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1

The design of the CMOS wireless bar code scanner applying optical system based on ZigBee  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The traditional bar code scanner is influenced by the length of data line, but the farthest distance of the wireless bar code scanner of wireless communication is generally between 30m and 100m on the market. By rebuilding the traditional CCD optical bar code scanner, a CMOS code scanner is designed based on the ZigBee to meet the demands of market. The scan system consists of the CMOS image sensor and embedded chip S3C2401X, when the two dimensional bar code is read, the results show the inaccurate and wrong code bar, resulted from image defile, disturber, reads image condition badness, signal interference, unstable system voltage. So we put forward the method which uses the matrix evaluation and Read-Solomon arithmetic to solve them. In order to construct the whole wireless optics of bar code system and to ensure its ability of transmitting bar code image signals digitally with long distances, ZigBee is used to transmit data to the base station, and this module is designed based on image acquisition system, and at last the wireless transmitting/receiving CC2430 module circuit linking chart is established. And by transplanting the embedded RTOS system LINUX to the MCU, an applying wireless CMOS optics bar code scanner and multi-task system is constructed. Finally, performance of communication is tested by evaluation software Smart RF. In broad space, every ZIGBEE node can realize 50m transmission with high reliability. When adding more ZigBee nodes, the transmission distance can be several thousands of meters long.

Chen, Yuelin; Peng, Jian

2008-03-01

2

Bar coded retroreflective target  

DOEpatents

This small, inexpensive, non-contact laser sensor can detect the location of a retroreflective target in a relatively large volume and up to six degrees of position. The tracker's laser beam is formed into a plane of light which is swept across the space of interest. When the beam illuminates the retroreflector, some of the light returns to the tracker. The intensity, angle, and time of the return beam is measured to calculate the three dimensional location of the target. With three retroreflectors on the target, the locations of three points on the target are measured, enabling the calculation of all six degrees of target position. Until now, devices for three-dimensional tracking of objects in a large volume have been heavy, large, and very expensive. Because of the simplicity and unique characteristics of this tracker, it is capable of three-dimensional tracking of one to several objects in a large volume, yet it is compact, light-weight, and relatively inexpensive. Alternatively, a tracker produces a diverging laser beam which is directed towards a fixed position, and senses when a retroreflective target enters the fixed field of view. An optically bar coded target can be read by the tracker to provide information about the target. The target can be formed of a ball lens with a bar code on one end. As the target moves through the field, the ball lens causes the laser beam to scan across the bar code.

Vann, Charles S. (Fremont, CA)

2000-01-01

3

Bar-Code-Scribing Tool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed hand-held tool applies indelible bar code to small parts. Possible to identify parts for management of inventory without tags or labels. Microprocessor supplies bar-code data to impact-printer-like device. Device drives replaceable scribe, which cuts bar code on surface of part. Used to mark serially controlled parts for military and aerospace equipment. Also adapts for discrete marking of bulk items used in food and pharmaceutical processing.

Badinger, Michael A.; Drouant, George J.

1991-01-01

4

Property Control through Bar Coding.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A public utility company uses laser wands to read bar-coded labels on furniture and equipment. The system allows an 80 percent savings of the time required to create reports for inventory control. (MLF)

Kingma, Gerben J.

1984-01-01

5

Self-focusing hidden bar code  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new type of diffractive optical bar code produced by computer-generated holographic technology is proposed. The message in the proposed bar code is hidden in the diffracted light of the bar code element and can be read from the first diffraction order. In contrast to the conventional hidden bar code, which needs a lens to focus the diffracted light, the

Zhiqiang Zhong; Jianping Ding; Zhou Jin; Peiying Liang; Gao Wenqi

2002-01-01

6

The health industry bar code in Europe.  

PubMed

As information systems in the health care industry become more widely used and increasingly sophisticated, the source data used to make decisions must become more accurate and speedily available to improve the decision-making process. A proven technique for the fast and accurate capture of data by computers is bar coding. This article examines health industry bar coding and some of its many potential benefits, focusing in particular on the Health Industry Bar Code in Europe. PMID:10171585

Martin, P

1992-01-01

7

Bar codes : can you decode a barcode?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students are shown a key to the post office conversion code and given a bar coded zip code to decipher. The activity, part of the Figure This! collection of 80 math challenges emphasizing math in the real world, introduces the bar-coding system and explains how the system enables businesses and banks to run more efficiently. The Hint suggests that students group the long and short bars into sets of five and then refer to the key to see what number is being represented. Related questions ask students to write a code using the U.S. Postal Service bar code and to decode a bar code on a piece of their own mail. Answers to all questions and links to resources are included. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM)

2002-01-01

8

MOEM scan engine for bar code reading and factory automation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rockwell is in the state of technology transfer to manufacturing of a micro-opto-electro-mechanical scan engine with superior scanning performance for bar code reading and factory automation. The scan engine consists of three main components: actuator, mirrors, and control electronics. The first two components are fabricated on a silicon cantilever beam while the control electronics are presently hybrid. The actuator comprises of a bimorph layer covered with two metal layers. The mirror has a large area (several mm2) and it is micromachined with a surface flatness better than (lambda) /2. Actuator scan-angles greater than 22 degree(s) with high repeatability in performance are achieved. The scan engine was integrated with an existing Rockwell commercial bar code reader/decoder and successfully proven to read a two-character code 39 bar code. The system was capable of decoding the 13-mil label at 360 scans per second with a 100% successful read performance. Environmental testing of the device indicates that the scanner can operate at elevated temperatures up to 70 degree(s)C with minor fluctuations in frequency and scan angle. The scanner has also gone through a lifetime cycle test and it has survived more than 8 billion cycles during a period of 18 months. To increase the yield and the performance level of the device, theoretical study as well as dynamic simulation by finite elements modeling have been investigated and will be reported separately.

Motamedi, M. Edward; Park, Sangtae; Melendes, Robert; Wang, A.; Andrews, Angus P.; Garcia-Nunez, Dawn S.; Jinar, Dan; Richardson, Patti D.; Studer, J.; Chen, J. K.; DeNatale, Jeffrey F.; Moranski, Jeffrey A.

1998-03-01

9

Superwide-angle coverage code-multiplexed optical scanner.  

PubMed

A superwide-angle coverage code-multiplexed optical scanner is presented that has the potential to provide 4 pi-sr coverage. As a proof-of-concept experiment, an angular scan range of 288 degrees for six randomly distributed beams is demonstrated. The proposed scanner achieves its superwide coverage by exploiting a combination of phase-encoded transmission and reflection holography within an in-line hologram recording-retrieval geometry. The basic scanner unit consists of one phase-only digital mode spatial light modulator for code entry (i.e., beam scan control) and a holographic material from which we obtained what we believe is the first-of-a-kind extremely wide coverage, low component count, high speed (e.g., microsecond domain), and large aperture (e.g., > 1-cm diameter) scanner. PMID:15143655

Riza, Nabeel A; Arain, Muzammil A

2004-05-01

10

21 CFR 201.25 - Bar code label requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...in a linear bar code that meets European Article Number/Uniform Code Council (EAN.UCC) or Health Industry Business Communications Council (HIBCC) standards. Additionally, the bar code must: (i) Be surrounded by sufficient blank...

2010-04-01

11

Materials management with a bar code reader.  

PubMed

A materials management system capable of inventory control, accounting and the automatic recording of supplies for a clinical department has been developed for the George Washington University Hospital Department of Anesthesia. This system combines a microprocessor-based computer for data storage and a hand-held bar code reader to record the bar code scan of each item in the inventory. A relational software program with easy-to-use menus and help keys was written. Bar code information stored for each item includes item number, quantity, date and time of issue. Accumulated bar code scans are loaded into the computer by use of a serial port and then used to update current inventory in the computer. Comparison between current inventory and reorder levels by the computer will initiate automatic printing of appropriate purchase orders. Reorder levels are adjusted regularly, by comparing previous year or month usage to current needs; items already on order, items on back order and delivery lag time are also taken into account. PMID:10104851

Kaplan, R S

1990-01-01

12

Bar-code automated waste tracking system  

SciTech Connect

The Bar-Code Automated Waste Tracking System was designed to be a site-Specific program with a general purpose application for transportability to other facilities. The system is user-friendly, totally automated, and incorporates the use of a drive-up window that is close to the areas dealing in container preparation, delivery, pickup, and disposal. The system features ``stop-and-go`` operation rather than a long, tedious, error-prone manual entry. The system is designed for automation but allows operators to concentrate on proper handling of waste while maintaining manual entry of data as a backup. A large wall plaque filled with bar-code labels is used to input specific details about any movement of waste.

Hull, T.E.

1994-10-01

13

Bar-Code System Tracks Test Equipment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Administration of complicated system speeded and simplified. Computer system uses bar codes to keep track of more than 2,200 items of test equipment. BETUS (Barcode Equipment Tracking and Utilization System), maintains data base on what items borrowed, who is using them and where, and when calibrated. Keeps records on tools and small electronic components. Saves on equipment purchases and recovers missing equipment more quickly. Cuts check-in and checkout time by 90 percent.

Rogers, Jacob R.; Benton, Lesa M.; Perry, Roberta A.

1990-01-01

14

A Novel Model for the Print-and-Capture Channel in 2D Bar Codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several models for the print-and-scan channel are available in the literature. We describe a new channel model specifically tuned to the transmission of two-dimensional bar codes and which is suitable not only for scanners, but also for time\\/space-variant scenarios including web cameras or those embedded in mobile phones. Our model provides an analytical expression for accurately representing the output of

Alberto Malvido; Fernando Pérez-gonzález; Armando Cousiño

2006-01-01

15

Bar-Code System for a Microbiological Laboratory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A bar-code system has been assembled for a microbiological laboratory that must examine a large number of samples. The system includes a commercial bar-code reader, computer hardware and software components, plus custom-designed database software. The software generates a user-friendly, menu-driven interface.

Law, Jennifer; Kirschner, Larry

2007-01-01

16

Objectivity in Grading: The Promise of Bar Codes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article proposes the use of a new technology to assure student anonymity and reduce bias hazards: identifying students by using bar codes. The limited finding suggests that the use of bar codes for assuring student anonymity could potentially cause students to perceive that grades are assigned more fairly and reassure teachers that they are…

Jae, Haeran; Cowling, John

2009-01-01

17

Machine-vision-based bar code scanning for long-range applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bar code labeling of products has become almost universal in most industries. However, in the steel industry, problems with high temperatures, harsh physical environments and the large sizes of the products and material handling equipment have slowed implementation of bar code based systems in the hot end of the mill. Typical laser-based bar code scanners have maximum scan distances of only 15 feet or so. Longer distance models have been developed which require the use of retro reflective paper labels, but the labels must be very large, are expensive, and cannot stand the heat and physical abuse of the steel mill environment. Furthermore, it is often difficult to accurately point a hand held scanner at targets in bright sunlight or at long distances. An automated product tag reading system based on CCD cameras and computer image processing has been developed by West Virginia University, and demonstrated at the Weirton Steel Corporation. The system performs both the pointing and reading functions. A video camera is mounted on a pan/tilt head, and connected to a personal computer through a frame grabber board. The computer analyzes the images, and can identify product ID tags in a wide-angle scene. It controls the camera to point at each tag and zoom for a closeup picture. The closeups are analyzed and the program need both a barcode and the corresponding alphanumeric code on the tag. This paper describes the camera pointing and bar-code reading functions of the algorithm. A companion paper describes the OCR functions.

Banta, Larry E.; Pertl, Franz A.; Rosenecker, Charles; Rosenberry-Friend, Kimberly A.

1998-10-01

18

76 FR 49772 - Guidance for Industry: Bar Code Label Requirements-Questions and Answers; Availability  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...document entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Bar Code Label Requirements...guidance entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Bar Code Label Requirement...document entitled ''Guidance for Industry: Bar Code Label Requirements...recordkeeping and mandatory adverse event reporting requirements...

2011-08-11

19

A gene expression bar code for microarray data  

E-print Network

A gene expression bar code for microarray data Michael J Zilliox1,3 & Rafael A Irizarry2 comparing intensities from different hybridizations for the same gene, the probe effect is very similar and cancels out. In contrast, when comparing intensities for two genes from the same hybridization

Cai, Long

20

Enabling Handicapped Nonreaders to Independently Obtain Information: Initial Development of an Inexpensive Bar Code Reader System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A project to develop and evaluate a bar code reader system as a self-directed information and instructional aid for handicapped nonreaders is described. The bar code technology involves passing a light sensitive pen or laser over a printed code with bars which correspond to coded numbers. A system would consist of a portable device which could…

VanBiervliet, Alan

21

The study of watermark bar code recognition with light transmission theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Watermark bar code is one of the latest anti-counterfeiting technologies, which is applicable to a series of security documents, especially banknotes. With watermark bar codes embedded euro banknotes as an example, a system is designed for watermark bar code detection and recognition based on light transmission theory. We obtain light transmission curves of different denominations along different sampling lines which

Fan Zhang; Tiegen Liu; Lianxiang Zhang; Xiaojun Zhang

2004-01-01

22

Improving radiopharmaceutical supply chain safety by implementing bar code technology.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to describe and evaluate an approach for improving radiopharmaceutical supply chain safety by implementing bar code technology. We first evaluated the current situation of our radiopharmaceutical supply chain and, by means of the ALARM protocol, analysed two dispensing errors that occurred in our department. Thereafter, we implemented a bar code system to secure selected key stages of the radiopharmaceutical supply chain. Finally, we evaluated the cost of this implementation, from overtime, to overheads, to additional radiation exposure to workers. An analysis of the events that occurred revealed a lack of identification of prepared or dispensed drugs. Moreover, the evaluation of the current radiopharmaceutical supply chain showed that the dispensation and injection steps needed to be further secured. The bar code system was used to reinforce product identification at three selected key stages: at usable stock entry; at preparation-dispensation; and during administration, allowing to check conformity between the labelling of the delivered product (identity and activity) and the prescription. The extra time needed for all these steps had no impact on the number and successful conduct of examinations. The investment cost was reduced (2600 euros for new material and 30 euros a year for additional supplies) because of pre-existing computing equipment. With regard to the radiation exposure to workers there was an insignificant overexposure for hands with this new organization because of the labelling and scanning processes of radiolabelled preparation vials. Implementation of bar code technology is now an essential part of a global securing approach towards optimum patient management. PMID:25144560

Matanza, David; Hallouard, François; Rioufol, Catherine; Fessi, Hatem; Fraysse, Marc

2014-11-01

23

Impact on retail checkout ergonomics of scanner technology evolution and package design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of bar code scanners has steadily improved scanning performances over the past 20 years. Changes in scan patterns, improvements in decode algorithms, and design features of the hardware user interface have resulted in scanners that are ergonomically superior both in biomechanics and overall performance. This study reviewed scanner performance and technological developments, and compare these to changes in

Mark S Hoffman

1998-01-01

24

Comparison of three coding strategies for a low cost structure light scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coded structure light is widely used for 3D scanning, and different coding strategies are adopted to suit for different goals. In this paper, three coding strategies are compared, and one of them is selected to implement a low cost structure light scanner under the cost of €100. To reach this goal, the projector and the video camera must be the cheapest, which will lead to some problems related to light coding. For a cheapest projector, complex intensity pattern can't be generated; even if it can be generated, it can't be captured by a cheapest camera. Based on Gray code, three different strategies are implemented and compared, called phase-shift, line-shift, and bit-shift, respectively. The bit-shift Gray code is the contribution of this paper, in which a simple, stable light pattern is used to generate dense(mean points distance<0.4mm) and accurate(mean error<0.1mm) results. The whole algorithm details and some example are presented in the papers.

Xiong, Hanwei; Xu, Jun; Xu, Chenxi; Pan, Ming

2014-12-01

25

Identifying Objects via Encased X-Ray-Fluorescent Materials - the Bar Code Inside  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Systems for identifying objects by means of x-ray fluorescence (XRF) of encased labeling elements have been developed. The XRF spectra of objects so labeled would be analogous to the external bar code labels now used to track objects in everyday commerce. In conjunction with computer-based tracking systems, databases, and labeling conventions, the XRF labels could be used in essentially the same manner as that of bar codes to track inventories and to record and process commercial transactions. In addition, as summarized briefly below, embedded XRF labels could be used to verify the authenticity of products, thereby helping to deter counterfeiting and fraud. A system, as described above, is called an encased core product identification and authentication system (ECPIAS). The ECPIAS concept is a modified version of that of a related recently initiated commercial development of handheld XRF spectral scanners that would identify alloys or detect labeling elements deposited on the surfaces of objects. In contrast, an ECPIAS would utilize labeling elements encased within the objects of interest. The basic ECPIAS concept is best illustrated by means of an example of one of several potential applications: labeling of cultured pearls by labeling the seed particles implanted in oysters to grow the pearls. Each pearl farmer would be assigned a unique mixture of labeling elements that could be distinguished from the corresponding mixtures of other farmers. The mixture would be either incorporated into or applied to the surfaces of the seed prior to implantation in the oyster. If necessary, the labeled seed would be further coated to make it nontoxic to the oyster. After implantation, the growth of layers of mother of pearl on the seed would encase the XRF labels, making these labels integral, permanent parts of the pearls that could not be removed without destroying the pearls themselves. The XRF labels would be read by use of XRF scanners, the spectral data outputs of which would be converted to alphanumeric data in a digital equivalent data system (DEDS), which is the subject of the previous article. These alphanumeric data would be used to track the pearls through all stages of commerce, from the farmer to the retail customer.

Schramm, Harry F.; Kaiser, Bruce

2005-01-01

26

CCD-based POSTNET bar-code reader  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A CCD based barcode reader has been developed to read the POSTNET barcode with a bar/space width as small as 13 mils. This barcode is currently being used by the united States Post Office. The system can decode barcodes up to a conveyor speed of 250 ft/min for bars travelling parallel to the CCD sensor array. The system consisting of a camera and a logic unit was designed to incorporate various lengths of linear CCD sensor arrays manufactured by EG&G Corporation. The length of the sensor is dependent upon the required field of view. The camera unit processes the analog signal from the CCD sensor and converts it into a binary signal, which is then transmitted to the logic unit. The logic unit uses a Texas Instrument TMS320C30 processor and does the actual signal processing and decoding of the POSTNET code. This paper describes the hardware and the software developed for this system using a 512 element CCD sensor.

Patel, Mehul; Shreesha, Vasanth; Hecht, Kurt; Cox, Jim; Schultz, John

1995-12-01

27

Vision-based reading system for color-coded bar codes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Barcode systems are used to mark commodities, articles and products with price and article numbers. The advantage of the barcode systems is the safe and rapid availability of the information about the product. The size of the barcode depends on the used barcode system and the resolution of the barcode scanner. Nevertheless, there is a strong correlation between the information content and the length of the barcode. To increase the information content, new 2D-barcode systems like CodaBlock or PDF-417 are introduced. In this paper we present a different way to increase the information content of a barcode and we would like to introduce the color coded barcode. The new color coded barcode is created by offset printing of the three colored barcodes, each barcode with different information. Therefore, three times more information content can be accommodated in the area of a black printed barcode. This kind of color coding is usable in case of the standard 1D- and 2D-barcodes. We developed two reading devices for the color coded barcodes. First, there is a vision based system, consisting of a standard color camera and a PC-based color frame grabber. Omnidirectional barcode decoding is possible with this reading device. Second, a bi-directional handscanner was developed. Both systems use a color separation process to separate the color image of the barcodes into three independent grayscale images. In the case of the handscanner the image consists of one line only. After the color separation the three grayscale barcodes can be decoded with standard image processing methods. In principle, the color coded barcode can be used everywhere instead of the standard barcode. Typical applications with the color coded barcodes are found in the medicine technique, stock running and identification of electronic modules.

Schubert, Erhard; Schroeder, Axel

1996-02-01

28

Star Library: Breaking the Code -- A Graphical Exploration Using Bar Charts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Caesar Shift is a translation of the alphabet; for example, a five-letter shift would code the letter a as f, b as g, ... z as e. We describe a five-step process for decoding an encrypted message. First, groups of size 4 construct a frequency table of the letters in two lines of a coded message. Second, students construct a bar chart for a reference message of the frequency of letters in the English language. Third, students create a bar chart of the coded message. Fourth, students visually compare the bar chart of the reference message (step 2) to the bar chart of the coded message (step 3). Based on this comparison, students hypothesize a shift. Fifth, students apply the shift to the coded message. After decoding the message, students are asked a series of questions that assess their ability to see patterns. The questions are geared for higher levels of cognitive reasoning.

Gabrosek, John

2001-01-01

29

The study of watermark bar code recognition with light transmission theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Watermark bar code is one of the latest anti-counterfeiting technologies, which is applicable to a series of security documents, especially banknotes. With watermark bar codes embedded euro banknotes as an example, a system is designed for watermark bar code detection and recognition based on light transmission theory. We obtain light transmission curves of different denominations along different sampling lines which are paralleled to the latitudinal axis of the banknote. By calculating the correlation coefficient between different light transmission curves, the system can not only distinguish the reference banknote from either the counterfeit ones or other denominations, but also demonstrates high consistency and repeatability.

Zhang, Fan; Liu, Tiegen; Zhang, Lianxiang; Zhang, Xiaojun

2004-10-01

30

Integrating bar-code devices with computerized MC and A systems  

SciTech Connect

Over the past seven years, Los Alamos National Laboratory developed several generations of computerized nuclear materials control and accountability (MC and A) systems for tracking and reporting the storage, movement, and management of nuclear materials at domestic and international facilities. During the same period, Oak Ridge National Laboratory was involved with automated data acquisition (ADA) equipment, including installation of numerous bar-code scanning stations at various facilities to serve as input devices to computerized systems. Bar-code readers, as well as other ADA devices, reduce input errors, provide faster input, and allow the capture of data in remote areas where workstations do not exist. Los Alamos National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory teamed together to implement the integration of bar-code hardware technology with computerized MC and A systems. With the expertise of both sites, the two technologies were successfully merged with little difficulty. Bar-code input is now available with several functions of the MC and A systems: material movements within material balance areas (MBAs), material movements between MBAs, and physical inventory verification. This paper describes the various components required for the integration of these MC and A systems with the installed bar-code reader devices and the future directions for these technologies.

Anderson, L.K.; Boor, M.G.; Hurford, J.M. [and others

1998-12-31

31

Index Coding with Side Information Ziv Bar-Yossef  

E-print Network

32000, Is- rael. Email: birk@ee.technion.ac.il. IBM Almaden Research Center, 650 Harry Road, San Jose is tight for both linear codes and certain classes of non-linear codes. For the general problem, we obtain distributed applications, though, the receiver may have some prior Department of Electrical Engineering

Bar-Yossef, Ziv

32

Bar-coded hydrogel microparticles for protein detection: synthesis, assay and scanning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This protocol describes the core methodology for the fabrication of bar-coded hydrogel microparticles, the capture and labeling of protein targets and the rapid microfluidic scanning of particles for multiplexed detection. Multifunctional hydrogel particles made from poly(ethylene glycol) serve as a sensitive, nonfouling and bio-inert suspension array for the multiplexed measurement of proteins. Each particle type bears a distinctive graphical code

David C Appleyard; Stephen C Chapin; Rathi L Srinivas; Patrick S Doyle

2011-01-01

33

Sound Synthesis and Bar-Code Technology to Develop Learning Environments for Blind Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An interactive, computerized sound machine was designed, incorporating bar-code technology in the user interface. The system was used in a classroom of nine blind elementary level children to teach sound awareness, logic, metalinguistics, and technological literacy and was found to have pedagogical relevance. (Author/JDD)

Burger, D.; And Others

1990-01-01

34

77 FR 49818 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Bar Code Label...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...issued regulations that required human drug product and biological...rule required bar codes on most human prescription drug products and...blood and blood components. For human prescription drug products and...1\\ There are no capital costs or operating and...

2012-08-17

35

Deblurring of One Dimensional Bar Codes via Total Variation Energy Minimisation  

E-print Network

commercial deblurring techniques are often based upon edge detection, for example, finding local extrema of f Angeles, 520 Portola Plaza, Math Sciences Building 6363, Los Angeles, California, 90095, USA, y size of the kernel is very large compared to the X-dimension, some edges in the bar code may have

Choksi, Rustum

36

New authentication scheme for M-commerce based on two dimension bar code  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the new OTP authentication scheme is based on two dimension bar code and can be adapted into M-commerce environment. Compared to traditional schemes, the scheme considers the strains of wireless network and mobile equipment. The scheme not only could isolate such problems of traditional schemes, but also could provide mutual authentication between the user and the server

Mu Yang; Runtong Zhang; Qin Wang

2008-01-01

37

The Impact of Bar Code Medication Administration Technology on Reported Medication Errors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of bar-code medication administration technology is on the rise in acute care facilities in the United States. The technology is purported to decrease medication errors that occur at the point of administration. How significantly this technology affects actual rate and severity of error is unknown. This descriptive, longitudinal research…

Holecek, Andrea

2011-01-01

38

Laser bar code applied in computer aided design of power fittings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A computer aided process planning system is developed based on laser bar code technology to automatize and standardize processing-paper making. The system sorts fittings by analyzing their types, structures, dimensions, materials, and technics characteristics, groups and encodes the fittings with similar technology characteristics base on the theory of Group Technology (GT). The system produces standard technology procedures using integrative-parts method and stores them into technics databases. To work out the technology procedure of fittings, the only thing for users need to do is to scan the bar code of fittings with a laser code reader. The system can produce process-paper using decision trees method and then print the process-cards automatically. The software has already been applied in some power stations and is praised by the users.

Yang, Xiaohong; Yang, Fan

2010-10-01

39

Anisotropic Total Variation Regularized L^1Approximation and Denoising\\/Deblurring of 2D Bar Codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider variations of the Rudin-Osher-Fatemi functional which are particularly well-suited to denoising and deblurring of 2D bar codes. These functionals consist of an anisotropic total variation favoring rectangles and a fidelity term which measure the L^1 distance to the signal, both with and without the presence of a deconvolution operator. Based upon the existence of a certain associated vector

Rustum Choksi; Yves van Gennip; Adam Oberman

2010-01-01

40

Use of Bar Code and RFID for the Visually Impaired in Educational Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Getting information from a bar code or from RFID tags attached to equipments or surroundings is a promising step for building\\u000a an information ensured area for the visually impaired. For example one can obtain an operation manual (voice version) from\\u000a the tag attached to some electronic equipment. The purpose of the project we report here is the construction of such

Hisayuki Tatsumi; Yasuyuki Murai; Masahiro Miyakawa; Shinji Tokumasu

2004-01-01

41

MIR Client Computer Access Request Form Purkinje:Users:ccpweb:Desktop:RA Info:Obtaining scanner logins#1B03C9:Access Code form.doc  

E-print Network

MIR Client Computer Access Request Form Purkinje:Users:ccpweb:Desktop:RA Info:Obtaining scanner logins#1B03C9:Access Code form.doc Page 1 of 4 Last Revised on: 1/6/2006 FAX to MIR Executive Director is for (one box must be checked, all other info. is required): MIR employee Other WUSM employee BJC Radiology

42

ITS4: A Static Vulnerability Scanner for C and C++ Code  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe ITS4, a tool for statically scanning security-critical C source code for vulnerabilities. Com- pared to other approaches, our scanning technique stakes out a new middle ground between accuracy and efficiency. This method is efficient enough to offer real-time feedback to developers during coding while producing few false neg- atives. Unlike other techniques, our method is also simple enough

John Viega; J. T. Bloch; Yoshi Kohno; Gary Mcgraw

2000-01-01

43

Chromosomal Bar Codes Produced by Multicolor Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization with Multiple YAC Clones and Whole Chromosome Painting Probes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colored chromosome staining patterns, termed chromosomal ‘bar codes’ (CBCs), were obtained on human chromosomes by fluorescence in situhybridization (FISH) with pools of Alu-PCR products from YAC dones containing human DNA inserts ranging from 100 kbp to 1 Mbp. In contrast to conventional G- or R-bands, the chromosomal position, extent, Individual color and relative signal intensity of each ‘bar’ could be

Christoph Lengauer; Michael R. Speicher; Susanne Popp; Anna Jauch; Masafumi Taniwaki; Ramaiah Nagaraja; Harold C. Riethman; Helen Donis-Keller; Michele DUrso; David Schelssinger; Thomas Cremer

1993-01-01

44

Analysis of the technology acceptance model in examining hospital nurses' behavioral intentions toward the use of bar code medication administration.  

PubMed

Serious medication errors continue to exist in hospitals, even though there is technology that could potentially eliminate them such as bar code medication administration. Little is known about the degree to which the culture of patient safety is associated with behavioral intention to use bar code medication administration. Based on the Technology Acceptance Model, this study evaluated the relationships among patient safety culture and perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use, and behavioral intention to use bar code medication administration technology among nurses in hospitals. Cross-sectional surveys with a convenience sample of 163 nurses using bar code medication administration were conducted. Feedback and communication about errors had a positive impact in predicting perceived usefulness (? = .26, P < .01) and perceived ease of use (? = .22, P < .05). In a multiple regression model predicting for behavioral intention, age had a negative impact (? = -.17, P < .05); however, teamwork within hospital units (? = .20, P < .05) and perceived usefulness (? = .35, P < .01) both had a positive impact on behavioral intention. The overall bar code medication administration behavioral intention model explained 24% (P < .001) of the variance. Identified factors influencing bar code medication administration behavioral intention can help inform hospitals to develop tailored interventions for RNs to reduce medication administration errors and increase patient safety by using this technology. PMID:25816212

Song, Lunar; Park, Byeonghwa; Oh, Kyeung Mi

2015-04-01

45

Use of bar code labels on collection tubes for specimen management in the clinical laboratory.  

