Note: This page contains sample records for the topic bar code scanner from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

The design of the CMOS wireless bar code scanner applying optical system based on ZigBee  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The traditional bar code scanner is influenced by the length of data line, but the farthest distance of the wireless bar code scanner of wireless communication is generally between 30m and 100m on the market. By rebuilding the traditional CCD optical bar code scanner, a CMOS code scanner is designed based on the ZigBee to meet the demands of market. The scan system consists of the CMOS image sensor and embedded chip S3C2401X, when the two dimensional bar code is read, the results show the inaccurate and wrong code bar, resulted from image defile, disturber, reads image condition badness, signal interference, unstable system voltage. So we put forward the method which uses the matrix evaluation and Read-Solomon arithmetic to solve them. In order to construct the whole wireless optics of bar code system and to ensure its ability of transmitting bar code image signals digitally with long distances, ZigBee is used to transmit data to the base station, and this module is designed based on image acquisition system, and at last the wireless transmitting/receiving CC2430 module circuit linking chart is established. And by transplanting the embedded RTOS system LINUX to the MCU, an applying wireless CMOS optics bar code scanner and multi-task system is constructed. Finally, performance of communication is tested by evaluation software Smart RF. In broad space, every ZIGBEE node can realize 50m transmission with high reliability. When adding more ZigBee nodes, the transmission distance can be several thousands of meters long.

Chen, Yuelin; Peng, Jian

2008-03-01

2

Bar Code Labels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

American Bar Codes, Inc. developed special bar code labels for inventory control of space shuttle parts and other space system components. ABC labels are made in a company-developed anodizing aluminum process and consecutively marketed with bar code symbology and human readable numbers. They offer extreme abrasion resistance and indefinite resistance to ultraviolet radiation, capable of withstanding 700 degree temperatures without deterioration and up to 1400 degrees with special designs. They offer high resistance to salt spray, cleaning fluids and mild acids. ABC is now producing these bar code labels commercially or industrial customers who also need labels to resist harsh environments.

1988-01-01

3

Bar coded retroreflective target  

DOEpatents

This small, inexpensive, non-contact laser sensor can detect the location of a retroreflective target in a relatively large volume and up to six degrees of position. The tracker's laser beam is formed into a plane of light which is swept across the space of interest. When the beam illuminates the retroreflector, some of the light returns to the tracker. The intensity, angle, and time of the return beam is measured to calculate the three dimensional location of the target. With three retroreflectors on the target, the locations of three points on the target are measured, enabling the calculation of all six degrees of target position. Until now, devices for three-dimensional tracking of objects in a large volume have been heavy, large, and very expensive. Because of the simplicity and unique characteristics of this tracker, it is capable of three-dimensional tracking of one to several objects in a large volume, yet it is compact, light-weight, and relatively inexpensive. Alternatively, a tracker produces a diverging laser beam which is directed towards a fixed position, and senses when a retroreflective target enters the fixed field of view. An optically bar coded target can be read by the tracker to provide information about the target. The target can be formed of a ball lens with a bar code on one end. As the target moves through the field, the ball lens causes the laser beam to scan across the bar code.

Vann, Charles S. (Fremont, CA)

2000-01-01

4

Bar codes and their potential applications in hospital pharmacy.  

PubMed

The technology and terminology of bar codes, the Health Industry Bar Code (HIBC) Standard, issues facing the pharmaceutical industry with respect to bar codes, and potential applications of bar codes in hospital pharmacy are reviewed. Bar codes consist of a series of parallel alternating dark lines and empty spaces. Commonly used bar codes include UPC (Universal Product Code), Interleaved 2 of 5, Codabar, Code 93, Code 128, and Code 39. There are several different types of scanners that may be used for scanning bar codes. Some of the variable features are portability, contact and noncontact, autodiscrimination, and the presence of numeric keypads. The HIBC Council (HIBCC) is a steering committee charged with developing bar-code standards for health care, assigning identification numbers to manufacturers, and providing information to interested individuals. The HIBCC Board includes representatives from health-care providers, equipment manufacturers, drug manufacturers, and wholesalers. Drug manufacturers are concerned about several issues with regard to bar codes; for example, who will pay for the cost of implementation, on what level of packaging will the bar codes be required, and are there legal implications if a poor scan results in patient harm? Bar codes have already been applied in some hospitals for coding blood containers, roentgenogram jackets, medical records, and capital equipment. The potential applications in hospital pharmacy include inventory control, verifying the accuracy of dispensing to both inpatients and outpatients, and record keeping for drug product expiration or disposal. Bar codes also offer pharmacists the ability to perform in-process dispensing controls that are not practical to perform manually. Bar-code technology offers health-care personnel the opportunity to improve work efficiency and increase the accuracy of data entry into automated systems. PMID:4083293

Nold, E G; Williams, T C

1985-12-01

5

Property Control through Bar Coding.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A public utility company uses laser wands to read bar-coded labels on furniture and equipment. The system allows an 80 percent savings of the time required to create reports for inventory control. (MLF)

Kingma, Gerben J.

1984-01-01

6

Bar codes : can you decode a barcode?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students are shown a key to the post office conversion code and given a bar coded zip code to decipher. The activity, part of the Figure This! collection of 80 math challenges emphasizing math in the real world, introduces the bar-coding system and explains how the system enables businesses and banks to run more efficiently. The Hint suggests that students group the long and short bars into sets of five and then refer to the key to see what number is being represented. Related questions ask students to write a code using the U.S. Postal Service bar code and to decode a bar code on a piece of their own mail. Answers to all questions and links to resources are included. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM)

2002-01-01

7

Bar code usage in nuclear materials accountability  

SciTech Connect

The age old method of physically taking an inventory of materials by listing each item's identification number has lived beyond its usefulness. In this age of computerization, which offers the local grocery store a quick, sure, and easy means to inventory, it is time for nuclear materials facilities to automate accountability activities. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant began investigating the use of automated data collection devices in 1979. At that time, bar code and optical-character-recognition (OCR) systems were reviewed with the purpose of directly entering data into DYMCAS (Dynamic Special Nuclear Materials Control and Accountability System). Both of these systems appeared applicable; however, other automated devices already employed for production control made implementing the bar code and OCR seem improbable. However, the DYMCAS was placed on line for nuclear material accountability, a decision was made to consider the bar code for physical inventory listings. For the past several months a development program has been underway to use a bar code device to collect and input data to the DYMCAS on the uranium recovery operations. Programs have been completed and tested, and are being employed to ensure that data will be compatible and useful. Bar code implementation and expansion of its use for all nuclear material inventory activity in Y-12 is presented.

Mee, W.T.

1983-07-01

8

Materials management with a bar code reader.  

PubMed

A materials management system capable of inventory control, accounting and the automatic recording of supplies for a clinical department has been developed for the George Washington University Hospital Department of Anesthesia. This system combines a microprocessor-based computer for data storage and a hand-held bar code reader to record the bar code scan of each item in the inventory. A relational software program with easy-to-use menus and help keys was written. Bar code information stored for each item includes item number, quantity, date and time of issue. Accumulated bar code scans are loaded into the computer by use of a serial port and then used to update current inventory in the computer. Comparison between current inventory and reorder levels by the computer will initiate automatic printing of appropriate purchase orders. Reorder levels are adjusted regularly, by comparing previous year or month usage to current needs; items already on order, items on back order and delivery lag time are also taken into account. PMID:10104851

Kaplan, R S

1990-01-01

9

Bar-code automated waste tracking system  

SciTech Connect

The Bar-Code Automated Waste Tracking System was designed to be a site-Specific program with a general purpose application for transportability to other facilities. The system is user-friendly, totally automated, and incorporates the use of a drive-up window that is close to the areas dealing in container preparation, delivery, pickup, and disposal. The system features ``stop-and-go`` operation rather than a long, tedious, error-prone manual entry. The system is designed for automation but allows operators to concentrate on proper handling of waste while maintaining manual entry of data as a backup. A large wall plaque filled with bar-code labels is used to input specific details about any movement of waste.

Hull, T.E.

1994-10-01

10

Applications of bar code technology at nuclear power plants  

SciTech Connect

Bar code is an emerging technology that can eliminate handwritten and keyboard data-entry errors. With application-specific software, bar code technology can provide inventory control, reducing staff time and paperwork. This paper summarizes bar code technology, describes hardware commercially available, and reviews application software systems for use in nuclear power plants.

Moose, T.N. Jr. (Sorrento Electronics, Inc., Cary, NC (USA)); Stegall, G. (Carolina Power and Light Company, New Hill, NC (USA))

1989-11-01

11

Bar-code verification: reducing but not eliminating medication errors.  

PubMed

Using observation, eye tracking, and clinical simulation with embedded errors, we studied the impact of bar-code verification on error identification and recovery during medication administration. Data supported that bar-code verification may reduce but does not eliminate patient identification (ID) and medication errors during clinical simulation of medication administration. PMID:23151928

Henneman, Philip L; Marquard, Jenna L; Fisher, Donald L; Bleil, Justin; Walsh, Brendan; Henneman, Justin P; Blank, Fidela S; Higgins, Ann Marie; Nathanson, Brian H; Henneman, Elizabeth A

2012-12-01

12

Objectivity in Grading: The Promise of Bar Codes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article proposes the use of a new technology to assure student anonymity and reduce bias hazards: identifying students by using bar codes. The limited finding suggests that the use of bar codes for assuring student anonymity could potentially cause students to perceive that grades are assigned more fairly and reassure teachers that they are…

Jae, Haeran; Cowling, John

2009-01-01

13

21 CFR 610.67 - Bar code label requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...this chapter. However, the bar code requirements do not apply to devices regulated by the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research or to blood and blood components intended for transfusion. For blood and blood components intended for transfusion, the...

2011-04-01

14

Simulating barrier penetration during combat. Technical report. [Bars code  

SciTech Connect

A computer program, BARS, simulates combat between an adversary group attempting to hijack special nuclear material and escort personnel attempting to protect it. BARS is designed to investigate how various combat strategies and levels of performance affect the time required to penetrate barriers (armor, deterrent systems, etc.) against forcible entry. A Monte Carlo code, BARS uses a game theoretic approach to allocate the attacking and defending forces. Combat suppression is simulated using a stochastic state-transition model for the behavior of individuals under combat stress. The BARS program was developed as part of the overall combat modelling effort of the transportation safeguards program.

De Laquil, P. III

1980-04-01

15

Innovative application of bar coding technology to breast milk administration.  

PubMed

Hospitalized infants often receive expressed breast milk, either from their mother or from banked milk. Breast milk provides optimal nutrition for infants but because it is a body fluid it carries the risk of disease transmission. Therefore, administering the correct breast milk to hospitalized infants is essential. Bar coding technology, used in hospitals to prevent errors related to medication administration, can be proactively applied to prevent breast milk administration errors. Bar coding systems offer advantages over manual verification processes, including decreasing errors due to human factors and providing for automated entry of feedings in the electronic health record. However, potential barriers to successful implementation must be addressed. These barriers include equipment and training costs, increased time to perform the additional steps with bar coding, and work-arounds. PMID:23618935

Fleischman, Ellen K

2013-01-01

16

Benchmarking a Monte Carlo simulation code on a prototype LSO scanner  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Monte Carlo simulation code has been developed to predict new PET scanners' performances, such as sensitivity and scatter fraction, or obtain physics information such as deposited energy spectra. The code has been tested on a CTI PET prototype based on LSO panel detectors, and its results are in excellent agreement with experimental data: in particular a comparison of Noise

Maurizio Conti; Michael E. Casey; Lars Eriksson; Marita Eriksson

2001-01-01

17

Benchmarking a Monte Carlo simulation code on a prototype LSO scanner  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Monte Carlo simulation code has been developed to predict new positron emission tomography (PET) scanner performance such as sensitivity and scatter fraction or to obtain physics information such as deposited energy spectra. The code has been tested on a PET prototype based on lutetium-ortho-silicate (LSO) panel detectors and its results are in excellent agreement with experimental data; in particular,

Maurizio Conti; Michael E. Casey; Lars Eriksson; Marita Eriksson

2002-01-01

18

Two-Dimensional Bar-Code Decoding with Camera-Equipped Mobile Phones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data entry for mobile phones has always been limited by the phone's numeric keypad. One way to overcome this is through two-dimensional bar-codes read by the phone's camera. This paper presents two-dimensional bar-code reading using camera phones. Bar-code reading applications use the phone's camera to capture an image of a bar-code, and then use the phone's processor for decoding. They

Tasos Falas; Hossein Kashani

2007-01-01

19

Guidance for Industry: Bar Code Label Requirements, Questions and Answers. Revision 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

FDA regulations require that certain human drug and biological product labels contain a bar code consisting of, at a minimum, the National Drug Code (NDC) number (21 CFR 201.25). This guidance provides questions and answers relating to how the bar code la...

2006-01-01

20

Identifying Objects via Encased X-Ray-Fluorescent Materials - the Bar Code Inside  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Systems for identifying objects by means of x-ray fluorescence (XRF) of encased labeling elements have been developed. The XRF spectra of objects so labeled would be analogous to the external bar code labels now used to track objects in everyday commerce. In conjunction with computer-based tracking systems, databases, and labeling conventions, the XRF labels could be used in essentially the same manner as that of bar codes to track inventories and to record and process commercial transactions. In addition, as summarized briefly below, embedded XRF labels could be used to verify the authenticity of products, thereby helping to deter counterfeiting and fraud. A system, as described above, is called an encased core product identification and authentication system (ECPIAS). The ECPIAS concept is a modified version of that of a related recently initiated commercial development of handheld XRF spectral scanners that would identify alloys or detect labeling elements deposited on the surfaces of objects. In contrast, an ECPIAS would utilize labeling elements encased within the objects of interest. The basic ECPIAS concept is best illustrated by means of an example of one of several potential applications: labeling of cultured pearls by labeling the seed particles implanted in oysters to grow the pearls. Each pearl farmer would be assigned a unique mixture of labeling elements that could be distinguished from the corresponding mixtures of other farmers. The mixture would be either incorporated into or applied to the surfaces of the seed prior to implantation in the oyster. If necessary, the labeled seed would be further coated to make it nontoxic to the oyster. After implantation, the growth of layers of mother of pearl on the seed would encase the XRF labels, making these labels integral, permanent parts of the pearls that could not be removed without destroying the pearls themselves. The XRF labels would be read by use of XRF scanners, the spectral data outputs of which would be converted to alphanumeric data in a digital equivalent data system (DEDS), which is the subject of the previous article. These alphanumeric data would be used to track the pearls through all stages of commerce, from the farmer to the retail customer.

Schramm, Harry F.; Kaiser, Bruce

2005-01-01

21

A Skew Distortion Correction Method for 2D Bar Code Images Based on Vanishing Points  

Microsoft Academic Search

The skew distortion is the crucial problem that influences the procession for the 2D bar code image recognition. However, as a result of the skew distortion, the vanishing points provide valuable information concerning the camera model used to capture the image. In this paper, a robust and fast algorithm for skew distortion correction in 2D bar code images based on

Xiao-Wei Xu; Zhi-Yan Wang; Yan-Qing Zhang; Ying-Hong Liang

2007-01-01

22

Field depth extension of 2D barcode scanner based on wavefront coding and projection algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wavefront coding (WFC) used in 2D barcode scanners can extend the depth of field into a great extent with simpler structure compared to the autofocus microscope system. With a cubic phase mask (CPM) employed in the STOP, blurred images will be obtained in charge coupled device (CCD), which can be restored by digital filters. Direct methods are used widely in real-time restoration with good computational efficiency but with details smoothed. Here, the results of direct method are firstly filtered by hard-threshold function. The positions of the steps can be detected by simple differential operators. With the positions corrected by projection algorithm, the exact barcode information is restored. A wavefront coding system with 7mm effective focal length and 6 F-number is designed as an example. Although with the different magnification, images of different object distances can be restored by one point spread function (PSF) with 200mm object distance. A QR code (Quickly Response Code) of 31mm X 27mm is used as a target object. The simulation results showed that the sharp imaging objective distance is from 80mm to 355mm. The 2D barcode scanner with wavefront coding extends field depth with simple structure, low cost and large manufacture tolerance. This combination of the direct filter and projection algorithm proposed here could get the exact 2D barcode information with good computational efficiency.

Zhao, Tingyu; Ye, Zi; Zhang, Wenzi; Huang, Weiwei; Yu, Feihong

2008-03-01

23

Scanning micro-mirrors: from bar-code scanning to spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Micro Opto Electro Mechanical Systems (MOEMS) reach more and more importance in technical applications. They are smaller than conventional devices, less expensive when fabricated in higher numbers and offer new options concerning reliability and measuring methods. Resonant movable micro-mirrors produced as single crystalline chips with CMOS-compatible technologies provide a broad field of applications. In this paper, we will present different micro-mirrors, which are developed by the Fraunhofer IPMS in Dresden, Germany. They have different layouts and are thus suitable for several applications. Fabricated 1D-mirrors with mechanical angles of +/- 16° can be used for laser deflection in bar-code-scanners, 2D-mirrors with different sizes and frequencies are suitable for imaging, displaying etc. Furthermore processes to apply diffractive structures on the micro-mirror surface were developed, showing an increased efficiency in the first diffraction order. Thus a micro-spectrometer has been built up, working in a wavelength range of 900-2500 nm. Due to the Czerny-Turner set-up, only one fast single InGaAs-photodiode is required.

Zimmer, F.; Grueger, H.; Heberer, A.; Sandner, T.; Wolter, A.; Schenk, H.

2005-08-01

24

Accuracy and time requirements of a bar-code inventory system for medical supplies.  

PubMed

The effects of implementing a bar-code system for issuing medical supplies to nursing units at a university teaching hospital were evaluated. Data on the time required to issue medical supplies to three nursing units at a 480-bed, tertiary-care teaching hospital were collected (1) before the bar-code system was implemented (i.e., when the manual system was in use), (2) one month after implementation, and (3) four months after implementation. At the same times, the accuracy of the central supply perpetual inventory was monitored using 15 selected items. One-way analysis of variance tests were done to determine any significant differences between the bar-code and manual systems. Using the bar-code system took longer than using the manual system because of a significant difference in the time required for order entry into the computer. Multiple-use requirements of the central supply computer system made entering bar-code data a much slower process. There was, however, a significant improvement in the accuracy of the perpetual inventory. Using the bar-code system for issuing medical supplies to the nursing units takes longer than using the manual system. However, the accuracy of the perpetual inventory was significantly improved with the implementation of the bar-code system. PMID:3364433

Hanson, L B; Weinswig, M H; De Muth, J E

1988-02-01

25

Star Library: Breaking the Code -- A Graphical Exploration Using Bar Charts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Caesar Shift is a translation of the alphabet; for example, a five-letter shift would code the letter a as f, b as g, ... z as e. We describe a five-step process for decoding an encrypted message. First, groups of size 4 construct a frequency table of the letters in two lines of a coded message. Second, students construct a bar chart for a reference message of the frequency of letters in the English language. Third, students create a bar chart of the coded message. Fourth, students visually compare the bar chart of the reference message (step 2) to the bar chart of the coded message (step 3). Based on this comparison, students hypothesize a shift. Fifth, students apply the shift to the coded message. After decoding the message, students are asked a series of questions that assess their ability to see patterns. The questions are geared for higher levels of cognitive reasoning.

Gabrosek, John; Schuckers, Michael E.

2001-01-01

26

Inventory Applications. Research Report Volume 2. Bar Code Application Pilot Projects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The South Carolina Department of Transportation (SCDOT) performs numerous engineering, accounting, and management functions that are data intensive. Two pilot projects were initiated by Clemson university to demonstrate the use of bar code technology as a...

M. Menezes B. Blackmon L. Bell

1997-01-01

27

Supply Chain Management: A Case Study of Using EDI and Bar Code Information Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research addresses the impact of various practices in supply chain management with EDI and barcoding information technology. While EDI represents the state of art in business forms exchange, bar code represents the state of the art in data collection...

W. Y. Wu

1997-01-01

28

Side scanner for supermarkets: a new scanner design standard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High speed UPC bar code has become a standard mode of data capture for supermarkets in the US, Europe, and Japan. The influence of the ergonomics community on the design of the scanner is evident. During the past decade the ergonomic issues of cashier in check-outs has led to occupational hand-wrist cumulative trauma disorders, in most cases causing carpal tunnel syndrome, a permanent hand injury. In this paper, the design of a side scanner to resolve the issues is discussed. The complex optical module and the sensor for aforesaid side scanner is described. The ergonomic advantages offer the old counter mounted vertical scanner has been experimentally proved by the industrial funded study at an independent university.

Cheng, Charles K.; Cheng, J. K.

1996-09-01

29

Let's go bananas: revisiting the endocytic BAR code  

PubMed Central

Against the odds of membrane resistance, members of the BIN/Amphiphysin/Rvs (BAR) domain superfamily shape membranes and their activity is indispensable for a plethora of life functions. While crystal structures of different BAR dimers advanced our understanding of membrane shaping by scaffolding and hydrophobic insertion mechanisms considerably, especially life-imaging techniques and loss-of-function studies of clathrin-mediated endocytosis with its gradually increasing curvature show that the initial idea that solely BAR domain curvatures determine their functions is oversimplified. Diagonal placing, lateral lipid-binding modes, additional lipid-binding modules, tilde shapes and formation of macromolecular lattices with different modes of organisation and arrangement increase versatility. A picture emerges, in which BAR domain proteins create macromolecular platforms, that recruit and connect different binding partners and ensure the connection and coordination of the different events during the endocytic process, such as membrane invagination, coat formation, actin nucleation, vesicle size control, fission, detachment and uncoating, in time and space, and may thereby offer mechanistic explanations for how coordination, directionality and effectiveness of a complex process with several steps and key players can be achieved.

Qualmann, Britta; Koch, Dennis; Kessels, Michael Manfred

2011-01-01

30

Nurses' attitudes toward the use of the bar-coding medication administration system.  

PubMed

This study determines nurses' attitudes toward bar-coding medication administration system use. Some of the factors underlying the successful use of bar-coding medication administration systems that are viewed as a connotative indicator of users' attitudes were used to gather data that describe the attitudinal basis for system adoption and use decisions in terms of subjective satisfaction. Only 67 nurses in the United States had the chance to respond to the e-questionnaire posted on the CARING list server for the months of June and July 2007. Participants rated their satisfaction with bar-coding medication administration system use based on system functionality, usability, and its positive/negative impact on the nursing practice. Results showed, to some extent, positive attitude, but the image profile draws attention to nurses' concerns for improving certain system characteristics. The high bar-coding medication administration system skills revealed a more negative perception of the system by the nursing staff. The reasons underlying dissatisfaction with bar-coding medication administration use by skillful users are an important source of knowledge that can be helpful for system development as well as system deployment. As a result, strengthening bar-coding medication administration system usability by magnifying its ability to eliminate medication errors and the contributing factors, maximizing system functionality by ascertaining its power as an extra eye in the medication administration process, and impacting the clinical nursing practice positively by being helpful to nurses, speeding up the medication administration process, and being user-friendly can offer a congenial settings for establishing positive attitude toward system use, which in turn leads to successful bar-coding medication administration system use. PMID:20182162

Marini, Sana Daya; Hasman, Arie; Huijer, Huda Abu-Saad; Dimassi, Hani

2010-01-01

31

Machine readable identification systems: An overview. [Bar code and other labeling methods  

SciTech Connect

The application of automated identification of an item by the use of machine readable methods is improving the accuracy and speed of data capture. Bar codes, optical character recognition, magnetic strips, and magnetic-ink recognition are all current machine readable methods which are used for data collection. Bar code data collection is the most used technology for real time inventory control, tracking, and point of sale applications. Magnetic strip coding is used for highly compact data identification on ID cards and on tags. Optical character recognition is generally used today to capture documents for computer storage and recall. Magnetic-ink character recognition, though used widely in banking, has limited applications elsewhere. Bar code methods are currently experiencing a faster rate of growth than the other technologies. Emphasis of this paper is on bar coding because of its popularity. The fundamentals of bar coding are discussed and labeling and scanning techniques are presented. New, automatic data-collection techniques are being developed, utilizing microcircuits and compact-disk memory media. The greatly increased memory capacity of these systems will likely lead to identification in terms of definitive characteristics of the item.

Smith, F.J.; Cantor, S.

1987-09-01

32

Biosensors and Bio-Bar Code Assays Based on Biofunctionalized Magnetic Microbeads  

PubMed Central

This review paper reports the applications of magnetic microbeads in biosensors and bio-bar code assays. Affinity biosensors are presented through different types of transducing systems: electrochemical, piezo electric or magnetic ones, applied to immunodetection and genodetection. Enzymatic biosensors are based on biofunctionalization through magnetic microbeads of a transducer, more often amperometric, potentiometric or conductimetric. The bio-bar code assays relie on a sandwich structure based on specific biological interaction of a magnetic microbead and a nanoparticle with a defined biological molecule. The magnetic particle allows the separation of the reacted target molecules from unreacted ones. The nanoparticles aim at the amplification and the detection of the target molecule. The bio-bar code assays allow the detection at very low concentration of biological molecules, similar to PCR sensitivity.

Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole; Martelet, Claude; Chevolot, Yann; Cloarec, Jean-Pierre

2007-01-01

33

Bar-coded hydrogel microparticles for protein detection: synthesis, assay and scanning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This protocol describes the core methodology for the fabrication of bar-coded hydrogel microparticles, the capture and labeling of protein targets and the rapid microfluidic scanning of particles for multiplexed detection. Multifunctional hydrogel particles made from poly(ethylene glycol) serve as a sensitive, nonfouling and bio-inert suspension array for the multiplexed measurement of proteins. Each particle type bears a distinctive graphical code

David C Appleyard; Stephen C Chapin; Rathi L Srinivas; Patrick S Doyle

2011-01-01

34

The Impact of Bar Code Medication Administration Technology on Reported Medication Errors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of bar-code medication administration technology is on the rise in acute care facilities in the United States. The technology is purported to decrease medication errors that occur at the point of administration. How significantly this technology affects actual rate and severity of error is unknown. This descriptive, longitudinal research…

Holecek, Andrea

2011-01-01

35

Improving Patient Safety by Identifying Side Effects from Introducing Bar Coding in Medication Administration  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveIn addition to providing new capabilities, the introduction of technology in complex, sociotechnical systems, such as health care and aviation, can have unanticipated side effects on technical, social, and organizational dimensions. To identify potential accidents in the making, the authors looked for side effects from a natural experiment, the implementation of bar code medication administration (BCMA), a technology designed to

EMILY S. PATTERSON; RICHARD I. COOK; MARTA L. RENDER

2002-01-01

36

Bar-code technology for inventory and marketing management systems: A model for its development and implementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The search for increased industrial productivity, better customer service, improved inventory accuracy, enhancement of buyer\\/seller communication, inventory and marketing cost savings and higher quality standards is generating new opportunities and challenges for bar codes as a means to support complete supply chains. In this paper, a conceptual framework for the integration of a bar-code system in inventory and marketing and

Vassiliki Manthou; Maro Vlachopoulou

2001-01-01

37

Preliminary investigation of acoustic bar codes for short-range underwater communications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In March 2005, underwater acoustic communications experiments were carried out from the DRDC Atlantic research vessel CFAV QUEST. A battery-operated BATS20 transmitter and a broadband barrel-stave flextensional transducer were used to broadcast noise containing acoustic bar code (ABC) information. The ABCs are silent frequency bands of fixed duration that resemble retail bar codes when viewed in a spectrogram. Two sites were selected for the experiments. The first was a shallow-water area west of the Berry Islands in the Bahamas, and the second was a deep-water site south of the Western Bank on the Scotian Shelf. Two receiver systems were deployed; autonomous, variable-buoyancy Stealth Buoys resting on the bottom at the shallow site, and drifting AN/SSQ-53F sonobuoys fitted with GPS at the deep site. Results from these experiments will be presented and future work will be discussed.

Jones, Dennis F.

2005-09-01

38

Cost-Benefit Analysis of a Hospital Pharmacy Bar Code Solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods: We performed a cost-benefit analysis of a bar code-assisted medication-dispensing system within a large, academic, nonprofit tertiary care hospital phar- macy. We took the implementing hospital's perspective for a 5-year horizon. The primary outcome was the net financial cost and benefit after 5 years. The secondary out- come was the time until total benefits equaled total costs. Single-variable, 2-variable,

Saverio M. Maviglia; Msc Jane Y. Yoo; Mpp Calvin Franz; Erica Featherstone; William Churchill; Pharmd David W. Bates; Msc Tejal K. Gandhi; Mph Eric G. Poon

2007-01-01

39

A Molecular Bar-Coded DNA Repair Resource for Pooled Toxicogenomic Screens  

PubMed Central

DNA damage from exogenous and endogenous sources can promote mutations and cell death. Fortunately, cells contain DNA repair and damage signalling pathways to reduce the mutagenic and cytotoxic effects of DNA damage. The identification of specific DNA repair proteins and the coordination of DNA repair pathways after damage has been a central theme to the field of Genetic Toxicology and we have developed a tool for use in this area. We have produced 99 molecular bar-coded Escherichia coli gene-deletion mutants specific to DNA repair and damage signalling pathways, and each bar-coded mutant can be tracked in pooled format using bar-code specific microarrays. Our design adapted bar-codes developed for the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Gene Deletion Project, which allowed us to utilize an available microarray product for pooled gene-exposure studies. Microarray-based screens were used for en masse identification of individual mutants sensitive to methyl methanesulfonate (MMS). As expected, gene deletion mutants specific to direct, base excision, and recombinational DNA repair pathways were identified as MMS-sensitive in our pooled assay, thus validating our resource. We have demonstrated that molecular bar-codes designed for S. cerevisiae are transferable to E. coli, and that they can be used with pre-existing microarrays to perform competitive growth experiments. Further, when comparing microarray to traditional plate-based screens both over-lapping and distinct results were obtained, which is a novel technical finding, with discrepancies between the two approaches explained by differences in output measurements (DNA content verse cell mass). The microarray-based classification of ?tag and ?dinG cells as depleted after MMS exposure, contrary to plate-based methods, led to the discovery that ?tag and ?dinG cells show a filamentation phenotype after MMS exposure, thus accounting for the discrepancy. A novel biological finding is the observation that while ?dinG cells filament in response to MMS they exhibit wild-type sulA expression after exposure. This decoupling of filamentation from SulA levels suggests that DinG is associated with the SulA-independent filamentation pathway.

Rooney, John P.; Patil, Ashish; Zappala, Maria R.; Conklin, Douglas S.; Cunningham, Richard P.; Begley, Thomas J.

2008-01-01

40

Bar-coded hydrogel microparticles for protein detection: synthesis, assay and scanning.  

PubMed

This protocol describes the core methodology for the fabrication of bar-coded hydrogel microparticles, the capture and labeling of protein targets and the rapid microfluidic scanning of particles for multiplexed detection. Multifunctional hydrogel particles made from poly(ethylene glycol) serve as a sensitive, nonfouling and bio-inert suspension array for the multiplexed measurement of proteins. Each particle type bears a distinctive graphical code consisting of unpolymerized holes in the wafer structure of the microparticle; this code serves to identify the antibody probe covalently incorporated throughout a separate probe region of the particle. The protocol for protein detection can be separated into three steps: (i) synthesis of particles via microfluidic flow lithography at a rate of 16,000 particles per hour; (ii) a 3-4-h assay in which protein targets are captured and labeled within particles using an antibody sandwich technique; and (iii) a flow scanning procedure to detect bar codes and quantify corresponding targets at rates of 25 particles per s. By using the techniques described, single- or multiple-probe particles can be reproducibly synthesized and used in customizable multiplexed panels to measure protein targets over a three-log range and at concentrations as low as 1 pg ml(-1). PMID:22015846

Appleyard, David C; Chapin, Stephen C; Srinivas, Rathi L; Doyle, Patrick S

2011-11-01

41

Medication administration: the implementation process of bar-coding for medication administration to enhance medication safety.  

PubMed

Approximately 1.5 million Americans are injured each year because of medication errors. In hospitals alone medication errors cost the health system well over $3.5 billion per year. Nurses are at the frontline of medication administration accountability. A Bar Code Medication Administration application was implemented at a 300-bed community hospital. The creation of the process was spearheaded by a taskforce consisting of staff nurses, nursing and pharmacy administrators, and an IT representative. This group planned the implementation process, which included changes to medication policies and procedures, downtime procedures, workflow designs, planning for nursing training, and changes to medication delivery. The results from the pilot indicated that the bar-cod technology reduced medication errors by 80%. PMID:18616062

Foote, Sylvestor O; Coleman, John R

2008-01-01

42

A critical evaluation of grid-by-number sediment sampling using laser scanner derived clast population statistics across a gravel bar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water flow level in river channels is moderated by the interaction with the roughness of the surface over which it flows. The interaction is highly complex and remains poorly understood despite its economic and social importance in flood level forecasting. The empirical and semi-rational nature of approaches used to estimate hydraulic roughness makes them very difficult to apply and much of the hydraulic resistance has been attributed to grain roughness using various forms of the Colebrook-White equation where the grain diameter is modified by a multiplier to account for the non-uniform nature of gravel-bed surfaces. Fundamental to the accuracy of the particle size approaches is the sampling of river-bed gravels where sample size, operator bias, particle shape and surface heterogeneity can greatly affect the result. Despite these problems a standard surface sample of the intermediate axis of 100 clasts remains the accepted method for grain-size characterisation amongst scientists and engineers concerned with channel hydraulics. Surface roughness has also been measured using a random field of spatial elevation data. The success of this approach has been tempered by the lack of high-resolution topographic data covering all roughness scales, however, improved data-point resolution is now achievable using terrestrial laser scanning technology. The aim here is to reliably quantify the population grain-size distribution of a natural gravel surface using random field terrestrial laser scanner x,y,z data and by direct comparison to demonstrate the errors inherent in the conventional particle-size approach. Application of the random field approach, using a terrestrial laser scanner, across a gravel bar surface on the River South Tyne at Lambley, UK, generated an effective sample of 120,000 clasts yielding a D84 for use in the Colebrook White equation of 0.110m. Monte Carlo sampling within the 12000 measured clasts from the bar surface generated 560 simulated grid-by-number D84 estimates. Grain-size D84 values ranged from 0.100m to 0.195m with a median value of 0.130m. This represents an average 18% and a maximum 77% over-estimation of the grain-size value in the flow resistance equation. Such potential errors, inherent with the conventional grid-by-number sampling technique, impact significantly on flood level estimation options.

Milan, D. J.; Heritage, G. L.

2007-12-01

43

ITS4: A Static Vulnerability Scanner for C and C++ Code  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe ITS4, a tool for statically scanning security-critical C source code for vulnerabilities. Com- pared to other approaches, our scanning technique stakes out a new middle ground between accuracy and efficiency. This method is efficient enough to offer real-time feedback to developers during coding while producing few false neg- atives. Unlike other techniques, our method is also simple enough

John Viega; J. T. Bloch; Yoshi Kohno; Gary Mcgraw

2000-01-01

44

Efficient screening of high-signal and low-background antibody pairs in the bio-bar code assay using prion protein as the target  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bio-bar code assay is an assay for ultrasensitive detection of proteins. The main technical hurdle in bio-bar code assay development is achieving a dose-dependent, reproducible signal with low background. We report on a magnetic bead ELISA screening mechanism for characterizing antibody pairs that are effective for use in the bio-bar code assay. The normal isoform of prion protein was

Benjamin D. Brooks; Amy E. Albertson; Justin A. Jones; Jonathan O. Speare; Randolph V. Lewis

2008-01-01

45

A universal product code scanner is a feasible method of measuring household food inventory and food use patterns in low-income families.  

PubMed

This study assesses the feasibility of using a Universal Product Code (UPC) scanner to record the home food inventory of limited-resource families. Feasibility was based on UPC scanner accuracy, time involved, and researcher/study participant feedback. Program staff members completed a traditional line-item inventory and UPC scan of 5,920 food items during 51 separate visits to the homes of 32 families. Foods reported from the UPC scanner were compared with the manual line-item food inventory. The UPC scanner report had an accuracy of 95.6% (5,661/5,920). Further, the UPC scanning technique offered a 31.8% time savings over the traditional line-item inventory approach. The UPC scanner was easy to use and participants reported that scanning food items was non-intrusive. A UPC scanner is a feasible method of recording the home food inventory, and the accuracy and simplicity of this approach can provide useful information on foods available for consumption within a home. PMID:16503237

Weinstein, James L; Phillips, Valery; MacLeod, Erin; Arsenault, Margaret; Ferris, Ann M

2006-03-01

46

Yeast Barcoders: a chemogenomic application of a universal donor-strain collection carrying bar-code identifiers.  

PubMed

The ability to perform complex bioassays in parallel enables experiments that are otherwise impossible because of throughput and cost constraints. For example, highly parallel chemical-genetic screens using pooled collections of thousands of defined Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene deletion strains are feasible because each strain is bar-coded with unique DNA sequences. It is, however, time-consuming and expensive to individually bar-code individual strains. To provide a simple and general method of barcoding yeast collections, we built a set of donor strains, called Barcoders, with unique bar codes that can be systematically transferred to any S. cerevisiae collection. We applied this technology by generating a collection of bar-coded 'decreased abundance by mRNA perturbation' (DAmP) loss-of-function strains comprising 87.1% of all essential yeast genes. These experiments validate both the Barcoders and the DAmP strain collection as useful tools for genome-wide chemical-genetic assays. PMID:18622398

Yan, Zhun; Costanzo, Michael; Heisler, Lawrence E; Paw, Jadine; Kaper, Fiona; Andrews, Brenda J; Boone, Charles; Giaever, Guri; Nislow, Corey

2008-08-01

47

Exhaustive measurement of food items in the home using a universal product code scanner  

PubMed Central

Objective We aimed to develop, test and describe the Exhaustive Home Food Inventory (EHFI), which measures foods in the home using scanning of the universal product code (UPC) and EHFI software to link codes to food identities and energy values. Design Observational design with up to three repeated measures in each household yielded a total of 218 inventories. Setting Eighty private households in North Carolina. Subjects Low-income African-American women with an infant between the ages of 12 and 18 months. Recruitment rate was 71%. Results Approximately 12 200 different food items were successfully recorded using the EHFI method. The average number of food items within a household was 147. The time required for the first measurement in a home declined from 157 to 136 min (P<0·05) for the first third compared to the last third of homes measured. In the sixty-four households in which three assessments were performed, the time required decreased from 145 to 97 min as did the time per item from 1·10 to 0·73 min. Conclusions It is feasible to record all foods and drinks in the home using UPC scanning. Further development and enhancement of databases linking UPC to food identification, nutrients and other information are needed.

Stevens, June; Bryant, Maria; Wang, Lily; Borja, Judith; Bentley, Margaret E

2011-01-01

48

Identification of mutations by RNA conformational polymorphism {open_quotes}bar code{close_quotes} analysis  

SciTech Connect

DNA single-strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis is widely used for detection of point mutations in clinical specimens. Performing SSCP analysis with cRNA instead of DNA has been shown to improve mutation detection frequency. RNA can exist in numerous metastable conformations, which appear as patterns of bands on nondenaturing electrophoresis gels. Single base mutations can cause not only mobility shifts of major bands, but also loss of some conformations and appearance of new conformations. Unique RNA SSCP patterns associated with specific base sequences in many cases allow visual identification of point mutations. However, in some cases, the RNA SSCP pattern of a single base change in a sequence is not sufficiently different for a positive identification of the mutation. Improvement in the detection capability of RNA SSCP was obtained by adding 3{prime}-deoxy-nucleotides to the transcription reaction. The presence of chain-terminating nucleotides in the transcription reaction formed numerous new RNA fragments, thereby generating complex band patterns ({open_quotes}bar codes{close_quotes}) unique to each RNA sequence. This method was applied to analyzing p53 mutations in patients with colon cancer. 8 refs., 3 figs.

Lenz, H.J.; Danenberg, K.D.; Schnieders, B. [USC/Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, CA (United States)]|[Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)] [and others

1995-11-01

49

Wide host ranges of herbivorous beetles? Insights from DNA bar coding.  

PubMed

There are very few studies that have investigated host-specificity among tropical herbivorous insects. Indeed, most of the trophic interactions of herbivorous insects in Southeast Asian tropical rainforests remain unknown, and whether polyphagous feeding is common in the herbivores of this ecosystem has not been determined. The present study employed DNA bar coding to reveal the trophic associations of adult leaf-chewing chrysomelid beetles in a Bornean rainforest. Plant material ingested by the adults was retrieved from the bodies of the insects, and a portion of the chloroplast rbcL sequence was then amplified from this material. The plants were identified at the family level using an existing reference database of chloroplast DNA. Our DNA-based diet analysis of eleven chrysomelid species successfully identified their host plant families and indicated that five beetle species fed on more than two families within the angiosperms, and four species fed on several families of gymnosperms and/or ferns together with multiple angiosperm families. These findings suggest that generalist chrysomelid beetles associated with ecologically and taxonomically distant plants constitute a part of the plant-insect network of the Bornean rainforest. PMID:24073210

Kishimoto-Yamada, Keiko; Kamiya, Koichi; Meleng, Paulus; Diway, Bibian; Kaliang, Het; Chong, Lucy; Itioka, Takao; Sakai, Shoko; Ito, Motomi

2013-01-01

50

Antibiotic sensitivity profiles determined with an Escherichia coli gene knockout collection: generating an antibiotic bar code.  

PubMed

We have defined a sensitivity profile for 22 antibiotics by extending previous work testing the entire KEIO collection of close to 4,000 single-gene knockouts in Escherichia coli for increased susceptibility to 1 of 14 different antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, rifampin [rifampicin], vancomycin, ampicillin, sulfamethoxazole, gentamicin, metronidazole, streptomycin, fusidic acid, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, nitrofurantoin, erythromycin, and triclosan). We screened one or more subinhibitory concentrations of each antibiotic, generating more than 80,000 data points and allowing a reduction of the entire collection to a set of 283 strains that display significantly increased sensitivity to at least one of the antibiotics. We used this reduced set of strains to determine a profile for eight additional antibiotics (spectinomycin, cephradine, aztreonem, colistin, neomycin, enoxacin, tobramycin, and cefoxitin). The profiles for the 22 antibiotics represent a growing catalog of sensitivity fingerprints that can be separated into two components, multidrug-resistant mutants and those mutants that confer relatively specific sensitivity to the antibiotic or type of antibiotic tested. The latter group can be represented by a set of 20 to 60 strains that can be used for the rapid typing of antibiotics by generating a virtual bar code readout of the specific sensitivities. Taken together, these data reveal the complexity of intrinsic resistance and provide additional targets for the design of codrugs (or combinations of drugs) that potentiate existing antibiotics. PMID:20065048

Liu, Anne; Tran, Lillian; Becket, Elinne; Lee, Kim; Chinn, Laney; Park, Eunice; Tran, Katherine; Miller, Jeffrey H

2010-04-01

51

A Versatile, Bar-Coded Nuclear Marker/Reporter for Live Cell Fluorescent and Multiplexed High Content Imaging  

PubMed Central

The screening of large numbers of compounds or siRNAs is a mainstay of both academic and pharmaceutical research. Most screens test those interventions against a single biochemical or cellular output whereas recording multiple complementary outputs may be more biologically relevant. High throughput, multi-channel fluorescence microscopy permits multiple outputs to be quantified in specific cellular subcompartments. However, the number of distinct fluorescent outputs available remains limited. Here, we describe a cellular bar-code technology in which multiple cell-based assays are combined in one well after which each assay is distinguished by fluorescence microscopy. The technology uses the unique fluorescent properties of assay-specific markers comprised of distinct combinations of different ‘red’ fluorescent proteins sandwiched around a nuclear localization signal. The bar-code markers are excited by a common wavelength of light but distinguished ratiometrically by their differing relative fluorescence in two emission channels. Targeting the bar-code to cell nuclei enables individual cells expressing distinguishable markers to be readily separated by standard image analysis programs. We validated the method by showing that the unique responses of different cell-based assays to specific drugs are retained when three assays are co-plated and separated by the bar-code. Based upon those studies, we discuss a roadmap in which even more assays may be combined in a well. The ability to analyze multiple assays simultaneously will enable screens that better identify, characterize and distinguish hits according to multiple biologically or clinically relevant criteria. These capabilities also enable the re-creation of complex mixtures of cell types that is emerging as a central area of interest in many fields.

