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1

A two-dimensional bar code reader  

Microsoft Academic Search

As an alternative to the use of laser scanners for bar code readers, we have developed a global solution based on a 2D vision system. It is composed of two main functions: bar code localization on the overall image, and the reading stage. The localization of the symbol which can be oriented in any direction is carried out with an

N. Normand; C. Viard-Gaudin

1994-01-01

2

Bar Code Labels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

American Bar Codes, Inc. developed special bar code labels for inventory control of space shuttle parts and other space system components. ABC labels are made in a company-developed anodizing aluminum process and consecutively marketed with bar code symbology and human readable numbers. They offer extreme abrasion resistance and indefinite resistance to ultraviolet radiation, capable of withstanding 700 degree temperatures without deterioration and up to 1400 degrees with special designs. They offer high resistance to salt spray, cleaning fluids and mild acids. ABC is now producing these bar code labels commercially or industrial customers who also need labels to resist harsh environments.

1988-01-01

3

A Program Evaluation of Classroom Data Collection with Bar Codes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A special education record-keeping system using bar code symbols and optical scanners is described. Bar code symbols were created for each Individualized Educational Plan objective, and symbols are scanned when students emit targeted behaviors. A weekly printed report of student performance is produced. Advantages, disadvantages, and costs are…

Saunders, Muriel D.; And Others

1993-01-01

4

Property Control through Bar Coding.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A public utility company uses laser wands to read bar-coded labels on furniture and equipment. The system allows an 80 percent savings of the time required to create reports for inventory control. (MLF)

Kingma, Gerben J.

1984-01-01

5

Researchers develop world's fastest bar code reader Researchers develop world's fastest bar code reader  

E-print Network

that is reflected by the bar code while the signal is still in the optical domain. This technique preventsResearchers develop world's fastest bar code reader Researchers develop world's fastest bar code breakthroughs in ultrafast analog-to-digital conversion, UCLA engineers have designed a bar code reader

Jalali. Bahram

6

Bar codes : can you decode a barcode?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students are shown a key to the post office conversion code and given a bar coded zip code to decipher. The activity, part of the Figure This! collection of 80 math challenges emphasizing math in the real world, introduces the bar-coding system and explains how the system enables businesses and banks to run more efficiently. The Hint suggests that students group the long and short bars into sets of five and then refer to the key to see what number is being represented. Related questions ask students to write a code using the U.S. Postal Service bar code and to decode a bar code on a piece of their own mail. Answers to all questions and links to resources are included. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM)

2002-01-01

7

Effects of bar coding on a pharmacy stock replenishment system.  

PubMed

A bar-code stock ordering system installed in the ambulatory-care pharmacy and sterile products area of a hospital pharmacy was compared with a manual paper system to quantify overall time demands and determine the error rate associated with each system. The bar-code system was implemented in the ambulatory-care pharmacy in November 1987 and in the sterile products area in January 1988. It consists of a Trakker 9440 transaction manager with a digital scanner; labels are printed with a dot matrix printer. Electronic scanning of bar-code labels and entry of the amount required using the key-pad on the transaction manager replaced use of a preprinted form for ordering items. With the bar-code system, ordering information is transferred electronically via cable to the pharmacy inventory computer; with the manual system, this information was input by a stockroom technician. To compare the systems, the work of technicians in the ambulatory-care pharmacy and sterile products area was evaluated before and after implementation of the bar-code system. The time requirements for information gathering and data transfer were recorded by direct observation; the prevalence of errors under each system was determined by comparing unprocessed ordering information with the corresponding computer-generated "pick lists" (itemized lists including the amount of each product ordered). Time consumed in extra trips to the stockroom to replace out-of-stock items was self-reported. Significantly less time was required to order stock and transfer data to the pharmacy inventory computer with the bar-code system than with the manual system.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2757044

Chester, M I; Zilz, D A

1989-07-01

8

Designing and implementing a bar code system.  

PubMed

Used as part of a comprehensive materials management system, bar coding can help: reduce inventory, operating costs, space requirements, and loss due to pilferage and damage; increase productivity, stock rotation, and patient charge capture; improve material throughput, handling efficiencies, and audit-trail accuracy; and generate more accurate and meaningful management data. But the decision to bar code should come only after an extensive evaluation of off-setting costs and benefits, organizational needs, potential applications, and a thorough review of available hardware and software packages. The focus of this, the first of a two-part article on the design and implementation of an automatic identification system, will center on bar code use for SPD inventory, patient charges, linen supply system, and capital asset management. PMID:10311724

Gandy, J

1986-03-01

9

System Design Considerations In Bar-Code Laser Scanning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The unified transfer function approach to the design of laser barcode scanner signal acquisition hardware is considered. The treatment of seemingly disparate system areas such as the optical train, the scanning spot, the electrical filter circuits, the effects of noise, and printing errors is presented using linear systems theory. Such important issues as determination of depth of modulation, filter specification, tolerancing of optical components, and optimi-zation of system performance in the presence of noise are discussed. The concept of effective spot size to allow for impact of optical system and analog processing circuitry upon depth of modulation is introduced. Considerations are limited primarily to Gaussian spot profiles, but also apply to more general cases. Attention is paid to realistic bar-code symbol models and to implications with respect to printing tolerances.

Barkan, Eric; Swartz, Jerome

1984-08-01

10

Applications of bar code technology at nuclear power plants  

SciTech Connect

Bar code is an emerging technology that can eliminate handwritten and keyboard data-entry errors. With application-specific software, bar code technology can provide inventory control, reducing staff time and paperwork. This paper summarizes bar code technology, describes hardware commercially available, and reviews application software systems for use in nuclear power plants.

Moose, T.N. Jr. (Sorrento Electronics, Inc., Cary, NC (USA)); Stegall, G. (Carolina Power and Light Company, New Hill, NC (USA))

1989-11-01

11

Bar-code automated waste tracking system  

SciTech Connect

The Bar-Code Automated Waste Tracking System was designed to be a site-Specific program with a general purpose application for transportability to other facilities. The system is user-friendly, totally automated, and incorporates the use of a drive-up window that is close to the areas dealing in container preparation, delivery, pickup, and disposal. The system features ``stop-and-go`` operation rather than a long, tedious, error-prone manual entry. The system is designed for automation but allows operators to concentrate on proper handling of waste while maintaining manual entry of data as a backup. A large wall plaque filled with bar-code labels is used to input specific details about any movement of waste.

Hull, T.E.

1994-10-01

12

[Applying bar code technology in nurses' medication administration].  

PubMed

A bar code is a machine-readable, graphic representation of data that allows the use of a combination of bars and spaces of varying widths to obviate the need for manual keyboard data entry. Bar code technology is currently used in patient identification, laboratory specimen identification, blood transfusion and medication administration verification applications. Bar coding has also been employed to provide critical double checks for patient safety. Nurses should safeguard patients from medication errors. However, clinical nurses are sometimes the cause of problems in preparing medication due to various reasons. The introduction of bar code technology with electronic medication administration record could both help prevent medication errors and ensure the completeness of medication records. This paper briefly introduces bar code technology and bar code medication administration and reviews the efficiency of such systems and implementation issues. The goal is to provide an informative overview of bar code medication administration. PMID:19319806

Huang, Hsiu-Ya; Lee, Ting-Ting

2009-04-01

13

Practical guide to bar coding for patient medication safety.  

PubMed

Bar coding for the medication administration step of the drug-use process is discussed. FDA will propose a rule in 2003 that would require bar-code labels on all human drugs and biologicals. Even with an FDA mandate, manufacturer procrastination and possible shifts in product availability are likely to slow progress. Such delays should not preclude health systems from adopting bar-code-enabled point-of-care (BPOC) systems to achieve gains in patient safety. Bar-code technology is a replacement for traditional keyboard data entry. The elements of bar coding are content, which determines the meaning; data format, which refers to the embedded data and symbology, which describes the "font" in which the machine-readable code is written. For a BPOC system to deliver an acceptable level of patient protection, the hospital must first establish reliable processes for a patient identification band, caregiver badge, and medication bar coding. Medications can have either drug-specific or patient-specific bar codes. Both varieties result in the desired code that supports patient's five rights of drug administration. When medications are not available from the manufacturer in immediate-container bar-coded packaging, other means of applying the bar code must be devised, including the use of repackaging equipment, overwrapping, manual bar coding, and outsourcing. Virtually all medications should be bar coded, the bar code on the label should be easily readable, and appropriate policies, procedures, and checks should be in place. Bar coding has the potential to be not only cost-effective but to produce a return on investment. By bar coding patient identification tags, caregiver badges, and immediate-container medications, health systems can substantially increase patient safety during medication administration. PMID:12749163

Neuenschwander, Mark; Cohen, Michael R; Vaida, Allen J; Patchett, Jeffrey A; Kelly, Jamie; Trohimovich, Barbara

2003-04-15

14

Bar code technology improves positive patient identification and transfusion safety.  

PubMed

As a result of human error, an estimated 1 in 12,000 blood transfusions is given to the wrong patient. The cause of nearly all of these errors is failure of hospital personnel to identify positively intended transfusion recipients, their blood samples for cross-matching, or their correct blood components. We describe our experience using a point-of-care bar code transfusion safety system that links patients' bar-coded wristbands, with bar-coded labels on blood sample tubes, blood component bags, and nurses' identification badges. The result was 100 % accuracy of matching patients, their blood samples, and components for transfusions. For verifying information before starting blood transfusions, nurses preferred bar code "double checks" to conventional visual "double checks" by a second nurse. Methods are needed to reinforce nurses' proficiency with technological approaches to transfusion safety, such as software-driven bar code scanning, in situations where transfusions are administered infrequently. PMID:16050151

Sandler, S G; Langeberg, A; Dohnalek, L

2005-01-01

15

Machine-vision-based bar code scanning for long-range applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bar code labeling of products has become almost universal in most industries. However, in the steel industry, problems with high temperatures, harsh physical environments and the large sizes of the products and material handling equipment have slowed implementation of bar code based systems in the hot end of the mill. Typical laser-based bar code scanners have maximum scan distances of only 15 feet or so. Longer distance models have been developed which require the use of retro reflective paper labels, but the labels must be very large, are expensive, and cannot stand the heat and physical abuse of the steel mill environment. Furthermore, it is often difficult to accurately point a hand held scanner at targets in bright sunlight or at long distances. An automated product tag reading system based on CCD cameras and computer image processing has been developed by West Virginia University, and demonstrated at the Weirton Steel Corporation. The system performs both the pointing and reading functions. A video camera is mounted on a pan/tilt head, and connected to a personal computer through a frame grabber board. The computer analyzes the images, and can identify product ID tags in a wide-angle scene. It controls the camera to point at each tag and zoom for a closeup picture. The closeups are analyzed and the program need both a barcode and the corresponding alphanumeric code on the tag. This paper describes the camera pointing and bar-code reading functions of the algorithm. A companion paper describes the OCR functions.

Banta, Larry E.; Pertl, Franz A.; Rosenecker, Charles; Rosenberry-Friend, Kimberly A.

1998-10-01

16

21 CFR 201.25 - Bar code label requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...private label distributor directly to patients, but versions of the same drug...requirement would adversely affect the safety, effectiveness, purity or potency...renders the bar code unnecessary for patient safety. (2) Requests for...

2010-04-01

17

21 CFR 201.25 - Bar code label requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...private label distributor directly to patients, but versions of the same drug...requirement would adversely affect the safety, effectiveness, purity or potency...renders the bar code unnecessary for patient safety. (2) Requests for...

2011-04-01

18

21 CFR 201.25 - Bar code label requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...private label distributor directly to patients, but versions of the same drug...requirement would adversely affect the safety, effectiveness, purity or potency...renders the bar code unnecessary for patient safety. (2) Requests for...

2013-04-01

19

21 CFR 201.25 - Bar code label requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...private label distributor directly to patients, but versions of the same drug...requirement would adversely affect the safety, effectiveness, purity or potency...renders the bar code unnecessary for patient safety. (2) Requests for...

2014-04-01

20

21 CFR 201.25 - Bar code label requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...private label distributor directly to patients, but versions of the same drug...requirement would adversely affect the safety, effectiveness, purity or potency...renders the bar code unnecessary for patient safety. (2) Requests for...

2012-04-01

21

The Two-Dimensional Bar Code Application in Book Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two-dimensional bar code is one of the most basic and key technologies to achieve the process of identifying information technology for the Internet of things. This paper focuses on book management based on two-dimensional bar code through Visual Basic.NET and SQL Server databases. It can achieve anti-counterfeiting, automatic book information entry, reader identification and library lending management. It can also

He Xuechen

2010-01-01

22

Linking bar codes to recycling information for mobile phones  

Microsoft Academic Search

To fulfill the requirements for a broad range of information on their products, manufacturers must address two problems at the same time. They need to gather and develop the necessary information on products, and they need to provide the information to recycling and dismantlement facilities. To address this problem, a system was developed, which links the existing bar codes on

Markus Stutz; Valerie M. Thomas; Steven Saar

2004-01-01

23

Design and implementation of programmable scanner for investigation the metal bar in concrete structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monitoring metal bar is a valuable method in nondestructive testing of reinforced concrete structures. Dimensions, configuration, metal bar edge and depth are the essential features to be monitored. The appropriate instruments capable to do this are complex, expensive and have some limitation. In this paper we describe a flexible and accurate simple way to monitor metal bar in concrete structure.

H. Azizi; A. Vahedi; H. T. Shandiz

2004-01-01

24

Research on Two-Dimensional Bar Code Positioning Approach Based on Convex Hull Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the process of the recognizing two-dimensional bar code, the two-dimensional bar can be corrected further only after accurately positing bar code in original image. In this paper, in case of the two-dimensional bar data matrix, the concept of convex hull in computational geometry is used to locate bar code in the paper. The vertices in convex hulls are selected

Zhi Liu; Herong Zheng; Wenting Cai

2009-01-01

25

Two-Dimensional Bar-Code Decoding with Camera-Equipped Mobile Phones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data entry for mobile phones has always been limited by the phone's numeric keypad. One way to overcome this is through two-dimensional bar-codes read by the phone's camera. This paper presents two-dimensional bar-code reading using camera phones. Bar-code reading applications use the phone's camera to capture an image of a bar-code, and then use the phone's processor for decoding. They

Tasos Falas; Hossein Kashani

2007-01-01

26

75 FR 54347 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Bar Code Label Requirements-Questions and Answers (Question 12...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...circumstances in the Bar Code Guidance (October 5...12 (Q12) in the Bar Code Guidance to provide recommendations...alternative technology such as two dimensional symbology, could render the use of linear bar codes unnecessary for...

2010-09-07

27

Improving radiopharmaceutical supply chain safety by implementing bar code technology.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to describe and evaluate an approach for improving radiopharmaceutical supply chain safety by implementing bar code technology. We first evaluated the current situation of our radiopharmaceutical supply chain and, by means of the ALARM protocol, analysed two dispensing errors that occurred in our department. Thereafter, we implemented a bar code system to secure selected key stages of the radiopharmaceutical supply chain. Finally, we evaluated the cost of this implementation, from overtime, to overheads, to additional radiation exposure to workers. An analysis of the events that occurred revealed a lack of identification of prepared or dispensed drugs. Moreover, the evaluation of the current radiopharmaceutical supply chain showed that the dispensation and injection steps needed to be further secured. The bar code system was used to reinforce product identification at three selected key stages: at usable stock entry; at preparation-dispensation; and during administration, allowing to check conformity between the labelling of the delivered product (identity and activity) and the prescription. The extra time needed for all these steps had no impact on the number and successful conduct of examinations. The investment cost was reduced (2600 euros for new material and 30 euros a year for additional supplies) because of pre-existing computing equipment. With regard to the radiation exposure to workers there was an insignificant overexposure for hands with this new organization because of the labelling and scanning processes of radiolabelled preparation vials. Implementation of bar code technology is now an essential part of a global securing approach towards optimum patient management. PMID:25144560

Matanza, David; Hallouard, François; Rioufol, Catherine; Fessi, Hatem; Fraysse, Marc

2014-11-01

28

Bar-code technology applied to drug-use evaluation.  

PubMed

Bar-code technology was used to determine: (1) patterns in histamine H2-receptor antagonist use and (2) the occurrence of adverse drug effects and drug interactions associated with the use of these agents in critically ill patients. Patients at Henry Ford Hospital (Detroit) receiving histamine H2-receptor antagonists over a two-month period were evaluated. Clinical information was collected in the intensive care units by using a bar-code system. The data-capture menu was based on drug-use-evaluation criteria for H2-receptor antagonists. Data collected in the scanning wands were uploaded into a computer database and were analyzed at the end of the study. Data were collected for 207 patients. Cimetidine was the predominant H2-receptor antagonist used, and the predominant indication was stress-ulcer prophylaxis. Dosing trends followed accepted guidelines for cimetidine dosage adjustment in renal and hepatic failure. Two drug interactions and six adverse drug reactions occurred. Pharmacists made 92 recommendations to the medical staff regarding modification in therapy, involving 32% of the patients. Data collection required an average of 10 minutes per day each for three pharmacists. H2-receptor antagonist use patterns were evaluated in intensive care units through the application of bar-code technology. The speed and efficiency of this automated tool facilitated collection of a large amount of data. PMID:8099468

Zarowitz, B J; Petitta, A; Mlynarek, M; Touchette, M; Peters, M; Long, P; Patel, R

1993-05-01

29

Field depth extension of 2D barcode scanner based on wavefront coding and projection algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wavefront coding (WFC) used in 2D barcode scanners can extend the depth of field into a great extent with simpler structure compared to the autofocus microscope system. With a cubic phase mask (CPM) employed in the STOP, blurred images will be obtained in charge coupled device (CCD), which can be restored by digital filters. Direct methods are used widely in real-time restoration with good computational efficiency but with details smoothed. Here, the results of direct method are firstly filtered by hard-threshold function. The positions of the steps can be detected by simple differential operators. With the positions corrected by projection algorithm, the exact barcode information is restored. A wavefront coding system with 7mm effective focal length and 6 F-number is designed as an example. Although with the different magnification, images of different object distances can be restored by one point spread function (PSF) with 200mm object distance. A QR code (Quickly Response Code) of 31mm X 27mm is used as a target object. The simulation results showed that the sharp imaging objective distance is from 80mm to 355mm. The 2D barcode scanner with wavefront coding extends field depth with simple structure, low cost and large manufacture tolerance. This combination of the direct filter and projection algorithm proposed here could get the exact 2D barcode information with good computational efficiency.

Zhao, Tingyu; Ye, Zi; Zhang, Wenzi; Huang, Weiwei; Yu, Feihong

2008-03-01

30

Identifying Objects via Encased X-Ray-Fluorescent Materials - the Bar Code Inside  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Systems for identifying objects by means of x-ray fluorescence (XRF) of encased labeling elements have been developed. The XRF spectra of objects so labeled would be analogous to the external bar code labels now used to track objects in everyday commerce. In conjunction with computer-based tracking systems, databases, and labeling conventions, the XRF labels could be used in essentially the same manner as that of bar codes to track inventories and to record and process commercial transactions. In addition, as summarized briefly below, embedded XRF labels could be used to verify the authenticity of products, thereby helping to deter counterfeiting and fraud. A system, as described above, is called an encased core product identification and authentication system (ECPIAS). The ECPIAS concept is a modified version of that of a related recently initiated commercial development of handheld XRF spectral scanners that would identify alloys or detect labeling elements deposited on the surfaces of objects. In contrast, an ECPIAS would utilize labeling elements encased within the objects of interest. The basic ECPIAS concept is best illustrated by means of an example of one of several potential applications: labeling of cultured pearls by labeling the seed particles implanted in oysters to grow the pearls. Each pearl farmer would be assigned a unique mixture of labeling elements that could be distinguished from the corresponding mixtures of other farmers. The mixture would be either incorporated into or applied to the surfaces of the seed prior to implantation in the oyster. If necessary, the labeled seed would be further coated to make it nontoxic to the oyster. After implantation, the growth of layers of mother of pearl on the seed would encase the XRF labels, making these labels integral, permanent parts of the pearls that could not be removed without destroying the pearls themselves. The XRF labels would be read by use of XRF scanners, the spectral data outputs of which would be converted to alphanumeric data in a digital equivalent data system (DEDS), which is the subject of the previous article. These alphanumeric data would be used to track the pearls through all stages of commerce, from the farmer to the retail customer.

Schramm, Harry F.; Kaiser, Bruce

2005-01-01

31

76 FR 49772 - Guidance for Industry: Bar Code Label Requirements-Questions and Answers; Availability  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...FDA believes that two dimensional symbology technology...information from a two dimensional code because, through use...technology such as two dimensional symbology used to facilitate...the use of linear bar codes unnecessary for...

2011-08-11

32

Performance standards and testing of two-dimensional bar code systems for overhead scanning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a standard testing methodology to objectively compare the performance of a new class of two-dimensional bar code systems for an overhead sortation and tracking application in an automated material handling environment. The performance of two different two-dimensional bar code systems was compared on five different tests. These tests included (1) range of speed, (2) width of field,

Richard E. Billo; Bopaya Bidanda; Yuval Cohen; Chen-Yu Fei; Kimberly L. Petri

1996-01-01

33

Nurses' Attitudes Toward the Use of the Bar-coding Medication Administration System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study determines nurses' attitudes toward bar-coding medication administration system use. Some of the factors underlying the successful use of bar-coding medication administration systems that are viewed as a connotative indicator of users' attitudes were used to gather data that describe the attitudinal basis for system adoption and use decisions in terms of subjective satisfaction. Only 67 nurses in the

SANA DAYA MARINI; ARIE HASMAN; HUDA ABU-SAAD HUIJER; HANI DIMASSI

2010-01-01

34

Vision-based reading system for color-coded bar codes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Barcode systems are used to mark commodities, articles and products with price and article numbers. The advantage of the barcode systems is the safe and rapid availability of the information about the product. The size of the barcode depends on the used barcode system and the resolution of the barcode scanner. Nevertheless, there is a strong correlation between the information content and the length of the barcode. To increase the information content, new 2D-barcode systems like CodaBlock or PDF-417 are introduced. In this paper we present a different way to increase the information content of a barcode and we would like to introduce the color coded barcode. The new color coded barcode is created by offset printing of the three colored barcodes, each barcode with different information. Therefore, three times more information content can be accommodated in the area of a black printed barcode. This kind of color coding is usable in case of the standard 1D- and 2D-barcodes. We developed two reading devices for the color coded barcodes. First, there is a vision based system, consisting of a standard color camera and a PC-based color frame grabber. Omnidirectional barcode decoding is possible with this reading device. Second, a bi-directional handscanner was developed. Both systems use a color separation process to separate the color image of the barcodes into three independent grayscale images. In the case of the handscanner the image consists of one line only. After the color separation the three grayscale barcodes can be decoded with standard image processing methods. In principle, the color coded barcode can be used everywhere instead of the standard barcode. Typical applications with the color coded barcodes are found in the medicine technique, stock running and identification of electronic modules.

Schubert, Erhard; Schroeder, Axel

1996-02-01

35

Study of nurse workarounds in a hospital using bar code medication administration system.  

PubMed

This study analyzed registered nurse workarounds in an academic medical center using bar code medication administration technology. Nurse focus groups and a survey were used to determine the frequency and potential causes of workarounds. More than half of the nurses surveyed indicated that they administered medications without scanning the patient or medications during the last shift worked. Benefits of this study include considerations when implementing bar code medication administration technology that may minimize the development of these workarounds in practice. PMID:22202186

Rack, Laurie L; Dudjak, Linda A; Wolf, Gail A

2012-01-01

36

Machine readable identification systems: An overview. [Bar code and other labeling methods  

SciTech Connect

The application of automated identification of an item by the use of machine readable methods is improving the accuracy and speed of data capture. Bar codes, optical character recognition, magnetic strips, and magnetic-ink recognition are all current machine readable methods which are used for data collection. Bar code data collection is the most used technology for real time inventory control, tracking, and point of sale applications. Magnetic strip coding is used for highly compact data identification on ID cards and on tags. Optical character recognition is generally used today to capture documents for computer storage and recall. Magnetic-ink character recognition, though used widely in banking, has limited applications elsewhere. Bar code methods are currently experiencing a faster rate of growth than the other technologies. Emphasis of this paper is on bar coding because of its popularity. The fundamentals of bar coding are discussed and labeling and scanning techniques are presented. New, automatic data-collection techniques are being developed, utilizing microcircuits and compact-disk memory media. The greatly increased memory capacity of these systems will likely lead to identification in terms of definitive characteristics of the item.

Smith, F.J.; Cantor, S.

1987-09-01

37

Integrating bar-code devices with computerized MC and A systems  

SciTech Connect

Over the past seven years, Los Alamos National Laboratory developed several generations of computerized nuclear materials control and accountability (MC and A) systems for tracking and reporting the storage, movement, and management of nuclear materials at domestic and international facilities. During the same period, Oak Ridge National Laboratory was involved with automated data acquisition (ADA) equipment, including installation of numerous bar-code scanning stations at various facilities to serve as input devices to computerized systems. Bar-code readers, as well as other ADA devices, reduce input errors, provide faster input, and allow the capture of data in remote areas where workstations do not exist. Los Alamos National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory teamed together to implement the integration of bar-code hardware technology with computerized MC and A systems. With the expertise of both sites, the two technologies were successfully merged with little difficulty. Bar-code input is now available with several functions of the MC and A systems: material movements within material balance areas (MBAs), material movements between MBAs, and physical inventory verification. This paper describes the various components required for the integration of these MC and A systems with the installed bar-code reader devices and the future directions for these technologies.

Anderson, L.K.; Boor, M.G.; Hurford, J.M. [and others

1998-12-31

38

Multilevel 2D Bar Codes: Towards High Capacity Storage Modules for Multimedia Security and Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we deal with the design of high-rate multilevel two-dimensional (2D) bar codes for the print-and- scan channel. Firstly, we derive an upper bound on the maximum achievable rate of these codes by studying an inter-symbol interference (ISI) free, perfectly synchronized, and noiseless print-and-scan channel, in which the printer device uses halftoning to simulate multiple gray levels. Secondly,

Renato Villan; Sviatoslav Voloshynovskiy; Oleksiy Koval; Thierry Pun

39

The Impact of Bar Code Medication Administration Technology on Reported Medication Errors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of bar-code medication administration technology is on the rise in acute care facilities in the United States. The technology is purported to decrease medication errors that occur at the point of administration. How significantly this technology affects actual rate and severity of error is unknown. This descriptive, longitudinal research…

Holecek, Andrea

2011-01-01

40

Improving Patient Safety by Identifying Side Effects from Introducing Bar Coding in Medication Administration  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveIn addition to providing new capabilities, the introduction of technology in complex, sociotechnical systems, such as health care and aviation, can have unanticipated side effects on technical, social, and organizational dimensions. To identify potential accidents in the making, the authors looked for side effects from a natural experiment, the implementation of bar code medication administration (BCMA), a technology designed to

EMILY S. PATTERSON; RICHARD I. COOK; MARTA L. RENDER

2002-01-01

41

Bar-code technology for inventory and marketing management systems: A model for its development and implementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The search for increased industrial productivity, better customer service, improved inventory accuracy, enhancement of buyer\\/seller communication, inventory and marketing cost savings and higher quality standards is generating new opportunities and challenges for bar codes as a means to support complete supply chains. In this paper, a conceptual framework for the integration of a bar-code system in inventory and marketing and

Vassiliki Manthou; Maro Vlachopoulou

2001-01-01

42

Challenges implementing bar-coded medication administration in the emergency room in comparison to medical surgical units.  

PubMed

Bar-coded medication administration has been successfully implemented and utilized to decrease medication errors at a number of hospitals in recent years. The purpose of this article was to discuss the varying success in utilization of bar-coded medication administration on medical-surgical units and in the emergency department. Utilization reports were analyzed to better understand the challenges between the units. Many factors negatively impacted utilization in the emergency department, including the inability to use bar-coded medication administration for verbal orders or to document medications distributed by the prescribing providers, unique aspects of emergency department nursing workflow, additional steps to chart when using bar-coded medication administration, and alert fatigue. Hardware problems affected all users. Bar-coded medication administration in its current form is more suitable for use on medical-surgical floors than in the emergency department. New solutions should be developed for bar-coded medication administration in the emergency department, keeping in mind requirements to chart medications when there is no order in the system, document medications distributed by prescribing providers, adapt to unpredictable nursing workflow, minimize steps to chart with bar-coded medication administration, limit alerts to those that are clinically meaningful, and choose reliable hardware with adequate bar-code scanning capability. PMID:23321481

Glover, Nancy

2013-03-01

43

Compliance With Intended Use of Bar Code Medication Administration in Acute and Long-Term Care: An Observational Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To identify the types and extent of workaround strategies with the use of Bar Code Medication Administration (BCMA) in acute care and long-term care settings. Background: Medication errors are the most commonly documented cause of adverse events in hospital settings. Scanning of bar codes to verify patient and medication information may reduce medication errors. Method: A prospective ethnographic study

Emily S. Patterson; Michelle L. Rogers; Roger J. Chapman; Marta L. Render

2006-01-01

44

Preliminary investigation of acoustic bar codes for short-range underwater communications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In March 2005, underwater acoustic communications experiments were carried out from the DRDC Atlantic research vessel CFAV QUEST. A battery-operated BATS20 transmitter and a broadband barrel-stave flextensional transducer were used to broadcast noise containing acoustic bar code (ABC) information. The ABCs are silent frequency bands of fixed duration that resemble retail bar codes when viewed in a spectrogram. Two sites were selected for the experiments. The first was a shallow-water area west of the Berry Islands in the Bahamas, and the second was a deep-water site south of the Western Bank on the Scotian Shelf. Two receiver systems were deployed; autonomous, variable-buoyancy Stealth Buoys resting on the bottom at the shallow site, and drifting AN/SSQ-53F sonobuoys fitted with GPS at the deep site. Results from these experiments will be presented and future work will be discussed.

Jones, Dennis F.

2005-09-01

45

Test protocol for comparing two-dimensional bar code hand-held reader technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current advances in reader technology offer users of two-dimensional bar codes many choices in selecting a hand-held reader for their particular application. Specifications exist that describe required functionality for various scanning technologies, but little work has been done in the published literature with respect to assessing the relative performances of these technologies when actually incorporated into a hand-held unit. In

Martin Adickes; Richard E Billo

1998-01-01

46

ITS4: A Static Vulnerability Scanner for C and C++ Code  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe ITS4, a tool for statically scanning security-critical C source code for vulnerabilities. Com- pared to other approaches, our scanning technique stakes out a new middle ground between accuracy and efficiency. This method is efficient enough to offer real-time feedback to developers during coding while producing few false neg- atives. Unlike other techniques, our method is also simple enough

John Viega; J. T. Bloch; Yoshi Kohno; Gary Mcgraw

2000-01-01

47

Bar-coded hydrogel microparticles for protein detection: synthesis, assay and scanning.  

PubMed

This protocol describes the core methodology for the fabrication of bar-coded hydrogel microparticles, the capture and labeling of protein targets and the rapid microfluidic scanning of particles for multiplexed detection. Multifunctional hydrogel particles made from poly(ethylene glycol) serve as a sensitive, nonfouling and bio-inert suspension array for the multiplexed measurement of proteins. Each particle type bears a distinctive graphical code consisting of unpolymerized holes in the wafer structure of the microparticle; this code serves to identify the antibody probe covalently incorporated throughout a separate probe region of the particle. The protocol for protein detection can be separated into three steps: (i) synthesis of particles via microfluidic flow lithography at a rate of 16,000 particles per hour; (ii) a 3-4-h assay in which protein targets are captured and labeled within particles using an antibody sandwich technique; and (iii) a flow scanning procedure to detect bar codes and quantify corresponding targets at rates of 25 particles per s. By using the techniques described, single- or multiple-probe particles can be reproducibly synthesized and used in customizable multiplexed panels to measure protein targets over a three-log range and at concentrations as low as 1 pg ml(-1). PMID:22015846

Appleyard, David C; Chapin, Stephen C; Srinivas, Rathi L; Doyle, Patrick S

2011-11-01

48

Comparing the working time between Bar-Code Medication Administration system and traditional medication administration system: An observational study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe medical institutions had paid attention to the medication error via Bar-Code Medication Administration system (BCMA) to improve the accuracy of the medication process for patient safety. Yet, the working time of drug delivery was under investigated.

Sing-ling Tsai; Ying-Chou Sun; Fang-Meei Taur

2010-01-01

49

Wide Host Ranges of Herbivorous Beetles? Insights from DNA Bar Coding  

PubMed Central

There are very few studies that have investigated host-specificity among tropical herbivorous insects. Indeed, most of the trophic interactions of herbivorous insects in Southeast Asian tropical rainforests remain unknown, and whether polyphagous feeding is common in the herbivores of this ecosystem has not been determined. The present study employed DNA bar coding to reveal the trophic associations of adult leaf-chewing chrysomelid beetles in a Bornean rainforest. Plant material ingested by the adults was retrieved from the bodies of the insects, and a portion of the chloroplast rbcL sequence was then amplified from this material. The plants were identified at the family level using an existing reference database of chloroplast DNA. Our DNA-based diet analysis of eleven chrysomelid species successfully identified their host plant families and indicated that five beetle species fed on more than two families within the angiosperms, and four species fed on several families of gymnosperms and/or ferns together with multiple angiosperm families. These findings suggest that generalist chrysomelid beetles associated with ecologically and taxonomically distant plants constitute a part of the plant-insect network of the Bornean rainforest. PMID:24073210

Kishimoto-Yamada, Keiko; Kamiya, Koichi; Meleng, Paulus; Diway, Bibian; Kaliang, Het; Chong, Lucy; Itioka, Takao; Sakai, Shoko; Ito, Motomi

2013-01-01

50

Antibiotic Sensitivity Profiles Determined with an Escherichia coli Gene Knockout Collection: Generating an Antibiotic Bar Code ? †  

PubMed Central

We have defined a sensitivity profile for 22 antibiotics by extending previous work testing the entire KEIO collection of close to 4,000 single-gene knockouts in Escherichia coli for increased susceptibility to 1 of 14 different antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, rifampin [rifampicin], vancomycin, ampicillin, sulfamethoxazole, gentamicin, metronidazole, streptomycin, fusidic acid, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, nitrofurantoin, erythromycin, and triclosan). We screened one or more subinhibitory concentrations of each antibiotic, generating more than 80,000 data points and allowing a reduction of the entire collection to a set of 283 strains that display significantly increased sensitivity to at least one of the antibiotics. We used this reduced set of strains to determine a profile for eight additional antibiotics (spectinomycin, cephradine, aztreonem, colistin, neomycin, enoxacin, tobramycin, and cefoxitin). The profiles for the 22 antibiotics represent a growing catalog of sensitivity fingerprints that can be separated into two components, multidrug-resistant mutants and those mutants that confer relatively specific sensitivity to the antibiotic or type of antibiotic tested. The latter group can be represented by a set of 20 to 60 strains that can be used for the rapid typing of antibiotics by generating a virtual bar code readout of the specific sensitivities. Taken together, these data reveal the complexity of intrinsic resistance and provide additional targets for the design of codrugs (or combinations of drugs) that potentiate existing antibiotics. PMID:20065048

Liu, Anne; Tran, Lillian; Becket, Elinne; Lee, Kim; Chinn, Laney; Park, Eunice; Tran, Katherine; Miller, Jeffrey H.

2010-01-01

51

Piezoelectric Scanners  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bimorph piezoelectric elements show relative large axial displacements at moderate voltages. Their response to voltage variations is very fast. The re-produceability of the displacement is practically limited only by the mechanical and electrical supplementary equipment. In combination with a deflection mirror linear scans or two-dimensional scan pattern can be generated. Fast scanning with good linearity and repeatability is possible, either in a resonant mode or in a random acces mode. However, the hysteresis of the piezoelectric material and the large capacitance of the elements impose some constraints on the applicability of the piezoelectric scanners. In the first part of the paper the properties of piezoelectric elements are discussed in view of scanner application; in the second part an experimental single mirror two-axis piezoelectric scanner is described. Some suggestions for future applications of piezoelectric scanners are made.

Hohner, M.; Manhart, S.

1987-09-01

52

Evaluation of the use of bar-code medication administration in nursing practice using an evidence-based checklist.  

PubMed

The goal of this project was to determine whether the use of bar-code medication administration complied with current evidence as to how it should be used. Using an evidence-based checklist, we performed a gap analysis on bar-code medication administration (BCMA) in an acute care setting. Compliance with current evidence was identified through observation and unstructured nurse interviews. Based on findings from the initial gap analysis, quality improvement initiatives were implemented followed by a reassessment to identify possible improvement of the identified gaps. Initially, there was 72% compliance with current evidence-based practices using BCMA. After implementation of initial quality improvement initiatives targeting 3 of 9 areas with deficits in compliance, compliance was found to be 81%. The evidence-based checklist was helpful in identifying gaps in current performance and opportunities for improvement with BCMA. PMID:24153204

Harrington, Linda; Clyne, Kurt; Fuchs, Mary Ann; Hardison, Van; Johnson, Constance

2013-11-01

53

Overcoming barriers to the implementation of a pharmacy bar code scanning system for medication dispensing: a case study.  

PubMed

Technology has great potential to reduce medication errors in hospitals. This case report describes barriers to, and facilitators of, the implementation of a pharmacy bar code scanning system to reduce medication dispensing errors at a large academic medical center. Ten pharmacy staff were interviewed about their experiences during the implementation. Interview notes were iteratively reviewed to identify common themes. The authors identified three main barriers to pharmacy bar code scanning system implementation: process (training requirements and process flow issues), technology (hardware, software, and the role of vendors), and resistance (communication issues, changing roles, and negative perceptions about technology). The authors also identified strategies to overcome these barriers. Adequate training, continuous improvement, and adaptation of workflow to address one's own needs mitigated process barriers. Ongoing vendor involvement, acknowledgment of technology limitations, and attempts to address them were crucial in overcoming technology barriers. Staff resistance was addressed through clear communication, identifying champions, emphasizing new information provided by the system, and facilitating collaboration. PMID:19567797

Nanji, Karen C; Cina, Jennifer; Patel, Nirali; Churchill, William; Gandhi, Tejal K; Poon, Eric G

2009-01-01

54

Digital Data Matrix Scanner Developnent At Marshall Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has resulted in a system for reading hidden identification codes using a hand-held magnetic scanner. It's an invention that could help businesses improve inventory management, enhance safety, improve security, and aid in recall efforts if defects are discovered. Two-dimensional Data Matrix symbols consisting of letters and numbers permanently etched on items for identification and resembling a small checkerboard pattern are more efficient and reliable than traditional bar codes, and can store up to 100 times more information. A team led by Fred Schramm of the Marshall Center's Technology Transfer Department, in partnership with PRI,Torrance, California, has developed a hand-held device that can read this special type of coded symbols, even if covered by up to six layers of paint. Before this new technology was available, matrix symbols were read with optical scanners, and only if the codes were visible. This latest improvement in digital Data Matrix technologies offers greater flexibility for businesses and industries already using the marking system. Paint, inks, and pastes containing magnetic properties are applied in matrix symbol patterns to objects with two-dimensional codes, and the codes are read by a magnetic scanner, even after being covered with paint or other coatings. The ability to read hidden matrix symbols promises a wide range of benefits in a number of fields, including airlines, electronics, healthcare, and the automotive industry. Many industries would like to hide information on a part, so it can be read only by the party who put it there. For instance, the automotive industry uses direct parts marking for inventory control, but for aesthetic purposes the marks often need to be invisible. Symbols have been applied to a variety of materials, including metal, plastic, glass, paper, fabric and foam, on everything from electronic parts to pharmaceuticals to livestock. The portability of the hand-held scanner makes work faster and easier. It reads marks in darkness, under bright light that might interfere with optical reading of visible marks, and can detect symbols obscured by discoloration or contamination. Through a license with NASA, another partner, Robotic Vision Systems, Inc., of Nashua, New Hampshire, will sell the scanner on the commercial market. NASA continues to seek additional companies to license the product. Joint efforts by Marshall researchers and industry partners are aimed at improving dentification technology as part of NASA's program to better life on Earth through technology designed for the space program. In this photo, Don Roxby, Robotic Vision Systems, Inc., (left)demonstrates the magnetic handheld scanner for Fred Schramm, (Right) MSFC Technology Transfer Department.

2004-01-01

55

Optical fiber management and testing system for PON enhanced with identification technologies using a mobile access terminal with a two-dimensional code scanner and fault isolation technologies using high spatial resolution OTDR  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose what we believe to be a newly developed optical fiber management and testing system with a view to reducing the operation, administration, and maintenance (OA&M) cost for PON. Identification technologies using a mobile access terminal with a two-dimensional code scanner, and fault isolation technologies using a high-spatial-resolution optical time-domain reflectometer (OTDR) enhance the functions for the registration, administration,

Yoshitaka Enomoto; Hisashi Izumita; Masahito Arii

2007-01-01

56

Nanogold-based bio-bar codes for label-free immunosensing of proteins coupling with an in situ DNA-based hybridization chain reaction.  

PubMed

A label-free, non-enzyme immunosensing strategy is designed for ultrasensitive electronic detection of disease-related proteins (carcinoembryonic antigen as a model) by using gold nanoparticle-based bio-bar codes and an in situ amplified DNA-based hybridization chain reaction. PMID:23147220

Zhou, Jun; Xu, Mingdi; Tang, Dianping; Gao, Zhuangqiang; Tang, Juan; Chen, Guonan

2012-12-28

57

Step Action After printing off the Bar Code from the appropriate Expense Report in PeopleSoft, obtain all receipts and  

E-print Network

Step Action 1 After printing off the Bar Code from the appropriate Expense Report in People. The barcode sheet needs to be printed in black and white on white paper in vertical (portrait) format using good print quality (not too light, not too dark, no creased paper, not too small, etc

58

Automation and adaptation: Nurses' problem-solving behavior following the implementation of bar coded medication administration technology.  

PubMed

The most common change facing nurses today is new technology, particularly bar coded medication administration technology (BCMA). However, there is a dearth of knowledge on how BCMA alters nursing work. This study investigated how BCMA technology affected nursing work, particularly nurses' operational problem-solving behavior. Cognitive systems engineering observations and interviews were conducted after the implementation of BCMA in three nursing units of a freestanding pediatric hospital. Problem-solving behavior, associated problems, and goals, were specifically defined and extracted from observed episodes of care. Three broad themes regarding BCMA's impact on problem solving were identified. First, BCMA allowed nurses to invent new problem-solving behavior to deal with pre-existing problems. Second, BCMA made it difficult or impossible to apply some problem-solving behaviors that were commonly used pre-BCMA, often requiring nurses to use potentially risky workarounds to achieve their goals. Third, BCMA created new problems that nurses were either able to solve using familiar or novel problem-solving behaviors, or unable to solve effectively. Results from this study shed light on hidden hazards and suggest three critical design needs: (1) ecologically valid design; (2) anticipatory control; and (3) basic usability. Principled studies of the actual nature of clinicians' work, including problem solving, are necessary to uncover hidden hazards and to inform health information technology design and redesign. PMID:24443642

Holden, Richard J; Rivera-Rodriguez, A Joy; Faye, Héléne; Scanlon, Matthew C; Karsh, Ben-Tzion

2013-08-01

59

Identification of Internal Transcribed Spacer Sequence Motifs in Truffles: a First Step toward Their DNA Bar Coding? †  

PubMed Central

This work presents DNA sequence motifs from the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of the nuclear rRNA repeat unit which are useful for the identification of five European and Asiatic truffles (Tuber magnatum, T. melanosporum, T. indicum, T. aestivum, and T. mesentericum). Truffles are edible mycorrhizal ascomycetes that show similar morphological characteristics but that have distinct organoleptic and economic values. A total of 36 out of 46 ITS1 or ITS2 sequence motifs have allowed an accurate in silico distinction of the five truffles to be made (i.e., by pattern matching and/or BLAST analysis on downloaded GenBank sequences and directly against GenBank databases). The motifs considered the intraspecific genetic variability of each species, including rare haplotypes, and assigned their respective species from either the ascocarps or ectomycorrhizas. The data indicate that short ITS1 or ITS2 motifs (?50 bp in size) can be considered promising tools for truffle species identification. A dot blot hybridization analysis of T. magnatum and T. melanosporum compared with other close relatives or distant lineages allowed at least one highly specific motif to be identified for each species. These results were confirmed in a blind test which included new field isolates. The current work has provided a reliable new tool for a truffle oligonucleotide bar code and identification in ecological and evolutionary studies. PMID:17601808

El Karkouri, Khalid; Murat, Claude; Zampieri, Elisa; Bonfante, Paola

2007-01-01

60

Identification of internal transcribed spacer sequence motifs in truffles: a first step toward their DNA bar coding.  

PubMed

This work presents DNA sequence motifs from the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of the nuclear rRNA repeat unit which are useful for the identification of five European and Asiatic truffles (Tuber magnatum, T. melanosporum, T. indicum, T. aestivum, and T. mesentericum). Truffles are edible mycorrhizal ascomycetes that show similar morphological characteristics but that have distinct organoleptic and economic values. A total of 36 out of 46 ITS1 or ITS2 sequence motifs have allowed an accurate in silico distinction of the five truffles to be made (i.e., by pattern matching and/or BLAST analysis on downloaded GenBank sequences and directly against GenBank databases). The motifs considered the intraspecific genetic variability of each species, including rare haplotypes, and assigned their respective species from either the ascocarps or ectomycorrhizas. The data indicate that short ITS1 or ITS2 motifs (< or = 50 bp in size) can be considered promising tools for truffle species identification. A dot blot hybridization analysis of T. magnatum and T. melanosporum compared with other close relatives or distant lineages allowed at least one highly specific motif to be identified for each species. These results were confirmed in a blind test which included new field isolates. The current work has provided a reliable new tool for a truffle oligonucleotide bar code and identification in ecological and evolutionary studies. PMID:17601808

El Karkouri, Khalid; Murat, Claude; Zampieri, Elisa; Bonfante, Paola

2007-08-01

61

BAR-CODE BASED WEIGHT MEASUREMENT STATION FOR PHYSICAL INVENTORY TAKING OF PLUTONIUM OXIDE CONTAINERS AT THE MINING AND CHEMICAL COMBINE RADIOCHEMICAL REPROCESSING PLANT NEAR KRASNOYARSK, SIBERIA.  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the technical tasks being implemented to computerize the physical inventory taking (PIT) at the Mining and Chemical Combine (Gorno-Khimichesky Kombinat, GKhK) radiochemical plant under the US/Russian cooperative nuclear material protection, control, and accounting (MPC and A) program. Under the MPC and A program, Lab-to-Lab task agreements with GKhK were negotiated that involved computerized equipment for item verification and confirmatory measurement of the Pu containers. Tasks under Phase I cover the work for demonstrating the plan and procedures for carrying out the comparison of the Pu container identification on the container with the computerized inventory records. In addition to the records validation, the verification procedures include the application of bar codes and bar coded TIDs to the Pu containers. Phase II involves the verification of the Pu content. A plan and procedures are being written for carrying out confirmatory measurements on the Pu containers.