PubMed

A new generation in specimen handling has arrived with the introduction of bar code readers on medical laboratory equipment. The incorporation of this technology into laboratory information systems offers a streamlining of specimen workflow never before achievable in a laboratory environment. The use of evacuated collection tubes as the primary sampling container on a random-access chemistry analyzer interfaced to a laboratory information system creates a very simplified sampling/analysis system with tremendous advantages. There are significant labor savings, superior service to clinicians, and reduced chances for clerical error. PMID:3190406

Tilzer, L L; Jones, R W

1988-12-01

46

Ultrasensitive immunoassay of protein biomarker based on electrochemiluminescent quenching of quantum dots by hemin bio-bar-coded nanoparticle tags.  

PubMed

A hemin bio-bar-coded nanoparticle probe labeled antibody was designed by the assembly of antibody and alkylthiol-capped bar-code G-quadruplex DNA on gold nanoparticles and the interaction of hemin with the DNA to form a G-quadruplex/hemin bio-bar-code. An ultrasensitive immunoassay method was developed by combining the labeled antibody with an electrochemiluminescent (ECL) immunosensor for protein. The ECL immunosensor was constructed by a layer-by-layer modification of carbon nanotubes, CdS quantum dots (QDs), and capture antibody on a glassy carbon electrode. In air-saturated pH 8.0 PBS the immunosensor showed a carbon-nanotube-enhanced cathodic ECL emission of QDs. Upon the formation of immunocomplex, the ECL intensity decreased owing to the consumption of ECL coreactant in bio-bar-code electrocatalyzed reduction of dissolved oxygen. Using ?-fetoprotein as model analyte, the quenched ECL could be used for immunoassay with a linear range of 0.01 pg mL(-1) to 1 ng mL(-1) and a detection limit of 1.0 fg mL(-1). The wide detection range and high sensitivity resulted from the enhanced ECL emission and highly efficient catalysis of the bio-bar-code. The immunosensor exhibited good stability and acceptable fabrication reproducibility and accuracy, showing great promise for clinical application. PMID:21599023

Lin, Dajie; Wu, Jie; Yan, Feng; Deng, Shengyuan; Ju, Huangxian

2011-07-01

47

Comparison between 2-D and 3-D codes in dynamical simulations of gas flow in barred galaxies  

E-print Network

Context: One of the ways to determine the contribution of the dark halo to the gravitational potential of a galaxy is the study of non-circular (streaming) motions and the associated gas shocks in the bar region. These motions, determined by the potential in the inner parts, can break the disk-halo degeneracy. Here, two main fluid dynamical approaches have been chosen to model the non-circular motions in the bar region; a 2-D Eulerian grid code for an isothermal gas (FS2) and a 3-D smoothed particle hydrodynamic code (N-body/SPH). Aims: The aim of this paper is to compare and quantify the differences of the gas flows in rotating barred potential obtained using two different fluid dynamical approaches. We analyse the effect of using 2-D and a 3-D codes in the calculation of gas flow in barred galaxies and to which extend the results are affected by the code. To do this, we derive the velocity field and density maps for the mass model of NGC 4123 using a 3-D N-body/SPH code and compare the results to the previous 2-D Eulerian grid code results. Methods: Numerical modelling, 3-D N-body/SPH simulations Results: The global velocity field and the gas distribution is very similar in both models. The study shows that the position and strength of the shocks developed in the SPH simulations do not vary significantly compared to the results derived from the 2-D FS2 code. The largest velocity difference across the shock is 20\\kms between the 2-D and 3-D fluid dynamical models. Conclusions: The results obtained in the studies deriving the dark matter content of barred galaxies using the bar streaming motions and strength and position of shocks are robust to the fluid dynamical model used. The effect of 2-D and 3-D modelling can be neglected in this type of studies.

I. Perez

2007-10-15

48

Scanner Art  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors describe how they incorporated environmental awareness into their art curriculum. Here, they describe a digital photography project in which their students used flatbed scanners as cameras. Their students composed their objects directly on the scanner. The lesson enabled students to realize that artists have voices…

Jaworski, Joy; Murphy, Kris

2009-01-01

49

Thin-layer immunoaffinity chromatography with bar code quantitation of C-reactive protein.  

PubMed

A rapid thin-layer immunoaffinity chromatographic method for quantitation in serum of an acute phase reactant, C-reactive protein (CRP), which can differentiate between viral and bacteria] infections, is described, where material and reagent costs are minimal. The analysis is based on the "sandwich" assay format using monoclonal antibodies directed against two sites of CRP. One of the antibodies is covalently bound to defined zones on a thin-layer immunoaffinity chromatography membrane, while the other antibody is covalently bound to deeply dyed blue latex particles. After incubation (CRP sample and latex particles), the CRP-latex immunocomplex is allowed to migrate along the immunoaffinity chromatography membrane. In the presence of antigen, a sandwich is formed between the CRP-latex immunocomplex and membrane-bound antibodies, which results in the appearance of blue lines on the membrane. Antibody immobilization on the TLC membrane is made with a redesigned piezoelectric-driven ink-jet printer. The time required for the analysis is less than 10 min. Quantitation is achieved either by counting the lines visually, with scanning reflectometry, or with a modified bar code reader. The limit of detection was estimated in the low femtomolar range using the naked eye as detector. PMID:8779423

Nilsson, S; Lager, C; Laurell, T; Birnbaum, S

1995-09-01

50

Pediatric medication administration errors and workflow following implementation of a bar code medication administration system.  

PubMed

Direct observation was used to detect medication errors and Bar Code Medication Administration (BCMA) workarounds on two pediatric units and one neonatal unit at UCSF Benioff Children's Hospital. The study (1) measured the frequency of nursing medication administration-related errors, (2) characterized the types of medication errors, (3) assessed compliance with the institution's six medication administration safety processes, and (4) identified observed workarounds following BCMA implementation. The results of the direct observation were compared to medication administration-related incident reports (IRs) for the same period. The frequency of medication errors was 5% for the three units. Compliance with the process measures was achieved 86% of the time (range 23-100%). Seven medication administration-related IRs were submitted during the same observation period. Three BCMA workarounds were identified; (1) failure to visually confirm patient's identification, (2) failure to compare the medication to the electronic medication administration record at least twice before administration, and (3) charting administration of medication before actual administration. The direct observation methodology identified a low frequency of medication administration errors (MAEs) consistent with post-BCMA implementation. The incident reporting system identified different MAEs than direct observation suggesting that both methods should be used to better characterize the scope of MAEs. PMID:25041604

Hardmeier, Anna; Tsourounis, Candy; Moore, Mary; Abbott, Wendy E; Guglielmo, B Joseph

2014-01-01

51

A Versatile, Bar-Coded Nuclear Marker/Reporter for Live Cell Fluorescent and Multiplexed High Content Imaging  

PubMed Central

The screening of large numbers of compounds or siRNAs is a mainstay of both academic and pharmaceutical research. Most screens test those interventions against a single biochemical or cellular output whereas recording multiple complementary outputs may be more biologically relevant. High throughput, multi-channel fluorescence microscopy permits multiple outputs to be quantified in specific cellular subcompartments. However, the number of distinct fluorescent outputs available remains limited. Here, we describe a cellular bar-code technology in which multiple cell-based assays are combined in one well after which each assay is distinguished by fluorescence microscopy. The technology uses the unique fluorescent properties of assay-specific markers comprised of distinct combinations of different ‘red’ fluorescent proteins sandwiched around a nuclear localization signal. The bar-code markers are excited by a common wavelength of light but distinguished ratiometrically by their differing relative fluorescence in two emission channels. Targeting the bar-code to cell nuclei enables individual cells expressing distinguishable markers to be readily separated by standard image analysis programs. We validated the method by showing that the unique responses of different cell-based assays to specific drugs are retained when three assays are co-plated and separated by the bar-code. Based upon those studies, we discuss a roadmap in which even more assays may be combined in a well. The ability to analyze multiple assays simultaneously will enable screens that better identify, characterize and distinguish hits according to multiple biologically or clinically relevant criteria. These capabilities also enable the re-creation of complex mixtures of cell types that is emerging as a central area of interest in many fields. PMID:23691010

Krylova, Irina; Kumar, Rachit R.; Kofoed, Eric M.; Schaufele, Fred

2013-01-01

52

Digital Data Matrix Scanner Developnent At Marshall Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has resulted in a system for reading hidden identification codes using a hand-held magnetic scanner. It's an invention that could help businesses improve inventory management, enhance safety, improve security, and aid in recall efforts if defects are discovered. Two-dimensional Data Matrix symbols consisting of letters and numbers permanently etched on items for identification and resembling a small checkerboard pattern are more efficient and reliable than traditional bar codes, and can store up to 100 times more information. A team led by Fred Schramm of the Marshall Center's Technology Transfer Department, in partnership with PRI,Torrance, California, has developed a hand-held device that can read this special type of coded symbols, even if covered by up to six layers of paint. Before this new technology was available, matrix symbols were read with optical scanners, and only if the codes were visible. This latest improvement in digital Data Matrix technologies offers greater flexibility for businesses and industries already using the marking system. Paint, inks, and pastes containing magnetic properties are applied in matrix symbol patterns to objects with two-dimensional codes, and the codes are read by a magnetic scanner, even after being covered with paint or other coatings. The ability to read hidden matrix symbols promises a wide range of benefits in a number of fields, including airlines, electronics, healthcare, and the automotive industry. Many industries would like to hide information on a part, so it can be read only by the party who put it there. For instance, the automotive industry uses direct parts marking for inventory control, but for aesthetic purposes the marks often need to be invisible. Symbols have been applied to a variety of materials, including metal, plastic, glass, paper, fabric and foam, on everything from electronic parts to pharmaceuticals to livestock. The portability of the hand-held scanner makes work faster and easier. It reads marks in darkness, under bright light that might interfere with optical reading of visible marks, and can detect symbols obscured by discoloration or contamination. Through a license with NASA, another partner, Robotic Vision Systems, Inc., of Nashua, New Hampshire, will sell the scanner on the commercial market. NASA continues to seek additional companies to license the product. Joint efforts by Marshall researchers and industry partners are aimed at improving dentification technology as part of NASA's program to better life on Earth through technology designed for the space program. In this photo, Don Roxby, Robotic Vision Systems, Inc., (left)demonstrates the magnetic handheld scanner for Fred Schramm, (Right) MSFC Technology Transfer Department.

2004-01-01

53

A character string scanner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer program called Character String Scanner (CSS), is presented. It is designed to search a data set for any specified group of characters and then to flag this group. The output of the CSS program is a listing of the data set being searched with the specified group of characters being flagged by asterisks. Therefore, one may readily identify specific keywords, groups of keywords or specified lines of code internal to a computer program, in a program output, or in any other specific data set. Possible applications of this program include the automatic scan of an output data set for pertinent keyword data, the editing of a program to change the appearance of a certain word or group of words, and the conversion of a set of code to a different set of code.

Enison, R. L.

1971-01-01

54

Towards a spectrum-based bar code for identification of weakly fluorescent microparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectrally resolved detection of fluorescent probes can be used to identify multiple labeled target molecules in an unknown mixture. We study how the spectral shape, the experimental noise, and the number of spectral detection channels affect the success of identification of weakly fluorescent beads on basis of their emission spectra. The proposed formalism allows to estimate the performance of the spectral identification procedure with a given set of spectral codes on the basis of the reference spectra only. We constructed a simple prism-based setup for spectral detection and demonstrate that seven distinct but overlapping spectral codes realized by combining up to three fluorescent dyes bound to a single bead in a barcode-based manner can be reliably identified. The procedure allows correct identification even in the presence of known autofluorescence background stronger than the actual signal.

Petrášek, Zden?k; Wiedemann, Jens; Schwille, Petra

2014-03-01

55

Use of bar code readers and programmable keypads to improve the speed and accuracy of manual data entry in the clinical microbiology laboratory: experience of two laboratories.  

PubMed Central

AIM: To assess the effect of the use of bar code readers and programmable keypads for entry of specimen details and results in two microbiology laboratories. METHODS: The solutions selected in each laboratory are described. The benefits resulting from the implementation were measured in two ways. The speed of data entry and error reduction were measured by observation. A questionnaire was completed by users of bar codes. RESULTS: There were savings in time and in reduced data entry errors. Average time to enter a report by keyboard was 21.1 s v 14.1 s for bar coded results entry. There were no observed errors with the bar code readers but 55 errors with keystroke entries. The laboratory staff of all grades found the system fast, easy to use, and less stressful than conventional keyboard entry. CONCLUSIONS: Indirect time savings should accrue from the observed reduction in incorrectly entered data. Any microbiology laboratory seeking to improve the accuracy and efficiency of data entry into their laboratory information systems should consider the adoption of this technology which can be readily interfaced to existing terminals. PMID:10343613

Shaw, R; Coia, J E; Michie, J

1999-01-01

56

Step Action After printing off the Bar Code from the appropriate Expense Report in PeopleSoft, obtain all receipts and  

E-print Network

Step Action 1 After printing off the Bar Code from the appropriate Expense Report in People. The barcode sheet needs to be printed in black and white on white paper in vertical (portrait) format using good print quality (not too light, not too dark, no creased paper, not too small, etc

57

Use of bar code readers and programmable keypads to improve the speed and accuracy of manual data entry in the clinical microbiology laboratory: experience of two laboratories  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To assess the effect of the use of bar code readers and programmable keypads for entry of specimen details and results in two microbiology laboratories. METHODS: The solutions selected in each laboratory are described. The benefits resulting from the implementation were measured in two ways. The speed of data entry and error reduction were measured by observation. A questionnaire

R. Shaw; J. E. Coia; J. Michie

1999-01-01

58

Bar codes and intrinsic-surface-roughness tag: Accurate and low-cost accountability for CFE. [Conventional force equipment (CFE)  

SciTech Connect

CFE poses a number of verification challenges that could be met in part by an accurate and low-cost means of aiding in accountability of treaty-limited equipment. Although the treaty as signed does not explicitly call for the use of tags, there is a provision for recording serial numbers'' and placing special marks'' on equipment subject to reduction. There are approximately 150,000 residual items to be tracked for CFE-I, about half for each alliance of state parties. These highly mobile items are subject to complex treaty limitations: deployment limits and zones, ceilings subceilings, holdings and allowances. There are controls and requirements for storage, conversion, and reduction. In addition, there are national security concerns regarding modernization and mobilization capability. As written into the treaty, a heavy reliance has been placed on human inspectors for CFE verification. Inspectors will mostly make visual observations and photographs as the means of monitoring compliance; these observations can be recorded by handwriting or keyed into a laptop computer. CFE is now less a treaty between two alliances than a treaty among 22 state parties, with inspection data an reports to be shared with each party in the official languages designated by CSCE. One of the potential roles for bar-coded tags would be to provide a universal, exchangable, computer-compatible language for tracking TLE. 10 figs.

DeVolpi, A.; Palm, R.

1990-01-01

59

Electrochemical determination of microRNA-21 based on bio bar code and hemin/G-quadruplet DNAenzyme.  

PubMed

A simple and novel microRNA (miRNA) biosensor was developed using DNA-Au bio bar code (DNA-Au) and G-quadruplex-based DNAenzyme. DNA-Au increased the amount of miRNA-21 participating in hybridization. Hemin/G-quadruplex DNAenzyme significantly improved the catalysis of H(2)O(2) by oxidation of hydroquinone, resulting in an obvious reduction current of benzoquinone for miRNA-21 indirect detection. Under optimum conditions, the linear relationship between miRNA-21 concentration and reduction response was obtained with the detection limit of 0.006 pM, which showed a good sensitivity. Besides, selectivity of the biosensor was investigated by detecting the base mismatched miRNAs. This proposed method was further applied to detect miRNA-21 extracted from human hepatocarcinoma BEL-7402 cells and human mastocarcinoma MCF-7 cells. The influence of bisphenol A (BPA) on the expression of miRNA-21 in cells was also investigated. The biosensor performs well in practical applications, which suggests it may provide a new platform for gene diagnosis. PMID:23629000

Meng, Xiaomeng; Zhou, Yunlei; Liang, Qianjin; Qu, Xiangjin; Yang, Qingqing; Yin, Huanshun; Ai, Shiyun

2013-06-21

60

BAR-CODE BASED WEIGHT MEASUREMENT STATION FOR PHYSICAL INVENTORY TAKING OF PLUTONIUM OXIDE CONTAINERS AT THE MINING AND CHEMICAL COMBINE RADIOCHEMICAL REPROCESSING PLANT NEAR KRASNOYARSK, SIBERIA.  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the technical tasks being implemented to computerize the physical inventory taking (PIT) at the Mining and Chemical Combine (Gorno-Khimichesky Kombinat, GKhK) radiochemical plant under the US/Russian cooperative nuclear material protection, control, and accounting (MPC and A) program. Under the MPC and A program, Lab-to-Lab task agreements with GKhK were negotiated that involved computerized equipment for item verification and confirmatory measurement of the Pu containers. Tasks under Phase I cover the work for demonstrating the plan and procedures for carrying out the comparison of the Pu container identification on the container with the computerized inventory records. In addition to the records validation, the verification procedures include the application of bar codes and bar coded TIDs to the Pu containers. Phase II involves the verification of the Pu content. A plan and procedures are being written for carrying out confirmatory measurements on the Pu containers.

SUDA,S.

1999-09-20

61

Bar Coded Forms by HCH Number for eHIMS website.xls Sorted by Form Name FORM NO. FORM NAME EFFECTIVE DATE REVISON DATE  

E-print Network

-Stroke Care Path1 Mar-97 Apr-06 HCH-2175 Admitting Orders for Scheduled C-Section Sep-09 HCH-1844 Adult HCH-1737 Adult Patient Bipap System Check Record Nov-06 Oct-10 HCH-993 Adult Patient Ventilator System Altered Health Nursing Care Plan (Dept of Psychiatry) 6/7/2013 - 8:41 AM 1/56 #12;Bar Coded Forms by HCH

Oliver, Douglas L.

62

Application of DNA Bar Codes for Screening of Industrially Important Fungi: the Haplotype of Trichoderma harzianum Sensu Stricto Indicates Superior Chitinase Formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selection of suitable strains for biotechnological purposes is frequently a random process supported by high-throughput methods. Using chitinase production by Hypocrea lixii\\/Trichoderma harzianum as a model, we tested whether fungal strains with superior enzyme formation may be diagnosed by DNA bar codes. We analyzed sequences of two phylogenetic marker loci, internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and ITS2 of the rRNA-encoding

Viviana Nagy; Verena Seidl; George Szakacs; M. Komon-Zelazowska; Christian P. Kubicek; Irina S. Druzhinina

2007-01-01

63

Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS): Imagery of near-surface phytoplankton pigment concentrations from the first coastal ocean dynamics experiment (CODE-1), March - July 1981  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of the first Coastal Ocean Dynamics Experiment, images of ocean color were collected from late March until late July, 1981, by the Coastal Zone Color Scanner aboard Nimbus-7. Images that had sufficient cloud-free area to be of interest were processed to yield near-surface phytoplankton pigment concentrations. These images were then remapped to a fixed equal-area grid. This report contains photographs of the digital images and a brief description of the processing methods.

Abbott, M. R.; Zion, P. M.

1984-01-01

64

Medication Preparation in Pediatric Emergencies: Comparison of a Web-Based, Standard-Dose, Bar Code–Enabled System and a Traditional Approach  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: Increased acuity within the pediatric emergency department increases the risk of medication-related adverse events, despite the availability of validated dosing references. The eBroselow system is a standardized, web-based, bar code–enabled dosing system that eliminates the need for mathematic calculations. This study was designed to assess the accuracy of the eBroselow system and the time needed to prepare medications during pediatric simulated resuscitations compared with standard dosing references. METHODS: This is a two-treatment, two-period crossover trial in which 13 nurses from the adult emergency department who had had pediatric advanced life support training within the previous 3 years, carried out medication dosing during pediatric code simulations. Nurses were randomized to the eBroselow system or to traditional dosing references during period one and transitioned to the opposite treatment group during period two. RESULTS: Use of the eBroselow system resulted in a 24.6% increase in the accuracy of prepared medications, with a complete elimination of clinically significant errors (those ?20% deviation from the recommended dose). In addition, on average, medications were prepared 8 minutes faster with the eBroselow system versus standard dosing references. CONCLUSIONS: Use of the eBroselow system, a standardized, bar code–based, electronic medication dosing reference, increased the accuracy of medication doses prepared during pediatric code simulations by nearly 25%, with no errors being considered clinically significant. PMID:25309147

Damhoff, Heather N.; Baker-Justice, Stephanie N.

2014-01-01

65

Whole body scanners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whole body scanning is a useful technique with applications in the apparel industry, human systems engineering and medical field. A worldwide review of whole body scanners describes eight commercially available systems. The scanners differ considerably in price (US$50?000–410?000), resolution (1–8mm) and speed (0.2–3s). Most scanners use laser stripe projection; other techniques are patterned light projection and stereo photogrammetry. To cover

Hein A. M. Daanen; G. Jeroen van de Water

1998-01-01

66

Aptamer-conjugated bio-bar-code Au-Fe3O4 nanoparticles as amplification station for electrochemiluminescence detection of tumor cells.  

PubMed

An electrochemiluminescence (ECL) assay has been developed for highly sensitive and selective detection of tumor cells based on cell-SELEX aptamer-target cell interactions through a cascaded amplification process by using bio-bar-code Au-Fe3O4 as amplification station. Firstly, bio-bar-code toehold-aptamer/DNA primer/Au-Fe3O4 (TA/DP/Au-Fe3O4) nanoconjugates are fabricated with a ratio of 1:10 to efficiently avoid cross-linking reaction and recognize target cells, which are immobilized on the substrate by hybridizing aptamer to capture probe with 18-mer. Through strand displacement reaction (SDR), the TA/DP/Au-Fe3O4 composites further act as the amplification station to initiate rolling circle amplification (RCA). As a result, on the surface of TA/DP/Au-Fe3O4, a large number of Ru(bpy)2(dcbpy)NHS-labeled probes hybridize to RCA products, which are easily trapped by magnetic electrode to perform the magnetic particle-based ECL platform. Under isothermal conditions, this powerful amplification strategy permits detection of Ramos cells as low as 16 cells with an excellent selectivity. Moreover, analysis of Ramos cells in complex samples and whole blood samples further show the great potential of this ultrasensitive approach in clinical application involving cancer cells-related biological processes. PMID:25000857

Chen, Min; Bi, Sai; Jia, Xiaoqiang; He, Peng

2014-07-21

67

A post-labeling method for multiplexed and multicolored genotyping analysis of SSR, indel and SNP markers in single tube with bar-coded split tag (BStag)  

PubMed Central

Background Genotyping analysis using capillary DNA sequencing with fluorescently labeled primer pairs obtained by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is widely used, but is expensive. The post-PCR labeling method using fluorescently labeled short oligonucleotides and nested PCR of the amplified product obtained from unlabeled primer pairs is a simple and inexpensive alternative. However, previously reported protocols often produced spurious peaks or inconsistent amplification under multiplexed analysis as a result of simultaneous progress of both the amplification and labeling reactions and local homology of the attached tag sequence. Results A set of 16 bp-long oligonucleotide sequences termed bar-coded split tag (BStag), comprising a common basal region, a three-nucleotide 'bar-code' sequence, and a mismatched nucleotide at the middle position were designed for selective post-PCR labeling. The BStag was attached at the 5' end of the forward primer of interest. The melting temperature of the BStag was low enough to separate the labeling reaction from initial PCR amplification, and each sequence was minimally divergent but maintained maximum selectivity. Post-PCR labeling of the amplified product was achieved by extending for three cycles at a lower annealing temperature after the conventional amplification program with the appropriate fluorescently labeled BStag primer. No amplification was confirmed with BStag primers for 12 plant species. The electropherogram of the labeled product obtained using this method was consistent with that of prelabeled primer, except for their apparent size. Conclusions BStag enabled multiplexed post-PCR labeling of simple sequence repeat or insertion/deletion markers with different dyes in a single tube. BStag in conjunction with locus specific oligo and allele specific oligo was also useful for single nucleotide polymorphism analysis. The labeling protocol was simple and no additional operation was required. Single-tube multiplexed post-PCR labeling is useful for a wide variety of genotyping studies with maximal flexibility and minimal costs. PMID:21615927

2011-01-01

68

Application of DNA Bar Codes for Screening of Industrially Important Fungi: the Haplotype of Trichoderma harzianum Sensu Stricto Indicates Superior Chitinase Formation?  

PubMed Central

Selection of suitable strains for biotechnological purposes is frequently a random process supported by high-throughput methods. Using chitinase production by Hypocrea lixii/Trichoderma harzianum as a model, we tested whether fungal strains with superior enzyme formation may be diagnosed by DNA bar codes. We analyzed sequences of two phylogenetic marker loci, internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and ITS2 of the rRNA-encoding gene cluster and the large intron of the elongation factor 1-alpha gene, tef1, from 50 isolates of H. lixii/T. harzianum, which were also tested to determine their ability to produce chitinases in solid-state fermentation (SSF). Statistically supported superior chitinase production was obtained for strains carrying one of the observed ITS1 and ITS2 and tef1 alleles corresponding to an allele of T. harzianum type strain CBS 226.95. A tef1-based DNA bar code tool, TrichoCHIT, for rapid identification of these strains was developed. The geographic origin of the strains was irrelevant for chitinase production. The improved chitinase production by strains containing this haplotype was not due to better growth on N-acetyl-?-d-glucosamine or glucosamine. Isoenzyme electrophoresis showed that neither the isoenzyme profile of N-acetyl-?-glucosaminidases or the endochitinases nor the intensity of staining of individual chitinase bands correlated with total chitinase in the culture filtrate. The superior chitinase producers did not exhibit similarly increased cellulase formation. Biolog Phenotype MicroArray analysis identified lack of N-acetyl-?-d-mannosamine utilization as a specific trait of strains with the chitinase-overproducing haplotype. This observation was used to develop a plate screening assay for rapid microbiological identification of the strains. The data illustrate that desired industrial properties may be an attribute of certain populations within a species, and screening procedures should thus include a balanced mixture of all genotypes of a given species. PMID:17827332

Nagy, Viviana; Seidl, Verena; Szakacs, George; Komo?-Zelazowska, Monika; Kubicek, Christian P.; Druzhinina, Irina S.

2007-01-01

69

Biochip scanner device  

DOEpatents

A biochip scanner device used to detect and acquire fluorescence signal data from biological microchips or biochips and method of use are provided. The biochip scanner device includes a laser for emitting a laser beam. A modulator, such as an optical chopper modulates the laser beam. A scanning head receives the modulated laser beam and a scanning mechanics coupled to the scanning head moves the scanning head relative to the biochip. An optical fiber delivers the modulated laser beam to the scanning head. The scanning head collects the fluorescence light from the biochip, launches it into the same optical fiber, which delivers the fluorescence into a photodetector, such as a photodiode. The biochip scanner device is used in a row scanning method to scan selected rows of the biochip with the laser beam size matching the size of the immobilization site.

Perov, Alexander (Troitsk, RU); Belgovskiy, Alexander I. (Mayfield Heights, OH); Mirzabekov, Andrei D. (Darien, IL)

2001-01-01

70

Portable biochip scanner device  

DOEpatents

A portable biochip scanner device used to detect and acquire fluorescence signal data from biological microchips (biochips) is provided. The portable biochip scanner device employs a laser for emitting an excitation beam. An optical fiber delivers the laser beam to a portable biochip scanner. A lens collimates the laser beam, the collimated laser beam is deflected by a dichroic mirror and focused by an objective lens onto a biochip. The fluorescence light from the biochip is collected and collimated by the objective lens. The fluorescence light is delivered to a photomultiplier tube (PMT) via an emission filter and a focusing lens. The focusing lens focuses the fluorescence light into a pinhole. A signal output of the PMT is processed and displayed.

Perov, Alexander (Troitsk, RU); Sharonov, Alexei (Moscow, RU); Mirzabekov, Andrei D. (Darien, IL)

2002-01-01

71

Optical fuel pin scanner  

DOEpatents

An optical scanner for indicia arranged in a focal plane at a cylindrical outside surface by use of an optical system including a rotatable dove prism. The dove prism transmits a rotating image of an encircled cylindrical surface area to a stationary photodiode array.

Kirchner, Tommy L. (Richland, WA); Powers, Hurshal G. (Richland, WA)

1983-01-01

72

Hybrid Dispersion Laser Scanner  

PubMed Central

Laser scanning technology is one of the most integral parts of today's scientific research, manufacturing, defense, and biomedicine. In many applications, high-speed scanning capability is essential for scanning a large area in a short time and multi-dimensional sensing of moving objects and dynamical processes with fine temporal resolution. Unfortunately, conventional laser scanners are often too slow, resulting in limited precision and utility. Here we present a new type of laser scanner that offers ?1,000 times higher scan rates than conventional state-of-the-art scanners. This method employs spatial dispersion of temporally stretched broadband optical pulses onto the target, enabling inertia-free laser scans at unprecedented scan rates of nearly 100?MHz at 800?nm. To show our scanner's broad utility, we use it to demonstrate unique and previously difficult-to-achieve capabilities in imaging, surface vibrometry, and flow cytometry at a record 2D raster scan rate of more than 100?kHz with 27,000 resolvable points. PMID:22685627

Goda, K.; Mahjoubfar, A.; Wang, C.; Fard, A.; Adam, J.; Gossett, D. R.; Ayazi, A.; Sollier, E.; Malik, O.; Chen, E.; Liu, Y.; Brown, R.; Sarkhosh, N.; Di Carlo, D.; Jalali, B.

