. The laser scanner is an instrument that permits one to acquire irregular point clouds of land areas, rivers and infrastructures in a fast and cheap way. The use of raw laser scanner data requires

Leandro Bornaz; Andrea Lingua; Fulvio Rinaudo

182

21. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING LOOKING AT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

21. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - LOOKING AT DISC STORAGE SYSTEMS A AND B (A OR B ARE REDUNDANT SYSTEMS), ONE MAINFRAME COMPUTER ON LINE, ONE ON STANDBY WITH STORAGE TAPE, ONE ON STANDBY WITHOUT TAPE INSTALLED. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

183

20. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING IN COMPUTER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - IN COMPUTER ROOM LOOKING AT "CONSOLIDATED MAINTENANCE OPERATIONS CENTER" JOB AREA AND OPERATION WORK CENTER. TASKS INCLUDE RADAR MAINTENANCE, COMPUTER MAINTENANCE, CYBER COMPUTER MAINTENANCE AND RELATED ACTIVITIES. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

184

UV Scanner DOAS Data Retrieved Using A Modelled Reference Spectrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The difficulty of applying a real-time measured reference spectrum represents the main issue while using automatic Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) UV-Scanner networks for monitoring active volcanoes. Here we present the performance of a DOAS retrieval using a modelled reference spectrum derived from a high- resolution solar spectrum. Data analyzed were collected by the five UV scanners installed on Mt.

G. G. Salerno; M. Burton; T. Caltabiano; D. Randazzo; N. Bruno; V. Longo; C. Oppenheimer

2007-01-01

185

Quantitative Assay for Starch by Colorimetry Using a Desktop Scanner  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The procedure to produce standard curve for starch concentration measurement by image analysis using a color scanner and computer for data acquisition and color analysis is described. Color analysis is performed by a Visual Basic program that measures red, green, and blue (RGB) color intensities for pixels within the scanner image.|

Matthews, Kurt R.; Landmark, James D.; Stickle, Douglas F.

2004-01-01

186

10. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING LOOKING AT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - LOOKING AT SOUTHWEST CORNER "B" FACE AND "C" FACE ON WEST AND EVAPORATIVE COOLING TOWER AT NORTH. VIEW IS LOOKING NORTH 45° EAST. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

187

5. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING AT "A" ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - AT "A" FACE (ON SOUTH SIDE) LOOKING DIRECTLY UP RADAR SYSTEM EMITTER/ANTENNA ARRAY FACE WITH 90MM STANDARD LENS. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

188

12. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING MAIN ENTRANCE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - MAIN ENTRANCE LOOKING AT MAIN ENTRANCE TO TECHNICAL FACILITY, GROUND LEVEL. VIEW IS LOOKING SOUTH 20° EAST. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

189

6. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING AT "A" ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - AT "A" FACE (ON SOUTH SIDE) LOOKING DIRECTLY UP RADAR SYSTEM EMITTER/ANTENNA ARRAY FACE WITH 65MM WIDE ANGLE LENS. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

190

Wire Scanner Beam Profile Measurements: LANSCE Facility Beam Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is replacing Wire Scanner (WS) beam profile measurement systems. Three beam development tests have taken place to test the new wire scanners under beam conditions. These beam development tests have integrated the WS actuator, cable plant, electronics processors and associated software and have used H⁻ beams of different beam energy and current conditions.

John D. Gilpatrick; Yuri K. Batygin; Fermin Gonzales; Michael E. Gruchalla; Vincent G. Kutac; Derwin Martinez; James Daniel Sedillo; Chandra Pillai; Sergio Rodriguez Esparza; Brian G. Smith

2012-01-01

191

Development of Security Scanner with High Portability and Usability  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose and develop a security scanner with high portability and usability. Recently, illegal access has been increasing explosively. Not only experts but also beginners need to cope up with vulnerability of a system promptly and properly. In such cases, a security scanner is an efficient tool to point out the vulnerability. However, for general users, most

Michitaka Yoshimoto; Bhed Bahadur Bista; Toyoo Takata

2005-01-01

192

29. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING FLOOR 3A ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

29. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - FLOOR 3A ("A" FACE) AT SYSTEM LAYOUT GRID 17. GENERAL OBLIQUE VIEW OF "A" FACE INTERIOR SHOWING RADAR EMITTER/ANTENNA INTERFACE ELECTRONICS. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

193

Emittance Scanner for Intense Low-Energy Ion BEAMS.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An emittance scanner has been developed for use with low-energy H exp - ion beams to satisfy the following requirements: (1) angular resolution of +-1/2 mrad, (2) small errors from beam space charge, and (3) compact and simple design. The scanner consists...

P. W. Allison J. D. Sherman D. B. Holtkamp

1983-01-01

194

Laser excited confocal microscope fluorescence scanner and method  

DOEpatents

A fluorescent scanner is designed for scanning the fluorescence from a fluorescence labeled separated sample on a sample carrier. The scanner includes a confocal microscope for illuminating a predetermined volume of the sample carrier and/or receiving and processing fluorescence emissions from the volume to provide a display of the separated sample. 8 figs.

Mathies, R.A.; Peck, K.

1992-02-25

195

27. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING OPERATIONS CENTER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

27. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - OPERATIONS CENTER - MWOC MONITOR NO. 4 IN OPERATION AT 2002 ZULU, OCTOBER 26, 1999 CAPE COD, AS PAVE PAWS. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

196

Thermally actuated micro scanner for barcode reader applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a low-cost 1D thermally actuated silicon micro scanner developed for our industrial partner. It was designed and optimised for mass production. With a really simple and standard fabrication process we obtained a high yield (> 95%) and good reproducibility of the scanner characteristics: low resonance frequency, good shock resistance, low power consumption, easy control, large mechanical sweep

F. Khechana; H. van Lintel; J. L. Massieu; S. Ackley; P. Renaud

2005-01-01

197

34. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING ROOM 105 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

34. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - ROOM 105 - CHILLER ROOM, SHOWING SINGLE COMPRESSOR, LIQUID CHILLERS AND "CHILLED WATER RETURN", COOLING TOWER 'TOWER WATER RETURN" AND 'TOWER WATER SUPPLY" LINES. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

198

Flux profile scanners for scattered high-energy electrons  

SciTech Connect

The paper describes the design and performance of flux integrating Cherenkov scanners with air-core reflecting light guides used in a high-energy, high-flux electron scattering experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The scanners were highly radiation resistant and provided a good signal to background ratio leading to very good spatial resolution of the scattered electron flux profile scans.

R.S Hicks; P. Decowski; C. Arroyo; M. Breuer; J. Celli; E. Chudakov; K.S. Kumar; M. Olson; G.A. Peterson; K. Pope; J. Ricci; J. Savage; P.A. Souder

2005-11-01

199

Criminal careers behind bars.  

PubMed

In the criminal career literature, prison is usually viewed as an interruption of offending. Little research has applied the criminal career perspective to misconduct committed by prisoners. The current study used official data from a probability sample of 1,005 inmates from the southwestern United States to examine offending careers during incarceration. Descriptive and negative binomial regression analyses produced findings that suggest both similarities and dissimilarities between conventional and prison criminal careers. The incidence and prevalence of crime were inversely related to its seriousness but the magnitude of crime was higher in prison. One-third of inmates were never contacted for a prison violation and 74% were never contacted for a serious/violent violation. On the other hand, 40% of inmates were chronic or extreme career offenders even while incarcerated. A small cadre of inmates accounted for 100% of the murders, 75% of the rapes, 80% of the arsons, and 50% of the aggravated assaults occurring behind bars. Finally, prior criminality was the best predictor of prison offending, which is supportive of the importation model. While a significant number of inmates fully comply with prison rules, an even larger percentage of inmates continue to commit an array of crimes and rule violations despite the efforts of prison officials. PMID:14502694

DeLisi, Matt

2003-01-01

200

Study of PET scanner designs using clinical metrics to optimize the scanner axial FOV and crystal thickness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study is to understand the trade-off between crystal thickness and scanner axial field-of-view FOV (AFOV) for clinical PET imaging. Clinical scanner design has evolved towards 20-25 mm thick crystals and 16-22 cm long scanner AFOV, as well as time-of-flight (TOF) imaging. While Monte Carlo studies demonstrate that longer AFOV and thicker crystals will lead to higher scanner sensitivity, cost has prohibited the building of commercial scanners with >22 cm AFOV. In this study, we performed a series of system simulations to optimize the use of a given amount of crystal material by evaluating the impact on system sensitivity and noise equivalent counts (NEC), as well as image quality in terms of lesion detectability. We evaluated two crystal types (LSO and LaBr3) and fixed the total crystal volume used for each type (8.2 L of LSO and 17.1 L of LaBr3) while varying the crystal thickness and scanner AFOV. In addition, all imaging times were normalized so that the total scan time needed to scan a 100 cm long object with multiple bed positions was kept constant. Our results show that the highest NEC cm-1 in a 35 cm diameter ×70 cm long line source cylinder is achieved for an LSO scanner with 10 mm long crystals and AFOV of 36 cm, while for LaBr3 scanners, the highest NEC cm-1 is obtained with 20 mm long crystals and an AFOV of 38 cm. Lesion phantom simulations show that the best lesion detection performance is achieved in scanners with long AFOV (?36 cm) and using thin crystals (?10 mm of LSO and ?20 mm of LaBr3). This is due to a combination of improved NEC, as well as improved lesion contrast estimation due to better spatial resolution in thinner crystals. Alternatively, for lesion detection performance similar to that achieved in standard clinical scanner designs, the long AFOV scanners can be used to reduce the total scan time without increasing the amount of crystal used in the scanner. In addition, for LaBr3 based scanners, the reduced lesion contrast relative to LSO based scanners requires improved timing resolution and longer scan times in order to achieve lesion detectability similar to that achieved in an LSO scanner with similar NEC cm-1.

Surti, S.; Werner, M. E.; Karp, J. S.

2013-06-01

201

New Control Software for CEBAF Wire Scanners  

SciTech Connect

Wire scanners (WS) are the most popular beam profile measurement devices at Jefferson Lab. The WS for the CEBAF accelerator and beam extraction lines were created and supported by different user groups. As a result, they are not only implemented in different hardware standards (CAMAC and VME) but until recently also had different control functions that made them very difficult to use for accelerator beam diagnostic applications. To integrate all WS into one homogeneous system that is very easy to support and use for accelerator operations, new WS control software has been created. The software is implemented as a library of WS control and status modules. The control modules handle the WS hardware components and make their data available for beam diagnostic applications. The status modules monitor data communication channels between WS components and control computers and generate alarms in case of hardware failures. The paper presents the functionality of the new WS control software a nd its positive impact on accelerator operations.

Pavel Chevtsov

2005-03-01

202

Quadrupole resonance scanner for narcotics detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interest in non-invasive, non-hazardous, bulk detection technologies for narcotics interdiction has risen over the last few years. As part of our continuing research and development programs in detection of narcotics and explosives using sensitive magnetic measuring devices, we present the first commercially available prototype Quadrupole Resonance (QR) scanner for narcotics detection. The portable narcotics detection system was designed in modular form such that a single QR base system could be easily used with a variety of custom detection heads. The QR system presented in this paper is suitable for scanning items up to 61 X 35 X 13 cm in size, and was designed to scan mail packages and briefcase-sized items for the presence of narcotics. System tests have shown that detection sensitivity is comparable that obtained in laboratory systems.

Shaw, Julian D.; Moeller, C. R.; Magnuson, Erik E.; Sheldon, A. G.

1994-10-01

203

FDA Warns Consumers Not to Eat Certain ProtiDiet High Protein Chocolate Dream Bars Manufactured by Pro-Amino International, Inc., Quebec, Canada  

NASA Website

Pro-Amino International Inc. is recalling protein bars which may contain Salmonella. The product is the ProtiDiet High Protein Chocolate Dream Bar, sold in 210 gram (7.4 oz.) packages, 7 bars per package, bearing UPC 6 21498 42238 1, lot code CR 18 ...

204

Male Bar Drinkers' Perspective on Female Bar Drinkers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five focus group discussions were conducted with 34 male bar drinkers to obtain their perception of the character and risks for aggression among women they observe in bars. The majority of the men were European American (61.8%), 29.4% were African American, and 8.8% were from other ethnic groups. Their impressions of women were based on appearance, type and speed of

Kathleen A. Parks; Douglas M. Scheidt

2000-01-01

205

Changes in smoking-related norms in bars resulting from California's Smoke-Free Workplace Act.  

PubMed

California's Smoke-Free Workplace Act--CA Labor Code Sec. 6404.5(a)--was extended to bars in 1998. This article analyzes changes in normative beliefs and behaviors related to bar smoking in the decade following the adoption of the Act. In a series of studies evaluating the smoke-free workplace law in bars, researchers conducted extensive observations and interviews with bar staff and patrons, health officials, and law enforcement personnel in three California counties. Smoking outside became a normal pause in the social environment and created a new type of bar socializing for outside smokers. Although some bar owners and staff reported initially resenting the responsibility to uphold the law, once norms regarding cigarettes and smoking began changing, bar workers experienced less conflict in upholding the law. Non-smoking behavior within bars also became the normative behavior for bar patrons. California's Smoke-Free Workplace Act has both reflected and encouraged normative beliefs and behaviors related to smoking in bars. The findings indicate that such shifts are possible even in contexts where smoking behaviors and attitudes supporting smoking were deeply entrenched. Recommendations include attending to the synergistic effect of education and policy in effective tobacco control programs. PMID:23705511

Satterlund, Travis D; Lee, Juliet P; Moore, Roland S

2012-01-01

206

Boric Acid Reclamation System (BARS).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

KLM Technologies' personnel have identified a Boric Acid Reclamation System (BARS) utilizing reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration to produce a recyclable grade of otherwise waste boric acid at PWRs, thus reducing a major source of low-level radwaste. The d...

B. G. Kniazewycz J. Markind

1986-01-01

207

Sand bars in tidal channels. Part 1. Free bars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the basic mechanism whereby bars form in tidal channels or estuaries. The channel is assumed to be long enough to allow neglect of the effects of end conditions on the process of bar formation. In this respect, the object of the present analysis differs from that of Schuttelaars & de Swart (1999) who considered bars of length scaling with the finite length of the tidal channel. The channel bottom is assumed to be cohesionless and consisting of uniform sediments. Bars are shown to arise from a mechanism of instability of the erodible bed subject to the propagation of a tidal wave. Sediment is assumed to be transported both as bedload and as suspended load. A fully three-dimensional model is employed both for the hydrodynamics and for sediment transport. At the leading order of approximation considered, the effects of channel convergence, local inertia and Coriolis forces on bar instability are shown to be negligible. Unlike fluvial free bars, in the absence of mean currents tidal free bars are found to be non-migrating features (in the mean). Instability arises for large enough values of the mean width to depth ratio of the channel, for given mean values of the Shields parameter and of the relative channel roughness. The role of suspended load is such as to stabilize bars in the large-wavenumber range and destabilize them for small wavenumbers. Hence, for large values of the mean Shields stress, it turns out that the first critical mode (the alternate bar mode) is characterized by a very small value of the critical width to depth ratio. Furthermore, the order-m mode being characterized by a critical value of the width to depth ratio equal to m times the critical value for the first mode, it follows that for large values of the mean Shields stress several unstable modes are simultaneously excited for relatively low values of the aspect ratio. This suggests that the actual bar pattern observed in nature may arise from an interesting nonlinear competition among different unstable modes.

Seminara, G.; Tubino, M.

2001-08-01

208

Model-based scanner tuning for process optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Given the continually decreasing k1 factor and process latitude in advanced technology nodes, it is important to fully understand and control the variables that impact imaging behavior in the lithography process. In this joint work between TSMC and ASML, we use model-based simulations to characterize and predict the imaging effects of these variables and to fine-tune the scanner settings based on such information in order to achieve optimal printing results on a perreticle basis. The scanner modeling makes use of detailed scanner characteristics as well as wafer CD measurements for accurate model construction. Simulations based on the calibrated model are subsequently used to predict the wafer impact of changes in tunable scanner parameters for all critical patterns in the product. The critical patterns can be identified beforehand, either experimentally on wafer, mask or through model simulations. A set of optimized scanner setting offsets, known as a "scanner tuning recipe" is generated to improve the imaging behavior for the critical patterns. We have demonstrated the efficacy of this methodology for multiple-use cases with selected ASML scanners and TSMC processes and will share the achieved improvements on defect reduction and yield improvements.

Chien, Tsung-Chih; Shih, C. Y.; Peng, R. C.; Liu, H. H.; Chen, Y. C.; Lee, H. J.; Lin, John; Chang, K. W.; Wu, C. M.; Hung, W. H.; Lee, Tommy; Wu, H. C.; Xie, X.; Shao, W. J.; Chang, C. H.; Aldana, R.; Cao, Y.; Goossens, R. J. G.; Hsieh, Simon

2009-12-01

209

Bad bars: A review of risk factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bars, inns, taverns, and hotels have been popular settings for recreational alcohol consumption for centuries. The bar is firmly established as an important adjunct of leisure in many societies. Alcohol consumption in bars is mainly convivial, restrained and problem-free. Even so it has long been apparent that heavy drinking in bars is associated with aggression, violence, public disorder and injuries.

J. Green; M. A. Plant

2007-01-01

210

Redesign of a Torsion Bar Testing Machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many types of vehicles utilize torsion bar suspensions. In particular, many types of racecars use torsion bar suspension systems because they are durable, compact, easy to remove, and easy to replace. In order to more effectively test torsion bar suspensions, a torsion bar rating machine was redesigned using 3D solid modeling, finite element analysis, and computer programming software. Some distinct

Amanda J. Meiser; David Lawrence; Brian Maher

2011-01-01

211

Overlay breakdown methodology on immersion scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last years a flourishing number of techniques such as High Order Control or mappers have been proposed to improve overlay control. However a sustainable improvement requires sometimes understanding the underlying causes of the overlay limiting factors in order to remove them when possible or at least to keep them under control. Root cause finding for overlay error is a tough task due the very high number of influencing parameters and the interaction of the usage conditions. This paper presents a breakdown methodology to deal with this complexity and to find the contributors of overlay error variation. We use a Partial Least Squares (PLS) algorithm to isolate the key contributors for correctable terms and a field-to-field linear regression technique to highlight the main causes of residuals. We present a study carried out on 45nm CMOS contact-gate overlay over 687 production wafers exposed in an ASML TWINSCAN XT:1700i Immersion scanner. We present the results of the correlations with the 180 process and equipment variables used for this study. For each isolated contributor we propose an explanation of the underlying physical phenomenon and solutions.

Lam, Auguste; Pasqualini, Francois; de Caunes, Jean; Gatefait, Maxime

2010-03-01

212

Hydraulic flood modeling using laser scanner data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work analyzes the altimetrical data and the effects of resolution on flood modeling. Two different terrain representations were considered: regular square cells (GRID) and Triangulated Irregular Network (TIN). Altimetry was obtained from a particular terrain representation called Model Key Point (MKP): this is a DTM obtained from the elaboration of laser scanner data, and it is characterized by high number of points in the areas with more elevation differences, and by few points in flat areas. The accuracy of GRID and TIN data, obtained from MKP, was checked comparing them to the ground surveyed data. As well known hydrodynamic simulations need to represent the terrain morphology as input. Bi-dimensional hydraulic simulations were realized using different software and terrain representations obtained from MKP; the different results were compared afterwards. The use of bi-dimensional models to study flooded areas was increased with large diffusion of the high resolution Digital Terrain Model (DTM). However several models are not able to work easily and with reasonable simulation times when the DTM has a great deal of points. So some modifications of initial DTM are necessary and, in this work, the elaborations to reduce GID and TIN errors realized with Arcmap GIS are described too. The studied area is the Ionian coastal plane of the Basilicata region (Southern Italy): here anthropic elements such as levees, roads and channels strongly influence the water motion of the floodplain; thus a careful description of these elements is necessary in order to obtain the hydraulic risk evaluation.

Giosa, L.; Sole, A.; Nolè, L.

2009-04-01

213

/bar p/p collider physics  

SciTech Connect

This note encompasses a set of six lectures given at the summer school held at Campos Do Jordao in January of 1989 near Sao Paulo, Brazil. The intent of the lectures was to describe the physics of /bar p/p at CERN and Fermilab. Particular attention has been paid to making a self contained presentation to a prospective audience of graduate students. Since large Monte Carlo codes might not be available to all members of this audience, great reliance was placed on ''back of the envelope estimates.'' Emphasis was also placed on experimental data rather than theoretical speculation, since predictions for, for example, supersymmetric particle production are easily obtained by transcription of formulae already obtained. 9 refs., 67 figs., 2 tabs.

Green, D.

1989-03-01

214

21 CFR 892.1300 - Nuclear rectilinear scanner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1300 Nuclear rectilinear scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear...

2013-04-01

215

MSDS: An Experimental 24Channel Multispectral Scanner System  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the more promising remote-sensing instruments that will be used in earth-resources survey programs is the multispectral scanner. It will collect both spectral and spatial information on the terrain scanned in a spatially registered manner. This paper describes one such scanner, which is being developed for a NASA C-130 earth-resources survey aircraft. It will be capable of simultaneously viewing

Eugene Zaitzeff; C. L. Korb; Charles Wilson

1971-01-01

216

47. View of "dry air inlets" to waveguides entering scanner ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

47. View of "dry air inlets" to waveguides entering scanner building 105. Dried air is generated under pressure by Ingersoll-Rand dehumidified/dessicator and compressor system. View is at entrance from passageway that links into corner of scanner building. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

217

Commercial Use of UPC Scanner Data: Industry and Academic Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors report the findings from an exploratory investigation of the use of UPC scanner data in the consumer packaged goods industry in the U.S. The study examines the practitioner community's view of the use of scanner data and compares these views with academic research. Forty-one executives from ten data suppliers, packaged goods manufacturers, and consulting firms participated in wide-ranging,

Randolph E. Bucklin; Sunil Gupta

1999-01-01

218

Design of a small animal MR compatible PET scanner  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a combination of Monte Carlo simulations and experimental measurements we have designed a small-animal MRI-compatible PET (McPET) scanner for simultaneous PET imaging and MRI of mice and rats in vivo. The scanner consists of one ring of 480 LSO (Lu2SiO5 ) crystals arranged in three layers, with 160 crystals per layer. The crystal dimensions are 2×3×7.5 mm3. This was

Randal Slates; Simon Cherry; Abdel Boutefnouchet; Yiping Shao; M. Dahlborn; Keyvan Farahani

1999-01-01

219

Optical Scanner for Immunoassays With Up-Converting Phosphorescent Labels  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 2-D optical scanner was developed for the imaging and quantification of up-converting phosphor (UCP) labels in immunoassays. With resolution better than 500 mum, a scan rate of 0.4 mm\\/s, and a 1-2% coefficient of variation for repeatability, this scanner achieved a detection limit of fewer than 100 UCP particles in an 8.8 times 104 mum2 area and a dynamic

Janice J. Li; Amy L. Ouellette; Laurent Giovangrandi; David E. Cooper; Antonio J. Ricco; Gregory T. A. Kovacs

2008-01-01

220

Energy-based scatter correction for 3-D PET scanners using NaI(T1) detectors.  

PubMed

Earlier investigations with BGO positron emission tomography (PET) scanners showed that the scatter correction technique based on multiple acquisitions with different energy windows are problematic to implement because of the poor energy resolution of BGO (22%), particularly for whole-body studies. We believe that these methods are likely to work better with NaI(TI) because of the better energy resolution achievable with NaI(TI) detectors (10%). Therefore, we investigate two different choices for the energy window, a low-energy window (LEW) on the Compton spectrum at 400-450 keV, and a high-energy window (HEW) within the photopeak (lower threshold above 511 keV). The results obtained for our three-dimensional (3-D) (septa-less) whole-body scanners [axial field of view (FOV) of 12.8 cm and 25.6 cm] as well as for our 3-D brain scanner (axial FOV of 25.6 cm) show an accurate prediction of the scatter distribution for the estimation of trues method (ETM) using a HEW, leading to a significant reduction of the scatter contamination. The dual-energy window (DEW) technique using a LEW is shown to be intrinsically wrong; in particular, it fails for line source and bar phantom measurements. However, the method is able to produce good results for homogeneous activity distributions. Both methods are easy to implement, are fast, have a low noise propagation, and will be applicable to other PET scanners with good energy resolution and stability, such as hybrid NaI(TI) PET/SPECT dual-head cameras and future PET cameras with GSO or LSO scintillators. PMID:11021694

Adam, L E; Karp, J S; Freifelder, R

2000-05-01

221

21 CFR 201.25 - Bar code label requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...apply to the following entities: (A) Prescription drug samples; (B) Allergenic extracts; (C) Intrauterine contraceptive devices regulated as drugs; (D) Medical gases; (E) Radiopharmaceuticals; and (F) Low-density...

2013-04-01

222

Flow-Based Detection of Bar Coded Particles  

SciTech Connect

We have developed methods for flow control, electric field alignment, and readout of colloidal Nanobarcodes{copyright}. Our flow-based detection scheme leverages microfluidics and alternate current (AC) electric fields to align and image particles in a well-defined image plane. Using analytical models of the particle rotation in electric fields we can optimize the field strength and frequency necessary to align the particles. This detection platform alleviates loss of information in solution-based assays due to particle clumping during detection.

Rose, K A; Dougherty, G M; Santiago, J G

2005-06-24

223

Bar Code Exemption Ltr, May 30, 2013 - ALLOCORD  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... Approval History, Letters, Reviews, and Related Documents ... cell, tissue, and organ products across ... 128 specifies: a donation numbering system ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/cellulargenetherapyproducts/approvedproducts

224

Mobile Construction Supply Chain Management Using PDA and Bar Codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Construction project control aims to effec- tively obtain real-time information and enhance dynamic control by utilizing information sharing and connecting involved participants of the projects to reduce construc- tion conflicts and project delays. However, extending the construction project control system to job sites is not con- sidered efficient because using notebooks in a harsh envi- ronment like a construction site

H. Ping Tserng; Ren-Jye Dzeng; Yu-Cheng Lin; Sheng-Tai Lin

2005-01-01

225

Bar Code Label Requirements for Blood and Blood ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... We are a transfusion service and very infrequently prepare split units, pediatric units, and pooled cryoprecipitate units; do we need machine ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/developmentapprovalprocess/advertisinglabelingpromotionalmaterials

226

Design and evaluation of a prototype volume CT scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We designed, assembled and evaluated a prototype volume CT scanner (VCT) for the purpose of investigating various calibration methods and cone beam reconstruction algorithms as well as the potential clinical benefits of a high-resolution volume CT scanner. The new VCT is based on SIEMENS Sensation4 CT scanner. To achieve larger volume coverage and higher spatial resolution we replaced the prior 4-slices detector with a flat-panel detector. We also modified the prior x-ray tube to achieve a very small focus size by a smaller emitter and wider axial coverage by a larger anode angle. In addition the high-voltage generator was enhanced to support pulsed operation. Special measurement methods were elaborated and applied to measure the focus size, shape and position as well as the uniformity of the flat field x-ray exposure. The accuracy and stability of gantry rotation speed has been evaluated to decide for the most appropriate exposure trigger. New methods are applied to measure and calibrate the resulted x-ray geometry. One prototype VCT scanner is installed at a pre-clinical site to evaluate the application potential of the new VCT technology. The new volume scanner achieves unprecedented spatial resolution, slice sensitivity and spatial coverage. In a complementary paper we present the image quality, contrast resolution and dose issues associated with this scanner.

Popescu, Stefan; Stierstorfer, Karl; Flohr, Thomas; Suess, Christoph; Grasruck, Michael

2005-04-01

227

Determination of the weighted CT dose index in modern multi-detector CT scanners  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the present study was to (a) evaluate the underestimation in the value of the free-in-air (CTDIair) and the weighted CT dose index (CTDIw) determined with the standard 100 mm pencil chamber, i.e. the CTDI100 concept, for the whole range of nominal radiation beam collimations selectable in a modern multi-slice CT scanner, (b) estimate the optimum length of the pencil-chamber and phantoms for accurate CTDIw measurements and (c) provide CTDIw values normalized to free-in-air CTDI for different tube-voltage, nominal radiation beam collimations and beam filtration values. The underestimation in the determination of CTDIair and CTDIw using the CTDI100 concept was determined from measurements obtained with standard polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA) phantoms and arrays of thermoluminescence dosimeters. The Monte Carlo N-Particle transport code was used to simulate standard CTDI measurements on a 16-slice CT scanner. The optimum pencil-chamber length for accurate determination of CTDIw was estimated as the minimum chamber length for which a further increase in length does not alter the value of the CTDI. CTDIw/CTDIair ratios were determined using Monte Carlo simulation and the optimum detector length for all selectable tube-voltage values and for three different values of beam filtration. To verify the Monte Carlo results, measured values of CTDIw/CTDIair ratios using the standard 100 mm pencil ionization chamber were compared with corresponding values calculated with Monte Carlo experiments. The underestimation in the determination of CTDIair using the 100 mm pencil chamber was less than 1% for all beam collimations. The underestimation in CTDIw was 15% and 27% for head and body phantoms, respectively. The optimum detector length for accurate CTDIw measurements was found to be 50 cm for the beam collimations commonly employed in modern multi-detector (MD) CT scanners. The ratio of CTDIw/CTDIair determined using the optimum detector length was found to be independent of beam collimation. Percentage differences between measured and calculated corresponding CTDIw/CTDIair ratios were always less than 8% for head and less than 5% for body PMMA phantoms. In conclusion, the CTDIair of MDCT scanners may be measured accurately with a 100 mm pencil chamber. However, the CTDI100 concept was found to be inadequate for accurate CTDIw determination for the wide beam collimations commonly used in MDCT scanners. Accurate CTDIw determination presupposes the use of a pencil chamber and PMMA phantoms at least 50 cm long.

