Sample records for bar code scanner

  1. The design of the CMOS wireless bar code scanner applying optical system based on ZigBee

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuelin Chen; Jian Peng

    2008-01-01

    The traditional bar code scanner is influenced by the length of data line, but the farthest distance of the wireless bar code scanner of wireless communication is generally between 30m and 100m on the market. By rebuilding the traditional CCD optical bar code scanner, a CMOS code scanner is designed based on the ZigBee to meet the demands of market.

  2. Holographic scanning: optical design of the IBM 3687 supermarket bar code scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickson, LeRoy D.

    1987-04-01

    This paper is an historical and tutorial review that examines the product development life cycle of a single laser product: the IBM 3687 Supermarket Bar Code Scanner. The intent of this paper is to reveal to the reader the manner in which this product progressed from the conceptual stage to the design and development of the final product. We will begin with a brief review of the UPC bar code and the basic concepts involved in scanning the code. We will then discuss the early IBM scanner products in order to lay the groundwork for the introduction of the 3687 scanner. The major portion of the paper will be devoted to a discussion of the technical factors involved in the design of the product once the marketing decision was made to develop the product. The discussion will include those factors that influenced the decision to use holography, the problems encountered in the use of this relatively new (to bar code scanning) technology, and the solutions of those problems. In fact, the major emphasis in our discussion of the various stages of this product development life cycle will be on the development and implementation of a holographic optical element as a key component in the 3687 bar code scanner. By 1977, when this product development began, the low-power Helium-Neon laser was already a tried and tested, well established component in supermarket bar code scanners. The holographic deflector disk was, on the other hand, completely untested in any low-cost, high-volume, commer-cial product. The unique capabilities and problems associated with the use of this device will be discussed. Note that most of the dimensions in this paper will be in inches instead of in metric units. This is consistent with the units generally used by the supermarket industry in the design and installation of supermarket check-stands, and with the units generally used by the UPC standards committees.

  3. The design of the CMOS wireless bar code scanner applying optical system based on ZigBee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yuelin; Peng, Jian

    2008-03-01

    The traditional bar code scanner is influenced by the length of data line, but the farthest distance of the wireless bar code scanner of wireless communication is generally between 30m and 100m on the market. By rebuilding the traditional CCD optical bar code scanner, a CMOS code scanner is designed based on the ZigBee to meet the demands of market. The scan system consists of the CMOS image sensor and embedded chip S3C2401X, when the two dimensional bar code is read, the results show the inaccurate and wrong code bar, resulted from image defile, disturber, reads image condition badness, signal interference, unstable system voltage. So we put forward the method which uses the matrix evaluation and Read-Solomon arithmetic to solve them. In order to construct the whole wireless optics of bar code system and to ensure its ability of transmitting bar code image signals digitally with long distances, ZigBee is used to transmit data to the base station, and this module is designed based on image acquisition system, and at last the wireless transmitting/receiving CC2430 module circuit linking chart is established. And by transplanting the embedded RTOS system LINUX to the MCU, an applying wireless CMOS optics bar code scanner and multi-task system is constructed. Finally, performance of communication is tested by evaluation software Smart RF. In broad space, every ZIGBEE node can realize 50m transmission with high reliability. When adding more ZigBee nodes, the transmission distance can be several thousands of meters long.

  4. Development of bar code scanner application for Windows Mobile devices using a Symbol Mobility Developer Kit for .NET Compact Framework

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ondrej Krejcar; Marcel Macecek

    2010-01-01

    The problem we would like to discuss and solve is based on a remote controlling of created packages containing predefined components with a predefined numbers of these components. In principle the problem acts as a check out control problem. By the help of mobile device with integrated bar code scanner an application for such mobile device can be developed as

  5. Bar Code Labels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    American Bar Codes, Inc. developed special bar code labels for inventory control of space shuttle parts and other space system components. ABC labels are made in a company-developed anodizing aluminum process and consecutively marketed with bar code symbology and human readable numbers. They offer extreme abrasion resistance and indefinite resistance to ultraviolet radiation, capable of withstanding 700 degree temperatures without deterioration and up to 1400 degrees with special designs. They offer high resistance to salt spray, cleaning fluids and mild acids. ABC is now producing these bar code labels commercially or industrial customers who also need labels to resist harsh environments.

  6. Optical System Design For High Speed Bar Code Scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellekson, Ronald; Reddersen, Brad; Campbell, Scott

    1987-04-01

    Spectra-Physics recently introduced the Model 750 SL scanner for use in the European point-of-sale market, to meet the European requirement for a scanner of less than 13 cm height. The model 750 SL uses a higher density computer designed scan pattern with a retrodirective collection system to scan and detect UPC, EAN, and JAN bar codes. The scanner "reads" these bar codes in such a way that the user need not precisely align the bar code symbol with respect to the window in the scanner even at package speeds up to 100 inches per second. By using a unique geometrical arrangement of mirrors, a polygonal mirror assembly, and a custom-designed plastic bifocal lens, a design was developed to meet these requirements. This paper describes the design of this new low cost scanner, the use of computer-aided design in the development of this scanner, and some observations on the future of bar code scanning.

  7. Bar code scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bravman, Richard

    1990-05-01

    Good afternoon. And thanks, Gary very much again for giving ne a chance to come and spend some time with you. Again, ray name is Richard Bravman, vice president of marketing with Symbol Technologies. For those of you who may not be familiar with the bar coding market, I'll give just a brief word on Symbol. Symbol is today, we find our selves the leader in that business. Our original activity in bar coding went all the way back to the business of creating the film images that are the genesis point for the placement of bar codes on all the consumer items. That was what we did back in mid l970s, moved through several stages, in 1980, we made a significant breakthrough inventing the first laser based bar code scanning device that was portable enough that you could hold it in your hand. That development proved to be the engine of some very significant growth over the last eight or nine years. During the period of the last six years, we've had our compound average growth for our company at something in the range of 80% or so. So we've been fortunate enough to have seen some real growth. Today our businesses included bar code scanning, and as a result of an acquisition we did last year, portable data capture devices, which are handheld computers that are specifically used for remote data capture.

  8. Bar coded retroreflective target

    SciTech Connect

    Vann, C.S.

    2000-01-25

    This small, inexpensive, non-contact laser sensor can detect the location of a retroreflective target in a relatively large volume and up to six degrees of position. The tracker's laser beam is formed into a plane of light which is swept across the space of interest. When the beam illuminates the retroreflector, some of the light returns to the tracker. The intensity, angle, and time of the return beam is measured to calculate the three dimensional location of the target. With three retroreflectors on the target, the locations of three points on the target are measured, enabling the calculation of all six degrees of target position. Until now, devices for three-dimensional tracking of objects in a large volume have been heavy, large, and very expensive. Because of the simplicity and unique characteristics of this tracker, it is capable of three-dimensional tracking of one to several objects in a large volume, yet it is compact, light-weight, and relatively inexpensive. Alternatively, a tracker produces a diverging laser beam which is directed towards a fixed position, and senses when a retroreflective target enters the fixed field of view. An optically bar coded target can be read by the tracker to provide information about the target. The target can be formed of a ball lens with a bar code on one end. As the target moves through the field, the ball lens causes the laser beam to scan across the bar code.

  9. Designing and implementing a bar code system.

    PubMed

    Gandy, J

    1986-03-01

    Used as part of a comprehensive materials management system, bar coding can help: reduce inventory, operating costs, space requirements, and loss due to pilferage and damage; increase productivity, stock rotation, and patient charge capture; improve material throughput, handling efficiencies, and audit-trail accuracy; and generate more accurate and meaningful management data. But the decision to bar code should come only after an extensive evaluation of off-setting costs and benefits, organizational needs, potential applications, and a thorough review of available hardware and software packages. The focus of this, the first of a two-part article on the design and implementation of an automatic identification system, will center on bar code use for SPD inventory, patient charges, linen supply system, and capital asset management. PMID:10311724

  10. Bar-code automated waste tracking system

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, T.E.

    1994-10-01

    The Bar-Code Automated Waste Tracking System was designed to be a site-Specific program with a general purpose application for transportability to other facilities. The system is user-friendly, totally automated, and incorporates the use of a drive-up window that is close to the areas dealing in container preparation, delivery, pickup, and disposal. The system features ``stop-and-go`` operation rather than a long, tedious, error-prone manual entry. The system is designed for automation but allows operators to concentrate on proper handling of waste while maintaining manual entry of data as a backup. A large wall plaque filled with bar-code labels is used to input specific details about any movement of waste.

  11. Objectivity in Grading: The Promise of Bar Codes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jae, Haeran; Cowling, John

    2009-01-01

    This article proposes the use of a new technology to assure student anonymity and reduce bias hazards: identifying students by using bar codes. The limited finding suggests that the use of bar codes for assuring student anonymity could potentially cause students to perceive that grades are assigned more fairly and reassure teachers that they are…

  12. Benchmarking a Monte Carlo simulation code on a prototype LSO scanner

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maurizio Conti; Michael E. Casey; Lars Eriksson; Marita Eriksson

    2002-01-01

    A Monte Carlo simulation code has been developed to predict new positron emission tomography (PET) scanner performance such as sensitivity and scatter fraction or to obtain physics information such as deposited energy spectra. The code has been tested on a PET prototype based on lutetium-ortho-silicate (LSO) panel detectors and its results are in excellent agreement with experimental data; in particular,

  13. Innovative application of bar coding technology to breast milk administration.

    PubMed

    Fleischman, Ellen K

    2013-01-01

    Hospitalized infants often receive expressed breast milk, either from their mother or from banked milk. Breast milk provides optimal nutrition for infants but because it is a body fluid it carries the risk of disease transmission. Therefore, administering the correct breast milk to hospitalized infants is essential. Bar coding technology, used in hospitals to prevent errors related to medication administration, can be proactively applied to prevent breast milk administration errors. Bar coding systems offer advantages over manual verification processes, including decreasing errors due to human factors and providing for automated entry of feedings in the electronic health record. However, potential barriers to successful implementation must be addressed. These barriers include equipment and training costs, increased time to perform the additional steps with bar coding, and work-arounds. PMID:23618935

  14. Optics And Holography In The IBM Supermarket Scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickson, Leroy D.; Sincerbox, Glenn T.

    1982-04-01

    The IBM 3687 Supermarket Scanner is designed to read the familiar UPC bar code appearing on nearly all grocery and many non-grocery items. In the past six years there have been a number of articles explaining the basic concepts involved in reading the UPC code with the scanner. The interested reader is referred to the reference articles (1, 2, 3, 4).

  15. Bar code, good for industry and trade--how does it benefit the dentist?

    PubMed

    Oehlmann, H

    2001-10-01

    Every dentist who attentively follows the change in product labelling can easily see that the HIBC bar code is on the increase. In fact, according to information from FIDE/VDDI and ADE/BVD, the dental industry and trade are firmly resolved to apply the HIBC bar code to all products used internationally in dental practices. Why? Indeed, at first it looks like extra expense to additionally print a bar code on the packages. Good reasons can only lie in advantages which manufacturers and the trade expect from the HIBC bar code, Indications in dental technician circles are that the HIBC bar code is coming. If there are advantages, what are these, and can the dentist also profit from them? What does HIBC bar code mean and what items of interest does it include? What does bar code cost and does only one code exist? This is explained briefly, concentrating on the benefits bar code can bring for different users. PMID:11939103

  16. Bar-coded medication administration (BCMA) systems. Future promise, present challenges.

    PubMed

    2003-10-01

    One popular new method for building safeguards into the medication administration process is the use of a bar-coded medication administration (BCMA) system. Clinician use the system's bar-code scanner to scan labels on the medication packaging and on the patient's identification wristband. In this way, the system verifies that administered medications match provider orders at the point of care. BCMA systems have received a lot of media attention and manufacturer promotion. However, they aren't yet a practical option for most hospitals. Although they offer great potential to help prevent administration errors, current systems have significant limitations. To realize maximum patient safety benefit, an ideal BCMA system should be capable of both point-of-care medication verification and automatic programming of infusion pumps. No current system offers both capabilities. In this article, we discuss these and other limitations and list objectives that need to be met to make commercial BCMA systems successful. We also give advice to help hospitals reduce medication error now and prepare for future implementation of integrated BCMA systems. PMID:14664124

  17. Improving radiopharmaceutical supply chain safety by implementing bar code technology.

    PubMed

    Matanza, David; Hallouard, François; Rioufol, Catherine; Fessi, Hatem; Fraysse, Marc

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to describe and evaluate an approach for improving radiopharmaceutical supply chain safety by implementing bar code technology. We first evaluated the current situation of our radiopharmaceutical supply chain and, by means of the ALARM protocol, analysed two dispensing errors that occurred in our department. Thereafter, we implemented a bar code system to secure selected key stages of the radiopharmaceutical supply chain. Finally, we evaluated the cost of this implementation, from overtime, to overheads, to additional radiation exposure to workers. An analysis of the events that occurred revealed a lack of identification of prepared or dispensed drugs. Moreover, the evaluation of the current radiopharmaceutical supply chain showed that the dispensation and injection steps needed to be further secured. The bar code system was used to reinforce product identification at three selected key stages: at usable stock entry; at preparation-dispensation; and during administration, allowing to check conformity between the labelling of the delivered product (identity and activity) and the prescription. The extra time needed for all these steps had no impact on the number and successful conduct of examinations. The investment cost was reduced (2600 euros for new material and 30 euros a year for additional supplies) because of pre-existing computing equipment. With regard to the radiation exposure to workers there was an insignificant overexposure for hands with this new organization because of the labelling and scanning processes of radiolabelled preparation vials. Implementation of bar code technology is now an essential part of a global securing approach towards optimum patient management. PMID:25144560

  18. Comparison of three coding strategies for a low cost structure light scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Hanwei; Xu, Jun; Xu, Chenxi; Pan, Ming

    2014-12-01

    Coded structure light is widely used for 3D scanning, and different coding strategies are adopted to suit for different goals. In this paper, three coding strategies are compared, and one of them is selected to implement a low cost structure light scanner under the cost of €100. To reach this goal, the projector and the video camera must be the cheapest, which will lead to some problems related to light coding. For a cheapest projector, complex intensity pattern can't be generated; even if it can be generated, it can't be captured by a cheapest camera. Based on Gray code, three different strategies are implemented and compared, called phase-shift, line-shift, and bit-shift, respectively. The bit-shift Gray code is the contribution of this paper, in which a simple, stable light pattern is used to generate dense(mean points distance<0.4mm) and accurate(mean error<0.1mm) results. The whole algorithm details and some example are presented in the papers.

  19. Identifying Objects via Encased X-Ray-Fluorescent Materials - the Bar Code Inside

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, Harry F.; Kaiser, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    Systems for identifying objects by means of x-ray fluorescence (XRF) of encased labeling elements have been developed. The XRF spectra of objects so labeled would be analogous to the external bar code labels now used to track objects in everyday commerce. In conjunction with computer-based tracking systems, databases, and labeling conventions, the XRF labels could be used in essentially the same manner as that of bar codes to track inventories and to record and process commercial transactions. In addition, as summarized briefly below, embedded XRF labels could be used to verify the authenticity of products, thereby helping to deter counterfeiting and fraud. A system, as described above, is called an encased core product identification and authentication system (ECPIAS). The ECPIAS concept is a modified version of that of a related recently initiated commercial development of handheld XRF spectral scanners that would identify alloys or detect labeling elements deposited on the surfaces of objects. In contrast, an ECPIAS would utilize labeling elements encased within the objects of interest. The basic ECPIAS concept is best illustrated by means of an example of one of several potential applications: labeling of cultured pearls by labeling the seed particles implanted in oysters to grow the pearls. Each pearl farmer would be assigned a unique mixture of labeling elements that could be distinguished from the corresponding mixtures of other farmers. The mixture would be either incorporated into or applied to the surfaces of the seed prior to implantation in the oyster. If necessary, the labeled seed would be further coated to make it nontoxic to the oyster. After implantation, the growth of layers of mother of pearl on the seed would encase the XRF labels, making these labels integral, permanent parts of the pearls that could not be removed without destroying the pearls themselves. The XRF labels would be read by use of XRF scanners, the spectral data outputs of which would be converted to alphanumeric data in a digital equivalent data system (DEDS), which is the subject of the previous article. These alphanumeric data would be used to track the pearls through all stages of commerce, from the farmer to the retail customer.

  20. Star Library: Breaking the Code -- A Graphical Exploration Using Bar Charts

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Gabrosek, John

    2001-01-01

    The Caesar Shift is a translation of the alphabet; for example, a five-letter shift would code the letter a as f, b as g, ... z as e. We describe a five-step process for decoding an encrypted message. First, groups of size 4 construct a frequency table of the letters in two lines of a coded message. Second, students construct a bar chart for a reference message of the frequency of letters in the English language. Third, students create a bar chart of the coded message. Fourth, students visually compare the bar chart of the reference message (step 2) to the bar chart of the coded message (step 3). Based on this comparison, students hypothesize a shift. Fifth, students apply the shift to the coded message. After decoding the message, students are asked a series of questions that assess their ability to see patterns. The questions are geared for higher levels of cognitive reasoning.

  1. The study of watermark bar code recognition with light transmission theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fan; Liu, Tiegen; Zhang, Lianxiang; Zhang, Xiaojun

    2004-10-01

    Watermark bar code is one of the latest anti-counterfeiting technologies, which is applicable to a series of security documents, especially banknotes. With watermark bar codes embedded euro banknotes as an example, a system is designed for watermark bar code detection and recognition based on light transmission theory. We obtain light transmission curves of different denominations along different sampling lines which are paralleled to the latitudinal axis of the banknote. By calculating the correlation coefficient between different light transmission curves, the system can not only distinguish the reference banknote from either the counterfeit ones or other denominations, but also demonstrates high consistency and repeatability.

  2. Wafer scale packaging for a MEMS video scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helsel, Mark P.; Barger, Jon; Wine, David W.; Osborn, Thor D.

    2001-04-01

    Miniaturized scanners have proven their usefulness in a host of applications including video display, bar code reading, image capture, laser printing and optical switching. In order for these applications to reach fruition, however, the MEMS scanner component must be packaged in a manner that is compatible with the volume manufacturing capabilities of the technology. This paper describes a process that was developed to package an SVGA resolution (800 X 600) biaxial video scanner. The scanner is designed for a head mounted display product, targeted to the medical and industrial markets. The scanner is driven magnetically on one axis and capacitively on the other axis. The first level wafer scale package described here incorporates the capacitive drive electrodes into the mounting substrate. The substrate wafer and the device wafer are then bonded using a glass frit sealing technique. Finally, the scanner and substrate are hermetically sealed into a metal can at reduced pressure.

  3. 2D BAR-CODES FOR AUTHENTICATION: A SECURITY APPROACH Cleo Baras and Francois Cayre

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    2D BAR-CODES FOR AUTHENTICATION: A SECURITY APPROACH Cl´eo Baras and Franc¸ois Cayre GIPSA In this paper, we investigate the authentication problem of real-world goods on which 2D bar-codes (2D-BC) were copies of a genuine 2D-BC (noise being due to printing and scanning processes). A simple estimator

  4. A simple and inexpensive bar-coding technique for denture identification

    PubMed Central

    Nalawade, Sonali N; Lagdive, Sanjay B; Gangadhar, SA; Bhandari, Aruna J

    2011-01-01

    A number of commercial methods for identifying dentures are available. They can be either invasive or noninvasive techniques. The less sophisticated procedures include simple engraving with bur, and more sophisticated procedures use labels or chips. Bar coding system is a way of transferring data to the computer and huge data can be stored as a record. Bar coding can be easily incorporated during acrylization of the denture and thus could be used in individual identification. PMID:22408329

  5. Centralized breastmilk handling and bar code scanning improve safety and reduce breastmilk administration errors.

    PubMed

    Steele, Caroline; Bixby, Christine

    2014-11-01

    Safe handling and preparation of breastmilk within the hospital setting are often taken for granted, and the process may not be scrutinized until problems arise. Areas of concern focus on both risk of contamination of breastmilk feedings due to handling and fortification and risk of a breastmilk misadministration. In two phases, Children's Hospital of Orange County (Orange, CA) implemented centralized breastmilk handling and breastmilk bar code scanning. As a result of these process changes, reports of breastmilk administration errors decreased to zero. However, bar code scanning allowed for the tracking of near misses. During the first 6 months of breastmilk bar code scanning, 55 attempts to feed the wrong breastmilk to the wrong patient and 127 attempts to feed expired breastmilk were prevented. Our findings are consistent with current practice recommendations that support the use of centralized breastmilk handling and systems for proper identification of breastmilk. PMID:25243824

  6. User interface reengineering. Innovative applications of bar coding in a clinical microbiology laboratory.

    PubMed

    Willard, K E; Shanholtzer, C J

    1995-08-01

    Some clinical laboratory departments (such as microbiology) provide extensive reporting of text and other data not generated by instruments that can be interfaced to a laboratory information system. These data are usually entered into the laboratory information system manually by keyboard data entry, which can be cumbersome and time consuming. Bar codes, which are already used in laboratories to facilitate rapid entry of sample-identifying information, have the potential to be used much more broadly as a generalizable data entry technique. We developed a comprehensive system that takes advantage of several applications of bar coding to facilitate the work of our Clinical Microbiology Laboratory. Central to our system is the use of bar code "scripts" to meet many of our complex data entry requirements. Use of these scripts is transparent to the laboratory information system (ie, no special "drivers" are needed) because data are received as if they had been generated by typing the characters on the keyboard. The scripts consist of bar codes that encode the series of keystrokes needed to give the appropriate response at the series of prompts offered by the laboratory information system. Both alphanumeric and other keys, including carriage returns and special characters, can be converted into bar codes and incorporated into scripts. By creating and printing these scripts in the laboratory using standard wordprocessing software and bar code fonts for personal computers, laboratorians without specialized computer training have the tools to substantially improve the data entry efficiency of existing data entry terminals for a variety of laboratory information systems. PMID:7646327

  7. Retention of Passive Integrated Transponder, T-Bar Anchor, and Coded Wire Tags in Lepisosteids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David L. Buckmeier; Kerry S. Reeves

    2012-01-01

    Increased interest in the management and conservation of gars (family Lepisosteidae) has resulted in the need to identify individual fish in wild and hatchery stocks; however, tagging methods have not been evaluated for these species. We estimated tag retention for passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags, T-bar anchor tags (Floy), and coded wire tags in alligator gar Atractosteus spatula, longnose gar

  8. Breakthrough Technologies DNA Sequence-Based "Bar Codes" for Tracking the

    E-print Network

    Schnable, Patrick S.

    - isms with complex genomes. However, to fully ex- plore the gene space of an organism, EST-based gene sequence tag (EST) approach, is an attractive method for the high-throughput discovery of genes in organBreakthrough Technologies DNA Sequence-Based "Bar Codes" for Tracking the Origins of Expressed

  9. Improving Patient Safety by Identifying Side Effects from Introducing Bar Coding in Medication Administration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    EMILY S. PATTERSON; RICHARD I. COOK; MARTA L. RENDER

    2002-01-01

    ObjectiveIn addition to providing new capabilities, the introduction of technology in complex, sociotechnical systems, such as health care and aviation, can have unanticipated side effects on technical, social, and organizational dimensions. To identify potential accidents in the making, the authors looked for side effects from a natural experiment, the implementation of bar code medication administration (BCMA), a technology designed to

  10. Toolkit for Bar Code Recognition and Resolving on Camera Phones Jump Starting the Internet of Things

    E-print Network

    applications, and thus gain real-world experiences for better jump-starting the future internet of thingsToolkit for Bar Code Recognition and Resolving on Camera Phones ­ Jump Starting the Internet of Things Robert Adelmann, Marc Langheinrich, Christian Flörkemeier Institute for Pervasive Computing, ETH

  11. Bar-code technology for inventory and marketing management systems: A model for its development and implementation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vassiliki Manthou; Maro Vlachopoulou

    2001-01-01

    The search for increased industrial productivity, better customer service, improved inventory accuracy, enhancement of buyer\\/seller communication, inventory and marketing cost savings and higher quality standards is generating new opportunities and challenges for bar codes as a means to support complete supply chains. In this paper, a conceptual framework for the integration of a bar-code system in inventory and marketing and

  12. A universal product code scanner is a feasible method of measuring household food inventory and food use patterns in low-income families.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, James L; Phillips, Valery; MacLeod, Erin; Arsenault, Margaret; Ferris, Ann M

    2006-03-01

    This study assesses the feasibility of using a Universal Product Code (UPC) scanner to record the home food inventory of limited-resource families. Feasibility was based on UPC scanner accuracy, time involved, and researcher/study participant feedback. Program staff members completed a traditional line-item inventory and UPC scan of 5,920 food items during 51 separate visits to the homes of 32 families. Foods reported from the UPC scanner were compared with the manual line-item food inventory. The UPC scanner report had an accuracy of 95.6% (5,661/5,920). Further, the UPC scanning technique offered a 31.8% time savings over the traditional line-item inventory approach. The UPC scanner was easy to use and participants reported that scanning food items was non-intrusive. A UPC scanner is a feasible method of recording the home food inventory, and the accuracy and simplicity of this approach can provide useful information on foods available for consumption within a home. PMID:16503237

  13. Rapid Quantification of Mutant Fitness in Diverse Bacteria by Sequencing Randomly Bar-Coded Transposons

    PubMed Central

    Wetmore, Kelly M.; Price, Morgan N.; Waters, Robert J.; Lamson, Jacob S.; He, Jennifer; Hoover, Cindi A.; Blow, Matthew J.; Bristow, James; Butland, Gareth

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Transposon mutagenesis with next-generation sequencing (TnSeq) is a powerful approach to annotate gene function in bacteria, but existing protocols for TnSeq require laborious preparation of every sample before sequencing. Thus, the existing protocols are not amenable to the throughput necessary to identify phenotypes and functions for the majority of genes in diverse bacteria. Here, we present a method, random bar code transposon-site sequencing (RB-TnSeq), which increases the throughput of mutant fitness profiling by incorporating random DNA bar codes into Tn5 and mariner transposons and by using bar code sequencing (BarSeq) to assay mutant fitness. RB-TnSeq can be used with any transposon, and TnSeq is performed once per organism instead of once per sample. Each BarSeq assay requires only a simple PCR, and 48 to 96 samples can be sequenced on one lane of an Illumina HiSeq system. We demonstrate the reproducibility and biological significance of RB-TnSeq with Escherichia coli, Phaeobacter inhibens, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Shewanella amazonensis, and Shewanella oneidensis. To demonstrate the increased throughput of RB-TnSeq, we performed 387 successful genome-wide mutant fitness assays representing 130 different bacterium-carbon source combinations and identified 5,196 genes with significant phenotypes across the five bacteria. In P. inhibens, we used our mutant fitness data to identify genes important for the utilization of diverse carbon substrates, including a putative d-mannose isomerase that is required for mannitol catabolism. RB-TnSeq will enable the cost-effective functional annotation of diverse bacteria using mutant fitness profiling. PMID:25968644

  14. Electrochemical detection of DNA hybridization based on bio-bar code method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caifeng Ding; Qian Zhang; Jin-Ming Lin; Shu-sheng Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Based on the electrochemical detection of cadmium ions dissolved from CdS nanoparticles (NPs), a novel and sensitive assay for the sequence-specific DNA detection has been developed by using bio-bar code techniques. The “sandwich-type” DNA complexes were fabricated with the thiol-functionalized capture DNA firstly immobilized on the modified electrode (nanoAu-GCE) and hybridized with one end of target DNA, the other end

  15. Analysis of the technology acceptance model in examining hospital nurses' behavioral intentions toward the use of bar code medication administration.

    PubMed

    Song, Lunar; Park, Byeonghwa; Oh, Kyeung Mi

    2015-04-01

    Serious medication errors continue to exist in hospitals, even though there is technology that could potentially eliminate them such as bar code medication administration. Little is known about the degree to which the culture of patient safety is associated with behavioral intention to use bar code medication administration. Based on the Technology Acceptance Model, this study evaluated the relationships among patient safety culture and perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use, and behavioral intention to use bar code medication administration technology among nurses in hospitals. Cross-sectional surveys with a convenience sample of 163 nurses using bar code medication administration were conducted. Feedback and communication about errors had a positive impact in predicting perceived usefulness (?=.26, P<.01) and perceived ease of use (?=.22, P<.05). In a multiple regression model predicting for behavioral intention, age had a negative impact (?=-.17, P<.05); however, teamwork within hospital units (?=.20, P<.05) and perceived usefulness (?=.35, P<.01) both had a positive impact on behavioral intention. The overall bar code medication administration behavioral intention model explained 24% (P<.001) of the variance. Identified factors influencing bar code medication administration behavioral intention can help inform hospitals to develop tailored interventions for RNs to reduce medication administration errors and increase patient safety by using this technology. PMID:25816212

  16. Bar Code Medication Administration Technology: Characterization of High-Alert Medication Triggers and Clinician Workarounds (February).

    PubMed

    Miller, Daniel F; Fortier, Christopher R; Garrison, Kelli L

    2011-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Bar code medication administration (BCMA) technology is gaining acceptance for its ability to prevent medication administration errors. However, studies suggest that improper use of BCMA technology can yield unsatisfactory error prevention and introduction of new potential medication errors. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incidence of high-alert medication BCMA triggers and alert types and discuss the type of nursing and pharmacy workarounds occurring with the use of BCMA technology and the electronic medication administration record (eMAR). METHODS: Medication scanning and override reports from January 1, 2008, through November 30, 2008, for all adult medical/surgical units were retrospectively evaluated for high-alert medication system triggers, alert types, and override reason documentation. An observational study of nursing workarounds on an adult medicine step-down unit was performed and an analysis of potential pharmacy workarounds affecting BCMA and the eMAR was also conducted. RESULTS: Seventeen percent of scanned medications triggered an error alert of which 55% were for high-alert medications. Insulin aspart, NPH insulin, hydromorphone, potassium chloride, and morphine were the top 5 high-alert medications that generated alert messages. Clinician override reasons for alerts were documented in only 23% of administrations. Observational studies assessing for nursing workarounds revealed a median of 3 clinician workarounds per administration. Specific nursing workarounds included a failure to scan medications/patient armband and scanning the bar code once the dosage has been removed from the unit-dose packaging. Analysis of pharmacy order entry process workarounds revealed the potential for missed doses, duplicate doses, and doses being scheduled at the wrong time. CONCLUSIONS: BCMA has the potential to prevent high-alert medication errors by alerting clinicians through alert messages. Nursing and pharmacy workarounds can limit the recognition of optimal safety outcomes and therefore workflow processes must be continually analyzed and restructured to yield the intended full benefits of BCMA technology. PMID:21285409

  17. Scanner Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaworski, Joy; Murphy, Kris

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe how they incorporated environmental awareness into their art curriculum. Here, they describe a digital photography project in which their students used flatbed scanners as cameras. Their students composed their objects directly on the scanner. The lesson enabled students to realize that artists have voices…

  18. Wide Host Ranges of Herbivorous Beetles? Insights from DNA Bar Coding

    PubMed Central

    Kishimoto-Yamada, Keiko; Kamiya, Koichi; Meleng, Paulus; Diway, Bibian; Kaliang, Het; Chong, Lucy; Itioka, Takao; Sakai, Shoko; Ito, Motomi

    2013-01-01

    There are very few studies that have investigated host-specificity among tropical herbivorous insects. Indeed, most of the trophic interactions of herbivorous insects in Southeast Asian tropical rainforests remain unknown, and whether polyphagous feeding is common in the herbivores of this ecosystem has not been determined. The present study employed DNA bar coding to reveal the trophic associations of adult leaf-chewing chrysomelid beetles in a Bornean rainforest. Plant material ingested by the adults was retrieved from the bodies of the insects, and a portion of the chloroplast rbcL sequence was then amplified from this material. The plants were identified at the family level using an existing reference database of chloroplast DNA. Our DNA-based diet analysis of eleven chrysomelid species successfully identified their host plant families and indicated that five beetle species fed on more than two families within the angiosperms, and four species fed on several families of gymnosperms and/or ferns together with multiple angiosperm families. These findings suggest that generalist chrysomelid beetles associated with ecologically and taxonomically distant plants constitute a part of the plant-insect network of the Bornean rainforest. PMID:24073210

  19. Overcoming barriers to the implementation of a pharmacy bar code scanning system for medication dispensing: a case study.

    PubMed

    Nanji, Karen C; Cina, Jennifer; Patel, Nirali; Churchill, William; Gandhi, Tejal K; Poon, Eric G

    2009-01-01

    Technology has great potential to reduce medication errors in hospitals. This case report describes barriers to, and facilitators of, the implementation of a pharmacy bar code scanning system to reduce medication dispensing errors at a large academic medical center. Ten pharmacy staff were interviewed about their experiences during the implementation. Interview notes were iteratively reviewed to identify common themes. The authors identified three main barriers to pharmacy bar code scanning system implementation: process (training requirements and process flow issues), technology (hardware, software, and the role of vendors), and resistance (communication issues, changing roles, and negative perceptions about technology). The authors also identified strategies to overcome these barriers. Adequate training, continuous improvement, and adaptation of workflow to address one's own needs mitigated process barriers. Ongoing vendor involvement, acknowledgment of technology limitations, and attempts to address them were crucial in overcoming technology barriers. Staff resistance was addressed through clear communication, identifying champions, emphasizing new information provided by the system, and facilitating collaboration. PMID:19567797

  20. Modeling nurses' acceptance of bar coded medication administration technology at a pediatric hospital

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Roger L; Scanlon, Matthew C; Karsh, Ben-Tzion

    2012-01-01

    Objective To identify predictors of nurses' acceptance of bar coded medication administration (BCMA). Design Cross-sectional survey of registered nurses (N=83) at an academic pediatric hospital that recently implemented BCMA. Methods Surveys assessed seven BCMA-related perceptions: ease of use; usefulness for the job; social influence from non-specific others to use BCMA; training; technical support; usefulness for patient care; and social influence from patients/families. An all possible subset regression procedure with five goodness-of-fit indicators was used to identify which set of perceptions best predicted BCMA acceptance (intention to use, satisfaction). Results Nurses reported a moderate perceived ease of use and low perceived usefulness of BCMA. Nurses perceived moderate-or-higher social influence to use BCMA and had moderately positive perceptions of BCMA-related training and technical support. Behavioral intention to use BCMA was high, but satisfaction was low. Behavioral intention to use was best predicted by perceived ease of use, perceived social influence from non-specific others, and perceived usefulness for patient care (56% of variance explained). Satisfaction was best predicted by perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness for patient care, and perceived social influence from patients/families (76% of variance explained). Discussion Variation in and low scores on ease of use and usefulness are concerning, especially as these variables often correlate with acceptance, as found in this study. Predicting acceptance benefited from using a broad set of perceptions and adapting variables to the healthcare context. Conclusion Success with BCMA and other technologies can benefit from assessing end-user acceptance and elucidating the factors promoting acceptance and use. PMID:22661559

  1. Line Scanners Basic line-scanner principle

    E-print Network

    Giger, Christine

    to the ground coordinate system · NB: satellite line scanners · line scanners are especially popularLine Scanners #12;Principle · Basic line-scanner principle #12;Principle · Sensor · single CCD line oriented perpendicular to the scanning (=flight) direction, often called "pushbroom scanner" · Scanning

  2. Digital Data Matrix Scanner Developnent At Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Research at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has resulted in a system for reading hidden identification codes using a hand-held magnetic scanner. It's an invention that could help businesses improve inventory management, enhance safety, improve security, and aid in recall efforts if defects are discovered. Two-dimensional Data Matrix symbols consisting of letters and numbers permanently etched on items for identification and resembling a small checkerboard pattern are more efficient and reliable than traditional bar codes, and can store up to 100 times more information. A team led by Fred Schramm of the Marshall Center's Technology Transfer Department, in partnership with PRI,Torrance, California, has developed a hand-held device that can read this special type of coded symbols, even if covered by up to six layers of paint. Before this new technology was available, matrix symbols were read with optical scanners, and only if the codes were visible. This latest improvement in digital Data Matrix technologies offers greater flexibility for businesses and industries already using the marking system. Paint, inks, and pastes containing magnetic properties are applied in matrix symbol patterns to objects with two-dimensional codes, and the codes are read by a magnetic scanner, even after being covered with paint or other coatings. The ability to read hidden matrix symbols promises a wide range of benefits in a number of fields, including airlines, electronics, healthcare, and the automotive industry. Many industries would like to hide information on a part, so it can be read only by the party who put it there. For instance, the automotive industry uses direct parts marking for inventory control, but for aesthetic purposes the marks often need to be invisible. Symbols have been applied to a variety of materials, including metal, plastic, glass, paper, fabric and foam, on everything from electronic parts to pharmaceuticals to livestock. The portability of the hand-held scanner makes work faster and easier. It reads marks in darkness, under bright light that might interfere with optical reading of visible marks, and can detect symbols obscured by discoloration or contamination. Through a license with NASA, another partner, Robotic Vision Systems, Inc., of Nashua, New Hampshire, will sell the scanner on the commercial market. NASA continues to seek additional companies to license the product. Joint efforts by Marshall researchers and industry partners are aimed at improving dentification technology as part of NASA's program to better life on Earth through technology designed for the space program. In this photo, Don Roxby, Robotic Vision Systems, Inc., (left)demonstrates the magnetic handheld scanner for Fred Schramm, (Right) MSFC Technology Transfer Department.

  3. Nucleic acid quantification using nicking-displacement, rolling circle amplification and bio-bar-code mediated triple-amplification.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue-Mei; Luo, Jie; Zhang, Ning-Bo; Wei, Qing-Li

    2015-06-30

    In the present study, an inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)-based triple-amplification system, by combination of nicking-displacement, rolling circle amplification (RCA) and bio-bar-code probes, was fabricated for the detection of DNA target. By using this system, hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA target down to 3.2×10(-17)M was detected by DNA probes labeled with Au nanoparticles (AuNPs). Single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes can also be effectively discriminated. In addition, we proved that this strategy is capable of detecting the target in complicated biological samples and holds great potential application in biomedical research. PMID:26041527

  4. Step Action After printing off the Bar Code from the appropriate Expense Report in PeopleSoft, obtain all receipts and

    E-print Network

    Step Action 1 After printing off the Bar Code from the appropriate Expense Report in People. The barcode sheet needs to be printed in black and white on white paper in vertical (portrait) format using good print quality (not too light, not too dark, no creased paper, not too small, etc

  5. Development of a Magnetic Electrochemical Bar Code Array for Point Mutation Detection in the H5N1 Neuraminidase Gene

    PubMed Central

    Krejcova, Ludmila; Hynek, David; Kopel, Pavel; Merlos Rodrigo, Miguel Angel; Adam, Vojtech; Hubalek, Jaromir; Babula, Petr; Trnkova, Libuse; Kizek, Rene

    2013-01-01

    Since its first official detection in the Guangdong province of China in 1996, the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of H5N1 subtype (HPAI H5N1) has reportedly been the cause of outbreaks in birds in more than 60 countries, 24 of which were European. The main issue is still to develop effective antiviral drugs. In this case, single point mutation in the neuraminidase gene, which causes resistance to antiviral drug and is, therefore, subjected to many studies including ours, was observed. In this study, we developed magnetic electrochemical bar code array for detection of single point mutations (mismatches in up to four nucleotides) in H5N1 neuraminidase gene. Paramagnetic particles Dynabeads® with covalently bound oligo (dT)25 were used as a tool for isolation of complementary H5N1 chains (H5N1 Zhejin, China and Aichi). For detection of H5N1 chains, oligonucleotide chains of lengths of 12 (+5 adenine) or 28 (+5 adenine) bp labeled with quantum dots (CdS, ZnS and/or PbS) were used. Individual probes hybridized to target molecules specifically with efficiency higher than 60%. The obtained signals identified mutations present in the sequence. Suggested experimental procedure allows obtaining further information from the redox signals of nucleic acids. Moreover, the used biosensor exhibits sequence specificity and low limits of detection of subnanogram quantities of target nucleic acids. PMID:23860384

  6. Automation and adaptation: Nurses’ problem-solving behavior following the implementation of bar coded medication administration technology

    PubMed Central

    Holden, Richard J.; Rivera-Rodriguez, A. Joy; Faye, Héléne; Scanlon, Matthew C.; Karsh, Ben-Tzion

    2012-01-01

    The most common change facing nurses today is new technology, particularly bar coded medication administration technology (BCMA). However, there is a dearth of knowledge on how BCMA alters nursing work. This study investigated how BCMA technology affected nursing work, particularly nurses’ operational problem-solving behavior. Cognitive systems engineering observations and interviews were conducted after the implementation of BCMA in three nursing units of a freestanding pediatric hospital. Problem-solving behavior, associated problems, and goals, were specifically defined and extracted from observed episodes of care. Three broad themes regarding BCMA’s impact on problem solving were identified. First, BCMA allowed nurses to invent new problem-solving behavior to deal with pre-existing problems. Second, BCMA made it difficult or impossible to apply some problem-solving behaviors that were commonly used pre-BCMA, often requiring nurses to use potentially risky workarounds to achieve their goals. Third, BCMA created new problems that nurses were either able to solve using familiar or novel problem-solving behaviors, or unable to solve effectively. Results from this study shed light on hidden hazards and suggest three critical design needs: (1) ecologically valid design; (2) anticipatory control; and (3) basic usability. Principled studies of the actual nature of clinicians’ work, including problem solving, are necessary to uncover hidden hazards and to inform health information technology design and redesign. PMID:24443642

  7. Identification of internal transcribed spacer sequence motifs in truffles: a first step toward their DNA bar coding.

    PubMed

    El Karkouri, Khalid; Murat, Claude; Zampieri, Elisa; Bonfante, Paola

    2007-08-01

    This work presents DNA sequence motifs from the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of the nuclear rRNA repeat unit which are useful for the identification of five European and Asiatic truffles (Tuber magnatum, T. melanosporum, T. indicum, T. aestivum, and T. mesentericum). Truffles are edible mycorrhizal ascomycetes that show similar morphological characteristics but that have distinct organoleptic and economic values. A total of 36 out of 46 ITS1 or ITS2 sequence motifs have allowed an accurate in silico distinction of the five truffles to be made (i.e., by pattern matching and/or BLAST analysis on downloaded GenBank sequences and directly against GenBank databases). The motifs considered the intraspecific genetic variability of each species, including rare haplotypes, and assigned their respective species from either the ascocarps or ectomycorrhizas. The data indicate that short ITS1 or ITS2 motifs (< or = 50 bp in size) can be considered promising tools for truffle species identification. A dot blot hybridization analysis of T. magnatum and T. melanosporum compared with other close relatives or distant lineages allowed at least one highly specific motif to be identified for each species. These results were confirmed in a blind test which included new field isolates. The current work has provided a reliable new tool for a truffle oligonucleotide bar code and identification in ecological and evolutionary studies. PMID:17601808

  8. Identification of Internal Transcribed Spacer Sequence Motifs in Truffles: a First Step toward Their DNA Bar Coding? †

    PubMed Central

    El Karkouri, Khalid; Murat, Claude; Zampieri, Elisa; Bonfante, Paola

    2007-01-01

    This work presents DNA sequence motifs from the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of the nuclear rRNA repeat unit which are useful for the identification of five European and Asiatic truffles (Tuber magnatum, T. melanosporum, T. indicum, T. aestivum, and T. mesentericum). Truffles are edible mycorrhizal ascomycetes that show similar morphological characteristics but that have distinct organoleptic and economic values. A total of 36 out of 46 ITS1 or ITS2 sequence motifs have allowed an accurate in silico distinction of the five truffles to be made (i.e., by pattern matching and/or BLAST analysis on downloaded GenBank sequences and directly against GenBank databases). The motifs considered the intraspecific genetic variability of each species, including rare haplotypes, and assigned their respective species from either the ascocarps or ectomycorrhizas. The data indicate that short ITS1 or ITS2 motifs (?50 bp in size) can be considered promising tools for truffle species identification. A dot blot hybridization analysis of T. magnatum and T. melanosporum compared with other close relatives or distant lineages allowed at least one highly specific motif to be identified for each species. These results were confirmed in a blind test which included new field isolates. The current work has provided a reliable new tool for a truffle oligonucleotide bar code and identification in ecological and evolutionary studies. PMID:17601808

  9. BAR-CODE BASED WEIGHT MEASUREMENT STATION FOR PHYSICAL INVENTORY TAKING OF PLUTONIUM OXIDE CONTAINERS AT THE MINING AND CHEMICAL COMBINE RADIOCHEMICAL REPROCESSING PLANT NEAR KRASNOYARSK, SIBERIA.

    SciTech Connect

    SUDA,S.

    1999-09-20

    This paper describes the technical tasks being implemented to computerize the physical inventory taking (PIT) at the Mining and Chemical Combine (Gorno-Khimichesky Kombinat, GKhK) radiochemical plant under the US/Russian cooperative nuclear material protection, control, and accounting (MPC and A) program. Under the MPC and A program, Lab-to-Lab task agreements with GKhK were negotiated that involved computerized equipment for item verification and confirmatory measurement of the Pu containers. Tasks under Phase I cover the work for demonstrating the plan and procedures for carrying out the comparison of the Pu container identification on the container with the computerized inventory records. In addition to the records validation, the verification procedures include the application of bar codes and bar coded TIDs to the Pu containers. Phase II involves the verification of the Pu content. A plan and procedures are being written for carrying out confirmatory measurements on the Pu containers.