2012-01-01

73

Ground location of satellite scanner data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents simple and accurate mathematical formulation for determining the ground location of remote sensor data. The techniques used are based on elementary concepts of differential geometry and lead to the development of a relation that gives location as a function of surface ellipticity, satellite position, velocity, attitude, and scanner orientation. The formula lends itself to simply computer coding and will hopefully lead to a standardization of the various techniques which have been developed to solve this problem.

Puccinelli, E. F.

1976-01-01

74

Bar Graphs!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mrs. Kohlar has been working with you on bar graphs. Here are a couple of games for you to play to help you practice using them. Catch all the Bugs in the system and put them in the correct column of the bar graph. Answer the questions about the bugs in the graph. You can play the game twice if you wish. Do these bar graph activities and have some bar graph fun! Don\\'t worry about the last question, just answer ...

Mrs. Pocock

2006-10-26

75

Bar Graph  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to give students experience creating and reading bar graphs. The lesson provides links to a practice data set and the bar graph activity so that students can practice making bar graphs and check their work using the activity. Finally, the lesson provides a suggested follow-up to this lesson.

Shodor

2012-04-02

76

Scanners, optical character readers, Cyrillic alphabet and Russian translations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The writing of code for capture, in a uniform format, of bit maps of words and characters from scanner PICT files is presented. The coding of Dynamic Pattern Matched for the identification of the characters, words and sentences in preparation for translation is discussed.

Johnson, Gordon G.

1995-01-01

77

"Nurses Don't Hate Change" -- survey of nurses in a neonatal intensive care unit regarding the implementation, use and effectiveness of a bar code medication administration system.  

PubMed

A bar code medication administration (BCMA) system reduced preventable adverse drug events (ADEs) by 47% in our neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). However, it is often expected that providers will not welcome technological change. Two years after BCMA system implementation, we studied the perceptions of nurses in our NICU to better understand their opinions about patient safety, use, acceptance and occupational effects of the new technology. Forty-six nurses (median age < 30 years) completed a 30-item questionnaire. Most nurses reported comfort using the system within two weeks. The majority believed that the system had prevented a medication error or ADE, although they were aware that medication errors persisted and workarounds occurred. Most reported that medication administration required more time with the BCMA system, but they believed that the alerts, which most reported occurred with < or =25% scheduled administrations, were not excessive. Over half of the nurses felt that the new system improved job satisfaction and increased professionalism. Although overall stress levels were moderate, nurses reported greater stress resulting from computer breakdowns than from other situations. Nurses reported strong support from supervisors, physicians and hospital administrators. These nurses were adaptive to the new technology when they believed it increases patient safety, nursing professionalism and job satisfaction and when they were supported by colleagues. PMID:19667791

Morriss, Frank H; Abramowitz, Paul W; Carmen, Lee; Wallis, Anne B

2009-01-01

78

A foreign invader or a reclusive native? DNA bar coding reveals a distinct European lineage of the zoonotic parasite Schistosoma turkestanicum (syn. Orientobilharzia turkestanicum ()).  

PubMed

Natural foci of Schistosoma turkestanicum (syn. Orientobilharzia turkestanicum) has been identified in the Gemenc Forest regions of Hungary utilising red deer as the definitive host. In order to identify the origins of this parasite in Europe standard DNA bar coding techniques were employed to sequence fragments of the cytochrome oxidase 1 (cox1) and the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed region (ITS) from 10 individual adult male worms. Phylogenetic reconstruction using maximum likelihood phylogenetic reconstruction and haplotype networks of the cox1 showed all the worms to be of a distinct unique Hungarian lineage although some ITS haplotypes were shared with worms from populations in China and Iran. Molecular clock analysis suggests an early divergence event around 270,000years before present (YBP) between all S. turkestanicum populations giving rise to the Chinese, Iranian and Hungarian lineages. However, divergence of the sequences within the Hungarian population appears to have occurred approximately 63,000 YBP suggesting a long established population of S. turkestanicum in Europe. This suggests that the Hungarian population of S. turkestanicum has been native since the Ice Age and probably established itself during the last interglacial period as red deer moved into Europe from North Africa and the Middle East. This may also indicate that the parasite may have unknown populations established in several other countries in Eastern, Central and Southern Europe. PMID:23220360

Lawton, Scott P; Majoros, Gábor

2013-03-01

79

51. View of upper radar scanner switch in radar scanner ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

51. View of upper radar scanner switch in radar scanner building 105 from upper catwalk level showing emanating waveguides from upper switch (upper one-fourth of photograph) and emanating waveguides from lower radar scanner switch in vertical runs. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

80

Bar-Coded Pyrosequencing Reveals Shared Bacterial Community Properties along the Temperature Gradients of Two Alkaline Hot Springs in Yellowstone National Park? †  

PubMed Central

An understanding of how communities are organized is a fundamental goal of ecology but one which has historically been elusive for microbial systems. We used a bar-coded pyrosequencing approach targeting the V3 region of the bacterial small-subunit rRNA gene to address the factors that structure communities along the thermal gradients of two alkaline hot springs in the Lower Geyser Basin of Yellowstone National Park. The filtered data set included a total of nearly 34,000 sequences from 39 environmental samples. Each was assigned to one of 391 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) identified by their unique V3 sequence signatures. Although the two hot springs differed in their OTU compositions, community resemblance and diversity changed with strikingly similar dynamics along the two outflow channels. Two lines of evidence suggest that these community properties are controlled primarily by environmental temperature. First, community resemblance decayed exponentially with increasing differences in temperature between samples but was only weakly correlated with physical distance. Second, diversity decreased with increasing temperature at the same rate along both gradients but was uncorrelated with other measured environmental variables. This study also provides novel insights into the nature of the ecological interactions among important taxa in these communities. A strong negative association was observed between cyanobacteria and the Chloroflexi, which together accounted for ?70% of the sequences sampled. This pattern contradicts the longstanding hypothesis that coadapted lineages of these bacteria maintain tightly cooccurring distributions along these gradients as a result of a producer-consumer relationship. We propose that they instead compete for some limiting resource(s). PMID:19429553

Miller, Scott R.; Strong, Aaron L.; Jones, Kenneth L.; Ungerer, Mark C.

2009-01-01

81

Bar-coded pyrosequencing reveals shared bacterial community properties along the temperature gradients of two alkaline hot springs in Yellowstone National Park.  

PubMed

An understanding of how communities are organized is a fundamental goal of ecology but one which has historically been elusive for microbial systems. We used a bar-coded pyrosequencing approach targeting the V3 region of the bacterial small-subunit rRNA gene to address the factors that structure communities along the thermal gradients of two alkaline hot springs in the Lower Geyser Basin of Yellowstone National Park. The filtered data set included a total of nearly 34,000 sequences from 39 environmental samples. Each was assigned to one of 391 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) identified by their unique V3 sequence signatures. Although the two hot springs differed in their OTU compositions, community resemblance and diversity changed with strikingly similar dynamics along the two outflow channels. Two lines of evidence suggest that these community properties are controlled primarily by environmental temperature. First, community resemblance decayed exponentially with increasing differences in temperature between samples but was only weakly correlated with physical distance. Second, diversity decreased with increasing temperature at the same rate along both gradients but was uncorrelated with other measured environmental variables. This study also provides novel insights into the nature of the ecological interactions among important taxa in these communities. A strong negative association was observed between cyanobacteria and the Chloroflexi, which together accounted for approximately 70% of the sequences sampled. This pattern contradicts the longstanding hypothesis that coadapted lineages of these bacteria maintain tightly cooccurring distributions along these gradients as a result of a producer-consumer relationship. We propose that they instead compete for some limiting resource(s). PMID:19429553

Miller, Scott R; Strong, Aaron L; Jones, Kenneth L; Ungerer, Mark C

2009-07-01

82

Electrochemical determination of microRNA-21 based on graphene, LNA integrated molecular beacon, AuNPs and biotin multifunctional bio bar codes and enzymatic assay system.  

PubMed

MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a kind of small, endogenous, noncoding RNAs (?22 nucleotides), might play a crucial role in early cancer diagnose due to its abnormal expression in many solid tumors. As a result, label-free and PCR-amplification-free assay for miRNAs is of great significance. In this work, a highly sensitive biosensor for sequence specific miRNA-21 detection without miRNA-21 labeling and enrichment was constructed based on the substrate electrode of dendritic gold nanostructure (DenAu) and graphene nanosheets modified glassy carbon electrode. Sulfydryl functionalized locked nucleic acid (LNA) integrated hairpin molecule beacon (MB) probe was used as miRNA-21 capture probe. After hybridized with miRNA-21 and reported DNA loading in gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and biotin multi-functionalized bio bar codes, streptavidin-HRP was brought to the electrode through the specific interaction with biotin to catalyze the chemical oxidation of hydroquinone by H(2)O(2) to form benzoquinone. The electrochemical reduction signal of benzoquinone was utilized to monitor the miRNA-21 hybridization event. The effect of experimental variables on the amperometric response was investigated and optimized. Based on the specific confirmation of probe and signal amplification, the biosensor showed excellent selectivity and high sensitivity with low detection limit of 0.06 pM. Successful attempts are made in miRNA-21 expression analysis of human hepatocarcinoma BEL-7402 cells and normal human hepatic L02 cells. PMID:22317835

Yin, Huanshun; Zhou, Yunlei; Zhang, Haixia; Meng, Xiaomeng; Ai, Shiyun

2012-03-15

83

Integrated display scanner  

DOEpatents

A display scanner includes an optical panel having a plurality of stacked optical waveguides. The waveguides define an inlet face at one end and a screen at an opposite end, with each waveguide having a core laminated between cladding. A projector projects a scan beam of light into the panel inlet face for transmission from the screen as a scan line to scan a barcode. A light sensor at the inlet face detects a return beam reflected from the barcode into the screen. A decoder decodes the return beam detected by the sensor for reading the barcode. In an exemplary embodiment, the optical panel also displays a visual image thereon.

Veligdan, James T.

2004-12-21

84

SERI laser scanner system  

SciTech Connect

A Laser Scanner System (LSS) produces a photoresponse map and can be used for the nondestructive detection of nonuniformities in the photoresponse of a semiconductor device. At SERI the photoresponse maps are used to identify solar cell faults including microcracks, metallization breaks, regions of poor contact between metallization and the underlying emitter surface, and variations in emitter sheet resistance. The SERI LSS is patterned after the LSS unit documented in the NBS Special Publication 400-24 A Laser Scanner for Semiconductor Devices by D.E. Sawyer and D.W. Berning. Assuming reader familiarity with the above publication, the modifications introduced by SERI are specified with the intention that the two reports can be used to reproduce the SERI LSS. The optical and electronic systems are reviewed, briefly discussing the significant items of each. The most notable difference between the two systems is the SERI substitution of commercially available state-of-the-art modular electronics for the discreet component circuitry used in the NBS LSS.

Matson, R.J.; Cannon, T.W.

1980-10-01

85

MEMS optical scanners for microscopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) optical scanners have been around for more than two decades. Various applications have been presented, but few of them have advanced to the commercial level to date due to the difficulties of combination of optics and MEMS devices. This paper presents our activities of investigating MEMS scanner applications related to microscopic imaging. First, we started with developing

Hiroshi Miyajima; Kenzi Murakami; Masahiro Katashiro

2004-01-01

86

A Longer Range Body Scanner  

Microsoft Academic Search

An active Body Scanner using 35 GHz MIMO perimeter array has been developed. The aim is to identify weapons hidden under clothing at much longer ranges than current technology is achieving. The scanner displays images at a frame rate of 10 frames per second to show moving images with a resolving power suited to visualising small weapons out to a

I. D. Longstaff; H. Ashoka; M. AbuShaaban; W. Beere; X. Liu

87

21 CFR 892.1220 - Fluorescent scanner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Fluorescent scanner. 892.1220 Section...892.1220 Fluorescent scanner. (a) Identification. A fluorescent scanner is a device intended to...fluorescent radiation in the body by exposing the...

2014-04-01

88

21 CFR 892.1220 - Fluorescent scanner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Fluorescent scanner. 892.1220 Section...892.1220 Fluorescent scanner. (a) Identification. A fluorescent scanner is a device intended to...fluorescent radiation in the body by exposing the...

2013-04-01

89

21 CFR 892.1220 - Fluorescent scanner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Fluorescent scanner. 892.1220 Section...892.1220 Fluorescent scanner. (a) Identification. A fluorescent scanner is a device intended to...fluorescent radiation in the body by exposing the...

2012-04-01

90

Space-multiplexed optical scanner.  

PubMed

A low-loss two-dimensional optical beam scanner that is capable of delivering large (e.g., > 10 degrees) angular scans along the elevation as well as the azimuthal direction is presented. The proposed scanner is based on a space-switched parallel-serial architecture that employs a coarse-scanner module and a fine-scanner module that produce an ultrahigh scan space-fill factor, e.g., 900 x 900 distinguishable beams in a 10 degrees (elevation) x 10 degrees (azimuth) scan space. The experimentally demonstrated one-dimensional version of the proposed scanner has a supercontinuous scan, 100 distinguishable beam spots in a 2.29 degrees total scan range, and 1.5-dB optical insertion loss. PMID:15130010

Riza, Nabeel A; Yaqoob, Zahid

2004-05-01

91

Laser Scanner Demonstration  

SciTech Connect

In the Summer of 2004 a request for proposals went out to potential vendors to offer a three-dimensional laser scanner for a number of unique metrology tasks at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). Specifications were established including range, accuracy, scan density, resolution and field of view in consideration of anticipated department requirements. Four vendors visited the site to present their system and they were asked to perform three unique tests with their system on a two day visit to SLAC. Two of the three tests were created to emulate real-world applications at SLAC while the third was an accuracy and resolution series of experiments. The scope of these tests is presented and some of the vendor's results are included.

Fuss, B.

2005-09-06

92

Nuclear magnetic resonance scanners  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a medical NMR scanner comprising a primary field magnet assembly including: (a) a ferromagnetic frame defining a patient-receiving space adapted to receive a human body, the frame having a pair of opposed polar regions aligned on a polar axis and disposed on opposite sides of the patient-receiving space, and the frame including a substantially continuous ferro-magnetic flux return path extending between the polar regions remote from the patient-receiving space; (b) flux-generating means including superconductive windings and cryostat means for maintaining the windings at superconducting temperatures; and (c) support means for maintaining the windings in proximity to the frame so that when a current passes through the windings magnetic flux emanating from the windings produces a magnetic field within the patient-receiving space and at least a portion of the flux passes into the patient-receiving space by way of the polar regions.

Danby, G.T.; Hsieh, H.C.H.; Jackson, J.W.; Damadian, R.V.

1988-08-23

93

Multispectral scanner optical system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An optical system for use in a multispectral scanner of the type used in video imaging devices is disclosed. Electromagnetic radiation reflected by a rotating scan mirror is focused by a concave primary telescope mirror and collimated by a second concave mirror. The collimated beam is split by a dichroic filter which transmits radiant energy in the infrared spectrum and reflects visible and near infrared energy. The long wavelength beam is filtered and focused on an infrared detector positioned in a cryogenic environment. The short wavelength beam is dispersed by a pair of prisms, then projected on an array of detectors also mounted in a cryogenic environment and oriented at an angle relative to the optical path of the dispersed short wavelength beam.

Stokes, R. C.; Koch, N. G. (inventors)

1980-01-01

94

Bar Graph  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students use preset data or input their own data to be represented by a bar graph. This activity allows students to explore bar graphs and how changing scales will alter how their data is represented. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

2010-01-01

95

Simulation of motion on the skin. II. Cutaneous mechanoreceptor coding of the width and texture of bar patterns displaced across the OPTACON.  

PubMed

1. These experiments assay the functional significance of receptive-field architecture for information processing. Rapidly adapting (RA) afferents have been previously shown to converge information from clusters of 14-25 Meissner's corpuscles, whereas afferents innervating Pacinian corpuscles (PCs) have only a single, large receptor terminal. We tested two opposing hypotheses of functional architecture: 1) summation models, in which an afferent integrates signals from all of its terminals, showing monotonic increases in activity as a function of contact area, and 2) winner-take-all models, in which the most strongly activated receptor in the cluster dominates axonal output by cancellation of signals from other branches. 2. Bar and stripe patterns have been swept across the finger or palm of the monkey's hand at speeds of 30-120 mm/s with the use of a computer-controlled grid of sequentially activated miniature probes (OPTACON stimulator). The dense packing of OPTACON probes permits placement of up to five groups of stimulators within an individual receptive field, allowing us to activate one or more clusters of Meissner's corpuscles simultaneously and to stimulate the bulbar corpuscle of PC afferents at different orientations through the skin. Integration of information from moving bar patterns has been tested with two protocols. In the variable width protocol, the total number of activated rows in the pattern is varied from one to five, with a constant spacing of 1.2 mm between pulsed rows. In the variable density protocol, the length of skin stimulated is held constant at 5 mm and the spacing of stimuli varied. 3. RA afferents show no evidence of summation of inputs within their receptive fields. Motion of wide bars across the field increases the duration of firing but not the total spikes evoked by each pulse. Responses to the leading edge of wide bars were found to be identical to those evoked by a single-row bar. Simultaneous activation of two to five rows evokes the same or fewer spikes per pulse than the most effective individual row tested alone. When broad-bar patterns are centered over the field, contacting the maximum number of receptors, RAs follow activity in the dominant branch or terminus, suppressing additional inputs. Lack of summation is observed at all pulse frequencies tested (25-100 Hz). 4. Moving bar patterns evoke responses as long as at least one row stimulates the receptive field; broader patterns evoke longer spike trains whose total number of impulses is proportional to bar width.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2600633

Gardner, E P; Palmer, C I

1989-12-01

96

Linear Regression of BMD Scanners  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students complete an exercise showing logarithmic relationships and examine how to find the linear regression of data that does not seem linear upon initial examination. They relate number of BMD scanners to time.

VU Bioengineering RET Program,

97

MSS D Multispectral Scanner System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development and acceptance testing of the 4-band Multispectral Scanners to be flown on LANDSAT D and LANDSAT D Earth resources satellites are summarized. Emphasis is placed on the acceptance test phase of the program. Test history and acceptance test algorithms are discussed. Trend data of all the key performance parameters are included and discussed separately for each of the two multispectral scanner instruments. Anomalies encountered and their resolutions are included.

Lauletta, A. M.; Johnson, R. L.; Brinkman, K. L. (principal investigators)

1982-01-01

98

Fraction Bars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This virtual manipulative is a Java applet that allows students to explore concepts in whole number operations and fractions, just as they would with a physical manipulative such as Cuisinaire Rods. The user can add bars of length 1 to 10 to the workspace, change their color, and move, duplicate, or remove them. Instructions for using the applet and teaching ideas for parents/teachers are available through the links at the top of the page.

2005-01-01

99

Sushi Bar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An innovative website where customers order from a realistic sushi bar menu to learn about international fisheries resources and impacts. Select shrimp, tuna, squid, octopus, or sea urchin to learn where resources are harvested, current fisheries methods, population status and concerns. This on-line activity also demonstrates how global our use of resources has become, with a single country dependent on seafood imports from around the world. The site also contains lesson plans on natural resources and resource management. Appropriate for grades 6 and up.

100

Improvements to Existing Jefferson Lab Wire Scanners  

SciTech Connect

This poster will detail the augmentation of selected existing CEBAF wire scanners with commercially available hardware, PMTs, and self created software in order to improve the scanners both in function and utility.

McCaughan, Michael D. [JLAB; Tiefenback, Michael G. [JLAB; Turner, Dennis L. [JLAB

2013-06-01

101

Scanner as a Fine Art  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Not every art department is fortunate enough to have access to digital cameras and image-editing software, but if a scanner, computer, and printer are available, students can create some imaginative and surreal work. This high-school level lesson begins with a discussion of self-portraits, and then moves to students creating images by scanning…

Fontes, Kris

2008-01-01

102

AIR BAND SCANNER WITH RETRANSMISSION  

E-print Network

AIR BAND SCANNER WITH RETRANSMISSION TO LOCAL FM RADIO USING A SOFTWARE DEFINED RADIO Final ReportTX Daughterboard FM Transmitting Antenna AM Receiving Antenna Software GNU Radio 6 #12;Airband Used for Aircraft User Interface (GUI) Developed within GNU Radio framework #12;Software Tools Used for Development15

Yu, Chansu

103

Wire Scanner Motion Control Card  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scientists require a certain beam quality produced by the accelerator rings at CERN. The discovery potential of LHC is given by the reachable luminosity at its interaction points. The luminosity is maximized by minimizing the beam size. Therefore an accurate beam size measurement is required for optimizing the luminosity. The wire scanner performs very accurate profile measurements, but as it

S E Forde; B Dehning

2006-01-01

104

A range scanner with a virtual laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

A scanner is developed that can capture range as well as color data from four sides of an object and combine the data into a complete model. In this scanner four synchronous cameras scan an object from four sides in a coordinate system that is attached to the scanner. Data produced by the four cameras, therefore, automatically come together without

James Albamont; Ardeshir Goshtasby

2003-01-01

105

Math Bars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These interactive learning tools are color-coded in graduated lengths based on rods by Georges Cuisenaire allow users to explore concepts and relationships with concrete objects. The lengths and orientation of the rods can be manipulated for placement on the gridded or non-gridded work area.

Colleen King

2013-01-01

106

Design of active-neutron fuel rod scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An active-neutron fuel rod scanner has been designed for the assay of fissile materials in mixed oxide fuel rods. A 252Cf source is located at the center of the scanner very near the through hole for the fuel rods. Spontaneous fission neutrons from the californium are moderated and induce fissions within the passing fuel rod. The rod continues past a combined gamma-ray and neutron shield where delayed gamma rays above 1 MeV are detected. We used the Monte Carlo code MCNP to design the scanner and review optimum materials and geometries. An inhomogeneous beryllium, graphite, and polyethylene moderator has been designed that uses source neutrons much more efficiently than assay systems using polyethylene moderators. Layers of borated polyethylene and tungsten are used to shield the detectors. Large NaI(Tl) detectors were selected to measure the delayed gamma rays. The enrichment zones of a thermal reactor fuel pin could be measured to within 1% counting statistics for practical rod speeds. Applications of the rod scanner include accountability of fissile material for safeguards applications, quality control of the fissile content in a fuel rod, and the verification of reactivity potential for mixed oxide fuels.

Griffith, G. W.; Menlove, H. O.

1996-02-01

107

Robust scanner identification based on noise features  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large portion of digital image data available today is acquired using digital cameras or scanners. While cameras allow digital reproduction of natural scenes, scanners are often used to capture hardcopy art in more controlled scenarios. This paper proposes a new technique for non-intrusive scanner model identification, which can be further extended to perform tampering detection on scanned images. Using only scanned image samples that contain arbitrary content, we construct a robust scanner identifier to determine the brand/model of the scanner used to capture each scanned image. The proposed scanner identifier is based on statistical features of scanning noise. We first analyze scanning noise from several angles, including through image de-noising, wavelet analysis, and neighborhood prediction, and then obtain statistical features from each characterization. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can effectively identify the correct scanner brands/models with high accuracy.

Gou, Hongmei; Swaminathan, Ashwin; Wu, Min

2007-02-01

108

Vacuum Attachment for XRF Scanner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vacuum apparatuses have been developed for increasing the range of elements that can be identified by use of x-ray fluorescent (XRF) scanners of the type mentioned in the two immediately preceding articles. As a consequence of the underlying physical principles, in the presence of air, such an XRF scanner is limited to analysis of chlorine and elements of greater atomic number. When the XRF scanner is operated in a vacuum, it extends the range of analysis to lower atomic numbers - even as far as aluminum and sodium. Hence, more elements will be available for use in XRF labeling of objects as discussed in the two preceding articles. The added benefits of the extended capabilities also have other uses for NASA. Detection of elements of low atomic number is of high interest to the aerospace community. High-strength aluminum alloys will be easily analyzed for composition. Silicon, a major contaminant in certain processes, will be detectable before the process is begun, possibly eliminating weld or adhesion problems. Exotic alloys will be evaluated for composition prior to being placed in service where lives depend on them. And in the less glamorous applications, such as bolts and fasteners, substandard products and counterfeit items will be evaluated at the receiving function and never allowed to enter the operation

Schramm, Harry F.; Kaiser, Bruce

2005-01-01

109

IR line scanner on UAV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper introduces the designing principle and method of the IR line scanner on UAV in three aspects of optical-mechanical system, electronics system and processing software. It makes the system achieve good results in practical application that there are many features in the system such as light weight, small size, low power assumption, wide field of view, high instantaneous field of view, high noise equivalent temperature difference, wirelessly controlled and so on. The entire system is designed as follows: Multi-element scanner is put into use for reducing the electrical noise bandwidth, and then improving SNR; Square split aperture scanner is put into use for solving the image ratation distortion, besides fit for large velocity to height ratio; DSP is put into use for non-uniformity correction and background nosie subtraction, and then improving the imagery quality; SD card is put into use as image data storage media instead of the hard disk; The image data is stored in SD card in FAT32 file system, easily playbacked by processing software on Windows and Linux operating system; wireless transceiver module is put into use for wirelessly controlled.

Liu, Shi-chao; Qin, Jie-xin; Qi, Hong-xing; Xiao, Gong-hai

2011-08-01

110

Microfabrication of fiber optic scanners  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cantilevered optical fiber is micromachined to function as a miniature resonant opto-mechanical scanner. By driving the base of the cantilevered fiber at a resonance frequency using a piezoelectric actuator, the free end of the cantilever beam becomes a scanned light source. The fiber scanners are designed to achieve wide field-of-view (FOV) and high scan frequency. We employ a non-linearly tapered profile fiber to achieve scan amplitudes of 1 mm at scan frequencies above 20 KHz. Scan angles of over 120 degree(s) (full angle) have been achieved. Higher order modes are also employed for scanning applications that require compactness while maintaining large angular FOV. Etching techniques are used to create the non-linearly tapered sections in single mode optical fiber. Additionally, micro-lenses are fabricated on the tips of the etched fibers, with lens diameters as small as 15 microns. Such lenses are capable of reducing the divergence angle of the emitted light to 5 degree(s) (full angle), with greater reduction expected by employing novel lens shaping techniques. Microfabricated optical fiber scanners have display applications ranging from micro-optical displays to larger panoramic displays. Applications for micro-image acquisition include small barcode readers to medical endoscopes.

Fauver, Mark; Crossman-Bosworth, Janet L.; Seibel, Eric J.

2002-06-01

111

Deconvolution in line scanners using a priori information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a digital camera the MTF of the optical system must comprise a low-pass filter in order to avoid aliasing. The MTF of incoherent imaging usually and in principle is far from an ideal low-pass. Theoretically a digital ARMA-Filter can be used to compensate for this drawback. In praxis such deconvolution filters suffer from instability because of time-variant noise and space-variance of the MTF. In addition in a line scanner the MTF in scan direction slightly differs in each scanned image. Therefore inverse filtering will not operate satisfactory in an unknown environment. A new concept is presented which solves both problems using a-priori information about an object, e.g. that parts of it are known to be binary. This information is enough to achieve a stable space and time-variant ARMA-deconvolution filter. Best results are achieved using non linear filtering and pattern feedback. The new method was used to improve the bit-error-rate (BER) of a high-density matrix-code scanner by more than one order of magnitude. An audio scanner will be demonstrated, which reads 12 seconds of music in CD-quality from an audio coded image of 18mmÚ55mm size.

Wirnitzer, Bernhard; Spraggon-Hernandez, Tadeo

2002-12-01

112

Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of Barred Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic fields are pervasive in barred galaxies, especially in gaseous substructures such as dust lanes and nuclear rings. To explore the effects of magnetic fields on the formation of the substructures as well as on the mass inflow rates to the galaxy center, we run two-dimensional, ideal magnetohydrodynamic simulations. We use a modified version of the Athena code whose numerical magnetic diffusivity is shown to be of third order in space. In the bar regions, magnetic fields are compressed and abruptly bent around the dust-lane shocks. The associated magnetic stress not only reduces the peak density of the dust-lane shocks but also removes angular momentum further from the gas that is moving radially in. Nuclear rings that form at the location of centrifugal barrier rather than resonance with the bar are smaller and more radially distributed, and the mass flow rate to the galaxy center is correspondingly larger in models with stronger magnetic fields. Outside the bar regions, the bar potential and strong shear conspire to amplify the field strength near the corotation resonance. The amplified fields transport angular momentum outward, producing trailing magnetic arms with strong fields and low density. The base of the magnetic arms are found to be unstable to a tearing-mode instability of magnetic reconnection. This produces numerous magnetic islands that eventually make the outer regions highly chaotic.

Kim, W.-T.

2013-04-01

113

Scanner Art and Links to Physics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A photocopier or scanner can be used to produce not only the standard motion graphs of physics, but a variety of other graphs that resemble gravitational and electrical fields. This article presents a starting point for exploring scanner graphics, which brings together investigation in art and design, physics, mathematics, and information…

Russell, David

2005-01-01

114

Academic and Career Advising of Scanners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Scanners" has become a common term for a recently identified category of people who find choosing just one interest or career path difficult (Sher, 2006). Academic and career advisors who work with scanners will likely find that these students have difficulty selecting an academic major or career path and that they seem to suffer anxiety and a…

Bloom, Arvid J.; Tripp, Philip R.; Shaffer, Leigh S.