Perisinakis, K.; Damilakis, J.; Tzedakis, A.; Papadakis, A.; Theocharopoulos, N.; Gourtsoyiannis, N.

2007-11-01

228

Determination of the weighted CT dose index in modern multi-detector CT scanners.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to (a) evaluate the underestimation in the value of the free-in-air (CTDI(air)) and the weighted CT dose index (CTDI(w)) determined with the standard 100 mm pencil chamber, i.e. the CTDI(100) concept, for the whole range of nominal radiation beam collimations selectable in a modern multi-slice CT scanner, (b) estimate the optimum length of the pencil-chamber and phantoms for accurate CTDI(w) measurements and (c) provide CTDI(w) values normalized to free-in-air CTDI for different tube-voltage, nominal radiation beam collimations and beam filtration values. The underestimation in the determination of CTDI(air) and CTDI(w) using the CTDI(100) concept was determined from measurements obtained with standard polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA) phantoms and arrays of thermoluminescence dosimeters. The Monte Carlo N-Particle transport code was used to simulate standard CTDI measurements on a 16-slice CT scanner. The optimum pencil-chamber length for accurate determination of CTDI(w) was estimated as the minimum chamber length for which a further increase in length does not alter the value of the CTDI. CTDI(w)/CTDI(air) ratios were determined using Monte Carlo simulation and the optimum detector length for all selectable tube-voltage values and for three different values of beam filtration. To verify the Monte Carlo results, measured values of CTDI(w)/CTDI(air) ratios using the standard 100 mm pencil ionization chamber were compared with corresponding values calculated with Monte Carlo experiments. The underestimation in the determination of CTDI(air) using the 100 mm pencil chamber was less than 1% for all beam collimations. The underestimation in CTDI(w) was 15% and 27% for head and body phantoms, respectively. The optimum detector length for accurate CTDI(w) measurements was found to be 50 cm for the beam collimations commonly employed in modern multi-detector (MD) CT scanners. The ratio of CTDI(w)/CTDI(air) determined using the optimum detector length was found to be independent of beam collimation. Percentage differences between measured and calculated corresponding CTDI(w)/CTDI(air) ratios were always less than 8% for head and less than 5% for body PMMA phantoms. In conclusion, the CTDI(air) of MDCT scanners may be measured accurately with a 100 mm pencil chamber. However, the CTDI(100) concept was found to be inadequate for accurate CTDI(w) determination for the wide beam collimations commonly used in MDCT scanners. Accurate CTDI(w) determination presupposes the use of a pencil chamber and PMMA phantoms at least 50 cm long. PMID:17951857

Perisinakis, K; Damilakis, J; Tzedakis, A; Papadakis, A; Theocharopoulos, N; Gourtsoyiannis, N

2007-10-16

229

A stationary digital breast tomosynthesis scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A prototype stationary digital breast tomosynthesis (s-DBT) system has been developed by retrofitting a Hologic Selenia Dimension rotating gantry tomosynthesis scanner with a spatially distributed carbon nanotube (CNT) x-ray source array. The goal is to improve the system spatial resolution by removing the x-ray tube motion induced focal spot blurring. The CNT x-ray source array comprises 31 individually addressable x-ray beams covering 30° angular span. Each x-ray beam has a minimum focal spot size of 0.64×0.61mm (full-width-at-half-maximum), a stationary W anode operating up to 50kVp, and 1mm thick Al filter. The flux from each beam is regulated and varied using dedicated control electronics. The maximum tube current is determined by the heat load of the stationary anode and depends on the energy, pulse width and the focal spot size used. Stable operation at 28kVp, 27mA tube current, 250msec pulse width and 38mA tube current, 183msec pulse width per exposure was achieved with extended lifetime. The standard ACR phantom was imaged and analyzed to evaluate the image quality. The actual scanning speed depends on the number of views and the readout time of the x-ray detector. With the present detector, 6 second scanning time at either 15 views or 31 views can be achieved at 100mAs total imaging dose with a detector readout time of 240msec.

Qian, Xin; Tucker, Andrew; Gidcumb, Emily; Lu, Jianping; Zhou, Otto; Spronk, Derrek; Sprenger, Frank; Zhang, Yiheng; Kennedy, Don; Farbizio, Tom; Jing, Zhenxue

2012-02-01

230

Fusion in fingerprint authentication: two finger types vs. two scanner types  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents our study on fingerprint fusion in particular in three scenario sets: a) two fingers captured by the same scanner; b) the same finger captured by two different scanners; and c) two fingers both captured by two different scanners. As a test data set we use GUC100 multi-scanner fingerprint database which contains fingerprint images of all ten fingers

Davrondzhon Gafurov; Christoph Busch; Patrick Bours; Bian Yang

2011-01-01

231

6.EE Chocolate Bar Sales  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Stephanie is helping her band collect money to fund a field trip. The band decided to sell boxes of chocolate bars. Each bar sells for \\$1.50 and each ...

232

CSERD Interactivate: Bar Graph Lesson  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This simulation-based lesson for grades 5-9 provides hands-on practice in exploring bar graphs using authentic information. It features an interactive Java graphing applet to create and read bar graphs. Students can work within parameters provided in the applet or input their own data sets. This resource includes a complete lesson plan, teaching tips, and alignment to NCTM standards. This resource is part of CSERD (Computational Science Education Reference Desk), a portal of the National Science Digital Library. The Interactivate collection contains more than 200 standards-based activities, many of which have been classroom tested.

2011-03-01

233

Accurate modeling of a DOI capable small animal PET scanner using GATE.  

PubMed

In this work we developed a Monte Carlo (MC) model of the Sedecal Argus pre-clinical PET scanner, using GATE (Geant4 Application for Tomographic Emission). This is a dual-ring scanner which features DOI compensation by means of two layers of detector crystals (LYSO and GSO). Geometry of detectors and sources, pulses readout and selection of coincidence events were modeled with GATE, while a separate code was developed in order to emulate the processing of digitized data (for example, customized time windows and data flow saturation), the final binning of the lines of response and to reproduce the data output format of the scanner's acquisition software. Validation of the model was performed by modeling several phantoms used in experimental measurements, in order to compare the results of the simulations. Spatial resolution, sensitivity, scatter fraction, count rates and NECR were tested. Moreover, the NEMA NU-4 phantom was modeled in order to check for the image quality yielded by the model. Noise, contrast of cold and hot regions and recovery coefficient were calculated and compared using images of the NEMA phantom acquired with our scanner. The energy spectrum of coincidence events due to the small amount of (176)Lu in LYSO crystals, which was suitably included in our model, was also compared with experimental measurements. Spatial resolution, sensitivity and scatter fraction showed an agreement within 7%. Comparison of the count rates curves resulted satisfactory, being the values within the uncertainties, in the range of activities practically used in research scans. Analysis of the NEMA phantom images also showed a good agreement between simulated and acquired data, within 9% for all the tested parameters. This work shows that basic MC modeling of this kind of system is possible using GATE as a base platform; extension through suitably written customized code allows for an adequate level of accuracy in the results. Our careful validation against experimental data confirms that the developed simulation setup is a useful tool for a wide range of research applications. PMID:23501360

Zagni, F; D'Ambrosio, D; Spinelli, A E; Cicoria, G; Fanti, S; Marengo, M

2013-02-14

234

Improved spatial resolution in PET scanners using sampling techniques  

PubMed Central

Increased focus towards improved detector spatial resolution in PET has led to the use of smaller crystals in some form of light sharing detector design. In this work we evaluate two sampling techniques that can be applied during calibrations for pixelated detector designs in order to improve the reconstructed spatial resolution. The inter-crystal positioning technique utilizes sub-sampling in the crystal flood map to better sample the Compton scatter events in the detector. The Compton scatter rejection technique, on the other hand, rejects those events that are located further from individual crystal centers in the flood map. We performed Monte Carlo simulations followed by measurements on two whole-body scanners for point source data. The simulations and measurements were performed for scanners using scintillators with Zeff ranging from 46.9 to 63 for LaBr3 and LYSO, respectively. Our results show that near the center of the scanner, inter-crystal positioning technique leads to a gain of about 0.5-mm in reconstructed spatial resolution (FWHM) for both scanner designs. In a small animal LYSO scanner the resolution improves from 1.9-mm to 1.6-mm with the inter-crystal technique. The Compton scatter rejection technique shows higher gains in spatial resolution but at the cost of reduction in scanner sensitivity. The inter-crystal positioning technique represents a modest acquisition software modification for an improvement in spatial resolution, but at a cost of potentially longer data correction and reconstruction times. The Compton scatter rejection technique, while also requiring a modest acquisition software change with no increased data correction and reconstruction times, will be useful in applications where the scanner sensitivity is very high and larger improvements in spatial resolution are desirable.

Surti, Suleman; Scheuermann, Ryan; Werner, Matthew E.; Karp, Joel S.

2009-01-01

235

Improved spatial resolution in PET scanners using sampling techniques.  

PubMed

Increased focus towards improved detector spatial resolution in PET has led to the use of smaller crystals in some form of light sharing detector design. In this work we evaluate two sampling techniques that can be applied during calibrations for pixelated detector designs in order to improve the reconstructed spatial resolution. The inter-crystal positioning technique utilizes sub-sampling in the crystal flood map to better sample the Compton scatter events in the detector. The Compton scatter rejection technique, on the other hand, rejects those events that are located further from individual crystal centers in the flood map. We performed Monte Carlo simulations followed by measurements on two whole-body scanners for point source data. The simulations and measurements were performed for scanners using scintillators with Z(eff) ranging from 46.9 to 63 for LaBr(3) and LYSO, respectively. Our results show that near the center of the scanner, inter-crystal positioning technique leads to a gain of about 0.5-mm in reconstructed spatial resolution (FWHM) for both scanner designs. In a small animal LYSO scanner the resolution improves from 1.9-mm to 1.6-mm with the inter-crystal technique. The Compton scatter rejection technique shows higher gains in spatial resolution but at the cost of reduction in scanner sensitivity. The inter-crystal positioning technique represents a modest acquisition software modification for an improvement in spatial resolution, but at a cost of potentially longer data correction and reconstruction times. The Compton scatter rejection technique, while also requiring a modest acquisition software change with no increased data correction and reconstruction times, will be useful in applications where the scanner sensitivity is very high and larger improvements in spatial resolution are desirable. PMID:19779586

Surti, Suleman; Scheuermann, Ryan; Werner, Matthew E; Karp, Joel S

2009-06-01

236

An improved two-dimensional code encoding approach for publications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, the publishing industry has begun to use the two-dimensional code in cell phones, but the standard is not defined. Compared with single-dimensional bar code, two-dimensional code contains more information and functions. Nowadays, two-dimensional code has been broadly used in some industries, such as mobile communication, logistics and advertising, but not in publishing. This paper introduces an improved two-dimensional code

Wang Liang; Liu Xiaodan

2010-01-01

237

BAR proteins in cancer and blood disorders  

PubMed Central

Remodeling of the membrane and cytoskeleton is involved in a wide range of normal and pathologic cellular function. These are complex, highly-coordinated biochemical and biophysical processes involving dozens of proteins. Serving as a scaffold for a variety of proteins and possessing a domain that interacts with plasma membranes, the BAR family of proteins contribute to a range of cellular functions characterized by membrane and cytoskeletal remodeling. There are several subgroups of BAR proteins: BAR, N-BAR, I-BAR, and F-BAR. They differ in their ability to induce angles of membrane curvature and in their recruitment of effector proteins. Evidence is accumulating that BAR proteins contribute to cancer cell invasion, T cell trafficking, phagocytosis, and platelet production. In this review, we discuss the physiological function of BAR proteins and discuss how they contribute to blood and cancer disorders.

Chen, Yolande; Aardema, Jorie; Misra, Ashish; Corey, Seth J

2012-01-01

238

An ultra fast electron beam x-ray tomography scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper introduces the design of an ultra fast x-ray tomography scanner based on electron beam technology. The scanner has been developed for two-phase flow studies where frame rates of 1 kHz and higher are required. Its functional principle is similar to that of the electron beam x-ray CT scanners used in cardiac imaging. Thus, the scanner comprises an electron beam generator with a fast beam deflection unit, a semicircular x-ray production target made of tungsten alloy and a circular x-ray detector consisting of 240 CZT elements with 1.5 mm × 1.5 mm × 1.5 mm size each. The design is optimized with respect to ultra fast imaging of smaller flow vessels, such as pipes or laboratory-scale chemical reactors. In that way, the scanner is capable of scanning flow cross-sections at a speed of a few thousand frames per second which is sufficient to capture flows of a few meters per second velocity.

Fischer, F.; Hoppe, D.; Schleicher, E.; Mattausch, G.; Flaske, H.; Bartel, R.; Hampel, U.

2008-09-01

239

Computer simulations to estimate organ doses from clinically validated cardiac, neuro, and pediatric protocols for multiple detector computed tomography scanners  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances in Computed Tomography (CT) technology, particularly that of multiple detector CT (MDCT) scanning, have provided increased utilization and more diverse clinical applications including more advanced vascular and cardiac exams, perfusion imaging, and screening exams. Notwithstanding the benefits to the patient undergoing a CT study, the fundamental concern in radiation protection is the minimization of the radiation exposure delivered as well as the implementation of structures to prevent inappropriate ordering and clinical use of these advanced studies. This research work developed a computational methodology for routine clinical use to assess patient organ doses from MDCT scanners. To support the methodology, a computer code (DXS-Diagnostic X-ray Spectra) was developed to accurately and conveniently generate x-ray spectra in the diagnostic energy range (45-140 keV). The two accepted standard radiation transport calculation methods namely, deterministic and Monte Carlo, have been preliminarily investigated for their capability and readiness to support the proposed goal of the work. Thorough tests demonstrated that the lack of appropriate discrete photon interaction coefficients in the aforementioned diagnostic energy range impedes the applicability of the deterministic approach to routine clinical use; improvements in the multigroup treatment may make it more viable. Thus, the open source Monte Carlo code, MCNP5, was adapted to appropriately model an MDCT scan. For this, a new method, entirely based on routine clinical CT measurements, was developed and validated to generate an "equivalent source and filtration" model that obviates the need of proprietary information for a given CT scanner. Computer simulations employing the Monte Carlo methodology and UF's tomographic human phantoms were performed to assess, compare, and optimize pediatric, cardiac and neuro-imaging protocols for the new 320-slice scanner at Shands/UF based on dose considerations. Results were compared against organ dose measurements previously obtained at Shands UF. Important dose reductions were assessed for the broad beam volumetric acquisition of this new scanner when compared to the standard 64-slice helical protocols.

Ghita, Monica

240

In-line digital holographic microscopy using a consumer scanner.  

PubMed

We demonstrate an in-line digital holographic microscopy using a consumer scanner. The consumer scanner can scan an image with 4,800?dpi. The pixel pitch is approximately 5.29??m. The system using a consumer scanner has a simple structure, compared with synthetic aperture digital holography using a camera mounted on a two-dimensional moving stage. In this demonstration, we captured an in-line hologram with 23, 602 × 18, 023 pixels (?0.43 gigapixels). The physical size of the scanned hologram is approximately 124?mm × 95?mm. In addition, to accelerate the reconstruction time of the gigapixel hologram and decrease the amount of memory for the reconstruction, we applied the band-limited double-step Fresnel diffraction to the reconstruction. PMID:24036588

Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Yamanashi, Hiroya; Kakue, Takashi; Oikawa, Minoru; Okada, Naohisa; Endo, Yutaka; Hirayama, Ryuji; Masuda, Nobuyuki; Ito, Tomoyoshi

2013-09-16

241

High Bandwidth Electro-optic Scanner for Optical Data Storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beam deflectors can be used as fine tracking actuators to improve track access time and data rate in future high performance optical disk drives. In this paper we report on the use of an electro-optic (EO) scanner for optical data storage. Track following has been accomplished using this EO actuator with a servo bandwidth of 200 kHz, and single-stage high-speed track switching/following has been demonstrated in a new optical head tracking system with reduced offset. A fine tracking experiment has also been demonstrated using an EO actuator with a voice coil motor (VCM) actuator to extend the fine tracking range. A new compensator design method, the PQ method, has been used for this scanner/VCM compound actuator system. Significant improvements in track switching/following speed are demonstrated with the scanner/VCM compound actuator as compared to tracking with the VCM actuator alone.

Zhai, Jinhui; Huang, Yuhong; Schroeck, Steve; Messner, W.; Stancil, Daniel D.; Schlesinger, T. E.

2000-02-01

242

Trade-offs in rotary mirror scanner design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design of rotary mirror scanners is a complex process involving many trade-offs. This paper explores these issues emphasizing how the design can be optimized for a particular application. Examples range from thermal imagers to prepress equipment, and the trade-offs covered include scan accuracy vs cost, efficiency vs performance. The topics covered include polygons, motors, bearings and housings. The configuration of these parts and their interactions are considered. Particular emphasis is placed on reducing the power consumption of the scanner through careful consideration of windage - the drag on the polygon due to its movement through the surrounding gas. The main conclusion is that by careful design the effect of trade-offs can be minimized; this allows the design of low cost high accuracy scanners.

Colquhoun, A. B.; Cowan, D. W.; Shepherd, J.

1991-02-01

243

CT Coronary Angiography: 256-Slice and 320-Detector Row Scanners  

PubMed Central

Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) has rapidly evolved from 4-detector row systems in 1998 to 256-slice and 320-detector row CT systems. With smaller detector element size and faster gantry rotation speed, spatial and temporal resolution of the 64-detector MDCT scanners have made coronary artery imaging a reliable clinical test. Wide-area coverage MDCT, such as the 256-slice and 320-detector row MDCT scanners, has enabled volumetric imaging of the entire heart free of stair-step artifacts at a single time point within one cardiac cycle. It is hoped that these improvements will be realized with greater diagnostic accuracy of CT coronary angiography. Such scanners hold promise in performing a rapid high quality “triple rule-out” test without high contrast load, improved myocardial perfusion imaging, and even four-dimensional CT subtraction angiography. These emerging technical advances and novel applications will continue to change the way we study coronary artery disease beyond detecting luminal stenosis.

Hsiao, Edward M.; Rybicki, Frank J.; Steigner, Michael

2010-01-01

244

Automated pipe scanner for ultrasonic inspection. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The need for reliable, accurate, and repeatable examination of piping welds in boiling-water-reactor (BWR) systems has received considerable attention in recent years because of increasing occurrences of intergranular stress-corrosion cracking (IGSCC) in the austenitic stainless steel piping used in these systems. This report describes the results of a program designed to develop automated, remotely controlled scanner mechanisms and booted ultrasonic search units for pipe weld examinations. The principal scanner development goals have been achieved. These goals include scanners of low profile, easy portability, rapid installation and removal and accurate and repeatable scan capabilities over a wide range of pipe diameters. Additional accomplishments are booted search unit designs that provide universal adaptability to pipe inspection surface geometries and a multi-refracted-angle inspection capability within a single search unit.

Fleming, M.; Mitchell, R.; Humphries, J.; De La Torre, D.; Levin, S.; Jacobs, B.; Beller, L.; Mikesell, C.

1984-01-01

245

ORBITAL SUPPORT OF FAST AND SLOW INNER BARS IN DOUBLE-BARRED GALAXIES  

SciTech Connect

We analyze how the orbital support of the inner bar in a double-barred galaxy (nested bars) depends on the angular velocity (i.e., pattern speed) of this bar. We study orbits in seven models of double bars using the method of invariant loops. The range of pattern speed is covered exhaustively. We find that not all pattern speeds are allowed when the inner bar rotates in the same direction as the outer bar. Below a certain minimum pattern speed orbital support for the inner bar abruptly disappears, while at high values of this speed the orbits indicate an increasingly round bar that looks more like a twist in the nuclear isophotes than a dynamically independent component. For values between these two extremes, orbits supporting the inner bar extend further out as the bar's pattern speed decreases, their corresponding loops become more eccentric, pulsate more, and their rotation becomes increasingly non-uniform, as they speed up and slow down in their motion. Lower pattern speeds also lead to a less coherent bar, as the pulsation and acceleration increasingly varies among the loops supporting the inner bar. The morphologies of fast and slow inner bars expected from the orbital structure studied here have been recently recovered observationally by decomposition of double-barred galaxies. Our findings allow us to link the observed morphology to the dynamics of the inner bar.

Maciejewski, Witold; Small, Emma E., E-mail: wxm@astro.livjm.ac.u [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Twelve Quays House, Egerton Wharf, Birkenhead, CH41 1LD (United Kingdom)

2010-08-10

246

Weather Bar 2.1  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It might be raining outside, but how will you know? Fortunately, there is the ever-handy Weather Bar, created by Dennis Delimarsky. This delightfully simple program sits in the taskbar, and visitors can set their location, and also elect to have weather updates sent out every minute. This program promises the highs and lows, the relative humidity levels, and a predictive icon. This version is compatible with computers running with all operating systems, including Linux.

Delimarsky, Dennis

2010-03-26

247

Novel scanner characterization method for color measurement and diagnostics applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a novel scanner characterization approach for applications requiring color measurement of hardcopy output in printer calibration, characterization, and diagnostic applications. It is assumed that a typical printed medium comprises the three basic colorants C, M, Y. The proposed method is particularly advantageous when additional colorants are used in the print (e.g. black (K)). A family of scanner characterization targets is constructed, each varying in C, M, Y and at a fixed level of K. A corresponding family of 3-D scanner characterizations is derived, one for each level of K. Each characterization maps scanner RGB to a colorimetric representation such as CIELAB, using standard characterization techniques. These are then combined into a single 4-D characterization mapping RGBK to CIELAB. A refinement of the technique improves performance significantly by using a function of the scanned values for K (e.g. the scanner's green channel response to printed K) instead of the digital K value directly. This makes this new approach more robust with respect to variations in printed K over time. Secondly it enables, with a single scanner characterization, accurate color measurement of prints from different printers within the same family. Results show that the 4-D characterization technique can significantly outperform standard 3-D approaches especially in cases where the image being scanned is a patch target made up of unconstrained CMYK combinations. Thus the algorithm finds particular use in printer characterization and diagnostic applications. The method readily generalizes to printed media containing other (e.g "hi-fi") colorants, and also to other image capture devices such as digital cameras.

Lee, Bong-Sun; Bala, Raja; Sharma, Gaurav

2006-02-01

248

Ferrofluid Film Bearing for enhancement of rotary scanner performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrodynamic bearings utilizing ferrofluids are a new class of high performance bearings. These bearings are self-contained with ferrofluid acting both as a hydrodynamic pressure film and a sealant. Although relatively unknown in the laser scanner industry, ferrofluids have been widely used over the last two decades for applications in the semiconductor, computer and audio marketplaces. In this paper, performance features of Ferrofluid Film Bearings are also discussed, and experimental data such as power consumption, rotational accuracy and audible noise are presented to show that Ferrofluid Film Bearings enhance the performance of high resolution scanners and in this application are superior to ball bearing and gas bearing performance.

Cheever, Charles; Li, Zhixin; Raj, Kuldip

1991-02-01

249

Cyclone: A laser scanner for mobile robot navigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Researchers at Carnegie Mellon's Field Robotics Center have designed and implemented a scanning laser rangefinder. The device uses a commercially available time-of-flight ranging instrument that is capable of making up to 7200 measurements per second. The laser beam is reflected by a rotating mirror, producing up to a 360 degree view. Mounted on a robot vehicle, the scanner can be used to detect obstacles in the vehicle's path or to locate the robot on a map. This report discusses the motivation, design, and some applications of the scanner.

Singh, Sanjiv; West, Jay

1991-09-01

250

Evaluation of Images for Computed Tomography Scanners by Entropy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The precision of images for computed tomography (CT) scanners is synthetically evaluated by a single entropy number. The results obtained from four CT scanners show that the maximum and minimum transmitted information quantities are 1.83 bits and 1.23 bits per image on average, respectively (ideal transmitted information quantities are 2.32 bits). Assuming that only the standard deviation of CT numbers and the contrast scale affect the precision of CT images, the transmitted information quantities are calculated theoretically and are compared with the measured ones.

Uchida, Suguru; Katsuragawa, Shigehiko; Sueyoshi, Takehiro

1980-11-01

251

Shift variant linear system modeling for multispectral scanners  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multispectral scanner data are affected both by the spatial impulse response of the sensor and the spectral response of each channel. To achieve a realistic representation for the output data for a given scene spectral input, both of these effects must be incorporated into a forward model. Each channel can have a different spatial response and each has its characteristic spectral response. A forward model is built which includes the shift invariant spatial broadening of the input for the channels and the shift variant spectral response across channels. The model is applied to the calibrated airborne multispectral scanner as well as the airborne terrestrial applications sensor developed at NASA Stennis Space Center.

Amini, Abolfazl M.; Ioup, George E.; Ioup, Juliette W.

1995-07-01

252

A prototype quantitative film scanner for radiochromic film dosimetry  

SciTech Connect

We have developed a high resolution, quantitative, two-dimensional optical film scanner for use with a commercial high sensitivity radiochromic film (RCF) for measuring single fraction external-beam radiotherapy dose distributions. The film scanner was designed to eliminate artifacts commonly observed in RCF dosimetry. The scanner employed a stationary light source and detector with a moving antireflective glass film platen attached to a high precision computerized X-Y translation stage. An ultrabright red light emitting diode (LED) with a peak output at 633 nm and full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 16 nm was selected as the scanner light source to match the RCF absorption peak. A dual detector system was created using two silicon photodiode detectors to simultaneously measure incident and transmitted light. The LED light output was focused to a submillimeter (FWHM 0.67 mm) spot size, which was determined from a scanning knife-edge technique for measuring Gaussian optical beams. Data acquisition was performed with a 16-bit A/D card in conjunction with commercial software. The linearity of the measured densities on the scanner was tested using a calibrated neutral-density step filter. Sensitometric curves and three IMRT field scans were acquired with a spatial resolution of 1 mm for both radiographic film and RCF. The results were compared with measurements taken with a commercial diode array under identical delivery conditions. The RCF was rotated by 90 deg. and rescanned to study orientation effects. Comparison between the RCF and the diode array measurements using percent dose difference and distance-to-agreement criteria produced average passing rates of 99.0% using 3%/3 mm criteria and 96.7% using 2%/2 mm criteria. The same comparison between the radiographic film and diode array measurements resulted in average passing rates 96.6% and 91.6% for the above two criteria, respectively. No measurable light-scatter or interference scanner artifacts were observed. The RCF rotated by 90 deg. showed no measurable orientation effect. A scan of a 15x15 cm{sup 2} area with 1 mm resolution required 22 min to acquire. The LED densitometer provides an accurate film dosimetry system with 1 mm or better resolution. The scanner eliminates the orientation dependence of RCF dosimetry that was previously reported with commercial flatbed scanners.

Ranade, Manisha K.; Li, Jonathan G.; Dubose, Ryan S.; Kozelka, Jakub; Simon, William E.; Dempsey, James F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32610 (United States); Spartanburg Regional Hospital Gibbs Cancer Center, Spartanburg, South Carolina 29303 (United States); Sun Nuclear Corporation, Melbourne, Florida 32940 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32610 (United States)

2008-02-15

253

Satellite orientation and position for geometric correction of scanner imagery.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The USGS Mini Image Processing System currently relies on a polynomial method for geometric correction of Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) data. A large number of ground control points are required because polynomials do not model the sources of error. In order to reduce the number of necessary points, a set of mathematical equations modeling the Landsat satellite motions and MSS scanner has been derived and programmed. A best fit to the equations is obtained by using a least-squares technique that permits computation of the satellite orientation and position parameters based on only a few control points.-from Author

Salamonowicz, P. H.

1986-01-01

254

DD-bar production and their interactions  

SciTech Connect

We have explored the bound state problem and the scattering problem of the DD-bar pair in a meson exchange model. When considering their production in the e{sup +}e{sup -} process, we included the DD-bar rescattering effect. Although it is difficult to answer whether the S-wave DD-bar bound state exists or not from the binding energies and the phase shifts, one may get an upper limit of the binding energy from the production of the BB-bar, the bottom analog of DD-bar.