SUDA,S.

1999-09-20

62

Application of DNA Bar Codes for Screening of Industrially Important Fungi: the Haplotype of Trichoderma harzianum Sensu Stricto Indicates Superior Chitinase Formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selection of suitable strains for biotechnological purposes is frequently a random process supported by high-throughput methods. Using chitinase production by Hypocrea lixii\\/Trichoderma harzianum as a model, we tested whether fungal strains with superior enzyme formation may be diagnosed by DNA bar codes. We analyzed sequences of two phylogenetic marker loci, internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and ITS2 of the rRNA-encoding

Viviana Nagy; Verena Seidl; George Szakacs; M. Komon-Zelazowska; Christian P. Kubicek; Irina S. Druzhinina

2007-01-01

63

Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS): Imagery of near-surface phytoplankton pigment concentrations from the first coastal ocean dynamics experiment (CODE-1), March - July 1981  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of the first Coastal Ocean Dynamics Experiment, images of ocean color were collected from late March until late July, 1981, by the Coastal Zone Color Scanner aboard Nimbus-7. Images that had sufficient cloud-free area to be of interest were processed to yield near-surface phytoplankton pigment concentrations. These images were then remapped to a fixed equal-area grid. This report contains photographs of the digital images and a brief description of the processing methods.

Abbott, M. R.; Zion, P. M.

1984-01-01

64

Whole body scanners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whole body scanning is a useful technique with applications in the apparel industry, human systems engineering and medical field. A worldwide review of whole body scanners describes eight commercially available systems. The scanners differ considerably in price (US$50?000–410?000), resolution (1–8mm) and speed (0.2–3s). Most scanners use laser stripe projection; other techniques are patterned light projection and stereo photogrammetry. To cover

Hein A. M. Daanen; G. Jeroen van de Water

1998-01-01

65

Tunable Resonant Scanners  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most attractive features of resonant scanners are high reliability and eternal life as well as extremely low wobble and jitter. Power consumption is also low, electronic drive is simple, and the device is capable of handling large beams. All of these features are delivered at a low cost in a small package. The resonant scanner's use in numerous high precision applications, however, has been limited because of the difficulty in controlling its phase and resonant frequency. This paper introduces the concept of tunable/controllable resonant scanners, discusses their features, and offers a number of tuning techniques. It describes two angular scanner designs and presents data on tunable range and life tests. It also reviews applications for these new tunable resonant scanners that preserve the desirable features of earlier models while removing the old problems with synchronization or time base flexibility. The three major types of raster scanning applications where the tunable resonant scanner may be of benefit are: 1. In systems with multiple time bases such as multiple scanner networks or with scanners keyed to a common clock (the line frequency or data source) or a machine with multiple resonant scanners. A typical application is image and text transmission, also a printer with a large data base where a buffer is uneconomical. 2. In systems sharing data processing or laser equipment for reasons of cost or capacity, typically multiple work station manufacturing processes or graphic processes. 3. In systems with extremely precise time bases where the frequency stability of conventional scanners cannot be relied upon.

Montagu, Jean I.

1987-01-01

66

Application of DNA bar codes for screening of industrially important fungi: the haplotype of Trichoderma harzianum sensu stricto indicates superior chitinase formation.  

PubMed

Selection of suitable strains for biotechnological purposes is frequently a random process supported by high-throughput methods. Using chitinase production by Hypocrea lixii/Trichoderma harzianum as a model, we tested whether fungal strains with superior enzyme formation may be diagnosed by DNA bar codes. We analyzed sequences of two phylogenetic marker loci, internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and ITS2 of the rRNA-encoding gene cluster and the large intron of the elongation factor 1-alpha gene, tef1, from 50 isolates of H. lixii/T. harzianum, which were also tested to determine their ability to produce chitinases in solid-state fermentation (SSF). Statistically supported superior chitinase production was obtained for strains carrying one of the observed ITS1 and ITS2 and tef1 alleles corresponding to an allele of T. harzianum type strain CBS 226.95. A tef1-based DNA bar code tool, TrichoCHIT, for rapid identification of these strains was developed. The geographic origin of the strains was irrelevant for chitinase production. The improved chitinase production by strains containing this haplotype was not due to better growth on N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine or glucosamine. Isoenzyme electrophoresis showed that neither the isoenzyme profile of N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidases or the endochitinases nor the intensity of staining of individual chitinase bands correlated with total chitinase in the culture filtrate. The superior chitinase producers did not exhibit similarly increased cellulase formation. Biolog Phenotype MicroArray analysis identified lack of N-acetyl-beta-D-mannosamine utilization as a specific trait of strains with the chitinase-overproducing haplotype. This observation was used to develop a plate screening assay for rapid microbiological identification of the strains. The data illustrate that desired industrial properties may be an attribute of certain populations within a species, and screening procedures should thus include a balanced mixture of all genotypes of a given species. PMID:17827332

Nagy, Viviana; Seidl, Verena; Szakacs, George; Komo?-Zelazowska, Monika; Kubicek, Christian P; Druzhinina, Irina S

2007-11-01

67

Portable biochip scanner device  

DOEpatents

A portable biochip scanner device used to detect and acquire fluorescence signal data from biological microchips (biochips) is provided. The portable biochip scanner device employs a laser for emitting an excitation beam. An optical fiber delivers the laser beam to a portable biochip scanner. A lens collimates the laser beam, the collimated laser beam is deflected by a dichroic mirror and focused by an objective lens onto a biochip. The fluorescence light from the biochip is collected and collimated by the objective lens. The fluorescence light is delivered to a photomultiplier tube (PMT) via an emission filter and a focusing lens. The focusing lens focuses the fluorescence light into a pinhole. A signal output of the PMT is processed and displayed.

Perov, Alexander (Troitsk, RU); Sharonov, Alexei (Moscow, RU); Mirzabekov, Andrei D. (Darien, IL)

2002-01-01

68

Hybrid dispersion laser scanner.  

PubMed

Laser scanning technology is one of the most integral parts of today's scientific research, manufacturing, defense, and biomedicine. In many applications, high-speed scanning capability is essential for scanning a large area in a short time and multi-dimensional sensing of moving objects and dynamical processes with fine temporal resolution. Unfortunately, conventional laser scanners are often too slow, resulting in limited precision and utility. Here we present a new type of laser scanner that offers ?1,000 times higher scan rates than conventional state-of-the-art scanners. This method employs spatial dispersion of temporally stretched broadband optical pulses onto the target, enabling inertia-free laser scans at unprecedented scan rates of nearly 100?MHz at 800?nm. To show our scanner's broad utility, we use it to demonstrate unique and previously difficult-to-achieve capabilities in imaging, surface vibrometry, and flow cytometry at a record 2D raster scan rate of more than 100?kHz with 27,000 resolvable points. PMID:22685627

Goda, K; Mahjoubfar, A; Wang, C; Fard, A; Adam, J; Gossett, D R; Ayazi, A; Sollier, E; Malik, O; Chen, E; Liu, Y; Brown, R; Sarkhosh, N; Di Carlo, D; Jalali, B

2012-01-01

69

Hybrid Dispersion Laser Scanner  

PubMed Central

Laser scanning technology is one of the most integral parts of today's scientific research, manufacturing, defense, and biomedicine. In many applications, high-speed scanning capability is essential for scanning a large area in a short time and multi-dimensional sensing of moving objects and dynamical processes with fine temporal resolution. Unfortunately, conventional laser scanners are often too slow, resulting in limited precision and utility. Here we present a new type of laser scanner that offers ?1,000 times higher scan rates than conventional state-of-the-art scanners. This method employs spatial dispersion of temporally stretched broadband optical pulses onto the target, enabling inertia-free laser scans at unprecedented scan rates of nearly 100?MHz at 800?nm. To show our scanner's broad utility, we use it to demonstrate unique and previously difficult-to-achieve capabilities in imaging, surface vibrometry, and flow cytometry at a record 2D raster scan rate of more than 100?kHz with 27,000 resolvable points. PMID:22685627

Goda, K.; Mahjoubfar, A.; Wang, C.; Fard, A.; Adam, J.; Gossett, D. R.; Ayazi, A.; Sollier, E.; Malik, O.; Chen, E.; Liu, Y.; Brown, R.; Sarkhosh, N.; Di Carlo, D.; Jalali, B.

2012-01-01

70

Optical fuel pin scanner  

DOEpatents

An optical scanner for indicia arranged in a focal plane at a cylindrical outside surface by use of an optical system including a rotatable dove prism. The dove prism transmits a rotating image of an encircled cylindrical surface area to a stationary photodiode array.

Kirchner, Tommy L. (Richland, WA); Powers, Hurshal G. (Richland, WA)

1983-01-01

71

Freestanding Complex Optical Scanners.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A complex freestanding optical mark recognition (OMR) scanner is one which is not on-line to an external processor; it has intelligence stemming from an internal processor located within the unit or system. The advantages and disadvantages of a complex OMR can best be assessed after identifying the scanning needs and constraints of the potential…

Frisbie, David A.

72

Hybrid Dispersion Laser Scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser scanning technology is one of the most integral parts of today's scientific research, manufacturing, defense, and biomedicine. In many applications, high-speed scanning capability is essential for scanning a large area in a short time and multi-dimensional sensing of moving objects and dynamical processes with fine temporal resolution. Unfortunately, conventional laser scanners are often too slow, resulting in limited precision and utility. Here we present a new type of laser scanner that offers ~1,000 times higher scan rates than conventional state-of-the-art scanners. This method employs spatial dispersion of temporally stretched broadband optical pulses onto the target, enabling inertia-free laser scans at unprecedented scan rates of nearly 100 MHz at 800 nm. To show our scanner's broad utility, we use it to demonstrate unique and previously difficult-to-achieve capabilities in imaging, surface vibrometry, and flow cytometry at a record 2D raster scan rate of more than 100 kHz with 27,000 resolvable points.

Goda, K.; Mahjoubfar, A.; Wang, C.; Fard, A.; Adam, J.; Gossett, D. R.; Ayazi, A.; Sollier, E.; Malik, O.; Chen, E.; Liu, Y.; Brown, R.; Sarkhosh, N.; di Carlo, D.; Jalali, B.

2012-06-01

73

Ground location of satellite scanner data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents simple and accurate mathematical formulation for determining the ground location of remote sensor data. The techniques used are based on elementary concepts of differential geometry and lead to the development of a relation that gives location as a function of surface ellipticity, satellite position, velocity, attitude, and scanner orientation. The formula lends itself to simply computer coding and will hopefully lead to a standardization of the various techniques which have been developed to solve this problem.

Puccinelli, E. F.

1976-01-01

74

Bar Graph  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This bar graph application allows the learner to interpret one of three sets of pre-existing data or to input their own data and create their own bar graph. The display can be altered to increase or descrease the interval on the y-axis or to increase or descrease the width of the bars on the x-axis.

2012-01-01

75

Bay 2 Procedure 3.0 T Scanner NT Interface  

E-print Network

an actual scan: use the following access code: B-2469-29159 and write "only to transfer a file on projector Setup the control room o Get an access code for RIIS login system Login to the PC with your VPN o If you need to log in to the scanner only to transfer data and aren't planning on running

76

51. View of upper radar scanner switch in radar scanner ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

51. View of upper radar scanner switch in radar scanner building 105 from upper catwalk level showing emanating waveguides from upper switch (upper one-fourth of photograph) and emanating waveguides from lower radar scanner switch in vertical runs. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

77

Bar-Coded Pyrosequencing Reveals Shared Bacterial Community Properties along the Temperature Gradients of Two Alkaline Hot Springs in Yellowstone National Park? †  

PubMed Central

An understanding of how communities are organized is a fundamental goal of ecology but one which has historically been elusive for microbial systems. We used a bar-coded pyrosequencing approach targeting the V3 region of the bacterial small-subunit rRNA gene to address the factors that structure communities along the thermal gradients of two alkaline hot springs in the Lower Geyser Basin of Yellowstone National Park. The filtered data set included a total of nearly 34,000 sequences from 39 environmental samples. Each was assigned to one of 391 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) identified by their unique V3 sequence signatures. Although the two hot springs differed in their OTU compositions, community resemblance and diversity changed with strikingly similar dynamics along the two outflow channels. Two lines of evidence suggest that these community properties are controlled primarily by environmental temperature. First, community resemblance decayed exponentially with increasing differences in temperature between samples but was only weakly correlated with physical distance. Second, diversity decreased with increasing temperature at the same rate along both gradients but was uncorrelated with other measured environmental variables. This study also provides novel insights into the nature of the ecological interactions among important taxa in these communities. A strong negative association was observed between cyanobacteria and the Chloroflexi, which together accounted for ?70% of the sequences sampled. This pattern contradicts the longstanding hypothesis that coadapted lineages of these bacteria maintain tightly cooccurring distributions along these gradients as a result of a producer-consumer relationship. We propose that they instead compete for some limiting resource(s). PMID:19429553

Miller, Scott R.; Strong, Aaron L.; Jones, Kenneth L.; Ungerer, Mark C.

2009-01-01

78

MEMS optical scanners for microscopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) optical scanners have been around for more than two decades. Various applications have been presented, but few of them have advanced to the commercial level to date due to the difficulties of combination of optics and MEMS devices. This paper presents our activities of investigating MEMS scanner applications related to microscopic imaging. First, we started with developing

Hiroshi Miyajima; Kenzi Murakami; Masahiro Katashiro

2004-01-01

79

code  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Numeric value assigned to textual data; e.g. for diagnoses: SNOMED (of the College of American Pathologists), ICD-9 c., ICD-10 c., read clinical classification for diagnoses, signs, symptoms and history; for adverse events: who-adverse reaction terminology\\/who-adverse reaction dictionary or FDA’s COSTART (Coding System for a Thesaurus of Adverse Reaction Terms); for coding medications or treatments resp.: who-drug Dictionary and drug reference

Gerhard Nahler

80

Multispectral scanner optical system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An optical system for use in a multispectral scanner of the type used in video imaging devices is disclosed. Electromagnetic radiation reflected by a rotating scan mirror is focused by a concave primary telescope mirror and collimated by a second concave mirror. The collimated beam is split by a dichroic filter which transmits radiant energy in the infrared spectrum and reflects visible and near infrared energy. The long wavelength beam is filtered and focused on an infrared detector positioned in a cryogenic environment. The short wavelength beam is dispersed by a pair of prisms, then projected on an array of detectors also mounted in a cryogenic environment and oriented at an angle relative to the optical path of the dispersed short wavelength beam.

Stokes, R. C.; Koch, N. G. (inventors)

1980-01-01

81

Intraoral 3D scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here a new set-up of a 3D-scanning system for CAD/CAM in dental industry is proposed. The system is designed for direct scanning of the dental preparations within the mouth. The measuring process is based on phase correlation technique in combination with fast fringe projection in a stereo arrangement. The novelty in the approach is characterized by the following features: A phase correlation between the phase values of the images of two cameras is used for the co-ordinate calculation. This works contrary to the usage of only phase values (phasogrammetry) or classical triangulation (phase values and camera image co-ordinate values) for the determination of the co-ordinates. The main advantage of the method is that the absolute value of the phase at each point does not directly determine the coordinate. Thus errors in the determination of the co-ordinates are prevented. Furthermore, using the epipolar geometry of the stereo-like arrangement the phase unwrapping problem of fringe analysis can be solved. The endoscope like measurement system contains one projection and two camera channels for illumination and observation of the object, respectively. The new system has a measurement field of nearly 25mm × 15mm. The user can measure two or three teeth at one time. So the system can by used for scanning of single tooth up to bridges preparations. In the paper the first realization of the intraoral scanner is described.

Kühmstedt, Peter; Bräuer-Burchardt, Christian; Munkelt, Christoph; Heinze, Matthias; Palme, Martin; Schmidt, Ingo; Hintersehr, Josef; Notni, Gunther

2007-09-01

82

Linear Regression of BMD Scanners  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students complete an exercise showing logarithmic relationships and examine how to find the linear regression of data that does not seem linear upon initial examination. They relate number of BMD scanners to time.

Vu Bioengineering Ret Program

83

Microfabrication of fiber optic scanners  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cantilevered optical fiber is micromachined to function as a miniature resonant opto-mechanical scanner. By driving the base of the cantilevered fiber at a resonance frequency using a piezoelectric actuator, the free end of the cantilever beam becomes a scanned light source. The fiber scanners are designed to achieve wide field-of-view (FOV) and high scan frequency. We employ a non-linearly

Mark Fauver; Janet L. Crossman-Bosworth; Eric J. Seibel

2002-01-01

84

Simulation of motion on the skin. II. Cutaneous mechanoreceptor coding of the width and texture of bar patterns displaced across the OPTACON.  

PubMed

1. These experiments assay the functional significance of receptive-field architecture for information processing. Rapidly adapting (RA) afferents have been previously shown to converge information from clusters of 14-25 Meissner's corpuscles, whereas afferents innervating Pacinian corpuscles (PCs) have only a single, large receptor terminal. We tested two opposing hypotheses of functional architecture: 1) summation models, in which an afferent integrates signals from all of its terminals, showing monotonic increases in activity as a function of contact area, and 2) winner-take-all models, in which the most strongly activated receptor in the cluster dominates axonal output by cancellation of signals from other branches. 2. Bar and stripe patterns have been swept across the finger or palm of the monkey's hand at speeds of 30-120 mm/s with the use of a computer-controlled grid of sequentially activated miniature probes (OPTACON stimulator). The dense packing of OPTACON probes permits placement of up to five groups of stimulators within an individual receptive field, allowing us to activate one or more clusters of Meissner's corpuscles simultaneously and to stimulate the bulbar corpuscle of PC afferents at different orientations through the skin. Integration of information from moving bar patterns has been tested with two protocols. In the variable width protocol, the total number of activated rows in the pattern is varied from one to five, with a constant spacing of 1.2 mm between pulsed rows. In the variable density protocol, the length of skin stimulated is held constant at 5 mm and the spacing of stimuli varied. 3. RA afferents show no evidence of summation of inputs within their receptive fields. Motion of wide bars across the field increases the duration of firing but not the total spikes evoked by each pulse. Responses to the leading edge of wide bars were found to be identical to those evoked by a single-row bar. Simultaneous activation of two to five rows evokes the same or fewer spikes per pulse than the most effective individual row tested alone. When broad-bar patterns are centered over the field, contacting the maximum number of receptors, RAs follow activity in the dominant branch or terminus, suppressing additional inputs. Lack of summation is observed at all pulse frequencies tested (25-100 Hz). 4. Moving bar patterns evoke responses as long as at least one row stimulates the receptive field; broader patterns evoke longer spike trains whose total number of impulses is proportional to bar width.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2600633

Gardner, E P; Palmer, C I

1989-12-01

85

QR Codes 101  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A QR (quick-response) code is a two-dimensional scannable code, similar in function to a traditional bar code that one might find on a product at the supermarket. The main difference between the two is that, while a traditional bar code can hold a maximum of only 20 digits, a QR code can hold up to 7,089 characters, so it can contain much more…

Crompton, Helen; LaFrance, Jason; van 't Hooft, Mark

2012-01-01

86

3D ultrafast laser scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser scanners are essential for scientific research, manufacturing, defense, and medical practice. Unfortunately, often times the speed of conventional laser scanners (e.g., galvanometric mirrors and acousto-optic deflectors) falls short for many applications, resulting in motion blur and failure to capture fast transient information. Here, we present a novel type of laser scanner that offers roughly three orders of magnitude higher scan rates than conventional methods. Our laser scanner, which we refer to as the hybrid dispersion laser scanner, performs inertia-free laser scanning by dispersing a train of broadband pulses both temporally and spatially. More specifically, each broadband pulse is temporally processed by time stretch dispersive Fourier transform and further dispersed into space by one or more diffractive elements such as prisms and gratings. As a proof-of-principle demonstration, we perform 1D line scans at a record high scan rate of 91 MHz and 2D raster scans and 3D volumetric scans at an unprecedented scan rate of 105 kHz. The method holds promise for a broad range of scientific, industrial, and biomedical applications. To show the utility of our method, we demonstrate imaging, nanometer-resolved surface vibrometry, and high-precision flow cytometry with real-time throughput that conventional laser scanners cannot offer due to their low scan rates.

Mahjoubfar, A.; Goda, K.; Wang, C.; Fard, A.; Adam, J.; Gossett, D. R.; Ayazi, A.; Sollier, E.; Malik, O.; Chen, E.; Liu, Y.; Brown, R.; Sarkhosh, N.; Di Carlo, D.; Jalali, B.

2013-03-01

87

Application Bar  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a When you’re ready to program your Windows Phone 7 application in Visual Studio, you’ll know what general features your application\\u000a will provide. Each of the major application features will need to be accessible via a shortcut or some form of a navigation\\u000a menu. For Windows Phone 7 applications, Microsoft recommends that you use a standard Windows Phone 7 Application Bar

Henry Lee; Eugene Chuvyrov

88

Multispectral Scanner for Monitoring Plants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multispectral scanner has been adapted to capture spectral images of living plants under various types of illumination for purposes of monitoring the health of, or monitoring the transfer of genes into, the plants. In a health-monitoring application, the plants are illuminated with full-spectrum visible and near infrared light and the scanner is used to acquire a reflected-light spectral signature known to be indicative of the health of the plants. In a gene-transfer- monitoring application, the plants are illuminated with blue or ultraviolet light and the scanner is used to capture fluorescence images from a green fluorescent protein (GFP) that is expressed as result of the gene transfer. The choice of wavelength of the illumination and the wavelength of the fluorescence to be monitored depends on the specific GFP.

Gat, Nahum

2004-01-01

89

Sushi Bar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An innovative website where customers order from a realistic sushi bar menu to learn about international fisheries resources and impacts. Select shrimp, tuna, squid, octopus, or sea urchin to learn where resources are harvested, current fisheries methods, population status and concerns. This on-line activity also demonstrates how global our use of resources has become, with a single country dependent on seafood imports from around the world. The site also contains lesson plans on natural resources and resource management. Appropriate for grades 6 and up.

2010-12-02

90

Improvements to Existing Jefferson Lab Wire Scanners  

SciTech Connect

This poster will detail the augmentation of selected existing CEBAF wire scanners with commercially available hardware, PMTs, and self created software in order to improve the scanners both in function and utility.

McCaughan, Michael D. [JLAB; Tiefenback, Michael G. [JLAB; Turner, Dennis L. [JLAB

2013-06-01

91

AIR BAND SCANNER WITH RETRANSMISSION  

E-print Network

AIR BAND SCANNER WITH RETRANSMISSION TO LOCAL FM RADIO USING A SOFTWARE DEFINED RADIO Final ReportTX daughter, over an FM frequency that can be received using a standard FM radio Essentially this is an AM to FM repeater #12;Background Information5 Hardware and Software Hardware USRP TVRX Daughterboard Basic

Yu, Chansu

92

Scanner as a Fine Art  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Not every art department is fortunate enough to have access to digital cameras and image-editing software, but if a scanner, computer, and printer are available, students can create some imaginative and surreal work. This high-school level lesson begins with a discussion of self-portraits, and then moves to students creating images by scanning…

Fontes, Kris

2008-01-01

93

Simulation of LANDSAT multispectral scanner spatial resolution with airborne scanner data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technique for simulation of low spatial resolution satellite imagery by using high resolution scanner data is described. The scanner data is convolved with the approximate point spread function of the low resolution data and then resampled to emulate low resolution imagery. The technique was successfully applied to Daedalus airborne scanner data to simulate a portion of a LANDSAT multispectra scanner scene.

Hlavka, C. A.

1986-01-01

94

Test-Bed Aircraft Scanner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Test-bed aircraft multispectral scanner (TBAMS) is line-scanning multispectral imaging system with eight visible/near-infrared channels and one thermal-infrared channel. Key design features of TBAMS are its large size and modular subsystem mounted on horizontal baseplate. This unique layout allows easy access to and replacement of subsystems and their subcomponents. System designed around existing inexpensive parts, sacrifices compactness for ease of modification.

Jobson, D. J.; Katzberg, S. J.; Spiers, R. B.; Hardesty, C. A.; Burcher, E. E.; Irwin, S. H.

1982-01-01

95

Vacuum Attachment for XRF Scanner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vacuum apparatuses have been developed for increasing the range of elements that can be identified by use of x-ray fluorescent (XRF) scanners of the type mentioned in the two immediately preceding articles. As a consequence of the underlying physical principles, in the presence of air, such an XRF scanner is limited to analysis of chlorine and elements of greater atomic number. When the XRF scanner is operated in a vacuum, it extends the range of analysis to lower atomic numbers - even as far as aluminum and sodium. Hence, more elements will be available for use in XRF labeling of objects as discussed in the two preceding articles. The added benefits of the extended capabilities also have other uses for NASA. Detection of elements of low atomic number is of high interest to the aerospace community. High-strength aluminum alloys will be easily analyzed for composition. Silicon, a major contaminant in certain processes, will be detectable before the process is begun, possibly eliminating weld or adhesion problems. Exotic alloys will be evaluated for composition prior to being placed in service where lives depend on them. And in the less glamorous applications, such as bolts and fasteners, substandard products and counterfeit items will be evaluated at the receiving function and never allowed to enter the operation

Schramm, Harry F.; Kaiser, Bruce

2005-01-01

96

Microfabrication of fiber optic scanners  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cantilevered optical fiber is micromachined to function as a miniature resonant opto-mechanical scanner. By driving the base of the cantilevered fiber at a resonance frequency using a piezoelectric actuator, the free end of the cantilever beam becomes a scanned light source. The fiber scanners are designed to achieve wide field-of-view (FOV) and high scan frequency. We employ a non-linearly tapered profile fiber to achieve scan amplitudes of 1 mm at scan frequencies above 20 KHz. Scan angles of over 120 degree(s) (full angle) have been achieved. Higher order modes are also employed for scanning applications that require compactness while maintaining large angular FOV. Etching techniques are used to create the non-linearly tapered sections in single mode optical fiber. Additionally, micro-lenses are fabricated on the tips of the etched fibers, with lens diameters as small as 15 microns. Such lenses are capable of reducing the divergence angle of the emitted light to 5 degree(s) (full angle), with greater reduction expected by employing novel lens shaping techniques. Microfabricated optical fiber scanners have display applications ranging from micro-optical displays to larger panoramic displays. Applications for micro-image acquisition include small barcode readers to medical endoscopes.

Fauver, Mark; Crossman-Bosworth, Janet L.; Seibel, Eric J.

2002-06-01

97

Open magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners.  

PubMed

(1) In most MRI scanners, the patient examination table fits inside a long cylindrical tube. Large patients cannot be accommodated, and some persons experience claustrophobic reactions. Open MRI systems, in which the patient is placed between two plates, overcome these disadvantages. (2) Open MRI scanners are widely used in health care. High-field closed MRI systems are preferred for many examinations. (3) Early versions of open MRI scanners had low magnetic field strength, gave poorer image quality than most closed systems, and required longer examination times. Newer open scanners include machines with higher magnetic field strengths and improved image quality. (4) Closed high magnetic field scanners with short magnets and wide bore tubes offer improved comfort to patients, and may be an alternative to open scanners. (5) There is interest in using open systems for intra-operative and image-guided interventions. PMID:17086657

Hailey, D

2006-11-01

98

Modeling of a piezoelectric micro-scanner  

Microsoft Academic Search

Micro-scanners have been widely used in many optical applications. The micro-scanner presented in this paper uses multimorph-type bending actuators to tilt a square plate mirror. This paper presents a complete analytical model of the piezoelectric micro-scanner. This theoretical model based on strength of material equations calculates the force generated by the multimorphs on the mirror, the profile of the structure

A. Chaehoi; M. Begbie; D. Cornez; K. Kirk

2008-01-01

99

Monogon laser scanner with no line wobble  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new optical scanner is described which serves as a monogon, or single-facet device, providing one scan per shaft rotation. It cancels cross-scan line placement errors automatically, yielding scan lines which are spaced precisely, independent of drive shaft wobble. This scanner is configured for simple fabrication, of low mass and size, allowing convenient dynamic balance for high-speed operation. This new scanner is identified as an open-mirror monogon.

Beiser, Leo

1991-02-01

100

Reading Bar Graphs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bar graphs are simple ways to display data. Taking numbers and creating a bar graph makes it easier to read and draw conclusions. From bar graphs, you can easily compare data from more than one source. In this lesson, students will read two temperature bar graphs of data from Africa using authentic NASA data. They will identify major parts of bar graphs and make a generalization statement based on graphed data.

101

ID scanners in the night time economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

ID scanners are quickly emerging as a new technological fix to long-standing problems of security and safety within licensed venues. Yet at this point in time detailed research of this rapidly expanding security technology is remarkably limited. To address this analytical deficit we are currently examining the uptake of ID scanners in licensed venues operating in the nighttime economy. We

Darren Palmer; Ian Warren; Peter Miller

2010-01-01

102

Non-Destructive Testing Scanner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bio-Imaging Research's technology that originated in an aerospace program has come full circle with a new aerospace adaptation called the Advanced Computed Tomography Inspection System, or ACTIS. The medical version of CT scans the human body for tumors or other abnormalities, the ACTIS system finds imperfections in aerospace structures and components, such as castings, assemblies, rocket motors and nozzles. ACTIS is described by its developer as the most versatile CT scanner available for non-destructive testing applications. ACTIS is a variable geometry system. ACTIS source and detectors can be moved closer together or farther apart to optimize the geometry for different sizes of test objects. The combination of variable geometry, three sources, and focusing detectors makes ACTIS cost effective for a broad range of applications. System can scan anything from very small turbine blades to large rocket assemblies.

1990-01-01

103

A comparison of film and phosphor scanners  

SciTech Connect

Signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) and spatial distortions have been measured for three types of scanners: the Molecular Dynamics (MD) and DuPont film scanners and the MD phosphor scanner. The MD film scanner is a deployable and compact scanner that gives a peak SNR of 110 for low (< 2.0) optical densities (ODs), but the spatial distortions across the digitized film plane are significant. The authors compare this with the DuPont film scanner, which has equally good SNRs at low ODs, but very low spatial distortions. The DuPont also allows the user to define an OD range and contains a prescan function to find the suitable range if the user cannot input such a value; its scan times are quick, and the hardware allows for internal data averaging before being stored to disk. The MD phosphor imager has excellent low-dose capability, producing usable images at a 10-{mu}rad dose (from a 150-pkeV source) but its SNRs are low compared to the film scanner, but they can be increased by adjusting the photomultiplier tube voltage and laser radius across the scan arc.

Chancellor, T.; Morris, R.A.

1993-10-01

104

A procedure for automated land use mapping using remotely sensed multispectral scanner data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system of processing remotely sensed multispectral scanner data by computer programs to produce color-coded land use maps for large areas is described. The procedure is explained, the software and the hardware are described, and an analogous example of the procedure is presented. Detailed descriptions of the multispectral scanners currently in use are provided together with a summary of the background of current land use mapping techniques. The data analysis system used in the procedure and the pattern recognition software used are functionally described. Current efforts by the NASA Earth Resources Laboratory to evaluate operationally a less complex and less costly system are discussed in a separate section.

Whitley, S. L.

1975-01-01

105

Hand-held optical fuel pin scanner  

DOEpatents

An optical scanner for indicia arranged in a focal plane perpendicular to an optical system including a rotatable dove prism. The dove prism transmits a rotating image to a stationary photodiode array.

Kirchner, Tommy L. (Richland, WA); Powers, Hurshal G. (Richland, WA)

1987-01-01

106

21 CFR 892.1220 - Fluorescent scanner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1220 Fluorescent scanner. (a) Identification. A fluorescent...

2012-04-01

107

21 CFR 892.1220 - Fluorescent scanner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1220 Fluorescent scanner. (a) Identification. A fluorescent...

2014-04-01

108

21 CFR 892.1220 - Fluorescent scanner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1220 Fluorescent scanner. (a) Identification. A fluorescent...

2013-04-01

109

21 CFR 892.1220 - Fluorescent scanner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1220 Fluorescent scanner. (a) Identification. A fluorescent...

2011-04-01

110

21 CFR 892.1220 - Fluorescent scanner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1220 Fluorescent scanner. (a) Identification. A fluorescent...

2010-04-01

111

Spectrometer and scanner with optofluidic configuration.  

PubMed

We present a spectrometer and scanner based on optofluidic configurations. The main optical component of the spectrometer is a compound optical element consisting of an optofluidic lens and standard blazed diffraction grating. The spectrum size can be changed by filling the lens cavity with different liquids. The scanner comprises two hollow 45° angle prisms oriented at 90° to each other. By changing the liquid inside the prisms, two-dimensional light beam scanning can be performed. PMID:23338199

Calixto, Sergio; Rosete-Aguilar, Martha; Sanchez-Morales, Maria Eugenia; Calixto-Solano, Margarita

2013-01-20

112

Microlithographically fabricated bar-coded microarrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The adsorption of five proteins with very different molecular characteristics, i.e. ?-chymotrypsin, human serum albumin, human immunoglobulin, lysozyme, and myoglobin, has been characterized using quantitative fluorescence measurements and atomic force microscopy. It has been found that the 'combinatorial' nature of the micro/nano-channels surface allows for the increased adsorption of molecularly different proteins, comparing with the adsorption on flat surfaces. This amplification increases for proteins with lower molecular surface that can capitalize better on the newly created surface and nano-environments. Importantly, the adsorption on micro/nano-fabricated structures appears to be less dependent on the local molecular descriptors, i.e. hydrophobicity and charges, due to the combinatorialization of the nano-areas presented to the proteins. The amplification of adsorption is important, ranging from 3- to 10-fold, with a higher amplification for smaller, globular proteins.

Ivanova, Elena P.; Pham, Duy K.; Alekseeva, Yulia V.; Filipponi, Luisa; Nicolau, Dan V.

2004-06-01

113

Computerized mega code recording.  

PubMed

A system has been developed to facilitate recording of advanced cardiac life support mega code testing scenarios. By scanning a paper "keyboard" using a bar code wand attached to a portable microcomputer, the person assigned to record the scenario can easily generate an accurate, complete, timed, and typewritten record of the given situations and the obtained responses. PMID:3354937

Burt, T W; Bock, H C

1988-04-01

114

Number Line Bars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teachers and students can use this interactive Java applet to model and carry out arithmetic operations on the number line. Users manipulate the size, position, and direction of color bars to represent addition, subtraction, multiplication and division with whole numbers, integers and fractions. Options include the ability to zoom in and out, change the colors of the bars, and adjust the step size of the bars and number line increments.

2000-01-01

115

Interactive WSN-Bar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the concept of ambient intelligence, we utilized wireless sensor network (WSN) and vision-based tracking technologies to create an interactive WSN-Bar. WSN-Bar is an interactive and innovative creation which has two modules: Garden of Light and Vivacious Bushes. It refers the variety of natural environmental factors and focuses on the relationship between human and nature. WSN-Bar can also detect the changes of brightness, temperature, CO2 density outdoors and the movement of people inside the building. Besides, WSN-Bar is an interactive installation art which creates the opportunity to reduce the estranged gape among the participants.

Lin, Jiun-Shian; Hsu, Su-Chu; Chen, Ying-Chung

116

Cognition for robot scanner based remote welding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effort for reduced cycle times in manufacturing has supported the development of remote welding systems which use a combination of scanners for beam delivery and robots for scanner positioning. Herein, close coupling of both motions requires a precise command of the robot trajectory and the scanner positioning to end up with a combined beam delivery. Especially the path precision of the robot plays a vital role in this kinematic chain. In this paper, a sensor system is being presented which allows tracking the motion of the laser beam against the work piece. It is based on a camera system which is coaxially connected to the scanner thus observing the relative motion of the laser beam relative to the work piece. The acquired images are processed with computer vision algorithms from the field of motion detection. The suitability of the algorithms is being demonstrated with a motion tracking tool which visualizes the homogeneity of the tracking result. The reported solution adds cognitive capabilities to manufacturing systems for robot scanner based materials processing. It allows evaluation of the relative motion between work piece and the laser beam. Moreover, the system can be used to adapt system programming during set-up of a manufacturing task or to evaluate the functionality of a manufacturing system during production. The presented sensor system will assist in optimizing manufacturing processes.

Thombansen, U.; Ungers, Michael

2014-02-01

117

LANSCE-R WIRE-SCANNER SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

The National Instruments cRIO platform is used for the new LANSCE-R wire-scanner systems. All wire-scanner electronics are integrated into a single BiRa BiRIO 4U cRIO chassis specifically designed for the cRIO crate and all interface electronics. The BiRIO chassis, actuator and LabVIEW VIs provide a complete wire-scanner system integrated with EPICS. The new wire-scanner chassis includes an 8-slot cRIO crate with Virtex-5 LX 110 FPGA and Power-PC real-time controller, the LANL-developed cRIO 2-axis wire-sensor analog interface module (AFE), NI9222 cRIO 4-channel 16-bit digitizer, cRIO resolver demodulator, cRIO event receiver, front-panel touch panel display, motor driver, and all necessary software, interface wiring, connectors and ancillary components. This wirescanner system provides a complete, turn-key, 2-axis wire-scanner system including 2-channel low-noise sensewire interface with variable DC wire bias and wireintegrity monitor, 16-bit signal digitizers, actuator motor drive and control, actuator position sensing, limit-switch interfaces, event receiver, LabVIEW and EPICS interface, and both remote operation and full stand-alone operation using the touch panel.

Gruchalla, Michael E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-01

118

Changes in Smoking-Related Norms in Bars Resulting from California's Smoke-Free Workplace Act  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

California's Smoke-Free Workplace Act--CA Labor Code Sec. 6404.5(a)--was extended to bars in 1998. This article analyzes changes in normative beliefs and behaviors related to bar smoking in the decade following the adoption of the Act. In a series of studies evaluating the smoke-free workplace law in bars, researchers conducted extensive…

Satterlund, Travis D.; Lee, Juliet P.; Moore, Roland S.

2012-01-01

119

Bar v4.0  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bar provided the script author with a simple two-color bar graph with an optional numeric output field located below the bar. It is usually used as a data listener in conjunction with other Physlets. Its series in the data connection is ignored since Bar supports only a single bar.

Christian, Wolfgang; Belloni, Mario

2008-02-01

120

Multi Bar Graph  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students enter in data to be represented in a double bar graph. Multi bar graphs allow the student to compare multiple characteristics of different subjects like population for different continents over time. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

2010-01-01

121

Bar Graph Sorter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students make bar graphs by sorting shapes either by shape or by color. This activity allows students to explore how to sort data to make bar graphs. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

2010-01-01

122

Laser scanners: from industrial to biomedical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a brief overview of our contributions in the field of laser scanning technologies, applied for a variety of applications, from industrial, dimensional measurements to high-end biomedical imaging, such as Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). Polygon Mirror (PM) scanners are presented, as applied from optical micrometers to laser sources scanned in frequency for Swept Sources (SSs) OCT. Galvanometer-based scanners (GSs) are approached to determine the optimal scanning function in order to obtain the highest possible duty cycle. We demonstrated that this optimal scanning function is linear plus parabolic, and not linear plus sinusoidal, as it has been previously considered in the literature. Risley prisms (rotational double wedges) scanners are pointed out, with our exact approach to determine and simulate their scan patterns in order to optimize their use in several types of applications, including OCT. A discussion on the perspectives of scanning in biomedical imaging, with a focus on OCT concludes the study.

Duma, Virgil-Florin

2013-11-01

123

Scanner identification with extension to forgery detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Digital images can be obtained through a variety of sources including digital cameras and scanners. With rapidly increasing functionality and ease of use of image editing software, determining authenticity and identifying forged regions, if any, is becoming crucial for many applications. This paper presents methods for authenticating and identifying forged regions in images that have been acquired using flatbed scanners. The methods are based on using statistical features of imaging sensor pattern noise as a fingerprint for the scanner. An anisotropic local polynomial estimator is used for obtaining the noise patterns. A SVM classifier is trained for using statistical features of pattern noise for classifying smaller blocks of an image. This feature vector based approach is shown to identify the forged regions with high accuracy.

Khanna, Nitin; Chiu, George T. C.; Allebach, Jan P.; Delp, Edward J.

2008-02-01

124

The conical scanner evaluation system design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The software design for the conical scanner evaluation system is presented. The purpose of this system is to support the performance analysis of the LANDSAT-D conical scanners, which are infrared horizon detection attitude sensors designed for improved accuracy. The system consists of six functionally independent subsystems and five interface data bases. The system structure and interfaces of each of the subsystems is described and the content, format, and file structure of each of the data bases is specified. For each subsystem, the functional logic, the control parameters, the baseline structure, and each of the subroutines are described. The subroutine descriptions include a procedure definition and the input and output parameters.

Cumella, K. E.; Bilanow, S.; Kulikov, I. B.

1982-01-01

125

Use of ocean color scanner data in water quality mapping  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Remotely sensed data, in combination with in situ data, are used in assessing water quality parameters within the San Francisco Bay-Delta. The parameters include suspended solids, chlorophyll, and turbidity. Regression models are developed between each of the water quality parameter measurements and the Ocean Color Scanner (OCS) data. The models are then extended to the entire study area for mapping water quality parameters. The results include a series of color-coded maps, each pertaining to one of the water quality parameters, and the statistical analysis of the OCS data and regression models. It is found that concurrently collected OCS data and surface truth measurements are highly useful in mapping the selected water quality parameters and locating areas having relatively high biological activity. In addition, it is found to be virtually impossible, at least within this test site, to locate such areas on U-2 color and color-infrared photography.

Khorram, S.

1981-01-01

126

Gravitational Waves from Long-Duration Simulations of the Dynamical Bar Instability  

E-print Network

Compact astrophysical objects that rotate rapidly may encounter the dynamical ``bar instability.'' The bar-like deformation induced by this rotational instability causes the object to become a potentially strong source of gravitational radiation. We have carried out a set of long-duration simulations of the bar instability with two Eulerian hydrodynamics codes. Our results indicate that the remnant of this instability is a persistent bar-like structure that emits a long-lived gravitational radiation signal.

Kimberly C. B. New; Joan M. Centrella; Joel E. Tohline

1999-11-30

127

11. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING EVAPORATIVE COOLING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - EVAPORATIVE COOLING TOWER SYSTEM IN FOREGROUND. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

128

24. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING OPERATIONS CENTER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

24. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - OPERATIONS CENTER -- MWOC IN OPEARATION AT 1924 ZULU TIME. 26 OCTOBER, 1999. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

129

Introduction to Bar Graphs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to introduce students to bar graphs as a way to represent categorical data. Caution should be used not to use bar graph and histogram interchangeably when using this lesson. This lesson provides links to discussions and activities related to bar graphs as well as suggested ways to integrate them into the lesson. Finally, the lesson provides links to follow-up lessons designed for use in succession with the current one. Note, reading level is not indicated because the lesson does not include student reading material.

2011-05-24

130

Learning and Teaching with a Computer Scanner  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper introduces the readers to simple inquiry-based activities (experiments with supporting questions) that one can do with a computer scanner to help students learn and apply the concepts of relative motion in 1 and 2D, vibrational motion and the Doppler effect. We also show how to use these activities to help students think like…

Planinsic, G.; Gregorcic, B.; Etkina, E.

2014-01-01

131

Advanced galvanometer-based optical scanner design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The closed loop galvanometer-based optical scanners continues to be an advanced technology for the integration and enabling of a broader range of laser system applications and uses. Advances in the technology have provided major improvements in galvo positioning speed, accuracy, size and cost. This paper will introduce the benefits, operating ranges and recent advances in galvanometer technology for scanning applications

Redmond P. Aylward

2003-01-01

132

Wire scanner software and firmware issues  

SciTech Connect

The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center facility presently has 110 slow wire scanning profile measurement instruments located along its various beam lines. These wire scanners were developed and have been operating for at least 30 years. While the wire scanners solved many problems to operate and have served the facility well they have increasingly suffered from several problems or limitations, such as maintenance and reliability problems, antiquated components, slow data acquisition, and etc. In order to refurbish these devices, these wire scanners will be replaced with newer versions. The replacement will consist of a completely new beam line actuator, new cables, new electronics and brand new software and firmware. This note describes the functions and modes of operation that LabVIEW VI software on the real time controller and FPGA LabVIEW firmware will be required. It will be especially interesting to understand the overall architecture of these LabVIEW VIs. While this note will endeavor to describe all of the requirements and issues for the wire scanners, undoubtedly, there will be missing details that will be added as time progresses.

Gilpatrick, John Doug [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

133

Biomedical imaging and sensing using flatbed scanners.  

PubMed

In this Review, we provide an overview of flatbed scanner based biomedical imaging and sensing techniques. The extremely large imaging field-of-view (e.g., ~600-700 cm(2)) of these devices coupled with their cost-effectiveness provide unique opportunities for digital imaging of samples that are too large for regular optical microscopes, and for collection of large amounts of statistical data in various automated imaging or sensing tasks. Here we give a short introduction to the basic features of flatbed scanners also highlighting the key parameters for designing scientific experiments using these devices, followed by a discussion of some of the significant examples, where scanner-based systems were constructed to conduct various biomedical imaging and/or sensing experiments. Along with mobile phones and other emerging consumer electronics devices, flatbed scanners and their use in advanced imaging and sensing experiments might help us transform current practices of medicine, engineering and sciences through democratization of measurement science and empowerment of citizen scientists, science educators and researchers in resource limited settings. PMID:24965011

Göröcs, Zoltán; Ozcan, Aydogan

2014-09-01

134

Applications of Optical Scanners in an Academic Center.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes optical scanners, including how the technology works; applications in data management and research; development of instructional materials; and providing community services. Discussion includes the three basic types of optical scanners: optical character recognition (OCR), optical mark readers (OMR), and graphic scanners. A sidebar…

Molinari, Carol; Tannenbaum, Robert S.