2011-01-01

115

ID scanners in the night time economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

ID scanners are quickly emerging as a new technological fix to long-standing problems of security and safety within licensed venues. Yet at this point in time detailed research of this rapidly expanding security technology is remarkably limited. To address this analytical deficit we are currently examining the uptake of ID scanners in licensed venues operating in the nighttime economy. We

Darren Palmer; Ian Warren; Peter Miller

2010-01-01

116

Scanner 3D pour le génie civil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A development project of a 3D scanner aimed at civil and industrial engeneering is presented. The scanner works under the time of flight measurement principle and allows to obtain a cloud of point representative of the object in a minimum time and precisely so as to reconstruct a CAD model of the object for the enginners

François Huard

2002-01-01

117

Design study for MOX fuel rod scanner for ATR fuel fabrication. Phase I: Design of active neutron scanner. Phase II: Design of passive neutron scanner. Phase III: Design of passive gamma-ray scanner  

SciTech Connect

An active neutron fuel-rod scanner has been designed for the assay of fissile materials in mixed oxide fuel rods. A {sup 252}Cf source is located at the center of the scanner very near the through-hole for the fuel rods. Spontaneous fission neutrons from the californium are moderated and induce fissions within the passing fuel rod. The rod continues past a combined gamma-ray and neutron shield where delayed gamma rays above 1 MeV are detected. The authors used the Monte Carlo neutron-photon (MCNP) code to design the scanner and review optimum materials and geometries. Applications of the rod scanner include accountability of fissile material for safeguards applications, quality control of the fissile content in a fuel rod, and the verification of reactivity potential for mixed oxide fuels. A passive neutron fuel-rod scanner has been designed for the assay of the plutonium in mixed oxide fuel rods. The {sup 240}Pu-effective is measured by counting the spontaneous fission neutrons using a high-efficiency thermal-neutron detector. This passive neutron detector would be combined with a high-resolution gamma-ray system (HRGS) measurement to obtain the total plutonium from the plutonium isotopic ratios. A passive gamma-ray scanner has been designed for the measurement of the {sup 241}Am and plutonium uniformity in mixed oxide fuel rods. The passive gamma-ray emissions from {sup 241}Am (60 keV) and plutonium (150-400 keV) are used to verify the unformity of the fuel enrichment zones and to check for any pellets that are out of specification. The fuel rod is moved through the interior of an NaI(Tl) or a bismuth germanate detector to measure the passive gamma-ray emissions. A tungsten sleeve collimator is used in the through-hole to improve the pellet-to-pellet spatial resolution. The same detector is used to verify the plutonium uniformity in the pellets with a 13-mm tungsten collimator. The low-resolution passive gamma system would be used in the unattended mode.

Griffith, G.W.; Menlove, H.O.

1997-09-01

118

21 CFR 882.1925 - Ultrasonic scanner calibration test block.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 false Ultrasonic scanner calibration test block. 882.1925...Devices § 882.1925 Ultrasonic scanner calibration test block. (a) Identification. An ultrasonic scanner calibration test block is a...

2011-04-01

119

21 CFR 882.1925 - Ultrasonic scanner calibration test block.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Ultrasonic scanner calibration test block. 882.1925...Devices § 882.1925 Ultrasonic scanner calibration test block. (a) Identification. An ultrasonic scanner calibration test block is a...

2010-04-01

120

21 CFR 882.1925 - Ultrasonic scanner calibration test block.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ultrasonic scanner calibration test block...Diagnostic Devices § 882.1925 Ultrasonic scanner calibration test block. (a) Identification. An ultrasonic scanner calibration test...

2014-04-01

121

21 CFR 882.1925 - Ultrasonic scanner calibration test block.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ultrasonic scanner calibration test block...Diagnostic Devices § 882.1925 Ultrasonic scanner calibration test block. (a) Identification. An ultrasonic scanner calibration test...

2012-04-01

122

Compact, quick ID scanner that captures rolled and flat fingerprints.  

E-print Network

) Scanner output image size: 600 x 600 pixels (H x V) Scanner Dimensions Scanner weight: 1.3 lbs. (520 g Operating environment: Indoor (Building, Container, Car), on table-top or kiosk integrated Interface cable

Hochmuth, Olaff

123

21 CFR 892.1330 - Nuclear whole body scanner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Nuclear whole body scanner. 892.1330 ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL...892.1330 Nuclear whole body scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear whole body scanner is a device...

2011-04-01

124

21 CFR 892.1330 - Nuclear whole body scanner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Nuclear whole body scanner. 892.1330 ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL...892.1330 Nuclear whole body scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear whole body scanner is a device...

2014-04-01

125

21 CFR 892.1330 - Nuclear whole body scanner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Nuclear whole body scanner. 892.1330 ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL...892.1330 Nuclear whole body scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear whole body scanner is a device...

2012-04-01

126

21 CFR 892.1330 - Nuclear whole body scanner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Nuclear whole body scanner. 892.1330 ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL...892.1330 Nuclear whole body scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear whole body scanner is a device...

2013-04-01

127

Combined PET/MRI scanner  

DOEpatents

A combined PET/MRI scanner generally includes a magnet for producing a magnetic field suitable for magnetic resonance imaging, a radiofrequency (RF) coil disposed within the magnetic field produced by the magnet and a ring tomograph disposed within the magnetic field produced by the magnet. The ring tomograph includes a scintillator layer for outputting at least one photon in response to an annihilation event, a detection array coupled to the scintillator layer for detecting the at least one photon outputted by the scintillator layer and for outputting a detection signal in response to the detected photon and a front-end electronic array coupled to the detection array for receiving the detection signal, wherein the front-end array has a preamplifier and a shaper network for conditioning the detection signal.

Schlyer, David (Bellport, NY); Woody, Craig L. (Setauket, NY); Rooney, William (Miller Place, NY); Vaska, Paul (Sound Beach, NY); Stoll, Sean (Wading River, NY); Pratte, Jean-Francois (Stony Brook, NY); O'Connor, Paul (Bellport, NY)

2007-10-23

128

Non-Destructive Testing Scanner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bio-Imaging Research's technology that originated in an aerospace program has come full circle with a new aerospace adaptation called the Advanced Computed Tomography Inspection System, or ACTIS. The medical version of CT scans the human body for tumors or other abnormalities, the ACTIS system finds imperfections in aerospace structures and components, such as castings, assemblies, rocket motors and nozzles. ACTIS is described by its developer as the most versatile CT scanner available for non-destructive testing applications. ACTIS is a variable geometry system. ACTIS source and detectors can be moved closer together or farther apart to optimize the geometry for different sizes of test objects. The combination of variable geometry, three sources, and focusing detectors makes ACTIS cost effective for a broad range of applications. System can scan anything from very small turbine blades to large rocket assemblies.

1990-01-01

129

Bar Graph Mania  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Use these activities to build and interpret data on bar graphs. Catch all the bugs in the system and put them in the correct column of the bar graph. Answer the questions about the bugs in the graph. Catch bugs in six rooms. Bugs in the system Do these bar graphing activities. You don\\'t have to do the last question ...

Ms. Thurlow

2005-10-26

130

Eddy current X-Y scanner system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Nondestructive Evaluation Branch of the Materials and Processes Laboratory became aware of a need for a miniature, portable X-Y scanner capable of performing eddy current or other nondestructive testing scanning operations such as ultrasonic, or small areas of flat plate. The technical description and operational theory of the X-Y scanner system designed and built to fulfill this need are covered. The scanner was given limited testing and performs according to its design intent, which is to scan flat plate areas of approximately 412 sq cm (64 sq in) during each complete cycle of scanning.

Kurtz, G. W.

1983-01-01

131

Flexure pivots for oscillatory scanners  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flexures are quite ancient, and their use as pivots is also ancient. Long before the use of the most primitive sleeve bearings leather strap flexures were used as trunk lidhinges and the like. Early engines of war, including the ballista of the Romans, technically advanced hand bows, and the cross bows of the fourteenth century all employ flexure pivots as their enabling technology. Designers of modern scientific instruments, including optical and laser scanning equipment exploit the same attributes of the flexure which appealed to their forefathers: simplicity, reliability, lack of internal clearance, long service life, ease of construction, and often, it's high mechanical Q. A special case of the flexure pivot, the torsional pivot, has made possible very long lived scanners at speeds which are far out of the reach of other bearing types. Since success with flexures requires consideration of some simple but non-intuitive issues such as stress distribution and stress corrosion, this talk will emphasize the practicum of flexure design and application.

Brown, David C.; Pruyn, Kristopher

2002-06-01

132

A procedure for automated land use mapping using remotely sensed multispectral scanner data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system of processing remotely sensed multispectral scanner data by computer programs to produce color-coded land use maps for large areas is described. The procedure is explained, the software and the hardware are described, and an analogous example of the procedure is presented. Detailed descriptions of the multispectral scanners currently in use are provided together with a summary of the background of current land use mapping techniques. The data analysis system used in the procedure and the pattern recognition software used are functionally described. Current efforts by the NASA Earth Resources Laboratory to evaluate operationally a less complex and less costly system are discussed in a separate section.

Whitley, S. L.

1975-01-01

133

Color Calibration of Scanners for Scanner-Independent Grain Grading 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 80(3):285-289 Scanner technology is emerging as a cost-effective and robust imaging alternative to camera-based systems in many applications. However, scanner technology is changing so fast that image quality can vary from model to model. It is critical that images scanned with different scanners be brought to a common basis for processing and measurement through a calibration process that

Muhammad A. Shahin; Stephen J. Symons

2003-01-01

134

Hand-held optical fuel pin scanner  

DOEpatents

An optical scanner for indicia arranged in a focal plane perpendicular to an optical system including a rotatable dove prism. The dove prism transmits a rotating image to a stationary photodiode array.

Kirchner, Tommy L. (Richland, WA); Powers, Hurshal G. (Richland, WA)

1987-01-01

135

Hand-held optical fuel pin scanner  

DOEpatents

An optical scanner for indicia arranged in a focal plane perpendicular to an optical system including a rotatable dove prism. The dove prism transmits a rotating image to a stationary photodiode array.

Kirchner, T.L.; Powers, H.G.

1980-12-07

136

21 CFR 892.1220 - Fluorescent scanner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1220 Fluorescent scanner. (a) Identification. A fluorescent...

2010-04-01

137

Trophic classification of Colorado lakes utilizing contact data, Landsat and aircraft-acquired multispectral scanner data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multispectral scanner data, acquired over several Colorado lakes using Landsat-1 and aircraft, were used in conjunction with National Eutrophication Survey contact-sensed data to determine the feasibility of assessing lacustrine trophic levels. A trophic state index was developed using contact-sensed data for several trophic indicators (chlorophyll a, inverse of Secchi disk transparency, conductivity, total phosphorous, total organic nitrogen, algal assay yield). Relationships between the digitally processed multispectral scanner data, several trophic indicators, and the trophic index were examined using a supervised multispectral classification technique and regression techniques. Statistically significant correlations exist between spectral bands, several of the trophic indicators (chlorophyll a, Secchi disk transparency, total organic nitrogen), and the trophic state index. Color-coded photomaps were generated which depict the spectral aspects of trophic state. Multispectral scanner data acquired from satellite and aircraft platforms can be used to advantage in lake monitoring and survey programs.

Boland, D. H. P.; Blackwell, R. J.

1978-01-01

138

Number Line Bars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teachers and students can use this interactive Java applet to model and carry out arithmetic operations on the number line. Users manipulate the size, position, and direction of color bars to represent addition, subtraction, multiplication and division with whole numbers, integers and fractions. Options include the ability to zoom in and out, change the colors of the bars, and adjust the step size of the bars and number line increments.

2000-01-01

139

MEMS temperature scanner: principles, advances, and applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contactless measurement of temperatures has gained enormous significance in many application fields, ranging from climate protection over quality control to object recognition in public places or military objects. Thereby measurement of linear or spatially temperature distribution is often necessary. For this purposes mostly thermographic cameras or motor driven temperature scanners are used today. Both are relatively expensive and the motor drive devices are limited regarding to the scanning rate additionally. An economic alternative are temperature scanner devices based on micro mirrors. The micro mirror, attached in a simple optical setup, reflects the emitted radiation from the observed heat onto an adapted detector. A line scan of the target object is obtained by periodic deflection of the micro scanner. Planar temperature distribution will be achieved by perpendicularly moving the target object or the scanner device. Using Planck radiation law the temperature of the object is calculated. The device can be adapted to different temperature ranges and resolution by using different detectors - cooled or uncooled - and parameterized scanner parameters. With the basic configuration 40 spatially distributed measuring points can be determined with temperatures in a range from 350°C - 1000°C. The achieved miniaturization of such scanners permits the employment in complex plants with high building density or in direct proximity to the measuring point. The price advantage enables a lot of applications, especially new application in the low-price market segment This paper shows principle, setup and application of a temperature measurement system based on micro scanners working in the near infrared range. Packaging issues and measurement results will be discussed as well.

Otto, Thomas; Saupe, Ray; Stock, Volker; Gessner, Thomas

2010-02-01

140

Scanner matching using pupil intensity control between scanners in 30nm DRAM device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scanner mismatch has become one of the critical issues in high volume memory production. There are several components that contribute to the scanner CD mismatch. One of the major components is illumination pupil difference between scanners. Because of acceleration of dimensional shrinking in memory devices, the CD mismatch became more critical in electrical performance and process window. In this work, we demonstrated computational lithography model based scanner matching for sub 3x nm memory devices. We used ASML XT:1900Gi as a reference scanner and ASML NXT:1950i as the to-be-matched scanner. Wafer metrology data and scanner specific parameters are used to build a computational model, and determine the optimal settings by model simulation to minimize the CD difference between scanners. Nano Geometry Research (NGR) was used as a wafer CD metrology tool for both model calibration and matching result verification. The extracted pupil parameters from measured source map from both before and after matching are inspected and analyzed. Simulated and measured process window changes by applying the matching sub-recipe are also evaluated.

Jang, Jongwon; Park, Daejin; Choi, Jeaseung; Jung, Areum; Yoo, Gyun; Kim, Jungchan; Kim, Cheol-kyun; Yim, Donggyu; Lu, Junwei; Park, Seunghoon; Yu, Zongchang; Vellanki, Venu; Shao, Wenkin; Park, Chris

2011-04-01

141

Numerical Simulations of Interacting Gas-Rich Barred Galaxies  

E-print Network

Using an N-body+SPH code we have performed numerical simulations to investigate the dynamical effects of an interaction between an initially barred galaxy and a small spherical companion. In the models described here the small companion passes through the disk of the larger galaxy perpendicular to its plane. The impact positions and times are varied with respect to the evolutionary phase of the bar and disc. The interactions produce expanding ring structures, offset bars, spokes, and other asymmetries in the stars and gas. They also affect the strength and pattern speed of the bar.

I. Berentzen; C. H. Heller; E. Athanassoula; K. J. Fricke

1999-04-12

142

LANSCE-R WIRE-SCANNER SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

The National Instruments cRIO platform is used for the new LANSCE-R wire-scanner systems. All wire-scanner electronics are integrated into a single BiRa BiRIO 4U cRIO chassis specifically designed for the cRIO crate and all interface electronics. The BiRIO chassis, actuator and LabVIEW VIs provide a complete wire-scanner system integrated with EPICS. The new wire-scanner chassis includes an 8-slot cRIO crate with Virtex-5 LX 110 FPGA and Power-PC real-time controller, the LANL-developed cRIO 2-axis wire-sensor analog interface module (AFE), NI9222 cRIO 4-channel 16-bit digitizer, cRIO resolver demodulator, cRIO event receiver, front-panel touch panel display, motor driver, and all necessary software, interface wiring, connectors and ancillary components. This wirescanner system provides a complete, turn-key, 2-axis wire-scanner system including 2-channel low-noise sensewire interface with variable DC wire bias and wireintegrity monitor, 16-bit signal digitizers, actuator motor drive and control, actuator position sensing, limit-switch interfaces, event receiver, LabVIEW and EPICS interface, and both remote operation and full stand-alone operation using the touch panel.

Gruchalla, Michael E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-01

143

Cognition for robot scanner based remote welding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effort for reduced cycle times in manufacturing has supported the development of remote welding systems which use a combination of scanners for beam delivery and robots for scanner positioning. Herein, close coupling of both motions requires a precise command of the robot trajectory and the scanner positioning to end up with a combined beam delivery. Especially the path precision of the robot plays a vital role in this kinematic chain. In this paper, a sensor system is being presented which allows tracking the motion of the laser beam against the work piece. It is based on a camera system which is coaxially connected to the scanner thus observing the relative motion of the laser beam relative to the work piece. The acquired images are processed with computer vision algorithms from the field of motion detection. The suitability of the algorithms is being demonstrated with a motion tracking tool which visualizes the homogeneity of the tracking result. The reported solution adds cognitive capabilities to manufacturing systems for robot scanner based materials processing. It allows evaluation of the relative motion between work piece and the laser beam. Moreover, the system can be used to adapt system programming during set-up of a manufacturing task or to evaluate the functionality of a manufacturing system during production. The presented sensor system will assist in optimizing manufacturing processes.

Thombansen, U.; Ungers, Michael

2014-02-01

144

Changes in Smoking-Related Norms in Bars Resulting from California's Smoke-Free Workplace Act  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

California's Smoke-Free Workplace Act--CA Labor Code Sec. 6404.5(a)--was extended to bars in 1998. This article analyzes changes in normative beliefs and behaviors related to bar smoking in the decade following the adoption of the Act. In a series of studies evaluating the smoke-free workplace law in bars, researchers conducted extensive…

Satterlund, Travis D.; Lee, Juliet P.; Moore, Roland S.

2012-01-01

145

Bar Graph Sorter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students make bar graphs by sorting shapes either by shape or by color. This activity allows students to explore how to sort data to make bar graphs. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

2011-03-09

146

Multi Bar Graph  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students enter in data to be represented in a double bar graph. Multi bar graphs allow the student to compare multiple characteristics of different subjects like population for different continents over time. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

Shodor

2012-04-02

147

Building Brilliant Bar Graphs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this series of three lesson plans, students create bar graphs, double bar graphs, and determine appropriate intervals for scale. Each lesson incorporates teacher modeling, student practice (students have an opportunity to label and create the scale for their own graphs), assessment (including rubrics), and reteaching or extension options.

Briana Bower

2005-01-01

148

Bar-biting  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bar biting is regarded as a stereotypic behavior in which the animal carries out repetitive mouthing and biting of the metal bars in its environmental enclosure. It is commonly seen in sows housed in close confinement, in barren environments, and with restricted access to food. However, it has also ...

149

CT densitometry of the lungs: Scanner performance  

SciTech Connect

Our goal was to establish the reproducibility and accuracy of the CT scanner in densitometry of the lungs. Scanner stability was assessed by analysis of daily quality checks. Studies using a humanoid phantom and polyethylene foams for lung were performed to measure reproducibility and accuracy. The dependence of the CT-estimated density on reconstruction filter, zoom factor, slice thickness, table height, data truncation, and objects outside the scan field was determined. Stability of the system at air density was within {approx}1 HU and at water density within {approx}2 HU. Reproducibility and accuracy for densities found for lung were within 2-3%. Dependence on the acquisition and reconstruction parameters was neglible, with the exceptions of the ultra high resolution reconstruction algorithm in the case of emphysema, and objects outside the scan field. The performance of the CT scanner tested is quite adequate for densitometry of the lungs. 26 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

Kemerink, G.J.; Lamers, R.J.S.; Thelissen, G.R.P.; Engelshoven, J.M.A. van [University Hospital, Maastricht (Netherlands)] [University Hospital, Maastricht (Netherlands)

1996-01-01

150

Miniature rotating transmissive optical drum scanner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A miniature rotating transmissive optical scanner system employs a drum of small size having an interior defined by a circumferential wall rotatable on a drum axis, an optical element positioned within the interior of the drum, and a light-transmissive lens aperture provided at an angular position in the circumferential wall of the drum for scanning a light beam to or from the optical element in the drum along a beam azimuth angle as the drum is rotated. The miniature optical drum scanner configuration obtains a wide scanning field-of-view (FOV) and large effective aperture is achieved within a physically small size.

Lewis, Robert (Inventor); Parrington, Lawrence (Inventor); Rutberg, Michael (Inventor)

2013-01-01

151

Fingerprint scanners help improve record security.  

PubMed

Technological solutions such as fingerprint scanners and identification badges provide greater computer security and piece of mind for your staff, according to ED managers at St. John's Mercy Medical Center in Chesterfield, MO. 'Proximity badge' is the computer log in, and staff member's fingerprint is their password. Busy physicians and nurses can leave the department to see patients in waiting areas without worrying about someone accessing their computer. Staff has noted some system glitches, including the need to place fingers in the scanner several times. PMID:16800317

2006-06-01

152

Radiation balance mapping with multispectral scanner data.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Energy budget and radiation balance relationships have been measured from the ground by investigators in several disciplines. Airborne and spaceborne multispectral sensors provide a new measurement capability for large-area synoptic mapping of these quantities. Procedures for estimating and mapping total exitance and radiation balance from multispectral scanner data are discussed, and example maps for an agricultural application are presented. This information extraction technique is an extension of the usual recognition mapping performed with multispectral scanner data, and represents a first step in the quantitative interpretation and assessment of surface conditions with remote sensor data.

Malila, W. A.

1972-01-01

153

Infrared scanner concept verification test report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The test results from a concept verification test conducted to assess the use of an infrared scanner as a remote temperature sensing device for the space shuttle program are presented. The temperature and geometric resolution limits, atmospheric attenuation effects including conditions with fog and rain, and the problem of surface emissivity variations are included. It is concluded that the basic concept of using an infrared scanner to determine near freezing surface temperatures is feasible. The major problem identified is concerned with infrared reflections which result in significant errors if not controlled. Action taken to manage these errors result in design and operational constraints to control the viewing angle and surface emissivity.

Bachtel, F. D.

1980-01-01

154

The conical scanner evaluation system design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The software design for the conical scanner evaluation system is presented. The purpose of this system is to support the performance analysis of the LANDSAT-D conical scanners, which are infrared horizon detection attitude sensors designed for improved accuracy. The system consists of six functionally independent subsystems and five interface data bases. The system structure and interfaces of each of the subsystems is described and the content, format, and file structure of each of the data bases is specified. For each subsystem, the functional logic, the control parameters, the baseline structure, and each of the subroutines are described. The subroutine descriptions include a procedure definition and the input and output parameters.

Cumella, K. E.; Bilanow, S.; Kulikov, I. B.

1982-01-01

155

Use of ocean color scanner data in water quality mapping  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Remotely sensed data, in combination with in situ data, are used in assessing water quality parameters within the San Francisco Bay-Delta. The parameters include suspended solids, chlorophyll, and turbidity. Regression models are developed between each of the water quality parameter measurements and the Ocean Color Scanner (OCS) data. The models are then extended to the entire study area for mapping water quality parameters. The results include a series of color-coded maps, each pertaining to one of the water quality parameters, and the statistical analysis of the OCS data and regression models. It is found that concurrently collected OCS data and surface truth measurements are highly useful in mapping the selected water quality parameters and locating areas having relatively high biological activity. In addition, it is found to be virtually impossible, at least within this test site, to locate such areas on U-2 color and color-infrared photography.

Khorram, S.

1981-01-01

156

Introduction to Bar Graphs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to introduce students to bar graphs as a way to represent categorical data. Caution should be used not to use bar graph and histogram interchangeably when using this lesson. This lesson provides links to discussions and activities related to bar graphs as well as suggested ways to integrate them into the lesson. Finally, the lesson provides links to follow-up lessons designed for use in succession with the current one. Note, reading level is not indicated because the lesson does not include student reading material.

2011-05-24

157

23. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING RADAR CONTROL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

23. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - RADAR CONTROL INTERFACE "RCL NO. 2" WITH COMPUTER CONTROL DISC DRIVE UNITS IN FOREGROUND. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

158

21 CFR 892.1300 - Nuclear rectilinear scanner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...rectilinear scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear rectilinear scanner is a device intended to image the distribution of radionuclides in the body by means of a detector (or detectors) whose position moves in two directions with...

2012-04-01

159

21 CFR 892.1300 - Nuclear rectilinear scanner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...rectilinear scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear rectilinear scanner is a device intended to image the distribution of radionuclides in the body by means of a detector (or detectors) whose position moves in two directions with...

2013-04-01

160

21 CFR 892.1300 - Nuclear rectilinear scanner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...rectilinear scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear rectilinear scanner is a device intended to image the distribution of radionuclides in the body by means of a detector (or detectors) whose position moves in two directions with...

2011-04-01

161

21 CFR 892.1300 - Nuclear rectilinear scanner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...rectilinear scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear rectilinear scanner is a device intended to image the distribution of radionuclides in the body by means of a detector (or detectors) whose position moves in two directions with...

2010-04-01

162

21 CFR 892.1330 - Nuclear whole body scanner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Diagnostic Devices § 892.1330 Nuclear whole body scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear whole body scanner is a device intended to measure and image the distribution of radionuclides in the body by means of a wide-aperture...

2010-04-01

163

24. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING OPERATIONS CENTER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

24. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - OPERATIONS CENTER -- MWOC IN OPEARATION AT 1924 ZULU TIME. 26 OCTOBER, 1999. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

164

2. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING VIEW IS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - VIEW IS LOOKING NORTH 80° WEST "B" FACE ALONG BUILDING "A" FACE. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

165

Miniature 'Wearable' PET Scanner Ready for Use  

SciTech Connect

Scientists from BNL, Stony Brook University, and collaborators have demonstrated the efficacy of a "wearable," portable PET scanner they've developed for rats. The device will give neuroscientists a new tool for simultaneously studying brain function and behavior in fully awake, moving animals.

Paul Vaska

2011-03-09

166

Ultrasonic Scanner Control and Data Acquisition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The research accomplishments under this grant were very extensive in the areas of ULTRASONIC SCANNER CONTROL AND DATA ACQUISITION. Rather than try to summarize all this research I have enclosed research papers and reports which were completed with the hnding provided by the grant. These papers and reports are listed below:

Hemann, John

2002-01-01

167

Miniature 'Wearable' PET Scanner Ready for Use  

ScienceCinema

Scientists from BNL, Stony Brook University, and collaborators have demonstrated the efficacy of a "wearable," portable PET scanner they've developed for rats. The device will give neuroscientists a new tool for simultaneously studying brain function and behavior in fully awake, moving animals.

Paul Vaska

2013-07-22

168

Holographic Three Dimensional Printer Using Galvanometer Scanners  

Microsoft Academic Search

To make holograms from computer graphic (CG) in a short time, a new holographic three dimensional (3D) printer is proposed here. This printer consists of galvanometer scanners, a micro computer and a laser, and uses a holographic contact duplicating method. Experiments have shown that a hologram of 39 × 41 mm can be obtained in 4 min.

Masahide Monde; Tsuyoshi Uematsu; Toshiki Toda; Kazuhiko Ohnuma; Yoshizumi Yasuda

1995-01-01

169

Targeted promotions using scanner panel data  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last two decades, allocation of promotional dollars has moved increasingly from advertising to sales promotions, such as couponing. However, a short-term focus on brand performance could jeopardize long-term brand prospects unless promotional dollars are carefully targeted and based on the needs of the target market. Using scanner panel data, which are widely available, suggests how managers could evaluate

Amit K. Ghosh

1997-01-01

170

Wire scanner software and firmware issues  

SciTech Connect

The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center facility presently has 110 slow wire scanning profile measurement instruments located along its various beam lines. These wire scanners were developed and have been operating for at least 30 years. While the wire scanners solved many problems to operate and have served the facility well they have increasingly suffered from several problems or limitations, such as maintenance and reliability problems, antiquated components, slow data acquisition, and etc. In order to refurbish these devices, these wire scanners will be replaced with newer versions. The replacement will consist of a completely new beam line actuator, new cables, new electronics and brand new software and firmware. This note describes the functions and modes of operation that LabVIEW VI software on the real time controller and FPGA LabVIEW firmware will be required. It will be especially interesting to understand the overall architecture of these LabVIEW VIs. While this note will endeavor to describe all of the requirements and issues for the wire scanners, undoubtedly, there will be missing details that will be added as time progresses.

Gilpatrick, John Doug [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

171

Learning and Teaching with a Computer Scanner  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper introduces the readers to simple inquiry-based activities (experiments with supporting questions) that one can do with a computer scanner to help students learn and apply the concepts of relative motion in 1 and 2D, vibrational motion and the Doppler effect. We also show how to use these activities to help students think like…

Planinsic, G.; Gregorcic, B.; Etkina, E.

2014-01-01

172

Calibration and equivalency analysis of image plate scanners  

SciTech Connect

A universal procedure was developed to calibrate image plate scanners using radioisotope sources. Techniques to calibrate scanners and sources, as well as cross-calibrate scanner models, are described to convert image plate dosage into physical units. This allows for the direct comparison of quantitative data between any facility and scanner. An empirical relation was also derived to establish sensitivity response settings for arbitrary gain settings. In practice, these methods may be extended to any image plate scanning system.

Williams, G. Jackson, E-mail: williams270@llnl.gov; Maddox, Brian R.; Chen, Hui [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Kojima, Sadaoki [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Yamada-oka, 2-6, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Millecchia, Matthew [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)

2014-11-15

173

NECR analysis of 3D brain PET scanner designs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dedicated 3D brain PET scanner has several advantages, most notably increased sensitivity, over a whole body scanner for neurological studies. However, brain scanners have higher scatter fractions, random count-rates and deadtime for the same activity concentration. We have used noise effective count-rate (NECR) analysis to compare brain scanners of 53, 60, and 66 cm diameter with the GE ADVANCE

Charles W. Stearns; Simon R. Cherry; C. J. Thompson

1995-01-01

174

Calibration and equivalency analysis of image plate scanners  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A universal procedure was developed to calibrate image plate scanners using radioisotope sources. Techniques to calibrate scanners and sources, as well as cross-calibrate scanner models, are described to convert image plate dosage into physical units. This allows for the direct comparison of quantitative data between any facility and scanner. An empirical relation was also derived to establish sensitivity response settings for arbitrary gain settings. In practice, these methods may be extended to any image plate scanning system.