Liu Yanrui; Oka, Makoto [Department of Physics, H-27, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Takizawa, Makoto [Showa Pharmaceutical University, Machida, Tokyo 194-8543 (Japan); Liu Xiang [School of Physical Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

2011-05-23

255

Multibeam two-dimensional binary optics laser scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a two-dimensional, multibeam, binary optic based scanner for transmission/receiver functions for LADAR and other applications under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract from Eglin Air Force Base. Multibeam scan provides many unique advantages including: increased data rate for pulsed lasers; increased scan coverage; and programmable broadcasting for optical interconnect applications.

Jain, Anil K.

1994-06-01

256

Testing PEPT Algorithm on a Medical PET Scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The basis of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is the detection of the photons produced, when a positron annihilates with an electron. Conservation of energy and momentum then require that two 511 keV gamma rays are emitted almost back to back (180° apart). This method is used to determine the spatial distribution of a positron emitting fluid. Verifying the position of a single emitting particle in an object instead of determining the distribution of a positron emitting fluid is the basis of another technique, which has been named positron emitting particle tracking PEPT and has been developed in Birmingham University. Birmingham University has recently obtained the PET scanner from Hammersmith Hospital which was installed there in 1987. This scanner consists of 32 detector buckets, each includes 128 bismuth germanate detection elements, which are configured in 8 rings. This scanner has been rebuilt in a flexible geometry and will be used for PEPT studies. Testing the PEPT algorithm on ECAT scanner gives a high data rate, can track approximately accurate at high speed and also has the possibility of making measurements on large vessels.

Sadrmomtaz, Alireza

257

X- and ?-rays computerized minitomograph scanner for soil science  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computerized tomograph scanner system that uses X- and ?-rays for applications in soil science is described. Use of the apparatus in measuring volumetric water content to an accuracy of ±3% and soil bulk density to ±2% (in grams per cubic centimeters) is discussed. The system features translation and rotation scanning modes, a 200-mm effective field of view, signal processing

PAULO ESTEVAO CRUVINEL; ROBERTO CESAREO; SILVIO CRESTANA; SERGIO MASCARENHAS

1990-01-01

258

Speech Perception in MRI Scanner Noise by Persons with Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: To examine reductions in performance on auditory tasks by aphasic and neurologically intact individuals as a result of concomitant magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner noise. Method: Four tasks together forming a continuum of linguistic complexity were developed. They included complex-tone pitch discrimination, same-different…

Healy, Eric W.; Moser, Dana C.; Morrow-Odom, K. Leigh; Hall, Deborah A.; Fridriksson, Julius

2007-01-01

259

Optical beam scanner with phase-variable semiconductor waveguides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the design and the principle of operation of an opitcal beam scanner with two phase-variable semiconductor waveguides, which has the possibility of high-speed steering. The maximum deflection angle achieved with the device was 0.67 under 9.5 V reverse bias. A schematic diagram of the fabricated device is presented.

Moriki, Kazunori; Ohnishi, Yoshihumi; Uchida, Hiroshi; Hattori, Takeo; Iga, Kenichi

1990-07-01

260

Dual Airborne Laser Scanners Aided Inertial for Improved Autonomous Navigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dead-reckoning terrain referenced navigation (TRN) system is presented that uses two airborne laser scanners (ALS) to aid an inertial navigation system (INS). The system uses aircraft autonomous sensors and is capable of performing the dual functions of mapping and navigation simultaneously. The proposed system can potentially serve as a backup to the Global Positioning System (GPS), increase the robustness

ANANTH K. VADLAMANI; MAARTEN UIJT DE HAAG

2009-01-01

261

A microarray scanner for the real-time quantitative detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The real-time and quantitative detection assay is important for the gene detection. With the TaqMan probes for the detection based polymerase chain reaction (PCR), four targets could be checked in a single process in solution assay. A new method is developed to immobilize the TaqMan probes on a microarray, which could be used to the multi-target gene fragment quantitative detection with PCR. A new type microarray scanner is designed for the assay. A thermocycler system was built into the scanner platform. A new type of the vessel sealed with the gene amplification solution which could perform the thermo-cycling and scanning. To decrease the background intensity a confocal system was used as the fluorescent intensity detection in the scanner. To calculate the gene quantity, a standard liner graph was draw with the fluorescent intensity versus the cycles. From the standard liner, the quantity of the original gene fragment could be calculated in time with the cycles. This scanner offers the great advantage of real-time quantitative detection of DNA targets in a microarray.

Liu, Quanjun; Zhuang, Ying; Wu, Lingwei; Wu, Zhongwei; Hu, Song; Lu, Zuhong

2007-05-01

262

10. View of back side of radar scanner building no. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. View of back side of radar scanner building no. 104 showing passageway links to other building to east and DR 1 antenna in background. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

263

9. View of back side of radar scanner building no. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. View of back side of radar scanner building no. 106 showing passageway links to other buildings east and west, and DR 3 antenna in background. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

264

20. View from northeast to southwest side of scanner building ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. View from northeast to southwest side of scanner building 104 showing two waveguide termination faces (fiberglass light bands on left of photograph). - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

265

21. View from south to southerly face of scanner building ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

21. View from south to southerly face of scanner building 104 showing building radius. Radius of building face matches radius of DR antenna systems. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

266

Laser excited confocal microscope fluorescence scanner and method  

DOEpatents

A fluorescent scanner for scanning the fluorescence from a fluorescence labeled separated sample on a sample carrier including a confocal microscope for illuminating a predetermined volume of the sample carrier and/or receiving and processing fluorescence emissions from said volume to provide a display of the separated sample.

Mathies, Richard A. (Contra Costa, CA); Peck, Konan (Contra Costa, CA)

1992-01-01

267

Geologic Atlas of TIMS (Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner) Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the three years since the first data were taken, it was well demonstrated that the Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS), properly used, can be a most valuable tool for the geologist. Compilation of the TIMS data into a geological atlas was fel...

E. Abbott

1986-01-01

268

Change detection of buildings using an airborne laser scanner  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study employed an airborne laser scanner to detect changes of buildings by acquiring a digital surface model (DSM) data of urban areas. Simple comparison between DSM data sets acquired at different occasions successfully detected building changes without omission errors. A CCD array image simultaneously acquired with the DSM data was also automatically orthorectified with the DSM data and indicated

Hiroshi Murakami; Katsuto Nakagawa; Hiroyuki Hasegawa; Taku Shibata; Eiji Iwanami

1999-01-01

269

Noninvasive thermometry with a clinical x-ray CT scanner  

Microsoft Academic Search

A CT scanner yields CT numbers which are proportional to the fractional difference in effective local electron density of the subject material with respect to that of calibration material. A homogeneous water-equivalent material is used as a calibration phantom under isothermal conditions. Any temperature variation (spatial or temporal) in the subject material subsequently scanned, will generate a CT-number shift in

B. G. Fallone; P. R. Moran; E. B. Podgorsak

1982-01-01

270

SOI based electromagnetic MEMS scanners and applications in laser systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MEMS scanners are of interest for their potential as low-cost, low operating power devices for use in various photonic systems. The devices reported here are actuated by the electromagnetic force between a static external magnetic field and a current flowing through an SOI MEMS scanner. These scanners have several modes of operation: their mirrors may be rotated and maintained at a static angle (up to +/- 1.4 degrees), scanned rapidly (up to 500 Hz); or may be operated in a resonance mode, at the device's mechanical resonance frequency (~1.2 kHz) for higher rate scanning. The use of these scanners as a Q-switching element within a Nd:YAG laser cavity has been demonstrated. Pulse durations of 400 ns were obtained with a pulse energy of 58 ?J and a pulse peak power of 145 W. The use of an external magnetic field, generated by compact rare-earth magnets, allows a simple and cost-effective commercial fabrication process to be employed (the multi-user SOI process provided by MEMSCAP Inc) and avoids the requirement to deposit magnetic materials on the MEMS structure.

Brown, G.; Bauer, R.; Lubeigt, W.; Uttamchandani, D.

2013-03-01

271

Terahertz wave opto-mechanical scanner for security application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a new opto-mechanical scanner that is hopeful for terahertz imaging in security applications. The target of using this scanner is portal screening of personnel for high-resolution imaging of concealed threat objects. It is not only applied to active terahertz imaging but also applied to passive Terahertz imaging. Terahertz wave can penetrate many materials that are opaque to visible and infrared light, such as plastics, cardboard, textiles and so on. So the terahertz imaging technology has a potential to be applicable in security inspection at airports, stations and other public place. Now, the most terahertz imaging system works at point to point mechanical scan pattern. The speed of this raster scan is too slow to apply in practical field. 2-D terahertz array detector can be applied to real time imaging. But at present their cost is prohibitively high. Fortunately low cost, high performance, opto-mechanically scanner is able to meet the current requirements. An opto-mechanical scanner should be able to rapidly scan a 2-D image of the scene. It also should have high optical efficiency so that an image system can achieve the required thermal sensitivity with the minimum number of receivers. These ensure that it can easily operate at any wavelength, and be active or passive. The opto-mechanically scanning can meets these requirements and is being developed into a high performance, low-cost prototype system that will meet the future needs for terahertz security.

Deng, Chao; Zheng, Yongju; Zhang, Cunlin

2010-11-01

272

Ada/SQL (Structured Query Language) Application Scanner.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This IDA Memorandum Report identifies and describes a version of software delivery, the Ada/SQL Application Scanner. The purpose of this software system is to provide a tool which will aid in the generation of subprograms necessary for a Level 1 Ada/SQL i...

B. R. Brykczynski F. Friedman K. Heatwole K. Hilliard

1988-01-01

273

High contrast, CdTe portal scanner for radiation therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most promising technologies for improving the quality of radiation therapy is the use of real-time systems to produce portal images. A linear array of 256 CdTe photovoltaic detectors attached to a very compact linear scanner, all of which will be mounted in a cassette shaped package to be located under the patient table, is being constructed. The

G. Entine; M. R. Squillante; R. Hahn; L. J. Cirignano; W. McGann; P. I. Biggs

1991-01-01

274

First Test Results of the New LANSCE Wire Scanner  

SciTech Connect

The Beam Diagnostics and Instrumentation Team (BDIT) at Los Alamos National Laboratory's LANSCE facility is presently developing a new and improved wire scanner diagnostics system controlled by National Instrument's cRIO platform. This paper describes the current state of development of the control system along with the results gathered from the latest actuator motion performance and accelerator-beam data acquisition tests.

Sedillo, James Daniel [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-01

275

Teach Your Computer to Read: Scanners and Optical Character Recognition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Desktop scanners can be used with a software technology called optical character recognition (OCR) to convert the text on virtually any paper document into an electronic form. OCR offers educators new flexibility in incorporating text into tests, lesson plans, and other materials. (MLF)

Marsden, Jim

1993-01-01

276

Liquid-explosives scanners stand trial in airports  

SciTech Connect

Air passengers may once more be allowed to pack beverages, lotions, and hair spray in their carry-on luggage, if imaging technologies to detect liquid explosives can prove their worth. Several competing systems, including multi-energy x-ray systems and a low-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner, are undergoing field tests at some airports worldwide.

Matthews, Jermey N. A.

2010-07-15

277

LANSCE wire scanner AFE: analysis, design, and fabrication  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the design LANSCE-R Wire-Scanner Analog Front-end Electronics is to develop a high-performance, dual-axis wire-scanner analog front-end system implemented in a single cRIO module. This new design accommodates macropulse widths as wide as 700 {mu}s at a maximum pulse rate of 120Hz. A lossey integrator is utilized as the integration element to eliminate the requirement for providing gating signals to each wire scanner. The long macropulse and the high repetition rate present conflicting requirements for the design of the integrator. The long macropulse requires a long integration time constant to assure minimum integrator droop for accurate charge integration, and the high repetition rate requires a short time constant to assure adequate integrator reset between macropulses. Also, grounding is a serious concern due to the small signal levels. This paper reviews the basic Wire Scanner AFE system design implemented in the cRIO-module form factor to capture the charge information from the wire sensors and the grounding topology to assure minimum noise contamination of the wire signals.

Gruchalla, Mike [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chacon, Phillip [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gilpatrick, John D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Derwin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Power, John F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Smith, Brian [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01

278

PIXSCAN: Pixel detector CT-scanner for small animal imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The PIXSCAN is a small animal CT-scanner based on hybrid pixel detectors. These detectors provide very large dynamic range of photons counting at very low detector noise. They also provide high counting rates with fast image readout. Detection efficiency can be optimized by selecting the sensor medium according to the working energy range. Indeed, the use of CdTe allows a

P. Delpierre; F. Debarbieux; S. Basolo; J. F. Berar; A. Bonissent; N. Boudet; P. Breugnon; B. Caillot; F. Cassol Brunnera; B. Chantepie; J. C. Clemens; B. Dinkespiler; R. Khouri; I. Koudobine; V. Mararazzo; C. Meessen; M. Menouni; C. Morel; C. Mouget; P. Pangaud; F. Peyrin; G. Rougon; D. Sappey-Marinier; S. Valton; E. Vigeolas

2007-01-01

279

Definition of Fingerprint Scanner Image Quality Specifications by Operational Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes two recently released image quality specifications for single-finger scanners and proposes three new specifications targeted to different types of applications. A comparison of the potential effects on fingerprint recognition accuracy of the various specifications is carried out using an approach based on the definition of \\

A. Alessandroni; Raffaele Cappelli; Matteo Ferrara; Davide Maltoni

2008-01-01

280

Compensation of Scanner Creep and Hysteresis for AFM Nanomanipulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanomanipulation with atomic force microscopes (AFMs) for nanoparticles with overall sizes on the order of 10 nm has been hampered in the past by the large spatial uncertainties encountered in tip positioning. This paper addresses the compensation of nonlinear effects of creep and hysteresis on the piezo scanners which drive most AFMs. Creep and hysteresis are modeled as the superposition

Babak Mokaberi; Aristides A. G. Requicha

2008-01-01

281

High field-of-view IR scanner using microlens arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a growing demand for a larger field coverage for scanning in IR instrumentation. We have explored the possibility of using the microlens arrays (MLAs) for this purpose, and have developed a generic IR imaging scanner. The application of MLAs in the wide-field IR imagers is presented, along with their advantages and limitations. A series of systems using MLAs

Chen Feng; Anees Ahmad; Ramagopal V. Sarepaka

1995-01-01

282

Rigid prices: evidence from U.S. scanner data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses over two years of weekly scanner data from two small US cities to characterize time and state dependence of grocers' pricing decisions. In these data, the probability of a nominal adjustment declines with the time since the last price change. This reflects differences over time in the flexibility of prices charged by a single store for a

Jeffrey R. Campbell; Benjamin Eden

2005-01-01

283

Augmented tagging system for annotating and sharing videos on mobile device by bar scanner and social media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social media is very useful for collaborative learning because of their sharing and flexible nature. Many learning activities can use social media to facilitate the processes, such as collaborative writing, brainstorming, and live presentation streaming. Some instructors have paid attention to the popularity of social media. Social media is very simple and intuitive for users with information literacy on desktop

Chih-Kai Chang; Yu-Ying He; Chang-Shing Lee

2010-01-01

284

A COST EFFECTIVE MULTI-SPECTRAL SCANNER FOR NATURAL GAS DETECTION  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to design, fabricate and field demonstrate a cost effective, multi-spectral scanner for natural gas leak detection in transmission and distribution pipelines. During the first year of the project, a laboratory version of the multi-spectral scanner was designed, fabricated, and tested at En'Urga Inc. The multi-spectral scanner was also evaluated using a blind DoE study at RMOTC. The performance of the scanner was inconsistent during the blind DoE study. However, most of the leaks were outside the view of the multi-spectral scanner. Therefore, a definite evaluation of the capability of the scanner was not obtained. Despite the results, sufficient number of plumes was detected fully confirming the feasibility of the multi-spectral scanner. During the second year, a rugged prototype scanner will be developed and evaluated, both at En'Urga Inc. and any potential field sites.

Yudaya Sivathanu; Jongmook Lim; Vinoo Narayanan

2004-10-25

285

Multispectral scanner survey of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and the Hanford Reservation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An airborne multispectral scanner survey of selected sites on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and the Hanford Reservation was performed in mid-November 1993. Aerial multispectral scanner and photography data were acquired coincidentally with the...

S. B. Brewster M. E. Howard J. E. Shines

1994-01-01

286

Dual-surface dielectric depth detector for holographic millimeter-wave security scanners  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Transportation Security Administration (TSA) is presently deploying millimeter-wave whole body scanners at over 20 airports in the United States. Threats that may be concealed on a person are displayed to the security operator of this scanner. \\

Douglas L. McMakin; Paul E. Keller; David M. Sheen; Thomas E. Hall

2009-01-01

287

Fossil Nuclear Rings in Barred Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present observations and analysis of three barred S0 galaxies which contain smooth, luminous, stellar nuclear rings within their bars. These rings, which have little or no dust and are approximately the same color as surrounding bar and bulge, are probably the old remnants of bar-driven circumnuclear starburst episodes similar to those seen in many barred galaxies today. Using kinematic data from long-slit spectroscopy, we construct rotation and resonance curves and relate the relative sizes of the rings to possible bar resonances. Two of the galaxies are actually double-barred, with misaligned secondary bars inside the nuclear rings. In at least one of these (NGC 4340), the resonance curves indicate that the nuclear ring lies near or at one of the outer bar's inner Lindblad resonances; this is a plausible location for the secondary bar's corotation radius. We also discuss the difficulties inherent in detecting and identifying such rings, and show some of the surprising ways in which stellar rings can distort galaxy isophotes and ellipse fits.

Erwin, P.; Vega Beltran, J. C.; Beckman, J.

2000-12-01

288

Spinning dark matter haloes promote bar formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stellar bars are the most common non-axisymmetric structures in galaxies and their impact on the evolution of disc galaxies at all cosmological times can be significant. Classical theory predicts that stellar discs are stabilized against bar formation if embedded in massive spheroidal dark matter haloes. However, dark matter haloes have been shown to facilitate the growth of bars through resonant gravitational interaction. Still, it remains unclear why some galaxies are barred and some are not. In this study, we demonstrate that corotating (i.e. in the same sense as the disc rotating) dark matter haloes with spin parameters in the range of 0 ? ?dm ? 0.07 - which are a definite prediction of modern cosmological models - promote the formation of bars and boxy bulges and therefore can play an important role in the formation of pseudo-bulges in a kinematically hot dark-matter-dominated disc galaxies. We find continuous trends for models with higher halo spins: bars form more rapidly, the forming slow bars are stronger and the final bars are longer. After 2 Gyr of evolution, the amplitude of the bar mode in a model with ?dm = 0.05 is a factor of ˜6 times higher, A2/A0 = 0.23, than in the non-rotating halo model. After 5 Gyr, the bar is ˜2.5 times longer. The origin of this trend is that more rapidly spinning (corotating) haloes provide a larger fraction of trailing dark matter particles that lag behind the disc bar and help growing the bar by taking away its angular momentum by resonant interactions. A counter-rotating halo suppresses the formation of a bar in our models. We discuss potential consequences for forming galaxies at high-redshift and present-day low-mass galaxies which have converted only a small fraction of their baryons into stars.

Saha, Kanak; Naab, Thorsten

2013-09-01

289

In vivo cellular imaging with microscopes enabled by MEMS scanners  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-resolution optical imaging plays an important role in medical diagnosis and biomedical research. Confocal microscopy is a widely used imaging method for obtaining cellular and sub-cellular images of biological tissue in reflectance and fluorescence modes. Its characteristic optical sectioning capability also enables three-dimensional (3-D) image reconstruction. However, its use has mostly been limited to excised tissues due to the requirement of high numerical aperture (NA) lenses for cellular resolution. Microscope miniaturization can enable in vivo imaging to make possible early cancer diagnosis and biological studies in the innate environment. In this dissertation, microscope miniaturization for in vivo cellular imaging is presented. The dual-axes confocal (DAC) architecture overcomes limitations of the conventional single-axis confocal (SAC) architecture to allow for miniaturization with high resolution. A microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) scanner is the central imaging component that is key in miniaturization of the DAC architecture. The design, fabrication, and characterization of the two-dimensional (2-D) MEMS scanner are presented. The gimbaled MEMS scanner is fabricated on a double silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer and is actuated by self-aligned vertical electrostatic combdrives. The imaging performance of the MEMS scanner in a DAC configuration is shown in a breadboard microscope setup, where reflectance and fluorescence imaging is demonstrated. Then, the MEMS scanner is integrated into a miniature DAC microscope. The whole imaging system is integrated into a portable unit for research in small animal models of human biology and disease. In vivo 3-D imaging is demonstrated on mouse skin models showing gene transfer and siRNA silencing. The siRNA silencing process is sequentially imaged in one mouse over time.

Ra, Hyejun

290

Boric Acid Reclamation System (BARS)  

SciTech Connect

KLM Technologies' personnel have identified a Boric Acid Reclamation System (BARS) utilizing reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration to produce a recyclable grade of otherwise waste boric acid at PWRs, thus reducing a major source of low-level radwaste. The design of a prototype BARS as a compact volume reduction system was the result of KLM's Phase 1 Program, and based upon a preliminary feasibility program, which assessed the applicability of membrane technology to refurbish and recycle waste boric acid from floor and equipment drain streams. The analysis of the overall program indicated a substantial savings regarding off-site disposal costs. Today's economic scenario indicates that optimization of volume reduction operation procedures could significantly reduce waste management costs, especially where burial penalties have become more severe. As a reaction to the economic burden imposed by final disposal, many nuclear plants are currently modifying their design and operating philosophies concerning liquid radwaste processing systems to meet stricter environmental regulations, and to derive potential economic benefits by reducing the ever-increasing volumes of wastes that are produced. To effect these changes, innovative practices in waste management and more efficient processing technologies are being successfully implemented.

Kniazewycz, B.G.; Markind, J.

1986-03-01

291

Intrinsic sensor noise features for forensic analysis on scanners and scanned images  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large portion of digital images available today are acquired using digital cameras or scanners. While cameras provide digital reproduction of natural scenes, scanners are often used to capture hard-copy art in a more controlled environment. In this paper, new techniques for nonintrusive scanner forensics that utilize intrinsic sensor noise features are proposed to verify the source and integrity of

Hongmei Gou; Ashwin Swaminathan; Min Wu

2009-01-01

292

Effect of increased axial field of view of on the performance of a volume PET scanner.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The performance of the PENN-PET 240H scanner from UGM Medical Systems is tested and compared to the prototype PENN-PET scanner built at the University of Pennsylvania. The UGM PENN-PET scanner consists of six continuous position-sensitive NaI(Tl) detector...

J. S. Karp P. E. Kinahan G. Muehllehner P. Countryman

1991-01-01

293

GENERATION OF TRUE ORTHOIMAGES FROM AIRBORNE SCANNER DATA WITHOUT THE NEED OF HEIGHT INFORMATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new technique for the efficient production of true orthoimages. The approach is based on airborne scanner data, and takes advantage of the particular geometric properties of such data. If scanner data are available, that are acquired in two flight lines perpendicular to each other, no height information is required to generate true orthoimages.In airborne pushbroom scanner

J. Albertz; D. Bornemann; H. Zoberbier

294

Active damping of the scanner for high-speed atomic force microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scanner that moves the sample stage in three dimensions is a crucial device that limits the imaging rate of atomic force microscopy. This limitation derives mainly from the resonant vibrations of the scanner in the z direction (the most frequent scanning direction). Resonance originates in the scanner's mechanical structure as well as in the z piezoactuator itself. We previously

Noriyuki Kodera; Hayato Yamashita; Toshio Ando

2005-01-01

295

A Cost Effective Multi-Spectral Scanner for Natural Gas Detection  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to design, fabricate and demonstrate a cost effective, multi-spectral scanner for natural gas leak detection in transmission and distribution pipelines. During the first year of the project, a laboratory version of the multi-spectral scanner was designed, fabricated, and tested at EnUrga Inc. The multi-spectral scanner was also evaluated using a blind Department of Energy study at the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center. The performance of the scanner was inconsistent during the blind study. However, most of the leaks were outside the view of the multi-spectral scanner that was developed during the first year of the project. Therefore, a definite evaluation of the capability of the scanner was not obtained. Despite the results, sufficient number of plumes was detected fully confirming the feasibility of the multi-spectral scanner. During the second year, the optical design of the scanner was changed to improve the sensitivity of the system. Laboratory tests show that the system can reliably detect small leaks (20 SCFH) at 30 to 50 feet. A prototype scanner was built and evaluated during the second year of the project. Only laboratory evaluations were completed during the second year. The laboratory evaluations show the feasibility of using the scanner to determine natural gas pipeline leaks. Further field evaluations and optimization of the scanner are required before commercialization of the scanner can be initiated.

Yudaya Sivathanu; Jongmook Lim; Vinoo Narayanan; Seonghyeon Park

2005-12-07

296

Coriolis effects and the thermal bar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A model for the thermal bar system in the rotating frame that includes unsteady inertia is formulated. Asymptotic solutions are found to the initial value problem in the frictionless, small bottom slope limit. These solutions include inertial oscillations that are significant enough to reverse the circulation ahead of the thermal bar. These asymptotic solutions are compared with numerical solutions of the full model that includes friction. The consequences of both sets of results on the thermal bar in lakes is discussed.

Farrow, Duncan E.; McDonald, N. Robb

2002-05-01

297

Highly reliable qcw laser bars and stacks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on a well established technology for continuous-wave (cw) diode lasers, further development and optimization lead to high performance laser bars for quasi-continuous-wave (qcw) operation suitable for pumping applications. Mounted on standard heat sinks, these 808nm laser bars exhibit more than 300W (400W) qcw output power with 50% (75%) filling factors. Reliability tests of these bars are running at >200W.

E. Deichsel; D. Schröder; J. Meusel; R. Hülsewede; J. Sebastian; S. Ludwig; P. Hennig

2008-01-01

298

Do Bars Drive Spiral Density Waves?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present deep near-infrared Ks -band Anglo-Australian Telescope Infrared Imager and Spectrograph observations of a selected sample of nearby barred spiral galaxies, including some with the strongest known bars. The sample covers a range of Hubble types from SB0- to SBc. The goal is to determine if the torque strengths of the spirals correlate with those of the bars, which

Ronald J. Buta; Johan H. Knapen; Bruce G. Elmegreen; Heikki Salo; Eija Laurikainen; Debra Meloy Elmegreen; Ivânio Puerari; David L. Block; David L

2009-01-01

299

Resolution uniformity and sensitivity of the NIH ATLAS small animal PET scanner: Comparison to simulated LSO scanners without depth-of-interaction capability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Positron emission tomography (PET) scanners designed to image animals the size of rats and mice should possess simultaneously high and uniform spatial resolution and high sensitivity. ATLAS (Advanced Technology Laboratory Animal Scanner), a 6.0 cm diameter effective transverse field-of-view (FOV), 2 cm axial FOV ring-type research scanner seeks these goals by surrounding the animal with eighteen 15 mm deep, LGSO

Jürgen Seidel; Juan José Vaquero; Michael V. Green

2003-01-01

300

DO BARS DRIVE SPIRAL DENSITY WAVES?  

SciTech Connect

We present deep near-infrared K{sub s} -band Anglo-Australian Telescope Infrared Imager and Spectrograph observations of a selected sample of nearby barred spiral galaxies, including some with the strongest known bars. The sample covers a range of Hubble types from SB0{sup -} to SBc. The goal is to determine if the torque strengths of the spirals correlate with those of the bars, which might be expected if the bars actually drive the spirals as has been predicted by theoretical studies. This issue has implications for interpreting bar and spiral fractions at high redshift. Analysis of previous samples suggested that such a correlation exists in the near-infrared, where effects of extinction and star formation are less important. However, the earlier samples had only a few excessively strong bars. Our new sample largely confirms our previous studies, but still any correlation is relatively weak. We find two galaxies, NGC 7513 and UGC 10862, where there is only a weak spiral in the presence of a very strong bar. We suggest that some spirals probably are driven by their bars at the same pattern speed, but that this may be only when the bar is growing or if there is abundant gas and dissipation.