Krylova, Irina; Kumar, Rachit R.; Kofoed, Eric M.; Schaufele, Fred

2013-01-01

52

Gate imaging for 0.09-µm logic technology: comparison of single exposure with assist bars and the CODE approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to address some specific issues related to gate level printing of the 0.09µm logic process, the following mask and illumination solutions have been evaluated. Annular and Quasar illumination using binary mask with assist feature and the CODE (Complementary Double Exposure) technique. Two different linewidths have been targeted after lithography: 100nm and 80nm respectively for lowpower and high-speed applications. The different solutions have been compared for their printing performance through pitch for Energy Latitude, Depth of Focus and Mask Error Enhancement Factor. The assist bar printability and line-end control was also determined. For printing the 100nm target, all tested options can be used, with a preference for Quasar illumination for the gain in Depth of Focus and MEEF. For the 80nm target however, only the CODE technique with Quasar give sufficient good results for the critical litho parameters.

Trouiller, Yorick; Belledent, Jerome; Chapon, J. D.; Rousset, V.; Rody, Yves F.; Manakli, Serdar; Goirand, Pierre-Jerome

2003-06-01

53

Scanner Art  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors describe how they incorporated environmental awareness into their art curriculum. Here, they describe a digital photography project in which their students used flatbed scanners as cameras. Their students composed their objects directly on the scanner. The lesson enabled students to realize that artists have voices…

Jaworski, Joy; Murphy, Kris

2009-01-01

54

A Simple X-Y Scanner.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an X-Y scanner used to create acoustic holograms. Scanner is computer controlled and can be adapted to digitize pictures. Scanner geometry is discussed. An appendix gives equipment details. The control program in ATOM BASIC and 6502 machine code is available from the authors. (JM)

Halse, M. R.; Hudson, W. J.

1986-01-01

55

Piezoelectric scanners  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bimorph piezoelectric elements show relative large axial displacements at moderate voltages. Their response to voltage variations is very fast. The reproducibility of the displacement is practically limited only by the mechanical and electrical supplementary equipment. In combination with a deflection mirror linear scans or two-dimensional scan pattern can be generated. Fast scanning with good linearity and repeatability is possible, either in a resonant mode or in a random access mode. However, the hysteresis of the piezoelectric material and the large capacitance of the elements impose some constraints on the applicability of the piezoelectric scanners. In the first part of the paper the properties of piezoelectric elements are discussed in view of scanner application; in the second part an experimental single mirror two-axis piezoelectric scanner is described. Some suggestions for future applications of piezoelectric scanners are made.

Hohner, M.; Manhart, S.

1987-03-01

56

Bar code hotel: diverse interactions of semi-autonomous entities under the partial control of multiple operators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper I describe an interactive installation that was produced in 1994 as one of eight Art and Virtual Environments projects sponsored by the Banff Center for the Arts. The installation, Bar Code Hotel, makes use of a number of strategies to create a casual, social, multi-person interface. Among the goals was to investigate methods that would minimize any significant learning curve, allowing visitors to immediately interact with a virtual world in a meaningful way. By populating this virtual world with semi-independent entities that could be directed by participants even as these entities were interacting with each other, a rich and heterogeneous experience was produced in which a variety of relationships between human participants and virtual objects could be examined. The paper will describe some of the challenges of simultaneously processing multiple input sources affecting a virtual environment in which each object already has its own ongoing behavior.

Hoberman, Perry

1995-03-01

57

Efficient screening of high-signal and low-background antibody pairs in the bio-bar code assay using prion protein as the target.  

PubMed

The bio-bar code assay is an assay for ultrasensitive detection of proteins. The main technical hurdle in bio-bar code assay development is achieving a dose-dependent, reproducible signal with low background. We report on a magnetic bead ELISA screening mechanism for characterizing antibody pairs that are effective for use in the bio-bar code assay. The normal isoform of prion protein was utilized as the target protein as dozens of antibodies have been developed against it. The development of an ultrasensitive assay for the detection of the various isoforms of PrP has the potential to enable significant advances in the diagnosis and understanding of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, including transmission mechanisms, disease pathology, and potential therapeutics. With prion protein as the target, the magnetic bead ELISA identified pairs with high background and low signal in the bio-bar code assay. The magnetic bead ELISA was effective as a screening mechanism because it reduced assay time and cost and allowed for understanding of pair characteristics such as development times and signal-to-noise ratios. PMID:18694717

Brooks, Benjamin D; Albertson, Amy E; Jones, Justin A; Speare, Jonathan O; Lewis, Randolph V

2008-11-01

58

Digital Data Matrix Scanner Developnent At Marshall Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has resulted in a system for reading hidden identification codes using a hand-held magnetic scanner. It's an invention that could help businesses improve inventory management, enhance safety, improve security, and aid in recall efforts if defects are discovered. Two-dimensional Data Matrix symbols consisting of letters and numbers permanently etched on items for identification and resembling a small checkerboard pattern are more efficient and reliable than traditional bar codes, and can store up to 100 times more information. A team led by Fred Schramm of the Marshall Center's Technology Transfer Department, in partnership with PRI,Torrance, California, has developed a hand-held device that can read this special type of coded symbols, even if covered by up to six layers of paint. Before this new technology was available, matrix symbols were read with optical scanners, and only if the codes were visible. This latest improvement in digital Data Matrix technologies offers greater flexibility for businesses and industries already using the marking system. Paint, inks, and pastes containing magnetic properties are applied in matrix symbol patterns to objects with two-dimensional codes, and the codes are read by a magnetic scanner, even after being covered with paint or other coatings. The ability to read hidden matrix symbols promises a wide range of benefits in a number of fields, including airlines, electronics, healthcare, and the automotive industry. Many industries would like to hide information on a part, so it can be read only by the party who put it there. For instance, the automotive industry uses direct parts marking for inventory control, but for aesthetic purposes the marks often need to be invisible. Symbols have been applied to a variety of materials, including metal, plastic, glass, paper, fabric and foam, on everything from electronic parts to pharmaceuticals to livestock. The portability of the hand-held scanner makes work faster and easier. It reads marks in darkness, under bright light that might interfere with optical reading of visible marks, and can detect symbols obscured by discoloration or contamination. Through a license with NASA, another partner, Robotic Vision Systems, Inc., of Nashua, New Hampshire, will sell the scanner on the commercial market. NASA continues to seek additional companies to license the product. Joint efforts by Marshall researchers and industry partners are aimed at improving dentification technology as part of NASA's program to better life on Earth through technology designed for the space program. In this photo, Don Roxby, Robotic Vision Systems, Inc., (left)demonstrates the magnetic handheld scanner for Fred Schramm, (Right) MSFC Technology Transfer Department.

2004-01-01

59

Identification of internal transcribed spacer sequence motifs in truffles: a first step toward their DNA bar coding.  

PubMed

This work presents DNA sequence motifs from the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of the nuclear rRNA repeat unit which are useful for the identification of five European and Asiatic truffles (Tuber magnatum, T. melanosporum, T. indicum, T. aestivum, and T. mesentericum). Truffles are edible mycorrhizal ascomycetes that show similar morphological characteristics but that have distinct organoleptic and economic values. A total of 36 out of 46 ITS1 or ITS2 sequence motifs have allowed an accurate in silico distinction of the five truffles to be made (i.e., by pattern matching and/or BLAST analysis on downloaded GenBank sequences and directly against GenBank databases). The motifs considered the intraspecific genetic variability of each species, including rare haplotypes, and assigned their respective species from either the ascocarps or ectomycorrhizas. The data indicate that short ITS1 or ITS2 motifs (< or = 50 bp in size) can be considered promising tools for truffle species identification. A dot blot hybridization analysis of T. magnatum and T. melanosporum compared with other close relatives or distant lineages allowed at least one highly specific motif to be identified for each species. These results were confirmed in a blind test which included new field isolates. The current work has provided a reliable new tool for a truffle oligonucleotide bar code and identification in ecological and evolutionary studies. PMID:17601808

El Karkouri, Khalid; Murat, Claude; Zampieri, Elisa; Bonfante, Paola

2007-08-01

60

Low-dimensional, hinged bar-code metal oxide layers and free-standing, ordered organic nanostructures from turbostratic vanadium oxide.  

PubMed

Both low-dimensional bar-coded metal oxide layers, which exhibit molecular hinging, and free-standing organic nanostructures can be obtained from unique nanofibers of vanadium oxide (VO(x)). The nanofibers are successfully synthesized by a simple chemical route using an ethanolic solution of vanadium pentoxide xerogel and dodecanethiol resulting in a double bilayered laminar turbostratic structure. The formation of vanadium oxide nanofibers is observed after hydrothermal treatment of the thiol-intercalated xerogel, resulting in typical lengths in the range 2-6 microm and widths of about 50-500 nm. We observe concomitant hinging of the flexible nanofiber lamina at periodic hinge points in the final product on both the nanoscale and molecular level. Bar-coded nanofibers comprise alternating segments of organic-inorganic (thiols-VO(x)) material and are amenable to segmented, localized metal nanoparticle docking. Under certain conditions free-standing bilayered organic nanostructures are realized. PMID:18535992

O'Dwyer, Colm; Lavayen, Vladimir; Fuenzalida, David; Lozano, Harold; Santa Ana, Maria A; Benavente, Eglantina; González, Guillermo; Sotomayor Torres, Clivia M

2008-07-01

61

BAR-CODE BASED WEIGHT MEASUREMENT STATION FOR PHYSICAL INVENTORY TAKING OF PLUTONIUM OXIDE CONTAINERS AT THE MINING AND CHEMICAL COMBINE RADIOCHEMICAL REPROCESSING PLANT NEAR KRASNOYARSK, SIBERIA.  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the technical tasks being implemented to computerize the physical inventory taking (PIT) at the Mining and Chemical Combine (Gorno-Khimichesky Kombinat, GKhK) radiochemical plant under the US/Russian cooperative nuclear material protection, control, and accounting (MPC and A) program. Under the MPC and A program, Lab-to-Lab task agreements with GKhK were negotiated that involved computerized equipment for item verification and confirmatory measurement of the Pu containers. Tasks under Phase I cover the work for demonstrating the plan and procedures for carrying out the comparison of the Pu container identification on the container with the computerized inventory records. In addition to the records validation, the verification procedures include the application of bar codes and bar coded TIDs to the Pu containers. Phase II involves the verification of the Pu content. A plan and procedures are being written for carrying out confirmatory measurements on the Pu containers.

SUDA,S.

1999-09-20

62

Bar-Coded Pyrosequencing Reveals Shared Bacterial Community Properties along the Temperature Gradients of Two Alkaline Hot Springs in Yellowstone National Park  

Microsoft Academic Search

An understanding of how communities are organized is a fundamental goal of ecology but one which has historically been elusive for microbial systems. We used a bar-coded pyrosequencing approach targeting the V3 region of the bacterial small-subunit rRNA gene to address the factors that structure communities along the thermal gradients of two alkaline hot springs in the Lower Geyser Basin

Scott R. Miller; Aaron L. Strong; Kenneth L. Jones; Mark C. Ungerer

2009-01-01

63

Analysis of Run-to-Run Variation of Bar-Coded Pyrosequencing for Evaluating Bacterial Community Shifts and Individual Taxa Dynamics  

PubMed Central

Bar-coded pyrosequencing has been increasingly used due to its fine taxonomic resolution and high throughput. Yet, concerns arise regarding the reproducibility of bar-coded pyrosequencing. We evaluated the run-to-run variation of bar-coded pyrosequencing in detecting bacterial community shifts and taxa dynamics. Our results demonstrate that pyrosequencing is reproducible in evaluating community shifts within a run, but not between runs. Also, the reproducibility of pyrosequencing in detecting individual taxa increased as a function of taxa abundance. Based on our findings: (1) for studies with modest sequencing depth, it is doubtful that data from different pyrosequencing runs can be considered comparable; (2) if multiple pyrosequencing runs are needed to increase the sequencing depth, additional sequencing efforts should be applied to all samples, rather than to selected samples; (3) if pyrosequencing is used for estimating bacterial population dynamics, only the abundant taxa should be considered; (4) for less-abundant taxa, the sequencing depth should be increased to ensure an accurate evaluation of taxon variation trends across samples.

Ge, Yuan; Schimel, Joshua P.; Holden, Patricia A.

2014-01-01

64

Scanner show-through reduction using reflective optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Document scanners are used to convert paper documents to digital format for document distribution or archiving. Scanners are also used in copier and fax machine to convert document to electrical signal in analog and digital format. Most document scanners use white backing to avoid black border or black hole in scanned images. One problem with white backing is that show-through from the backside is visible for duplex printed (two sided) documents. This paper describes an optical method to eliminate show-through without reverting back to the black border or black hole. The scanner cover is made into a saw-tooth shaped mirror surface. The surface is oriented so that it reflects the light from the scanner lamp to the scanner lens. When scanning the scanner cover as in the case of a hole in the paper, it reflects light (specular reflection) from the scanner lamp directly to the scanner lens. Because the scanner lamp is much brighter than the reflected light from the document, only a small portion of the reflected light is needed to have the same output as scanning a piece of white paper. Radiometric calculation shows that this new approach can reduce the overall reflection from the scanner cover to 8% when scanning a document, and yet, appear to be white when no document is in between the cover and scan bar. The show-through is greatly reduced due to this reduced overall reflection from the scanner cover.

Feng, Xiao-fan

2003-12-01

65

Aptamer-conjugated bio-bar-code Au-Fe3O4 nanoparticles as amplification station for electrochemiluminescence detection of tumor cells.  

PubMed

An electrochemiluminescence (ECL) assay has been developed for highly sensitive and selective detection of tumor cells based on cell-SELEX aptamer-target cell interactions through a cascaded amplification process by using bio-bar-code Au-Fe3O4 as amplification station. Firstly, bio-bar-code toehold-aptamer/DNA primer/Au-Fe3O4 (TA/DP/Au-Fe3O4) nanoconjugates are fabricated with a ratio of 1:10 to efficiently avoid cross-linking reaction and recognize target cells, which are immobilized on the substrate by hybridizing aptamer to capture probe with 18-mer. Through strand displacement reaction (SDR), the TA/DP/Au-Fe3O4 composites further act as the amplification station to initiate rolling circle amplification (RCA). As a result, on the surface of TA/DP/Au-Fe3O4, a large number of Ru(bpy)2(dcbpy)NHS-labeled probes hybridize to RCA products, which are easily trapped by magnetic electrode to perform the magnetic particle-based ECL platform. Under isothermal conditions, this powerful amplification strategy permits detection of Ramos cells as low as 16 cells with an excellent selectivity. Moreover, analysis of Ramos cells in complex samples and whole blood samples further show the great potential of this ultrasensitive approach in clinical application involving cancer cells-related biological processes. PMID:25000857

Chen, Min; Bi, Sai; Jia, Xiaoqiang; He, Peng

2014-07-21

66

Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS): Imagery of near-surface phytoplankton pigment concentrations from the first coastal ocean dynamics experiment (CODE-1), March - July 1981  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of the first Coastal Ocean Dynamics Experiment, images of ocean color were collected from late March until late July, 1981, by the Coastal Zone Color Scanner aboard Nimbus-7. Images that had sufficient cloud-free area to be of interest were processed to yield near-surface phytoplankton pigment concentrations. These images were then remapped to a fixed equal-area grid. This report contains photographs of the digital images and a brief description of the processing methods.

Abbott, M. R.; Zion, P. M.

1984-01-01

67

What is Scanner and NonScanner?  

... NOAA satellite platforms by TRW of Redondo Beach, CA. Scanner A set of three co-planar detectors (longwave, shortwave and total ... satellite track (in its normal operational mode). The scanner instrument has a smaller footprint (40 km at nadir) and scanned across ...

2013-03-05

68

Bar Graphs!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mrs. Kohlar has been working with you on bar graphs. Here are a couple of games for you to play to help you practice using them. Catch all the Bugs in the system and put them in the correct column of the bar graph. Answer the questions about the bugs in the graph. You can play the game twice if you wish. Do these bar graph activities and have some bar graph fun! Don\\'t worry about the last question, just answer ...

Pocock, Mrs.

2006-10-26

69

Monte Carlo simulation for PET scanners and shields.  

PubMed

A Monte Carlo simulation code was developed for simulating PET scanners with the Monte Carlo program package GEANT. The present simulation code can handle not only conventional types of PET scanners, but also any complex detector systems with arbitrary geometrical configuration. All the relevant interactions of photons and electrons are taken into account in all the defined objects while optical tracking in the scintillation crystals is approximated by simple analytical simulation. In addition to basic PET scanner performance factors, such as sensitivity and scatter fraction, valuable but un-measurable information, such as photon trajectories and interaction position distribution, can be obtained and represented graphically in various ways. This simulation code has proved useful in analyzing the physics characteristics of existing commercial PET scanners and related shields, and in design studies of new PET scanners. PMID:12766303

Hasegawa, Tomoyuki; Michel, Christian; Murayama, Hideo; Yamaya, Taiga; Matsuura, Hajime; Tanada, Syuuji

2001-01-01

70

That's nice, but what does IT do? Evaluating the impact of bar coded medication administration by measuring changes in the process of care  

PubMed Central

Health information technology (IT) is widely endorsed as a way to improve key health care outcomes, particularly patient safety. Applying a human factors approach, this paper models more explicitly how health IT might improve or worsen outcomes. The human factors model specifies that health IT transforms the work system, which transforms the process of care, which in turn transforms the outcome of care. This study reports on transformations of the medication administration process that resulted from the implementation of one type of IT: bar coded medication administration (BCMA). Registered nurses at two large pediatric hospitals in the US participated in a survey administered before and after one of the hospitals implemented BCMA. Nurses’ perceptions of the administration process changed at the hospital that implemented BCMA, whereas perceptions of nurses at the control hospital did not. BCMA appeared to improve the safety of the processes of matching medications to the medication administration record and checking patient identification. The accuracy, usefulness, and consistency of checking patient identification improved as well. In contrast, nurses’ perceptions of the usefulness, time efficiency, and ease of the documentation process decreased post-BCMA. Discussion of survey findings is supplemented by observations and interviews at the hospital that implemented BCMA. By considering the way that IT transforms the work system and the work process a practitioner can better predict the kind of outcomes that the IT might produce. More importantly, the practitioner can achieve or prevent outcomes of interest by using design and redesign aimed at controlling work system and process transformations.

Holden, Richard J.; Brown, Roger L.; Alper, Samuel J.; Scanlon, Matthew C.; Patel, Neal R.; Karsh, Ben-Tzion

2011-01-01

71

INVESTIGATING LASER SCANNER ACCURACY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Questions concerning the quality and accuracy of the recorded 3D points of laser scanners recei ve little attention. In a resear ch project, i3mainz has installed a number of different test target s that allow an investigation in the quality of points recorded by laser scanners and the geometric models derived from the point clouds. The standardized tests also allow

W. Boehler; M. Bordas Vicent; A. Marbs

2003-01-01

72

Scanner analyzer target  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a black and white photographic chart called the 'Scanner Analyzer Target' developed as a practical aid toward analyzing scanned image quality produced by binary digital document scanners used as input devices in document image processing systems. The target is used by factory-line personnel as an 'adjustment-set' tool, by the quality control department as an image quality judgement

Roland Simonis

1991-01-01

73

Bar-Coded Pyrosequencing Reveals Shared Bacterial Community Properties along the Temperature Gradients of Two Alkaline Hot Springs in Yellowstone National Park? †  

PubMed Central

An understanding of how communities are organized is a fundamental goal of ecology but one which has historically been elusive for microbial systems. We used a bar-coded pyrosequencing approach targeting the V3 region of the bacterial small-subunit rRNA gene to address the factors that structure communities along the thermal gradients of two alkaline hot springs in the Lower Geyser Basin of Yellowstone National Park. The filtered data set included a total of nearly 34,000 sequences from 39 environmental samples. Each was assigned to one of 391 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) identified by their unique V3 sequence signatures. Although the two hot springs differed in their OTU compositions, community resemblance and diversity changed with strikingly similar dynamics along the two outflow channels. Two lines of evidence suggest that these community properties are controlled primarily by environmental temperature. First, community resemblance decayed exponentially with increasing differences in temperature between samples but was only weakly correlated with physical distance. Second, diversity decreased with increasing temperature at the same rate along both gradients but was uncorrelated with other measured environmental variables. This study also provides novel insights into the nature of the ecological interactions among important taxa in these communities. A strong negative association was observed between cyanobacteria and the Chloroflexi, which together accounted for ?70% of the sequences sampled. This pattern contradicts the longstanding hypothesis that coadapted lineages of these bacteria maintain tightly cooccurring distributions along these gradients as a result of a producer-consumer relationship. We propose that they instead compete for some limiting resource(s).

Miller, Scott R.; Strong, Aaron L.; Jones, Kenneth L.; Ungerer, Mark C.

2009-01-01

74

Bar Graph  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students use preset data or input their own data to be represented by a bar graph. This activity allows students to explore bar graphs and how changing scales will alter how their data is represented. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

2010-01-01

75

MRI scanner transport system.  

PubMed

A computer-controlled transport system has been designed and tested for small bore magnetic resonance scanners for animal research. The transport system allows remote animal positioning based on scout images using a graphic interface. The design utilized commercially available components suitable for use in the scanner's strong magnetic field. Tests indicate positioning accuracy of the transport system to be within 0.13 mm. PMID:8084229

Phillips, J R; Falconer, J C; Botzer, S; Narayana, P A

1994-07-01

76

On the Slope-Aspect Correction of Multispectral Scanner Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of topography on the radiometric properties of multispectral scanner (MSS) data are examined in the context of the remote sensing of forests in mountainous regions. The two test areas considered for this study are located in the coastal mountains of British Columbia, one at the Anderson River near Boston Bar and the other at Gun Lake near Bralorne.

P. M. Teillet; B. Guindon; D. G. Goodenough

1981-01-01

77

Scanner analyzer target  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a black and white photographic chart called the 'Scanner Analyzer Target' developed as a practical aid toward analyzing scanned image quality produced by binary digital document scanners used as input devices in document image processing systems. The target is used by factory-line personnel as an 'adjustment-set' tool, by the quality control department as an image quality judgement tool, and by customers as an incoming inspection tool. The scanner uses a rotary drum paper transport to move the document in front of a fixed scan line. The document is illuminated by a pair of fluorescent lamps and reflected through a reduction type camera to a CCD image sensor. Scanning speeds range from 7 in./s to 12 in./s and scanning resolutions range from 200 to 300 dpi. The scanner control panel allows image quality adjustments by using 9 levels of darkness and 10 levels of sensitivity. The darkness setting controls the level of optical reflectance at which the scanner shifts its output from white to black. At low darkness setting a scanned image appears lighter than the original and at high darkness setting the resulting image is dark. The sensitivity setting controls the amount of adaptive thresholding included in the binary decision. Low sensitivity setting is adequate for high contrast originals; high sensitivity setting allows the scanner to detect low contrast information contained in different background shades (or colors). At maximum sensitivity, the scanner is extremely sensitive to high frequency (text) and tends to drop out the background information. The purpose of the target is to give the user the ability to measure a number of scanned image parameters: text legibility, resolution, focus, darkness range, shading distortion, sensitivity range, photograph dithering, vertical and horizontal pixel count, document or CCD skew, vertical resolution linearity, aspect ratio, video noise and page registration.

Simonis, Roland

1991-02-01

78

Biochip scanner device  

DOEpatents

A biochip scanner device used to detect and acquire fluorescence signal data from biological microchips or biochips and method of use are provided. The biochip scanner device includes a laser for emitting a laser beam. A modulator, such as an optical chopper modulates the laser beam. A scanning head receives the modulated laser beam and a scanning mechanics coupled to the scanning head moves the scanning head relative to the biochip. An optical fiber delivers the modulated laser beam to the scanning head. The scanning head collects the fluorescence light from the biochip, launches it into the same optical fiber, which delivers the fluorescence into a photodetector, such as a photodiode. The biochip scanner device is used in a row scanning method to scan selected rows of the biochip with the laser beam size matching the size of the immobilization site.

Perov, Alexander (Troitsk, RU); Belgovskiy, Alexander I. (Mayfield Heights, OH); Mirzabekov, Andrei D. (Darien, IL)

2001-01-01

79

Portable biochip scanner device  

DOEpatents

A portable biochip scanner device used to detect and acquire fluorescence signal data from biological microchips (biochips) is provided. The portable biochip scanner device employs a laser for emitting an excitation beam. An optical fiber delivers the laser beam to a portable biochip scanner. A lens collimates the laser beam, the collimated laser beam is deflected by a dichroic mirror and focused by an objective lens onto a biochip. The fluorescence light from the biochip is collected and collimated by the objective lens. The fluorescence light is delivered to a photomultiplier tube (PMT) via an emission filter and a focusing lens. The focusing lens focuses the fluorescence light into a pinhole. A signal output of the PMT is processed and displayed.

Perov, Alexander (Troitsk, RU); Sharonov, Alexei (Moscow, RU); Mirzabekov, Andrei D. (Darien, IL)

2002-01-01

80

Hybrid Dispersion Laser Scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser scanning technology is one of the most integral parts of today's scientific research, manufacturing, defense, and biomedicine. In many applications, high-speed scanning capability is essential for scanning a large area in a short time and multi-dimensional sensing of moving objects and dynamical processes with fine temporal resolution. Unfortunately, conventional laser scanners are often too slow, resulting in limited precision and utility. Here we present a new type of laser scanner that offers ~1,000 times higher scan rates than conventional state-of-the-art scanners. This method employs spatial dispersion of temporally stretched broadband optical pulses onto the target, enabling inertia-free laser scans at unprecedented scan rates of nearly 100 MHz at 800 nm. To show our scanner's broad utility, we use it to demonstrate unique and previously difficult-to-achieve capabilities in imaging, surface vibrometry, and flow cytometry at a record 2D raster scan rate of more than 100 kHz with 27,000 resolvable points.

Goda, K.; Mahjoubfar, A.; Wang, C.; Fard, A.; Adam, J.; Gossett, D. R.; Ayazi, A.; Sollier, E.; Malik, O.; Chen, E.; Liu, Y.; Brown, R.; Sarkhosh, N.; di Carlo, D.; Jalali, B.

2012-06-01

81

Lensless Image Scanner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Image scanner uses moving and stationary parallel slits to produce pictures of visible, infrared, X-ray microwave, or acoustic sources. No lenses or mirrors required. Single detector views all parts of image simultaneously rather than raster making relatively-short exposure times possible. Potential applications of system include medical x-ray imaging.

Schindler, R. A.

1984-01-01

82

Hybrid Dispersion Laser Scanner  

PubMed Central

Laser scanning technology is one of the most integral parts of today's scientific research, manufacturing, defense, and biomedicine. In many applications, high-speed scanning capability is essential for scanning a large area in a short time and multi-dimensional sensing of moving objects and dynamical processes with fine temporal resolution. Unfortunately, conventional laser scanners are often too slow, resulting in limited precision and utility. Here we present a new type of laser scanner that offers ?1,000 times higher scan rates than conventional state-of-the-art scanners. This method employs spatial dispersion of temporally stretched broadband optical pulses onto the target, enabling inertia-free laser scans at unprecedented scan rates of nearly 100?MHz at 800?nm. To show our scanner's broad utility, we use it to demonstrate unique and previously difficult-to-achieve capabilities in imaging, surface vibrometry, and flow cytometry at a record 2D raster scan rate of more than 100?kHz with 27,000 resolvable points.

Goda, K.; Mahjoubfar, A.; Wang, C.; Fard, A.; Adam, J.; Gossett, D. R.; Ayazi, A.; Sollier, E.; Malik, O.; Chen, E.; Liu, Y.; Brown, R.; Sarkhosh, N.; Di Carlo, D.; Jalali, B.

2012-01-01

83

Hybrid dispersion laser scanner.  

PubMed

Laser scanning technology is one of the most integral parts of today's scientific research, manufacturing, defense, and biomedicine. In many applications, high-speed scanning capability is essential for scanning a large area in a short time and multi-dimensional sensing of moving objects and dynamical processes with fine temporal resolution. Unfortunately, conventional laser scanners are often too slow, resulting in limited precision and utility. Here we present a new type of laser scanner that offers ?1,000 times higher scan rates than conventional state-of-the-art scanners. This method employs spatial dispersion of temporally stretched broadband optical pulses onto the target, enabling inertia-free laser scans at unprecedented scan rates of nearly 100?MHz at 800?nm. To show our scanner's broad utility, we use it to demonstrate unique and previously difficult-to-achieve capabilities in imaging, surface vibrometry, and flow cytometry at a record 2D raster scan rate of more than 100?kHz with 27,000 resolvable points. PMID:22685627

Goda, K; Mahjoubfar, A; Wang, C; Fard, A; Adam, J; Gossett, D R; Ayazi, A; Sollier, E; Malik, O; Chen, E; Liu, Y; Brown, R; Sarkhosh, N; Di Carlo, D; Jalali, B

2012-01-01

84

What Scanner products are available?  

There are single satellite and combined-satellite scanner products. The best source for these data is to order the ERBE scanner CD which gives all the S4G monthly mean 2.5 degree gridded data from ...

2012-07-19

85

Scanners, optical character readers, Cyrillic alphabet and Russian translations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The writing of code for capture, in a uniform format, of bit maps of words and characters from scanner PICT files is presented. The coding of Dynamic Pattern Matched for the identification of the characters, words and sentences in preparation for translation is discussed.

Johnson, Gordon G.

1995-01-01

86

High throughput optical scanner  

DOEpatents

A scanning apparatus is provided to obtain automated, rapid and sensitive scanning of substrate fluorescence, optical density or phosphorescence. The scanner uses a constant path length optical train, which enables the combination of a moving beam for high speed scanning with phase-sensitive detection for noise reduction, comprising a light source, a scanning mirror to receive light from the light source and sweep it across a steering mirror, a steering mirror to receive light from the scanning mirror and reflect it to the substrate, whereby it is swept across the substrate along a scan arc, and a photodetector to receive emitted or scattered light from the substrate, wherein the optical path length from the light source to the photodetector is substantially constant throughout the sweep across the substrate. The optical train can further include a waveguide or mirror to collect emitted or scattered light from the substrate and direct it to the photodetector. For phase-sensitive detection the light source is intensity modulated and the detector is connected to phase-sensitive detection electronics. A scanner using a substrate translator is also provided. For two dimensional imaging the substrate is translated in one dimension while the scanning mirror scans the beam in a second dimension. For a high throughput scanner, stacks of substrates are loaded onto a conveyor belt from a tray feeder.

Basiji, David A. (Seattle, WA); van den Engh, Gerrit J. (Seattle, WA)

2001-01-01

87

21 CFR 892.1220 - Fluorescent scanner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Fluorescent scanner. 892.1220 Section 892.1220 Food...Diagnostic Devices § 892.1220 Fluorescent scanner. (a) Identification. A fluorescent scanner is a device intended to measure...

2009-04-01

88

21 CFR 892.1220 - Fluorescent scanner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fluorescent scanner. 892.1220 Section 892.1220 Food...Diagnostic Devices § 892.1220 Fluorescent scanner. (a) Identification. A fluorescent scanner is a device intended to measure...

2010-04-01

89

Laser Scanner Demonstration  

SciTech Connect

In the Summer of 2004 a request for proposals went out to potential vendors to offer a three-dimensional laser scanner for a number of unique metrology tasks at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). Specifications were established including range, accuracy, scan density, resolution and field of view in consideration of anticipated department requirements. Four vendors visited the site to present their system and they were asked to perform three unique tests with their system on a two day visit to SLAC. Two of the three tests were created to emulate real-world applications at SLAC while the third was an accuracy and resolution series of experiments. The scope of these tests is presented and some of the vendor's results are included.

Fuss, B.

2005-09-06

90

Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of Barred Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic fields are pervasive in barred galaxies, especially in gaseous substructures such as dust lanes and nuclear rings. To explore the effects of magnetic fields on the formation of the substructures as well as on the mass inflow rates to the galaxy center, we run two-dimensional, ideal magnetohydrodynamic simulations. We use a modified version of the Athena code whose numerical magnetic diffusivity is shown to be of third order in space. In the bar regions, magnetic fields are compressed and abruptly bent around the dust-lane shocks. The associated magnetic stress not only reduces the peak density of the dust-lane shocks but also removes angular momentum further from the gas that is moving radially in. Nuclear rings that form at the location of centrifugal barrier rather than resonance with the bar are smaller and more radially distributed, and the mass flow rate to the galaxy center is correspondingly larger in models with stronger magnetic fields. Outside the bar regions, the bar potential and strong shear conspire to amplify the field strength near the corotation resonance. The amplified fields transport angular momentum outward, producing trailing magnetic arms with strong fields and low density. The base of the magnetic arms are found to be unstable to a tearing-mode instability of magnetic reconnection. This produces numerous magnetic islands that eventually make the outer regions highly chaotic.

Kim, W.-T.

2013-04-01

91

MSS D Multispectral Scanner System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development and acceptance testing of the 4-band Multispectral Scanners to be flown on LANDSAT D and LANDSAT D Earth resources satellites are summarized. Emphasis is placed on the acceptance test phase of the program. Test history and acceptance test algorithms are discussed. Trend data of all the key performance parameters are included and discussed separately for each of the two multispectral scanner instruments. Anomalies encountered and their resolutions are included.

Lauletta, A. M.; Johnson, R. L.; Brinkman, K. L. (principal investigators)

1982-01-01

92

Micromachined Optical Scanner for Optical Measurement System  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have designed, fabricated, and evaluated a micromachined optical scanner intended for optical measurement systems. It consists of a micromachined Si resonator, a Si spacer and a permalloy piece for electromagnetic actuation. An FEM-based simulator was used to design both a scanner structure and a magnetic circuit. We replaced a tuning fork scanner with the micromachined scanner in a commercial

Yoshifumi Takahashi; Yuji Takeuchi; Hiroyuki Fujita

2003-01-01

93

Bars and Sexual Boundaries  

MedlinePLUS

... Pages Alcohol Sexual Health Women's Health Transcript Sexual aggression against young women in bars is the subject ... and Experimental Research analyzed more than 1,050 aggressive incidents in bars across Toronto, Canada between 2000 ...

94

Bar Graph Mania  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Use these activities to build and interpret data on bar graphs. Catch all the bugs in the system and put them in the correct column of the bar graph. Answer the questions about the bugs in the graph. Catch bugs in six rooms. Bugs in the system Do these bar graphing activities. You don\\'t have to do the last question ...

Thurlow, Ms.

2005-10-26

95

Modeling scanner signatures in the context of OPC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The requirement for OPC modeling accuracy becomes increasingly stringent as the semiconductor industry enters sub- 0.1um regime. Targeting at capturing the IC pattern printing characteristics through the lithography process, an OPC model is usually in the form of the first principle optical imaging component, refined by some phenomenological components such as resist and etch. The phenomenological components can be adjusted appropriately in order to fit the OPC model to the silicon measurement data. The optical imaging component is the backbone for the OPC model, and it is the key to a stable and physics-centric OPC model. Scanner systematic signatures such as illuminator pupil-fill, illuminator polarization, lens aberration, lens apodization, flare, etc., previously ignored without significant accuracy sacrifice at previous technology nodes, but are playing non-negligible roles at 45nm node and beyond. In order to ensure that the OPC modeling tool can accurately model these important scanner systematic signatures, the core engine (i.e. the optical imaging simulator) of OPC simulator must be able to model these signatures with sufficient accuracy. In this paper, we study the impact on optical proximity effect (OPE) of the aforementioned scanner systematic signatures on several 1D (simple line space, doublet line and doublet space) and 2D (dense line end pullback, isolated line end pullback and T-bar line end pullback) OPC test patterns. We demonstrate that the scanner systematic signatures have significant OPE impact on the level of several nanometers. The predicted OPEs and impact from our OPC simulator matches well with results from an industry standard lithography simulator, and this has laid the foundation of accurate and physics-centric OPC model with the systematic scanner signatures incorporated.

Zhang, Qiaolin; Tyminski, Jacek K.; Lucas, Kevin

2007-10-01

96

Multispectral Scanner for Monitoring Plants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multispectral scanner has been adapted to capture spectral images of living plants under various types of illumination for purposes of monitoring the health of, or monitoring the transfer of genes into, the plants. In a health-monitoring application, the plants are illuminated with full-spectrum visible and near infrared light and the scanner is used to acquire a reflected-light spectral signature known to be indicative of the health of the plants. In a gene-transfer- monitoring application, the plants are illuminated with blue or ultraviolet light and the scanner is used to capture fluorescence images from a green fluorescent protein (GFP) that is expressed as result of the gene transfer. The choice of wavelength of the illumination and the wavelength of the fluorescence to be monitored depends on the specific GFP.

Gat, Nahum

2004-01-01

97

Choosing a Scanner: Points To Consider before Buying a Scanner.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines ten factors to consider before buying a scanner: size of document; type of document; color; speed and volume; resolution; image enhancement; image compression; optical character recognition; scanning subsystem; and the option to use a commercial bureau service. The importance of careful analysis of requirements is emphasized. (AEF)

Raby, Chris

1998-01-01

98

1D and 2D laser line scan generation using a fiber optic resonant scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Imaging the transverse vibrations of a resonating fibre cantilever is shown to be an effective method for generating 1D and 2D laser line scans. The resonant bending modes were excited by mounting a short length of 0.633(mu) m single mode optical fibre on to a commercially available piezo-electric transducer. For an applied sinusoidal driving voltage of 20V pk-pk, the maximum displacement at the free end of an 11mm long fibre cantilever exceeded +/- 1.0mm at resonance. The motion at the free end of the fibre was imagined and magnified using a 2mm diameter graded index lens and the resulting flying spot line scan was found to subtend a maximum arc of +/- 10 degree(s). Two distinct signal detection schemes were implemented and evaluated using standard bar code targets printed on plain paper. 2D Lissajous scans were demonstrated by exciting the orthogonal transverse bending modes of optical fibres with non-circular cross sectional areas. Both D-shaped fibres and circular fibres modified by reactive ion etching were investigated. The principles underlying the design of this Fibre Optic Resonant Scanner (FORS) are directly applicable to the design of an integrated optoelectronic micro-electro-mechanical scanning device.

Roberts, David A.; Syms, Richard R.

2000-09-01

99

Scanner as a Fine Art  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Not every art department is fortunate enough to have access to digital cameras and image-editing software, but if a scanner, computer, and printer are available, students can create some imaginative and surreal work. This high-school level lesson begins with a discussion of self-portraits, and then moves to students creating images by scanning…

Fontes, Kris

2008-01-01

100

Multispectral scanner (MSS), ERTS-1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The multispectral scanner onboard ERTS-A spacecraft provides simultaneous images in three visible bands and one near infrared band. The instrument employs fiber optics to transfer optical images to the detectors and photomultiplier tubes. Detector outputs are digitized and multiplexed for transmission from the spacecraft by analog to digital processor.

Arlauskas, J.

1973-01-01

101

TIMS (Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner) Investigator's Guide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) is a NASA aircraft scanner providing six-channel spectral capability in the thermal infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Operating in the thermal infrared atmospheric window region (8 to 12 mic...

F. D. Palluconi

1986-01-01

102

Simulation of LANDSAT multispectral scanner spatial resolution with airborne scanner data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technique for simulation of low spatial resolution satellite imagery by using high resolution scanner data is described. The scanner data is convolved with the approximate point spread function of the low resolution data and then resampled to emulate low resolution imagery. The technique was successfully applied to Daedalus airborne scanner data to simulate a portion of a LANDSAT multispectra scanner scene.

Hlavka, C. A.

1986-01-01

103

Design of active-neutron fuel rod scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An active-neutron fuel rod scanner has been designed for the assay of fissile materials in mixed oxide fuel rods. A 252Cf source is located at the center of the scanner very near the through hole for the fuel rods. Spontaneous fission neutrons from the californium are moderated and induce fissions within the passing fuel rod. The rod continues past a combined gamma-ray and neutron shield where delayed gamma rays above 1 MeV are detected. We used the Monte Carlo code MCNP to design the scanner and review optimum materials and geometries. An inhomogeneous beryllium, graphite, and polyethylene moderator has been designed that uses source neutrons much more efficiently than assay systems using polyethylene moderators. Layers of borated polyethylene and tungsten are used to shield the detectors. Large NaI(Tl) detectors were selected to measure the delayed gamma rays. The enrichment zones of a thermal reactor fuel pin could be measured to within 1% counting statistics for practical rod speeds. Applications of the rod scanner include accountability of fissile material for safeguards applications, quality control of the fissile content in a fuel rod, and the verification of reactivity potential for mixed oxide fuels.

Griffith, G. W.; Menlove, H. O.

1996-02-01

104

Hopkinson bar simulation using DYNA2D  

SciTech Connect

A finite-element simulation of a Split Hopkinson's bar (Kolsky apparatus) technique involving mortar specimens is accomplished with DYNA2D, an explicit two-dimensional finite-element code. Calculations are compared with experimental results contained in a University of Florida report Dynamic Response of Concrete and Concrete Structures, and with analytic solutions of the appropriate wave propagation problem.

Smith, J.A.; Glover, T.A.

1985-01-08

105

Optical scanner. [laser doppler velocimeters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An optical scanner that sequentially focuses optical energy (light) at selected points in space is described. The essential component is a scanning wheel including several glass windows with each window having a different thickness. Due to this difference in thickness, the displacement of the emerging light from the incident light is different for each window. The scanner transmits optical energy to a point in space while at the same time receiving any optical energy generated at that point and then moves on to the next selected point and repeats this transmit and receive operation. It fills the need for a system that permits a laser velocimeter to rapidly scan across a constantly changing flow field in an aerodynamic test facility.