1995-01-01

135

SiliPET: design of an ultra high resolution small animal PET scanner based on stacks of semiconductor detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied with Monte Carlo simulations, using the EGSnrc code, a new scanner for small-animal positron emission tomography (PET) based on stacks of double sided semiconductor detectors. In small animal PET imaging (mice) Compton scattering within the animal itself is not an issue and therefore registration of the energy information is not necessary. Low Z materials can therefore be

Natalia Auricchio; Nicola Cesca; G. Di Domenico; E. Moretti; S. Sabba; M. Gambaccini; G. Zavattini; R. Andritschke; G. Kanbach; F. Schopper

2005-01-01

136

Bar Graph Investigations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson plan students conduct a survey of ten students, collect data in a tally chart, and then display and analyze the results in a bar graph. In the analysis students must compare numbers, add, and subtract using the data in the bar graph to generate questions as well as answer them. The lesson plan includes a graph template, a link to an interactive graphing tool, extension questions, and a fact family sheet to show the related facts from their graph analysis.

Burton, Grace M.

2008-01-01

137

Histograms and Bar Graphs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to introduce students to histograms and bar graphs as graphical representations of data. The lesson also covers the distinction between histograms and bar graphs and the concepts of class intervals and scale. The lesson provides links to discussions and activities related to these topics as well as worksheets for further practice. Finally, the lesson provides links to follow-up lessons designed for use in succession with this one.

2010-01-01

138

A High Spatial Resolution CT Scanner for Small Animal Imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have built a micro-CT system that will be integrated with a small animal PET scanner. The components are: an X-ray source with a peak voltage of up to 60 kV, a power of 10 W and a focal spot size of 30 ?m; a CCD coupled to CsI(Tl) scintillator, subdivided into 128×3072 square pixels, each with a size of 48 ?m; stepping motors for the sample roto-translation; a PCI acquisition board; electronic boards to control and read-out the CCD. A program in Lab VIEW controls the data acquisition. Reconstruction algorithms have been implemented for fan-beam and cone-beam configurations. Images of a bar pattern have been acquired to evaluate the detector performance: the CTF curve has been extracted from the data, obtaining a value of 10 % at 5 lp/mm and about 3 % at 10 lp/mm. Tomographic acquisitions have been performed with a test phantom consisting of a Plexiglas cylinder, 3 cm in diameter, with holes ranging from 3 mm down to 0.6 mm in diameter, filled with different materials. The contrast resolution has been extracted from the reconstructed images: a value of 6 % (in water) for a cubic voxel size of 80 ?m has been obtained.

Cicalini, E.; Baldazzi, G.; Belcari, N.; Del Guerra, A.; Gombia, M.; Motta, A.; Panetta, D.

2006-01-01

139

A compact vertical scanner for atomic force microscopes.  

PubMed

A compact vertical scanner for an atomic force microscope (AFM) is developed. The vertical scanner is designed to have no interference with the optical microscope for viewing the cantilever. The theoretical stiffness and resonance of the scanner are derived and verified via finite element analysis. An optimal design process that maximizes the resonance frequency is performed. To evaluate the scanner's performance, experiments are performed to evaluate the travel range, resonance frequency, and feedback noise level. In addition, an AFM image using the proposed vertical scanner is generated. PMID:22163492

Park, Jae Hong; Shim, Jaesool; Lee, Dong-Yeon

2010-01-01

140

Can technology help to reduce underage drinking? Evidence from the false ID laws with scanner provision.  

PubMed

Underage drinkers often use false identification to purchase alcohol or gain access into bars. In recent years, several states have introduced laws that provide incentives to retailers and bar owners who use electronic scanners to ensure that the customer is 21 years or older and uses a valid identification to purchase alcohol. This paper is the first to investigate the effects of these laws using confidential data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997 Cohort (NLSY97). Using a difference-in-differences methodology, I find that the false ID laws with scanner provision significantly reduce underage drinking, including up to a 0.22 drink decrease in the average number of drinks consumed by underage youth per day. This effect is observed particularly in the short-run and more pronounced for non-college students and those who are relatively younger. These results are also robust under alternative model specifications. The findings of this paper highlight the importance of false ID laws in reducing alcohol consumption among underage youth. PMID:24732386

Yörük, Bar?? K

2014-07-01

141

Telescope with a wide field of view internal optical scanner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A telescope with internal scanner utilizing either a single optical wedge scanner or a dual optical wedge scanner and a controller arranged to control a synchronous rotation of the first and/or second optical wedges, the wedges constructed and arranged to scan light redirected by topological surfaces and/or volumetric scatterers. The telescope with internal scanner further incorporates a first converging optical element that receives the redirected light and transmits the redirected light to the scanner, and a second converging optical element within the light path between the first optical element and the scanner arranged to reduce an area of impact on the scanner of the beam collected by the first optical element.

Degnan, III, John James (Inventor); Zheng, Yunhui (Inventor)

2012-01-01

142

Study on fast linear scanning for a new laser scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the field of lidar system design, there is a need for laser scanners that offer fast linear scanning, are small size and have small a rotational inertia moment. Currently, laser scanners do not meet the above needs. A new laser scanner based on two amplified piezoelectric actuators is designed in this paper. The laser scanner has small size, high mechanical resonance frequencies and a small rotational inertia moment. The size of the mirror is 20 mm×15 mm. To achieve fast linear scanning performance, an open-loop controller is designed to compensate the hysteresis behavior and to restrain oscillations that are caused by the mechanical resonances of the scanner's mechanical structure. By comparing measured scanning waveforms, nonlinearities and scan line images between the uncontrolled and controlled scanner, it was found that the scanning linearity of linear scanning was improved The open-loop controlled laser scanner realizes linear scanning at 250 Hz with optical scan angle of ±12 mrad.

Xiang, Sihua; Chen, Sihai; Wu, Xin; Xiao, Ding; Zheng, Xiawei

2010-02-01

143

Ghost signals in Allison emittance scanners  

SciTech Connect

For over 20 years, Allison scanners have been used to measure emittances of low-energy ion beams. We show that scanning large trajectory angles produces ghost signals caused by the sampled beamlet impacting on an electric deflection plate. The ghost signal strength is proportional to the amount of beam entering the scanner. Depending on the ions, and their velocity, the ghost signals can have the opposite or the same polarity as the main beam signals. The ghost signals cause significant errors in the emittance estimates because they appear at large trajectory angles. These ghost signals often go undetected because they partly overlap with the real signals, are mostly below the 1% level, and often hide in the noise. A simple deflection plate modification is shown to reduce the ghost signal strength by over 99%.

Stockli, Martin P.; /SNS Project, Oak Ridge /Tennessee U.; Leitner, M.; /LBL, Berkeley; Moehs, D.P.; /Fermilab; Keller, R.; /LBL, Berkeley; Welton, R.F.; /SNS Project, Oak

2004-12-01

144

Ghost Signals In Allison Emittance Scanners  

SciTech Connect

For over 20 years, Allison scanners have been used to measure emittances of low-energy ion beams. We show that scanning large trajectory angles produces ghost signals caused by the sampled beamlet impacting on an electric deflection plate. The ghost signal strength is proportional to the amount of beam entering the scanner. Depending on the ions, and their velocity, the ghost signals can have the opposite or the same polarity as the main beam signals. The ghost signals cause significant errors in the emittance estimates because they appear at large trajectory angles. These ghost signals often go undetected because they partly overlap with the real signals, are mostly below the 1% level, and often hide in the noise. A simple deflection plate modification is shown to reduce the ghost signal strength by over 99%.

Stockli, Martin P. [SNS, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Leitner, M.; Keller, R. [SNS, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Rd., Berkeley, CA, 94720 (United States); Moehs, D.P. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Welton, R. F. [SNS, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

2005-03-15

145

Improvement in measurement accuracy for hybrid scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The capability to provide dense three-dimensional (3D) data (point clouds) at high speed and at high accuracy has made terrestrial laser scanners (TLS) widely used for many purposes especially for documentation, management and analysis. However, similar to other 3D sensors, proper understanding regarding the error sources is necessary to ensure high quality data. A procedure known as calibration is employed to evaluate these errors. This process is crucial for TLS in order to make it suitable for accurate 3D applications (e.g. industrial measurement, reverse engineering and monitoring). Two calibration procedures available for TLS: 1) component, and 2) system calibration. The requirements of special laboratories and tools which are not affordable by most TLS users have become principle drawback for component calibration. In contrast, system calibration only requires a room with appropriate targets. By employing optimal network configuration, this study has performed system calibration through self-calibration for Leica ScanStation C10 scanner. A laboratory with dimensions of 15.5 m × 9 m × 3 m and 138 well-distributed planar targets were used to derive four calibration parameters. Statistical analysis (e.g. t-test) has shown that only two calculated parameters, the constant rangefinder offset error (0.7 mm) and the vertical circle index error (-45.4") were significant for the calibrated scanner. Photogrammetric technique was utilised to calibrate the 3D test points at the calibration field. By using the test points, the residual pattern of raw data and self-calibration results were plotted into the graph to visually demonstrate the improvement in accuracy for Leica ScanStation C10 scanner.

Abbas, M. A.; Setan, H.; Majid, Z.; Chong, A. K.; Lichti, D. D.

2014-02-01

146

A near-infrared confocal scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the semiconductor industry, manufacturing of three-dimensional (3D) packages or 3D integrated circuits is a high-performance technique that requires combining several functions in a small volume. Through-silicon vias, which are vertical electrical connections extending through a wafer, can be used to direct signals between stacked chips, thus increasing areal density by stacking and connecting multiple patterned chips. While defect detection is essential in the semiconductor manufacturing process, it is difficult to identify defects within a wafer or to monitor the bonding results between bonded surfaces because silicon and many other semiconductor materials are opaque to visible wavelengths. In this context, near-infrared (NIR) imaging is a promising non-destructive method to detect defects within silicon chips, to inspect bonding between chips and to monitor the chip alignment since NIR transmits through silicon. In addition, a confocal scanner provides high-contrast, optically-sectioned images of the specimen due to its ability to reject out-of-focus noise. In this study, we report an NIR confocal scanner that rapidly acquires high-resolution images with a large field of view through silicon. Two orthogonal line-scanning images can be acquired without rotating the system or the specimen by utilizing two orthogonally configured resonant scanning mirrors. This NIR confocal scanner can be efficiently used as an in-line inspection system when manufacturing semiconductor devices by rapidly detecting defects on and beneath the surface.

Lee, Seungwoo; Yoo, Hongki

2014-06-01

147

Spectral characterization of the LANDSAT-D multispectral scanner subsystems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Relative spectral response data for the multispectral scanner subsystems (MSS) to be flown on LANDSAT-D and LANDSAT-D backup, the protoflight and flight models, respectively, are presented and compared to similar data for the Landsat 1,2, and 3 subsystems. Channel-bychannel (six channels per band) outputs for soil and soybean targets were simulated and compared within each band and between scanners. The two LANDSAT-D scanners proved to be nearly identical in mean spectral response, but they exhibited some differences from the previous MSS's. Principal differences between the spectral responses of the D-scanners and previous scanners were: (1) a mean upper-band edge in the green band of 606 nm compared to previous means of 593 to 598 nm; (2) an average upper-band edge of 697 nm in the red band compared to previous averages of 701 to 710 nm; and (3) an average bandpass for the first near-IR band of 702-814 nm compared to a range of 693-793 to 697-802 nm for previous scanners. These differences caused the simulated D-scanner outputs to be 3 to 10 percent lower in the red band and 3 to 11 percent higher in the first near-IR band than previous scanners for the soybeans target. Otherwise, outputs from soil and soybean targets were only slightly affected. The D-scanners were generally more uniform from channel to channel within bands than previous scanners.

Markham, B. L. (principal investigator); Barker, J. L.

1982-01-01

148

Bahasa Indonesia Kfir Bar  

E-print Network

Bahasa Indonesia Kfir Bar #12;Malay Archipelago · During Islam era: Malay) · Dutch and Portuguese traders arrived during the 15th century · Indonesia became a Dutch colony · Indonesia independent - 1945 #12;#12;Indonesian · Formed ­ 15th

Dershowitz, Nachum

149

Permanent Bar Magnets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about the basic properties of magnets and magnetism. Learners explore concepts such as magnetic fields and polarity, which form the basic ingredients of a study of Earth's magnetic field and the technology of magnetometers. Materials needed include bar magnets and paper clips. This is Activity 1 of Exploring Magnetism: A Teacher's Magnetism Activity Guide.

150

KTN-based electro-optic beam scanner  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a new type of high-speed electro-optic (E-O) beam scanner based on Potassium Tantalate Niobate (KTN) crystal. It has larger scanning angle, better angular resolution, and lower driving voltage comparing to the traditional E-O crystal beam scanner. Compared to conventional moving mirrors such as servo-controlled mirrors and galvanic mirrors, the demonstrated E-O beam scanner can improve the response time

Yuanji Tang; Jiyang Wang; Xuping Wang; Duan Baofeng; Suning Tang; James Foshee

2008-01-01

151

52. View from ground level showing lower radar scanner switch ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

52. View from ground level showing lower radar scanner switch with open port door in radar scanner building 105 showing emanating waveguides from lower switch in vertical run; photograph also shows catwalk to upper scanner switch in upper left side of photograph and structural supports. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

152

The Lick Observatory image-dissector scanner.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A scanner that uses an image dissector to scan the output screen of an image tube has proven to be a sensitive and linear detector for faint astronomical spectra. The image-tube phosphor screen acts as a short-term storage element and allows the system to approach the performance of an ideal multichannel photon counter. Pulses resulting from individual photons, emitted from the output phosphor and detected by the image dissector, trigger an amplifier-discriminator and are counted in a 24-bit, 4096-word circulating memory. Aspects of system performance are discussed, giving attention to linearity, dynamic range, sensitivity, stability, and scattered light properties.

Robinson, L. B.; Wampler, E. J.

1972-01-01

153

A laser scanner for 35mm film  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design, construction, and testing of a laser scanning system is described. The scanner was designed to deliver a scanned beam over a 2.54 cm by 2.54 cm or a 5.08 cm by 5.08 cm format. In order to achieve a scan resolution and rate comparable to that of standard television, an acousto-optic deflector was used for one axis of the scan, and a light deflecting galvanometer for deflection along the other axis. The acoustic optic deflector has the capability of random access scan controlled by a digital computer.

Callen, W. R.; Weaver, J. E.

1977-01-01

154

LAPR: An experimental aircraft pushbroom scanner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A three band Linear Array Pushbroom Radiometer (LAPR) was built and flown on an experimental basis by NASA at the Goddard Space Flight Center. The functional characteristics of the instrument and the methods used to preprocess the data, including radiometric correction, are described. The radiometric sensitivity of the instrument was tested and compared to that of the Thematic Mapper and the Multispectral Scanner. The radiometric correction procedure was evaluated quantitatively, using laboratory testing, and qualitatively, via visual examination of the LAPR test flight imagery. Although effective radiometric correction could not yet be demonstrated via laboratory testing, radiometric distortion did not preclude the visual interpretation or parallel piped classification of the test imagery.

Wharton, S. W.; Irons, J. I.; Heugel, F.

1980-01-01

155

Measurements of vertical bar Vcb vertical bar and vertical bar Vub vertical bar at BaBar  

SciTech Connect

We report results from the BABAR Collaboration on the semileptonic B decays, highlighting the measurements of the magnitude of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements Vub and Vcb. We describe the techniques used to obtain the matrix element |Vcb| using the measurement of the inclusive B {yields} Xclv process and a large sample of exclusive B {yields} D*lv decays. The vertical bar Vub vertical bar matrix elements has been measured studying different kinematic variables of the B {yields} Xulv process, and also with the exclusive reconstruction of B {yields} {pi}({rho})lv decays.

Rotondo, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica Galileo Galilei, Via Marzolo 8, Padova 35131 (Italy)

2005-10-12

156

Quest for an open MRI scanner.  

PubMed

A study of the motor cortex during the programming, execution and mental representation of voluntary movement is of great relevance; its evaluation in conditions close to reality is necessary, given the close integration of the visuomotor, sensory feedback and proprioceptive systems, as of yet, a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) scanner allowing a human subject to maintain erect stance, observe the surroundings and conserve limb freedom is still a dream. The need for high field suggests a solenoid magnet geometry that forces an unnatural posture that affects the results, particularly when the motor cortex is investigated. In contrast in a motor functional study, the scanner should allow the subject to sit or stand, with unobstructed sight and unimpeded movement. Two approaches are presented here to solve this problem. In the first approach, an increased field intensity in an open magnet is obtained lining the "back wall" of the cavity with a sheet of current: this boosts the field intensity at the cost of the introduction of a gradient, which has to be canceled by the introduction of an opposite gradient; The second approach is an adaptation of the "double doughnut" architecture, in which the cavity widens at the center to provide additional room for the subject. The detailed design of this kind of structure has proven the feasibility of the solution. PMID:25227008

Bertora, Franco; Borceto, Alice; Viale, Andrea; Sandini, Giulio

2014-01-01

157

Antenna Near-Field Probe Station Scanner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A miniaturized antenna system is characterized non-destructively through the use of a scanner that measures its near-field radiated power performance. When taking measurements, the scanner can be moved linearly along the x, y and z axis, as well as rotationally relative to the antenna. The data obtained from the characterization are processed to determine the far-field properties of the system and to optimize the system. Each antenna is excited using a probe station system while a scanning probe scans the space above the antenna to measure the near field signals. Upon completion of the scan, the near-field patterns are transformed into far-field patterns. Along with taking data, this system also allows for extensive graphing and analysis of both the near-field and far-field data. The details of the probe station as well as the procedures for setting up a test, conducting a test, and analyzing the resulting data are also described.

Zaman, Afroz J. (Inventor); Lee, Richard Q. (Inventor); Darby, William G. (Inventor); Barr, Philip J. (Inventor); Lambert, Kevin M (Inventor); Miranda, Felix A. (Inventor)

2011-01-01

158

Evaluating scanner lens spherical aberration using scatterometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lens spherical error is an important lens aberration used to characterize lens quality and also has a significant contribution to across chip line width variation (ACLV). It also impacts tool-to-tool matching efforts especially when the optical lithography approaches sub-half wavelength geometry. Traditionally, spherical error is measured by using CD SEM with known drawbacks of poor accuracy and long cycle time. At Texas Instruments, an in-house scatterometer-based lens fingerprinting technique (ScatterLith) performs this tedious job accurately and quickly. This paper presents across slit spherical aberration signatures for ArF scanners collected using this method. The technique can successfully correlate these signatures with Litel lens aberration data and Nikon OCD data for spherical aberration errors as small as 10m?. ACLV contributions from such small spherical errors can be quantified using this method. This provides the lithographer with an important tool to evaluate, qualify and match advanced scanners to improve across chip line width variation control.

Wang, Changan; Zhang, Gary; Tan, Colin L.; Atkinson, Chris; Boehm, Mark A.; Brown, Jay M.; Godfrey, David; Littau, Michael E.; Raymond, Christopher J.

2003-06-01

159

Polynomial modeling and optimization for colorimetric characterization of scanners  

E-print Network

Polynomial modeling and optimization for colorimetric characterization of scanners May 20, 2008 S present different computational strategies for colorimetric char- acterization of scanners using how a color stimulus is produced by a given device, while a point in a colorimetric space

Schettini, Raimondo

160

27. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING OPERATIONS CENTER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

27. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - OPERATIONS CENTER - MWOC MONITOR NO. 4 IN OPERATION AT 2002 ZULU, OCTOBER 26, 1999 CAPE COD, AS PAVE PAWS. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

161

Examination of viscous fingering using the Cat-Scanner  

E-print Network

fingering is believed to be partly initiated by rock heterogeneities. To study viscous fingering, a Cat-Scanner was used to visualize the in-situ fluid displacement mechanism in Berea sandstone cores. The Cat-Scanner cross-sectional images of -the core...

D'Souza, Michael Anthony

1993-01-01

162

34. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING ROOM 105 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

34. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - ROOM 105 - CHILLER ROOM, SHOWING SINGLE COMPRESSOR, LIQUID CHILLERS AND "CHILLED WATER RETURN", COOLING TOWER 'TOWER WATER RETURN" AND 'TOWER WATER SUPPLY" LINES. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

163

9. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING LOOKING AT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - LOOKING AT "C" FACE RADAR SYSTEM EMITTER/ANTENNA. VIEW IS LOOKING SOUTH 30° EAST (NOTE: "C" FACE NOT IN USE AT FACILITY). - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

164

19. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING AIR POLICE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

19. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - AIR POLICE SITE SECURITY OFFICE WITH "SITE PERIMETER STATUS PANEL" AND REAL TIME VIDEO DISPLAY OUTPUT FROM VIDEO CAMERA SYSTEM AT SECURITY FENCE LOCATIONS. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

165

10. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING LOOKING AT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - LOOKING AT SOUTHWEST CORNER "B" FACE AND "C" FACE ON WEST AND EVAPORATIVE COOLING TOWER AT NORTH. VIEW IS LOOKING NORTH 45° EAST. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

166

Attenuation correction for the NIH ATLAS small animal PET scanner  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated an analytic attenuation correction method for the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Advanced Technology Laboratory Animal Scanner (ATLAS) small animal positron emission tomography (PET) scanner. This method is based on the body outline of emission images and an average empirical ? (linear attenuation coefficient) value. We evaluated this method using a computed tomography (CT)-based attenuation correction (ACs) as

Rutao Yao; Jürgen Seidel; Jeih-San Liow; Michael V. Green

2005-01-01

167

25. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING OPERATIONS CENTER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

25. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - OPERATIONS CENTER - MWOC IN OPERATION AT 1930 ZULU TIME, 26 OCTOBER, 1999. MWOC SCREEN ALSO SHOWS RADAR "FACE A" AND "FACE B" ACTIVE STATUS. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

168

29. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING FLOOR 3A ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

29. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - FLOOR 3A ("A" FACE) AT SYSTEM LAYOUT GRID 17. GENERAL OBLIQUE VIEW OF "A" FACE INTERIOR SHOWING RADAR EMITTER/ANTENNA INTERFACE ELECTRONICS. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

169

MEMS-Based Scanner Dedicated for Ultrasound Medical Imaging  

E-print Network

MEMS-Based Scanner Dedicated for Ultrasound Medical Imaging M. Hajj Hassan and M. Sawan Polystim, which is reflected by tissues and organs. The image quality of medical ultrasound was enhanced, the development of a micro electromechanical scanner incorporating high frequency ultrasound transducer operating

Peter, Yves-Alain

170

Quantitative Assay for Starch by Colorimetry Using a Desktop Scanner  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The procedure to produce standard curve for starch concentration measurement by image analysis using a color scanner and computer for data acquisition and color analysis is described. Color analysis is performed by a Visual Basic program that measures red, green, and blue (RGB) color intensities for pixels within the scanner image.

Matthews, Kurt R.; Landmark, James D.; Stickle, Douglas F.

2004-01-01

171

26. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING OPERATIONS CENTER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

26. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - OPERATIONS CENTER - MWOC IN OPERATION AT 1945 ZULU TIME, 26 OCTOBER, 1999. "SPACE TRACK BOARD" DATA SHOWING ITEMS #16609 MIR (RUSSIA) AND #25544 ISS (INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION) BEING TRACKED. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

172

Copper damage modeling with the tensile hopkinson bar and gas gun  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ductile damage nucleation in recovered copper tensile Hopkinson bar specimens has been modeled using the 2D EPIC code. The model has also been successfully applied to spallation gas gun data to greatly expand the pressure range. The split tensile Hopkinson pressure bar permits the creation of damage at fairly high strain rates (10\\/s) with large plastic strains (100%). Careful momentum

D. L. Tonks; W. R. Thissell; C. P. Trujillo; D. S. Schwartz

2004-01-01

173

Temporal analysis of multispectral scanner data.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multispectral scanner reflectance data were sampled for bare soil, cotton, sorghum, corn, and citrus at four dates during a growing season (April, May, June, and July 1969) to develop a time-dependent signature for crop and soil discrimination. Discrimination tests were conducted for single-date and multidate formats using training and test data sets. For classifications containing several crops, the multidate or temporal approach improved discrimination compared with the single-date approach. The multidate approach also preserved recognition accuracy better in going from training fields to test fields than the single-date analysis. The spectral distinctiveness of bare soil versus vegetation resulted in essentially equal discrimination using single-date versus multidate data for those two categories.

Richardson, A. J.; Wiegand, C. L.; Torline, R. J.

1973-01-01

174

Landsat-4 horizon scanner flight performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents an analysis of the flight data from a new design of horizon scanner flown on Landsat-4. The salient features in the data are described and demonstrated by data plots. High frequency noise must be filtered out to achieve good accuracy, but this is effectively done by 128-point averaging. Sun and moon interference effects are identified. The effects of earth oblateness and spacecraft altitude variations are modeled, and the residual systematic errors are analyzed. Most of the residual errors are apparently explained by the effects of earth radiance variation, with the winter polar regions showing the highest variability in the attitude measurements due to winter stratosphere temperature variations. In general, this sensor provides improved accuracy over those flown on previous missions.

Bilanow, S.; Chen, L. C.

1984-01-01

175

Emittance studies with an Allison scanner  

SciTech Connect

The Spallation Neutron Source H{sup -} source on the ion source test stand is being used to study the emittance of the H{sup -}-ion beam injected into the SNS radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ). The emittance measurements are performed with a LBNL Allison scanner that underwent several modifications. The slit width was optimized to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. In addition, the electric deflector plates were replaced with plates featuring a staircased surface. This modification is shown to suppress over 99% of ghost signals generated by the beam hitting the deflector plates. Both modifications, combined with noise suppression measures and a self-consistent analysis, yield highly accurate results. Measured emittances are presented as a function of the ion-beam current.

Stockli, M.P.; Welton, R.F.; Keller, R.; Leitner, M. [SNS, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

2006-03-15

176

The Skylab lunar multispectral scanner data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Skylab S-192 multispectral scanner data, in 12 bands covering wavelengths from 0.41 to 2.3 microns, have been investigated to identify and classify geologic units of the lunar surface. Seventeen spectral cluster classes have been identified, seven in the highlands, seven in the maria, and three of which occur in both or in border regions. This finding may be roughly indicative of the relative heterogeneity of these regions. It implies that there is as much heterogeneity in the highlands as in the maria. This work extends the spectral and aerial coverage of similar studies of the lunar surface and provides useful data for comparison for most of the lunar near side.

Seeger, C. R.; Potter, A. E.

1984-01-01

177

Robotic aircraft scanner for neutron radiographic inspection  

SciTech Connect

A robotic positioner and manipulator, a key component of a mobile neutron radiography system (MNRS) for aircraft inspection, is described. The MNRS is designed to inspect military aircraft for hidden corrosion in aluminum structures. The MNRS is comprised of an accelerator-based (Kaman A-711 sealed tube neutron generator using the deuterium-tritium reaction) thermal neutron source, electronic neutron imaging system, robotic positioner and manipulator for the source/imager, control trailer housing system control electronics and digital image processing system, mobile dark room for film processing, self-contained electrical power source, and radiation safety system. For in situ aircraft inspection, the robotic scanner is programmed (in a teach/learn mode) to scan a region of the components (e.g., wings, stabilizers, etc.) using a control pendant.

Orphan, V.J.; Maung, T.

1987-01-01

178

Quadrupole resonance scanner for narcotics detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interest in non-invasive, non-hazardous, bulk detection technologies for narcotics interdiction has risen over the last few years. As part of our continuing research and development programs in detection of narcotics and explosives using sensitive magnetic measuring devices, we present the first commercially available prototype Quadrupole Resonance (QR) scanner for narcotics detection. The portable narcotics detection system was designed in modular form such that a single QR base system could be easily used with a variety of custom detection heads. The QR system presented in this paper is suitable for scanning items up to 61 X 35 X 13 cm in size, and was designed to scan mail packages and briefcase-sized items for the presence of narcotics. System tests have shown that detection sensitivity is comparable that obtained in laboratory systems.

Shaw, Julian D.; Moeller, C. R.; Magnuson, Erik E.; Sheldon, Alan G.

1994-10-01

179

Observations of gravel beach dynamics during high energy wave conditions using a laser scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 2D laser-scanner was deployed at the high tide runup limit of a pure gravel beach (Loe Bar, Cornwall, England) to measure high-frequency (2.5 Hz) swash hydrodynamics and topographic changes during an energetic wave event. Measurements performed with the laser-scanner were corrected to compensate for levelling and orientation errors, and a variance threshold was applied to separate the beach topography from the water motions. Laser measurements were used to characterise the swash hydrodynamics and morphological changes during one tidal cycle through the calculation of several parameters, such as the 2% exceedence of the runup maxima (R2%), swash flow velocity skewness (< u3>), runup spectra and cumulative topographic changes. Results indicate that despite the small net morphological changes over the tide cycle, significant sediment mobilization occurs. A clear asymmetrical morphological response was found during the different tidal phases: the rising tide is dominated by accretion whilst the falling tide is dominated by erosion. The main factor controlling this asymmetrical morphological response is the step migration that, depending on the tide phase, controls the wave breaking point and consequently the dominant sediment transport direction. During the rising tide, step development decreases the shoreface slope and reduces the runup energy, whilst during the falling tide the step remobilization increases the shoreface slope and energy on the runup.

Almeida, L. P.; Masselink, G.; Russell, P. E.; Davidson, M. A.

2015-01-01

180

Design and modeling of an acoustically excited double-paddle scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamic analysis is an essential factor in the design, fabrication and optimization of micro-systems. Micro-scanners are currently subjected to wide research work. In this paper, the dynamic behavior of a monolithic single-crystal silicon microstructure is investigated. The microstructure used is a double-paddle scanning mirror for laser applications. It consists of two similar plates (wings) connected to another plate (mirror) and is suspended by one torsion bar. The dynamic analysis is conducted numerically, using finite element analysis. The numerical modeling is described. The numerical results are validated experimentally by measuring the frequency response functions collected at some points on the scanner surface. The experimental modal analysis is performed using a laser Doppler vibrometer and an acoustic excitation device. The excitation device consists of a polyester resin mount with two conic-shaped ducts which give access to the back of the two wings from one side and to two mini loudspeakers on the other side. This excitation device was used and good agreement was found between the numerically predicted and the experimentally identified modal parameters. The non-intrusive excitation mechanism and the optical measurement techniques used in the experiments are discussed. A high quality factor is identified for the chosen operational mode shape.

Ahmida, Khaled M.; Ferreira, Luiz Otávio S.

2004-10-01

181

A PC-based multispectral scanner data evaluation workstation: Application to Daedalus scanners  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In late 1989, a personal computer (PC)-based data evaluation workstation was developed to support post flight processing of Multispectral Atmospheric Mapping Sensor (MAMS) data. The MAMS Quick View System (QVS) is an image analysis and display system designed to provide the capability to evaluate Daedalus scanner data immediately after an aircraft flight. Even in its original form, the QVS offered the portability of a personal computer with the advanced analysis and display features of a mainframe image analysis system. It was recognized, however, that the original QVS had its limitations, both in speed and processing of MAMS data. Recent efforts are presented that focus on overcoming earlier limitations and adapting the system to a new data tape structure. In doing so, the enhanced Quick View System (QVS2) will accommodate data from any of the four spectrometers used with the Daedalus scanner on the NASA ER2 platform. The QVS2 is designed around the AST 486/33 MHz CPU personal computer and comes with 10 EISA expansion slots, keyboard, and 4.0 mbytes of memory. Specialized PC-McIDAS software provides the main image analysis and display capability for the system. Image analysis and display of the digital scanner data is accomplished with PC-McIDAS software.

Jedlovec, Gary J.; James, Mark W.; Smith, Matthew R.; Atkinson, Robert J.

1991-01-01

182

Secular Evolution in Barred Galaxies  

E-print Network

A strong bar rotating within a massive halo should lose angular momentum to the halo through dynamical friction, as predicted by Weinberg. We have conducted fully self-consistent, numerical simulations of barred galaxy models with a live halo population and find that bars are indeed braked very rapidly. Specifically, we find that the bar slows sufficiently within a few rotation periods that the distance from the centre to co-rotation is more than twice the semi-major axis of the bar. Observational evidence (meagre) for bar pattern speeds seems to suggest that this ratio typically lies between 1.2 to 1.5 in real galaxies. We consider, a number of possible explanations for this discrepancy between theoretical prediction and observation, and conclude that no conventional alternative seems able to account for it.

J. A. Sellwood; Victor P. Debattista

1996-02-06

183

Beyond Hopkinson's bar.  

PubMed

In order to perform experimental identification of high strain rate material models, engineers have only a very limited toolbox based on test procedures developed decades ago. The best example is the so-called split Hopkinson pressure bar based on the bar concept introduced 100 years ago by Bertram Hopkinson to measure blast pulses. The recent advent of full-field deformation measurements using imaging techniques has allowed novel approaches to be developed and exciting new testing procedures to be imagined for the first time. One can use this full-field information in conjunction with efficient numerical inverse identification tools such as the virtual fields method (VFM) to identify material parameters at high rates. The underpinning novelty is to exploit the inertial effects developed in high strain rate loading. This paper presents results from a new inertial impact test to obtain stress-strain curves at high strain rates (here, up to 3000?s(-1)). A quasi-isotropic composite specimen is equipped with a grid and images are recorded with the new HPV-X camera from Shimadzu at 5?Mfps and the SIMX16 camera from Specialised Imaging at 1?Mfps. Deformation, strain and acceleration fields are then input into the VFM to identify the stiffness parameters with unprecedented quality. PMID:25071232

Pierron, F; Zhu, H; Siviour, C

2014-08-28

184

KTN-based electro-optic beam scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a new type of high-speed electro-optic (E-O) beam scanner based on Potassium Tantalate Niobate (KTN) crystal. It has larger scanning angle, better angular resolution, and lower driving voltage comparing to the traditional E-O crystal beam scanner. Compared to conventional moving mirrors such as servo-controlled mirrors and galvanic mirrors, the demonstrated E-O beam scanner can improve the response time by 100 times. The presented device has many other unique features such as light weight, small dimension, low power consumption, and no-moving components particularly suitable for airborne and space-borne applications.

Tang, Yuanji; Wang, Jiyang; Wang, Xuping; Baofeng, Duan; Tang, Suning; Foshee, James

2008-11-01

185

Design study for Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of dividing the 8-12 micrometer thermal infrared wavelength region into six spectral bands by an airborne line scanner system was investigated. By combining an existing scanner design with a 6 band spectrometer, a system for the remote sensing of Earth resources was developed. The elements in the spectrometer include an off axis reflective collimator, a reflective diffraction grating, a triplet germanium imaging lens, a photoconductive mercury cadmium telluride sensor array, and the mechanical assembly to hold these parts and maintain their optical alignment across a broad temperature range. The existing scanner design was modified to accept the new spectrometer and two field filling thermal reference sources.

Stanich, C. G.; Osterwisch, F. G.; Szeles, D. M.; Houtman, W. H.

1981-01-01

186

Forthroid on Android: A QR-code based Information Access System for Smart Phones  

E-print Network

, and metropolitan areas. The Forthroid uses Quick Response codes (QR-codes), which are two-dimensional bar- codesForthroid on Android: A QR-code based Information Access System for Smart Phones Anastasios objects. It employs computer-vision techniques and Quick Response codes (QR-codes). We have implemented

Papadopouli, Maria

187

Avi Bar Massada Curriculum Vitae  

E-print Network

units in a Mediterranean landscape. International Journal of Remote Sensing, in press. Bar Massada, A 2007 ­ 2008 Teaching assistant - Remote sensing and GIS applications in Ecology and Environment in the wildland-urban interface. International Journal of Wildland Fire 20:59-68. Bar Massada, A., Kent, R., Blank

Mladenoff, David

188

Implementation of viscoelastic Hopkinson bars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge of the properties of soft, viscoelastic materials at high strain rates are important in furthering our understanding of their role during blast or impact events. Testing these low impedance materials using a metallic split Hopkinson pressure bar setup results in poor signal to noise ratios due to impedance mismatching. These difficulties are overcome by using polymeric Hopkinson bars. Conventional Hopkinson bar analysis cannot be used on the polymeric bars due to the viscoelastic nature of the bar material. Implementing polymeric Hopkinson bars requires characterization of the viscoelastic properties of the material used. In this paper, 30 mm diameter Polymethyl Methacrylate bars are used as Hopkinson pressure bars. This testing technique is applied to polymeric foam called Divinycell H80 and H200. Although there is a large body of of literature containing compressive data, this rarely deals with strain rates above 250s-1 which becomes increasingly important when looking at the design of composite structures where energy absorption during impact events is high on the list of priorities. Testing of polymeric foams at high strain rates allows for the development of better constitutive models.

Curry, R.; Cloete, T.; Govender, R.

2012-08-01

189

GASEOUS STRUCTURES IN BARRED GALAXIES: EFFECTS OF THE BAR STRENGTH  

SciTech Connect

Using hydrodynamic simulations, we investigate the physical properties of gaseous substructures in barred galaxies and their relationships with the bar strength. The gaseous medium is assumed to be isothermal and unmagnetized. The bar potential is modeled as a Ferrers prolate with index n. To explore situations with differing bar strength, we vary the bar mass f{sub bar} relative to the spheroidal component as well as its aspect ratio R. We derive expressions as functions of f{sub bar} and R for the bar strength Q{sub b} and the radius r(Q{sub b} ) where the maximum bar torque occurs. When applied to observations, these expressions suggest that bars in real galaxies are most likely to have f{sub bar} {approx} 0.25-0.50 and n {approx}< 1. Dust lanes approximately follow one of the x{sub 1}-orbits and tend to be straighter under a stronger and more elongated bar, but are insensitive to the presence of self-gravity. A nuclear ring of a conventional x{sub 2} type forms only when the bar is not so massive or elongated. The radius of an x{sub 2}-type ring is generally smaller than the inner Lindblad resonance, decreases systematically with increasing Q{sub b} , and is slightly larger when self-gravity is included. This is evidence that the ring position is not determined by the resonance, but instead by the amount of angular momentum loss at dust-lane shocks. Nuclear spirals exist only when the ring is of the x{sub 2} type and is sufficiently large in size. Unlike the other features, nuclear spirals are transient in that they start out being tightly wound and weak, and then, due to the nonlinear effect, unwind and become stronger until they turn into shocks, with an unwinding rate that is higher for larger Q{sub b} . The mass inflow rate to the galaxy center is found to be less than 0.01 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} for models with Q{sub b} {approx}< 0.2, while becoming larger than 0.1 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} when Q{sub b} {approx}> 0.2 and self-gravity is included.

Kim, Woong-Tae; Seo, Woo-Young; Kim, Yonghwi, E-mail: wkim@astro.snu.ac.kr [Center for the Exploration of the Origin of the Universe (CEOU), Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-10-10

190

Whole-body 35-GHz security scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 35GHz imager designed for Security Scanning has been previously demonstrated. That imager was based on a folded conical scan technology and was constructed from low cost materials such as expanded polystyrene and printed circuit board. In conjunction with an illumination chamber it was used to collect indoor imagery of people with weapons and contraband hidden under their clothing. That imager had a spot size of 20mm and covered a field of view of 20 x 10 degrees that partially covered the body of an adult from knees to shoulders. A new variant of this imager has been designed and constructed. It has a field of view of 36 x 18 degrees and is capable of covering the whole body of an adult. This was achieved by increasing the number of direct detection receivers from the 32 used in the previous design to 58, and by implementing an improved optical design. The optics consist of a front grid, a polarisation device which converts linear to circular polarisation and a rotating scanner. This new design uses high-density expanded polystyrene as a correcting element on the back of the front grid. This gives an added degree of freedom that allows the optical design to be diffraction limited over a very wide field of view. Obscuration by the receivers and associated components is minimised by integrating the post detection electronics at the receiver array.

Appleby, Roger; Anderton, Rupert N.; Price, Sean; Sinclair, Gordon N.; Coward, Peter R.

2004-08-01

191

Micromirrors for direct writing systems and scanners  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three different types of deformable mirror Spatial Light Modulators (SLMs) based on device concepts like Viscoelastic Control Layer (VCL), Cantilever Beam Mirror (CBM), and Moving Liquid Mirror (MLM) have been developed. All of them allow to create deformation profiles which act as phase gratings whose period is defined by the pitch of the pixel electrodes. The diffraction of the incident light is used to achieve spatial light modulation. The operation principles of the different types of SLMs are outlined in detail. All the mentioned SLMs can be manufactured on top of a high voltage CMOS circuitry. SLMs with up to 2 million pixels in analog operation mode have been realized up to now. The benefits of the different approaches with respect to fabrication aspects and respect to different applications will be addressed. For the angular deflection of light a new type of resonant microscanner mirror was developed. The device is based on a silicon micromechanical torsional actuator. The new approach for the configuration of the electrodes and the resulting driving principle allows to achieve large scanning angles (plus or minus 30 degree optically at atmospheric pressure) at low driving voltages (20 V max.) and low power consumption (less than 1 (mu) W). The operation principle of the new device enables the realization of 2D scanners as well.

Lakner, Hubert K.; Doleschal, Wolfgang; Duerr, Peter; Gehner, Andreas; Schenk, Harald; Wolter, Alexander; Zimmer, Guenter

1999-09-01

192

Fingerprint scanner using digital interference holography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present three-dimensional imaging of artificial fingerprints using the Digital Interference Holography (DIH) scanner. DIH is based on a multiwavelength optical sensing technique that can be used to build holographically the three dimensional structure of the fingerprints. Many holograms (~50) were acquired by a CCD camera by scanning a range of wavelengths. Each hologram was numerically reconstructed and then superposed yielding tomographic images which represented the artificial fingerprint structure. The axial resolution is a parameter that depends on the wavelength scanning range and is about 5 ?m. The light source was a solid state pumped dye laser with a tunable wavelength range of 550 nm to 600 nm. Holograms were captured by a monochrome CCD camera (Sony XC-ST50, with 780 × 640 pixels and a pixel size of ~ 9 ?m). An image acquisition board (NI IMAQ PCI-1407) digitized the image with 8 bit resolution. All software was developed in house with the NI LabView. We used a Michelson interferometer in a backscattering geometry and the reconstruction of the optical field was done using the angular spectrum algorithm. Our goal is to identify and quantify, Level 1 (pattern), Level 2 (minutia points), and Level 3 (ridge contours) features from the amplitude images, using the DIH technique and fingerprints recognition. The results could be used in the two fingerprint matching phases, identification and verification.

Potcoava, Mariana C.; Kim, Myung K.

2009-05-01

193

Meteorological waves (by Ocean Color Scanner Data)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data of normalized water leaving radiance at a wavelength 859 nm Lwn(859) of 250-m spatial resolution obtained from Moderate Ocean Color Scanners (MODIS) installed on Aqua and Terra satellites were used to study meteorological waves. These waves are caused by atmospheric internal gravity waves at the expense of a change of atmospheric pressure impacting the sea surface and bringing a change in its level; they are observable everywhere in the ocean. Examples of meteorological waves were considered for the eastern part of the Black Sea, where they appeared as stripes of alternate brightness on Lwn(859) images. It is shown that meteorological waves at one and the same place can be totally generated by atmospheric waves spreading at different heights of the lower troposphere. The 3D characteristics of meteorological waves were evaluated including the direction of wave propagation, crest length reaching more than one hundred kilometers, wavelength of several tens centimeters, and wave amplitude of several tens of centimeters. For conditions of intermittent cloudiness, imposition in a difference mode of the level L1b radiance image with the signature of atmospheric waves in a cloud and of the level L2 water leaving the radiance image with the signature of meteorological waves enabled us to examine the phase structure of waves and to reveal the existence of resonance.

Evdoshenko, M. A.

2014-10-01

194

Focal plane scanner with reciprocating spatial window  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A focal plane scanner having a front objective lens, a spatial window for selectively passing a portion of the image therethrough, and a CCD array for receiving the passed portion of the image. All embodiments have a common feature whereby the spatial window and CCD array are mounted for simultaneous relative reciprocating movement with respect to the front objective lens, and the spatial window is mounted within the focal plane of the front objective. In a first embodiment, the spatial window is a slit and the CCD array is one-dimensional, and successive rows of the image in the focal plane of the front objective lens are passed to the CCD array by an image relay lens interposed between the slit and the CCD array. In a second embodiment, the spatial window is a slit, the CCD array is two-dimensional, and a prism-grating-prism optical spectrometer is interposed between the slit and the CCD array so as to cause the scanned row to be split into a plurality of spectral separations onto the CCD array. In a third embodiment, the CCD array is two-dimensional and the spatial window is a rectangular linear variable filter (LVF) window, so as to cause the scanned rows impinging on the LVF to be bandpass filtered into spectral components onto the CCD array through an image relay lens interposed between the LVF and the CCD array.

Mao, Chengye (Inventor)

2000-01-01

195

Compact implementation of dynamic receive apodization in ultrasound scanners  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The image quality in medical ultrasound scanners is determined by several factors, one of which is the ability of the receive beamformer to change the aperture weighting function with depth and beam angle. In digital beamformers, precise dynamic apodization can be achieved by representing that function by numeric sequences. For a 15 cm scan depth and 100 lines per image, a 64-channel, 40 MHz ultrasound beamformer may need almost 50 million coefficients. A more coarse representation of the aperture relieves the memory requirements but does not enable compact and precise beamforming. Previously, the authors have developed a compact beamformer architecture which utilizes sigma-delta A/D conversion, recursive delay generation and sparse sample reconstruction using FIR filters. The channel weights were here fixed. In this paper, a compact implementation of dynamic receive apodization is presented. It allows precise weighting coefficient generation and utilizes a recursive algorithm which shares its starting parameters with the recursive delay generation logic. Thus, only a separate calculation block, consisting of 5 adders and 5 registers, is necessary. A VHDL implementation in a Xilinx XCV2000E-7 FPGA has been made for the whole receive beamformer for assessing the necessary hardware resources and the achievable performance for that platform. The code implements dynamic apodization with an expanding aperture for either linear or phased array imaging. A complete 32-channel beamformer can operate at 129.82 MHz and occupies 1.28 million gates. Simulated in Matlab, a 64-channel beamformer provides gray scale image with around 55 dB dynamic range. The beamformed data can also be used for flow estimation.