Buta, Ronald J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Knapen, Johan H. [Instituto de AstrofIsica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna (Spain); Elmegreen, Bruce G. [IBM Research Division, T.J. Watson Research Center, 1101 Kitchawan Road, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States); Salo, Heikki; Laurikainen, Eija [Division of Astronomy, Department of Physical Sciences, University of Oulu, Oulu FIN-90014 (Finland); Elmegreen, Debra Meloy [Vassar College, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Box 745, Poughkeepsie, NY 12604 (United States); Puerari, Ivanio [Instituto Nacional de AstrofIsica, Optica y Electronica, Tonantzintla, PUE 72840 (Mexico); Block, David L. [Anglo American Cosmic Dust Laboratory, School of Computational and Applied Mathematics, University of the Witwatersrand, P.O. Box 60 Wits, 2050 (South Africa)], E-mail: rbuta@bama.ua.edu, E-mail: jhk@iac.es, E-mail: bge@watson.ibm.com, E-mail: hsalo@sun3.oulu.fi, E-mail: eija@sun3.oulu.fi, E-mail: elmegreen@vassar.edu, E-mail: puerari@inaoep.mx, E-mail: David.Block@wits.ac.za

2009-05-15

301

TESTING THEORIES IN BARRED-SPIRAL GALAXIES  

SciTech Connect

According to one version of the recently proposed 'manifold' theory that explains the origin of spirals and rings in relation to chaotic orbits, galaxies with stronger bars should have a higher spiral arms pitch angle when compared to galaxies with weaker bars. A subsample of barred-spiral galaxies in the Ohio State University Bright Galaxy Survey was used to analyze the spiral arms pitch angle. These were compared with bar strengths taken from the literature. It was found that the galaxies in which the spiral arms maintain a logarithmic shape for more than 70 Degree-Sign seem to corroborate the predicted trend.

Martinez-Garcia, Eric E., E-mail: martinez@astroscu.unam.mx [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 70-264, Distrito Federal 04510 (Mexico)

2012-01-10

302

New design of high performance ionizing bar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper introduces a new design of DC-pulse ionizing bar to solve the problem of imbalance offset voltage for the AC ionizing bar, which is easily affected by the environment, as well as indicate the final tests. The new design mainly includes five parts: power supply circuit, main control unit, logic circuit, high frequency transformer unit, and feedback unit. The ionizing bar can automatically adjust the discharge voltage, pulse frequency and pulse width to balance the positive and negative ions. The final test results indicate that the DC ionizing bar owns good effect in electrostatic elimination.

Wang, Ronggang; Sun, Yurong

2013-03-01

303

NGC 4340: Double Bar + Fossil Nuclear Ring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NGC 4340 is a double-barred SB0 galaxy in the Virgo cluster (Wozniak et al. 1995). Here, we present evidence that this galaxy also posseses a luminous stellar nuclear ring of relatively old stars with little or no gas. The ring lies just outside the inner bar, at the probable inner inner Lindblad resonance (IILR) of the outer bar. Careful inspection of the isophotes and unsharp masks shows that the two bars are slightly misaligned, which suggests they may be independently rotating.

Erwin, Peter; Vega Beltrán, Juan Carlos; Beckman, John

304

High bandwidth scanner based on spatial-spectral holograms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I experimentally demonstrated a high bandwidth spatial-spectral holographic (SSH) scanner. Scanners or true time delay lines find their applications in phased-array antennas, radar range-Doppler processing and time-frequency ambiguity function analysis. A typical example of such a device is an acousto-optic deflector (AOD), which has limited bandwidth due to Bragg match conditions, frequency dependent acoustic attenuation of available materials and limitations of piezoelectric transducer technologies. The system proposed in this thesis breaks through the bandwidth limitation of acousto-optic technology, yet resembles the function of an AOD since both operates as a scrolling scanner. It uses a material with large inhomogeneous bandwidth to record space-dependent time-delays as spatial-spectral holograms. The recording of the spatial-spectral holograms utilizes a Galvo scanning (GS) mirror and a chirped laser. In Chapter 2, I experimentally show that a GS mirror can be sufficiently stable for the holographic recording process. After reviewing the relevant physics of the spatial-temporal holographic recording medium, the cryogenically-cooled rare earth doped crystals, in Chapter 3, I give further derivations that are useful in explaining the subsequent experimental results. Chapter 4 describes an efficient and stable numerical scheme for simulating the coherent light-atom interaction in a two-dimensional inhomogeneously-broadened crystal, allowing a search for the optimum experimental geometry for the recording experiment. Chapter 5 integrates the Galvo scanning mirror with the Tm3+:YAG crystal, and gives the experimental demonstration of the first high bandwidth (1.5GHz bandwidth with 20 resolvable spots) spatial-spectral holographic scanner. This system uses one laser for the proof-of concept experiment. Finally, in Chapter 6, I explore the prospect for the future development of the high bandwidth SSH scanner. This chapter also gives the design and demonstration of a two-laser stabilization circuit, with which we can extend our ability to realize the full version of the high bandwidth SSH scanner system.

Xiong, Jingyi

305

{bar d}/{bar u} asymmetry and the origin of the nucleon sea  

SciTech Connect

The Drell-Yan cross section ratios, {sigma}(p+d)/{sigma}(p+p), measured in Fermilab E866, have led to the first determination of {bar d}(x)/{bar u}(x), {bar d}(x){minus}{bar u}(x), and the integral of {bar d}(x){minus}{bar u}(x) for the proton over the range 0.02{le}x{le}0.345. The E866 results are compared with predictions based on parton distribution functions and various theoretical models. The relationship between the E866 results and the NMC measurement of the Gottfried integral is discussed. The agreement between the E866 results and models employing virtual mesons indicates that these non-perturbative processes play an important role in the origin of the {bar d},{bar u} asymmetry in the nucleon sea. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

Bush, J.D.; Isenhower, L.D.; Sadler, M.E.; Towell, R.S.; Willis, J.L.; Wise, D.K. [Abilene Christian University, Abilene, Texas 79699 (United States); Geesaman, D.F.; Kaufman, S.B.; Makins, N.; Mueller, B.A. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Brown, C.N.; Cooper, W.E. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States); He, X.C.; Lee, W.M.; Petitt, G. [Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia 30303 (United States); Kaplan, D.M. [Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois 60616 (United States); Peng, J.C.; Garvey, G.T.; Brooks, M.L.; Carey, T.A.; Lee, D.M.; Leitch, M.J.; McGaughey, P.L.; Moss, J.M.; Park, B.K.; Reimer, P.E.; Sondheim, W.E.; Thompson, T.N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Kirk, P.N.; Wang, Y.C.; Wang, Z.F. [Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States); Beddo, M.E.; Chang, T.H.; Kyle, G.; Papavassiliou, V.; Webb, J.C. [New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico 88003 (United States); Awes, T.C.; Stankus, P.W.; Young, G.R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Gagliardi, C.A.; Hawker, E.A.; Tribble, R.E.; Vasiliev, M.A. [Texas A M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Koetke, D.D.; Nord, P.M. [Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, Indiana 46383 (United States)

1998-11-01

306

Evolution of the Chocolate Bar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The majority of both student and faculty populations react quite favorably to chocolate and may even know something about its history. The movie Chocolat made millions, partly due to its starring actors, but also because the move drew salivating viewers to the multiple applications of chocolate. With its stimulant properties, chocolate generally makes people feel good. For purposes of this essay, chocolate also has the fortunate characteristic of appearing in many different sizes, shapes, and combinations. In this exercise, dubbed 'Evolution of the Chocolate Bar,' students build the most plausible phylogenetic tree based on identified synapomorphies of different 'species,' i.e. brands of chocolate. The exercise described below is easily assembled, works as a class demonstration or could be modified into small group projects, and also fits a variety of class timeframes. Substantial lines of inquiry could also be developed from this example.

Romi Burks (Southwestern University;); Larry Boles (Southwestern University;)

2007-04-20

307

Do Bars Trigger Activity in Galactic Nuclei?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the connection between the presence of bars and active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity, using a volume-limited sample of ~9000 late-type galaxies with axis ratio b/a > 0.6 and Mr < -19.5 + 5 log h at low redshift (0.02 <= z <~ 0.055), selected from Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7. We find that the bar fraction in AGN-host galaxies (42.6%) is ~2.5 times higher than in non-AGN galaxies (15.6%), and that the AGN fraction is a factor of two higher in strong-barred galaxies (34.5%) than in non-barred galaxies (15.0%). However, these trends are simply caused by the fact that AGN-host galaxies are on average more massive and redder than non-AGN galaxies because the fraction of strong-barred galaxies (f SB) increases with u - r color and stellar velocity dispersion. When u - r color and velocity dispersion (or stellar mass) are fixed, both the excess of f SB in AGN-host galaxies and the enhanced AGN fraction in strong-barred galaxies disappears. Among AGN-host galaxies we find no strong difference of the Eddington ratio distributions between barred and non-barred systems. These results indicate that AGN activity is not dominated by the presence of bars, and that AGN power is not enhanced by bars. In conclusion, we do not find clear evidence that bars trigger AGN activity.

Lee, Gwang-Ho; Woo, Jong-Hak; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Hwang, Ho Seong; Lee, Jong Chul; Sohn, Jubee; Lee, Jong Hwan

2012-05-01

308

Description of a transmission X-ray computed tomography scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new prototype X-ray computed tomography scanner has been designed, constructed and tested locally. The major system employs an X-ray tube, a semiconductor detector, data logger and a three-dimensional sample position controller driven by three stepping motors, which allow two linear translations in addition to the rotational motion. The image resolution is determined by the step size and the diameter of the X-ray beam, which is controlled by the pinhole collimator. The scanner is designed to reconstruct two- and three-dimensional images mapping the internal structures of the object with the aid of the computer. This system, due to the semiconductor detector used, presents the novelty of being potentially able to acquire both in CT (transmission) mode and in SPECT (emission) mode. The imaging system performance is inspected for different phantoms, and some typical reconstructed images are presented.

Hamideen, M. S.; Sharaf, J.; Al-Saleh, K. A.; Shaderma, M.

2011-11-01

309

Electrochemical push-pull scanner with mass spectrometry detection.  

PubMed

This manuscript presents a push-pull electrochemical scanner able to image reactivity of initially dry surfaces by scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) and to probe molecules present or generated at the surface by mass spectrometry (MS). The proof-of-concept is demonstrated by coupling SECM with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) for imaging latent human fingerprints, which had been in contact with picric acid used here as a model explosive. The push-pull electrochemical scanner has also been coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) to assay the activity of surface spotted enzymes. These experimental studies are complemented by 3D finite element simulations solving Navier-Stokes and diffusion-convection differential equations to optimize the coupling between SECM imaging and mass spectrometry detection. PMID:22789113

Momotenko, Dmitry; Qiao, Liang; Cortés-Salazar, Fernando; Lesch, Andreas; Wittstock, Gunther; Girault, Hubert H

2012-07-23

310

Beam dumping ghost signals in electric sweep scanners  

SciTech Connect

Over the last 20 years many labs started to use Allison scanners to measure low-energy ion beam emittances. We show that large trajectory angles produce ghost signals due to the impact of the beamlet on the electric deflection plates. The strength of the ghost signal is proportional to the amount of beam entering the scanner. Depending on the ions and their velocity, ghost signals can have the opposite polarity as the main beam signals or the same polarity. These ghost signals are easily overlooked because they partly overlap the real signals, they are mostly below the 1% level, and they are often hidden in the noise. However, they cause significant errors in emittance estimates because they are associated with large trajectory angles. The strength of ghost signals, and the associated errors, can be drastically reduced with a simple modification of the deflection plates.

Stockli, M.P.; /SNS Project, Oak Ridge /Tennessee U.; Leitner, M.; /LBL, Berkeley; Moehs, D.P.; /Fermilab; Keller, R.; /LBL, Berkeley; Welton, R.F.; /SNS Project, Oak Ridge

2004-12-01

311

Waveform calibration strategies for a small-footprint laser scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Waveform calibration is a crucial task in the processing of full-waveform laser scanner data. In most cases, there is a non-linear relationship between the "raw" waveform data stored by the sensor system and the actual input power. However, to establish standardized methods for the post processing of waveform data, input data related linearly to the power input are required. For some commercially available systems, this problem is handled by using a look-up table (LUT) as a transfer function from the "raw" amplitude (stored by the sensor system) of the peaks of the waveforms to their actual amplitude. Since the transformation is only valid for the peaks of the waveform, the question arises how this transformation would perturbate the shape (i.e. position, width and amplitude) of a backscattered laser pulse if applied to the whole waveform. This paper discusses the effects of the use of such non-linear transfer functions on complex laser scanner waveforms.

Roncat, Andreas; Wagner, Wolfgang; Melzer, Thomas; Ullrich, Andreas

2008-10-01

312

Monolithically integrated glass microlens scanner using a thermal reflow process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A monolithically integrated glass microlens optical scanner is presented. A new wafer-level fabrication approach addresses the issue of microlens integration and alignment in conventional microlens integrated devices. A through-silicon plano-convex glass microlens has been fabricated on a silicon substrate prior to the formation of an integrated microlens actuator, realized through two thermal reflow processes at 850 °C. A lateral comb drive is adapted to demonstrate the glass microlens scanner. The 800 µm diameter microlens was laterally shifted up to ±51.6 µm when an ac voltage of 28.5 V in amplitude was applied at a resonant frequency of 1.749 kHz at atmospheric pressure. The optical scanning angle of ±2.0° has been obtained with the fabricated device.

Yoo, Sunghyun; Ha, Joon-Geun; Jin, Joo-Young; Ji, Chang-Hyeon; Kim, Yong-Kweon

2013-06-01

313

Scanner Abundance in late-type evolved stars (Spinrad+ 1969)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abundance parameters have been derived from scanner observations of 229 stars. Observations were made with the Wampler photoelectric spectrum scanner (Wampler, 1966) on Lick Observatory's Crossley and 120inch telescopes. Data reductions were performed at UC Berkeley on the IBM 7094 computer using programs by L.V. Kuhi and B.J. Taylor. The method of reduction and the photometric standard system are described by Spinrad and Taylor (1969AJ.....72..320S). The file "color.dat" (tables 5 and 6 in the publication) gives colors between 3880 and 7400{AA} for program stars and survey stars, normalized so that I(5360)=1000. The file "block.dat" gives the blocking fractions for program stars. (4 data files).

Spinrad, H.; Taylor, B. J.

2002-04-01

314

Quality of Plate Copies Digitized with a Commercially Available Scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Digitization of all the (ca. 8,000) 8"x10" plates of the Maria Mitchell Observatory's plate collection with the commercially available scanner AgfaScan T5000 took about 1.5 years. Scanning these plates with the same nominal resolution (10-20 microns) using one of the best astronomical digital microdensitometers would be about 8 times longer, and, correspondingly, 8 times more expensive. Such a fast job may raise doubts in the quality of the scans. We show, by comparison with the control scans obtained with the STScI's GAMMA laser microdensitometer, that the additional random errors for stellar photometry introduced by AgfaScan T5000 are, typically, less than 0.05 mag, and that this scanner does not produce any detectable additional astrometric errors. This project was supported by the NSF/REU grant AST-0354056 and the Nantucket Maria Mitchell Association.

Strelnitski, V.; Davis, A.

2004-12-01

315

Development of a Head Scanner for Proton CT.  

PubMed

We describe a new head scanner developed for Proton Computed Tomography (pCT) in support of proton therapy treatment planning, aiming at reconstructing an accurate map of the stopping power (S.P.) in a phantom and, in the future, in patients. The system consists of two silicon telescopes which track the proton before and after the phantom/patient, and an energy detector which measures the residual energy or range of the proton to reconstruct the Water Equivalent Path Length (WEPL) in the phantom. Based on the experience of the existing prototype and extensive Geant4 simulations and CT reconstructions, the new pCT scanner will support clinically useful proton fluxes. PMID:23264711

Sadrozinski, H F-W; Johnson, R P; Macafee, S; Plumb, A; Steinberg, D; Zatserklyaniy, A; Hurley, V Bashkirov F; Schulte, R

2012-04-13

316

Development of a head scanner for proton CT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a new head scanner developed for Proton Computed Tomography (pCT) in support of proton therapy treatment planning, aiming at reconstructing an accurate map of the stopping power (S.P.) in a phantom and, in the future, in patients. The system consists of two silicon telescopes which track the proton before and after the phantom/patient, and an energy detector which measures the residual energy or range of the proton to reconstruct the Water Equivalent Path Length (WEPL) in the phantom. Based on the experience of the existing prototype and extensive Geant4 simulations and CT reconstructions, the new pCT scanner will support clinically useful proton fluxes.

Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Johnson, R. P.; Macafee, S.; Plumb, A.; Steinberg, D.; Zatserklyaniy, A.; Bashkirov, V. A.; Hurley, R. F.; Schulte, R. W.

2013-01-01

317

Wire Scanner Beam Profile Measurements: LANSCE Facility Beam Development  

SciTech Connect

The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is replacing Wire Scanner (WS) beam profile measurement systems. Three beam development tests have taken place to test the new wire scanners under beam conditions. These beam development tests have integrated the WS actuator, cable plant, electronics processors and associated software and have used H{sup -} beams of different beam energy and current conditions. In addition, the WS measurement-system beam tests verified actuator control systems for minimum profile bin repeatability and speed, checked for actuator backlash and positional stability, tested the replacement of simple broadband potentiometers with narrow band resolvers, and tested resolver use with National Instruments Compact Reconfigurable Input and Output (cRIO) Virtual Instrumentation. These beam tests also have verified how trans-impedance amplifiers react with various types of beam line background noise and how noise currents were not generated. This paper will describe these beam development tests and show some resulting data.

Gilpatrick, John D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Batygin, Yuri K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gonzales, Fermin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gruchalla, Michael E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kutac, Vincent G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Derwin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sedillo, James Daniel [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pillai, Chandra [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rodriguez Esparza, Sergio [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Smith, Brian G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-05-15

318

High field-of-view IR scanner using microlens arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a growing demand for a larger field coverage for scanning in IR instrumentation. We have explored the possibility of using the microlens arrays (MLAs) for this purpose, and have developed a generic IR imaging scanner. The application of MLAs in the wide-field IR imagers is presented, along with their advantages and limitations. A series of systems using MLAs and diffractive elements have been designed and analyzed for a diffraction-limited performance with 45 degree(s) and 60 degree(s) field of view for a f/1.4 IR imager operating in 3 - 5 micrometers wavelength range for 1-D and 2-D scanning applications. The optical design considerations, fabrication issues, and thermal effects are also discussed for these types of scanners.

Feng, Chen; Ahmad, Anees; Sarepaka, Ramagopal V.

1995-05-01

319

THE EL FAROL BAR PROBLEM AND COMPUTATIONAL EFFORT: WHY PEOPLE FAIL TO USE BARS EFFICIENTLY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Does how much an agent thinks about its own actions affect the global properties of a system? We use the El Farol Bar Problem to investigate this question. In this model, the El Farol Bar represents a scarce resource. Does the amount of computational ability that agents possess affect resource utilization? For instance, if agents attend the bar randomly on

WILLIAM RAND; FORREST STONEDAHL

320

Acing the Bar Exam : A Checklist Approach to Taking the Bar Exam  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aid provides candidates with a complete guide to the bar exam - from pre-planning considerations through bar review and sitting for the exam. Every aspect of the process is explained in detail and by example. The bar exam is deconstructed, section by section, where candidates are led through the steps they need to follow to succeed. Approaches for

Suzanne Darrow-Kleinhaus

2008-01-01

321

Bar graphs depicting averages are perceptually misinterpreted: the within-the-bar bias.  

PubMed

Perhaps the most common method of depicting data, in both scientific communication and popular media, is the bar graph. Bar graphs often depict measures of central tendency, but they do so asymmetrically: A mean, for example, is depicted not by a point, but by the edge of a bar that originates from a single axis. Here we show that this graphical asymmetry gives rise to a corresponding cognitive asymmetry. When viewers are shown a bar depicting a mean value and are then asked to judge the likelihood of a particular data point being part of its underlying distribution, viewers judge points that fall within the bar as being more likely than points equidistant from the mean, but outside the bar--as if the bar somehow "contained" the relevant data. This "within-the-bar bias" occurred (a) for graphs with and without error bars, (b) for bars that originated from both lower and upper axes, (c) for test points with equally extreme numeric labels, (d) both from memory (when the bar was no longer visible) and in online perception (while the bar was visible during the judgment), (e) both within and between subjects, and (f) in populations including college students, adults from the broader community, and online samples. We posit that this bias may arise due to principles of object perception, and we show how it has downstream implications for decision making. PMID:22648655

Newman, George E; Scholl, Brian J

2012-08-01

322

Too Much Bar and Not Enough Mitzvah? A Proposed Research Agenda on Bar/Bat Mitzvah  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Jewish educators are understandably interested in research on how bar/bat mitzvah affect Jewish education or research on what Jewish schools have done to avoid the distortions of a focus on bar/bat mitzvah. Research might also focus on the somewhat different and more ambitious topic of the role that bar/bat mitzvah play in contemporary Jewish…

Schoenfeld, Stuart

2010-01-01

323

Too Much Bar and Not Enough Mitzvah? A Proposed Research Agenda on Bar/Bat Mitzvah  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Jewish educators are understandably interested in research on how bar/bat mitzvah affect Jewish education or research on what Jewish schools have done to avoid the distortions of a focus on bar/bat mitzvah. Research might also focus on the somewhat different and more ambitious topic of the role that bar/bat mitzvah play in contemporary Jewish…

Schoenfeld, Stuart

2010-01-01

324

Optical performance requirements for MEMS-scanner based microdisplays  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-resolution (i.e., large pixel-count) and high frame rate dynamic microdisplays can be implemented by scanning a photon beam in a raster format across the viewer's retina. Microvision is developing biaxial MEMS scanners for such video display applications. This paper discusses the optical performance requirements for scanning display systems. The display resolution directly translates into a scan-angle-mirror-size product ( ?D-product) and

Hakan Urey; David W. Wine; Thor D. Osborn

325

A Novel Region Based Liveness Detection Approach for Fingerprint Scanners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biometric scanners have become widely popular in providing security to information technology and entry to otherwise sensitive\\u000a locations. However, these systems have been proven to be vulnerable to spoofing, or granting entry to an imposter using fake\\u000a fingers. While matching algorithms are highly successful in identifying the unique fingerprint biometric of an individual,\\u000a they lack the ability to determine if

Brian Decann; Bozhao Tan; Stephanie A. C. Schuckers

2009-01-01

326

90. View of scanner building no. 104 showing emplacement process ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

90. View of scanner building no. 104 showing emplacement process for one-half of upper radar switch housing body. RCA Services Company 6 September, 1960, official photograph BMEWS Project by unknown photograph, Photographic Services, Riverton, NJ, BMEWS, clear as negative no. a-1163. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

327

Dynamic 3D computed tomography scanner for vascular imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 3D dynamic computed-tomography (CT) scanner was developed for imaging objects undergoing periodic motion. The scanner system has high spatial and sufficient temporal resolution to produce quantitative tomographic/volume images of objects such as excised arterial samples perfused under physiological pressure conditions and enables the measurements of the local dynamic elastic modulus (Edyn) of the arteries in the axial and longitudinal directions. The system was comprised of a high resolution modified x-ray image intensifier (XRII) based computed tomographic system and a computer-controlled cardiac flow simulator. A standard NTSC CCD camera with a macro lens was coupled to the electro-optically zoomed XRII to acquire dynamic volumetric images. Through prospective cardiac gating and computer synchronized control, a time-resolved sequence of 20 mm thick high resolution volume images of porcine aortic specimens during one simulated cardiac cycle were obtained. Performance evaluation of the scanners illustrated that tomographic images can be obtained with resolution as high as 3.2 mm-1 with only a 9% decrease in the resolution for objects moving at velocities of 1 cm/s in 2D mode and static spatial resolution of 3.55 mm-1 with only a 14% decrease in the resolution in 3D mode for objects moving at a velocity of 10 cm/s. Application of the system for imaging of intact excised arterial specimens under simulated physiological flow/pressure conditions enabled measurements of the Edyn of the arteries with a precision of +/- kPa for the 3D scanner. Evaluation of the Edyn in the axial and longitudinal direction produced values of 428 +/- 35 kPa and 728 +/- 71 kPa, demonstrating the isotropic and homogeneous viscoelastic nature of the vascular specimens. These values obtained from the Dynamic CT systems were not statistically different (p less than 0.05) from the values obtained by standard uniaxial tensile testing and volumetric measurements.

Lee, Mark K.; Holdsworth, David W.; Fenster, Aaron

2000-04-01

328

Development, Field and Beta Tests of a Generic Manual Scanner  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel Generic Manual Scanner has been developed that combines simple and inexpensive position encoding hardware, hand-held inspection instruments and a pc computer and software, enabling the production of C-Scan images. A core concept of this development is to use NDT\\/I equipment already in use by and familiar to inspectors, intending to reduce changes in procedures. A minimal selection of

D. J. Barnard; D. K. Hsu; J. J. Peters

2007-01-01

329

Intracardiac ultrasound scanner using a micromachine (MEMS) actuator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Catheter-based intracardiac ultrasound offers the potential for improved guidance of interventional cardiac procedures. The objective of this research is the development of catheter-based mechanical sector scanners incorporating high frequency ultrasound transducers operating at frequencies up to 20 MHz. The authors' current transducer assembly consists of a single 1.75 mm by 1.75 mm, 20 MHz, PZT element mounted on a 2

Jason M. Zara; Stephen M. Bobbio; Scott Goodwin-Johansson; Stephen W. Smith

2000-01-01

330

Visualization and analysis of molecular scanner peptide mass spectra  

Microsoft Academic Search

The molecular scanner combines protein separation using gel electrophoresis with peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) techniques\\u000a to identify proteins in a highly automated manner. Proteins separated in a 2-dimensional polyacrylamide gel (2-D PAGE) are\\u000a digested in parallel and transferred onto a membrane keeping their relative positions. The membrane is then sprayed with a\\u000a matrix and inserted into a matrix-assisted laser desorption\\/ionization

Markus Müller; Robin Gras; Ron D. Appel; Willy V. Bienvenut; Denis F. Hochstrasser

2002-01-01

331

High contrast, CdTe portal scanner for radiation therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solid state, CdTe, linear array, portal imaging system is presented. One of the most promising new technologies for improving the quality of radiation therapy is the use of real-time systems to produce portal images. In the approach presented, a linear array of 256 CdTe photovoltaic detectors attached to a very compact linear scanner, all of which will be mounted

G. Entine; M. R. Squillante; R. Hahn; L. J. Cirignano; W. McGann; P. J. Biggs

1992-01-01

332

3D millimetre-wave scanner for luggage and parcels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the framework of a project [1] dealing with the enforcement of harbor security, a radar based luggage and parcel scanner was developed, with the inherent characteristics of the use of non ionizing radiation and thus without any health hazards for the involved people. The development of hardware and imaging software, based upon near field synthetic aperture algorithms, and fast mechanical scanning is described and first results of high resolution images of threat objects within parcels are shown.

Essen, Helmut; Zimmermann, Ralph; Hantscher, Sebastian; Pohl, Nils

2012-10-01

333

SNS LINAC Wire Scanner System : Signal Levels and Accuracy.  

SciTech Connect

The linac wire scanner system for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge, TN, USA, calls for 5 units in the medium energy beam transport (MEBT), 5 in the drift tube linac (DTL), and 10 in the coupled cavity linac (CCL). In this paper we present expected signal levels and an analysis of the error in the beam size measurement as functions of wire position and electrical signal errors.

Plum, M. A. (Michael A.); Christensen, W. (Wynn); Myer, R. E. (Ross E.); Rose, C. R. (Chris R.)

2002-01-01

334

High speed hydraulic scanner for deep X-ray lithography  

Microsoft Academic Search

From our research and development in hard x-ray lithography, we have found that our conventional leadscrew driven scanner\\u000a stages do not provide adequate scan speed or travel. These considerations have led us to develop a scanning system based on\\u000a a long stroke hydraulic drive with 635?mm of travel and closed loop feedback to position the stage to better than 100

J. C. Milne; E. D. Johnson

1998-01-01

335

Comparison of Cyberware PX and PS 3D human head scanners  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A common limitation of laser line three-Dimensional (3D) scanners is the inability to scan objects with surfaces that are either parallel to the laser line or that self-occlude. Filling in missing areas adds some unwanted inaccuracy to the 3D model. Capturing the human head with a Cyberware PS Head Scanner is an example of obtaining a model where the incomplete areas are difficult to fill accurately. The PS scanner uses a single vertical laser line to illuminate the head and is unable to capture data at top of the head, where the line of sight is tangent to the surface, and under the chin, an area occluded by the chin when the subject looks straight forward. The Cyberware PX Scanner was developed to obtain this missing 3D head data. The PX scanner uses two cameras offset at different angles to provide a more detailed head scan that captures surfaces missed by the PS scanner. The PX scanner cameras also use new technology to obtain color maps that are of higher resolution than the PS Scanner. The two scanners were compared in terms of amount of surface captured (surface area and volume) and the quality of head measurements when compared to direct measurements obtained through standard anthropometry methods. Relative to the PS scanner, the PX head scans were more complete and provided the full set of head measurements, but actual measurement values, when available from both scanners, were about the same.