Rhodes, D. B. (inventor)

1977-01-01

106

Vacuum Attachment for XRF Scanner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vacuum apparatuses have been developed for increasing the range of elements that can be identified by use of x-ray fluorescent (XRF) scanners of the type mentioned in the two immediately preceding articles. As a consequence of the underlying physical principles, in the presence of air, such an XRF scanner is limited to analysis of chlorine and elements of greater atomic number. When the XRF scanner is operated in a vacuum, it extends the range of analysis to lower atomic numbers - even as far as aluminum and sodium. Hence, more elements will be available for use in XRF labeling of objects as discussed in the two preceding articles. The added benefits of the extended capabilities also have other uses for NASA. Detection of elements of low atomic number is of high interest to the aerospace community. High-strength aluminum alloys will be easily analyzed for composition. Silicon, a major contaminant in certain processes, will be detectable before the process is begun, possibly eliminating weld or adhesion problems. Exotic alloys will be evaluated for composition prior to being placed in service where lives depend on them. And in the less glamorous applications, such as bolts and fasteners, substandard products and counterfeit items will be evaluated at the receiving function and never allowed to enter the operation

Schramm, Harry F.; Kaiser, Bruce

2005-01-01

107

Ring Bar Grizzly.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application relates to a ring bar grizzly used as a materials handling device to enable the jam-free transfer of loose rocks or other materials at the discharge end of a generally horizontal conveyor. Normally, this ring bar grizzly is used in ...

A. T. Fisk

1980-01-01

108

Multi Bar Graph  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students enter in data to be represented in a double bar graph. Multi bar graphs allow the student to compare multiple characteristics of different subjects like population for different continents over time. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

Shodor

2012-04-02

109

Building Brilliant Bar Graphs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this series of three lesson plans, students create bar graphs, double bar graphs, and determine appropriate intervals for scale. Each lesson incorporates teacher modeling, student practice (students have an opportunity to label and create the scale for their own graphs), assessment (including rubrics), and reteaching or extension options.

Bower, Briana; Miller, Mary

2005-01-01

110

Bar Graph Sorter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students make bar graphs by sorting shapes either by shape or by color. This activity allows students to explore how to sort data to make bar graphs. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

2010-01-01

111

Using Bars as Signposts of Galaxy Evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies of galaxy morphology with the Hubble Deep Fields have indicated a dramatic paucity of bars beyond a redshift > 0.5. This result is unexpected because the classical bar formation mechanism would predict that bars ought to be more common at higher redshifts because of dynamically colder galaxy disks and increased interactions. If the scarcity of bars is true, then serious constraints may be placed on the evolutionary stage of galactic disks. On the other hand, it is possible that the observations are misleading due to band-shifting and dust obscuration effects. While these criticisms have been suggested qualitatively, a quantitative analysis of the evolution of the bar fraction with redshift has been missing. We present preliminary results from an analysis of the bar fraction as a function of redshift using the NICMOS Deep Field, the best dataset available for such a quantitative study. For a control sample we use a sample of spirals representative of the nearby Universe and simulate their appearance at different redshifts using an IDL code developed by Strubbe et al. (discussed in poster session). This work is partially supported by grant HST-AR-09552.01-A through a grant from the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Incorporated, under NASA contract NAS5-26555, and by NSF grant AST-9981546.

Sheth, K.; Regan, M. W.; Scoville, N. Z.; Strubbe, L. E.

2002-12-01

112

Scanner-dependent optical proximity effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical imaging of IC critical designs is impacted by optical proximity effects, OPEs, originating from finite numerical aperture of projection lenses used in modern projectors. The OPE's are caused by filtering of pattern diffraction orders falling outside of the lens band pass. Controlling OPEs is so critical to IC performance, that IC design community implemented optical proximity correction, OPC, modifying the IC mask patterns to provide wafer images matching the IC design intent. The mainstream OPC uses optical models representing fundamental imaging setup and it does not capture the impacts of engineering scanner tool constraints. The OPEs are impacted by scanner lens and illuminator signatures causing CD excursions large in comparison to the CD error budgets(1). The magnitude of the scanner impacts on OPEs necessitated new optical modeling paradigm involving imaging models imbedding scanner signatures representing population of scanners of a given type. These scanner-type based models represent quantum leap in accuracy of lithography simulation technology, resulting in OPE and OPC representing a broad range of realistic scanner characteristics(2). In this context, a relevant question is: to what degree, the signatures of individual scanners impact the accuracy of imaging models and OPE predictions? To answer this question, we analyzed optical proximity responses of hyper-NA scanners represented by their signatures. We first studied a set of OPEs impacted by the scanner-type signatures. We then generated a set of corresponding OPEs impacted by the signatures of individual scanners. We compared the two kinds of OPEs and highlighted the scanner-specific image formation responses.

Tyminski, Jacek K.; Matsuyama, Tomoyuki; Nakashima, Toshiharu; Inoue, Ryuichi

2009-03-01

113

Changes in Smoking-Related Norms in Bars Resulting from California's Smoke-Free Workplace Act  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

California's Smoke-Free Workplace Act--CA Labor Code Sec. 6404.5(a)--was extended to bars in 1998. This article analyzes changes in normative beliefs and behaviors related to bar smoking in the decade following the adoption of the Act. In a series of studies evaluating the smoke-free workplace law in bars, researchers conducted extensive…

Satterlund, Travis D.; Lee, Juliet P.; Moore, Roland S.

2012-01-01

114

Repeatable Release Holdback Bar.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A holdback bar is described for restraining an aircraft temporarily prior to catapult assisted launch. It uses a ball and piston unloader valve to insure rapid, positive release of a pressurized hydraulic fluid. Compensator chambers each have a resilient ...

W. H. Hickle

1977-01-01

115

Histograms and Bar Graphs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to introduce students to histograms and bar graphs as graphical representations of data. The lesson also covers the distinction between histograms and bar graphs and the concepts of class intervals and scale. The lesson provides links to discussions and activities related to these topics as well as worksheets for further practice. Finally, the lesson provides links to follow-up lessons designed for use in succession with this one.

2010-01-01

116

Magnetic Bar Field Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EJS Magnetic Bar Field Model shows the field of a bar magnet and has a movable compass that reports the magnetic field values. The bar magnet model is built by placing a group of magnetic dipoles along the bar magnet. You can modify this simulation if you have Ejs installed by right-clicking within the plot and selecting âOpen Ejs Modelâ from the pop-up menu item. The Magnetic Bar Field model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_em_MagneticBarField.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. Ejs is a part of the Open Source Physics Project and is designed to make it easier to access, modify, and generate computer models. Additional Ejs models are available. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or Ejs.

Christian, Wolfgang; Franciscouembre; Cox, Anne

2009-09-18

117

Capture Andevaluation of Airborne Laser Scanner Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of laser sensors for the direct measurement of the terrain surface resulted in airborne systems allowing an area covering 3D data capture which are already in commercial use. By the integration of the laser scanner with sensors for the absolute orientation of the laser scanner at the time of measurement, like the NAVSTAR Global Positioning System (GPS) for

Johannes Kilian; Norbert Haala; Markus Englich

1996-01-01

118

FR4 Laser Scanner With Dynamic Focus  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electromagnetically actuated optical scanner made using standard printed circuit board technology with integrated dynamic focusing feature is presented. Dynamic focus is achieved with an independently controlled plunger machined on the flame retardant-4 (FR4) platform. Integration of a laser diode and lens, torsional scanner, and the plunger for dynamic focus adjustment on FR4 platform greatly improves the form factor of

Serhan O. Isikman; Randy B. Sprague; Hakan Urey

2009-01-01

119

Spatial Calibration Procedure for Infrared Line Scanners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermographic devices which are able to acquire images, such as infrared line scanners, are becoming increasingly popular. One of the major issues when working with this kind of devices is accurate spatial calibration, necessary in order to extract metric information from images. In this work, a spatial calibration procedure for infrared line scanners is proposed. The proposed procedure is based

Rubén Usamentiaga; Daniel F. García; Diego González; Julio Molleda

2006-01-01

120

Academic and Career Advising of Scanners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Scanners" has become a common term for a recently identified category of people who find choosing just one interest or career path difficult (Sher, 2006). Academic and career advisors who work with scanners will likely find that these students have difficulty selecting an academic major or career path and that they seem to suffer anxiety and a…

Bloom, Arvid J.; Tripp, Philip R.; Shaffer, Leigh S.

2011-01-01

121

21 CFR 892.1300 - Nuclear rectilinear scanner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Nuclear rectilinear scanner. 892.1300 Section 892.1300 Food...Devices § 892.1300 Nuclear rectilinear scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear rectilinear scanner is a device intended to image...

2009-04-01

122

21 CFR 882.1925 - Ultrasonic scanner calibration test block.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Ultrasonic scanner calibration test block. 882.1925...Devices § 882.1925 Ultrasonic scanner calibration test block. (a) Identification. An ultrasonic scanner calibration test block is a...

2010-04-01

123

21 CFR 892.1330 - Nuclear whole body scanner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Nuclear whole body scanner. 892.1330 Section 892.1330 Food...Devices § 892.1330 Nuclear whole body scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear whole body scanner is a device intended to...

2010-04-01

124

21 CFR 882.1925 - Ultrasonic scanner calibration test block.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-04-01 false Ultrasonic scanner calibration test block. 882.1925...Devices § 882.1925 Ultrasonic scanner calibration test block. (a) Identification. An ultrasonic scanner calibration test block is a...

2009-04-01

125

21 CFR 882.1925 - Ultrasonic scanner calibration test block.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ultrasonic scanner calibration test block...Diagnostic Devices § 882.1925 Ultrasonic scanner calibration test block. (a) Identification. An ultrasonic scanner calibration test...

2013-04-01

126

Non-Destructive Testing Scanner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bio-Imaging Research's technology that originated in an aerospace program has come full circle with a new aerospace adaptation called the Advanced Computed Tomography Inspection System, or ACTIS. The medical version of CT scans the human body for tumors or other abnormalities, the ACTIS system finds imperfections in aerospace structures and components, such as castings, assemblies, rocket motors and nozzles. ACTIS is described by its developer as the most versatile CT scanner available for non-destructive testing applications. ACTIS is a variable geometry system. ACTIS source and detectors can be moved closer together or farther apart to optimize the geometry for different sizes of test objects. The combination of variable geometry, three sources, and focusing detectors makes ACTIS cost effective for a broad range of applications. System can scan anything from very small turbine blades to large rocket assemblies.

1990-01-01

127

Combined PET/MRI scanner  

DOEpatents

A combined PET/MRI scanner generally includes a magnet for producing a magnetic field suitable for magnetic resonance imaging, a radiofrequency (RF) coil disposed within the magnetic field produced by the magnet and a ring tomograph disposed within the magnetic field produced by the magnet. The ring tomograph includes a scintillator layer for outputting at least one photon in response to an annihilation event, a detection array coupled to the scintillator layer for detecting the at least one photon outputted by the scintillator layer and for outputting a detection signal in response to the detected photon and a front-end electronic array coupled to the detection array for receiving the detection signal, wherein the front-end array has a preamplifier and a shaper network for conditioning the detection signal.

Schlyer, David (Bellport, NY); Woody, Craig L. (Setauket, NY); Rooney, William (Miller Place, NY); Vaska, Paul (Sound Beach, NY); Stoll, Sean (Wading River, NY); Pratte, Jean-Francois (Stony Brook, NY); O'Connor, Paul (Bellport, NY)

2007-10-23

128

Use of scatterometry for scanner matching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the high volume manufacturing at the 45nm node and beyond it is crucial to match the OPC behaviour of all scanners used at a given process step. For this task the ASML LithoTuner PatternMatcher software was used. LithoTuner PatternMatcher is a tool to improve the proximity differences between a reference scanner and one or more so called 'to be matched' scanners. The optimization uses the concept of sensitivities of CDs of critical features towards adjustable scanner parameters in combination with the delta CD's of those critical features. To perform the scanner matching it is very important to have accurate and repeatable CD data. Therefore we investigated the use of scatterometry as a replacement for the traditional CDSEM measurement. Scatterometry significantly enhances the measurement precision while simultaneously reduces the measurement time. In a first step we determined the sensitivities of the structures by measuring the CD response to small perturbations of the individual scanner parameter settings. CD through pitch and repeating 2 dimensional line end structures were measured using the ASML YieldStar tool and a Hitachi CDSEM. The scatterometry- and CDSEM based sensitivities of the scanner parameter settings are compared. Finally a scanner matching based on both sets of sensitivities has been performed. In this article we will show that both methods are suited to perform the scanner matching. We will also present the differences between the two sets of sensitivities obtained with scatterometry and CDSEM. At the end we will present the results of the tool matching and show the results of a cross check. In the cross check sensitivities obtained with the use of scatterometry were used for the scanner matching next to SEM metrology used for verification.

Bald, Holger; Seltmann, Rolf; Bubke, Karsten; Ruhm, Matthias; Noot, Marc; Woischke, Dieter; van Adrichem, Paul; Luehrmann, Paul

2011-02-01

129

17. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING COMMANDER'S OFFICE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - COMMANDER'S OFFICE VIEW. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

130

16. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING FRONT LOBBY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

16. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - FRONT LOBBY VIEW. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

131

A comparison of film and phosphor scanners  

SciTech Connect

Signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) and spatial distortions have been measured for three types of scanners: the Molecular Dynamics (MD) and DuPont film scanners and the MD phosphor scanner. The MD film scanner is a deployable and compact scanner that gives a peak SNR of 110 for low (< 2.0) optical densities (ODs), but the spatial distortions across the digitized film plane are significant. The authors compare this with the DuPont film scanner, which has equally good SNRs at low ODs, but very low spatial distortions. The DuPont also allows the user to define an OD range and contains a prescan function to find the suitable range if the user cannot input such a value; its scan times are quick, and the hardware allows for internal data averaging before being stored to disk. The MD phosphor imager has excellent low-dose capability, producing usable images at a 10-{mu}rad dose (from a 150-pkeV source) but its SNRs are low compared to the film scanner, but they can be increased by adjusting the photomultiplier tube voltage and laser radius across the scan arc.

Chancellor, T.; Morris, R.A.

1993-10-01

132

Toll Bar on Sea  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the summer of 2007 the United Kingdom experienced some of the heaviest rainfall since records began. Toll Bar in South Yorkshire featured prominently in media coverage as the village and the homes surrounding it began to flood. Many people lost everything: their homes, their furniture, their possessions. In an effort to come to terms with what…

Hunter, Dave

2008-01-01

133

Bend That Bar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners play the role of materials engineers as they test the flexibility of different materials. They determine the strength-to-weight ratio of bars of these materials (e.g., steel, aluminum, wood, etc.) and discuss the advantages to using each in different scenarios. This activity can serve as a demonstration for younger students.

Rutkowski, Tom; Conner, Alex; Hill, Geoffrey; Zarske, Malinda S.; Yowell, Janet

2004-01-01

134

Permanent Bar Magnets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about the basic properties of magnets and magnetism. Learners explore concepts such as magnetic fields and polarity, which form the basic ingredients of a study of Earth's magnetic field and the technology of magnetometers. Materials needed include bar magnets and paper clips. This is Activity 1 of Exploring Magnetism: A Teacher's Magnetism Activity Guide.

135

Image intensity settings for dual tomographic scanner  

SciTech Connect

The Siemens Gammasonics Pho/Con dual tomographic scanner is well established for multiplane imaging in several routine nuclear medicine procedures. The system is designed to produce tomographic images directly on film, without data storage for replay or image processing. Difficulty can arise when selecting the best film-exposure intensity settings because of count rate variations among patients. A method to translate the tomographic scanner's count density meter readings into optimal film exposure intensity settings is described. This technique is easily adapted to individual choices of film, film processing, and image density. It can be used for the entire sequence of scanner operating parameters.

Summers, P.L.; Drown, D.A.; Blondeau, K.L.; Logan, K.W.

1981-06-01

136

Pulsed Doppler lidar airborne scanner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report covers the work accomplished during the reporting period on Pulsed Doppler Lidar Airborne Scanner and describes plans for the next reporting period. The objectives during the current phase of the contract are divided into four phases. Phase 1 includes ground testing of the system and analysis of data from the 1981 Severe Storms Test Flights. Phase 2 consists of preflight preparation and planning for the 1983 flight series. The flight test itself will be performed during Phase 3, and Phase 4 consists of post-flight analysis and operation of the system after that flight test. The range profile from five samples taken during Flight 10, around 1700 Z is given. The lowest curve is taken from data collected upwind of Mt. Shasta at about 10,000 feet of altitude, in a clear atmosphere, where no signals were observed. It thus is a good representation of the noise level as a function of range. The next curve was taken downwind of the mountain, and shows evidence of atmospheric returns. There is some question as to whether the data are valid at all ranges, or some ranges are contaminated by the others.

Dimarzio, C. A.; Mcvicker, D. B.; Morrow, C. E.; Negus, C. C.

1985-01-01

137

High voltage battery cell scanner development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Battery cell voltage scanners have been previously used in low voltage spacecraft applications. In connection with future missions involving an employment of high-power high voltage power subsystems and/or autonomous power subsystem management for unattended operation, it will be necessary to utilize battery cell voltage scanners to provide battery cell voltage information for early detection of impending battery cell degradation/failures. In preparation for such missions, a novel battery cell voltage scanner design has been developed. The novel design makes use of low voltage circuit modules which can be applied to high voltage batteries in a building block fashion. A description is presented of the design concept and test results of the high voltage battery cell scanner, and its operation with an autonomously managed power subsystem is discussed.

Lepisto, J. W.; Decker, D. K.; Graves, J.

1983-01-01

138

21 CFR 892.1220 - Fluorescent scanner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1220 Fluorescent scanner. (a) Identification. A fluorescent...

2012-04-01

139

21 CFR 892.1220 - Fluorescent scanner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1220 Fluorescent scanner. (a) Identification. A fluorescent...

2011-04-01

140

21 CFR 892.1220 - Fluorescent scanner.  

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1220 Fluorescent scanner. (a) Identification. A fluorescent...

2014-04-01

141

Hand-held optical fuel pin scanner  

DOEpatents

An optical scanner for indicia arranged in a focal plane perpendicular to an optical system including a rotatable dove prism. The dove prism transmits a rotating image to a stationary photodiode array.

Kirchner, Tommy L. (Richland, WA); Powers, Hurshal G. (Richland, WA)

1987-01-01

142

Information extraction techniques for multispectral scanner data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The applicability of recognition-processing procedures for multispectral scanner data from areas and conditions used for programming the recognition computers to other data from different areas viewed under different measurement conditions was studied. The reflective spectral region approximately 0.3 to 3.0 micrometers is considered. A potential application of such techniques is in conducting area surveys. Work in three general areas is reported: (1) Nature of sources of systematic variation in multispectral scanner radiation signals, (2) An investigation of various techniques for overcoming systematic variations in scanner data; (3) The use of decision rules based upon empirical distributions of scanner signals rather than upon the usually assumed multivariate normal (Gaussian) signal distributions.

Malila, W. A.; Crane, R. B.; Turner, R. E.

1972-01-01

143

21 CFR 892.1220 - Fluorescent scanner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1220 Fluorescent scanner. (a) Identification. A fluorescent...

2013-04-01

144

Spectrometer and scanner with optofluidic configuration.  

PubMed

We present a spectrometer and scanner based on optofluidic configurations. The main optical component of the spectrometer is a compound optical element consisting of an optofluidic lens and standard blazed diffraction grating. The spectrum size can be changed by filling the lens cavity with different liquids. The scanner comprises two hollow 45° angle prisms oriented at 90° to each other. By changing the liquid inside the prisms, two-dimensional light beam scanning can be performed. PMID:23338199

Calixto, Sergio; Rosete-Aguilar, Martha; Sanchez-Morales, Maria Eugenia; Calixto-Solano, Margarita

2013-01-20

145

Kolsky Bar Impact Test Facility  

SciTech Connect

Testing for the Kolsky Bar is conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico. The Kolsky bar is operated by the Dynamic testing team of NMT-11, (Nuclear Material Technology Division) to enable measurements of stress-strain characteristics for the MST-8 (Material Science and Technology) personnel. The Kolsky Bar is located at the Plutonium Facility at TA-55 (Tech Area).

Contreras, P.; Montoya, J.

1998-12-31

146

Active chatter control system for long-overhang boring bars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some machining processes, such as boring, have been historically limited by excessive bar vibration, often resulting in poor surface finish and reduced tool life. A unique boring bar system has been developed to suppress bar vibration, or chatter, during machining using active control technology. Metal cutting test programs have shown proven, repeatable performance on hard-to-cut, aircraft industry high-temperature nickel alloys as well as more easily cut carbon steels. Critical bar length-to-diameter (L/D) ratios, depths-of-cuts, feed rates and cutting speeds far exceed those attainable from the best available passively-damped boring bars. This industry-ready system consists of three principle subsystems: active clamp, instrumented bar, and control electronics. The active clamp is a lathe-mountable body capable of supporting bars of varying sizes and articulating them in orthogonal directions from the base of the bar shank. The instrumented bar consists of a steel shank, standard insert head and imbedded accelerometers. Wire harnesses from both the bar and clamp connect to control electronics comprised of highly-efficient switched- capacitor amplifiers that drive the piezoelectric actuators, sensor signal conditioning, a PC-based program manager and two 32-bit floating-point DSPs. The program manager code runs on the host PC and distributes system identification and control functions to the two DSPs. All real-time signal processing is based on the principles of adaptive filter minimization. For the described system, cutting performance has extended existing chatter thresholds (cutting parameter combinations) for nickel alloys by as much as 400% while maintaining precision surface finish on the machined part. Bar L/D ratios as high as 11 have enabled deep boring operations on nickel workpieces that otherwise could not be performed free of chatter.

Browning, Douglas R.; Golioto, Igor; Thompson, Norman B.

1997-05-01

147

Bar Waves Applet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet simulates a bar or a stiff string which can be shaped with the mouse, or have a static force applied. It can be hinged, free, attached to a wall or clamped. Phases, phase cosines and modes can be displayed. The simulation speed, damping, base frequency, stiffness of the string and amplitude of the normal modes are adjustable. Sound is an option. A link is included to a page on 'Waves in Solids.'

Falstad, Paul

2004-07-13

148

Water under the BAR  

PubMed Central

Many cellular processes require the generation of highly curved regions of cell membranes by interfacial membrane proteins. A number of such proteins are now known, and several mechanisms of curvature generation have been suggested, but so far a quantitative understanding of the importance of the various potential mechanisms remains elusive. Following previous theoretical work, we consider the electrostatic attraction that underlies the scaffold mechanism of membrane bending in the context of the N-BAR domain of amphiphysin. Analysis of atomistic molecular dynamics simulations reveals considerable water between the membrane and the positively charged concave face of the BAR, even when it is tightly bound to highly curved membranes. This results in significant screening of electrostatic interactions, suggesting that electrostatic attraction is not the main driving force behind curvature sensing, supporting recent experimental work. These results also emphasize the need for care when building coarse-grained models of protein-membrane interactions. These results are emphasized by simulations of oligomerized amphiphysin N-BARs at the atomistic and coarse-grained level. In the coarse-grained simulations, we find a strong dependence of the induced curvature on the dielectric screening.

Lyman, Edward; Cui, Haosheng; Voth, Gregory A.

2010-01-01

149

Scanner matching using pupil intensity control between scanners in 30nm DRAM device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scanner mismatch has become one of the critical issues in high volume memory production. There are several components that contribute to the scanner CD mismatch. One of the major components is illumination pupil difference between scanners. Because of acceleration of dimensional shrinking in memory devices, the CD mismatch became more critical in electrical performance and process window. In this work, we demonstrated computational lithography model based scanner matching for sub 3x nm memory devices. We used ASML XT:1900Gi as a reference scanner and ASML NXT:1950i as the to-be-matched scanner. Wafer metrology data and scanner specific parameters are used to build a computational model, and determine the optimal settings by model simulation to minimize the CD difference between scanners. Nano Geometry Research (NGR) was used as a wafer CD metrology tool for both model calibration and matching result verification. The extracted pupil parameters from measured source map from both before and after matching are inspected and analyzed. Simulated and measured process window changes by applying the matching sub-recipe are also evaluated.

Jang, Jongwon; Park, Daejin; Choi, Jeaseung; Jung, Areum; Yoo, Gyun; Kim, Jungchan; Kim, Cheol-Kyun; Yim, Donggyu; Lu, Junwei; Park, Seunghoon; Yu, Zongchang; Vellanki, Venu; Shao, Wenkin; Park, Chris

2011-03-01

150

LANSCE-R WIRE-SCANNER SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

The National Instruments cRIO platform is used for the new LANSCE-R wire-scanner systems. All wire-scanner electronics are integrated into a single BiRa BiRIO 4U cRIO chassis specifically designed for the cRIO crate and all interface electronics. The BiRIO chassis, actuator and LabVIEW VIs provide a complete wire-scanner system integrated with EPICS. The new wire-scanner chassis includes an 8-slot cRIO crate with Virtex-5 LX 110 FPGA and Power-PC real-time controller, the LANL-developed cRIO 2-axis wire-sensor analog interface module (AFE), NI9222 cRIO 4-channel 16-bit digitizer, cRIO resolver demodulator, cRIO event receiver, front-panel touch panel display, motor driver, and all necessary software, interface wiring, connectors and ancillary components. This wirescanner system provides a complete, turn-key, 2-axis wire-scanner system including 2-channel low-noise sensewire interface with variable DC wire bias and wireintegrity monitor, 16-bit signal digitizers, actuator motor drive and control, actuator position sensing, limit-switch interfaces, event receiver, LabVIEW and EPICS interface, and both remote operation and full stand-alone operation using the touch panel.

Gruchalla, Michael E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-01

151

Cognition for robot scanner based remote welding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effort for reduced cycle times in manufacturing has supported the development of remote welding systems which use a combination of scanners for beam delivery and robots for scanner positioning. Herein, close coupling of both motions requires a precise command of the robot trajectory and the scanner positioning to end up with a combined beam delivery. Especially the path precision of the robot plays a vital role in this kinematic chain. In this paper, a sensor system is being presented which allows tracking the motion of the laser beam against the work piece. It is based on a camera system which is coaxially connected to the scanner thus observing the relative motion of the laser beam relative to the work piece. The acquired images are processed with computer vision algorithms from the field of motion detection. The suitability of the algorithms is being demonstrated with a motion tracking tool which visualizes the homogeneity of the tracking result. The reported solution adds cognitive capabilities to manufacturing systems for robot scanner based materials processing. It allows evaluation of the relative motion between work piece and the laser beam. Moreover, the system can be used to adapt system programming during set-up of a manufacturing task or to evaluate the functionality of a manufacturing system during production. The presented sensor system will assist in optimizing manufacturing processes.

Thombansen, U.; Ungers, Michael

2014-02-01

152

CT densitometry of the lungs: Scanner performance  

SciTech Connect

Our goal was to establish the reproducibility and accuracy of the CT scanner in densitometry of the lungs. Scanner stability was assessed by analysis of daily quality checks. Studies using a humanoid phantom and polyethylene foams for lung were performed to measure reproducibility and accuracy. The dependence of the CT-estimated density on reconstruction filter, zoom factor, slice thickness, table height, data truncation, and objects outside the scan field was determined. Stability of the system at air density was within {approx}1 HU and at water density within {approx}2 HU. Reproducibility and accuracy for densities found for lung were within 2-3%. Dependence on the acquisition and reconstruction parameters was neglible, with the exceptions of the ultra high resolution reconstruction algorithm in the case of emphysema, and objects outside the scan field. The performance of the CT scanner tested is quite adequate for densitometry of the lungs. 26 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

Kemerink, G.J.; Lamers, R.J.S.; Thelissen, G.R.P.; Engelshoven, J.M.A. van [University Hospital, Maastricht (Netherlands)] [University Hospital, Maastricht (Netherlands)

1996-01-01

153

High precision kinematic surveying with laser scanners  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The kinematic survey of roads and railways is becoming a much more common data acquisition method. The development of the Mobile Road Mapping System (MoSES) has reached a level that allows the use of kinematic survey technology for high precision applications. The system is equipped with cameras and laser scanners. For high accuracy requirements, the scanners become the main sensor group because of their geometric precision and reliability. To guarantee reliable survey results, specific calibration procedures have to be applied, which can be divided into the scanner sensor calibration as step 1, and the geometric transformation parameter estimation with respect to the vehicle coordinate system as step 2. Both calibration steps include new methods for sensor behavior modeling and multisensor system integration. To verify laser scanner quality of the MoSES system, the results are regularly checked along different test routes. It can be proved that a standard deviation of 0.004 m for height of the scanner points will be obtained, if the specific calibrations and data processing methods are applied. This level of accuracy opens new possibilities to serve engineering survey applications using kinematic measurement techniques. The key feature of scanner technology is the full digital coverage of the road area. Three application examples illustrate the capabilities. Digital road surface models generated from MoSES data are used, especially for road surface reconstruction tasks along highways. Compared to static surveys, the method offers comparable accuracy at higher speed, lower costs, much higher grid resolution and with greater safety. The system's capability of gaining 360 profiles leads to other complex applications like kinematic tunnel surveys or the precise analysis of bridge clearances.

Gräfe, Gunnar

2007-12-01

154

Barred disks in dense environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the properties of bright barred and unbarred disks in the Abell 901/902 cluster system at z˜ 0.165 with the STAGES HST ACS survey. We find that the global optical bar fraction in the clusters is ˜ 30% regardless of the method of disk selection. Within a given absolute magnitude bin, the bar fraction increases for galaxies with no significant bulge component. Within each morphological type bin, the bar fraction increases for brighter galaxies. We find no strong trend for the bar fraction with local density within the cluster between the core and virial radius. We discuss the implications of our results for the evolution of bars and disks in dense environments.

Marinova, I.; Jogee, S.; Heiderman, A.; Barazza, F. D.; Gray, M. E.; Barden, M.; Wolf, C.; Peng, C. Y.; Bacon, D.; Balogh, M.; Bell, E. F.; Böhm, A.; Caldwell, J. A. R.; Häußler, B.; Heymans, C.; Jahnke, K.; van Kampen, E.; Lane, K.; McIntosh, D. H.; Meisenheimer, K.; Sánchez, S. F.; Somerville, R.; Taylor, A.; Wisotzki, L.; Zheng, X.

155

LANSCE Wire Scanner System Prototype: Switchyard Test  

SciTech Connect

On November 19, 2011, the beam diagnostics team of Los Alamos National Laboratory's LANSCE accelerator facility conducted a test of a prototype wire scanner system for future deployment within the accelerator's switchyard area. The primary focus of this test was to demonstrate the wire scanner control system's ability to extend its functionality beyond acquiring lower energy linac beam profile measurements to acquiring data in the switchyard. This study summarizes the features and performance characteristics of the electronic and mechanical implementation of this system with details focusing on the test results.

Sedillo, James D [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-04-11

156

The conical scanner evaluation system design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The software design for the conical scanner evaluation system is presented. The purpose of this system is to support the performance analysis of the LANDSAT-D conical scanners, which are infrared horizon detection attitude sensors designed for improved accuracy. The system consists of six functionally independent subsystems and five interface data bases. The system structure and interfaces of each of the subsystems is described and the content, format, and file structure of each of the data bases is specified. For each subsystem, the functional logic, the control parameters, the baseline structure, and each of the subroutines are described. The subroutine descriptions include a procedure definition and the input and output parameters.

Cumella, K. E.; Bilanow, S.; Kulikov, I. B.

1982-01-01

157

Bone mineral computation with a rectilinear scanner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A portable rectilinear transmission scanner and associated computerized data reduction techniques for estimating bone mineral content are described. This unit can be easily disassembled for transport to various measurement sites and has been used to estimate the bone mineral content of the os calcis, radius, and ulna in the Apollo and Skylab astronauts. The scanner is used to obtain multiple rows of data from which a bone profile is derived. Bone edges are determined with the aid of a digital computer program which employs an algorithm that determines the greatest rate of change of the counting rate.

Ullman, J.; Brown, S.; Silverstein, A.; Vogel, J. M.

1974-01-01

158

Miniature rotating transmissive optical drum scanner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A miniature rotating transmissive optical scanner system employs a drum of small size having an interior defined by a circumferential wall rotatable on a drum axis, an optical element positioned within the interior of the drum, and a light-transmissive lens aperture provided at an angular position in the circumferential wall of the drum for scanning a light beam to or from the optical element in the drum along a beam azimuth angle as the drum is rotated. The miniature optical drum scanner configuration obtains a wide scanning field-of-view (FOV) and large effective aperture is achieved within a physically small size.

Lewis, Robert (Inventor); Parrington, Lawrence (Inventor); Rutberg, Michael (Inventor)

2013-01-01

159

Confined Alumina Bar-on-Bar Impact Experiments  

SciTech Connect

In an earlier study on unconfined alumina bar-on-bar impact measured velocity history (using VISAR) data at an impact velocity of 100 m/s showed that the material response is elastic. At higher impact velocities of 220 m/s and 300 m/s, the data suggested the material behavior is inelastic. This study is extended to confined alumina bars. Alumina bars (12.7-mm diameter) were shrunk fit into 3.17 mm thick steel sleeves to provide confinement stress. Axial velocity histories at the far end of the confined AD998 target bar are measured at nominal impact speeds of 200 m/s, 300 m/s, and 500 m/s. Lateral expansion of the confinement sleeve around the impactor and target bars during impact is photographed using a high-speed (Imacon) camera. Peak axial velocities increase from 0.135 mm/{mu}s for unconfined bars to 0.170 mm/{mu}s for confined bars at a nominal impact velocity of 200 m/s. At an impact velocity of {approx}300 m/s peak axial velocity of confined bar increase to 0.200 mm/{mu}s from 0.170 mm/{mu}s for unconfined bar. At {approx}500 m/s the confinement shatters on impact and peak axial velocity is measured to be almost same as that for {approx}200 m/s. These results show that the confinement provided by a 3.17-mm thick steel sleeve to alumina bar enhances its impact response for impact velocities to {approx}300 m/s and confined alumina behaves as inelastic at the lowest impact velocity of 200 m/s.

Brar, N. S. [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering and Research Institute, University of Dayton, OH 45469-0182 (United States); Rajendran, A. M. [US Army Research Office, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States)

2006-07-28

160

Hopkinson bar simulation using DYNA2D. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

A finite-element simulation of a Split Hopkinson's bar (Kolsky apparatus) technique involving mortar specimens is accomplished with DYNA2D, an explicit two-dimensional finite-element code. Calculations are compared with experimental results contained in a University of Florida report Dynamic Response of Concrete and Concrete Structures, and with analytic solutions of the appropriate wave propagation problem.

Smith, J.A.; Glover, T.A.

1985-05-01

161

Predicting porosity distribution within oolitic tidal bars  

SciTech Connect

The Mississippian Greenbrier Limestone is a major gas reservoir in the Appalachian basin, but its complex porosity patterns often deter active exploration. In southern West Virginia, the reservoir consists of oolitic tidal bars which are composites of smaller shoals. Porosity trends closely follow the ooid-grainstone facies which occupied shoal crests, where coarse-grained, well-sorted ooid sand was generated with either unidirectional or bidirectional cross-beds. Nonporous packstone occurred in adjacent tidal channels, and a transitional grainstone/packstone facies of marginal porosity was situated along the flanks of the shoals. The key to drilling successful wells is in understanding the complex internal geometry of Greenbrier ooid shoals. A well penetrating the oolite with good porosity and bimodal cross-beds should be offset perpendicular to the dip directions, that is, parallel to the shoal axis. However, a well penetrating thin, porous limestone with one dominant cross-bed azimuth should be offset opposite to that dip direction, that is, up the flank of the ooid shoal. Shaly interbeds characterize the edges of the shoals and mark the limit of productive wells. Schlumberger`s Formation MicroScanner (FMS) log, which provides data on both lithology and cross-bedding, has proven to be a useful tool in predicting the distribution of oolite porosity.

Cavallo, L.J. [Dominion Appalachian Development Inc., Jane Lew, WV (United States); Smosna, R.A. [Univ. Dept. of Geology and Geography, Morgantown, WV (United States)

1996-09-01

162

Calibration of ocean color temperature scanner (OCTS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The calibration results of the Ocean Color Temperature Scanner (OCTS) onboard the Japanese Advanced Earth Observing Satellite (ADEOS) are presented in this paper. The goal of OCTS is to measure the geophysical quantities of the ocean (Chlorophyll?a concentration, pigment concentration, etc.). They are calculated from the measured radiance by correcting molecular and aerosol scattering components, so the highly accurate calibration

Hiromi Oaku; Masanobu Shimada; Yasushi Mitomi; Yuji Miyachi; Robert O. Green

1997-01-01

163

Characterization of color scanners based on SVR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By researching the principle of colorimetric characterization method and Support Vector Regression (SVR), we analyze the feasibility of nonlinear transformation from scanner RGB color space to CIELAB color space based on SVR and built a new characterization model. Then we use the MATLABR2009a software to make a data simulation experiment to verify the accuracy of this model and figure out the color differences by CIEDE2000 color difference formula. Based on CIEDE2000 color difference formula, the average, the maximum and the minimum color differences of the training set are 1.2376, 2.5593 and 0.2182, the average, the maximum and the minimum color differences of the text set are 1.9318, 4.1421 and 0.4228. From the experimental results, we can make a conclusion that SVR can realize the nonlinear transformation from scanner RGB color space to CIELAB color space and the model satisfies the accuracy of scanner characterization. Therefore, SVR can be used into the color scanner characterization management.

Li, Bin; Zhang, Yi-Xin

2012-01-01

164

Miniature 'Wearable' PET Scanner Ready for Use  

ScienceCinema

Scientists from BNL, Stony Brook University, and collaborators have demonstrated the efficacy of a "wearable," portable PET scanner they've developed for rats. The device will give neuroscientists a new tool for simultaneously studying brain function and behavior in fully awake, moving animals.

165

Wire scanner software and firmware issues  

SciTech Connect

The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center facility presently has 110 slow wire scanning profile measurement instruments located along its various beam lines. These wire scanners were developed and have been operating for at least 30 years. While the wire scanners solved many problems to operate and have served the facility well they have increasingly suffered from several problems or limitations, such as maintenance and reliability problems, antiquated components, slow data acquisition, and etc. In order to refurbish these devices, these wire scanners will be replaced with newer versions. The replacement will consist of a completely new beam line actuator, new cables, new electronics and brand new software and firmware. This note describes the functions and modes of operation that LabVIEW VI software on the real time controller and FPGA LabVIEW firmware will be required. It will be especially interesting to understand the overall architecture of these LabVIEW VIs. While this note will endeavor to describe all of the requirements and issues for the wire scanners, undoubtedly, there will be missing details that will be added as time progresses.

Gilpatrick, John Doug [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

166

TIMS (Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner) Instrument.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The scan head and spectrometer of the Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) are mounted in the unpressurized tail cone of a NASA/NSTL Learjet and operated through a hole cut through the skin. Design criteria are discussed. The digitized field of v...

C. Stanich

1986-01-01

167

Current segmented gamma-ray scanner technology  

SciTech Connect

A new generation of segmented gamma-ray scanners has been developed at Los Alamos for scrap and waste measurements at the Savannah River Plant and the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility. The new designs are highly automated and exhibit special features such as good segmentation and thorough shielding to improve performance.

Bjork, C.W.

1987-01-01

168

A Microprocessor-Based Control Event Scanner.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Control Event Scanner (CES) is a microprocessor-based device which will control and sense relay contract closures via the IEEE Standard 488-1975 Interface Bus, hereafter known as the General Purpose Interface Bus (GPIB). Through the use of a microcomp...

J. R. Hammer M. D. Verstegen

1979-01-01

169

Miniature 'Wearable' PET Scanner Ready for Use  

SciTech Connect

Scientists from BNL, Stony Brook University, and collaborators have demonstrated the efficacy of a "wearable," portable PET scanner they've developed for rats. The device will give neuroscientists a new tool for simultaneously studying brain function and behavior in fully awake, moving animals.

Paul Vaska

2011-03-09

170

A Slide Scanner Input for Paramatrix.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A special purpose flying-spot slide scanner was designed to provide an efficient and flexible means for transmitting an input pattern to Paramatrix, a pattern processing computer. The light spot of a CRT is positioned by the 'horizontal' and 'vertical' ou...

L. D. Ryan

1967-01-01

171

Miniature 'Wearable' PET Scanner Ready for Use  

ScienceCinema

Scientists from BNL, Stony Brook University, and collaborators have demonstrated the efficacy of a "wearable," portable PET scanner they've developed for rats. The device will give neuroscientists a new tool for simultaneously studying brain function and behavior in fully awake, moving animals.