Williams, G. Jackson; Maddox, Brian R.; Chen, Hui; Kojima, Sadaoki; Millecchia, Matthew

2014-11-01

175

Histograms and Bar Graphs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to introduce students to histograms and bar graphs as graphical representations of data. The lesson also covers the distinction between histograms and bar graphs and the concepts of class intervals and scale. The lesson provides links to discussions and activities related to these topics as well as worksheets for further practice. Finally, the lesson provides links to follow-up lessons designed for use in succession with this one.

2011-01-18

176

Single-Event-Upset Laser Scanner With Optical Bias  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Light-assisted microelectronic advanced laser scanner (LAMEALS) is augmented version of microelectronic advanced laser scanner (MEALS) described in article, "Laser Scanner Tests For Single-Event Upsets", (NPO-18216). Only major difference, steady illumination from helium/neon laser, argon-ion laser, and/or other source(s) combined with pulsed dye-laser illumination of MEALS into single illuminating beam.

Kim, Quiesup

1992-01-01

177

Acceptability of security scanners at airports: A French opinion survey  

E-print Network

with walk- through body screening scanners based on X- ray or millimeter wave technologies. These systemsAcceptability of security scanners at airports: A French opinion survey Bako Rajaonaha , Juan on the acceptability of security scanners was conducted in France in July 2012 with a sample of 458 air travellers

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

178

NECR analysis of 3D brain PET scanner designs  

SciTech Connect

A dedicated 3D brain PET scanner has several advantages, most notably increased sensitivity, over a whole body scanner for neurological studies. However brain scanners have higher scatter fractions, random count-rates and deadtime for the same activity concentration. The authors have used noise effective count-rate (NECR) analysis to compare brain scanners of 53, 60, and 66 cm diameter with the GE Advance whole body scanner (93 cm diameter). Monte Carlo simulations of a brain-sized phantom (16 cm diameter, 13 cm length) in the Advance geometry were used to develop a model for NECR performance, which was reconciled to results from a decay series measurement. The model was then used to predict the performance of the brain scanner designs. The brain scanners have noise effective sensitivities (the slope of the NECR curve at zero activity) as much as 40% higher than the body scanner. However, their NECR advantage diminishes quickly as the activity concentration increases. The brain scanners` NECR equals the body scanner with about 0.7--0.8 mCi in the phantom; the body scanner has superior NECR performance at higher activity levels. An imaging center concentrating on only very low activity imaging tasks would find the efficiency advantage of a smaller detector diameter valuable, while a center performing higher activity studies such as bolus water injections or 5 mCi FDG injections might prefer the count rate performance of a whole body scanner.

Stearns, C.W. [GE Medical Systems, Milwaukee, WI (United States). Applied Science Lab.] [GE Medical Systems, Milwaukee, WI (United States). Applied Science Lab.; Cherry, S.R. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). School of Medicine] [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). School of Medicine; Thompson, C.J. [Montreal Neurological Inst., Quebec (Canada)] [Montreal Neurological Inst., Quebec (Canada)

1995-08-01

179

Applications of Optical Scanners in an Academic Center.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes optical scanners, including how the technology works; applications in data management and research; development of instructional materials; and providing community services. Discussion includes the three basic types of optical scanners: optical character recognition (OCR), optical mark readers (OMR), and graphic scanners. A sidebar…

Molinari, Carol; Tannenbaum, Robert S.

1995-01-01

180

High-Resolution Structured Light Range Scanner with Automatic Calibration  

E-print Network

High-Resolution Structured Light Range Scanner with Automatic Calibration ALEXANDER M. BRONSTEIN-cost high-resolution structured light range scanner with automatic calibration, based on temporal stripe-cost high-resolution structured light scanner with automatic calibration. The term structured light refers

Kimmel, Ron

181

Application of a color scanner for 60Co high dose rate brachytherapy dosimetry with EBT radiochromic film  

PubMed Central

Background. The aim of this study is to evaluate the performance of a color scanner as a radiochromic film reader in two dimensional dosimetry around a high dose rate brachytherapy source. Materials and methods A Microtek ScanMaker 1000XL film scanner was utilized for the measurement of dose distribution around a high dose rate GZP6 60Co brachytherapy source with GafChromic® EBT radiochromic films. In these investigations, the non-uniformity of the film and scanner response, combined, as well as the films sensitivity to scanner’s light source was evaluated using multiple samples of films, prior to the source dosimetry. The results of these measurements were compared with the Monte Carlo simulated data using MCNPX code. In addition, isodose curves acquired by radiochromic films and Monte Carlo simulation were compared with those provided by the GZP6 treatment planning system. Results Scanning of samples of uniformly irradiated films demonstrated approximately 2.85% and 4.97% nonuniformity of the response, respectively in the longitudinal and transverse directions of the film. Our findings have also indicated that the film response is not affected by the exposure to the scanner’s light source, particularly in multiple scanning of film. The results of radiochromic film measurements are in good agreement with the Monte Carlo calculations (4%) and the corresponding dose values presented by the GZP6 treatment planning system (5%). Conclusions The results of these investigations indicate that the Microtek ScanMaker 1000XL color scanner in conjunction with GafChromic EBT film is a reliable system for dosimetric evaluation of a high dose rate brachytherapy source. PMID:23411947

Ghorbani, Mahdi; Toossi, Mohammad Taghi Bahreyni; Mowlavi, Ali Asghar; Roodi, Shahram Bayani; Meigooni, Ali Soleimani

2012-01-01

182

Features of the NIH atlas small animal PET scanner and its use with a coaxial small animal volume CT scanner  

Microsoft Academic Search

ATLAS (Advanced Technology Laboratory Animal Scanner), a small animal PET scanner designed to image animals the size of rats and mice, is about to enter service on the NIH campus in Bethesda, Maryland. This system is the first small animal PET scanner with a depth-of- interaction capability and the first to use iterative resolution recovery algorithms, rather than conventional filtered

Jürgen Seidel; Juan J. Vaquero; Javier Pascau; Manuel Desco

2002-01-01

183

X-ray modulation transfer functions of photostimulable phosphor image plates and scanners  

SciTech Connect

The modulation transfer functions of two types of photostimulable phosphor image plates were determined in the 10 keV to 50 keV x-ray energy range using a resolution test pattern with up to 10 line pairs per mm (LP/mm) and a wavelength dispersive x-ray spectrometer. Techniques were developed for correcting for the partial transmittance of the high energy x rays through the lead bars of the resolution test pattern, and the modulation transfer function (MTF) was determined from the measured change in contrast with LP/mm values. The MTF was convolved with the slit function of the image plate scanner, and the resulting point spread functions (PSFs) were in good agreement with the observed shapes and widths of x-ray spectral lines and with the PSF derived from edge spread functions. The shapes and the full width at half-maximum (FWHM) values of the PSF curves of the Fuji Superior Resolution (SR) and Fuji Maximum Sensitivity (MS) image plate detectors, consisting of the image plate and the scanner, determined by the three methods gave consistent results: The SR PSF is Gaussian with 0.13 mm FWHM, and the MS PSF is Lorentzian with 0.19 mm FWHM. These techniques result in the accurate determination of the spatial resolution achievable using image plate and scanner combinations and enable the optimization of spatial resolution for x-ray spectroscopy and radiography.

Seely, John F.; Holland, Glenn E.; Hudson, Lawrence T.; Henins, Albert

2008-11-01

184

X-ray modulation transfer functions of photostimulable phosphor image plates and scanners.  

PubMed

The modulation transfer functions of two types of photostimulable phosphor image plates were determined in the 10 keV to 50 keV x-ray energy range using a resolution test pattern with up to 10 line pairs per mm (LP/mm) and a wavelength dispersive x-ray spectrometer. Techniques were developed for correcting for the partial transmittance of the high energy x rays through the lead bars of the resolution test pattern, and the modulation transfer function (MTF) was determined from the measured change in contrast with LP/mm values. The MTF was convolved with the slit function of the image plate scanner, and the resulting point spread functions (PSFs) were in good agreement with the observed shapes and widths of x-ray spectral lines and with the PSF derived from edge spread functions. The shapes and the full width at half-maximum (FWHM) values of the PSF curves of the Fuji Superior Resolution (SR) and Fuji Maximum Sensitivity (MS) image plate detectors, consisting of the image plate and the scanner, determined by the three methods gave consistent results: The SR PSF is Gaussian with 0.13 mm FWHM, and the MS PSF is Lorentzian with 0.19 mm FWHM. These techniques result in the accurate determination of the spatial resolution achievable using image plate and scanner combinations and enable the optimization of spatial resolution for x-ray spectroscopy and radiography. PMID:19122716

Seely, John F; Holland, Glenn E; Hudson, Lawrence T; Henins, Albert

2008-11-01

185

Telescope with a wide field of view internal optical scanner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A telescope with internal scanner utilizing either a single optical wedge scanner or a dual optical wedge scanner and a controller arranged to control a synchronous rotation of the first and/or second optical wedges, the wedges constructed and arranged to scan light redirected by topological surfaces and/or volumetric scatterers. The telescope with internal scanner further incorporates a first converging optical element that receives the redirected light and transmits the redirected light to the scanner, and a second converging optical element within the light path between the first optical element and the scanner arranged to reduce an area of impact on the scanner of the beam collected by the first optical element.

Degnan, III, John James (Inventor); Zheng, Yunhui (Inventor)

2012-01-01

186

Compact conscious animal positron emission tomography scanner  

DOEpatents

A method of serially transferring annihilation information in a compact positron emission tomography (PET) scanner includes generating a time signal for an event, generating an address signal representing a detecting channel, generating a detector channel signal including the time and address signals, and generating a composite signal including the channel signal and similarly generated signals. The composite signal includes events from detectors in a block and is serially output. An apparatus that serially transfers annihilation information from a block includes time signal generators for detectors in a block and an address and channel signal generator. The PET scanner includes a ring tomograph that mounts onto a portion of an animal, which includes opposing block pairs. Each of the blocks in a block pair includes a scintillator layer, detection array, front-end array, and a serial encoder. The serial encoder includes time signal generators and an address signal and channel signal generator.

Schyler, David J. (Bellport, NY); O'Connor, Paul (Bellport, NY); Woody, Craig (Setauket, NY); Junnarkar, Sachin Shrirang (Sound Beach, NY); Radeka, Veljko (Bellport, NY); Vaska, Paul (Sound Beach, NY); Pratte, Jean-Francois (Stony Brook, NY); Volkow, Nora (Chevy Chase, MD)

2006-10-24

187

The molecular scanner: concept and developments.  

PubMed

Approaches aimed at deciphering the proteome have illustrated the need for relatively complex and highly sensitive methodologies. The major elements of proteome analysis, such as powerful protein separation and enzymatic processing, mass spectrometry and dedicated bioinformatics have been assembled in the development of the molecular scanner. This highly flexible and data-rich approach has combined the power of electrophoretic protein separation, the simultaneous digestion and transfer of proteins through an enzymatic membrane, the immediate use of the MALDI mass spectrometer to scan a collecting membrane, and the development of dedicated bioinformatics tools to perform protein identification and molecular imaging of the proteome. Clinical applications of the molecular scanner have also started to be developed for disease diagnosis in biological material. PMID:15102461

Binz, Pierre-Alain; Müller, Markus; Hoogland, Christine; Zimmermann, Catherine; Pasquarello, Carla; Corthals, Garry; Sanchez, Jean-Charles; Hochstrasser, Denis F; Appel, Ron D

2004-02-01

188

Dynamic exposure control in color scanners  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lightness values of white papers cover an approximate range of fifteen jnd. The tone range of scanners is adjusted for the lightest possible substrate. Therefore, a scan is usually preceded by a preview operation in which the image is subsampled and the data is analyzed to determine the actual tone range. In color facsimile and sheet-fed scanners that do not buffer the entire image, such an operation is not possible. We present a technique in which statistical methods are used to estimate the tone level of the paper. This estimate is used to set the parameters for a tone reproduction curve. The technique is incremental, the statistical data is gathered during the scan. While the scan progresses. The estimate is refined based on the increased amount of data available from the accumulated histogram. This has also the advantage that artifacts due to lamp warming during slow scans are automatically compensated.

Beretta, Giordano B.

1997-04-01

189

Digital Printout System for Whole Body Scanner  

Microsoft Academic Search

A scintillation scanner has been developed for large-area mapping of high-energy gamma emitting radioisotope distributions in a patient undergoing metabolic studies. An unusual method of operation uses a solenoid-operated electric typewriter as a digital plotter. A three-figure entry of the count observed at each position of the stepwise scan pattern is typed with a decimal point locator to allow five-figure

J. W. Beattie; G. Bradt

1961-01-01

190

Multiple bars and secular evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bars are the most important driver of secular evolution. A significant fraction of barred galaxies also harbor small secondary bars. Secondary bars are visible even in near-infrared images, so they are not just dusty and blue, but stellar features (Erwin & Sparke 2002). Since they are quite common, secondary bars are probably long-lived stellar features. The random relative orientation of the two bars indicates that they are dynamically decoupled with different pattern speeds (Buta & Crocker 1993). Corsini et al. (2003) presented conclusive direct kinematic evidence for a decoupled secondary bar in NGC 2950. Dynamically decoupled secondary bars have long been hypothesized to be a mechanism to drive gas past the ILR of primary bars to feed active galactic nuclei (Shlosman et al. 1989). However, the dynamics of secondary bars are still not well understood, and it is still unclear what role secondary bars play in the AGN fueling process. Numerical simulations offer the best approach to understanding double-barred systems. Decoupled secondary bar in the earlier gaseous simulations only last a short time (< 1 Gyr, e.g. Friedli & Martinet 1993). Orbital studies of double-barred systems discovered a family of loop orbits that may be building blocks of long-lived nuclear stellar bars (Maciejewski & Sparke 1997, 2000). To complement orbital studies, which are not fully self-consistent, N-body simulations are preferred to further our understanding of double-barred systems. Debattista & Shen (2007) and Shen & Debattista (2009) managed to form long-lived double-barred systems with purely collisionless simulations, where a pre-existing rotating pseudo-bulge is introduced initially. The shape and size of secondary bars in the models are comparable to observed ones. They found that the rotation of the two bars is not rigid. The amplitude and pattern speed of the secondary bars oscillate as they rotate through their primary counterparts. Although the secondary bar rotates faster than the primary bar in this model, the stellar velocity field in the central region only shows a weakly twisted kinematic minor axis. Recently more simulations of double-barred galaxies with simpler initial conditions are explored (Du, Shen & Debattista 2014). We expect that the new models can be used to cross-check with the kinematic properties of double-barred galaxies from IFU observations such as SAURON and Atlas3D.

Shen, Juntai

2015-03-01

191

Spectral characterization of the LANDSAT-D multispectral scanner subsystems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Relative spectral response data for the multispectral scanner subsystems (MSS) to be flown on LANDSAT-D and LANDSAT-D backup, the protoflight and flight models, respectively, are presented and compared to similar data for the Landsat 1,2, and 3 subsystems. Channel-bychannel (six channels per band) outputs for soil and soybean targets were simulated and compared within each band and between scanners. The two LANDSAT-D scanners proved to be nearly identical in mean spectral response, but they exhibited some differences from the previous MSS's. Principal differences between the spectral responses of the D-scanners and previous scanners were: (1) a mean upper-band edge in the green band of 606 nm compared to previous means of 593 to 598 nm; (2) an average upper-band edge of 697 nm in the red band compared to previous averages of 701 to 710 nm; and (3) an average bandpass for the first near-IR band of 702-814 nm compared to a range of 693-793 to 697-802 nm for previous scanners. These differences caused the simulated D-scanner outputs to be 3 to 10 percent lower in the red band and 3 to 11 percent higher in the first near-IR band than previous scanners for the soybeans target. Otherwise, outputs from soil and soybean targets were only slightly affected. The D-scanners were generally more uniform from channel to channel within bands than previous scanners.

Markham, B. L. (principal investigator); Barker, J. L.

1982-01-01

192

Recent micro-CT scanner developments at UGCT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes two X-ray micro-CT scanners which were recently developed to extend the experimental possibilities of microtomography research at the Centre for X-ray Tomography (www.ugct.ugent.be) of the Ghent University (Belgium). The first scanner, called Nanowood, is a wide-range CT scanner with two X-ray sources (160 kVmax) and two detectors, resolving features down to 0.4 ?m in small samples, but allowing samples up to 35 cm to be scanned. This is a sample size range of 3 orders of magnitude, making this scanner well suited for imaging multi-scale materials such as wood, stone, etc. Besides the traditional cone-beam acquisition, Nanowood supports helical acquisition, and it can generate images with significant phase-contrast contributions. The second scanner, known as the Environmental micro-CT scanner (EMCT), is a gantry based micro-CT scanner with variable magnification for scanning objects which are not easy to rotate in a standard micro-CT scanner, for example because they are physically connected to external experimental hardware such as sensor wiring, tubing or others. This scanner resolves 5 ?m features, covers a field-of-view of about 12 cm wide with an 80 cm vertical travel range. Both scanners will be extensively described and characterized, and their potential will be demonstrated with some key application results.

Dierick, Manuel; Van Loo, Denis; Masschaele, Bert; Van den Bulcke, Jan; Van Acker, Joris; Cnudde, Veerle; Van Hoorebeke, Luc

2014-04-01

193

Permanent Bar Magnets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about the basic properties of magnets and magnetism. Learners explore concepts such as magnetic fields and polarity, which form the basic ingredients of a study of Earth's magnetic field and the technology of magnetometers. Materials needed include bar magnets and paper clips. This is Activity 1 of Exploring Magnetism: A Teacher's Magnetism Activity Guide.

2012-08-03

194

Toll Bar on Sea  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the summer of 2007 the United Kingdom experienced some of the heaviest rainfall since records began. Toll Bar in South Yorkshire featured prominently in media coverage as the village and the homes surrounding it began to flood. Many people lost everything: their homes, their furniture, their possessions. In an effort to come to terms with what…

Hunter, Dave

2008-01-01

195

The in-flight calibration of a helicopter-mounted Daedalus multispectral scanner  

SciTech Connect

A convenient way that has been used to calibrate, in-flight, a helicopter-mounted Daedalus multispectral scanner is described. It used four large canvas panels laid out in a square with a Spectralon panel as a reference. A calibrated Barnes modular multispectral radiometer, carried on a 2.2-m boom was rotated around a 2.5-m high tripod at the center of the square. The radiometer sampled the four large panels and the Spectralon panel once every two minutes. Atmospheric spectral transmittance measurements were made using a filter radiometer on an autotracking mount during the morning of the flight. The reflectance and optical depth data were used in an atmospheric radiative transfer code to predict the spectral radiances at the scanner. The calibration was completed by comparing the image digital counts to the predicted spectral radiances. 7 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

Balick, L.K.; Golanics, C.J.; Shines, J.E. (EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (USA)); Biggar, S.F.; Slater, P.N. (Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (USA). Optical Sciences Center)

1991-01-01

196

GPU-based real-time structured light 3D scanner at 500 fps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we develop a real-time, structured light 3D scanner that can output 3D video of 512×512 pixels at 500 fps using a GPU-based, high-speed vision system synchronized with a high-speed DLP projector. Our 3D scanner projects eight pairs of positive and negative image patterns with 8-bit gray code on the measurement objects at 1000 fps. Synchronized with the high-speed vision platform, these images are simultaneously captured at 1000 fps and processed in real time for 3D image generation at 500 fps by introducing parallel pixel processing on a NVIDIA Tesla 1060 GPU board. Several experiments are performed for high-speed 3D objects that undergo sudden 3D shape deformation.

Gao, Hao; Takaki, Takeshi; Ishii, Idaku

2012-06-01

197

Integrated Electro-optical Laser-Beam Scanners  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scanners using solid-state devices compact, consume little power, and have no moving parts. Integrated electro-optical laser scanner, in conjunction with external lens, points outgoing beam of light in any number of different directions, depending on number of upper electrodes. Offers beam-deflection angles larger than those of acousto-optic scanners. Proposed for such diverse applications as nonimpact laser printing, color imaging, ranging, barcode reading, and robotic vision.

Boord, Warren T.

1990-01-01

198

52. View from ground level showing lower radar scanner switch ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

52. View from ground level showing lower radar scanner switch with open port door in radar scanner building 105 showing emanating waveguides from lower switch in vertical run; photograph also shows catwalk to upper scanner switch in upper left side of photograph and structural supports. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

199

Polarization characteristics of an altazimuth sky scanner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A theoretical description of the polarization characteristics of an altazimuth sky scanner optical system based on Mueller-Stokes calculus is presented. This computer-driven optical system was designed to perform laboratory studies of skylight and of celestial objects during day or night, and has no space limitations; however, the two parallel 45 deg tilt mirrors introduce some intrinsic polarization. Therefore, proper data interpretation requires a theoretical understanding of the polarization features of the instrument and accurate experimental determination of the Mueller-Stokes matrix elements describing the polarizing and depolarizing action of the system.

Garrison, L. M.; Blaszczak, Z.; Green, A. E. S.

1980-01-01

200

Measurements of vertical bar Vcb vertical bar and vertical bar Vub vertical bar at BaBar  

SciTech Connect

We report results from the BABAR Collaboration on the semileptonic B decays, highlighting the measurements of the magnitude of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements Vub and Vcb. We describe the techniques used to obtain the matrix element |Vcb| using the measurement of the inclusive B {yields} Xclv process and a large sample of exclusive B {yields} D*lv decays. The vertical bar Vub vertical bar matrix elements has been measured studying different kinematic variables of the B {yields} Xulv process, and also with the exclusive reconstruction of B {yields} {pi}({rho})lv decays.

Rotondo, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica Galileo Galilei, Via Marzolo 8, Padova 35131 (Italy)

2005-10-12

201

Kolsky Bar Impact Test Facility  

SciTech Connect

Testing for the Kolsky Bar is conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico. The Kolsky bar is operated by the Dynamic testing team of NMT-11, (Nuclear Material Technology Division) to enable measurements of stress-strain characteristics for the MST-8 (Material Science and Technology) personnel. The Kolsky Bar is located at the Plutonium Facility at TA-55 (Tech Area).

Contreras, P.; Montoya, J.

1998-12-31

202

Fooling Fingerprint Scanners - Biometric Vulnerabilities of the Precise Biometrics 100 SC Scanner  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper looks into the security of fingerprint scanners. To do this, an example device is chosen and some attempts to break its protection are made. We analyzed some vulnerability and then three different ways to exploit these safety risks are studied and tried out. The scope of the tests is limited to fingerprints, leaving hard- and software attacks aside.

Antti Stén; Antti Kaseva; Teemupekka Virtanen

2003-01-01

203

Breaking through the Bar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Howard University School of Law had a problem, and school officials knew it. Over a 20-year period, 40 percent of its graduates who took the Maryland bar exam failed it on their first try. During the next 24 months--the time frame required to determine its "eventual pass rate"--almost 90 percent of the students did pass. What they did not know was…

Gray, Katti

2011-01-01

204

A 3D airborne ultrasound scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work investigates the feasibility of an ultrasound scanner designed to reconstruct three-dimensional profiles of objects in air. There are many industrial applications in which it is important to obtain quickly and accurately the digital reconstruction of solid objects with contactless methods. The final aim of this project was the profile reconstruction of shoe lasts in order to eliminate the mechanical tracers from the reproduction process of shoe prototypes. The feasibility of an ultrasonic scanner was investigated in laboratory conditions on wooden test objects with axial symmetry. A bistatic system based on five airborne polyvinylidenedifluoride (PVDF) transducers was mechanically moved to emulate a cylindrical array transducer that can host objects of maximum width and height 20 cm and 40 cm respectively. The object reconstruction was based on a simplified version of the synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT): the time of flight (TOF) of the first in time echo for each receiving transducer was taken into account, a coarse spatial sampling of the ultrasonic field reflected on the array transducer was delivered and the reconstruction algorithm was based on the ellipsoidal backprojection. Measurements on a wooden cone section provided submillimetre accuracy in a controlled environment.

Capineri, L.; Masotti, L.; Rocchi, S.

1998-06-01

205

Evaluating scanner lens spherical aberration using scatterometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lens spherical error is an important lens aberration used to characterize lens quality and also has a significant contribution to across chip line width variation (ACLV). It also impacts tool-to-tool matching efforts especially when the optical lithography approaches sub-half wavelength geometry. Traditionally, spherical error is measured by using CD SEM with known drawbacks of poor accuracy and long cycle time. At Texas Instruments, an in-house scatterometer-based lens fingerprinting technique (ScatterLith) performs this tedious job accurately and quickly. This paper presents across slit spherical aberration signatures for ArF scanners collected using this method. The technique can successfully correlate these signatures with Litel lens aberration data and Nikon OCD data for spherical aberration errors as small as 10m?. ACLV contributions from such small spherical errors can be quantified using this method. This provides the lithographer with an important tool to evaluate, qualify and match advanced scanners to improve across chip line width variation control.

Wang, Changan; Zhang, Gary; Tan, Colin L.; Atkinson, Chris; Boehm, Mark A.; Brown, Jay M.; Godfrey, David; Littau, Michael E.; Raymond, Christopher J.

2003-06-01

206

An empirical study of scanner system parameters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The selection of the current combination of parametric values (instantaneous field of view, number and location of spectral bands, signal-to-noise ratio, etc.) of a multispectral scanner is a complex problem due to the strong interrelationship these parameters have with one another. The study was done with the proposed scanner known as Thematic Mapper in mind. Since an adequate theoretical procedure for this problem has apparently not yet been devised, an empirical simulation approach was used with candidate parameter values selected by the heuristic means. The results obtained using a conventional maximum likelihood pixel classifier suggest that although the classification accuracy declines slightly as the IFOV is decreased this is more than made up by an improved mensuration accuracy. Further, the use of a classifier involving both spatial and spectral features shows a very substantial tendency to resist degradation as the signal-to-noise ratio is decreased. And finally, further evidence is provided of the importance of having at least one spectral band in each of the major available portions of the optical spectrum.

Landgrebe, D.; Biehl, L.; Simmons, W.

1976-01-01

207

Antenna Near-Field Probe Station Scanner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A miniaturized antenna system is characterized non-destructively through the use of a scanner that measures its near-field radiated power performance. When taking measurements, the scanner can be moved linearly along the x, y and z axis, as well as rotationally relative to the antenna. The data obtained from the characterization are processed to determine the far-field properties of the system and to optimize the system. Each antenna is excited using a probe station system while a scanning probe scans the space above the antenna to measure the near field signals. Upon completion of the scan, the near-field patterns are transformed into far-field patterns. Along with taking data, this system also allows for extensive graphing and analysis of both the near-field and far-field data. The details of the probe station as well as the procedures for setting up a test, conducting a test, and analyzing the resulting data are also described.

Zaman, Afroz J. (Inventor); Lee, Richard Q. (Inventor); Darby, William G. (Inventor); Barr, Philip J. (Inventor); Lambert, Kevin M (Inventor); Miranda, Felix A. (Inventor)

2011-01-01

208

Dissipative Cloud Collissions in Barred Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evolution of a system of dissipative giant molecular clouds (GMC) moving in a galaxy is investigated using an N-body code. The GMC may collide when close enough and dissipate certain amount of their kinetic energy. The observed large scale structures are compared with simulations. In particular, we attack the problem of molecular rings in barred galaxies. The simulations showing multiple rings connected to different resonances are discussed. The inelastic collisions play the key role, thus we are able to investigate the importance of viscosity.

Palous, Jan

209

A compact optical fiber scanner for medical imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

A compact fiber optic scanner for biomedical applications such as optical coherent tomography has been designed, fabricated and tested. The scanner is designed as an in vivo device and composed of an optical fiber coated with nickel-powder loaded paint for external magnetic actuation. The compactness of the imaging device makes it suitable for applications where size, precision and low power

Naresh Dhaubanjar; Hans Hu; Digent Dave; Pratibha Phuyal; Jeongsik Sin; Harry Stephanou; J.-C. Chiao

2007-01-01

210

21. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING LOOKING AT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

21. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - LOOKING AT DISC STORAGE SYSTEMS A AND B (A OR B ARE REDUNDANT SYSTEMS), ONE MAINFRAME COMPUTER ON LINE, ONE ON STANDBY WITH STORAGE TAPE, ONE ON STANDBY WITHOUT TAPE INSTALLED. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

211

20. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING IN COMPUTER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - IN COMPUTER ROOM LOOKING AT "CONSOLIDATED MAINTENANCE OPERATIONS CENTER" JOB AREA AND OPERATION WORK CENTER. TASKS INCLUDE RADAR MAINTENANCE, COMPUTER MAINTENANCE, CYBER COMPUTER MAINTENANCE AND RELATED ACTIVITIES. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

212

27. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING OPERATIONS CENTER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

27. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - OPERATIONS CENTER - MWOC MONITOR NO. 4 IN OPERATION AT 2002 ZULU, OCTOBER 26, 1999 CAPE COD, AS PAVE PAWS. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

213

19. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING AIR POLICE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

19. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - AIR POLICE SITE SECURITY OFFICE WITH "SITE PERIMETER STATUS PANEL" AND REAL TIME VIDEO DISPLAY OUTPUT FROM VIDEO CAMERA SYSTEM AT SECURITY FENCE LOCATIONS. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

214

Evaluation of scanning parameters for a surface colour laser scanner  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent innovations in laser scanner technology provide a potentially useful technique for accurate three-dimensional (3D) documentation of the face. Aim of this study was to evaluate and optimise facial surface acquisition parameters and measurements obtained by a Cyberware colour laser scanner and to compare those measures to the common anthropometric ones made by individual examiners. This preliminary study indicates that

S. D. Bianchi; M. C. Spada; L. Bianchi; L. Verzè; E. Vezzetti; S. Tornincasa; G. Ramieri

2004-01-01

215

Metrics for setting a baseline for web vulnerability scanners  

E-print Network

of successful detection. These benchmarks are only capable of judging which scanner is better in the matter of how well the scanners can de- tect the fixed set of vulnerabilities the benchmarks picked with static selection criteria. They suffer from drawbacks by neglecting the critical questions: Does the benchmark

Kaiser, Gail E.