Tomov, Borislav G.; Jensen, Jørgen A.

2004-04-01

196

Basic Business and Economics: Understanding the Uses of the Universal Product Code  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Universal Product Code (UPC), the two-part food labeling and packaging code which is both human- and electronic scanner-readable. Discusses how it affects both consumer and business, and suggests how to teach the UPC code to business education students. (HD)

Blockhus, Wanda

1977-01-01

197

Steps towards Quality Improvement of Airborne Laser Scanner Data  

E-print Network

Steps towards Quality Improvement of Airborne Laser Scanner Data A Behan1 , H-G Maas2 and G (Crombaghs et al. 2000). In research conducted at the Institute of Photogrammetry (IFP), Stuttgart University

Vosselman, George

198

Localization of mobile laser scanner using classical mechanics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use a single 2D laser scanner to 3D scan indoor environments, without any inertial measurement units or reference coordinates. The localization is done directly from the point cloud in an intrinsic manner compared to other state-of-the-art mobile laser scanning methods where external inertial or odometry sensors are employed and synchronized with the laser scanner. Our approach is based on treating the scanner as a holonomic system. A novel type of scanner platform, called VILMA, is designed and built to demonstrate the functionality of the presented approach. Results from flat-floor and non-flat-floor environments are presented. They suggest that intrinsic localization may be generalized for broader use.

Lehtola, Ville V.; Virtanen, Juho-Pekka; Kukko, Antero; Kaartinen, Harri; Hyyppä, Hannu

2015-01-01

199

NOAA-9 Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanner offsets determination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) instruments are designed to measure the components of the radiative exchange between the Sun, Earth and space. ERBE is comprised of three spacecraft, each carrying a nearly identical set of radiometers: a three-channel narrow-field-of-view scanner, a two-channel wide-field-of-view (limb-to-limb) non-scanning radiometer, a two-channel medium field-of view (1000 km) non-scanning radiometer, and a solar monitor. Ground testing showed the scanners to be susceptible to self-generated and externally generated electromagnetic noise. This paper describes the pre-launch corrective measures taken and the post-launch corrections to the NOAA-9 scanner data. The NOAA-9 scanner has met the mission objectives in accuracy and precision, in part because of the pre-launch reductions of and post-launch data corrections for the electromagnetic noise.

Avis, Lee M.; Paden, Jack; Lee, Robert B., III; Pandey, Dhirendra K.; Stassi, Joseph C.; Wilson, Robert S.; Tolson, Carol J.; Bolden, William C.

1994-01-01

200

21 CFR 892.1300 - Nuclear rectilinear scanner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1300 Nuclear rectilinear scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear...

2010-04-01

201

21 CFR 892.1330 - Nuclear whole body scanner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1330 Nuclear whole body scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear...

2011-04-01

202

21 CFR 892.1300 - Nuclear rectilinear scanner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1300 Nuclear rectilinear scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear...

2014-04-01

203

21 CFR 892.1300 - Nuclear rectilinear scanner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1300 Nuclear rectilinear scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear...

2011-04-01

204

21 CFR 892.1330 - Nuclear whole body scanner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1330 Nuclear whole body scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear...

2012-04-01

205

21 CFR 892.1330 - Nuclear whole body scanner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1330 Nuclear whole body scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear...

2010-04-01

206

21 CFR 892.1330 - Nuclear whole body scanner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1330 Nuclear whole body scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear...

2014-04-01

207

21 CFR 892.1330 - Nuclear whole body scanner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1330 Nuclear whole body scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear...

2013-04-01

208

21 CFR 892.1300 - Nuclear rectilinear scanner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1300 Nuclear rectilinear scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear...

2013-04-01

209

21 CFR 892.1300 - Nuclear rectilinear scanner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1300 Nuclear rectilinear scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear...

2012-04-01

210

Agricultural Applications and Requirements for Thermal Infrared Scanners  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some of the applications of thermal scanner data in agriculture are presented along with illustrations of some of the factors affecting the temperature of plants, soil, and water. Examples of thermal imagery are included.

Wiegand, C. L.

1971-01-01

211

Experiments and simulations on a metamaterial based ultrasonic scanner  

E-print Network

Fingerprint scanning is one form of biometrics used to identify individuals. Ultrasonic fingerprint scanners use acoustic waves to obtain the fingerprint image and their performance is invariant to the surface conditions ...

Hizir, Fahri Erinc

2013-01-01

212

DISS. ETH NO. 17036 Calibration of a Terrestrial Laser Scanner  

E-print Network

DISS. ETH NO. 17036 Calibration of a Terrestrial Laser Scanner for Engineering Geodesy For several years now, terrestrial laser scanning has become an additional surveying technique in geodesy heritage, reverse engineering, and engineering geodesy. Due to the increased requirements regarding

Giger, Christine

213

Determination of the weighted CT dose index in modern multi-detector CT scanners  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the present study was to (a) evaluate the underestimation in the value of the free-in-air (CTDIair) and the weighted CT dose index (CTDIw) determined with the standard 100 mm pencil chamber, i.e. the CTDI100 concept, for the whole range of nominal radiation beam collimations selectable in a modern multi-slice CT scanner, (b) estimate the optimum length of the pencil-chamber and phantoms for accurate CTDIw measurements and (c) provide CTDIw values normalized to free-in-air CTDI for different tube-voltage, nominal radiation beam collimations and beam filtration values. The underestimation in the determination of CTDIair and CTDIw using the CTDI100 concept was determined from measurements obtained with standard polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA) phantoms and arrays of thermoluminescence dosimeters. The Monte Carlo N-Particle transport code was used to simulate standard CTDI measurements on a 16-slice CT scanner. The optimum pencil-chamber length for accurate determination of CTDIw was estimated as the minimum chamber length for which a further increase in length does not alter the value of the CTDI. CTDIw/CTDIair ratios were determined using Monte Carlo simulation and the optimum detector length for all selectable tube-voltage values and for three different values of beam filtration. To verify the Monte Carlo results, measured values of CTDIw/CTDIair ratios using the standard 100 mm pencil ionization chamber were compared with corresponding values calculated with Monte Carlo experiments. The underestimation in the determination of CTDIair using the 100 mm pencil chamber was less than 1% for all beam collimations. The underestimation in CTDIw was 15% and 27% for head and body phantoms, respectively. The optimum detector length for accurate CTDIw measurements was found to be 50 cm for the beam collimations commonly employed in modern multi-detector (MD) CT scanners. The ratio of CTDIw/CTDIair determined using the optimum detector length was found to be independent of beam collimation. Percentage differences between measured and calculated corresponding CTDIw/CTDIair ratios were always less than 8% for head and less than 5% for body PMMA phantoms. In conclusion, the CTDIair of MDCT scanners may be measured accurately with a 100 mm pencil chamber. However, the CTDI100 concept was found to be inadequate for accurate CTDIw determination for the wide beam collimations commonly used in MDCT scanners. Accurate CTDIw determination presupposes the use of a pencil chamber and PMMA phantoms at least 50 cm long.

Perisinakis, K.; Damilakis, J.; Tzedakis, A.; Papadakis, A.; Theocharopoulos, N.; Gourtsoyiannis, N.

2007-11-01

214

AVG LinkScanner 8.5.289  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Users hoping to look for safe websites as they browse will appreciate learning about AVG's LinkScanner plug-in. LinkScanner works with both Firefox and Internet Explorer via its "Search Shield" to return only search safe results from both Google and Yahoo tagged with green or red flags. When visitors move over a flag, they will learn the IP address of the site, along with other relevant information. This version is compatible with computers running Windows 2000 and newer.

2009-04-24

215

A low noise infrared spot scanner for testing detector arrays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A low noise spot scanner has been built for use in testing the performance of infrared detector arrays for NASA's IR detector technology development program and the University of California's MICRO program. The scanner provides a convenient low noise detector test environment and a wide range of test conditions including versatile temperature control of the detector, ambient background, and blackbody source temperature and control of spot size, color, and brightness.

Puetter, R. C.; Brissenden, P.; Casler, J.; Hier, R. G.; Jones, B.

1984-01-01

216

Design of a small animal MR compatible PET scanner  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a combination of Monte Carlo simulations and experimental measurements we have designed a small-animal MRI-compatible PET (McPET) scanner for simultaneous PET imaging and MRI of mice and rats in vivo. The scanner consists of one ring of 480 LSO (Lu2SiO5 ) crystals arranged in three layers, with 160 crystals per layer. The crystal dimensions are 2×3×7.5 mm3. This was

Randal Slates; Simon Cherry; Abdel Boutefnouchet; Yiping Shao; M. Dahlborn; Keyvan Farahani

1999-01-01

217

47. View of "dry air inlets" to waveguides entering scanner ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

47. View of "dry air inlets" to waveguides entering scanner building 105. Dried air is generated under pressure by Ingersoll-Rand dehumidified/dessicator and compressor system. View is at entrance from passageway that links into corner of scanner building. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

218

VisBAR Wave Batch 1 VisBAR wave batch 1  

E-print Network

README VisBAR_wave _batch[*] Python VisBAR_wave _batch VisBAR (VisBAR=Visualization tool with Ball, Arrow.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 3.1.1 Python . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 3 ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 ii #12;1 VisBAR wave batch 1.1 VisBAR wave batch Python[1] Input GaussianCube ( Cube ) Cube Cube

Hoshi, Takeo

219

Accurate modeling of a DOI capable small animal PET scanner using GATE.  

PubMed

In this work we developed a Monte Carlo (MC) model of the Sedecal Argus pre-clinical PET scanner, using GATE (Geant4 Application for Tomographic Emission). This is a dual-ring scanner which features DOI compensation by means of two layers of detector crystals (LYSO and GSO). Geometry of detectors and sources, pulses readout and selection of coincidence events were modeled with GATE, while a separate code was developed in order to emulate the processing of digitized data (for example, customized time windows and data flow saturation), the final binning of the lines of response and to reproduce the data output format of the scanner's acquisition software. Validation of the model was performed by modeling several phantoms used in experimental measurements, in order to compare the results of the simulations. Spatial resolution, sensitivity, scatter fraction, count rates and NECR were tested. Moreover, the NEMA NU-4 phantom was modeled in order to check for the image quality yielded by the model. Noise, contrast of cold and hot regions and recovery coefficient were calculated and compared using images of the NEMA phantom acquired with our scanner. The energy spectrum of coincidence events due to the small amount of (176)Lu in LYSO crystals, which was suitably included in our model, was also compared with experimental measurements. Spatial resolution, sensitivity and scatter fraction showed an agreement within 7%. Comparison of the count rates curves resulted satisfactory, being the values within the uncertainties, in the range of activities practically used in research scans. Analysis of the NEMA phantom images also showed a good agreement between simulated and acquired data, within 9% for all the tested parameters. This work shows that basic MC modeling of this kind of system is possible using GATE as a base platform; extension through suitably written customized code allows for an adequate level of accuracy in the results. Our careful validation against experimental data confirms that the developed simulation setup is a useful tool for a wide range of research applications. PMID:23501360

Zagni, F; D'Ambrosio, D; Spinelli, A E; Cicoria, G; Fanti, S; Marengo, M

2013-05-01

220

A stationary digital breast tomosynthesis scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A prototype stationary digital breast tomosynthesis (s-DBT) system has been developed by retrofitting a Hologic Selenia Dimension rotating gantry tomosynthesis scanner with a spatially distributed carbon nanotube (CNT) x-ray source array. The goal is to improve the system spatial resolution by removing the x-ray tube motion induced focal spot blurring. The CNT x-ray source array comprises 31 individually addressable x-ray beams covering 30° angular span. Each x-ray beam has a minimum focal spot size of 0.64×0.61mm (full-width-at-half-maximum), a stationary W anode operating up to 50kVp, and 1mm thick Al filter. The flux from each beam is regulated and varied using dedicated control electronics. The maximum tube current is determined by the heat load of the stationary anode and depends on the energy, pulse width and the focal spot size used. Stable operation at 28kVp, 27mA tube current, 250msec pulse width and 38mA tube current, 183msec pulse width per exposure was achieved with extended lifetime. The standard ACR phantom was imaged and analyzed to evaluate the image quality. The actual scanning speed depends on the number of views and the readout time of the x-ray detector. With the present detector, 6 second scanning time at either 15 views or 31 views can be achieved at 100mAs total imaging dose with a detector readout time of 240msec.

Qian, Xin; Tucker, Andrew; Gidcumb, Emily; Lu, Jianping; Zhou, Otto; Spronk, Derrek; Sprenger, Frank; Zhang, Yiheng; Kennedy, Don; Farbizio, Tom; Jing, Zhenxue

2012-03-01

221

Judicial Elections, Judicial Impartiality and Legitimate Judicial Lawmaking: Williams-Yulee v. the Florida Bar  

E-print Network

C(2); WIS. CODE OF JUD. CONDUCT, R. 60.06(4); WYO. CODE OF JUD. CONDUCT, CANON 4, R. 4.2(B)(4). 27. A.B.A. MODEL CODE OF JUD. CONDUCT, Canon 4.1(A)(8) (2011). 28. Simes v. Ark. Judicial Discipline & Disability Comm’n, 247 S.W.3d 876, 881... THE FLA. BAR 3-7.6(a)(1) (1992) (“The chief justice shall have the power to appoint referees to try disciplinary cases . . . .”). 16. Williams-Yulee, 138 So.3d at 382. 17. Id. 18. Id. at 381; see also R. REGULATING THE FLA. BAR 3-7.6(m) (1992...

Ware, Stephen

2015-01-01

222

Color accuracy and reproducibility in whole slide imaging scanners  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we propose a work-flow for color reproduction in whole slide imaging (WSI) scanners such that the colors in the scanned images match to the actual slide color and the inter scanner variation is minimum. We describe a novel method of preparation and verification of the color phantom slide, consisting of a standard IT8- target transmissive film, which is used in color calibrating and profiling the WSI scanner. We explore several ICC compliant techniques in color calibration/profiling and rendering intents for translating the scanner specific colors to the standard display (sRGB) color-space. Based on the quality of color reproduction in histopathology tissue slides, we propose the matrix-based calibration/profiling and absolute colorimetric rendering approach. The main advantage of the proposed work-ow is that it is compliant to the ICC standard, applicable to color management systems in different platforms, and involves no external color measurement devices. We measure objective color performance using CIE-DeltaE2000 metric, where DeltaE values below 1 is considered imperceptible. Our evaluation 14 phantom slides, manufactured according to the proposed method, show an average inter-slide color difference below 1 DeltaE. The proposed work-flow is implemented and evaluated in 35 Philips Ultra Fast Scanners (UFS). The results show that the average color difference between a scanner and the reference is 3.5 DeltaE, and among the scanners is 3.1 DeltaE. The improvement on color performance upon using the proposed method is apparent on the visual color quality of the tissues scans.

Shrestha, Prarthana; Hulsken, Bas

2014-03-01

223

Triple bar, high efficiency mechanical sealer  

DOEpatents

A clamp with a bottom clamp bar that has a planar upper surface is provided. The clamp may also include a top clamp bar connected to the bottom clamp bar, and a pressure distribution bar between the top clamp bar and the bottom clamp bar. The pressure distribution bar may have a planar lower surface in facing relation to the upper surface of the bottom clamp bar. An object is capable of being disposed in a clamping region between the upper surface and the lower surface. The width of the planar lower surface may be less than the width of the upper surface within the clamping region. Also, the pressure distribution bar may be capable of being urged away from the top clamp bar and towards the bottom clamp bar.

Pak, Donald J.; Hawkins, Samantha A.; Young, John E.

2013-03-19

224

Pyramid image codes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

All vision systems, both human and machine, transform the spatial image into a coded representation. Particular codes may be optimized for efficiency or to extract useful image features. Researchers explored image codes based on primary visual cortex in man and other primates. Understanding these codes will advance the art in image coding, autonomous vision, and computational human factors. In cortex, imagery is coded by features that vary in size, orientation, and position. Researchers have devised a mathematical model of this transformation, called the Hexagonal oriented Orthogonal quadrature Pyramid (HOP). In a pyramid code, features are segregated by size into layers, with fewer features in the layers devoted to large features. Pyramid schemes provide scale invariance, and are useful for coarse-to-fine searching and for progressive transmission of images. The HOP Pyramid is novel in three respects: (1) it uses a hexagonal pixel lattice, (2) it uses oriented features, and (3) it accurately models most of the prominent aspects of primary visual cortex. The transform uses seven basic features (kernels), which may be regarded as three oriented edges, three oriented bars, and one non-oriented blob. Application of these kernels to non-overlapping seven-pixel neighborhoods yields six oriented, high-pass pyramid layers, and one low-pass (blob) layer.

Watson, Andrew B.

1990-01-01

225

Computer simulations to estimate organ doses from clinically validated cardiac, neuro, and pediatric protocols for multiple detector computed tomography scanners  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances in Computed Tomography (CT) technology, particularly that of multiple detector CT (MDCT) scanning, have provided increased utilization and more diverse clinical applications including more advanced vascular and cardiac exams, perfusion imaging, and screening exams. Notwithstanding the benefits to the patient undergoing a CT study, the fundamental concern in radiation protection is the minimization of the radiation exposure delivered as well as the implementation of structures to prevent inappropriate ordering and clinical use of these advanced studies. This research work developed a computational methodology for routine clinical use to assess patient organ doses from MDCT scanners. To support the methodology, a computer code (DXS-Diagnostic X-ray Spectra) was developed to accurately and conveniently generate x-ray spectra in the diagnostic energy range (45-140 keV). The two accepted standard radiation transport calculation methods namely, deterministic and Monte Carlo, have been preliminarily investigated for their capability and readiness to support the proposed goal of the work. Thorough tests demonstrated that the lack of appropriate discrete photon interaction coefficients in the aforementioned diagnostic energy range impedes the applicability of the deterministic approach to routine clinical use; improvements in the multigroup treatment may make it more viable. Thus, the open source Monte Carlo code, MCNP5, was adapted to appropriately model an MDCT scan. For this, a new method, entirely based on routine clinical CT measurements, was developed and validated to generate an "equivalent source and filtration" model that obviates the need of proprietary information for a given CT scanner. Computer simulations employing the Monte Carlo methodology and UF's tomographic human phantoms were performed to assess, compare, and optimize pediatric, cardiac and neuro-imaging protocols for the new 320-slice scanner at Shands/UF based on dose considerations. Results were compared against organ dose measurements previously obtained at Shands UF. Important dose reductions were assessed for the broad beam volumetric acquisition of this new scanner when compared to the standard 64-slice helical protocols.

Ghita, Monica

226

An RF dosimeter for independent SAR measurement in MRI scanners  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The monitoring and management of radio frequency (RF) exposure is critical for ensuring magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) safety. Commercial MRI scanners can overestimate specific absorption rates (SAR) and improperly restrict clinical MRI scans or the application of new MRI sequences, while underestimation of SAR can lead to tissue heating and thermal injury. Accurate scanner-independent RF dosimetry is essential for measuring actual exposure when SAR is critical for ensuring regulatory compliance and MRI safety, for establishing RF exposure while evaluating interventional leads and devices, and for routine MRI quality assessment by medical physicists. However, at present there are no scanner-independent SAR dosimeters. Methods: An SAR dosimeter with an RF transducer comprises two orthogonal, rectangular copper loops and a spherical MRI phantom. The transducer is placed in the magnet bore and calibrated to approximate the resistive loading of the scanner's whole-body birdcage RF coil for human subjects in Philips, GE and Siemens 3 tesla (3T) MRI scanners. The transducer loop reactances are adjusted to minimize interference with the transmit RF field (B{sub 1}) at the MRI frequency. Power from the RF transducer is sampled with a high dynamic range power monitor and recorded on a computer. The deposited power is calibrated and tested on eight different MRI scanners. Whole-body absorbed power vs weight and body mass index (BMI) is measured directly on 26 subjects. Results: A single linear calibration curve sufficed for RF dosimetry at 127.8 MHz on three different Philips and three GE 3T MRI scanners. An RF dosimeter operating at 123.2 MHz on two Siemens 3T scanners required a separate transducer and a slightly different calibration curve. Measurement accuracy was ?3%. With the torso landmarked at the xiphoid, human adult whole?body absorbed power varied approximately linearly with patient weight and BMI. This indicates that whole-body torso SAR is on average independent of the imaging subject, albeit with fluctuations. Conclusions: Our 3T RF dosimeter and transducers accurately measure RF exposure in body-equivalent loads and provide scanner-independent assessments of whole-body RF power deposition for establishing safety compliance useful for MRI sequence and device testing.

Qian, Di; Bottomley, Paul A. [Division of MR Research, Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21287 and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States)] [Division of MR Research, Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21287 and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); El-Sharkawy, AbdEl-Monem M.; Edelstein, William A., E-mail: w.edelstein@gmail.com [Division of MR Research, Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21287 (United States)

2013-12-15

227

Aviation focused eddy current and ultrasonic scanner assessment  

SciTech Connect

Ultrasonic and eddy current C-scan images have been produced for non-destructive inspection (NDI) with laboratory scanners for over 25 years. In the last five years, portable mechanical scanner designs have been improved and modified so that they are suitable for application on aircraft structures. Eddy current and ultrasonic C-scan inspections are significant because they can be used for early detection of hidden damage. As an aid to the airline inspection industry, an evaluation of commercially available portable scanner systems and methodologies used for C-scan imaging of eddy current and ultrasonic inspection data was performed. Eight basic scanner designs were identified and scanner systems from eleven different companies were evaluated. Vendors of the equipment provided hands-on demonstrations on actual aircraft samples in the Federal Aviation Agency (FAA) Aging Aircraft Nondestructive Inspection Validation Center (AANC). From observations and information recorded during the demonstrations, capabilities and limitations of the design, portability, articulation, performance, usability, and computer hardware/software were tabulated.

Gieske, J.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1995-07-01

228

Double-Barred Galaxies: I. A Catalog of Barred Galaxies with Stellar Secondary Bars and Inner Disks  

E-print Network

I present a catalog of 67 barred galaxies which contain distinct, elliptical stellar structures inside their bars. Fifty of these are double-barred galaxies: a small-scale, "inner" or "secondary" bar is embedded within a large-scale, "outer" or "primary" bar. I provide homogenized measurements of the sizes, ellipticities, and orientations of both inner and outer bars, along with with global parameters for the galaxies. The other 17 are classified as "inner-disk" galaxies, where a large-scale bar harbors an inner elliptical structure which is aligned with the galaxy's outer disk. Four of the double-barred galaxies also possess inner disks, located in between the inner and outer bars. While the inner-disk classification is ad-hoc -- and undoubtedly includes some inner bars with chance alignments (five such probable cases are identified) -- there is good evidence that inner disks form a statistically distinct population, and that at least some are indeed disks rather than bars. In addition, I list 36 galaxies which may be double-barred, but for which current observations are ambiguous or incomplete, and another 23 galaxies which have been previously suggested as potentially being double-barred, but which are probably *not*. False double-bar identifications are usually due to features such as nuclear rings and spirals being misclassified as bars; I provide some illustrated examples of how this can happen.

Peter Erwin

2003-12-14

229

Simulation of ultrasonic lamb wave generation, propagation and detection for a reconfigurable air coupled scanner.  

PubMed

A computer simulator, to facilitate the design and assessment of a reconfigurable, air-coupled ultrasonic scanner is described and evaluated. The specific scanning system comprises a team of remote sensing agents, in the form of miniature robotic platforms that can reposition non-contact Lamb wave transducers over a plate type of structure, for the purpose of non-destructive evaluation (NDE). The overall objective is to implement reconfigurable array scanning, where transmission and reception are facilitated by different sensing agents which can be organised in a variety of pulse-echo and pitch-catch configurations, with guided waves used to generate data in the form of 2-D and 3-D images. The ability to reconfigure the scanner adaptively requires an understanding of the ultrasonic wave generation, its propagation and interaction with potential defects and boundaries. Transducer behaviour has been simulated using a linear systems approximation, with wave propagation in the structure modelled using the local interaction simulation approach (LISA). Integration of the linear systems and LISA approaches are validated for use in Lamb wave scanning by comparison with both analytic techniques and more computationally intensive commercial finite element/difference codes. Starting with fundamental dispersion data, the paper goes on to describe the simulation of wave propagation and the subsequent interaction with artificial defects and plate boundaries, before presenting a theoretical image obtained from a team of sensing agents based on the current generation of sensors and instrumentation. PMID:21094966

Dobie, Gordon; Spencer, Andrew; Burnham, Kenneth; Pierce, S Gareth; Worden, Keith; Galbraith, Walter; Hayward, Gordon

2011-04-01

230

Determining density of maize canopy. 2: Airborne multispectral scanner data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multispectral scanner data were collected in two flights over a light colored soil background cover plot at an altitude of 305 m. Energy in eleven reflective wavelength band from 0.45 to 2.6 microns was recorded. Four growth stages of maize (Zea mays L.) gave a wide range of canopy densities for each flight date. Leaf area index measurements were taken from the twelve subplots and were used as a measure of canopy density. Ratio techniques were used to relate uncalibrated scanner response to leaf area index. The ratios of scanner data values for the 0.72 to 0.92 micron wavelength band over the 0.61 to 0.70 micron wavelength band were calculated for each plot. The ratios related very well to leaf area index for a given flight date. The results indicated that spectral data from maize canopies could be of value in determining canopy density.

Stoner, E. R.; Baumgardner, M. F.; Cipra, J. E.

1971-01-01

231

An improved two-dimensional code encoding approach for publications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, the publishing industry has begun to use the two-dimensional code in cell phones, but the standard is not defined. Compared with single-dimensional bar code, two-dimensional code contains more information and functions. Nowadays, two-dimensional code has been broadly used in some industries, such as mobile communication, logistics and advertising, but not in publishing. This paper introduces an improved two-dimensional code

Wang Liang; Liu Xiaodan

2010-01-01

232

Figure S1. CLUSTAL X generated protein alignment of ORTH proteins and SRA domain. (a) Alignment of the entire protein coding region of the Arabidopsis ORTH proteins.  

E-print Network

are indicated as follows: blue bar shows position of PHD domain, red bar indicates position of N-terminal RING domain, green bar indicates position of the SRA domain, purple bar indicates position of the C domain. (a) Alignment of the entire protein coding region of the Arabidopsis ORTH proteins. Domains

Jacobsen, Steve

233

A Newly Developed Kolsky Tension Bar  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Mechanical characterization of materials requires highly precise and reliable experimental facilities. At 2009 SEM conference,\\u000a we presented a newly developed Kolsky compression bar at Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA. Comparing the compression\\u000a bar, development of Kolsky tension bar is much more challenging. In this study, besides remedies for the Kolsky compression\\u000a bar design were used for the new tension bar,

Bo Song; Bonnie R. Antoun; Kevin Connelly; John Korellis; Wei-Yang Lu

2010-01-01

234

VisBAR Wave Batch 1 VisBAR wave batch 1  

E-print Network

.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 3.1.1 Python . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 3 Python[1] Input GaussianCube ( Cube ) Cube Cube README VisBAR_wave _batch[*] Python VisBAR_wave _batch VisBAR (VisBAR=Visualization tool with Ball, Arrow , Rod)[*][1] VisBAR_wave _batch [1] ( [2

Hoshi, Takeo

235

Snowmelt monitoring with Terrestrial Laser Scanner Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increasing use of satellite data has caused an increasing need for validation data. Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) and Mobile Mapping Systems (MMS) are potential methods of gaining information on vast areas at remote locations. We have investigated the snowmelt 2009 using stationary and mobile TLS during the SNORTEX -campaign (Snow Reflectance Transition Experiment) in several locations in Finnish Lapland during 2008-2009. The SNORTEX is a 3-years investigation (started in 2008) piloted by Météo-France and FMI (Finnish Meteorological Institute). The key objectives of SNORTEX are to improve the characterization of snow-melting patterns in boreal regions using a multiscale approach supported by multi-angular and multi-spectral remote sensing information, and to build an integrated database for snow variables (albedo, fraction, water equivalent) in a forested environment for the validation of the SAF (Satellite Application Facilities) snow-related products. Validation data for EUMETSAT Land, Climate and Hydrological SAFs will be gathered in the campaign. The focus of the 2009 campaign was on the melting season. The field work was scheduled to include different snow/weather conditions and to include a time period with fractional snow cover. There will be one more field measurement period in spring 2010. The field survey took place at Sodankylä in Finnish Lapland. The existing facilities of FMI-ARC (The Arctic Research Center of the Finnish Meteorological Institutes) (67.4 °N 26.6 °E) were used. The studied area was chosen for this campaign because it is located far from the coasts, which makes the climate continental. The winters are long and cold during which the snow usually does not completely melt and several layers form in the snow pack. The area is partially forested which makes it possible to observe how the forests affect snow, snow cover and albedo. In addition to this the topography of the area is relatively plain which makes the area ideal for gathering validation data for satellite products. The results of the ground measurements of the SNORTEX campaign will be used to SAF product validations and to support the aerial data collected during the campaign. The TLS measurements during the campaign were made in several different locations at different stages of snowmelt. These measurements were georeferenced and normalized so that they could be compared. The results were compared to different ground measurements, e.g. snow depth, water equivalent etc., made by the Finnish Meteorological Institute. The results were used to estimate the usability of the point cloud and intensity data of the scanner in measuring different snow properties. The results show that TLS data is applicable in profiling seasonal snow conditions and the intensity data helps the classifying of the snow cover. The laser backscatter from snow surface is not directly related to any of the snow cover properties measured during the campaign but the snow structure has a clear effect on the TLS intensity. A MMS method for snow profiling was also developed during the campaign and the results show potential for MMS-based surface roughness profiling and change detection.

Anttila, Kati; Kaasalainen, Sanna; Kaartinen, Harri; Krooks, Anssi; Manninen, Terhikki; Lahtinen, Panu; Riihelä, Aku; Siljamo, Niilo; Thölix, Laura; Karjalainen, Tuure

2010-05-01

236

Improved Scanners for Microscopic Hyperspectral Imaging  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved scanners to be incorporated into hyperspectral microscope-based imaging systems have been invented. Heretofore, in microscopic imaging, including spectral imaging, it has been customary to either move the specimen relative to the optical assembly that includes the microscope or else move the entire assembly relative to the specimen. It becomes extremely difficult to control such scanning when submicron translation increments are required, because the high magnification of the microscope enlarges all movements in the specimen image on the focal plane. To overcome this difficulty, in a system based on this invention, no attempt would be made to move either the specimen or the optical assembly. Instead, an objective lens would be moved within the assembly so as to cause translation of the image at the focal plane: the effect would be equivalent to scanning in the focal plane. The upper part of the figure depicts a generic proposed microscope-based hyperspectral imaging system incorporating the invention. The optical assembly of this system would include an objective lens (normally, a microscope objective lens) and a charge-coupled-device (CCD) camera. The objective lens would be mounted on a servomotor-driven translation stage, which would be capable of moving the lens in precisely controlled increments, relative to the camera, parallel to the focal-plane scan axis. The output of the CCD camera would be digitized and fed to a frame grabber in a computer. The computer would store the frame-grabber output for subsequent viewing and/or processing of images. The computer would contain a position-control interface board, through which it would control the servomotor. There are several versions of the invention. An essential feature common to all versions is that the stationary optical subassembly containing the camera would also contain a spatial window, at the focal plane of the objective lens, that would pass only a selected portion of the image. In one version, the window would be a slit, the CCD would contain a one-dimensional array of pixels, and the objective lens would be moved along an axis perpendicular to the slit to spatially scan the image of the specimen in pushbroom fashion. The image built up by scanning in this case would be an ordinary (non-spectral) image. In another version, the optics of which are depicted in the lower part of the figure, the spatial window would be a slit, the CCD would contain a two-dimensional array of pixels, the slit image would be refocused onto the CCD by a relay-lens pair consisting of a collimating and a focusing lens, and a prism-gratingprism optical spectrometer would be placed between the collimating and focusing lenses. Consequently, the image on the CCD would be spatially resolved along the slit axis and spectrally resolved along the axis perpendicular to the slit. As in the first-mentioned version, the objective lens would be moved along an axis perpendicular to the slit to spatially scan the image of the specimen in pushbroom fashion.

Mao, Chengye

2009-01-01

237

A prototype quantitative film scanner for radiochromic film dosimetry  

SciTech Connect

We have developed a high resolution, quantitative, two-dimensional optical film scanner for use with a commercial high sensitivity radiochromic film (RCF) for measuring single fraction external-beam radiotherapy dose distributions. The film scanner was designed to eliminate artifacts commonly observed in RCF dosimetry. The scanner employed a stationary light source and detector with a moving antireflective glass film platen attached to a high precision computerized X-Y translation stage. An ultrabright red light emitting diode (LED) with a peak output at 633 nm and full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 16 nm was selected as the scanner light source to match the RCF absorption peak. A dual detector system was created using two silicon photodiode detectors to simultaneously measure incident and transmitted light. The LED light output was focused to a submillimeter (FWHM 0.67 mm) spot size, which was determined from a scanning knife-edge technique for measuring Gaussian optical beams. Data acquisition was performed with a 16-bit A/D card in conjunction with commercial software. The linearity of the measured densities on the scanner was tested using a calibrated neutral-density step filter. Sensitometric curves and three IMRT field scans were acquired with a spatial resolution of 1 mm for both radiographic film and RCF. The results were compared with measurements taken with a commercial diode array under identical delivery conditions. The RCF was rotated by 90 deg. and rescanned to study orientation effects. Comparison between the RCF and the diode array measurements using percent dose difference and distance-to-agreement criteria produced average passing rates of 99.0% using 3%/3 mm criteria and 96.7% using 2%/2 mm criteria. The same comparison between the radiographic film and diode array measurements resulted in average passing rates 96.6% and 91.6% for the above two criteria, respectively. No measurable light-scatter or interference scanner artifacts were observed. The RCF rotated by 90 deg. showed no measurable orientation effect. A scan of a 15x15 cm{sup 2} area with 1 mm resolution required 22 min to acquire. The LED densitometer provides an accurate film dosimetry system with 1 mm or better resolution. The scanner eliminates the orientation dependence of RCF dosimetry that was previously reported with commercial flatbed scanners.

Ranade, Manisha K.; Li, Jonathan G.; Dubose, Ryan S.; Kozelka, Jakub; Simon, William E.; Dempsey, James F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32610 (United States); Spartanburg Regional Hospital Gibbs Cancer Center, Spartanburg, South Carolina 29303 (United States); Sun Nuclear Corporation, Melbourne, Florida 32940 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32610 (United States)

2008-02-15

238

30. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING FLOOR 3A ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

30. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - FLOOR 3A ("A" FACE) INTERIOR BETWEEN GRIDS 17-A1 AND 18-A1, SHOWING REAR OF RADAR EMITTER ELECTRONIC INTERFACE TERMINAL NO. 3147-20, "RECEIVER TRANSMITTER RADAR" MODULE. VIEW IS ALSO SHOWING BUILDING FIRE STOP MATERIAL AT BOTTOM OF FLOOR. NOTE: WALL SLOPES BOTTOM TO TOP INWARD; STRUCTURAL ELEMENT IN FOREGROUND. VIEW ALSO SHOWS PIPING GRID OF CHILLED WATER LINES FOR ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS COOLING. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

239

The feasibility of a scanner-independent technique to estimate organ dose from MDCT scans: Using CTDIvol to account for differences between scanners  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Monte Carlo radiation transport techniques have made it possible to accurately estimate the radiation dose to radiosensitive organs in patient models from scans performed with modern multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT) scanners. However, there is considerable variation in organ doses across scanners, even when similar acquisition conditions are used. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of a technique to estimate organ doses that would be scanner independent. This was accomplished by assessing the ability of CTDIvol measurements to account for differences in MDCT scanners that lead to organ dose differences. Methods: Monte Carlo simulations of 64-slice MDCT scanners from each of the four major manufacturers were performed. An adult female patient model from the GSF family of voxelized phantoms was used in which all ICRP Publication 103 radiosensitive organs were identified. A 120 kVp, full-body helical scan with a pitch of 1 was simulated for each scanner using similar scan protocols across scanners. From each simulated scan, the radiation dose to each organ was obtained on a per mA?s basis (mGy?mA?s). In addition, CTDIvol values were obtained from each scanner for the selected scan parameters. Then, to demonstrate the feasibility of generating organ dose estimates from scanner-independent coefficients, the simulated organ dose values resulting from each scanner were normalized by the CTDIvol value for those acquisition conditions. Results: CTDIvol values across scanners showed considerable variation as the coefficient of variation (CoV) across scanners was 34.1%. The simulated patient scans also demonstrated considerable differences in organ dose values, which varied by up to a factor of approximately 2 between some of the scanners. The CoV across scanners for the simulated organ doses ranged from 26.7% (for the adrenals) to 37.7% (for the thyroid), with a mean CoV of 31.5% across all organs. However, when organ doses are normalized by CTDIvol values, the differences across scanners become very small. For the CTDIvol, normalized dose values the CoVs across scanners for different organs ranged from a minimum of 2.4% (for skin tissue) to a maximum of 8.5% (for the adrenals) with a mean of 5.2%. Conclusions: This work has revealed that there is considerable variation among modern MDCT scanners in both CTDIvol and organ dose values. Because these variations are similar, CTDIvol can be used as a normalization factor with excellent results. This demonstrates the feasibility of establishing scanner-independent organ dose estimates by using CTDIvol to account for the differences between scanners. PMID:20443504

Turner, Adam C.; Zankl, Maria; DeMarco, John J.; Cagnon, Chris H.; Zhang, Di; Angel, Erin; Cody, Dianna D.; Stevens, Donna M.; McCollough, Cynthia H.; McNitt-Gray, Michael F.

2010-01-01

240

Studying Brazil-Nut Effect History Line using Disk-Formed Objects, Scanner, and Web Browser  

E-print Network

Grains configuration snapshots of Brazil-nut effect (BNE) in two-dimension are physically modeled using disk-formed objects, e.g., buttons and magnetic pin. These BNE configurations are artificially designed to mimic the real ones observed in experiments. A computer scanner is used to capture the configurations. Obtained images are then digitized using web browser running a HTML equipped with a JavaScript code, which is built mainly only for this work. From digitization process all grains positions (granular bed and intruder) are obtained, which is later analyzed using the simplest model, i.e., potential energy. Since the minimum energy principle (MEP) suggests that a closed system should go to its state with minimum internal energy, our BNE system must also obey it. Evolution of only the intruder seems to violate MEP but not for the whole system. Grains compaction plays important role, so that the system can achieve its configuration with minimum potential energy.

Sparisoma Viridi; Siti Nurul Khotimah; Novitrian; Widayani; Luman Haris; Dimas Praja Purwa Aji

2014-08-07

241

21 CFR 610.67 - Bar code label requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...regulated by the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research or to blood and blood components intended for transfusion. For blood and blood components intended for transfusion, the requirements at § 606.121(c)(13) of this chapter apply...

2011-04-01

242

21 CFR 610.67 - Bar code label requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...regulated by the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research or to blood and blood components intended for transfusion. For blood and blood components intended for transfusion, the requirements at § 606.121(c)(13) of this chapter apply...

2012-04-01

243

21 CFR 610.67 - Bar code label requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...regulated by the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research or to blood and blood components intended for transfusion. For blood and blood components intended for transfusion, the requirements at § 606.121(c)(13) of this chapter apply...

2014-04-01

244

21 CFR 610.67 - Bar code label requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...regulated by the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research or to blood and blood components intended for transfusion. For blood and blood components intended for transfusion, the requirements at § 606.121(c)(13) of this chapter apply...

2013-04-01

245

A gene expression bar code for microarray data  

E-print Network

-perfect predictability of normal versus diseased tissue for three cancer studies and one Alzheimer's disease study diseased from normal tissues. Thus far, microarray technology has been useful only for measuring relative to develop the first method that can accurately demarcate expressed from unexpressed genes and therefore

Cai, Long

246

21 CFR 610.67 - Bar code label requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01...requirements. 610.67 Section 610.67 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Labeling...

2010-04-01

247

6.EE Chocolate Bar Sales  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Stephanie is helping her band collect money to fund a field trip. The band decided to sell boxes of chocolate bars. Each bar sells for \\$1.50 and each ...

248

Methodology of Wound Volume Estimation from Scanner R. R. Martin  

E-print Network

carefully. We must select 2 representative points, one outside the wound, for surface fitting, and oneMethodology of Wound Volume Estimation from Scanner Data R. R. Martin COMSC, UWC, Wales / DEE, UFMA, Brazil November 1996 1 Assumptions · Separate colour and depth map images of the wound and surrounding

Martin, Ralph R.

249

Noninvasive thermometry with a clinical x-ray CT scanner  

Microsoft Academic Search

A CT scanner yields CT numbers which are proportional to the fractional difference in effective local electron density of the subject material with respect to that of calibration material. A homogeneous water-equivalent material is used as a calibration phantom under isothermal conditions. Any temperature variation (spatial or temporal) in the subject material subsequently scanned, will generate a CT-number shift in

B. G. Fallone; P. R. Moran; E. B. Podgorsak

1982-01-01

250

The effect of system blocking in an intensifier dissector scanner.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Blocking an intensifier dissector scanner (IDS) system after an image element has seen one event is shown to shift the output pulse distribution toward one count per input photon and move the S/N ratio closer to the 'real' square root of the input photon rate.

Mcnall, J. F.

1973-01-01

251

Dosimetric evaluation of a 320 detector row CT scanner unit  

PubMed Central

Background The technologic improvements in Multislice scanners include the increment in the X-ray beam width. Some new CT scanners are equipped with a 320 detector row which allows a longitudinal coverage of 160 mm and a total of 640 slices for a single rotation. When such parameters are used the length of the traditional pencil chamber (10 cm) is no more appropriate to measure the standard weighted computed tomography dose index (CTDIw) value. Materials and methods. Dosimetric measurements were performed on a 640 slices Toshiba Aquilion One CT scanner using common instrumentation available in Medical Physics Departments. Results For the measurements in air, two different ionization chambers were completely exposed to the beam. Dosimeters showed an acceptable agreement in the measurements. To evaluate the actual shape of the dose profile strips of Gafchromic XRQA film were used. Films were previously calibrated on site. From the graphic response of the scanned film it is possible to evaluate the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the dose profile which represent the actual beam width. Conclusions Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDI) and Dose Length Product (DLP) need to be changed when the beam width of the CT scanner is over 100 mm. To perform dose evaluation with the conventional instrumentation, two parameters should be considered: the average absorbed dose and the actual beam width. To measure the average absorbed dose, the conventional ionization chamber can be used. For the measurement of the width of the dose profile, Gafchromic XRQA film seemed to be suitable. PMID:22933937

de Denaro, Mario; Bregant, Paola

2011-01-01

252

Needle Insertion in CT Scanner with Image Overlay Cadaver Studies  

E-print Network

, such as head-mounted displays [1,2], video projections [3], and volumetric image overlay [4] have been human trials. 2. SystemDesign A flat LCD display and a semi- transparent mirror are mounted placement in conventional CT scanners. The device consisting of a flat LCD display and a half mirror

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

253

Polynomial modeling and optimization for colorimetric characterization of scanners  

E-print Network

Polynomial modeling and optimization for colorimetric characterization of scanners Simone Bianco device, while a point in a colorimetric space, such as CIELAB space, indicates how the color is perceived-dependent space the colorimetric value of the corresponding color. The colo- rimetric characterization

Schettini, Raimondo

254

COMPUTER PROCESSING OF MULTISPECTRAL SCANNER DATA OVER COAL STRIP MINES  

EPA Science Inventory

There is little doubt that remote sensing techniques can be effectively applied to the task of monitoring coal strip mine progress and reclamation work. Aircraft multispectral scanner data acquired over six coal strip mines in the states of Wyoming, Montana, Colorado, and Arizona...

255

fMRI Scanner Noise Interaction with Affective Neural Processes  

PubMed Central

The purpose of the present study was the investigation of interaction effects between functional MRI scanner noise and affective neural processes. Stimuli comprised of psychoacoustically balanced musical pieces, expressing three different emotions (fear, neutral, joy). Participants (N=34, 19 female) were split into two groups, one subjected to continuous scanning and another subjected to sparse temporal scanning that features decreased scanner noise. Tests for interaction effects between scanning group (sparse/quieter vs continuous/noisier) and emotion (fear, neutral, joy) were performed. Results revealed interactions between the affective expression of stimuli and scanning group localized in bilateral auditory cortex, insula and visual cortex (calcarine sulcus). Post-hoc comparisons revealed that during sparse scanning, but not during continuous scanning, BOLD signals were significantly stronger for joy than for fear, as well as stronger for fear than for neutral in bilateral auditory cortex. During continuous scanning, but not during sparse scanning, BOLD signals were significantly stronger for joy than for neutral in the left auditory cortex and for joy than for fear in the calcarine sulcus. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study to show a statistical interaction effect between scanner noise and affective processes and extends evidence suggesting scanner noise to be an important factor in functional MRI research that can affect and distort affective brain processes. PMID:24260420

Skouras, Stavros; Gray, Marcus; Critchley, Hugo; Koelsch, Stefan

2013-01-01

256

Engineering evaluation of 24 channel multispectral scanner. [from flight tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of flight tests to evaluate the performance of the 24 channel multispectral scanner are reported. The flight plan and test site are described along with the time response and channel registration. The gain and offset drift, and moire patterns are discussed. Aerial photographs of the test site are included.

Lambeck, P. F.

1973-01-01

257

LANSCE wire scanner AFE: analysis, design, and fabrication  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the design LANSCE-R Wire-Scanner Analog Front-end Electronics is to develop a high-performance, dual-axis wire-scanner analog front-end system implemented in a single cRIO module. This new design accommodates macropulse widths as wide as 700 {mu}s at a maximum pulse rate of 120Hz. A lossey integrator is utilized as the integration element to eliminate the requirement for providing gating signals to each wire scanner. The long macropulse and the high repetition rate present conflicting requirements for the design of the integrator. The long macropulse requires a long integration time constant to assure minimum integrator droop for accurate charge integration, and the high repetition rate requires a short time constant to assure adequate integrator reset between macropulses. Also, grounding is a serious concern due to the small signal levels. This paper reviews the basic Wire Scanner AFE system design implemented in the cRIO-module form factor to capture the charge information from the wire sensors and the grounding topology to assure minimum noise contamination of the wire signals.