Paul Vaska

2013-07-22

172

23. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING RADAR CONTROL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

23. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - RADAR CONTROL INTERFACE "RCL NO. 2" WITH COMPUTER CONTROL DISC DRIVE UNITS IN FOREGROUND. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

173

2. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING VIEW IS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - VIEW IS LOOKING NORTH 80° WEST "B" FACE ALONG BUILDING "A" FACE. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

174

1. SITE BUILDING 022 SCANNER BUILDING VIEW IS LOOKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. SITE BUILDING 022- SCANNER BUILDING - VIEW IS LOOKING NORTH 70°WEST AT "B" AND "A" FACES. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

175

4. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING SOUTH 30° ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - SOUTH 30° WEST - VIEW IS LOOKING AT "B" FACE. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

176

3. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING VIEW IS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - VIEW IS LOOKING NORTH 30° WEST AT "A" FACE. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

177

11. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING EVAPORATIVE COOLING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - EVAPORATIVE COOLING TOWER SYSTEM IN FOREGROUND. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

178

18. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING VIEW OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

18. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - VIEW OF SITE SECURITY OFFICE ACCESS DOOR FROM EXTERIOR OF OFFICE. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

179

22. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING RADAR CONTROL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

22. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - RADAR CONTROL ROOM. RECEIVER EQUIPMENT ON RIGHT WITH RF RADIATION MONITOR CABINET. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

180

31. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING AT INTERIOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

31. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING AT INTERIOR - BACK OF POWER SUPPLY UNITS 3045-17 AND 3046-29. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

181

28. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING AT INTERIOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

28. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - AT INTERIOR OF LEVEL 5, FACE A - SHOWS ANTENNA RECEIVERS, EMITTERS/RECEIVERS, IN GENERAL ARRANGEMENT. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

182

13. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING "B" FACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - "B" FACE LOADING DOCK AND PERSONNEL ACCESS RAMP TO FALLOUT SHELTER. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

183

33. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING MECHANICAL ROOM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

33. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - MECHANICAL ROOM 105, VIEW OF CHILLER ROOM MOTOR CONTROL CENTER. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

184

32. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING MECHANICAL ROOM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

32. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - MECHANICAL ROOM 105, VIEW OF OPERATIONAL SCHEMATIC OF COOLING SYSTEM LOOPS. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

185

24. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING OPERATIONS CENTER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

24. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - OPERATIONS CENTER -- MWOC IN OPEARATION AT 1924 ZULU TIME. 26 OCTOBER, 1999. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

186

Deformation of a Peridynamic Bar  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deformation of an infinite bar subjected to a self-equilibrated load distribution is investigated using the peridynamic formulation of elasticity theory. The peridynamic theory differs from the classical theory and other nonlocal theories in that it does not involve spatial derivatives of the displacement field. The bar problem is formulated as a linear Fredholm integral equation and solved using Fourier

S. A. Silling; M. Zimmermann; R. Abeyaratne

2003-01-01

187

GASEOUS STRUCTURES IN BARRED GALAXIES: EFFECTS OF THE BAR STRENGTH  

SciTech Connect

Using hydrodynamic simulations, we investigate the physical properties of gaseous substructures in barred galaxies and their relationships with the bar strength. The gaseous medium is assumed to be isothermal and unmagnetized. The bar potential is modeled as a Ferrers prolate with index n. To explore situations with differing bar strength, we vary the bar mass f{sub bar} relative to the spheroidal component as well as its aspect ratio R. We derive expressions as functions of f{sub bar} and R for the bar strength Q{sub b} and the radius r(Q{sub b} ) where the maximum bar torque occurs. When applied to observations, these expressions suggest that bars in real galaxies are most likely to have f{sub bar} {approx} 0.25-0.50 and n {approx}< 1. Dust lanes approximately follow one of the x{sub 1}-orbits and tend to be straighter under a stronger and more elongated bar, but are insensitive to the presence of self-gravity. A nuclear ring of a conventional x{sub 2} type forms only when the bar is not so massive or elongated. The radius of an x{sub 2}-type ring is generally smaller than the inner Lindblad resonance, decreases systematically with increasing Q{sub b} , and is slightly larger when self-gravity is included. This is evidence that the ring position is not determined by the resonance, but instead by the amount of angular momentum loss at dust-lane shocks. Nuclear spirals exist only when the ring is of the x{sub 2} type and is sufficiently large in size. Unlike the other features, nuclear spirals are transient in that they start out being tightly wound and weak, and then, due to the nonlinear effect, unwind and become stronger until they turn into shocks, with an unwinding rate that is higher for larger Q{sub b} . The mass inflow rate to the galaxy center is found to be less than 0.01 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} for models with Q{sub b} {approx}< 0.2, while becoming larger than 0.1 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} when Q{sub b} {approx}> 0.2 and self-gravity is included.

Kim, Woong-Tae; Seo, Woo-Young; Kim, Yonghwi, E-mail: wkim@astro.snu.ac.kr [Center for the Exploration of the Origin of the Universe (CEOU), Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-10-10

188

Thickness of Bar 1Visibility Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bar k-visibility graphs are graphs admitting a representation in which the vertices correspond to horizontal line segments, called bars, and the edges correspond to vertical lines of sight which can traverse up to k bars. These graphs were introduced by Dean et al. (3) who conjec- tured that bar 1-visibility graphs have thickness at most 2. We construct a bar

Stefan Felsner; Mareike Massow

2006-01-01

189

Parameters of Bar k-Visibility Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bar k-visibility graphs are graphs admitting a representation in which the vertices correspond to horizontal line segments, called bars, and the edges correspond to vertical lines of sight which can traverse up to k bars. These graphs were introduced by Dean et al. (4) who conjectured that bar 1-visibility graphs have thickness at most 2. We construct a bar 1-visibility

Stefan Felsner; Mareike Massow

2008-01-01

190

Semiconductor Measurement Technology: A Laser Scanner for Semiconductor Devices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is a construction guide and operators manual for a laser scanner built for semiconductor device studies. A very brief discussion of the theory of operation of the scanner is given. The scanner's operation from a systems point of view is describ...

D. E. Sawyer D. W. Berning

1977-01-01

191

Applications of Optical Scanners in an Academic Center.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes optical scanners, including how the technology works; applications in data management and research; development of instructional materials; and providing community services. Discussion includes the three basic types of optical scanners: optical character recognition (OCR), optical mark readers (OMR), and graphic scanners. A sidebar…

Molinari, Carol; Tannenbaum, Robert S.

1995-01-01

192

Comparison of plane extraction performance using laser scanner and Kinect  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper compares the performance of laser scanner and Kinect when extracting the plane from 3D depth map measured by both sensors. By tilting laser scanner, 3D depth map around robot is generated in this paper and another 3D depth map using Kinect is also generated. To compare the 3D depth map of laser scanner and Kinect, staircases are measured

Chan-Soo Park; Sung-Wan Kim; Doik Kim; Sang-Rok Oh

2011-01-01

193

A new generation of scanners for DNA chips  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today, most of the DNA chips are used with fluorescent markers. Associated with fluorescence confocal scanners, this technology achieves remarkable performances in terms of sensitivity and accuracy. The main technical issues related to these scanners have already been reviewed. However, these scanners are costly, especially when high density chips are used. In this case, a mechanical precision of 1 ?m

François Perraut; Alexandre Lagrange; Patrick Pouteau; O Peyssonneaux; Pierre Puget; G McGall; Lionel Menou; Richard Gonzalez; Pierre Labeye; Frédéric Ginot

2002-01-01

194

X-ray modulation transfer functions of photostimulable phosphor image plates and scanners  

SciTech Connect

The modulation transfer functions of two types of photostimulable phosphor image plates were determined in the 10 keV to 50 keV x-ray energy range using a resolution test pattern with up to 10 line pairs per mm (LP/mm) and a wavelength dispersive x-ray spectrometer. Techniques were developed for correcting for the partial transmittance of the high energy x rays through the lead bars of the resolution test pattern, and the modulation transfer function (MTF) was determined from the measured change in contrast with LP/mm values. The MTF was convolved with the slit function of the image plate scanner, and the resulting point spread functions (PSFs) were in good agreement with the observed shapes and widths of x-ray spectral lines and with the PSF derived from edge spread functions. The shapes and the full width at half-maximum (FWHM) values of the PSF curves of the Fuji Superior Resolution (SR) and Fuji Maximum Sensitivity (MS) image plate detectors, consisting of the image plate and the scanner, determined by the three methods gave consistent results: The SR PSF is Gaussian with 0.13 mm FWHM, and the MS PSF is Lorentzian with 0.19 mm FWHM. These techniques result in the accurate determination of the spatial resolution achievable using image plate and scanner combinations and enable the optimization of spatial resolution for x-ray spectroscopy and radiography.

Seely, John F.; Holland, Glenn E.; Hudson, Lawrence T.; Henins, Albert

2008-11-01

195

Can technology help to reduce underage drinking? Evidence from the false ID laws with scanner provision.  

PubMed

Underage drinkers often use false identification to purchase alcohol or gain access into bars. In recent years, several states have introduced laws that provide incentives to retailers and bar owners who use electronic scanners to ensure that the customer is 21 years or older and uses a valid identification to purchase alcohol. This paper is the first to investigate the effects of these laws using confidential data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997 Cohort (NLSY97). Using a difference-in-differences methodology, I find that the false ID laws with scanner provision significantly reduce underage drinking, including up to a 0.22 drink decrease in the average number of drinks consumed by underage youth per day. This effect is observed particularly in the short-run and more pronounced for non-college students and those who are relatively younger. These results are also robust under alternative model specifications. The findings of this paper highlight the importance of false ID laws in reducing alcohol consumption among underage youth. PMID:24732386

Yörük, Bar?? K

2014-07-01

196

Application of a color scanner for 60Co high dose rate brachytherapy dosimetry with EBT radiochromic film  

PubMed Central

Background. The aim of this study is to evaluate the performance of a color scanner as a radiochromic film reader in two dimensional dosimetry around a high dose rate brachytherapy source. Materials and methods A Microtek ScanMaker 1000XL film scanner was utilized for the measurement of dose distribution around a high dose rate GZP6 60Co brachytherapy source with GafChromic® EBT radiochromic films. In these investigations, the non-uniformity of the film and scanner response, combined, as well as the films sensitivity to scanner’s light source was evaluated using multiple samples of films, prior to the source dosimetry. The results of these measurements were compared with the Monte Carlo simulated data using MCNPX code. In addition, isodose curves acquired by radiochromic films and Monte Carlo simulation were compared with those provided by the GZP6 treatment planning system. Results Scanning of samples of uniformly irradiated films demonstrated approximately 2.85% and 4.97% nonuniformity of the response, respectively in the longitudinal and transverse directions of the film. Our findings have also indicated that the film response is not affected by the exposure to the scanner’s light source, particularly in multiple scanning of film. The results of radiochromic film measurements are in good agreement with the Monte Carlo calculations (4%) and the corresponding dose values presented by the GZP6 treatment planning system (5%). Conclusions The results of these investigations indicate that the Microtek ScanMaker 1000XL color scanner in conjunction with GafChromic EBT film is a reliable system for dosimetric evaluation of a high dose rate brachytherapy source.

Ghorbani, Mahdi; Toossi, Mohammad Taghi Bahreyni; Mowlavi, Ali Asghar; Roodi, Shahram Bayani; Meigooni, Ali Soleimani

2012-01-01

197

Biomedical applications of a real-time terahertz color scanner  

PubMed Central

A real-time THz color scanner has the potential to further expand the application scope of THz spectral imaging based on its rapid image acquisition rate. We demonstrated three possible applications of a THz color scanner in the biomedical field: imaging of pharmaceutical tablets, human teeth, and human hair. The first application showed the scanner’s potential in total inspection for rapid quality control of pharmaceutical tablets moving on a conveyor belt. The second application demonstrated that the scanner can be used to identify a potential indicator for crystallinity of dental tissue. In the third application, the scanner was successfully used to visualize the drying process of wet hairs. These demonstrations indicated the high potential of the THz color scanner for practical applications in the biomedical field.

Schirmer, Markus; Fujio, Makoto; Minami, Masaaki; Miura, Jiro; Araki, Tsutomu; Yasui, Takeshi

2010-01-01

198

Telescope with a wide field of view internal optical scanner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A telescope with internal scanner utilizing either a single optical wedge scanner or a dual optical wedge scanner and a controller arranged to control a synchronous rotation of the first and/or second optical wedges, the wedges constructed and arranged to scan light redirected by topological surfaces and/or volumetric scatterers. The telescope with internal scanner further incorporates a first converging optical element that receives the redirected light and transmits the redirected light to the scanner, and a second converging optical element within the light path between the first optical element and the scanner arranged to reduce an area of impact on the scanner of the beam collected by the first optical element.

Degnan, III, John James (Inventor); Zheng, Yunhui (Inventor)

2012-01-01

199

Ghost Signals In Allison Emittance Scanners  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For over 20 years, Allison scanners have been used to measure emittances of low-energy ion beams. We show that scanning large trajectory angles produces ghost signals caused by the sampled beamlet impacting on an electric deflection plate. The ghost signal strength is proportional to the amount of beam entering the scanner. Depending on the ions, and their velocity, the ghost signals can have the opposite or the same polarity as the main beam signals. The ghost signals cause significant errors in the emittance estimates because they appear at large trajectory angles. These ghost signals often go undetected because they partly overlap with the real signals, are mostly below the 1% level, and often hide in the noise. A simple deflection plate modification is shown to reduce the ghost signal strength by over 99%.

Stockli, Martin P.; Leitner, M.; Moehs, D. P.; Keller, R.; Welton, R. F.

2005-03-01

200

Compact conscious animal positron emission tomography scanner  

DOEpatents

A method of serially transferring annihilation information in a compact positron emission tomography (PET) scanner includes generating a time signal for an event, generating an address signal representing a detecting channel, generating a detector channel signal including the time and address signals, and generating a composite signal including the channel signal and similarly generated signals. The composite signal includes events from detectors in a block and is serially output. An apparatus that serially transfers annihilation information from a block includes time signal generators for detectors in a block and an address and channel signal generator. The PET scanner includes a ring tomograph that mounts onto a portion of an animal, which includes opposing block pairs. Each of the blocks in a block pair includes a scintillator layer, detection array, front-end array, and a serial encoder. The serial encoder includes time signal generators and an address signal and channel signal generator.

Schyler, David J. (Bellport, NY); O'Connor, Paul (Bellport, NY); Woody, Craig (Setauket, NY); Junnarkar, Sachin Shrirang (Sound Beach, NY); Radeka, Veljko (Bellport, NY); Vaska, Paul (Sound Beach, NY); Pratte, Jean-Francois (Stony Brook, NY); Volkow, Nora (Chevy Chase, MD)

2006-10-24

201

Plate: A 2-D Transmission Line Current Symmetry Code.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is primarily intended as a users manual for the two-dimensional current flow code PLATE. The current symmetry to a thin cylindrical foil that is being imploded by the j bar x B bar force in a short z-pinch device is considered. The code PLATE ...

J. A. Justice

1977-01-01

202

Point Relay Scanner Utilizing Ellipsoidal Mirrors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A scanning system uses a polygonal mirror assembly with each facet of the polygon having an ellipsoidal mirror located thereon. One focal point of each ellipsoidal mirror is located at a common point on the axis of rotation of the polygonal mirror assembly. As the mirror assembly rotates. a second focal point of the ellipsoidal mirrors traces out a scan line. The scanner can be utilized for scanned output display of information or for scanning information to be detected.

Manhart, Paul K. (Inventor); Pagano, Robert J. (Inventor)

1997-01-01

203

Piezoelectric Transducer Based 3D Intraoral Scanner  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are not so many 3D profile tools specially designed for specifically narrow space, for example, to scan the tooth shape of a human jaw. In this paper, a real-time 3D intraoral scanner based on piezoelectric transducer is presented for the measurement of tooth profile in the mouth cavity. The proposed system comprises a laser diode beam, a micro charge-coupled

Furqan Ullah; Gun Soo Lee; Kang Park

2012-01-01

204

A near-infrared confocal scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the semiconductor industry, manufacturing of three-dimensional (3D) packages or 3D integrated circuits is a high-performance technique that requires combining several functions in a small volume. Through-silicon vias, which are vertical electrical connections extending through a wafer, can be used to direct signals between stacked chips, thus increasing areal density by stacking and connecting multiple patterned chips. While defect detection is essential in the semiconductor manufacturing process, it is difficult to identify defects within a wafer or to monitor the bonding results between bonded surfaces because silicon and many other semiconductor materials are opaque to visible wavelengths. In this context, near-infrared (NIR) imaging is a promising non-destructive method to detect defects within silicon chips, to inspect bonding between chips and to monitor the chip alignment since NIR transmits through silicon. In addition, a confocal scanner provides high-contrast, optically-sectioned images of the specimen due to its ability to reject out-of-focus noise. In this study, we report an NIR confocal scanner that rapidly acquires high-resolution images with a large field of view through silicon. Two orthogonal line-scanning images can be acquired without rotating the system or the specimen by utilizing two orthogonally configured resonant scanning mirrors. This NIR confocal scanner can be efficiently used as an in-line inspection system when manufacturing semiconductor devices by rapidly detecting defects on and beneath the surface.

Lee, Seungwoo; Yoo, Hongki

2014-06-01

205

Triple bar, high efficiency mechanical sealer  

DOEpatents

A clamp with a bottom clamp bar that has a planar upper surface is provided. The clamp may also include a top clamp bar connected to the bottom clamp bar, and a pressure distribution bar between the top clamp bar and the bottom clamp bar. The pressure distribution bar may have a planar lower surface in facing relation to the upper surface of the bottom clamp bar. An object is capable of being disposed in a clamping region between the upper surface and the lower surface. The width of the planar lower surface may be less than the width of the upper surface within the clamping region. Also, the pressure distribution bar may be capable of being urged away from the top clamp bar and towards the bottom clamp bar.

Pak, Donald J.; Hawkins, Samantha A.; Young, John E.

2013-03-19

206

Spectral characterization of the LANDSAT-D multispectral scanner subsystems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Relative spectral response data for the multispectral scanner subsystems (MSS) to be flown on LANDSAT-D and LANDSAT-D backup, the protoflight and flight models, respectively, are presented and compared to similar data for the Landsat 1,2, and 3 subsystems. Channel-bychannel (six channels per band) outputs for soil and soybean targets were simulated and compared within each band and between scanners. The two LANDSAT-D scanners proved to be nearly identical in mean spectral response, but they exhibited some differences from the previous MSS's. Principal differences between the spectral responses of the D-scanners and previous scanners were: (1) a mean upper-band edge in the green band of 606 nm compared to previous means of 593 to 598 nm; (2) an average upper-band edge of 697 nm in the red band compared to previous averages of 701 to 710 nm; and (3) an average bandpass for the first near-IR band of 702-814 nm compared to a range of 693-793 to 697-802 nm for previous scanners. These differences caused the simulated D-scanner outputs to be 3 to 10 percent lower in the red band and 3 to 11 percent higher in the first near-IR band than previous scanners for the soybeans target. Otherwise, outputs from soil and soybean targets were only slightly affected. The D-scanners were generally more uniform from channel to channel within bands than previous scanners.

Markham, B. L. (principal investigator); Barker, J. L.

1982-01-01

207

Recent micro-CT scanner developments at UGCT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes two X-ray micro-CT scanners which were recently developed to extend the experimental possibilities of microtomography research at the Centre for X-ray Tomography (www.ugct.ugent.be) of the Ghent University (Belgium). The first scanner, called Nanowood, is a wide-range CT scanner with two X-ray sources (160 kVmax) and two detectors, resolving features down to 0.4 ?m in small samples, but allowing samples up to 35 cm to be scanned. This is a sample size range of 3 orders of magnitude, making this scanner well suited for imaging multi-scale materials such as wood, stone, etc. Besides the traditional cone-beam acquisition, Nanowood supports helical acquisition, and it can generate images with significant phase-contrast contributions. The second scanner, known as the Environmental micro-CT scanner (EMCT), is a gantry based micro-CT scanner with variable magnification for scanning objects which are not easy to rotate in a standard micro-CT scanner, for example because they are physically connected to external experimental hardware such as sensor wiring, tubing or others. This scanner resolves 5 ?m features, covers a field-of-view of about 12 cm wide with an 80 cm vertical travel range. Both scanners will be extensively described and characterized, and their potential will be demonstrated with some key application results.

Dierick, Manuel; Van Loo, Denis; Masschaele, Bert; Van den Bulcke, Jan; Van Acker, Joris; Cnudde, Veerle; Van Hoorebeke, Luc

2014-04-01

208

The in-flight calibration of a helicopter-mounted Daedalus multispectral scanner  

SciTech Connect

A convenient way that has been used to calibrate, in-flight, a helicopter-mounted Daedalus multispectral scanner is described. It used four large canvas panels laid out in a square with a Spectralon panel as a reference. A calibrated Barnes modular multispectral radiometer, carried on a 2.2-m boom was rotated around a 2.5-m high tripod at the center of the square. The radiometer sampled the four large panels and the Spectralon panel once every two minutes. Atmospheric spectral transmittance measurements were made using a filter radiometer on an autotracking mount during the morning of the flight. The reflectance and optical depth data were used in an atmospheric radiative transfer code to predict the spectral radiances at the scanner. The calibration was completed by comparing the image digital counts to the predicted spectral radiances. 7 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

Balick, L.K.; Golanics, C.J.; Shines, J.E. (EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (USA)); Biggar, S.F.; Slater, P.N. (Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (USA). Optical Sciences Center)

1991-01-01

209

GPU-based real-time structured light 3D scanner at 500 fps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we develop a real-time, structured light 3D scanner that can output 3D video of 512×512 pixels at 500 fps using a GPU-based, high-speed vision system synchronized with a high-speed DLP projector. Our 3D scanner projects eight pairs of positive and negative image patterns with 8-bit gray code on the measurement objects at 1000 fps. Synchronized with the high-speed vision platform, these images are simultaneously captured at 1000 fps and processed in real time for 3D image generation at 500 fps by introducing parallel pixel processing on a NVIDIA Tesla 1060 GPU board. Several experiments are performed for high-speed 3D objects that undergo sudden 3D shape deformation.

Gao, Hao; Takaki, Takeshi; Ishii, Idaku

2012-05-01

210

Recent advances in segmented gamma scanner analysis  

SciTech Connect

The segmented gamma scanner (SGS) is used in many facilities to assay low-density scrap and waste generated in the facilities. The procedures for using the SGS can cause a negative bias if the sample does not satisfy the assumptions made in the method. Some process samples do not comply with the assumptions. This paper discusses the effect of the presence of lumps on the SGS assay results, describes a method to detect the presence of lumps, and describes an approach to correct for the lumps. Other recent advances in SGS analysis are also discussed.

Sprinkle, J.K. Jr.; Hsue, S.T.

1987-01-01

211

Fast wire scanner for intense electron beams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a cost-effective, fast rotating wire scanner for use in accelerators where high beam currents would otherwise melt even carbon wires. This new design uses a simple planetary gear setup to rotate a carbon wire, fixed at one end, through the beam at speeds in excess of 20 m/s. We present results from bench tests, as well as transverse beam profile measurements taken at Cornell's high-brightness energy recovery linac photoinjector, for beam currents up to 35 mA.

Moore, T.; Agladze, N. I.; Bazarov, I. V.; Bartnik, A.; Dobbins, J.; Dunham, B.; Full, S.; Li, Y.; Liu, X.; Savino, J.; Smolenski, K.

2014-02-01

212

Principali componenti di uno scanner TC  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a I requisiti strutturali di una sala in cui si svolge attività diagnostica mediante tomografia computerizzata variano in funzione\\u000a del tipo di apparecchiatura prevista e della tipologia di esami che saranno effettuati. In linea generale, una diagnostica\\u000a TC prevede tre aree distinte.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1. \\u000a \\u000a Sala diagnostica: è il locale nel quale sono posizionati lo scanner TC (gantry e lettino porta-paziente), il generatore,

Simona Corona; Silvia Cavaliere; Cristiana Baggiani

213

A laser scanner for 35mm film  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design, construction, and testing of a laser scanning system is described. The scanner was designed to deliver a scanned beam over a 2.54 cm by 2.54 cm or a 5.08 cm by 5.08 cm format. In order to achieve a scan resolution and rate comparable to that of standard television, an acousto-optic deflector was used for one axis of the scan, and a light deflecting galvanometer for deflection along the other axis. The acoustic optic deflector has the capability of random access scan controlled by a digital computer.

Callen, W. R.; Weaver, J. E.

1977-01-01

214

LAPR: An experimental aircraft pushbroom scanner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A three band Linear Array Pushbroom Radiometer (LAPR) was built and flown on an experimental basis by NASA at the Goddard Space Flight Center. The functional characteristics of the instrument and the methods used to preprocess the data, including radiometric correction, are described. The radiometric sensitivity of the instrument was tested and compared to that of the Thematic Mapper and the Multispectral Scanner. The radiometric correction procedure was evaluated quantitatively, using laboratory testing, and qualitatively, via visual examination of the LAPR test flight imagery. Although effective radiometric correction could not yet be demonstrated via laboratory testing, radiometric distortion did not preclude the visual interpretation or parallel piped classification of the test imagery.

Wharton, S. W.; Irons, J. I.; Heugel, F.

1980-01-01

215

Integrated Electro-optical Laser-Beam Scanners  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scanners using solid-state devices compact, consume little power, and have no moving parts. Integrated electro-optical laser scanner, in conjunction with external lens, points outgoing beam of light in any number of different directions, depending on number of upper electrodes. Offers beam-deflection angles larger than those of acousto-optic scanners. Proposed for such diverse applications as nonimpact laser printing, color imaging, ranging, barcode reading, and robotic vision.

Boord, Warren T.

1990-01-01

216

Scanners for visualizing activity of analog VLSI circuitry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper tutorially describes mixed digital-analog serial multiplexers (scanners) that we use to visualize the activity of one- and two-dimensional arrays of analog VLSI elements. These scanners range from simple one-dimensional devices designed to scan a one-dimensional array onto an oscilloscope, to complete video scanners with integrated sync and blank computation and on-chip video amplifiers. We discuss practical details of

Carver A. Mead; Tobias Delbrück

1991-01-01

217

Precipitation-hardening stainless steel bars, shapes, and forgings (ASME SA-564 with additional requirements)  

SciTech Connect

This standard covers precipitation-hardening stainless steel bars, shapes, and forgings for nuclear and associated applications. Material shall conform to the requirements of ASME SA-564; to requirements of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (ASME Code), Section III, Article NB-2000; and to the additional requirements of this standard.

Not Available

1982-09-01

218

Precipitation-hardening stainless steel bars, shapes, and forgings (ASME SA564 with additional requirements)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This standard covers precipitation-hardening stainless steel bars, shapes, and forgings for nuclear and associated applications. Material shall conform to the requirements of ASME SA-564; to requirements of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (ASME Code), Section III, Article NB-2000; and to the additional requirements of this standard.

Fuller

1979-01-01

219

Scanner effects on directed self-assembly patterning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Directed self-assembly (DSA) of various polymers is a potential next-generation lithography component. Lithographers can use an ArF scanner to print guide structures with pitches accessible with current technology. The DSA materials, in a non-exposure step, perform pitch multiplication of 1-D and 2-D guide structures. While research has investigated defects inherent to the DSA material, ArF scanner effects have received little attention. This work uses DSA models and scanner models to assess requirements for ArF immersion scanners for DSA complimentary lithography.

Renwick, Stephen P.

2014-03-01

220

Nuclear Rings in Barred Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dust lanes, nuclear rings and nuclear spirals are typical structures in the inner region of barred galaxies. Their shapes and properties are linked to the physical parameters of galaxies. To study galaxy formation and evolution revealed by these gas features, we need to understand what conditions are responsible to the gas flow patterns. Here we use high-resolution hydrodynamical simulations to study 2D gas flows in simple barred models. We find that the location and thickness of nuclear rings are tightly correlated with galactic properties, such as the pattern speed and central mass concentration, within certain ranges. Our result may have important implications for measuring the parameters of real barred galaxies observed by IFU.

Shen, Juntai

2014-05-01

221

Universal precision sine bar attachment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This invention relates to an attachment for a sine bar which can be used to perform measurements during lathe operations or other types of machining operations. The attachment can be used for setting precision angles on vises, dividing heads, rotary tables and angle plates. It can also be used in the inspection of machined parts, when close tolerances are required, and in the layout of precision hardware. The novelty of the invention is believed to reside in a specific versatile sine bar attachment for measuring a variety of angles on a number of different types of equipment.

Mann, Franklin D. (inventor)

1989-01-01

222

CSERD Interactivate: Bar Graph Lesson  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This simulation-based lesson for grades 5-9 provides hands-on practice in exploring bar graphs using authentic information. It features an interactive Java graphing applet to create and read bar graphs. Students can work within parameters provided in the applet or input their own data sets. This resource includes a complete lesson plan, teaching tips, and alignment to NCTM standards. This resource is part of CSERD (Computational Science Education Reference Desk), a portal of the National Science Digital Library. The Interactivate collection contains more than 200 standards-based activities, many of which have been classroom tested.

2011-03-01

223

A 3D airborne ultrasound scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work investigates the feasibility of an ultrasound scanner designed to reconstruct three-dimensional profiles of objects in air. There are many industrial applications in which it is important to obtain quickly and accurately the digital reconstruction of solid objects with contactless methods. The final aim of this project was the profile reconstruction of shoe lasts in order to eliminate the mechanical tracers from the reproduction process of shoe prototypes. The feasibility of an ultrasonic scanner was investigated in laboratory conditions on wooden test objects with axial symmetry. A bistatic system based on five airborne polyvinylidenedifluoride (PVDF) transducers was mechanically moved to emulate a cylindrical array transducer that can host objects of maximum width and height 20 cm and 40 cm respectively. The object reconstruction was based on a simplified version of the synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT): the time of flight (TOF) of the first in time echo for each receiving transducer was taken into account, a coarse spatial sampling of the ultrasonic field reflected on the array transducer was delivered and the reconstruction algorithm was based on the ellipsoidal backprojection. Measurements on a wooden cone section provided submillimetre accuracy in a controlled environment.

Capineri, L.; Masotti, L.; Rocchi, S.

1998-06-01

224

An empirical study of scanner system parameters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The selection of the current combination of parametric values (instantaneous field of view, number and location of spectral bands, signal-to-noise ratio, etc.) of a multispectral scanner is a complex problem due to the strong interrelationship these parameters have with one another. The study was done with the proposed scanner known as Thematic Mapper in mind. Since an adequate theoretical procedure for this problem has apparently not yet been devised, an empirical simulation approach was used with candidate parameter values selected by the heuristic means. The results obtained using a conventional maximum likelihood pixel classifier suggest that although the classification accuracy declines slightly as the IFOV is decreased this is more than made up by an improved mensuration accuracy. Further, the use of a classifier involving both spatial and spectral features shows a very substantial tendency to resist degradation as the signal-to-noise ratio is decreased. And finally, further evidence is provided of the importance of having at least one spectral band in each of the major available portions of the optical spectrum.

Landgrebe, D.; Biehl, L.; Simmons, W.

1976-01-01

225

Bar-spheroid interaction in galaxies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

N-body simulation and linear analysis is employed to investigate the secular evolution of barred galaxies, with emphasis on the interaction between bars and spheroidal components of galaxies. This interaction is argued to drive secular transfer of angular momentum from bars to spheroids, primarily through resonant coupling. A moderately strong bar, having mass within corotation about 0.3 times the enclosed spheroid mass, is predicted to shed all its angular momentum typically in less than about 10 exp 9 yr. Even shorter depletion time scales are found for relatively more massive bars. It is suggested either that spheroids around barred galaxies are structured so as to inhibit strong coupling with bars, or that bars can form by unknown processes long after disks are established. The present models reinforce the notion that bars can drive secular evolution in galaxies.

Hernquist, Lars; Weinberg, Martin D.

1992-01-01

226

21 CFR 201.25 - Bar code label requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... (A) Prescription drug samples; (B) Allergenic...devices regulated as drugs; (D) Medical gases...requirement does not apply to prescription drugs sold by a manufacturer...are sold to or used in hospitals are subject to the...

2009-04-01

227

21 CFR 201.25 - Bar code label requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... (A) Prescription drug samples; (B) Allergenic...devices regulated as drugs; (D) Medical gases...requirement does not apply to prescription drugs sold by a manufacturer...are sold to or used in hospitals are subject to the...

2013-04-01

228

21 CFR 201.25 - Bar code label requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... (A) Prescription drug samples; (B) Allergenic...devices regulated as drugs; (D) Medical gases...requirement does not apply to prescription drugs sold by a manufacturer...are sold to or used in hospitals are subject to the...

2010-04-01

229

Using Bar Codes to Enhance Maps and Charts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Printed map and chart products may be linked to digital systems using a hybrid low technology/high technology map system. The system includes a paper map overprinted with machine-readable information, a reader to decode the information, and software to pr...

D. R. Caldwell

1986-01-01

230

Runlength codes from source codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A class of binary runlength codes, also known as (d,k) codes, is analyzed. These codes are developed by constructing a lossless source code that maps runlengths into unconstrained binary sequences. The source code is constructed for the maxentropic distribution on runlengths. The inverse of the source code, which outputs runlengths guided toward the ideal maxentropic distribution, is the (d,k) code.

Kenneth J. Kerpez

1991-01-01

231

Panic bars and automatic brakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This publication illustrates the need for installation of panic bars that will permit rapid deenergization of equipment in emergencies and automatic emergency brakes on self-propelled electric face equipment used in coal mines. The publication contains drawings depicting actual fatal accidents that have occurred in underground coal mines which these safety devices could have prevented. Also included are drawings and technical

1975-01-01

232

Full field lithographical verification using scanner and mask intrafield fingerprint  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Full chip verification has become a key component of the optical proximity correction (OPC) methodology over the last decade. Full field verification to catch cross-field effects based on scanner information is becoming increasingly important in lithography verification. Lithographic Manufacturing Check (LMC) performed with the Brion Tachyon engine, which is the industry reference tool, now provides the capability to predict wafer CD variations across the entire field through process windows. LMC is catching and reporting weak lithographic points having small process windows or excessive sensitivities to mask errors based on the simulation from models with ASML scanner specific parameters. ASML scanner intra-field information such as dose, focus, flare, illuminator map, aberration data or mask bias map can be integrated into the LMC run to create an across-field verification and can improve the accuracy of the prediction at different field locations. In this study we compare such across-field LMC verification with a reference LMC without any scanner specific data. Scanner information was loaded into the LMC model by using the Scanner Fingerprint File (SFF) functionality. Various across field LMC runs using scanner information have been performed and analysed to identify critical design hotspots or scanner drifts and compared with wafer measurement. Full field Tachyon LMC results on 40nm Poly and 28nm Metal1 layer are presented. The goal is to investigate the impact of mask, lens aberrations, illuminator, dose and focus map. This investigation includes wafer validation of the methodology on identified critical hot spots.

Planchot, J.; Depre, L.; Yesilada, E.; Robert, F.; Sundermann, F.; Liu, H. Y.; Cai, L.; Chen, F.

2012-03-01

233

Positional calibration of galvanometric scanners used in laser Doppler vibrometers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The knowledge of where one has measured the response of a structure is sometimes as important as the response measured. This paper describes a method for the calibration of the horizontal and vertical scanners in a laser Doppler vibrometer. The residual of the scanner position with respect to a first-order and second-order regression model will be discussed. Comparisons will be

M. A. Stafne; L. D. Mitchell; R. L. West

2000-01-01

234

Linearization of electrostatically actuated surface micromachined 2-D optical scanner  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an effective method of linearizing the electrostatic transfer characteristics of micromachined two-dimensional (2-D) scanners. The orthogonal scan angles of surface micromachined polysilicon scanner are controlled by using quadrant electrodes for electrostatic actuation. By using a pair of differential voltages over a bias voltage, we could improve the distortion of projected images from 72% to only 13%. A

Hiroshi Toshiyoshi; Wibool Piyawattanametha; Cheng-Ta Chan; Ming C. Wu

2001-01-01

235

Quantitative Assay for Starch by Colorimetry Using a Desktop Scanner  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The procedure to produce standard curve for starch concentration measurement by image analysis using a color scanner and computer for data acquisition and color analysis is described. Color analysis is performed by a Visual Basic program that measures red, green, and blue (RGB) color intensities for pixels within the scanner image.

Matthews, Kurt R.; Landmark, James D.; Stickle, Douglas F.

2004-01-01

236

20. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING IN COMPUTER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - IN COMPUTER ROOM LOOKING AT "CONSOLIDATED MAINTENANCE OPERATIONS CENTER" JOB AREA AND OPERATION WORK CENTER. TASKS INCLUDE RADAR MAINTENANCE, COMPUTER MAINTENANCE, CYBER COMPUTER MAINTENANCE AND RELATED ACTIVITIES. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

237

21. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING LOOKING AT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

21. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - LOOKING AT DISC STORAGE SYSTEMS A AND B (A OR B ARE REDUNDANT SYSTEMS), ONE MAINFRAME COMPUTER ON LINE, ONE ON STANDBY WITH STORAGE TAPE, ONE ON STANDBY WITHOUT TAPE INSTALLED. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

238

5. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING AT "A" ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - AT "A" FACE (ON SOUTH SIDE) LOOKING DIRECTLY UP RADAR SYSTEM EMITTER/ANTENNA ARRAY FACE WITH 90MM STANDARD LENS. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

239

12. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING MAIN ENTRANCE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - MAIN ENTRANCE LOOKING AT MAIN ENTRANCE TO TECHNICAL FACILITY, GROUND LEVEL. VIEW IS LOOKING SOUTH 20° EAST. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

240

6. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING AT "A" ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - AT "A" FACE (ON SOUTH SIDE) LOOKING DIRECTLY UP RADAR SYSTEM EMITTER/ANTENNA ARRAY FACE WITH 65MM WIDE ANGLE LENS. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

241

34. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING ROOM 105 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

34. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - ROOM 105 - CHILLER ROOM, SHOWING SINGLE COMPRESSOR, LIQUID CHILLERS AND "CHILLED WATER RETURN", COOLING TOWER 'TOWER WATER RETURN" AND 'TOWER WATER SUPPLY" LINES. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

242

Processing of laser scanner data—algorithms and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Airborne laser scanning systems are opening new possibilities for surveys and documentation of difficult areas and objects, such as dense city areas, forest areas and electrical power lines. Laser scanner systems available on the market are presently in a fairly mature state of art while the processing of airborne laser scanner data still is in an early phase of development.

Peter Axelsson

1999-01-01

243

Design Study for Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The feasibility of dividing the 8-12 micrometer thermal infrared wavelength region into six spectral bands by an airborne line scanner system was investigated. By combining an existing scanner design with a 6 band spectrometer, a system for the remote sen...

C. G. Stanich F. G. Osterwisch D. M. Szeles W. H. Houtman

1981-01-01

244

Laser excited confocal microscope fluorescence scanner and method  

DOEpatents

A fluorescent scanner is designed for scanning the fluorescence from a fluorescence labeled separated sample on a sample carrier. The scanner includes a confocal microscope for illuminating a predetermined volume of the sample carrier and/or receiving and processing fluorescence emissions from the volume to provide a display of the separated sample. 8 figs.

Mathies, R.A.; Peck, K.

1992-02-25

245

19. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING AIR POLICE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

19. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - AIR POLICE SITE SECURITY OFFICE WITH "SITE PERIMETER STATUS PANEL" AND REAL TIME VIDEO DISPLAY OUTPUT FROM VIDEO CAMERA SYSTEM AT SECURITY FENCE LOCATIONS. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

246

25. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING OPERATIONS CENTER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

25. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - OPERATIONS CENTER - MWOC IN OPERATION AT 1930 ZULU TIME, 26 OCTOBER, 1999. MWOC SCREEN ALSO SHOWS RADAR "FACE A" AND "FACE B" ACTIVE STATUS. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

247

26. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING OPERATIONS CENTER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

26. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - OPERATIONS CENTER - MWOC IN OPERATION AT 1945 ZULU TIME, 26 OCTOBER, 1999. "SPACE TRACK BOARD" DATA SHOWING ITEMS #16609 MIR (RUSSIA) AND #25544 ISS (INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION) BEING TRACKED. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

248

Micromachined Vibratory Diffraction Grating Scanner for Multiwavelength Collinear Laser Scanning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an effective method to achieve multiwavelength collinear laser scanning using micromachined vibratory grating scanners, which have the potential to scan at high frequencies without the optical performance degradation resulting from dynamic nonrigid-body deformation. An optical simulation model has been developed to predict the scanning patterns of the vibratory grating scanners. The proposed multiwavelength collinear scanning method was

Guangya Zhou; Fook Siong Chau

2006-01-01

249

Pyramid image codes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

All vision systems, both human and machine, transform the spatial image into a coded representation. Particular codes may be optimized for efficiency or to extract useful image features. Researchers explored image codes based on primary visual cortex in man and other primates. Understanding these codes will advance the art in image coding, autonomous vision, and computational human factors. In cortex, imagery is coded by features that vary in size, orientation, and position. Researchers have devised a mathematical model of this transformation, called the Hexagonal oriented Orthogonal quadrature Pyramid (HOP). In a pyramid code, features are segregated by size into layers, with fewer features in the layers devoted to large features. Pyramid schemes provide scale invariance, and are useful for coarse-to-fine searching and for progressive transmission of images. The HOP Pyramid is novel in three respects: (1) it uses a hexagonal pixel lattice, (2) it uses oriented features, and (3) it accurately models most of the prominent aspects of primary visual cortex. The transform uses seven basic features (kernels), which may be regarded as three oriented edges, three oriented bars, and one non-oriented blob. Application of these kernels to non-overlapping seven-pixel neighborhoods yields six oriented, high-pass pyramid layers, and one low-pass (blob) layer.

Watson, Andrew B.

1990-01-01

250

Hydrodynamical simulations of the barred spiral galaxy NGC 1365. Dynamical interpretation of observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We perform two-dimensional, time dependent, hydrodynamical simulations of the gas flow in a potential representing the barred spiral galaxy NGC 1365 using the FS2 code originally written by G.D. van Albada. Non-circular motions present in NGC 1365 prevent us from using an observed angle-averaged rotation curve as representative of the axisymmetric forces in the bar region. Comparing observed kinematics and

P. A. B. Lindblad; P. O. Lindblad; E. Athanassoula

1996-01-01

251

Ultra-Miniature Lidar Scanner for Launch Range Data Collection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The most critical component in lidar is its laser scanner, which delivers pulsed or CW laser to target with desirable field of view (FOV). Most existing lidars use a rotating or oscillating mirror for scanning, resulting in several drawbacks. A lidar scanning technology was developed that could achieve very high scanning speed, with an ultra-miniature size and much lighter weight. This technology promises at least a 10x performance improvement in these areas over existing lidar scanners. Features of the proposed ultra-miniature lidar scanner include the ability to make the entire scanner <2 mm in diameter; very high scanning speed (e.g. 5 - 20 kHz, in contrast to several hundred Hz in existing scanners); structure design to meet stringent requirements on size, weight, power, and compactness for various applications; and the scanning speed and FOV can be altered for obtaining high image resolutions of targeted areas and for diversified uses.

Geng, Jason

2012-01-01

252

MAMS - A high spatial resolution multispectral scanner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Multispectral Atmospheric Mapping Sensor (MAMS) is an airborne scanner which collects imagery in eight visible and three IR bands, with ground resolution of 100 m at a nominal aircraft altitude of 20 km. The visible channels provide continuous spectral coverage from 0.42 to 1.05 microns, and the IR channels measure upwelling and reflected radiation at combinations of 3.7, 6.5, 11.1, and 12.5 microns. These include channels nearly identical to the Landsat TM channels 1-4, and similar to those on the VISSR Atmospheric Sounder (VAS) and AVHRR instruments. The high spatial resolution permits investigation of surface thermal and atmospheric water vapor structure at scales not available from current stabilities. Significant modifications have been made since engineering flights in 1985 to improve the radiometric performance. The increased data quality and recent multidisciplinary applications of this data are presented.

Atkinson, Robert J.; Jedlovec, Gary J.

1989-01-01

253

Wetlands mapping with spot multispectral scanner data  

SciTech Connect

Government facilities such as the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Plant (SRP) near Aiken, South Carolina, often use remote sensing data to assist in environmental management. Airborne multispectral scanner (MSS) data have been acquired at SRP since 1981. Various types of remote sensing data have been used to map and characterize wetlands. Regional Landsat MSS and TM satellite data have been used for wetlands mapping by various government agencies and private organizations. Furthermore, SPOT MSS data are becoming available and provide opportunities for increased spacial resolution and temporal coverage for wetlands mapping. This paper summarizes the initial results from using five dates of SPOT MSS data from April through October, 1987, as a means to monitor seasonal wetland changes in freshwater wetlands of the SRP. 11 refs., 4 figs.