Carson, Jeremy; Corner, Brian D.; Crockett, Eric; Li, Peng; Paquette, Steven

2008-03-01

336

APPLICATION OF THE RELAP5\\/Pb-Bi CODE TO SAFETY STUDIES FOR THE ADS MYRRHA FACILITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

RELAP (Reactor Excursion and Leak Analysis Program) is a code developed by Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for best estimate transient simulations of LWR coolant systems in a broad range of normal or accidental situations such as LOCAs (Loss Of Coolant Accidents ). The code is widely used for high pressurised reactors PWR (150 bars, 300°C) and BWR (70 bars,

S. Heusdains; B. Arien

337

Portable wide-field hand-held NIR scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near-infrared (NIR) optical imaging modality is one of the widely used medical imaging techniques for breast cancer imaging, functional brain mapping, and many other applications. However, conventional NIR imaging systems are bulky and expensive, thereby limiting their accelerated clinical translation. Herein a new compact (6 × 7 × 12 cm3), cost-effective, and wide-field NIR scanner has been developed towards contact as well as no-contact based real-time imaging in both reflectance and transmission mode. The scanner mainly consists of an NIR source light (between 700- 900 nm), an NIR sensitive CCD camera, and a custom-developed image acquisition and processing software to image an area of 12 cm2. Phantom experiments have been conducted to estimate the feasibility of diffuse optical imaging by using Indian-Ink as absorption-based contrast agents. As a result, the developed NIR system measured the light intensity change in absorption-contrasted target up to 4 cm depth under transillumination mode. Preliminary in-vivo studies demonstrated the feasibility of real-time monitoring of blood flow changes. Currently, extensive in-vivo studies are carried out using the ultra-portable NIR scanner in order to assess the potential of the imager towards breast imaging..

Jung, Young-Jin; Roman, Manuela; Carrasquilla, Jennifer; Erickson, Sarah J.; Godavarty, Anuradha

2013-03-01

338

Photoacoustic and thermoacoustic imaging with a multichannel breast scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photoacoustic and thermoacoustic phantom images obtained with a multi-channel breast scanner designed for breast cancer screening are presented here. A tunable laser system (OPOTEK Vibrant 355 I, Calsbad,CA) with a pulse duration of 5 ns was used for photoacoustic irradiation, and a 3.0 GHz microwave source with a pulse width of 0.3-1 ?s was used for thermoacoustic tomography. Multiple (>=16) 2.25 MHz single-element unfocused ultrasonic transducers at different depths were scanned simultaneously for a full 360° to obtain a full data set for three-dimensional (3D) tomography. Negative acoustic lenses were attached to these unfocused transducers to increase their acceptance angles. An ultrasound receiving system with 64 parallel receiving channels (Verasonics Inc. Redmond, WA) was used for data acquisition. A filtered backprojection algorithm was used to reconstruct two-dimensional (2D) and 3D images. Different phantoms were imaged to evaluate the performance of the scanner. A lateral resolution of less than 1 mm and an elevational resolution of less than 5 mm were achieved. The phantom studies demonstrate that this scanner can potentially provide high-resolution, dual-modality, three-dimensional images and can potentially be used for human breast cancer screening.

Huang, Bin; Maslov, Konstantin; Wang, Lihong V.

2012-02-01

339

Stability of 35 mm Scanners as Used in Ophthalmologic Research  

PubMed Central

Background and Objective To assess the consistency of digitization of 35mm slides, as practiced in ophthalmologic research and estimate the impact of variation on semi-automated retinal vessel width measurements. Study Design and Methods A single retina slide was repeatedly digitized under various conditions on three scanner models. Average color levels were extracted from the resulting images, from which vessel widths were graded. The color channel level variations and possible correlation with width were analyzed. Results The Nikon 5000 scanner had average coefficients of variation (CV) of 0.4, 2.3, and 0.5 for the red, green, and blue channel levels across all runs. The p-values of the correlation between the red, green, and blue color channel levels, and the width of the large retinal arteriole, were 0.89, 0.27, and 0.58. Conclusion Our results suggest that the tested scanners digitize the 35mm slides in a reliable manner without biasing the retinal vessel measurements.

Jensen, Karl; Lee, Kristine E.; Knudtson, Michael D.; Klein, Ronald; Klein, Barbara E.K.

2009-01-01

340

Handheld Optical Coherence Tomography Scanner for Primary Care Diagnostics  

PubMed Central

The goal of this study is to develop an advanced point-of-care diagnostic instrument for use in a primary care office using handheld optical coherence tomography (OCT). This system has the potential to enable earlier detection of diseases and accurate image-based diagnostics. Our system was designed to be compact, portable, user-friendly, and fast, making it well suited for the primary care office setting. The unique feature of our system is a versatile handheld OCT imaging scanner which consists of a pair of computer-controlled galvanometer-mounted mirrors, interchangeable lens mounts, and miniaturized video camera. This handheld scanner has the capability to guide the physician in real time for finding suspicious regions to be imaged by OCT. In order to evaluate the performance and use of the handheld OCT scanner, the anterior chamber of a rat eye and in vivo human retina, cornea, skin, and tympanic membrane were imaged. Based on this feasibility study, we believe that this new type of handheld OCT device and system has the potential to be an efficient point-of-care imaging tool in primary care medicine.

Jung, Woonggyu; Kim, Jeehyun; Jeon, Mansik; Chaney, Eric J.; Stewart, Charles N.

2011-01-01

341

Character coding  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Character coding has been called the bete noire of phylogenetic analysis. As you may have seen from class, the definition of "character" is squishy and varies between authors. Although there isn't agreement on exactly what a character is, it is possible to predict how certain character definitions and coding strategies affect phylogenetic analysis. This activity focuses on character coding, specifically about how different coding strategies can affect analysis. In this exercise we will try to look at different coding strategies by considering the simple shapes below. (1) What is a character, and what qualities do characters have? (2) Given the 'morphology' depicted above, what features vary? (3) Given the variation you identified, come up with as many character codings as you can; i.e., different ways that this variation can be coded into characters. (4) For each of the coding strategies you come up with in question 3, identify its assumptions, limitations, and strengths. (5) Identify your preferred coding strategy and defend your choice. Students asked to define what a character is and to discuss what they 'require', and then to come up with an exhaustive list of coding strategies for the sample morphology. They are then asked to list assumptions/limitations of each strategy.

Wilson, Jeff

342

Coriolis effects and the thermal bar  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model for the thermal bar system in the rotating frame that includes unsteady inertia is formulated. Asymptotic solutions are found to the initial value problem in the frictionless, small bottom slope limit. These solutions include inertial oscillations that are significant enough to reverse the circulation ahead of the thermal bar. These asymptotic solutions are compared with numerical solutions of

Duncan E. Farrow; N. Robb McDonald

2002-01-01

343

Constraints from microlensing on the COBE bar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the first review of converging evidences for a bar in the center of the Galaxy by de Zeeuw (1992) at the IAU Sym. 153 in Gent five years ago, the Galactic bar idea has been put on a solid footing by an influx of new data (COBE/DIRBE maps, star count data of bulge red clump giants, microlensing optical depth, and bulge stellar proper motions, etc.) and a burst of increasingly sophisticated theoretical models (triaxial luminosity models of Dwek et al. 1994, and Binney, Gerhard & Spergel 1997, steady state stellar bar dynamical model of Zhao 1996, combined luminosity, microlensing and gas kinematics models of Zhao, Rich & Spergel 1996, and Bissantz et al. 1997, etc.), which fit new data and improve upon earlier simple bulge/bar models (Kent 1992, Binney et al. 1991, Blitz & Spergel 1991). While research in this field shifts more and more to constraining the exact phase space and parameter space of the bar, both the non-uniqueness of and the mismatches among bars from different datasets start to show up. I compare the bar from microlensing data with the COBE bar and point out the effects the non-uniqueness.

Zhao, H. S.

344

The Galactic Bar and Spiral Arms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence has accumulated in the last few years that the Galactic bulge is barred and rotates rapidly. We describe recent work on the structure and dynamics of the Galactic bar and inner disk. Starting with the COBE\\/DIRBE near-infrared surface brightness distribution, we have begun to construct a quantitative model which is to integrate NIR photometry, source count observations, gas kinematics,

O. Gerhard

1998-01-01

345

Interpreting scan data acquired from multiple scanners: a study with Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Large, multi-site studies utilizing MRI-derived measures from multiple scanners present an opportunity to advance research by pooling data. On the other hand, it remains unclear whether or not the potential confound introduced by different scanners and upgrades will devalue the integrity of any results. Although there are studies of scanner differences for the purpose of calibration and quality control, the current literature is devoid of studies that describe the analysis of multi-scanner data with regard to the interaction of scanner(s) with effects of interest. We investigated a data-set of 136 subjects, 62 patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease and 74 cognitively normal elderly controls, with MRI scans from one center that were acquired over 10 years with 6 different scanners and multiple upgrades over time. We used a whole-brain voxel-wise analysis to evaluate the effect of scanner, effect of disease, and the interaction of scanner and disease for the 6 different scanners. The effect of disease in patients showed the expected significant reduction of grey matter in the medial temporal lobe. Scanner differences were substantially less than the group differences and only significant in the thalamus. There was no significant interaction of scanner with disease group. We describe the rationale for concluding that our results were not confounded by scanner differences. Similar analyses in other multi-scanner data-sets could be used to justify the pooling of data when needed, such as in studies of rare disorders or in multi-center designs. PMID:18032068

Stonnington, Cynthia M; Tan, Geoffrey; Klöppel, Stefan; Chu, Carlton; Draganski, Bogdan; Jack, Clifford R; Chen, Kewei; Ashburner, John; Frackowiak, Richard S J

2007-10-13

346

Experimental evaluation of photoacoustic coded excitation using unipolar golay codes.  

PubMed

Q-switched Nd:YAG lasers are commonly used as light sources for photoacoustic imaging. However, laser diodes are attractive as an alternative to Nd:YAG lasers because they are less expensive and more compact. Although laser diodes deliver about three orders of magnitude less light pulse energy than Nd:YAG lasers (tens of microjoules compared with tens of millijoules), their pulse repetition frequency (PRF) is four to five orders of magnitude higher (up to 1 MHz compared with tens of hertz); this enables the use of averaging to improve SNR without compromising the image acquisition rate. In photoacoustic imaging, the PRF is limited by the maximum acoustic time-of-flight. This limit can be overcome by using coded excitation schemes in which the coding eliminates ambiguities between echoes induced by subsequent pulses. To evaluate the benefits of photoacoustic coded excitation (PACE), the performance of unipolar Golay codes is investigated analytically and validated experimentally. PACE imaging of a copper slab using laser diodes at a PRF of 1 MHz and a modified clinical ultrasound scanner is successfully demonstrated. Considering laser safety regulations and taking into account a comparison between a laser diode system and Nd:YAG systems with respect to SNR, we conclude that PACE is feasible for small animal imaging. PMID:20639152

Mienkina, Martin P; Friedrich, Claus-Stefan; Gerhardt, Nils C; Wilkening, Wilko G; Hofmann, Martin R; Schmitz, Georg

2010-07-01

347

Persistent sand bars explained by geodynamic effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The persistent nature of intertidal sand bars has been the subject of much speculation concerning the hydrodynamic mechanisms involved, but its origin remains enigmatic. Here, we introduce salient geophysics in contrast to the physics of fluids above the sediments. The geophysical evidence combined with theoretical modeling and analysis demonstrates that the geodynamic processes ensuing during exposure periods have a profound impact, yielding the persistent nature of the intertidal bars under severe hydrodynamic forcing which would otherwise lead to unstable bar behavior. The feedback between the effects of the dynamics of suction, i.e. negative pore water pressure relative to atmospheric air pressure, and sediment transport and morphology is found to play a crucial role in the intertidal bar morphodynamics. Our finding may fundamentally alter the current perspective, leading to a new level of understanding, of sediment transport and bar behavior at waterfronts that are ubiquitous in rivers, estuaries, and coastal seas.

Sassa, Shinji; Watabe, Yoichi

2009-01-01

348

[Development of cereal bar with pineapple skin].  

PubMed

The cereal bars are multi-component products consisting of cereals, dried fruit and syrup binder and may be added to the consumable parts of fruits and vegetables which usually are not exploited and have high nutritional value, thereby reducing food waste. It was developed a jam with pineapple skin, which it was utilized in 13.5% in the cereal bar formulation. The cereal bar was sensorial evaluated and had its centesimal and mineral composition determined. The new product achieved average of 8.3 for global impression using 9 points hedonic scale, 91% of acceptance rate and 67% of purchase intent. In this first use of pineapple skin jam as food ingredient it can be concluded that its aggregation in the cereal bar formula is feasible, making an accepted product with fibers, proteins and minerals, as an alternative to traditional cereal bars. PMID:22308949

Fonseca, Renata Siqueira; Del Santo, Victor Rogério; Souza, Gilberto Batista de; Pereira, Cíntia Alessandra Matiucci

2011-06-01

349

Development of a dynamic triaxial Kolsky bar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a confined Kolsky bar device capable of applying hydrostatic confining pressures and dynamic axial shear loads to right-circular cylindrical samples. The conventional Kolsky bar apparatus is modified by adding a high-pressure hydraulic chamber capable of applying radial confining pressures up to 400 MPa to the test specimen. An additional pressure chamber is added to the free end of the transmission bar and applies the axial portion of the hydrostatic pressure to the specimen. Once confinement is achieved, a striker bar impacts the incident bar to apply a dynamic, axial shear load to the test specimen. Pulse shaping techniques are employed in this device to generate the desired incident pulse necessary to achieve stress equilibrium in the sample and strain the sample at a nearly constant rate. We present data for an Indiana limestone tested at confining pressures up to 200 MPa and strain rates of 400 s-1, and compare results to quasi-static data.

Frew, D. J.; Akers, S. A.; Chen, W.; Green, Mark L.

2010-10-01

350

CHALLENGES TO IMPLEMENTING AND ENFORCING CALIFORNIA'S SMOKE-FREE WORKPLACE ACT IN BARS  

PubMed Central

California’s 1995 Smoke-Free Workplace Act—Assembly Bill 13 (AB 13)—was extended to bars in 1998. This paper examines the challenges faced by officials responsible for implementing and enforcing the law. As part of a series of studies evaluating AB 13 in bars, researchers conducted confidential in-depth interviews with 35 state, county and municipal authorities and representatives of non-governmental agencies. The interviews were recorded, transcribed, coded and analyzed by themes and respondent categories. Data from structured observations in sampled bars and interviews with bar staff and patrons offer contextual information. Analyses indicated the following challenges: 1) an ineffective administrative structure, 2) problems associated with the complaint-driven system used to enforce the law, 3) lack of funding for enforcement, 4) low prioritization of enforcement, and 5) the minimal deterrence effect of the sanctioning penalties. The findings indicate why indoor smoking may continue in some bars despite the state law prohibiting smoking in workplaces. Many municipalities, states and countries may be considering restricting smoking in workplaces including bars, and our findings show that clear delineation of procedures and enforcement criteria, as well as funding and substantive penalties, should be considered in drafting these laws.

Satterlund, Travis D.; Lee, Juliet P.; Moore, Roland S.; Antin, Tamar M.J.

2009-01-01

351

Bond strength of epoxy coated bar splices confined with nominal lateral reinforcement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fusion bonded epoxy coating is one of the methods used to protect steel against corrosion. The primary objective of this research reported in this paper is to evaluate the bond strength of epoxy coated bar splices confined with lateral reinforcement. Six full scale beams specimens, designed to fail in bond- splitting mode, were tested in positive bending. Each beam was reinforced with bars spliced in the constant moment region at mid span. The main variables were the amount of transverse reinforcement in the splice region and the coating to the bar. Test results indicate that transverse reinforcement improves the bond strength of coated bars and the ductility of the beams. The bond strength of coated bars is 93%, 72% and 59% of uncoated bars for confinement indices of 1.8, 1.4 and 1.26 respectively. Moreover, a bond reduction factor of 1.35 is suggested for use in code in place of 1.5,when the confinement index is greater than 1.4.

Pandurangan, Krishnamurthy; Rao, Gangolu Appa

2013-03-01

352

Bond strength of epoxy coated bar splices confined with nominal lateral reinforcement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fusion bonded epoxy coating is one of the methods used to protect steel against corrosion. The primary objective of this research reported in this paper is to evaluate the bond strength of epoxy coated bar splices confined with lateral reinforcement. Six full scale beams specimens, designed to fail in bond- splitting mode, were tested in positive bending. Each beam was reinforced with bars spliced in the constant moment region at mid span. The main variables were the amount of transverse reinforcement in the splice region and the coating to the bar. Test results indicate that transverse reinforcement improves the bond strength of coated bars and the ductility of the beams. The bond strength of coated bars is 93%, 72% and 59% of uncoated bars for confinement indices of 1.8, 1.4 and 1.26 respectively. Moreover, a bond reduction factor of 1.35 is suggested for use in code in place of 1.5,when the confinement index is greater than 1.4.

Pandurangan, K.; Rao, G. Appa

2012-10-01

353

An Implementation of Bayesian Adaptive Regression Splines (BARS) in C with S and R Wrappers.  

PubMed

BARS (DiMatteo, Genovese, and Kass 2001) uses the powerful reversible-jump MCMC engine to perform spline-based generalized nonparametric regression. It has been shown to work well in terms of having small mean-squared error in many examples (smaller than known competitors), as well as producing visually-appealing fits that are smooth (filtering out high-frequency noise) while adapting to sudden changes (retaining high-frequency signal). However, BARS is computationally intensive. The original implementation in S was too slow to be practical in certain situations, and was found to handle some data sets incorrectly. We have implemented BARS in C for the normal and Poisson cases, the latter being important in neurophysiological and other point-process applications. The C implementation includes all needed subroutines for fitting Poisson regression, manipulating B-splines (using code created by Bates and Venables), and finding starting values for Poisson regression (using code for density estimation created by Kooperberg). The code utilizes only freely-available external libraries (LAPACK and BLAS) and is otherwise self-contained. We have also provided wrappers so that BARS can be used easily within S or R. PMID:19777145

Wallstrom, Garrick; Liebner, Jeffrey; Kass, Robert E

2008-06-01

354

The population of barred galaxies in the local universe. I. Detection and characterisation of bars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context: Bars are very common in the centre of the disc galaxies, and they drive the evolution of their structure. The state-of-the-art imaging and redshift surveys of galaxies allow us to study the relationships between the properties of the bars and those of their hosts in statistically significant samples. Aims: A volume-limited sample of 2106 disc galaxies was studied to derive the bar fraction, length, and strength as a function of the morphology, size, local galaxy density, light concentration, and colour of the host galaxy. The sample galaxies were selected to not be strongly disturbed/interacting. Methods: The bar and galaxy properties were obtained by analysing the r-band images of the sample galaxies available in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 5. Results: The bars were detected using the ellipse fitting method and Fourier analysis method. They were tested and calibrated with extensive simulations on artificial images. The ellipse fitting method was found to be more efficient in detecting bars in spiral galaxies. The fraction of barred galaxies turned out to be 45%. A bar was found in 29% of the lenticular galaxies, in 55% and 54% of the early- and late-type spirals, respectively. The bar length (normalised by the galaxy size) of late-type spirals is shorter than in early-type or lenticular ones. A correlation between the bar length and galaxy size was found with longer bars hosted by larger galaxies. The bars of the lenticular galaxies are weaker than those in spirals. Moreover, the unimodal distribution of the bar strength found for all the galaxy types argues against a quick transition between the barred and unbarred statues. There is no difference between the local galaxy density of barred and unbarred galaxies. Besides, neither the length nor strength of the bars are correlated with the local density of the galaxy neighbourhoods. In contrast, a statistical significant difference between the central light concentration and colour of barred and unbarred galaxies was found. Bars are mostly located in less concentrated and bluer galaxies. Conclusions: These results indicate that the properties of bars are strongly related to those of their host galaxies, but do not depend on the local environment.

Aguerri, J. A. L.; Méndez-Abreu, J.; Corsini, E. M.

2009-02-01

355

32 CFR 776.66 - Bar admission and disciplinary matters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Bar admission and disciplinary matters. 776.66 Section 776.66 National...776.66 Bar admission and disciplinary matters. (a) Bar admission and disciplinary matters. A covered attorney, in...

2013-07-01

356

33 CFR 13.01-10 - Gold and silver bars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Gold and silver bars. 13.01-10 Section 13...RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-10 Gold and silver bars. No person shall receive...

2010-07-01

357

33 CFR 13.01-40 - Miniature medals and bars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-40 Miniature medals and bars. (a) Miniature Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals and bars are replicas of...

2013-07-01

358

Evaluation of scanners for C-scan imaging in nondestructive inspection of aircraft  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project was to produce a document that contains information on the usability and performance of commercially available, fieldable, and portable scanner systems as they apply to aircraft NDI inspections. In particular, the scanners are used to generate images of eddy current, ultrasonic, or bond tester inspection data. The scanner designs include manual scanners, semiautomated scanners, and fully automated scanners. A brief description of the functionality of each scanner type, a sketch, and a fist of the companies that support the particular design are provided. Vendors of each scanner type provided hands-on demonstrations of their equipment on real aircraft samples in the FAA Aging Aircraft Nondestructive Inspection Validation Center (AANC) in Albuquerque, NM. From evaluations recorded during the demonstrations, a matrix of scanner features and factors and ranking of the capabilities and limitations of the design, portability, articulation, performance, usability, and computer hardware/software was constructed to provide a quick reference for comparing the different scanner types. Illustrations of C-scan images obtained during the demonstration are shown.

Gieske, J.H.

1994-04-01

359

Selective Area Growth of Semipolar (20\\bar{2}1) and (20\\bar{2}\\bar{1}) GaN Substrates by Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We carried out the selective area growths of GaN on semipolar (20\\bar{2}1), (20\\bar{2}\\bar{1}), and related non- and semi-polar GaN substrates by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy. By changing the growth parameters and directions of the SiO2 stripe mask, the differences in GaN structures between the growths on the different substrates were investigated. In the case of the stripes \\parallel a-axis, anisotropic GaN structures with (000\\bar{1}) and (10\\bar{1}1) facets were obtained for all the non- and semi-polar GaN substrates. On the other hand, in the case of the stripes \\perp a-axis, isotropic GaN structures were obtained for the (20\\bar{2}1) and (20\\bar{2}\\bar{1}) GaN substrates. However, the GaN structures between them were quite different. After 120 min of growth, \\{11\\bar{2}0\\} and (20\\bar{2}\\bar{1}) facets markedly expanded for the (20\\bar{2}1) and (20\\bar{2}\\bar{1}) GaN substrates, respectively. Moreover, by exploiting the effect of growth temperature, the growth of a continuous (20\\bar{2}\\bar{1}) GaN layer with voids was realized.

Jinno, Daiki; Ma, Bei; Miyake, Hideto; Hiramatsu, Kazumasa; Enatsu, Yuuki; Nagao, Satoru

2013-08-01

360

Undertow over a barred beach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatial distribution of the mean cross-shore flow (undertow) over a barred beach is examined with field data obtained on three energetic wave days during the Duck94 experiment. The vertical structure of the undertow is modeled using a turbulent eddy viscosity closure and includes the important effects of wave breaking (described using the roller concept) and convective acceleration of the current. Other than a more realistic description of observed turbulence variations, a depth-dependent eddy viscosity (compared with a constant) does not improve the agreement between predicted and observed undertow profiles. The effect of using different boundary conditions is investigated by extending the formulations of Stive and Wind [1986] and Svendsen et al. [1987] to include random waves by ensemble averaging over the wave height distribution. The contribution of breaking wave rollers to the surface mass flux can be of the same order or greater than the contribution associated with the organized wave motion. The largest discrepancies between model predictions and observations occur over the sandbar, where the mass transport of the breaking waves appears to be underestimated.

Faria, A. F. Garcez; Thornton, E. B.; Lippmann, T. C.; Stanton, T. P.

2000-07-01

361

The "Bar of Soap" test.  

PubMed

The Du Pont HIV CHEK test is appropriate for screening blood in developing countries for antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) 1 and 2. This is popularly known as the "bar of soap" test due to the equipment's appearance. In this procedure, HIV antigen is absorbed on a membrane fitted in the recess of a block of plastic. Serum or plasma is added and allowed to soak through to the membrane. Any HIV antibody remains on the membrane and joins to the HIV antigen. A buffer and wash solution are then passed through the membrane and protein-A gold conjugate is added. This red reagent joins to the HIV antibody and is seen as a red spot on the membrane. If there is no HIV antibody, the red reagent soaks through and there is no red spot. This test, which takes 5-10 minutes, has a sensitivity of 99.3% and a specificity of 98.4%. It can be performed individually and has the advantages of ease of reading and simplicity of technique. Although HIV CHEK is not the cheapest test available, a special reduced price is available through several nonprofit or charitable organizations that assist blood screening programs in developing countries. PMID:12281631

Cheesbrough, M

1988-12-01

362

Elastic bars with cohesive energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most quasi-static variational models of fracture are based on the splitting of the energy functional into the sum of two terms: bulk, depending on the displacement gradient, and surface, depending on the displacement discontinuities. In this paper we consider the simplest one-dimensional problem of this type, a bar stretched by a given axial displacement, and systematically compare two alternative interpretations of the surface energy term. In the first interpretation ( elastic model), the surface energy is viewed as a cohesive energy which is stored and can be recovered. In the second ( inelastic model), it is irreversibly lost. We show that by assuming an evolution scheme based on local minimization and by varying the convexity-concavity properties of the surface energy the elastic model can reproduce a broad class of macroscopic material responses which have been traditionally treated as unrelated. These responses are associated with monotone loading and range from brittle fracture to rate independent plasticity. However, a realistic description for both loading and unloading is achieved only within the inelastic model.

Piero, Gianpietro Del; Truskinovsky, Lev

2009-07-01

363

Highly reliable qcw laser bars and stacks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on a well established technology for continuous-wave (cw) diode lasers, further development and optimization lead to high performance laser bars for quasi-continuous-wave (qcw) operation suitable for pumping applications. Mounted on standard heat sinks, these 808nm laser bars exhibit more than 300W (400W) qcw output power with 50% (75%) filling factors. Reliability tests of these bars are running at >200W. Several GShots at 2, 4 and 10% duty cycle (d.c.) were already achieved. With this high performance qcw laser bars, passively cooled laser stacks were developed and tested using a new design compatible to high power operation. Thermal expansion matched materials and hard solder techniques allow reliable operation, even under rough environmental conditions. Output powers of 2.5kW (>300W per bar) were demonstrated from a stack with 8 bars. After environmental tests (vibration and thermal cycles), an ongoing life test exhibits more than 2.5GShots with 1.6kW (~200W per bar) at 4% duty cycle.

Deichsel, E.; Schröder, D.; Meusel, J.; Hülsewede, R.; Sebastian, J.; Ludwig, S.; Hennig, P.

2008-03-01

364

K bar -Hyperon Interactions and Possible S-Wave Resonances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using one-hadron-exchange potentials which describe consistently the baryon-baryon ( NN, YN and YY) and meson-baryon (? N and KN) interactions, we discuss properties of the S-wave K bar -hyperon interactions. Solving the coupled-channel ??-K bar ?-K bar ? problem, we obtain the possible existence of an S-wave resonance (a quasibound state of K bar ?) below the K bar ? threshold. A K bar ? bound state with I = 0 is also predicted.

Shinmura, Shoji; Xiem, Ngo Thi Hong

2013-08-01

365

Gas Feedback on Stellar Bar Evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze evolution of live disk-halo systems with gas fractions, fgas<=8% of the disk mass, for 5 Gyr. Specifically, we have addressed the issue of angular momentum (J) transfer from the gas to the stellar bar and its effect on the bar. We find that the bar weakening, reported in the literature, is not related to the gas, but is caused by the vertical buckling instability in the gas-poor disks and by a steep stellar heating by the central mass concentration (CMC) in the gas-rich disks. However, the gas has a profound effect on the onset of the buckling: larger fgas brings it forth due to the more massive CMCs. The former process leads to the well-known formation of the boxy/peanut-shaped bulges, while the latter results in the formation of more elliptical bulges, for larger fgas. The subsequent secular bar evolution differs: the gas-poor models exhibit a growing bar while gas-rich models show a declining bar whose vertical swelling is driven by a resonance heating. The borderline between the gas-poor and gas-rich models is model-dependent and will be affected by processes such as star formation and stellar feedback. The overall effect of the gas on the bar is not in a direct J transfer to the stars, but in the loss of J by the gas and the gas influx to the center. A more massive CMC damps the bar buckling and depopulates orbits responsible for the appearance of boxy/peanut-shaped bulges. The combined action of resonant and nonresonant processes in gas-poor and gas-rich disks leads to a converging evolution in the vertical extent of the bar and its stellar dispersion velocities, and to a diverging evolution in the bulge properties.

Berentzen, Ingo; Shlosman, Isaac; Martinez-Valpuesta, Inma; Heller, Clayton H.