216

29. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING FLOOR 3A ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

29. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - FLOOR 3A ("A" FACE) AT SYSTEM LAYOUT GRID 17. GENERAL OBLIQUE VIEW OF "A" FACE INTERIOR SHOWING RADAR EMITTER/ANTENNA INTERFACE ELECTRONICS. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

217

Computed Tomographic Mammography Using a Conventional Body Scanner  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technique for computed tomographic (CT) examination of the breasts using a conventional body scanner is described, and experience with 67 patients is reported. In the diagnosis of both malignant and benign breast lesions, the results with a body scanner were equal to those of a dedicated CT\\/M mammographic unit. Although the CT study of the breast cannot replace conventional

C. H. Joseph Chang; Dennis E. Nesbit; David R. Fisher; Steven L. Fritz; Samuel J. Dwyer; Arch W. Templeton; Fritz Lin; William R. JeweIl

218

AUTOCORRECTING RECONSTRUCTION FOR FLEXIBLE CT SCANNERS Jeff Orchard  

E-print Network

AUTOCORRECTING RECONSTRUCTION FOR FLEXIBLE CT SCANNERS Jeff Orchard , Alexei Ramotar David R on a flexible sheet and de- ployed around a body part to acquire CT data at the scene of an accident. However, the irregular geometry of such a scanner makes the reconstruction problem more challenging. Moreover

Orchard, Jeffery J.

219

Backscatter body scanners – A strip search by other means  

Microsoft Academic Search

Backscatter body scanners have only recently been deployed at airports across the US and used as an optional alternative to patdowns – the open hand form of body search. This paper will essentially outline the statutory law and case-law of special relevance in the US to backscatter body scanners and determine the deficiencies and dilemmas of the legal framework with

Demetrius Klitou

2008-01-01

220

Detector characterization of Discovery ST whole-body PET scanner  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new whole-body PET scanner from General Electric (Discovery ST) is based on 6×6 BGO block detector using quad photo multipliers and utilizes a state of the art data acquisition system. The detector consists of 280 detector units in a ring structure. Each detector unit consists of a BGO block and a quad photomultiplier. The DST scanner has high sensitivity

John J. Williams; David L. McDaniel; Chang L. Kim; Larissa J. West

2003-01-01

221

Quantitative Assay for Starch by Colorimetry Using a Desktop Scanner  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The procedure to produce standard curve for starch concentration measurement by image analysis using a color scanner and computer for data acquisition and color analysis is described. Color analysis is performed by a Visual Basic program that measures red, green, and blue (RGB) color intensities for pixels within the scanner image.

Matthews, Kurt R.; Landmark, James D.; Stickle, Douglas F.

2004-01-01

222

26. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING OPERATIONS CENTER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

26. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - OPERATIONS CENTER - MWOC IN OPERATION AT 1945 ZULU TIME, 26 OCTOBER, 1999. "SPACE TRACK BOARD" DATA SHOWING ITEMS #16609 MIR (RUSSIA) AND #25544 ISS (INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION) BEING TRACKED. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

223

25. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING OPERATIONS CENTER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

25. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - OPERATIONS CENTER - MWOC IN OPERATION AT 1930 ZULU TIME, 26 OCTOBER, 1999. MWOC SCREEN ALSO SHOWS RADAR "FACE A" AND "FACE B" ACTIVE STATUS. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

224

5. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING AT "A" ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - AT "A" FACE (ON SOUTH SIDE) LOOKING DIRECTLY UP RADAR SYSTEM EMITTER/ANTENNA ARRAY FACE WITH 90MM STANDARD LENS. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

225

9. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING LOOKING AT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - LOOKING AT "C" FACE RADAR SYSTEM EMITTER/ANTENNA. VIEW IS LOOKING SOUTH 30° EAST (NOTE: "C" FACE NOT IN USE AT FACILITY). - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

226

6. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING AT "A" ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - AT "A" FACE (ON SOUTH SIDE) LOOKING DIRECTLY UP RADAR SYSTEM EMITTER/ANTENNA ARRAY FACE WITH 65MM WIDE ANGLE LENS. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

227

10. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING LOOKING AT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - LOOKING AT SOUTHWEST CORNER "B" FACE AND "C" FACE ON WEST AND EVAPORATIVE COOLING TOWER AT NORTH. VIEW IS LOOKING NORTH 45° EAST. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

228

Laser excited confocal microscope fluorescence scanner and method  

DOEpatents

A fluorescent scanner is designed for scanning the fluorescence from a fluorescence labeled separated sample on a sample carrier. The scanner includes a confocal microscope for illuminating a predetermined volume of the sample carrier and/or receiving and processing fluorescence emissions from the volume to provide a display of the separated sample. 8 figs.

Mathies, R.A.; Peck, K.

1992-02-25

229

21 CFR 862.2400 - Densitometer/scanner (integrating, reflectance, TLC, or radiochromatogram) for clinical use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Densitometer/scanner (integrating, reflectance, TLC, or...Instruments § 862.2400 Densitometer/scanner (integrating, reflectance, TLC, or...Identification. A densitometer/scanner (integrating, reflectance,...

2010-04-01

230

21 CFR 862.2400 - Densitometer/scanner (integrating, reflectance, TLC, or radiochromatogram) for clinical use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Densitometer/scanner (integrating, reflectance, TLC, or...Instruments § 862.2400 Densitometer/scanner (integrating, reflectance, TLC, or...Identification. A densitometer/scanner (integrating, reflectance,...

2011-04-01

231

Micromachined tethered silicon oscillator for an endomicroscopic Lissajous fiber scanner.  

PubMed

This work reports micromachined tethered silicon oscillators (MTSOs) for endoscopic Lissajous fiber scanners. An MTSO comprises an offset silicon spring for stiffness modulation of a scanning fiber and additional mass for modulation of resonant scanning frequency in one body. MTSOs were assembled with a resonant fiber scanner and enhanced scanning reliability of the scanner by eliminating mechanical cross coupling. The fiber scanner with MTSOs was fully packaged as an endomicroscopic catheter and coupled with a conventional laparoscope and spectral domain OCT system. The endomicroscope was maneuvered with the integrated laparoscope and in vivo swine tissue OCT imaging was successfully demonstrated during open surgery. This new component serves as an important element inside an endoscopic Lissajous fiber scanner for early cancer detection or on-demand minimum lesional margin decision during noninvasive endoscopic biopsy. PMID:25490650

Park, Hyeon-Cheol; Seo, Yeong-Hyeon; Hwang, Kyungmin; Lim, Jae-Kwan; Yoon, Seung Zhoo; Jeong, Ki-Hun

2014-12-01

232

Ultra-Miniature Lidar Scanner for Launch Range Data Collection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The most critical component in lidar is its laser scanner, which delivers pulsed or CW laser to target with desirable field of view (FOV). Most existing lidars use a rotating or oscillating mirror for scanning, resulting in several drawbacks. A lidar scanning technology was developed that could achieve very high scanning speed, with an ultra-miniature size and much lighter weight. This technology promises at least a 10x performance improvement in these areas over existing lidar scanners. Features of the proposed ultra-miniature lidar scanner include the ability to make the entire scanner <2 mm in diameter; very high scanning speed (e.g. 5 - 20 kHz, in contrast to several hundred Hz in existing scanners); structure design to meet stringent requirements on size, weight, power, and compactness for various applications; and the scanning speed and FOV can be altered for obtaining high image resolutions of targeted areas and for diversified uses.

Geng, Jason

2012-01-01

233

Temporal analysis of multispectral scanner data.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multispectral scanner reflectance data were sampled for bare soil, cotton, sorghum, corn, and citrus at four dates during a growing season (April, May, June, and July 1969) to develop a time-dependent signature for crop and soil discrimination. Discrimination tests were conducted for single-date and multidate formats using training and test data sets. For classifications containing several crops, the multidate or temporal approach improved discrimination compared with the single-date approach. The multidate approach also preserved recognition accuracy better in going from training fields to test fields than the single-date analysis. The spectral distinctiveness of bare soil versus vegetation resulted in essentially equal discrimination using single-date versus multidate data for those two categories.

Richardson, A. J.; Wiegand, C. L.; Torline, R. J.

1973-01-01

234

Quadrupole resonance scanner for narcotics detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interest in non-invasive, non-hazardous, bulk detection technologies for narcotics interdiction has risen over the last few years. As part of our continuing research and development programs in detection of narcotics and explosives using sensitive magnetic measuring devices, we present the first commercially available prototype Quadrupole Resonance (QR) scanner for narcotics detection. The portable narcotics detection system was designed in modular form such that a single QR base system could be easily used with a variety of custom detection heads. The QR system presented in this paper is suitable for scanning items up to 61 X 35 X 13 cm in size, and was designed to scan mail packages and briefcase-sized items for the presence of narcotics. System tests have shown that detection sensitivity is comparable that obtained in laboratory systems.

Shaw, Julian D.; Moeller, C. R.; Magnuson, Erik E.; Sheldon, Alan G.

1994-10-01

235

A PC-based multispectral scanner data evaluation workstation: Application to Daedalus scanners  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In late 1989, a personal computer (PC)-based data evaluation workstation was developed to support post flight processing of Multispectral Atmospheric Mapping Sensor (MAMS) data. The MAMS Quick View System (QVS) is an image analysis and display system designed to provide the capability to evaluate Daedalus scanner data immediately after an aircraft flight. Even in its original form, the QVS offered the portability of a personal computer with the advanced analysis and display features of a mainframe image analysis system. It was recognized, however, that the original QVS had its limitations, both in speed and processing of MAMS data. Recent efforts are presented that focus on overcoming earlier limitations and adapting the system to a new data tape structure. In doing so, the enhanced Quick View System (QVS2) will accommodate data from any of the four spectrometers used with the Daedalus scanner on the NASA ER2 platform. The QVS2 is designed around the AST 486/33 MHz CPU personal computer and comes with 10 EISA expansion slots, keyboard, and 4.0 mbytes of memory. Specialized PC-McIDAS software provides the main image analysis and display capability for the system. Image analysis and display of the digital scanner data is accomplished with PC-McIDAS software.

Jedlovec, Gary J.; James, Mark W.; Smith, Matthew R.; Atkinson, Robert J.

1991-01-01

236

Scanner arc illumination and impact on EUV photomasks and scanner imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The combination of a reflective photomask with the non-telecentric illumination and arc shaped slit of the EUV scanner introduces what are known as shadowing effects. The compensation of these effects requires proper biasing of the photomask to generate the intended image on the wafer. Thus, the physical pattern on the mask ends up being noticeably different from the desired pattern to be written on the wafer. This difference has a strong dependence on both the illumination settings and the features to be printed. In this work, the impact of shadowing effects from line and space patterns with a nominal CD of 16nm at wafer was investigated with particular focus on the influence of pattern orientation and pitch, illumination pupil shape and fill (coherence) and absorber height. CD, best focus shift and contrast at best focus are utilized in detail in order to study the impact of the shadowing effects. All the simulation cases presented employ a complete scanner arc emulation, i.e. describe the impact of the azimuthal angle component of the illumination arc as in the NXE:3300 scanner and as it can be emulated by the AIMSTM EUV.

Capelli, Renzo; Garetto, Anthony; Magnusson, Krister; Scherübl, Thomas

2014-10-01

237

Observations of gravel beach dynamics during high energy wave conditions using a laser scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 2D laser-scanner was deployed at the high tide runup limit of a pure gravel beach (Loe Bar, Cornwall, England) to measure high-frequency (2.5 Hz) swash hydrodynamics and topographic changes during an energetic wave event. Measurements performed with the laser-scanner were corrected to compensate for levelling and orientation errors, and a variance threshold was applied to separate the beach topography from the water motions. Laser measurements were used to characterise the swash hydrodynamics and morphological changes during one tidal cycle through the calculation of several parameters, such as the 2% exceedence of the runup maxima (R2%), swash flow velocity skewness (< u3>), runup spectra and cumulative topographic changes. Results indicate that despite the small net morphological changes over the tide cycle, significant sediment mobilization occurs. A clear asymmetrical morphological response was found during the different tidal phases: the rising tide is dominated by accretion whilst the falling tide is dominated by erosion. The main factor controlling this asymmetrical morphological response is the step migration that, depending on the tide phase, controls the wave breaking point and consequently the dominant sediment transport direction. During the rising tide, step development decreases the shoreface slope and reduces the runup energy, whilst during the falling tide the step remobilization increases the shoreface slope and energy on the runup.

Almeida, L. P.; Masselink, G.; Russell, P. E.; Davidson, M. A.

2015-01-01

238

Barred disks in dense environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the properties of bright barred and unbarred disks in the Abell 901/902 cluster system at z˜ 0.165 with the STAGES HST ACS survey. We find that the global optical bar fraction in the clusters is ˜ 30% regardless of the method of disk selection. Within a given absolute magnitude bin, the bar fraction increases for galaxies with no significant bulge component. Within each morphological type bin, the bar fraction increases for brighter galaxies. We find no strong trend for the bar fraction with local density within the cluster between the core and virial radius. We discuss the implications of our results for the evolution of bars and disks in dense environments.

Marinova, I.; Jogee, S.; Heiderman, A.; Barazza, F. D.; Gray, M. E.; Barden, M.; Wolf, C.; Peng, C. Y.; Bacon, D.; Balogh, M.; Bell, E. F.; Böhm, A.; Caldwell, J. A. R.; Häußler, B.; Heymans, C.; Jahnke, K.; van Kampen, E.; Lane, K.; McIntosh, D. H.; Meisenheimer, K.; Sánchez, S. F.; Somerville, R.; Taylor, A.; Wisotzki, L.; Zheng, X.

239

Beyond Hopkinson's bar.  

PubMed

In order to perform experimental identification of high strain rate material models, engineers have only a very limited toolbox based on test procedures developed decades ago. The best example is the so-called split Hopkinson pressure bar based on the bar concept introduced 100 years ago by Bertram Hopkinson to measure blast pulses. The recent advent of full-field deformation measurements using imaging techniques has allowed novel approaches to be developed and exciting new testing procedures to be imagined for the first time. One can use this full-field information in conjunction with efficient numerical inverse identification tools such as the virtual fields method (VFM) to identify material parameters at high rates. The underpinning novelty is to exploit the inertial effects developed in high strain rate loading. This paper presents results from a new inertial impact test to obtain stress-strain curves at high strain rates (here, up to 3000?s(-1)). A quasi-isotropic composite specimen is equipped with a grid and images are recorded with the new HPV-X camera from Shimadzu at 5?Mfps and the SIMX16 camera from Specialised Imaging at 1?Mfps. Deformation, strain and acceleration fields are then input into the VFM to identify the stiffness parameters with unprecedented quality. PMID:25071232

Pierron, F; Zhu, H; Siviour, C

2014-08-28

240

Number Line Bars--Fractions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use these virtual fraction bars to model fractional addition, subtraction, multiplication (of fractions by whole numbers), and division on a number line. Students can create bars in positive or negative fractional lengths; align, stack, or remove bars; and change the number line marks in increments between 1/2 and 1/15. Applet instructions and teaching ideas are included in the links at the top of the page.

2005-01-01

241

Bars in a cosmological context  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the properties of bars in a series of zoom cosmological simulations (Martig et al. 2012, Kraljic et al. 2012). We find that bars are almost absent from galaxies at z>1, and if they form they tend to be quickly destroyed by mergers and instabilities. On the contrary, at z<1 bars are long-lived, and the fraction of barred galaxies rises steadily. Bars are eventually found in ~ 80% of z=0 spiral galaxies. This redshift evolution is quantitatively consistent with existing data from the COSMOS survey (Sheth et al. 2008), although the detectability of bars is presently limited to z<0.8 because of band-shifting and resolution effects. We predict later bar formation in lower-mass galaxies, also in agreement with existing data (e.g., Sheth et al. 2012). We actually find that the characteristic epoch of bar formation is the epoch of massive thin disk formation, corresponding to the transition between an early violent phase at z > 1 and a later secular phase. Bar formation thus traces the emergence of the disk-dominated morphology of today's spirals.

Martig, Marie; Kraljic, Katarina; Bournaud, Frédéric

2015-03-01

242

Ladder supported ring bar circuit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved slow wave circuit especially useful in backward wave oscillators includes a slow wave circuit in a waveguide. The slow wave circuit is comprised of rings disposed between and attached to respective stubs. The stubs are attached to opposing sidewalls of the waveguide. To the end that opposed, interacting magnetic fields will be established to provide a very high coupling impedance for the slow wave structure, axially orientated bars are connected between rings in alternate spaces and adjacent to the attachment points of stubs. Similarly, axial bars are connected between rings in the spaces which do not include bars and at points adjacent to the attachment of bars.

Kosmahl, H. G. (inventor)

1983-01-01

243

Design study for Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of dividing the 8-12 micrometer thermal infrared wavelength region into six spectral bands by an airborne line scanner system was investigated. By combining an existing scanner design with a 6 band spectrometer, a system for the remote sensing of Earth resources was developed. The elements in the spectrometer include an off axis reflective collimator, a reflective diffraction grating, a triplet germanium imaging lens, a photoconductive mercury cadmium telluride sensor array, and the mechanical assembly to hold these parts and maintain their optical alignment across a broad temperature range. The existing scanner design was modified to accept the new spectrometer and two field filling thermal reference sources.

Stanich, C. G.; Osterwisch, F. G.; Szeles, D. M.; Houtman, W. H.

1981-01-01

244

Implementation of viscoelastic Hopkinson bars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge of the properties of soft, viscoelastic materials at high strain rates are important in furthering our understanding of their role during blast or impact events. Testing these low impedance materials using a metallic split Hopkinson pressure bar setup results in poor signal to noise ratios due to impedance mismatching. These difficulties are overcome by using polymeric Hopkinson bars. Conventional Hopkinson bar analysis cannot be used on the polymeric bars due to the viscoelastic nature of the bar material. Implementing polymeric Hopkinson bars requires characterization of the viscoelastic properties of the material used. In this paper, 30 mm diameter Polymethyl Methacrylate bars are used as Hopkinson pressure bars. This testing technique is applied to polymeric foam called Divinycell H80 and H200. Although there is a large body of of literature containing compressive data, this rarely deals with strain rates above 250s-1 which becomes increasingly important when looking at the design of composite structures where energy absorption during impact events is high on the list of priorities. Testing of polymeric foams at high strain rates allows for the development of better constitutive models.

Curry, R.; Cloete, T.; Govender, R.

2012-08-01

245

Basic Business and Economics: Understanding the Uses of the Universal Product Code  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Universal Product Code (UPC), the two-part food labeling and packaging code which is both human- and electronic scanner-readable. Discusses how it affects both consumer and business, and suggests how to teach the UPC code to business education students. (HD)

Blockhus, Wanda

1977-01-01

246

LANDSAT-4 horizon scanner performance evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Representative data spans covering a little more than a year since the LANDSAT-4 launch were analyzed to evaluate the flight performance of the satellite's horizon scanner. High frequency noise was filtered out by 128-point averaging. The effects of Earth oblateness and spacecraft altitude variations are modeled, and residual systematic errors are analyzed. A model for the predicted radiance effects is compared with the flight data and deficiencies in the radiance effects modeling are noted. Correction coefficients are provided for a finite Fourier series representation of the systematic errors in the data. Analysis of the seasonal dependence of the coefficients indicates the effects of some early mission problems with the reference attitudes which were computed by the onboard computer using star trackers and gyro data. The effects of sun and moon interference, unexplained anomalies in the data, and sensor noise characteristics and their power spectrum are described. The variability of full orbit data averages is shown. Plots of the sensor data for all the available data spans are included.

Bilanow, S.; Chen, L. C.; Davis, W. M.; Stanley, J. P.

1984-01-01

247

Focal plane scanner with reciprocating spatial window  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A focal plane scanner having a front objective lens, a spatial window for selectively passing a portion of the image therethrough, and a CCD array for receiving the passed portion of the image. All embodiments have a common feature whereby the spatial window and CCD array are mounted for simultaneous relative reciprocating movement with respect to the front objective lens, and the spatial window is mounted within the focal plane of the front objective. In a first embodiment, the spatial window is a slit and the CCD array is one-dimensional, and successive rows of the image in the focal plane of the front objective lens are passed to the CCD array by an image relay lens interposed between the slit and the CCD array. In a second embodiment, the spatial window is a slit, the CCD array is two-dimensional, and a prism-grating-prism optical spectrometer is interposed between the slit and the CCD array so as to cause the scanned row to be split into a plurality of spectral separations onto the CCD array. In a third embodiment, the CCD array is two-dimensional and the spatial window is a rectangular linear variable filter (LVF) window, so as to cause the scanned rows impinging on the LVF to be bandpass filtered into spectral components onto the CCD array through an image relay lens interposed between the LVF and the CCD array.

Mao, Chengye (Inventor)

2000-01-01

248

Meteorological waves (by Ocean Color Scanner Data)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data of normalized water leaving radiance at a wavelength 859 nm Lwn(859) of 250-m spatial resolution obtained from Moderate Ocean Color Scanners (MODIS) installed on Aqua and Terra satellites were used to study meteorological waves. These waves are caused by atmospheric internal gravity waves at the expense of a change of atmospheric pressure impacting the sea surface and bringing a change in its level; they are observable everywhere in the ocean. Examples of meteorological waves were considered for the eastern part of the Black Sea, where they appeared as stripes of alternate brightness on Lwn(859) images. It is shown that meteorological waves at one and the same place can be totally generated by atmospheric waves spreading at different heights of the lower troposphere. The 3D characteristics of meteorological waves were evaluated including the direction of wave propagation, crest length reaching more than one hundred kilometers, wavelength of several tens centimeters, and wave amplitude of several tens of centimeters. For conditions of intermittent cloudiness, imposition in a difference mode of the level L1b radiance image with the signature of atmospheric waves in a cloud and of the level L2 water leaving the radiance image with the signature of meteorological waves enabled us to examine the phase structure of waves and to reveal the existence of resonance.

Evdoshenko, M. A.

2014-10-01

249

Galaxy Zoo: CANDELS barred discs and bar fractions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation of bars in disc galaxies is a tracer of the dynamical maturity of the population. Previous studies have found that the incidence of bars in discs decreases from the local Universe to z ˜ 1, and by z > 1 simulations predict that bar features in dynamically mature discs should be extremely rare. Here, we report the discovery of strong barred structures in massive disc galaxies at z ˜ 1.5 in deep rest-frame optical images from the Cosmic Assembly Near-Infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey. From within a sample of 876 disc galaxies identified by visual classification in Galaxy Zoo, we identify 123 barred galaxies. Selecting a subsample within the same region of the evolving galaxy luminosity function (brighter than L*), we find that the bar fraction across the redshift range 0.5 ? z ? 2 ( f_{bar} = 10.7^{+6.3}_{-3.5} per cent after correcting for incompleteness) does not significantly evolve. We discuss the implications of this discovery in the context of existing simulations and our current understanding of the way disc galaxies have evolved over the last 11 billion years.

Simmons, B. D.; Melvin, Thomas; Lintott, Chris; Masters, Karen L.; Willett, Kyle W.; Keel, William C.; Smethurst, R. J.; Cheung, Edmond; Nichol, Robert C.; Schawinski, Kevin; Rutkowski, Michael; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; Bell, Eric F.; Casteels, Kevin R. V.; Conselice, Christopher J.; Almaini, Omar; Ferguson, Henry C.; Fortson, Lucy; Hartley, William; Kocevski, Dale; Koekemoer, Anton M.; McIntosh, Daniel H.; Mortlock, Alice; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Ownsworth, Jamie; Bamford, Steven; Dahlen, Tomas; Faber, Sandra M.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Fontana, Adriano; Galametz, Audrey; Grogin, N. A.; Grützbauch, Ruth; Guo, Yicheng; Häußler, Boris; Jek, Kian J.; Kaviraj, Sugata; Lucas, Ray A.; Peth, Michael; Salvato, Mara; Wiklind, Tommy; Wuyts, Stijn

2014-12-01

250

Determination of noise equivalent reflectance for a multispectral scanner: A scanner sensitivity study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The methods used to calculate the sensitivity parameter noise equivalent reflectance of a remote-sensing scanner are explored, and the results are compared with values measured over calibrated test sites. Data were acquired on four occasions covering a span of 4 years and providing various atmospheric conditions. One of the calculated values was based on assumed atmospheric conditions, whereas two others were based on atmospheric models. Results indicate that the assumed atmospheric conditions provide useful answers adequate for many purposes. A nomograph was developed to indicate sensitivity variations due to geographic location, time of day, and season.

Gibbons, D. E.; Richard, R. R.

1979-01-01

251

NOAA-9 Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanner offsets determination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) instruments are designed to measure the components of the radiative exchange between the Sun, Earth and space. ERBE is comprised of three spacecraft, each carrying a nearly identical set of radiometers: a three-channel narrow-field-of-view scanner, a two-channel wide-field-of-view (limb-to-limb) non-scanning radiometer, a two-channel medium field-of view (1000 km) non-scanning radiometer, and a solar monitor. Ground testing showed the scanners to be susceptible to self-generated and externally generated electromagnetic noise. This paper describes the pre-launch corrective measures taken and the post-launch corrections to the NOAA-9 scanner data. The NOAA-9 scanner has met the mission objectives in accuracy and precision, in part because of the pre-launch reductions of and post-launch data corrections for the electromagnetic noise.

Avis, Lee M.; Paden, Jack; Lee, Robert B., III; Pandey, Dhirendra K.; Stassi, Joseph C.; Wilson, Robert S.; Tolson, Carol J.; Bolden, William C.

1994-01-01

252

Water into Wine: Converting Scanner RGB to Tristimulus XYZ  

E-print Network

. For example, Adobe Postscript Level II and Apple ColorSync have introduced software designed to work 1 #12 calibration demanded by current software architecture and the data provided by most desktop scanners

Wandell, Brian A.

253

Routine neuroradiological diagnosis with the EMI 5005 body scanner  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experience with the EMI 5005 body scanner in the neuroradiological diagnosis of about 500 cerebral and 30 spinal examinations is reported. The advantages and disadvantages of this machine are discussed.

G. B. Bradac; R. S. Simon; T. Grumme

1977-01-01

254

Agricultural Applications and Requirements for Thermal Infrared Scanners  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some of the applications of thermal scanner data in agriculture are presented along with illustrations of some of the factors affecting the temperature of plants, soil, and water. Examples of thermal imagery are included.

Wiegand, C. L.

1971-01-01

255

Whole-body 3D scanner and scan data report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the first whole-body 3D scanner now available the next adventure confronting the user is what to do with all of the data. While the system was built for anthropologists, it has created interest among users from a wide variety of fields. Users with applications in the fields of anthropology, costume design, garment design, entertainment, VR and gaming have a need for the data in formats unique to their fields. Data from the scanner is being converted to solid models for art and design and NURBS for computer graphics applications. Motion capture has made scan data move and dance. The scanner has created a need for advanced application software just as other scanners have in the past.

Addleman, Stephen R.

1997-03-01

256

Localization of mobile laser scanner using classical mechanics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use a single 2D laser scanner to 3D scan indoor environments, without any inertial measurement units or reference coordinates. The localization is done directly from the point cloud in an intrinsic manner compared to other state-of-the-art mobile laser scanning methods where external inertial or odometry sensors are employed and synchronized with the laser scanner. Our approach is based on treating the scanner as a holonomic system. A novel type of scanner platform, called VILMA, is designed and built to demonstrate the functionality of the presented approach. Results from flat-floor and non-flat-floor environments are presented. They suggest that intrinsic localization may be generalized for broader use.

Lehtola, Ville V.; Virtanen, Juho-Pekka; Kukko, Antero; Kaartinen, Harri; Hyyppä, Hannu

2015-01-01

257

Raising the Bar- Houston  

E-print Network

? Ombudsmen/Seminars ? Green Building Resource Center 3 Green Building Resource Center ? Offering the public green building strategies ? 50+ educational displays ? LEED Gold ? Green Building Tours / Green Building Classes ? Educational website: www.codegreenhouston.org....brown@houstontx.gov ? Green Building Resource Center http://www.codegreenhouston.org ? Code Enforcement www.houstonpermits.org ? Mayor?s Office of Environmental Programming web site: www.greenhoustontx.gov ? CoH Emission Reduction Plan: www...

Blake, S.

2012-01-01

258

AVG LinkScanner 8.5.289  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Users hoping to look for safe websites as they browse will appreciate learning about AVG's LinkScanner plug-in. LinkScanner works with both Firefox and Internet Explorer via its "Search Shield" to return only search safe results from both Google and Yahoo tagged with green or red flags. When visitors move over a flag, they will learn the IP address of the site, along with other relevant information. This version is compatible with computers running Windows 2000 and newer.