Mackey, H.E. Jr. (Savannah River Lab., Aiken, SC (USA)); Jensen, J.R. (South Carolina Univ., Columbia, SC (USA). Dept. of Geography)

1989-01-01

254

Temporal analysis of multispectral scanner data.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multispectral scanner reflectance data were sampled for bare soil, cotton, sorghum, corn, and citrus at four dates during a growing season (April, May, June, and July 1969) to develop a time-dependent signature for crop and soil discrimination. Discrimination tests were conducted for single-date and multidate formats using training and test data sets. For classifications containing several crops, the multidate or temporal approach improved discrimination compared with the single-date approach. The multidate approach also preserved recognition accuracy better in going from training fields to test fields than the single-date analysis. The spectral distinctiveness of bare soil versus vegetation resulted in essentially equal discrimination using single-date versus multidate data for those two categories.

Richardson, A. J.; Wiegand, C. L.; Torline, R. J.

1973-01-01

255

Emittance studies with an Allison scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Spallation Neutron Source H- source on the ion source test stand is being used to study the emittance of the H--ion beam injected into the SNS radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ). The emittance measurements are performed with a LBNL Allison scanner that underwent several modifications. The slit width was optimized to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. In addition, the electric deflector plates were replaced with plates featuring a staircased surface. This modification is shown to suppress over 99% of ghost signals generated by the beam hitting the deflector plates. Both modifications, combined with noise suppression measures and a self-consistent analysis, yield highly accurate results. Measured emittances are presented as a function of the ion-beam current.

Stockli, M. P.; Welton, R. F.; Keller, R.; Leitner, M.

2006-03-01

256

Design Optimization of a TOF, Breast PET Scanner  

PubMed Central

A dedicated breast positron emission tomography (PET) scanner with limited angle geometry can provide flexibility in detector placement around the patient as well as the ability to combine it with other imaging modalities. A primary challenge of a stationary limited angle scanner is the reduced image quality due to artifacts present in the reconstructed image leading to a loss in quantitative information. Previously it has been shown that using time-of-flight (TOF) information in image reconstruction can help reduce these image artifacts arising due to missing angular projections. Our goal in this work is to optimize the TOF, breast scanner design by performing studies for estimating image uniformity and lesion activity uptake as a function of system timing resolution, scanner angular coverage and shape. Our results show that (i) 1.5 × 1.5 × 15 mm3 lutetium oxy-orthosilicate (LSO) crystals provide a high spatial resolution and system sensitivity relative to clinical scanners, (ii) 2/3 angular coverage scanner design with TOF timing resolution less than 600 ps is appropriate for providing a tomographic image with fewer artifacts and good lesion uptake estimation relative to other partial ring designs studied in this work, (iii) a flat scanner design with 2/3 angular coverage is affected more by larger parallax error than a curved scanner geometry with the same angular coverage, but provides more uniform lesion contrast estimate over the imaging field-of-view (FOV), (iv) 2/3 angular coverage, flat, 300 ps TOF scanner design (for short, practical scan times of ? 5 mins per breast) provides similar precision of contrast recovery coefficient (CRC) values to a full curved, non-TOF scanner, and (v) employing depth-of-interaction (DOI) measuring detector and/or implementing resolution modeling (RM) in image reconstruction lead to improved and more uniform spatial resolution and lesion contrast over the whole FOV.

Lee, Eunsin; Werner, Matthew E.; Karp, Joel S.; Surti, Suleman

2013-01-01

257

A PC-based multispectral scanner data evaluation workstation: Application to Daedalus scanners  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In late 1989, a personal computer (PC)-based data evaluation workstation was developed to support post flight processing of Multispectral Atmospheric Mapping Sensor (MAMS) data. The MAMS Quick View System (QVS) is an image analysis and display system designed to provide the capability to evaluate Daedalus scanner data immediately after an aircraft flight. Even in its original form, the QVS offered the portability of a personal computer with the advanced analysis and display features of a mainframe image analysis system. It was recognized, however, that the original QVS had its limitations, both in speed and processing of MAMS data. Recent efforts are presented that focus on overcoming earlier limitations and adapting the system to a new data tape structure. In doing so, the enhanced Quick View System (QVS2) will accommodate data from any of the four spectrometers used with the Daedalus scanner on the NASA ER2 platform. The QVS2 is designed around the AST 486/33 MHz CPU personal computer and comes with 10 EISA expansion slots, keyboard, and 4.0 mbytes of memory. Specialized PC-McIDAS software provides the main image analysis and display capability for the system. Image analysis and display of the digital scanner data is accomplished with PC-McIDAS software.

Jedlovec, Gary J.; James, Mark W.; Smith, Matthew R.; Atkinson, Robert J.

1991-01-01

258

Square and Rectangular Electroacoustic Bender Bar Transducer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The transducer's active elements are a plurality of thin, narrow, piezoelectric bars bonded side-by-side to a flexible plate. Electrically, a circuit is coupled across the thickness of each bar or strip to include the bars as a plurality of parallel capac...

J. D. Bullock

1977-01-01

259

ORBITAL SUPPORT OF FAST AND SLOW INNER BARS IN DOUBLE-BARRED GALAXIES  

SciTech Connect

We analyze how the orbital support of the inner bar in a double-barred galaxy (nested bars) depends on the angular velocity (i.e., pattern speed) of this bar. We study orbits in seven models of double bars using the method of invariant loops. The range of pattern speed is covered exhaustively. We find that not all pattern speeds are allowed when the inner bar rotates in the same direction as the outer bar. Below a certain minimum pattern speed orbital support for the inner bar abruptly disappears, while at high values of this speed the orbits indicate an increasingly round bar that looks more like a twist in the nuclear isophotes than a dynamically independent component. For values between these two extremes, orbits supporting the inner bar extend further out as the bar's pattern speed decreases, their corresponding loops become more eccentric, pulsate more, and their rotation becomes increasingly non-uniform, as they speed up and slow down in their motion. Lower pattern speeds also lead to a less coherent bar, as the pulsation and acceleration increasingly varies among the loops supporting the inner bar. The morphologies of fast and slow inner bars expected from the orbital structure studied here have been recently recovered observationally by decomposition of double-barred galaxies. Our findings allow us to link the observed morphology to the dynamics of the inner bar.

Maciejewski, Witold; Small, Emma E., E-mail: wxm@astro.livjm.ac.u [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Twelve Quays House, Egerton Wharf, Birkenhead, CH41 1LD (United Kingdom)

2010-08-10

260

Determination of Roughness Angles of Surfaces Using Laser Scanners  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today, terrestrial laser scanners help us to provide 3D geometry of object fast and high accuracy. Terrestrial laser scanners are faster to other methods for obtaining 3D geometry of the object and terrestrial laser scanners have more accurate result to other techniques. Laser scanners are used in this study because of these features. In this study, it is aimed to measure and define mathematically the roughness degree of the surfaces of rock pieces that are obtained as the result of under load test. To achieve this aim; Nextengine 3D Desktop Laser Scanner was used in this study because of low cost scanning system which provides high precision with fast measuring ability. It is a triangulation based scanner. Matlab also used in this study for all mathematical processing. The objects that were used in this study are two pieces of a rock which was broken under load test. Each piece of rock was scanned with Nextengine 3D Desktop Laser Scanner. Surface models were created using triangulated irregular network for each surface. New points and Opposed Cross sections were created on these surfaces. For each cross section curve equations were generated by using Matlab Curve Fitting Toolbox. After fitting, slopes for certain intervals were calculated on these curves. Roughness angles were calculated from these slope values. After all these steps; maximum, minimum and average values of negative and positive angles were calculated and roughness degree of the surfaces of rock pieces was determined.

Avsar, O.; Bozkurtoglu, E.; Aydar, U.; Yucel, U.; Kaya, S.; Seker, D. Z.

2012-12-01

261

?_c {\\bar D} AND ?_c {\\bar D} States in a Chiral Quark Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report our recent work on a dynamical investigation of the ? c \\bar D and ? c \\bar D states in a chiral quark model. Our results show that the ? c-{\\bar D} interaction is attractive, which consequently results in a ? c \\bar D bound state with the binding energy of about 5-42 MeV, unlike the case of ? c \\bar D state, which has a repulsive interaction and thus is unbound.

Wang, W. L.; Huang, F.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zou, B. S.

2014-01-01

262

Design study for Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of dividing the 8-12 micrometer thermal infrared wavelength region into six spectral bands by an airborne line scanner system was investigated. By combining an existing scanner design with a 6 band spectrometer, a system for the remote sensing of Earth resources was developed. The elements in the spectrometer include an off axis reflective collimator, a reflective diffraction grating, a triplet germanium imaging lens, a photoconductive mercury cadmium telluride sensor array, and the mechanical assembly to hold these parts and maintain their optical alignment across a broad temperature range. The existing scanner design was modified to accept the new spectrometer and two field filling thermal reference sources.

Stanich, C. G.; Osterwisch, F. G.; Szeles, D. M.; Houtman, W. H.

1981-01-01

263

Focal plane scanner with reciprocating spatial window  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A focal plane scanner having a front objective lens, a spatial window for selectively passing a portion of the image therethrough, and a CCD array for receiving the passed portion of the image. All embodiments have a common feature whereby the spatial window and CCD array are mounted for simultaneous relative reciprocating movement with respect to the front objective lens, and the spatial window is mounted within the focal plane of the front objective. In a first embodiment, the spatial window is a slit and the CCD array is one-dimensional, and successive rows of the image in the focal plane of the front objective lens are passed to the CCD array by an image relay lens interposed between the slit and the CCD array. In a second embodiment, the spatial window is a slit, the CCD array is two-dimensional, and a prism-grating-prism optical spectrometer is interposed between the slit and the CCD array so as to cause the scanned row to be split into a plurality of spectral separations onto the CCD array. In a third embodiment, the CCD array is two-dimensional and the spatial window is a rectangular linear variable filter (LVF) window, so as to cause the scanned rows impinging on the LVF to be bandpass filtered into spectral components onto the CCD array through an image relay lens interposed between the LVF and the CCD array.

Mao, Chengye (Inventor)

2000-01-01

264

Spectroradiometric calibration of the modular optoelectronic scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The space borne remote sensing imaging spectrometer MOS will be launched to the Russian MIR-station in autumn 1995. It was developed for monitoring large scaled effects of the oceans, the atmosphere and land such as chlorophyll content, yellow substances, sediments, aerosol parameters, vegetation stress, and vegetation index. Information about such state parameters will be derived from the spectral function of the backscattered sun radiation of the objects under investigation. This spectral function will be measured in 13 wavelength channels from 408 nm to 1010 nm with 10 nm halfwidth for ocean, land, and atmospheric purposes and in 4 channels at the O2-A-absorption band from 757 nm to 767 nm with 1.4 nm half width for atmospheric purposes only. The reliability of the thematic interpretation depends strongly on the accuracy of the measured data, and it depends on the on-ground and the in-flight calibration methods and procedures. The determination of the spectral sensitivity function of each sensor element, their shape as well as the absolute values on ground and the check of the stability of the scanner properties during the mission time are described.

Suemnich, Karl-Heinz; Schwarzer, Horst

1994-12-01

265

Hydraulic flood modeling using laser scanner data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work analyzes the altimetrical data and the effects of resolution on flood modeling. Two different terrain representations were considered: regular square cells (GRID) and Triangulated Irregular Network (TIN). Altimetry was obtained from a particular terrain representation called Model Key Point (MKP): this is a DTM obtained from the elaboration of laser scanner data, and it is characterized by high number of points in the areas with more elevation differences, and by few points in flat areas. The accuracy of GRID and TIN data, obtained from MKP, was checked comparing them to the ground surveyed data. As well known hydrodynamic simulations need to represent the terrain morphology as input. Bi-dimensional hydraulic simulations were realized using different software and terrain representations obtained from MKP; the different results were compared afterwards. The use of bi-dimensional models to study flooded areas was increased with large diffusion of the high resolution Digital Terrain Model (DTM). However several models are not able to work easily and with reasonable simulation times when the DTM has a great deal of points. So some modifications of initial DTM are necessary and, in this work, the elaborations to reduce GID and TIN errors realized with Arcmap GIS are described too. The studied area is the Ionian coastal plane of the Basilicata region (Southern Italy): here anthropic elements such as levees, roads and channels strongly influence the water motion of the floodplain; thus a careful description of these elements is necessary in order to obtain the hydraulic risk evaluation.

Giosa, L.; Sole, A.; Nolè, L.

2009-04-01

266

Fingerprint scanner using digital interference holography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present three-dimensional imaging of artificial fingerprints using the Digital Interference Holography (DIH) scanner. DIH is based on a multiwavelength optical sensing technique that can be used to build holographically the three dimensional structure of the fingerprints. Many holograms (~50) were acquired by a CCD camera by scanning a range of wavelengths. Each hologram was numerically reconstructed and then superposed yielding tomographic images which represented the artificial fingerprint structure. The axial resolution is a parameter that depends on the wavelength scanning range and is about 5 ?m. The light source was a solid state pumped dye laser with a tunable wavelength range of 550 nm to 600 nm. Holograms were captured by a monochrome CCD camera (Sony XC-ST50, with 780 × 640 pixels and a pixel size of ~ 9 ?m). An image acquisition board (NI IMAQ PCI-1407) digitized the image with 8 bit resolution. All software was developed in house with the NI LabView. We used a Michelson interferometer in a backscattering geometry and the reconstruction of the optical field was done using the angular spectrum algorithm. Our goal is to identify and quantify, Level 1 (pattern), Level 2 (minutia points), and Level 3 (ridge contours) features from the amplitude images, using the DIH technique and fingerprints recognition. The results could be used in the two fingerprint matching phases, identification and verification.

Potcoava, Mariana C.; Kim, Myung K.

2009-05-01

267

Overlay breakdown methodology on immersion scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last years a flourishing number of techniques such as High Order Control or mappers have been proposed to improve overlay control. However a sustainable improvement requires sometimes understanding the underlying causes of the overlay limiting factors in order to remove them when possible or at least to keep them under control. Root cause finding for overlay error is a tough task due the very high number of influencing parameters and the interaction of the usage conditions. This paper presents a breakdown methodology to deal with this complexity and to find the contributors of overlay error variation. We use a Partial Least Squares (PLS) algorithm to isolate the key contributors for correctable terms and a field-to-field linear regression technique to highlight the main causes of residuals. We present a study carried out on 45nm CMOS contact-gate overlay over 687 production wafers exposed in an ASML TWINSCAN XT:1700i Immersion scanner. We present the results of the correlations with the 180 process and equipment variables used for this study. For each isolated contributor we propose an explanation of the underlying physical phenomenon and solutions.

Lam, Auguste; Pasqualini, Francois; de Caunes, Jean; Gatefait, Maxime

2010-03-01

268

Design of a multisensor optical surface scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A reconfigurable, optical, 3D scanning system with sub-second acquisition of human body surface data was designed and simulated. Sensor elements (digital cameras/light beam projectors) that meet resolution, accuracy, and speed requirements are included in the system design. The sensors are interfaced to video frame grabber(s) under computer control resulting in a modular, low cost system. System operation and data processing are performed using a desktop graphics workstation. Surface data collected with this system can be oversampled to improve resolution and accuracy (viewed by overlapping camera/projector pairs). Multi- resolution data can be collected for different surfaces simultaneously or separately. Modeling and calibration of this reconfigurable system are achieved via a robust optimal estimation technique. Reconstruction software that allows seamless merging of a range data from multiple sensors has been implemented. Laser scanners that acquire body surface range data using one or two sensors require several seconds for data collection. Surface digitization of inaminate objects is feasible with such devices, but their use in human surface metrology is limited due to motion artifacts and occluded surfaces. Use of multiple, independent active sensors providing rapid collection and multi-resolution data enable sampling of complex human surface morphology not otherwise practical. 3D facial surface data has provided accurate measurements used in facial/craniofacial plastic surgery and modern personal protective equipment systems. Whole body data obtained with this new system is applicable to human factors research, medical diagnosis/treatment, and industrial design.

Bhatia, Gulab H.; Smith, Kirk E.; Commean, Paul K.; Whitestone, Jennifer J.; Vannier, Michael W.

1994-10-01

269

21 CFR 892.1300 - Nuclear rectilinear scanner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1300 Nuclear rectilinear scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear...

2011-04-01

270

21 CFR 892.1330 - Nuclear whole body scanner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1330 Nuclear whole body scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear...

2012-04-01

271

21 CFR 892.1300 - Nuclear rectilinear scanner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1300 Nuclear rectilinear scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear...

2012-04-01

272

21 CFR 892.1300 - Nuclear rectilinear scanner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1300 Nuclear rectilinear scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear...

2010-04-01

273

21 CFR 892.1330 - Nuclear whole body scanner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1330 Nuclear whole body scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear...

2011-04-01

274

21 CFR 892.1300 - Nuclear rectilinear scanner.  

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1300 Nuclear rectilinear scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear...

2014-04-01

275

21 CFR 892.1330 - Nuclear whole body scanner.  

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1330 Nuclear whole body scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear...

2014-04-01

276

21 CFR 892.1300 - Nuclear rectilinear scanner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

A nuclear rectilinear scanner is a device intended to image the distribution of radionuclides in the body by means of a detector (or detectors) whose position moves in two directions with respect to the...

2013-04-01

277

21 CFR 892.1330 - Nuclear whole body scanner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

A nuclear whole body scanner is a device intended to measure and image the distribution of radionuclides in the body by means of a wide-aperture detector whose position moves in one direction with respect to the...

2013-04-01

278

Geometric theory of horizon scanners. [onboard spacecraft for attitude determination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The note presents a general geometrical theory of spacecraft horizon scanners for the purpose of actual attitude determination, as opposed to just attitude stabilization. Analysis is carried out in terms of the scanning angles and three sets of auxiliary axes: the scanner axes, the nonscanning axes, and the orbital axes. Euler angles (yaw, pitch, and roll) transform the orbital axes to the nonscanning axes, and spacecraft attitude is determined directly from the attitude of the nonscanning axes relative to the orbital axes. In most applications the scanning speed is fast, so that it can be assumed that the attitude of the spacecraft does not change during a scan; however, a perturbation analysis is provided for errors committed by neglecting attitude changes. The analysis is valid for all types of scanners; in addition, the case where two scanners with different half-cone angles are used is considered.

Fang, B. T.

1975-01-01

279

NOAA-9 Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanner offsets determination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) instruments are designed to measure the components of the radiative exchange between the Sun, Earth and space. ERBE is comprised of three spacecraft, each carrying a nearly identical set of radiometers: a three-channel narrow-field-of-view scanner, a two-channel wide-field-of-view (limb-to-limb) non-scanning radiometer, a two-channel medium field-of view (1000 km) non-scanning radiometer, and a solar monitor. Ground testing showed the scanners to be susceptible to self-generated and externally generated electromagnetic noise. This paper describes the pre-launch corrective measures taken and the post-launch corrections to the NOAA-9 scanner data. The NOAA-9 scanner has met the mission objectives in accuracy and precision, in part because of the pre-launch reductions of and post-launch data corrections for the electromagnetic noise.

Avis, Lee M.; Paden, Jack; Lee, Robert B., III; Pandey, Dhirendra K.; Stassi, Joseph C.; Wilson, Robert S.; Tolson, Carol J.; Bolden, William C.

1994-01-01

280

2. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING VIEW IS LOOKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING -VIEW IS LOOKING AT "B" FACE FROM SITE ENTRY AREA PARKING LOT. VIEW IS LOOKING SOUTH. - Cape Cod Air Station, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

281

Scanner Buildings Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Scanner Buildings - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

282

High-performance horizontal side scanner using holographic technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new holographic technique has been used to make a compact, accurate and reliable POS scanner. The holo-window technology permits compact POS scanner optical scanning in horizontal plan while maintaining excellent performance in changing the scan direction, equalizing the scan velocity and collecting the signal light. The holo-window design and fabrication in the holographic optical element (HOE) for such a compact POS scanner are described in this paper. Additionally this new horizontal side scanning possesses large depth of field (greater than 10 inches), allows the grocery items to be scanned horizontally thus eliminating the commonly experienced carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) hand injuries of the checkers. This newly designed POS scanner has been recognized by industry as the standard for the future POS scanning configuration.

Cheng, Charles C.

1998-06-01

283

Routine neuroradiological diagnosis with the EMI 5005 body scanner  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experience with the EMI 5005 body scanner in the neuroradiological diagnosis of about 500 cerebral and 30 spinal examinations is reported. The advantages and disadvantages of this machine are discussed.

G. B. Bradac; R. S. Simon; T. Grumme

1977-01-01

284

Agricultural applications and requirements for thermal infrared scanners  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some of the applications of thermal scanner data in agriculture are presented along with illustrations of some of the factors affecting the temperature of plants, soil, and water. Examples of thermal imagery are included.

Wiegand, C. L.

1971-01-01

285

Determination of the weighted CT dose index in modern multi-detector CT scanners  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the present study was to (a) evaluate the underestimation in the value of the free-in-air (CTDIair) and the weighted CT dose index (CTDIw) determined with the standard 100 mm pencil chamber, i.e. the CTDI100 concept, for the whole range of nominal radiation beam collimations selectable in a modern multi-slice CT scanner, (b) estimate the optimum length of the pencil-chamber and phantoms for accurate CTDIw measurements and (c) provide CTDIw values normalized to free-in-air CTDI for different tube-voltage, nominal radiation beam collimations and beam filtration values. The underestimation in the determination of CTDIair and CTDIw using the CTDI100 concept was determined from measurements obtained with standard polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA) phantoms and arrays of thermoluminescence dosimeters. The Monte Carlo N-Particle transport code was used to simulate standard CTDI measurements on a 16-slice CT scanner. The optimum pencil-chamber length for accurate determination of CTDIw was estimated as the minimum chamber length for which a further increase in length does not alter the value of the CTDI. CTDIw/CTDIair ratios were determined using Monte Carlo simulation and the optimum detector length for all selectable tube-voltage values and for three different values of beam filtration. To verify the Monte Carlo results, measured values of CTDIw/CTDIair ratios using the standard 100 mm pencil ionization chamber were compared with corresponding values calculated with Monte Carlo experiments. The underestimation in the determination of CTDIair using the 100 mm pencil chamber was less than 1% for all beam collimations. The underestimation in CTDIw was 15% and 27% for head and body phantoms, respectively. The optimum detector length for accurate CTDIw measurements was found to be 50 cm for the beam collimations commonly employed in modern multi-detector (MD) CT scanners. The ratio of CTDIw/CTDIair determined using the optimum detector length was found to be independent of beam collimation. Percentage differences between measured and calculated corresponding CTDIw/CTDIair ratios were always less than 8% for head and less than 5% for body PMMA phantoms. In conclusion, the CTDIair of MDCT scanners may be measured accurately with a 100 mm pencil chamber. However, the CTDI100 concept was found to be inadequate for accurate CTDIw determination for the wide beam collimations commonly used in MDCT scanners. Accurate CTDIw determination presupposes the use of a pencil chamber and PMMA phantoms at least 50 cm long.

Perisinakis, K.; Damilakis, J.; Tzedakis, A.; Papadakis, A.; Theocharopoulos, N.; Gourtsoyiannis, N.

2007-11-01

286

Optical scanner for steam generator tube inspection. Final report. [PWR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this program is to develop and evaluate a prototype solid-state scanner for use as a non-destructive inspection device for the interior surface of steam generator tubes. Imaging of the tube was accomplished using a Reticon RO-64 self-scanning photodiode array in a scanner head with integral optics and light source. A unique data processing scheme was utilized to

R. O. Ginaven; R. D. II Smith; V. J. Orphan; G. D. Hall; E. A. Meckstroth

1980-01-01

287

47. View of "dry air inlets" to waveguides entering scanner ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

47. View of "dry air inlets" to waveguides entering scanner building 105. Dried air is generated under pressure by Ingersoll-Rand dehumidified/dessicator and compressor system. View is at entrance from passageway that links into corner of scanner building. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

288

Performance evaluation of an Inveon PET preclinical scanner  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the performance of an Inveon preclinical PET scanner (Siemens Medical Solutions), the latest MicroPET system. Spatial resolution was measured with a glass capillary tube (0.26 mm inside diameter, 0.29 mm wall thickness) filled with 18F solution. Transaxial and axial resolutions were measured with the source placed parallel and perpendicular to the axis of the scanner. The sensitivity of

Cristian C. Constantinescu; Jogeshwar Mukherjee

2009-01-01

289

Commercial Use of UPC Scanner Data: Industry and Academic Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors report the findings from an exploratory investigation of the use of UPC scanner data in the consumer packaged goods industry in the U.S. The study examines the practitioner community's view of the use of scanner data and compares these views with academic research. Forty-one executives from ten data suppliers, packaged goods manufacturers, and consulting firms participated in wide-ranging,

Randolph E. Bucklin; Sunil Gupta

1999-01-01

290

MSDS: An Experimental 24Channel Multispectral Scanner System  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the more promising remote-sensing instruments that will be used in earth-resources survey programs is the multispectral scanner. It will collect both spectral and spatial information on the terrain scanned in a spatially registered manner. This paper describes one such scanner, which is being developed for a NASA C-130 earth-resources survey aircraft. It will be capable of simultaneously viewing

Eugene Zaitzeff; C. L. Korb; Charles Wilson

1971-01-01

291

LANDSAT-4 multispectral scanner (MSS) subsystem radiometric characterization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The multispectral band scanner (mass) and its spectral characteristics are described and methods are given for relating video digital levels on computer compatible tapes to radiance into the sensor. Topics covered include prelaunch calibration procedures and postlaunch radiometric processng. Examples of current data resident on the MSS image processing system are included. The MSS on LANDSAT 4 is compared with the scanners on earlier LANDSAT satellites.

Alford, W. (editor); Barker, J. (editor); Clark, B. P.; Dasgupta, R.

1983-01-01

292

Optical Scanner for Immunoassays With Up-Converting Phosphorescent Labels  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 2-D optical scanner was developed for the imaging and quantification of up-converting phosphor (UCP) labels in immunoassays. With resolution better than 500 mum, a scan rate of 0.4 mm\\/s, and a 1-2% coefficient of variation for repeatability, this scanner achieved a detection limit of fewer than 100 UCP particles in an 8.8 times 104 mum2 area and a dynamic

Janice J. Li; Amy L. Ouellette; Laurent Giovangrandi; David E. Cooper; Antonio J. Ricco; Gregory T. A. Kovacs

2008-01-01

293

COLOR LINE SCANNER AS IMAGING NDVI SENSOR 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new low-cost high-resolution line scanner has been developed at the Alfred Wegener Institut for Polar and Marine Research in Germany. For NDVI applications the Color Line Scanner (CLS) measures the solar radiation reflected by the ground surface in the spectral ranges of 500nm to 570nm (green), 580nm to 680nm (red) and 720nm to 830nm (near infrared). With the red

A. BOCHERT; J. M. HACKER; K. OHM

2000-01-01

294

Design of a small animal MR compatible PET scanner  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a combination of Monte Carlo simulations and experimental measurements we have designed a small-animal MRI-compatible PET (McPET) scanner for simultaneous PET imaging and MRI of mice and rats in vivo. The scanner consists of one ring of 480 LSO (Lu2SiO5 ) crystals arranged in three layers, with 160 crystals per layer. The crystal dimensions are 2×3×7.5 mm3. This was

Randal Slates; Simon Cherry; Abdel Boutefnouchet; Yiping Shao; M. Dahlborn; Keyvan Farahani

1999-01-01

295

Design of a small animal MR compatible PET scanner  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a combination of Monte-Carlo simulations and experimental measurements the authors have designed a small animal MR compatible PET (McPET) scanner for simultaneous PET and MR imaging of mice and rats in vivo. The scanner consists of one ring of 480 LSO crystals arranged in 3 layers with 160 crystals per layer. The crystal dimensions are 2×3×7.5 mm3. This was

Randal Slates; Simon Cherry; Abdel Boutefnouchet; Yiping Shao; Magnus Dahlbom; Keyvan Farahani

1998-01-01

296

AVG LinkScanner 8.5.289  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Users hoping to look for safe websites as they browse will appreciate learning about AVG's LinkScanner plug-in. LinkScanner works with both Firefox and Internet Explorer via its "Search Shield" to return only search safe results from both Google and Yahoo tagged with green or red flags. When visitors move over a flag, they will learn the IP address of the site, along with other relevant information. This version is compatible with computers running Windows 2000 and newer.

2009-04-24

297

Galaxy Zoo: Observing Secular Evolution Through Bars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although often seen in galaxies, the role that bars play in galaxy evolution has been largely overlooked. Observations show that bars — stellar linear-shaped structures — have been present in galaxies since z ˜ 1, about 8 billion years ago, and that more and more galaxies are becoming barred with time. This trend has continued to the present, where about two-thirds of all disk galaxies are barred. Observations have also shown that there is a connection between the presence of a bar and the properties of a galaxy, including morphology, star formation, chemical abundance gradients, and nuclear activity. These trends are consistent with the predicted effects of bars on galaxy evolution, i.e., secular evolution. Thus, observations and simulations indicate that bars are important drivers of galaxy evolution. But despite these evidence, bars are still commonly omitted in the lore of galaxy evolution. This proceeding briefly highlights work by Cheung et al. (2013), which tries to change this common omission by presenting the best evidence of bar-driven secular evolution yet. This work implies that bars are not stagnant structures within galaxies, but are instead, critical drivers of galaxy evolution.

Cheung, E.; Athanassoula, E.; Masters, K. L.; Nichol, R. C.; Bosma, A.; Bell, E. F.; Faber, S. M.; Koo, D. C.; Lintott, C.; Melvin, T.; Schawinski, K.; Skibba, R. A.; Willett, K. W.

2014-03-01

298

Fossil Nuclear Rings in Barred Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present observations and analysis of three barred S0 galaxies which contain smooth, luminous, stellar nuclear rings within their bars. These rings, which have little or no dust and are approximately the same color as surrounding bar and bulge, are probably the old remnants of bar-driven circumnuclear starburst episodes similar to those seen in many barred galaxies today. Using kinematic data from long-slit spectroscopy, we construct rotation and resonance curves and relate the relative sizes of the rings to possible bar resonances. Two of the galaxies are actually double-barred, with misaligned secondary bars inside the nuclear rings. In at least one of these (NGC 4340), the resonance curves indicate that the nuclear ring lies near or at one of the outer bar's inner Lindblad resonances; this is a plausible location for the secondary bar's corotation radius. We also discuss the difficulties inherent in detecting and identifying such rings, and show some of the surprising ways in which stellar rings can distort galaxy isophotes and ellipse fits.

Erwin, P.; Vega Beltran, J. C.; Beckman, J.

2000-12-01

299

A MEMS electromagnetic optical scanner for a commercial confocal laser scanning microscope  

Microsoft Academic Search

A MEMS electromagnetic optical scanner for horizontal scanning of a commercial confocal laser scanning microscope has been developed. The purpose is to replace the currently used commercially available scanner with our new MEMS scanner in an existing microscope product, and therefore, the scanner specifications have to be compatible with those of the current one. Electromagnetic actuation is selected because of

Hiroshi Miyajima; Nobuyoshi Asaoka; Toshihiko Isokawa; Masanori Ogata; Yukihiro Aoki; Masaharu Imai; Osamu Fujimori; Masahiro Katashiro; Kazuya Matsumoto

2003-01-01

300

Laboratory and field portable system for calibrating airborne multispectral scanners  

SciTech Connect

Manufacturers of airborne multispectral scanners suggest procedures for calibration and alignment that are usually awkward and even questionable. For example, the procedures may require: separating the scanner from calibration and alignment sources by 100 feet or more, employing folding mirrors, tampering with the detectors after the procedures are finished, etc. Under the best of conditions such procedures require about three hours yielding questionable confidence in the results; under many conditions, however, procedures commonly take six to eight hours, yielding no satisfactory results. EG and G, Inc. has designed and built a calibration and alignment system for airborne scanners which solves those problems, permitting the procedures to be carried out in about two to three hours. This equipment can be quickly disassembled, transported with the scanner in all but the smallest single engine aircraft, and reassembled in a few hours. The subsystems of this equipment are commonly available from manufacturers of optical and electronic equipment. The other components are easily purchased, or fabricated. The scanner discussed is the Model DS-1260 digital line scanner manufactured by Daedalus Enterprises, Inc. It is a dual-sensor system which is operated in one of two combination of sensors: one spectrometer head (which provides simultaneous coverage in ten visible channels) and one thermal infrared detector, or simply two thermal infrared detectors.

Kuhlow, W.W.

1981-01-01

301

A new generation of scanners for DNA chips.  

PubMed

Today, most of the DNA chips are used with fluorescent markers. Associated with fluorescence confocal scanners, this technology achieves remarkable performances in terms of sensitivity and accuracy. The main technical issues related to these scanners have already been reviewed. However, these scanners are costly, especially when high density chips are used. In this case, a mechanical precision of 1 microm or less is required to achieve the measurement precision required. This cost level prevents the spread of this technology in the diagnostic market. We will present a new concept for scanners with equivalent or superior performances, with a cost cut of 5-10. This concept is inspired from the field of optical disk and reader. Basically, an optical format is added to the chip, before DNA deposition. This format contains tracks which are superimposed to the DNA features. These tracks define the path that an optical head of a CD player must follow in order to scan the surface of the DNA chip. Such a head is a very cheap component, and has a precision of less than 100 nm thanks to real-time focus and tracking. These functions are fulfilled by electromagnetic actuators mounted on the support of the frontal lens. We show here that it is possible to use such a head to build a fluorescence confocal scanner with equivalent or even better performances than conventional scanners. PMID:12191929

Perraut, François; Lagrange, Alexandre; Pouteau, Patrick; Peyssonneaux, O; Puget, Pierre; McGall, G; Menou, Lionel; Gonzalez, Richard; Labeye, Pierre; Ginot, Frédéric

2002-09-01

302

A stationary digital breast tomosynthesis scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A prototype stationary digital breast tomosynthesis (s-DBT) system has been developed by retrofitting a Hologic Selenia Dimension rotating gantry tomosynthesis scanner with a spatially distributed carbon nanotube (CNT) x-ray source array. The goal is to improve the system spatial resolution by removing the x-ray tube motion induced focal spot blurring. The CNT x-ray source array comprises 31 individually addressable x-ray beams covering 30° angular span. Each x-ray beam has a minimum focal spot size of 0.64×0.61mm (full-width-at-half-maximum), a stationary W anode operating up to 50kVp, and 1mm thick Al filter. The flux from each beam is regulated and varied using dedicated control electronics. The maximum tube current is determined by the heat load of the stationary anode and depends on the energy, pulse width and the focal spot size used. Stable operation at 28kVp, 27mA tube current, 250msec pulse width and 38mA tube current, 183msec pulse width per exposure was achieved with extended lifetime. The standard ACR phantom was imaged and analyzed to evaluate the image quality. The actual scanning speed depends on the number of views and the readout time of the x-ray detector. With the present detector, 6 second scanning time at either 15 views or 31 views can be achieved at 100mAs total imaging dose with a detector readout time of 240msec.

Qian, Xin; Tucker, Andrew; Gidcumb, Emily; Lu, Jianping; Zhou, Otto; Spronk, Derrek; Sprenger, Frank; Zhang, Yiheng; Kennedy, Don; Farbizio, Tom; Jing, Zhenxue

2012-02-01

303

Accurate modeling of a DOI capable small animal PET scanner using GATE.  

PubMed

In this work we developed a Monte Carlo (MC) model of the Sedecal Argus pre-clinical PET scanner, using GATE (Geant4 Application for Tomographic Emission). This is a dual-ring scanner which features DOI compensation by means of two layers of detector crystals (LYSO and GSO). Geometry of detectors and sources, pulses readout and selection of coincidence events were modeled with GATE, while a separate code was developed in order to emulate the processing of digitized data (for example, customized time windows and data flow saturation), the final binning of the lines of response and to reproduce the data output format of the scanner's acquisition software. Validation of the model was performed by modeling several phantoms used in experimental measurements, in order to compare the results of the simulations. Spatial resolution, sensitivity, scatter fraction, count rates and NECR were tested. Moreover, the NEMA NU-4 phantom was modeled in order to check for the image quality yielded by the model. Noise, contrast of cold and hot regions and recovery coefficient were calculated and compared using images of the NEMA phantom acquired with our scanner. The energy spectrum of coincidence events due to the small amount of (176)Lu in LYSO crystals, which was suitably included in our model, was also compared with experimental measurements. Spatial resolution, sensitivity and scatter fraction showed an agreement within 7%. Comparison of the count rates curves resulted satisfactory, being the values within the uncertainties, in the range of activities practically used in research scans. Analysis of the NEMA phantom images also showed a good agreement between simulated and acquired data, within 9% for all the tested parameters. This work shows that basic MC modeling of this kind of system is possible using GATE as a base platform; extension through suitably written customized code allows for an adequate level of accuracy in the results. Our careful validation against experimental data confirms that the developed simulation setup is a useful tool for a wide range of research applications. PMID:23501360

Zagni, F; D'Ambrosio, D; Spinelli, A E; Cicoria, G; Fanti, S; Marengo, M

2013-05-01

304

Diode-bar-pumped planar waveguide lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diode-bar lasers have been used with great success to pump high power solid state lasers in numerous different geometries; nevertheless it remains a challenge to use the highly asymmetric diode-bar output efficiently. We describe an approach to this problem in which the solid-state gain medium is fabricated as a planar waveguide, into which the high-aspect-ratio emission from the diode-bar can

A. C. Tropper; C. L. Bonner; C. T. A. Brown; D. P. Shepherd; W. A. Clarkson; D. C. Hanna

1998-01-01

305

Deterministic and unambiguous dense coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimal dense coding using a partially-entangled pure state of Schmidt rank\\u000a$\\\\bar D$ and a noiseless quantum channel of dimension $D$ is studied both in\\u000athe deterministic case where at most $L_d$ messages can be transmitted with\\u000aperfect fidelity, and in the unambiguous case where when the protocol succeeds\\u000a(probability $\\\\tau_x$) Bob knows for sure that Alice sent message $x$,

Shengjun Wu; Scott M. Cohen; Yuqing Sun; Robert B. Griffiths

2006-01-01

306

Potential-density pairs for bent bars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method is presented to bend a thin massive line when the curvature is small. The procedure is applied to a homogeneous thin bar with two types of curvatures. One of them mimics a galactic bar with two spiral arms at its tips. It is showed that if the bending function is a linear combination of Legendre polynomials, then the bent potential is an exact solution of the Laplace equation. A transformation is applied on the thin bent bars to generate three-dimensional potential-density pairs without singularities. The potentials of the thin bent bars are also used to generate non-axisymmetric planar distributions of matter.

Vogt, D.; Letelier, P. S.

2011-03-01

307

Properties of Bars in the Local Universe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early work on bar fractions suffered from poor sample sizes which limited the study of correlations between bar fraction and physical properties. Recent large surveys like SDSS and COSMOS have helped rectify this deficiency. Sheth et al. (2008) using a sample of 2000 galaxies from COSMOS, have shown that bar fractions decrease with redshift as claimed by Abraham et al. (1999) and van den Bergh et al. (2000) . In addition, they find the bar fraction of spiral galaxies is a strong function of stellar mass, color and bulge prominence such that more massive, redder, concentrated galaxies have a larger bar fraction than less massive, bluer, diskier galaxies. Barazza et al. (2008) using 2000 galaxies from SDSS find results counter to Sheth et al. (2008) i.e., bar fractions increase with decreasing mass and bluer colors (corresponding to late type galaxies). Using a larger sample of 15000 visually classified SDSS galaxies (which includes bar classifications) I further investigate the properties of barred galaxies in the local universe. In addition, I will describe the variation of total fine fraction (bars + rings +lenses) with physical properties and the effects of AGN on the observed fine fraction.

Nair, Preethi

2009-12-01

308

NGC 4340: Double Bar + Fossil Nuclear Ring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NGC 4340 is a double-barred SB0 galaxy in the Virgo cluster (Wozniak et al. 1995). Here, we present evidence that this galaxy also posseses a luminous stellar nuclear ring of relatively old stars with little or no gas. The ring lies just outside the inner bar, at the probable inner inner Lindblad resonance (IILR) of the outer bar. Careful inspection of the isophotes and unsharp masks shows that the two bars are slightly misaligned, which suggests they may be independently rotating.

Erwin, Peter; Vega Beltrán, Juan Carlos; Beckman, John

309

Scanner qualification with IntenCD based reticle error correction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scanner introduction into the fab production environment is a challenging task. An efficient evaluation of scanner performance matrices during factory acceptance test (FAT) and later on during site acceptance test (SAT) is crucial for minimizing the cycle time for pre and post production-start activities. If done effectively, the matrices of base line performance established during the SAT are used as a reference for scanner performance and fleet matching monitoring and maintenance in the fab environment. Key elements which can influence the cycle time of the SAT, FAT and maintenance cycles are the imaging, process and mask characterizations involved with those cycles. Discrete mask measurement techniques are currently in use to create across-mask CDU maps. By subtracting these maps from their final wafer measurement CDU map counterparts, it is possible to assess the real scanner induced printed errors within certain limitations. The current discrete measurement methods are time consuming and some techniques also overlook mask based effects other than line width variations, such as transmission and phase variations, all of which influence the final printed CD variability. Applied Materials Aera2TM mask inspection tool with IntenCDTM technology can scan the mask at high speed, offer full mask coverage and accurate assessment of all masks induced source of errors simultaneously, making it beneficial for scanner qualifications and performance monitoring. In this paper we report on a study that was done to improve a scanner introduction and qualification process using the IntenCD application to map the mask induced CD non uniformity. We will present the results of six scanners in production and discuss the benefits of the new method.

Elblinger, Yair; Finders, Jo; Demarteau, Marcel; Wismans, Onno; Minnaert Janssen, Ingrid; Duray, Frank; Ben Yishai, Michael; Mangan, Shmoolik; Cohen, Yaron; Parizat, Ziv; Attal, Shay; Polonsky, Netanel; Englard, Ilan

2010-03-01

310

Color accuracy and reproducibility in whole slide imaging scanners  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we propose a work-flow for color reproduction in whole slide imaging (WSI) scanners such that the colors in the scanned images match to the actual slide color and the inter scanner variation is minimum. We describe a novel method of preparation and verification of the color phantom slide, consisting of a standard IT8- target transmissive film, which is used in color calibrating and profiling the WSI scanner. We explore several ICC compliant techniques in color calibration/profiling and rendering intents for translating the scanner specific colors to the standard display (sRGB) color-space. Based on the quality of color reproduction in histopathology tissue slides, we propose the matrix-based calibration/profiling and absolute colorimetric rendering approach. The main advantage of the proposed work-ow is that it is compliant to the ICC standard, applicable to color management systems in different platforms, and involves no external color measurement devices. We measure objective color performance using CIE-DeltaE2000 metric, where DeltaE values below 1 is considered imperceptible. Our evaluation 14 phantom slides, manufactured according to the proposed method, show an average inter-slide color difference below 1 DeltaE. The proposed work-flow is implemented and evaluated in 35 Philips Ultra Fast Scanners (UFS). The results show that the average color difference between a scanner and the reference is 3.5 DeltaE, and among the scanners is 3.1 DeltaE. The improvement on color performance upon using the proposed method is apparent on the visual color quality of the tissues scans.