  10. Analysis of Chromosomal Alterations in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer by Multiplex-FISH, Comparative Genomic Hybridization, and Multicolor Bar Coding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael R Speicher; Simone Petersen; Sabine Uhrig; Isabell Jentsch; Christine Fauth; Roland Eils; Iver Petersen

    2000-01-01

    Lung cancer has a considerable impact on morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Despite extensive effort, no lung cancer-specific cytogenetic changes, such as lineage-specific translocations or inversions, have been described to date. In this study we used multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridization (M-FISH), comparative genomic hybridization, and multicolor bar coding to analyze eight cell lines derived from non-small cell lung

  11. Application of DNA Bar Codes for Screening of Industrially Important Fungi: the Haplotype of Trichoderma harzianum Sensu Stricto Indicates Superior Chitinase Formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Viviana Nagy; Verena Seidl; George Szakacs; M. Komon-Zelazowska; Christian P. Kubicek; Irina S. Druzhinina

    2007-01-01

    Selection of suitable strains for biotechnological purposes is frequently a random process supported by high-throughput methods. Using chitinase production by Hypocrea lixii\\/Trichoderma harzianum as a model, we tested whether fungal strains with superior enzyme formation may be diagnosed by DNA bar codes. We analyzed sequences of two phylogenetic marker loci, internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and ITS2 of the rRNA-encoding

  12. Bar-Coded Pyrosequencing Reveals Shared Bacterial Community Properties along the Temperature Gradients of Two Alkaline Hot Springs in Yellowstone National Park

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott R. Miller; Aaron L. Strong; Kenneth L. Jones; Mark C. Ungerer

    2009-01-01

    An understanding of how communities are organized is a fundamental goal of ecology but one which has historically been elusive for microbial systems. We used a bar-coded pyrosequencing approach targeting the V3 region of the bacterial small-subunit rRNA gene to address the factors that structure communities along the thermal gradients of two alkaline hot springs in the Lower Geyser Basin

  13. Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS): Imagery of near-surface phytoplankton pigment concentrations from the first coastal ocean dynamics experiment (CODE-1), March - July 1981

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, M. R.; Zion, P. M.

    1984-01-01

    As part of the first Coastal Ocean Dynamics Experiment, images of ocean color were collected from late March until late July, 1981, by the Coastal Zone Color Scanner aboard Nimbus-7. Images that had sufficient cloud-free area to be of interest were processed to yield near-surface phytoplankton pigment concentrations. These images were then remapped to a fixed equal-area grid. This report contains photographs of the digital images and a brief description of the processing methods.

  14. Whole body scanners

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hein A. M. Daanen; G. Jeroen van de Water

    1998-01-01

    Whole body scanning is a useful technique with applications in the apparel industry, human systems engineering and medical field. A worldwide review of whole body scanners describes eight commercially available systems. The scanners differ considerably in price (US$50?000–410?000), resolution (1–8mm) and speed (0.2–3s). Most scanners use laser stripe projection; other techniques are patterned light projection and stereo photogrammetry. To cover

  15. Aptamer-conjugated bio-bar-code Au-Fe3O4 nanoparticles as amplification station for electrochemiluminescence detection of tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Min; Bi, Sai; Jia, Xiaoqiang; He, Peng

    2014-07-21

    An electrochemiluminescence (ECL) assay has been developed for highly sensitive and selective detection of tumor cells based on cell-SELEX aptamer-target cell interactions through a cascaded amplification process by using bio-bar-code Au-Fe3O4 as amplification station. Firstly, bio-bar-code toehold-aptamer/DNA primer/Au-Fe3O4 (TA/DP/Au-Fe3O4) nanoconjugates are fabricated with a ratio of 1:10 to efficiently avoid cross-linking reaction and recognize target cells, which are immobilized on the substrate by hybridizing aptamer to capture probe with 18-mer. Through strand displacement reaction (SDR), the TA/DP/Au-Fe3O4 composites further act as the amplification station to initiate rolling circle amplification (RCA). As a result, on the surface of TA/DP/Au-Fe3O4, a large number of Ru(bpy)2(dcbpy)NHS-labeled probes hybridize to RCA products, which are easily trapped by magnetic electrode to perform the magnetic particle-based ECL platform. Under isothermal conditions, this powerful amplification strategy permits detection of Ramos cells as low as 16 cells with an excellent selectivity. Moreover, analysis of Ramos cells in complex samples and whole blood samples further show the great potential of this ultrasensitive approach in clinical application involving cancer cells-related biological processes. PMID:25000857

  16. Forensics for flatbed scanners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gloe, Thomas; Franz, Elke; Winkler, Antje

    2007-02-01

    Within this article, we investigate possibilities for identifying the origin of images acquired with flatbed scanners. A current method for the identification of digital cameras takes advantage of image sensor noise, strictly speaking, the spatial noise. Since flatbed scanners and digital cameras use similar technologies, the utilization of image sensor noise for identifying the origin of scanned images seems to be possible. As characterization of flatbed scanner noise, we considered array reference patterns and sensor line reference patterns. However, there are particularities of flatbed scanners which we expect to influence the identification. This was confirmed by extensive tests: Identification was possible to a certain degree, but less reliable than digital camera identification. In additional tests, we simulated the influence of flatfielding and down scaling as examples for such particularities of flatbed scanners on digital camera identification. One can conclude from the results achieved so far that identifying flatbed scanners is possible. However, since the analyzed methods are not able to determine the image origin in all cases, further investigations are necessary.

  17. Biochip scanner device

    DOEpatents

    Perov, Alexander (Troitsk, RU); Belgovskiy, Alexander I. (Mayfield Heights, OH); Mirzabekov, Andrei D. (Darien, IL)

    2001-01-01

    A biochip scanner device used to detect and acquire fluorescence signal data from biological microchips or biochips and method of use are provided. The biochip scanner device includes a laser for emitting a laser beam. A modulator, such as an optical chopper modulates the laser beam. A scanning head receives the modulated laser beam and a scanning mechanics coupled to the scanning head moves the scanning head relative to the biochip. An optical fiber delivers the modulated laser beam to the scanning head. The scanning head collects the fluorescence light from the biochip, launches it into the same optical fiber, which delivers the fluorescence into a photodetector, such as a photodiode. The biochip scanner device is used in a row scanning method to scan selected rows of the biochip with the laser beam size matching the size of the immobilization site.

  18. A novel photoelectrochemical sensor based on photocathode of PbS quantum dots utilizing catalase mimetics of bio-bar-coded platinum nanoparticles/G-quadruplex/hemin for signal amplification.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guang-Li; Liu, Kang-Li; Shu, Jun-Xian; Gu, Tian-Tian; Wu, Xiu-Ming; Dong, Yu-Ming; Li, Zai-Jun

    2015-07-15

    Photocathode based on p-type PbS quantum dots (QDs) combing a novel signal amplification strategy utilizing catalase (CAT) mimetics was designed and utilized for sensitive photoelectrochemical (PEC) detection of DNA. The bio-bar-coded Pt nanoparticles (NPs)/G-quadruplex/hemin exhibited high CAT-like activity following the Michaelis-Menten model for decomposing H2O2 to water and oxygen, whose activity even slightly exceeded that of natural CAT. The bio-bar-code as a catalytic label was conjugated onto the surface of PbS QDs modified electrodes through the formed sandwich-type structure due to DNA hybridization. Oxygen in situ generated by the CAT mimetics of the bio-bar-code of Pt NPs/G-quadruplex/hemin acted as an efficient electron acceptor of illuminated PbS QDs, promoting charge separation and enhancing cathodic photocurrent. Under optimal conditions, the developed PEC biosensor for target DNA exhibited a dynamic range of 0.2pmol/L to 1.0nmol/L with a low detection limit of 0.08pmol/L. The high sensitivity of the method was resulted from the sensitive response of PbS QDs to oxygen and the highly efficient CAT-like catalytic activity of the bio-bar-coded Pt NPs/G-quadruplex/hemin. PMID:25723768

  19. Ground location of satellite scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puccinelli, E. F.

    1976-01-01

    This paper presents simple and accurate mathematical formulation for determining the ground location of remote sensor data. The techniques used are based on elementary concepts of differential geometry and lead to the development of a relation that gives location as a function of surface ellipticity, satellite position, velocity, attitude, and scanner orientation. The formula lends itself to simply computer coding and will hopefully lead to a standardization of the various techniques which have been developed to solve this problem.

  20. High throughput optical scanner

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. Basiji; Gerrit J. van den Engh

    2001-01-01

    A scanning apparatus is provided to obtain automated, rapid and sensitive scanning of substrate fluorescence, optical density or phosphorescence. The scanner uses a constant path length optical train, which enables the combination of a moving beam for high speed scanning with phase-sensitive detection for noise reduction, comprising a light source, a scanning mirror to receive light from the light source

  1. Hybrid Dispersion Laser Scanner

    PubMed Central

    Goda, K.; Mahjoubfar, A.; Wang, C.; Fard, A.; Adam, J.; Gossett, D. R.; Ayazi, A.; Sollier, E.; Malik, O.; Chen, E.; Liu, Y.; Brown, R.; Sarkhosh, N.; Di Carlo, D.; Jalali, B.

    2012-01-01

    Laser scanning technology is one of the most integral parts of today's scientific research, manufacturing, defense, and biomedicine. In many applications, high-speed scanning capability is essential for scanning a large area in a short time and multi-dimensional sensing of moving objects and dynamical processes with fine temporal resolution. Unfortunately, conventional laser scanners are often too slow, resulting in limited precision and utility. Here we present a new type of laser scanner that offers ?1,000 times higher scan rates than conventional state-of-the-art scanners. This method employs spatial dispersion of temporally stretched broadband optical pulses onto the target, enabling inertia-free laser scans at unprecedented scan rates of nearly 100?MHz at 800?nm. To show our scanner's broad utility, we use it to demonstrate unique and previously difficult-to-achieve capabilities in imaging, surface vibrometry, and flow cytometry at a record 2D raster scan rate of more than 100?kHz with 27,000 resolvable points. PMID:22685627

  2. Scanners, optical character readers, Cyrillic alphabet and Russian translations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Gordon G.

    1995-01-01

    The writing of code for capture, in a uniform format, of bit maps of words and characters from scanner PICT files is presented. The coding of Dynamic Pattern Matched for the identification of the characters, words and sentences in preparation for translation is discussed.

  3. Bar Graph

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    This lesson is designed to give students experience creating and reading bar graphs. The lesson provides links to a practice data set and the bar graph activity so that students can practice making bar graphs and check their work using the activity. Finally, the lesson provides a suggested follow-up to this lesson.

  4. Scanner focus metrology for advanced node scanner monitoring and control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jimyung; Park, Youngsik; Jeong, Taehwa; Kim, Suhyun; Yoon, Kwang-Sub; Choi, Byoung-il; Levinski, Vladimir; Kandel, Daniel; Feler, Yoel; Gutman, Nadav; Island-Ashwal, Eltsafon; Cooper, Moshe; Choi, DongSub; Herzel, Eitan; David, Tien; Kim, JungWook

    2015-03-01

    Scanner Focus window of the lithographic process becomes much smaller due to the shrink of the device node and multipatterning approach. Consequently, the required performance of scanner focus becomes tighter and more complicated. Focus control/monitoring methods such as "field-by-field focus control" or "intra-field focus control" is a necessity. Moreover, tight scanner focus performance requirement starts to raise another fundamental question: accuracy of the reported scanner focus. The insufficient accuracy of the reported scanner focus using the existing methods originates from: a) Focus measurement quality, which is due to low sensitivity of measured targets, especially around the nominal production focus. b) The scanner focus is estimated using special targets, e.g. large pitch target and not using the device-like structures (irremovable aberration impact). Both of these factors are eliminated using KLA-Tencor proprietary "Focus Offset" technology.

  5. Integrated display scanner

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, James T.

    2004-12-21

    A display scanner includes an optical panel having a plurality of stacked optical waveguides. The waveguides define an inlet face at one end and a screen at an opposite end, with each waveguide having a core laminated between cladding. A projector projects a scan beam of light into the panel inlet face for transmission from the screen as a scan line to scan a barcode. A light sensor at the inlet face detects a return beam reflected from the barcode into the screen. A decoder decodes the return beam detected by the sensor for reading the barcode. In an exemplary embodiment, the optical panel also displays a visual image thereon.

  6. Bar-coded pyrosequencing reveals shared bacterial community properties along the temperature gradients of two alkaline hot springs in Yellowstone National Park.

    PubMed

    Miller, Scott R; Strong, Aaron L; Jones, Kenneth L; Ungerer, Mark C

    2009-07-01

    An understanding of how communities are organized is a fundamental goal of ecology but one which has historically been elusive for microbial systems. We used a bar-coded pyrosequencing approach targeting the V3 region of the bacterial small-subunit rRNA gene to address the factors that structure communities along the thermal gradients of two alkaline hot springs in the Lower Geyser Basin of Yellowstone National Park. The filtered data set included a total of nearly 34,000 sequences from 39 environmental samples. Each was assigned to one of 391 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) identified by their unique V3 sequence signatures. Although the two hot springs differed in their OTU compositions, community resemblance and diversity changed with strikingly similar dynamics along the two outflow channels. Two lines of evidence suggest that these community properties are controlled primarily by environmental temperature. First, community resemblance decayed exponentially with increasing differences in temperature between samples but was only weakly correlated with physical distance. Second, diversity decreased with increasing temperature at the same rate along both gradients but was uncorrelated with other measured environmental variables. This study also provides novel insights into the nature of the ecological interactions among important taxa in these communities. A strong negative association was observed between cyanobacteria and the Chloroflexi, which together accounted for approximately 70% of the sequences sampled. This pattern contradicts the longstanding hypothesis that coadapted lineages of these bacteria maintain tightly cooccurring distributions along these gradients as a result of a producer-consumer relationship. We propose that they instead compete for some limiting resource(s). PMID:19429553

  7. Bar-Coded Pyrosequencing Reveals Shared Bacterial Community Properties along the Temperature Gradients of Two Alkaline Hot Springs in Yellowstone National Park? †

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Scott R.; Strong, Aaron L.; Jones, Kenneth L.; Ungerer, Mark C.

    2009-01-01

    An understanding of how communities are organized is a fundamental goal of ecology but one which has historically been elusive for microbial systems. We used a bar-coded pyrosequencing approach targeting the V3 region of the bacterial small-subunit rRNA gene to address the factors that structure communities along the thermal gradients of two alkaline hot springs in the Lower Geyser Basin of Yellowstone National Park. The filtered data set included a total of nearly 34,000 sequences from 39 environmental samples. Each was assigned to one of 391 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) identified by their unique V3 sequence signatures. Although the two hot springs differed in their OTU compositions, community resemblance and diversity changed with strikingly similar dynamics along the two outflow channels. Two lines of evidence suggest that these community properties are controlled primarily by environmental temperature. First, community resemblance decayed exponentially with increasing differences in temperature between samples but was only weakly correlated with physical distance. Second, diversity decreased with increasing temperature at the same rate along both gradients but was uncorrelated with other measured environmental variables. This study also provides novel insights into the nature of the ecological interactions among important taxa in these communities. A strong negative association was observed between cyanobacteria and the Chloroflexi, which together accounted for ?70% of the sequences sampled. This pattern contradicts the longstanding hypothesis that coadapted lineages of these bacteria maintain tightly cooccurring distributions along these gradients as a result of a producer-consumer relationship. We propose that they instead compete for some limiting resource(s). PMID:19429553

  8. SERI laser scanner system

    SciTech Connect

    Matson, R.J.; Cannon, T.W.

    1980-10-01

    A Laser Scanner System (LSS) produces a photoresponse map and can be used for the nondestructive detection of nonuniformities in the photoresponse of a semiconductor device. At SERI the photoresponse maps are used to identify solar cell faults including microcracks, metallization breaks, regions of poor contact between metallization and the underlying emitter surface, and variations in emitter sheet resistance. The SERI LSS is patterned after the LSS unit documented in the NBS Special Publication 400-24 A Laser Scanner for Semiconductor Devices by D.E. Sawyer and D.W. Berning. Assuming reader familiarity with the above publication, the modifications introduced by SERI are specified with the intention that the two reports can be used to reproduce the SERI LSS. The optical and electronic systems are reviewed, briefly discussing the significant items of each. The most notable difference between the two systems is the SERI substitution of commercially available state-of-the-art modular electronics for the discreet component circuitry used in the NBS LSS.

  9. MEMS optical scanners for microscopes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroshi Miyajima; Kenzi Murakami; Masahiro Katashiro

    2004-01-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) optical scanners have been around for more than two decades. Various applications have been presented, but few of them have advanced to the commercial level to date due to the difficulties of combination of optics and MEMS devices. This paper presents our activities of investigating MEMS scanner applications related to microscopic imaging. First, we started with developing

  10. Laser Scanner Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Fuss, B.

    2005-09-06

    In the Summer of 2004 a request for proposals went out to potential vendors to offer a three-dimensional laser scanner for a number of unique metrology tasks at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). Specifications were established including range, accuracy, scan density, resolution and field of view in consideration of anticipated department requirements. Four vendors visited the site to present their system and they were asked to perform three unique tests with their system on a two day visit to SLAC. Two of the three tests were created to emulate real-world applications at SLAC while the third was an accuracy and resolution series of experiments. The scope of these tests is presented and some of the vendor's results are included.

  11. Multispectral scanner optical system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stokes, R. C.; Koch, N. G. (inventors)

    1980-01-01

    An optical system for use in a multispectral scanner of the type used in video imaging devices is disclosed. Electromagnetic radiation reflected by a rotating scan mirror is focused by a concave primary telescope mirror and collimated by a second concave mirror. The collimated beam is split by a dichroic filter which transmits radiant energy in the infrared spectrum and reflects visible and near infrared energy. The long wavelength beam is filtered and focused on an infrared detector positioned in a cryogenic environment. The short wavelength beam is dispersed by a pair of prisms, then projected on an array of detectors also mounted in a cryogenic environment and oriented at an angle relative to the optical path of the dispersed short wavelength beam.

  12. Intraoral 3D scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühmstedt, Peter; Bräuer-Burchardt, Christian; Munkelt, Christoph; Heinze, Matthias; Palme, Martin; Schmidt, Ingo; Hintersehr, Josef; Notni, Gunther

    2007-09-01

    Here a new set-up of a 3D-scanning system for CAD/CAM in dental industry is proposed. The system is designed for direct scanning of the dental preparations within the mouth. The measuring process is based on phase correlation technique in combination with fast fringe projection in a stereo arrangement. The novelty in the approach is characterized by the following features: A phase correlation between the phase values of the images of two cameras is used for the co-ordinate calculation. This works contrary to the usage of only phase values (phasogrammetry) or classical triangulation (phase values and camera image co-ordinate values) for the determination of the co-ordinates. The main advantage of the method is that the absolute value of the phase at each point does not directly determine the coordinate. Thus errors in the determination of the co-ordinates are prevented. Furthermore, using the epipolar geometry of the stereo-like arrangement the phase unwrapping problem of fringe analysis can be solved. The endoscope like measurement system contains one projection and two camera channels for illumination and observation of the object, respectively. The new system has a measurement field of nearly 25mm × 15mm. The user can measure two or three teeth at one time. So the system can by used for scanning of single tooth up to bridges preparations. In the paper the first realization of the intraoral scanner is described.

  13. MSS D Multispectral Scanner System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauletta, A. M.; Johnson, R. L.; Brinkman, K. L. (principal investigators)

    1982-01-01

    The development and acceptance testing of the 4-band Multispectral Scanners to be flown on LANDSAT D and LANDSAT D Earth resources satellites are summarized. Emphasis is placed on the acceptance test phase of the program. Test history and acceptance test algorithms are discussed. Trend data of all the key performance parameters are included and discussed separately for each of the two multispectral scanner instruments. Anomalies encountered and their resolutions are included.

  14. Multispectral Scanner for Monitoring Plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gat, Nahum

    2004-01-01

    A multispectral scanner has been adapted to capture spectral images of living plants under various types of illumination for purposes of monitoring the health of, or monitoring the transfer of genes into, the plants. In a health-monitoring application, the plants are illuminated with full-spectrum visible and near infrared light and the scanner is used to acquire a reflected-light spectral signature known to be indicative of the health of the plants. In a gene-transfer- monitoring application, the plants are illuminated with blue or ultraviolet light and the scanner is used to capture fluorescence images from a green fluorescent protein (GFP) that is expressed as result of the gene transfer. The choice of wavelength of the illumination and the wavelength of the fluorescence to be monitored depends on the specific GFP.

  15. Application Bar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henry Lee; Eugene Chuvyrov

    \\u000a When you’re ready to program your Windows Phone 7 application in Visual Studio, you’ll know what general features your application\\u000a will provide. Each of the major application features will need to be accessible via a shortcut or some form of a navigation\\u000a menu. For Windows Phone 7 applications, Microsoft recommends that you use a standard Windows Phone 7 Application Bar

  16. Choosing a Scanner: Points To Consider before Buying a Scanner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raby, Chris

    1998-01-01

    Outlines ten factors to consider before buying a scanner: size of document; type of document; color; speed and volume; resolution; image enhancement; image compression; optical character recognition; scanning subsystem; and the option to use a commercial bureau service. The importance of careful analysis of requirements is emphasized. (AEF)

  17. ARL Explosive Blast Bar Gauge Response Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, Gerrit; Boyle, Vincent; Benjamin, Richard

    2013-06-01

    Simulations allow us to optimize the design of a bar gauge. The incident blast wave imparts a wave that travels down the metal bar. Strain gauges positioned along the bar measure the strain produced by the bar wave, allowing determination of pressure and impulse at the bar face. The measured pressure history depends on the arrangement of the bar gauge. If a large metal plate surrounds the bar face, a reflected blast pressure is measured. If a metal fixture that forms a nozzle surrounds the bar face, the initial pressure will be the same as above. In time, release waves emanating from the nozzle edge will decrease the pressure at the bar face. The bar diameter and size of strain gauges control the time response or gauge bandwidth. CTH hydrocode simulations allow optimization of bar gauge features for various size explosive charges. The simulations predicted the response of the metal plate arrangement to a blast from a spherical composition C4 charge. The simulations predicted the proper metal plate diameter for a reflected pressure measurement. Other simulations compared the response of the bar gauge for both configurations (nozzle or plate surround) when subjected to the same blast loading. Pressure histories from simulations were compared to those from experiment and those predicted by the CONWEP blast code. The initial experimental and CONWEP pressures were in reasonable agreement.

  18. Improvements to Existing Jefferson Lab Wire Scanners

    SciTech Connect

    McCaughan, Michael D. [JLAB; Tiefenback, Michael G. [JLAB; Turner, Dennis L. [JLAB

    2013-06-01

    This poster will detail the augmentation of selected existing CEBAF wire scanners with commercially available hardware, PMTs, and self created software in order to improve the scanners both in function and utility.

  19. Galvanometer Optical Scanner INSTRUCTION MANUAL

    E-print Network

    Kleinfeld, David

    inside the bearing will reduce bearing life. Note: As with any high performance motor, resonances created with anything other than light finger pressure on the front shaft or damage to the front bearing can occur. Do in contact with the front bearing. It is located right at the front end ofthe scanner. Foreign material

  20. AIR BAND SCANNER WITH RETRANSMISSION

    E-print Network

    Yu, Chansu

    AIR BAND SCANNER WITH RETRANSMISSION TO LOCAL FM RADIO USING A SOFTWARE DEFINED RADIO Final Report was very low Determined that the antenna was the easiest thing to upgrade Built a quarter wave ground plane antenna $15 worth of parts from Radio Shack and Home Depot Quarter Wave Ground Plane Antenna Vertical ­ 23

  1. What Scanner products are available?

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-12-08

    There are single satellite and combined-satellite scanner products. The best source for ... all the S4G monthly mean 2.5 degree gridded data from both single satellite and combined-satellite product in ASCII format. Also, ordering ...

  2. Scanner as a Fine Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontes, Kris

    2008-01-01

    Not every art department is fortunate enough to have access to digital cameras and image-editing software, but if a scanner, computer, and printer are available, students can create some imaginative and surreal work. This high-school level lesson begins with a discussion of self-portraits, and then moves to students creating images by scanning…

  3. Inverting input scanner vibration errors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George Wolberg; Robert C. Loce

    1995-01-01

    Images scanned in the presence of mechanical vibrations are subject to artifacts such as brightness fluctuation and geometric warping. The goal of this work is to develop an algorithm to invert these distortions and produce an output digital image consistent with a scanner operating under ideal uniform motion conditions. The image restoration algorithm described in this paper applies to typical

  4. Simulation of LANDSAT multispectral scanner spatial resolution with airborne scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hlavka, C. A.

    1986-01-01

    A technique for simulation of low spatial resolution satellite imagery by using high resolution scanner data is described. The scanner data is convolved with the approximate point spread function of the low resolution data and then resampled to emulate low resolution imagery. The technique was successfully applied to Daedalus airborne scanner data to simulate a portion of a LANDSAT multispectra scanner scene.

  5. Evaluating Commercial Scanners for Astronomical Image Digitization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Simcoe

    2009-01-01

    Many organizations have been interested in understanding if commercially available scanners are adequate for scientifically useful digitization. These scanners range in price from a few hundred to a few tens of thousands of dollars (USD), often with little apparent difference in performance specifications. This paper describes why the underlying technology used in flatbed scanners tends to effectively limit resolutions to

  6. [MPC0910112] Visiderm Skin Scanner Analysis

    E-print Network

    New Mexico, University of

    by dermatologists for diagnostic purposes. The Visiderm Skin Scanner enhances visibility of skin texture, markings[MPC0910112] Visiderm Skin Scanner Analysis The Visiderm Skin Scanner is a registered medical device which uses a "black" or ultraviolet light with a UVA lamp. This type of light is routinely used

  7. A Laser Range Scanner Designed for Minimum

    E-print Network

    Stanford University

    and Modeling3D Digital Imaging and Modeling 3DIM 20013DIM 2001 #12;2 Scanner Designs #12;3 Scanner DesignA Laser Range Scanner Designed for Minimum Calibration Complexity James Davis,James Davis, XingXing ChenChen Stanford Computer Graphics LaboratoryStanford Computer Graphics Laboratory 3D Digital Imaging

  8. Vacuum Attachment for XRF Scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, Harry F.; Kaiser, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    Vacuum apparatuses have been developed for increasing the range of elements that can be identified by use of x-ray fluorescent (XRF) scanners of the type mentioned in the two immediately preceding articles. As a consequence of the underlying physical principles, in the presence of air, such an XRF scanner is limited to analysis of chlorine and elements of greater atomic number. When the XRF scanner is operated in a vacuum, it extends the range of analysis to lower atomic numbers - even as far as aluminum and sodium. Hence, more elements will be available for use in XRF labeling of objects as discussed in the two preceding articles. The added benefits of the extended capabilities also have other uses for NASA. Detection of elements of low atomic number is of high interest to the aerospace community. High-strength aluminum alloys will be easily analyzed for composition. Silicon, a major contaminant in certain processes, will be detectable before the process is begun, possibly eliminating weld or adhesion problems. Exotic alloys will be evaluated for composition prior to being placed in service where lives depend on them. And in the less glamorous applications, such as bolts and fasteners, substandard products and counterfeit items will be evaluated at the receiving function and never allowed to enter the operation

  9. intro, 2 bars main riff, 4 bars

    E-print Network

    Reiners, Peter W.

    intro, 2 bars main riff, 4 bars verse riff 1: G G if you like to gamble, I tell you I'm your man G G you win some, loose some, it's all the same to me main riff with fill 1, 4 bars verse riff 2: D C the pleasure is to play it makes no difference what you say main riff with fill 1, 2 bars verse riff 2: D C I

  10. Measurement uncertainty in network RTK GNSS-based positioning of a terrestrial laser scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mårtensson, Stig-Göran; Reshetyuk, Yuriy; Jivall, Lotti

    2012-03-01

    This paper reports on investigation of measurement uncertainty in positioning of a terrestrial laser scanner with network RTK (Real-Time Kinematic) service provided by SWEPOS®, Swedish national network of permanent reference stations for GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System). To simulate measurements by a scanner, a rotating flat bar fixed to a prism base, attached to a tribrach, was used. The tests have been carried out with both a rotating GNSS antenna (placed at different distances from the centre of rotation - radii) and a stationary antenna, under different time intervals (1-5 min). The results show that it is possible to achieve a standard uncertainty of less than 10 mm in plane and 16 mm in height, independently of the observation time and radius. Hence, network RTK can be used with advantage for precise direct georeferencing of point clouds, not only for determination of the position of the scanner, but also its orientation.

  11. EUV mask particle adders during scanner exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyun, Yoonsuk; Kim, Jinsoo; Kim, Kyuyoung; Koo, Sunyoung; Kim, SeoMin; Kim, Youngsik; Lim, Changmoon; Kwak, Nohjung

    2015-03-01

    As EUV reaches high volume manufacturing, scanner source power and reticle defectivity attract a lot of attention. Keeping a EUV mask clean after mask production is as essential as producing a clean EUV mask. Even though EUV pellicle is actively investigated, we might expose EUV masks without EUV pellicle for some time. To keep clean EUV mask under pellicle-less lithography, EUV scanner cleanliness needs to meet the requirement of high volume manufacturing. In this paper, we will show the cleanliness of EUV scanners in view of mask particle adders during scanner exposure. From this we will find several tendencies of mask particle adders depending on mask environment in scanner. Further we can categorize mask particle adders, which could show the possible causes of particle adders during exposure in scanners.

  12. Modeling of a piezoelectric micro-scanner

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Chaehoi; M. Begbie; D. Cornez; K. Kirk

    2008-01-01

    Micro-scanners have been widely used in many optical applications. The micro-scanner presented in this paper uses multimorph-type bending actuators to tilt a square plate mirror. This paper presents a complete analytical model of the piezoelectric micro-scanner. This theoretical model based on strength of material equations calculates the force generated by the multimorphs on the mirror, the profile of the structure

  13. Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of Barred Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, W.-T.

    2013-04-01

    Magnetic fields are pervasive in barred galaxies, especially in gaseous substructures such as dust lanes and nuclear rings. To explore the effects of magnetic fields on the formation of the substructures as well as on the mass inflow rates to the galaxy center, we run two-dimensional, ideal magnetohydrodynamic simulations. We use a modified version of the Athena code whose numerical magnetic diffusivity is shown to be of third order in space. In the bar regions, magnetic fields are compressed and abruptly bent around the dust-lane shocks. The associated magnetic stress not only reduces the peak density of the dust-lane shocks but also removes angular momentum further from the gas that is moving radially in. Nuclear rings that form at the location of centrifugal barrier rather than resonance with the bar are smaller and more radially distributed, and the mass flow rate to the galaxy center is correspondingly larger in models with stronger magnetic fields. Outside the bar regions, the bar potential and strong shear conspire to amplify the field strength near the corotation resonance. The amplified fields transport angular momentum outward, producing trailing magnetic arms with strong fields and low density. The base of the magnetic arms are found to be unstable to a tearing-mode instability of magnetic reconnection. This produces numerous magnetic islands that eventually make the outer regions highly chaotic.

  14. LEARNING FACTORIAL CODES BY PREDICTABILITY MINIMIZATION

    E-print Network

    Schmidhuber, Juergen

    LEARNING FACTORIAL CODES BY PREDICTABILITY MINIMIZATION (Neural Computation, 4(6):863--879, 1992) J¨urgen at finding binary factorial codes (Bar­ low et al., 1989), i.e. codes where the probability of the occurrence

  15. 21 CFR 882.1925 - Ultrasonic scanner calibration test block.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Ultrasonic scanner calibration test block. 882.1925 Section 882.1925 ...Ultrasonic scanner calibration test block. (a) Identification. An ultrasonic scanner calibration test block is a block of material with known...

  16. 21 CFR 882.1925 - Ultrasonic scanner calibration test block.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Ultrasonic scanner calibration test block. 882.1925 Section 882.1925 ...Ultrasonic scanner calibration test block. (a) Identification. An ultrasonic scanner calibration test block is a block of material with known...

  17. Design study for MOX fuel rod scanner for ATR fuel fabrication. Phase I: Design of active neutron scanner. Phase II: Design of passive neutron scanner. Phase III: Design of passive gamma-ray scanner

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, G.W.; Menlove, H.O.

    1997-09-01

    An active neutron fuel-rod scanner has been designed for the assay of fissile materials in mixed oxide fuel rods. A {sup 252}Cf source is located at the center of the scanner very near the through-hole for the fuel rods. Spontaneous fission neutrons from the californium are moderated and induce fissions within the passing fuel rod. The rod continues past a combined gamma-ray and neutron shield where delayed gamma rays above 1 MeV are detected. The authors used the Monte Carlo neutron-photon (MCNP) code to design the scanner and review optimum materials and geometries. Applications of the rod scanner include accountability of fissile material for safeguards applications, quality control of the fissile content in a fuel rod, and the verification of reactivity potential for mixed oxide fuels. A passive neutron fuel-rod scanner has been designed for the assay of the plutonium in mixed oxide fuel rods. The {sup 240}Pu-effective is measured by counting the spontaneous fission neutrons using a high-efficiency thermal-neutron detector. This passive neutron detector would be combined with a high-resolution gamma-ray system (HRGS) measurement to obtain the total plutonium from the plutonium isotopic ratios. A passive gamma-ray scanner has been designed for the measurement of the {sup 241}Am and plutonium uniformity in mixed oxide fuel rods. The passive gamma-ray emissions from {sup 241}Am (60 keV) and plutonium (150-400 keV) are used to verify the unformity of the fuel enrichment zones and to check for any pellets that are out of specification. The fuel rod is moved through the interior of an NaI(Tl) or a bismuth germanate detector to measure the passive gamma-ray emissions. A tungsten sleeve collimator is used in the through-hole to improve the pellet-to-pellet spatial resolution. The same detector is used to verify the plutonium uniformity in the pellets with a 13-mm tungsten collimator. The low-resolution passive gamma system would be used in the unattended mode.

  18. Model 6240H Galvanometer Optical Scanner

    E-print Network

    Kleinfeld, David

    inside the bearing will reduce bearing life. Note: As with any high performance motor, resonances created bearing can occur. Do not expose the scanner to extremes of temperature outside the operating limits shown in contact with the front bearing. It is located right at the front end of the scanner. Foreign material

  19. Crown angulation measured by laser scanner

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuta Sakurai; Yasushi Nishii; Kumi Kodaka; Kunihiko Nojima; Kenji Sueishi

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the crown angulation of Japanese subjects with normal occlusion using a laser scanner to minimize human error. Twenty study models with normal occlusion were scanned by laser scanner. Crown angulations of each tooth in scanned 3D dental images were measured according to Andrews’ procedure. In Andrews’ procedure, a plane was established along

  20. 3D laser scanner with gazing ability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomoaki Yoshida; Kiyoshi Irie; Eiji Koyanagi; Masahiro Tomono

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a 3D laser scanner that can gaze at an arbitrary region. By modulating the secondary rotation speed of roundly swinging 3D laser scanner, it gazes at a speciøc region and measures with high density measurement points. The proposed method uses a secondary rotation motor to control the measurement point density and no extra motor is required. The

  1. Scanner Art and Links to Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, David

    2005-01-01

    A photocopier or scanner can be used to produce not only the standard motion graphs of physics, but a variety of other graphs that resemble gravitational and electrical fields. This article presents a starting point for exploring scanner graphics, which brings together investigation in art and design, physics, mathematics, and information…

  2. Non-Destructive Testing Scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Bio-Imaging Research's technology that originated in an aerospace program has come full circle with a new aerospace adaptation called the Advanced Computed Tomography Inspection System, or ACTIS. The medical version of CT scans the human body for tumors or other abnormalities, the ACTIS system finds imperfections in aerospace structures and components, such as castings, assemblies, rocket motors and nozzles. ACTIS is described by its developer as the most versatile CT scanner available for non-destructive testing applications. ACTIS is a variable geometry system. ACTIS source and detectors can be moved closer together or farther apart to optimize the geometry for different sizes of test objects. The combination of variable geometry, three sources, and focusing detectors makes ACTIS cost effective for a broad range of applications. System can scan anything from very small turbine blades to large rocket assemblies.

  3. Combined PET/MRI scanner

    DOEpatents

    Schlyer, David (Bellport, NY); Woody, Craig L. (Setauket, NY); Rooney, William (Miller Place, NY); Vaska, Paul (Sound Beach, NY); Stoll, Sean (Wading River, NY); Pratte, Jean-Francois (Stony Brook, NY); O'Connor, Paul (Bellport, NY)

    2007-10-23

    A combined PET/MRI scanner generally includes a magnet for producing a magnetic field suitable for magnetic resonance imaging, a radiofrequency (RF) coil disposed within the magnetic field produced by the magnet and a ring tomograph disposed within the magnetic field produced by the magnet. The ring tomograph includes a scintillator layer for outputting at least one photon in response to an annihilation event, a detection array coupled to the scintillator layer for detecting the at least one photon outputted by the scintillator layer and for outputting a detection signal in response to the detected photon and a front-end electronic array coupled to the detection array for receiving the detection signal, wherein the front-end array has a preamplifier and a shaper network for conditioning the detection signal.

  4. Web server scanner: scanning on IIS CGI and HTTP

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Siti Rahayu Selamat

    2003-01-01

    This paper explains about the design and implementation of Web server scanner. The scanner detected the security weaknesses on IIS, CGI and HTTP. A report is produced for audit log purposes to help decrease the security weaknesses. In Internet security, no hacking tool is more celebrated than the scanner. The scanner is a program that automatically detects security weaknesses in

  5. A Laser Range Scanner Designed for Minimum Calibration Complexity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Davis; Xing Chen

    2001-01-01

    Laser range scanners are a popular method for acquiring three-dimensional geometry due to their accuracy and robustness. Maximizing scanner accuracy while minimizing engineering costs is a key challenge to future scanner designs. Engineering costs arise from both expensive components and difficult calibration requirements. We propose a two camera range scanner design, specifically chosen to minimize calibration complexity and cost. This

  6. Noise in 3D Laser Range Scanner Data Xianfang Sun

    E-print Network

    Martin, Ralph R.

    Noise in 3D Laser Range Scanner Data Xianfang Sun Cardiff University, UK Beihang University, China denoising algorithms are required to effectively remove real scanner noise. Keywords: 3D laser scanner, 13, 20, 26, 27]. However, real 3D laser scanner noise is, in practice, not quite Gaussian according

  7. Practical issues and development of underwater 3D laser scanners

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JunJie Liu; Anthony Jakas; Ala Al-Obaidi; Yonghuai Liu

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, 3D laser scanners are widely used in reverse engineering, industrial design, prototyping, quality control etc. Most of these scanners operate in air. Theoretically, this technology can be extended for the development of 3D laser scanners that work in water. In this paper, we describe the development and practical issues of 3D laser scanners required for applications such as underwater

  8. Noise Analysis and Synthesis for 3D Laser Depth Scanners

    E-print Network

    Martin, Ralph R.

    Noise Analysis and Synthesis for 3D Laser Depth Scanners Xianfang Sun a,b,, Paul L. Rosin a , Ralph laser scanner, scanner noise analysis, noise modeling, 3D surface denoising 1 Introduction Surface mesh models built using data obtained from 3D laser depth scanners necessarily contain some noise. To remove

  9. Hand-held optical fuel pin scanner

    DOEpatents

    Kirchner, T.L.; Powers, H.G.

    1980-12-07

    An optical scanner for indicia arranged in a focal plane perpendicular to an optical system including a rotatable dove prism. The dove prism transmits a rotating image to a stationary photodiode array.

  10. From PET detectors to PET scanners.

    PubMed

    Humm, John L; Rosenfeld, Anatoly; Del Guerra, Alberto

    2003-11-01

    This review describes the properties of available and emerging radiation detector and read-out technologies and discusses how they may affect PET scanner performance. After a general introduction, there is a section in which the physical properties of several different detector scintillators are compared. This is followed by a discussion of recent advances in read-out electronics. Finally, the physical performance of the several commercial PET scanners is summarized. PMID:14579100

  11. Trophic classification of Colorado lakes utilizing contact data, Landsat and aircraft-acquired multispectral scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boland, D. H. P.; Blackwell, R. J.

    1978-01-01

    Multispectral scanner data, acquired over several Colorado lakes using Landsat-1 and aircraft, were used in conjunction with National Eutrophication Survey contact-sensed data to determine the feasibility of assessing lacustrine trophic levels. A trophic state index was developed using contact-sensed data for several trophic indicators (chlorophyll a, inverse of Secchi disk transparency, conductivity, total phosphorous, total organic nitrogen, algal assay yield). Relationships between the digitally processed multispectral scanner data, several trophic indicators, and the trophic index were examined using a supervised multispectral classification technique and regression techniques. Statistically significant correlations exist between spectral bands, several of the trophic indicators (chlorophyll a, Secchi disk transparency, total organic nitrogen), and the trophic state index. Color-coded photomaps were generated which depict the spectral aspects of trophic state. Multispectral scanner data acquired from satellite and aircraft platforms can be used to advantage in lake monitoring and survey programs.

  12. DNA bar-coding for phytoplasma identification.

    PubMed

    Makarova, Olga; Contaldo, Nicoletta; Paltrinieri, Samanta; Bertaccini, Assunta; Nyskjold, Henriette; Nicolaisen, Mogens

    2013-01-01

    Phytoplasma identification has proved difficult due to their inability to be maintained in vitro. DNA barcoding is an identification method based on comparison of a short DNA sequence with known sequences from a database. A DNA barcoding tool has been developed for phytoplasma identification. While other sequence-based methods may be well adapted to identification of particular strains of phytoplasmas, often they cannot be used for the simultaneous identification of phytoplasmas from different groups. The phytoplasma DNA barcoding protocol in this chapter, based on the tuf and 16SrRNA genes, can be used to identify the following phytoplasma groups: 16SrI, 16SrII, 16SrIII, 16SrIV, 16SrV, 16SrVI, 16SrVII, 16SrIX, 16SrX, 16SrXI, 16SrXII, 16SrXV, 16SrXX, 16SrXXI. PMID:22987426

  13. Hopkinson bar simulation using DYNA2D

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.A.; Glover, T.A.

    1985-01-08

    A finite-element simulation of a Split Hopkinson's bar (Kolsky apparatus) technique involving mortar specimens is accomplished with DYNA2D, an explicit two-dimensional finite-element code. Calculations are compared with experimental results contained in a University of Florida report Dynamic Response of Concrete and Concrete Structures, and with analytic solutions of the appropriate wave propagation problem.

  14. Bar-Halo Interaction and Bar Growth

    E-print Network

    E. Athanassoula

    2002-03-21

    I show that strong bars can grow in galactic discs, even when the latter are immersed in haloes whose mass within the disc radius is comparable to, or larger than, the mass of the disc. I argue that this is due to the response of the halo and in particular to the destabilising influence of the halo resonant stars. Via this instability mechanism the halo can stimulate, rather than restrain, the growth of the bar.

  15. Composite carrier bar device

    SciTech Connect

    Felder, D.W.

    1981-09-01

    A composite carrier bar is disclosed for oil well pumping units that utilize sucker rod to operate bottom hole pumps. The bar includes a recessed cavity for receiving a hydraulic ram to operate as a polish rod jack and also a secondary carrier bar for receiving a secondary polish rod clamp for use in respacing bottom hole pumps and serve as a safety clamp during operation.

  16. Precise Indoor Localization for Mobile Laser Scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaijaluoto, R.; Hyyppä, A.

    2015-05-01

    Accurate 3D data is of high importance for indoor modeling for various applications in construction, engineering and cultural heritage documentation. For the lack of GNSS signals hampers use of kinematic platforms indoors, TLS is currently the most accurate and precise method for collecting such a data. Due to its static single view point data collection, excessive time and data redundancy are needed for integrity and coverage of data. However, localization methods with affordable scanners are used for solving mobile platform pose problem. The aim of this study was to investigate what level of trajectory accuracies can be achieved with high quality sensors and freely available state of the art planar SLAM algorithms, and how well this trajectory translates to a point cloud collected with a secondary scanner. In this study high precision laser scanners were used with a novel way to combine the strengths of two SLAM algorithms into functional method for precise localization. We collected five datasets using Slammer platform with two laser scanners, and processed them with altogether 20 different parameter sets. The results were validated against TLS reference. The results show increasing scan frequency improves the trajectory, reaching 20 mm RMSE levels for the best performing parameter sets. Further analysis of the 3D point cloud showed good agreement with TLS reference with 17 mm positional RMSE. With precision scanners the obtained point cloud allows for high level of detail data for indoor modeling with accuracies close to TLS at best with vastly improved data collection efficiency.

  17. Cognition for robot scanner based remote welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thombansen, U.; Ungers, Michael

    2014-02-01

    The effort for reduced cycle times in manufacturing has supported the development of remote welding systems which use a combination of scanners for beam delivery and robots for scanner positioning. Herein, close coupling of both motions requires a precise command of the robot trajectory and the scanner positioning to end up with a combined beam delivery. Especially the path precision of the robot plays a vital role in this kinematic chain. In this paper, a sensor system is being presented which allows tracking the motion of the laser beam against the work piece. It is based on a camera system which is coaxially connected to the scanner thus observing the relative motion of the laser beam relative to the work piece. The acquired images are processed with computer vision algorithms from the field of motion detection. The suitability of the algorithms is being demonstrated with a motion tracking tool which visualizes the homogeneity of the tracking result. The reported solution adds cognitive capabilities to manufacturing systems for robot scanner based materials processing. It allows evaluation of the relative motion between work piece and the laser beam. Moreover, the system can be used to adapt system programming during set-up of a manufacturing task or to evaluate the functionality of a manufacturing system during production. The presented sensor system will assist in optimizing manufacturing processes.

  18. LANSCE-R WIRE-SCANNER SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Gruchalla, Michael E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-01

    The National Instruments cRIO platform is used for the new LANSCE-R wire-scanner systems. All wire-scanner electronics are integrated into a single BiRa BiRIO 4U cRIO chassis specifically designed for the cRIO crate and all interface electronics. The BiRIO chassis, actuator and LabVIEW VIs provide a complete wire-scanner system integrated with EPICS. The new wire-scanner chassis includes an 8-slot cRIO crate with Virtex-5 LX 110 FPGA and Power-PC real-time controller, the LANL-developed cRIO 2-axis wire-sensor analog interface module (AFE), NI9222 cRIO 4-channel 16-bit digitizer, cRIO resolver demodulator, cRIO event receiver, front-panel touch panel display, motor driver, and all necessary software, interface wiring, connectors and ancillary components. This wirescanner system provides a complete, turn-key, 2-axis wire-scanner system including 2-channel low-noise sensewire interface with variable DC wire bias and wireintegrity monitor, 16-bit signal digitizers, actuator motor drive and control, actuator position sensing, limit-switch interfaces, event receiver, LabVIEW and EPICS interface, and both remote operation and full stand-alone operation using the touch panel.

  19. 21 CFR 862.2400 - Densitometer/scanner (integrating, reflectance, TLC, or radiochromatogram) for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Densitometer/scanner (integrating, reflectance, TLC, or radiochromatogram) for clinical...Densitometer/scanner (integrating, reflectance, TLC, or radiochromatogram) for clinical...densitometer/scanner (integrating, reflectance, thin-layer...