Gruchalla, Mike [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chacon, Phillip [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gilpatrick, John D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Derwin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Power, John F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Smith, Brian [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01

258

Speech Perception in MRI Scanner Noise by Persons with Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To examine reductions in performance on auditory tasks by aphasic and neurologically intact individuals as a result of concomitant magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner noise. Method: Four tasks together forming a continuum of linguistic complexity were developed. They included complex-tone pitch discrimination, same-different…

Healy, Eric W.; Moser, Dana C.; Morrow-Odom, K. Leigh; Hall, Deborah A.; Fridriksson, Julius

2007-01-01

259

Algorithms for Coastal-Zone Color-Scanner Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Software for Nimbus-7 Coastal-Zone Color-Scanner (CZCS) derived products consists of set of scientific algorithms for extracting information from CZCS-gathered data. Software uses CZCS-generated Calibrated RadianceTemperature (CRT) tape as input and outputs computer-compatible tape and film product.

1986-01-01

260

Aerial thermal scanner data for monitoring rooftop temperatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Four Nebraska communities and one South Dakota community were surveyed. Thermal scanner data were converted to a film format and the resultant imagery was successfully employed to monitor rooftop temperatures. The program places emphasis on heat losses resulting from inadequate home insulation, offers CENGAS customers the opportunity to observe a thermogram of their rooftop, and assists homeowners in evaluating insulation needs.

Bjorkland, J.; Schmer, F. A.; Isakson, R. E.

1975-01-01

261

OCR Scanners Facilitate WP Training in Business Schools and Colleges.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Optical Character Recognition Scanners (OCR) scan typed text and feed it directly into word processing systems, saving input time. OCRs are valuable in word processing training programs because they allow more students access to classes and more time for skill training. (MD)

School Business Affairs, 1983

1983-01-01

262

Teach Your Computer to Read: Scanners and Optical Character Recognition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Desktop scanners can be used with a software technology called optical character recognition (OCR) to convert the text on virtually any paper document into an electronic form. OCR offers educators new flexibility in incorporating text into tests, lesson plans, and other materials. (MLF)

Marsden, Jim

1993-01-01

263

Processing Laser Scanner Plant Data to Extract Structural Information  

E-print Network

, hidden plant parts, other organs · dynamic model (growth and functionality) · compare shading resultsProcessing Laser Scanner Plant Data to Extract Structural Information Birgit Loch, Jim Hanan://www.cpai.uq.edu.au #12;Data and Plant Structure Traditional approach: · digitised points entered in hierarchical pattern

Loch, Birgit

264

Clinical Experience with the E.M.I. Scanner  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computerized tomography of the head using the E.M.I. scanner is a revolutionary method for diagnosing a wide spectrum of intracranial diseases. Because small differences in tissue density can be measured accurately the technique is sufficiently sensitive to demonstrate the ventricular system and major subarachnoid cisterns. The cortical grey matter, basal ganglia and thalami can be distinguished from white matter. A

J. Gawler

1977-01-01

265

A Scanner Darkly: Protecting User Privacy From Perceptual Applications  

E-print Network

A Scanner Darkly: Protecting User Privacy From Perceptual Applications Suman Jana Arvind Narayanan surveillance, intentionally or unintentionally overcollect information (e.g., keep track of other people present in a room), and capture sensitive data such as credit card numbers, license plates, contents

Shmatikov, Vitaly

266

Liquid-explosives scanners stand trial in airports  

SciTech Connect

Air passengers may once more be allowed to pack beverages, lotions, and hair spray in their carry-on luggage, if imaging technologies to detect liquid explosives can prove their worth. Several competing systems, including multi-energy x-ray systems and a low-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner, are undergoing field tests at some airports worldwide.

Matthews, Jermey N. A.

2010-07-15

267

Metric performance of a high-resolution laser scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent emergence of high-resolution laser scanning technology offers unprecedented levels of data density for close range metrology applications such as deformation monitoring and industrial inspection. The scanner's pulsed laser ranging device coupled with beam deflection mechanisms facilitates rapid acquisition of literally millions of 3D point measurements. Perhaps the greatest advantage of such a system lies in the high sample density that permits accurate and detailed surface modeling as well as superior visualization relative to existing measurement technologies. As with any metrology technique, measurement accuracy is critically dependent upon instrument calibration. This aspect has been, and continues to be, an important research topic within the photogrammetric community. Ground-based laser scanners are no exception, and appropriate calibration procedures are still being developed. The authors' experience has shown that traditional sensor calibration techniques, in some instances, can not be directly applied to laser scanners. This paper details an investigation into the calibration and use the Cyrax 2400 3D laser scanner. With its variable spatial resolution and high accuracy, the Cyrax offers great potential for close range metrology applications. A series of rigorous experiments were conducted in order to quantify the instrument's precision and accuracy.

Gordon, Stuart; Lichti, Derek D.; Stewart, Michael P.; Tsakiri, Maria

2000-12-01

268

First Test Results of the New LANSCE Wire Scanner  

SciTech Connect

The Beam Diagnostics and Instrumentation Team (BDIT) at Los Alamos National Laboratory's LANSCE facility is presently developing a new and improved wire scanner diagnostics system controlled by National Instrument's cRIO platform. This paper describes the current state of development of the control system along with the results gathered from the latest actuator motion performance and accelerator-beam data acquisition tests.

Sedillo, James Daniel [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-01

269

Digitizers and Scanners: Using Your Image-ination.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains technology that allows images and sound to be incorporated into microcomputer-based reports or hypermedia programs. Scanners and video digitizers are described that capture images; audio digitizers are described that can add sound; and information is given on vendors for each technology, including price, system compatibility, and…

Via, Skip

1992-01-01

270

X- and ?-rays computerized minitomograph scanner for soil science  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computerized tomograph scanner system that uses X- and ?-rays for applications in soil science is described. Use of the apparatus in measuring volumetric water content to an accuracy of ±3% and soil bulk density to ±2% (in grams per cubic centimeters) is discussed. The system features translation and rotation scanning modes, a 200-mm effective field of view, signal processing

PAULO ESTEVAO CRUVINEL; ROBERTO CESAREO; SILVIO CRESTANA; SERGIO MASCARENHAS

1990-01-01

271

Laser excited confocal microscope fluorescence scanner and method  

DOEpatents

A fluorescent scanner for scanning the fluorescence from a fluorescence labeled separated sample on a sample carrier including a confocal microscope for illuminating a predetermined volume of the sample carrier and/or receiving and processing fluorescence emissions from said volume to provide a display of the separated sample.

Mathies, Richard A. (Contra Costa, CA); Peck, Konan (Contra Costa, CA)

1992-01-01

272

Calibration of the Modular Optoelectronic Scanner (MOS) flight models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since March 1996 the Modular Optoelectronic Scanner (MOS) provides remote data from a 820 km sun synchroneous polar orbit. It measures the spectral radiance of the atmosphere- surface system in 18 spectral channels and up to 420 pixels in a 200 km swath. MOS consists of two imaging spectrometers A and B with gratings and a camera C with an

Karl-Heinz Suemnich; Andreas Neumann; Horst Schwarzer; Gerhard Zimmermann

1996-01-01

273

Improved virtual bronchoscopy using a multislice helical CT scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Virtual bronchoscopy reconstructions of the airway noninvasively provide useful morphologic information of structural abnormalities such as stenoses and masses. To date, virtual bronchoscopy has been mainly applied to the central airways. In this paper, we show how virtual bronchoscopy can be applied to more peripheral airways by making use of the capabilities of a multi-slice helical CT scanner.

Summers, Ronald M.; Sneller, Michael C.; Langford, Carol A.; Shelhamer, James H.; Wood, Bradford J.

2000-04-01

274

Design and construction of the 1st proton CT scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses the design and operation of the 1st proton CT scanner for 3D imaging. Reduction of proton range uncertainties and improved dose accuracy in the patient for treatment planning are central goals. A central CT slice acquired by reconstruction of 134 million proton tracks through a 14 cm spherical polystyrene phantom with high and low density inserts is presented.

Coutrakon, G.; Bashkirov, V.; Hurley, F.; Johnson, R.; Rykalin, V.; Sadrozinski, H.; Schulte, R.

2013-04-01

275

Testing PEPT Algorithm on a Medical PET Scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The basis of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is the detection of the photons produced, when a positron annihilates with an electron. Conservation of energy and momentum then require that two 511 keV gamma rays are emitted almost back to back (180° apart). This method is used to determine the spatial distribution of a positron emitting fluid. Verifying the position of a single emitting particle in an object instead of determining the distribution of a positron emitting fluid is the basis of another technique, which has been named positron emitting particle tracking PEPT and has been developed in Birmingham University. Birmingham University has recently obtained the PET scanner from Hammersmith Hospital which was installed there in 1987. This scanner consists of 32 detector buckets, each includes 128 bismuth germanate detection elements, which are configured in 8 rings. This scanner has been rebuilt in a flexible geometry and will be used for PEPT studies. Testing the PEPT algorithm on ECAT scanner gives a high data rate, can track approximately accurate at high speed and also has the possibility of making measurements on large vessels.

Sadrmomtaz, Alireza

276

Acceptability of security scanners at airports: A French opinion survey  

E-print Network

in strengthening aviation security measures. This paper focuses on a specific ground security measure at airportsAcceptability of security scanners at airports: A French opinion survey Bako Rajaonaha , Juan French civil aviation authority), 94385 Bonneuil-sur-Marne, France. d Engineer-Researcher at CEA (The

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

277

Inguinal Hernia and Airport Scanners: An Emerging Indication for Repair?  

PubMed Central

The use of advanced imaging technology at international airports is increasing in popularity as a corollary to heightened security concerns across the globe. Operators of airport scanners should be educated about common medical disorders such as inguinal herniae in order to avoid unnecessary harassment of travelers since they will encounter these with increasing frequency. PMID:24368923

Cawich, Shamir O.; Maharaj, Ravi; Dan, Dilip

2013-01-01

278

Terahertz wave opto-mechanical scanner for security application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a new opto-mechanical scanner that is hopeful for terahertz imaging in security applications. The target of using this scanner is portal screening of personnel for high-resolution imaging of concealed threat objects. It is not only applied to active terahertz imaging but also applied to passive Terahertz imaging. Terahertz wave can penetrate many materials that are opaque to visible and infrared light, such as plastics, cardboard, textiles and so on. So the terahertz imaging technology has a potential to be applicable in security inspection at airports, stations and other public place. Now, the most terahertz imaging system works at point to point mechanical scan pattern. The speed of this raster scan is too slow to apply in practical field. 2-D terahertz array detector can be applied to real time imaging. But at present their cost is prohibitively high. Fortunately low cost, high performance, opto-mechanically scanner is able to meet the current requirements. An opto-mechanical scanner should be able to rapidly scan a 2-D image of the scene. It also should have high optical efficiency so that an image system can achieve the required thermal sensitivity with the minimum number of receivers. These ensure that it can easily operate at any wavelength, and be active or passive. The opto-mechanically scanning can meets these requirements and is being developed into a high performance, low-cost prototype system that will meet the future needs for terahertz security.

Deng, Chao; Zheng, Yongju; Zhang, Cunlin

2010-11-01

279

Monitoring and correcting spatio-temporal variations of the MR scanner’s static magnetic field  

PubMed Central

The homogeneity and stability of the static magnetic field are of paramount importance to the accuracy of MR procedures that are sensitive to phase errors and magnetic field inhomogeneity. It is shown that intense gradient utilization in clinical horizontal-bore superconducting MR scanners of three different vendors results in main magnetic fields that vary on a long time scale both spatially and temporally by amounts of order 0.8–2.5 ppm. The observed spatial changes have linear and quadratic variations that are strongest along the z direction. It is shown that the effect of such variations is of sufficient magnitude to completely obfuscate thermal phase shifts measured by proton-resonance frequency-shift MR thermometry and certainly affect accuracy. In addition, field variations cause signal loss and line-broadening in MR spectroscopy, as exemplified by a fourfold line-broadening of metabolites over the course of a 45 min human brain study. The field variations are consistent with resistive heating of the magnet structures. It is concluded that correction strategies are required to compensate for these spatial and temporal field drifts for phase-sensitive MR protocols. It is demonstrated that serial field mapping and phased difference imaging correction protocols can substantially compensate for the drift effects observed in the MR thermometry and spectroscopy experiments. PMID:17043837

El-Sharkawy, AbdEl Monem; Schär, Michael; Bottomley, Paul A.

2007-01-01

280

A micron resolution optical scanner for characterization of silicon detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emergence of high position resolution (˜10 ?m) silicon detectors in recent times have highlighted the urgent need for the development of new automated optical scanners of micron level resolution suited for characterizing microscopic features of these detectors. More specifically, for the newly developed silicon photo-multipliers (SiPM) that are compact, possessing excellent photon detection efficiency with gain comparable to photo-multiplier tube. In a short time, since their invention the SiPMs are already being widely used in several high-energy physics and astrophysics experiments as the photon readout element. The SiPM is a high quantum efficiency, multi-pixel photon counting detector with fast timing and high gain. The presence of a wide variety of photo sensitive silicon detectors with high spatial resolution requires their performance evaluation to be carried out by photon beams of very compact spot size. We have designed a high resolution optical scanner that provides a monochromatic focused beam on a target plane. The transverse size of the beam was measured by the knife-edge method to be 1.7 ?m at 1 - ? level. Since the beam size was an order of magnitude smaller than the typical feature size of silicon detectors, this optical scanner can be used for selective excitation of these detectors. The design and operational details of the optical scanner, high precision programmed movement of target plane (0.1 ?m) integrated with general purpose data acquisition system developed for recording static and transient response photo sensitive silicon detector are reported in this paper. Entire functionality of scanner is validated by using it for selective excitation of individual pixels in a SiPM and identifying response of active and dead regions within SiPM. Results from these studies are presented in this paper.

Shukla, R. A.; Dugad, S. R.; Garde, C. S.; Gopal, A. V.; Gupta, S. K.; Prabhu, S. S.

2014-02-01

281

Reducing between scanner differences in multi-center PET studies  

PubMed Central

This work is part of the multi-center Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI), a large multi-site study of dementia, including patients having mild cognitive impairment (MCI), probable Alzheimer's disease (AD), as well as healthy elderly controls. A major portion of ADNI involves the use of [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) with positron emission tomography (PET). The objective of this paper is reduction of inter-scanner differences in the FDG-PET scans obtained from the 50 participating PET centers having fifteen different scanner models. In spite of a standardized imaging protocol, systematic inter-scanner variability in PET images from various sites is observed primarily due to differences in scanner resolution, reconstruction techniques, and different implementations of scatter and attenuation corrections. Two correction steps were developed by comparison of 3-D Hoffman brain phantom scans with the ‘gold standard’ digital 3-D Hoffman brain phantom: i) high frequency correction; where a smoothing kernel for each scanner model was estimated to smooth all images to a common resolution and ii) low frequency correction; where smooth affine correction factors were obtained to reduce the attenuation and scatter correction errors. For the phantom data, the high frequency correction reduced the variability by 20%-50% and the low frequency correction further reduced the differences by another 20%-25%. Correction factors obtained from phantom studies were applied to 95 scans from normal control subjects obtained from the participating sites. The high frequency correction reduced differences similar to the phantom studies. However, the low frequency correction did not further reduce differences; hence further refinement of the procedure is necessary. PMID:19457369

Joshi, Aniket; Koeppe, Robert A.; Fessler, Jeffrey A.

2010-01-01

282

A micron resolution optical scanner for characterization of silicon detectors  

SciTech Connect

The emergence of high position resolution (?10 ?m) silicon detectors in recent times have highlighted the urgent need for the development of new automated optical scanners of micron level resolution suited for characterizing microscopic features of these detectors. More specifically, for the newly developed silicon photo-multipliers (SiPM) that are compact, possessing excellent photon detection efficiency with gain comparable to photo-multiplier tube. In a short time, since their invention the SiPMs are already being widely used in several high-energy physics and astrophysics experiments as the photon readout element. The SiPM is a high quantum efficiency, multi-pixel photon counting detector with fast timing and high gain. The presence of a wide variety of photo sensitive silicon detectors with high spatial resolution requires their performance evaluation to be carried out by photon beams of very compact spot size. We have designed a high resolution optical scanner that provides a monochromatic focused beam on a target plane. The transverse size of the beam was measured by the knife-edge method to be 1.7 ?m at 1 ? ? level. Since the beam size was an order of magnitude smaller than the typical feature size of silicon detectors, this optical scanner can be used for selective excitation of these detectors. The design and operational details of the optical scanner, high precision programmed movement of target plane (0.1 ?m) integrated with general purpose data acquisition system developed for recording static and transient response photo sensitive silicon detector are reported in this paper. Entire functionality of scanner is validated by using it for selective excitation of individual pixels in a SiPM and identifying response of active and dead regions within SiPM. Results from these studies are presented in this paper.

Shukla, R. A.; Dugad, S. R., E-mail: dugad@cern.ch; Gopal, A. V.; Gupta, S. K.; Prabhu, S. S. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005 (India)] [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Garde, C. S. [Vishwakarma Institute of Information Technology, Kondhwa, Pune 411048 (India)] [Vishwakarma Institute of Information Technology, Kondhwa, Pune 411048 (India)

2014-02-15

283

Vertical capacitive SiBARs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work introduces high frequency, vertical silicon bulk acoustic resonators (SiBAR). A combination of the new resonator structures with much larger transduction area and the HARPSS fabrication process is used to demonstrate high frequency capacitive resonators with significantly lower impedances compared to the previous capacitive resonators. Impedances as low as a few kilo-Ohms and quality factors in the range of

Siavash Pourkamali; Gavin K. Ho; Farrokh Ayazi

2005-01-01

284

Transrectal Prostate Biopsy and Fiducial Marker Placement in a Standard 1.5T MRI Scanner  

E-print Network

Transrectal Prostate Biopsy and Fiducial Marker Placement in a Standard 1.5T MRI Scanner Robert C in a Standard 1.5T MRI Scanner Submission Type: Original Research #12;Abstract Purpose: To investigate is imaged inside of a standard 1.5T MRI scanner, which previously has not been possible. Methods: Five

Whitcomb, Louis L.

285

The RA Scanner: Prediction of Rheumatoid Joint Inflammation Based on Laser Imaging  

E-print Network

the RA scanner, a novel system for the examination of pa- tients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis for a further development from prototype to product stage. 1 Introduction Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the most. Conclusions and an outlook are given in Sec. 6. 2 The RA Scanner The rheumatoid arthritis (RA) scanner

Tresp, Volker

286

PIXSCAN: Pixel Detector CT-Scanner for Small Animal Imaging P. Delpierrea  

E-print Network

population of genetically modified animals. One of these modalities, the CT-scanner is a very promising1 PIXSCAN: Pixel Detector CT-Scanner for Small Animal Imaging P. Delpierrea , F. Debarbieuxd , S ______________________________________________________________________________________________ Abstract The PIXSCAN is a small animal CT-scanner based on hybrid pixel detectors. These detectors provide

Boyer, Edmond

287

A Cost Effective Multi-Spectral Scanner for Natural Gas Detection  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to design, fabricate and demonstrate a cost effective, multi-spectral scanner for natural gas leak detection in transmission and distribution pipelines. During the first year of the project, a laboratory version of the multi-spectral scanner was designed, fabricated, and tested at EnUrga Inc. The multi-spectral scanner was also evaluated using a blind Department of Energy study at the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center. The performance of the scanner was inconsistent during the blind study. However, most of the leaks were outside the view of the multi-spectral scanner that was developed during the first year of the project. Therefore, a definite evaluation of the capability of the scanner was not obtained. Despite the results, sufficient number of plumes was detected fully confirming the feasibility of the multi-spectral scanner. During the second year, the optical design of the scanner was changed to improve the sensitivity of the system. Laboratory tests show that the system can reliably detect small leaks (20 SCFH) at 30 to 50 feet. A prototype scanner was built and evaluated during the second year of the project. Only laboratory evaluations were completed during the second year. The laboratory evaluations show the feasibility of using the scanner to determine natural gas pipeline leaks. Further field evaluations and optimization of the scanner are required before commercialization of the scanner can be initiated.

Yudaya Sivathanu; Jongmook Lim; Vinoo Narayanan; Seonghyeon Park

2005-12-07

288

Why Johnny Can't Pentest: An Analysis of Black-box Web Vulnerability Scanners  

E-print Network

Why Johnny Can't Pentest: An Analysis of Black-box Web Vulnerability Scanners Adam Doup´e, Marco,marco,vigna}@cs.ucsb.edu Abstract. Black-box web vulnerability scanners are a class of tools that can be used to identify security scanners, both commercial and open-source. The evaluation composes different types of vulnerabilities

California at Santa Barbara, University of

289

A grounded-load charge amplifier for reducing hysteresis in piezoelectric tube scanners  

E-print Network

A grounded-load charge amplifier for reducing hysteresis in piezoelectric tube scanners A. J 2005 In this paper, a charge amplifier adapted for piezoelectric tube scanners is presented. Previous difficulty associated with piezoelectric tube scanners and piezoelectric actuators in general . When employed

Fleming, Andrew J.

290

Membrane Curvature: How BAR Domains Bend Bilayers  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important new structure suggests the BAR domain is a membrane-binding module that can both produce and sense membrane curvature. BAR resembles a banana that binds membranes electrostatically through its positively charged, concave surface.

Joshua Zimmerberg; Stuart McLaughlin

2004-01-01

291

Signaling behind bars: a role for bar domains  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this thesis we describe several novel components of growth factor receptor and RhoGTPase activation and signaling. We have demonstrated that the F-BAR protein PACSIN2 is an important regulator of Rac1 output and, as a consequence, cell spreading and migration. This study further established the importance of traffic in the regulation of RhoGTPase function. In addition, we identified HMHA1 as

Kreuk de B.-J

2012-01-01

292

Changes in Smoking-Related Norms in Bars Resulting from California’s Smoke-Free Workplace Act*  

PubMed Central

California’s Smoke-Free Workplace Act— CA Labor Code Sec. 6404.5(a)—was extended to bars in 1998. This paper analyzes changes in normative beliefs and behaviors related to bar smoking in the decade following the adoption of the Act. In a series of studies evaluating the smoke-free workplace law in bars, researchers conducted extensive observations and interviews with bar staff and patrons, health officials, and law enforcement personnel in three California counties. Smoking outside became a normal pause in the social environment and created a new type of bar socializing for outside smokers. Although some bar owners and staff reported initially resenting the responsibility to uphold the law, once norms regarding cigarettes and smoking began changing, bar workers experienced less conflict in upholding the law. Non-smoking behavior within bars also became the normative behavior for bar patrons. California’s Smoke-Free Workplace Act has both reflected and encouraged normative beliefs and behaviors related to smoking in bars. The findings indicate that such shifts are possible even in contexts where smoking behaviors and attitudes supporting smoking were deeply entrenched. Recommendations include attending to the synergistic effect of education and policy in effective tobacco control programs. PMID:23705511

Satterlund, Travis D.; Lee, Juliet P.; Moore, Roland S.

2013-01-01

293

Membrane Curvature: How BAR Domains Bend Bilayers  

E-print Network

Membrane Curvature: How BAR Domains Bend Bilayers Dispatch Joshua Zimmerberg1 and Stuart McLaughlin2 An important new structure suggests the BAR domain is a membrane-binding module that can both of the BAR domain, apparently in the absence of any substantial hydrophobic insertion into the membrane

McMahon, Harvey

294

Algorithms: Sorting Amotz Bar-Noy  

E-print Network

Algorithms: Sorting Amotz Bar-Noy CUNY Spring 2012 Amotz Bar-Noy (CUNY) Algorithms: Sorting Spring 2012 1 / 51 #12;The Sorting Problem Keys: Entities from a well ordered domain. Comparison: For 2 keys K keys. Amotz Bar-Noy (CUNY) Algorithms: Sorting Spring 2012 2 / 51 #12;Complexity of the Sorting Problem

Bar-Noy, Amotz

295

Measurement of the semileptonic decays B-bar-->D tau - nu -bar tau and B-bar-->D* tau - nu -bar tau  

E-print Network

We present measurements of the semileptonic decays B--->D0?-?[over-bar] ?, B--->D*0?-?[over-bar] ?, B? 0-->D+?-?? ?, and B? 0-->D*+?-?[over-bar] ?, which are sensitive to non-standard model amplitudes in certain scenarios. ...

Fisher, Peter H.

296

RED MOUNTAIN BAR PUMPED STOR AGE PR OJEC T Red Mountain Bar Pumped Storage Project  

E-print Network

RED MOUNTAIN BAR PUMPED STOR AGE PR OJEC T Red Mountain Bar Pumped Storage Project Continuing a pumped storage project to generate electricity during peak demand. The proposed Red Mountain Bar Pumped for irrigation water storage, flood control, power production and recreation, the Red Mountain Bar Pumped Storage

Laughlin, Robert B.

297

Performance of an improved first generation optical CT scanner for 3D dosimetry.  

PubMed

Performance analysis of a modified 3D dosimetry optical scanner based on the first generation optical CT scanner OCTOPUS is presented. The system consists of PRESAGE dosimeters, the modified 3D scanner, and a new developed in-house user control panel written in Labview program which provides more flexibility to optimize mechanical control and data acquisition technique. The total scanning time has been significantly reduced from initial 8 h to ?2 h by using the modified scanner. The functional performance of the modified scanner has been evaluated in terms of the mechanical integrity uncertainty of the data acquisition process. Optical density distribution comparison between the modified scanner, OCTOPUS and the treatment plan system has been studied. It has been demonstrated that the agreement between the modified scanner and treatment plans is comparable with that between the OCTOPUS and treatment plans. PMID:24262134

Qian, Xin; Adamovics, John; Wuu, Cheng-Shie

2013-12-21

298

Performance of an improved first generation optical CT scanner for 3D dosimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Performance analysis of a modified 3D dosimetry optical scanner based on the first generation optical CT scanner OCTOPUS is presented. The system consists of PRESAGE™ dosimeters, the modified 3D scanner, and a new developed in-house user control panel written in Labview program which provides more flexibility to optimize mechanical control and data acquisition technique. The total scanning time has been significantly reduced from initial 8 h to ?2 h by using the modified scanner. The functional performance of the modified scanner has been evaluated in terms of the mechanical integrity uncertainty of the data acquisition process. Optical density distribution comparison between the modified scanner, OCTOPUS and the treatment plan system has been studied. It has been demonstrated that the agreement between the modified scanner and treatment plans is comparable with that between the OCTOPUS and treatment plans.

Qian, Xin; Adamovics, John; Wuu, Cheng-Shie

2013-12-01

299

Augmented tagging system for annotating and sharing videos on mobile device by bar scanner and social media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social media is very useful for collaborative learning because of their sharing and flexible nature. Many learning activities can use social media to facilitate the processes, such as collaborative writing, brainstorming, and live presentation streaming. Some instructors have paid attention to the popularity of social media. Social media is very simple and intuitive for users with information literacy on desktop

Chih-Kai Chang; Yu-Ying He; Chang-Shing Lee

2010-01-01

300

No Holds Barred Issue 26  

E-print Network

1| (BUI lips rw^ (HSU raw NO HOLDS BARRED Issue No. TWENTY-SIX This issue features... BLAKE'S 7 WARNING: This fanzine contains same-sex, aduit-oriented material. It will not knowingly... relaxant?" Avon paused, both hands resting lightly on Toreth's thigh. This time the smile was an odd half-curve of the lips, which didn't bring any warmth to his eyes. "System flexibility. We don't have the luxury of assuming all our potential clients...

Multiple Contributors

2013-11-27

301

Beam Dumping Ghost Signals in Electric Sweep Scanners  

SciTech Connect

Over the last 20 years many labs started to use Allison scanners to measure low-energy ion beam emittances. We show that large trajectory angles produce ghost signals due to the impact of the beamlet on the electric deflection plates. The strength of the ghost signal is proportional to the amount of beam entering the scanner. Depending on the ions and their velocity, ghost signals can have the opposite polarity as the main beam signals or the same polarity. These ghost signals are easily overlooked because they partly overlap the real signals, they are mostly below the 1% level, and they are often hidden in the noise. However, they cause significant errors in emittance estimates because they are associated with large trajectory angles. The strength of ghost signals, and the associated errors, can be drastically reduced with a simple modification of the deflection plates.

Stockli, M.P. [SNS, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Leitner, M.; Keller, R. [SNS, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Rd., Berkeley, CA, 94720 (United States); Moehs, D.P. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Welton, R.F. [SNS, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

2005-04-06

302

Beam dumping ghost signals in electric sweep scanners  

SciTech Connect

Over the last 20 years many labs started to use Allison scanners to measure low-energy ion beam emittances. We show that large trajectory angles produce ghost signals due to the impact of the beamlet on the electric deflection plates. The strength of the ghost signal is proportional to the amount of beam entering the scanner. Depending on the ions and their velocity, ghost signals can have the opposite polarity as the main beam signals or the same polarity. These ghost signals are easily overlooked because they partly overlap the real signals, they are mostly below the 1% level, and they are often hidden in the noise. However, they cause significant errors in emittance estimates because they are associated with large trajectory angles. The strength of ghost signals, and the associated errors, can be drastically reduced with a simple modification of the deflection plates.

Stockli, M.P.; /SNS Project, Oak Ridge /Tennessee U.; Leitner, M.; /LBL, Berkeley; Moehs, D.P.; /Fermilab; Keller, R.; /LBL, Berkeley; Welton, R.F.; /SNS Project, Oak Ridge

2004-12-01

303

CERN-SPS Wire Scanner Impedance and Wire Heating Studies  

E-print Network

This article describes a study performed on one of the CERN-SPS vertical rotational wire scanners in order to investigate the breakage of the wire, which occurred on several occasions during operation in 2012. The thermionic emission current of the wire was measured to evaluate temperature changes, and was observed to rise significantly as the wire approached the ultimate LHC beam in the SPS, indicating the possibility of strong coupling between the beam’s electromagnetic field and the wire. Different laboratory measurements, complemented by CST Microwave Studio simulations, have therefore been performed to try and understand the RF modes responsible for this heating. These results are presented here, along with the subsequent modifications adopted on all of the operational SPS wire scanners.

Berrig, OE; Dehning, B; Emery, J; Hamani, M; Kuczerowski, J; Piselli, E; Salvant, B; Sautier, R; Veness, R; Vollinger, C; Vuitton, C; Zannini, C

2014-01-01

304

Robust Object Segmentation Using a Multi-Layer Laser Scanner  

PubMed Central

The major problem in an advanced driver assistance system (ADAS) is the proper use of sensor measurements and recognition of the surrounding environment. To this end, there are several types of sensors to consider, one of which is the laser scanner. In this paper, we propose a method to segment the measurement of the surrounding environment as obtained by a multi-layer laser scanner. In the segmentation, a full set of measurements is decomposed into several segments, each representing a single object. Sometimes a ghost is detected due to the ground or fog, and the ghost has to be eliminated to ensure the stability of the system. The proposed method is implemented on a real vehicle, and its performance is tested in a real-world environment. The experiments show that the proposed method demonstrates good performance in many real-life situations. PMID:25356645

Kim, Beomseong; Choi, Baehoon; Yoo, Minkyun; Kim, Hyunju; Kim, Euntai

2014-01-01

305

Wire Scanner Beam Profile Measurements: LANSCE Facility Beam Development  

SciTech Connect

The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is replacing Wire Scanner (WS) beam profile measurement systems. Three beam development tests have taken place to test the new wire scanners under beam conditions. These beam development tests have integrated the WS actuator, cable plant, electronics processors and associated software and have used H{sup -} beams of different beam energy and current conditions. In addition, the WS measurement-system beam tests verified actuator control systems for minimum profile bin repeatability and speed, checked for actuator backlash and positional stability, tested the replacement of simple broadband potentiometers with narrow band resolvers, and tested resolver use with National Instruments Compact Reconfigurable Input and Output (cRIO) Virtual Instrumentation. These beam tests also have verified how trans-impedance amplifiers react with various types of beam line background noise and how noise currents were not generated. This paper will describe these beam development tests and show some resulting data.

Gilpatrick, John D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Batygin, Yuri K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gonzales, Fermin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gruchalla, Michael E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kutac, Vincent G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Derwin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sedillo, James Daniel [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pillai, Chandra [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rodriguez Esparza, Sergio [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Smith, Brian G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-05-15

306

Real-time scanner error correction in white light interferometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

3D microscopes based on white light interferometry (WLI) with vertical scanning have been widely used in many areas of surface measurements and characterizations for decades. This technology provides fast, non-contact, and full-field surface 3D measurements with vertical resolution as low as the sub-nanometer range. Its applications include measurements of step height, surface roughness, film thickness, narrow trench and via depths as well as other geometric and texture parameters. In order to assure the highest accuracy of the measurement, scanner linearity needs to be maintained or monitored so that the nonlinearity can be accounted for during the measurement. This paper describes a method that accounts for nonlinearities in real time without the need to store frame data; in addition this method is shown to be less sensitive to vibrations than previous methods described. The method uses an additional interferometer, a distance measuring interferometer to measure the actual scanner position at each scan step.

Chen, Dong; Schmit, Joanna; Novak, Matt

2014-11-01

307

Robust object segmentation using a multi-layer laser scanner.  

PubMed

The major problem in an advanced driver assistance system (ADAS) is the proper use of sensor measurements and recognition of the surrounding environment. To this end, there are several types of sensors to consider, one of which is the laser scanner. In this paper, we propose a method to segment the measurement of the surrounding environment as obtained by a multi-layer laser scanner. In the segmentation, a full set of measurements is decomposed into several segments, each representing a single object. Sometimes a ghost is detected due to the ground or fog, and the ghost has to be eliminated to ensure the stability of the system. The proposed method is implemented on a real vehicle, and its performance is tested in a real-world environment. The experiments show that the proposed method demonstrates good performance in many real-life situations. PMID:25356645

Kim, Beomseong; Choi, Baehoon; Yoo, Minkyun; Kim, Hyunju; Kim, Euntai

2014-01-01

308

Development of a Head Scanner for Proton CT.  

PubMed

We describe a new head scanner developed for Proton Computed Tomography (pCT) in support of proton therapy treatment planning, aiming at reconstructing an accurate map of the stopping power (S.P.) in a phantom and, in the future, in patients. The system consists of two silicon telescopes which track the proton before and after the phantom/patient, and an energy detector which measures the residual energy or range of the proton to reconstruct the Water Equivalent Path Length (WEPL) in the phantom. Based on the experience of the existing prototype and extensive Geant4 simulations and CT reconstructions, the new pCT scanner will support clinically useful proton fluxes. PMID:23264711

Sadrozinski, H F-W; Johnson, R P; Macafee, S; Plumb, A; Steinberg, D; Zatserklyaniy, A; Hurley, V Bashkirov F; Schulte, R

2013-01-21

309

Study of Thematic Mapper and Multispectral Scanner Data Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The U.S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center evaluated the utility of LANDSAT multispectral scanner (MSS) and Thematic Mapper (TM) data for natural resource assessment and land cover information, emphasizing manual interpretation and digital classification of the data for U.S. Department of the Interior applications. In most cases, substantially more information was derived from TM data than from MSS data. The test areas included Washington, D.C. and prairie regions of South Dakota and Kansas.

Sadowski, F. G.; Haas, R. H.; Sturdevant, J. A.; Anderson, W. H.; Seevers, P. M.; Feuquay, J. W.; Balick, L. K.; Waltz, F. A.; Lauer, D. T.

1984-01-01

310

Wire scanner data analysis for the SSC Linac emittance measurement  

SciTech Connect

The wire scanners are designed in the SSC Linac for measurement of beam emittance at various locations. In order to obtain beam parameters from the scan signal, a data analysis program was developed that considers the problems of noise reduction, machine modeling, parameter fitting, and correction. This program is intended as a tool for Linac commissioning and also as part of the Linac control program. Some of the results from commissioning runs are presented.

Yao, C.Y.; Hurd, J.W.; Sage, J.

1993-07-01

311

FastScanner: An Accessibility Tool for Motor Impaired Users  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a People with motor impairments often face difficulties in accessing interactive applications and services. This paper presents\\u000a a tool, named FastScanner that enables motor-impaired users to work with any application running in Microsoft Windows, without\\u000a the need of a posteriori modification, through the use of binary switches as an alternative to traditional input devices.\\u000a Evaluation of the tool has shown that

Stavroula Ntoa; Anthony Savidis; Constantine Stephanidis

2004-01-01

312

Large-displacement vertical microlens scanner with low driving voltage  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have designed, fabricated, and demonstrated large vertical displacement vertical microlens scanners with low (<10 V) driving voltage using silicon-on-insulator technology. The unique isolated and pre-engaged vertical comb-drive sets and the coupled-torsion flexure design provide both upward and downward piston motions, as well as low driving voltages. Single-directional devices demonstrate maximum static downward displacement of 8 ?m at 10 Vdc.

Sunghoon Kwon; V. Milanovic; L. P. Lee

2002-01-01

313

An endoscopic 3D scanner based on structured light.  

PubMed

We present a new endoscopic 3D scanning system based on Single Shot Structured Light. The proposed design makes it possible to build an extremely small scanner. The sensor head contains a catadioptric camera and a pattern projection unit. The paper describes the working principle and calibration procedure of the sensor. The prototype sensor head has a diameter of only 3.6mm and a length of 14mm. It is mounted on a flexible shaft. The scanner is designed for tubular cavities and has a cylindrical working volume of about 30mm length and 30mm diameter. It acquires 3D video at 30 frames per second and typically generates approximately 5000 3D points per frame. By design, the resolution varies over the working volume, but is generally better than 200?m. A prototype scanner has been built and is evaluated in experiments with phantoms and biological samples. The recorded average error on a known test object was 92?m. PMID:22542326

Schmalz, Christoph; Forster, Frank; Schick, Anton; Angelopoulou, Elli

2012-07-01

314

Photoacoustic and thermoacoustic imaging with a multichannel breast scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photoacoustic and thermoacoustic phantom images obtained with a multi-channel breast scanner designed for breast cancer screening are presented here. A tunable laser system (OPOTEK Vibrant 355 I, Calsbad,CA) with a pulse duration of 5 ns was used for photoacoustic irradiation, and a 3.0 GHz microwave source with a pulse width of 0.3-1 ?s was used for thermoacoustic tomography. Multiple (>=16) 2.25 MHz single-element unfocused ultrasonic transducers at different depths were scanned simultaneously for a full 360° to obtain a full data set for three-dimensional (3D) tomography. Negative acoustic lenses were attached to these unfocused transducers to increase their acceptance angles. An ultrasound receiving system with 64 parallel receiving channels (Verasonics Inc. Redmond, WA) was used for data acquisition. A filtered backprojection algorithm was used to reconstruct two-dimensional (2D) and 3D images. Different phantoms were imaged to evaluate the performance of the scanner. A lateral resolution of less than 1 mm and an elevational resolution of less than 5 mm were achieved. The phantom studies demonstrate that this scanner can potentially provide high-resolution, dual-modality, three-dimensional images and can potentially be used for human breast cancer screening.

Huang, Bin; Maslov, Konstantin; Wang, Lihong V.

2012-02-01

315

Handheld optical coherence tomography scanner for primary care diagnostics.  

PubMed

The goal of this study is to develop an advanced point-of-care diagnostic instrument for use in a primary care office using handheld optical coherence tomography (OCT). This system has the potential to enable earlier detection of diseases and accurate image-based diagnostics. Our system was designed to be compact, portable, user-friendly, and fast, making it well suited for the primary care office setting. The unique feature of our system is a versatile handheld OCT imaging scanner which consists of a pair of computer-controlled galvanometer-mounted mirrors, interchangeable lens mounts, and miniaturized video camera. This handheld scanner has the capability to guide the physician in real time for finding suspicious regions to be imaged by OCT. In order to evaluate the performance and use of the handheld OCT scanner, the anterior chamber of a rat eye and in vivo human retina, cornea, skin, and tympanic membrane were imaged. Based on this feasibility study, we believe that this new type of handheld OCT device and system has the potential to be an efficient point-of-care imaging tool in primary care medicine. PMID:21134801

Jung, Woonggyu; Kim, Jeehyun; Jeon, Mansik; Chaney, Eric J; Stewart, Charles N; Boppart, Stephen A

2011-03-01

316

Development of a 3D CT scanner using cone beam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to acquire 3D data of high contrast objects such as bone, lung and vessels enhanced by contrast media for use in 3D image processing, we have developed a 3D CT-scanner using cone beam x ray. The 3D CT-scanner consists of a gantry and a patient couch. The gantry consists of an x-ray tube designed for cone beam CT and a large area two-dimensional detector mounted on a single frame and rotated around an object in 12 seconds. The large area detector consists of a fluorescent plate and a charge coupled device video camera. The size of detection area was 600 mm X 450 mm capable of covering the total chest. While an x-ray tube was rotated around an object, pulsed x ray was exposed 30 times a second and 360 projected images were collected in a 12 second scan. A 256 X 256 X 256 matrix image (1.25 mm X 1.25 mm X 1.25 mm voxel) was reconstructed by a high-speed reconstruction engine. Reconstruction time was approximately 6 minutes. Cylindrical water phantoms, anesthetized rabbits with or without contrast media, and a Japanese macaque were scanned with the 3D CT-scanner. The results seem promising because they show high spatial resolution in three directions, though there existed several point to be improved. Possible improvements are discussed.

Endo, Masahiro; Kamagata, Nozomu; Sato, Kazumasa; Hattori, Yuichi; Kobayashi, Shigeo; Mizuno, Shinichi; Jimbo, Masao; Kusakabe, Masahiro

1995-05-01

317

Subcellular membrane curvature mediated by the BAR domain superfamily proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs167 (BAR) domain superfamily consists of proteins containing the BAR domain, the extended FCH (EFC)\\/FCH-BAR (F-BAR) domain, or the IRSp53-MIM homology domain (IMD)\\/inverse BAR (I-BAR) domain. These domains bind membranes through electrostatic interactions between the negative charges of the membranes and the positive charges on the structural surface of homo-dimeric BAR domain superfamily members. Some BAR superfamily members have

Shiro Suetsugu; Kiminori Toyooka; Yosuke Senju

2010-01-01

318

CFMRI Policies and Procedures for Using the Mock Scanner Page 1 of 4 UCSD Center for Functional MRI  

E-print Network

scanner (limited to 2 operators per project) c) Recharge/Billing Information IRB Approval The use to designated mock scanner operators who have been trained to use the equipment. Card access to the mock scanner to Mock Scanner After receiving the Webschedule account log in information, the PI may schedule time in 30

California at San Diego, University of

319

Full Reconstruction of barB arrow D^(*) barD^(*) barK Decays.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the exclusive reconstruction of B decays to final states with two D mesons using data taken at the ?(4s). This represents the first exclusive reconstruction of ``upper-vertex'' (wrong-sign) charm. It further demonstrates that the previously observed B arrow D^(*) barD^(*) X decays (from Z-pole data) are often of the form X=K, consistent with an underlying b arrow cbarcs process.

Briere, Roy A.

1997-04-01

320

Multispectral scanner system for ERTS: Four band scanner system. Volume 2: Engineering model panoramic pictures and engineering tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document is Volume 2 of three volumes of the Final Report for the four band Multispectral Scanner System (MSS). The results are contained of an analysis of pictures of actual outdoor scenes imaged by the engineering model MSS for spectral response, resolution, noise, and video correction. Also included are the results of engineering tests on the MSS for reflectance and saturation from clouds. Finally, two panoramic pictures of Yosemite National Park are provided.

1972-01-01

321

Digital Image Analysis for DETCHIP® Code Determination  

PubMed Central

DETECHIP® is a molecular sensing array used for identification of a large variety of substances. Previous methodology for the analysis of DETECHIP® used human vision to distinguish color changes induced by the presence of the analyte of interest. This paper describes several analysis techniques using digital images of DETECHIP®. Both a digital camera and flatbed desktop photo scanner were used to obtain Jpeg images. Color information within these digital images was obtained through the measurement of red-green-blue (RGB) values using software such as GIMP, Photoshop and ImageJ. Several different techniques were used to evaluate these color changes. It was determined that the flatbed scanner produced in the clearest and more reproducible images. Furthermore, codes obtained using a macro written for use within ImageJ showed improved consistency versus pervious methods. PMID:25267940

Lyon, Marcus; Wilson, Mark V.; Rouhier, Kerry A.; Symonsbergen, David J.; Bastola, Kiran; Thapa, Ishwor; Holmes, Andrea E.

2013-01-01

322

The feasibility of a scanner-independent technique to estimate organ dose from MDCT scans: Using CTDI{sub vol} to account for differences between scanners  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Monte Carlo radiation transport techniques have made it possible to accurately estimate the radiation dose to radiosensitive organs in patient models from scans performed with modern multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT) scanners. However, there is considerable variation in organ doses across scanners, even when similar acquisition conditions are used. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of a technique to estimate organ doses that would be scanner independent. This was accomplished by assessing the ability of CTDI{sub vol} measurements to account for differences in MDCT scanners that lead to organ dose differences. Methods: Monte Carlo simulations of 64-slice MDCT scanners from each of the four major manufacturers were performed. An adult female patient model from the GSF family of voxelized phantoms was used in which all ICRP Publication 103 radiosensitive organs were identified. A 120 kVp, full-body helical scan with a pitch of 1 was simulated for each scanner using similar scan protocols across scanners. From each simulated scan, the radiation dose to each organ was obtained on a per mA s basis (mGy/mA s). In addition, CTDI{sub vol} values were obtained from each scanner for the selected scan parameters. Then, to demonstrate the feasibility of generating organ dose estimates from scanner-independent coefficients, the simulated organ dose values resulting from each scanner were normalized by the CTDI{sub vol} value for those acquisition conditions. Results: CTDI{sub vol} values across scanners showed considerable variation as the coefficient of variation (CoV) across scanners was 34.1%. The simulated patient scans also demonstrated considerable differences in organ dose values, which varied by up to a factor of approximately 2 between some of the scanners. The CoV across scanners for the simulated organ doses ranged from 26.7% (for the adrenals) to 37.7% (for the thyroid), with a mean CoV of 31.5% across all organs. However, when organ doses are normalized by CTDI{sub vol} values, the differences across scanners become very small. For the CTDI{sub vol}, normalized dose values the CoVs across scanners for different organs ranged from a minimum of 2.4% (for skin tissue) to a maximum of 8.5% (for the adrenals) with a mean of 5.2%. Conclusions: This work has revealed that there is considerable variation among modern MDCT scanners in both CTDI{sub vol} and organ dose values. Because these variations are similar, CTDI{sub vol} can be used as a normalization factor with excellent results. This demonstrates the feasibility of establishing scanner-independent organ dose estimates by using CTDI{sub vol} to account for the differences between scanners.