Shrestha, Prarthana; Hulsken, Bas

2014-03-01

311

{bar d}/{bar u} asymmetry and the origin of the nucleon sea  

SciTech Connect

The Drell-Yan cross section ratios, {sigma}(p+d)/{sigma}(p+p), measured in Fermilab E866, have led to the first determination of {bar d}(x)/{bar u}(x), {bar d}(x){minus}{bar u}(x), and the integral of {bar d}(x){minus}{bar u}(x) for the proton over the range 0.02{le}x{le}0.345. The E866 results are compared with predictions based on parton distribution functions and various theoretical models. The relationship between the E866 results and the NMC measurement of the Gottfried integral is discussed. The agreement between the E866 results and models employing virtual mesons indicates that these non-perturbative processes play an important role in the origin of the {bar d},{bar u} asymmetry in the nucleon sea. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

Bush, J.D.; Isenhower, L.D.; Sadler, M.E.; Towell, R.S.; Willis, J.L.; Wise, D.K. [Abilene Christian University, Abilene, Texas 79699 (United States); Geesaman, D.F.; Kaufman, S.B.; Makins, N.; Mueller, B.A. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Brown, C.N.; Cooper, W.E. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States); He, X.C.; Lee, W.M.; Petitt, G. [Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia 30303 (United States); Kaplan, D.M. [Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois 60616 (United States); Peng, J.C.; Garvey, G.T.; Brooks, M.L.; Carey, T.A.; Lee, D.M.; Leitch, M.J.; McGaughey, P.L.; Moss, J.M.; Park, B.K.; Reimer, P.E.; Sondheim, W.E.; Thompson, T.N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Kirk, P.N.; Wang, Y.C.; Wang, Z.F. [Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States); Beddo, M.E.; Chang, T.H.; Kyle, G.; Papavassiliou, V.; Webb, J.C. [New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico 88003 (United States); Awes, T.C.; Stankus, P.W.; Young, G.R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Gagliardi, C.A.; Hawker, E.A.; Tribble, R.E.; Vasiliev, M.A. [Texas A M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Koetke, D.D.; Nord, P.M. [Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, Indiana 46383 (United States)

1998-11-01

312

Numerical study of the specimen size effect in the split Hopkinson pressure bar tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

A numerical and experimental assessment of the compression test in the split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) has been made. The DYNA2D finite element code was employed in the numerical part. The aim of the work was to establish the influence of an important reduction in the specimen diameter on the results. To this end, several numerical experiments were carried out

J. Rodríguez; R. Cortés; M. A. Martínez; V. Sánchez-Gálvez; C. Navarro

1995-01-01

313

Taylor impact of glass bars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Brar and Bless pioneeered the use of plate impact upon bars as a technique for investigating the 1D stress loading of glass. We wish to extend this technique by applying VISAR and embedded stress gauge measurements to a symmetrical version of the test. In this configuration two rods impact one upon the other in a symmetrical version of the Taylor test geometry in which the impact is perfectly rigid in the centre of mass frame. Previous work in the laboratory has characterised the three glass types (float, borosilicate and a high density lead glass). These experiments will identify the 1D stress failure mechanisms from high-speed photography and the stress and particle velocity histories will be interpreted in the light of these results. The differences in response of the three glasses will be highlighted.

Murray, Natalie; Bourne, Neil; Field, John

1997-07-01

314

Computer simulations to estimate organ doses from clinically validated cardiac, neuro, and pediatric protocols for multiple detector computed tomography scanners  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances in Computed Tomography (CT) technology, particularly that of multiple detector CT (MDCT) scanning, have provided increased utilization and more diverse clinical applications including more advanced vascular and cardiac exams, perfusion imaging, and screening exams. Notwithstanding the benefits to the patient undergoing a CT study, the fundamental concern in radiation protection is the minimization of the radiation exposure delivered as well as the implementation of structures to prevent inappropriate ordering and clinical use of these advanced studies. This research work developed a computational methodology for routine clinical use to assess patient organ doses from MDCT scanners. To support the methodology, a computer code (DXS-Diagnostic X-ray Spectra) was developed to accurately and conveniently generate x-ray spectra in the diagnostic energy range (45-140 keV). The two accepted standard radiation transport calculation methods namely, deterministic and Monte Carlo, have been preliminarily investigated for their capability and readiness to support the proposed goal of the work. Thorough tests demonstrated that the lack of appropriate discrete photon interaction coefficients in the aforementioned diagnostic energy range impedes the applicability of the deterministic approach to routine clinical use; improvements in the multigroup treatment may make it more viable. Thus, the open source Monte Carlo code, MCNP5, was adapted to appropriately model an MDCT scan. For this, a new method, entirely based on routine clinical CT measurements, was developed and validated to generate an "equivalent source and filtration" model that obviates the need of proprietary information for a given CT scanner. Computer simulations employing the Monte Carlo methodology and UF's tomographic human phantoms were performed to assess, compare, and optimize pediatric, cardiac and neuro-imaging protocols for the new 320-slice scanner at Shands/UF based on dose considerations. Results were compared against organ dose measurements previously obtained at Shands UF. Important dose reductions were assessed for the broad beam volumetric acquisition of this new scanner when compared to the standard 64-slice helical protocols.

Ghita, Monica

315

On the Offset of Barred Galaxies from the Black Hole M BH-? Relationship  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use collisionless N-body simulations to determine how the growth of a supermassive black hole (SMBH) influences the nuclear kinematics in both barred and unbarred galaxies. In the presence of a bar, the increase in the velocity dispersion ? (within the effective radius) due to the growth of an SMBH is on average <~ 10%, whereas the increase is only <~ 4% in an unbarred galaxy. In a barred galaxy, the increase results from a combination of three separate factors: (1) orientation and inclination effects; (2) angular momentum transport by the bar that results in an increase in the central mass density; and (3) an increase in the vertical and radial velocity anisotropy of stars in the vicinity of the SMBH. In contrast, the growth of the SMBH in an unbarred galaxy causes the velocity distribution in the inner part of the nucleus to become less radially anisotropic. The increase in ? following the growth of the SMBH is insensitive to a variation of a factor of 10 in the final mass of the SMBH, showing that it is the growth process rather than the actual SMBH mass that alters bar evolution in a way that increases ?. We argue that using an axisymmetric stellar dynamical modeling code to measure SMBH masses in barred galaxies could result in a slight overestimate of the derived M BH, especially if a constant M/L ratio is assumed. We conclude that the growth of a black hole in the presence of a bar could result in an increase in ? that is roughly 4%-8% larger than the increase that occurs in an axisymmetric system. While the increase in ? due to SMBH growth in a barred galaxy might partially account for the claimed offset of barred galaxies and pseudo bulges from the M BH-? relation obtained for elliptical galaxies and classical bulges in unbarred galaxies, it is inadequate to account for all of the offset.

Brown, Jonathan S.; Valluri, Monica; Shen, Juntai; Debattista, Victor P.

2013-12-01

316

An RF dosimeter for independent SAR measurement in MRI scanners  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The monitoring and management of radio frequency (RF) exposure is critical for ensuring magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) safety. Commercial MRI scanners can overestimate specific absorption rates (SAR) and improperly restrict clinical MRI scans or the application of new MRI sequences, while underestimation of SAR can lead to tissue heating and thermal injury. Accurate scanner-independent RF dosimetry is essential for measuring actual exposure when SAR is critical for ensuring regulatory compliance and MRI safety, for establishing RF exposure while evaluating interventional leads and devices, and for routine MRI quality assessment by medical physicists. However, at present there are no scanner-independent SAR dosimeters. Methods: An SAR dosimeter with an RF transducer comprises two orthogonal, rectangular copper loops and a spherical MRI phantom. The transducer is placed in the magnet bore and calibrated to approximate the resistive loading of the scanner's whole-body birdcage RF coil for human subjects in Philips, GE and Siemens 3 tesla (3T) MRI scanners. The transducer loop reactances are adjusted to minimize interference with the transmit RF field (B{sub 1}) at the MRI frequency. Power from the RF transducer is sampled with a high dynamic range power monitor and recorded on a computer. The deposited power is calibrated and tested on eight different MRI scanners. Whole-body absorbed power vs weight and body mass index (BMI) is measured directly on 26 subjects. Results: A single linear calibration curve sufficed for RF dosimetry at 127.8 MHz on three different Philips and three GE 3T MRI scanners. An RF dosimeter operating at 123.2 MHz on two Siemens 3T scanners required a separate transducer and a slightly different calibration curve. Measurement accuracy was ?3%. With the torso landmarked at the xiphoid, human adult whole?body absorbed power varied approximately linearly with patient weight and BMI. This indicates that whole-body torso SAR is on average independent of the imaging subject, albeit with fluctuations. Conclusions: Our 3T RF dosimeter and transducers accurately measure RF exposure in body-equivalent loads and provide scanner-independent assessments of whole-body RF power deposition for establishing safety compliance useful for MRI sequence and device testing.

Qian, Di; Bottomley, Paul A. [Division of MR Research, Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21287 and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States)] [Division of MR Research, Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21287 and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); El-Sharkawy, AbdEl-Monem M.; Edelstein, William A., E-mail: w.edelstein@gmail.com [Division of MR Research, Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21287 (United States)

2013-12-15

317

Evaluation of GER airborne scanner data for environmental applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In May/June 1989 the German Aerospace Research Establishment (DLR) Institute for Optoelectronics was involved in the first European Imaging Spectroscopy Airborne Campaign (EISAC). Test sites in various countries of the European Community were flown with the GER-Il Scanner. In the presented study the preprocessed and atmospherically corrected data was used for a spectral analysis of an old vegetation covered waste deposit. 2. THE GER-Il Scanner The GER-lI Scanner (Geophysical Environment Corp. ) is a 63 channel imaging spectrometer with three seperate line arrays of detectors which view the ground through the same aperture via a rotating mirror. It contains 31 channels in the visible I near infrared (VIS/NIR) wavelength region (470 nm - 840 nm sampling interval 12. 3 nm) 4 channels between 1440 nm to 1900 nm (sampling interval 120 nm) and another 28 channels in the short wave infrared (SWIR) wavelength region (2000 nm - 2450 nm sampling interval 16. 3 nm). The IFOV was selected to be 3. 3 mrad which leads to a pixel size of 10 m at 3000 m flying altitude. The high spectral and spatial resolution make this scanner a useful tool for environmental studies. 3. DATA PROCESSING As a first evaluation step the GER-Scanner data was preprocessed including a roll- lag- and slope-correction1. Comparison of ground vegetation spectra measured with the IRIS-Mark IV spectroradiometer (GER-Corp. ) during the time of the overflight yielded

Lehmann, Frank; Rothfuss, H.; Richter, Rudolf

1990-07-01

318

Experimental proximity matching of ArF scanners  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

IC manufacturers have a strong demand for transferring a working process from one scanner to another. In an ideal transfer, a reticle set that produces devices within specification on a certain scanner has the same performance on another exposure tool. In real life, however, reticles employ optical proximity correction (OPC) which incorporates by definition the inherent optical fingerprint of a specific exposure tool and process. In order to avoid the additional cost of developing a new OPC model and acquiring a new reticle for each exposure tool, IC manufacturers therefore wish to 'match' the optical fingerprint of their scanners as closely as possible. In this paper, we report on the matching strategy that we developed to perform a tool-to-tool matching. We present experimental matching results for several tool combinations at numerical apertures (NA) 0.75, 0.85 and 1.2. Matching of exposure tools is obtained by determining the sensitivities to scanner parameter variations like NA, Sigma, Focus Drilling, Ellipticity and Dose from wafer data and/or simulations. These sensitivities are used to calculate the optimal scanner parameters for matching the two tools.

Bekaert, Joost; van Look, L.; de Bisschop, P.; van de Kerkhove, J.; Vandenberghe, G.,; Schreel, K.; Menger, J.; Schiffelers, G.; Knols, E.; van der Laan, H.; Willekers, R.

2008-11-01

319

Multispectral data compression through transform coding and block quantization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Transform coding and block quantization techniques are applied to multispectral aircraft scanner data, and digitized satellite imagery. The multispectral source is defined and an appropriate mathematical model proposed. The Karhunen-Loeve, Fourier, and Hadamard encoders are considered and are compared to the rate distortion function for the equivalent Gaussian source and to the performance of the single sample PCM encoder.

Ready, P. J.; Wintz, P. A.

1972-01-01

320

Charm Physics at BaBar  

SciTech Connect

Large production of the c{bar c} pairs and high integrated luminosity make the PEPII B Factory an excellent place for studying the charm hadrons. In this paper, we present a few most recent results from BaBar collaboration in charm sector.

Chen, Chunhui; /Maryland U.

2005-06-29

321

User-Defined Scroll Bars in Spreadsheets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microsoft Excel allows the easy creation of user-defined scroll bars that can be used to control parameter values in a spreadsheet. These scroll bars make it convenient to use a spreadsheet for in-class demonstrations, animations, and curve fitting, and offer significant instructional value to the student.

Hatten, Daniel L.; Moloney, Michael J.

2004-03-01

322

Graphite bar irradiation history, C-Reactor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The following is all the information the authors can get on the graphite bar history from the A and G test holes at C-Reactor. The A test hole was charged with 18--23 1/2 inch long graphite bars before the original startup of C-Reactor. This was 6/12/53. ...

W. B. Olson

1968-01-01

323

CLFV Decays at BaBar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rare ? decays provide a sensitive probe of charged lepton flavor violating interactions. With the dataset collected by the BaBar experiment at PEP-II (?4.88×108??bar pairs at the ?(4S) resonance), we have set limits on a large variety of rare charge lepton flavor-violating ? decays.

Hitlin, David G.

2014-03-01

324

Bar Study Stories. Issues in Prevention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of "Issues in Prevention" focuses on the impact of the availability of drinks in licensed establishments, such as bars and taverns on student drinking. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Cheap Drinks at College Bars Can Escalate Student Drinking (John D. Clapp); (2) High Alcohol Outlet Density: A Problem for Campuses and…

Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

2012-01-01

325

Code Status  

MedlinePLUS

... Home Clinical Critical Care Information for Patients | | More Code Status Information for Patients Introduction General Information Common ... Approaches in Critical Care Commonly Asked Questions Credits "Code status" are the words used by hospital staff ...

326

Code Stabilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dijkstra's concept of self-stabilization assumes that faults can only a! ect the variables of a program. We study the notion of self-stabilization if faults can also a! ect (i.e., augment) the program code of a system. A code stabilizing sys- tem automatically recovers from (almost) arbitrary perturbations of its program code. We prove some lower bounds for code stabilizing systems

Felix C. Freiling; Sukumar Ghosh

2005-01-01

327

Galileo Attitude Determination: Experiences with a Rotating Star Scanner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Galileo experience with a rotating star scanner is discussed in terms of problems encountered in flight, solutions implemented, and lessons learned. An overview of the Galileo project and the attitude and articulation control subsystem is given and the star scanner hardware and relevant software algorithms are detailed. The star scanner is the sole source of inertial attitude reference for this spacecraft. Problem symptoms observed in flight are discussed in terms of effects on spacecraft performance and safety. Sources of thse problems include contributions from flight software idiosyncrasies and inadequate validation of the ground procedures used to identify target stars for use by the autonomous on-board star identification algorithm. Problem fixes (some already implemented and some only proposed) are discussed. A general conclusion is drawn regarding the inherent difficulty of performing simulation tests to validate algorithms which are highly sensitive to external inputs of statistically 'rare' events.

Merken, L.; Singh, G.

1991-01-01

328

CT Coronary Angiography: 256-Slice and 320-Detector Row Scanners  

PubMed Central

Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) has rapidly evolved from 4-detector row systems in 1998 to 256-slice and 320-detector row CT systems. With smaller detector element size and faster gantry rotation speed, spatial and temporal resolution of the 64-detector MDCT scanners have made coronary artery imaging a reliable clinical test. Wide-area coverage MDCT, such as the 256-slice and 320-detector row MDCT scanners, has enabled volumetric imaging of the entire heart free of stair-step artifacts at a single time point within one cardiac cycle. It is hoped that these improvements will be realized with greater diagnostic accuracy of CT coronary angiography. Such scanners hold promise in performing a rapid high quality “triple rule-out” test without high contrast load, improved myocardial perfusion imaging, and even four-dimensional CT subtraction angiography. These emerging technical advances and novel applications will continue to change the way we study coronary artery disease beyond detecting luminal stenosis.

Hsiao, Edward M.; Rybicki, Frank J.; Steigner, Michael

2010-01-01

329

In-line digital holographic microscopy using a consumer scanner  

PubMed Central

We demonstrate an in-line digital holographic microscopy using a consumer scanner. The consumer scanner can scan an image with 4,800?dpi. The pixel pitch is approximately 5.29??m. The system using a consumer scanner has a simple structure, compared with synthetic aperture digital holography using a camera mounted on a two-dimensional moving stage. In this demonstration, we captured an in-line hologram with 23, 602 × 18, 023 pixels (?0.43 gigapixels). The physical size of the scanned hologram is approximately 124?mm × 95?mm. In addition, to accelerate the reconstruction time of the gigapixel hologram and decrease the amount of memory for the reconstruction, we applied the band-limited double-step Fresnel diffraction to the reconstruction.

Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Yamanashi, Hiroya; Kakue, Takashi; Oikawa, Minoru; Okada, Naohisa; Endo, Yutaka; Hirayama, Ryuji; Masuda, Nobuyuki; Ito, Tomoyoshi

2013-01-01

330

Determining density of maize canopy. 2: Airborne multispectral scanner data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multispectral scanner data were collected in two flights over a light colored soil background cover plot at an altitude of 305 m. Energy in eleven reflective wavelength band from 0.45 to 2.6 microns was recorded. Four growth stages of maize (Zea mays L.) gave a wide range of canopy densities for each flight date. Leaf area index measurements were taken from the twelve subplots and were used as a measure of canopy density. Ratio techniques were used to relate uncalibrated scanner response to leaf area index. The ratios of scanner data values for the 0.72 to 0.92 micron wavelength band over the 0.61 to 0.70 micron wavelength band were calculated for each plot. The ratios related very well to leaf area index for a given flight date. The results indicated that spectral data from maize canopies could be of value in determining canopy density.

Stoner, E. R.; Baumgardner, M. F.; Cipra, J. E.

1971-01-01

331

Automated pipe scanner for ultrasonic inspection. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The need for reliable, accurate, and repeatable examination of piping welds in boiling-water-reactor (BWR) systems has received considerable attention in recent years because of increasing occurrences of intergranular stress-corrosion cracking (IGSCC) in the austenitic stainless steel piping used in these systems. This report describes the results of a program designed to develop automated, remotely controlled scanner mechanisms and booted ultrasonic search units for pipe weld examinations. The principal scanner development goals have been achieved. These goals include scanners of low profile, easy portability, rapid installation and removal and accurate and repeatable scan capabilities over a wide range of pipe diameters. Additional accomplishments are booted search unit designs that provide universal adaptability to pipe inspection surface geometries and a multi-refracted-angle inspection capability within a single search unit.

Fleming, M.; Mitchell, R.; Humphries, J.; De La Torre, D.; Levin, S.; Jacobs, B.; Beller, L.; Mikesell, C.

1984-01-01

332

A Prototype PET Scanner with DOI-Encoding Detectors  

PubMed Central

Detectors with depth-encoding allow a PET scanner to simultaneously achieve high sensitivity and high spatial resolution. Methods A prototype PET scanner, consisting of depth-encoding detectors constructed by dual-ended readout of lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO) arrays with two position sensitive avalanche photodiodes (PSAPDs), was developed. The scanner consisted of two detector plates, each with 4 detector modules. The LSO arrays consisted of 7×7 elements, with a crystal size of 0.9225×0.9225×20 mm3 with a pitch of 1.0 mm. The active area of the PSAPDs was 8×8 mm2. The performance of individual detector modules was characterized. A line source phantom and a hot rod phantom were imaged on the prototype scanner in two different scanner configurations. The images were reconstructed using 20, 10, 5, 2 and 1 DOI bins to demonstrate the effects of DOI resolution on reconstructed image resolution and visual image quality. Results The flood histograms measured from the sum of both PSAPD signals were only weakly depth-dependent and excellent crystal identification was obtained at all depths. The flood histograms improved as the detector temperature decreased. DOI resolution and energy resolution improved significantly as the temperature decreased from 20 °C to 10 °C, but only slightly with a subsequent temperature decrease to 0 °C. A full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) DOI resolution of 2 mm and an FWHM energy resolution of 15% were obtained at a temperature of 10 °C. Phantom studies showed that DOI measurements significantly improved the reconstructed image resolution. In the first scanner configuration (parallel detector planes) the image resolution at the center of field of view (CFOV) was 0.9 mm FWHM with 20 DOI bins and 1.6 mm with one DOI bin. In the second scanner configuration (detector planes at a 40° angle) the image resolution at the CFOV was 1.0 mm FWHM with 20 DOI bins and was not measurable when using only one bin. Conclusions PET scanners based on this detector design offer the prospect of high and uniform spatial resolution (crystal size ~1 mm, DOI resolution ~ 2 mm), high sensitivity (20 mm thick detectors), and compact size (DOI encoding permits detectors to be tightly packed around the subject and minimizes number of detectors needed).

Yang, Yongfeng; Wu, Yibao; Qi, Jinyi; St. James, Sara; Du, Huini; Dokhale, Purushottam A.; Shah, Kanai S.; Farrell, Richard; Cherry, Simon R.

2009-01-01

333

Satellite orientation and position for geometric correction of scanner imagery.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The USGS Mini Image Processing System currently relies on a polynomial method for geometric correction of Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) data. A large number of ground control points are required because polynomials do not model the sources of error. In order to reduce the number of necessary points, a set of mathematical equations modeling the Landsat satellite motions and MSS scanner has been derived and programmed. A best fit to the equations is obtained by using a least-squares technique that permits computation of the satellite orientation and position parameters based on only a few control points.-from Author

Salamonowicz, P. H.

1986-01-01

334

30. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING FLOOR 3A ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

30. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - FLOOR 3A ("A" FACE) INTERIOR BETWEEN GRIDS 17-A1 AND 18-A1, SHOWING REAR OF RADAR EMITTER ELECTRONIC INTERFACE TERMINAL NO. 3147-20, "RECEIVER TRANSMITTER RADAR" MODULE. VIEW IS ALSO SHOWING BUILDING FIRE STOP MATERIAL AT BOTTOM OF FLOOR. NOTE: WALL SLOPES BOTTOM TO TOP INWARD; STRUCTURAL ELEMENT IN FOREGROUND. VIEW ALSO SHOWS PIPING GRID OF CHILLED WATER LINES FOR ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS COOLING. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

335

Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanner instrument anomaly investigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of an ad-hoc committee investigation of in-Earth orbit operational anomalies noted on two identical Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) Scanner instruments on two different spacecraft busses is presented. The anomalies are attributed to the bearings and the lubrication scheme for the bearings. A detailed discussion of the pertinent instrument operations, the approach of the investigation team and the current status of the instruments now in Earth orbit is included. The team considered operational changes for these instruments, rework possibilities for the one instrument which is waiting to be launched, and preferable lubrication considerations for specific space operational requirements similar to those for the ERBE scanner bearings.

Watson, N. D.; Miller, J. B.; Taylor, L. V.; Lovell, J. B.; Cox, J. W.; Fedors, J. C.; Kopia, L. P.; Holloway, R. M.; Bradley, O. H.

1985-01-01

336

CHALLENGES TO IMPLEMENTING AND ENFORCING CALIFORNIA'S SMOKE-FREE WORKPLACE ACT IN BARS  

PubMed Central

California’s 1995 Smoke-Free Workplace Act—Assembly Bill 13 (AB 13)—was extended to bars in 1998. This paper examines the challenges faced by officials responsible for implementing and enforcing the law. As part of a series of studies evaluating AB 13 in bars, researchers conducted confidential in-depth interviews with 35 state, county and municipal authorities and representatives of non-governmental agencies. The interviews were recorded, transcribed, coded and analyzed by themes and respondent categories. Data from structured observations in sampled bars and interviews with bar staff and patrons offer contextual information. Analyses indicated the following challenges: 1) an ineffective administrative structure, 2) problems associated with the complaint-driven system used to enforce the law, 3) lack of funding for enforcement, 4) low prioritization of enforcement, and 5) the minimal deterrence effect of the sanctioning penalties. The findings indicate why indoor smoking may continue in some bars despite the state law prohibiting smoking in workplaces. Many municipalities, states and countries may be considering restricting smoking in workplaces including bars, and our findings show that clear delineation of procedures and enforcement criteria, as well as funding and substantive penalties, should be considered in drafting these laws.

Satterlund, Travis D.; Lee, Juliet P.; Moore, Roland S.; Antin, Tamar M.J.

2009-01-01

337

Cam-controlled boring bar  

DOEpatents

A cam-controlled boring bar system (100) includes a first housing (152) which is rotatable about its longitudinal axis (154), and a second housing in the form of a cam-controlled slide (158) which is also rotatable about the axis (154) as well as being translatable therealong. A tool-holder (180) is mounted within the slide (158) for holding a single point cutting tool. Slide (158) has a rectangular configuration and is disposed within a rectangularly configured portion of the first housing (152). Arcuate cam slots (192) are defined within a side plate (172) of the housing (152), while cam followers (194) are mounted upon the cam slide (158) for cooperative engagement with the cam slots (192). In this manner, as the housing (152) and slide (158) rotate, and as the slide (158) also translates, a through-bore (14) having an hourglass configuration will be formed within a workpiece (16) which may be, for example, a nuclear reactor steam generator tube support plate.

Glatthorn, Raymond H. (St. Petersburg, FL) [St. Petersburg, FL

1986-01-01

338

32 CFR 776.66 - Bar admission and disciplinary matters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Bar admission and disciplinary matters. 776.66 Section 776.66 National...776.66 Bar admission and disciplinary matters. (a) Bar admission and disciplinary matters. A covered attorney, in...

2013-07-01

339

33 CFR 13.01-10 - Gold and silver bars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Gold and silver bars. 13.01-10 Section 13...RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-10 Gold and silver bars. No person shall receive...

2010-07-01

340

33 CFR 13.01-40 - Miniature medals and bars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-40 Miniature medals and bars. (a) Miniature Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals and bars are replicas of...

2013-07-01

341

33 CFR 13.01-40 - Miniature medals and bars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-40 Miniature medals and bars. (a) Miniature Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals and bars are replicas of...

2012-07-01

342

33 CFR 13.01-40 - Miniature medals and bars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-40 Miniature medals and bars. (a) Miniature Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals and bars are replicas of...

2011-07-01

343

Highly reliable qcw laser bars and stacks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on a well established technology for continuous-wave (cw) diode lasers, further development and optimization lead to high performance laser bars for quasi-continuous-wave (qcw) operation suitable for pumping applications. Mounted on standard heat sinks, these 808nm laser bars exhibit more than 300W (400W) qcw output power with 50% (75%) filling factors. Reliability tests of these bars are running at >200W. Several GShots at 2, 4 and 10% duty cycle (d.c.) were already achieved. With this high performance qcw laser bars, passively cooled laser stacks were developed and tested using a new design compatible to high power operation. Thermal expansion matched materials and hard solder techniques allow reliable operation, even under rough environmental conditions. Output powers of 2.5kW (>300W per bar) were demonstrated from a stack with 8 bars. After environmental tests (vibration and thermal cycles), an ongoing life test exhibits more than 2.5GShots with 1.6kW (~200W per bar) at 4% duty cycle.

Deichsel, E.; Schröder, D.; Meusel, J.; Hülsewede, R.; Sebastian, J.; Ludwig, S.; Hennig, P.

2008-03-01

344

Analysis of Hopkinson bar pressure gage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to fully understand the results of experiments on buried structures subjected to high intensity airblast that simulates nuclear weapons effects, an accurate measurement of the airblast pressure time-history must be made. Quite often, the peak airblast pressures in these tests are above what commercially-available air-pressure gages are capable of measuring. Hopkinson bar pressure gages remain elastic while measuring these very high airblast pressures. These bar gages also have the advantage that the sensing element of the gage is placed at a distance down the bar from the high pressure airblast. Thus the sensing element and the wires attached to it stand a much better chance of surviving the environment created by the simulator. The U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES) has developed a bar gage, designed to measure the airblast for tests in which airblast-induced ground shock is simulated. The primary objective of this study was to determine the accuracy of the WES bar gage and the possible effects the water and water seal have on the measured waveforms. Other objectives are to evaluate the differences in measured stresses between the WES and NMERI bars in the DET test, and to determine if modifications to the WES bar gage design are needed.

Baylot, James T.

1993-01-01

345

A newly developed Kolsky tension bar.  

SciTech Connect

Investigation of damage and failure of materials under impact loading relies on reliable dynamic tensile experiments. A precise Kolsky tension bar is highly desirable. Based on the template of the Kolsky compression bar that we recently developed and presented at 2009 SEM conference, a new Kolsky tension bar apparatus was completed at Sandia National Laboratories, California. It is secured to the same optical table. Linear bearings with interior Frelon coating were employed to support the whole tension bar system including the bars and gun barrel. The same laser based alignment system was used to efficiently facilitate highly precise alignment of the bar system. However, the gun part was completely re-designed. One end of the gun barrel, as a part of loading device, was directly jointed to the bar system. A solid cylindrical striker is launched inside the gun barrel and then impacts on a flange attached to the other end of the gun barrel to facilitate a sudden tensile loading on the whole system. This design improves the quality of impact to easily produce a perfect stress wave and is convenient to utilize pulse shaping technique. A calibration and dynamic characterization of an aluminum specimen are presented.

Lu, Wei-Yang; Song, Bo; Antoun, Bonnie R.; Connelly, Kevin; Korellis, John S.

2010-03-01

346

Novel intraoperative cerebral blood flow monitoring by laser-Doppler scanner.  

PubMed

Laser-Doppler (LD) flowmetry was used to measure tissue perfusion non-invasively and continuously during neurosurgical operations using an LD scanner. Scanning was usually completed in 20 seconds. Measurements were processed in software to provide a color-coded image of the tissue perfusion. Moreover, the measurement data, expressed in LD-units, could be used for statistical data analysis. No physical contact was necessary between the scanning device and the exposed brain tissue. The imager provided two-dimensional microvascular flow maps non-invasively and quantitatively during brain operations, and could show the CO2 reactivity in the vessels. LD scanning flowmetry is a promising intraoperative monitoring method for cerebral blood flow changes. PMID:11902070

Nakase, Hiroyuki; Kaido, Takanobu; Okuno, Shuzo; Hoshida, Tohru; Sakaki, Toshisuke

2002-01-01

347

7.RP Buying Protein Bars and Magazines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Tom wants to buy some protein bars and magazines for a trip. He has decided to buy three times as many protein bars as magazines. Each protein bar cost...

348

Variable Control Design and its Application to Wafer Scanners  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variable control design is presented. The validity of such a design in dealing with linear performance trade-offs is demonstrated on a reticle stage motion system of an industrial wafer scanner. Performance is achieved by continuously balancing stability margins over disturbance rejection properties. This is done by a nonlinear state-dependent element in the feedback loop. Apart from performance, design rules

Marcel Heertjes; Nathan van de Wouw

2006-01-01

349

First Test Results of the New LANSCE Wire Scanner  

SciTech Connect

The Beam Diagnostics and Instrumentation Team (BDIT) at Los Alamos National Laboratory's LANSCE facility is presently developing a new and improved wire scanner diagnostics system controlled by National Instrument's cRIO platform. This paper describes the current state of development of the control system along with the results gathered from the latest actuator motion performance and accelerator-beam data acquisition tests.

Sedillo, James Daniel [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-01

350

FMRI scanner noise interaction with affective neural processes.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was the investigation of interaction effects between functional MRI scanner noise and affective neural processes. Stimuli comprised of psychoacoustically balanced musical pieces, expressing three different emotions (fear, neutral, joy). Participants (N=34, 19 female) were split into two groups, one subjected to continuous scanning and another subjected to sparse temporal scanning that features decreased scanner noise. Tests for interaction effects between scanning group (sparse/quieter vs continuous/noisier) and emotion (fear, neutral, joy) were performed. Results revealed interactions between the affective expression of stimuli and scanning group localized in bilateral auditory cortex, insula and visual cortex (calcarine sulcus). Post-hoc comparisons revealed that during sparse scanning, but not during continuous scanning, BOLD signals were significantly stronger for joy than for fear, as well as stronger for fear than for neutral in bilateral auditory cortex. During continuous scanning, but not during sparse scanning, BOLD signals were significantly stronger for joy than for neutral in the left auditory cortex and for joy than for fear in the calcarine sulcus. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study to show a statistical interaction effect between scanner noise and affective processes and extends evidence suggesting scanner noise to be an important factor in functional MRI research that can affect and distort affective brain processes. PMID:24260420

Skouras, Stavros; Gray, Marcus; Critchley, Hugo; Koelsch, Stefan

2013-01-01

351

Geologic Atlas of TIMS (Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner) Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the three years since the first data were taken, it was well demonstrated that the Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS), properly used, can be a most valuable tool for the geologist. Compilation of the TIMS data into a geological atlas was fel...

E. Abbott

1986-01-01

352

Advanced scanners and imaging systems for earth observations. [conferences  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Assessments of present and future sensors and sensor related technology are reported along with a description of user needs and applications. Five areas are outlined: (1) electromechanical scanners, (2) self-scanned solid state sensors, (3) electron beam imagers, (4) sensor related technology, and (5) user applications. Recommendations, charts, system designs, technical approaches, and bibliographies are included for each area.

1973-01-01

353

Multibeam two-dimensional binary optics laser scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a two-dimensional, multibeam, binary optic based scanner for transmission/receiver functions for LADAR and other applications under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract from Eglin Air Force Base. Multibeam scan provides many unique advantages including: increased data rate for pulsed lasers; increased scan coverage; and programmable broadcasting for optical interconnect applications.

Jain, Anil K.

1994-06-01

354

COMPUTER PROCESSING OF MULTISPECTRAL SCANNER DATA OVER COAL STRIP MINES  

EPA Science Inventory

There is little doubt that remote sensing techniques can be effectively applied to the task of monitoring coal strip mine progress and reclamation work. Aircraft multispectral scanner data acquired over six coal strip mines in the states of Wyoming, Montana, Colorado, and Arizona...

355

Speech Perception in MRI Scanner Noise by Persons with Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To examine reductions in performance on auditory tasks by aphasic and neurologically intact individuals as a result of concomitant magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner noise. Method: Four tasks together forming a continuum of linguistic complexity were developed. They included complex-tone pitch discrimination, same-different…

Healy, Eric W.; Moser, Dana C.; Morrow-Odom, K. Leigh; Hall, Deborah A.; Fridriksson, Julius

2007-01-01

356

REGISTRATION OF TERRESTRIAL LASER SCANNER POINT CLOUDS BY ONE IMAGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Registration of point clouds in the same coordinate system is the most important step in processing of terrestrial laser scanner measurements. Used methods for registration of point clouds have required scanned overlap area betweeen point clouds or adequate points for every scan in common coordinate system. These procedures are required time and labor more than necessary. In this study, a

C. Altuntas; F. Yildiz

357

Application of Ecoefficiency factor to mobile phone and scanner  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of Eco-efficiency, coupling with the stimulation of services and the effort of environmental load reductions, is beneficial to indicate the state of IT-products, where developments are extremely rapid. This paper shows two comprehensive case studies, mobile phones and scanners, especially focusing on how to quantify the service values. As a result, the service value of the mobile phones

K. Fuse; Y. Horikoshi; T. Kumai; T. Taniguchi

2003-01-01

358

A parallel link scanner for inspection of bores and tubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows a novel scanner to inspect hollow components such as tubes, hollow bolts or rotors with a central bore using ultrasound technology (UT). It uses a flexible lance which can be bent to get around obstacles such as tube elbows or turbine housings. A parallel link drive consisting of 2 motor-driven disks with inclined rollers drives the lance.

W. Zesch; E. Zwicker; M. Wiesendanger; J. F. Knowles

2010-01-01

359

Calibration of the Modular Optoelectronic Scanner (MOS) flight models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since March 1996 the Modular Optoelectronic Scanner (MOS) provides remote data from a 820 km sun synchroneous polar orbit. It measures the spectral radiance of the atmosphere- surface system in 18 spectral channels and up to 420 pixels in a 200 km swath. MOS consists of two imaging spectrometers A and B with gratings and a camera C with an

Karl-Heinz Suemnich; Andreas Neumann; Horst Schwarzer; Gerhard Zimmermann

1996-01-01

360

Inguinal hernia and airport scanners: an emerging indication for repair?  

PubMed

The use of advanced imaging technology at international airports is increasing in popularity as a corollary to heightened security concerns across the globe. Operators of airport scanners should be educated about common medical disorders such as inguinal herniae in order to avoid unnecessary harassment of travelers since they will encounter these with increasing frequency. PMID:24368923

Naraynsingh, Vijay; Cawich, Shamir O; Maharaj, Ravi; Dan, Dilip

2013-01-01

361

RECOGNISING STRUCTURE IN LASER SCANNER POINT CLOUDS1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both airborne and terrestrial laser scanners are used to capture large point clouds of the objects under study. Although for some applications, direct measurements in the point clouds may already suffice, most applications require an automatic processing of the point clouds to extract information on the shape of the recorded objects. This processing often involves the recognition of specific geometric

G. Vosselman; B. G. H. Gorte; G. Sithole; T. Rabbani

2004-01-01

362

Change detection of buildings using an airborne laser scanner  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study employed an airborne laser scanner to detect changes of buildings by acquiring a digital surface model (DSM) data of urban areas. Simple comparison between DSM data sets acquired at different occasions successfully detected building changes without omission errors. A CCD array image simultaneously acquired with the DSM data was also automatically orthorectified with the DSM data and indicated

Hiroshi Murakami; Katsuto Nakagawa; Hiroyuki Hasegawa; Taku Shibata; Eiji Iwanami

1999-01-01

363

Identifying species of individual trees using airborne laser scanner  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual trees can be detected using high-density airborne laser scanner data. Also, variables characterizing the detected trees such as tree height, crown area, and crown base height can be measured. The Scandinavian boreal forest mainly consists of Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), and deciduous trees. It is possible to separate coniferous from deciduous trees

Johan Holmgren; Åsa Persson

2004-01-01

364

Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanner instrument anomaly investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of an ad-hoc committee investigation of in-Earth orbit operational anomalies noted on two identical Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) Scanner instruments on two different spacecraft busses is presented. The anomalies are attributed to the bearings and the lubrication scheme for the bearings. A detailed discussion of the pertinent instrument operations, the approach of the investigation team and the

N. D. Watson; J. B. Miller; L. V. Taylor; J. B. Lovell; J. W. Cox; J. C. Fedors; L. P. Kopia; R. M. Holloway; O. H. Bradley

1985-01-01

365

Liquid-explosives scanners stand trial in airports  

SciTech Connect

Air passengers may once more be allowed to pack beverages, lotions, and hair spray in their carry-on luggage, if imaging technologies to detect liquid explosives can prove their worth. Several competing systems, including multi-energy x-ray systems and a low-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner, are undergoing field tests at some airports worldwide.

Matthews, Jermey N. A.

2010-07-15

366

2D laser scanner selection using fuzzy logic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser scanners are widely used today in many fields. This paper presents a multi-criteria decision-making selection process of these sensors for different applications using a fuzzy logic approach. Factors affecting the selection process are divided into dynamic and static ones based on their dependency on the application considered. Fuzzy sets and fuzzy rules are used to translate implicit and vague

Tarek Al-Hawari; Samir Khrais; Omar Al-Araidah; Abdullah F. Al-Dwairi

2011-01-01

367

Current SGS (segmented gamma-ray scanner) technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The assay of scrap and waste in the nuclear fuel cycle continues to be an important component in nuclear material accountability. The segmented gamma-ray scanner (SGS) is an important measurement tool for the class of low-density materials. Segmentation and transmission measurement at each segment provide assay capability to items having some degree of heterogeneity in the volumes of their containers.

Bjork

1987-01-01

368

Laser excited confocal microscope fluorescence scanner and method  

DOEpatents

A fluorescent scanner for scanning the fluorescence from a fluorescence labeled separated sample on a sample carrier including a confocal microscope for illuminating a predetermined volume of the sample carrier and/or receiving and processing fluorescence emissions from said volume to provide a display of the separated sample.

Mathies, Richard A. (Contra Costa, CA); Peck, Konan (Contra Costa, CA)

1992-01-01

369

Uncertainty Analysis in Spatial Thermal Measurements Using Infrared Line Scanners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermographic devices that are able to acquire images, such as infrared line scanners (IRLSs), are becoming increasingly popular. One of the major issues when working with this kind of device is spatial calibration, which is necessary to extract metric information from images. In this paper, a spatial calibration procedure for IRLSs is proposed. The procedure is based on a geometrical

Rubén Usamentiaga; Daniel F. García; Julio Molleda

2008-01-01

370

A Security Analysis of RF Biometric Fingerprint Scanners  

Microsoft Academic Search

The security policy of RF biometric scanners is concerned with origin integrity. To achieve this, there are three layers of security that a user must pass through: the scanning layer, the processing layer and the storing layer. At the scanning layer, the biometric tool can be fooled by an attacker using a gummy finger - a fake mold of a

Kit Mun Chan; Ana Pop; Shadi Safarkhah; Gurpreet Virdi

371

Coupling in piezoelectric tube scanners used in scanning probe microscopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new model for tube scanners used in scanning probe microscopes (SPM), and particularly in atomic force microscopes (AFM), is presented. The model captures the coupling between motion in different axes as well as a bending motion due to a supposedly pure extension of the tube. In addition, the effect of coupling on the AFM cantilever dynamics is presented in

O. M. El Rifai; Kamal Youcef-Toumi

2001-01-01

372

Phosphor Scanner For Imaging X-Ray Diffraction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved optoelectronic scanning apparatus generates digitized image of x-ray image recorded in phosphor. Scanning fiber-optic probe supplies laser light stimulating luminescence in areas of phosphor exposed to x rays. Luminescence passes through probe and fiber to integrating sphere and photomultiplier. Sensitivity and resolution exceed previously available scanners. Intended for use in x-ray crystallography, medical radiography, and molecular biology.

Carter, Daniel C.; Hecht, Diana L.; Witherow, William K.

1992-01-01

373

Engineering evaluation of 24 channel multispectral scanner. [from flight tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of flight tests to evaluate the performance of the 24 channel multispectral scanner are reported. The flight plan and test site are described along with the time response and channel registration. The gain and offset drift, and moire patterns are discussed. Aerial photographs of the test site are included.

Lambeck, P. F.

1973-01-01

374

Inguinal Hernia and Airport Scanners: An Emerging Indication for Repair?  