  20. 21 CFR 862.2400 - Densitometer/scanner (integrating, reflectance, TLC, or radiochromatogram) for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Densitometer/scanner (integrating, reflectance, TLC, or radiochromatogram) for clinical...Densitometer/scanner (integrating, reflectance, TLC, or radiochromatogram) for clinical...densitometer/scanner (integrating, reflectance, thin-layer...

  1. 21 CFR 862.2400 - Densitometer/scanner (integrating, reflectance, TLC, or radiochromatogram) for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Densitometer/scanner (integrating, reflectance, TLC, or radiochromatogram) for clinical...Densitometer/scanner (integrating, reflectance, TLC, or radiochromatogram) for clinical...densitometer/scanner (integrating, reflectance, thin-layer...

  2. 21 CFR 862.2400 - Densitometer/scanner (integrating, reflectance, TLC, or radiochromatogram) for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Densitometer/scanner (integrating, reflectance, TLC, or radiochromatogram) for clinical...Densitometer/scanner (integrating, reflectance, TLC, or radiochromatogram) for clinical...densitometer/scanner (integrating, reflectance, thin-layer...

  3. CT densitometry of the lungs: Scanner performance

    SciTech Connect

    Kemerink, G.J.; Lamers, R.J.S.; Thelissen, G.R.P.; Engelshoven, J.M.A. van [University Hospital, Maastricht (Netherlands)] [University Hospital, Maastricht (Netherlands)

    1996-01-01

    Our goal was to establish the reproducibility and accuracy of the CT scanner in densitometry of the lungs. Scanner stability was assessed by analysis of daily quality checks. Studies using a humanoid phantom and polyethylene foams for lung were performed to measure reproducibility and accuracy. The dependence of the CT-estimated density on reconstruction filter, zoom factor, slice thickness, table height, data truncation, and objects outside the scan field was determined. Stability of the system at air density was within {approx}1 HU and at water density within {approx}2 HU. Reproducibility and accuracy for densities found for lung were within 2-3%. Dependence on the acquisition and reconstruction parameters was neglible, with the exceptions of the ultra high resolution reconstruction algorithm in the case of emphysema, and objects outside the scan field. The performance of the CT scanner tested is quite adequate for densitometry of the lungs. 26 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Laser scanners: from industrial to biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duma, Virgil-Florin

    2013-11-01

    We present a brief overview of our contributions in the field of laser scanning technologies, applied for a variety of applications, from industrial, dimensional measurements to high-end biomedical imaging, such as Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). Polygon Mirror (PM) scanners are presented, as applied from optical micrometers to laser sources scanned in frequency for Swept Sources (SSs) OCT. Galvanometer-based scanners (GSs) are approached to determine the optimal scanning function in order to obtain the highest possible duty cycle. We demonstrated that this optimal scanning function is linear plus parabolic, and not linear plus sinusoidal, as it has been previously considered in the literature. Risley prisms (rotational double wedges) scanners are pointed out, with our exact approach to determine and simulate their scan patterns in order to optimize their use in several types of applications, including OCT. A discussion on the perspectives of scanning in biomedical imaging, with a focus on OCT concludes the study.

  5. Deriving debris-flow characteristics from vertical laser profile scanners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacquemart, Mylène; Felix, Morsdorf; Graf, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    Two well-known debris-flow channels in the Swiss Alps, the Dorfbach, in the community of Randa, canton of Valais and the Spreitgraben (community of Guttannen, BE) were fitted with a setup of two laser profile scanners each. Since 2011 (Randa site) and 2012 (Spreitgraben site), these devices have been scanning the passing debris flows at rates of 50 Hz or 75 Hz, recording several million across bed profiles with point densities of roughly 20 points per meter during debris-flow events. In order to comprehend the vast possibilities this extraordinary data set offers, a preliminary evaluation has been undertaken, writing code that allows for a semi-automatic extraction of the main debris-flow characteristics maximum flow height, peak discharge, total discharge as well as spatially distributed flow velocity. The analysis of 13 events, of which 12 took place at the Dorfbach site, and one took place at the Spreitgraben site, revealed that a large-scale Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) approach can be used to derive flow velocities, and these in turn can be used to compute discharge curves for all of the recorded events. Total automation has proven to be unrealistic, because the choice of the bed geometry greatly influences discharge results. Also, excluding outlying velocity values is necessary, in order to find reliable peak discharge values. Nevertheless, we find that the laser scanners offer distinct advantages over the 'established' setup consisting of geophones and a radar gauge because the scanners catch the debris flow as it changes its flow path and offer much higher resolution in terms of distributed flow height measurements. Furthermore, the single profiles of the recorded debris flows were analyzed with regard to their surface geometry by fitting fourth order polynomials to find the points of inflection along the profiles. From this, we have been able to estimate the amount of flow height that debris flows gain by building their well-known convex fronts, and have found that this can add up to 10 % of their width in height and 100 % of the 'regular' flow height in the channel. The possibilities these datasets offer have by no means been explored to their full extent. The scanners also offer reflectance values that have hardly been taken into account so far, as well as the possibilities to study bed changes and the building of lateral levées, which are clearly visible in some of the datasets. We hope that by providing this preliminary analysis, and a first version of a toolbox that allows working with these kinds of datasets, future studies will yield results that can benefit efforts to improve debris-flow monitoring, modeling and understanding.

  6. The conical scanner evaluation system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cumella, K. E.; Bilanow, S.; Kulikov, I. B.

    1982-01-01

    The software design for the conical scanner evaluation system is presented. The purpose of this system is to support the performance analysis of the LANDSAT-D conical scanners, which are infrared horizon detection attitude sensors designed for improved accuracy. The system consists of six functionally independent subsystems and five interface data bases. The system structure and interfaces of each of the subsystems is described and the content, format, and file structure of each of the data bases is specified. For each subsystem, the functional logic, the control parameters, the baseline structure, and each of the subroutines are described. The subroutine descriptions include a procedure definition and the input and output parameters.

  7. Radiation balance mapping with multispectral scanner data.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malila, W. A.

    1972-01-01

    Energy budget and radiation balance relationships have been measured from the ground by investigators in several disciplines. Airborne and spaceborne multispectral sensors provide a new measurement capability for large-area synoptic mapping of these quantities. Procedures for estimating and mapping total exitance and radiation balance from multispectral scanner data are discussed, and example maps for an agricultural application are presented. This information extraction technique is an extension of the usual recognition mapping performed with multispectral scanner data, and represents a first step in the quantitative interpretation and assessment of surface conditions with remote sensor data.

  8. Miniature rotating transmissive optical drum scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Robert (Inventor); Parrington, Lawrence (Inventor); Rutberg, Michael (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A miniature rotating transmissive optical scanner system employs a drum of small size having an interior defined by a circumferential wall rotatable on a drum axis, an optical element positioned within the interior of the drum, and a light-transmissive lens aperture provided at an angular position in the circumferential wall of the drum for scanning a light beam to or from the optical element in the drum along a beam azimuth angle as the drum is rotated. The miniature optical drum scanner configuration obtains a wide scanning field-of-view (FOV) and large effective aperture is achieved within a physically small size.

  9. Infrared scanner concept verification test report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachtel, F. D.

    1980-01-01

    The test results from a concept verification test conducted to assess the use of an infrared scanner as a remote temperature sensing device for the space shuttle program are presented. The temperature and geometric resolution limits, atmospheric attenuation effects including conditions with fog and rain, and the problem of surface emissivity variations are included. It is concluded that the basic concept of using an infrared scanner to determine near freezing surface temperatures is feasible. The major problem identified is concerned with infrared reflections which result in significant errors if not controlled. Action taken to manage these errors result in design and operational constraints to control the viewing angle and surface emissivity.

  10. Use of ocean color scanner data in water quality mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khorram, S.

    1981-01-01

    Remotely sensed data, in combination with in situ data, are used in assessing water quality parameters within the San Francisco Bay-Delta. The parameters include suspended solids, chlorophyll, and turbidity. Regression models are developed between each of the water quality parameter measurements and the Ocean Color Scanner (OCS) data. The models are then extended to the entire study area for mapping water quality parameters. The results include a series of color-coded maps, each pertaining to one of the water quality parameters, and the statistical analysis of the OCS data and regression models. It is found that concurrently collected OCS data and surface truth measurements are highly useful in mapping the selected water quality parameters and locating areas having relatively high biological activity. In addition, it is found to be virtually impossible, at least within this test site, to locate such areas on U-2 color and color-infrared photography.

  11. Multi Bar Graph

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-05-27

    In this activity, students enter in data to be represented in a double bar graph. Multi bar graphs allow the student to compare multiple characteristics of different subjects like population for different continents over time. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

  12. Building Brilliant Bar Graphs

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Briana Bower

    2005-01-01

    In this series of three lesson plans, students create bar graphs, double bar graphs, and determine appropriate intervals for scale. Each lesson incorporates teacher modeling, student practice (students have an opportunity to label and create the scale for their own graphs), assessment (including rubrics), and reteaching or extension options.

  13. Bar Graph Sorter

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-03-09

    In this activity, students make bar graphs by sorting shapes either by shape or by color. This activity allows students to explore how to sort data to make bar graphs. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

  14. 24. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING OPERATIONS CENTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - OPERATIONS CENTER -- MWOC IN OPEARATION AT 1924 ZULU TIME. 26 OCTOBER, 1999. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  15. 23. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING RADAR CONTROL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - RADAR CONTROL INTERFACE "RCL NO. 2" WITH COMPUTER CONTROL DISC DRIVE UNITS IN FOREGROUND. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  16. 2. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING VIEW IS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - VIEW IS LOOKING NORTH 80° WEST "B" FACE ALONG BUILDING "A" FACE. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  17. 1. SITE BUILDING 022 SCANNER BUILDING VIEW IS LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. SITE BUILDING 022- SCANNER BUILDING - VIEW IS LOOKING NORTH 70°WEST AT "B" AND "A" FACES. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  18. 3. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING VIEW IS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - VIEW IS LOOKING NORTH 30° WEST AT "A" FACE. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  19. 4. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING SOUTH 30° ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - SOUTH 30° WEST - VIEW IS LOOKING AT "B" FACE. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  20. An ultra fast electron beam x-ray tomography scanner

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Fischer; D. Hoppe; E. Schleicher; G. Mattausch; H. Flaske; R. Bartel; U. Hampel

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces the design of an ultra fast x-ray tomography scanner based on electron beam technology. The scanner has been developed for two-phase flow studies where frame rates of 1 kHz and higher are required. Its functional principle is similar to that of the electron beam x-ray CT scanners used in cardiac imaging. Thus, the scanner comprises an electron

  1. Biomedical imaging and sensing using flatbed scanners.

    PubMed

    Göröcs, Zoltán; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2014-09-01

    In this Review, we provide an overview of flatbed scanner based biomedical imaging and sensing techniques. The extremely large imaging field-of-view (e.g., ~600-700 cm(2)) of these devices coupled with their cost-effectiveness provide unique opportunities for digital imaging of samples that are too large for regular optical microscopes, and for collection of large amounts of statistical data in various automated imaging or sensing tasks. Here we give a short introduction to the basic features of flatbed scanners also highlighting the key parameters for designing scientific experiments using these devices, followed by a discussion of some of the significant examples, where scanner-based systems were constructed to conduct various biomedical imaging and/or sensing experiments. Along with mobile phones and other emerging consumer electronics devices, flatbed scanners and their use in advanced imaging and sensing experiments might help us transform current practices of medicine, engineering and sciences through democratization of measurement science and empowerment of citizen scientists, science educators and researchers in resource limited settings. PMID:24965011

  2. Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanner instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopia, Leonard P.; Lee, Robert B., III

    1990-01-01

    Orbital measurements of the earth's longwave emitted radiation, and the sun's radiation reflected by the earth are being made by scanning radiometers on three spacecraft platforms in both high altitude sun-synchronous polar (833 km) and low altitude (600 km) equatorial orbits. These ERBE instruments were carried aboard two TIROS ATN satellites (NOAA-9 and -10) in December 1984, and September 1986, and on the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite launched from Space Shuttle mission 41-G in October 1984. Electronic problems with the scanners on all platforms have halted the reception of data after surpassing the scanner design life. The ERBE instruments have been designed to measure the radiance from earth with an absolute radiometric error of less than one percent. The scanner instrument consists of three broadband radiometer channels, shortwave, 0.25 micron to 3.5 microns, longwave 5.0 to 50 microns; and total, 0.25 microns to more than 50 microns, and use thermistor bolometers as sensing elements. This paper describes the design and operation of the ERBE scanner, an overview of the ground calibration approach, the in-flight calibration stability, and an analysis of on-orbit anomalous behavior.

  3. Shutter for rotating source CT scanner

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. B. Braden; J. Covic; J. J. Kuwik; S. K. Taylor

    1980-01-01

    In a CT scanner having a rotating source of radiation and a series of stationary radiation detectors spaced about the axis of rotation of the source, an eclipsing shutter mechanism restricts the width of the diverging fan pattern of radiation to that portion of the patient scan circle which is intermediate the array of stationary detectors and the orbiting source.

  4. Wire scanner software and firmware issues

    SciTech Connect

    Gilpatrick, John Doug [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center facility presently has 110 slow wire scanning profile measurement instruments located along its various beam lines. These wire scanners were developed and have been operating for at least 30 years. While the wire scanners solved many problems to operate and have served the facility well they have increasingly suffered from several problems or limitations, such as maintenance and reliability problems, antiquated components, slow data acquisition, and etc. In order to refurbish these devices, these wire scanners will be replaced with newer versions. The replacement will consist of a completely new beam line actuator, new cables, new electronics and brand new software and firmware. This note describes the functions and modes of operation that LabVIEW VI software on the real time controller and FPGA LabVIEW firmware will be required. It will be especially interesting to understand the overall architecture of these LabVIEW VIs. While this note will endeavor to describe all of the requirements and issues for the wire scanners, undoubtedly, there will be missing details that will be added as time progresses.

  5. Novel statistical calibration method for laser scanners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jerry X.; Yen, Yung-Tsai C.

    1998-10-01

    Calibration of laser scanner is usually a complicated procedure and is only carried out in the manufacture site. Here we report a new statistical calibration method that is simple and easy. It can be carried out in either customer or manufacture site. This new approach is much more accurate than the current factory calibration method.

  6. Enriching Scanner Panel Models with Choice Experiments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joffre Swait; Rick L. Andrews

    2003-01-01

    This research examines the methods, viability, and benefits of pooling scanner panel choice data with compatible preference data from designed choice experiments. The fact that different choice data sources have diverse strengths and weaknesses suggests it might be possible to pool multiple sources to achieve improved models, due to offsetting advantages and disadvantages. For example, new attributes and attribute levels

  7. Miniature 'Wearable' PET Scanner Ready for Use

    ScienceCinema

    Paul Vaska

    2013-07-22

    Scientists from BNL, Stony Brook University, and collaborators have demonstrated the efficacy of a "wearable," portable PET scanner they've developed for rats. The device will give neuroscientists a new tool for simultaneously studying brain function and behavior in fully awake, moving animals.

  8. Learning and Teaching with a Computer Scanner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planinsic, G.; Gregorcic, B.; Etkina, E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the readers to simple inquiry-based activities (experiments with supporting questions) that one can do with a computer scanner to help students learn and apply the concepts of relative motion in 1 and 2D, vibrational motion and the Doppler effect. We also show how to use these activities to help students think like…

  9. Developments in holographic-based scanner designs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David M. Rowe

    1997-01-01

    Holographic-based scanning systems have been used for years in the high resolution prepress markets where monochromatic lasers are generally utilized. However, until recently, due to the dispersive properties of holographic optical elements (HOEs), along with the high cost associated with recording 'master' HOEs, holographic scanners have not been able to penetrate major scanning markets such as the laser printer and

  10. Calibration of Aircraft Scanner Data Using Ground Reflectance Panels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul E. Anuta; William R. Simmons

    1972-01-01

    An experiment is described in which aircraft scanner data from calibrated reflectance panels in the scene was used to calibrate the scanner data for nearby targets. The method used permits reflectance calibration of scanner data for areas which are in environmental proximity to the reflectance panels. That is, the calibration is valid for areas receiving the same illumination, from the

  11. Performance characterization of a volumetric breast ultrasound scanner

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas R. Nelson; Jakob Nebeker; Susie Denton; Laura I. Cervino; Dolores H. Pretorius; John M. Boone

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to design, build, and characterize the performance of a volume breast ultrasound (VBUS) scanner that images the pendant breast. VBUS scanner design includes a: 1) clinical ultrasound scanner and transducer; 2) scanning table with a hole for the pendant breast; 3) rotational gantry; 4) probe mounting assembly; 5) compressionless breast stabilization device; 6) acquisition,

  12. FIRST EXPERIENCES WITH THE TRIMBLE GX SCANNER , P. Grussenmeyer b

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    200 series and on the other hand presented as "the 3D scanner that thinks like a surveyor and geodetic adjustments to the corresponding 3D scanner survey workflow are presented, based on experiences. The scanner uses an auto focus method for the laser which showed to be very useful mainly for close range

  13. DISS. ETH NO. 17036 Calibration of a Terrestrial Laser Scanner

    E-print Network

    Giger, Christine

    , and the influencing parameters. Laser scanners are a black box instrument that produces a huge number of 3D pointsDISS. ETH NO. 17036 Calibration of a Terrestrial Laser Scanner for Engineering Geodesy. Recent developments have improved several aspects of terrestrial laser scanners, e.g. the data

  14. A performance evaluation test for laser line scanners on CMMs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nick Van Gestel; Steven Cuypers; Philip Bleys; Jean-Pierre Kruth

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a performance evaluation test for laser line scanners on 3D coordinate measuring machines (CMMs). Laser line scanners are becoming more popular in recent years, mainly for free form inspection tasks and reverse engineering. Error specification of these scanners is difficult because of many influencing factors like surface quality, surface orientation and scan depth. Therefore, procedures for evaluation

  15. X-ray modulation transfer functions of photostimulable phosphor image plates and scanners

    SciTech Connect

    Seely, John F.; Holland, Glenn E.; Hudson, Lawrence T.; Henins, Albert

    2008-11-01

    The modulation transfer functions of two types of photostimulable phosphor image plates were determined in the 10 keV to 50 keV x-ray energy range using a resolution test pattern with up to 10 line pairs per mm (LP/mm) and a wavelength dispersive x-ray spectrometer. Techniques were developed for correcting for the partial transmittance of the high energy x rays through the lead bars of the resolution test pattern, and the modulation transfer function (MTF) was determined from the measured change in contrast with LP/mm values. The MTF was convolved with the slit function of the image plate scanner, and the resulting point spread functions (PSFs) were in good agreement with the observed shapes and widths of x-ray spectral lines and with the PSF derived from edge spread functions. The shapes and the full width at half-maximum (FWHM) values of the PSF curves of the Fuji Superior Resolution (SR) and Fuji Maximum Sensitivity (MS) image plate detectors, consisting of the image plate and the scanner, determined by the three methods gave consistent results: The SR PSF is Gaussian with 0.13 mm FWHM, and the MS PSF is Lorentzian with 0.19 mm FWHM. These techniques result in the accurate determination of the spatial resolution achievable using image plate and scanner combinations and enable the optimization of spatial resolution for x-ray spectroscopy and radiography.

  16. Bahasa Indonesia Kfir Bar

    E-print Network

    Dershowitz, Nachum

    Bahasa Indonesia Kfir Bar #12;Malay Archipelago · During Islam era: Malay) · Dutch and Portuguese traders arrived during the 15th century · Indonesia became a Dutch colony · Indonesia independent - 1945 #12;#12;Indonesian · Formed ­ 15th

  17. Telescope with a wide field of view internal optical scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degnan, III, John James (Inventor); Zheng, Yunhui (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A telescope with internal scanner utilizing either a single optical wedge scanner or a dual optical wedge scanner and a controller arranged to control a synchronous rotation of the first and/or second optical wedges, the wedges constructed and arranged to scan light redirected by topological surfaces and/or volumetric scatterers. The telescope with internal scanner further incorporates a first converging optical element that receives the redirected light and transmits the redirected light to the scanner, and a second converging optical element within the light path between the first optical element and the scanner arranged to reduce an area of impact on the scanner of the beam collected by the first optical element.

  18. Gas flow in barred galaxies

    E-print Network

    E. Athanassoula

    2000-06-28

    I briefly review the properties of the gas flow in and around the region of the bar in a disc galaxy and discuss the corresponding inflow and the loci of star formation. I then review the flow of gas in barred galaxies which have an additional secondary bar. Finally I discuss the signatures of bars in edge-on galaxies.

  19. The E.M.I. Scanner

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. N. Hounsfield

    1977-01-01

    The E.M.I. scanner is a machine which employs a method of X-raying patients whereby the information obtained from the X-rays is fully utilized. The high sensitivity thus obtained enables the machine to differentiate between the various organs of the body which are presented in three-dimensional form as a series of tomographic slices. The machine scans through the patient in a

  20. Point Relay Scanner Utilizing Ellipsoidal Mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manhart, Paul K. (Inventor); Pagano, Robert J. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A scanning system uses a polygonal mirror assembly with each facet of the polygon having an ellipsoidal mirror located thereon. One focal point of each ellipsoidal mirror is located at a common point on the axis of rotation of the polygonal mirror assembly. As the mirror assembly rotates. a second focal point of the ellipsoidal mirrors traces out a scan line. The scanner can be utilized for scanned output display of information or for scanning information to be detected.

  1. Improvement in measurement accuracy for hybrid scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbas, M. A.; Setan, H.; Majid, Z.; Chong, A. K.; Lichti, D. D.

    2014-02-01

    The capability to provide dense three-dimensional (3D) data (point clouds) at high speed and at high accuracy has made terrestrial laser scanners (TLS) widely used for many purposes especially for documentation, management and analysis. However, similar to other 3D sensors, proper understanding regarding the error sources is necessary to ensure high quality data. A procedure known as calibration is employed to evaluate these errors. This process is crucial for TLS in order to make it suitable for accurate 3D applications (e.g. industrial measurement, reverse engineering and monitoring). Two calibration procedures available for TLS: 1) component, and 2) system calibration. The requirements of special laboratories and tools which are not affordable by most TLS users have become principle drawback for component calibration. In contrast, system calibration only requires a room with appropriate targets. By employing optimal network configuration, this study has performed system calibration through self-calibration for Leica ScanStation C10 scanner. A laboratory with dimensions of 15.5 m × 9 m × 3 m and 138 well-distributed planar targets were used to derive four calibration parameters. Statistical analysis (e.g. t-test) has shown that only two calculated parameters, the constant rangefinder offset error (0.7 mm) and the vertical circle index error (-45.4") were significant for the calibrated scanner. Photogrammetric technique was utilised to calibrate the 3D test points at the calibration field. By using the test points, the residual pattern of raw data and self-calibration results were plotted into the graph to visually demonstrate the improvement in accuracy for Leica ScanStation C10 scanner.

  2. Full-Body Scanners: TSA's New \\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stuart A. Hindman

    2011-01-01

    While the world of commercial air transportation has seen major improvements in many technologies over the last decade, nothing has caused a stir quite like the implementation of full-body scanners (FBS) as a one of the first lines of defense in aviation security at U.S. airports. FBS and “enhanced” pat-downs have been the source of much debate and scrutiny among

  3. A near-infrared confocal scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seungwoo; Yoo, Hongki

    2014-06-01

    In the semiconductor industry, manufacturing of three-dimensional (3D) packages or 3D integrated circuits is a high-performance technique that requires combining several functions in a small volume. Through-silicon vias, which are vertical electrical connections extending through a wafer, can be used to direct signals between stacked chips, thus increasing areal density by stacking and connecting multiple patterned chips. While defect detection is essential in the semiconductor manufacturing process, it is difficult to identify defects within a wafer or to monitor the bonding results between bonded surfaces because silicon and many other semiconductor materials are opaque to visible wavelengths. In this context, near-infrared (NIR) imaging is a promising non-destructive method to detect defects within silicon chips, to inspect bonding between chips and to monitor the chip alignment since NIR transmits through silicon. In addition, a confocal scanner provides high-contrast, optically-sectioned images of the specimen due to its ability to reject out-of-focus noise. In this study, we report an NIR confocal scanner that rapidly acquires high-resolution images with a large field of view through silicon. Two orthogonal line-scanning images can be acquired without rotating the system or the specimen by utilizing two orthogonally configured resonant scanning mirrors. This NIR confocal scanner can be efficiently used as an in-line inspection system when manufacturing semiconductor devices by rapidly detecting defects on and beneath the surface.

  4. Recent micro-CT scanner developments at UGCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dierick, Manuel; Van Loo, Denis; Masschaele, Bert; Van den Bulcke, Jan; Van Acker, Joris; Cnudde, Veerle; Van Hoorebeke, Luc

    2014-04-01

    This paper describes two X-ray micro-CT scanners which were recently developed to extend the experimental possibilities of microtomography research at the Centre for X-ray Tomography (www.ugct.ugent.be) of the Ghent University (Belgium). The first scanner, called Nanowood, is a wide-range CT scanner with two X-ray sources (160 kVmax) and two detectors, resolving features down to 0.4 ?m in small samples, but allowing samples up to 35 cm to be scanned. This is a sample size range of 3 orders of magnitude, making this scanner well suited for imaging multi-scale materials such as wood, stone, etc. Besides the traditional cone-beam acquisition, Nanowood supports helical acquisition, and it can generate images with significant phase-contrast contributions. The second scanner, known as the Environmental micro-CT scanner (EMCT), is a gantry based micro-CT scanner with variable magnification for scanning objects which are not easy to rotate in a standard micro-CT scanner, for example because they are physically connected to external experimental hardware such as sensor wiring, tubing or others. This scanner resolves 5 ?m features, covers a field-of-view of about 12 cm wide with an 80 cm vertical travel range. Both scanners will be extensively described and characterized, and their potential will be demonstrated with some key application results.

  5. The in-flight calibration of a helicopter-mounted Daedalus multispectral scanner

    SciTech Connect

    Balick, L.K.; Golanics, C.J.; Shines, J.E. (EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (USA)); Biggar, S.F.; Slater, P.N. (Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (USA). Optical Sciences Center)

    1991-01-01

    A convenient way that has been used to calibrate, in-flight, a helicopter-mounted Daedalus multispectral scanner is described. It used four large canvas panels laid out in a square with a Spectralon panel as a reference. A calibrated Barnes modular multispectral radiometer, carried on a 2.2-m boom was rotated around a 2.5-m high tripod at the center of the square. The radiometer sampled the four large panels and the Spectralon panel once every two minutes. Atmospheric spectral transmittance measurements were made using a filter radiometer on an autotracking mount during the morning of the flight. The reflectance and optical depth data were used in an atmospheric radiative transfer code to predict the spectral radiances at the scanner. The calibration was completed by comparing the image digital counts to the predicted spectral radiances. 7 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. CT-ED conversion on a GE Lightspeed-RT scanner: influence of scanner settings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Ebert; J. Lambert; P. B. Greer

    2008-01-01

    The influence of tube voltage (kV) and current (mA) on the resulting relationship of computed tomography number to electron\\u000a density (CT-ED) was investigated for a wide-bore GE scanner. The influence of kV and mA scan settings were examined in combination\\u000a with a 16-bit image reconstruction algorithm made available via the scanner software and which allowed resolution of CT numbers\\u000a for

  7. Evaluation of two software tools dedicated to an automatic analysis of the CT scanner image spatial resolution.

    PubMed

    Torfeh, Tarraf; Beaumont, Stéphane; Guédon, Jean Pierre; Denis, Eloïse

    2007-01-01

    An evaluation of two software tools dedicated to an automatic analysis of the CT scanner image spatial resolution is presented in this paper. The methods evaluated consist of calculating the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) of the CT scanners; the first uses an image of an impulse source, while the second method proposed by Droege and Morin uses an image of cyclic bar patterns. Two Digital Test Objects (DTO) are created to this purpose. These DTOs are then blurred by doing a convolution with a two-dimensional Gaussian Point Spread Function (PSF(Ref)), which has a well known Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM). The evaluation process consists then of comparing the Fourier transform of the PSF on the one hand, and the two mentioned methods on the other hand. PMID:18002854

  8. Multiple bars and secular evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Juntai

    2015-03-01

    Bars are the most important driver of secular evolution. A significant fraction of barred galaxies also harbor small secondary bars. Secondary bars are visible even in near-infrared images, so they are not just dusty and blue, but stellar features (Erwin & Sparke 2002). Since they are quite common, secondary bars are probably long-lived stellar features. The random relative orientation of the two bars indicates that they are dynamically decoupled with different pattern speeds (Buta & Crocker 1993). Corsini et al. (2003) presented conclusive direct kinematic evidence for a decoupled secondary bar in NGC 2950. Dynamically decoupled secondary bars have long been hypothesized to be a mechanism to drive gas past the ILR of primary bars to feed active galactic nuclei (Shlosman et al. 1989). However, the dynamics of secondary bars are still not well understood, and it is still unclear what role secondary bars play in the AGN fueling process. Numerical simulations offer the best approach to understanding double-barred systems. Decoupled secondary bar in the earlier gaseous simulations only last a short time (< 1 Gyr, e.g. Friedli & Martinet 1993). Orbital studies of double-barred systems discovered a family of loop orbits that may be building blocks of long-lived nuclear stellar bars (Maciejewski & Sparke 1997, 2000). To complement orbital studies, which are not fully self-consistent, N-body simulations are preferred to further our understanding of double-barred systems. Debattista & Shen (2007) and Shen & Debattista (2009) managed to form long-lived double-barred systems with purely collisionless simulations, where a pre-existing rotating pseudo-bulge is introduced initially. The shape and size of secondary bars in the models are comparable to observed ones. They found that the rotation of the two bars is not rigid. The amplitude and pattern speed of the secondary bars oscillate as they rotate through their primary counterparts. Although the secondary bar rotates faster than the primary bar in this model, the stellar velocity field in the central region only shows a weakly twisted kinematic minor axis. Recently more simulations of double-barred galaxies with simpler initial conditions are explored (Du, Shen & Debattista 2014). We expect that the new models can be used to cross-check with the kinematic properties of double-barred galaxies from IFU observations such as SAURON and Atlas3D.

  9. Multi-spectral Line Scanner image of Northern California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    This multi-spectral line scanner image of Northern California (41.0N, 124.0W) was taken by the Earth Resources Experiments Package S192 Scanner and is a color composite image of channels 2, 7 and 12. The scanner techniques assist with spectral signature identification and mapping of ground test sites in agriculture, forestry, geology, hydrology and oceanography. Seen in this view is the Pacific coast region of northern California at Trinidad.

  10. Multi-spectral Line Scanner image of Northern California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    This multi-spectral line scanner image of Northern California (40.5N, 121.5W) was taken by the Earth Resources Experiments Package S192 Scanner and is a color composite image of channels 2, 7 and 12. The scanner techniques assist with spectral signature identification and mapping of ground test sites in agriculture, forestry, geology, hydrology and oceanography. Seen in this view is the Central Valley and Sacramento River near Redding and Lake Shasta.

  11. Scanners for visualizing activity of analog VLSI circuitry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carver A. Mead; Tobias Delbrück

    1991-01-01

    This paper tutorially describes mixed digital-analog serial multiplexers (scanners) that we use to visualize the activity of one- and two-dimensional arrays of analog VLSI elements. These scanners range from simple one-dimensional devices designed to scan a one-dimensional array onto an oscilloscope, to complete video scanners with integrated sync and blank computation and on-chip video amplifiers. We discuss practical details of

  12. Performance Measurement of the microPET Focus 120 Scanner

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin Su Kim; Jae Sung Lee; Ki Chun Im; Su Jin Kim; Seog-Young Kim; Dong Soo Lee; Dae Hyuk Moon

    2007-01-01

    The microPET Focus 120 scanner is a third-generation animal PET scanner dedicated to rodent imaging. Here, we report the results of scanner performance testing. Methods: A 68Ge point sourcewasusedtomeasureenergyresolution,whichwasdeter- mined for each crystal and averaged. Spatial resolution was measured using a 22Na point source with a nominal size of 0.25 mm at the system center and various off-center positions. Abso-

  13. Toll Bar on Sea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Dave

    2008-01-01

    In the summer of 2007 the United Kingdom experienced some of the heaviest rainfall since records began. Toll Bar in South Yorkshire featured prominently in media coverage as the village and the homes surrounding it began to flood. Many people lost everything: their homes, their furniture, their possessions. In an effort to come to terms with what…

  14. Permanent Bar Magnets

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-03

    This is an activity about the basic properties of magnets and magnetism. Learners explore concepts such as magnetic fields and polarity, which form the basic ingredients of a study of Earth's magnetic field and the technology of magnetometers. Materials needed include bar magnets and paper clips. This is Activity 1 of Exploring Magnetism: A Teacher's Magnetism Activity Guide.

  15. A single-crystal piezoelectric scanner for scanning probe microscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kee S. Moon; Yong K. Hong; Sung-Q. Lee

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, a small size monolithic XY scanner was designed and fabricated. The scanner has a flat triangular shape and consists of two 0.5mm-thick and 5mm-long lead-zinc-niobate-lead-titanate ((1x)Pb(ZnNb)O3 - xPbTiO3) or PZN-PT rods. The use of this material is critical to the reduction of the scanner size. The mechanical resonance characteristics for the PZN-PT rods and the assembled scanner

  16. LAPR: An experimental aircraft pushbroom scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wharton, S. W.; Irons, J. I.; Heugel, F.

    1980-01-01

    A three band Linear Array Pushbroom Radiometer (LAPR) was built and flown on an experimental basis by NASA at the Goddard Space Flight Center. The functional characteristics of the instrument and the methods used to preprocess the data, including radiometric correction, are described. The radiometric sensitivity of the instrument was tested and compared to that of the Thematic Mapper and the Multispectral Scanner. The radiometric correction procedure was evaluated quantitatively, using laboratory testing, and qualitatively, via visual examination of the LAPR test flight imagery. Although effective radiometric correction could not yet be demonstrated via laboratory testing, radiometric distortion did not preclude the visual interpretation or parallel piped classification of the test imagery.

  17. Fast wire scanner for intense electron beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, T.; Agladze, N. I.; Bazarov, I. V.; Bartnik, A.; Dobbins, J.; Dunham, B.; Full, S.; Li, Y.; Liu, X.; Savino, J.; Smolenski, K.

    2014-02-01

    We have developed a cost-effective, fast rotating wire scanner for use in accelerators where high beam currents would otherwise melt even carbon wires. This new design uses a simple planetary gear setup to rotate a carbon wire, fixed at one end, through the beam at speeds in excess of 20 m/s. We present results from bench tests, as well as transverse beam profile measurements taken at Cornell's high-brightness energy recovery linac photoinjector, for beam currents up to 35 mA.

  18. Varifocal MOEMS fiber scanner for confocal endomicroscopy.

    PubMed

    Meinert, Tobias; Weber, Niklas; Zappe, Hans; Seifert, Andreas

    2014-12-15

    Based on an advanced silicon optical bench technology with integrated MOEMS (Micro-Opto-Electro-Mechanical-System) components, a piezo-driven fiber scanner for confocal microscopy has been developed. This highly-miniaturized technology allows integration into an endoscope with a total outer probe diameter of 2.5 mm. The system features a hydraulically-driven varifocal lens providing axial confocal scanning without any translational movement of components. The demonstrated resolutions are 1.7 ?m laterally and 19 ?m axially. PMID:25607103

  19. Recent advances in segmented gamma scanner analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sprinkle, J.K. Jr.; Hsue, S.T.

    1987-01-01

    The segmented gamma scanner (SGS) is used in many facilities to assay low-density scrap and waste generated in the facilities. The procedures for using the SGS can cause a negative bias if the sample does not satisfy the assumptions made in the method. Some process samples do not comply with the assumptions. This paper discusses the effect of the presence of lumps on the SGS assay results, describes a method to detect the presence of lumps, and describes an approach to correct for the lumps. Other recent advances in SGS analysis are also discussed.

  20. CT-ED conversion on a GE Lightspeed-RT scanner: influence of scanner settings.

    PubMed

    Ebert, M A; Lambert, J; Greer, P B

    2008-06-01

    The influence of tube voltage (kV) and current (mA) on the resulting relationship of computed tomography number to electron density (CT-ED) was investigated for a wide-bore GE scanner. The influence of kV and mA scan settings were examined in combination with a 16-bit image reconstruction algorithm made available via the scanner software and which allowed resolution of CT numbers for high density materials. By using titanium and stainless steel inserts in an electron density phantom, mA variation was found to have minimal impact on the CT-ED relationship, whereas variation in kV led to significant differences in CT number for the high density materials. The scanner is also equipped with automatic tube-current modulation capabilities. The influence of automatic tube-current modulation on CT number was investigated for a range of materials in a phantom geometry. It was found that tube current modulation has negligible effect on CT number, though the changing dimension of the phantom did influence CT number of an aluminium insert for scans undertaken with both fixed and modulated tube currents. In light of evidence from other studies examining the influence of CT number on dose calculation, it is recommended that scanner settings and specific CT-ED look-up tables be considered when calculations will be required with high-density materials present. PMID:18697708

  1. Reproducibility of structural, functional and DTI data between identical scanners and after major repairs

    E-print Network

    Apkarian, A. Vania

    upgrade (gradient coil replacement). METHODS · 6 healthy subjects were participated. Each was repeatedly. · case 1: scanner 1 baseline case 2: scanner 1 post gradient coil replacement case 3: scanner 2 · Scanner identical 3T scanners, and before and after gradient coil replacement. · These findings provide statistical

  2. A paint-brush laser range scanner Lyubomir Zagorchev and A. Ardeshir Goshtasby

    E-print Network

    Goshtasby, Arthur Ardeshir

    A paint-brush laser range scanner Lyubomir Zagorchev and A. Ardeshir Goshtasby Computer Science and Engineering Department, Wright State University, Dayton, OH 45435 Abstract A new hand-held laser range scanner are presented. Keywords: Laser range scanner; 3-D scanner; Hand-held scanner; Object-centered scanning; image

  3. Applying Schwarzschild's orbit superposition method to barred or non-barred disc galaxies

    E-print Network

    Vasiliev, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    We present an implementation of the Schwarzschild orbit superposition method which can be used for constructing self-consistent equilibrium models of barred or non-barred disc galaxies, or of elliptical galaxies with figure rotation. This is a further development of the publicly available code SMILE; its main improvements include a new efficient representation of an arbitrary gravitational potential using two-dimensional spline interpolation of Fourier coefficients in the meridional plane, as well as the ability to deal with rotation of the density profile and with multicomponent mass models. We compare several published methods for constructing composite axisymmetric disc--bulge--halo models and demonstrate that our code produces the models that are closest to equilibrium. We also apply it to create models of triaxial elliptical galaxies with cuspy density profiles and figure rotation, and find that such models can be found and are stable over many dynamical times in a wide range of pattern speeds and angula...

  4. Unsupervised coding with LOCOCODE Sepp Hochreiter and Jurgen Schmidhuber

    E-print Network

    Schmidhuber, Juergen

    Unsupervised coding with LOCOCODE Sepp Hochreiter and J¨urgen Schmidhuber Technische Universit¨at M optimal codes for difficult versions of the ``bars'' benchmark problem. As a preprocessor for a vowel

  5. Multispectral scanner, thematic mapper, and beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, C. R.; Engel, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    The capabilities and functions of the Landsat D multispectral scanner (MSS) and thematic mapper (TM) are explored as a basis for improvements to satisfy increasing user demands. The MSS is an object-space line scanner for gathering data in four spectral bands ranging from 0.5-1.1 micron. In a 705 km near-polar sunsynchronous orbit, the MSS will generate 185 x 185 km imagery with 80 x 80 m ground resolution, mapping the entire earth every 16 days. Photomultiplier tubes are used for four of the bands and the other employs Si photodiodes. A calibration light source provides in orbit calibration during every reverse scan period of a pivotal on-board mirror. The TM collects data in seven bands from 0.45-12.5 microns, yielding a ground resolution of 30 x 30 m in six bands for reflected sunlight and 120 x 120 m for the 10.4-12.5 thermal bands. The addition of 16 Si detectors for 0.9-1.1 micron viewing for agricultural purposes, as well as higher resolution, is discussed.

  6. Quest for an open MRI scanner.

    PubMed

    Bertora, Franco; Borceto, Alice; Viale, Andrea; Sandini, Giulio

    2014-01-01

    A study of the motor cortex during the programming, execution and mental representation of voluntary movement is of great relevance; its evaluation in conditions close to reality is necessary, given the close integration of the visuomotor, sensory feedback and proprioceptive systems, as of yet, a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) scanner allowing a human subject to maintain erect stance, observe the surroundings and conserve limb freedom is still a dream. The need for high field suggests a solenoid magnet geometry that forces an unnatural posture that affects the results, particularly when the motor cortex is investigated. In contrast in a motor functional study, the scanner should allow the subject to sit or stand, with unobstructed sight and unimpeded movement. Two approaches are presented here to solve this problem. In the first approach, an increased field intensity in an open magnet is obtained lining the "back wall" of the cavity with a sheet of current: this boosts the field intensity at the cost of the introduction of a gradient, which has to be canceled by the introduction of an opposite gradient; The second approach is an adaptation of the "double doughnut" architecture, in which the cavity widens at the center to provide additional room for the subject. The detailed design of this kind of structure has proven the feasibility of the solution. PMID:25227008

  7. Identification of scanner models by comparison of scanned hologram images.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Shigeru

    2014-08-01

    A method to identify scanner models that had been used to forge low-level counterfeit currencies was proposed in this study. The method identified a scanner model by characterizing differences between hologram images that exist in low-level counterfeit currencies. Twenty scanners of 18 different models were used to make samples of hologram images used in this study. The method was divided into two steps: identification of capturing conditions and identification of the scanner model. The first proposed protocol used correlations of spatial distribution of brightness to identify capturing conditions. A second proposed protocol used correlations of color distributions to identify a scanner model. The effectiveness of the protocols was demonstrated with numerical methods and sample images. The preliminary study revealed that it is necessary to consider the orientation of the holograms when the scanner models were identified, but 180° rotations can be ignored. Moreover, it is necessary to consider position in the main scanning direction of the bed for charged-coupled-device scanners. The demonstration showed that the first protocol could correctly identify the capturing conditions of almost all hologram images. However, one image could not be identified correctly; the protocol could distinguish images captured by charged-coupled-device scanners and those captured by contact image sensor scanners if the hologram was placed on the right or left edge of the scanner bed, but could not distinguish them if the hologram was placed on the inside. The demonstration also showed that the second protocol could correctly identify scanner models of all hologram images. PMID:24880491

  8. A Laser Range Scanner Designed for Minimum Calibration Complexity James Davis, Xing Chen

    E-print Network

    Stanford University

    A Laser Range Scanner Designed for Minimum Calibration Complexity James Davis, Xing Chen Computer Graphics Lab, Stanford University {jedavis, xcchen}@graphics.stanford.edu Abstract Laser range scanners reduce the costs associated with calibration. 1 Introduction Laser triangulation scanners

  9. Study of PET scanner designs using clinical metrics to optimize the scanner axial FOV and crystal thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surti, S.; Werner, M. E.; Karp, J. S.

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study is to understand the trade-off between crystal thickness and scanner axial field-of-view FOV (AFOV) for clinical PET imaging. Clinical scanner design has evolved towards 20-25 mm thick crystals and 16-22 cm long scanner AFOV, as well as time-of-flight (TOF) imaging. While Monte Carlo studies demonstrate that longer AFOV and thicker crystals will lead to higher scanner sensitivity, cost has prohibited the building of commercial scanners with >22 cm AFOV. In this study, we performed a series of system simulations to optimize the use of a given amount of crystal material by evaluating the impact on system sensitivity and noise equivalent counts (NEC), as well as image quality in terms of lesion detectability. We evaluated two crystal types (LSO and LaBr3) and fixed the total crystal volume used for each type (8.2 L of LSO and 17.1 L of LaBr3) while varying the crystal thickness and scanner AFOV. In addition, all imaging times were normalized so that the total scan time needed to scan a 100 cm long object with multiple bed positions was kept constant. Our results show that the highest NEC cm-1 in a 35 cm diameter ×70 cm long line source cylinder is achieved for an LSO scanner with 10 mm long crystals and AFOV of 36 cm, while for LaBr3 scanners, the highest NEC cm-1 is obtained with 20 mm long crystals and an AFOV of 38 cm. Lesion phantom simulations show that the best lesion detection performance is achieved in scanners with long AFOV (?36 cm) and using thin crystals (?10 mm of LSO and ?20 mm of LaBr3). This is due to a combination of improved NEC, as well as improved lesion contrast estimation due to better spatial resolution in thinner crystals. Alternatively, for lesion detection performance similar to that achieved in standard clinical scanner designs, the long AFOV scanners can be used to reduce the total scan time without increasing the amount of crystal used in the scanner. In addition, for LaBr3 based scanners, the reduced lesion contrast relative to LSO based scanners requires improved timing resolution and longer scan times in order to achieve lesion detectability similar to that achieved in an LSO scanner with similar NEC cm-1.