Turner, Adam C.; Zankl, Maria; DeMarco, John J.; Cagnon, Chris H.; Zhang Di; Angel, Erin; Cody, Dianna D.; Stevens, Donna M.; McCollough, Cynthia H.; McNitt-Gray, Michael F. [Departments of Biomedical Physics and Radiology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90024 (United States); Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Institute of Radiation Protection, German Research Center for Environmental Health (GmbH), Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Departments of Biomedical Physics and Radiology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90024 (United States); Department of Imaging Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland, Oregon 97239 (United States); Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota 55901 (United States); Departments of Biomedical Physics and Radiology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90024 (United States)

2010-04-15

323

Comparison of back side chrome focus monitor to focus self-metrology of an immersion scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitoring of the focus performance is recognized to be an important part of a periodic scanner health check, but can one simply apply all techniques that have been used for dry scanners to immersion scanners? And if so how do such techniques compare to scanner self-metrology tests that are used to set up the tool? In this paper we look at one specific off-line focus characterization technique, Back Side Chrome (BSC), which we then try to match with results obtained from two self-metrology focus tests, available on the scanner chosen for this work. The latter tests are also used to set up the immersion scanner. We point out a few concerns, discuss their effect and indicate that for each generation of immersion tool one should redo the entire exercise.

D'havé, Koen; Machida, Takahiro; Laidler, David; Cheng, Shaunee

2007-03-01

324

ON THE FRACTION OF BARRED SPIRAL GALAXIES  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the stellar masses of strongly barred spiral galaxies. Our analysis is based on a sample of {approx}14,000 visually classified nearby galaxies given by Nair and Abraham. The fraction of barred spiral galaxies is found to be a strong function of stellar mass and star formation history, with a minimum near the characteristic mass at which bimodality is seen in the stellar populations of galaxies. We also find that bar fractions are very sensitive to the central concentration of galaxies below the transition mass but not above it. This suggests that whatever process is causing the creation of the red and blue sequences is either influencing, or being influenced by, structural changes which manifest themselves in the absence of bars. As a consequence of strong bar fractions being sensitive to the mass range probed, our analysis helps resolve discrepant results on the reported evolution of bar fractions with redshift.

Nair, Preethi B.; Abraham, Roberto G., E-mail: preethi.nair@oabo.inaf.i, E-mail: abraham@astro.utoronto.c [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada)

2010-05-10

325

Contribution from the Resonance K*(1950) to D0-> bar K0? , bar K0? ' Decays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the effect of the isospin 1/2, JP = 0+ resonant state K0* (1950) on the decays D0-> bar K0? and D0-> bar K0 ? ' as a function of the branching ratio sum r = Br(K0* (1950)-> bar K0 ? ) + Br(K0* (1950)-> bar K0 ? ') and coupling constants g{K_0* bar K0 ? }, g{K_0* bar K0 ? '}. We have used a factorized input for D0-> K0* (1950) weak transition through a ?K loop. We estimated both on- and off-shell contributions from the loop. Our calculation shows that the off-shell effects are significant. For r ? 30% a fit to the decay amplitude A(D0-> bar K0 ? ') was possible, but the amplitude A(D0-> bar K0? ) remained at its factorized value. For small values of r, r ? 18%, we were able to fit A(D0-> bar K0 ? ), and despite the fact that A(D0-> bar K{bar 0} ? ') could be raised by almost 100% over its factorized value, it still falls short of its experimental value. A simultaneous fit to both amplitudes A(D0-> bar K0 ? ') and A(D0-> bar K0 ? ) was not possible.

Hassaan El Aaoud, El; Kamal, A. N.

2001-04-01

326

Temperature dependence of APD-based PET scanners  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Solid state detectors such as avalanche photodiodes (APDs) are increasingly being used in PET detectors. One of the disadvantages of APDs is the strong decrease of their gain factor with increasing ambient temperature. The light yield of most scintillation crystals also decreases when ambient temperature is increased. Both effects lead to considerable temperature dependence of the performance of APD-based PET scanners. In this paper, the authors propose a model for this dependence and the performance of the LabPET8 APD-based small animal PET scanner is evaluated at different temperatures.Methods: The model proposes that the effect of increasing temperature on the energy histogram of an APD-based PET scanner is a compression of the histogram along the energy axis. The energy histogram of the LabPET system was acquired at 21 °C and 25 °C to verify the validity of this model. Using the proposed model, the effect of temperature on system sensitivity was simulated for different detector temperature coefficients and temperatures. Subsequently, the effect of short term and long term temperature changes on the peak sensitivity of the LabPET system was measured. The axial sensitivity profile was measured at 21 °C and 24 °C following the NEMA NU 4-2008 standard. System spatial resolution was also evaluated. Furthermore, scatter fraction, count losses and random coincidences were evaluated at different temperatures. Image quality was also investigated.Results: As predicted by the model, the photopeak energy at 25 °C is lower than at 21 °C with a shift of approximately 6% per °C. Simulations showed that this results in an approximately linear decrease of sensitivity when temperature is increased from 21 °C to 24 °C and energy thresholds are constant. Experimental evaluation of the peak sensitivity at different temperatures showed a strong linear correlation for short term (2.32 kcps/MBq/°C = 12%/°C, R = ?0.95) and long term (1.92 kcps/MBq/°C = 10%/°C , R = ?0.96) temperature changes. Count rate evaluation showed that although the total count rate is consistently higher at 21 °C than at 24 °C for different source activity concentrations, this is mainly due to an increase in scattered and random coincidences. The peak total count rate is 400 kcps at both temperatures but is reached at lower activity at 21 °C. The peak true count rate is 138 kcps (at 100 MBq) at 21 °C and 180 kcps (at 125 MBq) at 24 °C. The peak noise equivalent count rate is also lower at 21 °C (70 kcps at 70 MBq) than at 24 °C (100 kcps at 100 MBq). At realistic activity levels, the scatter fraction is lower at higher temperatures, but at the cost of a strong decrease in true count rate.Conclusions: A model was proposed for the temperature dependence of APD-based PET scanners and evaluated using the LabPET small animal PET scanner. System sensitivity and count rate performance are strongly dependent on ambient temperature while system resolution is not. The authors’ results indicate that it is important to assure stable ambient temperature to obtain reproducible results in imaging studies with APD-based PET scanners.

Keereman, Vincent; Van Holen, Roel; Vandenberghe, Stefaan; Vanhove, Christian [MEDISIP, Department of Electronics and Information Systems, Ghent University-iMinds-IBiTech, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)] [MEDISIP, Department of Electronics and Information Systems, Ghent University-iMinds-IBiTech, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)

2013-09-15

327

Boric Acid Reclamation System (BARS)  

SciTech Connect

KLM Technologies' personnel have identified a Boric Acid Reclamation System (BARS) utilizing reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration to produce a recyclable grade of otherwise waste boric acid at PWRs, thus reducing a major source of low-level radwaste. The design of a prototype BARS as a compact volume reduction system was the result of KLM's Phase 1 Program, and based upon a preliminary feasibility program, which assessed the applicability of membrane technology to refurbish and recycle waste boric acid from floor and equipment drain streams. The analysis of the overall program indicated a substantial savings regarding off-site disposal costs. Today's economic scenario indicates that optimization of volume reduction operation procedures could significantly reduce waste management costs, especially where burial penalties have become more severe. As a reaction to the economic burden imposed by final disposal, many nuclear plants are currently modifying their design and operating philosophies concerning liquid radwaste processing systems to meet stricter environmental regulations, and to derive potential economic benefits by reducing the ever-increasing volumes of wastes that are produced. To effect these changes, innovative practices in waste management and more efficient processing technologies are being successfully implemented.

Kniazewycz, B.G.; Markind, J.

1986-03-01

328

Dynamic Material Property Characterization with Kolsky Bars  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Split Hopkinson pressure bars (SHPB), also called Kolsky bars, have been widely used to determine the stressstrain\\u000a response of materials in the strain-rate range 102 – 104\\/s. Unlike quasi-static testing methods for material properties, the\\u000a high-rate Kolsky bar technique does not have a closed-loop control system to monitor and adjust\\u000a testing conditions on the specimen to specified levels. There are

Weinong W. Chen

329

Exploring the binding dynamics of bar proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used a continuum model based on the Helfrich free energy to investigate the binding dynamics of a lipid bilayer to a BAR\\u000a domain surface of a crescent-like shape of positive (e.g. I-BAR shape) or negative (e.g. F-BAR shape) intrinsic curvature.\\u000a According to structural data, it has been suggested that negatively charged membrane lipids are bound to positively charged\\u000a amino

Doron Kabaso; Ekaterina Gongadze; Jernej Jorga?evski; Marko Kreft; Ursula Van Rienen; Robert Zorec; Aleš Igli?

330

{bar K}-NUCLEAR Deeply Bound States?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the prediction by Akaishi and Yamazaki of relatively narrow {bar K}-nuclear states, deeply bound by over 100 MeV where the main decay channel {bar K} N -> ? ? is closed, several experimental signals in stopped K- reactions on light nuclei have been interpreted recently as due to such states. In this talk I review (i) the evidence from K--atom data for a deep bar K-nucleus potential, as attractive as V{bar K}(? 0) ˜ -(150 - 200) MeV at nuclear matter density, that could support such states; and (ii) the theoretical arguments for a shallow potential, V{bar K}(? 0) ˜ -(40 - 60) MeV. I then review a recent work by Mareš, Friedman and Gal in which {bar K}-nuclear bound states are generated dynamically across the periodic table, using a RMF Lagrangian that couples the {bar K} to the scalar and vector meson fields mediating the nuclear interactions. The reduced phase space available for {bar K} absorption from these bound states is taken into account by adding a density- and energy-dependent imaginary term, underlying the corresponding {bar K}-nuclear level widths, with a strength constrained by K--atom fits. Substantial polarization of the core nucleus is found for light nuclei, with central nuclear densities enhanced by almost a factor of two. The binding energies and widths calculated in this dynamical model differ appreciably from those calculated for a static nucleus. These calculations provide a lower limit of ? {bar K} ˜ 50 ± 10 MeV on the width of nuclear bound states for {bar K} binding energy in the range B{bar K} = 100 - 200 MeV.

Gal, Avraham

331

Network Image Processing For Computer Tomography (CT) Scanners: Report On Clinical Trial Sites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clinical trials have been conducted at several CT scanner sites that form an imaae transmission network in operation since June 1981. Network connection provides a special image reformatting service to aid CT diagnosis of difficult lumbar/cervical spine, petrous bone and orbit cases. Important side effects of the network service include improved scanner maintenance, higher patient throughput and scanner system utilization. The overall network concept is introduced, network products are illustrated, early results are discussed, and new directions are indicated.

Rhodes, Michael L.; Glenn, William V.; Azzawi, Yu-Ming; Brewster, Robert B.; Rothman, Stephen L. G.

1982-01-01

332

Direct determination of geometric alignment parameters for cone-beam scanners  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a comprehensive method for determining the geometric alignment parameters for cone-beam scanners (often called calibrating the scanners or performing geometric calibration). The method is applicable to x-ray scanners using area detectors, or to SPECT systems using pinholes or cone-beam converging collimators. Images of an alignment test object (calibration phantom) fixed in the field of view of the

C Mennessier; R Clackdoyle; F Noo

2009-01-01

333

Cantilevered bimorph-based scanner for high speed atomic force microscopy with large scanning range  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cantilevered bimorph-based resonance-mode scanner for high speed atomic force microscope (AFM) imaging is presented. The free end of the bimorph is used for mounting a sample stage and the other one of that is fixed on the top of a conventional single tube scanner. High speed scanning is realized with the bimorph-based scanner vibrating at resonant frequency driven by

Yusheng Zhou; Guangyi Shang; Wei Cai; Jun-En Yao

2010-01-01

334

Monte Carlo simulation of efficient data acquisition for an entire-body PET scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conventional PET scanners can image the whole body using many bed positions. On the other hand, an entire-body PET scanner with an extended axial FOV, which can trace whole-body uptake images at the same time and improve sensitivity dynamically, has been desired. The entire-body PET scanner would have to process a large amount of data effectively. As a result, the entire-body PET scanner has high dead time at a multiplex detector grouping process. Also, the entire-body PET scanner has many oblique line-of-responses. In this work, we study an efficient data acquisition for the entire-body PET scanner using the Monte Carlo simulation. The simulated entire-body PET scanner based on depth-of-interaction detectors has a 2016-mm axial field-of-view (FOV) and an 80-cm ring diameter. Since the entire-body PET scanner has higher single data loss than a conventional PET scanner at grouping circuits, the NECR of the entire-body PET scanner decreases. But, single data loss is mitigated by separating the axially arranged detector into multiple parts. Our choice of 3 groups of axially-arranged detectors has shown to increase the peak NECR by 41%. An appropriate choice of maximum ring difference (MRD) will also maintain the same high performance of sensitivity and high peak NECR while at the same time reduces the data size. The extremely-oblique line of response for large axial FOV does not contribute much to the performance of the scanner. The total sensitivity with full MRD increased only 15% than that with about half MRD. The peak NECR was saturated at about half MRD. The entire-body PET scanner promises to provide a large axial FOV and to have sufficient performance values without using the full data.

Isnaini, Ismet; Obi, Takashi; Yoshida, Eiji; Yamaya, Taiga

2014-07-01

335

High-speed two-dimensional laser scanner based on Bragg gratings stored in photothermorefractive glass  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-speed free-space wavelength-multiplexed optical scanner with high-speed wavelength selection coupled with narrowband volume Bragg gratings stored in photothermorefractive (PTR) glass is reported. The proposed scanner with no moving parts has a modular design with a wide angular scan range, accurate beam pointing, low scanner insertion loss, and two-dimensional beam scan capabilities. We present a complete analysis and design procedure

Zahid Yaqoob; Muzammil A. Arain; Nabeel A. Riza

2003-01-01

336

Evaluation Of Back Shape Using The ISIS Scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Integrated Shape Investigation System (ISIS) is a structured light scanner and shape analysis system, developed as a safe alternative to follow-up radiographs for the clinical assessment of deformities of the human back. The system is described and results presented of several clinic studies. These show a significant correlation between ISIS measures and conventional radiographic measures of spinal curvature, such as the Cobb angle. The development of a predictor for deterioration in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, based on surface shape weasures, is discussed.

Turner-Smith, Alan R.; Thomas, David C.

1989-04-01

337

A PC-controlled microwave tomographic scanner for breast imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article presents the design and development of a personal computer based controller for a microwave tomographic system for breast cancer detection. The system uses motorized, dual-polarized antennas and a custom-made GUI interface to control stepper motors, a wideband vector network analyzer (VNA) and to coordinate data acquisition and archival in a local MDSPlus database. Both copolar and cross-polar scattered field components can be measured directly. Experimental results are presented to validate the various functionalities of the scanner.

Padhi, Shantanu; Howard, John; Fhager, A.; Bengtsson, Sebastian

2011-01-01

338

Oil slick studies using photographic and multispectral scanner data.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Field studies of spills of Nos. 6 (Bunker C), 4, and 2 fuel oils and menhaden fish oil in the southern Chesapeake Bay have been supplemented with aerial photographic and multispectral scanner data. Thin films showed best in ultraviolet and blue bands and thick films in the green. Color film was effective for all thicknesses. Thermal infrared imagery provided clear detection, but required field temperature and thickness data to distinguish thickness/emissivity variations from temperature variations. Slick spreading rates agree with the theory of Fay (1969); further study of spreading is in progress.

Munday, J. C., Jr.; Macintyre, W. G.; Penney, M. E.; Oberholtzer, J. D.

1971-01-01

339

Agricultural applications for thermal infrared multispectral scanner data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of the Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) data in agricultural landscapes is discussed. The TIMS allows for narrow-band analysis in the 8.2-11.6 micron range at spatial resolutions down to 5 meters in cell size. A coastal plain region in SE Alabama was studied using the TIMS. The crop/plant vigor, canopy density, and thermal response changes for soils obtained from thermal imagery are examined. The application of TIMS data to hydrologic and topographic issues, inventory and conservation monitoring, and the enhancement and extraction of cartographic features is described.

Pelletier, R. E.; Ochoa, M. C.; Hajek, B. F.

1985-01-01

340

Middle infrared multispectral aircraft scanner data - Analysis for geological applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multispectral middle IR (8-13 microns) data were acquired with an aircraft scanner over Utah. Because these digital image data were dominated by temperature, all six channels were highly correlated. Extensive processing was required to allow geologic photointerpretation based on subtle variations in spectral emittance between rock types. After preliminary processing, ratio images were produced and color ratio composites created from these. Sensor calibration and an atmospheric model allowed determination of surface brightness, temperature, emittance, and color composite emittance images. The best separation of major rock types was achieved with a principal component transformation, followed by a Gaussian stretch, followed by an inverse transformation to the original axes.

Kahle, A. B.; Madura, D. P.; Soha, J. M.

1980-01-01

341

Coastal Zone Color Scanner data of rich coastal waters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Comparisons of chlorophyll concentrations and diffuse attenuation coefficients measured from ships off the central California coast were made with satellite derived estimates of the same parameters using data from the Coastal Zone Color Scanner. Very high chlorophyll concentrations were encountered in Monterey Bay. Although lower chlorophyll values acquired off Pt. Sur agreed satisfactorily with the satellite data, the high chlorophyll values departed markedly from agreement. Two possible causes for the disagreement are suggested. Comparison of diffuse attenuation coefficients from the same data sets showed closer agreement.

Wrigley, R. C.; Klooster, S. A.

1983-01-01

342

Optical monitoring of scoliosis by 3D medical laser scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three dimensional recording of the human body surface or anatomical areas have gained importance in many medical applications. In this paper, our 3D Medical Laser Scanner is presented. It is based on the novel principle of dynamic triangulation. We analyze the method of operation, medical applications, orthopedically diseases as Scoliosis and the most common types of skin to employ the system the most proper way. It is analyzed a group of medical problems related to the application of optical scanning in optimal way. Finally, experiments are conducted to verify the performance of the proposed system and its method uncertainty.

Rodríguez-Quiñonez, Julio C.; Sergiyenko, Oleg Yu.; Preciado, Luis C. Basaca; Tyrsa, Vera V.; Gurko, Alexander G.; Podrygalo, Mikhail A.; Lopez, Moises Rivas; Balbuena, Daniel Hernandez

2014-03-01

343

Thermoacoustic CT scanner for breast imaging: design considerations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have previously developed instrumentation for performing thermoacoustic computed tomography (TCT) of the human breast using 434 MHz radio waves. Recently, we have modified our original TCT scanner design in a number of important ways. We have increased the number of ultrasound detectors and decreased their size, and we have replaced our single RF wave- guide with a phased array of eight wave-guides. These modifications have led to increased spatial resolution, increased imaging field of view, and decreased scan time. Here we report the design considerations that led to these improvements.

Kruger, Robert A.; Kiser, William L., Jr.; Miller, Kathy D.; Reynolds, Handel E.; Reinecke, Daniel R.; Kruger, Gabe A.; Hofacker, Peter J.; Eisenhart, R. L.

2000-04-01

344

Retrofitted confocal laser scanner for a commercial inverted fluorescence microscope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the design and implementation of an inverted laser scanning confocal fluorescence microscope utilizing the commercial Nikon Diaphot TMD platform. An external confocal scanner was retrofitted through the video side port of the Diaphot. With 10×, 0.5 NA dry and 60×, 1.4 NA oil immersion objectives, the depth discrimination is 5.8 ?m and 0.8 ?m, respectively, as determined by derivatives of fluorescence edge responses measured in liquid samples of rhodamine 6G dissolved in DMSO. We present sample edge response curves and representative confocal fluorescence images of tumor cells in monolayer culture.

Bigelow, Chad E.; Harkrider, Curtis J.; Conover, David L.; Foster, Thomas H.; Georgakoudi, Irene; Mitra, Soumya; Nichols, Michael G.; Rajadhyaksha, Milind

2001-08-01

345

TESTING THEORIES IN BARRED-SPIRAL GALAXIES  

SciTech Connect

According to one version of the recently proposed 'manifold' theory that explains the origin of spirals and rings in relation to chaotic orbits, galaxies with stronger bars should have a higher spiral arms pitch angle when compared to galaxies with weaker bars. A subsample of barred-spiral galaxies in the Ohio State University Bright Galaxy Survey was used to analyze the spiral arms pitch angle. These were compared with bar strengths taken from the literature. It was found that the galaxies in which the spiral arms maintain a logarithmic shape for more than 70 Degree-Sign seem to corroborate the predicted trend.

Martinez-Garcia, Eric E., E-mail: martinez@astroscu.unam.mx [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 70-264, Distrito Federal 04510 (Mexico)

2012-01-10

346

Pattern speed evolution and bar reformation  

E-print Network

Bars in spiral galaxies can weaken through gas inflow towards the center, and angular momentum transfer. Several bar episodes can follow one another in the life of the galaxy, if sufficient gas is accreted from the intergalactic medium to revive young disks. Pattern speeds of the successive bars are different, due to mass concentration, or increased velocity dispersion of the remaining stellar component. In the same time, the spiral galaxy evolves in morphological type. Numerical simulations are presented, trying to correlate type and bar pattern speeds.

F. Combes

2008-11-05

347

Basic physics of xylophone and marimba bars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The frequency-dependent wave velocity and nonsinusoidal spatial dependence found for transverse waves in finite vibrating bars stands in stark contrast to the solutions to the one-dimensional wave equation, for example for the idealized vibrating string. The difference is particularly important when the resulting vibrations are used to produce music. Here, the appropriate approximate equations for transverse vibrations on a uniform bar are developed and compared to measurements using wooden bars. The results are extended using a simple finite element model to provide a means to predict normal mode behavior in nonuniform wooden bars such as those used for xylophones, marimbas, and related musical instruments.

Suits, B. H.

2001-07-01

348

Dynamics of Deeply Bound {bar k} States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamical effects for {bar K} deeply bound nuclear states are explored within a relativistic mean field (RMF) model. Varying the strength of {bar K} - nucleus interaction, we cover a wide range of binding energies in order to evaluate the corresponding widths. A lower limit ? {bar K} = 50 ± 10 MeV is placed on the width expected for binding energy in the range of B{bar K} ˜ 100 - 200 MeV. Substantial polarization of the core nucleus is found in light nuclei. We discuss the results of the FINUDA experiment at DA?NE which presented evidence for deeply bound K- pp states in Li and 12C.

Mareš, Ji?i; Friedman, Eliahu; Gal, Avraham

349

Fast neutron radiography scanner for the detection of contraband in air cargo containers.  

PubMed

There is a growing need to rapidly scan bulk air cargo for contraband such as illicit drugs and explosives. The Commonwealth Science and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) have been working with Australian Customs Service to develop a scanner capable of directly scanning airfreight containers in 1--2 minutes without unpacking. The scanner combines fast neutron and gamma-ray radiography to provide high-resolution images that include information on material composition. A full-scale prototype scanner has been successfully tested in the laboratory and a commercial-scale scanner is due to be installed at Brisbane airport in 2005. PMID:15963428

Eberhardt, J E; Rainey, S; Stevens, R J; Sowerby, B D; Tickner, J R

2005-08-01

350

BAR Domains as Sensors of Membrane Curvature: The Amphiphysin BAR Structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The BAR (Bin\\/amphiphysin\\/Rvs) domain is the most conserved feature in amphiphysins from yeast to human and is also found in endophilins and nadrins. We solved the structure of the Drosophila amphiphysin BAR domain. It is a crescent-shaped dimer that binds preferentially to highly curved negatively charged membranes. With its N-terminal amphipathic helix and BAR domain (N-BAR), amphiphysin can drive membrane

Brian J. Peter; Helen M. Kent; Ian G. Mills; Yvonne Vallis; P. Jonathan G. Butler; Philip R. Evans; Harvey T. McMahon

2004-01-01

351

Too Much Bar and Not Enough Mitzvah? A Proposed Research Agenda on Bar/Bat Mitzvah  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Jewish educators are understandably interested in research on how bar/bat mitzvah affect Jewish education or research on what Jewish schools have done to avoid the distortions of a focus on bar/bat mitzvah. Research might also focus on the somewhat different and more ambitious topic of the role that bar/bat mitzvah play in contemporary Jewish…

Schoenfeld, Stuart

2010-01-01

352

Marine pipeline stability: The Danish Code approach  

SciTech Connect

The Danish Code of Practice for Marine Pipelines has been under preparation for some time and is presently ready for public review. This paper describes the approach adopted by this Pipeline Code with respect to pipeline stability, i.e., hydrodynamic stability on the seabed, bar buckling and upheaval creep. The paper briefly describes the general safety philosophy adopted by the Code, that is based upon the partial safety coefficient method. The paper further describes the design procedures for on-bottom stability and upheaval buckling. The procedures are illustrated by calculation examples.

Nielson, N.J.R. [Danmark A/S, Copenhagen (Denmark). Det Norske Veritas; Bryndum, M.B. [Danish Hydraulic Inst., Horsholm (Denmark); Braestrup, M.W. [RH and H Consult, Copenhagen (Denmark)

1994-12-31

353

Noninvasive thermometry with a clinical x-ray CT scanner  

SciTech Connect

A CT scanner yields CT numbers which are proportional to the fractional difference in effective local electron density of the subject material with respect to that of calibration material. A homogeneous water-equivalent material is used as a calibration phantom under isothermal conditions. Any temperature variation (spatial or temporal) in the subject material subsequently scanned, will generate a CT-number shift in the CT image because of density changes due to thermal expansion. The potential use of the thermally generated CT-number shift in noninvasive thermometry during cancer hyperthermia was studied in vitro in samples of water and muscle tissue. The reproducibility of the area-averaged CT-number measurement on our EMI-7070 scanner was found to depend strongly on the time interval between successive counterclockwise scans and on the size of the region of interest used for area averaging. A linear relationship was found between the CT number and water density in the water temperature range from 10 to 55 /sup 0/C. In the hyperthermia temperature range (36--50 /sup 0/C), the relationship between the CT number and temperature itself is linear, with a CT-number thermal shift of about 0.4 and 0.45 HU//sup 0/C for water and muscle tissue, respectively. The achievable temperature discrimination is a fraction of /sup 0/C at spatial resolutions of the order of a centimeter.

Fallone, B.G.; Moran, P.R.; Podgorsak, E.B.

1982-09-01

354

Systematic scanner variability of patient CT attenuation measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CT numbers of the spleen, liver, and trachea air were measured from non-contrast images obtained from 4-channel and 64-channel scanners from the same vendor. Image sections of 1 mm and 5 mm were reconstructed using smooth and sharp kernels. For spleen and liver, no significant differences associated with the variations in kernels or slice thickness could be demonstrated. The increase of the number of channels from 4 to 64 lowered the spleen CT numbers from 53 HU to 43 HU (p <0.00001). The 4-channel spleen CT numbers slightly increased as function of patient size, while the 64-channel CT numbers decreased as function of patient size. Linear regressions predicted for 40-cm patients the spleen 64-channel CT values were 23 HU lower than 4-channel CT numbers. The smooth kernel, 4-channel trachea air CT numbers had mean of -1004 +/-4.8 HU and the 64-channel trachea air CT numbers had a mean of -989+/-4.5 HU. The patient-size dependencies suggest that the CT attenuation variation is associated with increased scatter in 64-channel MSCT. Using CT number to distinguish solid lesions from cysts or quantitative evaluation of COPD disease using CT images may be complicated by inconsistencies between CT scanners.

Judy, Philip F.; Nawfel, Richard D.; Silverman, Stuart G.

2009-02-01

355

Colorimetric characterisation of flatbed scanners for rock/sediment imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Colour is a physical property of rocks and sediments that has the potential to provide key insights into composition, and by extension the physical and chemical processes governing deposition. The rapid, non-destructive measurement of colour using spectrophotometers is an increasingly popular way of generating long datasets (i.e. >1000 data points) suitable for high-resolution palaeoclimate analysis. Digital image analysis of core photographs is another commonly applied method of extracting colour information, but the application of flatbed scanners for direct rock and sediment colour measurement has not received widespread attention. Here, a simple calibration methodology is presented that demonstrates how scanners can be colorimetrically characterised. The technique offers a quantitative approach to colour analysis that is superior to the subjective comparison of rocks/sediments to Munsell colour charts. Moreover, the accuracy of the method makes rock and sediment scanning a viable alternative to colour analysis using spectrophotometers. The technique is applied to Late Pleistocene sediment samples from the Canterbury Basin, New Zealand (IODP 317, Site U1352B) to emphasise the utility and precision of the method and the tight relationship between sediment colour and composition.

Kemp, David B.

2014-06-01

356

Thermal analysis for wire scanners in the CSNS Linac  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

3 MeV H- beam from the Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) will be accelerated to 80 MeV in the CSNS (China Spallation Neutron Source) linear accelerator (Linac). The wire scanner is used to measure the transverse beam profile and the emittance, and the carbon or tungsten wire is considered to use. Thermal analysis of the wire scanners in the Linac is presented in this paper. The maximum temperature (Tm) of the wire decreases as the beam energy increases, and we also calculate the influence of all possible parameters on Tm. Tm of carbon wire is significantly lower than tungsten wire if both the beam parameters and wire geometric parameters are set to the same, which can be attributed to its higher heat capacity and radiant emissivity. In addition, we present the results of sublimation rate of the wire, which show that tungsten wire has a much lower evaporation rate than carbon wire in the same temperature, which can be attributed to the different vapor pressures of the two materials. To limit the thermionic emission, the maximum beam frequency approximately has an exponential relationship with beam rms size at a certain beam pulse width.

Yang, Tao; Fu, Shinian; Xu, Taoguang; Xu, Zhihong; Meng, Ming; Qiu, Ruiyang; Tian, Jianmin; Zeng, Lei; Li, Peng; Li, Fang; Wang, Biao

2014-10-01

357

Design of a small animal MR compatible PET scanner  

SciTech Connect

Using a combination of Monte-Carlo simulations and experimental measurements, the authors have designed a small animal MR compatible PET (McPET) scanner for simultaneous PET and MR imaging of mice and rats in vivo. The scanner consists of one ring of 480 LSO crystals arranged in 3 layers with 160 crystals per layer. The crystal dimensions are 2 x 3 x 7.5 mm{sup 3}. This was based on a target resolution of 2.5 mm and simulations showing that a depth of 7.5 mm avoided significant depth of interaction effects across the desired field of view. The system diameter of 11.2 cm is large enough to accommodate the animal positioned inside a stereotactic frame. Each crystal will be coupled through 2 mm diameter optical fibers to multi-channel PMT`s which reside outside the main magnetic field. Through 50 cm of optical fiber, a photopeak is clearly seen and the measured energy resolution is 25%. Prototype optical fiber connectors have been tested to increase the flexibility of the system and result in a light loss of only 6%. The proposed system will have adequate resolution and sensitivity for a number of applications in small animals and will be the first practical device for simultaneous in vivo imaging with PET and MR.

Slates, R.; Cherry, S.; Boutefnouchet, A.; Shao, Y.; Dahlbom, M.; Farahani, K. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). School of Medicine] [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). School of Medicine

1999-06-01

358

Evolution of the Chocolate Bar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The majority of both student and faculty populations react quite favorably to chocolate and may even know something about its history. The movie Chocolat made millions, partly due to its starring actors, but also because the move drew salivating viewers to the multiple applications of chocolate. With its stimulant properties, chocolate generally makes people feel good. For purposes of this essay, chocolate also has the fortunate characteristic of appearing in many different sizes, shapes, and combinations. In this exercise, dubbed 'Evolution of the Chocolate Bar,' students build the most plausible phylogenetic tree based on identified synapomorphies of different 'species,' i.e. brands of chocolate. The exercise described below is easily assembled, works as a class demonstration or could be modified into small group projects, and also fits a variety of class timeframes. Substantial lines of inquiry could also be developed from this example.

Romi Burks (Southwestern University;); Larry Boles (Southwestern University;)

2007-04-20

359

Gas flow in barred potentials  

E-print Network

We use a Cartesian grid to simulate the flow of gas in a barred Galactic potential and investigate the effects of varying the sound speed in the gas and the resolution of the grid. For all sound speeds and resolutions, streamlines closely follow closed orbits at large and small radii. At intermediate radii shocks arise and the streamlines shift between two families of closed orbits. The point at which the shocks appear and the streamlines shift between orbit families depends strongly on sound speed and resolution. For sufficiently large values of these two parameters, the transfer happens at the cusped orbit as hypothesised by Binney et al. over two decades ago. For sufficiently high resolutions the flow downstream of the shocks becomes unsteady. If this unsteadiness is physical, as appears to be the case, it provides a promising explanation for the asymmetry in the observed distribution of CO.

Sormani, Mattia C; Magorrian, John

2015-01-01

360

An algorithm of distortion correction for Aztec code  

Microsoft Academic Search

As two-dimension bar code Aztec Code has a lot of outstanding excellences such as high capacity, high density, strong error-correcting ability and security, it is widely used in online tickets selling. According to the practicability, this paper has designed a system processes Aztec code distortion. In this paper, the algorithm of two-dimension barcode is introduced in detail. It can be

Gaoyan Zhang; Haifeng Ke

2010-01-01

361

BAR Domains as Sensors of Membrane Curvature: The  

E-print Network

BAR Domains as Sensors of Membrane Curvature: The Amphiphysin BAR Structure Brian J. Peter,* Helen helix and BAR domain (N-BAR), amphiphysin can drive mem- brane curvature in vitro and in vivo predict that BAR domains are in many protein families, including sorting nexins, centaurins

McMahon, Harvey

362

The Bar Tack Machine. Module 16.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module on the bar tack machine, one in a series dealing with industrial sewing machines, their attachments, and operation, covers one topic: performing special operations on the bar tack machine. These components are provided: an introduction, directions, an objective, learning activities, student information, a student self-check, and a…

South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

363

Beryllium Pressure Bar Having Submicrosecond Risetime  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pressure bar gauge was constructed from beryllium. The active element is a PZT polarized ferroelectric disk. The gauge was subjected to step pressure loading; the time taken for the output signal to increase from 10 to 90% of its final steady value is 0.54 ?sec which is substantially faster than any other previously reported for a bar gauge.

Ieuan R. Jones

1966-01-01

364

Structural Behavior of Concrete Beams Reinforced with Basalt Fiber Reinforced Polymer (BFRP) Bars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main challenge for civil engineers is to provide sustainable, environmentally friendly and financially feasible structures to the society. Finding new materials such as fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) material that can fulfill the above requirements is a must. FRP material was expensive and it was limited to niche markets such as space shuttles and air industry in the 1960s. Over the time, it became cheaper and spread to other industries such as sporting goods in the 1980-1990, and then towards the infrastructure industry. Design and construction guidelines are available for carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP), aramid fiber reinforced polymer (AFRP) and glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) and they are currently used in structural applications. Since FRP is linear elastic brittle material, design guidelines for the steel reinforcement are not valid for FRP materials. Corrosion of steel reinforcement affects the durability of the concrete structures. FRP reinforcement is identified as an alternative to steel reinforcement in corrosive environments. Although basalt fiber reinforced polymer (BFRP) has many advantages over other FRP materials, but limited studies have been done. These studies didn't include larger BFRP bar diameters that are mostly used in practice. Therefore, larger beam sizes with larger BFRP reinforcement bar diameters are needed to investigate the flexural and shear behavior of BFRP reinforced concrete beams. Also, shear behavior of BFRP reinforced concrete beams was not yet studied. Experimental testing of mechanical properties and bond strength of BFRP bars and flexural and shear behavior of BFRP reinforced concrete beams are needed to include BFRP reinforcement bars in the design codes. This study mainly focuses on the use of BFRP bars as internal reinforcement. The test results of the mechanical properties of BFRP reinforcement bars, the bond strength of BFRP reinforcement bars, and the flexural and shear behavior of concrete beams reinforced with BFRP reinforcement bars are presented and verified with other research studies, existing design codes and guidelines provided for other FRP bars. Based on the experimental testing results, analytical equations were developed and existing equations were modified to predict the actual structural behavior of FRP bar reinforced concrete beams with reasonable accuracy.

Ovitigala, Thilan

365

Accuracy in contouring of small and low contrast lesions: Comparison between diagnostic quality computed tomography scanner and computed tomography simulation scanner-A phantom study  

SciTech Connect

To evaluate the accuracy in detection of small and low-contrast regions using a high-definition diagnostic computed tomography (CT) scanner compared with a radiotherapy CT simulation scanner. A custom-made phantom with cylindrical holes of diameters ranging from 2-9 mm was filled with 9 different concentrations of contrast solution. The phantom was scanned using a 16-slice multidetector CT simulation scanner (LightSpeed RT16, General Electric Healthcare, Milwaukee, WI) and a 64-slice high-definition diagnostic CT scanner (Discovery CT750 HD, General Electric Healthcare). The low-contrast regions of interest (ROIs) were delineated automatically upon their full width at half maximum of the CT number profile in Hounsfield units on a treatment planning workstation. Two conformal indexes, CI{sub in}, and CI{sub out}, were calculated to represent the percentage errors of underestimation and overestimation in the automated contours compared with their actual sizes. Summarizing the conformal indexes of different sizes and contrast concentration, the means of CI{sub in} and CI{sub out} for the CT simulation scanner were 33.7% and 60.9%, respectively, and 10.5% and 41.5% were found for the diagnostic CT scanner. The mean differences between the 2 scanners' CI{sub in} and CI{sub out} were shown to be significant with p < 0.001. A descending trend of the index values was observed as the ROI size increases for both scanners, which indicates an improved accuracy when the ROI size increases, whereas no observable trend was found in the contouring accuracy with respect to the contrast levels in this study. Images acquired by the diagnostic CT scanner allow higher accuracy on size estimation compared with the CT simulation scanner in this study. We recommend using a diagnostic CT scanner to scan patients with small lesions (<1 cm in diameter) for radiotherapy treatment planning, especially for those pending for stereotactic radiosurgery in which accurate delineation of small-sized, low-contrast regions is important for dose calculation.

Ho, Yick Wing, E-mail: mpr@hksh.com [Medical Physics and Research Department, Hong Kong Sanatorium and Hospital (Hong Kong); Wong, Wing Kei Rebecca; Yu, Siu Ki; Lam, Wai Wang; Geng Hui [Medical Physics and Research Department, Hong Kong Sanatorium and Hospital (Hong Kong)

2012-01-01

366

Application of a laser scanner to three dimensional visual sensing tasks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The issues are described which are associated with using a laser scanner for visual sensing and the methods developed by the author to address them. A laser scanner is a device that controls the direction of a laser beam by deflecting it through a pair of orthogonal mirrors, the orientations of which are specified by a computer. If a calibrated laser scanner is combined with a calibrated camera, it is possible to perform three dimensional sensing by directing the laser at objects within the field of view of the camera. There are several issues associated with using a laser scanner for three dimensional visual sensing that must be addressed in order to use the laser scanner effectively. First, methods are needed to calibrate the laser scanner and estimate three dimensional points. Second, methods to estimate three dimensional points using a calibrated camera and laser scanner are required. Third, methods are required for locating the laser spot in a cluttered image. Fourth, mathematical models that predict the laser scanner's performance and provide structure for three dimensional data points are necessary. Several methods were developed to address each of these and has evaluated them to determine how and when they should be applied. The theoretical development, implementation, and results when used in a dual arm eighteen degree of freedom robotic system for space assembly is described.

Ryan, Arthur M.

1992-01-01

367

Hysteresis Modeling and Inverse Feedforward Control of an AFM Piezoelectric Scanner Based on Nano Images  

E-print Network

Hysteresis Modeling and Inverse Feedforward Control of an AFM Piezoelectric Scanner Based on Nano of micro/nano technology. As a critical part of AFM system, the piezoelectric scanner exists many defects in this paper possess a good performance for AFM nano imaging. Index Terms-- Hysteresis modeling, feedforward

Li, Yangmin

368

Computers versus Scanners: An Experiment in Nontraditional Forms of Survey Administration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveyed college sophomores to compare survey administration by scanner and by computer. Response rate for the computer-surveyed group (N=125) was 29 percent; for the scanner-surveyed group (N=124), response rate was 49 percent. Computer respondents gave more varied responses and reacted more favorably to the instrument, suggesting strengths of…

Allen, David F.

1987-01-01

369

SecuBat: A Web Vulnerability Scanner Stefan Kals, Engin Kirda, Christopher Kruegel, and Nenad Jovanovic  

E-print Network

incidences involving the loss of sensitive credit card information belonging to millions of customers. ManySecuBat: A Web Vulnerability Scanner Stefan Kals, Engin Kirda, Christopher Kruegel, and Nenad applications. To this end, we developed SecuBat, a generic and modular web vulnera- bility scanner that

Kruegel, Christopher

370

AUTHENTICATION OF FINGERPRINT SCANNERS Vladimir I. Ivanov and John S. Baras  

E-print Network

AUTHENTICATION OF FINGERPRINT SCANNERS Vladimir I. Ivanov and John S. Baras Institute for Systems Research, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA {vivanov, baras}@umd.edu ABSTRACT Fingerprint intrinsic charac- teristic of the fingerprint scanners even to those of the same technology, manufacturer

Baras, John S.

371

Defect repair for range data observed with a laser range scanner  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some types of laser range scanner can measure range and color data simultaneously, and are often used to acquire 3D structure of outdoor scenery. However, unfortunately a laser range scanner cannot give us perfect range information about the target objects such as buildings, and various factors incur critical defects of range data. We present a defect detection scheme based on

Takahiro Saito; Takashi Komatsu; Shin-ichi Sunaga; Masayuki Hashiguchi

2003-01-01

372

Research on the nonlinearity correction method for the piezoelectric optical scanner in a lidar system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The laser scanning system of a lidar usually needs a laser scanner with characteristics such as fast linear scanning, small size and small rotational inertia moment. Traditional laser scanners, such as galvanometer and rotating multi-faceted mirror, are difficult to achieve fast linear scanning with low moment of inertia. In order to solve these problems, a piezoelectric optical scanner based on novel piezoelectric actuator is designed in this paper. First of all, the scanner system components based on self-learning feed-forward controller is introduced. Furthermore, the principle and method of amending the scanner hysteresis loop are analyzed. Finally, one-dimensional linear scanning in a wide range of frequencies using the control platform with the core of digital signal processor TMS320F2812 is achieved. The experimental results show that the hysteresis characteristics have been restrained and scanning linear performance of the piezoelectric optical scanner has been remarkably improved in low frequencies. In high frequencies, the nonlinearity of triangle wave scanning is reduces by adding a notch filter circuit which restrained the structure resonance of the scanner. The piezoelectric optical scanner also has other advantages such as large optical scanning angle, high first step resonance frequency, small size and simple structure.

Wu, Xin; Chen, Sihai; Xiong, Xiaogang; Shi, Benyi; Chen, Wei

2010-10-01

373

Monolithic high aspect ratio two-axis optical scanners in SOI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fully monolithic silicon optical scanners are demonstrated with large static optical beam deflection in two axes. The main advantage of the scanners is their high frequency of operation for both axes. Namely, the actuators allow static two-axis rotation of a micromirror without the need for gimbals, or specialized isolation technologies. Each device is actuated by four orthogonally-arranged vertical combdrive rotators

Veljko Milanovic; Gabriel A. Matus; Thomas Cheng; B. Cagdaser

2003-01-01

374

Laser Scanner Survey to Cultural Heritage Conservation and Restoration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The field of Cultural Heritage has inspired, in the course of last few years, an interest more and more important on behalf of scientific community that deals to survey. The idea that knowledge of a site doesn't apply only to its history but must necessarily include its characteristics of position, shape and geometry, is gathering pace. In Geomatic science the field of cultural heritage benefits to an integrated approach of techniques and different technologies. Every cultural site in fact, is a case in itself, with its own characteristics, problems and specificness. Current techniques offer opportunity to achieve new ways of representation and visualization of cultural site, with the aim of a better metric description. This techniques are powerful tools for analysis of sites and supports to activity of reconstruction and repair. Biggest expectations in this field is laser three-dimensional scanning technique; a system which is able to operate in a methodical way in speed of acquisition and in possibility to access data in real time. Documentation and filing of state of a monument or site is essential in case of reconstruction or conservative project. Possibility to detect very complex geometries with great accuracy allows an in depth study of constructive techniques, making analysis of geometrical details easier which is, with traditional techniques, difficult to achieve. Biggest problems about use of laser scanner survey are graphic outputs for restorers and architects, in fact they often don't know real potential of this techniques, methodologies and functionalities and they expect traditional outputs such as floor plans, cross sections and front elevation of cultural asset. Present study is focused on finding a workflow to support activity of study, restoration and conservative project of cultural heritage, extracting automatically (or with a limited manual operation) graphic outputs from laser scanner survey. Some procedure was tested on two case study the Siviller Castle (XV century), situated in Villasor, a city near Cagliari (Sardinia, Italy) and the tower bell of Mores, near Sassari (Sardinia, Italy). The cultural sites were surveyed with laser scanner Focus 3D by Faro and to process clouds point we were used the JRC 3D Reconstructor software

Vacca, G.; Deidda, M.; Dessi, A.; Marras, M.