PubMed Central

The use of advanced imaging technology at international airports is increasing in popularity as a corollary to heightened security concerns across the globe. Operators of airport scanners should be educated about common medical disorders such as inguinal herniae in order to avoid unnecessary harassment of travelers since they will encounter these with increasing frequency.

Cawich, Shamir O.; Maharaj, Ravi; Dan, Dilip

2013-01-01

375

Terahertz wave opto-mechanical scanner for security application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a new opto-mechanical scanner that is hopeful for terahertz imaging in security applications. The target of using this scanner is portal screening of personnel for high-resolution imaging of concealed threat objects. It is not only applied to active terahertz imaging but also applied to passive Terahertz imaging. Terahertz wave can penetrate many materials that are opaque to visible and infrared light, such as plastics, cardboard, textiles and so on. So the terahertz imaging technology has a potential to be applicable in security inspection at airports, stations and other public place. Now, the most terahertz imaging system works at point to point mechanical scan pattern. The speed of this raster scan is too slow to apply in practical field. 2-D terahertz array detector can be applied to real time imaging. But at present their cost is prohibitively high. Fortunately low cost, high performance, opto-mechanically scanner is able to meet the current requirements. An opto-mechanical scanner should be able to rapidly scan a 2-D image of the scene. It also should have high optical efficiency so that an image system can achieve the required thermal sensitivity with the minimum number of receivers. These ensure that it can easily operate at any wavelength, and be active or passive. The opto-mechanically scanning can meets these requirements and is being developed into a high performance, low-cost prototype system that will meet the future needs for terahertz security.

Deng, Chao; Zheng, Yongju; Zhang, Cunlin

2010-11-01

376

X- and ?-rays computerized minitomograph scanner for soil science  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computerized tomograph scanner system that uses X- and ?-rays for applications in soil science is described. Use of the apparatus in measuring volumetric water content to an accuracy of ±3% and soil bulk density to ±2% (in grams per cubic centimeters) is discussed. The system features translation and rotation scanning modes, a 200-mm effective field of view, signal processing

PAULO ESTEVAO CRUVINEL; ROBERTO CESAREO; SILVIO CRESTANA; SERGIO MASCARENHAS

1990-01-01

377

LANSCE wire scanner AFE: analysis, design, and fabrication  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the design LANSCE-R Wire-Scanner Analog Front-end Electronics is to develop a high-performance, dual-axis wire-scanner analog front-end system implemented in a single cRIO module. This new design accommodates macropulse widths as wide as 700 {mu}s at a maximum pulse rate of 120Hz. A lossey integrator is utilized as the integration element to eliminate the requirement for providing gating signals to each wire scanner. The long macropulse and the high repetition rate present conflicting requirements for the design of the integrator. The long macropulse requires a long integration time constant to assure minimum integrator droop for accurate charge integration, and the high repetition rate requires a short time constant to assure adequate integrator reset between macropulses. Also, grounding is a serious concern due to the small signal levels. This paper reviews the basic Wire Scanner AFE system design implemented in the cRIO-module form factor to capture the charge information from the wire sensors and the grounding topology to assure minimum noise contamination of the wire signals.

Gruchalla, Mike [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chacon, Phillip [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gilpatrick, John D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Derwin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Power, John F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Smith, Brian [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01

378

Availability, Utilization and Operating Characteristics of Computed Tomography Scanners -- Metropolitan Washington, October, 1977.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The status and utilization of computed tomography (CT) scanners in the Washington, D.C. area as of October 1977 are assessed. CT scanners have greatly expanded the field of diagnostic radiology by combining radiological, computer, and photographic techniq...

1978-01-01

379

Impact of topographic mask models on scanner matching solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Of keen interest to the IC industry are advanced computational lithography applications such as Optical Proximity Correction of IC layouts (OPC), scanner matching by optical proximity effect matching (OPEM), and Source Optimization (SO) and Source-Mask Optimization (SMO) used as advanced reticle enhancement techniques. The success of these tasks is strongly dependent on the integrity of the lithographic simulators used in computational lithography (CL) optimizers. Lithographic mask models used by these simulators are key drivers impacting the accuracy of the image predications, and as a consequence, determine the validity of these CL solutions. Much of the CL work involves Kirchhoff mask models, a.k.a. thin masks approximation, simplifying the treatment of the mask near-field images. On the other hand, imaging models for hyper-NA scanner require that the interactions of the illumination fields with the mask topography be rigorously accounted for, by numerically solving Maxwell's Equations. The simulators used to predict the image formation in the hyper-NA scanners must rigorously treat the masks topography and its interaction with the scanner illuminators. Such imaging models come at a high computational cost and pose challenging accuracy vs. compute time tradeoffs. Additional complication comes from the fact that the performance metrics used in computational lithography tasks show highly non-linear response to the optimization parameters. Finally, the number of patterns used for tasks such as OPC, OPEM, SO, or SMO range from tens to hundreds. These requirements determine the complexity and the workload of the lithography optimization tasks. The tools to build rigorous imaging optimizers based on first-principles governing imaging in scanners are available, but the quantifiable benefits they might provide are not very well understood. To quantify the performance of OPE matching solutions, we have compared the results of various imaging optimization trials obtained with Kirchhoff mask models to those obtained with rigorous models involving solutions of Maxwell's Equations. In both sets of trials, we used sets of large numbers of patterns, with specifications representative of CL tasks commonly encountered in hyper-NA imaging. In this report we present OPEM solutions based on various mask models and discuss the models' impact on hyper- NA scanner matching accuracy. We draw conclusions on the accuracy of results obtained with thin mask models vs. the topographic OPEM solutions. We present various examples representative of the scanner image matching for patterns representative of the current generation of IC designs.

Tyminski, Jacek K.; Pomplun, Jan; Renwick, Stephen P.

2014-03-01

380

bar K Nuclear Interactions and Dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

KN - ? ? dynamics and its realization through the ?(1405) resonance are introduced, highlighting recent theoretical studies of K-pp quasibound states. The role of bar K mesons in nuclei and in multistrange hadronic matter is discussed within RMF calculations.

Gal, Avraham

381

Theory of twisted nonuniformly heated bars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nonlineary distributed stresses in twisted nonuniformly heated bars of arbitrary cross section are calculated taking into account various elasticity parameters. The approximate theory is shown to be sufficiently general and accurate by comparison with experimental data.

Shorr, B. F.

1980-01-01

382

Split-Hopkinson Pressure Bar Tests.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes work conducted on the split-Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB). The SHPB was modified to permit both tensile and compressive testing on cementitious materials. Direct tension tests were performed on concrete by cementing the specimen to ...

C. A. Ross

1989-01-01

383

HOW DIFFERENT ARE NORMAL AND BARRED SPIRALS?  

SciTech Connect

No significant color differences are found between normal and barred spirals over the range of Hubble stages a-ab-b-bc. Furthermore, no significant difference is seen between the luminosity distributions of normal and barred galaxies over the same range of Hubble stages. However, SBc galaxies are found to be systematically fainter than Sc galaxies at 99% confidence. The observation that normal and barred spirals with Hubble stages a-ab-b-bc have indistinguishable intrinsic colors hints at the possibility that the bars in such spiral galaxies might be ephemeral structures. Finally, it is pointed out that lenticular galaxies of types S0 and SB0 are systematically fainter than are other early-type galaxies, suggesting that such galaxies are situated on evolutionary tracks that differ systematically from those of galaxies that lie along the E-Sa-Sb-Sc and E-SBa-SBb-SBc sequences.

Van den Bergh, Sidney, E-mail: sidney.vandenbergh@nrc.gc.ca [Dominion Astrophysical Observatory, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada)

2011-06-15

384

Experimental evaluation of photoacoustic coded excitation using unipolar golay codes.  

PubMed

Q-switched Nd:YAG lasers are commonly used as light sources for photoacoustic imaging. However, laser diodes are attractive as an alternative to Nd:YAG lasers because they are less expensive and more compact. Although laser diodes deliver about three orders of magnitude less light pulse energy than Nd:YAG lasers (tens of microjoules compared with tens of millijoules), their pulse repetition frequency (PRF) is four to five orders of magnitude higher (up to 1 MHz compared with tens of hertz); this enables the use of averaging to improve SNR without compromising the image acquisition rate. In photoacoustic imaging, the PRF is limited by the maximum acoustic time-of-flight. This limit can be overcome by using coded excitation schemes in which the coding eliminates ambiguities between echoes induced by subsequent pulses. To evaluate the benefits of photoacoustic coded excitation (PACE), the performance of unipolar Golay codes is investigated analytically and validated experimentally. PACE imaging of a copper slab using laser diodes at a PRF of 1 MHz and a modified clinical ultrasound scanner is successfully demonstrated. Considering laser safety regulations and taking into account a comparison between a laser diode system and Nd:YAG systems with respect to SNR, we conclude that PACE is feasible for small animal imaging. PMID:20639152

Mienkina, Martin P; Friedrich, Claus-Stefan; Gerhardt, Nils C; Wilkening, Wilko G; Hofmann, Martin R; Schmitz, Georg

2010-07-01

385

BAR Domains as Sensors of Membrane Curvature: The Amphiphysin BAR Structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The BAR (Bin/amphiphysin/Rvs) domain is the most conserved feature in amphiphysins from yeast to human and is also found in endophilins and nadrins. We solved the structure of the Drosophila amphiphysin BAR domain. It is a crescent-shaped dimer that binds preferentially to highly curved negatively charged membranes. With its N-terminal amphipathic helix and BAR domain (N-BAR), amphiphysin can drive membrane curvature in vitro and in vivo. The structure is similar to that of arfaptin2, which we find also binds and tubulates membranes. From this, we predict that BAR domains are in many protein families, including sorting nexins, centaurins, and oligophrenins. The universal and minimal BAR domain is a dimerization, membrane-binding, and curvature-sensing module.

Peter, Brian J.; Kent, Helen M.; Mills, Ian G.; Vallis, Yvonne; Butler, P. Jonathan G.; Evans, Philip R.; McMahon, Harvey T.

2004-01-01

386

A Review of Stir Bar Sorptive Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) is an extraction technique for enrichment of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds\\u000a from aqueous and gaseous media. After exposure to a sample, the stir bar, which is covered in a layer of a polysiloxane is\\u000a subsequently removed and the sorbed compounds are then either thermally desorbed, and analysed by GC-MS or desorbed by means\\u000a of

Fuensanta Sánchez-Rojas; Catalina Bosch-Ojeda; José Manuel Cano-Pavón

2009-01-01

387

MY NASA DATA: Reading Bar Graphs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity engages students in reading a bar graph using authentic NASA data. Students will identify major parts of bar graphs and make a generalization based their interpretation of the graphed data. The lesson provides detailed procedures, related links and sample graphs, follow-up questions, extensions, and teacher notes. Designed for student use, MY NASA DATA LAS samples micro datasets from large scientific data archives, and provides structured investigations engaging students in exploration of real data to answer real world questions.

388

Reliability of a 3D surface laser scanner for orthodontic applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A device for recreating three-dimensional (3D) objects on a computer is the surface laser scanner. By triangulating distances between the reflecting laser beam and the scanned surface, the surface laser scanner can detect not only an object's length and width but also its depth. The scanner's ease of use has opened various possibilities in laboratory research and clinical investigation. We

Budi Kusnoto; Carla A. Evans

2002-01-01

389

Raising the Barcode Scanner: Technology and Productivity in the Retail Sector.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Barcodes and barcode scanners transformed the grocery industry in the 1970s. The author used store level data from the 1972, 1977, and 1982 Census of Retail Trade, matched to data on store scanner installations, to estimate scanners' effect on labor produ...

E. Basker

2011-01-01

390

A Cost Effective Multi-Spectral Scanner for Natural Gas Detection  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to design, fabricate and demonstrate a cost effective, multi-spectral scanner for natural gas leak detection in transmission and distribution pipelines. During the first year of the project, a laboratory version of the multi-spectral scanner was designed, fabricated, and tested at EnUrga Inc. The multi-spectral scanner was also evaluated using a blind Department of Energy study at the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center. The performance of the scanner was inconsistent during the blind study. However, most of the leaks were outside the view of the multi-spectral scanner that was developed during the first year of the project. Therefore, a definite evaluation of the capability of the scanner was not obtained. Despite the results, sufficient number of plumes was detected fully confirming the feasibility of the multi-spectral scanner. During the second year, the optical design of the scanner was changed to improve the sensitivity of the system. Laboratory tests show that the system can reliably detect small leaks (20 SCFH) at 30 to 50 feet. A prototype scanner was built and evaluated during the second year of the project. Only laboratory evaluations were completed during the second year. The laboratory evaluations show the feasibility of using the scanner to determine natural gas pipeline leaks. Further field evaluations and optimization of the scanner are required before commercialization of the scanner can be initiated.

Yudaya Sivathanu; Jongmook Lim; Vinoo Narayanan; Seonghyeon Park

2005-12-07

391

Testing and assessing web vulnerability scanners for persistent SQL injection attacks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Web application security scanners are automated tools used to detect security vulnerabilities in web applications. Recent research has shown that detecting persistent SQL injection vulnerabilities, one of the most critical web application vulnerabilities, is a major challenge for black-box scanners. In this paper, we evaluate three state of art black-box scanners that support detecting persistent SQL injection vulnerabilities. We developed

Nidal Khoury; Pavol Zavarsky; Dale Lindskog; Ron Ruhl

2011-01-01

392

An Analysis of BlackBox Web Application Security Scanners against Stored SQL Injection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Web application security scanners are a compilation of various automated tools put together and used to detect security vulnerabilities in web applications. Recent research has shown that detecting stored SQL injection, one of the most critical web application vulnerabilities, is a major challenge for black-box scanners. In this paper, we evaluate three state of art black-box scanners that support detecting

Nidal Khoury; Pavol Zavarsky; Dale Lindskog; Ron Ruhl

2011-01-01

393

Hydrodynamical Simulations of the Barred Galaxy NGC 4314: Gas Orbits in the Bar Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the results of a numerical simulation of the barred galaxy NGC 4314. We start with a gaseous isothermal, non-self gravitating disk, initially in rotational equilibrium, which is perturbed by the gravitational potential of the bar estimated in Quillen, Frogel & González (1994) using near-infrared observations. We then calculate the gas orbits in the region of the bar and compare them with stellar orbits obtained by Patsis (2006).

Ramos-Martínez, M.; Gómez, G. C.

2014-03-01

394

Using Bars as Signposts of Galaxy Evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies of galaxy morphology with the Hubble Deep Fields have indicated a dramatic paucity of bars beyond a redshift > 0.5. This result is unexpected because the classical bar formation mechanism would predict that bars ought to be more common at higher redshifts because of dynamically colder galaxy disks and increased interactions. If the scarcity of bars is true, then serious constraints may be placed on the evolutionary stage of galactic disks. On the other hand, it is possible that the observations are misleading due to band-shifting and dust obscuration effects. While these criticisms have been suggested qualitatively, a quantitative analysis of the evolution of the bar fraction with redshift is missing. We propose to do such an analysis using the best dataset available for this type of a study, the NICMOS map of the Hubble Deep Field. For a control sample we will use a sample of spirals representative of the nearby Universe and simulate their appearance at different redshifts. From these simulated data, we will measure the bar fraction for comparison to our analysis of the NICMOS data.

Sheth, Kartik

2002-07-01

395

A preliminary measurement of the {bar u}/{bar d} asymmetry in the proton sea  

SciTech Connect

The NuSea (E866) experiment at Fermilab has been using Drell-Yan scattering to study the {bar u}/{bar d} quark content of the proton by comparing of the yield between liquid hydrogen and liquid deuterium targets. A preliminary ratio of Drell-Yan yields, {sigma}{sup pd}/2{sigma}{sup pp} as a function of x is shown. This data confirms the previous indications from the NMC and NA51 experiments that {bar u}{ne}{bar d}. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Wise, D.; Willis, J.L.; Towell, R.S.; Sadler, M.E.; Isenhower, L.D.; Bush, J.D. [Abilene Christian University, ACU Station, Box 7963, Abilene, Texas79699 (United States); Kaufman, S.B.; Makins, N.; Zeidman, B. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S Cass Ave., Argonne, Illinois60439 (United States); Cooper, W.E. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, Illinois60510 (United States); Lee, W.M.; He, X.C. [Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia30303 (United States)] Kaplan, D.M. [Illinois Institute of Technology, Physics Department, Chicago, Illinois60616 (United States); Carey, T.A.; Garvey, G.T.; Lee, D.M.; Leitch, M.J.; McGaughey, P.L.; Moss, J.M.; Park, B.K.; Peng, J.C.; Sondheim, W.E.; Thompson, T.N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P-25, MS-H846, Los Alamos, New Mexico87545 (United States); Wang, Y.C.; Wang, Z.F. [Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana70803 (United States); Selden, J.; Papavassiliou, V.; Kyle, G.; Chang, T.H.; Beddo, M.E. [New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico 88003 (United States); Stankus, P.W.; Awes, T.C. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Physics Division, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, Tennessee37831 (United States); Hawker, E.A.; Tribble, R.E.; Vasiliev, M.A. [Texas A M University, Cyclotron Institute, College Station, Texas77843 (United States); Nord, P.M. [Valparaiso University, Niels Sci. Ctr., Valparaiso, Indiana46383 (United States)

1997-05-01

396

Computer Code  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

COSMIC MINIVER, a computer code developed by NASA for analyzing aerodynamic heating and heat transfer on the Space Shuttle, has been used by Marquardt Company to analyze heat transfer on Navy/Air Force missile bodies. The code analyzes heat transfer by four different methods which can be compared for accuracy. MINIVER saved Marquardt three months in computer time and $15,000.

1985-01-01

397

Resolution uniformity and sensitivity of the NIH ATLAS small animal PET scanner: Comparison to simulated LSO scanners without depth-of-interaction capability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Positron emission tomography (PET) scanners designed to image animals the size of rats and mice should possess simultaneously high and uniform spatial resolution and high sensitivity. ATLAS (Advanced Technology Laboratory Animal Scanner), a 6.0 cm diameter effective transverse field-of-view (FOV), 2 cm axial FOV ring-type research scanner seeks these goals by surrounding the animal with eighteen 15 mm deep, LGSO

Jürgen Seidel; Juan José Vaquero; Michael V. Green

2003-01-01

398

Role of Erosion in Shaping Point Bars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A powerful metaphor in fluvial geomorphology has been that depositional features such as point bars (and other floodplain features) constitute the river's historical memory in the form of uniformly thick sedimentary deposits waiting for the geomorphologist to dissect and interpret the past. For the past three decades, along the channel of Powder River (Montana USA) we have documented (with annual cross-sectional surveys and pit trenches) the evolution of the shape of three point bars that were created when an extreme flood in 1978 cut new channels across the necks of two former meander bends and radically shifted the location of a third bend. Subsequent erosion has substantially reshaped, at different time scales, the relic sediment deposits of varying age. At the weekly to monthly time scale (i.e., floods from snowmelt or floods from convective or cyclonic storms), the maximum scour depth was computed (by using a numerical model) at locations spaced 1 m apart across the entire point bar for a couple of the largest floods. The maximum predicted scour is about 0.22 m. At the annual time scale, repeated cross-section topographic surveys (25 during 32 years) indicate that net annual erosion at a single location can be as great as 0.5 m, and that the net erosion is greater than net deposition during 8, 16, and 32% of the years for the three point bars. On average, the median annual net erosion was 21, 36, and 51% of the net deposition. At the decadal time scale, an index of point bar preservation often referred to as completeness was defined for each cross section as the percentage of the initial deposit (older than 10 years) that was still remaining in 2011; computations indicate that 19, 41, and 36% of the initial deposits of sediment were eroded. Initial deposits were not uniform in thickness and often represented thicker pods of sediment connected by thin layers of sediment or even isolated pods at different elevations across the point bar in response to multiple floods during a water year. Erosion often was preferential and removed part or all of pods at lower elevations, and in time left what appears to be a random arrangement of sediment pods forming the point bar. Thus, we conclude that the erosional process is as important as the deposition process in shaping the final form of the point bar, and that point bars are not uniformly aggradational or transgressive deposits of sediment in which the age of the deposit increases monotonically downward at all locations across the point bar.

Moody, J.; Meade, R.

2012-04-01

399

Kinematic Analysis of the Double-Barred Galaxy NGC 357  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a kinematic analysis of the double-barred early-type galaxy NGC 357. The radial velocity and velocity dispersion profiles along both the nuclear bar axis and the semi-major axis clearly reveal the presence of the two bars. The results indicate that the bulge is pressure supported whereas the |vr|/? ratio shows a plateau along the nuclear bar.

de Lorenzo-Cáceres, A.; Vazdekis, A.; Aguerri, J. A. L.

2008-06-01

400

Cultural Factors Related to Smoking in San Francisco's Irish Bars  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

California's Smoke-Free Workplace Act was extended to include bars in 1998. While the majority of bars in the state have become smoke free, in many bars patrons and staff continue to smoke despite the law. The authors present findings from a study which assessed cultural factors related to continued smoking in bars in the city of San Francisco. In…

Satterlund, Travis D.; Antin, Tamar M. J.; Lee, Juliet P.; Moore, Roland S.

2009-01-01

401

Further Results on Bar k-Visibility Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bar visibility representation of a graph G is a collection of horizontal bars in the plane corresponding to the vertices of G such that two vertices are adjacent if and only if the corresponding bars can be joined by an unobstructed vertical line segment. In a bar k-visibility graph, two vertices are adjacent if and only if the corresponding

Stephen G. Hartke; Jennifer Vandenbussche; Paul Wenger

2007-01-01

402

Social Organization in Bars: Implications for Tobacco Control Policy  

PubMed Central

This paper considers social roles and relationships of the patrons, staff and owners of bars as critical factors determining adherence to public health policies, and specifically California’s smokefree workplace law. Specific elements of social organization in bars affecting health policy include the community within which the bar is set, the unique identity the bar creates, the bar staff and patrons who enact this identity, and their bar society. These elements were found to contribute to the development of power relations within the bar and solidarity against the outside world, resulting in either resistance to or compliance with smokefree workplace policy.

Lee, Juliet P.; Antin, Tamar M.J.; Moore, Roland S.

2011-01-01

403

Cost-Benefit Analysis Universal Product Code Scanner Equipment for Military Commissary Stores.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Military commissaries have long been criticized for poor service, frequent stockouts and excessive queuing. After experiencing similar problems, commercial supermarkets have been experimenting with new techniques to streamline their stores and reduce cost...

T. P. Hudson

1980-01-01

404

MetaBar - a tool for consistent contextual data acquisition and standards compliant submission  

PubMed Central

Background Environmental sequence datasets are increasing at an exponential rate; however, the vast majority of them lack appropriate descriptors like sampling location, time and depth/altitude: generally referred to as metadata or contextual data. The consistent capture and structured submission of these data is crucial for integrated data analysis and ecosystems modeling. The application MetaBar has been developed, to support consistent contextual data acquisition. Results MetaBar is a spreadsheet and web-based software tool designed to assist users in the consistent acquisition, electronic storage, and submission of contextual data associated to their samples. A preconfigured Microsoft® Excel® spreadsheet is used to initiate structured contextual data storage in the field or laboratory. Each sample is given a unique identifier and at any stage the sheets can be uploaded to the MetaBar database server. To label samples, identifiers can be printed as barcodes. An intuitive web interface provides quick access to the contextual data in the MetaBar database as well as user and project management capabilities. Export functions facilitate contextual and sequence data submission to the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration (INSDC), comprising of the DNA DataBase of Japan (DDBJ), the European Molecular Biology Laboratory database (EMBL) and GenBank. MetaBar requests and stores contextual data in compliance to the Genomic Standards Consortium specifications. The MetaBar open source code base for local installation is available under the GNU General Public License version 3 (GNU GPL3). Conclusion The MetaBar software supports the typical workflow from data acquisition and field-sampling to contextual data enriched sequence submission to an INSDC database. The integration with the megx.net marine Ecological Genomics database and portal facilitates georeferenced data integration and metadata-based comparisons of sampling sites as well as interactive data visualization. The ample export functionalities and the INSDC submission support enable exchange of data across disciplines and safeguarding contextual data.

2010-01-01

405

Comparison of Cyberware PX and PS 3D human head scanners  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A common limitation of laser line three-Dimensional (3D) scanners is the inability to scan objects with surfaces that are either parallel to the laser line or that self-occlude. Filling in missing areas adds some unwanted inaccuracy to the 3D model. Capturing the human head with a Cyberware PS Head Scanner is an example of obtaining a model where the incomplete areas are difficult to fill accurately. The PS scanner uses a single vertical laser line to illuminate the head and is unable to capture data at top of the head, where the line of sight is tangent to the surface, and under the chin, an area occluded by the chin when the subject looks straight forward. The Cyberware PX Scanner was developed to obtain this missing 3D head data. The PX scanner uses two cameras offset at different angles to provide a more detailed head scan that captures surfaces missed by the PS scanner. The PX scanner cameras also use new technology to obtain color maps that are of higher resolution than the PS Scanner. The two scanners were compared in terms of amount of surface captured (surface area and volume) and the quality of head measurements when compared to direct measurements obtained through standard anthropometry methods. Relative to the PS scanner, the PX head scans were more complete and provided the full set of head measurements, but actual measurement values, when available from both scanners, were about the same.

Carson, Jeremy; Corner, Brian D.; Crockett, Eric; Li, Peng; Paquette, Steven

2008-03-01

406

Study of scanner stage vibration by using scatterometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stage synchronization (vibration) performance highly impacts image quality, especially for ArF immersion tool due to high NA and high scan speed is used. But it is very difficult to judge scanner stage vibration effect by measuring CD impact since different factors such as energy, focus, PEB temperature may cause CD variation and cannot be decoupled. This problem can be solved by using a focus-energy regression model based Scatterometry CD measurement. Exposed wafers by ArF immersion scanner with different scan speed are measured by Scatterometry with 12X13 intra field measurement points. Then the data is regressed by the focus-energy model to separate the factors of energy, focus (z direction), and fitting error (other factors include x, y direction). Based on the regression result, stripes can be clearly seen in the focus and fitting error map which indicates the vibration distribution. By reducing the stage scan speed, the fitting error can be significantly reduced.

Jiang, Dabai; Zhou, Wenzhan; Hsieh, Michael; Lin, Qunying

2011-03-01

407

The airborne infrared scanner as a geophysical research tool  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The infrared scanner is proving to be an effective anomaly-mapping tool, albeit one which depicts surface emission directly and heat mass transfer from depths only indirectly and at a threshold level 50 to 100 times the normal conductive heat flow of the earth. Moreover, successive terrain observations are affected by time-dependent variables such as the diurnal and seasonal warming and cooling cycle of a point on the earth's surface. In planning precise air borne surveys of radiant flux from the earth's surface, account must be taken of background noise created by variations in micrometeorological factors and emissivity of surface materials, as well as the diurnal temperature cycle. The effect of the diurnal cycle may be minimized by planning predawn aerial surveys. In fact, the diurnal change is very small for most water bodies and the emissivity factor for water (e) =~ 1 so a minimum background noise is characteristic of scanner records of calm water surfaces.

Friedman, J. D.

1970-01-01

408

Prototype Holographic Atmospheric Scanner for Environmental Remote Sensing (PHASERS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A ground-based atmospheric lidar system that utilizes a Holographic Optical Telescope and Scanner has been developed and successfully operated to obtain atmospheric backscatter profiles. The Prototype Holographic Atmospheric Scanner for Environmental Remote Sensing is built around a volume phase reflection Holographic Optical Element. This single optical element both directs and collimates the outgoing laser beam as well as collects, focuses, and filters the atmospheric laser backscatter, while offering significant weight savings over existing telescope mirror technology. Conical scanning is accomplished as the HOE rotates on a turntable sweeping the 1.2 mrad field of view around a 42deg cone. During this technology demonstration, atmospheric aerosol and cloud return signals have been received in both stationary and scanning modes. The success of this program has led to the further development of this technology for integration into airborne and eventually satellite earth observing scanning lidar telescopes.

Guerra, David V.; Schwemmer, Geary K.; Wooten, Albert D., Jr.; Chaudhuri, Sandipan S.; Wilkerson, Thomas D.

1995-01-01

409

Beam dumping ghost signals in electric sweep scanners  

SciTech Connect

Over the last 20 years many labs started to use Allison scanners to measure low-energy ion beam emittances. We show that large trajectory angles produce ghost signals due to the impact of the beamlet on the electric deflection plates. The strength of the ghost signal is proportional to the amount of beam entering the scanner. Depending on the ions and their velocity, ghost signals can have the opposite polarity as the main beam signals or the same polarity. These ghost signals are easily overlooked because they partly overlap the real signals, they are mostly below the 1% level, and they are often hidden in the noise. However, they cause significant errors in emittance estimates because they are associated with large trajectory angles. The strength of ghost signals, and the associated errors, can be drastically reduced with a simple modification of the deflection plates.

Stockli, M.P.; /SNS Project, Oak Ridge /Tennessee U.; Leitner, M.; /LBL, Berkeley; Moehs, D.P.; /Fermilab; Keller, R.; /LBL, Berkeley; Welton, R.F.; /SNS Project, Oak Ridge

2004-12-01

410

An ERTS multispectral scanner experiment for mapping iron compounds.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experiment is described which is designed to produce visible-reflective infrared ratio images from ERTS satellite data. The ERTS-A multispectral scanner has two channels in the visible-reflective infrared wavelength region which should be capable of duplicating aircraft scanner results. The average reflectances in the four ERTS-A MSS spectral bands for a few minerals and some vegetation are tabulated. The mineral laboratory samples were granular, with a particle diameter range of 250 to 1200 micrometer. If there were no spectral atmospheric or illumination variation effects, the ratio of energies in band 1 to band 4 would permit discrimination of pyroxenes (found in basic and ultrabasic rocks), quartz (found in acidic rocks), limonite and hematite (iron oxides), and green vegetation, on the basis of their respective ratio magnitudes.

Vincent, R. K.

1973-01-01

411

Beam Dumping Ghost Signals in Electric Sweep Scanners  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last 20 years many labs started to use Allison scanners to measure low-energy ion beam emittances. We show that large trajectory angles produce ghost signals due to the impact of the beamlet on the electric deflection plates. The strength of the ghost signal is proportional to the amount of beam entering the scanner. Depending on the ions and their velocity, ghost signals can have the opposite polarity as the main beam signals or the same polarity. These ghost signals are easily overlooked because they partly overlap the real signals, they are mostly below the 1% level, and they are often hidden in the noise. However, they cause significant errors in emittance estimates because they are associated with large trajectory angles. The strength of ghost signals, and the associated errors, can be drastically reduced with a simple modification of the deflection plates.

Stockli, M. P.; Leitner, M.; Moehs, D. P.; Keller, R.; Welton, R. F.

2005-04-01

412

Development of a head scanner for proton CT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a new head scanner developed for Proton Computed Tomography (pCT) in support of proton therapy treatment planning, aiming at reconstructing an accurate map of the stopping power (S.P.) in a phantom and, in the future, in patients. The system consists of two silicon telescopes which track the proton before and after the phantom/patient, and an energy detector which measures the residual energy or range of the proton to reconstruct the Water Equivalent Path Length (WEPL) in the phantom. Based on the experience of the existing prototype and extensive Geant4 simulations and CT reconstructions, the new pCT scanner will support clinically useful proton fluxes.

Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Johnson, R. P.; Macafee, S.; Plumb, A.; Steinberg, D.; Zatserklyaniy, A.; Bashkirov, V. A.; Hurley, R. F.; Schulte, R. W.

2013-01-01

413

bar H and bar H+ production cross sections for the GBAR experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The production and cooling of the bar H+ ion is the key point of the GBAR experiment (Gravitational Behaviour of Antihydrogen at Rest), which aims at performing the free fall of antihydrogen atoms to measure bar g, the acceleration of antimatter on Earth. bar H+ ions will be obtained from collisions between a positronium cloud and antiprotons delivered by the AD/ELENA facility at CERN, with intermediate formation of antihydrogen atoms. In order to optimise the experimental production of bar H+ ions, we computed the total cross sections of the two corresponding reactions, within the same theoretical framework of the Continuum Distorted Wave - Final State (CDW-FS) model. The different contributions of the bar H excited states have been systematically investigated for different states of Ps. The results exhibit an increase of the bar H production toward low kinetic energies, in agreement with experimental data and previous calculations, whereas the largest bar H+ production is obtained with low energy ground-state antihydrogen atoms. These theoretical predictions suggest that the overall production of bar H+ could be optimal for 2 keV antiproton impact energy, using positronium atoms prepared in the 2p state.

Comini, P.; Hervieux, P.-A.

2013-06-01

414

Measurement of B0bar -> D(*)0 K(*)0bar BranchingFractions  

SciTech Connect

The authors present a study of the decays {bar B}{sup 0} {yields} D{sup (*)0}{bar K}{sup (*)0} using a sample of 226 million {Upsilon}(4S) {yields} B{bar B} decays collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider at SLAC. They report evidence for the decay of B{sup 0} and {bar B}{sup 0} mesons to the D*{sup 0}K{sub S}{sup 0} final state with an average branching fraction {Beta}({bar B}{sup 0} {yields} D*{sup 0} {bar K}{sup 0}) {triple_bond} {Beta}({bar B}{sup 0} {yields} D*{sup 0} {bar K}{sup 0}) + {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} D*{sup 0}K{sup 0})/2 = (3.6 {+-} 1.2 {+-} 0.3) x 10{sup -5}.

Aubert, B.

2006-04-10

415

Weighted visibility graphs of bars and related flow problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A layout is a set of vertically oriented non-intersecting line segments in the plane called bars. The visibility graph associated with a layout is defined as a graph whose vertices correspond to the bars, and whose weighted edges represent the visibility between bars. (Two bars [`<\\/font\\u000a>(v)]\\\\bar v\\u000a are visible for t units, if a rectangle of vertical thickness t

David G. Kirkpatrick; Stephen K. Wismath

416

Laser-beam profiler and detector-surface scanner  

Microsoft Academic Search

A portable, relatively inexpensive laser-beam profiler and detector-surface scanner was developed to map the intensity profile of laser beams and the cross-sectional response of optical detectors within a wavelength range of 633 nm to 10.6 micrometers. Equipment diagrams, circuit schematics, and examples of detector-response maps and laser-beam profiles are provided. Intensity distribution is an important parameter in obtaining good laser

L. R. Foulk

1978-01-01

417

Experimental characterization of the Clear-PEM scanner spectrometric performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the framework of the Clear-PEM project for the construction of a high-resolution and high-specificity scanner for breast cancer imaging, a Positron Emission Mammography tomograph has been developed and installed at the Instituto Português de Oncologia do Porto hospital. The Clear-PEM scanner is mainly composed by two planar detector heads attached to a robotic arm, trigger/data acquisition electronics system and computing servers. The detector heads hold crystal matrices built from 2 × 2 × 20 mm3 LYSO:Ce crystals readout by Hamamatsu S8550 APD arrays. The APDs are optically coupled to both ends of the 6144 crystals in order to extract the DOI information for each detected event. Each one of 12288 APD's pixels is read and controlled by Application Specific Integrated Circuits water-cooled by an external cooling unit. The Clear-PEM frontend boards innovative design results in a unprecedented integration of the crystal matrices, APDs and ASICs, making Clear-PEM the PET scanner with the highest number of APD pixels ever integrated so far. In this paper, the scanner's main technical characteristics, calibration strategies and the first spectrometric performance evaluation in a clinical environment are presented. The first commissioning results show 99.7% active channels, which, after calibration, have inter-pixel and absolute gain distributions with dispersions of, respectively, 12.2% and 15.3%, demonstrating that despite the large number of channels, the system is uniform. The mean energy resolution at 511 keV is of 15.9%, with a 8.8% dispersion, and the mean CDOI-1 is 5.9%/mm, with a 7.8% dispersion. The coincidence time resolution, at 511 keV, for a energy window between 400 and 600 keV, is 5.2 ns FWHM.

Bugalho, R.; Carriço, B.; Ferreira, C. S.; Frade, M.; Ferreira, M.; Moura, R.; Ortigão, C.; Pinheiro, J. F.; Rodrigues, P.; Rolo, I.; Silva, J. C.; Trindade, A.; Varela, J.

2009-10-01

418

Calibration of the ocean color and temperature scanner  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calibration results of the ocean color and temperature scanner (OCTS) on board the Advanced Earth Observing Satellite (ADEOS) are presented. The authors have evaluated the OCTS responses to internal calibration sources (i.e., lamps, electric voltages, and sunlight), natural targets (i.e., night data and uniform targets in the daytime), external calibration source (i.e., underflight of a calibrated airborne sensor), and a

Masanobu Shimada; Hiromi Oaku; Yasushi Mitomi; Hiroshi Murakami; Hiroshi Kawamura

1999-01-01

419

Whole brain CT perfusion on a 320-slice CT scanner  

PubMed Central

Computed tomography perfusion (CTP) has been criticized for limited brain coverage. This may result in inadequate coverage of the lesion, inadequate arterial input function, or omission of the lesion within the target perfusion volume. The availability of 320-slice CT scanners offers whole brain coverage. This minimizes the chances of misregistration of lesions regardless of location, and makes the selection of the arterial input function easy. We present different clinical scenarios in which whole brain CTP is especially useful.

Shankar, Jai Jai Shiva; Lum, Cheemun

2011-01-01

420

Study of Thematic Mapper and Multispectral Scanner data applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The U.S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center evaluated the utility of LANDSAT multispectral scanner (MSS) and Thematic Mapper (TM) data for natural resource assessment and land cover information, emphasizing manual interpretation and digital classification of the data for U.S. Department of the Interior applications. In most cases, substantially more information was derived from TM data than from MSS data. The test areas included Washington, D.C. and prairie regions of South Dakota and Kansas.

Sadowski, F. G.; Haas, R. H.; Sturdevant, J. A.; Anderson, W. H.; Seevers, P. M.; Feuquay, J. W.; Balick, L. K.; Waltz, F. A.; Lauer, D. T.

1984-01-01

421

A Compact Fiber Optic Scanner Using Electromagnetic Actuation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fiber optical scanner using nickel magnetic gel was designed, fabricated and characterized. The magnetic characteristics of the nickel-powder mixed gel was studied. A method of coating the magnetic gel on a single-mode optical fiber was developed. The fabrication method is cost- effective and requires no expensive equipment. The physical and mechanical characteristics of the gel-coated fiber was studied. A

Hans P. Hu; J. C. Chiao

2005-01-01

422

DETECTING AND ESTIMATING ATTRIBUTES FOR SINGLE TREES USING LASER SCANNER  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT This paper demonstrates,extensively for the first time that high-pulse-rate laser scanners are capableto detect single trees in boreal forest zone, and characteristics of single trees, such as height, location, and crown dimensions can be determined providing accurate standwise estimates for stem volume,and mean height. In the boreal forest zone and in many forest areas, there exists gaps between the

Juha Hyyppä; Mikko Inkinen

423

11. View of south side of radar scanner building no. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. View of south side of radar scanner building no. 104 showing personnel exit door at side building, showing DR 1 antenna from oblique angle on foundation berm with DR 2 and DR 3 antennae in background. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

424

90. View of scanner building no. 104 showing emplacement process ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

90. View of scanner building no. 104 showing emplacement process for one-half of upper radar switch housing body. RCA Services Company 6 September, 1960, official photograph BMEWS Project by unknown photograph, Photographic Services, Riverton, NJ, BMEWS, clear as negative no. a-1163. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

425

Intracardiac ultrasound scanner using a micromachine (MEMS) actuator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Catheter-based intracardiac ultrasound offers the potential for improved guidance of interventional cardiac procedures. The objective of this research is the development of catheter-based mechanical sector scanners incorporating high frequency ultrasound transducers operating at frequencies up to 20 MHz. The authors' current transducer assembly consists of a single 1.75 mm by 1.75 mm, 20 MHz, PZT element mounted on a 2

Jason M. Zara; Stephen M. Bobbio; Scott Goodwin-Johansson; Stephen W. Smith

2000-01-01

426

Development, Field and Beta Tests of a Generic Manual Scanner  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel Generic Manual Scanner has been developed that combines simple and inexpensive position encoding hardware, hand-held inspection instruments and a pc computer and software, enabling the production of C-Scan images. A core concept of this development is to use NDT\\/I equipment already in use by and familiar to inspectors, intending to reduce changes in procedures. A minimal selection of

D. J. Barnard; D. K. Hsu; J. J. Peters

2007-01-01

427

Three-dimensional laser scanners with echo digitization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct detection laser radar systems with echo signal digitization and subsequent full waveform analysis supply additional information on the target's properties compared to conventional time-of-flight-based first-pulse \\/ last-pulse systems. We present a new generation of commercial 3D laser scanners relying on this technology, providing an improved measurement capability and thus enabling to cover challenging applications even under unfavorable conditions, e.g.,

Martin Pfennigbauer; Andreas Ullrich

2008-01-01

428

High efficiency conical scanner for earth resources applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A description is given of a six-arm conical scanner which was selected to provide a continuous line-of-sight scan. Two versions of the instrument are considered. The two versions differ in their weight. The weight of the heavy version is 600 lbs. A light weight design which employs beryllium and aluminum optical components weighs only 350 lbs. A multiplexer and analog-to-digital converter are to be incorporated into the design. Questions of instrument performance are also discussed.

Bates, J. C.; Dumas, H. J., Jr.

1975-01-01

429

DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF A PHOTOGRAMMETRIC 3D SURFACE SCANNER  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a low-cost 3D surface scanner, composed of two fixed web cameras and a hand-held planar laser beam. Setup pre-calibration provides interior orientations of the cameras and their scaled relative orientation. Our calibration algorithm, based on bundle adjustment, uses image pairs of a chessboard, whose nodes are identified automatically and referred to the ground points. For scanning, synchronized

A. Prokos; G. Karras; L. Grammatikopoulos

430

Measuring $\\bar{g}$ with ${\\rm AE\\bar{g}IS}$, progress and perspectives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AE\\bar {gIS} experiment's main goal is to measure the local gravitational acceleration of antihydrogen \\bar g and thus perform a direct test of the weak equivalence principle with antimatter. In the first phase of the experiment the aim is to measure \\bar g with 1% relative precision. This paper presents the antihydrogen production method and a description of some components of the experiment, which are necessary for the gravity measurement. Current status of the AE\\bar {gIS} experimental apparatus is presented and recent commissioning results with antiprotons are outlined. In conclusion we discuss the short-term goals of the AE\\bar {gIS} collaboration that will pave the way for the first gravity measurement in the near future.