  10. Study of PET scanner designs using clinical metrics to optimize the scanner axial FOV and crystal thickness.

    PubMed

    Surti, S; Werner, M E; Karp, J S

    2013-06-21

    The aim of this study is to understand the trade-off between crystal thickness and scanner axial field-of-view FOV (AFOV) for clinical PET imaging. Clinical scanner design has evolved towards 20-25 mm thick crystals and 16-22 cm long scanner AFOV, as well as time-of-flight (TOF) imaging. While Monte Carlo studies demonstrate that longer AFOV and thicker crystals will lead to higher scanner sensitivity, cost has prohibited the building of commercial scanners with >22 cm AFOV. In this study, we performed a series of system simulations to optimize the use of a given amount of crystal material by evaluating the impact on system sensitivity and noise equivalent counts (NEC), as well as image quality in terms of lesion detectability. We evaluated two crystal types (LSO and LaBr3) and fixed the total crystal volume used for each type (8.2 L of LSO and 17.1 L of LaBr3) while varying the crystal thickness and scanner AFOV. In addition, all imaging times were normalized so that the total scan time needed to scan a 100 cm long object with multiple bed positions was kept constant. Our results show that the highest NEC cm(-1) in a 35 cm diameter ×70 cm long line source cylinder is achieved for an LSO scanner with 10 mm long crystals and AFOV of 36 cm, while for LaBr3 scanners, the highest NEC cm(-1) is obtained with 20 mm long crystals and an AFOV of 38 cm. Lesion phantom simulations show that the best lesion detection performance is achieved in scanners with long AFOV (?36 cm) and using thin crystals (?10 mm of LSO and ?20 mm of LaBr3). This is due to a combination of improved NEC, as well as improved lesion contrast estimation due to better spatial resolution in thinner crystals. Alternatively, for lesion detection performance similar to that achieved in standard clinical scanner designs, the long AFOV scanners can be used to reduce the total scan time without increasing the amount of crystal used in the scanner. In addition, for LaBr3 based scanners, the reduced lesion contrast relative to LSO based scanners requires improved timing resolution and longer scan times in order to achieve lesion detectability similar to that achieved in an LSO scanner with similar NEC cm(-1). PMID:23685783

  11. 29. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING FLOOR 3A ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - FLOOR 3A ("A" FACE) AT SYSTEM LAYOUT GRID 17. GENERAL OBLIQUE VIEW OF "A" FACE INTERIOR SHOWING RADAR EMITTER/ANTENNA INTERFACE ELECTRONICS. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  12. TWO-AXIS OPTICAL MEMS SCANNER Shorya Awtar

    E-print Network

    Awtar, Shorya

    TWO-AXIS OPTICAL MEMS SCANNER Shorya Awtar , Klint A. Rose , Hoe-Phong Tham Precision Engineering fabrication process is suggested for manufacturing the device. Keywords: Two-axis Scanner, Decoupled Rotations to fabrication and reliability concerns. Ground mounted actuation schemes such as electrostatic pads require very

  13. Restoration of images from an airborne unstabilized hyperspectral line scanner

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory J. Power; Thomas F. Rathbun; Steven W. Worrell

    1999-01-01

    An airborne hyperspectral line scanner is used to image the ground as the aircraft moves on a single trajectory. In reality, it may be difficult for the aircraft to maintain a perfectly steady course causing distortions in the imagery. So, special subsystems including stabilizers are used to maintain the hyperspectral line scanner on the proper course. If the subsystems of

  14. 25. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING OPERATIONS CENTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - OPERATIONS CENTER - MWOC IN OPERATION AT 1930 ZULU TIME, 26 OCTOBER, 1999. MWOC SCREEN ALSO SHOWS RADAR "FACE A" AND "FACE B" ACTIVE STATUS. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  15. Using web security scanners to detect vulnerabilities in web services

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marco Vieira; Nuno Antunes; Henrique Madeira

    2009-01-01

    Although web services are becoming business- critical components, they are often deployed with criti- cal software bugs that can be maliciously explored. Web vulnerability scanners allow detecting security vulnerabilities in web services by stressing the service from the point of view of an attacker. However, re- search and practice show that different scanners have different performance on vulnerabilities detection. In

  16. 21. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING LOOKING AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - LOOKING AT DISC STORAGE SYSTEMS A AND B (A OR B ARE REDUNDANT SYSTEMS), ONE MAINFRAME COMPUTER ON LINE, ONE ON STANDBY WITH STORAGE TAPE, ONE ON STANDBY WITHOUT TAPE INSTALLED. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  17. 20. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING IN COMPUTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - IN COMPUTER ROOM LOOKING AT "CONSOLIDATED MAINTENANCE OPERATIONS CENTER" JOB AREA AND OPERATION WORK CENTER. TASKS INCLUDE RADAR MAINTENANCE, COMPUTER MAINTENANCE, CYBER COMPUTER MAINTENANCE AND RELATED ACTIVITIES. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  18. 19. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING AIR POLICE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - AIR POLICE SITE SECURITY OFFICE WITH "SITE PERIMETER STATUS PANEL" AND REAL TIME VIDEO DISPLAY OUTPUT FROM VIDEO CAMERA SYSTEM AT SECURITY FENCE LOCATIONS. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  19. 12. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING MAIN ENTRANCE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - MAIN ENTRANCE LOOKING AT MAIN ENTRANCE TO TECHNICAL FACILITY, GROUND LEVEL. VIEW IS LOOKING SOUTH 20° EAST. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  20. 5. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING AT "A" ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - AT "A" FACE (ON SOUTH SIDE) LOOKING DIRECTLY UP RADAR SYSTEM EMITTER/ANTENNA ARRAY FACE WITH 90MM STANDARD LENS. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  1. 6. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING AT "A" ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - AT "A" FACE (ON SOUTH SIDE) LOOKING DIRECTLY UP RADAR SYSTEM EMITTER/ANTENNA ARRAY FACE WITH 65MM WIDE ANGLE LENS. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  2. 27. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING OPERATIONS CENTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - OPERATIONS CENTER - MWOC MONITOR NO. 4 IN OPERATION AT 2002 ZULU, OCTOBER 26, 1999 CAPE COD, AS PAVE PAWS. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  3. Development of a novel laser range scanner Thomas S. Pheiffera

    E-print Network

    Miga, Michael I.

    Development of a novel laser range scanner Thomas S. Pheiffera , Brian Lennonb , Amber L. Simpsona Pathfinder Therapeutics, Inc., Nashville, TN 37204 ABSTRACT Laser range scanning an organ surface laser range scanner with integrated tracking was designed, developed, and analyzed with the goal

  4. Infrared scanners for temperature measurement in wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kantsios, A. G.

    1978-01-01

    Remote infrared scanners allow large surfaces to be studied without disturbing model and without extensive sensor installation. Computer techniques analyze data with accuracy of + or - 5 percent. Scanners are applicable to tracking and diffusion studies of rocket exhausts, nondestructive testing of rocket motor nozzles and composite materials, and detection of nonuniformity in home insulation.

  5. Robust Window Detection from 3D Laser Scanner Data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haider Ali; Basheer Ahmed; Gerhard Paar

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we propose a robust system for window detection using popular descriptive statistics and image based methods, making use of 3D information from a laser scanner. The scanner generates 3D point clouds containing intensity and distance information in a spherical coordinate system, with optional additional RGB texture information. The applied descriptive statistical method exploits basic local features such

  6. Noise in 3D laser range scanner data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xianfang Sun; Paul L. Rosin; Ralph R. Martin; Frank C. Langbein

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses noise in range data measured by a Konica Mi- nolta Vivid 910 scanner. Previous papers considering denoising 3D mesh data have often used artificial data comprising Gaussian noise, which is independently distributed at each mesh point. Measure- ments of an accurately machined, almost planar test surface indicate that real scanner data does not have such properties. An

  7. Noise analysis and synthesis for 3D laser depth scanners

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xianfang Sun; Paul L. Rosin; Ralph R. Martin; Frank C. Langbein

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses the noise present in range data measured by a Konica Minolta Vivid 910 scanner, in order to better characterise real scanner noise. Methods for denoising 3D mesh data have often assumed the noise to be Gaussian, and indepen- dently distributed at each mesh point. We show via measurements of an accurately machined almost planar test surface that

  8. Design of a compact 3D laser scanner

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Geusen; Willem D. van Amstel; Stefan M. Baeumer; Jef L. Horijon

    1999-01-01

    A design study for a compact 3D scanner, called Coplan, is presented. The Coplan is intended to be used for high speed, in-line coplanarity and shape measurement of electronic components, like Ball Grid Arrays and Surface Mount Devices. The scanner should have a scan length of at least 2 inches and a resolution of 5 micrometers in all 3 dimensions.

  9. Processing of laser scanner data—algorithms and applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Axelsson

    1999-01-01

    Airborne laser scanning systems are opening new possibilities for surveys and documentation of difficult areas and objects, such as dense city areas, forest areas and electrical power lines. Laser scanner systems available on the market are presently in a fairly mature state of art while the processing of airborne laser scanner data still is in an early phase of development.

  10. Hysteresis compensation for Piezoelectric tube scanner in atomic force microscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yahya Sherif Othman; Iskandar A. Mahmood

    2012-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is one of the foremost tools in nanoscale imagining. Piezoelectric tube scanners are commonly used in commercially available AFMs to move the sample along three coordinates, since they guarantee precise nanoscale positioning [5]. The nano scale image is generated as shown in (Figure 1). During operation, the sample is placed on the tube scanner, and the

  11. Micromachined Vibratory Diffraction Grating Scanner for Multiwavelength Collinear Laser Scanning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guangya Zhou; Fook Siong Chau

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an effective method to achieve multiwavelength collinear laser scanning using micromachined vibratory grating scanners, which have the potential to scan at high frequencies without the optical performance degradation resulting from dynamic nonrigid-body deformation. An optical simulation model has been developed to predict the scanning patterns of the vibratory grating scanners. The proposed multiwavelength collinear scanning method was

  12. Breaking through the Bar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Katti

    2011-01-01

    Howard University School of Law had a problem, and school officials knew it. Over a 20-year period, 40 percent of its graduates who took the Maryland bar exam failed it on their first try. During the next 24 months--the time frame required to determine its "eventual pass rate"--almost 90 percent of the students did pass. What they did not know was…

  13. Ultra-Miniature Lidar Scanner for Launch Range Data Collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geng, Jason

    2012-01-01

    The most critical component in lidar is its laser scanner, which delivers pulsed or CW laser to target with desirable field of view (FOV). Most existing lidars use a rotating or oscillating mirror for scanning, resulting in several drawbacks. A lidar scanning technology was developed that could achieve very high scanning speed, with an ultra-miniature size and much lighter weight. This technology promises at least a 10x performance improvement in these areas over existing lidar scanners. Features of the proposed ultra-miniature lidar scanner include the ability to make the entire scanner <2 mm in diameter; very high scanning speed (e.g. 5 - 20 kHz, in contrast to several hundred Hz in existing scanners); structure design to meet stringent requirements on size, weight, power, and compactness for various applications; and the scanning speed and FOV can be altered for obtaining high image resolutions of targeted areas and for diversified uses.

  14. Color accuracy and reproducibility in whole slide imaging scanners

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Prarthana; Hulsken, Bas

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We propose a workflow for color reproduction in whole slide imaging (WSI) scanners, such that the colors in the scanned images match to the actual slide color and the inter-scanner variation is minimum. We describe a new method of preparation and verification of the color phantom slide, consisting of a standard IT8-target transmissive film, which is used in color calibrating and profiling the WSI scanner. We explore several International Color Consortium (ICC) compliant techniques in color calibration/profiling and rendering intents for translating the scanner specific colors to the standard display (sRGB) color space. Based on the quality of the color reproduction in histopathology slides, we propose the matrix-based calibration/profiling and absolute colorimetric rendering approach. The main advantage of the proposed workflow is that it is compliant to the ICC standard, applicable to color management systems in different platforms, and involves no external color measurement devices. We quantify color difference using the CIE-DeltaE2000 metric, where DeltaE values below 1 are considered imperceptible. Our evaluation on 14 phantom slides, manufactured according to the proposed method, shows an average inter-slide color difference below 1 DeltaE. The proposed workflow is implemented and evaluated in 35 WSI scanners developed at Philips, called the Ultra Fast Scanners (UFS). The color accuracy, measured as DeltaE between the scanner reproduced colors and the reference colorimetric values of the phantom patches, is improved on average to 3.5 DeltaE in calibrated scanners from 10 DeltaE in uncalibrated scanners. The average inter-scanner color difference is found to be 1.2 DeltaE. The improvement in color performance upon using the proposed method is apparent with the visual color quality of the tissue scans.

  15. Design Optimization of a TOF, Breast PET Scanner.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eunsin; Werner, Matthew E; Karp, Joel S; Surti, Suleman

    2013-06-01

    A dedicated breast positron emission tomography (PET) scanner with limited angle geometry can provide flexibility in detector placement around the patient as well as the ability to combine it with other imaging modalities. A primary challenge of a stationary limited angle scanner is the reduced image quality due to artifacts present in the reconstructed image leading to a loss in quantitative information. Previously it has been shown that using time-of-flight (TOF) information in image reconstruction can help reduce these image artifacts arising due to missing angular projections. Our goal in this work is to optimize the TOF, breast scanner design by performing studies for estimating image uniformity and lesion activity uptake as a function of system timing resolution, scanner angular coverage and shape. Our results show that (i) 1.5 × 1.5 × 15 mm(3) lutetium oxy-orthosilicate (LSO) crystals provide a high spatial resolution and system sensitivity relative to clinical scanners, (ii) 2/3 angular coverage scanner design with TOF timing resolution less than 600 ps is appropriate for providing a tomographic image with fewer artifacts and good lesion uptake estimation relative to other partial ring designs studied in this work, (iii) a flat scanner design with 2/3 angular coverage is affected more by larger parallax error than a curved scanner geometry with the same angular coverage, but provides more uniform lesion contrast estimate over the imaging field-of-view (FOV), (iv) 2/3 angular coverage, flat, 300 ps TOF scanner design (for short, practical scan times of ? 5 mins per breast) provides similar precision of contrast recovery coefficient (CRC) values to a full curved, non-TOF scanner, and (v) employing depth-of-interaction (DOI) measuring detector and/or implementing resolution modeling (RM) in image reconstruction lead to improved and more uniform spatial resolution and lesion contrast over the whole FOV. PMID:24078744

  16. Hopkinson bar simulation using DYNA2D. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.A.; Glover, T.A.

    1985-05-01

    A finite-element simulation of a Split Hopkinson's bar (Kolsky apparatus) technique involving mortar specimens is accomplished with DYNA2D, an explicit two-dimensional finite-element code. Calculations are compared with experimental results contained in a University of Florida report Dynamic Response of Concrete and Concrete Structures, and with analytic solutions of the appropriate wave propagation problem.

  17. Dissipative Cloud Collissions in Barred Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palous, Jan

    The evolution of a system of dissipative giant molecular clouds (GMC) moving in a galaxy is investigated using an N-body code. The GMC may collide when close enough and dissipate certain amount of their kinetic energy. The observed large scale structures are compared with simulations. In particular, we attack the problem of molecular rings in barred galaxies. The simulations showing multiple rings connected to different resonances are discussed. The inelastic collisions play the key role, thus we are able to investigate the importance of viscosity.

  18. MAMS - A high spatial resolution multispectral scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, Robert J.; Jedlovec, Gary J.

    1989-01-01

    The Multispectral Atmospheric Mapping Sensor (MAMS) is an airborne scanner which collects imagery in eight visible and three IR bands, with ground resolution of 100 m at a nominal aircraft altitude of 20 km. The visible channels provide continuous spectral coverage from 0.42 to 1.05 microns, and the IR channels measure upwelling and reflected radiation at combinations of 3.7, 6.5, 11.1, and 12.5 microns. These include channels nearly identical to the Landsat TM channels 1-4, and similar to those on the VISSR Atmospheric Sounder (VAS) and AVHRR instruments. The high spatial resolution permits investigation of surface thermal and atmospheric water vapor structure at scales not available from current stabilities. Significant modifications have been made since engineering flights in 1985 to improve the radiometric performance. The increased data quality and recent multidisciplinary applications of this data are presented.

  19. Shutter for rotating source CT scanner

    SciTech Connect

    Braden, A.B.; Covic, J.; Kuwik, J.J.; Taylor, S.K.

    1980-02-26

    In a CT scanner having a rotating source of radiation and a series of stationary radiation detectors spaced about the axis of rotation of the source, an eclipsing shutter mechanism restricts the width of the diverging fan pattern of radiation to that portion of the patient scan circle which is intermediate the array of stationary detectors and the orbiting source. The eclipsing shutter may include a single elongated slit aperture for flooding the scan circle with radiation or a plurality of smaller apertures defining a collimator for continuously training each one of a plurality of discrete diverging beams in the fan pattern on a single stationary detector during rotation of the source for as long as the separate beam intersects the scan circle. An epicyclic gear train powered by the rotation of the source drives the shutter mechanism in a counter-rotation and causes the collimator to keep each beam aimed at a respective detector.

  20. Quadrupole resonance scanner for narcotics detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Julian D.; Moeller, C. R.; Magnuson, Erik E.; Sheldon, Alan G.

    1994-10-01

    Interest in non-invasive, non-hazardous, bulk detection technologies for narcotics interdiction has risen over the last few years. As part of our continuing research and development programs in detection of narcotics and explosives using sensitive magnetic measuring devices, we present the first commercially available prototype Quadrupole Resonance (QR) scanner for narcotics detection. The portable narcotics detection system was designed in modular form such that a single QR base system could be easily used with a variety of custom detection heads. The QR system presented in this paper is suitable for scanning items up to 61 X 35 X 13 cm in size, and was designed to scan mail packages and briefcase-sized items for the presence of narcotics. System tests have shown that detection sensitivity is comparable that obtained in laboratory systems.

  1. Landsat-4 horizon scanner flight performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilanow, S.; Chen, L. C.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the flight data from a new design of horizon scanner flown on Landsat-4. The salient features in the data are described and demonstrated by data plots. High frequency noise must be filtered out to achieve good accuracy, but this is effectively done by 128-point averaging. Sun and moon interference effects are identified. The effects of earth oblateness and spacecraft altitude variations are modeled, and the residual systematic errors are analyzed. Most of the residual errors are apparently explained by the effects of earth radiance variation, with the winter polar regions showing the highest variability in the attitude measurements due to winter stratosphere temperature variations. In general, this sensor provides improved accuracy over those flown on previous missions.

  2. Emittance studies with an Allison scanner

    SciTech Connect

    Stockli, M.P.; Welton, R.F.; Keller, R.; Leitner, M. [SNS, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2006-03-15

    The Spallation Neutron Source H{sup -} source on the ion source test stand is being used to study the emittance of the H{sup -}-ion beam injected into the SNS radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ). The emittance measurements are performed with a LBNL Allison scanner that underwent several modifications. The slit width was optimized to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. In addition, the electric deflector plates were replaced with plates featuring a staircased surface. This modification is shown to suppress over 99% of ghost signals generated by the beam hitting the deflector plates. Both modifications, combined with noise suppression measures and a self-consistent analysis, yield highly accurate results. Measured emittances are presented as a function of the ion-beam current.

  3. Autoradiographic film evaluated with desktop scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nageldinger, Guido; Flowers, Alan; Schwerdt, Christian; Kelz, Romano

    A procedure is described herein for the densitometric calibration of autoradiographic films, utilizing a desktop scanner. The method yields a calibration accuracy of ±0.03 reflection density units over the range from 0 to 1.7. The calibration procedure was applied to Amersham "Hyperfilm-?max" autoradiographic film against 14C, 36Cl, 60Co, 133Ba, 137Cs and 241Am. An exponential function was used to describe the useful range of the characteristic curves of this film, which is between 1×10 4 and 1×10 5 (discharges mm -2) for 14C and 36Cl and between 10 5-10 6 (discharge mm -2) for the other gamma-emitting isotopes.

  4. Echelle crossed grating millimeter wave beam scanner.

    PubMed

    Furxhi, Orges; Marks, Daniel L; Brady, David J

    2014-06-30

    We present a two-dimensional, active, millimeter-wave, electronic beam scanner, with Doppler capabilities for stand-off imaging. The two-dimensional scan is achieved by mapping the millimeter wave spectrum to space using a pair of crossed gratings. The active transceiver and heterodyne quadrature detection allow the measurement of the relative phase between two consecutive measurements and the synthesis of the scene's Doppler signature. The frame rate of the imager is currently limited by the sweep rate of the vector network analyzer which is used to drive the millimeter wave extenders. All of the beam steering components are passive and can be designed to operate at any wavelength. The system design, characterization and measurements are presented and further uses and improvements are suggested. PMID:24977888

  5. Buckling Bars and Boxy Bulges

    E-print Network

    Michael R. Merrifield

    1995-08-08

    It has been suggested that the peanut-shaped bulges seen in some edge-on disk galaxies are produced when bars in these galaxies buckle. This paper reviews the modelling which seeks to show how bars buckle, and I present a very simple new model which captures the essential physics of this process. I then discuss the problems in establishing observationally the connection between peanut-shaped bulges and bars: confirmation of the link has proved difficult because boxy bulges are only apparent in edge-on galaxies whereas bars are only easily detectable in more face-on systems. Finally, I present a new technique which avoids this difficulty by searching for the distinctive kinematic signature of an edge-on bar; application of this method to spectra of peanut-shaped bulges reveals that they are, indeed, associated with hidden bars.

  6. A general solution for the registration of optical multispectral scanners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rader, M. L.

    1974-01-01

    The paper documents a general theory for registration (mapping) of data sets gathered by optical scanners such as the ERTS satellite MSS and the Skylab S-192 MSS. This solution is generally applicable to scanners which have rotating optics. Navigation data and ground control points are used in a statistically weighted adjustment based on a mathematical model of the dynamics of the spacecraft and the scanner system. This adjustment is very similar to the well known photogrammetric adjustments used in aerial mapping. Actual tests have been completed on NASA aircraft 24 channel MSS data, and the results are very encouraging.

  7. Design study for Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanich, C. G.; Osterwisch, F. G.; Szeles, D. M.; Houtman, W. H.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of dividing the 8-12 micrometer thermal infrared wavelength region into six spectral bands by an airborne line scanner system was investigated. By combining an existing scanner design with a 6 band spectrometer, a system for the remote sensing of Earth resources was developed. The elements in the spectrometer include an off axis reflective collimator, a reflective diffraction grating, a triplet germanium imaging lens, a photoconductive mercury cadmium telluride sensor array, and the mechanical assembly to hold these parts and maintain their optical alignment across a broad temperature range. The existing scanner design was modified to accept the new spectrometer and two field filling thermal reference sources.

  8. Stellar bar in NGC 1068

    SciTech Connect

    Scoville, N.Z.; Matthews, K.; Carico, D.P.; Sanders, D.B.

    1988-04-01

    High-resolution 2-micron mapping of the inner disk of NGC 1068 reveals a bar extending to + or - 16 arcsec from the nucleus at position angle 48 deg. The stellar mass distribution, presumably traced by the near-infrared light, is therefore strongly nonaxisymmetric with a contrast of approximately 3:1 between the major and minor axes of the bar. This large-scale galactic structure is probably responsible for the concentration of molecular clouds in a ring just outside the bar. The massive bar may also drive noncircular motions in the inner disk of the galaxy as possibly seen in the gaseous emission lines. 21 references.

  9. Timing characteristics of scintillator bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisov, S.; Dzierba, A.; Heinz, R.; Klimenko, A.; Samoylenko, V.; Scott, E.; Shchukin, A.; Smith, P.; Steffen, C.; Teige, S.

    2002-02-01

    The proposed Hall D detector at Jefferson Lab will have a time-of-flight detector composed of long and narrow scintillator bars. We have evaluated the time resolution of two bar prototypes in particle beams at the Institute for High Energy Physics in Protvino, Russia. The bars are 2.0 m long and have square cross-sections of size 2.5 and 5.0 cm2. In this paper, we present results on how the time resolution of each of these bars depends on the entry position of the beam into the scintillator, on the material used for scintillator wrapping and on the phototube used for the readout.

  10. Transformer bar connector and pedestal bar connector cover

    SciTech Connect

    McGrane, E. W.

    1985-10-15

    A protective cover is provided for a standard rectangular transformer connector bar and for pedestal bar connector having ports for cable installation and threaded boreholes in adjacent ninety degree planes. The cover comprises a translucent housing open at one end and closed at the other when used with the transformer bar connector, and closed at both ends when used as a pedestal bar connector. The cover has a plurality of internal aligning ribs having apertures therein which allow longitudinal passage of the connector bar therethrough. A plurality of parallel access ports through the housing extend longitudinally and are spaced from each other ninety degrees so as to be alignable with the installation ports and boreholes of the bar connector. Opposed flexible tines extend across each of the access ports from the edges thereof. The apertures in the ribs are geometrically configured so as to align the access ports with the installation ports and boreholes of the transformer connector bar for either a right-hand or left-hand installation of the connector bar on the transformer stud.

  11. Basic design of linear oscillatory actuator for two-dimensional optical scanner

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsutomu Mizuno; Yoshinori Teramae; Bu Ying Gang; Ryouta Aotsuka; Yuki Hattori

    2009-01-01

    Optical scanners are used in various devices, for example, distribution systems, handy terminals (portable instruments) and so forth. Portable instruments are required to be precise and work efficiently. Recently, there has been increased demand for two-dimensional scanners rather than one-dimensional scanners. To produce such scanners, miniaturization and reducing the thickness of module. The authors propose a linear oscillatory actuator (LOA)

  12. Color Influence on Accuracy of 3D Scanners Based on Structured Light

    E-print Network

    Abidi, Mongi A.

    for a laser line scanner. The question we address is what happens when the 3D scanner is based on a colorColor Influence on Accuracy of 3D Scanners Based on Structured Light Sophie Voisina b, David L 3D scanners allows acquiring precise and useful data. The accuracy of range and, more recently

  13. 2. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING VIEW IS LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING -VIEW IS LOOKING AT "B" FACE FROM SITE ENTRY AREA PARKING LOT. VIEW IS LOOKING SOUTH. - Cape Cod Air Station, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  14. NOAA-9 Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanner offsets determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avis, Lee M.; Paden, Jack; Lee, Robert B., III; Pandey, Dhirendra K.; Stassi, Joseph C.; Wilson, Robert S.; Tolson, Carol J.; Bolden, William C.

    1994-01-01

    The Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) instruments are designed to measure the components of the radiative exchange between the Sun, Earth and space. ERBE is comprised of three spacecraft, each carrying a nearly identical set of radiometers: a three-channel narrow-field-of-view scanner, a two-channel wide-field-of-view (limb-to-limb) non-scanning radiometer, a two-channel medium field-of view (1000 km) non-scanning radiometer, and a solar monitor. Ground testing showed the scanners to be susceptible to self-generated and externally generated electromagnetic noise. This paper describes the pre-launch corrective measures taken and the post-launch corrections to the NOAA-9 scanner data. The NOAA-9 scanner has met the mission objectives in accuracy and precision, in part because of the pre-launch reductions of and post-launch data corrections for the electromagnetic noise.

  15. Agricultural Applications and Requirements for Thermal Infrared Scanners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiegand, C. L.

    1971-01-01

    Some of the applications of thermal scanner data in agriculture are presented along with illustrations of some of the factors affecting the temperature of plants, soil, and water. Examples of thermal imagery are included.

  16. Building a 3D Computed Tomography Scanner From Surplus Parts.

    PubMed

    Haidekker, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) scanners are expensive imaging devices, often out of reach for small research groups. Designing and building a CT scanner from modular components is possible, and this article demonstrates that realization of a CT scanner from components is surprisingly easy. However, the high costs of a modular X-ray source and detector limit the overall cost savings. In this article, the possibility of building a CT scanner with available surplus X-ray parts is discussed, and a practical device is described that incurred costs of less than $16,000. The image quality of this device is comparable with commercial devices. The disadvantage is that design constraints imposed by the available components lead to slow scan speeds and a resolution of 0.5 mm. Despite these limitations, a device such as this is attractive for imaging studies in the biological and biomedical sciences, as well as for advancing CT technology itself. PMID:24712368

  17. Compact, quick ID scanner that captures rolled and flat fingerprints.

    E-print Network

    Hochmuth, Olaff

    efficient solution for that task. Operation is very easy and intuitive, just place the finger on the capture, stylish housing, coating-free capture platen surface Main Features Product components: Scanner block, USB

  18. Localization of mobile laser scanner using classical mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehtola, Ville V.; Virtanen, Juho-Pekka; Kukko, Antero; Kaartinen, Harri; Hyyppä, Hannu

    2015-01-01

    We use a single 2D laser scanner to 3D scan indoor environments, without any inertial measurement units or reference coordinates. The localization is done directly from the point cloud in an intrinsic manner compared to other state-of-the-art mobile laser scanning methods where external inertial or odometry sensors are employed and synchronized with the laser scanner. Our approach is based on treating the scanner as a holonomic system. A novel type of scanner platform, called VILMA, is designed and built to demonstrate the functionality of the presented approach. Results from flat-floor and non-flat-floor environments are presented. They suggest that intrinsic localization may be generalized for broader use.

  19. Ultrasonic recording scanner used for nondestructive weld inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Portable ultrasonic recording scanner is used for nondestructive inspection of welds. It is adaptable to continuous operation in one direction while maintaining oscillatory motion at a right angle to this direction. The scanning speed and oscillation frequency are independently adjustable.

  20. Development of an optical waveguide cantilever scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei-Chih; Fauver, Mark; Ho, Joe N.; Seibel, Eric J.; Reinhall, Per G.

    2003-03-01

    Design, fabrication, and testing of a micromachined cantilever beam that is optically transmissive and mechanically resonant is presented with application as a micro-optical scanner. An optical waveguide is formed from a 2.2?m thick SiO2 layer deposited on a single crystal silicon wafer and etched to yield a SiO2/Si composite slab cantilever. Using a novel capacitively-coupled reactive ion etching technique, a cavity is back-etched in the silicon to release the 30-40?m thick and 0.5-1.5 mm long cantilevers from the wafer. An etch rate of 2.0-2.2?m/min in Si, an anisotropy of 0.5 and selectivity to thermal oxide (Si: SiO2 = 10:1) and to photoresist (Si: +PR = 8.6:1) are reported. Evaporated aluminum film is used as a passivation material. Optical and mechanical tests are performed on these microfabricated structures. The first mode resonances are found between 16-52 kHz with response amplitudes ranging from 80 to 420 mm. Optical throughput is visible, but greatly diminished due to scattering losses, primarily at the edges of the waveguide. Since cantilever waveguides with resonant frequencies above 20 kHz are potentially suitable for video rate scanning, these devices may be used for image acquisition and display.

  1. Whole-body 35-GHz security scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appleby, Roger; Anderton, Rupert N.; Price, Sean; Sinclair, Gordon N.; Coward, Peter R.

    2004-08-01

    A 35GHz imager designed for Security Scanning has been previously demonstrated. That imager was based on a folded conical scan technology and was constructed from low cost materials such as expanded polystyrene and printed circuit board. In conjunction with an illumination chamber it was used to collect indoor imagery of people with weapons and contraband hidden under their clothing. That imager had a spot size of 20mm and covered a field of view of 20 x 10 degrees that partially covered the body of an adult from knees to shoulders. A new variant of this imager has been designed and constructed. It has a field of view of 36 x 18 degrees and is capable of covering the whole body of an adult. This was achieved by increasing the number of direct detection receivers from the 32 used in the previous design to 58, and by implementing an improved optical design. The optics consist of a front grid, a polarisation device which converts linear to circular polarisation and a rotating scanner. This new design uses high-density expanded polystyrene as a correcting element on the back of the front grid. This gives an added degree of freedom that allows the optical design to be diffraction limited over a very wide field of view. Obscuration by the receivers and associated components is minimised by integrating the post detection electronics at the receiver array.

  2. Applying Schwarzschild's orbit superposition method to barred or non-barred disc galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasiliev, Eugene; Athanassoula, E.

    2015-07-01

    We present an implementation of the Schwarzschild orbit superposition method, which can be used for constructing self-consistent equilibrium models of barred or non-barred disc galaxies, or of elliptical galaxies with figure rotation. This is a further development of the publicly available code SMILE; its main improvements include a new efficient representation of an arbitrary gravitational potential using two-dimensional spline interpolation of Fourier coefficients in the meridional plane, as well as the ability to deal with rotation of the density profile and with multicomponent mass models. We compare several published methods for constructing composite axisymmetric disc-bulge-halo models and demonstrate that our code produces the models that are closest to equilibrium. We also apply it to create models of triaxial elliptical galaxies with cuspy density profiles and figure rotation, and find that such models can be found and are stable over many dynamical times in a wide range of pattern speeds and angular momenta, covering both slow- and fast-rotator classes. We then attempt to create models of strongly barred disc galaxies, using an analytic three-component potential, and find that it is not possible to make a stable dynamically self-consistent model for this density profile. Finally, we take snapshots of two N-body simulations of barred disc galaxies embedded in nearly-spherical haloes, and construct equilibrium models using only information on the density profile of the snapshots. We demonstrate that such reconstructed models are in near-stationary state, in contrast with the original N-body simulations, one of which displayed significant secular evolution.

  3. Electromagnetic Two-Dimensional Scanner Using Radial Magnetic Field

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chang-Hyeon Ji; Moongoo Choi; Sang-Cheon Kim; Ki-Chang Song; Jong-Uk Bu; Hyo-Jin Nam

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we present the design, fabrication, and measurement results of a two-dimensional electromagnetic scanning micromirror actuated by radial magnetic field. The scanner is realized by combining a gimbaled single-crystal-silicon micromirror with a single turn electroplated metal coil, with a concentric permanent magnet assembly composed of two concentric permanent magnets and an iron yoke. The proposed scanner utilizes the

  4. 47. View of "dry air inlets" to waveguides entering scanner ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. View of "dry air inlets" to waveguides entering scanner building 105. Dried air is generated under pressure by Ingersoll-Rand dehumidified/dessicator and compressor system. View is at entrance from passageway that links into corner of scanner building. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  5. AVG LinkScanner 8.5.289

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2009-04-24

    Users hoping to look for safe websites as they browse will appreciate learning about AVG's LinkScanner plug-in. LinkScanner works with both Firefox and Internet Explorer via its "Search Shield" to return only search safe results from both Google and Yahoo tagged with green or red flags. When visitors move over a flag, they will learn the IP address of the site, along with other relevant information. This version is compatible with computers running Windows 2000 and newer.

  6. Dynamical Evolution of Barred Galaxies

    E-print Network

    E. Athanassoula

    2005-01-11

    Angular momentum redistribution within barred galaxies drives their dynamical evolution. Angular momentum is emitted mainly by near-resonant material in the bar region and absorbed by resonant material mainly in the outer disc and in the halo. This exchange determines the strength of the bar, the decrease of its pattern speed, as well as its morphology. If the galaxy has also a gaseous component and/or a companion or satellite, then these also take part in the angular momentum exchange. During the evolution a bar structure forms in the inner parts of the halo as well. This bar is shorter and fatter than the disc bar and stays so all through the simulation, although its length grows considerably with time. Viewed edge-on, the bar in the disc component acquires a boxy or peanut shape. I describe the families of periodic orbits that explain such structures and review the observations showing that boxy/peanut `bulges' are in fact just bars seen edge-on.

  7. Bar Dissolution in Prolate Halos.

    PubMed

    Ideta; Hozumi

    2000-06-01

    The time evolution of barred structures is examined under the influence of the external forces exerted by a spherical halo and by prolate halos. In particular, galaxy disks are placed in the plane including the major axis of prolate halos, whose configuration is often found in cosmological simulations. N-body disks in fixed external halo fields are simulated, so that bars are formed via dynamical instability. In the subsequent evolution, the bars in prolate halos dissolve gradually with time, while the bar pattern in a spherical halo remains almost unchanged to the end of the simulation. The decay times of the bars suggest that they can be destroyed in a time smaller than a Hubble time. Our results indicate that this dissolution process could occur in real barred galaxies, if they are surrounded by massive dark prolate halos, and the configuration adopted here is not unusual from the viewpoint of galaxy formation. For a prolate halo model, an additional simulation that is restricted to two-dimensional in-plane motions has also ended up with similar bar dissolution. This means that the vertical motions of disk stars do not play an essential role in the bar dissolution demonstrated here. PMID:10835306

  8. GASEOUS STRUCTURES IN BARRED GALAXIES: EFFECTS OF THE BAR STRENGTH

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Woong-Tae; Seo, Woo-Young; Kim, Yonghwi, E-mail: wkim@astro.snu.ac.kr [Center for the Exploration of the Origin of the Universe (CEOU), Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-10

    Using hydrodynamic simulations, we investigate the physical properties of gaseous substructures in barred galaxies and their relationships with the bar strength. The gaseous medium is assumed to be isothermal and unmagnetized. The bar potential is modeled as a Ferrers prolate with index n. To explore situations with differing bar strength, we vary the bar mass f{sub bar} relative to the spheroidal component as well as its aspect ratio R. We derive expressions as functions of f{sub bar} and R for the bar strength Q{sub b} and the radius r(Q{sub b} ) where the maximum bar torque occurs. When applied to observations, these expressions suggest that bars in real galaxies are most likely to have f{sub bar} {approx} 0.25-0.50 and n {approx}< 1. Dust lanes approximately follow one of the x{sub 1}-orbits and tend to be straighter under a stronger and more elongated bar, but are insensitive to the presence of self-gravity. A nuclear ring of a conventional x{sub 2} type forms only when the bar is not so massive or elongated. The radius of an x{sub 2}-type ring is generally smaller than the inner Lindblad resonance, decreases systematically with increasing Q{sub b} , and is slightly larger when self-gravity is included. This is evidence that the ring position is not determined by the resonance, but instead by the amount of angular momentum loss at dust-lane shocks. Nuclear spirals exist only when the ring is of the x{sub 2} type and is sufficiently large in size. Unlike the other features, nuclear spirals are transient in that they start out being tightly wound and weak, and then, due to the nonlinear effect, unwind and become stronger until they turn into shocks, with an unwinding rate that is higher for larger Q{sub b} . The mass inflow rate to the galaxy center is found to be less than 0.01 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} for models with Q{sub b} {approx}< 0.2, while becoming larger than 0.1 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} when Q{sub b} {approx}> 0.2 and self-gravity is included.

  9. Gaseous Structures in Barred Galaxies: Effects of the Bar Strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Woong-Tae; Seo, Woo-Young; Kim, Yonghwi

    2012-10-01

    Using hydrodynamic simulations, we investigate the physical properties of gaseous substructures in barred galaxies and their relationships with the bar strength. The gaseous medium is assumed to be isothermal and unmagnetized. The bar potential is modeled as a Ferrers prolate with index n. To explore situations with differing bar strength, we vary the bar mass f bar relative to the spheroidal component as well as its aspect ratio { R}. We derive expressions as functions of f bar and { R} for the bar strength Qb and the radius r(Qb ) where the maximum bar torque occurs. When applied to observations, these expressions suggest that bars in real galaxies are most likely to have f bar ~ 0.25-0.50 and n <~ 1. Dust lanes approximately follow one of the x 1-orbits and tend to be straighter under a stronger and more elongated bar, but are insensitive to the presence of self-gravity. A nuclear ring of a conventional x 2 type forms only when the bar is not so massive or elongated. The radius of an x 2-type ring is generally smaller than the inner Lindblad resonance, decreases systematically with increasing Qb , and is slightly larger when self-gravity is included. This is evidence that the ring position is not determined by the resonance, but instead by the amount of angular momentum loss at dust-lane shocks. Nuclear spirals exist only when the ring is of the x 2 type and is sufficiently large in size. Unlike the other features, nuclear spirals are transient in that they start out being tightly wound and weak, and then, due to the nonlinear effect, unwind and become stronger until they turn into shocks, with an unwinding rate that is higher for larger Qb . The mass inflow rate to the galaxy center is found to be less than 0.01 M ? yr-1 for models with Qb <~ 0.2, while becoming larger than 0.1 M ? yr-1 when Qb >~ 0.2 and self-gravity is included.

  10. Accurate modeling of a DOI capable small animal PET scanner using GATE.

    PubMed

    Zagni, F; D'Ambrosio, D; Spinelli, A E; Cicoria, G; Fanti, S; Marengo, M

    2013-05-01

    In this work we developed a Monte Carlo (MC) model of the Sedecal Argus pre-clinical PET scanner, using GATE (Geant4 Application for Tomographic Emission). This is a dual-ring scanner which features DOI compensation by means of two layers of detector crystals (LYSO and GSO). Geometry of detectors and sources, pulses readout and selection of coincidence events were modeled with GATE, while a separate code was developed in order to emulate the processing of digitized data (for example, customized time windows and data flow saturation), the final binning of the lines of response and to reproduce the data output format of the scanner's acquisition software. Validation of the model was performed by modeling several phantoms used in experimental measurements, in order to compare the results of the simulations. Spatial resolution, sensitivity, scatter fraction, count rates and NECR were tested. Moreover, the NEMA NU-4 phantom was modeled in order to check for the image quality yielded by the model. Noise, contrast of cold and hot regions and recovery coefficient were calculated and compared using images of the NEMA phantom acquired with our scanner. The energy spectrum of coincidence events due to the small amount of (176)Lu in LYSO crystals, which was suitably included in our model, was also compared with experimental measurements. Spatial resolution, sensitivity and scatter fraction showed an agreement within 7%. Comparison of the count rates curves resulted satisfactory, being the values within the uncertainties, in the range of activities practically used in research scans. Analysis of the NEMA phantom images also showed a good agreement between simulated and acquired data, within 9% for all the tested parameters. This work shows that basic MC modeling of this kind of system is possible using GATE as a base platform; extension through suitably written customized code allows for an adequate level of accuracy in the results. Our careful validation against experimental data confirms that the developed simulation setup is a useful tool for a wide range of research applications. PMID:23501360

  11. A continuous ultrasonic scanner for lumber grading

    E-print Network

    Mayhew, Stephen Allison

    1996-01-01

    for measuring the various growth characteristics are given in ASTM D245 (ASTM, 1994b), while ASTM D2555 (ASTM, 1994c) provides rules for establishing clear wood strength values. Strength ratios for grain angle and density have been obtained empirically, while...-SI CONVERSION TABLE 90 B EXPERIMENTAL DATA 92 C DATA REDUCTION FORTRAN CODE . . 103 D AUTOMATIC DATA ACQUISITION C CODE 118 VITA 140 LIST OF TABLES Page Table 4. 1: Statistical summary of long-span density, ultimate tensile stress, and transverse...

  12. Galaxy Zoo: CANDELS Barred Disks and Bar Fractions

    E-print Network

    Simmons, B D; Lintott, Chris; Masters, Karen L; Willett, Kyle W; Keel, William C; Smethurst, R J; Cheung, Edmond; Nichol, Robert C; Schawinski, Kevin; Rutkowski, Michael; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S; Bell, Eric F; Casteels, Kevin R V; Conselice, Christopher J; Almaini, Omar; Ferguson, Henry C; Fortson, Lucy; Hartley, William; Kocevski, Dale; Koekemoer, Anton M; McIntosh, Daniel H; Mortlock, Alice; Newman, Jeffrey A; Ownsworth, Jamie; Bamford, Steven; Dahlen, Tomas; Faber, Sandra M; Finkelstein, Steven L; Fontana, Adriano; Galametz, Audrey; Grogin, N A; Grutzbauch, Ruth; Guo, Yicheng; Haussler, Boris; Jek, Kian J; Kaviraj, Sugata; Lucas, Ray A; Peth, Michael; Salvato, Mara; Wiklind, Tommy; Wuyts, Stijn

    2014-01-01

    The formation of bars in disk galaxies is a tracer of the dynamical maturity of the population. Previous studies have found that the incidence of bars in disks decreases from the local Universe to z ~ 1, and by z > 1 simulations predict that bar features in dynamically mature disks should be extremely rare. Here we report the discovery of strong barred structures in massive disk galaxies at z ~ 1.5 in deep rest-frame optical images from CANDELS. From within a sample of 876 disk galaxies identified by visual classification in Galaxy Zoo, we identify 123 barred galaxies. Selecting a sub-sample within the same region of the evolving galaxy luminosity function (brighter than L*), we find that the bar fraction across the redshift range 0.5< z < 2 (f_bar = 10.7 +6.3 -3.5% after correcting for incompleteness) does not significantly evolve. We discuss the implications of this discovery in the context of existing simulations and our current understanding of the way disk galaxies have evolved over the last 11 bil...

  13. Galaxy Zoo: CANDELS barred discs and bar fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, B. D.; Melvin, Thomas; Lintott, Chris; Masters, Karen L.; Willett, Kyle W.; Keel, William C.; Smethurst, R. J.; Cheung, Edmond; Nichol, Robert C.; Schawinski, Kevin; Rutkowski, Michael; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; Bell, Eric F.; Casteels, Kevin R. V.; Conselice, Christopher J.; Almaini, Omar; Ferguson, Henry C.; Fortson, Lucy; Hartley, William; Kocevski, Dale; Koekemoer, Anton M.; McIntosh, Daniel H.; Mortlock, Alice; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Ownsworth, Jamie; Bamford, Steven; Dahlen, Tomas; Faber, Sandra M.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Fontana, Adriano; Galametz, Audrey; Grogin, N. A.; Grützbauch, Ruth; Guo, Yicheng; Häußler, Boris; Jek, Kian J.; Kaviraj, Sugata; Lucas, Ray A.; Peth, Michael; Salvato, Mara; Wiklind, Tommy; Wuyts, Stijn

    2014-12-01

    The formation of bars in disc galaxies is a tracer of the dynamical maturity of the population. Previous studies have found that the incidence of bars in discs decreases from the local Universe to z ˜ 1, and by z > 1 simulations predict that bar features in dynamically mature discs should be extremely rare. Here, we report the discovery of strong barred structures in massive disc galaxies at z ˜ 1.5 in deep rest-frame optical images from the Cosmic Assembly Near-Infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey. From within a sample of 876 disc galaxies identified by visual classification in Galaxy Zoo, we identify 123 barred galaxies. Selecting a subsample within the same region of the evolving galaxy luminosity function (brighter than L*), we find that the bar fraction across the redshift range 0.5 ? z ? 2 ( f_{bar} = 10.7^{+6.3}_{-3.5} per cent after correcting for incompleteness) does not significantly evolve. We discuss the implications of this discovery in the context of existing simulations and our current understanding of the way disc galaxies have evolved over the last 11 billion years.