2012-07-01

375

Vegetated landslide monitoring: target tracking with terrestrial laser scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitoring landslides with terrestrial LiDAR is currently a well-known technique. One problem often encountered is the vegetation that produces shadow areas on the scans. Indeed, the points behind the obstacle are hidden and are absent from the point cloud. Thereby, locations monitored with terrestrial laser scanner are mostly rock instabilities and few vegetated landslides, being difficult or even impossible to survey vegetated slopes using this method. The Peney landslide (Geneva, Switzerland) is partially vegetated by bushes and trees, and in order to monitor its displacements during the drawdown of the Verbois reservoir located at its base, which activates the movement, an alternative solution has to be found. The Goal of this study are: (1) to illustrate a technique to monitor vegetated landslides with a terrestrial laser scanner and (2) to compare the both manual and automatic methods for displacement vectors extraction. We installed 14 targets, four of which are in stable areas which are considered as references. Targets are made of expanded polystyrene, two are spherical and 12 are cubic. They were installed on metallic poles ranging between 2 to 4 meters high. The LiDAR device was located on a fixed point on a pontoon on the reservoir opposite bank. The whole area, including the targets, needed three scans to be entirely covered and was scanned 10 times along on two weeks (duration of drawdown - filling). The acquired point clouds were cleaned and georeferenced. In order to determine the displacements for every target, two methods (manual and automatic) were used. The manual method consists on manual selection of, for example, the apex of the cubes, and so to have its 3D coordinates for a comparison in time. The automatic method uses an algorithm that recognises shapes trough time series. The obtained displacements were compared with classical measurement methods (theodolite and extensometer) showing good resemblance of results, indicating the validity of this method. The low cost of the additional field equipment and the relatively low time of installation makes it interesting and deserve to be further developed. The automatic data analysis method considerably lowered the errors and was way faster than a manual operation. Those combined methods offer new application field for vegetated landslide monitoring using terrestrial laser scanner, including a more accurate and faster treatment.

Franz, Martin; Carrea, Dario; Abellan, Antonio; Derron, Marc-Henri; Jaboyedoff, Michel

2013-04-01

376

32 CFR 776.66 - Bar admission and disciplinary matters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Bar admission and disciplinary matters. 776.66 Section 776.66 National...776.66 Bar admission and disciplinary matters. (a) Bar admission and disciplinary matters. A covered attorney, in...

2010-07-01

377

32 CFR 776.66 - Bar admission and disciplinary matters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Bar admission and disciplinary matters. 776.66 Section 776.66 National...776.66 Bar admission and disciplinary matters. (a) Bar admission and disciplinary matters. A covered attorney, in...

2014-07-01

378

32 CFR 776.66 - Bar admission and disciplinary matters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Bar admission and disciplinary matters. 776.66 Section 776.66 National...776.66 Bar admission and disciplinary matters. (a) Bar admission and disciplinary matters. A covered attorney, in...

2011-07-01

379

32 CFR 776.66 - Bar admission and disciplinary matters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Bar admission and disciplinary matters. 776.66 Section 776.66 National...776.66 Bar admission and disciplinary matters. (a) Bar admission and disciplinary matters. A covered attorney, in...

2013-07-01

380

32 CFR 776.66 - Bar admission and disciplinary matters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Bar admission and disciplinary matters. 776.66 Section 776.66 National...776.66 Bar admission and disciplinary matters. (a) Bar admission and disciplinary matters. A covered attorney, in...

2012-07-01

381

33 CFR 13.01-40 - Miniature medals and bars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-40 Miniature medals and bars. (a) Miniature Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals and bars are replicas of...

2013-07-01

382

33 CFR 13.01-40 - Miniature medals and bars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-40 Miniature medals and bars. (a) Miniature Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals and bars are replicas of...

2010-07-01

383

33 CFR 13.01-40 - Miniature medals and bars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-40 Miniature medals and bars. (a) Miniature Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals and bars are replicas of...

2011-07-01

384

33 CFR 13.01-40 - Miniature medals and bars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-40 Miniature medals and bars. (a) Miniature Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals and bars are replicas of...

2014-07-01

385

33 CFR 13.01-40 - Miniature medals and bars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-40 Miniature medals and bars. (a) Miniature Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals and bars are replicas of...

2012-07-01

386

Search for B^0-> p p-bar, Lambda Lambda-bar and B^+ -> p Lambda-bar at Belle  

E-print Network

We report on a new search for two-body baryonic decays of the B meson. Improved sensitivity compared to previous Belle results is obtained from 414 fb^-1 of data that corresponds to 449 million B B-bar pairs, which were taken on the Upsilon(4S) resonance and collected with the Belle detector at the KEKB e^+e^- collider. No significant signals are observed and we set the 90% confidence level upper limits: Br(B^0-> p pbar) Lambda Lambda-bar) p Lambda-bar) < 3.2X10^-7.

Y. -T. Tsai; P. Chang

2007-03-30

387

A double-bent planar leaf flexure guide for a nano-scanner: Experimental report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe an experimental study on the double-bent leaf flexure-guided nano-scanner introduced in a previous paper [J. Korean Phy. Soc. 57, 1581 (2010)]. The optimally-designed nano-scanner was fabricated. Its performances were verified using a finite element analysis (FEA). The nano-scanner is actuated by a voice coil motor. Its characteristics were measured with a laser interferometer. The first resonant frequency is calculated as 17.1 Hz. The performances of the nano-scanner, including sine tracking capability, a multi-step response, and range of travel check were evaluated using various experimental procedures. Test results reveal that the scanner traveled over a 4.0 mm range and had good nano-precision (4 nm).

Jeon, Jeong-Woo; Kim, Jong-Moon; Lee, Young-Hyoung; Lee, Dong-Yeon

2014-11-01

388

A COST EFFECTIVE MULTI-SPECTRAL SCANNER FOR NATURAL GAS DETECTION  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to design, fabricate and field demonstrate a cost effective, multi-spectral scanner for natural gas leak detection in transmission and distribution pipelines. During the first six months of the project, the design for a laboratory version of the multispectral scanner was completed. The optical, mechanical, and electronic design for the scanner was completed. The optical design was analyzed using Zeemax Optical Design software and found to provide sufficiently resolved performance for the scanner. The electronic design was evaluated using a bread board and very high signal to noise ratios were obtained. Fabrication of a laboratory version of the multi-spectral scanner is currently in progress. A technology status report and a research management plan was also completed during the same period.

Yudaya Sivathanu; Jongmook Lim; Vinoo Narayanan

2004-04-01

389

Applications of the Coastal Zone Color Scanner in oceanography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research activity has continued to be focused on the applications of the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) imagery in oceanography. A number of regional studies were completed including investigations of temporal and spatial variability of phytoplankton populations in the South Atlantic Bight, Northwest Spain, Weddell Sea, Bering Sea, Caribbean Sea and in tropical Atlantic Ocean. In addition to the regional studies, much work was dedicated to developing ancillary global scale meteorological and hydrographic data sets to complement the global CZCS processing products. To accomplish this, SEAPAK's image analysis capability was complemented with an interface to GEMPAK (Severe Storm Branch's meteorological analysis software package) for the analysis and graphical display of gridded data fields. Plans are being made to develop a similar interface to SEAPAK for hydrographic data using EPIC (a hydrographic data analysis package developed by NOAA/PMEL).

Mcclain, C. R.

1988-01-01

390

0.5 gigapixel microscopy using a flatbed scanner  

PubMed Central

The capability to perform high-resolution, wide field-of-view (FOV) microscopy imaging is highly sought after in biomedical applications. In this paper, we report a wide FOV microscopy system that uses a closed-circuit-television (CCTV) lens for image relay and a flatbed scanner for data acquisition. We show that such an imaging system is capable of capturing a 10 mm × 7.5 mm FOV image with 0.78 µm resolution, resulting in more than 0.5 billion pixels across the entire image. The resolution and field curve of the proposed system were characterized by imaging a USAF resolution target and a hole-array target. To demonstrate its application, 0.5 gigapixel images of histology slides were acquired using this system. PMID:24466471

Zheng, Guoan; Ou, Xiaoze; Yang, Changhuei

2013-01-01

391

Detector characterization for an inline PET scanner in hadrontherapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our group at the "Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon" (IPNL) is working on physics and detectors for medical imaging. We are presently developing a small animal Positron Emission Tomograph (PET) scanner prototype with an innovative slow control and data acquisition features, for a demonstration purpose and within the crystal clear international collaboration. We also investigate a feasibility study of an online PET dedicated for inline and in situ dose deposition control in hadrontherapy. Here, we present the characterization setup and method we used to calibrate the detector heads of our PET prototype. Each of these heads consists of a single block continuous scintillating LySO crystal coupled to a multi-anode photomultiplier equipped with its proper acquisition readout chain.

Taverne, Marina; Boutemeur, Madjid; Buthod, Anthony; Guigues, Laurent; Henriquet, Pierre; Lollierou, Julien; Ricol, Marie-Charlotte; Rosset-Lanchet, Rémi; Roubin, Mathieu; Saidi, Réda; Sappey-Marinier, Dominique; Testa, Etienne

2007-02-01

392

Crop water-stress assessment using an airborne thermal scanner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An airborne thermal scanner was used to measure the temperature of a wheat crop canopy in Phoenix, Arizona. The results indicate that canopy temperatures acquired about an hour and a half past solar noon were well correlated with presunrise plant water tension, a parameter directly related to plant growth and development. Pseudo-colored thermal images reading directly in stress degree days, a unit indicative of crop irrigation needs and yield potential, were produced. The aircraft data showed significant within-field canopy temperature variability, indicating the superiority of the synoptic view provided by aircraft over localized ground measurements. The standard deviation between airborne and ground-acquired canopy temperatures was 2 C or less.

Millard, J. P.; Jackson, R. D.; Reginato, R. J.; Idso, S. B.; Goettelman, R. C.

1978-01-01

393

High speed hydraulic scanner for deep x-ray lithography  

SciTech Connect

From their research and development in hard x-ray lithography, the authors have found that the conventional leadscrew driven scanner stages do not provide adequate scan speed or travel. These considerations have led the authors to develop a scanning system based on a long stroke hydraulic drive with 635 mm of travel and closed loop feedback to position the stage to better than 100 micrometers. The control of the device is through a PC with a custom LabView interface coupled to simple x-ray beam diagnostics. This configuration allows one to set a variety of scan parameters, including target dose, scan range, scan rates, and dose rate. Results from the prototype system at beamline X-27B are described as well as progress on a production version for the X-14B beamline.

Milne, J.C.; Johnson, E.D.

1997-07-01

394

Multispectral scanner data applications evaluation. Volume 1: User applications study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A six-month systems study of earth resource surveys from satellites was conducted and is reported. SKYLAB S-192 multispectral scanner (MSS) data were used as a baseline to aid in evaluating the characteristics of future systems using satellite MSS sensors. The study took the viewpoint that overall system (sensor and processing) characteristics and parameter values should be determined largely by user requirements for automatic information extraction performance in quasi-operational earth resources surveys, the other major factor being hardware limitations imposed by state-of-the-art technology and cost. The objective was to use actual aircraft and spacecraft MSS data to outline parametrically the trade-offs between user performance requirements and hardware performance and limitations so as to allow subsequent evaluation of compromises which must be made in deciding what system(s) to build.

Thomson, F. J.; Erickson, J. D.; Nalepka, R. F.; Weber, J. D.

1974-01-01

395

Wide-Bandwidth Capture of Wire-Scanner Signals  

SciTech Connect

Integrated charge collected on the sense wires of wire-scanner systems utilized to determine beam profile is generally the parameter of interest. The LANSCE application requires capturing the charge information macropulse-by-macropulse with macropulse lengths as long as 700 {micro}s at a maximum macropulse rate of 120 Hz. Also, for the LANSCE application, it is required that the integration be performed in a manner that does not require integrator reset between macropulses. Due to the long macropulse which must be accommodated and the 8.33 ms minimum pulse period, a simple R-C integrator cannot be utilized since there is insufficient time between macropulses to allow the integrator to adequately recover. The application of wide analog bandwidth to provide accurate pulse-by-pulse capture of the wire signals with digital integration of the wire signals to determine captured charge at each macropulse in applications with comparatively long macropulses and high pulse repetition rates is presented.

Gruchalla, Michael E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gilpatrick, John D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sedillo, James Daniel [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Derwin [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-05-16

396

An ERTS multispectral scanner experiment for mapping iron compounds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are no author-identified significant results in this report. An experimental plan for enhancing spectral features related to the chemical composition of geological targets in ERTS multispectral scanner data is described. The experiment is designed to produce visible-reflective infrared ratio images from ERTS-1 data. Iron compounds are promising remote sensing targets because they display prominent spectral features in the visible-reflective infrared wavelength region and are geologically significant. The region selected for this ERTS experiment is the southern end of the Wind River Range in Wyoming. If this method proves successful it should prove useful for regional geologic mapping, mineralogical exploration, and soil mapping. It may also be helpful to ERTS users in scientific disciplines other than geology, especially to those concerned with targets composed of mixtures of live vegetation and soil or rock.

Vincent, R. K. (principal investigator)

1972-01-01

397

Atmospheric correction of Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) on Nimbus-7 is a scanning radiometer designed to view the ocean in six spectral bands (centered at 443, 520, 550, 670, 750, and 11,500 nm) for the purpose of estimating sea surface chlorophyll and temperature distributions. In the visible bands, the atmosphere obscures the imagery to the extent that at 443 nm, at most, only 20 percent of the observed radiance originates from beneath the sea surface. Retrieving this subsurface radiance from the imagery is complicated by the highly variable nature of the aerosol's contribution. In this paper, an algorithm for the removal of these atmospheric effects from CZCS imagery is described, a preliminary application of the algorithm to an image with very strong horizontal variations in the aerosol optical thickness is presented, and retrieval of the spatial distribution of the aerosol optical thickness is discussed.

Gordon, H. R.; Mueller, J. L.; Wrigley, R. C.

1980-01-01

398

Cryogenic cooling study for the advanced limb scanner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The cryogenic operating requirements for a VM refrigerator to be used for detector cooling of the advanced limb scanner (ALS) instrument are defined. Determination of these requirements include consideration of mission and environmental constraints. Based on the operating requirements a detailed refrigerator design and performance analysis is conducted resulting in an optimized VM refrigerator conceptual design. The cooler-instrument-spacecraft interfaces are evaluated resulting in recommendations as to the best approach and most effective concepts resulting in simple and satisfactory interfaces. A preliminary implementation plan and schedule describing the general tasks required to develop, design, manufacture, test, and deliver three VM coolers and required support equipment to support an ALS flight experiment are presented. The result of this effort shows that existing VM cooler technology is sufficient to satisfy ALS mission requirements and schedules.

Russo, S. C.

1980-01-01

399

Geometric analysis and restitution of digital multispectral scanner data arrays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation was conducted to define causes of geometric defects within digital multispectral scanner (MSS) data arrays, to analyze the resulting geometric errors, and to investigate restitution methods to correct or reduce these errors. Geometric transformation relationships for scanned data, from which collinearity equations may be derived, served as the basis of parametric methods of analysis and restitution of MSS digital data arrays. The linearization of these collinearity equations is presented. Algorithms considered for use in analysis and restitution included the MSS collinearity equations, piecewise polynomials based on linearized collinearity equations, and nonparametric algorithms. A proposed system for geometric analysis and restitution of MSS digital data arrays was used to evaluate these algorithms, utilizing actual MSS data arrays. It was shown that collinearity equations and nonparametric algorithms both yield acceptable results, but nonparametric algorithms possess definite advantages in computational efficiency. Piecewise polynomials were found to yield inferior results.

Baker, J. R.; Mikhail, E. M.

1975-01-01

400

Study of adaptive methods for data compression of scanner data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance of adaptive image compression techniques and the applicability of a variety of techniques to the various steps in the data dissemination process are examined in depth. It is concluded that the bandwidth of imagery generated by scanners can be reduced without introducing significant degradation such that the data can be transmitted over an S-band channel. This corresponds to a compression ratio equivalent to 1.84 bits per pixel. It is also shown that this can be achieved using at least two fairly simple techniques with weight-power requirements well within the constraints of the LANDSAT-D satellite. These are the adaptive 2D DPCM and adaptive hybrid techniques.

1977-01-01

401

Problem of Infrared Television-Camera Tubes vs Infrared Scanners.  

PubMed

Infrared sensitive television-camera tubes have responsivities orders of magnitude higher than scanner cells, yet the latter give better images of terrestrial scenes by their own thermal radiation. It is shown that although the camera tube electron beam reading mechanism saturates to limit maximum signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) to about 100, the large ir photon flux permits SNR up to 10(5) for typical nonsaturating cells that respond from the visible to 12 microm, despite their lower responsivity. Since ir images have very low contrast, ir sensitive camera tubes would be preferred only for wavelengths shorter than about 2.5 microm where photon flux is small and high responsivity is required. PMID:20094548

Hall, J A

1971-04-01

402

Design considerations for a limited-angle, dedicated breast, TOF PET scanner  

PubMed Central

Development of partial ring, dedicated breast PET scanners is an active area of research. Due to the limited angular coverage, generation of distortion and artifact free, fully 3D tomographic images is not possible without rotation of the detectors. With TOF information it is possible to achieve the 3D tomographic images with limited angular coverage and without detector rotation. We performed simulations for a breast scanner design with a ring diameter and axial length of 15-cm and comprising of a full (180 degree in-plane angular coverage), 2/3 (120 degree in-plane angular coverage), or ½ (90 degree in-plane angular coverage) ring detector. Our results show that as the angular coverage decreases, improved timing resolution is needed to achieve distortion-free and artifact-free images with TOF. The CRC value for small hot lesions in a partial ring scanner is similar to a full ring Non-TOF scanner. Our results indicate that a timing resolution of 600ps is needed for a 2/3 ring scanner, while a timing resolution of 300ps is needed for a ½ ring scanner. We also analyzed the ratio of lesion CRC to background pixel noise (SNR) and concluded that TOF improves the SNR values of the partial ring scanner, and helps to compensate for the loss in sensitivity due to reduced geometric sensitivity in a limited angle coverage PET scanner. In particular, it is possible to maintain similar SNR characteristic in a 2/3 ring scanner with a timing resolution of 300ps as in a full ring Non-TOF scanner. PMID:18460745

Surti, S; Karp, JS

2009-01-01

403

Sharing code  

PubMed Central

Sharing code is becoming increasingly important in the wake of Open Science. In this review I describe and compare two popular code-sharing utilities, GitHub and Open Science Framework (OSF). GitHub is a mature, industry-standard tool but lacks focus towards researchers. In comparison, OSF offers a one-stop solution for researchers but a lot of functionality is still under development. I conclude by listing alternative lesser-known tools for code and materials sharing. PMID:25165519

Kubilius, Jonas

2014-01-01

404

Interferometry-based Kolsky bar apparatus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new experimental approach of the Kolsky bar system using optical interferometry is presented for determination of dynamic behavior of materials. Conventional measurements in the Kolsky bar system are based on recording the strain histories on the incident and transmitter bars with two strain gauges, and require good adhesion between the gauge and the bar. We suggest an alternative approach, based on measuring the actual velocities of the bars by using fiber-based velocity interferometry. Two fiber focusers illuminate the bars at a small angle and collect reflected Doppler-shifted light, which is interfered with a reference beam. Velocities are calculated from short-time Fourier transform and phase-based analysis, and the dynamic stress-strain curve is derived directly from the measured velocity traces. We demonstrate that the results coincide with those obtained by conventional strain gauge measurements. The new method is non-intervening and thus not affected by bar impacts, making it more robust and reliable than strain gauges.

Avinadav, C.; Ashuach, Y.; Kreif, R.

2011-07-01

405

A newly developed Kolsky tension bar.  

SciTech Connect

Investigation of damage and failure of materials under impact loading relies on reliable dynamic tensile experiments. A precise Kolsky tension bar is highly desirable. Based on the template of the Kolsky compression bar that we recently developed and presented at 2009 SEM conference, a new Kolsky tension bar apparatus was completed at Sandia National Laboratories, California. It is secured to the same optical table. Linear bearings with interior Frelon coating were employed to support the whole tension bar system including the bars and gun barrel. The same laser based alignment system was used to efficiently facilitate highly precise alignment of the bar system. However, the gun part was completely re-designed. One end of the gun barrel, as a part of loading device, was directly jointed to the bar system. A solid cylindrical striker is launched inside the gun barrel and then impacts on a flange attached to the other end of the gun barrel to facilitate a sudden tensile loading on the whole system. This design improves the quality of impact to easily produce a perfect stress wave and is convenient to utilize pulse shaping technique. A calibration and dynamic characterization of an aluminum specimen are presented.

Lu, Wei-Yang; Song, Bo; Antoun, Bonnie R.; Connelly, Kevin; Korellis, John S.

2010-03-01

406

Analysis of Hopkinson bar pressure gage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to fully understand the results of experiments on buried structures subjected to high intensity airblast that simulates nuclear weapons effects, an accurate measurement of the airblast pressure time-history must be made. Quite often, the peak airblast pressures in these tests are above what commercially-available air-pressure gages are capable of measuring. Hopkinson bar pressure gages remain elastic while measuring these very high airblast pressures. These bar gages also have the advantage that the sensing element of the gage is placed at a distance down the bar from the high pressure airblast. Thus the sensing element and the wires attached to it stand a much better chance of surviving the environment created by the simulator. The U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES) has developed a bar gage, designed to measure the airblast for tests in which airblast-induced ground shock is simulated. The primary objective of this study was to determine the accuracy of the WES bar gage and the possible effects the water and water seal have on the measured waveforms. Other objectives are to evaluate the differences in measured stresses between the WES and NMERI bars in the DET test, and to determine if modifications to the WES bar gage design are needed.

Baylot, James T.

1993-01-01

407

Comparative cut-bar thermal conductivity apparatus.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Construction details, error analysis, and typical data for a rapid comparative device for thermal conductivity measurements are presented. The apparatus consists of a comparative cut-bar arrangement contained in a bell-jar. The cylinder shaped specimen is placed between two ARMCO-iron meter bars of the same diameter. The upper bar is equipped with a heater, while the lower one is terminated in a heat sink. The temperature gradient along the bars is measured with a series of copper/constantan microthermocouples, spot welded to them. The assembly is held together by loading the bars to a desired pressure, via a pneumatic cylinder. Contact resistance at the boundaries between the specimen and the meter bars is minimized by using a Hg/In/Ga alloy film at the interface and sufficient loading force. The gradients determined for the meter bars then may be extrapolated to the boundaries yielding the temperature drop along the specimen. Using two different length specimens, the magnitude of the temperature drop across the interface can be computed, or the true gradient along the specimen can be obtained from the difference in overall temperature drops and lengths.

Gaal, P. S.; Span, R. M.

1972-01-01

408

Preliminary resolution performance of the prototype system for a 4Layer DOI-PET scanner: jPET-D4  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are developing a high-performance brain PET scanner, jPET-D4, which provides 4-layer depth-of-interaction (DOI) information. The scanner is designed to achieve not only high spatial resolution but also high scanner sensitivity with the DOI information obtained from multi-layered thin crystals. The scanner has 5 rings of 24 detector blocks each, and each block consists of 1024 GSO crystals of 2.9

Taiga Yamaya; Naoki Hagiwara; Takashi Obi; Tomoaki Tsuda; Keishi Kitamura; Tomoyuki Hasegawa; Hideaki Haneishi; Naoko Inadama; Eiji Yoshida; Hideo Murayama

2006-01-01

409

Boxy/Peanut Bulges and Stellar Bars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boxy/peanut bulges in disk galaxies have been associated with stellar bars. We analyze their properties in a large sample of N-body simulations, using different methods to measure their strength, shape, and possible asymmetry, and then to intercompare the results. Some of these methods can be applied to both simulations and observations. In particular, we seek correlations between bar and peanut properties, which, when applied to real galaxies, will give information on bars in edge-on galaxies and on peanuts in face-on galaxies.

Martínez-Valpuesta, I.; Athanassoula, E.

2008-06-01

410

Boxy/Peanut bulges and stellar bars  

E-print Network

Boxy/peanut bulges in disc galaxies have been associated to stellar bars. We analyse their properties in a large sample of $N$-body simulations, using different methods to measure their strength, shape and possible asymmetry, and then inter-compare the results. Some of these methods can be applied to both simulations and observations. In particular, we seek correlations between bar and peanut properties, which, when applied to real galaxies, will give information on bars in edge-on galaxies, and on peanuts in face-on galaxies.

Martinez-Valpuesta; I.; Athanassoula; E.

2008-01-21

411

Boxy/Peanut bulges and stellar bars  

E-print Network

Boxy/peanut bulges in disc galaxies have been associated to stellar bars. We analyse their properties in a large sample of $N$-body simulations, using different methods to measure their strength, shape and possible asymmetry, and then inter-compare the results. Some of these methods can be applied to both simulations and observations. In particular, we seek correlations between bar and peanut properties, which, when applied to real galaxies, will give information on bars in edge-on galaxies, and on peanuts in face-on galaxies.

Martinez-Valpuesta, I

2008-01-01

412

7.RP Buying Protein Bars and Magazines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Tom wants to buy some protein bars and magazines for a trip. He has decided to buy three times as many protein bars as magazines. Each protein bar cost...

2012-05-01

413

Dealing with Laser Scanner Failure: Mirrors and Windows Shao-Wen Yang and Chieh-Chih Wang  

E-print Network

-- This paper addresses the problem of laser scanner failure on mirrors and windows. Mirrors and glasses of glasses and mirror reflection. Laser scanners can miss obstacles which are with light-reflected or lightDealing with Laser Scanner Failure: Mirrors and Windows Shao-Wen Yang and Chieh-Chih Wang Abstract

Wang, Chieh-Chih "Bob"

414

MRI-derived measurements of human subcortical, ventricular and intracranial brain volumes: Reliability effects of scan sessions, acquisition sequences, data analyses, scanner upgrade, scanner vendors and field strengths.  

PubMed

Automated MRI-derived measurements of in-vivo human brain volumes provide novel insights into normal and abnormal neuroanatomy, but little is known about measurement reliability. Here we assess the impact of image acquisition variables (scan session, MRI sequence, scanner upgrade, vendor and field strengths), FreeSurfer segmentation pre-processing variables (image averaging, B1 field inhomogeneity correction) and segmentation analysis variables (probabilistic atlas) on resultant image segmentation volumes from older (n=15, mean age 69.5) and younger (both n=5, mean ages 34 and 36.5) healthy subjects. The variability between hippocampal, thalamic, caudate, putamen, lateral ventricular and total intracranial volume measures across sessions on the same scanner on different days is less than 4.3% for the older group and less than 2.3% for the younger group. Within-scanner measurements are remarkably reliable across scan sessions, being minimally affected by averaging of multiple acquisitions, B1 correction, acquisition sequence (MPRAGE vs. multi-echo-FLASH), major scanner upgrades (Sonata-Avanto, Trio-TrioTIM), and segmentation atlas (MPRAGE or multi-echo-FLASH). Volume measurements across platforms (Siemens Sonata vs. GE Signa) and field strengths (1.5 T vs. 3 T) result in a volume difference bias but with a comparable variance as that measured within-scanner, implying that multi-site studies may not necessarily require a much larger sample to detect a specific effect. These results suggest that volumes derived from automated segmentation of T1-weighted structural images are reliable measures within the same scanner platform, even after upgrades; however, combining data across platform and across field-strength introduces a bias that should be considered in the design of multi-site studies, such as clinical drug trials. The results derived from the young groups (scanner upgrade effects and B1 inhomogeneity correction effects) should be considered as preliminary and in need for further validation with a larger dataset. PMID:19233293

Jovicich, Jorge; Czanner, Silvester; Han, Xiao; Salat, David; van der Kouwe, Andre; Quinn, Brian; Pacheco, Jenni; Albert, Marilyn; Killiany, Ronald; Blacker, Deborah; Maguire, Paul; Rosas, Diana; Makris, Nikos; Gollub, Randy; Dale, Anders; Dickerson, Bradford C; Fischl, Bruce

2009-05-15

415

Symmetry violations at BaBar  

E-print Network

Following a brief introduction I report the current status of symmetry violation tests from the BaBar experiment, including recent results on the measurement of T violation, and searches for CP and T violation in mixing.

Adrian J. Bevan

2014-11-02

416

Theory of twisted nonuniformly heated bars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nonlineary distributed stresses in twisted nonuniformly heated bars of arbitrary cross section are calculated taking into account various elasticity parameters. The approximate theory is shown to be sufficiently general and accurate by comparison with experimental data.

Shorr, B. F.

1980-01-01

417

Basic study of entire whole-body PET scanners based on the OpenPET geometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A conventional PET scanner has a 15-25 cm axial field-of-view (FOV) and images a whole body using about six bed positions. An OpenPET geometry can extend the axial FOV with a limited number of detectors. The entire whole-body PET scanner must be able to process a large amount of data effectively. In this work, we study feasibility of the fully 3D entire whole-body PET scanner using the GATE simulation. The OpenPET has 12 block detector rings with the ring diameter of 840 mm and each block detector ring consists of 48 depth-of-interaction (DOI) detectors. The OpenPET has the axial length of 895.95 mm with five parts of 58.95 mm open gaps. The OpenPET has higher single data loss than a conventional PET scanner at grouping circuits. NECR of the OpenPET decreases by single data loss. But single data loss is mitigated by separating the axially arranged detector into two parts. Also, multiple coincidences are found to be important for the entire whole-body PET scanner. The entire whole-body PET scanner with the OpenPET geometry promises to provide a large axial FOV with the open space and to have sufficient performance values. But single data loss at the grouping circuits and multiple coincidences are limited to the peak noise equivalent count rate (NECR) for the entire whole-body PET scanner.

Yoshida, Eiji; Yamaya, Taiga; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Inadama, Naoko; Murayama, Hideo

2010-09-01

418

Comparison of working efficiency of terrestrial laser scanner in day and night conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terrestrial Laser Scanning is a popular and widely used technique to scan existing objects, document historical sites and items, and remodel them if and when needed. Their ability to collect thousands of point data per second makes them an invaluable tool in many areas from engineering to historical reconstruction. There are many scanners in the market with different technical specifications. One main technical specification of laser scanners is range and illumination. In this study, it is tested to be determined the optimal working times of a laser scanner and the scanners consistency with its specifications sheet. In order to conduct this work, series of GNSS measurements in Istanbul Technical University have been carried out, connected to the national reference network, to determine precise positions of target points and the scanner, which makes possible to define a precise distance between the scanner and targets. Those ground surveys has been used for calibration and registration purposes. Two different scan campaigns conducted at 12 am and 11 pm to compare working efficiency of laser scanner in different illumination conditions and targets are measured with a handheld spectro-radiometer in order to determine their reflective characteristics. The obtained results are compared and their accuracies have been analysed.

Arslan, A. E.; Kalkan, K.

2013-10-01

419

Review of portable CT with assessment of a dedicated head CT scanner.  

PubMed

This article reviews a number of portable CT scanners for clinical imaging. These include the CereTom, Tomoscan, xCAT ENT, and OTOscan. The Tomoscan scanner consists of a gantry with multisection detectors and a detachable table. It can perform a full-body scanning, or the gantry can be used without the table to scan the head. The xCAT ENT is a conebeam CT scanner that is intended for intraoperative scanning of cranial bones and sinuses. The OTOscan is a multisection CT scanner intended for imaging in ear, nose, and throat settings and can be used to assess bone and soft tissue of the head. We also specifically evaluated the technical and clinical performance of the CereTom, a scanner designed specifically for neuroradiologic head imaging. The contrast performance of this scanner permitted the detection of 4-mm low-contrast lesions, and the limiting spatial resolution was 7 line pairs per centimeter. The measured volume of the CT dose index (CTDI(vol)) for a standard head CT scan was 41 mGy (120 kV/14 mAs). All clinical images were of diagnostic quality, and the average patient effective dose was 1.7 mSv. We conclude that the CereTom portable CT scanner generates satisfactory clinical images at acceptable patient doses. PMID:19661166

Rumboldt, Z; Huda, W; All, J W

2009-10-01

420

Intelligent bar chart plagiarism detection in documents.  

PubMed

This paper presents a novel features mining approach from documents that could not be mined via optical character recognition (OCR). By identifying the intimate relationship between the text and graphical components, the proposed technique pulls out the Start, End, and Exact values for each bar. Furthermore, the word 2-gram and Euclidean distance methods are used to accurately detect and determine plagiarism in bar charts. PMID:25309952

Al-Dabbagh, Mohammed Mumtaz; Salim, Naomie; Rehman, Amjad; Alkawaz, Mohammed Hazim; Saba, Tanzila; Al-Rodhaan, Mznah; Al-Dhelaan, Abdullah

2014-01-01

421

Intelligent Bar Chart Plagiarism Detection in Documents  

PubMed Central

This paper presents a novel features mining approach from documents that could not be mined via optical character recognition (OCR). By identifying the intimate relationship between the text and graphical components, the proposed technique pulls out the Start, End, and Exact values for each bar. Furthermore, the word 2-gram and Euclidean distance methods are used to accurately detect and determine plagiarism in bar charts. PMID:25309952

Al-Dabbagh, Mohammed Mumtaz; Salim, Naomie; Alkawaz, Mohammed Hazim; Saba, Tanzila; Al-Rodhaan, Mznah; Al-Dhelaan, Abdullah

2014-01-01

422

Boston University Physics Applets: A Moving Bar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page is an interactive physics problem on magnetic flux. Given a bar sliding on rails with a current passing through it, the user is asked to determine if changes in the magnetic flux will cause the bar to speed up or slow down. The guide then works through the problem from both a magnetism and a conservation of energy perspective. This is part of a collection of similar simulation-based student activities.

Duffy, Andrew

2008-07-11

423

Mapping of hydrothermally altered rocks using airborne multispectral scanner data, Marysvale, Utah, mining district  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Multispectral data covering an area near Marysvale, Utah, collected with the airborne National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) 24-channel Bendix multispectral scanner, were analyzed to detect areas of hydrothermally altered, potentially mineralized rocks. Spectral bands were selected for analysis that approximate those of the Landsat 4 Thematic Mapper and which are diagnostic of the presence of hydrothermally derived products. Hydrothermally altered rocks, particularly volcanic rocks affected by solutions rich in sulfuric acid, are commonly characterized by concentrations of argillic minerals such as alunite and kaolinite. These minerals are important for identifying hydrothermally altered rocks in multispectral images because they have intense absorption bands centered near a wavelength of 2.2 ??m. Unaltered volcanic rocks commonly do not contain these minerals and hence do not have the absorption bands. A color-composite image was constructed using the following spectral band ratios: 1.6??m/2.2??m, 1.6??m/0.48??m, and 0.67??m/1.0??m. The particular bands were chosen to emphasize the spectral contrasts that exist for argillic versus non-argillic rocks, limonitic versus nonlimonitic rocks, and rocks versus vegetation, respectively. The color-ratio composite successfully distinguished most types of altered rocks from unaltered rocks. Some previously unrecognized areas of hydrothermal alteration were mapped. The altered rocks included those having high alunite and/or kaolinite content, siliceous rocks containing some kaolinite, and ash-fall tuffs containing zeolitic minerals. The color-ratio-composite image allowed further division of these rocks into limonitic and nonlimonitic phases. The image did not allow separation of highly siliceous or hematitically altered rocks containing no clays or alunite from unaltered rocks. A color-coded density slice image of the 1.6??m/2.2??m band ratio allowed further discrimination among the altered units. Areas containing zeolites and some ash-fall tuffs containing montmorillonite were readily recognized on the color-coded density slice as having less intense 2.2-??m absorption than areas of highly altered rocks. The areas of most intense absorption, as depicted in the color-coded density slice, are dominated by highly altered rocks containing large amounts of alunite and kaolinite. These areas form an annulus, approximately 10 km in diameter, which surrounds a quartz monzonite intrusive body of Miocene age. The patterns of most intense alteration are interpreted as the remnants of paleohydrothermal convective cells set into motion during the emplacement of the central intrusive body. ?? 1983.

Podwysocki, M.H.; Segal, D.B.; Jones, O.D.

1983-01-01

424

Mapping of hydrothermally altered rocks using airborne multispectral scanner data, Marysvale, Utah, mining district  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multispectral data covering an area near Marysvale, Utah, collected with the airborne National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) 24-channel Bendix multispectral scanner, were analyzed to detect areas of hydrothermally altered, potentially mineralized rocks. Spectral bands were selected for analysis that approximate those of the Landsat 4 Thematic Mapper and which are diagnostic of the presence of hydrothermally derived products. Hydrothermally altered rocks, particularly volcanic rocks affected by solutions rich in sulfuric acid, are commonly characterized by concentrations of argillic minerals such as alunite and kaolinite. These minerals are important for identifying hydrothermally altered rocks in multispectral images because they have intense absorption bands centered near a wavelength of 2.2 ?m. Unaltered volcanic rocks commonly do not contain these minerals and hence do not have the absorption bands. A color-composite image was constructed using the following spectral band ratios: 1.6?m/2.2?m, 1.6?m/0.48?m, and 0.67?m/1.0?m. The particular bands were chosen to emphasize the spectral contrasts that exist for argillic versus non-argillic rocks, limonitic versus nonlimonitic rocks, and rocks versus vegetation, respectively. The color-ratio composite successfully distinguished most types of altered rocks from unaltered rocks. Some previously unrecognized areas of hydrothermal alteration were mapped. The altered rocks included those having high alunite and/or kaolinite content, siliceous rocks containing some kaolinite, and ash-fall tuffs containing zeolitic minerals. The color-ratio-composite image allowed further division of these rocks into limonitic and nonlimonitic phases. The image did not allow separation of highly siliceous or hematitically altered rocks containing no clays or alunite from unaltered rocks. A color-coded density slice image of the 1.6?m/2.2?m band ratio allowed further discrimination among the altered units. Areas containing zeolites and some ash-fall tuffs containing montmorillonite were readily recognized on the color-coded density slice as having less intense 2.2-?m absorption than areas of highly altered rocks. The areas of most intense absorption, as depicted in the color-coded density slice, are dominated by highly altered rocks containing large amounts of alunite and kaolinite. These areas form an annulus, approximately 10 km in diameter, which surrounds a quartz monzonite intrusive body of Miocene age. The patterns of most intense alteration are interpreted as the remnants of paleohydrothermal convective cells set into motion during the emplacement of the central intrusive body.

Podwysocki, Melvin H.; Segal, Donald B.; Jones, Oliver D.

425

Evaluation of portable CT scanners for otologic image-guided surgery  

PubMed Central

Purpose Portable CT scanners are beneficial for diagnosis in the intensive care unit, emergency room, and operating room. Portable fixed-base versus translating-base CT systems were evaluated for otologic image-guided surgical (IGS) applications based on geometric accuracy and utility for percutaneous cochlear implantation. Methods Five cadaveric skulls were fitted with fiducial markers and scanned using both a translating-base, 8-slice CT scanner (CereTom®) and a fixed-base, flat-panel, volume-CT (fpVCT) scanner (Xoran xCAT®). Images were analyzed for: (a) subjective quality (i.e. noise), (b) consistency of attenuation measurements (Hounsfield units) across similar tissue, and (c) geometric accuracy of fiducial marker positions. The utility of these scanners in clinical IGS cases was tested. Results Five cadaveric specimens were scanned using each of the scanners. The translating-base, 8-slice CT scanner had spatially consistent Hounsfield units, and the image quality was subjectively good. However, because of movement variations during scanning, the geometric accuracy of fiducial marker positions was low. The fixed-base, fpVCT system had high spatial resolution, but the images were noisy and had spatially inconsistent attenuation measurements; while the geometric representation of the fiducial markers was highly accurate. Conclusion Two types of portable CT scanners were evaluated for otologic IGS. The translating-base, 8-slice CT scanner provided better image quality than a fixed-base, fpVCT scanner. However, the inherent error in three-dimensional spatial relationships by the translating-based system makes it suboptimal for otologic IGS use. PMID:21779768

Balachandran, Ramya; Schurzig, Daniel; Fitzpatrick, J Michael; Labadie, Robert F

2011-01-01

426

The development, validation and application of a multi-detector CT (MDCT) scanner model for assessing organ doses to the pregnant patient and the fetus using Monte Carlo simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The latest multiple-detector technologies have further increased the popularity of x-ray CT as a diagnostic imaging modality. There is a continuing need to assess the potential radiation risk associated with such rapidly evolving multi-detector CT (MDCT) modalities and scanning protocols. This need can be met by the use of CT source models that are integrated with patient computational phantoms for organ dose calculations. Based on this purpose, this work developed and validated an MDCT scanner using the Monte Carlo method, and meanwhile the pregnant patient phantoms were integrated into the MDCT scanner model for assessment of the dose to the fetus as well as doses to the organs or tissues of the pregnant patient phantom. A Monte Carlo code, MCNPX, was used to simulate the x-ray source including the energy spectrum, filter and scan trajectory. Detailed CT scanner components were specified using an iterative trial-and-error procedure for a GE LightSpeed CT scanner. The scanner model was validated by comparing simulated results against measured CTDI values and dose profiles reported in the literature. The source movement along the helical trajectory was simulated using the pitch of 0.9375 and 1.375, respectively. The validated scanner model was then integrated with phantoms of a pregnant patient in three different gestational periods to calculate organ doses. It was found that the dose to the fetus of the 3 month pregnant patient phantom was 0.13 mGy/100 mAs and 0.57 mGy/100 mAs from the chest and kidney scan, respectively. For the chest scan of the 6 month patient phantom and the 9 month patient phantom, the fetal doses were 0.21 mGy/100 mAs and 0.26 mGy/100 mAs, respectively. The paper also discusses how these fetal dose values can be used to evaluate imaging procedures and to assess risk using recommendations of the report from AAPM Task Group 36. This work demonstrates the ability of modeling and validating an MDCT scanner by the Monte Carlo method, as well as assessing fetal and organ doses by combining the MDCT scanner model and the pregnant patient phantom.

Gu, J.; Bednarz, B.; Caracappa, P. F.; Xu, X. G.

2009-05-01

427

The development, validation and application of a multi-detector CT (MDCT) scanner model for assessing organ doses to the pregnant patient and the fetus using Monte Carlo simulations  

PubMed Central

The latest multiple-detector technologies have further increased the popularity of x-ray CT as a diagnostic imaging modality. There is a continuing need to assess the potential radiation risk associated with such rapidly evolving multi-detector CT (MDCT) modalities and scanning protocols. This need can be met by the use of CT source models that are integrated with patient computational phantoms for organ dose calculations. Based on this purpose, this work developed and validated an MDCT scanner using the Monte Carlo method, and meanwhile the pregnant patient phantoms were integrated into the MDCT scanner model for assessment of the dose to the fetus as well as doses to the organs or tissues of the pregnant patient phantom. A Monte Carlo code, MCNPX, was used to simulate the x-ray source including the energy spectrum, filter and scan trajectory. Detailed CT scanner components were specified using an iterative trial-and-error procedure for a GE LightSpeed CT scanner. The scanner model was validated by comparing simulated results against measured CTDI values and dose profiles reported in the literature. The source movement along the helical trajectory was simulated using the pitch of 0.9375 and 1.375, respectively. The validated scanner model was then integrated with phantoms of a pregnant patient in three different gestational periods to calculate organ doses. It was found that the dose to the fetus of the 3 month pregnant patient phantom was 0.13 mGy/100 mAs and 0.57 mGy/100 mAs from the chest and kidney scan, respectively. For the chest scan of the 6 month patient phantom and the 9 month patient phantom, the fetal doses were 0.21 mGy/100 mAs and 0.26 mGy/100 mAs, respectively. The paper also discusses how these fetal dose values can be used to evaluate imaging procedures and to assess risk using recommendations of the report from AAPM Task Group 36. This work demonstrates the ability of modeling and validating an MDCT scanner by the Monte Carlo method, as well as assessing fetal and organ doses by combining the MDCT scanner model and the pregnant patient phantom. PMID:19351983

Gu, J; Bednarz, B; Caracappa, P F

2012-01-01

428

Code constructions and code families for nonbinary quantum stabilizer code  

E-print Network

. . . . . . . . . . . . 6 II CONNECTION BETWEEN CLASSICAL SELF-ORTHOGONAL CODES AND QUANTUM STABILIZER CODES : : : : : : : : 9 A. Error Basis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 B. From Quantum Stabilizer Codes to Classical Codes . . . . 12 1. Connecting... codes) [4, 9, 11]. BCH codes form an extremely important class of error correcting codes. Lemma 16. Let ! be a primitive nth root of unity over Fq and let g(X) be a monic polynomial over Fq of smallest degree that has the 1 numbers !b;!b+1;:::;!b+ 2...

Ketkar, Avanti Ulhas

2005-11-01

429

Revised benchmarking of contact-less fingerprint scanners for forensic fingerprint detection: challenges and results for chromatic white light scanners (CWL)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mobile contact-less fingerprint scanners can be very important tools for the forensic investigation of crime scenes. To be admissible in court, data and the collection process must adhere to rules w.r.t. technology and procedures of acquisition, processing and the conclusions drawn from that evidence. Currently, no overall accepted benchmarking methodology is used to support some of the rules regarding the localisation, acquisition and pre-processing using contact-less fingerprint scanners. Benchmarking is seen essential to rate those devices according to their usefulness for investigating crime scenes. Our main contribution is a revised version of our extensible framework for methodological benchmarking of contact-less fingerprint scanners using a collection of extensible categories and items. The suggested main categories describing a contact-less fingerprint scanner are properties of forensic country-specific legal requirements, technical properties, application-related aspects, input sensory technology, pre-processing algorithm, tested object and materials. Using those it is possible to benchmark fingerprint scanners and describe the setup and the resulting data. Additionally, benchmarking profiles for different usage scenarios are defined. First results for all suggested benchmarking properties, which will be presented in detail in the final paper, were gained using an industrial device (FRT MicroProf200) and conducting 18 tests on 10 different materials.

Kiltz, Stefan; Leich, Marcus; Dittmann, Jana; Vielhauer, Claus; Ulrich, Michael

2011-02-01

430

Note: Design and development of an integrated three-dimensional scanner for atomic force microscopy  

SciTech Connect

A compact scanning head for the Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) greatly enhances the portability of AFM and facilitates easy integration with other tools. This paper reports the design and development of a three-dimensional (3D) scanner integrated into an AFM micro-probe. The scanner is realized by means of a novel design for the AFM probe along with a magnetic actuation system. The integrated scanner, the actuation system, and their associated mechanical mounts are fabricated and evaluated. The experimentally calibrated actuation ranges are shown to be over 1 ?m along all the three axes.