Krasnický, D.; Aghion, S.; Ahlén, O.; Amsler, C.; Ariga, A.; Ariga, T.; Belov, A. S.; Berggren, K.; Bonomi, G.; Bräunig, P.; Bremer, J.; Brusa, R. S.; Cabaret, L.; Canali, C.; Caravita, R.; Castelli, F.; Cerchiari, G.; Cialdi, S.; Comparat, D.; Consolati, G.; Derking, H.; di Domizio, S.; di Noto, L.; Doser, M.; Dudarev, A.; Ereditato, A.; Ferragut, R.; Fontana, A.; Genova, P.; Giammarchi, M.; Gligorova, A.; Gninenko, S. N.; Haider, S.; Huse, T.; Jordan, E.; Jørgensen, L. V.; Kaltenbacher, T.; Kawada, J.; Kellerbauer, A.; Kimura, M.; Knecht, A.; Lagomarsino, V.; Lehner, S.; Magnani, A.; Malbrunot, C.; Mariazzi, S.; Matveev, V. A.; Nebbia, G.; Nédélec, P.; Oberthaler, M. K.; Pacifico, N.; Petrá?ek, V.; Pistillo, C.; Prelz, F.; Prevedelli, M.; Regenfus, C.; Riccardi, C.; Røhne, O.; Rotondi, A.; Sandaker, H.; Scampoli, P.; Storey, J.; Subieta Vasquez, M. A.; Špa?ek, M.; Testera, G.; Widmann, E.; Yzombard, P.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zmeskal, J.

2014-05-01

431

Stability of 35 mm Scanners as Used in Ophthalmologic Research  

PubMed Central

Background and Objective To assess the consistency of digitization of 35mm slides, as practiced in ophthalmologic research and estimate the impact of variation on semi-automated retinal vessel width measurements. Study Design and Methods A single retina slide was repeatedly digitized under various conditions on three scanner models. Average color levels were extracted from the resulting images, from which vessel widths were graded. The color channel level variations and possible correlation with width were analyzed. Results The Nikon 5000 scanner had average coefficients of variation (CV) of 0.4, 2.3, and 0.5 for the red, green, and blue channel levels across all runs. The p-values of the correlation between the red, green, and blue color channel levels, and the width of the large retinal arteriole, were 0.89, 0.27, and 0.58. Conclusion Our results suggest that the tested scanners digitize the 35mm slides in a reliable manner without biasing the retinal vessel measurements.

Jensen, Karl; Lee, Kristine E.; Knudtson, Michael D.; Klein, Ronald; Klein, Barbara E.K.

2009-01-01

432

Radiometric modeling of a 3D imaging laser scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Active imaging systems allow obtaining data in more than two dimensions. In addition to the spatial information, these systems are able to provide the intensity distribution of one scene. From this data channel a certain number of physic magnitudes that show some features of the illuminated surface can be recovered. The different behaviours of the scene elements about the directionality of the optical radiation, wavelength or polarization improve the ability to discriminate them. In this work, the capabilities of one 3D imaging laser scanner have been tested from both dimensional and radiometric points of view. To do this, a simple model of the observing system and the scene, in which only the directional propagation of the energy is taken into account, has been developed. Selected parameters corresponding to transmission, reception and optomechanical components of the active imaging system describe the full sensor. The surfaces of a non-complex scene have been divided into different elements with a defined geometry and directional reflectance. In order to measure the directional reflectance of several materials in the specific wavelength where the laser scanner works, a laboratory bench has been developed. The calculation of the received signal by the sensor has been carried out using several radiative transfer models. These models were validated by experiments in a laboratory with controlled conditions of illumination and reflectance. To do this, a certain number of images (angle, angle, range and intensity) were acquired by a commercial laser scanner using several standard targets calibrated in geometry and directional reflectance.

Ortiz, Sergio; Diaz-Caro, Jose; Pareja, Rosario

2005-10-01

433

The Edinburgh Pipe Phantom: characterising ultrasound scanners beyond 50 MHz  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to measure the imaging performance of pre-clinical and clinical ultrasound scanners is important but difficult to achieve objectively. The Edinburgh Pipe Phantom was originally developed to assess the technical performance of clinical scanners up to 15MHz. It comprises a series of anechoic cylinders with diameters 0.4 - 8mm embedded in agar-based tissue mimic. This design enables measurement of the characteristics (Resolution Integral R, Depth of Field LR, Characteristic Resolution DR) of grey-scale images with transducer centre frequencies from about 2.5 to 15MHz. We describe further development of the Edinburgh Pipe Phantom as a tool for characterising ultrasound scanners with centre frequencies up to at least 50MHz. This was achieved by moulding a series of anechoic pipe structures (diameters 0.045 - 1.5mm) into a block of agar-based tissue mimic. We report measurements of R, LR and DR for a series of 10 transducers (5 single element and 5 array transducers) designed for pre-clinical scanning, with centre frequencies in the range 15-55 MHz. Values of R ranged from 18-72 for single element transducers and 49-58 for linear array transducers. In conclusion, the pre-clinical pipe phantom was able to successfully determine the imaging characteristics of ultrasound probes up to 55MHz.

Moran, C. M.; Ellis, W.; Janeczko, A.; Bell, D.; Pye, S. D.

2011-02-01

434

Handheld Optical Coherence Tomography Scanner for Primary Care Diagnostics  

PubMed Central

The goal of this study is to develop an advanced point-of-care diagnostic instrument for use in a primary care office using handheld optical coherence tomography (OCT). This system has the potential to enable earlier detection of diseases and accurate image-based diagnostics. Our system was designed to be compact, portable, user-friendly, and fast, making it well suited for the primary care office setting. The unique feature of our system is a versatile handheld OCT imaging scanner which consists of a pair of computer-controlled galvanometer-mounted mirrors, interchangeable lens mounts, and miniaturized video camera. This handheld scanner has the capability to guide the physician in real time for finding suspicious regions to be imaged by OCT. In order to evaluate the performance and use of the handheld OCT scanner, the anterior chamber of a rat eye and in vivo human retina, cornea, skin, and tympanic membrane were imaged. Based on this feasibility study, we believe that this new type of handheld OCT device and system has the potential to be an efficient point-of-care imaging tool in primary care medicine.

Jung, Woonggyu; Kim, Jeehyun; Jeon, Mansik; Chaney, Eric J.; Stewart, Charles N.

2011-01-01

435

PIXSCAN: Pixel detector CT-scanner for small animal imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The PIXSCAN is a small animal CT-scanner based on hybrid pixel detectors. These detectors provide very large dynamic range of photons counting at very low detector noise. They also provide high counting rates with fast image readout. Detection efficiency can be optimized by selecting the sensor medium according to the working energy range. Indeed, the use of CdTe allows a detection efficiency of 100% up to 50 keV. Altogether these characteristics are expected to improve the contrast of the CT-scanner, especially for soft tissues, and to reduce both the scan duration and the absorbed dose. A proof of principle has been performed by assembling into a PIXSCAN-XPAD2 prototype the photon counting pixel detector initially built for detection of X-ray synchrotron radiations. Despite the relatively large pixel size of this detector (330×330 ?m 2), we can present three-dimensional tomographic reconstruction of mice at good contrast and spatial resolution. A new photon counting chip (XPAD3) is designed in sub-micronique technology to achieve 130×130 ?m 2 pixels. This improved circuit has been equipped with an energy selection circuit to act as a band-pass emission filter. Furthermore, the PIXSCAN-XPAD3 hybrid pixel detectors will be combined with the Lausanne ClearPET scanner demonstrator. CT image reconstruction in this non-conventional geometry is under study for this purpose.

Delpierre, P.; Debarbieux, F.; Basolo, S.; Berar, J. F.; Bonissent, A.; Boudet, N.; Breugnon, P.; Caillot, B.; Cassol Brunner, F.; Chantepie, B.; Clemens, J. C.; Dinkespiler, B.; Khouri, R.; Koudobine, I.; Mararazzo, V.; Meessen, C.; Menouni, M.; Morel, C.; Mouget, C.; Pangaud, P.; Peyrin, F.; Rougon, G.; Sappey-Marinier, D.; Valton, S.; Vigeolas, E.

2007-02-01

436

Temperature mapping for ultrasound scanner using backscattered changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MRI and ultrasound scanner are the two main methods used to guide thermal ablation. The superiority of MRI over ultrasound scanner comes from its ability to provide temperature mapping during thermal ablation. This paper describes the relationship between the changes in ultrasound backscattering and the temperature changes during HIFU treatments. Data was acquired during a 120s total treatment time with a duty cycle of 90% (1s HIFU on followed by a 0.1s ultrasound scanner acquisition). A thermocouple was placed at the focal point of the ablated area for correlation measurements. Twenty-three ablations were performed in in vitro livers. An increase in ultrasound backscattering as the tissue temperature increase was noted and correlates well with thermocouple measurements. Radiofrequency signals were used to estimate ultrasound backscattering changes in real-time. A linear relationship between changes in the radiofrequency signal and temperature was observed up to 90°C. These temperature measurements also correlate with the dimensions of ablations produced. This report describes the basics of processing that may be used to provide essential feedback to operators of the state of the tissue during treatment.

Chenot, Jérémy; Melodelima, David; Chapelon, Jean-Yves

2012-10-01

437

Scanner correction capabilities aware CMP lithography hotspot analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CMP effects on manufacturability are becoming more prominent as we move towards advanced process nodes, 28nm and below. It is well known that dishing and erosion occur during CMP process, and they strongly depend on pattern density, line spacing and line width [1]. Excessive thickness or topography variations can lead to shrinkage of process windows, causing potential yield problems such as resist lifting or printability issues. When critical patterns fall into regions with extreme topography variations, they would be more sensitive to defects and could potentially become yield limiters or killers. Scanner tools compensate and correct topography variations by following the given profile [2]. However the scanner exposure window size is wider compared to local topography variations in design. This difference would generate new lithography focus sensitive weak points which may be missed. Experiments have been conducted as shown in Fig 1. Design under manufacturing has been subjected to scanner tool topography focus corrections. Despite of the corrections, Site B topography height has worsened while site A and C shown some improvements. As a result, additional improvements need to be done to meet manufacturability requirements.

Katakamsetty, Ushasree; Colin, Hui; Yeo, Sky; Valerio, Perez; Qing, Yang; Fong, Quek Shyue; Aravind, Narayana Samy; Matthias, Ruhm; Roberto, Schiwon

2014-03-01

438

Shear rate estimation using a clinical ultrasound scanner.  

PubMed

Wall shear stress is a factor in the development of atherogenesis, thrombus formation, and embolization, but its existence is very difficult to determine with ultrasonography. Instead, we estimated shear rates using a clinical ultrasound scanner and compared results from vessels with and without stenoses. Velocity profiles were obtained from color M-mode images on a P700 scanner. Maximum shear rates were calculated off-line as the maximum velocity gradients. In vitro, studies were performed on a flow phantom with a vessel containing a 50% stenosis. Shear rates within the stenosis were significantly higher than those obtained outside the stenosis (P < 0.00001) and varied more than the peak velocities. In vivo, the internal carotid artery of 10 volunteers and 13 patients (with stenoses) was studied. The mean shear rate was 414 s(-1) +/- 154.5 s(-1) in normal vessels and 687 s(-1) +/- 263.5 s(-1) in stenotic vessels (P = 0.00017). In conclusion, shear rate estimates can be obtained with a clinical ultrasound scanner from color M-mode images. Shear rates estimated in vessels with stenoses are significantly higher than those obtained in normal vessels in vitro as well as in vivo. PMID:10811405

Forsberg, F; Morvay, Z; Rawool, N M; Deane, C R; Needleman, L

2000-05-01

439

Optical scanner for immunoassays with up-converting phosphorescent labels.  

PubMed

A 2-D optical scanner was developed for the imaging and quantification of up-converting phosphor (UCP) labels in immunoassays. With resolution better than 500 microm, a scan rate of 0.4 mm/s, and a 1-2% coefficient of variation for repeatability, this scanner achieved a detection limit of fewer than 100 UCP particles in an 8.8. x 10(4) microm(2) area and a dynamic range that covered more than three orders of magnitude. Utilizing this scanner, a microfluidic chip immunoassay for the cytokine interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) was developed: concentrations as low as 3 pM (50 pg/mL) were detected from 100 microL samples with a total assay time of under an hour, including the 8 min readout. For this UCP-based assay, 2-D images of the capture antibody lines were scanned, image processing techniques were employed to extract the UCP emission signals, a response curve that spanned 3-600 pM IFN-gamma was generated, and a five-parameter logistic mathematical model was fitted to the data for determination of unknown IFN-gamma concentrations. Relative to common single-point or 1-D scanning optical measurements, our results suggest that a simple 2-D imaging system can speed assay development, reduce errors, and improve accuracy by characterizing the spatial distribution and uniformity of surface-captured optical labels as a function of assay conditions and device parameters. PMID:18440902

Li, Janice J; Ouellette, Amy L; Giovangrandi, Laurent; Cooper, David E; Ricco, Antonio J; Kovacs, Gregory T A

2008-05-01

440

Photoacoustic and thermoacoustic imaging with a multichannel breast scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photoacoustic and thermoacoustic phantom images obtained with a multi-channel breast scanner designed for breast cancer screening are presented here. A tunable laser system (OPOTEK Vibrant 355 I, Calsbad,CA) with a pulse duration of 5 ns was used for photoacoustic irradiation, and a 3.0 GHz microwave source with a pulse width of 0.3-1 ?s was used for thermoacoustic tomography. Multiple (>=16) 2.25 MHz single-element unfocused ultrasonic transducers at different depths were scanned simultaneously for a full 360° to obtain a full data set for three-dimensional (3D) tomography. Negative acoustic lenses were attached to these unfocused transducers to increase their acceptance angles. An ultrasound receiving system with 64 parallel receiving channels (Verasonics Inc. Redmond, WA) was used for data acquisition. A filtered backprojection algorithm was used to reconstruct two-dimensional (2D) and 3D images. Different phantoms were imaged to evaluate the performance of the scanner. A lateral resolution of less than 1 mm and an elevational resolution of less than 5 mm were achieved. The phantom studies demonstrate that this scanner can potentially provide high-resolution, dual-modality, three-dimensional images and can potentially be used for human breast cancer screening.

Huang, Bin; Maslov, Konstantin; Wang, Lihong V.

2012-02-01

441

Development of a 3D CT scanner using cone beam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to acquire 3D data of high contrast objects such as bone, lung and vessels enhanced by contrast media for use in 3D image processing, we have developed a 3D CT-scanner using cone beam x ray. The 3D CT-scanner consists of a gantry and a patient couch. The gantry consists of an x-ray tube designed for cone beam CT and a large area two-dimensional detector mounted on a single frame and rotated around an object in 12 seconds. The large area detector consists of a fluorescent plate and a charge coupled device video camera. The size of detection area was 600 mm X 450 mm capable of covering the total chest. While an x-ray tube was rotated around an object, pulsed x ray was exposed 30 times a second and 360 projected images were collected in a 12 second scan. A 256 X 256 X 256 matrix image (1.25 mm X 1.25 mm X 1.25 mm voxel) was reconstructed by a high-speed reconstruction engine. Reconstruction time was approximately 6 minutes. Cylindrical water phantoms, anesthetized rabbits with or without contrast media, and a Japanese macaque were scanned with the 3D CT-scanner. The results seem promising because they show high spatial resolution in three directions, though there existed several point to be improved. Possible improvements are discussed.

Endo, Masahiro; Kamagata, Nozomu; Sato, Kazumasa; Hattori, Yuichi; Kobayashi, Shigeo; Mizuno, Shinichi; Jimbo, Masao; Kusakabe, Masahiro

1995-05-01

442

An endoscopic 3D scanner based on structured light.  

PubMed

We present a new endoscopic 3D scanning system based on Single Shot Structured Light. The proposed design makes it possible to build an extremely small scanner. The sensor head contains a catadioptric camera and a pattern projection unit. The paper describes the working principle and calibration procedure of the sensor. The prototype sensor head has a diameter of only 3.6mm and a length of 14mm. It is mounted on a flexible shaft. The scanner is designed for tubular cavities and has a cylindrical working volume of about 30mm length and 30mm diameter. It acquires 3D video at 30 frames per second and typically generates approximately 5000 3D points per frame. By design, the resolution varies over the working volume, but is generally better than 200?m. A prototype scanner has been built and is evaluated in experiments with phantoms and biological samples. The recorded average error on a known test object was 92?m. PMID:22542326

Schmalz, Christoph; Forster, Frank; Schick, Anton; Angelopoulou, Elli

2012-07-01

443

Coding of audio data in halftone images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new method for coding and decoding of audio data in halftone images is described and experimentally verified. Coding (modulation) is achieved by replacing printed dots by a set of two-dimensional characteristic symbols. Decoding (demodulation) is achieved by a bank of two-dimensional matched-filters. The system comprises source and channel coding, in order to compress and decompress the audio data and in order to avoid loss of data if the image is degraded physically. Up to 9 seconds of music in CD quality or 20 seconds of speech have been stored in an area of only 10cm2. Decoding is possible with a small hand-held scanner.

Wirnitzer, Bernhard; Dillmann, Vadim; Latorre, Javier

444

Compliant antivibration bar for a steam generator  

SciTech Connect

A steam generator for a nuclear power plant is described comprising a shell, flow tubes having an approximate U-shaped configuration within the shell and arranged in successive columns and rows so as to form an array having a square pattern with spaces therebetween, and compliant antivibration bars fitting between each successive column of tubes and comprising a pair of parallel arranged flexible strips having a space therebetween and supported along the length thereof by spaced ribs. The spacing of the ribs is at least as long as the spacing of four tubes in a single column of tubes, with each successive and parallel antivibration bar being positioned such that its ribs are staggered relative to the position of the ribs of the preceding and parallel antivibration bar.

Lagally, H.O.; Silverblatt, B.L.; Pitterle, T.A.; Singleton, N.R.

1988-01-19

445

Localized vibrational modes in bars and plates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the localized vibrational modes that can exist at the edge of a semi-infinite plate and at the end of a semi-infinite bar of small thickness. It is known that for certain special values of Poisson's ratio ? these modes are perfectly localized, are uncoupled to bulk modes, and thus do not lose energy by acoustic radiation. We show that for other values of ? it is possible to modify the shape of the end of the plate or bar in a way such that a perfectly localized edge mode is formed. Finally, we discuss the effect of this localization phenomenon on the vibrational modes of plates and bars of finite length.

Ma, Jing; Maris, Humphrey J.

2010-05-01

446

Evidence for B+ -> K*0bar K*+  

SciTech Connect

We present measurements of the branching fraction and fraction of longitudinal polarization for the decay B{sup +} {yields} {bar K}*{sup 0} K*{sup +} with a sample of 467 {+-} 5 million B{bar B} pairs collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. We obtain the branching fraction {Beta}(B{sup +} {yields} {bar K}*{sup 0} K*{sup +}) = (1.2 {+-} 0.5 {+-} 0.1) x 10{sup ?6} with a significance of 3.7 standard deviations including systematic uncertainties. We measure the fraction of longitudinal polarization f{sub L} = 0.75{sub -0.26}{sup +0.16} {+-} 0.03. The first error quoted is statistical and the second is systematic.

Aubert, B.; Bona, M.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Prudent, X.; Tisserand, V.; /Annecy, LAPP; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; /Barcelona U., ECM; Lopez, L.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; /INFN, Bari /Bari U.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; /Bergen U.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D.N.; Kerth, L.T.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Lynch, G.; /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UCLA /UC, Riverside /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /Frascati /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /Harvard U. /Heidelberg U. /Humboldt U., Berlin /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Orsay, LAL /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Karlsruhe U., EKP /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT, LNS /McGill U. /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /Mt. Holyoke Coll. /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /Paris U., VI-VII /Pennsylvania U. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Princeton U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DSM, DAPNIA, Saclay /South Carolina U. /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Albany /Tennessee U. /Texas U. /Texas U., Dallas /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /Valencia U., IFIC /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison

2009-06-19

447

B Counting at BaBar  

SciTech Connect

In this thesis we examine the method of counting B{bar B} events produced in the BABAR experiment. The original method was proposed in 2000, but improvements to track reconstruction and our understanding of the detector since that date make it appropriate to revisit the B Counting method. We propose a new set of cuts designed to minimize the sensitivity to time-varying backgrounds. We find the new method counts B{bar B} events with an associated systematic uncertainty of {+-} 0.6%.

McGregor, Grant Duncan

2008-12-16

448

BaBar forward endcap upgrade  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The muon and neutral hadron detector (instrumented flux return or IFR) in the forward endcap of the BaBar detector at SLAC was upgraded by the installation of a new generation of resistive plate chambers (RPCs) and by increasing the absorber. The chamber replacement was made necessary by the rapid aging and efficiency loss of the original BaBar RPCs. Based on our experience with those original RPCs and 24 RPCs with thinner linseed oil treatments, improvements in the design, construction, and testing of the new generation RPCs were implemented and are described in detail.

Anulli, F.; Baldini, R.; Calcaterra, A.; Daniello, L.; de Sangro, R.; Finocchiaro, G.; Patteri, P.; Piccolo, M.; Santoni, M.; Zallo, A.; Cheng, C. H.; Lange, D. J.; Wright, D. M.; Boyce, R.; Krebs, J.; Messner, R.; Putallaz, G.; Wisniewski, W. J.; Buzzo, A.; Crosetti, G.; LoVetere, M.; Minutoli, S.; Passaggio, S.; Pollovio, P.; Robutti, E.; Tosi, S.; Trovato, A.; Cartaro, C.; Fabozzi, F.; Lista, L.; Piccolo, D.; Paolucci, P.; Avanzini, C.; Carpinelli, M.; Forti, F.; Neri, N.; Paoloni, E.; Rizzi, D.; Bellini, F.; Buccheri, A.; Cavoto, G.; del Re, D.; Faccini, R.; Ferrarotto, F.; Ferroni, F.; Gargiulo, C.; Gaspero, M.; Lunadei, R.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Morganti, S.; Pelosi, A.; Pierini, M.; Piredda, G.; Voena, C.; Sinev, N.; Strom, D.; Foulkes, S.; Wang, K.; Band, H. R.; Hollar, J.; Tan, P.

2005-02-01

449

Sine-Bar Attachment For Machine Tools  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sine-bar attachment for collets, spindles, and chucks helps machinists set up quickly for precise angular cuts that require greater precision than provided by graduations of machine tools. Machinist uses attachment to index head, carriage of milling machine or lathe relative to table or turning axis of tool. Attachment accurate to 1 minute or arc depending on length of sine bar and precision of gauge blocks in setup. Attachment installs quickly and easily on almost any type of lathe or mill. Requires no special clamps or fixtures, and eliminates many trial-and-error measurements. More stable than improvised setups and not jarred out of position readily.

Mann, Franklin D.

1988-01-01

450

Heat transfer enhancement due to self-sustained oscillating transverse vortices in channels with periodically mounted rectangular bars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerical investigations of flow structure and heat transfer in a channel with periodically mounted transverse vortex generators (bars) have been conducted in the Reynolds number range of steady laminar to oscillatory transitional flow. The unsteady Navier–Stokes equations and the energy equation have been solved by a finite volume code. Due to the periodic geometry, instability leads at relatively low Reynolds

A. Valencia

1998-01-01

451

Evaluation of scanners for C-scan imaging in nondestructive inspection of aircraft  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project was to produce a document that contains information on the usability and performance of commercially available, fieldable, and portable scanner systems as they apply to aircraft NDI inspections. In particular, the scanners are used to generate images of eddy current, ultrasonic, or bond tester inspection data. The scanner designs include manual scanners, semiautomated scanners, and fully automated scanners. A brief description of the functionality of each scanner type, a sketch, and a fist of the companies that support the particular design are provided. Vendors of each scanner type provided hands-on demonstrations of their equipment on real aircraft samples in the FAA Aging Aircraft Nondestructive Inspection Validation Center (AANC) in Albuquerque, NM. From evaluations recorded during the demonstrations, a matrix of scanner features and factors and ranking of the capabilities and limitations of the design, portability, articulation, performance, usability, and computer hardware/software was constructed to provide a quick reference for comparing the different scanner types. Illustrations of C-scan images obtained during the demonstration are shown.

Gieske, J.H.

1994-04-01

452

Speech coding  

SciTech Connect

Speech is the predominant means of communication between human beings and since the invention of the telephone by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876, speech services have remained to be the core service in almost all telecommunication systems. Original analog methods of telephony had the disadvantage of speech signal getting corrupted by noise, cross-talk and distortion Long haul transmissions which use repeaters to compensate for the loss in signal strength on transmission links also increase the associated noise and distortion. On the other hand digital transmission is relatively immune to noise, cross-talk and distortion primarily because of the capability to faithfully regenerate digital signal at each repeater purely based on a binary decision. Hence end-to-end performance of the digital link essentially becomes independent of the length and operating frequency bands of the link Hence from a transmission point of view digital transmission has been the preferred approach due to its higher immunity to noise. The need to carry digital speech became extremely important from a service provision point of view as well. Modem requirements have introduced the need for robust, flexible and secure services that can carry a multitude of signal types (such as voice, data and video) without a fundamental change in infrastructure. Such a requirement could not have been easily met without the advent of digital transmission systems, thereby requiring speech to be coded digitally. The term Speech Coding is often referred to techniques that represent or code speech signals either directly as a waveform or as a set of parameters by analyzing the speech signal. In either case, the codes are transmitted to the distant end where speech is reconstructed or synthesized using the received set of codes. A more generic term that is applicable to these techniques that is often interchangeably used with speech coding is the term voice coding. This term is more generic in the sense that the coding techniques are equally applicable to any voice signal whether or not it carries any intelligible information, as the term speech implies. Other terms that are commonly used are speech compression and voice compression since the fundamental idea behind speech coding is to reduce (compress) the transmission rate (or equivalently the bandwidth) And/or reduce storage requirements In this document the terms speech and voice shall be used interchangeably.

Ravishankar, C., Hughes Network Systems, Germantown, MD

1998-05-08

453

Charmed meson rescattering in the reaction bar pd \\uparrow bar DDN  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine the possibility to extract information about the DN and bar DN interactions from the bar pd \\uparrow D^0 D^ - p reaction. We utilize the notion that the open-charm mesons are first produced in the annihilation of the antiproton on one nucleon in the deuteron and subsequently rescatter on the other (the spectator) nucleon. The latter process is then exploited for investigating the DN and bar DN interactions. We study different methods for isolating the contributions from the D 0 p and D - p rescattering terms.

Haidenbauer, J.; Krein, G.; Meißner, U.-G.; Sibirtsev, A.

2008-07-01

454

Barring Teachers: The New Vetting Arrangements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article forms the second part of an examination of the law relating to the vetting and barring system for teachers and those who have access to children. It was seen in the first article (Gillespie, 2006, Education and the Law, 18(1), 19-30) that controversy had erupted when it was disclosed that some teachers were allowed to remain in the…

Gillespie, Alisdair A.

2007-01-01

455

My Bar Graph Tells a Story  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Connecting stories to qualitative coordinate graphs has been suggested as an effective instructional strategy. Even students who are able to "create" bar graphs may struggle to correctly "interpret" them. Giving children opportunities to work with qualitative graphs can help them develop the skills to interpret, describe, and compare information…

McMillen, Sue; McMillen, Beth

2010-01-01

456

Mechanical Characterization of Enamel Coated Steel Bars.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Steel bars can be coated with enamels or glass to reduce or eliminate the tendency of steel corrosion in various applications, such as reinforced concrete (RC) decks, beams and columns. The chemical bond between enamel and steel materials is a key to make...

G. Chen

2012-01-01

457

Treatment of Reinforcing Steel Bars Prices Fluctuations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, the price of steel bars used in reinforced concrete construction have almost doubled within a year in Saudi Arabia and elsewhere to various degrees. As a lead item of construction material, the sudden rise of steel rebar price has led to a fluctuation of other construction items prices such as cables, concrete, plasters and others. This rise in steel

Ibrahim A. Al-Hammad

458

Watts Bar Lock Valve Model Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A 1:10-scale physical model has been used to evaluate the performance of the replacement reverse tainter lock culvert valves at Watts Bar Lock and Dam on the Tennessee River. Project personnel have reported problems associated with the replacement valves ...

C. B. Bislip-Morales J. J. Hite

2013-01-01

459

A piezo-bar pressure probe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Piezo-bar pressure type probe measures the impact velocity or pressure of a moving debris cloud. It measures pressures up to 200,000 psi and peak pressures may be recorded with a total pulse duration between 5 and 65 musec.

Friend, W. H.; Murphy, C. L.; Shanfield, I.

1967-01-01

460

Divorce and Bar Mitzvah: A First Look.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After an introductory discussion and review of literature on divorce among Jewish families, this document presents and analyzes two case studies which show the adverse effect of divorce and child-custody battles on the children of Jewish families who subsequently plan a B'nai Mitzvah (Bar or Bat Mitzvah) ceremony--a joyous ritual of initiation…

Geffen, Michael; Kaplan, Earl

461

Code Cracker  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Whether it's the genetic code, an ancient language, or patterns of light in a distant galaxy, scientists often have to play the role of decoder. In this activity, learners create a code to send secret messages for other learners to decode. When learners set up a free account at Kinetic City, they can answer bonus questions at the end of the activity as a quick assessment. As a larger assessment, learners can complete the Bug Blaster game after they've completed several activities.

Science, American A.

2009-01-01

462

Measurement of scattered radiation in a volumetric 64-slice CT scanner using three experimental techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compton scatter poses a significant threat to volumetric x-ray computed tomography, bringing cupping and streak artefacts thus impacting qualitative and quantitative imaging procedures. To perform appropriate scatter compensation, it is necessary to estimate the magnitude and spatial distribution of x-ray scatter. The aim of this study is to compare three experimental methods for measurement of the scattered radiation profile in a 64-slice CT scanner. The explored techniques involve the use of collimator shadow, a single blocker (a lead bar that suppresses the primary radiation) and an array blocker. The latter was recently proposed and validated by our group. The collimator shadow technique was used as reference for comparison since it established itself as the most accurate experimental procedure available today. The mean relative error of measurements in all tube voltages was 3.9 ± 5.5% (with a maximum value of 20%) for the single blocker method whereas it was 1.4 ± 1.1% (with a maximum value of 5%) for the proposed blocker array method. The calculated scatter-to-primary ratio (SPR) using the blocker array method for the tube voltages of 140 kVp and 80 kVp was 0.148 and 1.034, respectively. For a larger polypropylene phantom, the maximum SPR achieved was 0.803 and 6.458 at 140 kVp and 80 kVp, respectively. Although the three compared methods present a reasonable accuracy for calculation of the scattered profile in the region corresponding to the object, the collimator shadow method is by far the most accurate empirical technique. Nevertheless, the blocker array method is relatively straightforward for scatter estimation providing minor additional radiation exposure to the patient.

Akbarzadeh, A.; Ay, M. R.; Ghadiri, H.; Sarkar, S.; Zaidi, H.

2010-04-01

463

Temperature dependence of APD-based PET scanners  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Solid state detectors such as avalanche photodiodes (APDs) are increasingly being used in PET detectors. One of the disadvantages of APDs is the strong decrease of their gain factor with increasing ambient temperature. The light yield of most scintillation crystals also decreases when ambient temperature is increased. Both effects lead to considerable temperature dependence of the performance of APD-based PET scanners. In this paper, the authors propose a model for this dependence and the performance of the LabPET8 APD-based small animal PET scanner is evaluated at different temperatures.Methods: The model proposes that the effect of increasing temperature on the energy histogram of an APD-based PET scanner is a compression of the histogram along the energy axis. The energy histogram of the LabPET system was acquired at 21 °C and 25 °C to verify the validity of this model. Using the proposed model, the effect of temperature on system sensitivity was simulated for different detector temperature coefficients and temperatures. Subsequently, the effect of short term and long term temperature changes on the peak sensitivity of the LabPET system was measured. The axial sensitivity profile was measured at 21 °C and 24 °C following the NEMA NU 4-2008 standard. System spatial resolution was also evaluated. Furthermore, scatter fraction, count losses and random coincidences were evaluated at different temperatures. Image quality was also investigated.Results: As predicted by the model, the photopeak energy at 25 °C is lower than at 21 °C with a shift of approximately 6% per °C. Simulations showed that this results in an approximately linear decrease of sensitivity when temperature is increased from 21 °C to 24 °C and energy thresholds are constant. Experimental evaluation of the peak sensitivity at different temperatures showed a strong linear correlation for short term (2.32 kcps/MBq/°C = 12%/°C, R = ?0.95) and long term (1.92 kcps/MBq/°C = 10%/°C , R = ?0.96) temperature changes. Count rate evaluation showed that although the total count rate is consistently higher at 21 °C than at 24 °C for different source activity concentrations, this is mainly due to an increase in scattered and random coincidences. The peak total count rate is 400 kcps at both temperatures but is reached at lower activity at 21 °C. The peak true count rate is 138 kcps (at 100 MBq) at 21 °C and 180 kcps (at 125 MBq) at 24 °C. The peak noise equivalent count rate is also lower at 21 °C (70 kcps at 70 MBq) than at 24 °C (100 kcps at 100 MBq). At realistic activity levels, the scatter fraction is lower at higher temperatures, but at the cost of a strong decrease in true count rate.Conclusions: A model was proposed for the temperature dependence of APD-based PET scanners and evaluated using the LabPET small animal PET scanner. System sensitivity and count rate performance are strongly dependent on ambient temperature while system resolution is not. The authors’ results indicate that it is important to assure stable ambient temperature to obtain reproducible results in imaging studies with APD-based PET scanners.

Keereman, Vincent; Van Holen, Roel; Vandenberghe, Stefaan; Vanhove, Christian [MEDISIP, Department of Electronics and Information Systems, Ghent University-iMinds-IBiTech, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)] [MEDISIP, Department of Electronics and Information Systems, Ghent University-iMinds-IBiTech, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)

2013-09-15

464

Super multiview 3D display system using reflective vibrating scanner array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present a primitive system design of a super multi-view (SMV) 3-D display system based on a focused light array (FLA) concept using reflective vibrating scanner array (ViSA). The parallel beam scanning using a vibrating scanner array is performed by moving left and right an array of curvature-compensated mirrors or diamond-ruled reflective grating attached to a vibrating membrane. The parallel laser beam scanner array can replace the polygon mirror scanner which has been used in the SMV 3-D display system based on the focused light array (FLA) concept proposed by Kajiki at TAO (Telecommunications Advancement Organization). The proposed system has great advantages in the sense that it requires neither huge imaging optics nor mechanical scanning parts. Some mathematical analyses and fundamental limitations of the proposed system are presented. The proposed vibrating scanner array, after some modifications and refinements, may replace polygon mirror-based scanners in the near future.

Jeon, Ho-In; Jung, Nak-Hee; Choi, Jin-San; Jung, Young; Huh, Young; Kim, Jung-Sam

2001-06-01

465

Assessment of correlated dose and sensitivity profiles on a multi-slice CT scanner.  

PubMed

In the case of computed tomography (CT) scanners as well as other imaging techniques utilising ionising radiation, it is imperative that radiation is confined to the sensitive part of the image detector. Assuring this for a CT scanner requires detailed information about the scanner dose and sensitivity profiles and their spatial correlation. The profiles should ideally be co-centric and tightly fit to each other. Ensuring this inherent performance of the scanner can be seen as one of the fundamental steps in optimising diagnostic examinations with CT. A measurement device using a dedicated liquid ionisation chamber is employed to investigate the performance of a Toshiba Aquilion 16 scanner in this aspect. Dose profile and sensitivity profile pairs for four collimations are presented where each pair of profiles are spatially correlated to each other. The measurement device can be applied to any scanner for fast and accurate assessment of dose and sensitivity profiles and their spatial correlation. PMID:15933132

Bahar Gogani, J; Hägglund, P; Wickman, G

2005-01-01

466

Acquiring tomographic images from panoramic X-ray scanners  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a new method to acquire three-dimensional tomographic images of a large object from a dental panoramic X-ray scanner which was originally designed to produce a panoramic image of the teeth and jaws on a single frame. The method consists of two processes; (i) a new acquisition scheme to acquire the tomographic projection data using a narrow detector, and (ii) a dedicated model-based iterative technique to reconstruct images from the acquired projection data. In conventional panoramic X-ray scanners, the suspension arm that holds the X-ray source and the narrow detector has two moving axes of the angular movement and the linear movement. To acquire the projection data of a large object, we develop a new data acquisition scheme that can emulate an acquisition of the projectional view in a large detector by stitching narrow projection images, each of which is formed by a narrow detector, and design a trajectory to move the suspension arm accordingly. To reconstruct images from the acquired projection data, an accelerated model-based iterative reconstruction method derived from the ordered subset convex maximum-likelihood expectation-maximization algorithm is used. In this method each subset of the projection data is constructed by collecting narrow projection images to form emulated tomographic projectional views in a large detector. To validate the performance of the proposed method, we tested with a real dental panoramic X-ray system. The experimental results demonstrate that the new method has great potential to enable existing panoramic X-ray scanners to have an additional CT's function of providing useful tomographic images.

Nguyen, Van-Giang; Lee, Soo-Jin

2014-03-01

467

A novel cone beam breast CT scanner: system evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of the study is to characterize the imaging performance of the recently built novel cone beam breast CT (CBBCT) scanner. This CBBCT scanner system has one x-ray source and one flat panel detector (Varian's PaxScan 4030CB) mounted on a rotating assembly. A patient table is mounted above the rotating tube/detector assembly. The table has a hole through it that allows a woman's breast to hang pendant in the imaging volume at the rotation axis. The tube/detector assembly rotates around the rotation axis and acquires multiple 2D projection images of the uncompressed breast located at the rotation axis in 10 seconds. Slip ring technology allows continuous rotation of the x-ray tube/detector assembly concentric to the opening in the table to achieve multiple circle scans. Also, it has a controlled vertical motion during the rotation to perform a spiral scan over 20 cm of travel. The continuous 360° rotation is designed to have speeds up to 1 rev/sec. This system was validated through a series of breast-imaging phantom studies and and patient studies. The results show that the image quality of the CBBCT scanner is excellent and all phantom masses (tissue-equivalent carcinomas) and calcifications as well as human subjects' masses, calcifications and abnormalities can be detected faithfully using the CBBCT technique with a glandular dose level less than or equal to that of a single two-view mammography exam. The results indicate that the CBBCT imaging system has much better detectability of small breast tumors compared to the conventional mammography system.

Ning, Ruola; Conover, David; Yu, Yong; Zhang, Yan; Cai, Weixing; Betancourt-Benitez, Ricardo; Lu, Xianghua

2007-03-01

468

Design Criteria for Panic Bars and Auger Miner Safety. Panic Bar Study. Volume 1. Continuous Miners.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The panic bars (and associated linkages and electrical circuitry) that are defined in this document are a machine operator-actuated control for the emergency deenergization of the tram motors on self-propelled, electric and diesel face equipment, includin...

L. D. Marrus C. Rogne

1974-01-01

469

Design Criteria for Panic Bars and Auger Miner Safety. Panic Bar Study. Volume 4. Roof Bolters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The panic bars (and associated linkages and electrical circuitry) that are defined in this document are a machine operator-actuated control for the emergency deenergization of the tram motors on self-propelled, electric and diesel face equipment, includin...

L. D. Marrus C. Rogne

1974-01-01

470

Design Criteria for Panic Bars and Auger Miner Safety Panic Bar Study. Volume 3. Loaders.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The panic bars (and associated linkages and electrical circuitry) that are defined in this document are a machine operator-actuated control for the emergency deenergization of the tram motors on self-propelled, electric and diesel face equipment, includin...

L. D. Marrus C. Rogne

1974-01-01

471

Design Criteria for Panic Bars and Auger Miner Safety. Panic Bar Study. Volume 5. Shuttle Cars.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The panic bars (and associated linkages and electrical circuitry) that are defined in this document are a machine operator-actuated control for the emergency deenergization of the tram motors on self-propelled, electric and diesel face equipment, includin...

L. D. Marrus C. Rogne

1974-01-01

472

Quantum coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theorem is proven for quantum information theory that is analogous to the noiseless coding theorem of classical information theory. In the quantum result, the von Neumann entropy S of the density operator describing an ensemble of pure quantum signal states is equal to the number of spin-1\\/2 systems (``quantum bits'' or ``qubits'') necessary to represent the signal faithfully. The

Benjamin Schumacher

1995-01-01

473

Video coding  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Digitalized video images are compressed in several steps in order to provide a system for transmitting moving video pictures via narrow band channels, such as the telephone network. The system is based on any extension of the bit-plane coding technique to video sequences and lossy conditions. The compression technique can also be advantageously used in a lossless compression system. The system involves the steps of bit plane representation and skipping the least significant bit plane(s), shifting the pixels, coding with a Gray code, the use of segmentation, and motion-estimation/motion compensation and application of a transmit/not transmit/motion compensate (TX/NT/MC) procedure, exploiting of the temporal redundancy of two corresponding bit planes via an XOR operation on two successive images, and a plane-by-plane application of an extended RLEID technique. The RLEID technique includes coding a run of like binary symbols with one word, the run including a transition between the penultimate and ultimate binary symbol.

2001-03-27

474

Optical monitoring of scoliosis by 3D medical laser scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three dimensional recording of the human body surface or anatomical areas have gained importance in many medical applications. In this paper, our 3D Medical Laser Scanner is presented. It is based on the novel principle of dynamic triangulation. We analyze the method of operation, medical applications, orthopedically diseases as Scoliosis and the most common types of skin to employ the system the most proper way. It is analyzed a group of medical problems related to the application of optical scanning in optimal way. Finally, experiments are conducted to verify the performance of the proposed system and its method uncertainty.

Rodríguez-Quiñonez, Julio C.; Sergiyenko, Oleg Yu.; Preciado, Luis C. Basaca; Tyrsa, Vera V.; Gurko, Alexander G.; Podrygalo, Mikhail A.; Lopez, Moises Rivas; Balbuena, Daniel Hernandez

2014-03-01

475

Jefferson Lab IR demo FEL photocathode quantum efficiency scanner  

SciTech Connect

Jefferson Laboratory's Free Electron Laser (FEL) incorporates a cesiated gallium arsenide (GaAs) DC photocathode gun as its electron source. By using a setof scanning mirrors, the surface of the GaAs wafer is illuminated with a 543.5nm helium-neon laser. Measuring the current flow across the biased photocathodegenerates a quantum efficiency (QE) map of the 1-in. diameter wafer surface. The resulting QE map provides a very detailed picture of the efficiency of thewafer surface. By generating a QE map in a matter of minutes, the photocathode scanner has proven to be an exceptional tool in quickly determining sensitivityand availability of the photocathode for operation.

Grippo, Albert; Gubeli, Joseph; Jordan, Kevin; Michelle D. Shinn; Evans, Richard

2001-12-01

476

Star scanner attitude determination for the OSO-7 spacecraft.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Calculation of the inertial orientation of the OSO-7 spacecraft from the times at which known stars or planets transit planes fixed in the spacecraft. Both the reference planes and the timing information are provided by the star scanner instrument aboard the spacecraft, while the star identification and the statistical estimation of a set of parameters describing the spacecraft attitude are accomplished in a ground station computer facility. A recursive least-squares determination is made of a vector of first-order differential corrections to the attitude state vector. Preliminary analysis indicates the system accuracy to be 3 arc min in each attitude Euler angle.

Mackison, D. L.; Gutshall, R. L.; Volpe, F.

1972-01-01

477