  14. Developing a Game Plan for the Bar

    E-print Network

    Marsh, David

    · Stress management · Your likelihood of success on your bar exam will increase you with some 8me management strategies for your bar review period · Share students who pass? · A firm intent to take and pass your bar exam

  15. Microarray scanner calibration curves: characteristics and implications

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Leming; Tong, Weida; Su, Zhenqiang; Han, Tao; Han, Jing; Puri, Raj K; Fang, Hong; Frueh, Felix W; Goodsaid, Federico M; Guo, Lei; Branham, William S; Chen, James J; Xu, Z Alex; Harris, Stephen C; Hong, Huixiao; Xie, Qian; Perkins, Roger G; Fuscoe, James C

    2005-01-01

    Background Microarray-based measurement of mRNA abundance assumes a linear relationship between the fluorescence intensity and the dye concentration. In reality, however, the calibration curve can be nonlinear. Results By scanning a microarray scanner calibration slide containing known concentrations of fluorescent dyes under 18 PMT gains, we were able to evaluate the differences in calibration characteristics of Cy5 and Cy3. First, the calibration curve for the same dye under the same PMT gain is nonlinear at both the high and low intensity ends. Second, the degree of nonlinearity of the calibration curve depends on the PMT gain. Third, the two PMTs (for Cy5 and Cy3) behave differently even under the same gain. Fourth, the background intensity for the Cy3 channel is higher than that for the Cy5 channel. The impact of such characteristics on the accuracy and reproducibility of measured mRNA abundance and the calculated ratios was demonstrated. Combined with simulation results, we provided explanations to the existence of ratio underestimation, intensity-dependence of ratio bias, and anti-correlation of ratios in dye-swap replicates. We further demonstrated that although Lowess normalization effectively eliminates the intensity-dependence of ratio bias, the systematic deviation from true ratios largely remained. A method of calculating ratios based on concentrations estimated from the calibration curves was proposed for correcting ratio bias. Conclusion It is preferable to scan microarray slides at fixed, optimal gain settings under which the linearity between concentration and intensity is maximized. Although normalization methods improve reproducibility of microarray measurements, they appear less effective in improving accuracy. PMID:16026596

  16. Photometric Decomposition of Barred Galaxies

    E-print Network

    A. S. Reese; T. B. Williams; J. A. Sellwood; Eric I. Barnes; Brian A. Powell

    2007-02-27

    We present a non-parametric method for decomposition of the light of disk galaxies into disk, bulge and bar components. We have developed and tested the method on a sample of 68 disk galaxies for which we have acquired I-band photometry. The separation of disk and bar light relies on the single assumption that the bar is a straight feature with a different ellipticity and position angle from that of the projected disk. We here present the basic method, but recognise that it can be significantly refined. We identify bars in only 47% of the more nearly face-on galaxies in our sample. The fraction of light in the bar has a broad range from 1.3% to 40% of the total galaxy light. If low-luminosity galaxies have more dominant halos, and if halos contribute to bar stability, the luminosity functions of barred and unbarred galaxies should differ markedly; while our sample is small, we find only a slight difference of low significance.

  17. Observation of $?_{c}$ decay into $?^{+}\\bar?^{-}$ and $?^{-}\\bar?^{+}$ final states

    E-print Network

    The BESIII Collaboration; M. Ablikim; M. N. Achasov; O. Albayrak; D. J. Ambrose; F. F. An; Q. An; J. Z. Bai; Y. Ban; J. Becker; J. V. Bennett; M. Bertani; J. M. Bian; E. Boger; O. Bondarenko; I. Boyko; R. A. Briere; V. Bytev; X. Cai; O. Cakir; A. Calcaterra; G. F. Cao; S. A. Cetin; J. F. Chang; G. Chelkov; G. Chen; H. S. Chen; J. C. Chen; M. L. Chen; S. J. Chen; X. Chen; Y. B. Chen; H. P. Cheng; Y. P. Chu; F. Coccetti; D. Cronin-Hennessy; H. L. Dai; J. P. Dai; D. Dedovich; Z. Y. Deng; A. Denig; I. Denysenko; M. Destefanis; W. M. Ding; Y. Ding; L. Y. Dong; M. Y. Dong; S. X. Du; J. Fang; S. S. Fang; L. Fava; F. Feldbauer; C. Q. Feng; R. B. Ferroli; C. D. Fu; J. L. Fu; Y. Gao; C. Geng; K. Goetzen; W. X. Gong; W. Gradl; M. Greco; M. H. Gu; Y. T. Gu; Y. H. Guan; A. Q. Guo; L. B. Guo; Y. P. Guo; Y. L. Han; F. A. Harris; K. L. He; M. He; Z. Y. He; T. Held; Y. K. Heng; Z. L. Hou; H. M. Hu; J. F. Hu; T. Hu; G. M. Huang; G. S. Huang; J. S. Huang; X. T. Huang; Y. P. Huang; T. Hussain; C. S. Ji; Q. Ji; Q. P. Ji; X. B. Ji; X. L. Ji; L. L. Jiang; X. S. Jiang; J. B. Jiao; Z. Jiao; D. P. Jin; S. Jin; F. F. Jing; N. Kalantar-Nayestanaki; M. Kavatsyuk; M. Kornicer; W. Kuehn; W. Lai; J. S. Lange; C. H. Li; Cheng Li; Cui Li; D. M. Li; F. Li; G. Li; H. B. Li; J. C. Li; K. Li; Lei Li; Q. J. Li; S. L. Li; W. D. Li; W. G. Li; X. L. Li; X. N. Li; X. Q. Li; X. R. Li; Z. B. Li; H. Liang; Y. F. Liang; Y. T. Liang; G. R. Liao; X. T. Liao; B. J. Liu; C. L. Liu; C. X. Liu; C. Y. Liu; F. H. Liu; Fang Liu; Feng Liu; H. Liu; H. H. Liu; H. M. Liu; H. W. Liu; J. P. Liu; K. Y. Liu; Kai Liu; P. L. Liu; Q. Liu; S. B. Liu; X. Liu; Y. B. Liu; Z. A. Liu; Zhiqiang Liu; Zhiqing Liu; H. Loehner; G. R. Lu; H. J. Lu; J. G. Lu; Q. W. Lu; X. R. Lu; Y. P. Lu; C. L. Luo; M. X. Luo; T. Luo; X. L. Luo; M. Lv; C. L. Ma; F. C. Ma; H. L. Ma; Q. M. Ma; S. Ma; T. Ma; X. Y. Ma; Y. Ma; F. E. Maas; M. Maggiora; Q. A. Malik; Y. J. Mao; Z. P. Mao; J. G. Messchendorp; J. Min; T. J. Min; R. E. Mitchell; X. H. Mo; C. Morales Morales; C. Motzko; N. Yu. Muchnoi; H. Muramatsu; Y. Nefedov; C. Nicholson; I. B. Nikolaev; Z. Ning; S. L. Olsen; Q. Ouyang; S. Pacetti; J. W. Park; M. Pelizaeus; H. P. Peng; K. Peters; J. L. Ping; R. G. Ping; R. Poling; E. Prencipe; M. Qi; S. Qian; C. F. Qiao; X. S. Qin; Y. Qin; Z. H. Qin; J. F. Qiu; K. H. Rashid; G. Rong; X. D. Ruan; A. Sarantsev; B. D. Schaefer; J. Schulze; M. Shao; C. P. Shen; X. Y. Shen; H. Y. Sheng; M. R. Shepherd; X. Y. Song; S. Spataro; B. Spruck; D. H. Sun; G. X. Sun; J. F. Sun; S. S. Sun; Y. J. Sun; Y. Z. Sun; Z. J. Sun; Z. T. Sun; C. J. Tang; X. Tang; I. Tapan; E. H. Thorndike; D. Toth; M. Ullrich; G. S. Varner; B. Wang; B. Q. Wang; D. Wang; D. Y. Wang; K. Wang; L. L. Wang; L. S. Wang; M. Wang; P. Wang; P. L. Wang; Q. Wang; Q. J. Wang; S. G. Wang; X. L. Wang; Y. D. Wang; Y. F. Wang; Y. Q. Wang; Z. Wang; Z. G. Wang; Z. Y. Wang; D. H. Wei; J. B. Wei; P. Weidenkaff; Q. G. Wen; S. P. Wen; M. Werner; U. Wiedner; L. H. Wu; N. Wu; S. X. Wu; W. Wu; Z. Wu; L. G. Xia; Z. J. Xiao; Y. G. Xie; Q. L. Xiu; G. F. Xu; G. M. Xu; H. Xu; Q. J. Xu; X. P. Xu; Z. R. Xu; F. Xue; Z. Xue; L. Yan; W. B. Yan; Y. H. Yan; H. X. Yang; Y. Yang; Y. X. Yang; H. Ye; M. Ye; M. H. Ye; B. X. Yu; C. X. Yu; H. W. Yu; J. S. Yu; S. P. Yu; C. Z. Yuan; Y. Yuan; A. A. Zafar; A. Zallo; Y. Zeng; B. X. Zhang; B. Y. Zhang; C. Zhang; C. C. Zhang; D. H. Zhang; H. H. Zhang; H. Y. Zhang; J. Q. Zhang; J. W. Zhang; J. Y. Zhang; J. Z. Zhang; S. H. Zhang; X. J. Zhang; X. Y. Zhang; Y. Zhang; Y. H. Zhang; Y. S. Zhang; Z. P. Zhang; Z. Y. Zhang; G. Zhao; H. S. Zhao; J. W. Zhao; K. X. Zhao; Lei Zhao; Ling Zhao; M. G. Zhao; Q. Zhao; Q. Z. Zhao; S. J. Zhao; T. C. Zhao; X. H. Zhao; Y. B. Zhao; Z. G. Zhao; A. Zhemchugov; B. Zheng; J. P. Zheng; Y. H. Zheng; B. Zhong; J. Zhong; Z. Zhong; L. Zhou; X. K. Zhou; X. R. Zhou; C. Zhu; K. Zhu; K. J. Zhu; S. H. Zhu; X. L. Zhu; Y. C. Zhu; Y. M. Zhu; Y. S. Zhu; Z. A. Zhu; J. Zhuang; B. S. Zou; J. H. Zou

    2012-12-19

    Using a data sample of $2.25\\times10^{8}$ $J/\\psi$ events collected with the BESIII detector, we present the first observation of the decays of $\\eta_{c}$ mesons to $\\Sigma^{+}\\bar{\\Sigma}^{-}$ and $\\Xi^{-}\\bar{\\Xi}^{+}$. The branching fractions are measured to be $(2.11\\pm0.28_{\\rm stat.}\\pm0.18_{\\rm syst.}\\pm0.50_{\\rm PDG})\\times10^{-3}$ and $(0.89\\pm0.16_{\\rm stat.}\\pm0.08_{\\rm syst.}\\pm0.21_{\\rm PDG})\\times10^{-3}$ for $\\eta_{c} \\to \\Sigma^{+}\\bar{\\Sigma}^{-}$ and $\\Xi^{-}\\bar{\\Xi}^{+}$, respectively. These branching fractions provide important information on the helicity selection rule in charmonium-decay processes.

  18. An RF dosimeter for independent SAR measurement in MRI scanners

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, Di; Bottomley, Paul A. [Division of MR Research, Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21287 and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States)] [Division of MR Research, Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21287 and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); El-Sharkawy, AbdEl-Monem M.; Edelstein, William A., E-mail: w.edelstein@gmail.com [Division of MR Research, Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21287 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: The monitoring and management of radio frequency (RF) exposure is critical for ensuring magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) safety. Commercial MRI scanners can overestimate specific absorption rates (SAR) and improperly restrict clinical MRI scans or the application of new MRI sequences, while underestimation of SAR can lead to tissue heating and thermal injury. Accurate scanner-independent RF dosimetry is essential for measuring actual exposure when SAR is critical for ensuring regulatory compliance and MRI safety, for establishing RF exposure while evaluating interventional leads and devices, and for routine MRI quality assessment by medical physicists. However, at present there are no scanner-independent SAR dosimeters. Methods: An SAR dosimeter with an RF transducer comprises two orthogonal, rectangular copper loops and a spherical MRI phantom. The transducer is placed in the magnet bore and calibrated to approximate the resistive loading of the scanner's whole-body birdcage RF coil for human subjects in Philips, GE and Siemens 3 tesla (3T) MRI scanners. The transducer loop reactances are adjusted to minimize interference with the transmit RF field (B{sub 1}) at the MRI frequency. Power from the RF transducer is sampled with a high dynamic range power monitor and recorded on a computer. The deposited power is calibrated and tested on eight different MRI scanners. Whole-body absorbed power vs weight and body mass index (BMI) is measured directly on 26 subjects. Results: A single linear calibration curve sufficed for RF dosimetry at 127.8 MHz on three different Philips and three GE 3T MRI scanners. An RF dosimeter operating at 123.2 MHz on two Siemens 3T scanners required a separate transducer and a slightly different calibration curve. Measurement accuracy was ?3%. With the torso landmarked at the xiphoid, human adult whole?body absorbed power varied approximately linearly with patient weight and BMI. This indicates that whole-body torso SAR is on average independent of the imaging subject, albeit with fluctuations. Conclusions: Our 3T RF dosimeter and transducers accurately measure RF exposure in body-equivalent loads and provide scanner-independent assessments of whole-body RF power deposition for establishing safety compliance useful for MRI sequence and device testing.

  19. Compact Handheld Fringe Projection Based Underwater 3D-SCANNER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bräuer-Burchardt, C.; Heinze, M.; Schmidt, I.; Kühmstedt, P.; Notni, G.

    2015-04-01

    A new, fringe projection based compact handheld 3D scanner for the surface reconstruction of measurement objects under water is introduced. The weight of the scanner is about 10 kg and can be used in a water depth of maximal 40 metres. A measurement field of about 250 mm x 200 mm is covered under water, and the lateral resolution of the measured object points is about 150 ?m. Larger measurement objects can be digitized in a unique geometric model by merging subsequently recorded datasets. The recording time for one 3D scan is a third of a second. The projection unit for the structured illumination of the scene as well as the computer for device control and measurement data analysis are included into the scanners housing. A display on the backside of the device realizes the graphical presentation of the current measurement data. It allows the user to evaluate the quality of the measurement result in real-time already during the recording of the measurement under water. For the calibration of the underwater scanner a combined method of air- and water-calibration was developed which needs only a few recorded underwater images of a plane surface and an object with known lengths. First measurement results obtained with the new scanner are presented.

  20. Simulation of ultrasonic lamb wave generation, propagation and detection for a reconfigurable air coupled scanner.

    PubMed

    Dobie, Gordon; Spencer, Andrew; Burnham, Kenneth; Pierce, S Gareth; Worden, Keith; Galbraith, Walter; Hayward, Gordon

    2011-04-01

    A computer simulator, to facilitate the design and assessment of a reconfigurable, air-coupled ultrasonic scanner is described and evaluated. The specific scanning system comprises a team of remote sensing agents, in the form of miniature robotic platforms that can reposition non-contact Lamb wave transducers over a plate type of structure, for the purpose of non-destructive evaluation (NDE). The overall objective is to implement reconfigurable array scanning, where transmission and reception are facilitated by different sensing agents which can be organised in a variety of pulse-echo and pitch-catch configurations, with guided waves used to generate data in the form of 2-D and 3-D images. The ability to reconfigure the scanner adaptively requires an understanding of the ultrasonic wave generation, its propagation and interaction with potential defects and boundaries. Transducer behaviour has been simulated using a linear systems approximation, with wave propagation in the structure modelled using the local interaction simulation approach (LISA). Integration of the linear systems and LISA approaches are validated for use in Lamb wave scanning by comparison with both analytic techniques and more computationally intensive commercial finite element/difference codes. Starting with fundamental dispersion data, the paper goes on to describe the simulation of wave propagation and the subsequent interaction with artificial defects and plate boundaries, before presenting a theoretical image obtained from a team of sensing agents based on the current generation of sensors and instrumentation. PMID:21094966

  1. High brightness laser diode bars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norbert Lichtenstein; Yvonne Manz; Jürgen Müller; Jörg Troger; Susanne Pawlik; Achim Thies; Stefan Weiss; Rainer Baettig; Christoph Harder

    2006-01-01

    Based on the most recent generation of Bookham's laser diode bars in the 9xx nm wavelength range which are able to deliver in excess of 250 W of output power from 50% filling factor 2.4 mm cavity length design, we have developed low 20% fill-factor bar devices for high brightness applications. Close to 200 W of output power has been

  2. In-line digital holographic microscopy using a consumer scanner

    PubMed Central

    Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Yamanashi, Hiroya; Kakue, Takashi; Oikawa, Minoru; Okada, Naohisa; Endo, Yutaka; Hirayama, Ryuji; Masuda, Nobuyuki; Ito, Tomoyoshi

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate an in-line digital holographic microscopy using a consumer scanner. The consumer scanner can scan an image with 4,800?dpi. The pixel pitch is approximately 5.29??m. The system using a consumer scanner has a simple structure, compared with synthetic aperture digital holography using a camera mounted on a two-dimensional moving stage. In this demonstration, we captured an in-line hologram with 23, 602 × 18, 023 pixels (?0.43 gigapixels). The physical size of the scanned hologram is approximately 124?mm × 95?mm. In addition, to accelerate the reconstruction time of the gigapixel hologram and decrease the amount of memory for the reconstruction, we applied the band-limited double-step Fresnel diffraction to the reconstruction. PMID:24036588

  3. Galileo Attitude Determination: Experiences with a Rotating Star Scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merken, L.; Singh, G.

    1991-01-01

    The Galileo experience with a rotating star scanner is discussed in terms of problems encountered in flight, solutions implemented, and lessons learned. An overview of the Galileo project and the attitude and articulation control subsystem is given and the star scanner hardware and relevant software algorithms are detailed. The star scanner is the sole source of inertial attitude reference for this spacecraft. Problem symptoms observed in flight are discussed in terms of effects on spacecraft performance and safety. Sources of thse problems include contributions from flight software idiosyncrasies and inadequate validation of the ground procedures used to identify target stars for use by the autonomous on-board star identification algorithm. Problem fixes (some already implemented and some only proposed) are discussed. A general conclusion is drawn regarding the inherent difficulty of performing simulation tests to validate algorithms which are highly sensitive to external inputs of statistically 'rare' events.

  4. Magellan in-flight gyro/star scanner misalignment calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boone, Jack N.

    1991-01-01

    Techniques are described for the in-flight calibration of gyro/star scanner misalignments for the Magellan spacecraft. The poor observability of one of the six components of misalignment is discussed in the context of a simple least-squares estimation model. The assumptions that lead to singularity in the information matrix are explicitly stated and it is shown that the singularity persists for all scanner slit configurations using only two slits, regardless of slit geometry or separation. A set of misalignment error state variables, a configuration of three stars, and a maneuver/scan sequence is described which yields a well-conditioned information matrix for least-squares estimation of five of the six misalignments. Finally, it is shown by convariance simulation that ground-based optimal estimation can satisfactorily resolve all six components of the misalignment error when more than two star scanner slits are used.

  5. Design and performance of HEAD PENN-PET scanner

    SciTech Connect

    Freifelder, R.; Karp, J.S. (Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Radiology); Geagan, M.; Muehllehner, G. (UGM Medical Systems Inc., Philadelphia, PA (United States))

    1994-08-01

    A new PET scanner for brain imaging (and animals) has been designed with very high sensitivity and spatial resolution. The design is an evolution of the PENN-PET scanner, which uses large position-sensitive NaI(Tl) detectors, with Anger-type positioning logic, and which allows 3-D volume imaging, without septa. The new design is built with a single annular crystal coupled to 180 photomultiplier tubes, and uses local triggering electronics to subdivide the detector into small zones and to determine coincident events within the detector. The axial acceptance angle of [+-] 27 deg, with a field-of-view of 25.6 cm, is larger than any currently operating PET scanner. Performance measurements are presented.

  6. MEMS scanner based swept source laser for optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Totsuka, Kouki; Isamoto, Keiji; Sakai, Tooru; Morosawa, Atsushi; Chong, Changho

    2010-02-01

    We developed a swept source laser using a micro electro mechanical systems(MEMS) scanner mirror, and demonstrated optical coherence tomography. To enable both the wide tuning wavelength range and high scanning frequency, we introduced 2-degree-of-freedom(2-DOF) MEMS scanner mirror. A tunable optical filter is composed of a MEMS scanner mirror and a diffraction grating which is arranged in Littrow configuration. We built a swept source laser which has a wavelength range of 143 nm, center wavelength of 1304 nm, and a peak power of 16 mW. OCT measurements are performed at a rate of 17.9 kHz and doubled 35.9 kHz at unidirectional and bidirectional sweeps, respectively. The system sensitivity is 101.5 dB.

  7. The impact of scanner model vectorization on optical proximity correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyminski, Jacek K.; Nakashima, Tashiharu; Zhang, Qiaolin; Matsuyama, Tomoyuki; Lucas, Kevin

    2007-05-01

    Low pass filtering taking place in the projection tools used by IC industry leads to a range of optical proximity effects resulting in undesired IC characteristics. To correct these predicable OPEs, EDA industry developed various, model-based correction methodologies. Of course, the success of this mission is strongly dependent on how complete the imaging models are. To represent the image formation and to capture the OPEs, the EDA community adopted various models based on simplified representations of the projection tools. Resulting optical proximity correction models are capable of correcting OPEs driven by the fundamental imaging conditions such as wavelength, illuminator layout, reticle technology, and lens numerical aperture, to name a few. It is well known in the photolithography community that OPEs are dependent on the scanner characteristics. Therefore, to reach the level of accuracy required by the leading edge IC designs, photolithography simulation has to include systematic scanner fingerprint data. These tool fingerprints capture excursions of the imaging tools from the ideal imaging setup conditions. They quantify the performance of key projection tool components such as illuminator and lens signatures. To address the imaging accuracy requirements, the scanner engineering and the EDA communities developed OPC models capable of correcting for imaging tools engineering attributes captured by the imaging tools fingerprints. Deployment of immersion imaging systems has presented the photolithography community with new opportunities and challenges. These advanced scanners, designed to image in deep sub-wavelength regime, incorporate features invoking the optical phenomena previously unexplored in commercial scanners. Most notably, the state of the art scanners incorporate illuminators with high degree of polarization control and projection lenses with hyper-NAs. The image formation in these advanced projectors exploits a wide range of vectorial interactions originating at the illuminator, on the pattern mask, in the projection lens and at the wafer. The presence of these, previously subdued phenomena requires that the imaging simulation methodologies be refined, increasing the complexity of the OPE models and optical proximity correction methodologies.

  8. The feasibility of a scanner-independent technique to estimate organ dose from MDCT scans: Using CTDIvol to account for differences between scanners

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Adam C.; Zankl, Maria; DeMarco, John J.; Cagnon, Chris H.; Zhang, Di; Angel, Erin; Cody, Dianna D.; Stevens, Donna M.; McCollough, Cynthia H.; McNitt-Gray, Michael F.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Monte Carlo radiation transport techniques have made it possible to accurately estimate the radiation dose to radiosensitive organs in patient models from scans performed with modern multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT) scanners. However, there is considerable variation in organ doses across scanners, even when similar acquisition conditions are used. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of a technique to estimate organ doses that would be scanner independent. This was accomplished by assessing the ability of CTDIvol measurements to account for differences in MDCT scanners that lead to organ dose differences. Methods: Monte Carlo simulations of 64-slice MDCT scanners from each of the four major manufacturers were performed. An adult female patient model from the GSF family of voxelized phantoms was used in which all ICRP Publication 103 radiosensitive organs were identified. A 120 kVp, full-body helical scan with a pitch of 1 was simulated for each scanner using similar scan protocols across scanners. From each simulated scan, the radiation dose to each organ was obtained on a per mA?s basis (mGy?mA?s). In addition, CTDIvol values were obtained from each scanner for the selected scan parameters. Then, to demonstrate the feasibility of generating organ dose estimates from scanner-independent coefficients, the simulated organ dose values resulting from each scanner were normalized by the CTDIvol value for those acquisition conditions. Results: CTDIvol values across scanners showed considerable variation as the coefficient of variation (CoV) across scanners was 34.1%. The simulated patient scans also demonstrated considerable differences in organ dose values, which varied by up to a factor of approximately 2 between some of the scanners. The CoV across scanners for the simulated organ doses ranged from 26.7% (for the adrenals) to 37.7% (for the thyroid), with a mean CoV of 31.5% across all organs. However, when organ doses are normalized by CTDIvol values, the differences across scanners become very small. For the CTDIvol, normalized dose values the CoVs across scanners for different organs ranged from a minimum of 2.4% (for skin tissue) to a maximum of 8.5% (for the adrenals) with a mean of 5.2%. Conclusions: This work has revealed that there is considerable variation among modern MDCT scanners in both CTDIvol and organ dose values. Because these variations are similar, CTDIvol can be used as a normalization factor with excellent results. This demonstrates the feasibility of establishing scanner-independent organ dose estimates by using CTDIvol to account for the differences between scanners. PMID:20443504

  9. Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanner instrument anomaly investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, N. D.; Miller, J. B.; Taylor, L. V.; Lovell, J. B.; Cox, J. W.; Fedors, J. C.; Kopia, L. P.; Holloway, R. M.; Bradley, O. H.

    1985-01-01

    The results of an ad-hoc committee investigation of in-Earth orbit operational anomalies noted on two identical Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) Scanner instruments on two different spacecraft busses is presented. The anomalies are attributed to the bearings and the lubrication scheme for the bearings. A detailed discussion of the pertinent instrument operations, the approach of the investigation team and the current status of the instruments now in Earth orbit is included. The team considered operational changes for these instruments, rework possibilities for the one instrument which is waiting to be launched, and preferable lubrication considerations for specific space operational requirements similar to those for the ERBE scanner bearings.

  10. Multispectral data compression through transform coding and block quantization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ready, P. J.; Wintz, P. A.

    1972-01-01

    Transform coding and block quantization techniques are applied to multispectral aircraft scanner data, and digitized satellite imagery. The multispectral source is defined and an appropriate mathematical model proposed. The Karhunen-Loeve, Fourier, and Hadamard encoders are considered and are compared to the rate distortion function for the equivalent Gaussian source and to the performance of the single sample PCM encoder.

  11. Low energy {bar p} physics at FNAL

    SciTech Connect

    Hsueh, S.Y.

    1992-12-01

    The charmonium formation experiment is the only low energy {bar p} experiment at FNAL. This paper describes the performance of the Fermilab {bar p} Accumulator during fixed target run for the experiment and the planned upgrades. We also discuss the proposal for the direct CP violation search in {bar p} + p {yields} {bar {Lambda}} + {Lambda} {yields} {bar p}{pi}{sup +} + p{pi}{sup {minus}}.

  12. Design and experimental investigations of a two-dimensional laser scanner based on piezoelectric actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei; Chen, Sihai; Luo, Dong

    2015-02-01

    A compact two-dimensional laser scanner based on piezoelectric actuators is presented. The scanner consists of two single-axis laser scanners placed perpendicular to each other, which exhibit the advantages of small size, large angle, high scanning speed, and high linearity. The mechanical structure and principle of the scanner are introduced and the performance of the scanner is experimentally investigated. The result shows that the maximum angle of the scanner is approximately 9.315 deg with a main resonant frequency of 1242 Hz. An open-loop controller based on a hysteresis compensation algorithm and analog notch filter is proposed. Its nonlinearity is reduced to ±0.5% after compensation. High frequency scanning and the step response of the scanner are also studied to demonstrate the performance and effectiveness of the scanner.

  13. A COST EFFECTIVE MULTI-SPECTRAL SCANNER FOR NATURAL GAS DETECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Yudaya Sivathanu; Jongmook Lim; Vinoo Narayanan

    2004-10-25

    The objective of this project is to design, fabricate and field demonstrate a cost effective, multi-spectral scanner for natural gas leak detection in transmission and distribution pipelines. During the first year of the project, a laboratory version of the multi-spectral scanner was designed, fabricated, and tested at En'Urga Inc. The multi-spectral scanner was also evaluated using a blind DoE study at RMOTC. The performance of the scanner was inconsistent during the blind DoE study. However, most of the leaks were outside the view of the multi-spectral scanner. Therefore, a definite evaluation of the capability of the scanner was not obtained. Despite the results, sufficient number of plumes was detected fully confirming the feasibility of the multi-spectral scanner. During the second year, a rugged prototype scanner will be developed and evaluated, both at En'Urga Inc. and any potential field sites.

  14. Dual-surface dielectric depth detector for holographic millimeter-wave security scanners

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas L. McMakin; Paul E. Keller; David M. Sheen; Thomas E. Hall

    2009-01-01

    The Transportation Security Administration (TSA) is presently deploying millimeter-wave whole body scanners at over 20 airports in the United States. Threats that may be concealed on a person are displayed to the security operator of this scanner. \\

  15. Computed Tomography with an X-Ray Transmission Pencil Beam Scanner

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George X. Kambic; Robert H. Wake

    1977-01-01

    The pencil beam x-ray transmission computed tomographic (CT) scanner was the first type of scanner to be applied to radiologic medicine. It utilizes a rotate and traverse scanning mechanism. The scanner provides 2 dimensional images of a cross-section of the human body and relates an arbitrary CT number scale to the linear x-ray attenuation coefficient. The scanner can discriminate small

  16. 21 CFR 610.67 - Bar code label requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...regulated by the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research or to blood and blood components intended for transfusion. For blood and blood components intended for transfusion, the requirements at § 606.121(c)(13) of this chapter apply...

  17. 21 CFR 610.67 - Bar code label requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...regulated by the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research or to blood and blood components intended for transfusion. For blood and blood components intended for transfusion, the requirements at § 606.121(c)(13) of this chapter apply...

  18. 21 CFR 610.67 - Bar code label requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...regulated by the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research or to blood and blood components intended for transfusion. For blood and blood components intended for transfusion, the requirements at § 606.121(c)(13) of this chapter apply...

  19. Automated bar coding of air samples at Hanford (ABCASH)

    SciTech Connect

    Troyer, G.L.; Brayton, D.D.; McNeece, S.G.

    1992-10-01

    This article describes the basis, main features and benefits of an automated system for tracking and reporting radioactive air particulate samples. The system was developed due to recognized need for improving the quality and integrity of air sample data related to personnel and environmental protection. The data capture, storage, and retrieval of air sample data are described. The automation aspect of the associated and data input eliminates a large potential for human error. The system utilizes personal computers, handheld computers, a commercial personal computer database package, commercial programming languages, and complete documentation to satisfy the system`s automation objective.

  20. Automated bar coding of air samples at Hanford (ABCASH)

    SciTech Connect

    Troyer, G.L.; Brayton, D.D.; McNeece, S.G.

    1992-10-01

    This article describes the basis, main features and benefits of an automated system for tracking and reporting radioactive air particulate samples. The system was developed due to recognized need for improving the quality and integrity of air sample data related to personnel and environmental protection. The data capture, storage, and retrieval of air sample data are described. The automation aspect of the associated and data input eliminates a large potential for human error. The system utilizes personal computers, handheld computers, a commercial personal computer database package, commercial programming languages, and complete documentation to satisfy the system's automation objective.

  1. Housing for an ionization detector array in a tomographic scanner

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. D. Peerenboom; K. L. Sypal

    1984-01-01

    An improved housing construction for electrical apparatus is disclosed, the housing having particular utility as a housing suitable for an ionization detector array of a tomographic X-ray scanner. The housing comprises at least two mating sections which, upon assembly and juxtaposition one to another, form a closed interior chamber adapted to receive the detector array, or other electrical apparatus. A

  2. First Test Results of the New LANSCE Wire Scanner

    SciTech Connect

    Sedillo, James Daniel [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-01

    The Beam Diagnostics and Instrumentation Team (BDIT) at Los Alamos National Laboratory's LANSCE facility is presently developing a new and improved wire scanner diagnostics system controlled by National Instrument's cRIO platform. This paper describes the current state of development of the control system along with the results gathered from the latest actuator motion performance and accelerator-beam data acquisition tests.

  3. Advanced scanners and imaging systems for earth observations. [conferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Assessments of present and future sensors and sensor related technology are reported along with a description of user needs and applications. Five areas are outlined: (1) electromechanical scanners, (2) self-scanned solid state sensors, (3) electron beam imagers, (4) sensor related technology, and (5) user applications. Recommendations, charts, system designs, technical approaches, and bibliographies are included for each area.

  4. Reconstruction of Building Ground Plans from Laser Scanner Data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monika Sester; Hauke Neidhart

    2008-01-01

    Laser scanner data are a powerful data source for acquisition and update of high resolution topographic information. Current airborne laser scanning systems are able to acquire densities of up to 40 points per square meter. With this information topographic objects like buildings, trees, electricity lines, and the relief can be determined. The main problem is the classification and identification of

  5. Difficulties on Tree Volume Measurement from a Ground Laser Scanner

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Palacin; T. Pallejal; M. Tresanchez; M. Teixidol; R. Sanz; J. Llorens; J. Arno; J. R. Rosell

    2008-01-01

    The optimization of most pesticide and fertilizer applications is based on overall grove conditions. To this end, a ground laser scanner can be used to estimate the volume of the trees and then extrapolate their foliage surface to control the application dose. In this work we summarize the difficulties involved in this volume measurement. Tests with pear trees demonstrated that

  6. X- and ?-rays computerized minitomograph scanner for soil science

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PAULO ESTEVAO CRUVINEL; ROBERTO CESAREO; SILVIO CRESTANA; SERGIO MASCARENHAS

    1990-01-01

    A computerized tomograph scanner system that uses X- and ?-rays for applications in soil science is described. Use of the apparatus in measuring volumetric water content to an accuracy of ±3% and soil bulk density to ±2% (in grams per cubic centimeters) is discussed. The system features translation and rotation scanning modes, a 200-mm effective field of view, signal processing

  7. Data channel multiplexing system for ct scanner with rotating source

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. R. Mcbride; R. H. McCarthy; R. H. Wake

    1980-01-01

    A ct scanner has an outer circular array of stationary radiation detectors for an inner concentrically revolving source of radiation emitted in a fan pattern subtending a number of the detectors. A number of analog signal processing channels equal to the maximum number of subtended detectors at any given time is automatically connected via switching circuitry to receive the outputs

  8. Eccentric source collimator assembly for rotating source ct scanner

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. B. Braden; J. Covic; J. J. Kuwik; J. B. Richey; S. K. Taylor

    1981-01-01

    Disclosed is a collimator for a tomographic scanner which performs the collimator function of dividing a fan of radiation into a multiplicity of finger beams and the attenuator function of causing a generally bell-shaped radiation energy distribution across a scan circle. The collimator has larger effective apertures for forming radiation into finger beams to traverse the center of the scan

  9. Applications of a MEMS scanner to profile measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshizawa, Toru; Wakayama, Toshitaka; Takano, Hiroshi

    2007-09-01

    We propose a compact measurement system for surface profilometry using a MEMS scanner. Beam from a LD is scanned by a miniaturized MEMS mirror with the size of 4mm×3mm (or 6mm×7mm) produces an optically sectioned line profile of a sample. Hence, if we scan the beam vertically and horizontally by this two-dimensional type of MEMS scanner, the optical sections of the sample object are formed, and the scanned result can be caught by a CCD camera and stored to be analyzed by a PC. The feature of this MEMS scanner is in that the mirror is magnetically driven at the resonant frequency. Therefore, due to resonance effect, even this small mirror brings a large scanning angle, high-speed scanning, low noise and low power consumption. The miniaturized light-weight design is also applied to realize the compact measurement system. The principle for measurement known as "triangulation" is very simple, but high accuracy is expected thanks to the recent development of sub-pixel technique. At this point of time, we are fabricating a proto-type equipment for the experimental use and, in near future, we will try to attain a compact three-dimensional measurement system using this scanner and a small bright LED light source.

  10. 21. View from south to southerly face of scanner building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. View from south to southerly face of scanner building 104 showing building radius. Radius of building face matches radius of DR antenna systems. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  11. Preliminary hyperspectral volcano observations using Airborne Radiative Spectral Scanner (ARTS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Jitsufuchi

    2008-01-01

    Airborne-imaging spectral systems can often efficiently identify volcanic phenomena that are difficult to detect by satellite imagery. Since 1990, the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED) has been developing our original airborne-imaging spectral systems for volcano observations. In 2006, we developed a new airborne hyperspectral sensor, the Airborne Radiative Transfer Spectral Scanner (ARTS), for hyperspectral volcano

  12. Slow wire scanner beam profile measurement for LEDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Hara, J. F.; Gilpatrick, J. D.; Day, L. A.; Kamperschroer, J. H.; Madsen, D. W.

    2000-11-01

    The Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA), located at Los Alamos National Laboratory, utilizes a slow wire scanner to measure beam profiles. The beam energy is 6.7 MeV and the peak current is 100 mA. This wire scanner profile measurement is located in the High Energy Beam Transport (HEBT) section of the LEDA beam line. This section of beam line is used to expand the proton beam coming out of the LEDA Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) prior to impacting the beam-stop. The purpose of the scanner is to provide horizontal and vertical beam profiles. The wires or fibers are a Silicon Carbide (SiC) material, and are attached to an actuator driven by a stepping motor. The actuator drives the fibers through the beam in incremental steps. At each step, the amount of secondary electrons generated by the interactions of the proton beam and the wire are measured. From these incremental measurements the beam profile is constructed. This paper will discuss the operation of the scanner, two of the experiments conducted to understand the capability of the SiC wire to survive and some of the different uses of the beam profile data acquired during the ongoing commissioning of LEDA.

  13. Cloud screening Coastal Zone Color Scanner images using channel 5

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. A. Eckstein; J. J. Simpson

    1991-01-01

    Clouds are removed from Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) data using channel 5. Instrumentation problems require pre-processing of channel 5 before an intelligent cloud-screening algorithm can be used. For example, at intervals of about 16 lines, the sensor records anomalously low radiances. Moreover, the calibration equation yields negative radiances when the sensor records zero counts, and pixels corrupted by electronic

  14. Toward a Flexible and Portable CT Scanner Jeff Orchard1

    E-print Network

    Orchard, Jeffery J.

    the possibility of minia- ture x-ray sources. Experiments by Zhang et al. [1,8] have produced x-ray images from Engineering, University of Waterloo, Canada Abstract. The very hot and power-hungry x-ray filaments in today scanner that could be deployed at the scene of a car accident to acquire tomographic images before mov

  15. Laser excited confocal microscope fluorescence scanner and method

    DOEpatents

    Mathies, Richard A. (Contra Costa, CA); Peck, Konan (Contra Costa, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A fluorescent scanner for scanning the fluorescence from a fluorescence labeled separated sample on a sample carrier including a confocal microscope for illuminating a predetermined volume of the sample carrier and/or receiving and processing fluorescence emissions from said volume to provide a display of the separated sample.

  16. A Security Analysis of RF Biometric Fingerprint Scanners

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kit Mun Chan; Ana Pop; Shadi Safarkhah; Gurpreet Virdi

    The security policy of RF biometric scanners is concerned with origin integrity. To achieve this, there are three layers of security that a user must pass through: the scanning layer, the processing layer and the storing layer. At the scanning layer, the biometric tool can be fooled by an attacker using a gummy finger - a fake mold of a

  17. “ANIPET” a versatile PET scanner for imaging small animals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. J. Thompson; P. Sciascia; K. Murthy; S. Kecani; I. Nikkinen; E. Del Campo; J.-F. Corbett; Y. Bercier; M. Diksic; P. Cumming

    1998-01-01

    The authors are presently constructing “ANIPET”, a new high spatial resolution PET scanner for imaging small animals. This instrument will be used to investigate new tracers and as a substitute for autoradiography. The instrument uses two pixellated BGO crystal arrays coupled to position-sensitive PMTs. Animals can be imaged in two modes. One is similar to a “whole-body” PET scan in

  18. Trochlear surface reconstruction and evaluation based on laser scanner acquisition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Synave; C. Couture-Veschambre

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the accuracy, reproducibility and validation of linear measurements on digital reconstruction of the trochlear articular surface. Surface reconstruction is produced by a laser scanner acquisition pipeline that preserves rough data. Arc and chord measurements between chosen landmarks on physical specimens are simulated by geodesic path length evaluation on the corresponding digital models.

  19. Liquid-explosives scanners stand trial in airports

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, Jermey N. A.

    2010-07-15

    Air passengers may once more be allowed to pack beverages, lotions, and hair spray in their carry-on luggage, if imaging technologies to detect liquid explosives can prove their worth. Several competing systems, including multi-energy x-ray systems and a low-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner, are undergoing field tests at some airports worldwide.

  20. COMPUTER PROCESSING OF MULTISPECTRAL SCANNER DATA OVER COAL STRIP MINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is little doubt that remote sensing techniques can be effectively applied to the task of monitoring coal strip mine progress and reclamation work. Aircraft multispectral scanner data acquired over six coal strip mines in the states of Wyoming, Montana, Colorado, and Arizona...

  1. RECONSTRUCTING TREE CROWNS FROM LASER SCANNER DATA FOR FEATURE EXTRACTION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. Pyysalo; H. Hyyppä

    The objective of this study was to carry out reconstruction of single tree crowns from laser scanner data to use the obtained vector model for feature extraction. The reconstruction was implemented in several stages. First, pulses which have reflected from each tree were marked off from the original point cloud. Ground points were then separated from all points using digital

  2. Identifying species of individual trees using airborne laser scanner

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johan Holmgren; Åsa Persson

    2004-01-01

    Individual trees can be detected using high-density airborne laser scanner data. Also, variables characterizing the detected trees such as tree height, crown area, and crown base height can be measured. The Scandinavian boreal forest mainly consists of Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), and deciduous trees. It is possible to separate coniferous from deciduous trees

  3. Millimetre -Wave Personnel Scanners for Automated Weapon Detection

    E-print Network

    Harvey, Andy

    Millimetre -Wave Personnel Scanners for Automated Weapon Detection Beatriz Grafulla-Gonz´alez1 of realistic millimetre-wave images and a sys- tem for detecting metallic weapons automatically. The latter of weapons concealed under clothes. Existing MMW simulation packages, e.g., PMWCM or Speos, are not designed

  4. Development of a simultaneous PET\\/MRI scanner

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Schlyer; W. Rooney; C. Woody; P. Vaska; A. Kriplani; S. Stoll

    2004-01-01

    A combined magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) scanner would be a great benefit to nuclear medicine. The anatomical detail given by MRI and spectroscopy available with magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) complement the quantitative physiological imaging obtained with PET. Such a device has not become a reality because of the incompatibilities of photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) and their

  5. Scanner Data, Time Aggregation and the Construction of Price Indexes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erwin Diewert; Kevin J. Fox; Lorraine Ivancic

    2009-01-01

    The impact of weekly, monthly and quarterly time aggregation on estimates of price change is examined for nineteen different supermarket item categories over a fifteen month period using scanner data. We find that time aggregation choices (the choice of a weekly, monthly or quarterly unit value concept for prices) have a considerable impact on estimates of price change. When chained

  6. Aerial thermal scanner data for monitoring rooftop temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjorkland, J.; Schmer, F. A.; Isakson, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    Four Nebraska communities and one South Dakota community were surveyed. Thermal scanner data were converted to a film format and the resultant imagery was successfully employed to monitor rooftop temperatures. The program places emphasis on heat losses resulting from inadequate home insulation, offers CENGAS customers the opportunity to observe a thermogram of their rooftop, and assists homeowners in evaluating insulation needs.

  7. Restoration of images from an airborne unstabilized hyperspectral line scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Power, Gregory J.; Rathbun, Thomas F.; Worrell, Steven W.

    1999-07-01

    An airborne hyperspectral line scanner is used to image the ground as the aircraft moves on a single trajectory. In reality, it may be difficult for the aircraft to maintain a perfectly steady course causing distortions in the imagery. So, special subsystems including stabilizers are used to maintain the hyperspectral line scanner on the proper course. If the subsystems of an airborne hyperspectral line scanner are malfunctioning or if the proper stabilizers are not available, then a technique is needed to restore the imagery. It no stabilizers are used on the airborne line scanner, but if aircraft navigation information is available including yaw, pitch and roll, then the restoration may be automated. However, if the stabilizers are malfunctioning or if the navigation information is corrupted or unavailable, then a technique is needed to restore the imagery. This paper introduces an automated technique for restoring hyperspectral images that was used on some images obtained for the Dynamic Data Base program sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. The automated approach is based on image flow vectors obtained from the unstable image. The approach is introduced along with results that demonstrate how successful the restoration is at the feature level.

  8. LANSCE wire scanner AFE: analysis, design, and fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Gruchalla, Mike [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chacon, Phillip [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gilpatrick, John D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Derwin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Power, John F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Smith, Brian [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the design LANSCE-R Wire-Scanner Analog Front-end Electronics is to develop a high-performance, dual-axis wire-scanner analog front-end system implemented in a single cRIO module. This new design accommodates macropulse widths as wide as 700 {mu}s at a maximum pulse rate of 120Hz. A lossey integrator is utilized as the integration element to eliminate the requirement for providing gating signals to each wire scanner. The long macropulse and the high repetition rate present conflicting requirements for the design of the integrator. The long macropulse requires a long integration time constant to assure minimum integrator droop for accurate charge integration, and the high repetition rate requires a short time constant to assure adequate integrator reset between macropulses. Also, grounding is a serious concern due to the small signal levels. This paper reviews the basic Wire Scanner AFE system design implemented in the cRIO-module form factor to capture the charge information from the wire sensors and the grounding topology to assure minimum noise contamination of the wire signals.

  9. Mineralogic information from a new airborne thermal infrared multispectral scanner.

    PubMed

    Kahle, A B; Goetz, A F

    1983-10-01

    A new six-channel aircraft multispectral scanner has been developed to exploit mineral signature information at wavelengths between 8 and 12 micrometers. Preliminary results show that igneous rock units can be identified from their free silica content, and that carbonate as well as clay-bearing units are readily separable on the digitally processed images. PMID:17810071

  10. Extraction of features from 3D laser scanner cloud data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vincent H. Chan; Colin Bradley; Geoffrey W. Vickers

    1997-01-01

    One of the road blocks on the path of automated reverse engineering has been the extraction of useful data from the copious range data generated from 3-D laser scanning systems. A method to extract the relevant features of a scanned object is presented. A 3-D laser scanner is automatically directed to obtain discrete laser cloud data on each separate patch

  11. 3D Laser Scanner for Tele-exploration Robotic Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kai Pervolz; Hartmut Surmann; Stefan May

    Much work has been done on the development of sophisticated sensors for mobile robotics but in the field of tele-exploration simple camera based systems are dominating. Therefore we developed a continuous rotating 3D laser scanner with a camera which fits the requirements of this field very well. Due to its design concept it is easy to integrate on many mobile

  12. Vision Aided 3D Laser Scanner Based Registration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henrik Andreasson; Achim Lilienthal

    Abstract— This paper describes a vision and 3D laser based registration approach which utilizes visual features to identify correspondences. Visual features are obtained from the images of a standard color camera and the depth of these features is deter- mined by interpolating between the scanning points of a 3D laser range scanner, taking into consideration the visual information in the

  13. Processing laser scanner plant data to extract structural information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jim Hanan; Birgit Loch; Tim McAleer

    Plant architecture information has traditionally used the hierarchical structure of the plant as its basis, with digitised point data from real plants entered in a particular hierarchical pattern. Data collection and classification have thus been inseparable. The advent of laser profile scanners, such as the Polhemus FastSCAN, means that 3D plant data can be captured holistically. The data acquired from

  14. Restoration of images degraded by input scanner vibrations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George Wolberg; Robert P. Loce

    1995-01-01

    Images scanned in the presence of mechanical vibrations are subject to artifacts such as brightness fluctuation and geometric warping. The goal of this work is to develop an algorithm to invert these distortions and produce an output digital image consistent with a scanner operating under ideal uniform motion conditions. The image restoration algorithm described in this paper applies to typical

  15. Calibration of the thermal band of the Landsat Multispectral Scanner

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Lansing Jr.; R. J. Thompson

    1978-01-01

    Landsat-3 carries the first Multispectral Scanner (MSS) to include sensing of a fifth spectral band for the thermal emission of the earth scene in addition to the first four bands, which sense reflected solar irradiance. Unique design features of this band are described: a thermal reference level provided by the detector viewing its cold surroundings in a mirror, and an

  16. 6.1. LASER SCANNER 73 Laser Video

    E-print Network

    Mellor, J.P.