2007-09-01

366

DNA codes  

SciTech Connect

We have begun to characterize a variety of codes, motivated by potential implementation as (quaternary) DNA n-sequences, with letters denoted A, C The first codes we studied are the most reminiscent of conventional group codes. For these codes, Hamming similarity was generalized so that the score for matched letters takes more than one value, depending upon which letters are matched [2]. These codes consist of n-sequences satisfying an upper bound on the similarities, summed over the letter positions, of distinct codewords. We chose similarity 2 for matches of letters A and T and 3 for matches of the letters C and G, providing a rough approximation to double-strand bond energies in DNA. An inherent novelty of DNA codes is 'reverse complementation'. The latter may be defined, as follows, not only for alphabets of size four, but, more generally, for any even-size alphabet. All that is required is a matching of the letters of the alphabet: a partition into pairs. Then, the reverse complement of a codeword is obtained by reversing the order of its letters and replacing each letter by its match. For DNA, the matching is AT/CG because these are the Watson-Crick bonding pairs. Reversal arises because two DNA sequences form a double strand with opposite relative orientations. Thus, as will be described in detail, because in vitro decoding involves the formation of double-stranded DNA from two codewords, it is reasonable to assume - for universal applicability - that the reverse complement of any codeword is also a codeword. In particular, self-reverse complementary codewords are expressly forbidden in reverse-complement codes. Thus, an appropriate distance between all pairs of codewords must, when large, effectively prohibit binding between the respective codewords: to form a double strand. Only reverse-complement pairs of codewords should be able to bind. For most applications, a DNA code is to be bi-partitioned, such that the reverse-complementary pairs are separated across the two blocks. For the foregoing reasons, these two blocks of codewords suffice as the hooks and loops of a digital Velcro. We began our investigations of such codes by constructing quaternary BCH reverse-complement codes, using cyclic codes and conventional Hamming distance [4]. We also obtained upper and lower bounds on the rate of reverse-complement codes with a metric function based on the foregoing similarities [3]. For most applications involving DNA, however, the reverse-complementary analogue of codes based on the insertion-deletion distance is more advantageous. This distance equals the codeword length minus the longest length of a common (not necessarily contiguous) subsequence. (The 'aligned' codes described above may be used under special experimental conditions), The advantage arises because, under the assumption that DNA is very flexible, the sharing of sufficiently long subsequences between codewords would be tantamount to the ability of one of their reverse complements to form a double strand with the other codeword. Thus far, using the random coding method, we have derived an asymptotic lower bound on the rate of reverse-complement insertion-deletion codes, as a function of the insertion-deletion distance fraction and of the alphabet size [1]. For the quaternary DNA alphabet of primary importance, this lower bound yields an asymptotically positive rate if the insertion-deletion-distance fraction does not exceed the threshold {approx} 0.19. Extensions of the Varsamov-Tenengol'ts construction of insertion-deletion codes [5] for reverse-complement insertion-deletion codes will be described. Experiments have been performed involving some of our DNA codes.

Torney, D. C. (David C.)

2001-01-01

367

The feasibility of a scanner-independent technique to estimate organ dose from MDCT scans: Using CTDI{sub vol} to account for differences between scanners  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Monte Carlo radiation transport techniques have made it possible to accurately estimate the radiation dose to radiosensitive organs in patient models from scans performed with modern multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT) scanners. However, there is considerable variation in organ doses across scanners, even when similar acquisition conditions are used. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of a technique to estimate organ doses that would be scanner independent. This was accomplished by assessing the ability of CTDI{sub vol} measurements to account for differences in MDCT scanners that lead to organ dose differences. Methods: Monte Carlo simulations of 64-slice MDCT scanners from each of the four major manufacturers were performed. An adult female patient model from the GSF family of voxelized phantoms was used in which all ICRP Publication 103 radiosensitive organs were identified. A 120 kVp, full-body helical scan with a pitch of 1 was simulated for each scanner using similar scan protocols across scanners. From each simulated scan, the radiation dose to each organ was obtained on a per mA s basis (mGy/mA s). In addition, CTDI{sub vol} values were obtained from each scanner for the selected scan parameters. Then, to demonstrate the feasibility of generating organ dose estimates from scanner-independent coefficients, the simulated organ dose values resulting from each scanner were normalized by the CTDI{sub vol} value for those acquisition conditions. Results: CTDI{sub vol} values across scanners showed considerable variation as the coefficient of variation (CoV) across scanners was 34.1%. The simulated patient scans also demonstrated considerable differences in organ dose values, which varied by up to a factor of approximately 2 between some of the scanners. The CoV across scanners for the simulated organ doses ranged from 26.7% (for the adrenals) to 37.7% (for the thyroid), with a mean CoV of 31.5% across all organs. However, when organ doses are normalized by CTDI{sub vol} values, the differences across scanners become very small. For the CTDI{sub vol}, normalized dose values the CoVs across scanners for different organs ranged from a minimum of 2.4% (for skin tissue) to a maximum of 8.5% (for the adrenals) with a mean of 5.2%. Conclusions: This work has revealed that there is considerable variation among modern MDCT scanners in both CTDI{sub vol} and organ dose values. Because these variations are similar, CTDI{sub vol} can be used as a normalization factor with excellent results. This demonstrates the feasibility of establishing scanner-independent organ dose estimates by using CTDI{sub vol} to account for the differences between scanners.

Turner, Adam C.; Zankl, Maria; DeMarco, John J.; Cagnon, Chris H.; Zhang Di; Angel, Erin; Cody, Dianna D.; Stevens, Donna M.; McCollough, Cynthia H.; McNitt-Gray, Michael F. [Departments of Biomedical Physics and Radiology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90024 (United States); Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Institute of Radiation Protection, German Research Center for Environmental Health (GmbH), Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Departments of Biomedical Physics and Radiology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90024 (United States); Department of Imaging Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland, Oregon 97239 (United States); Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota 55901 (United States); Departments of Biomedical Physics and Radiology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90024 (United States)

2010-04-15

368

Temperature dependence of APD-based PET scanners.  

PubMed

Purpose: Solid state detectors such as avalanche photodiodes (APDs) are increasingly being used in PET detectors. One of the disadvantages of APDs is the strong decrease of their gain factor with increasing ambient temperature. The light yield of most scintillation crystals also decreases when ambient temperature is increased. Both effects lead to considerable temperature dependence of the performance of APD-based PET scanners. In this paper, the authors propose a model for this dependence and the performance of the LabPET8 APD-based small animal PET scanner is evaluated at different temperatures.Methods: The model proposes that the effect of increasing temperature on the energy histogram of an APD-based PET scanner is a compression of the histogram along the energy axis. The energy histogram of the LabPET system was acquired at 21?°C and 25?°C to verify the validity of this model. Using the proposed model, the effect of temperature on system sensitivity was simulated for different detector temperature coefficients and temperatures. Subsequently, the effect of short term and long term temperature changes on the peak sensitivity of the LabPET system was measured. The axial sensitivity profile was measured at 21?°C and 24?°C following the NEMA NU 4-2008 standard. System spatial resolution was also evaluated. Furthermore, scatter fraction, count losses and random coincidences were evaluated at different temperatures. Image quality was also investigated.Results: As predicted by the model, the photopeak energy at 25?°C is lower than at 21?°C with a shift of approximately 6% per °C. Simulations showed that this results in an approximately linear decrease of sensitivity when temperature is increased from 21?°C to 24?°C and energy thresholds are constant. Experimental evaluation of the peak sensitivity at different temperatures showed a strong linear correlation for short term (2.32 kcps/MBq/°C = 12%/°C, R = -0.95) and long term (1.92 kcps/MBq/°C = 10%/°C , R = -0.96) temperature changes. Count rate evaluation showed that although the total count rate is consistently higher at 21?°C than at 24?°C for different source activity concentrations, this is mainly due to an increase in scattered and random coincidences. The peak total count rate is 400 kcps at both temperatures but is reached at lower activity at 21?°C. The peak true count rate is 138 kcps (at 100 MBq) at 21?°C and 180 kcps (at 125 MBq) at 24?°C. The peak noise equivalent count rate is also lower at 21?°C (70 kcps at 70 MBq) than at 24?°C (100 kcps at 100 MBq). At realistic activity levels, the scatter fraction is lower at higher temperatures, but at the cost of a strong decrease in true count rate.Conclusions: A model was proposed for the temperature dependence of APD-based PET scanners and evaluated using the LabPET small animal PET scanner. System sensitivity and count rate performance are strongly dependent on ambient temperature while system resolution is not. The authors' results indicate that it is important to assure stable ambient temperature to obtain reproducible results in imaging studies with APD-based PET scanners. PMID:24007182

Keereman, Vincent; Van Holen, Roel; Vandenberghe, Stefaan; Vanhove, Christian

2013-09-01

369

Mechanism of induction of Bar -like eye malformation by transient overexpression of Bar homeobox genes in Drosophila melanogaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

TheBar locus ofDrosophila is known to be a small complex consisting of two similar homeobox genes,BarH1 andBarH2. Usingegr as an ommatidium marker, possible mechanisms of formation of malformed eyes were examined. As in the case ofBarH1, overexpression ofBarH2 was found to be capable of inducingBar-like eye malformation. It was suggested that suppression of the anterior progression of the morphogenetic furrow

Tetsuya Kojima; Masaki Sone; Tatsuo Michiue; Kaoru Saigo

1993-01-01

370

Thermoacoustic CT scanner for breast imaging: design considerations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have previously developed instrumentation for performing thermoacoustic computed tomography (TCT) of the human breast using 434 MHz radio waves. Recently, we have modified our original TCT scanner design in a number of important ways. We have increased the number of ultrasound detectors and decreased their size, and we have replaced our single RF wave- guide with a phased array of eight wave-guides. These modifications have led to increased spatial resolution, increased imaging field of view, and decreased scan time. Here we report the design considerations that led to these improvements.

Kruger, Robert A.; Kiser, William L.; Miller, Kathy D.; Reynolds, Handel E.; Reinecke, Daniel R.; Kruger, Gabe A.; Hofacker, Peter J.; Eisenhart, R. L.

2000-04-01

371

Scanner grid recipe creation improvement for tighter overlay specifications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Overlay specifications are tightening with each lithography technology node. As a result, there is a need to improve overlay control methodologies to make them more robust and less time- or effort-consuming, but without any compromise in quality. Two concepts aimed at improving the creation of scanner grid recipes in order to meet evertightening overlay specifications are proposed in this article. Simulations will prove that these concepts can achieve both goals, namely improving overlay control performance and reducing the time and effort required to do so. While more studies are needed to fine-tune the parameters to employ, the trends presented in this paper clearly show the benefits.

Cotte, Eric; Kathiresan, Hariharasudhan; Ruhm, Matthias; Schulz, Bernd; Schulze, Uwe

2013-10-01

372

Inspection of Samples using a fast Millimetre Wave Scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Millimeterwaves and terahertz sensors can cover a broad field of applications ranging from production control to security scanners. The outstanding features are the transparency of many materials like textiles, paper and plastics in this frequency region, the good contrast of any humid or dense dielectric material and the capability to employ miniaturized RF systems and small antenna apertures or dielectric probes. A stand-alone-millimetre-wave-imager, SAMMY, was developed and built, to demonstrate the outstanding features of this part of the electromagnetic spectrum for material inspection.

Hommes, A.; Nüssler, D.; Warok, P.; Krebs, C.; Heinen, S.; Essen, H.

2011-08-01

373

Two-laser, large-field hyperspectral microarray scanner for the analysis of multicolor microarrays.  

PubMed

We describe the development and operation of a two-laser, large-field hyperspectral scanner for analysis of multicolor genotyping microarrays. In contrast to confocal microarray scanners, in which wavelength selectivity is obtained by positioning band-pass filters in front of a photomultiplier detector, hyperspectral microarray scanners collect the complete visible emission spectrum from the labeled microarrays. Hyperspectral scanning permits discrimination of multiple spectrally overlapping fluorescent labels with minimal use of optical filters, thus offering important advantages over standard filter-based multicolor microarray scanners. The scanner uses two-sided oblique line illumination of microarrays. Two lasers are used for the excitation of dyes in the visible and near-infrared spectral regions. The hyperspectral scanner was evaluated with commercially available two-color calibration slides and with in-house-printed four-color microarrays containing dyes with spectral properties similar to their commercial genotyping array counterparts. PMID:18808153

Erfurth, Florian; Tretyakov, Alexander; Nyuyki, Berla; Mrotzek, Grit; Schmidt, Wolf-Dieter; Fassler, Dieter; Saluz, Hans Peter

2008-09-23

374

Identifying the sources of the pulse artefact in EEG recordings made inside an MR scanner  

PubMed Central

EEG recordings made during concurrent fMRI are confounded by the pulse artefact (PA), which although smaller than the gradient artefact is often more problematic because of its variability over multiple cardiac cycles. A better understanding of the PA is needed in order to generate improved methods for reducing its effect in EEG–fMRI experiments. Here we performed a study aimed at identifying the relative contributions of three putative sources of the PA (cardiac-pulse-driven head rotation, the Hall effect due to pulsatile blood flow and pulse-driven expansion of the scalp) to its amplitude and variability. EEG recordings were made from 6 subjects lying in a 3 T scanner. Accelerometers were fixed on the forehead and temple to monitor head motion. A bite-bar and vacuum cushion were used to restrain the head, thus greatly attenuating the contribution of cardiac-driven head rotation to the PA, while an insulating layer placed between the head and the EEG electrodes was used to eliminate the Hall voltage contribution. Using the root mean square (RMS) amplitude of the PA averaged over leads and time as a measure of the PA amplitude, we found that head restraint and insulating layer reduced the PA by 61% and 42%, respectively, when compared with the PA induced with the subject relaxed, indicating that cardiac-pulse-driven head rotation is the dominant source of the PA. With both the insulating layer and head restraint in place, the PA was reduced in RMS amplitude by 78% compared with the relaxed condition, the remaining PA contribution resulting from scalp expansion or residual head motion. The variance of the PA across cardiac cycles was more strongly reduced by the insulating layer than the head restraint, indicating that the flow-induced Hall voltage makes a larger contribution than pulse-driven head rotation to the variability of the PA.

Mullinger, Karen J.; Havenhand, Jade; Bowtell, Richard

2013-01-01

375

Poll Code  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Are you a pollster? Would you like to be one? PollCode makes all of this quite simple. With this handy application, visitors can type in a poll question and up to 30 possible answers. Visitors can customize the poll with their own colors, font, and settings. After visitors have completed their poll, they can use the HTML code provided here to share their poll with others via social media networks and the like. This version of Poll Code is compatible with all operating systems. [KMG

2013-05-09

376

HOW DIFFERENT ARE NORMAL AND BARRED SPIRALS?  

SciTech Connect

No significant color differences are found between normal and barred spirals over the range of Hubble stages a-ab-b-bc. Furthermore, no significant difference is seen between the luminosity distributions of normal and barred galaxies over the same range of Hubble stages. However, SBc galaxies are found to be systematically fainter than Sc galaxies at 99% confidence. The observation that normal and barred spirals with Hubble stages a-ab-b-bc have indistinguishable intrinsic colors hints at the possibility that the bars in such spiral galaxies might be ephemeral structures. Finally, it is pointed out that lenticular galaxies of types S0 and SB0 are systematically fainter than are other early-type galaxies, suggesting that such galaxies are situated on evolutionary tracks that differ systematically from those of galaxies that lie along the E-Sa-Sb-Sc and E-SBa-SBb-SBc sequences.

Van den Bergh, Sidney, E-mail: sidney.vandenbergh@nrc.gc.ca [Dominion Astrophysical Observatory, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada)

2011-06-15

377

Performance of a Biaxial MEMS-Based Scanner for Microdisplay Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scanned displays have potential for achieving high brightness and see-through configurations in many display applications. A MEMS-based solution based on these tradeoffs for SVGA level performance is presented, with test data illustrating optical, mechanical, and electrical performance. Comparisons of this scanner against video requirements and other scanners previously reported are illustrated. The feasibility of MEMS-based scanners for Retinal Scanning Displays

David W. Wine; Mark P. Helsel; Lorne Jenkins; Hakan Urey; Thor D. Osborn

378

A compact MicroCT\\/MicroXRF scanner for non-destructive 3D chemical analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a compact laboratory scanner, which combines X-ray microtomography (microCT) with X-ray microfluorescence tomography (3D microXRF). This dual-modality scanner opens possibility for nondestructive threedimensional volumetric analysis of local chemical composition, enhanced by morphological information provided by the built-in microCT. Unlike known microXRF methods based on collimated beam and detector, our microXRF scanner includes a full-field acquisition system based

Alexander Sasov; Xuan Liu; David Rushmer

2008-01-01

379

A compact XYZ scanner for fast atomic force microscopy in constant force contact mode  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and characterization of a fast flexure-based, parallel-kinematics XYZ scanner for atomic force microscopy is presented in this article. The objective of the project is to design a AFM scanner with the ability to scan an image at high-speed and high resolution. Finite-element analysis was used to optimize the scanner's design in order to achieve high resonance frequencies. Experimental

Yuen Kuan Yong; S. O. Reza Moheimani

2010-01-01

380

High-tech breakthrough DNA scanner for reading sequence and detecting gene mutation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 17?×14? X-ray film, gels, and blots are widely used in DNA research. However, DNA laser scanners are costly and unaffordable\\u000a for the majority of surveyed biotech scientists who need it. The high-tech breakthrough analytical personal scanner (PS) presented\\u000a in this report is an inexpensive 1 lb hand-held scanner priced at 2–4% of the bulky and costly 30–95 lb conventional

Jack A. Zeineh; Michael M. Zeineh; R. A. Zeineh

1993-01-01

381

Design and Modeling of a High-Speed AFM-Scanner  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new mechanical scanner design for a high-speed atomic force microscope (AFM) is presented and discussed in terms of modeling and control. The positioning range of this scanner is 13 mum in the X- and Y-directions and 4.3 mum in the vertical direction. The lowest resonance frequency of this scanner is above 22 kHz. This paper is focused on the

Georg Schitter; Karl J. Åström; Barry E. DeMartini; Philipp J. Thurner; Kimberly L. Turner; Paul K. Hansma

2007-01-01

382

The BaBar Track Fitting Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an update on the Kalman filter track fitting algorithm used by BaBar, which was first presented at CHEP 97 (1). The novel formulation of the Kalman filter algorithm and its C++ implementation are reviewed. We describe our experience commissioning and running this track fitter on the data produced in the BaBar commissioning run (with around 1.5 of integrated

David N. Brown; Eric A. Charles; Douglas A. Roberts

383

Plans for bar PANDA online computing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The bar PANDA experiment will not use any hardware trigger, i.e. all raw data are streaming in the data acquisition with a bandwidth of <= 280 GB/s. The bar PANDA Online System is designed to perform data reduction by a factor of simeq 800 by reconstruction algorithms programmed in VHDL (Very High Speed Integrated Circuit Hardware Description Language) on FPGAs (Field Programmable Gate Arrays).

Lange, J. S.; Jin, D.; Kirschner, D.; Kopp, A.; Kühn, W.; Lang, J.; Li, L.; Liu, M.; Liu, Z.-A.; Münchow, D.; Perez, T.; Roskoss, J.; Wang, Q.; Xu, H.; Yang, S.

2009-11-01

384

Comparing Columns on a Bar Graph (Illuminations)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson plan students learn to create bar graphs using unifix cubes, translate this representation to graph paper, and then compare the data that has been collected and displayed. Students are encouraged to make up their own questions about the data (favorite juice) and to practice with multiple sets of data. Sample questions for students and extension ideas are included. The lesson contains links to a PDF of graph paper and the Bar Grapher tool which is cataloged separately in this database.

Burton, Grace M.

2012-01-01

385

Fast neutron radiography scanner for the detection of contraband in air cargo containers.  

PubMed

There is a growing need to rapidly scan bulk air cargo for contraband such as illicit drugs and explosives. The Commonwealth Science and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) have been working with Australian Customs Service to develop a scanner capable of directly scanning airfreight containers in 1--2 minutes without unpacking. The scanner combines fast neutron and gamma-ray radiography to provide high-resolution images that include information on material composition. A full-scale prototype scanner has been successfully tested in the laboratory and a commercial-scale scanner is due to be installed at Brisbane airport in 2005. PMID:15963428

Eberhardt, J E; Rainey, S; Stevens, R J; Sowerby, B D; Tickner, J R

2005-08-01

386

A COST EFFECTIVE MULTI-SPECTRAL SCANNER FOR NATURAL GAS DETECTION  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to design, fabricate and field demonstrate a cost effective, multi-spectral scanner for natural gas leak detection in transmission and distribution pipelines. During the first year of the project, a laboratory version of the multi-spectral scanner was designed, fabricated, and tested at En'Urga Inc. The multi-spectral scanner was also evaluated using a blind DoE study at RMOTC. The performance of the scanner was inconsistent during the blind DoE study. However, most of the leaks were outside the view of the multi-spectral scanner. Therefore, a definite evaluation of the capability of the scanner was not obtained. Despite the results, sufficient number of plumes was detected fully confirming the feasibility of the multi-spectral scanner. During the second year, the optical design of the scanner was changed to improve the sensitivity of the system. Laboratory tests show that the system can reliably detect small leaks (20 SCFH) at 30 to 50 feet. Electronic design of the scanner to make it a self standing sensor is currently in progress. During the last six months of the project, the electronic and mechanical design will be completed and evaluated at En'Urga Inc.

Yudaya Sivathanu; Jongmook Lim; Vinoo Narayanan; Seonghyeon Park

2005-04-15

387

Dependence of CT attenuation values on scanner type using in vivo measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the key measures of response to treatment for patients in multicenter clinical trials is the lung density measured in Hounsfield Units (HU) from Computer Tomography (CT) scans. The purpose of this work is to determine the dependence of CT attenuation values on scanner type by using in vivo measurements made from homogeneous anatomic areas. In vivo measurements were made in areas within the trachea, aorta, fat and muscle regions of CT scans obtained from subjects scanned as part of a multicenter treatment trial. Scans were selected so that exams from all four major manufacturers were included in the study. For each anatomic region of interest, the mean and standard deviation values were computed to investigate attenuation dependence on scanners. For example, trachea mean (standard deviation) measurements for exams from GE, Siemens, Philips and Toshiba scanners were -986 HU(+/-15), - 993 HU(+/-9), -988HU(+/-8), -1046(+/-10) respectively. Inter-scanner variability was observed for each scanner showing significant differences (all p-values <0.005). Previous work in examining attenuation dependence on scanners has been performed using anthropomorphic phantoms. The novelty of this work is the use of in vivo measurements from homogeneous regions in order to examine scanner effects on CT attenuation values. Our results show that CT attenuation values for the anatomic regions vary between scanners and hence, dependence of CT attenuation values on scanners is observed.

Prasad, Mithun; Meza, Alicia; Kim, Hyun J.; Brown, Matthew S.; Abtin, Fereidoun; Goldin, Jonathan G.; McNitt-Gray, Michael F.

2008-04-01

388

Emitter resolved analysis of packaged laser bars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermo-mechanical stress occurring during the packaging process and during operation limits the reliability of high-power diode laser bars. The stress is caused by the mismatch of the thermal expansion coefficients between the heat sink and laser bar material. A soft solder layer can partially reduce the stress by relaxation. A convenient approach for reducing the stress is the matching of the thermal expansion of the heat sink to the laser bar material. The disadvantage of most expansion-matched heat sinks is a higher thermal resistance so that the device temperature increases and the lifetime decreases. For the development of thermal and strain optimized diode laser packages an analysis of both the thermal and strain distribution is reasonable. In this work the strain is analyzed by electroluminescence using the correlation between stress and the polarization properties of the laser bar radiation. This method allows a qualitative emitter resolved strain mapping along the slow-axis. Because of the correlation between temperature and wavelength a thermal analysis of mounted laser bars can be done by an emitter resolved spectral mapping. Irregularities in the thermal contact between laser bar and heat sink such as defects in the solder layer become visible by irregular emitter spectra. The work shows examples for the optimization of the package. The analysis of the thermal and strain distribution shows the advantages and disadvantages of the particular approaches, like variations of solder thickness or expansion matched packages.

Westphalen, Thomas; Leers, Michael; Scholz, Christian; Boucke, Konstantin

2008-03-01

389

Absolute Temperature Monitoring Using RF Radiometry in the MRI Scanner  

PubMed Central

Temperature detection using microwave radiometry has proven value for noninvasively measuring the absolute temperature of tissues inside the body. However, current clinical radiometers operate in the gigahertz range, which limits their depth of penetration. We have designed and built a noninvasive radiometer which operates at radio frequencies (64 MHz) with ?100-kHz bandwidth, using an external RF loop coil as a thermal detector. The core of the radiometer is an accurate impedance measurement and automatic matching circuit of 0.05 ? accuracy to compensate for any load variations. The radiometer permits temperature measurements with accuracy of ±0.1°K, over a tested physiological range of 28° C–40° C in saline phantoms whose electric properties match those of tissue. Because 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners also operate at 64 MHz, we demonstrate the feasibility of integrating our radiometer with an MRI scanner to monitor RF power deposition and temperature dosimetry, obtaining coarse, spatially resolved, absolute thermal maps in the physiological range. We conclude that RF radiometry offers promise as a direct, noninvasive method of monitoring tissue heating during MRI studies and thereby providing an independent means of verifying patient-safe operation. Other potential applications include titration of hyper- and hypo-therapies.

El-Sharkawy, AbdEl-Monem M.; Sotiriadis, Paul P.; Bottomley, Paul A.; Atalar, Ergin

2007-01-01

390

Design of a small animal MR compatible PET scanner  

SciTech Connect

Using a combination of Monte-Carlo simulations and experimental measurements, the authors have designed a small animal MR compatible PET (McPET) scanner for simultaneous PET and MR imaging of mice and rats in vivo. The scanner consists of one ring of 480 LSO crystals arranged in 3 layers with 160 crystals per layer. The crystal dimensions are 2 x 3 x 7.5 mm{sup 3}. This was based on a target resolution of 2.5 mm and simulations showing that a depth of 7.5 mm avoided significant depth of interaction effects across the desired field of view. The system diameter of 11.2 cm is large enough to accommodate the animal positioned inside a stereotactic frame. Each crystal will be coupled through 2 mm diameter optical fibers to multi-channel PMT`s which reside outside the main magnetic field. Through 50 cm of optical fiber, a photopeak is clearly seen and the measured energy resolution is 25%. Prototype optical fiber connectors have been tested to increase the flexibility of the system and result in a light loss of only 6%. The proposed system will have adequate resolution and sensitivity for a number of applications in small animals and will be the first practical device for simultaneous in vivo imaging with PET and MR.

Slates, R.; Cherry, S.; Boutefnouchet, A.; Shao, Y.; Dahlbom, M.; Farahani, K. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). School of Medicine

1999-06-01

391

TOF laser scanner characterization for low-range applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When TOF laser scanners were introduced on the market, their performances were rather poor, having in general a measurement uncertainty in the range of centimeters. For this reason it was clear that their application was definitely limited to environment and architecture survey, where the large size of the involved objects makes acceptable the relative measurement error. But with the progressive improvement of technology, and the consequent increase in the measurement precision, the potential range of purposes have been widened. In this paper an application to museum objects have been considered. Studying the scanner performance when working at a low range, and using such results to properly interpret the acquired data, it was possible to survey a famous wooden model of S. Peter basilica in Rome, remodeling its shape with a 3D surface modeler. Resolution, precision and accuracy have been studied at distances ranging from 1 to 3 meters, in working conditions similar to those imposed by the museum constrains. The results were used to properly set-up some post processing steps instrumental characterization as a key step in the 3D modeling process, both for increasing the geometrical data reliability, and for processing them (e.g. in the smoothing phase) in a way compliant with their metrological characteristics.

Guidi, Gabriele; Bianchini, Carlo

2007-01-01

392

Absolute Temperature Monitoring Using RF Radiometry in the MRI Scanner.  

PubMed

Temperature detection using microwave radiometry has proven value for noninvasively measuring the absolute temperature of tissues inside the body. However, current clinical radiometers operate in the gigahertz range, which limits their depth of penetration. We have designed and built a noninvasive radiometer which operates at radio frequencies (64 MHz) with ?100-kHz bandwidth, using an external RF loop coil as a thermal detector. The core of the radiometer is an accurate impedance measurement and automatic matching circuit of 0.05 ? accuracy to compensate for any load variations. The radiometer permits temperature measurements with accuracy of ±0.1°K, over a tested physiological range of 28° C-40° C in saline phantoms whose electric properties match those of tissue. Because 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners also operate at 64 MHz, we demonstrate the feasibility of integrating our radiometer with an MRI scanner to monitor RF power deposition and temperature dosimetry, obtaining coarse, spatially resolved, absolute thermal maps in the physiological range. We conclude that RF radiometry offers promise as a direct, noninvasive method of monitoring tissue heating during MRI studies and thereby providing an independent means of verifying patient-safe operation. Other potential applications include titration of hyper- and hypo-therapies. PMID:18026562

El-Sharkawy, Abdel-Monem M; Sotiriadis, Paul P; Bottomley, Paul A; Atalar, Ergin

2006-11-01

393

Development, Field and Beta Tests of a Generic Manual Scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel Generic Manual Scanner has been developed that combines simple and inexpensive position encoding hardware, hand-held inspection instruments and a pc computer and software, enabling the production of C-Scan images. A core concept of this development is to use NDT/I equipment already in use by and familiar to inspectors, intending to reduce changes in procedures. A minimal selection of scan sizes and data collection settings are utilized to minimize the training required to operate the unit. The manual scanner system is undergoing field and beta test to evaluate system performance and reliability, with units at the Air Force Research Lab (Dayton, OH), NavAir (Pax River), United Airlines (SFO), Cessna Aircraft Co. (Wichita, KS), as well as other locations. The users have provided valuable feedback on the operation of the system, suggested adding new or deleting unused features as well as reporting of bugs/problems with the C-scan software interface. Reported here are the results of these tests as well as intended future work.