2009-04-24

259

47. View of "dry air inlets" to waveguides entering scanner ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

47. View of "dry air inlets" to waveguides entering scanner building 105. Dried air is generated under pressure by Ingersoll-Rand dehumidified/dessicator and compressor system. View is at entrance from passageway that links into corner of scanner building. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

260

Precision pointing using a dual-wedge scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The calibration and precise pointing of the germanium dual-wedge scanner that is used by an airborne CO2 Doppler lidar is undertaken by a system whose iterative calibration program combines the available data with estimated parameters of the scanner's orientation (relative to the aircraft's inertial navigation system axes). Attention is given to the effects of specific error conditions on program performance, and to the results of the program's application to 1981 flight test data.

Amirault, C. T.; Dimarzio, C. A.

1985-05-01

261

Free-Space Wavelength-Multiplexed Optical Scanner Demonstration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental demonstration of a no-moving-parts free-space wavelength-multiplexed optical scanner (W-MOS) is presented. With fast tunable lasers or optical filters and planar wavelength dispersive elements such as diffraction gratings, this microsecond-speed scanner enables large several-centimeter apertures for subdegree angular scans. The proposed W-MOS design incorporates a unique optical amplifier and variable optical attenuator combination that enables the calibration and modulation of

Zahid Yaqoob; Nabeel A. Riza

2002-01-01

262

Horizon scanner flight experiment on engineering test satellite IV  

Microsoft Academic Search

The horizon scanner test project is one of the four experiments on the Engineering Test Satellite IV launched on the 11th of February, 1981. The scanner was originally designed for an earth horizon attitude sensor utilizing a pyroelectric infrared detector (PbTiO3). The scanning mechanism is controlled by a quartz Phase-Lock-Loop and a direct drive motor sustained by a dry-lubricated bearing.

T. Kida; Y. Ohkami; C. Murakami; M. Ikeuchi; T. Suzuki; Y. Wakabayashi

1982-01-01

263

Design and evaluation of a prototype volume CT scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We designed, assembled and evaluated a prototype volume CT scanner (VCT) for the purpose of investigating various calibration methods and cone beam reconstruction algorithms as well as the potential clinical benefits of a high-resolution volume CT scanner. The new VCT is based on SIEMENS Sensation4 CT scanner. To achieve larger volume coverage and higher spatial resolution we replaced the prior 4-slices detector with a flat-panel detector. We also modified the prior x-ray tube to achieve a very small focus size by a smaller emitter and wider axial coverage by a larger anode angle. In addition the high-voltage generator was enhanced to support pulsed operation. Special measurement methods were elaborated and applied to measure the focus size, shape and position as well as the uniformity of the flat field x-ray exposure. The accuracy and stability of gantry rotation speed has been evaluated to decide for the most appropriate exposure trigger. New methods are applied to measure and calibrate the resulted x-ray geometry. One prototype VCT scanner is installed at a pre-clinical site to evaluate the application potential of the new VCT technology. The new volume scanner achieves unprecedented spatial resolution, slice sensitivity and spatial coverage. In a complementary paper we present the image quality, contrast resolution and dose issues associated with this scanner.

Popescu, Stefan; Stierstorfer, Karl; Flohr, Thomas; Suess, Christoph; Grasruck, Michael

2005-04-01

264

Photometric Decomposition of Barred Galaxies  

E-print Network

We present a non-parametric method for decomposition of the light of disk galaxies into disk, bulge and bar components. We have developed and tested the method on a sample of 68 disk galaxies for which we have acquired I-band photometry. The separation of disk and bar light relies on the single assumption that the bar is a straight feature with a different ellipticity and position angle from that of the projected disk. We here present the basic method, but recognise that it can be significantly refined. We identify bars in only 47% of the more nearly face-on galaxies in our sample. The fraction of light in the bar has a broad range from 1.3% to 40% of the total galaxy light. If low-luminosity galaxies have more dominant halos, and if halos contribute to bar stability, the luminosity functions of barred and unbarred galaxies should differ markedly; while our sample is small, we find only a slight difference of low significance.

A. S. Reese; T. B. Williams; J. A. Sellwood; Eric I. Barnes; Brian A. Powell

2007-02-27

265

BAR PACKAGES Standard Bar Package Price Liquor Beer/Wine  

E-print Network

Select Wine Bacardi Select Local Bar Package Price 1-2 hours $28/person North Shore Vodka ­ Lake Bluff, 3 hours $33/person North Shore Gin 6 ­ Lake Bluff, IL 4 hours $38/person Koval Lion's Pride Whiskey

Westneat, Mark W.

266

A stationary digital breast tomosynthesis scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A prototype stationary digital breast tomosynthesis (s-DBT) system has been developed by retrofitting a Hologic Selenia Dimension rotating gantry tomosynthesis scanner with a spatially distributed carbon nanotube (CNT) x-ray source array. The goal is to improve the system spatial resolution by removing the x-ray tube motion induced focal spot blurring. The CNT x-ray source array comprises 31 individually addressable x-ray beams covering 30° angular span. Each x-ray beam has a minimum focal spot size of 0.64×0.61mm (full-width-at-half-maximum), a stationary W anode operating up to 50kVp, and 1mm thick Al filter. The flux from each beam is regulated and varied using dedicated control electronics. The maximum tube current is determined by the heat load of the stationary anode and depends on the energy, pulse width and the focal spot size used. Stable operation at 28kVp, 27mA tube current, 250msec pulse width and 38mA tube current, 183msec pulse width per exposure was achieved with extended lifetime. The standard ACR phantom was imaged and analyzed to evaluate the image quality. The actual scanning speed depends on the number of views and the readout time of the x-ray detector. With the present detector, 6 second scanning time at either 15 views or 31 views can be achieved at 100mAs total imaging dose with a detector readout time of 240msec.

Qian, Xin; Tucker, Andrew; Gidcumb, Emily; Lu, Jianping; Zhou, Otto; Spronk, Derrek; Sprenger, Frank; Zhang, Yiheng; Kennedy, Don; Farbizio, Tom; Jing, Zhenxue

2012-03-01

267

Triple bar, high efficiency mechanical sealer  

DOEpatents

A clamp with a bottom clamp bar that has a planar upper surface is provided. The clamp may also include a top clamp bar connected to the bottom clamp bar, and a pressure distribution bar between the top clamp bar and the bottom clamp bar. The pressure distribution bar may have a planar lower surface in facing relation to the upper surface of the bottom clamp bar. An object is capable of being disposed in a clamping region between the upper surface and the lower surface. The width of the planar lower surface may be less than the width of the upper surface within the clamping region. Also, the pressure distribution bar may be capable of being urged away from the top clamp bar and towards the bottom clamp bar.

Pak, Donald J.; Hawkins, Samantha A.; Young, John E.

2013-03-19

268

A compact fiber optic scanner using electromagnetic actuation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electromagnetic actuation shows promising suitability for constructing actuators and sensors with an optical fiber in terms of speeds, device dimensions, and power consumption. In this work we invented a fiber scanner which is composed of an optical fiber coated with nickel powder based ferromagnetic gel. The optical scanner, in which the optical fiber is mechanically steered with external electromagnetic fields, satisfies the applications that require small sizes, precise optics, low power consumption and prefers non-electrical control in the device. The device architecture makes the scanner dimensions in the same scales of an optical fiber diameter and the optics is well preserved in the fiber. In addition, the external actuation eliminates the needs of voltage or current in the scanner. Magnetization hysteresis curve of the nickel based ferromagnetic gel, which gives relevant magnetic material properties, is characterized in order to carry out the calculation of static and dynamic responses. A rotary gel coating technique is used to construct fiber optical scanners. The material preparation and fabrication method is described in this paper. We characterized the scanner in two modes. The static scanning results showed a 0.5 mm displacement under the influence of static magnetic field of 14.5 KA/m. At the first peak of resonant frequency in dynamic scanning, a linear displacement of 0.75 mm with a magnetic field amplitude of 6.69 KA/m was demonstrated. In this paper, we discussed the fabrication procedures and performance characterization of the fiber scanner as well as some of the potential applications.

Hu, Hans P.; Le, Kevin D.; Chiao, J.-C.

2006-01-01

269

Bar Formation from Galaxy Flybys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, both simulations and observations have revealed that flybys—fast, one-time interactions between two galaxy halos—are surprisingly common, nearing/comparable to galaxy mergers. Since these are rapid, transient events with the closest approach well outside the galaxy disk, it is unclear if flybys can transform the galaxy in a lasting way. We conduct collisionless N-body simulations of three coplanar flyby interactions between pure-disk galaxies to take a first look at the effects flybys have on disk structure, with particular focus on stellar bar formation. We find that some flybys are capable of inciting a bar with bars forming in both galaxies during our 1:1 interaction and in the secondary during our 10:1 interaction. The bars formed have ellipticities >~ 0.5, sizes on the order of the host disk's scale length, and persist to the end of our simulations, ~5 Gyr after pericenter. The ability of flybys to incite bar formation implies that many processes associated with secular bar evolution may be more closely tied with interactions than previously thought.

Lang, Meagan; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Sinha, Manodeep

2014-08-01

270

An RF dosimeter for independent SAR measurement in MRI scanners  

PubMed Central

Purpose: The monitoring and management of radio frequency (RF) exposure is critical for ensuring magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) safety. Commercial MRI scanners can overestimate specific absorption rates (SAR) and improperly restrict clinical MRI scans or the application of new MRI sequences, while underestimation of SAR can lead to tissue heating and thermal injury. Accurate scanner-independent RF dosimetry is essential for measuring actual exposure when SAR is critical for ensuring regulatory compliance and MRI safety, for establishing RF exposure while evaluating interventional leads and devices, and for routine MRI quality assessment by medical physicists. However, at present there are no scanner-independent SAR dosimeters. Methods: An SAR dosimeter with an RF transducer comprises two orthogonal, rectangular copper loops and a spherical MRI phantom. The transducer is placed in the magnet bore and calibrated to approximate the resistive loading of the scanner's whole-body birdcage RF coil for human subjects in Philips, GE and Siemens 3 tesla (3T) MRI scanners. The transducer loop reactances are adjusted to minimize interference with the transmit RF field (B1) at the MRI frequency. Power from the RF transducer is sampled with a high dynamic range power monitor and recorded on a computer. The deposited power is calibrated and tested on eight different MRI scanners. Whole-body absorbed power vs weight and body mass index (BMI) is measured directly on 26 subjects. Results: A single linear calibration curve sufficed for RF dosimetry at 127.8 MHz on three different Philips and three GE 3T MRI scanners. An RF dosimeter operating at 123.2 MHz on two Siemens 3T scanners required a separate transducer and a slightly different calibration curve. Measurement accuracy was ?3%. With the torso landmarked at the xiphoid, human adult whole?body absorbed power varied approximately linearly with patient weight and BMI. This indicates that whole-body torso SAR is on average independent of the imaging subject, albeit with fluctuations. Conclusions: Our 3T RF dosimeter and transducers accurately measure RF exposure in body-equivalent loads and provide scanner-independent assessments of whole-body RF power deposition for establishing safety compliance useful for MRI sequence and device testing. PMID:24320534

Qian, Di; El-Sharkawy, AbdEl-Monem M.; Bottomley, Paul A.; Edelstein, William A.

2013-01-01

271

An RF dosimeter for independent SAR measurement in MRI scanners  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The monitoring and management of radio frequency (RF) exposure is critical for ensuring magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) safety. Commercial MRI scanners can overestimate specific absorption rates (SAR) and improperly restrict clinical MRI scans or the application of new MRI sequences, while underestimation of SAR can lead to tissue heating and thermal injury. Accurate scanner-independent RF dosimetry is essential for measuring actual exposure when SAR is critical for ensuring regulatory compliance and MRI safety, for establishing RF exposure while evaluating interventional leads and devices, and for routine MRI quality assessment by medical physicists. However, at present there are no scanner-independent SAR dosimeters. Methods: An SAR dosimeter with an RF transducer comprises two orthogonal, rectangular copper loops and a spherical MRI phantom. The transducer is placed in the magnet bore and calibrated to approximate the resistive loading of the scanner's whole-body birdcage RF coil for human subjects in Philips, GE and Siemens 3 tesla (3T) MRI scanners. The transducer loop reactances are adjusted to minimize interference with the transmit RF field (B{sub 1}) at the MRI frequency. Power from the RF transducer is sampled with a high dynamic range power monitor and recorded on a computer. The deposited power is calibrated and tested on eight different MRI scanners. Whole-body absorbed power vs weight and body mass index (BMI) is measured directly on 26 subjects. Results: A single linear calibration curve sufficed for RF dosimetry at 127.8 MHz on three different Philips and three GE 3T MRI scanners. An RF dosimeter operating at 123.2 MHz on two Siemens 3T scanners required a separate transducer and a slightly different calibration curve. Measurement accuracy was ?3%. With the torso landmarked at the xiphoid, human adult whole?body absorbed power varied approximately linearly with patient weight and BMI. This indicates that whole-body torso SAR is on average independent of the imaging subject, albeit with fluctuations. Conclusions: Our 3T RF dosimeter and transducers accurately measure RF exposure in body-equivalent loads and provide scanner-independent assessments of whole-body RF power deposition for establishing safety compliance useful for MRI sequence and device testing.

Qian, Di; Bottomley, Paul A. [Division of MR Research, Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21287 and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States)] [Division of MR Research, Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21287 and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); El-Sharkawy, AbdEl-Monem M.; Edelstein, William A., E-mail: w.edelstein@gmail.com [Division of MR Research, Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21287 (United States)

2013-12-15

272

Slow scanning electromagnetic MEMS scanner for laser display  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A small size, low power consuming, shock proven optical scanner with capacitive comb type rotational sensor for the application of mobile projection display was designed, fabricated, and characterized. To get a 2-dimensional video image, the present device horizontally scans a vertical line image made through a line-type diffractive spatial optical modulator. In order to minimize device size as well as power consumption, the mirror surface was placed on the opposite side of the coil actuator. To prevent thermal deformation of the mirror, the mirror was partially connected to the center point of the coil actuator. For shock proof, mechanical stoppers were constructed in the device. The scanner was fabricated from two silicon wafers and one glass wafer using a bulk micromachining technology. The packaged scanner consists of the scanner chip, a pair of magnets, yoke rim, and base plate. The fabricated package size is 9.2mmx10mmx3mm (0.28cc) and the mirror size is 3mmx1.5mm. The scanner chip has no damage under the shock test with impact of 2,000G in 1ms. In case of full optical scan angle of 30° at 120Hz driving frequency, linearity and power consumption are measured 98% and 60mW, respectively, which are suitable for mobile display applications.

Jeong, Hee-Moon; Park, Yong-Hwa; Jeong, Hyun-Ku; Cho, Yong-Chul; Chang, Seok-Mo; Kim, Jun-O.; Kang, Seok-Jin; Hwang, Jun-Sik; Lee, Jin-Ho

2008-02-01

273

Bar-driven evolution of fast rotators: the role and fate of bars in early and late-type galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have performed state-of-the-art high resolution simulations of early-type galaxies with bars, including (multi-phase) gas, star formation and feedback. The aim of this programme is to better understand the observed morphology, kinematical structures, (2D) metallicity distribution, observed in fast rotators with bars. Our simulations were designed via a newly developed code allowing us to build a library of initial conditions closely mimicking barred galaxies in the Atlas3D sample. We will present the role and importance of bars on the gas fueling, redistribution of angular momentum, and overall secular evolution of fast rotators. These results are compared with actual observations (IFU, CO maps, stellar population distributions) obtained in the course of the Atlas3D project. The results from these ``early-type`` simulations will also be compared in the context of recently conducted simulations of later-type barred galaxies, including one of a Milky-Way type object with a resolution down to 0.05 parsec.

Emsellem, Eric; Florent, Renaud

2015-03-01

274

Double-Barred Galaxies: I. A Catalog of Barred Galaxies with Stellar Secondary Bars and Inner Disks  

E-print Network

I present a catalog of 67 barred galaxies which contain distinct, elliptical stellar structures inside their bars. Fifty of these are double-barred galaxies: a small-scale, "inner" or "secondary" bar is embedded within a large-scale, "outer" or "primary" bar. I provide homogenized measurements of the sizes, ellipticities, and orientations of both inner and outer bars, along with with global parameters for the galaxies. The other 17 are classified as "inner-disk" galaxies, where a large-scale bar harbors an inner elliptical structure which is aligned with the galaxy's outer disk. Four of the double-barred galaxies also possess inner disks, located in between the inner and outer bars. While the inner-disk classification is ad-hoc -- and undoubtedly includes some inner bars with chance alignments (five such probable cases are identified) -- there is good evidence that inner disks form a statistically distinct population, and that at least some are indeed disks rather than bars. In addition, I list 36 galaxies which may be double-barred, but for which current observations are ambiguous or incomplete, and another 23 galaxies which have been previously suggested as potentially being double-barred, but which are probably *not*. False double-bar identifications are usually due to features such as nuclear rings and spirals being misclassified as bars; I provide some illustrated examples of how this can happen.

Peter Erwin

2003-12-14

275

Impact Induced Failure Zones in Homalite Bars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Impact tests were conducted on Homalite bars. Bars were impacted at 250 m/s with various flyer plates. Bar behavior was observed with a high-speed digital camera. Homalite bars exhibited repeatable failure modalities with little effective change coming from flyer plate or bar geometry. Failure is characterized by early, late, and intermediate morphologies. Early failure exhibits a radial damage cone near the impact event. Late damage adds a catastrophic failure zone near the bar end and multiple wave front locations along the length of the bar. Intermediate time pictures indicate that catastrophic failure starts as a series of spall-like planes in the catastrophic failure zone.

Russell, Rod; Bless, Stephan J.; Beno, Tim

2002-07-01

276

Gratings mask bars and bars mask gratings: visual frequency response to aperiodic stimuli.  

PubMed

Gratings and bars produce unexpected mutual visual masking. A grating masks a bar much less than a bar masks a bar; and a bar masks a grating uniformly over the grating field. These effects suggest that neural populations selective for size and orientation may be involved in frequency analysis rather than in simple feature detection. PMID:5033184

Weisstein, N; Bisaha, J

1972-06-01

277

Magellan in-flight gyro/star scanner misalignment calibration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Techniques are described for the in-flight calibration of gyro/star scanner misalignments for the Magellan spacecraft. The poor observability of one of the six components of misalignment is discussed in the context of a simple least-squares estimation model. The assumptions that lead to singularity in the information matrix are explicitly stated and it is shown that the singularity persists for all scanner slit configurations using only two slits, regardless of slit geometry or separation. A set of misalignment error state variables, a configuration of three stars, and a maneuver/scan sequence is described which yields a well-conditioned information matrix for least-squares estimation of five of the six misalignments. Finally, it is shown by convariance simulation that ground-based optimal estimation can satisfactorily resolve all six components of the misalignment error when more than two star scanner slits are used.

Boone, Jack N.

1991-01-01

278

Galileo Attitude Determination: Experiences with a Rotating Star Scanner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Galileo experience with a rotating star scanner is discussed in terms of problems encountered in flight, solutions implemented, and lessons learned. An overview of the Galileo project and the attitude and articulation control subsystem is given and the star scanner hardware and relevant software algorithms are detailed. The star scanner is the sole source of inertial attitude reference for this spacecraft. Problem symptoms observed in flight are discussed in terms of effects on spacecraft performance and safety. Sources of thse problems include contributions from flight software idiosyncrasies and inadequate validation of the ground procedures used to identify target stars for use by the autonomous on-board star identification algorithm. Problem fixes (some already implemented and some only proposed) are discussed. A general conclusion is drawn regarding the inherent difficulty of performing simulation tests to validate algorithms which are highly sensitive to external inputs of statistically 'rare' events.

Merken, L.; Singh, G.

1991-01-01

279

Design and performance of HEAD PENN-PET scanner  

SciTech Connect

A new PET scanner for brain imaging (and animals) has been designed with very high sensitivity and spatial resolution. The design is an evolution of the PENN-PET scanner, which uses large position-sensitive NaI(Tl) detectors, with Anger-type positioning logic, and which allows 3-D volume imaging, without septa. The new design is built with a single annular crystal coupled to 180 photomultiplier tubes, and uses local triggering electronics to subdivide the detector into small zones and to determine coincident events within the detector. The axial acceptance angle of [+-] 27 deg, with a field-of-view of 25.6 cm, is larger than any currently operating PET scanner. Performance measurements are presented.

Freifelder, R.; Karp, J.S. (Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Radiology); Geagan, M.; Muehllehner, G. (UGM Medical Systems Inc., Philadelphia, PA (United States))

1994-08-01

280

Snowmelt monitoring with Terrestrial Laser Scanner Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increasing use of satellite data has caused an increasing need for validation data. Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) and Mobile Mapping Systems (MMS) are potential methods of gaining information on vast areas at remote locations. We have investigated the snowmelt 2009 using stationary and mobile TLS during the SNORTEX -campaign (Snow Reflectance Transition Experiment) in several locations in Finnish Lapland during 2008-2009. The SNORTEX is a 3-years investigation (started in 2008) piloted by Météo-France and FMI (Finnish Meteorological Institute). The key objectives of SNORTEX are to improve the characterization of snow-melting patterns in boreal regions using a multiscale approach supported by multi-angular and multi-spectral remote sensing information, and to build an integrated database for snow variables (albedo, fraction, water equivalent) in a forested environment for the validation of the SAF (Satellite Application Facilities) snow-related products. Validation data for EUMETSAT Land, Climate and Hydrological SAFs will be gathered in the campaign. The focus of the 2009 campaign was on the melting season. The field work was scheduled to include different snow/weather conditions and to include a time period with fractional snow cover. There will be one more field measurement period in spring 2010. The field survey took place at Sodankylä in Finnish Lapland. The existing facilities of FMI-ARC (The Arctic Research Center of the Finnish Meteorological Institutes) (67.4 °N 26.6 °E) were used. The studied area was chosen for this campaign because it is located far from the coasts, which makes the climate continental. The winters are long and cold during which the snow usually does not completely melt and several layers form in the snow pack. The area is partially forested which makes it possible to observe how the forests affect snow, snow cover and albedo. In addition to this the topography of the area is relatively plain which makes the area ideal for gathering validation data for satellite products. The results of the ground measurements of the SNORTEX campaign will be used to SAF product validations and to support the aerial data collected during the campaign. The TLS measurements during the campaign were made in several different locations at different stages of snowmelt. These measurements were georeferenced and normalized so that they could be compared. The results were compared to different ground measurements, e.g. snow depth, water equivalent etc., made by the Finnish Meteorological Institute. The results were used to estimate the usability of the point cloud and intensity data of the scanner in measuring different snow properties. The results show that TLS data is applicable in profiling seasonal snow conditions and the intensity data helps the classifying of the snow cover. The laser backscatter from snow surface is not directly related to any of the snow cover properties measured during the campaign but the snow structure has a clear effect on the TLS intensity. A MMS method for snow profiling was also developed during the campaign and the results show potential for MMS-based surface roughness profiling and change detection.

Anttila, Kati; Kaasalainen, Sanna; Kaartinen, Harri; Krooks, Anssi; Manninen, Terhikki; Lahtinen, Panu; Riihelä, Aku; Siljamo, Niilo; Thölix, Laura; Karjalainen, Tuure

2010-05-01

281

Astrometric properties of the Tautenburg Plate Scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Tautenburg Plate Scanner (TPS) is an advanced plate-measuring machine run by the Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg (Karl Schwarzschild Observatory), where the machine is housed. It is capable of digitising photographic plates up to 30 cm × 30 cm in size. In our poster, we reported on tests and preliminary results of its astrometric properties. The essential components of the TPS consist of an x-y table movable between an illumination system and a direct imaging system. A telecentric lens images the light transmitted through the photographic emulsion onto a CCD line of 6000 pixels of 10 µm square size each. All components are mounted on a massive air-bearing table. Scanning is performed in lanes of up to 55 mm width by moving the x-y table in a continuous drift-scan mode perpendicular to the CCD line. The analogue output from the CCD is digitised to 12 bit with a total signal/noise ratio of 1000 : 1, corresponding to a photographic density range of three. The pixel map is produced as a series of optionally overlapping lane scans. The pixel data are stored onto CD-ROM or DAT. A Tautenburg Schmidt plate 24 cm × 24 cm in size is digitised within 2.5 hours resulting in 1.3 GB of data. Subsequent high-level data processing is performed off-line on other computers. During the scanning process, the geometry of the optical components is kept fixed. The optimal focussing of the optics is performed prior to the scan. Due to the telecentric lens refocussing is not required. Therefore, the main source of astrometric errors (beside the emulsion itself) are mechanical imperfections in the drive system, which have to be divided into random and systematic ones. The r.m.s. repeatability over the whole plate as measured by repeated scans of the same plate is about 0.5 µm for each axis. The mean plate-to-plate accuracy of the object positions on two plates with the same epoch and the same plate centre has been determined to be about 1 µm. This accuracy is comparable to results obtained with established measuring machines used for astrometric purposes and is mainly limited by the emulsion itself. The mechanical design of the x-y table introduces low-frequency systematic errors of up to 5 µm on both axes. Because of the high stability of the machine it is expected that these deviations from a perfectly uniform coordinate system will remain systematic on a long timescale. Such systematic errors can be corrected either directly once they have been determined or in the course of the general astrometric reduction process. The TPS is well suited for accurate relative measurements like proper motions on plates with the same scale and plate centre. The systematic errors of the x-y table can be determined by interferometric means, and there are plans for this in the next future.

Brunzendorf, Jens; Meusinger, Helmut

282

Improved Scanners for Microscopic Hyperspectral Imaging  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved scanners to be incorporated into hyperspectral microscope-based imaging systems have been invented. Heretofore, in microscopic imaging, including spectral imaging, it has been customary to either move the specimen relative to the optical assembly that includes the microscope or else move the entire assembly relative to the specimen. It becomes extremely difficult to control such scanning when submicron translation increments are required, because the high magnification of the microscope enlarges all movements in the specimen image on the focal plane. To overcome this difficulty, in a system based on this invention, no attempt would be made to move either the specimen or the optical assembly. Instead, an objective lens would be moved within the assembly so as to cause translation of the image at the focal plane: the effect would be equivalent to scanning in the focal plane. The upper part of the figure depicts a generic proposed microscope-based hyperspectral imaging system incorporating the invention. The optical assembly of this system would include an objective lens (normally, a microscope objective lens) and a charge-coupled-device (CCD) camera. The objective lens would be mounted on a servomotor-driven translation stage, which would be capable of moving the lens in precisely controlled increments, relative to the camera, parallel to the focal-plane scan axis. The output of the CCD camera would be digitized and fed to a frame grabber in a computer. The computer would store the frame-grabber output for subsequent viewing and/or processing of images. The computer would contain a position-control interface board, through which it would control the servomotor. There are several versions of the invention. An essential feature common to all versions is that the stationary optical subassembly containing the camera would also contain a spatial window, at the focal plane of the objective lens, that would pass only a selected portion of the image. In one version, the window would be a slit, the CCD would contain a one-dimensional array of pixels, and the objective lens would be moved along an axis perpendicular to the slit to spatially scan the image of the specimen in pushbroom fashion. The image built up by scanning in this case would be an ordinary (non-spectral) image. In another version, the optics of which are depicted in the lower part of the figure, the spatial window would be a slit, the CCD would contain a two-dimensional array of pixels, the slit image would be refocused onto the CCD by a relay-lens pair consisting of a collimating and a focusing lens, and a prism-gratingprism optical spectrometer would be placed between the collimating and focusing lenses. Consequently, the image on the CCD would be spatially resolved along the slit axis and spectrally resolved along the axis perpendicular to the slit. As in the first-mentioned version, the objective lens would be moved along an axis perpendicular to the slit to spatially scan the image of the specimen in pushbroom fashion.

Mao, Chengye

2009-01-01

283

Exclusive Initial-State-Radiation Production of the $D \\bar D$, $D \\bar D^*$, and $D^* \\bar D^*$, Systems  

E-print Network

We perform a study of the exclusive production of $D \\bar D$, $D \\bar D^*$, and $D^* \\bar D^*$ in initial-state-radiation events, from $e^+ e^-$ annihilations at a center-of-mass energy near 10.58 GeV, to search for charmonium and possible new resonances. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 384 $fb^{-1}$ and was recorded by the BaBar experiment at the PEP-II storage rings. The $D \\bar D$, $D \\bar D^*$, and $D^* \\bar D^*$ mass spectra show clear evidence of several $\\psi$ resonances. However, there is no evidence for $Y(4260) \\to D \\bar D^*$ or $Y(4260)\\to D^* \\bar D^*$.

The BABAR Collaboration; B. Aubert

2009-03-09

284

Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanner instrument anomaly investigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of an ad-hoc committee investigation of in-Earth orbit operational anomalies noted on two identical Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) Scanner instruments on two different spacecraft busses is presented. The anomalies are attributed to the bearings and the lubrication scheme for the bearings. A detailed discussion of the pertinent instrument operations, the approach of the investigation team and the current status of the instruments now in Earth orbit is included. The team considered operational changes for these instruments, rework possibilities for the one instrument which is waiting to be launched, and preferable lubrication considerations for specific space operational requirements similar to those for the ERBE scanner bearings.

Watson, N. D.; Miller, J. B.; Taylor, L. V.; Lovell, J. B.; Cox, J. W.; Fedors, J. C.; Kopia, L. P.; Holloway, R. M.; Bradley, O. H.

1985-01-01

285

A prototype quantitative film scanner for radiochromic film dosimetry.  