    ­6: Model of patient's brain aligned with patient (valid only for the scanner). Figure 6­7: Model of a skull. #12; 74 CHAPTER 6. INITIAL CALIBRATION Top view Side view End view Figure 6­8: Laser data from skull. Figure 6­9: Video of skull being scanned. #12; 6.2. CALIBRATION ROUTINE 75 Figure 6­10: Laser data

  17. Development of 157-nm full-field scanners

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hideo Hata; Hideki Nogawa; Shigeyuki Suda

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the technical progress to date in 157 nm full field scanners, which are in the process of final tuning. The high NA projection optics was designed to meet accelerating demands for smaller geometries. A catadioptric system with a line-selected laser was chosen to solve the problem of chromatic aberrations. Wavefront aberration of the catadioptric system was measured

  18. Novel scanner characterization method for color measurement and diagnostics applications

    E-print Network

    Sharma, Gaurav

    of 3-D scanner characterizations is derived, one for each level of K. Each characterization maps that the 4-D characterization technique can significantly outperform standard 3-D approaches especially that a typical printed medium comprises the three basic colorants C, M, Y. The proposed method is particularly

  19. Phosphor Scanner For Imaging X-Ray Diffraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Daniel C.; Hecht, Diana L.; Witherow, William K.

    1992-01-01

    Improved optoelectronic scanning apparatus generates digitized image of x-ray image recorded in phosphor. Scanning fiber-optic probe supplies laser light stimulating luminescence in areas of phosphor exposed to x rays. Luminescence passes through probe and fiber to integrating sphere and photomultiplier. Sensitivity and resolution exceed previously available scanners. Intended for use in x-ray crystallography, medical radiography, and molecular biology.

  20. Non-contact velocity compensation system for handheld scanners

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nikos Asimopoulos; Morton Nadler

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we present a method for compensating for variations in the scanning speed of hand-held scanners that does not require physical contact between the scanning device and the scanned surface. In existing scanning devices the scanning linear array is placed parallel to the paper width (main scan direction) and moves perpendicularly to its axis (sub-scan direction). The speed

  1. Convenient integrating sphere scanner for accurate luminous flux measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Winter; M. Lindemann; W. Jordan; U. Binder; M. Anokhin

    2009-01-01

    Measurement results and applications of a recently developed device for the measurement of the spatial uniformity of integrating spheres are presented. Due to the complexity of their implementation, sphere scanners are mainly used by national metrology institutes to increase the accuracy of relative and absolute luminous flux measurements (Ohno et al 1997 J. IES 26 107-14, Ohno and Daubach 2001

  2. Measurement of Structural Deformation using Terrestrial Laser Scanners

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stuart GORDON; Derek LICHTI; Mike STEWART

    2004-01-01

    SUMMARY Three deformation measurement experiments have been undertaken where, in each experiment, a structure was subject to controlled loading. Terrestrial laser scanners (TLSs) were used to make measurements at critical intervals during each load test. TLSs, which are a relatively recent innovation, are capable of rapidly capturing thousands of three dimensional points over the surface of an object. They are

  3. Impact of topographic mask models on scanner matching solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyminski, Jacek K.; Pomplun, Jan; Renwick, Stephen P.

    2014-03-01

    Of keen interest to the IC industry are advanced computational lithography applications such as Optical Proximity Correction of IC layouts (OPC), scanner matching by optical proximity effect matching (OPEM), and Source Optimization (SO) and Source-Mask Optimization (SMO) used as advanced reticle enhancement techniques. The success of these tasks is strongly dependent on the integrity of the lithographic simulators used in computational lithography (CL) optimizers. Lithographic mask models used by these simulators are key drivers impacting the accuracy of the image predications, and as a consequence, determine the validity of these CL solutions. Much of the CL work involves Kirchhoff mask models, a.k.a. thin masks approximation, simplifying the treatment of the mask near-field images. On the other hand, imaging models for hyper-NA scanner require that the interactions of the illumination fields with the mask topography be rigorously accounted for, by numerically solving Maxwell's Equations. The simulators used to predict the image formation in the hyper-NA scanners must rigorously treat the masks topography and its interaction with the scanner illuminators. Such imaging models come at a high computational cost and pose challenging accuracy vs. compute time tradeoffs. Additional complication comes from the fact that the performance metrics used in computational lithography tasks show highly non-linear response to the optimization parameters. Finally, the number of patterns used for tasks such as OPC, OPEM, SO, or SMO range from tens to hundreds. These requirements determine the complexity and the workload of the lithography optimization tasks. The tools to build rigorous imaging optimizers based on first-principles governing imaging in scanners are available, but the quantifiable benefits they might provide are not very well understood. To quantify the performance of OPE matching solutions, we have compared the results of various imaging optimization trials obtained with Kirchhoff mask models to those obtained with rigorous models involving solutions of Maxwell's Equations. In both sets of trials, we used sets of large numbers of patterns, with specifications representative of CL tasks commonly encountered in hyper-NA imaging. In this report we present OPEM solutions based on various mask models and discuss the models' impact on hyper- NA scanner matching accuracy. We draw conclusions on the accuracy of results obtained with thin mask models vs. the topographic OPEM solutions. We present various examples representative of the scanner image matching for patterns representative of the current generation of IC designs.

  4. Scan using the document feeder There are two scanners with document

    E-print Network

    Angenent, Lars T.

    . · The "EPSON Smart Panel" works just as it does with a flatbed scanner. Insert pages print side up into scan. To scan with the "EPSON" scanners, use the "EPSON Smart Panel" and follow the instruction below: HOW TO SCAN 1. Lift the lid and place the material you wish to scan face down on the glass of the scanner. 2

  5. The response of the Seasat and Magsat infrared horizon scanners to cold clouds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Bilanow; M. Phenneger

    1980-01-01

    Cold clouds over the Earth are shown to be the principal cause of pitch and roll measurement noise in flight data from the infrared horizon scanners onboard Seasat and Magsat. The observed effects of clouds on the fixed threshold horizon detection logic of the Magsat scanner and on the variable threshold detection logic of the Seasat scanner are discussed. National

  6. Kalman filter based on-line calibration of laser scanner for vehicle navigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jong-Hwa Song; Gyu-In Jee

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we address the calibration of laser scanner attached to ground vehicle. The purpose of this method is to estimate the laser scanner position and attitude in body coordinate from laser scanner measurement and unknown landmarks position. In order to realize automated calibration, we simultaneously estimate the sensor calibration error and landmarks position using Extended Kalman filter. The

  7. A grounded-load charge amplifier for reducing hysteresis in piezoelectric tube scanners

    E-print Network

    Fleming, Andrew J.

    A grounded-load charge amplifier for reducing hysteresis in piezoelectric tube scanners A. J 2005 In this paper, a charge amplifier adapted for piezoelectric tube scanners is presented. Previous Piezoelectric tube scanners were reported by Binnig and Smith1 for use in scanning tunneling microscopes.2

  8. The development of an optical scanner method for observation of plant root dynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masako Dannoura; Yuji Kominami; Hiroyuki Oguma; Yoichi Kanazawa

    2008-01-01

    In order to achieve continuous monitoring of the rhizosphere, we developed a simple method that uses a wide-view optical scanner inserted into the ground. The scanner system facilitates the analysis of image data and allows continuous monitoring by automating the capture and by fixing the position of the optical scanner. The system was tested in the laboratory and installed under

  9. Error Propagation in Directly Georeferenced Terrestrial Laser Scanner Point Clouds for Cultural Heritage Recording

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Derek D. LICHTI; Stuart J. GORDON

    2004-01-01

    SUMMARY Cultural heritage recording is a prime application for terrestrial laser scanners due to the high spatial resolution, high accuracy and fast data capture rates offered by this technology. To date, insufficient attention has been given to the many error sources contributing to the uncertainty of scanner datasets. A full error budget is derived for directly georeferenced terrestrial laser scanner

  10. Static Stability Analysis for a Novel Permanent Magnetic Suspension Laser Beam Scanner

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lei Huang; Mali Gong; Weipu Jia; Ping Yan; Ruizhen Cui; Haitao Zhang

    2002-01-01

    Because of mechanical abrasion and heat consumption, excellent performance is difficult to achieve in traditional laser beam scanners, which depend on mechanical contacts and friction between transmission mechanisms. In this paper we present a novel type of laser beam scanner employing a permanent magnetic suspension structure to realize scanning without any friction. For this new scanner, static stability is fully

  11. Intrinsic sensor noise features for forensic analysis on scanners and scanned images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongmei Gou; Ashwin Swaminathan; Min Wu

    2009-01-01

    A large portion of digital images available today are acquired using digital cameras or scanners. While cameras provide digital reproduction of natural scenes, scanners are often used to capture hard-copy art in a more controlled environment. In this paper, new techniques for nonintrusive scanner forensics that utilize intrinsic sensor noise features are proposed to verify the source and integrity of

  12. Revised 09/2014 FSU Inventory Scanner Setup & Use for Windows PC

    E-print Network

    McQuade, D. Tyler

    1 Revised 09/2014 FSU Inventory Scanner Setup & Use for Windows PC FSU Inventory Scanner kit for the Windows version of your scanner cradle driver ( see below )... Click Next and accept the license ( Location = C:\\SiLabs\\MCU\\CP210x|Windows_XP_S2K3_Vista_7 )... #12;3 Revised 09/2014 Click

  13. Software Tools Dedicated for an Automatic Analysis of the CT Scanner Quality Control's Images

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Software Tools Dedicated for an Automatic Analysis of the CT Scanner Quality Control's Images, 85925 La Roche Sur Yon, France ABSTRACT This paper deals with the CT scanner images quality control, which is an important part of the quality control process of the CT scanner, which consists of making

  14. Extrinsic Calibration of a 3D Laser Scanner and an Omnidirectional Camera

    E-print Network

    Eustice, Ryan

    Extrinsic Calibration of a 3D Laser Scanner and an Omnidirectional Camera Gaurav Pandey James Mc@ford.com) Abstract: We propose an approach for external calibration of a 3D laser scanner with an omnidirectional), but has been extended to the case where we have a 3D laser scanner and an omnidirectional camera system

  15. Comparison of two 2D laser scanners for sensing object distances, shapes, and surface patterns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kyeong-Hwan Lee; Reza Ehsani

    2008-01-01

    Laser scanners are increasingly used in automation and robotic applications as a sensing device for navigation and safety. They have agricultural applications in measuring plant growth rate, tree volume, tree count, 3D imaging, and pattern recognition. Laser scanners are commercially available, but there is very little published information on characteristics and performance of these laser scanners. This study compared two

  16. Characterization of whole plant leaf area properties using laser scanner point Louarn Gatan1*

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    with a magnetic digitization device to build 3D reference plants and allows comparison of laser scanner dataCharacterization of whole plant leaf area properties using laser scanner point clouds Louarn Gaëtan extracted from contrasting laser scanner point clouds of herbaceous plants and compared to information

  17. Reliability of a 3D surface laser scanner for orthodontic applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Budi Kusnoto; Carla A. Evans

    2002-01-01

    A device for recreating three-dimensional (3D) objects on a computer is the surface laser scanner. By triangulating distances between the reflecting laser beam and the scanned surface, the surface laser scanner can detect not only an object's length and width but also its depth. The scanner's ease of use has opened various possibilities in laboratory research and clinical investigation. We

  18. Two-axis MEMS scanner with transfer-printed high-reflectivity, broadband monolithic silicon

    E-print Network

    Rogers, John A.

    Two-axis MEMS scanner with transfer-printed high-reflectivity, broadband monolithic silicon@illinois.edu Abstract: We present a two-axis electrostatic MEMS scanner with high- reflectivity monolithic. The reflective surfaces of the MEMS scanner are transfer-printed PC mirrors with low polarization dependence, low

  19. 6.EE Chocolate Bar Sales

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-08

    This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Stephanie is helping her band collect money to fund a field trip. The band decided to sell boxes of chocolate bars. Each bar sells for \\$1.50 and each ...

  20. Universal precision sine bar attachment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mann, Franklin D. (inventor)

    1989-01-01

    This invention relates to an attachment for a sine bar which can be used to perform measurements during lathe operations or other types of machining operations. The attachment can be used for setting precision angles on vises, dividing heads, rotary tables and angle plates. It can also be used in the inspection of machined parts, when close tolerances are required, and in the layout of precision hardware. The novelty of the invention is believed to reside in a specific versatile sine bar attachment for measuring a variety of angles on a number of different types of equipment.

  1. Scanning using the Axon GenePix scanner Time on the scanner is scheduled for both scanning and data

    E-print Network

    Grünwald, Niklaus J.

    on the Axon GenePix Pro 4200A scanner Login and submit an event on the calendar. Contact Caprice Rosato if you with Caprice Rosato for training. Open the cover and lift the stage lid. Holding the slide on the edges) image. Be sure to include a little bit of border outside of the array. Perform a Data Scan Keeping

  2. Resolution uniformity and sensitivity of the NIH ATLAS small animal PET scanner: comparison to simulated LSO scanners without depth-of-interaction capability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jürgen Seidel; Juan José Vaquero; Michael V. Green

    2001-01-01

    PET scanners designed to image animals the size of rats and mice should possess simultaneously high and uniform spatial resolution and high sensitivity. ATLAS (Advanced Technology Laboratory Animal Scanner), an 11.8 cm diameter aperture, 2 cm axial field-of-view ring-type research scanner seeks these goals by surrounding the animal with eighteen 15 mm deep, LGSO (7 mm)\\/GSO (8 mm) phoswich detector

  3. Resolution uniformity and sensitivity of the NIH ATLAS small animal PET scanner: Comparison to simulated LSO scanners without depth-of-interaction capability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jürgen Seidel; Juan José Vaquero; Michael V. Green

    2003-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) scanners designed to image animals the size of rats and mice should possess simultaneously high and uniform spatial resolution and high sensitivity. ATLAS (Advanced Technology Laboratory Animal Scanner), a 6.0 cm diameter effective transverse field-of-view (FOV), 2 cm axial FOV ring-type research scanner seeks these goals by surrounding the animal with eighteen 15 mm deep, LGSO

  4. Barred Owl (Strix varia)1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen Heulett; Mark E. Hostetler; Ronald F. Labisky

    Have you ever been walking in a forest and heard something that sounded like a very loud, piercing scream? Well, it's very likely that you've heard the call of the Barred Owl. The vocalization of this owl sounds like a powerful voice that says \\

  5. No Holds Barred Issue 10 

    E-print Network

    Multiple Contributors

    2013-11-27

    /artist. NO HOLDS BARRED No. 10 TABLE OF CONTENTS ON GUARD by Gloria Lancaster 1 RUNAGATE by Jane Mailander 16 YOU DANCING? YOU ASKING? by Gloria Lancaster 33 SEARCHING FOR A BODIE PLOTby Natasha Barry 33 HARLEQUIN, HARLEQUIN by Kitty Fisher 37 SOMEWHERE...

  6. Galaxy Zoo: Observing Secular Evolution Through Bars

    E-print Network

    Cheung, Edmond; Masters, Karen L; Nichol, Robert C; Bosma, A; Bell, Eric F; Faber, S M; Koo, David C; Lintott, Chris; Melvin, Thomas; Schawinski, Kevin; Skibba, Ramin A; Willett, Kyle W

    2013-01-01

    Observations have shown that there is a connection between the presence of a bar and the properties of a galaxy. In a parallel effort, simulations have shown that this connection is consistent with the theory of bar-driven secular evolution. But observational evidence of bar-driven secular evolution has been sparse. In this paper, we use the Galaxy Zoo 2 dataset to look for evidence of this secular evolution. Our sample consists of 13,295 disk galaxies, with an overall bar fraction of 23.6 +/- 0.4%, of which 1,154 barred galaxies also have bar length measurements. These samples are the largest ever used to study the role of bars in disk galaxy evolution. We characterize bars by the bar likelihood, the likelihood a bar is present in a given galaxy, and the bar length. These two bar properties show interesting correlations with the specific star formation rate and the inner central structure of galaxies. Comparing these observations to state-of-the-art simulations of bar evolution, which include live halos and ...

  7. High bandwidth scanner based on spatial-spectral holograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Jingyi

    I experimentally demonstrated a high bandwidth spatial-spectral holographic (SSH) scanner. Scanners or true time delay lines find their applications in phased-array antennas, radar range-Doppler processing and time-frequency ambiguity function analysis. A typical example of such a device is an acousto-optic deflector (AOD), which has limited bandwidth due to Bragg match conditions, frequency dependent acoustic attenuation of available materials and limitations of piezoelectric transducer technologies. The system proposed in this thesis breaks through the bandwidth limitation of acousto-optic technology, yet resembles the function of an AOD since both operates as a scrolling scanner. It uses a material with large inhomogeneous bandwidth to record space-dependent time-delays as spatial-spectral holograms. The recording of the spatial-spectral holograms utilizes a Galvo scanning (GS) mirror and a chirped laser. In Chapter 2, I experimentally show that a GS mirror can be sufficiently stable for the holographic recording process. After reviewing the relevant physics of the spatial-temporal holographic recording medium, the cryogenically-cooled rare earth doped crystals, in Chapter 3, I give further derivations that are useful in explaining the subsequent experimental results. Chapter 4 describes an efficient and stable numerical scheme for simulating the coherent light-atom interaction in a two-dimensional inhomogeneously-broadened crystal, allowing a search for the optimum experimental geometry for the recording experiment. Chapter 5 integrates the Galvo scanning mirror with the Tm3+:YAG crystal, and gives the experimental demonstration of the first high bandwidth (1.5GHz bandwidth with 20 resolvable spots) spatial-spectral holographic scanner. This system uses one laser for the proof-of concept experiment. Finally, in Chapter 6, I explore the prospect for the future development of the high bandwidth SSH scanner. This chapter also gives the design and demonstration of a two-laser stabilization circuit, with which we can extend our ability to realize the full version of the high bandwidth SSH scanner system.

  8. A Cost Effective Multi-Spectral Scanner for Natural Gas Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Yudaya Sivathanu; Jongmook Lim; Vinoo Narayanan; Seonghyeon Park

    2005-12-07

    The objective of this project is to design, fabricate and field demonstrate a cost effective, multi-spectral scanner for natural gas leak detection in transmission and distribution pipelines. During the first year of the project, a laboratory version of the multi-spectral scanner was designed, fabricated, and tested at EnUrga Inc. The multi-spectral scanner was also evaluated using a blind DoE study at RMOTC. The performance of the scanner was inconsistent during the blind DoE study. However, most of the leaks were outside the view of the multi-spectral scanner. Therefore, a definite evaluation of the capability of the scanner was not obtained. Despite the results, sufficient number of plumes was detected fully confirming the feasibility of the multi-spectral scanner. During the second year, the optical design of the scanner was changed to improve the sensitivity of the system. Laboratory tests show that the system can reliably detect small leaks (20 SCFH) at 30 to 50 feet. Electronic and mechanical design of the scanner to make it a self standing sensor was completed during the last six months of the project. The prototype scanner was tested with methane leaks at 15 feet and 30 feet, at a flow rate of 25 SCFH. The prototype scanner successfully detected the leaks. This concluded the project.

  9. Positioning bars for large wire harnesses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glessner, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    By tying positioning bars to harness, its configuration can be preserved during transport, thus facilitating installation. Harness can also be showed temporarily by placing hanging hooks on end of bar.

  10. Performance of an improved first generation optical CT scanner for 3D dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Xin; Adamovics, John; Wuu, Cheng-Shie

    2013-12-01

    Performance analysis of a modified 3D dosimetry optical scanner based on the first generation optical CT scanner OCTOPUS is presented. The system consists of PRESAGE™ dosimeters, the modified 3D scanner, and a new developed in-house user control panel written in Labview program which provides more flexibility to optimize mechanical control and data acquisition technique. The total scanning time has been significantly reduced from initial 8 h to ?2 h by using the modified scanner. The functional performance of the modified scanner has been evaluated in terms of the mechanical integrity uncertainty of the data acquisition process. Optical density distribution comparison between the modified scanner, OCTOPUS and the treatment plan system has been studied. It has been demonstrated that the agreement between the modified scanner and treatment plans is comparable with that between the OCTOPUS and treatment plans.

  11. Improved measurement of vertical bar V-cb vertical bar using (B)over-bar -> D(*)l(nu)over-bar decays

    E-print Network

    Ammar, Raymond G.; Besson, David Zeke; Zhao, X.

    2002-08-01

    We determine the weak coupling \\V-cb\\ between the b and c quarks using a sample of 3x10(6) B (B) over bar events in the CLEO detector at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring. We determine the yield of reconstructed (B) over bar -->D-*.(?) over bar...

  12. Bar instabilities in Coma cluster galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, L.A.

    1981-03-01

    The radial distribution of bar versus nonbar galaxies within the Coma cluster shows that a significantly larger fraction of bar galaxies are members of the cluster core. This result can be used either to estimate the time scale for the decay of bar instabilities or to argue that galaxies in the core of Coma are confined within the core.

  13. Exotic c c-bar Mesons

    E-print Network

    Eric Braaten

    2008-08-21

    A surprising number of new c c-bar mesons with masses above the D D-bar threshold have been discovered at the B factories. Some of them are ordinary charmonium states, but others are definitely exotic mesons. The current theoretical status of the new c c-bar mesons is summarized.

  14. Real-time scanner error correction in white light interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dong; Schmit, Joanna; Novak, Matt

    2014-11-01

    3D microscopes based on white light interferometry (WLI) with vertical scanning have been widely used in many areas of surface measurements and characterizations for decades. This technology provides fast, non-contact, and full-field surface 3D measurements with vertical resolution as low as the sub-nanometer range. Its applications include measurements of step height, surface roughness, film thickness, narrow trench and via depths as well as other geometric and texture parameters. In order to assure the highest accuracy of the measurement, scanner linearity needs to be maintained or monitored so that the nonlinearity can be accounted for during the measurement. This paper describes a method that accounts for nonlinearities in real time without the need to store frame data; in addition this method is shown to be less sensitive to vibrations than previous methods described. The method uses an additional interferometer, a distance measuring interferometer to measure the actual scanner position at each scan step.

  15. Development of a Head Scanner for Proton CT

    PubMed Central

    Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Johnson, R. P.; Macafee, S.; Plumb, A.; Steinberg, D.; Zatserklyaniy, A.; Hurley, V. Bashkirov, F.; Schulte, R.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a new head scanner developed for Proton Computed Tomography (pCT) in support of proton therapy treatment planning, aiming at reconstructing an accurate map of the stopping power (S.P.) in a phantom and, in the future, in patients. The system consists of two silicon telescopes which track the proton before and after the phantom/patient, and an energy detector which measures the residual energy or range of the proton to reconstruct the Water Equivalent Path Length (WEPL) in the phantom. Based on the experience of the existing prototype and extensive Geant4 simulations and CT reconstructions, the new pCT scanner will support clinically useful proton fluxes. PMID:23264711

  16. The Ohio-State Image-Dissector Scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byard, P. L.; Foltz, C. B.; Jenkner, H.; Peterson, B. M.

    1981-02-01

    The Ohio State University Image-Dissector Scanner (IDS) is now routinely operational on the Perkins 1.8-m reflector of Ohio Wesleyan University and The Ohio State University at the Lowell Observatory. The electro-optical design of the detector is similar to that of the image-tube scanner constructed by Robinson and Wampler at the Lick Observatory. The detector is mounted in a Cassegrain spectrograph with 10-cm-diameter optics. Operation of both the detector and the spectrograph are controlled by a PDP-11/20 minicomputer through a CAMAC interface. Performance of the IDS is adequate for the observational programs currently underway and the overall sensitivity of the system is competitive with similar instruments in use on other telescopes. Auxiliary television acquisition and guiding systems, data reduction, and plans for future development are also discussed.

  17. Optical position feedback for electrostatically driven MOEMS scanners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tortschanoff, A.; Baumgart, M.; Frank, A.; Wildenhain, M.; Sandner, T.; Schenk, H.; Kenda, A.

    2012-03-01

    For MOEMS devices which do not have intrinsic on-chip feedback, position information can be provided with optical methods, most simply by using a reflection from the backside of a MOEMS scanner. Measurement of timing signals using fast differential photodiodes can be used for resonant scanner mirrors performing sinusoidal motion with large amplitude. While this approach provides excellent accuracy it cannot be directly extended to arbitrary trajectories or static deflection angles. Another approach is based on the measurement of the position of the reflected laser beam with a quadrant diode. In this work, we present position sensing devices based on either principle and compare both approaches showing first experimental results from the implemented devices

  18. Electrochemical push-pull scanner with mass spectrometry detection.

    PubMed

    Momotenko, Dmitry; Qiao, Liang; Cortés-Salazar, Fernando; Lesch, Andreas; Wittstock, Gunther; Girault, Hubert H

    2012-08-01

    This manuscript presents a push-pull electrochemical scanner able to image reactivity of initially dry surfaces by scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) and to probe molecules present or generated at the surface by mass spectrometry (MS). The proof-of-concept is demonstrated by coupling SECM with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) for imaging latent human fingerprints, which had been in contact with picric acid used here as a model explosive. The push-pull electrochemical scanner has also been coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) to assay the activity of surface spotted enzymes. These experimental studies are complemented by 3D finite element simulations solving Navier-Stokes and diffusion-convection differential equations to optimize the coupling between SECM imaging and mass spectrometry detection. PMID:22789113

  19. The airborne infrared scanner as a geophysical research tool

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedman, Jules D.

    1970-01-01

    The infrared scanner is proving to be an effective anomaly-mapping tool, albeit one which depicts surface emission directly and heat mass transfer from depths only indirectly and at a threshold level 50 to 100 times the normal conductive heat flow of the earth. Moreover, successive terrain observations are affected by time-dependent variables such as the diurnal and seasonal warming and cooling cycle of a point on the earth's surface. In planning precise air borne surveys of radiant flux from the earth's surface, account must be taken of background noise created by variations in micrometeorological factors and emissivity of surface materials, as well as the diurnal temperature cycle. The effect of the diurnal cycle may be minimized by planning predawn aerial surveys. In fact, the diurnal change is very small for most water bodies and the emissivity factor for water (e) =~ 1 so a minimum background noise is characteristic of scanner records of calm water surfaces.

  20. Modeling and measurement of the detector presampling MTF of a variable resolution x-ray CT scanner

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roman Melnyk; Frank A. Dibianca

    2007-01-01

    The detector presampling modulation transfer function (MTF) of a 576-channel variable resolution x-ray (VRX) computed tomography (CT) scanner was evaluated in this study. The scanner employs a VRX detector, which provides increased spatial resolution by matching the scanner's field of view (FOV) to the size of an object being imaged. Because spatial resolution is the parameter the scanner promises to

  1. Z .ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry & Remote Sensing 54 1999 138147 Processing of laser scanner data--algorithms and applications

    E-print Network

    Lefsky, Michael

    of airborne laser scanner data still is in an early phase of development. To come from irregular 3D point: laser scanner; 3D City Models; classification; modelling; filtering; MDL 1. Background Laser scannerZ .ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry & Remote Sensing 54 1999 138­147 Processing of laser scanner

  2. ORBITAL SUPPORT OF FAST AND SLOW INNER BARS IN DOUBLE-BARRED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Maciejewski, Witold; Small, Emma E., E-mail: wxm@astro.livjm.ac.u [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Twelve Quays House, Egerton Wharf, Birkenhead, CH41 1LD (United Kingdom)

    2010-08-10

    We analyze how the orbital support of the inner bar in a double-barred galaxy (nested bars) depends on the angular velocity (i.e., pattern speed) of this bar. We study orbits in seven models of double bars using the method of invariant loops. The range of pattern speed is covered exhaustively. We find that not all pattern speeds are allowed when the inner bar rotates in the same direction as the outer bar. Below a certain minimum pattern speed orbital support for the inner bar abruptly disappears, while at high values of this speed the orbits indicate an increasingly round bar that looks more like a twist in the nuclear isophotes than a dynamically independent component. For values between these two extremes, orbits supporting the inner bar extend further out as the bar's pattern speed decreases, their corresponding loops become more eccentric, pulsate more, and their rotation becomes increasingly non-uniform, as they speed up and slow down in their motion. Lower pattern speeds also lead to a less coherent bar, as the pulsation and acceleration increasingly varies among the loops supporting the inner bar. The morphologies of fast and slow inner bars expected from the orbital structure studied here have been recently recovered observationally by decomposition of double-barred galaxies. Our findings allow us to link the observed morphology to the dynamics of the inner bar.

  3. A diffractive barcode using diffusion-dot lines to form intersected bright bars with different orientations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lih Yeh, Sheng; Lin, Shyh Tsong; Wu, Ming Wei

    2010-11-01

    Conventional barcodes can perform well for the data management of commercial products, but they cannot be used for anti-counterfeiting. Therefore, this paper will propose a new barcode with macro- and micro-anti-counterfeiting features. A barcode image for a conventional barcode is composed of parallel bars with different widths, whereas a barcode image for the new barcode is composed of intersected bars with different orientations. Codes for the proposed barcode are composed of bright bars along four possible orientations only. The proposed barcode pattern possesses many parallel diffusion-dot lines. Because diffusion-dot lines can diffract a laser beam to form different bright bar arrangements corresponding to different codes, the proposed barcode is called a 'diffractive barcode' here. There are brightness and length differences between the bars in a bright bar image and the differences are difficult to counterfeit, so the macrofeatures can be used for anti-counterfeiting. On the other hand, because the appearances of the diffusion dots are special and they cannot be reproduced, the microfeatures can be used for anti-counterfeiting. Moreover, both the encoding and decoding work of the diffractive barcode are easy.

  4. Intracardiac ultrasound scanner using a micromachine (MEMS) actuator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason M. Zara; Stephen M. Bobbio; Scott Goodwin-Johansson; Stephen W. Smith

    2000-01-01

    Catheter-based intracardiac ultrasound offers the potential for improved guidance of interventional cardiac procedures. The objective of this research is the development of catheter-based mechanical sector scanners incorporating high frequency ultrasound transducers operating at frequencies up to 20 MHz. The authors' current transducer assembly consists of a single 1.75 mm by 1.75 mm, 20 MHz, PZT element mounted on a 2

  5. Experimental characterization of the Clear-PEM scanner spectrometric performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugalho, R.; Carriço, B.; Ferreira, C. S.; Frade, M.; Ferreira, M.; Moura, R.; Ortigão, C.; Pinheiro, J. F.; Rodrigues, P.; Rolo, I.; Silva, J. C.; Trindade, A.; Varela, J.

    2009-10-01

    In the framework of the Clear-PEM project for the construction of a high-resolution and high-specificity scanner for breast cancer imaging, a Positron Emission Mammography tomograph has been developed and installed at the Instituto Português de Oncologia do Porto hospital. The Clear-PEM scanner is mainly composed by two planar detector heads attached to a robotic arm, trigger/data acquisition electronics system and computing servers. The detector heads hold crystal matrices built from 2 × 2 × 20 mm3 LYSO:Ce crystals readout by Hamamatsu S8550 APD arrays. The APDs are optically coupled to both ends of the 6144 crystals in order to extract the DOI information for each detected event. Each one of 12288 APD's pixels is read and controlled by Application Specific Integrated Circuits water-cooled by an external cooling unit. The Clear-PEM frontend boards innovative design results in a unprecedented integration of the crystal matrices, APDs and ASICs, making Clear-PEM the PET scanner with the highest number of APD pixels ever integrated so far. In this paper, the scanner's main technical characteristics, calibration strategies and the first spectrometric performance evaluation in a clinical environment are presented. The first commissioning results show 99.7% active channels, which, after calibration, have inter-pixel and absolute gain distributions with dispersions of, respectively, 12.2% and 15.3%, demonstrating that despite the large number of channels, the system is uniform. The mean energy resolution at 511 keV is of 15.9%, with a 8.8% dispersion, and the mean CDOI-1 is 5.9%/mm, with a 7.8% dispersion. The coincidence time resolution, at 511 keV, for a energy window between 400 and 600 keV, is 5.2 ns FWHM.

  6. SNS LINAC Wire Scanner System : Signal Levels and Accuracy.

    SciTech Connect

    Plum, M. A. (Michael A.); Christensen, W. (Wynn); Myer, R. E. (Ross E.); Rose, C. R. (Chris R.)

    2002-01-01

    The linac wire scanner system for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge, TN, USA, calls for 5 units in the medium energy beam transport (MEBT), 5 in the drift tube linac (DTL), and 10 in the coupled cavity linac (CCL). In this paper we present expected signal levels and an analysis of the error in the beam size measurement as functions of wire position and electrical signal errors.

  7. The potential of terrestrial laser scanners for digital ground surveys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. D. Lichti; J. Franke; W. Cannell; K. D. Wheeler

    2005-01-01

    Digital ground surveys are typically conducted by total station prior to road (re)construction to obtain a three?dimensional model of natural and man?made features within the corridor. A study has been undertaken to ascertain whether two types of terrestrial laser scanner could meet the Main Roads Western Australia accuracy standard for digital ground survey Results indicate that the Standard can be

  8. Implicit determination of multispectral scanner data variation over extended areas.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kriegler, F. J.

    1971-01-01

    Description of a method by which variations in aerial multispectral scanner data can be accounted for when there is insufficient ground truth information. The data are suitably filtered and smoothed along the flight line, and the reduced results are presented in a form such that the investigator can readily determine the preprocessing that should be used and the spatial extent to which it should be applied. An algorithm is developed for the detection of cloud-shadowed areas.

  9. ADP of multispectral scanner data for land use mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffer, R. M.

    1971-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of various remote sensing instrumentation and analysis techniques are reviewed. The use of multispectral scanner data and the automatic data processing techniques are considered. A computer-aided analysis system for remote sensor data is described with emphasis on the image display, statistics processor, wavelength band selection, classification processor, and results display. Advanced techniques in using spectral and temporal data are also considered.

  10. Data channel multiplexing system for ct scanner with rotating source

    SciTech Connect

    Mcbride, T.R.; McCarthy, R.H.; Wake, R.H.

    1980-09-02

    A ct scanner has an outer circular array of stationary radiation detectors for an inner concentrically revolving source of radiation emitted in a fan pattern subtending a number of the detectors. A number of analog signal processing channels equal to the maximum number of subtended detectors at any given time is automatically connected via switching circuitry to receive the outputs of only the detectors within the fan pattern.

  11. DNA microarray scanner with a DVD pick-up head

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kyung-Ho Kim; Seung-Yop Lee; Sookyung Kim; Seong-Gab Jeong

    2008-01-01

    A low-cost highly sensitive DNA microarray scanner for fluorescent detection is developed based on the pick-up head of a commercially available optical storage device, DVD. A laser beam of 650nm, generated by a DVD laser diode, is used for dynamic auto-focusing as well as the excitation of Cy5 fluorescent dye. The fluorescence intensity emitted from Cy5 dye is measured by

  12. 94. View of scanner building no. 105 overall view of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    94. View of scanner building no. 105 overall view of upper (upper left) and lower (lower left) DR switches and waveguide arrangement, access catwalks, ships ladder stairs, and structural support system. Official photograph BMEWS Project by unknown photographer, 25 April 1961, clear as negative no. A-2343. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  13. DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF A PHOTOGRAMMETRIC 3D SURFACE SCANNER

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Prokos; G. Karras; L. Grammatikopoulos

    This paper presents a low-cost 3D surface scanner, composed of two fixed web cameras and a hand-held planar laser beam. Setup pre-calibration provides interior orientations of the cameras and their scaled relative orientation. Our calibration algorithm, based on bundle adjustment, uses image pairs of a chessboard, whose nodes are identified automatically and referred to the ground points. For scanning, synchronized

  14. AUTOMATIC FUSION OF PHOTOGRAMMETRIC IMAGERY AND LASER SCANNER POINT CLOUDS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric K Forkuo; Bruce King

    Fusion of close range photogrammery and the relatively new technology of terrestrial laser scanning methods offer new opportunities for photorealistic 3D models presentation, classification of real world objects and virtual reality creation (fly through). Laser scanning technology could be seen as a complement to close-range photogrammetry. For instance, terrestrial laser scanners (TLS) have the ability to rapidly collect high-resolution 3D

  15. Automatic fusion of photogrammetric imagery and laser scanner point clouds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric Kwabena Forkuo

    2005-01-01

    Close-range photogrammetry and the relatively new technology of terrestrial laser scanning can be considered as complementary rather than competitive technologies. For instance, terrestrial laser scanners (TLS) have the ability to rapidly collect high-resolution 3D surface information about an object. The same type of data can be generated using close-range photogrammetric (CRP) techniques, but image disparities common to close-range scenes makes

  16. 11. View of south side of radar scanner building no. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. View of south side of radar scanner building no. 104 showing personnel exit door at side building, showing DR 1 antenna from oblique angle on foundation berm with DR 2 and DR 3 antennae in background. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  17. FAST CONTINUOUS 360 DEGREE COLOR 3D LASER SCANNER

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aiwu Zhang; Shaoxing Hu; Yulin Chen; Haiyun Liu; Fan Yang; Jia Liu

    There are many needs for the ability to fast acquire 3D data from environmental surroundings, such as navigation, m apping, localisation and robot mobility, fire and police planning, urban planning, but the technology for acquiring dense, wide ranging, accurate 3D data is too expensive to be used widely. A low-cost, 3600 continuous scanning, portable 3D laser scanner is presented. The

  18. A 3D laser scanner system for autonomous vehicle navigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francesco Maurelli; David Droeschel; Thomas Wisspeintner; Stefan May; Hartmut Surmann

    2009-01-01

    Road segmentation, obstacle detection, situation awareness constitute fundamental tasks for autonomous vehicles in urban environments. This paper describes an end-to-end system capable of generating high-quality 3D point clouds from one or two of the popular LMS200 laser on a continuously moving vehicle. Road segmentation and crossing analysis have been performed on the basis of this newly developed 3D laser scanner.

  19. Building a 3D scanner system based on monocular vision.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiyi; Yuan, Lin

    2012-04-10

    This paper proposes a three-dimensional scanner system, which is built by using an ingenious geometric construction method based on monocular vision. The system is simple, low cost, and easy to use, and the measurement results are very precise. To build it, one web camera, one handheld linear laser, and one background calibration board are required. The experimental results show that the system is robust and effective, and the scanning precision can be satisfied for normal users. PMID:22505152

  20. Ground-Truthing Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner Images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adam J. Schwartz

    2000-01-01

    TIMS images are useful for differentiating lithologies and identifying lithologic contacts in the Horse Hills\\/Hidden Hills districts of the Eastern Mojave Scenic Area, San Bernadino County, California The Thermal Infrared Multi-spectral Scanner (TIMS) is a six-channel aircraft-mounted spectrometer that measures mid-infrared spectral radiance between the wavenumbers of 1220 and 820cm2. Three selected channels of TIMS radiance data are used to

  1. Photoacoustic and thermoacoustic imaging with a multichannel breast scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Bin; Maslov, Konstantin; Wang, Lihong V.

    2012-02-01

    Photoacoustic and thermoacoustic phantom images obtained with a multi-channel breast scanner designed for breast cancer screening are presented here. A tunable laser system (OPOTEK Vibrant 355 I, Calsbad,CA) with a pulse duration of 5 ns was used for photoacoustic irradiation, and a 3.0 GHz microwave source with a pulse width of 0.3-1 ?s was used for thermoacoustic tomography. Multiple (>=16) 2.25 MHz single-element unfocused ultrasonic transducers at different depths were scanned simultaneously for a full 360° to obtain a full data set for three-dimensional (3D) tomography. Negative acoustic lenses were attached to these unfocused transducers to increase their acceptance angles. An ultrasound receiving system with 64 parallel receiving channels (Verasonics Inc. Redmond, WA) was used for data acquisition. A filtered backprojection algorithm was used to reconstruct two-dimensional (2D) and 3D images. Different phantoms were imaged to evaluate the performance of the scanner. A lateral resolution of less than 1 mm and an elevational resolution of less than 5 mm were achieved. The phantom studies demonstrate that this scanner can potentially provide high-resolution, dual-modality, three-dimensional images and can potentially be used for human breast cancer screening.

  2. Galaxy Zoo: Observing secular evolution through bars

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, Edmond; Faber, S. M.; Koo, David C. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 1156 High Street, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, A. [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388, Marseille (France); Masters, Karen L.; Nichol, Robert C.; Melvin, Thomas [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Dennis Sciama Building, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Bell, Eric F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Lintott, Chris [Oxford Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Schawinski, Kevin [Institute for Astronomy, Department of Physics, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Skibba, Ramin A. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, Department of Physics, 9500 Gilman Drive, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093 (United States); Willett, Kyle W., E-mail: ec2250@gmail.com [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, MN 55455 (United States)

    2013-12-20

    In this paper, we use the Galaxy Zoo 2 data set to study the behavior of bars in disk galaxies as a function of specific star formation rate (SSFR) and bulge prominence. Our sample consists of 13,295 disk galaxies, with an overall (strong) bar fraction of 23.6% ± 0.4%, of which 1154 barred galaxies also have bar length (BL) measurements. These samples are the largest ever used to study the role of bars in galaxy evolution. We find that the likelihood of a galaxy hosting a bar is anticorrelated with SSFR, regardless of stellar mass or bulge prominence. We find that the trends of bar likelihood and BL with bulge prominence are bimodal with SSFR. We interpret these observations using state-of-the-art simulations of bar evolution that include live halos and the effects of gas and star formation. We suggest our observed trends of bar likelihood with SSFR are driven by the gas fraction of the disks, a factor demonstrated to significantly retard both bar formation and evolution in models. We interpret the bimodal relationship between bulge prominence and bar properties as being due to the complicated effects of classical bulges and central mass concentrations on bar evolution and also to the growth of disky pseudobulges by bar evolution. These results represent empirical evidence for secular evolution driven by bars in disk galaxies. This work suggests that bars are not stagnant structures within disk galaxies but are a critical evolutionary driver of their host galaxies in the local universe (z < 1).

  3. Bar-holding prosthetic limb

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vest, Thomas W. (inventor); Norton, William E. (inventor); Belcher, Jewell G. (inventor); Carden, James R. (inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A prosthetic device for below-the-elbow amputees is disclosed. The device has a removable effector, which is attached to the end of an arm cuff. The effector is comprised of a pair of C-shaped members that are oriented so as to face each other. Working in concert, the C-shaped members are able to hold a bar such as a chainsaw handle. A flat spring is fitted around the C-shaped members to hold them together.

  4. Advances in bar soap technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Jungermann; Greyhound Tower

    1973-01-01

    This paper reviews recent trends in bar soap technology. Toilet soap markets are highly competitive and the supporting technology\\u000a is changing rapidly. New equipment and processing techniques have been developed, such as high caustic-high solids saponification,\\u000a high speed finishing equipment, and more efficient dryers with better pollution controls. Multicolored, marbleized soaps have\\u000a become important in the marketplace and new plodder

  5. Galaxy Zoo: Observing Secular Evolution Through Bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Edmond; Athanassoula, L.; Masters, K.; Faber, S. M.; Koo, D. C.; Zoo, Galaxy

    2014-01-01

    In this talk, I use the Galaxy Zoo 2 dataset to study the behavior of bars in disk galaxies as a function of specific star formation rate (SSFR), and inner galactic structure, i.e., the prominence of the bulge as parameterized by Sérsic index and central surface stellar mass density. Our sample consists of 13,295 disk galaxies, with an overall bar fraction of 23.6 ± 0.4%, of which 1,154 barred galaxies also have bar length measurements. These samples are the largest ever used to study the role of bars in disk galaxy evolution. I find that the likelihood of a galaxy hosting a bar is anti-correlated with SSFR, regardless of stellar mass or bulge prominence. I find that the trends of bar likelihood with bulge prominence are bimodal with SSFR, i.e., in star-forming galaxies, bulges are more prominent in galaxies more likely to host bars, while in quiescent disk galaxies, bars are less frequent where there are prominent bulges. Our observations of bar length reveal a complex picture. In star-forming disks, longer bars are found where the bulges are more prominent, while in quiescent disks there is a maximum in the average bar length as a function of bulge prominence. I interpret these observations using state-of-the-art simulations of bar evolution which include live halos and the effects of gas and star formation. I suggest our observed trends of bar likelihood with SSFR are driven by the gas fraction of the disks; a factor demonstrated to significantly retard both bar formation and evolution in models. I interpret the bimodal relationship between bulge prominence and bar properties as due to the complicated effects of classical bulges and central mass concentrations on bar evolution, and also to the growth of disky pseudobulges by bar evolution. These results represent empirical evidence for secular evolution driven by bars in disk galaxies. This work suggests that bars are not stagnant structures within disk galaxies, but are a critical evolutionary driver of their host galaxies in the local universe (z < 1).

  6. High brightness laser diode bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lichtenstein, Norbert; Manz, Yvonne; Müller, Jürgen; Troger, Jörg; Pawlik, Susanne; Thies, Achim; Weiss, Stefan; Baettig, Rainer; Harder, Christoph

    2006-02-01

    Based on the most recent generation of Bookham's laser diode bars in the 9xx nm wavelength range which are able to deliver in excess of 250 W of output power from 50% filling factor 2.4 mm cavity length design, we have developed low 20% fill-factor bar devices for high brightness applications. Close to 200 W of output power has been achieved in CW mode from actively cooled micro-channel cooler devices without signs of damage. Mounted on conductively cooled copper blocks, still more than 130 W (CW) has been obtained, indicating the high conversion efficiency of >60% reducing the thermal load on the mounting assembly. Based on extensive reliability testing in excess of 5000 h and at power densities ranging up to 36mW/um and beyond, highly reliable operation of 20% fill-factor bars is expected. To facilitate fiber coupling into wide-core multi-mode fibers a further reduction of the emitter aperture has been realized. From a single 3.6 mm cavity length by 800 um wide emitter design ("MaxiChip") about 50 W output power has been obtained in CW mode from devices mounted on standard conductively cooled 1x1 inch copper blocks. While CW operation has been thermally limited, extremely high peak power operation can be expected in qCW operation. Due to the narrow aperture of this MaxiChip efficient and easy coupling into wide aperture multimode fibers can be achieved.