Barnard, D. J.; Hsu, D. K.; Peters, J. J.

2007-03-01

394

URSIES: an Ultravariable Resolution Single Interferometer Echelle Scanner.  

PubMed

A Fabry-Perot interferometer in a Ramsay mount is used in tandem with an echelle Hilger monochromator with pinholes instead of slits. The instrument, URSIES, is enclosed within a pressure chamber filled with Freon. Photoelectric pulse counting techniques and pressure scanning are used to record the spectrum. This design has four basic advantages: (1) The resolution of the scanner is variable from 5.0 A to 0.005 A, and the effective wavelength range is quite broad, from 3500 A to 13,000 A. (2) A light gain of ten over conventional grating scanners at resolutions of 0.1 A or better is achieved. (3) Very low levels of light from outside the wavelength passband reach the detector; for a resolution of 0.03 A at 6000 A this level is 5%. (4) There are very low levels of scattered light from the pinholes when extended sources are observed. The scattered light from the instrument at the edge of the solar disk is found to be less than 1% from 4000 A to 11,000 A. Measurements demonstrating these advantages are discussed. PMID:20119110

Wyller, A A; Fay, T

1972-05-01

395

Role of Erosion in Shaping Point Bars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A powerful metaphor in fluvial geomorphology has been that depositional features such as point bars (and other floodplain features) constitute the river's historical memory in the form of uniformly thick sedimentary deposits waiting for the geomorphologist to dissect and interpret the past. For the past three decades, along the channel of Powder River (Montana USA) we have documented (with annual cross-sectional surveys and pit trenches) the evolution of the shape of three point bars that were created when an extreme flood in 1978 cut new channels across the necks of two former meander bends and radically shifted the location of a third bend. Subsequent erosion has substantially reshaped, at different time scales, the relic sediment deposits of varying age. At the weekly to monthly time scale (i.e., floods from snowmelt or floods from convective or cyclonic storms), the maximum scour depth was computed (by using a numerical model) at locations spaced 1 m apart across the entire point bar for a couple of the largest floods. The maximum predicted scour is about 0.22 m. At the annual time scale, repeated cross-section topographic surveys (25 during 32 years) indicate that net annual erosion at a single location can be as great as 0.5 m, and that the net erosion is greater than net deposition during 8, 16, and 32% of the years for the three point bars. On average, the median annual net erosion was 21, 36, and 51% of the net deposition. At the decadal time scale, an index of point bar preservation often referred to as completeness was defined for each cross section as the percentage of the initial deposit (older than 10 years) that was still remaining in 2011; computations indicate that 19, 41, and 36% of the initial deposits of sediment were eroded. Initial deposits were not uniform in thickness and often represented thicker pods of sediment connected by thin layers of sediment or even isolated pods at different elevations across the point bar in response to multiple floods during a water year. Erosion often was preferential and removed part or all of pods at lower elevations, and in time left what appears to be a random arrangement of sediment pods forming the point bar. Thus, we conclude that the erosional process is as important as the deposition process in shaping the final form of the point bar, and that point bars are not uniformly aggradational or transgressive deposits of sediment in which the age of the deposit increases monotonically downward at all locations across the point bar.

Moody, J.; Meade, R.

2012-04-01

396

A young person's game: Immersion and distancing in bar work  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research indicates that bar workers report high levels of alcohol consumption, but the bar work experience itself has been little studied as a means to understand health threats associated with this job role. The subjective experience and meaning of bar work was explored in this study by interviewing current and ex-bar workers from a district in an Irish city

Thomas Conway; Pádraig MacNeela

2012-01-01

397

MetaBar - a tool for consistent contextual data acquisition and standards compliant submission  

PubMed Central

Background Environmental sequence datasets are increasing at an exponential rate; however, the vast majority of them lack appropriate descriptors like sampling location, time and depth/altitude: generally referred to as metadata or contextual data. The consistent capture and structured submission of these data is crucial for integrated data analysis and ecosystems modeling. The application MetaBar has been developed, to support consistent contextual data acquisition. Results MetaBar is a spreadsheet and web-based software tool designed to assist users in the consistent acquisition, electronic storage, and submission of contextual data associated to their samples. A preconfigured Microsoft® Excel® spreadsheet is used to initiate structured contextual data storage in the field or laboratory. Each sample is given a unique identifier and at any stage the sheets can be uploaded to the MetaBar database server. To label samples, identifiers can be printed as barcodes. An intuitive web interface provides quick access to the contextual data in the MetaBar database as well as user and project management capabilities. Export functions facilitate contextual and sequence data submission to the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration (INSDC), comprising of the DNA DataBase of Japan (DDBJ), the European Molecular Biology Laboratory database (EMBL) and GenBank. MetaBar requests and stores contextual data in compliance to the Genomic Standards Consortium specifications. The MetaBar open source code base for local installation is available under the GNU General Public License version 3 (GNU GPL3). Conclusion The MetaBar software supports the typical workflow from data acquisition and field-sampling to contextual data enriched sequence submission to an INSDC database. The integration with the megx.net marine Ecological Genomics database and portal facilitates georeferenced data integration and metadata-based comparisons of sampling sites as well as interactive data visualization. The ample export functionalities and the INSDC submission support enable exchange of data across disciplines and safeguarding contextual data.

2010-01-01

398

New method for the element stiffness matrix of arbitrary planar bars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The statical behaviour of a planar bar of an elastic and isotropic material having an arbitrary axis and a cross-section supported elastically by single and/or continuous supports is studied by the stiffness matrix method based on the complementary functions approach. The Timoshenko beam theory is extended for three-dimensional curvilinear bars taking into consideration the effects of axial and shear deformation. By considering the geometrical compatibility conditions together with the constitutive equations and equations of equilibrium, a set of 12 first order differential equations having variable coefficients is obtained for the spatial elements. From expressions developed in such manner for three-dimensional bars, the governing equations for the special case of a planar bar loaded within or perpendicular to its plane are derived, which are next solved by the complementary functions method. The stiffness matrix and the element load vector of a planar bar with an arbitrary axis are obtained taking into consideration both the presence of an elastic support and the effects of axial and shear deformations. The developed model has been coded in Fortran-77, which has been applied to various example problems available in the relevant literature, and the results have been compared.

Haktanir, V.

1994-08-01

399

2D linear and iterative reconstruction algorithms for a PET-insert scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are developing novel insert devices for existing whole body PET scanners to achieve better resolution in selected regions of interest such as the head, neck, breast or abdomen. The insert considered here is a full ring of high resolution detectors, which can be placed around the object of interest. Adding the insert inside the scanner leads to three different types of coincidences: insert-insert, insert-scanner and scanner-scanner. The insert-insert and scanner-scanner coincidences are similar to the coincidences obtained in a traditional PET system. The insert-scanner coincidences have an inherent fan-beam geometry for which a spatially variant system matrix is proposed. The system matrix is computed using the intersection of a fan beam with a pixel. A filtered back-projection (FBP) algorithm for the insert-scanner geometry is presented. This FBP algorithm yields images with significantly reduced artifacts compared to FBP reconstructions on insert-scanner data rebinned into parallel beams. This is demonstrated using simulated point source data acquired using SimSET. It is proposed to use a penalized ML-EM (PML-EM) algorithm using a log-cosh roughness penalty function to reconstruct a single activity distribution from all three data sets. This is demonstrated qualitatively using simulated point source data. A quantitative comparison of PML-EM and FBP was performed on data acquired from insert-scanner coincidences using a phantom with hot and cold tumors imaged in an experimental setup. The quantitative studies demonstrate that the resolution/noise tradeoff of PML-EM is improved relative to FBP.

Pal, Debashish; O'Sullivan, Joseph A.; Wu, Heyu; Janecek, Martin; Tai, Yuan-Chuan

2007-07-01

400

K-Band observations of barred spiral galaxies.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations in K band are used to investigate the bar and arm structures in the central regions of ten nearby barred southern spiral galaxies. Bar-interbar contrasts increase with radius for all galaxies. Arm-interarm contrasts reach a peak in mid-disk, where the m=2 Fourier components also peak. Isophotal twists are observed in half of the flat-barred galaxies, but in none of the exponential-barred galaxies. In all galaxies, the ellipticities reach a maximum at bar's end. Flat bars have a constant width with radius and a constant luminosity per unit length.

Regan, Michael W.; Elmegreen, Debra Meloy

1997-09-01

401

Accuracy in contouring of small and low contrast lesions: comparison between diagnostic quality computed tomography scanner and computed tomography simulation scanner-A phantom study.  

PubMed

To evaluate the accuracy in detection of small and low-contrast regions using a high-definition diagnostic computed tomography (CT) scanner compared with a radiotherapy CT simulation scanner. A custom-made phantom with cylindrical holes of diameters ranging from 2-9 mm was filled with 9 different concentrations of contrast solution. The phantom was scanned using a 16-slice multidetector CT simulation scanner (LightSpeed RT16, General Electric Healthcare, Milwaukee, WI) and a 64-slice high-definition diagnostic CT scanner (Discovery CT750 HD, General Electric Healthcare). The low-contrast regions of interest (ROIs) were delineated automatically upon their full width at half maximum of the CT number profile in Hounsfield units on a treatment planning workstation. Two conformal indexes, CI(in), and CI(out), were calculated to represent the percentage errors of underestimation and overestimation in the automated contours compared with their actual sizes. Summarizing the conformal indexes of different sizes and contrast concentration, the means of CI(in) and CI(out) for the CT simulation scanner were 33.7% and 60.9%, respectively, and 10.5% and 41.5% were found for the diagnostic CT scanner. The mean differences between the 2 scanners' CI(in) and CI(out) were shown to be significant with p < 0.001. A descending trend of the index values was observed as the ROI size increases for both scanners, which indicates an improved accuracy when the ROI size increases, whereas no observable trend was found in the contouring accuracy with respect to the contrast levels in this study. Images acquired by the diagnostic CT scanner allow higher accuracy on size estimation compared with the CT simulation scanner in this study. We recommend using a diagnostic CT scanner to scan patients with small lesions (<1 cm in diameter) for radiotherapy treatment planning, especially for those pending for stereotactic radiosurgery in which accurate delineation of small-sized, low-contrast regions is important for dose calculation. PMID:22626967

Ho, Yick Wing; Wong, Wing Kei Rebecca; Yu, Siu Ki; Lam, Wai Wang; Geng, Hui

2012-05-23

402

Accuracy in contouring of small and low contrast lesions: Comparison between diagnostic quality computed tomography scanner and computed tomography simulation scanner-A phantom study  

SciTech Connect

To evaluate the accuracy in detection of small and low-contrast regions using a high-definition diagnostic computed tomography (CT) scanner compared with a radiotherapy CT simulation scanner. A custom-made phantom with cylindrical holes of diameters ranging from 2-9 mm was filled with 9 different concentrations of contrast solution. The phantom was scanned using a 16-slice multidetector CT simulation scanner (LightSpeed RT16, General Electric Healthcare, Milwaukee, WI) and a 64-slice high-definition diagnostic CT scanner (Discovery CT750 HD, General Electric Healthcare). The low-contrast regions of interest (ROIs) were delineated automatically upon their full width at half maximum of the CT number profile in Hounsfield units on a treatment planning workstation. Two conformal indexes, CI{sub in}, and CI{sub out}, were calculated to represent the percentage errors of underestimation and overestimation in the automated contours compared with their actual sizes. Summarizing the conformal indexes of different sizes and contrast concentration, the means of CI{sub in} and CI{sub out} for the CT simulation scanner were 33.7% and 60.9%, respectively, and 10.5% and 41.5% were found for the diagnostic CT scanner. The mean differences between the 2 scanners' CI{sub in} and CI{sub out} were shown to be significant with p < 0.001. A descending trend of the index values was observed as the ROI size increases for both scanners, which indicates an improved accuracy when the ROI size increases, whereas no observable trend was found in the contouring accuracy with respect to the contrast levels in this study. Images acquired by the diagnostic CT scanner allow higher accuracy on size estimation compared with the CT simulation scanner in this study. We recommend using a diagnostic CT scanner to scan patients with small lesions (<1 cm in diameter) for radiotherapy treatment planning, especially for those pending for stereotactic radiosurgery in which accurate delineation of small-sized, low-contrast regions is important for dose calculation.

Ho, Yick Wing, E-mail: mpr@hksh.com [Medical Physics and Research Department, Hong Kong Sanatorium and Hospital (Hong Kong); Wong, Wing Kei Rebecca; Yu, Siu Ki; Lam, Wai Wang; Geng Hui [Medical Physics and Research Department, Hong Kong Sanatorium and Hospital (Hong Kong)

2012-01-01

403

Essais de Verins Hydrauliques ISO 160 Bars (Test of Hydraulic Pistons, ISO 160 Bars).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A design of 160 bar pistons, following the ISO 6020 norm, is verified. Static and endurance tests were performed. Static measurements were done at 300 bars. At 300,000 cycles, pushing a mass of 1000 Kg, no wear is detected. In one of the cases a careful a...

J. L. Lanier

1984-01-01

404

CERAMIC BAR IMPACT EXPERIMENTS FOR IMPROVED MATERIAL MODEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ceramic bar-on-bar (uniaxial stress) experiments are performed to extend uniaxial strain deformation states imposed in flyer plate impact experiments. A number of investigators engaged in modeling the bar-on-bar experiments have varying degrees of success in capturing the observed fracture modes in bars and correctly simulating the measured in-situ axial stress or free surface velocity histories. The difficulties encountered are related

N. S. Brar; W. G. Proud; A. M. Rajendran

405

The invariant manifolds and the Milky Way galactic bar(s)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How many bars does the Milky Way have? This question has arisen due to recent results from theoretical models and N-body simulations. In this talk, firstly, we will present the results the invariant manifolds provide in this direction. We compute for the first time the galactic longitude -- line-of-sight velocity diagram of orbits trapped by the manifolds in Galactic potentials with different configurations, namely one bar (the COBE/DIRBE bar) and two bars (the COBE/DIRBE and the Long bar misaligned). Secondly, we present the results from test particle simulations where the nonaxisymmetric component has one of the two configurations above. In particular, we study whether the kinematic structures in the Gaia sphere (4-5 kpc from the Sun) will be able to distinguish among the two cases.

Romero-Gómez, M.; Antoja, T.; Figueras, F.; Aguilar, L. A.; Athanassoula, E.

2013-05-01

406

Principles of the ideal scanner model: an analytical theory of the banana mirror system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The banana mirror system is an alternative approach for the design of telecentric laser scanners with a large scan format instead of using an f-(theta) scan lens. We developed an analytical model describing the ideal banana scanner configuration, that consists of a converging beam which is deflected as a pure cone (generating a primary scan circle) and a combination of

Willem D. van Amstel

1999-01-01

407

Using a Flatbed Scanner to Measure Detergency: A Cost-Effective Undergraduate Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The efficiency of a laundry-washing process is typically assessed using reflection measurements. A spectrometer and an integrating sphere are used to obtain the reflection data. The similarities between this equipment and a commercially available flatbed scanner are examined, and the way a flatbed scanner can be used to obtain detergent…

Poce-Fatou, J. A.; Bethencourt, M.; Moreno-Dorado, F. J.; Palacios-Santander, J. M.

2011-01-01

408

Application of a laser scanner to three dimensional visual sensing tasks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The issues are described which are associated with using a laser scanner for visual sensing and the methods developed by the author to address them. A laser scanner is a device that controls the direction of a laser beam by deflecting it through a pair of orthogonal mirrors, the orientations of which are specified by a computer. If a calibrated laser scanner is combined with a calibrated camera, it is possible to perform three dimensional sensing by directing the laser at objects within the field of view of the camera. There are several issues associated with using a laser scanner for three dimensional visual sensing that must be addressed in order to use the laser scanner effectively. First, methods are needed to calibrate the laser scanner and estimate three dimensional points. Second, methods to estimate three dimensional points using a calibrated camera and laser scanner are required. Third, methods are required for locating the laser spot in a cluttered image. Fourth, mathematical models that predict the laser scanner's performance and provide structure for three dimensional data points are necessary. Several methods were developed to address each of these and has evaluated them to determine how and when they should be applied. The theoretical development, implementation, and results when used in a dual arm eighteen degree of freedom robotic system for space assembly is described.

Ryan, Arthur M.

1992-05-01

409

KNOWLEDGE-BASED BUILDING DETECTION BASED ON LASER SCANNER DATA AND TOPOGRAPHIC MAP INFORMATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser scanner data is being increasingly used to obtain topographical and object height information for mapping and GIS tasks. Valuable information can be derived of the terrain and objects of a region. Different methods have been published to segment laser scanner data in order to extract information. This paper aims to discuss the extraction of buildings to transfer 2D building

Alexandra D. Hofmann; Hans-Gerd Maas; André Streilein

410

Computed tomography dose assessment for a 160 mm wide, 320 detector row, cone beam CT scanner  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computed tomography (CT) dosimetry should be adapted to the rapid developments in CT technology. Recently a 160 mm wide, 320 detector row, cone beam CT scanner that challenges the existing Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDI) dosimetry paradigm was introduced. The purpose of this study was to assess dosimetric characteristics of this cone beam scanner, to study the appropriateness of existing

J. Geleijns; M. Salvadó Artells; P. W. de Bruin; R. Mather; Y. Muramatsu; M. F. McNitt-Gray

2009-01-01

411

The effect of scanner sound in visual, motor, and auditory functional MRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potentially important effect of gradient switching sound on brain function during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was studied by comparing experiments with low and high scanner sound levels. To provide a low sound level experiment, a sparse scanning method was used, characterized by long, 9 sec, periods of scanner silence interspersed with 1 sec echopla- nar imaging (EPI) bursts.

Michael R. Elliott; Richard W. Bowtell; Peter G. Morris

1999-01-01

412

An ASIC implementation of digital front-end electronics for a high resolution PET scanner  

Microsoft Academic Search

An application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) is designed and fabricated. It implements many of the current functions found in the digital front-end electronics for a high resolution positron emission tomography scanner. The ASIC performs crystal selection, energy qualification, time correction, and event counting functions for block technology high resolution PET scanners. Digitized x and y position, event energy, and time

D. F. Newport; J. W. Young

1993-01-01

413

Random coincidence estimation from single event rates on the Discovery ST PET\\/CT scanner  

Microsoft Academic Search

Random coincidence estimation from single crystal event rates has been implemented for the Discovery ST PET\\/CT scanner. The ST histograms every qualified photon (i.e., those meeting the energy threshold requirements) for each crystal in the detector ring, providing the capability to calculate random coincidence rates for each line of response in the scanner. The estimate is corrected for random coincidences

Charles W. Stearns; David L. McDaniel; Steven G. Kohlmyer; Periagounder R. Arul; Brian P. Geiser; Venkatesan Shanmugam

2003-01-01

414

Real-time tracking of objects for space applications using a laser range scanner  

Microsoft Academic Search

Real-time tracking of multiple targets and three dimensional object features was demonstrated using a laser range scanner. The prototype was immune to ambient illumination and sun interference. Tracking error feedback was simultaneously obtained from individual targets, global predicted target position, and the human operator. A more complete study of calibration parameters and temperature variations on the scanner is needed to

F. Blais; R. A. Couvillon; M. Rioux; S. G. Maclean

1994-01-01

415

The Utility of Hand-held Real-time Scanners for Breast Sonography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sonographic mammography is a diagnostic tool used in conjunction with radiographic mammography. It is economically advantageous to utilize existing equipment versus purchasing a dedicated breast scanner. This article reviews the diagnostic contributions that can be made by real-time examinations of palpable breast masses and compares the advantages and disadvantages of using a real-time unit versus a dedicated scanner. Two hundred

Linda Gordon

1986-01-01

416

Far-Infrared Laser Scanner for High-Voltage-Cable Inspection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A far-infrared (FIR) laser scanner was fabricated and used to simulate the on-line inspection of solid-dielectric insulation of high-voltage cables employed in underground electric distribution systems. A high-speed optical scanner was built to produce a ...

P. K. Cheo

1982-01-01

417

Non-laser-based scanner for three-dimensional digitization of historical artifacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 3D scanner, based on incoherent illumination techniques, and associated data-processing algorithms are presented that can be used to scan objects at lateral resolutions ranging from 5 to 100 mum (or more) and depth resolutions of approximately 2 mum. The scanner was designed with the specific intent to scan cuneiform tablets but can be utilized for other applications. Photometric stereo

Daniel V. Hahn; Kevin C. Baldwin; Donald D. Duncan

2007-01-01

418

Methods and apparatus for laser beam scanners with different actuating mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, 3 types of laser beam scanner are introduced. One is transmissive beam scanner, which is composed of convex and concave microlens arrays (MLAs). By moving the concave lens in the plane vertical to the optical axis, the incident beam can be deflected in two dimensions. Those two kinds of MLAs are fabricated by thermal reflow and replication

Si-Hai Chen; Si-Hua Xiang; Xin Wu; Shan Dong; Ding Xiao; Xia-Wei Zheng

2009-01-01

419

Telecentric scanner for 3D profilometry of very large objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Triangulation systems that are based on an autosynchronized scanning principle to provide accurate and fast acquisition of 3D shapes are able to scan large fields. It is done generally by a coordinate measuring machine (CMM) carrying a small-volume 3D camera. However the acquisition speed is limited by the CMM movement and also by the image fusion time required to get the complete 3D shape. This paper describes some practical consideration for large volume 3D inspections with emphasis on telecentric scanning. We present the analytical and the optical design of a large telecentric scanner using a large reflective surface. Some results of the laboratory prototype will be presented. We also discuss applications and the viability of this new approach.

Thibault, Simon; Borra, Ermanno F.; Szapiel, Stan

1997-09-01

420

Modelling forest ecosystem dynamics using Multitemporal Multispectral Scanner (MSS) data  

SciTech Connect

An empirical model of forest succession was developed using Multitemporal Multispectral Scanner (MSS) data. Images from 1976 and 1987 were classified and registered to assess vegetation change. Data were analyzed to determine the proportion of each landscape class that changed, and these proportions were used to develop a Markov Model. The simulation model was run to produce forest cover for 99 years. MSS data were classified into six classes with an overall accuracy of 93 STET. The landscape composition remained relatively constant, but over half the individual units changed, indicating a dynamic equilibrium. Results of the Markov model show a theoretical climax community that stabilized rapidly. Over 60 STET of the area was composed of conifer, supporting the concept of a conifer dominated climax. However, continuous levels of other classes were maintained, indicating an inherently heterogeneous landscape.

Jarvis, C. (Center for Space and Advanced Tech., Fairfax, VA (United States))

1994-03-01

421

Wide-Bandwidth Capture of Wire-Scanner Signals  

SciTech Connect

Integrated charge collected on the sense wires of wire-scanner systems utilized to determine beam profile is generally the parameter of interest. The LANSCE application requires capturing the charge information macropulse-by-macropulse with macropulse lengths as long as 700 {micro}s at a maximum macropulse rate of 120 Hz. Also, for the LANSCE application, it is required that the integration be performed in a manner that does not require integrator reset between macropulses. Due to the long macropulse which must be accommodated and the 8.33 ms minimum pulse period, a simple R-C integrator cannot be utilized since there is insufficient time between macropulses to allow the integrator to adequately recover. The application of wide analog bandwidth to provide accurate pulse-by-pulse capture of the wire signals with digital integration of the wire signals to determine captured charge at each macropulse in applications with comparatively long macropulses and high pulse repetition rates is presented.

Gruchalla, Michael E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gilpatrick, John D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sedillo, James Daniel [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Derwin [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-05-16

422

Preliminary simulation studies on a cylindrical PEM scanner using GATE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we investigate the performance of a cylindrical positron emission mammography (PEM) by simulation, in order to estimate its feasibility before implementation. A well-developed simulation package, Geant4 Application for Tomographic Emission (GATE), is used to simulate the scanner geometry and physical processes. The simulated PEM scanner is composed of 64 blocks axially arranged in 4 rings with an axial field-of-view (AFOV) of 12.8 cm and 16.6 cm in diameter. For each block, there is a 16×16 array of 2 mm×2 mm×15 mm lutetium yttrium oxyorthosilicate (LYSO) crystals. In the simulated measurements, the spatial resolution is at the center of the FOV of 1.73±0.07 mm (radial) and 1.81±0.08 mm (tangential), but of 4.83±0.09 mm (radial) and 4.37±0.07 mm (tangential) while 5 cm off the center. The central point source sensitivity (ACS) is 4.04% (1.50 Mcps/mCi) at an energy window of 350-650 keV. Moreover, the capillary and cylindrical sources are simulated coupled to breast phantoms for the scatter fraction (SF) and Noise Equivalent Count Rate (NECR) test. For a breast phantom with a 350-650 keV energy window, SF may reach the highest 32.95%, while NECR is degraded down to the lowest 255.71 kcps/mCi. Finally, we model a breast phantom embedded with two spheres of different activities. The reconstructed image gives good results despite a bit of difference in image contrast. Further, the image quality will be improved by scatter and random correction. All these test results indicate the feasibility of this PEM system for breast cancer detection.

Yan, Qiang; Gao, Juan; Shan, Bao-Gi; Wei, Long

2010-01-01

423

Initial clinical test of a breast-PET scanner  

PubMed Central

Summary Introduction The goal of this initial clinical study was to test a new positron emission/tomography imager and biopsy system (PEM/PET) in a small group of selected subjects to assess its clinical imaging capabilities. Specifically, the main task of this study is to determine whether the new system can successfully be used to produce images of known breast cancer and compare them to those acquired by standard techniques. Methods The PEM/PET system consists of two pairs of rotating radiation detectors located beneath a patient table. The scanner has a spatial resolution of ~2 mm in all three dimensions. The subjects consisted of five patients diagnosed with locally advanced breast cancer ranging in age from 40 to 55 years old scheduled for pre-treatment, conventional whole body PET imaging with F-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). The primary lesions were at least 2 cm in diameter. Results The images from the PEM/PET system demonstrated that this system is capable of identifying some lesions not visible in standard mammograms. Furthermore, while the relatively large lesions imaged in this study where all visualised by a standard whole body PET/CT scanner, some of the morphology of the tumours (ductal infiltration, for example) was better defined with the PEM/PET system. Significantly, these images were obtained immediately following a standard whole body PET scan. Conclusions The initial testing of the new PEM/PET system demonstrated that the new system is capable of producing good quality breast-PET images compared standard methods.

Raylman, Raymond R; Abraham, Jame; Hazard, Hannah; Koren, Courtney; Filburn, Shannon; Schreiman, Judith S; Kurian, Sobha; Majewski, Stan; Marano, Gary D

2011-01-01

424

A COST EFFECTIVE MULTI-SPECTRAL SCANNER FOR NATURAL GAS DETECTION  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to design, fabricate and field demonstrate a cost effective, multi-spectral scanner for natural gas leak detection in transmission and distribution pipelines. During the first six months of the project, the design for a laboratory version of the multispectral scanner was completed. The optical, mechanical, and electronic design for the scanner was completed. The optical design was analyzed using Zeemax Optical Design software and found to provide sufficiently resolved performance for the scanner. The electronic design was evaluated using a bread board and very high signal to noise ratios were obtained. Fabrication of a laboratory version of the multi-spectral scanner is currently in progress. A technology status report and a research management plan was also completed during the same period.

Yudaya Sivathanu; Jongmook Lim; Vinoo Narayanan

2004-04-01

425

Measuring the Fraction of Bars and Offset Bars Using the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies at 3.6 and 4.5?m, I have measured a preliminary bar fraction and offset bar fraction in the local universe by visually identifying bar structure within a sample of 2,140 local galaxies. A sample this large has not been used since 1963, when Gerard de Vaucouleurs found the bar fraction to be roughly fbar ? 0.6 in the Third Reference Catalog of Bright Galaxies. Since then, there has been much debate over the true value of the bar fraction. The purpose of finding a bar fraction using S4G is to provide a final say in this debate. I have found that the bar fraction in the local universe is fbar = 0.69 when including both definite bars (SB) and candidate bars (SAB). I have also measured a preliminary value for the fraction of offset bars using the same sample. Offset bars are a very rare phenomenon. Of the sample used, 91 galaxies are found to be definite offset bars while an additional 39 are found to be candidate offset bars. When including both definite offset bars and candidate offset bars, the offset bar fraction in the local universe becomes fob = 0.12. I also measure the fraction of offset bars as a function of Hubble type and stellar mass. We find that 54% of offset bars are found in disks having a stellar mass of M ? 108 M?. Late-type disks possess significantly more offset bars than early-type with 60% of offset bars being found in disks having a Hubble type t ? 6.