Rashmi, T.; Dharsana, G.; Sriramshankar, R.; Sri Muthu Mrinalini, R.; Jayanth, G. R. [Department of Instrumentation and Applied Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)] [Department of Instrumentation and Applied Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

2013-11-15

431

Real-time tracking of objects for space applications using a laser range scanner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Real-time tracking of multiple targets and three dimensional object features was demonstrated using a laser range scanner. The prototype was immune to ambient illumination and sun interference. Tracking error feedback was simultaneously obtained from individual targets, global predicted target position, and the human operator. A more complete study of calibration parameters and temperature variations on the scanner is needed to determine the exact performance of the sensor. Lissajous patterns used in three-dimensional real-time tracking prove helpful given their high resolution. The photogrammetry-based Advanced Space Vision System (ASVS) is discussed in combination with the laser range scanner.

Blais, F.; Couvillon, R. A.; Rioux, M.; Maclean, S. G.

1994-01-01

432

Scanner for Integrated X-Ray Breast Tomosynthesis and Molecular Breast Imaging Tomosynthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A dual modality tomosynthesis (DMT) breast scanner has been developed that combines x-ray breast tomosynthesis (XBT) and molecular\\u000a breast imaging tomosynthesis (MBIT) on a common upright gantry to obtain co-registered structural and functional tomosynthesis\\u000a images. This paper describes the scanner’s design and operation, and summarizes the results of a pilot clinical evaluation\\u000a using the tracer 99mTc-sestamibi. The pilot study results

Mark B. Williams; Patricia Goodale Judy; Zongyi Gong; Audrey E. Graham; Stan Majewski; Spencer Gunn

2010-01-01

433

Systematic monitoring and evaluation of M7 scanner performance and data quality  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation was conducted to provide the information required to maintain data quality of the Michigan M7 Multispectral scanner by systematic checks on specific system performance characteristics. Data processing techniques which use calibration data gathered routinely every mission have been developed to assess current data quality. Significant changes from past data quality are thus identified and attempts made to discover their causes. Procedures for systematic monitoring of scanner data quality are discussed. In the solar reflective region, calculations of Noise Equivalent Change in Radiance on a permission basis are compared to theoretical tape-recorder limits to provide an estimate of overall scanner performance. M7 signal/noise characteristics are examined.

Stewart, S.; Christenson, D.; Larsen, L.

1974-01-01

434

Land use classification utilizing remote multispectral scanner data and computer analysis techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An airborne multispectral scanner was used to collect the visible and reflective infrared data. A small subdivision near Lafayette, Indiana was selected as the test site for the urban land use study. Multispectral scanner data were collected over the subdivision on May 1, 1970 from an altitude of 915 meters. The data were collected in twelve wavelength bands from 0.40 to 1.00 micrometers by the scanner. The results indicated that computer analysis of multispectral data can be very accurate in classifying and estimating the natural and man-made materials that characterize land uses in an urban scene.

Leblanc, P. N.; Johannsen, C. J.; Yanner, J. E.

1973-01-01

435

Nature's Code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose that the mathematical structures related to the `universal rewrite system' define a universal process applicable to Nature, which we may describe as `Nature's code'. We draw attention here to such concepts as 4 basic units, 64- and 20-unit structures, symmetry-breaking and 5-fold symmetry, chirality, double 3-dimensionality, the double helix, the Van der Waals force and the harmonic oscillator mechanism, and our explanation of how they necessarily lead to self-aggregation, complexity and emergence in higher-order systems. Biological concepts, such as translation, transcription, replication, the genetic code and the grouping of amino acids appear to be driven by fundamental processes of this kind, and it would seem that the Platonic solids, pentagonal symmetry and Fibonacci numbers have significant roles in organizing `Nature's code'.

Hill, Vanessa J.; Rowlands, Peter

2008-10-01

436

Free Code  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Free Code, a service of Andover.Net, is a large index of Internet-related software tool source code. The tools are written in C/C++, Perl, Java, or Visual Basic, and are free for personal and commercial use. They range from handy Perl CGI scripts to Java-based graphics packages. Each tool in the index is briefly described, characterized by language and operating system, and linked to both the home page for the tool and the source code. The total lack of documentation for the search engine makes useful queries hard to create, but the tools are still easy-to-find. This is a very useful index for anyone building Internet or Web-based applications.

437

BAR domains and membrane curvature:bringing your curves  

E-print Network

BAR domains and membrane curvature:bringing your curves to the BAR Jennifer L.Gallop1 and Harvey of compartmentalization on membranes. These and other possible func- tions of the BAR domain are discussed. Introduction trafficking proteins (Table 1), and also proteins of unknown function. The BAR domain -- a curvature sensor

McMahon, Harvey

438

A young person's game: Immersion and distancing in bar work  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research indicates that bar workers report high levels of alcohol consumption, but the bar work experience itself has been little studied as a means to understand health threats associated with this job role. The subjective experience and meaning of bar work was explored in this study by interviewing current and ex-bar workers from a district in an Irish city

Thomas Conway; Pádraig MacNeela

2012-01-01

439

Branching fractions for chi_cJ -> p p-bar pi^0, p p-bar eta, and p p-bar omega  

E-print Network

Using a sample of 25.9 million psi(2S) decays acquired with the CLEO-c detector at the CESR e^+e^- collider, we report branching fractions for the decays chi_cJ -> p p-bar pi^0, p p-bar eta, and p p-bar omega, with J=0,1,2. Our results for B(chi_cJ-> p p-bar pi^0) and B(chi_cJ-> p p-bar eta) are consistent with, but more precise than, previous measurements. Furthermore, we include the first measurement of B(chi_cJ-> p p-bar omega).

CLEO Collaboration; P. U. E. Onyisi; J. L. Rosner; J. P. Alexander; D. G. Cassel; S. Das; R. Ehrlich; L. Fields; L. Gibbons; S. W. Gray; D. L. Hartill; B. K. Heltsley; J. M. Hunt; D. L. Kreinick; V. E. Kuznetsov; J. Ledoux; J. R. Patterson; D. Peterson; D. Riley; A. Ryd; A. J. Sadoff; X. Shi; W. M. Sun; J. Yelton; P. Rubin; N. Lowrey; S. Mehrabyan; M. Selen; J. Wiss; S. Adams; M. Kornicer; R. E. Mitchell; M. R. Shepherd; C. M. Tarbert; D. Besson; T. K. Pedlar; J. Xavier; D. Cronin-Hennessy; J. Hietala; P. Zweber; S. Dobbs; Z. Metreveli; K. K. Seth; T. Xiao; A. Tomaradze; S. Brisbane; J. Libby; L. Martin; A. Powell; P. Spradlin; G. Wilkinson; H. Mendez; J. Y. Ge; D. H. Miller; I. P. J. Shipsey; B. Xin; G. S. Adams; D. Hu; B. Moziak; J. Napolitano; K. M. Ecklund; J. Insler; H. Muramatsu; C. S. Park; E. H. Thorndike; F. Yang; S. Ricciardi; C. Thomas; M. Artuso; S. Blusk; R. Mountain; T. Skwarnicki; S. Stone; J. C. Wang; L. M. Zhang; G. Bonvicini; D. Cinabro; A. Lincoln; M. J. Smith; P. Zhou; J. Zhu; P. Naik; J. Rademacker; D. M. Asner; K. W. Edwards; J. Reed; K. Randrianarivony; A. N. Robichaud; G. Tatishvili; E. J. White; R. A. Briere; H. Vogel

2010-05-28

440

Social Organization in Bars: Implications for Tobacco Control Policy  

PubMed Central

This paper considers social roles and relationships of the patrons, staff and owners of bars as critical factors determining adherence to public health policies, and specifically California’s smokefree workplace law. Specific elements of social organization in bars affecting health policy include the community within which the bar is set, the unique identity the bar creates, the bar staff and patrons who enact this identity, and their bar society. These elements were found to contribute to the development of power relations within the bar and solidarity against the outside world, resulting in either resistance to or compliance with smokefree workplace policy. PMID:22522904

Lee, Juliet P.; Antin, Tamar M.J.; Moore, Roland S.

2011-01-01

441

A solution to arc correction in cylindrical PET scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For a PET scanner with circular array of detectors, the width of line-of-response (LOR) decreases as the distance between the LOR and the center increases. The decrease of width of the LOR leads to problem of non-uniform and under sampling of projections. The consequence of non-uniform sampling is the distortion of high frequency reconstructed images or loss of fine detail. Correcting this non-uniform sampling problem is known as arc-correction. The purpose of this study is to create the best estimate of non-uniformly sampled projections from uniformly spaced sets of LOR. Four polynomial type interpolating algorithms: Lagrange, iterative Neville, natural cubic spline and clamped cubic spline are used to get the best estimate of projections. A set of simulated projections are generated. The simulated projections are divided into two sets: the first set has 10 functions of pulses such that f11 has one pulse, f12 has two pulses and so on. In the second set f21 has one triangular pulse, f22 has two triangular pulses and so on. For each group interpolated data is compared to the original data. In addition, one projection of a 20cm FDG filled disk is used for comparison with simulated data. It is shown that clamped and natural cubic spline accuracy is superior to the other three algorithms in every case but Lagrange outperforms other algorithms for the speed of execution.

Farsaii, Babak

2005-08-01

442

Laser-excited confocal-fluorescence gel scanner  

SciTech Connect

A high-sensitivity, laser-excited, confocal-fluorescence scanner has been developed for the detection of fluorescently labeled nucleic acids separated on slab gels. The gel is placed on a motor-driven, two-dimensional scan stage and raster scanned past the optical detection system. The 488-nm argon ion laser beam is introduced into the confocal optical system at a long-pass dichroic beam splitter and focused within the gel to an [similar to]2 [mu]m diameter spot by a high-numerical aperture microscope objective. The resulting fluorescence is gathered by the objective, passed back through the first long-pass beam splitter, and relayed to a second dichroic beam splitter that separates the red and green emissions. The fluorescence is then focused on confocal spatial filters to reduce stray and scattered light, passed through spectral filters, and detected with photomultipliers. The resulting signals are amplified, filtered, and digitized for display on a computer. This system can detect as little as 5[times]10[sup [minus]12] M fluorescein, the resolution as operated is 160 [mu]m, and it can scan a 6 cm[times]6 cm gel using a scan rate of 4 cm/s in 12 min. The detection of DNA on slab gels, two-color DNA fragment sizing, and microtiter plate scanning are presented to illustrate some of the possible applications of this apparatus.

Mathies, R.A.; Scherer, J.R.; Quesada, M.A. (Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)); Rye, H.S.; Glazer, A.N. (Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States))

1994-04-01

443

Holographic line beam scanner with liquid crystal on silicon modulator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A laser scanning device can be used for contour or pattern reconstruction with associated image processing or recognition algorithm. For a better accuracy or accommodating to a high efficiency algorithm, the laser beam often needs reshaping to a specific pattern, such as a line beam, or homogenization so as to reduce the spatial variation of the device performance. In addition, a scanning mechanics is normally inevitable. Both beam shaping and scanning module take quite a volume in the whole system, which could be an issue for the applications in which miniature device is highly desired. In this paper, a holographic scanner has been proposed to perform both laser beam shaping and scanning function. A pure phase modulation liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS) device is used for implementing the dynamic hologram. The LCoS has a pixel size of 3.74?m, and provides 16 phase level with a full phase depth of 2?. A line beam with 20mm and uniformity up to 70% is generated and it is scanned back and forth in the orthogonal direction of the line with a stroke of 20mm. The scanning line pattern is generated based on iterative Fourier transform algorithm (IFTA) and the first diffraction order pattern is exploited with the zero order being blocked and absorbed so that the noise in the scanning line pattern is minimized. The proposed scheme is a compact and versatile solutions for patterned laser beam scanning devices.

Chen, Jian-Tsung; Chen, Cheng-Huan; Tsai, Chung-Li

2014-11-01

444

Wire Scanner Beam Profile Measurements for the LANSCE Facility  

SciTech Connect

The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is replacing beam profile measurement systems, commonly known as Wire Scanners (WS). Using the principal of secondary electron emission, the WS measurement system moves a wire or fiber across an impinging particle beam, sampling a projected transverse-beam distribution. Because existing WS actuators and electronic components are either no longer manufactured or home-built with antiquated parts, a new WS beam profile measurement is being designed, fabricated, and tested. The goals for these new WS's include using off-the-shelf components while eliminating antiquated components, providing quick operation while allowing for easy maintainability, and tolerating external radioactivation. The WS measurement system consists of beam line actuators, a cable plant, an electronics processor chassis, and software located both in the electronics chassis (National Instruments LabVIEW) and in the Central Control Room (EPICS-based client software). This WS measurement system will measure Hand H{sup +} LANSCE-facility beams and will also measure less common beams. This paper describes these WS measurement systems.

Gilpatrick, John D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gruchalla, Michael E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Derwin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pillai, Chandra [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rodriguez Esparza, Sergio [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sedillo, James Daniel [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Smith, Brian G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-05-15

445

Mineralogic information from a new airborne thermal infrared multispectral scanner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The thermal IR multispectral scanner (TIMS) has been developed for airborne geologic surveys. The resststrahlen band between 8-11 microns is exhibited by interatomic stretching vibrations of Si and oxygen bound up in the crystal lattice of silicate rocks. The crystal structure of the component minerals influence the depth and position of the detected band. The TIMS has six channels, an 80 deg field of view, and a sensitivity sufficient to detect a noise equivalent change in spectral emissivity of 0.002-0.006. The six bands measured are 8.2-8.6, 8.6-9.0, 9.4-10.2, 10.2-11.2, and 11.2-12.2 microns, using HgCdTe detectors. The data are analyzed with respect to emissivity variations as a function of wavelength, using the component transformation technique called a decorrelation stretch, with spectral differences being displayed as different colors. Sample scenes from Death Valley and the Nevada Cuprite mining district are compared with visible and near-IR color composites of the same areas, revealing the superior distinctions that are available with the TIMS.

Kahle, A. B.; Goetz, A. F. H.

1983-01-01

446

Investigation of radiometric properties of the LANDSAT-4 multispectral scanner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The radiometric data quality of the LANDSAT 4 multispectral scanner (MSS) was examined using several LANDSAT 4 frames. It was found that LANDSAT 4 MSS produces high-quality data of the caliber experienced with previous LANDSATS. For example, the detector equalization procedure worked well, leaving a residual banding effect of about 0.3 digital counts RMS, close to the theoretical minimum value of quantization error. Nevertheless, artifacts of the data were found, two of which were not experienced in previous MSS data. A low-level coherent noise effect was observed in all bands, with a magnitude of about 0.5 digital counts and a frequency of approximately 28 KHz (representing a wavelength of about 3.6 pixels); a substantial increase in processing complexity would be required to reduce this artifact in the data. Also, a substantial scan-length variation (of up to six pixels) was noted in MSS data when the TM sensor was operating; the LANDSAT 4 correction algorithms being applied routinely by the EROS Data Center to produce a p-type data should remove most of this variation. Between-satellite calibrations were examined in paired LANDSAT 3 and LANDSAT 4 MSS data sets, which were closely matched in acquisition time and place. Radiometric comparisons showed that all bands were highly linear in digital counts, and a well-determined linear transformation between the MSS's was established.

Malila, W. A. (principal investigator); Rice, D. P.

1983-01-01

447

Polygon mirror scanners in biomedical imaging: a review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review briefly the different applications of polygonal mirror (PM) scanning heads in biomedical imaging, with a focus on Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). This overview of biomedical optical systems that employ PMs include: (i) TD (Time Domain) OCT setups, where PM may be utilized for generating the modulation function of the system without separate translation stages; (ii) FD (Fourier Domain) OCT delay line systems, with PM arrays; (iii) broadband laser sources scanned in frequency, for SS (Swept Source) OCT, with the PM placed in various optical configurations; (iv) OCM (Optical Coherence Microscopy) system with double PMs; (v) 2D PM plus galvanometer-based scanner (GS) for fast lateral scanning (not only in OCT, but also in confocal microscopy). We discuss SSs, for which the various PMbased setups used are compared, in their evolution - from on-axis to off-axis polygons - and in the race to obtain higher scan speeds to achieve real-time in vivo medical imaging. The parameters, advantages and drawbacks of these different configurations are pointed out. A necessary comparison is also made with the much faster Fabry-Perot (FP) based SSs. Our approach on PM-based broadband laser sources scanned in frequency, based on a simple off-axis polygon configuration, is also presented. Some of its characteristic mathematical functions are inferred and evaluated.

Duma, Virgil-Florin; Podoleanu, Adrian G.

2013-03-01

448

QR Codes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study presents an m-learning method that incorporates Integrated Quick Response (QR) codes. This learning method not only achieves the objectives of outdoor education, but it also increases applications of Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning (CTML) (Mayer, 2001) in m-learning for practical use in a diverse range of outdoor locations. When…

Lai, Hsin-Chih; Chang, Chun-Yen; Li, Wen-Shiane; Fan, Yu-Lin; Wu, Ying-Tien

2013-01-01

449

Application of multispectral scanner data to the study of an abandoned surface coal mine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The utility of aircraft multispectral scanner data for describing the land cover features of an abandoned contour-mined coal mine is considered. The data were obtained with an 11 band multispectral scanner at an altitude of 1.2 kilometers. Supervised, maximum-likelihood statistical classifications of the data were made to establish land-cover classes and also to describe in more detail the barren surface features as they may pertain to the reclamation or restoration of the area. The scanner data for the surface-water areas were studied to establish the variability and range of the spectral signatures. Both day and night thermal images of the area are presented. The results of the study show that a high degree of statistical separation can be obtained from the multispectral scanner data for the various land-cover features.

Spisz, E. W.

1978-01-01

450

Intercomparison of scanner and nonscanner measurements for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Earth Radiation Budget Experiment nonscanner measurements are simulated with the scanner measurements. The error in simulating a single measurement is 1 percent for longwave and 3 percent for shortwave. Errors in simulating the average daily measurements are half these amounts. Four months of Earth Radiation Budget Satellite measurements were analyzed. The results show that changing sun geometry affects the accuracy of the nonscanner measurements. The medium field show that changing sun geometry affects the accuracy of the nonscanner measurements. The medium field of view (MFOV) total channel and scanner agree to within 2 percent on average. The wide field of view (WFOV) total channel and scanner agree to within 1 percent. For the shortwave channels, the agreement with the scanner is 2 percent for the MFOV and 2.5 percent for the WFOV.

Green, Richard N.; House, Frederick B.; Stackhouse, Paul W.; Wu, Xiangqian; Ackerman, Steven A.

1990-01-01

451

Very Low Health Risks from Full-Body X-ray Scanners  

MedlinePLUS

... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol Very Low Health Risks from Full-Body X-ray Scanners Search the ... including questions about whether these systems pose any health risks. However, FDA Engineer Daniel Kassiday says, "The dose ...

452

Simultaneous measurements of plant structure and chlorophyll content in broadleaf saplings with a terrestrial laser scanner  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Plant structure and chlorophyll content strongly affect rates of photosynthesis. Rapid, objective, and repeatable methods are needed to measure these vegetative parameters to advance our understanding and modeling of plant ecophysiological processes. Terrestrial scanners (TLS) can be used to measure...

453

Measurement of B0bar -> D(*)0 K(*)0bar BranchingFractions  

SciTech Connect

The authors present a study of the decays {bar B}{sup 0} {yields} D{sup (*)0}{bar K}{sup (*)0} using a sample of 226 million {Upsilon}(4S) {yields} B{bar B} decays collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider at SLAC. They report evidence for the decay of B{sup 0} and {bar B}{sup 0} mesons to the D*{sup 0}K{sub S}{sup 0} final state with an average branching fraction {Beta}({bar B}{sup 0} {yields} D*{sup 0} {bar K}{sup 0}) {triple_bond} {Beta}({bar B}{sup 0} {yields} D*{sup 0} {bar K}{sup 0}) + {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} D*{sup 0}K{sup 0})/2 = (3.6 {+-} 1.2 {+-} 0.3) x 10{sup -5}.

Aubert, B.

2006-04-10

454

Effects of injected dose, BMI and scanner type on NECR and image noise in PET imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Noise equivalent count rate (NECR) and image noise are two different but related metrics that have been used to predict and assess image quality, respectively. The aim of this study is to investigate, using patient studies, the relationships between injected dose (ID), body mass index (BMI) and scanner type on NECR and image noise measurements in PET imaging. Two groups of 90 patients each were imaged on a GE DSTE and a DRX PET/CT scanner, respectively. The patients in each group were divided into nine subgroups according to three BMI (20-24.9, 25-29.9, 30-45 kg m-2) and three ID (296-444, 444-555, 555-740 MBq) ranges, resulting in ten patients/subgroup. All PET data were acquired in 3D mode and reconstructed using the VuePoint HD® fully 3D OSEM algorithm (2 iterations, 21(DRX) or 20 (DSTE) subsets). NECR and image noise measurements for bed positions covering the liver were calculated for each patient. NECR was calculated from the trues, randoms and scatter events recorded in the DICOM header of each patient study, while image noise was determined as the standard deviation of 50 non-neighboring voxels in the liver of each patient. A t-test compared the NECR and image noise for different scanners but with the same BMI and ID. An ANOVA test on the other hand was used to compare the results of patients with different BMI but the same ID and scanner type as well as different ID but the same BMI and scanner type. As expected the t-test showed a significant difference in NECR between the two scanners for all BMI and ID subgroups. However, contrary to what is expected no such findings were observed for image noise measurement. The ANOVA results showed a statistically significant difference in both NECR and image noise among the different BMI for each ID and scanner subgroup. However, there was no statistically significant difference in NECR and image noise across different ID for each BMI and scanner subgroup. Although the GE DRX PET/CT scanner has better count rate performance than the GE DSTE PET/CT scanner, this improvement does not translate to a lower image noise when using OSEM reconstruction. Our results show that patients with larger BMI consistently generate poorer image quality. Dose reduction from >555 to 296-444 MBq has minimal impact on image quality independent of the scanner used. A reduction in ID decreases patient and technologist exposure and can potentially reduce the overall cost of the study.

Chang, Tingting; Chang, Guoping; Kohlmyer, Steve; Clark, John W., Jr.; Rohren, Eric; Mawlawi, Osama R.

2011-08-01

455

ON THE GALACTIC SPIN OF BARRED DISK GALAXIES  

SciTech Connect

We present a study of the connection between the galactic spin parameter (?{sub d}) and the bar fraction in a volume-limited sample of 10,674 disk galaxies drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7. The galaxies in our sample are visually classified into one of three groups: non-barred galaxies and galaxies hosting long or short bars, respectively. We find that the spin distributions of these three classes are statistically different, with galaxies hosting long bars having the lowest ?{sub d} values, followed by non-barred galaxies, while galaxies with short bars present typically high spin parameters. The bar fraction presents its maximum at low to intermediate ?{sub d} values for the case of long bars, while the maximum for short bars is at high ?{sub d}. This bimodality is in good agreement with previous studies finding longer bars hosted by luminous, massive, red galaxies with a low content of cold gas, while short bars were found in low luminosity, low mass, blue galaxies that were typically gas rich. In addition, the rise and fall of the bar fraction as a function of ?{sub d}, within the long-bar sample shown in our results, can be explained as a result of two competing factors: the self-gravity of the disk that enhances bar instabilities and the support by random motions, instead of ordered rotational motion, that prevents the formation/growth of bars.

Cervantes-Sodi, Bernardo; Li, Cheng; Wang, Lixin [Partner Group of the Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics and Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Nandan Road 80, Shanghai 200030 (China); Park, Changbom, E-mail: bernardo@shao.ac.cn [Korea Institute for Advanced Study, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-722 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-09-20

456

On the Galactic Spin of Barred Disk Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a study of the connection between the galactic spin parameter (? d ) and the bar fraction in a volume-limited sample of 10,674 disk galaxies drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7. The galaxies in our sample are visually classified into one of three groups: non-barred galaxies and galaxies hosting long or short bars, respectively. We find that the spin distributions of these three classes are statistically different, with galaxies hosting long bars having the lowest ? d values, followed by non-barred galaxies, while galaxies with short bars present typically high spin parameters. The bar fraction presents its maximum at low to intermediate ? d values for the case of long bars, while the maximum for short bars is at high ? d . This bimodality is in good agreement with previous studies finding longer bars hosted by luminous, massive, red galaxies with a low content of cold gas, while short bars were found in low luminosity, low mass, blue galaxies that were typically gas rich. In addition, the rise and fall of the bar fraction as a function of ? d , within the long-bar sample shown in our results, can be explained as a result of two competing factors: the self-gravity of the disk that enhances bar instabilities and the support by random motions, instead of ordered rotational motion, that prevents the formation/growth of bars.

Cervantes-Sodi, Bernardo; Li, Cheng; Park, Changbom; Wang, Lixin

2013-09-01

457

Review of Portable CT with Assessment of a Dedicated Head CT Scanner  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY: This article reviews a number of portable CT scanners for clinical imaging. These include the CereTom, Tomoscan, xCAT ENT, and OTOscan. The Tomoscan scanner consists of a gantry with multisection detectors and a detachable table. It can perform a full-body scanning, or the gantry can be used without the table to scan the head. The xCAT ENT is a

Z. Rumboldt; W. Huda; J. W. All

2009-01-01

458

Effect of mask 3D and scanner focus difference on OPC modeling and verification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A robust optical proximity correction (OPC) model must include process variation to be effective in volume manufacturing. Often, calibration of an OPC model is based on data from a single scanner. However, scanner and mask three dimension (3D) effects have been found to affect printing performance and OPC model effectiveness [1]. OPC model robustness is improved if the fingerprints of different scanners are matched as closely as possible. Scanner source map or boundary condition variations can cause isolated and dense feature focus differences between different scanners. The scanner used to build a robust OPC model should have a minimum focus difference between isolated and dense features. Mask 3D effects must be included in OPC model building. Even if the design data is the same, mask 3D effects will vary by different advanced blank film stacks and model fitting will lead to different results. In this work, the effects of focus differences between nested and isolated features for OPC model building are quantified. In addition, mask 3D effect contributions to OPC models will also be illustrated. OPC model tolerance to variation is shown using data from multiple scanners and mask topographies and methodologies to optimize OPC models are presented. The data confirms that different absorber thickness, and n and k values, for advanced binary masks will influence the boundary conditions and effect lithographic performance. A thinner absorber demonstrated better CD prediction than thicker blanks in semi-dense and isolated patterns for both CDTP and inverse CDTP. It also shows that the thinner absorber has better inverse linearity in small isolated features, and has much better prediction for large isolated patterns. The generation of OPC models must include variations due to mask material properties and scanner optical variations to provide robust performance in manufacturing.

Ning, GuoXiang; Cheng, Jacky; Kropinov, Sergey; Litt, Lloyd C.; Zhang, Dongqing; Ackmann, Paul; Foong, Yee Mei

2014-03-01

459

ETUDE DU CYCLE DE RESPIRATION A PARTIR DE DONNEES 4D GENEREES PAR UN SCANNER  

E-print Network

ETUDE DU CYCLE DE RESPIRATION A PARTIR DE DONNEES 4D GENEREES PAR UN SCANNER DYNAMIQUE 3D STUDY cycle de respiration à partir de données 4D générées par un scanner dynamique 3D Résumé Le laboratoire préliminaires sur l'étude du cycle de respiration de quelques individus. Cette recherche s'intéresse à l

Nebel, Jean-Christophe

460

Design and evaluation of an optically-tracked single-CCD laser range scanner  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Acquisition of laser range scans of an organ surface has the potential to efficiently provide measurements of geometric changes to soft tissue during a surgical procedure. A laser range scanner design is reported here which has been developed to drive intraoperative updates to conventional image-guided neurosurgery systems. Methods: The scanner is optically-tracked in the operating room with a multiface passive target. The novel design incorporates both the capture of surface geometry (via laser illumination) and color information (via visible light collection) through a single-lens onto the same charge-coupled device (CCD). The accuracy of the geometric data was evaluated by scanning a high-precision phantom and comparing relative distances between landmarks in the scans with the corresponding ground truth (known) distances. The range-of-motion of the scanner with respect to the optical camera was determined by placing the scanner in common operating room configurations while sampling the visibility of the reflective spheres. The tracking accuracy was then analyzed by fixing the scanner and phantom in place, perturbing the optical camera around the scene, and observing variability in scan locations with respect to a tracked pen probe ground truth as the camera tracked the same scene from different positions. Results: The geometric accuracy test produced a mean error and standard deviation of 0.25?±?0.40 mm with an RMS error of 0.47 mm. The tracking tests showed that the scanner could be tracked at virtually all desired orientations required in the OR set up, with an overall tracking error and standard deviation of 2.2?±?1.0 mm with an RMS error of 2.4 mm. There was no discernible difference between any of the three faces on the lasers range scanner (LRS) with regard to tracking accuracy. Conclusions: A single-lens laser range scanner design was successfully developed and implemented with sufficient scanning and tracking accuracy for image-guided surgery. PMID:22320772

Pheiffer, Thomas S.; Simpson, Amber L.; Lennon, Brian; Thompson, Reid C.; Miga, Michael I.

2012-01-01

461

Design and construction of the ClearPET\\/XPAD small animal PET\\/CT scanner  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we present a small animal hybrid PET\\/CT scanner for simultaneous X and gamma ray scans of the same field of view. It is based on the high resolution PET scanner demonstrator ClearPET developed within the Crystal Clear Collaboration and on the prototype X-ray hybrid pixel detector XPAD3 developed at CPPM. The complete hybrid system has been studied

S. Nicol; S. Karkar; C. Hemmer; A. Dawiec; D. Benoit; P. Breugnon; B. Dinkespiler; F. Riviere; J.-P. Logier; M. Niclas; J. Royon; C. Meessen; F. Cassol; J.-C. Clemens; A. Bonissent; F. Debarbieux; E. Vigeolas; P. Delpierre; C. Morel

2009-01-01

462

Evaluation of the Genisys4, a Bench-Top Preclinical PET Scanner  

PubMed Central

The Genisys4 is a small bench-top preclinical PET scanner designed to enable imaging in biology, biochemistry, and pharmacology laboratories and imaging centers. Here, we compare its performance with that of a well-established preclinical PET scanner. Methods Subcutaneous and lung tumor xenografts were used to compare lesion detectability and treatment responses to chemotherapy (gemcitabine) using 18F-FDG PET. The size of subcutaneous xenografts (L1210 and L1210-10K leukemia cells) and lung metastases (B-16 melanoma cells) was measured on small-animal CT images. Tumor 18F-FDG uptake was expressed as percentage injected dose per gram. Using list-mode data, serial images of the left ventricular blood pool were used to generate time–activity curves. Results Subcutaneous xenografts (range, 4–12 mm; mean ± SD, 6.1 ± 1.7 mm) and lungmetastases (range, 1–5 mm; mean, 2.1 ± 1.2 mm) were detected equally well with both scanners. Tumor 18F-FDG uptake measured with both scanners was highly correlated for subcutaneous xenografts (r2 = 0.93) and lung metastases (r2 = 0.83). The new Genisys4 scanner and the established scanner provided comparable treatment response information (r2 = 0.93). Dynamic imaging sequences permitted the generation of left ventricular blood-pool time–activity curves with both scanners. Conclusion Using subcutaneous and lung xenografts, a novel and an established preclinical PET scanner provided equivalent information with regard to lesion detection, tumor 18F-FDG uptake, tumor response to treatment, and generation of time–activity curves. Thus, the Genisys4 provides a small, efficient bench-top preclinical PET alternative for quantitatively studying murine tumor models in biology, biochemistry, and pharmacology laboratories and preclinical imaging centers. PMID:23628700

Herrmann, Ken; Dahlbom, Magnus; Nathanson, David; Wei, Liu; Radu, Caius; Chatziioannou, Arion; Czernin, Johannes

2013-01-01

463

Two-Dimensional MEMS Scanner for Dual-Axes Confocal Microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a novel 2-D microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) scanner that enables dual-axes confocal microscopy. Dual-axes confocal microscopy provides high resolution and long working distance, while also being well suited for miniaturization and integration into endoscopes for in vivo imaging. The gimbaled MEMS scanner is fabricated on a double silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer (a silicon wafer bonded on a

Hyejun Ra; Wibool Piyawattanametha; Yoshihiro Taguchi; Daesung Lee; Michael J. Mandella; Olav Solgaard

2007-01-01

464

Performance and limitations of positron emission tomography (PET) scanners for imaging very low activity sources.  

PubMed

Emerging applications for positron emission tomography (PET) may require the ability to image very low activity source distributions in the body. The performance of clinical PET scanners in the regime where activity in the field of view is <1 MBq has not previously been explored. In this study, we compared the counting rate performance of two clinical PET/CT scanners, the Siemens Biograph Reveal 16 scanner which is based on lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO) detectors and the GE Discovery-ST scanner which is based on bismuth germanate (BGO) detectors using a modified National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) NU 2-2007 protocol. Across the activity range studied (2-100 kBq/mL in a 5.5 mL line source in the NEMA scatter phantom), the BGO-based scanner significantly outperformed the LSO-based scanner. This was largely due to the effect of background counts emanating from naturally occurring but radioactive (176)Lu within the LSO detector material, which dominates the observed counting rate at the lowest activities. Increasing the lower energy threshold from 350 keV to 425 keV in an attempt to reduce this background did not significantly improve the measured NECR performance. The measured singles rate due to (176)Lu emissions within the scanner energy window was also found to be dependent on temperature, and to be affected by the operation of the CT component, making approaches to correct or compensate for the background more challenging. We conclude that for PET studies in a very low activity range, BGO-based scanners are likely to have better performance because of the lack of significant background. PMID:23680361

Freedenberg, Melissa I; Badawi, Ramsey D; Tarantal, Alice F; Cherry, Simon R

2014-02-01

465

Experience with scintillators for PET: towards the fifth generation of PET scanners  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the ECAT 2, the first commercial positron emission tomograph developed by EG&G ORTEC, four generations of scanners can be identified. The first such scanners were based on sodium iodide (NaI(Tl)) scintillators, although as early as 1978 the transition to bismuth germanate (BGO) detectors had begun. By 1981, second-generation PET scanners with up to four rings of BGO detectors were available commercially. The BGO block detector appeared in 1985, initiating the third generation of PET scanners with the potential to increase the axial coverage in a cost-effective manner. As with the second generation, the third generation of PET scanners incorporated lead septa to collimate the annihilation photons within transverse planes, thereby reducing the acquisition of scattered and random coincidences and limiting detector dead time. The fourth generation of PET scanners offered up to 15 cm axial coverage and incorporated retractable septa that permitted both 2D and 3D acquisition within the same scanner. Therefore, fifth-generation scanner should be a fully 3D system with no septa, a 25-30 cm axial field-of-view, and a spatial resolution approaching the limits set by the physics of positron emission. Rather than using septa, limitation of randoms and scatter should be achieved directly at the detector by using a scintillator with high-light output, good energy resolution, and a fast scintillation decay time. The fast decay time will ensure low deadtime. The recent development of lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO), a scintillator with the required properties, suggests that a fifth generation of positron emission tomographs can now be attained.

Eriksson, L.; Townsend, D.; Eriksson, M.; Melcher, C.; Schmand, M.; Bendriem, B.; Nutt, R.

2004-06-01

466

Partial entrainment of gravel bars during floods  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Spatial patterns of bed material entrainment by floods were documented at seven gravel bars using arrays of metal washers (bed tags) placed in the streambed. The observed patterns were used to test a general stochastic model that bed material entrainment is a spatially independent, random process where the probability of entrainment is uniform over a gravel bar and a function of the peak dimensionless shear stress ??*0 of the flood. The fraction of tags missing from a gravel bar during a flood, or partial entrainment, had an approximately normal distribution with respect to ??*0 with a mean value (50% of the tags entrained) of 0.085 and standard deviation of 0.022 (root-mean-square error of 0.09). Variation in partial entrainment for a given ??*0 demonstrated the effects of flow conditioning on bed strength, with lower values of partial entrainment after intermediate magnitude floods (0.065 < ??*0 < 0.08) than after higher magnitude floods. Although the probability of bed material entrainment was approximately uniform over a gravel bar during individual floods and independent from flood to flood, regions of preferential stability and instability emerged at some bars over the course of a wet season. Deviations from spatially uniform and independent bed material entrainment were most pronounced for reaches with varied flow and in consecutive floods with small to intermediate magnitudes.

Konrad, C.P.; Booth, D.B.; Burges, S.J.; Montgomery, D.R.

2002-01-01

467

Search for the $\\bar?^- \\to $ K$^-$ $\\bar{n}$ with PHENIX  

E-print Network

The PHENIX experiment at RHIC should be sensitive to decays of the the anti--pentaquark $\\bar{\\Theta}^-$ via the K$^-$ $\\bar{n}$ channel. Charged kaons can be identified using the standard tracking and time of flight up to a momentum of 1.5 GeV/c. Anti--neutron candidates are detected via their annihilation signal in the highly segmented electromagnetic calorimeter (EMCal). In order to assess the quality of the anti--neutron identification we reconstruct the $\\bar{\\Sigma} \\to \\bar{n}\\pi$. As an additional crosscheck the invariant mass of K$^+$ $\\bar{n}$ is reconstructed where no resonance in the pentaquark mass range is expected. At the present time no enhancement at the expected pentaquark mass is observed in dAu collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 200 GeV.

C. Pinkenburg

2004-03-31

468

A multispectral scanner survey of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site and surrounding area, Golden, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

Aerial multispectral scanner imagery was collected of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site in Golden, Colorado, on June 3, 5, 6, and 7, 1994, using a Daedalus AADS1268 multispectral scanner and coincident aerial color and color infrared photography. Flight altitudes were 4,500 feet (1372 meters) above ground level to match prior 1989 survey data; 2,000 feet (609 meters) above ground level for sitewide vegetation mapping; and 1,000 feet (304 meters) above ground level for selected areas of special interest. A multispectral survey was initiated to improve the existing vegetation classification map, to identify seeps and springs, and to generate ARC/INFO Geographic Information System compatible coverages of the vegetation and wetlands for the entire site including the buffer zone. The multispectral scanner imagery and coincident aerial photography were analyzed for the detection, identification, and mapping of vegetation and wetlands. The multispectral scanner data were processed digitally while the color and color infrared photography were manually photo-interpreted to define vegetation and wetlands. Several standard image enhancement techniques were applied to the multispectral scanner data to assist image interpretation. A seep enhancement was applied and a color composite consisting of multispectral scanner channels 11, 7, and 5 (thermal infrared, mid-infrared, and red bands, respectively) proved most useful for detecting seeps, seep zones, and springs. The predawn thermal infrared data were also useful in identifying and locating seeps. The remote sensing data, mapped wetlands, and ancillary Geographic Information System compatible data sets were spatially analyzed for seeps.

Brewster, S.B. Jr.; Brickey, D.W.; Ross, S.L.; Shines, J.E.

1997-04-01

469

Large angle and high linearity two-dimensional laser scanner based on voice coil actuators.  

PubMed

A large angle and high linearity two-dimensional laser scanner with an in-house ingenious deflection angle detecting system is developed based on voice coil actuators direct driving mechanism. The specially designed voice coil actuators make the steering mirror moving at a sufficiently large angle. Frequency sweep method based on virtual instruments is employed to achieve the natural frequency of the laser scanner. The response shows that the performance of the laser scanner is limited by the mechanical resonances. The closed-loop controller based on mathematical model is used to reduce the oscillation of the laser scanner at resonance frequency. To design a qualified controller, the model of the laser scanner is set up. The transfer function of the model is identified with MATLAB according to the tested data. After introducing of the controller, the nonlinearity decreases from 13.75% to 2.67% at 50 Hz. The laser scanner also has other advantages such as large deflection mirror, small mechanical structure, and high scanning speed. PMID:22047325

Wu, Xin; Chen, Sihai; Chen, Wei; Yang, Minghui; Fu, Wen

2011-10-01

470

A rigorous cylinder-based self-calibration approach for terrestrial laser scanners  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Existing self-calibration methods for terrestrial laser scanners are predominantly point-based and plane-based. In this paper, we present a new cylinder-based self-calibration method with its variants for several scanners having different architectures and scanning mechanisms. The method not only increases the flexibility of in situ self-calibration, but also its rigor because of reduced functional dependencies between adjustment parameters. Based on the analysis of linear dependencies between columns of the design matrices for both the cylindrical and planar models, it is shown that using the vertical cylindrical model is advantageous over using the planar model as some high linear dependencies can be avoided. The proposed method and its variants were first applied to two simulated datasets, to compare their effectiveness, and then to three real datasets captured by three different types of scanners are presented: a Faro Focus 3D (a phase-based panoramic scanner); a Velodyne HDL-32E (a pulse-based multi spinning beam scanner); and a Leica ScanStation C10 (a dual operating-mode scanner). The experimental results show that the proposed method can properly estimate the additional parameters with high precision. More importantly, no high correlations were found between the additional parameters and other parameters when the network configuration is strong. The overall results indicate that the proposed calibration method is rigorous and flexible.

Chan, Ting On; Lichti, Derek D.; Belton, David

2015-01-01

471

Analysis and correction of the dependency between laser scanner intensity values and range  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intensity values, which are registered by a terrestrial laser scanner system (TLS) for each point of a 3D point cloud in addition to its coordinates, are affected by the characteristic of the measured object and the parameters of the environment. The backscattered electromagnetic signal is influenced in his strength by the reflectivity of the scanned object surface, the incidence angle, the distance between laser scanner and object and the atmospheric respectively system specific setting of the TLS-measurement. The entity of all influences on the signal can be summarized in the laser range equation of Jelalian1. For the investigations of this study the named influences where divided into two groups. Group 1 includes the surface specific influences. The second group contains all other influences. The correction of the intensity values from the effects of group 2 theoretically allows the determination of similar materials, using similar intensity values in laser scanner point clouds. In this paper the dependency between laser scanner intensity values and range are investigated on the basis of laser scanner data recorded with a Riegl LMS-Z420i. The results are compared with data from the phase-difference laser scanner Zoller+Fröhlich Imager 5006i.

Blaskow, R.; Schneider, D.

2014-06-01

472

A compact two-dimensional laser scanner based on piezoelectric actuators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A compact two-dimensional (2D) single-mirror laser scanner has been designed and prototyped that is structurally small and has high accuracy. The mirror of the scanner is driven by three piezoelectric actuators aligned in parallel and staggered to form a triangular base to provide structural compactness and close drive axes. The mechanical structure and 2D tilt principle of the scanner were analyzed and the architecture was tested. With an asymmetric structure, the scanner has an optical angle of 2.558° and a principle resonance frequency at 1036.8 Hz in the x-axis and 4.495° at 654.0 Hz in the y-axis. Experimental results suggest that, with hysteresis compensation, the nonlinearity of the scanner is reduced to ±0.25% for the x-axis and ±0.3% for the y-axis. With an open-loop controller, the laser scanner can realize linear scanning at several hundred hertz.

Wei, Chen; Sihai, Chen; Dong, Luo; Guohua, Jiao

2015-01-01

473

Evidence for B+ -> K*0bar K*+  

SciTech Connect

We present measurements of the branching fraction and fraction of longitudinal polarization for the decay B{sup +} {yields} {bar K}*{sup 0} K*{sup +} with a sample of 467 {+-} 5 million B{bar B} pairs collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. We obtain the branching fraction {Beta}(B{sup +} {yields} {bar K}*{sup 0} K*{sup +}) = (1.2 {+-} 0.5 {+-} 0.1) x 10{sup ?6} with a significance of 3.7 standard deviations including systematic uncertainties. We measure the fraction of longitudinal polarization f{sub L} = 0.75{sub -0.26}{sup +0.16} {+-} 0.03. The first error quoted is statistical and the second is systematic.

Aubert, B.; Bona, M.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Prudent, X.; Tisserand, V.; /Annecy, LAPP; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; /Barcelona U., ECM; Lopez, L.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; /INFN, Bari /Bari U.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; /Bergen U.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D.N.; Kerth, L.T.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Lynch, G.; /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UCLA /UC, Riverside /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /Frascati /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /Harvard U. /Heidelberg U. /Humboldt U., Berlin /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Orsay, LAL /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Karlsruhe U., EKP /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT, LNS /McGill U. /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /Mt. Holyoke Coll. /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /Paris U., VI-VII /Pennsylvania U. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Princeton U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DSM, DAPNIA, Saclay /South Carolina U. /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Albany /Tennessee U. /Texas U. /Texas U., Dallas /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /Valencia U., IFIC /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison

2009-06-19

474

Split Hopkinson bar experiments of preloaded interfaces.  

SciTech Connect

Preloads are routinely applied to stiffen structural members in many applications. However, the preloaded structural members have been observed to lose a significant portion of the imposed load due to internal relaxation mechanisms during impulsive impact events. This paper describes the design and initial experiments for a novel Hopkinson bar configuration designed to investigate the effect of preloads on the stress wave propagation across interfaces between the incident and transmission bars. Dynamic responses are measured by a variety of sensors, including accelerometers, strain gages, and a laser vibrometer. The transmissibility of a titanium incident bar is measured to establish the baseline frequency response between the input and the test interface. Wave transmission across an titanium-aluminum interface is also examined by analyzing the frequency response function, transmission efficiency, and transmissibility between the incident and transmitted waves. The presence of vacuum grease is shown to strongly influence the dynamic behavior of the system.

Foley, Jason R. (Air Force Research Laboratory); Luk, Vincent K.; Falbo, Gregory L. (LMS Americas, Inc.); McKinion, Curtis M. (Air Force Research Laboratory); Dodson, Jacob C. (Air Force Research Laboratory)

2010-10-01

475

Code division multiple access using Hermitean codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reed-Solomon (RS) codes present some desirable properties that make them useful in the generation of hopping sequences, for frequency hopping code division multiple access (FH CDMA). The algebraic geometric codes include the RS codes as a special case, therefore it is natural to propose the former as a candidate to FH CDMA. In this article, a description of such codes,

Francisco M. Assis; M. S. Alencar

1995-01-01

476

Quantification with a dedicated breast PET/CT scanner  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Dedicated breast PET/CT is expected to have utility in local staging, surgical planning, monitoring of therapy response, and detection of residual disease for breast cancer. Quantitative metrics will be integral to several such applications. The authors present a validation of fully 3D data correction schemes for a custom built dedicated breast PET/CT (DbPET/CT) scanner via 18F-FDG phantom scans. Methods: A component-based normalization was implemented, live-time was estimated with a multicomponent