  7. Multispectral scanner system for ERTS: Four band scanner system. Volume 2: Engineering model panoramic pictures and engineering tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    This document is Volume 2 of three volumes of the Final Report for the four band Multispectral Scanner System (MSS). The results are contained of an analysis of pictures of actual outdoor scenes imaged by the engineering model MSS for spectral response, resolution, noise, and video correction. Also included are the results of engineering tests on the MSS for reflectance and saturation from clouds. Finally, two panoramic pictures of Yosemite National Park are provided.

  8. Evaluation of scanners for C-scan imaging in nondestructive inspection of aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Gieske, J.H.

    1994-04-01

    The goal of this project was to produce a document that contains information on the usability and performance of commercially available, fieldable, and portable scanner systems as they apply to aircraft NDI inspections. In particular, the scanners are used to generate images of eddy current, ultrasonic, or bond tester inspection data. The scanner designs include manual scanners, semiautomated scanners, and fully automated scanners. A brief description of the functionality of each scanner type, a sketch, and a fist of the companies that support the particular design are provided. Vendors of each scanner type provided hands-on demonstrations of their equipment on real aircraft samples in the FAA Aging Aircraft Nondestructive Inspection Validation Center (AANC) in Albuquerque, NM. From evaluations recorded during the demonstrations, a matrix of scanner features and factors and ranking of the capabilities and limitations of the design, portability, articulation, performance, usability, and computer hardware/software was constructed to provide a quick reference for comparing the different scanner types. Illustrations of C-scan images obtained during the demonstration are shown.

  9. Evaluation of scanners for C-scan imaging for nondestructive inspection of aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gieske, John H.

    1994-09-01

    The goal of this project was to produce a document that contains information on the usability and performance of commercially available, fieldable, and portable scanner systems as they apply to aircraft nondestructive inspections. In particular, the scanners are used to generate images of eddy current, ultrasonic, or bond tester inspection data. The scanner designs include manual scanners, semiautomated scanners, and fully automated scanners. A brief description of the functionality of each scanner type, a sketch, and a list of the companies that support the particular design are provided. Vendors of each scanner type provided hands-on demonstrations of their equipment on aircraft samples in the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Aging Aircraft Nondestructive Inspection Validation Center in Albuquerque, New Mexico. From evaluations recorded during the demonstrations, a matrix of scanner features and factors and ranking of the capabilities and limitations of the design, portability, articulation, performance, usability, and computer hardware/software was constructed to provide a quick reference to compare the different scanner types. Illustrations of C-scan images obtained during the demonstration are shown.

  10. A secularly evolved model for the Milky Way bar and bulge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Valpuesta, Inma; Gerhard, Ortwin

    2015-03-01

    Bars are strong drivers of secular evolution in disk galaxies. Bars themselves can evolve secularly through angular momentum transport, producing different boxy/peanut and X-shaped bulges. Our Milky Way is an example of a barred galaxy with a boxy bulge. We present a self-consistent N-body simulation of a barred galaxy which matches remarkably well the structure of the inner Milky Way deduced from star counts. In particular, features taken as signatures of a second ``long bar`` can be explained by the interaction between the bar and the spiral arms of the galaxy (Martinez-Valpuesta & Gerhard 2011). Furthermore the structural change in the bulge inside l = 4° measured recently from VVV data can be explained by the high-density near-axisymmetric part of the inner boxy bulge (Gerhard & Martinez-Valpuesta 2012). We also compare this model with kinematic data from recent spectroscopic surveys. We use a modified version of the NMAGIC code (de Lorenzi et al. 2007) to study the properties of the Milky Way bar, obtaining an upper limit for the pattern speed of ~ 42 km/sec/kpc. See Fig. 1 for a comparison of one of our best models with BRAVA data (Kunder et al. 2012).

  11. Exposure to second-hand smoke air pollution assessed from bar patrons' urinary cotinine.

    PubMed

    Repace, James; Hughes, Elizabeth; Benowitz, Neal

    2006-10-01

    We used physical and pharmacokinetic modeling to estimate personal exposures to respirable particle (RSP) and carcinogenic particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PPAH) air pollution from second-hand smoke (SHS) from the increase in urinary cotinine of eight patrons of three bars in Bismarck, North Dakota. We compared SHS-RSP levels to the U.S. Air Quality Index (AQI), used to forecast outdoor air pollution conditions. We measured smoker density and air exchange rates to generalize our results. Urinary cotinine increased by an average of 4.28 ng/ml to 6.88 ng/ml to 9.55 ng/ml above preexposure background from 6-hr exposures in the three bars. Corresponding estimated SHS-RSP levels were, respectively, 246 microg/m3, 396 microg/m3, and 549 microg/m3, comparable to those measured in 6 Wilmington, Delaware, bars and in 14 western New York bars. Estimated personal SHS-RSP air pollution exposures for the eight subjects, when converted to the 24-hr averaging time of the AQI, were "code red" (unhealthy). Measured outdoor air quality RSP levels for the same period were 1%-3% of the indoor RSP levels in the three bars, and were AQI "code green" (healthy). Estimated SHS-PPAH levels were comparable to peak 3-hr PPAH levels reported at a highway tollbooth. Bismarck cotinine-estimated SHS-RSP varied with smoker density, as did measured SHS-RSP levels in smoking bars in Delaware and New York. Our results show that smoking in bars produces levels of personal air pollution for bar patrons that merit air pollution alerts when sustained in the outdoor air. PMID:17008197

  12. Uplink Coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollara, Fabrizio; Hamkins, Jon; Dolinar, Sam; Andrews, Ken; Divsalar, Dariush

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews uplink coding. The purpose and goals of the briefing are (1) Show a plan for using uplink coding and describe benefits (2) Define possible solutions and their applicability to different types of uplink, including emergency uplink (3) Concur with our conclusions so we can embark on a plan to use proposed uplink system (4) Identify the need for the development of appropriate technology and infusion in the DSN (5) Gain advocacy to implement uplink coding in flight projects Action Item EMB04-1-14 -- Show a plan for using uplink coding, including showing where it is useful or not (include discussion of emergency uplink coding).

  13. The feasibility of a scanner-independent technique to estimate organ dose from MDCT scans: Using CTDI{sub vol} to account for differences between scanners

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, Adam C.; Zankl, Maria; DeMarco, John J.; Cagnon, Chris H.; Zhang Di; Angel, Erin; Cody, Dianna D.; Stevens, Donna M.; McCollough, Cynthia H.; McNitt-Gray, Michael F. [Departments of Biomedical Physics and Radiology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90024 (United States); Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Institute of Radiation Protection, German Research Center for Environmental Health (GmbH), Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Departments of Biomedical Physics and Radiology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90024 (United States); Department of Imaging Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland, Oregon 97239 (United States); Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota 55901 (United States); Departments of Biomedical Physics and Radiology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90024 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: Monte Carlo radiation transport techniques have made it possible to accurately estimate the radiation dose to radiosensitive organs in patient models from scans performed with modern multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT) scanners. However, there is considerable variation in organ doses across scanners, even when similar acquisition conditions are used. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of a technique to estimate organ doses that would be scanner independent. This was accomplished by assessing the ability of CTDI{sub vol} measurements to account for differences in MDCT scanners that lead to organ dose differences. Methods: Monte Carlo simulations of 64-slice MDCT scanners from each of the four major manufacturers were performed. An adult female patient model from the GSF family of voxelized phantoms was used in which all ICRP Publication 103 radiosensitive organs were identified. A 120 kVp, full-body helical scan with a pitch of 1 was simulated for each scanner using similar scan protocols across scanners. From each simulated scan, the radiation dose to each organ was obtained on a per mA s basis (mGy/mA s). In addition, CTDI{sub vol} values were obtained from each scanner for the selected scan parameters. Then, to demonstrate the feasibility of generating organ dose estimates from scanner-independent coefficients, the simulated organ dose values resulting from each scanner were normalized by the CTDI{sub vol} value for those acquisition conditions. Results: CTDI{sub vol} values across scanners showed considerable variation as the coefficient of variation (CoV) across scanners was 34.1%. The simulated patient scans also demonstrated considerable differences in organ dose values, which varied by up to a factor of approximately 2 between some of the scanners. The CoV across scanners for the simulated organ doses ranged from 26.7% (for the adrenals) to 37.7% (for the thyroid), with a mean CoV of 31.5% across all organs. However, when organ doses are normalized by CTDI{sub vol} values, the differences across scanners become very small. For the CTDI{sub vol}, normalized dose values the CoVs across scanners for different organs ranged from a minimum of 2.4% (for skin tissue) to a maximum of 8.5% (for the adrenals) with a mean of 5.2%. Conclusions: This work has revealed that there is considerable variation among modern MDCT scanners in both CTDI{sub vol} and organ dose values. Because these variations are similar, CTDI{sub vol} can be used as a normalization factor with excellent results. This demonstrates the feasibility of establishing scanner-independent organ dose estimates by using CTDI{sub vol} to account for the differences between scanners.

  14. Code constructions and code families for nonbinary quantum stabilizer code 

    E-print Network

    Ketkar, Avanti Ulhas

    2005-11-01

    Stabilizer codes form a special class of quantum error correcting codes. Nonbinary quantum stabilizer codes are studied in this thesis. A lot of work on binary quantum stabilizer codes has been done. Nonbinary stabilizer codes have received much...

  15. Large-scale three-dimensional measurement via combining 3D scanner and laser rangefinder.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jinlong; Sun, Zhengxing; Bai, Suqin

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents a three-dimensional (3D) measurement method of large-scale objects by integrating a 3D scanner and a laser rangefinder. The 3D scanner, used to perform partial section measurement, is fixed on a robotic arm which can slide on a guide rail. The laser rangefinder, used to compute poses of the 3D scanner, is rigidly connected to the 3D scanner. During large-scale measurement, after measuring a partial section, the 3D scanner is straightly moved forward along the guide rail to measure another section. Meanwhile, the poses of the 3D scanner are estimated according to its moved distance for different partial section alignments. The performance and effectiveness are evaluated by experiments. PMID:25967194

  16. Chiral SU(3) Quark Model Study of Tetraquark States: $cn\\bar{n}\\bar{s} / cs\\bar{s}\\bar{s}$

    E-print Network

    H. X. Zhang; W. L. Wang; Y. -B. Dai; Z. Y. Zhang

    2006-12-05

    The new members of the charm-strange family $D_{sJ}^{*}(2317)$, $D_{sJ}(2460)$ and $D_s(2632)$, which have the surprising properties, are challenging the present models. Many theoretical interpretations have been devoted to this issue. Most of authors suggest that they are not the conventional $c\\bar s$ quark model states, but possibly are four-quark states, molecule states or mixtures of a P-wave $c\\bar s$ and a four-quark state. In this work, we follow the four-quark-state picture, and study the masses of $cn\\bar n\\bar s/cs\\bar s\\bar s$ states ($n$ is $u$ or $d$ quark) in the chiral SU(3) quark model. The numerical results show that the mass of the mixed four-quark state ($cn\\bar n\\bar s/cs\\bar s\\bar s$) with spin parity $J^P=0^{+}$ might not be $D_s(2632)$. At the same time, we also conclude that $D_{sJ}^{*}(2317)$ and $D_{sJ}(2460)$ cannot be explained as the pure four-quark state.

  17. Galaxy Zoo: Observing Secular Evolution Through Bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, E.; Athanassoula, E.; Masters, K. L.; Nichol, R. C.; Bosma, A.; Bell, E. F.; Faber, S. M.; Koo, D. C.; Lintott, C.; Melvin, T.; Schawinski, K.; Skibba, R. A.; Willett, K. W.

    2014-03-01

    Although often seen in galaxies, the role that bars play in galaxy evolution has been largely overlooked. Observations show that bars — stellar linear-shaped structures — have been present in galaxies since z ˜ 1, about 8 billion years ago, and that more and more galaxies are becoming barred with time. This trend has continued to the present, where about two-thirds of all disk galaxies are barred. Observations have also shown that there is a connection between the presence of a bar and the properties of a galaxy, including morphology, star formation, chemical abundance gradients, and nuclear activity. These trends are consistent with the predicted effects of bars on galaxy evolution, i.e., secular evolution. Thus, observations and simulations indicate that bars are important drivers of galaxy evolution. But despite these evidence, bars are still commonly omitted in the lore of galaxy evolution. This proceeding briefly highlights work by Cheung et al. (2013), which tries to change this common omission by presenting the best evidence of bar-driven secular evolution yet. This work implies that bars are not stagnant structures within galaxies, but are instead, critical drivers of galaxy evolution.

  18. Monte Carlo simulation of efficient data acquisition for an entire-body PET scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isnaini, Ismet; Obi, Takashi; Yoshida, Eiji; Yamaya, Taiga

    2014-07-01

    Conventional PET scanners can image the whole body using many bed positions. On the other hand, an entire-body PET scanner with an extended axial FOV, which can trace whole-body uptake images at the same time and improve sensitivity dynamically, has been desired. The entire-body PET scanner would have to process a large amount of data effectively. As a result, the entire-body PET scanner has high dead time at a multiplex detector grouping process. Also, the entire-body PET scanner has many oblique line-of-responses. In this work, we study an efficient data acquisition for the entire-body PET scanner using the Monte Carlo simulation. The simulated entire-body PET scanner based on depth-of-interaction detectors has a 2016-mm axial field-of-view (FOV) and an 80-cm ring diameter. Since the entire-body PET scanner has higher single data loss than a conventional PET scanner at grouping circuits, the NECR of the entire-body PET scanner decreases. But, single data loss is mitigated by separating the axially arranged detector into multiple parts. Our choice of 3 groups of axially-arranged detectors has shown to increase the peak NECR by 41%. An appropriate choice of maximum ring difference (MRD) will also maintain the same high performance of sensitivity and high peak NECR while at the same time reduces the data size. The extremely-oblique line of response for large axial FOV does not contribute much to the performance of the scanner. The total sensitivity with full MRD increased only 15% than that with about half MRD. The peak NECR was saturated at about half MRD. The entire-body PET scanner promises to provide a large axial FOV and to have sufficient performance values without using the full data.

  19. Application of 3D laser scanner in topographic change monitor and analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yang Zhou; Meng Cui; Lei Yang

    2009-01-01

    In view of fast and precision measuring request of terrain data of ldquoModel Yellow Riverrdquo dynamic river-bed physical model experiment, as well as the difficulty of the analysis on the topographic change, this article proposes analysis system based on 3D laser scanner technology. The article introduces the work principle of 3D laser scanner. The insufficiency of 3D laser scanner technology

  20. Development of a data acquisition system for the MiCES small animal PET scanner

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. K. Lewellen; C. M. Laymon; R. S. Miyaoka; M. Janes; Kisung Lee; P. E. Kinahan

    2002-01-01

    We have previously reported on the design of a firewire (1394a) based data acquisition system for small animal positron emission tomography (PET) scanners. Here we report on the evolution of that design for our micro-crystal element mouse PET scanner - MiCES. The scanner utilizes 72 position sensitive photomultiplier tubes (PMT), each coupled to a 22×22 array of 0.8×0.8×10 mm MLS

  1. Incorporation of a laser range scanner into an image-guided surgical system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David M. Cash; Tuhin K. Sinha; William C. Chapman; Hiromi Terawaki; Michael I. Miga; Robert L. Galloway Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Laser range scanners provide rapid and accurate non-contact methods for acquiring 3D surface data, offering many advntages over other techniques currently available during surgery. The range scanner was incorporated into our image-guided surgery system to augment registration and deformation compensation. A rigid body, embedded with IR diodes, was attached to the scanner for tracking in physical space with an optical

  2. A compact XYZ scanner for fast atomic force microscopy in constant force contact mode

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuen Kuan Yong; S. O. Reza Moheimani

    2010-01-01

    The design and characterization of a fast flexure-based, parallel-kinematics XYZ scanner for atomic force microscopy is presented in this article. The objective of the project is to design a AFM scanner with the ability to scan an image at high-speed and high resolution. Finite-element analysis was used to optimize the scanner's design in order to achieve high resonance frequencies. Experimental

  3. On the offset of barred galaxies from the black hole M {sub BH}-? relationship

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Jonathan S.; Valluri, Monica [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Shen, Juntai [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Debattista, Victor P., E-mail: brojonat@umich.edu, E-mail: mvalluri@umich.edu [Jeremiah Horrocks Institute, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, PR1 2HE (United Kingdom)

    2013-12-01

    We use collisionless N-body simulations to determine how the growth of a supermassive black hole (SMBH) influences the nuclear kinematics in both barred and unbarred galaxies. In the presence of a bar, the increase in the velocity dispersion ? (within the effective radius) due to the growth of an SMBH is on average ? 10%, whereas the increase is only ? 4% in an unbarred galaxy. In a barred galaxy, the increase results from a combination of three separate factors: (1) orientation and inclination effects; (2) angular momentum transport by the bar that results in an increase in the central mass density; and (3) an increase in the vertical and radial velocity anisotropy of stars in the vicinity of the SMBH. In contrast, the growth of the SMBH in an unbarred galaxy causes the velocity distribution in the inner part of the nucleus to become less radially anisotropic. The increase in ? following the growth of the SMBH is insensitive to a variation of a factor of 10 in the final mass of the SMBH, showing that it is the growth process rather than the actual SMBH mass that alters bar evolution in a way that increases ?. We argue that using an axisymmetric stellar dynamical modeling code to measure SMBH masses in barred galaxies could result in a slight overestimate of the derived M {sub BH}, especially if a constant M/L ratio is assumed. We conclude that the growth of a black hole in the presence of a bar could result in an increase in ? that is roughly 4%-8% larger than the increase that occurs in an axisymmetric system. While the increase in ? due to SMBH growth in a barred galaxy might partially account for the claimed offset of barred galaxies and pseudo bulges from the M {sub BH}-? relation obtained for elliptical galaxies and classical bulges in unbarred galaxies, it is inadequate to account for all of the offset.

  4. No Holds Barred Issue 9 

    E-print Network

    Multiple Contributors

    2013-11-27

    by Jeanne Marie ("The Wild Wild West") 46 BLACK AND WHITE by Kitty Fisher ("UFO") 53 STORM WARNING by Flamingo ("Miami Vice") 62 EDITORIAL (toy*"*! I'm bringing three issues of "No HoldsBarred" out almost simultaneously - what a record! # 7, which..., all those stories went there. The only other SFsubmission for that | issue was Kitty Fisher's "Black and White"; I saved that for this issue. # 8 is all Holmes/Watson, with two novellas and several short stories. _ Future issues: # 10, an all...

  5. Dependence of CT attenuation values on scanner type using in vivo measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Mithun; Meza, Alicia; Kim, Hyun J.; Brown, Matthew S.; Abtin, Fereidoun; Goldin, Jonathan G.; McNitt-Gray, Michael F.

    2008-03-01

    One of the key measures of response to treatment for patients in multicenter clinical trials is the lung density measured in Hounsfield Units (HU) from Computer Tomography (CT) scans. The purpose of this work is to determine the dependence of CT attenuation values on scanner type by using in vivo measurements made from homogeneous anatomic areas. In vivo measurements were made in areas within the trachea, aorta, fat and muscle regions of CT scans obtained from subjects scanned as part of a multicenter treatment trial. Scans were selected so that exams from all four major manufacturers were included in the study. For each anatomic region of interest, the mean and standard deviation values were computed to investigate attenuation dependence on scanners. For example, trachea mean (standard deviation) measurements for exams from GE, Siemens, Philips and Toshiba scanners were -986 HU(+/-15), - 993 HU(+/-9), -988HU(+/-8), -1046(+/-10) respectively. Inter-scanner variability was observed for each scanner showing significant differences (all p-values <0.005). Previous work in examining attenuation dependence on scanners has been performed using anthropomorphic phantoms. The novelty of this work is the use of in vivo measurements from homogeneous regions in order to examine scanner effects on CT attenuation values. Our results show that CT attenuation values for the anatomic regions vary between scanners and hence, dependence of CT attenuation values on scanners is observed.

  6. A COST EFFECTIVE MULTI-SPECTRAL SCANNER FOR NATURAL GAS DETECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Yudaya Sivathanu; Jongmook Lim; Vinoo Narayanan; Seonghyeon Park

    2005-04-15

    The objective of this project is to design, fabricate and field demonstrate a cost effective, multi-spectral scanner for natural gas leak detection in transmission and distribution pipelines. During the first year of the project, a laboratory version of the multi-spectral scanner was designed, fabricated, and tested at En'Urga Inc. The multi-spectral scanner was also evaluated using a blind DoE study at RMOTC. The performance of the scanner was inconsistent during the blind DoE study. However, most of the leaks were outside the view of the multi-spectral scanner. Therefore, a definite evaluation of the capability of the scanner was not obtained. Despite the results, sufficient number of plumes was detected fully confirming the feasibility of the multi-spectral scanner. During the second year, the optical design of the scanner was changed to improve the sensitivity of the system. Laboratory tests show that the system can reliably detect small leaks (20 SCFH) at 30 to 50 feet. Electronic design of the scanner to make it a self standing sensor is currently in progress. During the last six months of the project, the electronic and mechanical design will be completed and evaluated at En'Urga Inc.

  7. An automated geometric correction system for airborne multispectral scanner imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis-King, E.; Tinney, L.; Brickey, D. [DOE Remote Sensing Lab., Las Vegas, NV (United States)] [and others

    1996-10-01

    The United States Department of Energy (USDOE) maintains a Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) to support nuclear related programs of the US Government. The mission of the organization includes both emergency response and more routine environmental assessments of nuclear facilities. The USDOE RSL maintains a small fleet of specially equipped aircraft that are used as platforms for remote sensor systems. The aircraft include helicopters, light aircraft, and a business jet suitable for high altitude acquisitions. Multispectral scanners flown on these platforms are subject to geometric distortions related to variations in aircraft orientation (pitch, roll, and yaw), position, and velocity during data acquistions.

  8. 91. View of scanner building No. 105 construction view showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    91. View of scanner building No. 105 construction view showing upper (upper left) and (lower right) DR switches (note apertures for future waveguide connection) and structural steel support system. RCA Services Company 22 September, 1960, official photograph BMEWS Project by unknown photograph, Photographic Services, Riverton, NJ, BMEWS, clear as negative no. A-1219. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  9. Fiber optic sensor for respiration gating in MR scanners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augousti, Andreas T.; Raza, Ali

    1996-09-01

    We report here the adaptation of an existing optical respiration monitor, the fiber optic respiratory plethysmograph (FORP), to act as a gating tool to compensate for respiratory motion that occurs during scans in magnetic resonance (MR) scanners. The instrument is based on the principle of bending losses in optical fibers, and features a user-friendly graphical interface written in Visual Basic for Windows. One of the novelties of the system is the use of an optical feedback channel to instruct the subject to inhale, exhale or hold their breath. Results are presented that demonstrate that the instrument is useful in helping a test subject reproduce accurate breath holds.

  10. Inspection of Samples using a fast Millimetre Wave Scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hommes, A.; Nüssler, D.; Warok, P.; Krebs, C.; Heinen, S.; Essen, H.

    2011-08-01

    Millimeterwaves and terahertz sensors can cover a broad field of applications ranging from production control to security scanners. The outstanding features are the transparency of many materials like textiles, paper and plastics in this frequency region, the good contrast of any humid or dense dielectric material and the capability to employ miniaturized RF systems and small antenna apertures or dielectric probes. A stand-alone-millimetre-wave-imager, SAMMY, was developed and built, to demonstrate the outstanding features of this part of the electromagnetic spectrum for material inspection.

  11. Oil slick studies using photographic and multispectral scanner data.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munday, J. C., Jr.; Macintyre, W. G.; Penney, M. E.; Oberholtzer, J. D.

    1971-01-01

    Field studies of spills of Nos. 6 (Bunker C), 4, and 2 fuel oils and menhaden fish oil in the southern Chesapeake Bay have been supplemented with aerial photographic and multispectral scanner data. Thin films showed best in ultraviolet and blue bands and thick films in the green. Color film was effective for all thicknesses. Thermal infrared imagery provided clear detection, but required field temperature and thickness data to distinguish thickness/emissivity variations from temperature variations. Slick spreading rates agree with the theory of Fay (1969); further study of spreading is in progress.

  12. A PC-controlled microwave tomographic scanner for breast imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padhi, Shantanu; Howard, John; Fhager, A.; Bengtsson, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the design and development of a personal computer based controller for a microwave tomographic system for breast cancer detection. The system uses motorized, dual-polarized antennas and a custom-made GUI interface to control stepper motors, a wideband vector network analyzer (VNA) and to coordinate data acquisition and archival in a local MDSPlus database. Both copolar and cross-polar scattered field components can be measured directly. Experimental results are presented to validate the various functionalities of the scanner.

  13. Self-acting gas bearings for high speed scanners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preston, R. G.; Robinson, D. H.; Shepherd, J.

    1991-02-01

    GEC Ferranti have been manufacturing rotating instruments such as inertial quality gyroscopes and rotating polygon scanners for many years. Markets for scanning devices vary widely and include cameras, thermal imaging, laser printing and projection. The advent of high resolution laser video projection brought about new challenges in scanning technology. Initially, these challenges could only be met with complex and expensive devices and ancillary equipment. Based on our experience and success in the markets already mentioned, we have developed a range of compact line scanning devices which can be manufactured on a production basis, and which meet the requirements of scan rate, accuracy and reliability demanded by HDTV systems.

  14. Agricultural applications for thermal infrared multispectral scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelletier, R. E.; Ochoa, M. C.; Hajek, B. F.

    1985-01-01

    The use of the Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) data in agricultural landscapes is discussed. The TIMS allows for narrow-band analysis in the 8.2-11.6 micron range at spatial resolutions down to 5 meters in cell size. A coastal plain region in SE Alabama was studied using the TIMS. The crop/plant vigor, canopy density, and thermal response changes for soils obtained from thermal imagery are examined. The application of TIMS data to hydrologic and topographic issues, inventory and conservation monitoring, and the enhancement and extraction of cartographic features is described.

  15. Measurement of scattered radiation in a volumetric 64-slice CT scanner using three experimental techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbarzadeh, A.; Ay, M. R.; Ghadiri, H.; Sarkar, S.; Zaidi, H.

    2010-04-01

    Compton scatter poses a significant threat to volumetric x-ray computed tomography, bringing cupping and streak artefacts thus impacting qualitative and quantitative imaging procedures. To perform appropriate scatter compensation, it is necessary to estimate the magnitude and spatial distribution of x-ray scatter. The aim of this study is to compare three experimental methods for measurement of the scattered radiation profile in a 64-slice CT scanner. The explored techniques involve the use of collimator shadow, a single blocker (a lead bar that suppresses the primary radiation) and an array blocker. The latter was recently proposed and validated by our group. The collimator shadow technique was used as reference for comparison since it established itself as the most accurate experimental procedure available today. The mean relative error of measurements in all tube voltages was 3.9 ± 5.5% (with a maximum value of 20%) for the single blocker method whereas it was 1.4 ± 1.1% (with a maximum value of 5%) for the proposed blocker array method. The calculated scatter-to-primary ratio (SPR) using the blocker array method for the tube voltages of 140 kVp and 80 kVp was 0.148 and 1.034, respectively. For a larger polypropylene phantom, the maximum SPR achieved was 0.803 and 6.458 at 140 kVp and 80 kVp, respectively. Although the three compared methods present a reasonable accuracy for calculation of the scattered profile in the region corresponding to the object, the collimator shadow method is by far the most accurate empirical technique. Nevertheless, the blocker array method is relatively straightforward for scatter estimation providing minor additional radiation exposure to the patient.

  16. Physical Properties of Gaseous Features in Barred Galaxies: Effects of the Bar Strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, W.-T.; Seo, W.-Y.; Kim, Y.

    2014-09-01

    Barred galaxies commonly possess gaseous substructures such as a pair of dust lanes, a nuclear ring, and nuclear spirals at their centers. We use hydrodynamic simulations to study the physical properties of the substructures and their relationships with the bar strength. We vary the bar mass fbar relative to the spheroidal component as well as its aspect ratio, and increase the bar strength over 0.2Gyr. We find expressions for the bar strength Qb and the radius where the maximum bar torque occurs. When compared with observations, these suggest that bars in real galaxies are most likely to have fbar˜0.3. While dust lanes are aligned parallel to the bar and tend to be more straight under a stronger and more elongated bar, nuclear rings are aligned perpendicular to the bar. The radius of a nuclear ring, in general smaller than the inner Lindblad resonance radius, is a decreasing function of Qb, consistent with observations. This demonstrates that the ring size is determined primarily by the bar strength rather than the resonance. Nuclear spirals located inside nuclear rings are transient such that they unwind and become stronger with time until turning into shocks, with an unwinding rate higher for larger Qb, consistent with observations. All of these results suggest that it is the bar strength that determines the physical properties of gaseous substructures in barred galaxies.

  17. Bar Impact Tests on Alumina (AD995)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazamias, James U.; Reinhart, William D.; Konrad, Carl H.; Chhabildas, Lalit C.; Bless, Stephan J.

    2002-07-01

    Dynamic strength may be inferred from bar impact tests, although interpretation of the data is affected by the time-to-failure of the target bar. To clarify the mechanics, tests with graded density impactors were conducted on bare and confined bars, 12 and 19 mm in diameter, cut from blocks of AD995 alumina. Manganin gauge and VISAR diagnostics were employed. Larger rods displayed higher strength. In some tests the "true" yield stress of ˜4.5 GPa was achieved.

  18. Dark Matter Halos of Barred Disk Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervantes Sodi, Bernardo; Li, Cheng; Park, Changbom

    2015-07-01

    We use a large volume-limited sample of disk galaxies drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 to study the dependence of the bar fraction on the stellar-to-halo mass ratio, making use of a group catalog, and we identify central and satellite galaxies in our sample. For the central galaxies in the sample we estimate the stellar-to-halo mass ratio (M*/Mh) and find that the fraction of barred galaxies is a strong function of this ratio, especially for the case of strong bars. Bars are more common in galaxies with high {M}*/Mh values, as expected from early theoretical works that showed that systems with massive dark matter halos are more stable against bar instabilities. We find that the change of the bar fraction with Mh and {M}* is stronger if we consider a relation with the form {f}{bar}= {f}{bar}({M}*? /Mh) with ? = 1.5, and that the bar fraction is largely independent of other physical properties such as color and spin parameter when {M}*3/2/Mh is fixed. With our sample of galaxies segregated into centrals and satellites, we also compare the fraction of barred galaxies in each group, finding a slightly higher bar fraction for satellites when compared with centrals at fixed stellar mass, but at fixed color this difference becomes very weak. This result, in agreement with previous studies, confirms that the bar fraction does not directly depend on the group/cluster environment, but the dependence exists through its dependence on internal morphology.

  19. Boric Acid Reclamation System (BARS)

    SciTech Connect

    Kniazewycz, B.G.; Markind, J.

    1986-03-01

    KLM Technologies' personnel have identified a Boric Acid Reclamation System (BARS) utilizing reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration to produce a recyclable grade of otherwise waste boric acid at PWRs, thus reducing a major source of low-level radwaste. The design of a prototype BARS as a compact volume reduction system was the result of KLM's Phase 1 Program, and based upon a preliminary feasibility program, which assessed the applicability of membrane technology to refurbish and recycle waste boric acid from floor and equipment drain streams. The analysis of the overall program indicated a substantial savings regarding off-site disposal costs. Today's economic scenario indicates that optimization of volume reduction operation procedures could significantly reduce waste management costs, especially where burial penalties have become more severe. As a reaction to the economic burden imposed by final disposal, many nuclear plants are currently modifying their design and operating philosophies concerning liquid radwaste processing systems to meet stricter environmental regulations, and to derive potential economic benefits by reducing the ever-increasing volumes of wastes that are produced. To effect these changes, innovative practices in waste management and more efficient processing technologies are being successfully implemented.

  20. Automatic recognition codes for Intelligent Vehicle-Highway Systems

    E-print Network

    Leonardi, Pierre Charles Louis

    1994-01-01

    of the information to be encoded 2. Traditional bar codes 3. Other codes to be considered 4. The encoder 5. The decoder 6. Retrieval of the decimal representation . B. Actual representation of the code III IMAGE PROCESSING . A. Image enhancement and edge... 24 Sample of the tag . Overview of the image processing process 26 28 Example of morphological operators 10 12 Image enhs. ncement and edge detection process using morphology Edge map for a sample image Thresholding of the edge map...

  1. An orbiting multispectral scanner for overland and oceanographic applications.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peacock, K.; Withrington, R. J.

    1971-01-01

    Description of the major features of a multispectral scanner designed to perform overland and oceanographic surveys from space. The instrument uses an image plane conical scanner and contains independent spectrometers for land and ocean applications. The overland spectrometer has a spatial resolution of 200 ft and has six spectral bands in the atmospheric windows between 0.5 and 2.4 microns. The oceanographic spectrometer has a spatial resolution of 1200 ft and possesses 24 spectral bands equally spaced and in registration over the wavelength range from 0.4 to 0.8 micron. A thermal band of 600-ft resolution is used with a spectral range from 10.5 to 12.6 microns. The swath width of the scan is 100 nautical miles from an altitude of 500 nautical miles. The system has two modes of operation which are selectable by ground command. The six bands of overland data plus the thermal band data can be transmitted, or the 24 bands of oceanographic data plus data from two of the overland bands and the thermal band can be transmitted. The performance is described by the minimum detectable reflectance difference and the effects of sun angle and target reflectivity variations are discussed. The sensitivity is related to the variation of the ocean reflectivity in the presence of chlorophyll and to typical agricultural targets.

  2. Design of a small animal MR compatible PET scanner

    SciTech Connect

    Slates, R.; Cherry, S.; Boutefnouchet, A.; Shao, Y.; Dahlbom, M.; Farahani, K. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). School of Medicine] [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). School of Medicine

    1999-06-01

    Using a combination of Monte-Carlo simulations and experimental measurements, the authors have designed a small animal MR compatible PET (McPET) scanner for simultaneous PET and MR imaging of mice and rats in vivo. The scanner consists of one ring of 480 LSO crystals arranged in 3 layers with 160 crystals per layer. The crystal dimensions are 2 x 3 x 7.5 mm{sup 3}. This was based on a target resolution of 2.5 mm and simulations showing that a depth of 7.5 mm avoided significant depth of interaction effects across the desired field of view. The system diameter of 11.2 cm is large enough to accommodate the animal positioned inside a stereotactic frame. Each crystal will be coupled through 2 mm diameter optical fibers to multi-channel PMT`s which reside outside the main magnetic field. Through 50 cm of optical fiber, a photopeak is clearly seen and the measured energy resolution is 25%. Prototype optical fiber connectors have been tested to increase the flexibility of the system and result in a light loss of only 6%. The proposed system will have adequate resolution and sensitivity for a number of applications in small animals and will be the first practical device for simultaneous in vivo imaging with PET and MR.

  3. A noble refractive optical scanner with linear response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mega, Yair J.; Lai, Zhenhua; DiMarzio, Charles A.

    2013-03-01

    Many applications in various fields of science and engineering use steered optical beam systems. Currently, many methods utilize mirrors in order to steer the beam. However, this approach is an off-axis solution, which normally increases the total size of the system as well as its error and complexity. Other methods use a "Risely Prisms" based solution, which is on-axis solution, however it poses some difficulties from an engineering standpoint, and therefore isn't widely used. We present here a novel technique for steering a beam on its optical axis with a linear deflection response. We derived the formulation for the profile required of the refractive optical component necessary for preforming the beam steering. The functionality of the device was simulated analytically using Matlab, as well as using a ray-tracing software, Zemax, and showed agreement with the analytical model. An optical element was manufactured based on the proposed design and the device was tested. The results show agreement with our hypothesis. We also present some proposed geometries of the several other devices, all based on the same concept, which can be used for higher performance applications such as two-dimensional scanner, video rate scanner etc.

  4. Accuracy of 3D scanners in tooth mark analysis.

    PubMed

    Molina, Ana; Martin-de-las-Heras, Stella

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the accuracy of contact and laser 3D scanners in tooth mark analysis. Ten dental casts were scanned with both 3D scanners. Seven linear measurements were made from the 3D images of dental casts and biting edges generated with DentalPrint© software (University of Granada, Granada, Spain). The uncertainty value for contact 3D scanning was 0.833 for the upper dental cast and 0.660 mm for the lower cast; similar uncertainty values were found for 3D-laser scanning. Slightly higher uncertainty values were obtained for the 3D biting edges generated. The uncertainty values for single measurements ranged from 0.1 to 0.3 mm with the exception of the intercanine distance, in which higher values were obtained. Knowledge of the error rate in the 3D scanning of dental casts and biting edges is especially relevant to be applied in practical forensic cases. PMID:25388960

  5. Advancements on galvanometer scanners for high-end applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duma, Virgil-Florin; Rolland, Jannick P.

    2014-03-01

    Galvanometer-based scanners (GSs) are the most utilized devices for lateral scanning. Their applications range from commercial and industrial to biomedical imaging. They are used mostly for 2-D scanning (with typically two GSs), but also for 1-D or 3-D scanning (the latter by example with GSs in combination with Risley prisms). This paper presents an overview of our contributions in the field of GSs with regard to the requirements of their most challenging applications. Specifically, we studied the optimal scanning functions - to produce the maximum possible duty cycle?, and we found that, contrary to what has been stated in the literature, the scanning function that provides the highest ? is not linear plus sinusoidal, but linear plus parabolic. The most common GS input signals (i.e., sawtooth, triangular, and sinusoidal) were investigated experimentally to determine the scanning regimes that produce the minimum image artifacts, for example in Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). The triangular signal was thus shown to be the best from this point of view, and several rules-of-thumb were extracted to make the best of GSs in OCT. We also discuss aspects of the command functions of GSs that are necessary to achieve a trade-off between a performance criteria related to the duty cycle and voltage regimes of the device. We finally review aspects of the control solutions of GSs we investigated, to obtain the highest possible precision or the fastest possible response of the scanner.

  6. Voxel-based classification of FDG PET in dementia using inter-scanner normalization.

    PubMed

    Thiele, Frank; Young, Stewart; Buchert, Ralph; Wenzel, Fabian

    2013-08-15

    Statistical mapping of FDG PET brain images has become a common tool in differential diagnosis of patients with dementia. We present a voxel-based classification system of neurodegenerative dementias based on partial least squares (PLS). Such a classifier relies on image databases of normal controls and dementia cases as training data. Variations in PET image characteristics can be expected between databases, for example due to differences in instrumentation, patient preparation, and image reconstruction. This study evaluates (i) the impact of databases from different scanners on classification accuracy and (ii) a method to improve inter-scanner classification. Brain FDG PET databases from three scanners (A, B, C) at two clinical sites were evaluated. Diagnostic categories included normal controls (NC, nA=26, nB=20, nC=24 for each scanner respectively), Alzheimer's disease (AD, nA=44, nB=11, nC=16), and frontotemporal dementia (FTD, nA=13, nB=13, nC=5). Spatially normalized images were classified as NC, AD, or FTD using partial least squares. Supervised learning was employed to determine classifier parameters, whereby available data is sub-divided into training and test sets. Four different database setups were evaluated: (i) "in-scanner": training and test data from the same scanner, (ii) "x-scanner": training and test data from different scanners, (iii) "train other": train on both x-scanners, and (iv) "train all": train on all scanners. In order to moderate the impact of inter-scanner variations on image evaluation, voxel-by-voxel scaling was applied based on "ratio images". Good classification accuracy of on average 94% was achieved for the in-scanner setups. Accuracy deteriorated for setups with mismatched scanners (79-91%). Ratio-image normalization improved all results with mismatched scanners (85-92%). In conclusion, automatic classification of individual FDG PET in differential diagnosis of dementia is feasible. Accuracy can vary with respect to scanner or acquisition characteristics of the training image data. The adopted approach of ratio-image normalization has been demonstrated to effectively moderate these effects. PMID:23541799

  7. Static field influences on transcranial magnetic stimulation: Considerations for TMS in the scanner environment

    PubMed Central

    Yau, Jeffrey M.; Jalinous, Reza; Cantarero, Gabriela L.; Desmond, John E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can be combined with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to simultaneously manipulate and monitor human cortical responses. Although tremendous efforts have been directed at characterizing the impact of TMS on image acquisition, the influence of the scanner’s static field on the TMS coil has received limited attention. Objective/Hypothesis: The aim of this study was to characterize the influence of the scanner’s static field on TMS. We hypothesized that spatial variations in the static field could account for TMS field variations in the scanner environment. Methods: Using a MRI-compatible TMS coil, we estimated TMS field strengths based on TMS-induced voltage changes measured in a search coil. We compared peak field strengths obtained with the TMS coil positioned at different locations (B0 field vs fringe field) and orientations in the static field. We also measured the scanner’s static field to derive a field map to account for TMS field variations. Results: TMS field strength scaled depending on coil location and orientation with respect to the static field. Larger TMS field variations were observed in fringe field regions near the gantry as compared to regions inside the bore or further removed from the bore. The scanner’s static field also exhibited the greatest spatial variations in fringe field regions near the gantry. Conclusions: The scanner’s static field influences TMS fields and spatial variations in the static field correlate with TMS field variations. TMS field variations can be minimized by delivering TMS in the bore or outside of the 0 - 70 cm region from the bore entrance. PMID:24656916

  8. Acing the Bar Exam : A Checklist Approach to Taking the Bar Exam

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suzanne Darrow-Kleinhaus

    2008-01-01

    This study aid provides candidates with a complete guide to the bar exam - from pre-planning considerations through bar review and sitting for the exam. Every aspect of the process is explained in detail and by example. The bar exam is deconstructed, section by section, where candidates are led through the steps they need to follow to succeed. Approaches for

  9. Accuracy in contouring of small and low contrast lesions: Comparison between diagnostic quality computed tomography scanner and computed tomography simulation scanner-A phantom study

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, Yick Wing, E-mail: mpr@hksh.com [Medical Physics and Research Department, Hong Kong Sanatorium and Hospital (Hong Kong); Wong, Wing Kei Rebecca; Yu, Siu Ki; Lam, Wai Wang; Geng Hui [Medical Physics and Research Department, Hong Kong Sanatorium and Hospital (Hong Kong)

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the accuracy in detection of small and low-contrast regions using a high-definition diagnostic computed tomography (CT) scanner compared with a radiotherapy CT simulation scanner. A custom-made phantom with cylindrical holes of diameters ranging from 2-9 mm was filled with 9 different concentrations of contrast solution. The phantom was scanned using a 16-slice multidetector CT simulation scanner (LightSpeed RT16, General Electric Healthcare, Milwaukee, WI) and a 64-slice high-definition diagnostic CT scanner (Discovery CT750 HD, General Electric Healthcare). The low-contrast regions of interest (ROIs) were delineated automatically upon their full width at half maximum of the CT number profile in Hounsfield units on a treatment planning workstation. Two conformal indexes, CI{sub in}, and CI{sub out}, were calculated to represent the percentage errors of underestimation and overestimation in the automated contours compared with their actual sizes. Summarizing the conformal indexes of different sizes and contrast concentration, the means of CI{sub in} and CI{sub out} for the CT simulation scanner were 33.7% and 60.9%, respectively, and 10.5% and 41.5% were found for the diagnostic CT scanner. The mean differences between the 2 scanners' CI{sub in} and CI{sub out} were shown to be significant with p < 0.001. A descending trend of the index values was observed as the ROI size increases for both scanners, which indicates an improved accuracy when the ROI size increases, whereas no observable trend was found in the contouring accuracy with respect to the contrast levels in this study. Images acquired by the diagnostic CT scanner allow higher accuracy on size estimation compared with the CT simulation scanner in this study. We recommend using a diagnostic CT scanner to scan patients with small lesions (<1 cm in diameter) for radiotherapy treatment planning, especially for those pending for stereotactic radiosurgery in which accurate delineation of small-sized, low-contrast regions is important for dose calculation.

  10. Accuracy in contouring of small and low contrast lesions: comparison between diagnostic quality computed tomography scanner and computed tomography simulation scanner-A phantom study.

    PubMed

    Ho, Yick Wing; Wong, Wing Kei Rebecca; Yu, Siu Ki; Lam, Wai Wang; Geng, Hui

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the accuracy in detection of small and low-contrast regions using a high-definition diagnostic computed tomography (CT) scanner compared with a radiotherapy CT simulation scanner. A custom-made phantom with cylindrical holes of diameters ranging from 2-9 mm was filled with 9 different concentrations of contrast solution. The phantom was scanned using a 16-slice multidetector CT simulation scanner (LightSpeed RT16, General Electric Healthcare, Milwaukee, WI) and a 64-slice high-definition diagnostic CT scanner (Discovery CT750 HD, General Electric Healthcare). The low-contrast regions of interest (ROIs) were delineated automatically upon their full width at half maximum of the CT number profile in Hounsfield units on a treatment planning workstation. Two conformal indexes, CI(in), and CI(out), were calculated to represent the percentage errors of underestimation and overestimation in the automated contours compared with their actual sizes. Summarizing the conformal indexes of different sizes and contrast concentration, the means of CI(in) and CI(out) for the CT simulation scanner were 33.7% and 60.9%, respectively, and 10.5% and 41.5% were found for the diagnostic CT scanner. The mean differences between the 2 scanners' CI(in) and CI(out) were shown to be significant with p < 0.001. A descending trend of the index values was observed as the ROI size increases for both scanners, which indicates an improved accuracy when the ROI size increases, whereas no observable trend was found in the contouring accuracy with respect to the contrast levels in this study. Images acquired by the diagnostic CT scanner allow higher accuracy on size estimation compared with the CT simulation scanner in this study. We recommend using a diagnostic CT scanner to scan patients with small lesions (<1 cm in diameter) for radiotherapy treatment planning, especially for those pending for stereotactic radiosurgery in which accurate delineation of small-sized, low-contrast regions is important for dose calculation. PMID:22626967

  11. Bar Charts Recognition Using Hough Based Syntactic Segmentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yan Ping Zhou; Chew Lim Tan

    2000-01-01

    Bar charts are common data representations in scientific and technical papers. In order to recognize the printed bar charst, we present a new Hough based bar chart recognition algorithm which combines syntactic analysis into segmentation. We first detect the most salient feature in any bar chart, bar patterns, using syntactic analysis in the Hough domain. Then we group text primitives

  12. Evolution of the Chocolate Bar

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Romi Burks (Southwestern University; )

    2007-04-20

    The majority of both student and faculty populations react quite favorably to chocolate and may even know something about its history. The movie Chocolat made millions, partly due to its starring actors, but also because the move drew salivating viewers to the multiple applications of chocolate. With its stimulant properties, chocolate generally makes people feel good. For purposes of this essay, chocolate also has the fortunate characteristic of appearing in many different sizes, shapes, and combinations. In this exercise, dubbed 'Evolution of the Chocolate Bar,' students build the most plausible phylogenetic tree based on identified synapomorphies of different 'species,' i.e. brands of chocolate. The exercise described below is easily assembled, works as a class demonstration or could be modified into small group projects, and also fits a variety of class timeframes. Substantial lines of inquiry could also be developed from this example.