Ross, Alexa

2012-01-01

426

Evidence for B+ -> K*0bar K*+  

SciTech Connect

We present measurements of the branching fraction and fraction of longitudinal polarization for the decay B{sup +} {yields} {bar K}*{sup 0} K*{sup +} with a sample of 467 {+-} 5 million B{bar B} pairs collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. We obtain the branching fraction {Beta}(B{sup +} {yields} {bar K}*{sup 0} K*{sup +}) = (1.2 {+-} 0.5 {+-} 0.1) x 10{sup ?6} with a significance of 3.7 standard deviations including systematic uncertainties. We measure the fraction of longitudinal polarization f{sub L} = 0.75{sub -0.26}{sup +0.16} {+-} 0.03. The first error quoted is statistical and the second is systematic.

Aubert, B.; Bona, M.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Prudent, X.; Tisserand, V.; /Annecy, LAPP; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; /Barcelona U., ECM; Lopez, L.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; /INFN, Bari /Bari U.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; /Bergen U.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D.N.; Kerth, L.T.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Lynch, G.; /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UCLA /UC, Riverside /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /Frascati /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /Harvard U. /Heidelberg U. /Humboldt U., Berlin /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Orsay, LAL /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Karlsruhe U., EKP /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT, LNS /McGill U. /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /Mt. Holyoke Coll. /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /Paris U., VI-VII /Pennsylvania U. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Princeton U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DSM, DAPNIA, Saclay /South Carolina U. /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Albany /Tennessee U. /Texas U. /Texas U., Dallas /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /Valencia U., IFIC /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison

2009-06-19

427

Design considerations for a limited-angle, dedicated breast, TOF PET scanner  

PubMed Central

Development of partial ring, dedicated breast PET scanners is an active area of research. Due to the limited angular coverage, generation of distortion and artifact free, fully 3D tomographic images is not possible without rotation of the detectors. With TOF information it is possible to achieve the 3D tomographic images with limited angular coverage and without detector rotation. We performed simulations for a breast scanner design with a ring diameter and axial length of 15-cm and comprising of a full (180 degree in-plane angular coverage), 2/3 (120 degree in-plane angular coverage), or ½ (90 degree in-plane angular coverage) ring detector. Our results show that as the angular coverage decreases, improved timing resolution is needed to achieve distortion-free and artifact-free images with TOF. The CRC value for small hot lesions in a partial ring scanner is similar to a full ring Non-TOF scanner. Our results indicate that a timing resolution of 600ps is needed for a 2/3 ring scanner, while a timing resolution of 300ps is needed for a ½ ring scanner. We also analyzed the ratio of lesion CRC to background pixel noise (SNR) and concluded that TOF improves the SNR values of the partial ring scanner, and helps to compensate for the loss in sensitivity due to reduced geometric sensitivity in a limited angle coverage PET scanner. In particular, it is possible to maintain similar SNR characteristic in a 2/3 ring scanner with a timing resolution of 300ps as in a full ring Non-TOF scanner.

Surti, S; Karp, JS

2009-01-01

428

Seal bar including clamped seal element  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an improvement in a device for heat sealing superimposed layers of a layflat web of a thermoplastic film material. It comprises: a hollow-cylindrical rotatable drum means for a rotary side seal apparatus, a seal bar structure intermittently movable into surface contact with the film layers for imparting an elongated heat seal thereto. The seal bar structure being mounted on the cylindrical surface of the drum means so as to extend in parallel relationship with the longitudinal central axis of the drum means.

Sharps, G.V. Jr.; Phillips, E.A.

1989-10-10

429

B Counting at BaBar  

SciTech Connect

In this thesis we examine the method of counting B{bar B} events produced in the BABAR experiment. The original method was proposed in 2000, but improvements to track reconstruction and our understanding of the detector since that date make it appropriate to revisit the B Counting method. We propose a new set of cuts designed to minimize the sensitivity to time-varying backgrounds. We find the new method counts B{bar B} events with an associated systematic uncertainty of {+-} 0.6%.

McGregor, Grant Duncan

2008-12-16

430

HI Study of Barred Magellanic Type Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the preliminary results of an HI survey of a small sample of Barred Magellanic type galaxies. The data were obtained using the D configuration of the VLA and our observations show: (1) bar morphology seen in the optical data is manifested in the HI distribution and kinematics, (2) SBm/IBm galaxies are commonly found with gaseous companions, and (3) there is strong evidence of significant gravitational interaction between the SBm/IBm galaxy and its companion. These data complement other study in suggesting that gravitational interactions play a strong role in determining the physical properties of SBm/IBm galaxies.

Wilcots, E.; Lehman, C.; Miller, B.

1994-12-01

431

Formation of q{bar q} resonances in the {bar N}N system  

SciTech Connect

The formation of q{bar q} resonances lying on the leading Regge trajectories in the {bar N}N system is studied in the quark-gluon string model. The model predicts strong suppression of the decays of q{bar q} states into {bar N}N pairs in relation to two-meson modes. The author`s analysis shows that the contributions of the resonances f{sub 4}(2050) (I{sup G}J{sup PC}= 0{sup +}4{sup ++}), {rho}{sub 5}(2240) (I{sup G}J{sup PC} = 1{sup +}5{sup {minus}{minus}}), and f{sub 6}(2510) (I{sup G}J{sup PC} = 0{sup +}6{sup ++}) to the processes of two-meson {bar N}N annihilation ({bar p}p {yields} {pi}{pi}, {bar K}K, {hor_ellipsis}) are about 1% of the corresponding experimental integrated cross sections. 30 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Ivanov, N.Ya. [Yerevan Physics Institute, Yerevan (Armenia)

1995-11-01

432

Preliminary resolution performance of the prototype system for a 4Layer DOI-PET scanner: jPET-D4  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are developing a high-performance brain PET scanner, jPET-D4, which provides 4-layer depth-of-interaction (DOI) information. The scanner is designed to achieve not only high spatial resolution but also high scanner sensitivity with the DOI information obtained from multi-layered thin crystals. The scanner has 5 rings of 24 detector blocks each, and each block consists of 1024 GSO crystals of 2.9

Taiga Yamaya; Naoki Hagiwara; Takashi Obi; Tomoaki Tsuda; Keishi Kitamura; Tomoyuki Hasegawa; Hideaki Haneishi; Naoko Inadama; Eiji Yoshida; Hideo Murayama

2006-01-01

433

Experiments of plasma nitriding on steel bar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. Surface modification of deformed steel bar was done with plasma nitriding technology to improve the corrosion resistance. In this experiment, pulsed DC plasmas were used with various processing parameters such as pressure, nitriding time, temperature, gas compositions, etc. It was found that various compound layers can be obtained depending on carefully selected plasma parameters. The depth

Y. S. Choi; Y. H. Jung; K.-S. Chung; M.-J. Lee; K. Y. Yeau; Y. M. Lim

2002-01-01

434

Unitarity Triangles at BaBar  

SciTech Connect

The BaBar experiment has used a variety of methods to determine the angles {alpha}, {beta}, and {gamma} of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa Unitarity Triangle, which give insight into the Standard Model description of CP violation in the quark sector of the electroweak interactions. Here we review the main experimental techniques and analyses, with emphasis in the most recent results.

Martinez-Vidal, Fernando; /Valencia U., IFIC

2011-11-23

435

Charm Baryon Results from BaBar  

SciTech Connect

We present experimental results from the BaBar experiment on charm baryon spectroscopy and production studies, including studies of excited cascades produced in charm baryon decays. We review the discovery of new decay modes of known states and searches for predicted states.

Ziegler, Veronique; /SLAC

2012-04-27

436

Spinners, Scroll Bars and Simpson's Rule  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|One of the most remarkable devices embedded in a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet is known as the spinner. Its staggering simplicity is undoubtedly its strength. As an incrementing device that allows graphs to dance across the screen, it gives the concept of variability a whole new meaning. Spinners and their close cousins scroll bars can be grabbed…

Staples, Ed

2005-01-01

437

Control of gymnast on a high bar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fundamental problems in controlling a gymnast robot to do stunts on a high bar are discussed. To increase swing amplitude there are two methods. One is to pull up and pull down the mass center of the whole body. The other is to oscillate swing by sinusoidal joint movement at the eigenfrequency of the pendulum. But oscillation in constant frequency

S. Takashima

1991-01-01

438

Anchorage Devices for Large Diameter Reinforcing Bars.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results of nineteen pullout tests conducted on number 18, number 14 and number 11, Grade 60 steel reinforcing bars (ASTM A615-68) to evaluate end anchorage provided by an attached steel end-plate are reported. The effects of group action and low cycle dyn...

J. R. Stoker R. A. Swirsky R. L. Boulware W. F. Crozier

1974-01-01

439

Liability, Risk Perceptions, and Precautions at Bars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Are state laws, regulatory practices, and allocation of public resources for enforcement reflected in perceptions by bar owners\\/managers that they will be cited or sued if they fail to exercise care? Among policies, which ones have the greatest impact on risk perceptions and, in turn, on such behaviors? We used data on laws, law enforcement, and regulations in the same

Lan Liang

2000-01-01

440

Compressed, Dehydrated and Flaked Meat Bar.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method is disclosed for making a dehydrated, compressed food bar consisting essentially of meat or meat and vegetables, wherein the meat is subdivided by flaking and then formed into a solid mass which is cooked to inactivate enzymes. The meat mass is t...

J. M. Tuomy W. J. Fitzmaurice F. E. DiLeo V. A. Loveridge

1981-01-01

441

Divorce and Bar Mitzvah: A First Look.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|After an introductory discussion and review of literature on divorce among Jewish families, this document presents and analyzes two case studies which show the adverse effect of divorce and child-custody battles on the children of Jewish families who subsequently plan a B'nai Mitzvah (Bar or Bat Mitzvah) ceremony--a joyous ritual of initiation…

Geffen, Michael; Kaplan, Earl

442

Morphology of the Barred Spiral Galaxy 2903  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study I present the morphology of the barred spiral galaxy NGC 2903. CCD images were obtained in the BVR optical and JH near infrared (NIR) bands at Mount Laguna Observatory. NGC 2903 is classified as a SAB(rs)bc galaxy. The bar in NGC 2903 is evident in all the optical and NIR images, but is most evident in the NIR. Its profiles suggest that it has a flat bar morphology consistent with other early type galaxies. NGC 2903 is also classified as a hot spot galaxy. This morphology is explained by both the accelerated star formation rate in the nucleus and the presence of a lot of gas and dust. Extinction is responsible for the splotchy appearance of the galaxy. The structure of the nuclear region does smooth out as it is observed at longer wavelengths, indicating that there is less extinction due to gas and dust. I studied the ring classification of NGC 2903 and theoretical fits to the resonance rings. Not all resonances are present, but I was able to detect the Outer Lindblad Resonance, Corotation, and the inner 4:1 resonance. I was also able to detect an inner bar by measuring the change in the position angle of isophotal ellipses of the nuclear region.

Dosaj, Anil

1998-05-01

443

Characterization of matched piezoelectric transducer bars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To aid the design of linear arrays, it is quite important to have a detailed understanding of the elementary transducer behavior. These transducer bars must be backed and matched. The aim of this work is to characterize and to optimize layers that are used to match such transducer bars. In order to show the influence of these layers, the acoustical (acoustical power, far-field directivity pattern), electrical (electrical impedance) and mechanical (displacement field) parameters of the transducer are computed using the finite element method. Numerical studies of several transducers with different ideal matching layers which satisfy the one-dimensional criterion are presented and carefully analyzed. These studies show the existence of parasitic modes in the desired operating band of the transducer, due to shear wave propagation in the matching layer. A simple choice criterion of the matching material suggesting no parasitic mode in the desired operating band of the transducer bar has been defined. This criterion is given by Wbar are successfully compared with numerical ones.

Cugnet, Boris; Assaad, Jamal; Hladky-Hennion, Anne-Christine

2004-06-01

444

Mechanical Characterization of Enamel Coated Steel Bars.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Steel bars can be coated with enamels or glass to reduce or eliminate the tendency of steel corrosion in various applications, such as reinforced concrete (RC) decks, beams and columns. The chemical bond between enamel and steel materials is a key to make...

G. Chen

2012-01-01

445

Semileptonic B decays at BaBar  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes the content of a talk given by the author at the Lake Louise Winter Institute, on February 21st 2007. It presents recent measurements of the rates for semileptonic B decays using data collected by the BaBar detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy collider at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center.

Cote, D.; /Montreal U.

2007-05-23

446

The galactic habitable zone in barred galaxies  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the criteria for the concept of a galactic habitable zone (GHZ) is that the pattern speed of the stars in the GHZ should be close to the pattern speed of the spiral arms. Another criteria is that the stars in it should have a high enough metallicity. In a barred galaxy, the GHZ will be more complicated to

M. Sundin

2006-01-01

447

Basic study of entire whole-body PET scanners based on the OpenPET geometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A conventional PET scanner has a 15-25 cm axial field-of-view (FOV) and images a whole body using about six bed positions. An OpenPET geometry can extend the axial FOV with a limited number of detectors. The entire whole-body PET scanner must be able to process a large amount of data effectively. In this work, we study feasibility of the fully 3D entire whole-body PET scanner using the GATE simulation. The OpenPET has 12 block detector rings with the ring diameter of 840 mm and each block detector ring consists of 48 depth-of-interaction (DOI) detectors. The OpenPET has the axial length of 895.95 mm with five parts of 58.95 mm open gaps. The OpenPET has higher single data loss than a conventional PET scanner at grouping circuits. NECR of the OpenPET decreases by single data loss. But single data loss is mitigated by separating the axially arranged detector into two parts. Also, multiple coincidences are found to be important for the entire whole-body PET scanner. The entire whole-body PET scanner with the OpenPET geometry promises to provide a large axial FOV with the open space and to have sufficient performance values. But single data loss at the grouping circuits and multiple coincidences are limited to the peak noise equivalent count rate (NECR) for the entire whole-body PET scanner.

Yoshida, Eiji; Yamaya, Taiga; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Inadama, Naoko; Murayama, Hideo

2010-09-01

448

An FPGA-based method for a reconfigurable and compact scanner controller  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An essential part of a LADAR system is the scanner component. The physical scanner and its electrical controller must often be as compact as possible to meet the stringent physical requirements of the system. It is also advantageous to have a reconfigurable electrical scanner controller. This can allow real-time automated dynamic modifications to the scanning characteristics. Via reconfiguration, this can also allow a single scanner controller to be used on multiple physical scanners with different resonant frequencies and reflection angles. The most efficient method to construct a compact scanner with static or dcynamic re-configurability is by using an FPGA-based system. FPGAs are extremely compact, reconfigurable, and can be programmed with very complex algorithms. We show here the design and testing of such an FPGA-based system has been designed and tested. We show here this FPGA-based system is able to drive scanners at arbitrary frequencies with different waveforms and produce appropriate horizontal and vertical syncs of arbitrary pulse width. Several programmable constants are provided to allow re-configurability. Additionally we show how very few essential components are required so the system could potentially be compacted to approximately the size of a cell phone.

Thomas, J.; Megherbi, D.; Sliney, P.; Pyburn, D.; Sengupta, S.; Khoury, J.; Woods, C.; Kirstead, J.

2005-08-01

449

Radiation safety concerns and diagnostic reference levels for computed tomography scanners in Tamil Nadu  

PubMed Central

Radiation safety in computed tomography (CT) scanners is of concern due its widespread use in the field of radiological imaging. This study intends to evaluate radiation doses imparted to patients undergoing thorax, abdomen and pelvic CT examinations and formulate regional diagnostic reference levels (DRL) in Tamil Nadu, South India. In-site CT dose measurement was performed in 127 CT scanners in Tamil Nadu for a period of 2 years as a part of the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB)-funded project. Out of the 127 CT scanners,13 were conventional; 53 single-slice helical scanners (SSHS); 44 multislice CT (MSCT) scanners; and 17 refurbished scanners. CT dose index (CTDI) was measured using a 32-cm polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)-body phantom in each CT scanner. Dose length product (DLP) for different anatomical regions was generated using CTDI values. The regional DRLs for thorax, abdomen and pelvis examinations were 557, 521 and 294 mGy cm, respectively. The mean effective dose was estimated using the DLP values and was found to be 8.04, 6.69 and 4.79 mSv for thorax, abdomen and pelvic CT examinations, respectively. The establishment of DRLs in this study is the first step towards optimization of CT doses in the Indian context.

Livingstone, Roshan S.; Dinakaran, Paul M.

2011-01-01

450

Low-voltage and high-performance buzzer-scanner based streamlined atomic force microscope system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present a novel scanner design in a quad-rod actuation structure, actuated by piezoelectric disk buzzers, and a new type of atomic force microscope (AFM), which uses this buzzer-scanner and a compact disk/digital-versatile-disk astigmatic optical pickup unit (OPU) for the detection of cantilever movements. Commercially available piezoelectric disk buzzers have a low capacitance and can be driven by low-voltage signal sources, such as analog outputs from a data acquisition card, without additional voltage or current amplifiers. Various scanning ranges can be realized through changing the dimensions of the actuation structure and/or the choice of disk buzzer. We constructed a buzzer-scanner and evaluated its performance. The scanner had a scanning range of 15 ?m in the X and Y directions and an actuation range of 3.5 ?m on the Z axis, with nonlinearity of 2.11%, 2.73%, and 2.19% for the X,Y and Z axes, respectively. The scanner had a resonance frequency of approximately 360 Hz on the X and Y axes, and 4.12 kHz on the Z axis. An OPU-AFM with this buzzer-scanner can resolve single atomic steps of a graphite substrate with a noise level of 0.06 nm. The obtained topographic images exhibit much less distortion than those obtained with an AFM using a piezoelectric tube scanner.

Wang, Wei-Min; Huang, Kuang-Yuh; Huang, Hsuan-Fu; Hwang, Ing-Shouh; Hwu, En-Te

2013-11-01

451

The optimal optical readout for the x-ray light valve--Document scanners  

SciTech Connect

The x-ray light valve (XLV) is a novel, potentially low-cost, x-ray detector that converts an x-ray exposure into an optical image stored in a liquid crystal cell. This optical image is then transferred from the liquid crystal cell to a computer through an optical-to-digital imaging readout system. Previously, CCD-based cameras were used for the optical readout, but recently it was proposed that an inexpensive optical scanner, such as an office document scanner, is a better match to the optical properties of the XLV. A methodology for characterizing a document scanner's ability to produce medical quality images from the XLV is outlined and tested on a particular scanner (Canon LiDE 30). This scanner was shown to have key characteristics of a medical device--a linear response, dynamic range sufficient for chest radiography (although not mammography) in a single pass, and an MTF and NPS that exceed the requirements for all medical applications of the scanner. This combination of criteria shows that a document scanner can be used as a digitization method for the XLV.

Oakham, P.; MacDougall, Robert D.; Rowlands, J. A. [Imaging Research, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada)

2008-12-15

452

Low-voltage and high-performance buzzer-scanner based streamlined atomic force microscope system.  

PubMed

In this paper we present a novel scanner design in a quad-rod actuation structure, actuated by piezoelectric disk buzzers, and a new type of atomic force microscope (AFM), which uses this buzzer-scanner and a compact disk/digital-versatile-disk astigmatic optical pickup unit (OPU) for the detection of cantilever movements. Commercially available piezoelectric disk buzzers have a low capacitance and can be driven by low-voltage signal sources, such as analog outputs from a data acquisition card, without additional voltage or current amplifiers. Various scanning ranges can be realized through changing the dimensions of the actuation structure and/or the choice of disk buzzer. We constructed a buzzer-scanner and evaluated its performance. The scanner had a scanning range of 15 ?m in the X and Y directions and an actuation range of 3.5 ?m on the Z axis, with nonlinearity of 2.11%, 2.73%, and 2.19% for the X,Y and Z axes, respectively. The scanner had a resonance frequency of approximately 360 Hz on the X and Y axes, and 4.12 kHz on the Z axis. An OPU-AFM with this buzzer-scanner can resolve single atomic steps of a graphite substrate with a noise level of 0.06 nm. The obtained topographic images exhibit much less distortion than those obtained with an AFM using a piezoelectric tube scanner. PMID:24141269

Wang, Wei-Min; Huang, Kuang-Yuh; Huang, Hsuan-Fu; Hwang, Ing-Shouh; Hwu, En-Te

2013-10-18

453

Precautions and strategies in using a commercial flatbed scanner for radiochromic film dosimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the value of a commercially available flatbed scanner for film dosimetry with radiochromic film for external radiotherapy. The EPSON Pro 1680 Expression scanner was examined as a densitometer for two-dimensional film dosimetry with Gafchromic EBT film. An accurate and efficient scanning procedure was established. Possible drift and warm-up effects of the scanner were studied and the direct physical influence of the scanner light on the radiochromic film was assessed. Next, we investigated the scan field uniformity. Also, we examined if the accuracy of radiochromic film was improved by subtracting the optical density of the unirradiated blank film from the optical density of the irradiated film. To assess the accuracy of Gafchromic EBT film when the EPSON scanner was used as a densitometer, the depth dose of a 2 × 15 cm2 field and the in-plane and cross-plane profiles of a 15 × 15 cm2 field were measured and compared with diamond detector measurements. When taking consecutive scans, we found that the optical density taken from the first scan was about 1% higher than the optical density taken from subsequent scans. We attribute this to the warming up of the lamp of the scanner. Longer-term drift of the scanner was found to be absent. We found that the use of a correction matrix was necessary to correct for the non-uniform scanner response over the scan field. Subtracting the optical density of the unirradiated blank film from the irradiated film improves the precision of the Gafchromic EBT film. Depth dose and profile measurements with Gafchromic EBT film and the diamond detector are in agreement within 2.5%. The EPSON Pro 1680 Expression scanner is an excellent tool for accurate two-dimensional film dosimetry with Gafchromic EBT film provided that some precautions and corrections are taken into account.

Paelinck, L.; DeNeve, W.; DeWagter, C.

2007-01-01

454

Evaluation of portable CT scanners for otologic image-guided surgery  

PubMed Central

Purpose Portable CT scanners are beneficial for diagnosis in the intensive care unit, emergency room, and operating room. Portable fixed-base versus translating-base CT systems were evaluated for otologic image-guided surgical (IGS) applications based on geometric accuracy and utility for percutaneous cochlear implantation. Methods Five cadaveric skulls were fitted with fiducial markers and scanned using both a translating-base, 8-slice CT scanner (CereTom®) and a fixed-base, flat-panel, volume-CT (fpVCT) scanner (Xoran xCAT®). Images were analyzed for: (a) subjective quality (i.e. noise), (b) consistency of attenuation measurements (Hounsfield units) across similar tissue, and (c) geometric accuracy of fiducial marker positions. The utility of these scanners in clinical IGS cases was tested. Results Five cadaveric specimens were scanned using each of the scanners. The translating-base, 8-slice CT scanner had spatially consistent Hounsfield units, and the image quality was subjectively good. However, because of movement variations during scanning, the geometric accuracy of fiducial marker positions was low. The fixed-base, fpVCT system had high spatial resolution, but the images were noisy and had spatially inconsistent attenuation measurements; while the geometric representation of the fiducial markers was highly accurate. Conclusion Two types of portable CT scanners were evaluated for otologic IGS. The translating-base, 8-slice CT scanner provided better image quality than a fixed-base, fpVCT scanner. However, the inherent error in three-dimensional spatial relationships by the translating-based system makes it suboptimal for otologic IGS use.

Balachandran, Ramya; Schurzig, Daniel; Fitzpatrick, J Michael; Labadie, Robert F

2011-01-01

455

Internal meson dominance for pp-bar annihilation  

SciTech Connect

The previously considered /sup 3/S/sub 1/ internal fusion model of pp-bar..-->..YY-bar, YY-bar /sup */, and Y/sup */Y-bar/sup */ (Y denotes hyperon) at low energies is modified and thereby extended to also include pp-bar..-->..nn-bar and ..delta../sup ++/Delta-bar/sup - -/. It is assumed that the same nonperturbative mechanism that mixes the different qq-bar pairs within the neutral, nonstrange mesons is also responsible for the scattering, annihilation, and creation of qq-bar pairs within the baryon-antibaryon system. More specifically, we assume that processes qq-bar..-->..QQ-bar within the baryon-antibaryon system with q = d or u and Q = d, u, or s quarks is mediated by fusion of the qq-bar to a pseudoscalar or vector meson that also within the system decays into QQ-bar. The /sup 1/S/sub 0/ pseudoscalar-meson model disagrees with experiment whereas the /sup 3/S/sub 1/ vector-meson fusion model is in reasonable agreement with it. As compared to the previously considered /sup 3/S/sub 1/ internal fusion model the main change is an extension of the approximate agreement to the nonstrange final-state baryons. This is achieved since strange baryons in the model are only produced via the small ..omega..-phi mixing.

Brix, G.; Genz, H.; Tatur, S.

1989-04-01

456

Revised benchmarking of contact-less fingerprint scanners for forensic fingerprint detection: challenges and results for chromatic white light scanners (CWL)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mobile contact-less fingerprint scanners can be very important tools for the forensic investigation of crime scenes. To be admissible in court, data and the collection process must adhere to rules w.r.t. technology and procedures of acquisition, processing and the conclusions drawn from that evidence. Currently, no overall accepted benchmarking methodology is used to support some of the rules regarding the localisation, acquisition and pre-processing using contact-less fingerprint scanners. Benchmarking is seen essential to rate those devices according to their usefulness for investigating crime scenes. Our main contribution is a revised version of our extensible framework for methodological benchmarking of contact-less fingerprint scanners using a collection of extensible categories and items. The suggested main categories describing a contact-less fingerprint scanner are properties of forensic country-specific legal requirements, technical properties, application-related aspects, input sensory technology, pre-processing algorithm, tested object and materials. Using those it is possible to benchmark fingerprint scanners and describe the setup and the resulting data. Additionally, benchmarking profiles for different usage scenarios are defined. First results for all suggested benchmarking properties, which will be presented in detail in the final paper, were gained using an industrial device (FRT MicroProf200) and conducting 18 tests on 10 different materials.

Kiltz, Stefan; Leich, Marcus; Dittmann, Jana; Vielhauer, Claus; Ulrich, Michael

2011-02-01

457

Real-time tracking of objects for space applications using a laser range scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Real-time tracking of multiple targets and three dimensional object features was demonstrated using a laser range scanner. The prototype was immune to ambient illumination and sun interference. Tracking error feedback was simultaneously obtained from individual targets, global predicted target position, and the human operator. A more complete study of calibration parameters and temperature variations on the scanner is needed to determine the exact performance of the sensor. Lissajous patterns used in three-dimensional real-time tracking prove helpful given their high resolution. The photogrammetry-based Advanced Space Vision System (ASVS) is discussed in combination with the laser range scanner.

Blais, F.; Couvillon, R. A.; Rioux, M.; Maclean, S. G.

1994-03-01

458

3D handheld laser scanner based approach for automatic identification and localization of EEG sensors.  

PubMed

This paper describes and assesses for the first time the use of a handheld 3D laser scanner for scalp EEG sensor localization and co-registration with magnetic resonance images. Study on five subjects showed that the scanner had an equivalent accuracy, a better repeatability, and was faster than the reference electromagnetic digitizer. According to electrical source imaging, somatosensory evoked potentials experiments validated its ability to give precise sensor localization. With our automatic labeling method, the data provided by the scanner could be directly introduced in the source localization studies. PMID:21097050

Koessler, Laurent; Cecchin, Thierry; Ternisien, Eric; Maillard, Louis

2010-01-01

459

Codes of split type  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Generalizing a way to construct Golay codes, codes of split type are defined. A lot of interesting codes, for example, extremal codes of length n ? 40 such as Golay codes and binary doubly even self-dual codes [48, 24, 12], [72, 36, w] with w ? 12, are represented as codes of split type.

Kimizuka, Maro; Sasaki, Ryuji

460

Conditional generation of path-entangled optical vertical bar N,0>+ vertical bar 0,N> states  

SciTech Connect

We propose a measurement protocol to generate path-entangled vertical bar N,0>+ vertical bar 0,N> states conditionally from two pulsed type II optical parametric oscillators. We calculate the fidelity of the produced states and the success probability of the protocol. The trigger detectors are assumed to have finite dead time, and for short pulse trigger fields they are modeled as on-off detectors with finite efficiency. Continuous-wave operation of the parametric oscillators is also considered.

Nielsen, Anne E. B.; Moelmer, Klaus [Lundbeck Foundation Theoretical Center for Quantum Sy