  13. Gas flow in barred potentials

    E-print Network

    Sormani, Mattia C; Magorrian, John

    2015-01-01

    We use a Cartesian grid to simulate the flow of gas in a barred Galactic potential and investigate the effects of varying the sound speed in the gas and the resolution of the grid. For all sound speeds and resolutions, streamlines closely follow closed orbits at large and small radii. At intermediate radii shocks arise and the streamlines shift between two families of closed orbits. The point at which the shocks appear and the streamlines shift between orbit families depends strongly on sound speed and resolution. For sufficiently large values of these two parameters, the transfer happens at the cusped orbit as hypothesised by Binney et al. over two decades ago. For sufficiently high resolutions the flow downstream of the shocks becomes unsteady. If this unsteadiness is physical, as appears to be the case, it provides a promising explanation for the asymmetry in the observed distribution of CO.

  14. Radial migration in barred galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Matteo, P.; Haywood, M.; Combes, F.; Semelin, B.; Babusiaux, C.; Gomez, A.

    2015-03-01

    In this talk, I will present the result of high resolution numerical simulations of disk galaxies with various bulge/disk ratios evolving isolated, showing that: • Most of migration takes place when the bar strength is high and decreases in the phases of low activity (in agreement with the results by Brunetti et el. 2011, Minchev et al. 2011). • Most of the stars inside the corotation radius (CR) do not migrate in the outer regions, but stay confined in the inner disk, while stars outside CR can migrate either inwards or outwards, diffusing over the whole disk. • Migration is accompanied by significative azimuthal variations in the metallicity distribution, of the order of 0.1 dex for an initial gradient of ~-0.07 dex/kpc. • Boxy bulges are an example of stellar structures whose properties (stellar content, vertical metallicity, [?/Fe] and age gradients, ..) are affected by radial migration (see also Fig. 1).

  15. DNA codes

    SciTech Connect

    Torney, D. C. (David C.)

    2001-01-01

    We have begun to characterize a variety of codes, motivated by potential implementation as (quaternary) DNA n-sequences, with letters denoted A, C The first codes we studied are the most reminiscent of conventional group codes. For these codes, Hamming similarity was generalized so that the score for matched letters takes more than one value, depending upon which letters are matched [2]. These codes consist of n-sequences satisfying an upper bound on the similarities, summed over the letter positions, of distinct codewords. We chose similarity 2 for matches of letters A and T and 3 for matches of the letters C and G, providing a rough approximation to double-strand bond energies in DNA. An inherent novelty of DNA codes is 'reverse complementation'. The latter may be defined, as follows, not only for alphabets of size four, but, more generally, for any even-size alphabet. All that is required is a matching of the letters of the alphabet: a partition into pairs. Then, the reverse complement of a codeword is obtained by reversing the order of its letters and replacing each letter by its match. For DNA, the matching is AT/CG because these are the Watson-Crick bonding pairs. Reversal arises because two DNA sequences form a double strand with opposite relative orientations. Thus, as will be described in detail, because in vitro decoding involves the formation of double-stranded DNA from two codewords, it is reasonable to assume - for universal applicability - that the reverse complement of any codeword is also a codeword. In particular, self-reverse complementary codewords are expressly forbidden in reverse-complement codes. Thus, an appropriate distance between all pairs of codewords must, when large, effectively prohibit binding between the respective codewords: to form a double strand. Only reverse-complement pairs of codewords should be able to bind. For most applications, a DNA code is to be bi-partitioned, such that the reverse-complementary pairs are separated across the two blocks. For the foregoing reasons, these two blocks of codewords suffice as the hooks and loops of a digital Velcro. We began our investigations of such codes by constructing quaternary BCH reverse-complement codes, using cyclic codes and conventional Hamming distance [4]. We also obtained upper and lower bounds on the rate of reverse-complement codes with a metric function based on the foregoing similarities [3]. For most applications involving DNA, however, the reverse-complementary analogue of codes based on the insertion-deletion distance is more advantageous. This distance equals the codeword length minus the longest length of a common (not necessarily contiguous) subsequence. (The 'aligned' codes described above may be used under special experimental conditions), The advantage arises because, under the assumption that DNA is very flexible, the sharing of sufficiently long subsequences between codewords would be tantamount to the ability of one of their reverse complements to form a double strand with the other codeword. Thus far, using the random coding method, we have derived an asymptotic lower bound on the rate of reverse-complement insertion-deletion codes, as a function of the insertion-deletion distance fraction and of the alphabet size [1]. For the quaternary DNA alphabet of primary importance, this lower bound yields an asymptotically positive rate if the insertion-deletion-distance fraction does not exceed the threshold {approx} 0.19. Extensions of the Varsamov-Tenengol'ts construction of insertion-deletion codes [5] for reverse-complement insertion-deletion codes will be described. Experiments have been performed involving some of our DNA codes.

  16. Grid enabled magnetic resonance scanners for near real-time medical image processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason C. Crane; Forrest W. Crawford; Sarah J. Nelson

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the initial steps taken to integrate the University of California at San Francisco Radiology Department's magnetic resonance (MR) scanners with its high-performance computing (HPC) grid. The objective is to improve patient care by enabling near real-time, computationally intensive medical image processing, directly at an MR scanner. A graphical software tool is described that was developed to run

  17. UNIQUE AIRBORNE FIBER SCANNER TECHNIQUE FOR APPLICATION-ORIENTED LIDAR PRODUCTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Schnadt

    Precise and dense elevation models are required for a variety of applications. This paper shall give a short outline of the technology behind a fiber scanner and why this technology fits best for the acquisition of high resolution DEM. Special emphasis is here paid on edge detection and forest penetration. The described optical line scanner acquires spectral data simultaneously with

  18. Some sensing and perception techniques for an omnidirectional ground vehicle with a laser scanner

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhen Song; YangQuan Chen; Lili Ma; You Chung Chung

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents some techniques for sensing and perception for an omnidirectional autonomous ground vehicle equipped with a laser scanner. In an assumed structured environment, the sensor data processing methods for both 1D and 2D laser scanners, are discussed. Raw data are segmented to lines, circles, ellipses, planes and corners by task dependent segmentation algorithms. Each subset of data is

  19. Accepted Remote Sensing of Environment, Sep. 2001 First Use of an Airborne Thermal Infrared Hyperspectral Scanner

    E-print Network

    Kirkland, Laurel

    Hyperspectral Scanner for Compositional Mapping Laurel Kirklanda , Kenneth Herrb , Eric Keimb , Paul Adamsb interpretations without benefit of ground truth. SEBASS had the required high signal-to-noise ratio and spectral infrared scanner to detect and identify spectrally subtle materials. 1. Introduction The ~8­12 µm

  20. A FILTERING METHOD OF AIRBORNE LASER SCANNER DATA FOR COMPLEX TERRAIN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroshi Masaharu; Kazuyuki Ohtsubo

    ABSTRACT: Anew filtering method of airborne laser scanner data has been developed that is suitable for complex terrain, that is flat but with artificial depression such as openings of underground tunnels, typical in highly developed urban areas. The method firstly selects lowest points in small ,patches from ,laser scanner data. Then inappropriate points for ground ,estimation is removed ,based on

  1. Methods and apparatus for laser beam scanners with different actuating mechanisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Si-Hai Chen; Si-Hua Xiang; Xin Wu; Shan Dong; Ding Xiao; Xia-Wei Zheng

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, 3 types of laser beam scanner are introduced. One is transmissive beam scanner, which is composed of convex and concave microlens arrays (MLAs). By moving the concave lens in the plane vertical to the optical axis, the incident beam can be deflected in two dimensions. Those two kinds of MLAs are fabricated by thermal reflow and replication

  2. Guided acoustic traveling wave lens for high-speed optical scanners

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. K. Yao; D. Weid; R. M. Montgomery

    1979-01-01

    Acoustic traveling wave lenses are useful devices to improve the performances of acoustooptical scanners and other optical scanners. A guided acoustic wave version of the traveling wave lens has been investigated for potential reduction of the power consumption of acoustic traveling wave lenses. Resolution gain as high as 35 has been demonstrated. The smallest focused spot which has been experimentally

  3. Development of a proton Computed Tomography (pCT) scanner at NIU

    E-print Network

    S. A. Uzunyan; G. Blazey; S. Boi; G. Coutrakon; A. Dyshkant; B. Erdelyi; A. Gearhart; D. Hedin; E. Johnson; J. Krider; V. Zutshi; R. Ford; T. Fitzpatrick; G. Sellberg; J. E. Rauch; M. Roman; P. Rubinov; P. Wilson; K. Lalwani; M. Naimuddin

    2013-12-13

    We describe the development of a proton Computed Tomography (pCT) scanner at Northern Illinois University (NIU) in collaboration with Fermilab and Delhi University. This paper provides an overview of major components of the scanner and a detailed description of the data acquisition system (DAQ).

  4. Digital Hammurabi: Design and Development of a 3D Scanner for Cuneiform Tablets

    E-print Network

    Cohen, Jonathan

    Digital Hammurabi: Design and Development of a 3D Scanner for Cuneiform Tablets Daniel V. Hahn direction. As a solution to these problems, we describe a 3D scanner capable of acquiring the shape, color, and reflectance of a tablet as a complete 3D object. This data set could then be stored in an online library

  5. An experimental investigation of scanner data preparation strategies for consumer choice models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rick L. Andrews; Imran S. Currim

    2005-01-01

    Over the past two decades, marketing scientists in academia and industry have employed consumer choice models calibrated using supermarket scanner data to assess the impact of price and promotion on consumer choice, and they continue to do so today. Despite the extensive usage of scanner panel data for choice modeling, very little is known about the impact of data preparation

  6. Incorporation of a laser range scanner into an image-guided surgical system

    E-print Network

    Miga, Michael I.

    Incorporation of a laser range scanner into an image-guided surgical system David M. Cash*a , Tuhin, Nashville, TN, USA 37235; ABSTRACT Laser range scanners provide rapid and accurate non-contact methods system and software with virtually no overhead. Keywords: Laser range scanning, iterative closest point

  7. TRACKING CORTICAL SURFACE DEFORMATIONS BASED ON VESSEL STRUCTURE USING A LASER RANGE SCANNER

    E-print Network

    Miga, Michael I.

    TRACKING CORTICAL SURFACE DEFORMATIONS BASED ON VESSEL STRUCTURE USING A LASER RANGE SCANNER Aize and deforma- tion tracking using a laser-range scanner(LRS). The LRS con- tains both geometric and texture, and image processing techniques [2][3]. In our pre- vious work [4], the laser ranged scanning (LRS) system

  8. Design and evaluation of an optically-tracked single-CCD laser range scanner

    E-print Network

    Miga, Michael I.

    Design and evaluation of an optically-tracked single-CCD laser range scanner Thomas S. Pheiffera) Purpose: Acquisition of laser range scans of an organ surface has the potential to efficiently provide measurements of geometric changes to soft tissue during a surgical procedure. A laser range scanner design

  9. Fabrication and characterization of high-speed integrated electro-optic lens and scanner devices

    E-print Network

    Gopalan, Venkatraman

    on a single crystal of Z-cut LiTaO3. The lens and scanner components consist of lithographically defmed domain for fabricating nonlinear and electro-optic devices in LiTaO3. For example, second harmonic generation gratings3 and scanner on a single crystal LiTaO3 wafer. Here, we present further experimental results characterizing

  10. A Hand-held Laser Scanner based on Multi-camera Stereo-matching

    E-print Network

    Umlauf, Georg

    scanner, 3D point clouds, stereo-matching, multi-camera Digital Object Identifier 10.4230/OASIcs-camera 3D-reconstruction system we presented in [4] and a hand-held line-laser probe. This enables usA Hand-held Laser Scanner based on Multi-camera Stereo-matching Christoph Bender1 , Klaus Denker1

  11. EXTENSION OF AN AUTOMATIC BUILDING EXTRACTION TECHNIQUE TO AIRBORNE LASER SCANNER DATA CONTAINING DAMAGED BUILDINGS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    EXTENSION OF AN AUTOMATIC BUILDING EXTRACTION TECHNIQUE TO AIRBORNE LASER SCANNER DATA CONTAINING laser scanner data on data captured in first and last echo. In order to answer these two questions, two, Universität Karlsruhe (TH), Germany) and the MAP-PAGE team (INSA de Strasbourg, France). The used 3D LIDAR

  12. 3D Laser range scanner with hemispherical field of view for robot navigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julian Ryde; Huosheng Hu

    2008-01-01

    For mobile robots to be of value in practical situations a 3D perception and mapping capability will almost always prove essential. In this paper a 2D laser scanner is modified to produce 3D scans with a resolution of one degree updated every 3 seconds. This result is achieved by adding a rotating mirror to the original scanner in an inexpensive

  13. Application of a laser scanner to three dimensional visual sensing tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Arthur M.

    1992-01-01

    The issues are described which are associated with using a laser scanner for visual sensing and the methods developed by the author to address them. A laser scanner is a device that controls the direction of a laser beam by deflecting it through a pair of orthogonal mirrors, the orientations of which are specified by a computer. If a calibrated laser scanner is combined with a calibrated camera, it is possible to perform three dimensional sensing by directing the laser at objects within the field of view of the camera. There are several issues associated with using a laser scanner for three dimensional visual sensing that must be addressed in order to use the laser scanner effectively. First, methods are needed to calibrate the laser scanner and estimate three dimensional points. Second, methods to estimate three dimensional points using a calibrated camera and laser scanner are required. Third, methods are required for locating the laser spot in a cluttered image. Fourth, mathematical models that predict the laser scanner's performance and provide structure for three dimensional data points are necessary. Several methods were developed to address each of these and has evaluated them to determine how and when they should be applied. The theoretical development, implementation, and results when used in a dual arm eighteen degree of freedom robotic system for space assembly is described.

  14. 3D handheld laser scanner based approach for automatic identification and localization of EEG sensors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurent Koessler; Thierry Cecchin; Eric Ternisien; Louis Maillard

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes and assesses for the first time the use of a handheld 3D laser scanner for scalp EEG sensor localization and co-registration with magnetic resonance images. Study on five subjects showed that the scanner had an equivalent accuracy, a better repeatability, and was faster than the reference electromagnetic digitizer. According to electrical source imaging, somatosensory evoked potentials experiments

  15. Laser range scanner based on self-calibration techniques using coplanarities and metric constraints

    E-print Network

    Tokyo, University of

    Keywords: 3D scanning Light sectioning method Self-calibration Handheld laser scanner Coplanarity Shape rights reserved. 1. Introduction Line lasers are frequently used for active 3D scanning systems. In mostLaser range scanner based on self-calibration techniques using coplanarities and metric constraints

  16. Cortical Shift Tracking Using a Laser Range Scanner and Deformable Registration Methods

    E-print Network

    Miga, Michael I.

    Cortical Shift Tracking Using a Laser Range Scanner and Deformable Registration Methods Tuhin K and mutual information. Given the deformation field provided by the registration, 3D points in serial LRS;Cortical Shift Tracking Using a Laser Range Scanner 167 driven with sparse data (i.e. data with limited

  17. 3D Laser Range Scanner with Hemispherical Field of View for Robot Navigation

    E-print Network

    Hu, Huosheng

    3D Laser Range Scanner with Hemispherical Field of View for Robot Navigation Julian Ryde frequencies up to 1Hz and accurate to 0.02m over an 8m range. Index Terms--3D laser scanner, mobile robots planning. Significant attention is now being focused on 3D laser mapping [6][7][8]. Julian Ryde

  18. Large-scale high-resolution 3D laser scanner for solder-paste inspection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jef L. Horijon; Fred C. Couweleers; Willem D. van Amstel

    1996-01-01

    An industrial 3D laser scanner is presented for measurement of solder paste screening quality in an automated PCB assembly line. The scanner provides telecentric illumination and imaging in a 305 mm (12') long scan line at a maximum rate of more than 1000 scans per second. Synchronized height measurement is performed using a double triangulation scheme at large angles and

  19. Laser Scanner Figure 1: Device for joint image and depth data acquisition.

    E-print Network

    Steinbach, Eckehard

    Laser Scanner Gear DV Camera Figure 1: Device for joint image and depth data acquisition. A camera minimization framework incorporating active depth measurements using a 2D laser range scanner and passive of representing a complex 3D real world scene in photo quality. Based on simple interpolation of reference images

  20. Calibration algorithm in robotic remanufacturing measurement system based on 3D laser scanner

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. D. Shen; S. Zhu; C. Li; Y. Y. Liang

    2009-01-01

    In robotic remanufacturing measurement system, the 3D laser scanner is arranged by the robot and the object scanned is mounted on a turntable. This paper deals with the algorithm of calibrating the relationship between the scanner coordinate and the robot Tool0, and furthermore locating the center axis of the turntable. The data of Tool0 can be directly obtained denoting its

  1. The GEM Center Mobile Terrestrial Laser Scanner (M-TLS) Version 1.1

    E-print Network

    Slatton, Clint

    The GEM Center Mobile Terrestrial Laser Scanner (M-TLS) Version 1.1 July 01, 2007 Ramesh Shrestha (http://www.geosensing.ce.ufl.edu/) has also developed a Mobile Terrestrial Laser Scanner (M-TLS) system point spacing at every few centimeters with a 3D position subcentimeter accuracy, which could

  2. The optimal optical readout for the x-ray light valve—Document scanners

    PubMed Central

    Oakham, P.; MacDougall, Robert D.; Rowlands, J. A.

    2008-01-01

    The x-ray light valve (XLV) is a novel, potentially low-cost, x-ray detector that converts an x-ray exposure into an optical image stored in a liquid crystal cell. This optical image is then transferred from the liquid crystal cell to a computer through an optical-to-digital imaging readout system. Previously, CCD-based cameras were used for the optical readout, but recently it was proposed that an inexpensive optical scanner, such as an office document scanner, is a better match to the optical properties of the XLV. A methodology for characterizing a document scanner’s ability to produce medical quality images from the XLV is outlined and tested on a particular scanner (Canon LiDE 30). This scanner was shown to have key characteristics of a medical device—a linear response, dynamic range sufficient for chest radiography (although not mammography) in a single pass, and an MTF and NPS that exceed the requirements for all medical applications of the scanner. This combination of criteria shows that a document scanner can be used as a digitization method for the XLV. PMID:19175124

  3. The first terrestrial laser scanner application over Vesuvius: High resolution model of a volcano crater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Pesci; F. Loddo; D. Conforti

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with terrestrial long?range laser scanner applications, gives an overview of topics related to this methodology, provides real and tested information about laser scanners, and analyses the reflectance of different materials. After positive results obtained during an experimental test executed in Bologna (Italy) on March 2005, the INGV (Bologna, Italy) and CODEVINTEC srl (Milan, Italy) planned a mission

  4. Design and evaluation of a low thermal electromotive force guarded scanner for resistance measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dean G. Jarrett; James A. Marshall; Thomas A. Marshall; Ronald F. Dziuba

    1999-01-01

    The design and testing of a low thermal electromotive force guarded scanner, developed to provide completely guarded switching when used with actively guarded resistance bridge networks, is described. The design provides a continuous guard circuit trace on the scanner circuit boards that surrounds the relay contacts and protects the measurement circuit from leakages to ground. Modification to the circuit boards

  5. 8 Bit Current-mode Analog Sigrnal Processing System For Fax Scanners

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MASSAD EYAL; REUVEN HOLZER

    1992-01-01

    an Analog module for ~srocessing FAX scanner's signals is presented. The module is a section of a complete solution FAX system chip, which utilizes current mode CMOS circuits in a noisy environment to produce an 8 bit resolu- tion, 64 grey level pictures from iR low cost (low performance) Charge Coupled Device (CCD), or Contact-Qpe Image Sensor (CIS) scanners. I.

  6. 8 bit current-mode analog signal processing system for FAX scanners

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Eyal; R. Holzer

    1992-01-01

    An analog module for processing a fax scanner's signals is presented. The module is a section of a complete solution fax system chip, which utilizes current mode CMOS circuits in a noisy environment to produce an 8-b resolution, 64 gray-level pictures from a low-cost (low performance) charge coupled device (CCD), or contact-type image sensor (CIS) scanners

  7. Numerical Simulations of Major Barred Galaxies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chien-Chang Yen; L. Lin; C. Yuan

    2006-01-01

    Galaxies with major bars such as NGC1300 and NGC1097, are characterized by straight dust lanes, central starburst ring and outer spirals. Recent IR observations also show there are star formation patches and spur-like substructures. Through numerical simulations, we can reproduce the dust lanes, the central starburst ring, and the outer spirals by imposing a single strong bar potential on a

  8. New Results on Bar-Halo Interactions

    E-print Network

    E. Athanassoula

    2001-12-04

    In this paper I argue that, far from necessarily hindering bar formation in disc galaxies, inner haloes may stimulate it. This constitutes a new instability mechanism by which bars can grow. To show this I use a number of N-body simulations whose initial conditions have identical discs and more or less concentrated haloes. They show that the bar that grows in the more halo-dominated environment is considerably stronger than the bar that grows in the more disc-dominated environment. This result is obtained from simulations with live haloes, i.e. composed of particles which respond to the disc and take part in the evolution. On the other hand, if the halo is rigid, it hinders or quenches bar formation, as expected. Comparison of two simulations which are identical in everything, except that the halo is live in the first one and rigid in the second one, leads me to suggest that the halo response can help the bar grow. Following the orbits of the stars in the halo, I find that a considerable fraction of the halo particles are in resonance with the bar. The halo may thus take angular momentum from the bar and stimulate its growth. I finally discuss whether and how the results of the N-body simulations can be applied to real galaxies.

  9. Bar Study Stories. Issues in Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This issue of "Issues in Prevention" focuses on the impact of the availability of drinks in licensed establishments, such as bars and taverns on student drinking. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Cheap Drinks at College Bars Can Escalate Student Drinking (John D. Clapp); (2) High Alcohol Outlet Density: A Problem for Campuses and…

  10. The response of the Seasat and Magsat infrared horizon scanners to cold clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilanow, S.; Phenneger, M.

    1980-01-01

    Cold clouds over the Earth are shown to be the principal cause of pitch and roll measurement noise in flight data from the infrared horizon scanners onboard Seasat and Magsat. The observed effects of clouds on the fixed threshold horizon detection logic of the Magsat scanner and on the variable threshold detection logic of the Seasat scanner are discussed. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Earth photographs marked with the scanner ground trace clearly confirm the relationship between measurement errors and Earth clouds. A one to one correspondence can be seen between excursion in the pitch and roll data and cloud crossings. The characteristics of the cloud-induced noise are discussed, and the response of the satellite control systems to the cloud errors is described. Changes to the horizon scanner designs that would reduce the effects of clouds are noted.

  11. High-speed image acquisition synchronized with the motion of galvanometer scanner for confocal microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Yoon Sung; Moon, Sucbei; Kim, Dug Young

    2008-02-01

    We present a simple 2D image acquisition technique electronically implemented for laser scanning confocal microscope using galvanometer scanners. In order to synchronize image acquisition process with the movement of the galvanometer scanner, position signal of the mirror of the galvanometer scanner is used and manipulated for generating of sync-signals. This is achieved using an analog-digital converter to read a position signal from the scanner which tells about its position and to generate a trigger signal (or pixel clock) which tells the moment of digitizing the received analog signal from the photo-detector. This facilitates processing the image in synchronization with the actual motion of the scanning laser beam scanner. Image construction is performed by a video acquisition board (frame grabber). The newly developed scanning and image acquisition systems are implemented in a confocal microscope with fiber-optic components for compact configuration and flexible light path.

  12. A COST EFFECTIVE MULTI-SPECTRAL SCANNER FOR NATURAL GAS DETECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Yudaya Sivathanu; Jongmook Lim; Vinoo Narayanan

    2004-04-01

    The objective of this project is to design, fabricate and field demonstrate a cost effective, multi-spectral scanner for natural gas leak detection in transmission and distribution pipelines. During the first six months of the project, the design for a laboratory version of the multispectral scanner was completed. The optical, mechanical, and electronic design for the scanner was completed. The optical design was analyzed using Zeemax Optical Design software and found to provide sufficiently resolved performance for the scanner. The electronic design was evaluated using a bread board and very high signal to noise ratios were obtained. Fabrication of a laboratory version of the multi-spectral scanner is currently in progress. A technology status report and a research management plan was also completed during the same period.

  13. Thermomechanical Actuator-Based Three-Axis Optical Scanner for High-Speed Two-Photon Endomicroscope Imaging

    E-print Network

    Chen, Shih-Chi

    This paper presents the design and characterization of a three-axis thermomechanical actuator-based endoscopic scanner for obtaining ex vivo two-photon images. The scanner consisted of two sub-systems: 1) an optical system ...

  14. Perfect Quantum Error Correcting Code

    SciTech Connect

    Laflamme, R.; Miquel, C.; Paz, J.P.; Zurek, W.H. [Theoretical Astrophysics, T-6, MS B288, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Theoretical Astrophysics, T-6, MS B288, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); [Departamento de Fisica, FCEyN, Pabellon 1, Ciudad Universitaria, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    1996-07-01

    We present a quantum error correction code which protects a qubit of information against general one qubit errors. To accomplish this, we encode the original state by distributing quantum information over five qubits, the minimal number required for this task. We describe a circuit which takes the initial state with four extra qubits in the state {vert_bar}0{r_angle} to the encoded state. It can also be converted into a decoder by running it backward. The original state of the encoded qubit can then be restored by a simple unitary transformation. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  15. High Performance “Reach” Codes 

    E-print Network

    Edelson, J.

    2011-01-01

    Jim Edelson New Buildings Institute A Growing Role for Codes and Stretch Codes in Utility Programs Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency November 9, 2011 ESL-KT-11-11-39 CATEE 2011, Dallas, Texas, Nov. 7 ? 9, 2011 New Buildings Institute ESL..., Nov. 7 ? 9, 2011 ?31? Flavors of Codes ? Building Codes Construction Codes Energy Codes Stretch or Reach Energy Codes Above-code programs Green or Sustainability Codes Model Codes ?Existing Building? Codes Outcome-Based Codes ESL-KT-11...

  16. 15. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST INSIDE OF THE 22' BAR MILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST INSIDE OF THE 22' BAR MILL SHIPPING BUILDING No. 1 AT THE 10' SUTTON BAR STRAIGHTENER. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, 22-Inch Bar Mill, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  17. Study of adaptive methods for data compression of scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The performance of adaptive image compression techniques and the applicability of a variety of techniques to the various steps in the data dissemination process are examined in depth. It is concluded that the bandwidth of imagery generated by scanners can be reduced without introducing significant degradation such that the data can be transmitted over an S-band channel. This corresponds to a compression ratio equivalent to 1.84 bits per pixel. It is also shown that this can be achieved using at least two fairly simple techniques with weight-power requirements well within the constraints of the LANDSAT-D satellite. These are the adaptive 2D DPCM and adaptive hybrid techniques.

  18. Advanced Multispectral Scanner (AMS) study. [aircraft remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The status of aircraft multispectral scanner technology was accessed in order to develop preliminary design specifications for an advanced instrument to be used for remote sensing data collection by aircraft in the 1980 time frame. The system designed provides a no-moving parts multispectral scanning capability through the exploitation of linear array charge coupled device technology and advanced electronic signal processing techniques. Major advantages include: 10:1 V/H rate capability; 120 deg FOV at V/H = 0.25 rad/sec; 1 to 2 rad resolution; high sensitivity; large dynamic range capability; geometric fidelity; roll compensation; modularity; long life; and 24 channel data acquisition capability. The field flattening techniques of the optical design allow wide field view to be achieved at fast f/nos for both the long and short wavelength regions. The digital signal averaging technique permits maximization of signal to noise performance over the entire V/H rate range.

  19. Achromatic Holographic Stereogram Of Landsat Multispectral Scanner Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benton, S. A.; Duston-Roberge, D. A.; Simard, R.

    1985-04-01

    A new technique for presenting satellite Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) three-dimensional image data has been developed under a collaboration between the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS) and the Polaroid Corporation. It consists of the production of white-light viewable holographic stereograms obtained by digital and optical processing of Landsat MSS stereo pairs. The digital processing extracts elevation information from suitable Landsat image pairs and synthesizes a sequence of fictitious perspective views. Laser optical processing is then used to merge these images into a white-light viewable holographic stereogram producing a black-and-white three-dimensional image of the earth's surface. The high quality of the relief image demonstrates the potential of computer/holographic hybrid techniques as tools for further analyses of remotely sensed data.

  20. Crop water-stress assessment using an airborne thermal scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millard, J. P.; Jackson, R. D.; Reginato, R. J.; Idso, S. B.; Goettelman, R. C.

    1978-01-01

    An airborne thermal scanner was used to measure the temperature of a wheat crop canopy in Phoenix, Arizona. The results indicate that canopy temperatures acquired about an hour and a half past solar noon were well correlated with presunrise plant water tension, a parameter directly related to plant growth and development. Pseudo-colored thermal images reading directly in stress degree days, a unit indicative of crop irrigation needs and yield potential, were produced. The aircraft data showed significant within-field canopy temperature variability, indicating the superiority of the synoptic view provided by aircraft over localized ground measurements. The standard deviation between airborne and ground-acquired canopy temperatures was 2 C or less.

  1. Registration of airborne scanner imagery using AKIMA quintic polynomial interpolation

    SciTech Connect

    Wiemker, F. [Universitaet Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany)

    1996-11-01

    Evaluation and analysis of most remotely sensed data requires careful image-to-image registration or ortho-rectification (geocoding). Photogrammetric practice has shown that polynomial transformation functions are useful for registration of aerial photographs. However, multi- and hyperspectral remotely sensed data are often recorded by airborne line scanners. Then ortho-rectification by conventional global coordinate transforms is not satisfactory, particularly due to the non-instantaneous image formation process. It is rather necessary to allow for local corrections of distortions. We have implemented two interpolation techniques for the computation of the resampling coordinates, local AKIMA and HARDY multiquadric interpolation, and applied them to experimental image data. Comparison shows that resampling based on AKIMA interpolation is much faster than on HARDY multiquadric. Moreover, AKIMA interpolation in the limit corresponds to conventional second degree polynomial transformation. It is thus an appropriate instrument for local image registration utilizing ground control points. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  2. Eccentric source collimator assembly for rotating source ct scanner

    SciTech Connect

    Braden, A.B.; Covic, J.; Kuwik, J.J.; Richey, J.B.; Taylor, S.K.

    1981-12-08

    Disclosed is a collimator for a tomographic scanner which performs the collimator function of dividing a fan of radiation into a multiplicity of finger beams and the attenuator function of causing a generally bell-shaped radiation energy distribution across a scan circle. The collimator has larger effective apertures for forming radiation into finger beams to traverse the center of the scan circle than for forming finger beams to traverse the edges of the scan circle. The width of the collimator apertures are defined by radially oriented vanes arranged along a circular arc. By offsetting the radiation source from the geometric center of the circular arc, the vanes defining the width of some apertures are more skewed than others relative to the radiation paths.

  3. An innovative optical and chemical drill core scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjöqvist, A. S. L.; Arthursson, M.; Lundström, A.; Calderón Estrada, E.; Inerfeldt, A.; Lorenz, H.

    2015-05-01

    We describe a new innovative drill core scanner that semi-automatedly analyses drill cores directly in drill core trays with X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, without the need for much sample preparation or operator intervention. The instrument is fed with entire core trays, which are photographed at high resolution and scanned by a 3-D profiling laser. Algorithms recognise the geometry of the core tray, number of slots, location of the drill cores, calculate the optimal scanning path, and execute a continuous XRF analysis of 2 cm width along the core. The instrument is equipped with critical analytical components that allow an effective QA/QC routine to be implemented. It is a mobile instrument that can be manoeuvred by a single person with a manual pallet jack.

  4. Subsurface fracture mapping using the Formation MicroScanner tool

    SciTech Connect

    Pilenko, T. (Schlumberger, Assago (Italy))

    1988-08-01

    Fracture detection methods based on standard log measurements are often limited because none of these measurements has been designed to specifically address this problem. Therefore the position vs. depth, orientation, and aperture of the fractures cannot be determined without the help of full-sized cores, which cannot be taken in every well for economic reasons. A new solution to overcome these limitations is given by the oriented microresistivity images provided by the Schlumberger Formation MicroScanner tool (FMS). The comparison between FMS images and real cores confirms the tool can be run extensively in a field for facies zonation and fracture identification. Computer-aided analysis enables recognition and orientation of the fractures. Subsequently, a statistical analysis is applied to classify the different families of fractures. In fractured reservoirs the results permit precise definition of the main permeability paths and the tectonic history of the formation.

  5. Application of Infrared Scanners to Forest Fire Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, S. N.

    1971-01-01

    The potential of using infrared scanners for the detection of forest fires is discussed. An experiment is described in which infrared and visual detection systems were used jointly to study timber fire detection. Many fires were detected visually but missed by the airborne IR system, and many fires were detected by the IR system but missed visually. Until more is learned about the relationship between heat output and smoke output from latent fires, the relative effectiveness of visual and IR systems cannot be determined. The 1970 tests indicated that IR used in combination with visual detection will result in a more efficient system than visual alone. Even with limited knowledge of the relative effectiveness of the two systems, operational use of a combined system can be used to substantially reduce total firefighting costs.

  6. 0.5 gigapixel microscopy using a flatbed scanner

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Guoan; Ou, Xiaoze; Yang, Changhuei

    2013-01-01

    The capability to perform high-resolution, wide field-of-view (FOV) microscopy imaging is highly sought after in biomedical applications. In this paper, we report a wide FOV microscopy system that uses a closed-circuit-television (CCTV) lens for image relay and a flatbed scanner for data acquisition. We show that such an imaging system is capable of capturing a 10 mm × 7.5 mm FOV image with 0.78 µm resolution, resulting in more than 0.5 billion pixels across the entire image. The resolution and field curve of the proposed system were characterized by imaging a USAF resolution target and a hole-array target. To demonstrate its application, 0.5 gigapixel images of histology slides were acquired using this system. PMID:24466471

  7. Wide-Bandwidth Capture of Wire-Scanner Signals

    SciTech Connect

    Gruchalla, Michael E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gilpatrick, John D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sedillo, James Daniel [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Derwin [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-05-16

    Integrated charge collected on the sense wires of wire-scanner systems utilized to determine beam profile is generally the parameter of interest. The LANSCE application requires capturing the charge information macropulse-by-macropulse with macropulse lengths as long as 700 {micro}s at a maximum macropulse rate of 120 Hz. Also, for the LANSCE application, it is required that the integration be performed in a manner that does not require integrator reset between macropulses. Due to the long macropulse which must be accommodated and the 8.33 ms minimum pulse period, a simple R-C integrator cannot be utilized since there is insufficient time between macropulses to allow the integrator to adequately recover. The application of wide analog bandwidth to provide accurate pulse-by-pulse capture of the wire signals with digital integration of the wire signals to determine captured charge at each macropulse in applications with comparatively long macropulses and high pulse repetition rates is presented.

  8. Optimization of ultrasound scanner characteristics: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Metcalfe, S C; Evans, J A

    1993-07-01

    It is generally accepted that different transducer characteristics are optimal for different examinations, but it is not always obvious which other scanner/transducer parameters, e.g. signal processing should be selected for a given examination. We have examined noise and grey-level parameters for two specific anatomical sections (one showing the liver and right kidney and one showing the uterus) using a combination of subjective and objective assessment. The results confirm that the images chosen for this study have different requirements in terms of noise and grey-scale processing. The uterus image requires a large range of greys assigned to the lower level echoes and requires low noise levels. The liver/kidney image was not affected by noise levels in the systems used and required the lower amplitude grey-levels to be compressed, liberating a greater range of greys for the higher amplitude echoes. PMID:8374726

  9. Cryogenic cooling study for the advanced limb scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russo, S. C.

    1980-01-01

    The cryogenic operating requirements for a VM refrigerator to be used for detector cooling of the advanced limb scanner (ALS) instrument are defined. Determination of these requirements include consideration of mission and environmental constraints. Based on the operating requirements a detailed refrigerator design and performance analysis is conducted resulting in an optimized VM refrigerator conceptual design. The cooler-instrument-spacecraft interfaces are evaluated resulting in recommendations as to the best approach and most effective concepts resulting in simple and satisfactory interfaces. A preliminary implementation plan and schedule describing the general tasks required to develop, design, manufacture, test, and deliver three VM coolers and required support equipment to support an ALS flight experiment are presented. The result of this effort shows that existing VM cooler technology is sufficient to satisfy ALS mission requirements and schedules.

  10. ARIES segmented gamma-ray scanner user manual

    SciTech Connect

    Biddle, R.S.; Sheppard, G.A.; Schneider, C.M.

    1998-04-16

    The segmented gamma-ray scatter (SGS) designated as Win{_}SGS at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility has been installed and is intended for use in quantifying the radioisotope content of DOE-STD-3013-96 equivalent containers. The SGS features new software written in C and a new user interface that runs under Microsoft Windows{trademark}. The operation of the ARIES Segmented Gamma-ray Scanner is documented in this manual. It covers user instructions as well as hardware and software details. Additional information is found in the documentation for the commercially available components and modules that compose the SGS. The objective of the ARIES project is to demonstrate technology to dismantle plutonium pits from excess nuclear weapons, convert the plutonium to a metal ingot or an oxide powder, package the metal or oxide, and verify the contents of the package by nondestructive assay.

  11. Applications of the Coastal Zone Color Scanner in oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclain, C. R.

    1988-01-01

    Research activity has continued to be focused on the applications of the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) imagery in oceanography. A number of regional studies were completed including investigations of temporal and spatial variability of phytoplankton populations in the South Atlantic Bight, Northwest Spain, Weddell Sea, Bering Sea, Caribbean Sea and in tropical Atlantic Ocean. In addition to the regional studies, much work was dedicated to developing ancillary global scale meteorological and hydrographic data sets to complement the global CZCS processing products. To accomplish this, SEAPAK's image analysis capability was complemented with an interface to GEMPAK (Severe Storm Branch's meteorological analysis software package) for the analysis and graphical display of gridded data fields. Plans are being made to develop a similar interface to SEAPAK for hydrographic data using EPIC (a hydrographic data analysis package developed by NOAA/PMEL).

  12. Advances in automatic extraction of information from multispectral scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of automatic multispectral scanner data analysis and interpretation is reviewed. Sources of system variability which tend to obscure the spectral characteristics of the classes under consideration are discussed, and examples of the application of spatial and temporal discrimination bases are given. Automatic processing functions, techniques and methods, and equipment are described with particular attention to those that are applicable to large land surveys using satellite data. The development and characteristics of the Multivariate Interactive Digital Analysis System (MIDAS) for processing aircraft or satellite multispectral scanning data are discussed in detail. The MIDAS system combines the parallel digital implementation capabilities of a low-cost processor with a general purpose PDP-11/45 minicomputer to provide near-real-time data processing. The preprocessing functions are user-selectable. The input subsystem accepts data stored on high density digital tape, computer compatible tape, and analog tape.

  13. Scanner-characteristics-aware OPC modeling and correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyminski, Jacek K.; Zhang, Qiaolin; Lucas, Kevin; Depre, Laurent; VanAdrichem, Paul

    2007-03-01

    As scanner projection lens captures only a finite number of IC pattern diffraction orders. This low pass filtering leads to a range of optical proximity effects such as pitch-dependent CD variations, corner rounding and line-end pullback, resulting in imaged IC pattern excursions from the intended designs. These predictable OPEs are driven by the imaging conditions, such as wavelength, illuminator layout, reticle technology, and lens numerical aperture. To mitigate the pattern excursion due to OPEs, the photolithography community developed optical proximity correction methodologies, adopted and refined by the EDA industry. In the current implementations, OPC applied to IC designs can correct layouts to compensate for OPEs and to provide imaged patterns meeting the design requirements.

  14. LANDSAT 4 investigations of thematic mapper and multispectral scanner applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauer, D. T. (principal investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Initial data screening, data handling and program testing were completed on the four-band Detroit scene and the seven-band northeast Arkansas scene. Data were received in early December for one primary eastern test site (Washington, D.C.) and one secondary eastern test site (Allegheny National Forest). A comprehensive digital data base was built for a portion of the Black Hills test site and is composed of historic LANDSAT MSS data; elevation, slope, and aspect data; land cover data; geologic data; thematic mapper simulator data; and digitized high altitude aircraft data. The thematic mapper and multispectral scanner data of the Washington area were resampled at 25 and 50 meters respectively, with map projection to UTM grid.

  15. Study of the beam path distortion profiles generated by a two-axis tilt single-mirror laser scanner

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Moustapha Hafez; Thomas C. Sidler; Rene?-Paul Salathe?

    2003-01-01

    Beam distortion profiles are studied for scanning devices that have a single mirror with two rotational degrees of freedom (DOF), also named tip\\/tilt scanners. The case of a fast steering scanner used for high power material processing applications is studied. The scanner has a bandwidth of 700 Hz, a range of motion of 652 mrad (63 deg), and a resolution

  16. REFERENCING OF IMAGES TO LASER SCANNER DATA USING LINEAR FEATURES EXTRACTED FROM DIGITAL IMAGES AND RANGE IMAGES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Meierhold

    This paper deals with the referencing of single images taken independently from the laser scanner (camera not mounted on the scanner) to a laser scanner point cloud of the same scene. The single image orientation is a standard task in photogrammatric applications and can be performed by a classical photo resection. Thereby, the determination of the exterior orientation is realised

  17. Tracking and Control of a Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle using a Ground-Based 3D Laser Scanner

    E-print Network

    Ohya, Akihisa

    Tracking and Control of a Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle using a Ground-Based 3D Laser Scanner Ryan and orientation of a small unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) using a ground-based 3D laser scanner. A method attempt to tackle tracking and control of an air robot using a ground-based 3D laser scanner

  18. High resolution 3D laser scanner measurements of a strike-slip fault quantify its morphological anisotropy at all scales

    E-print Network

    1 High resolution 3D laser scanner measurements of a strike- slip fault quantify its morphological of a recently exhumed strike- slip fault has been measured by three independent 3D portable laser scanners different 3D field laser scanners and characterized its geometry in terms of scaling properties

  19. Correction of inter-scanner and within-subject variance in structural MRI based automated diagnosing.

    PubMed

    Kostro, Daniel; Abdulkadir, Ahmed; Durr, Alexandra; Roos, Raymund; Leavitt, Blair R; Johnson, Hans; Cash, David; Tabrizi, Sarah J; Scahill, Rachael I; Ronneberger, Olaf; Klöppel, Stefan

    2014-09-01

    Automated analysis of structural magnetic resonance images is a promising way to improve early detection of neurodegenerative brain diseases. Clinical applications of such methods involve multiple scanners with potentially different hardware and/or acquisition sequences and demographically heterogeneous groups. To improve classification performance, we propose to correct effects of subject-specific covariates (such as age, total intracranial volume, and sex) as well as effects of scanner by using a non-linear Gaussian process model. To test the efficacy of the correction, we performed classification of carriers of the genetic mutation leading to Huntington's disease (HD) versus healthy controls. Half of the HD carriers were free of typical HD symptoms and had an estimated 5 to 20years before onset of clinical symptoms, thus providing a model for preclinical diagnosis of a neurodegenerative disease. Structural magnetic resonance brain images were acquired at four sites with pairs of sites which had the identical scanner type, equipment, and acquisition parameters. For automatic classification, we used spatially normalized probabilistic maps of gray matter, then removed confounding effects by Gaussian process regression, and then performed classification with a support vector machine. Voxel-based morphometry of gray matter maps showed disease effects that were spatially wider spread than effects of scanner, but no significant interactions between scanner and disease were found. A model trained with data from a single scanner generalized well to data from a different scanner. When confounding diagnostics groups and scanner during training, e.g. by using controls from one scanner and gene carriers from another, classification accuracy dropped significantly in many cases. By regressing out confounds with Gaussian process regression, the performance levels were comparable to those obtained in scenarios without confound. We conclude that models trained on data acquired with a single scanner generalized well to data acquired with a different same-generation scanner even when the vendor differed. When confounding grouping and scanner during training is unavoidable to gather training data, regressing out inter-scanner and between-subject variability can reduce the loss in accuracy due to the confound. PMID:24791746

  20. DYNAMICAL BAR-MODE INSTABILITY IN DIFFERENTIALLY ROTATING MAGNETIZED NEUTRON STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Camarda, Karen D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Washburn University, Topeka, KS 66621 (United States); Anninos, Peter [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Fragile, P. Chris [Department of Physics and Astronomy, College of Charleston, Charleston, SC 29424 (United States); Font, Jose A. [Departamento de AstronomIa y AstrofIsica, Universidad de Valencia, Dr. Moliner 50, 46100, Burjassot, Valencia (Spain)

    2009-12-20

    This paper presents a numerical study over a wide parameter space of the likelihood of dynamical bar-mode instability in differentially rotating magnetized neutron stars. The innovative aspect of this study is the incorporation of magnetic fields in such a context, which have thus far been neglected in the purely hydrodynamical simulations available in the literature. The investigation uses the Cosmos++ code which allows us to perform three-dimensional simulations on a cylindrical grid at high resolution. A sample of Newtonian magnetohydrodynamical simulations starting from a set of models previously analyzed by other authors without magnetic fields has been performed, providing estimates of the effects of magnetic fields on the dynamical bar-mode deformation of rotating neutron stars. Overall, our results suggest that the effect of magnetic fields is not likely to be very significant in realistic configurations. Only in the most extreme cases are the magnetic fields able to suppress growth of the bar mode.