PubMed

We have developed a high resolution, quantitative, two-dimensional optical film scanner for use with a commercial high sensitivity radiochromic film (RCF) for measuring single fraction external-beam radiotherapy dose distributions. The film scanner was designed to eliminate artifacts commonly observed in RCF dosimetry. The scanner employed a stationary light source and detector with a moving antireflective glass film platen attached to a high precision computerized X-Y translation stage. An ultrabright red light emitting diode (LED) with a peak output at 633 nm and full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 16 nm was selected as the scanner light source to match the RCF absorption peak. A dual detector system was created using two silicon photodiode detectors to simultaneously measure incident and transmitted light. The LED light output was focused to a submillimeter (FWHM 0.67 mm) spot size, which was determined from a scanning knife-edge technique for measuring Gaussian optical beams. Data acquisition was performed with a 16-bit A/D card in conjunction with commercial software. The linearity of the measured densities on the scanner was tested using a calibrated neutral-density step filter. Sensitometric curves and three IMRT field scans were acquired with a spatial resolution of 1 mm for both radiographic film and RCF. The results were compared with measurements taken with a commercial diode array under identical delivery conditions. The RCF was rotated by 90 deg and rescanned to study orientation effects. Comparison between the RCF and the diode array measurements using percent dose difference and distance-to-agreement criteria produced average passing rates of 99.0% using 3%/3 mm criteria and 96.7% using 2%/2 mm criteria. The same comparison between the radiographic film and diode array measurements resulted in average passing rates 96.6% and 91.6% for the above two criteria, respectively. No measurable light-scatter or interference scanner artifacts were observed. The RCF rotated by 90 deg showed no measurable orientation effect. A scan of a 15 x 15 cm2 area with 1 mm resolution required 22 min to acquire. The LED densitometer provides an accurate film dosimetry system with 1 mm or better resolution. The scanner eliminates the orientation dependence of RCF dosimetry that was previously reported with commercial flatbed scanners. PMID:18383667

Ranade, Manisha K; Li, Jonathan G; Dubose, Ryan S; Kozelka, Jakub; Simon, William E; Dempsey, James F

2008-02-01

286

A Prototype PET Scanner with DOI-Encoding Detectors  

PubMed Central

Detectors with depth-encoding allow a PET scanner to simultaneously achieve high sensitivity and high spatial resolution. Methods A prototype PET scanner, consisting of depth-encoding detectors constructed by dual-ended readout of lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO) arrays with two position sensitive avalanche photodiodes (PSAPDs), was developed. The scanner consisted of two detector plates, each with 4 detector modules. The LSO arrays consisted of 7×7 elements, with a crystal size of 0.9225×0.9225×20 mm3 with a pitch of 1.0 mm. The active area of the PSAPDs was 8×8 mm2. The performance of individual detector modules was characterized. A line source phantom and a hot rod phantom were imaged on the prototype scanner in two different scanner configurations. The images were reconstructed using 20, 10, 5, 2 and 1 DOI bins to demonstrate the effects of DOI resolution on reconstructed image resolution and visual image quality. Results The flood histograms measured from the sum of both PSAPD signals were only weakly depth-dependent and excellent crystal identification was obtained at all depths. The flood histograms improved as the detector temperature decreased. DOI resolution and energy resolution improved significantly as the temperature decreased from 20 °C to 10 °C, but only slightly with a subsequent temperature decrease to 0 °C. A full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) DOI resolution of 2 mm and an FWHM energy resolution of 15% were obtained at a temperature of 10 °C. Phantom studies showed that DOI measurements significantly improved the reconstructed image resolution. In the first scanner configuration (parallel detector planes) the image resolution at the center of field of view (CFOV) was 0.9 mm FWHM with 20 DOI bins and 1.6 mm with one DOI bin. In the second scanner configuration (detector planes at a 40° angle) the image resolution at the CFOV was 1.0 mm FWHM with 20 DOI bins and was not measurable when using only one bin. Conclusions PET scanners based on this detector design offer the prospect of high and uniform spatial resolution (crystal size ~1 mm, DOI resolution ~ 2 mm), high sensitivity (20 mm thick detectors), and compact size (DOI encoding permits detectors to be tightly packed around the subject and minimizes number of detectors needed). PMID:18552140

Yang, Yongfeng; Wu, Yibao; Qi, Jinyi; St. James, Sara; Du, Huini; Dokhale, Purushottam A.; Shah, Kanai S.; Farrell, Richard; Cherry, Simon R.

2009-01-01

287

Satellite orientation and position for geometric correction of scanner imagery.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The USGS Mini Image Processing System currently relies on a polynomial method for geometric correction of Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) data. A large number of ground control points are required because polynomials do not model the sources of error. In order to reduce the number of necessary points, a set of mathematical equations modeling the Landsat satellite motions and MSS scanner has been derived and programmed. A best fit to the equations is obtained by using a least-squares technique that permits computation of the satellite orientation and position parameters based on only a few control points.-from Author

Salamonowicz, P.H.

1986-01-01

288

30. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING FLOOR 3A ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

30. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - FLOOR 3A ("A" FACE) INTERIOR BETWEEN GRIDS 17-A1 AND 18-A1, SHOWING REAR OF RADAR EMITTER ELECTRONIC INTERFACE TERMINAL NO. 3147-20, "RECEIVER TRANSMITTER RADAR" MODULE. VIEW IS ALSO SHOWING BUILDING FIRE STOP MATERIAL AT BOTTOM OF FLOOR. NOTE: WALL SLOPES BOTTOM TO TOP INWARD; STRUCTURAL ELEMENT IN FOREGROUND. VIEW ALSO SHOWS PIPING GRID OF CHILLED WATER LINES FOR ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS COOLING. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

289

Free-space wavelength-multiplexed optical scanner.  

PubMed

A wavelength-multiplexed optical scanning scheme is proposed for deflecting a free-space optical beam by selection of the wavelength of the light incident on a wavelength-dispersive optical element. With fast tunable lasers or optical filters, this scanner features microsecond domain scan setting speeds and large- diameter apertures of several centimeters or more for subdegree angular scans. Analysis performed indicates an optimum scan range for a given diffraction order and grating period. Limitations include beam-spreading effects based on the varying scanner aperture sizes and the instantaneous information bandwidth of the data-carrying laser beam. PMID:18364951

Yaqoob, Z; Rizvi, A A; Riza, N A

2001-12-10

290

Bar coding for chemical tracking in compliance software  

SciTech Connect

The Environmental Management System includes a comprehensive system to utilize barcodes for inventory tracking and control. Barcoding technology and its ease of use in maintaining chemical inventories is not new to EMS. This technology was introduced in the 1970s to simplify inventory management in broad industry segments and EMS has taken the technology into the laboratory. Since its introduction the popularity of barcoding plus the ever increasing demand of regulatory/management requirements for chemical inventories and waste streams makes the use of barcode a necessity for a large majority of the business community. Couple the barcoding of chemical inventories and waste streams with EMS (Environmental Management Systems) and the result is a completely integrated environmental management software tool. This state-of-the-art, cradle-to-grave tracking system is designed to meet today`s stringent and complex regulatory reporting requirements in the most cost efficient method available today.

Nakamura, J. [Chemical Safety Corp., Richmond, CA (United States)

1995-12-31

291

Mobile Construction Supply Chain Management Using PDA and Bar Codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Construction project control aims to effec- tively obtain real-time information and enhance dynamic control by utilizing information sharing and connecting involved participants of the projects to reduce construc- tion conflicts and project delays. However, extending the construction project control system to job sites is not con- sidered efficient because using notebooks in a harsh envi- ronment like a construction site

H. Ping Tserng; Ren-Jye Dzeng; Yu-Cheng Lin; Sheng-Tai Lin

2005-01-01

292

21 CFR 610.67 - Bar code label requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...regulated by the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research or to blood and blood components intended for transfusion. For blood and blood components intended for transfusion, the requirements at § 606.121(c)(13) of this chapter apply...

2012-04-01

293

21 CFR 610.67 - Bar code label requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...regulated by the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research or to blood and blood components intended for transfusion. For blood and blood components intended for transfusion, the requirements at § 606.121(c)(13) of this chapter apply...

2011-04-01

294

21 CFR 610.67 - Bar code label requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...regulated by the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research or to blood and blood components intended for transfusion. For blood and blood components intended for transfusion, the requirements at § 606.121(c)(13) of this chapter apply...

2010-04-01

295

21 CFR 610.67 - Bar code label requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...regulated by the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research or to blood and blood components intended for transfusion. For blood and blood components intended for transfusion, the requirements at § 606.121(c)(13) of this chapter apply...

2013-04-01

296

21 CFR 610.67 - Bar code label requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...regulated by the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research or to blood and blood components intended for transfusion. For blood and blood components intended for transfusion, the requirements at § 606.121(c)(13) of this chapter apply...

2014-04-01

297

Studying Brazil-Nut Effect History Line using Disk-Formed Objects, Scanner, and Web Browser  

E-print Network

Grains configuration snapshots of Brazil-nut effect (BNE) in two-dimension are physically modeled using disk-formed objects, e.g., buttons and magnetic pin. These BNE configurations are artificially designed to mimic the real ones observed in experiments. A computer scanner is used to capture the configurations. Obtained images are then digitized using web browser running a HTML equipped with a JavaScript code, which is built mainly only for this work. From digitization process all grains positions (granular bed and intruder) are obtained, which is later analyzed using the simplest model, i.e., potential energy. Since the minimum energy principle (MEP) suggests that a closed system should go to its state with minimum internal energy, our BNE system must also obey it. Evolution of only the intruder seems to violate MEP but not for the whole system. Grains compaction plays important role, so that the system can achieve its configuration with minimum potential energy.

Sparisoma Viridi; Siti Nurul Khotimah; Novitrian; Widayani; Luman Haris; Dimas Praja Purwa Aji

2014-08-07

298

Multispectral data compression through transform coding and block quantization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Transform coding and block quantization techniques are applied to multispectral aircraft scanner data, and digitized satellite imagery. The multispectral source is defined and an appropriate mathematical model proposed. The Karhunen-Loeve, Fourier, and Hadamard encoders are considered and are compared to the rate distortion function for the equivalent Gaussian source and to the performance of the single sample PCM encoder.

Ready, P. J.; Wintz, P. A.

1972-01-01

299

Design and experimental investigations of a two-dimensional laser scanner based on piezoelectric actuators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A compact two-dimensional laser scanner based on piezoelectric actuators is presented. The scanner consists of two single-axis laser scanners placed perpendicular to each other, which exhibit the advantages of small size, large angle, high scanning speed, and high linearity. The mechanical structure and principle of the scanner are introduced and the performance of the scanner is experimentally investigated. The result shows that the maximum angle of the scanner is approximately 9.315 deg with a main resonant frequency of 1242 Hz. An open-loop controller based on a hysteresis compensation algorithm and analog notch filter is proposed. Its nonlinearity is reduced to ±0.5% after compensation. High frequency scanning and the step response of the scanner are also studied to demonstrate the performance and effectiveness of the scanner.

Chen, Wei; Chen, Sihai; Luo, Dong

2015-02-01

300

$Qq\\bar Q\\bar q'$ States in Chiral SU(3) Quark Model  

E-print Network

In this work, we study the masses of $Qq\\bar Q\\bar q'$ states with J^{PC}=0^{++}, 1^{++}, 1^{+-} and 2^{++} in the chiral SU(3) quark model, where Q is the heavy quark (c or b) and q (q') is the light quark (u, d or s). According to our numerical results, it is improbable to make the interpretation of $[cn\\bar c\\bar n]_{1^{++}}$ and $[cn\\bar c\\bar n]_{2^{++}}$ (n=u, d) states as X(3872) and Y(3940), respectively. However, it is interesting to find the tetraquarks in the $bq\\bar b\\bar q'$ system.

H. X. Zhang; M. Zhang; Z. Y. Zhang

2007-08-01

301

Monitoring and correcting spatio-temporal variations of the MR scanner’s static magnetic field  

PubMed Central

The homogeneity and stability of the static magnetic field are of paramount importance to the accuracy of MR procedures that are sensitive to phase errors and magnetic field inhomogeneity. It is shown that intense gradient utilization in clinical horizontal-bore superconducting MR scanners of three different vendors results in main magnetic fields that vary on a long time scale both spatially and temporally by amounts of order 0.8–2.5 ppm. The observed spatial changes have linear and quadratic variations that are strongest along the z direction. It is shown that the effect of such variations is of sufficient magnitude to completely obfuscate thermal phase shifts measured by proton-resonance frequency-shift MR thermometry and certainly affect accuracy. In addition, field variations cause signal loss and line-broadening in MR spectroscopy, as exemplified by a fourfold line-broadening of metabolites over the course of a 45 min human brain study. The field variations are consistent with resistive heating of the magnet structures. It is concluded that correction strategies are required to compensate for these spatial and temporal field drifts for phase-sensitive MR protocols. It is demonstrated that serial field mapping and phased difference imaging correction protocols can substantially compensate for the drift effects observed in the MR thermometry and spectroscopy experiments. PMID:17043837

El-Sharkawy, AbdEl Monem; Schär, Michael; Bottomley, Paul A.

2007-01-01

302

COMPUTER PROCESSING OF MULTISPECTRAL SCANNER DATA OVER COAL STRIP MINES  

EPA Science Inventory

There is little doubt that remote sensing techniques can be effectively applied to the task of monitoring coal strip mine progress and reclamation work. Aircraft multispectral scanner data acquired over six coal strip mines in the states of Wyoming, Montana, Colorado, and Arizona...

303

Mosaicking Airborne Scanner Data with the Multiquadric Rectification Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new multiquadric image rectification technique is shown to provide superior results for mosaicking nine flight lines of airborne scanner data covering 200 kmz of hilly terrain with limited ground control. The multiquadric technique provided excellent edge matching and less than half the absolute geo- metric error of polynomial-based techniques.

Kenneth C. McGwire

1998-01-01

304

Methodology of Wound Volume Estimation from Scanner R. R. Martin  

E-print Network

Methodology of Wound Volume Estimation from Scanner Data R. R. Martin COMSC, UWC, Wales / DEE, UFMA, Brazil November 1996 1 Assumptions · Separate colour and depth map images of the wound and surrounding · The colour image is used to segment the boundary of the area representing the wound [1, 2, 3, 4]. · Patients

Martin, Ralph R.

305

Liquid-explosives scanners stand trial in airports  

SciTech Connect

Air passengers may once more be allowed to pack beverages, lotions, and hair spray in their carry-on luggage, if imaging technologies to detect liquid explosives can prove their worth. Several competing systems, including multi-energy x-ray systems and a low-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner, are undergoing field tests at some airports worldwide.

Matthews, Jermey N. A.

2010-07-15

306

Automatic DTM Generation from Three-Line-Scanner (TLS) Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a matching procedure for automatic DSM generation from the Three-Line-Scanner (TLS) raw images. It can provide dense, precise and reliable results. The proposed method combines matching procedures based on grid point matching and feature point matching. Modified Multiphoto Geometrically Constrained Matching (MPGC) and Geometrically Constrained Multi- point Matching (GCMM) are used to refine the relaxation matching results

Armin Gruen; Zhang Li

2002-01-01

307

Dual Airborne Laser Scanners Aided Inertial for Improved Autonomous Navigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dead-reckoning terrain referenced navigation (TRN) system is presented that uses two airborne laser scanners (ALS) to aid an inertial navigation system (INS). The system uses aircraft autonomous sensors and is capable of performing the dual functions of mapping and navigation simultaneously. The proposed system can potentially serve as a backup to the Global Positioning System (GPS), increase the robustness

ANANTH K. VADLAMANI; MAARTEN UIJT DE HAAG

2009-01-01

308

Autoscan: A Flexible and Portable 3D Scanner  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantifying physical abnormalities, guiding corrective and plastic surgery, manufacturing clothing, three-dimensional CAD, and other related fields all benefit from the increasing use of 3D scanners. These scanning systems reconstruct a 3D surface as a large set of polygonal meshes. Although Cyberware scanning systems have become a commercial standard, they have two main drawbacks. First, for large objects they require a

Nunzio Alberto Borghese; Giancarlo Ferrigno; Guido Baroni; Antonio Pedotti; Stefano Ferrari; Riccardo Savarè

1998-01-01

309

Laser Scanner Tests For Single-Event Upsets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Microelectronic advanced laser scanner (MEALS) is opto/electro/mechanical apparatus for nondestructive testing of integrated memory circuits, logic circuits, and other microelectronic devices. Multipurpose diagnostic system used to determine ultrafast time response, leakage, latchup, and electrical overstress. Used to simulate some of effects of heavy ions accelerated to high energies to determine susceptibility of digital device to single-event upsets.

Kim, Quiesup; Soli, George A.; Schwartz, Harvey R.

1992-01-01

310

Phosphor Scanner For Imaging X-Ray Diffraction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved optoelectronic scanning apparatus generates digitized image of x-ray image recorded in phosphor. Scanning fiber-optic probe supplies laser light stimulating luminescence in areas of phosphor exposed to x rays. Luminescence passes through probe and fiber to integrating sphere and photomultiplier. Sensitivity and resolution exceed previously available scanners. Intended for use in x-ray crystallography, medical radiography, and molecular biology.

Carter, Daniel C.; Hecht, Diana L.; Witherow, William K.

1992-01-01

311

MEMS-Based Scanner Dedicated for Ultrasound Medical Imaging  

E-print Network

, the development of a micro electromechanical scanner incorporating high frequency ultrasound transducer operating since it offers reduced size, power consumption, and increased speed, positioning accuracy, parallelism, pancreas, kidney, bladder, etc.). It uses an ultrasonic beam with a frequency range from 2.5 to 10 MHz

Peter, Yves-Alain

312

Slow scanning electromagnetic MEMS scanner for laser display  

Microsoft Academic Search

A small size, low power consuming, shock proven optical scanner with capacitive comb type rotational sensor for the application of mobile projection display was designed, fabricated, and characterized. To get a 2-dimensional video image, the present device horizontally scans a vertical line image made through a line-type diffractive spatial optical modulator. In order to minimize device size as well as

Hee-Moon Jeong; Yong-Hwa Park; Hyun-Ku Jeong; Yong-Chul Cho; Seok-Mo Chang; Jun-O. Kim; Seok-Jin Kang; Jun-Sik Hwang; Jin-Ho Lee

2008-01-01

313

Results of Processing of Astronegatives with Commercial Scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astrometric errors depending on the method of scanning with different spatial resolutions were studied with commercial scanner such as Epson Perfection V750 Pro. Accuracy, time of processing, volume of storage were tested using software package described in (Protsyuk, 2014). The best results of scanning were obtained with a resolution of 1200 - 1600 dpi.

Protsyuk, Yu. I.; Kovylianska, O. E.; Protsyuk, S. V.; Andruk, V. M.

314

Creating Micro-Marketing Pricing Strategies Using Supermarket Scanner Data  

E-print Network

Creating Micro-Marketing Pricing Strategies Using Supermarket Scanner Data: Technical Report by Alan L. Montgomery The Wharton School University of Pennsylvania Marketing Department 1400 Steinberg, and George Tiao for their comments, Dominick's Finer Foods, Information Resources Inc., and Market Metrics

Faloutsos, Christos

315

Laser excited confocal microscope fluorescence scanner and method  

DOEpatents

A fluorescent scanner for scanning the fluorescence from a fluorescence labeled separated sample on a sample carrier including a confocal microscope for illuminating a predetermined volume of the sample carrier and/or receiving and processing fluorescence emissions from said volume to provide a display of the separated sample.

Mathies, Richard A. (Contra Costa, CA); Peck, Konan (Contra Costa, CA)

1992-01-01

316

X- and ?-rays computerized minitomograph scanner for soil science  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computerized tomograph scanner system that uses X- and ?-rays for applications in soil science is described. Use of the apparatus in measuring volumetric water content to an accuracy of ±3% and soil bulk density to ±2% (in grams per cubic centimeters) is discussed. The system features translation and rotation scanning modes, a 200-mm effective field of view, signal processing

PAULO ESTEVAO CRUVINEL; ROBERTO CESAREO; SILVIO CRESTANA; SERGIO MASCARENHAS

1990-01-01

317

Automated anthropometric data collection using 3D whole body scanners  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of three-dimensional (3D) whole body scanner opens opportunities for measuring human body more efficiently. While taking measurements from 3D scanning data, markers are usually placed on human body to facilitate landmarking and data collection. But the procedure of placing markers is very tedious and may involve human errors. The objective of this study is to develop an automated

Jun-ming Lu; Mao-jiun J. Wang

2008-01-01

318

Dual-energy computed tomographic scanners: principles, comparisons, and contrasts.  

PubMed

The underlying principles of dual-energy computed tomography are reviewed, with comparison and contrast of the primary dual-energy computed tomographic scanners that are currently in use. Practical clinical implications of the differences in hardware, software, and imaging processing implementations are discussed, noting the rationale for convergence of technology and terminology. PMID:24270117

Bolus, David N

2013-01-01

319

Aerial thermal scanner data for monitoring rooftop temperatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Four Nebraska communities and one South Dakota community were surveyed. Thermal scanner data were converted to a film format and the resultant imagery was successfully employed to monitor rooftop temperatures. The program places emphasis on heat losses resulting from inadequate home insulation, offers CENGAS customers the opportunity to observe a thermogram of their rooftop, and assists homeowners in evaluating insulation needs.

Bjorkland, J.; Schmer, F. A.; Isakson, R. E.

1975-01-01

320

LANSCE wire scanner AFE: analysis, design, and fabrication  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the design LANSCE-R Wire-Scanner Analog Front-end Electronics is to develop a high-performance, dual-axis wire-scanner analog front-end system implemented in a single cRIO module. This new design accommodates macropulse widths as wide as 700 {mu}s at a maximum pulse rate of 120Hz. A lossey integrator is utilized as the integration element to eliminate the requirement for providing gating signals to each wire scanner. The long macropulse and the high repetition rate present conflicting requirements for the design of the integrator. The long macropulse requires a long integration time constant to assure minimum integrator droop for accurate charge integration, and the high repetition rate requires a short time constant to assure adequate integrator reset between macropulses. Also, grounding is a serious concern due to the small signal levels. This paper reviews the basic Wire Scanner AFE system design implemented in the cRIO-module form factor to capture the charge information from the wire sensors and the grounding topology to assure minimum noise contamination of the wire signals.

Gruchalla, Mike [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chacon, Phillip [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gilpatrick, John D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Derwin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Power, John F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Smith, Brian [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01

321

Free-space wavelength-multiplexed optical scanner demonstration.  

PubMed

Experimental demonstration of a no-moving-parts free-space wavelength-multiplexed optical scanner (W-MOS) is presented. With fast tunable lasers or optical filters and planar wavelength dispersive elements such as diffraction gratings, this microsecond-speed scanner enables large several-centimeter apertures for subdegree angular scans. The proposed W-MOS design incorporates a unique optical amplifier and variable optical attenuator combination that enables the calibration and modulation of the scanner response, leading to any desired scanned laser beam power shaping. The experimental setup uses a tunable laser centered at 1560 nm and a 600-grooves/mm blazed reflection grating to accomplish an angular scan of 12.92 degrees as the source is tuned over an 80-nm bandwidth. The values for calculated maximum optical beam divergance, required wavelength resolution, beam-pointing accuracy, and measured scanner insertion loss are 1.076 mrad, 0.172 nm, 0.06 mrad, and 4.88 dB, respectively. PMID:12224780

Yaqoob, Zahid; Riza, Nabeel A

2002-09-10

322

Engineering evaluation of 24 channel multispectral scanner. [from flight tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of flight tests to evaluate the performance of the 24 channel multispectral scanner are reported. The flight plan and test site are described along with the time response and channel registration. The gain and offset drift, and moire patterns are discussed. Aerial photographs of the test site are included.

Lambeck, P. F.

1973-01-01

323

Advanced scanners and imaging systems for earth observations. [conferences  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Assessments of present and future sensors and sensor related technology are reported along with a description of user needs and applications. Five areas are outlined: (1) electromechanical scanners, (2) self-scanned solid state sensors, (3) electron beam imagers, (4) sensor related technology, and (5) user applications. Recommendations, charts, system designs, technical approaches, and bibliographies are included for each area.

1973-01-01

324

21. View from south to southerly face of scanner building ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

21. View from south to southerly face of scanner building 104 showing building radius. Radius of building face matches radius of DR antenna systems. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

325

DISS. ETH NO. 17036 Calibration of a Terrestrial Laser Scanner  

E-print Network

, and the influencing parameters. Laser scanners are a black box instrument that produces a huge number of 3D points For several years now, terrestrial laser scanning has become an additional surveying technique in geodesy of terrestrial laser scanning. The first objective is a comprehensive calibration and investigation of a specific

Giger, Christine

326

20. View from northeast to southwest side of scanner building ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. View from northeast to southwest side of scanner building 104 showing two waveguide termination faces (fiberglass light bands on left of photograph). - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

327

Design and construction of the 1st proton CT scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses the design and operation of the 1st proton CT scanner for 3D imaging. Reduction of proton range uncertainties and improved dose accuracy in the patient for treatment planning are central goals. A central CT slice acquired by reconstruction of 134 million proton tracks through a 14 cm spherical polystyrene phantom with high and low density inserts is presented.

Coutrakon, G.; Bashkirov, V.; Hurley, F.; Johnson, R.; Rykalin, V.; Sadrozinski, H.; Schulte, R.

2013-04-01

328

Toward a Flexible and Portable CT Scanner Jeff Orchard1  

E-print Network

the possibility of minia- ture x-ray sources. Experiments by Zhang et al. [1,8] have produced x-ray images from Engineering, University of Waterloo, Canada Abstract. The very hot and power-hungry x-ray filaments in today scanner that could be deployed at the scene of a car accident to acquire tomographic images before mov

Orchard, Jeffery J.

329

Teach Your Computer to Read: Scanners and Optical Character Recognition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Desktop scanners can be used with a software technology called optical character recognition (OCR) to convert the text on virtually any paper document into an electronic form. OCR offers educators new flexibility in incorporating text into tests, lesson plans, and other materials. (MLF)

Marsden, Jim

1993-01-01

330

10. View of back side of radar scanner building no. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. View of back side of radar scanner building no. 104 showing passageway links to other building to east and DR 1 antenna in background. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

331

9. View of back side of radar scanner building no. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. View of back side of radar scanner building no. 106 showing passageway links to other buildings east and west, and DR 3 antenna in background. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

332

Avi Bar Massada Curriculum Vitae  

E-print Network

of Technology Peer-Reviewed Journal Articles Bar-Massada, A., Wood, E.M., Pidgeon, A.M., Radeloff, V.C. (2011.D., Radeloff, V.C., Hawbaker, T.J., Stewart, S.I. (2011). Effects of ignition location models on the burn., Radeloff, V.C., Stewart, S.I. (2011). Allocating fuel breaks to optimally protect structures

Mladenoff, David

333

A micron resolution optical scanner for characterization of silicon detectors  

SciTech Connect

The emergence of high position resolution (?10 ?m) silicon detectors in recent times have highlighted the urgent need for the development of new automated optical scanners of micron level resolution suited for characterizing microscopic features of these detectors. More specifically, for the newly developed silicon photo-multipliers (SiPM) that are compact, possessing excellent photon detection efficiency with gain comparable to photo-multiplier tube. In a short time, since their invention the SiPMs are already being widely used in several high-energy physics and astrophysics experiments as the photon readout element. The SiPM is a high quantum efficiency, multi-pixel photon counting detector with fast timing and high gain. The presence of a wide variety of photo sensitive silicon detectors with high spatial resolution requires their performance evaluation to be carried out by photon beams of very compact spot size. We have designed a high resolution optical scanner that provides a monochromatic focused beam on a target plane. The transverse size of the beam was measured by the knife-edge method to be 1.7 ?m at 1 ? ? level. Since the beam size was an order of magnitude smaller than the typical feature size of silicon detectors, this optical scanner can be used for selective excitation of these detectors. The design and operational details of the optical scanner, high precision programmed movement of target plane (0.1 ?m) integrated with general purpose data acquisition system developed for recording static and transient response photo sensitive silicon detector are reported in this paper. Entire functionality of scanner is validated by using it for selective excitation of individual pixels in a SiPM and identifying response of active and dead regions within SiPM. Results from these studies are presented in this paper.

Shukla, R. A.; Dugad, S. R., E-mail: dugad@cern.ch; Gopal, A. V.; Gupta, S. K.; Prabhu, S. S. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005 (India)] [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Garde, C. S. [Vishwakarma Institute of Information Technology, Kondhwa, Pune 411048 (India)] [Vishwakarma Institute of Information Technology, Kondhwa, Pune 411048 (India)

2014-02-15

334

A micron resolution optical scanner for characterization of silicon detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emergence of high position resolution (˜10 ?m) silicon detectors in recent times have highlighted the urgent need for the development of new automated optical scanners of micron level resolution suited for characterizing microscopic features of these detectors. More specifically, for the newly developed silicon photo-multipliers (SiPM) that are compact, possessing excellent photon detection efficiency with gain comparable to photo-multiplier tube. In a short time, since their invention the SiPMs are already being widely used in several high-energy physics and astrophysics experiments as the photon readout element. The SiPM is a high quantum efficiency, multi-pixel photon counting detector with fast timing and high gain. The presence of a wide variety of photo sensitive silicon detectors with high spatial resolution requires their performance evaluation to be carried out by photon beams of very compact spot size. We have designed a high resolution optical scanner that provides a monochromatic focused beam on a target plane. The transverse size of the beam was measured by the knife-edge method to be 1.7 ?m at 1 - ? level. Since the beam size was an order of magnitude smaller than the typical feature size of silicon detectors, this optical scanner can be used for selective excitation of these detectors. The design and operational details of the optical scanner, high precision programmed movement of target plane (0.1 ?m) integrated with general purpose data acquisition system developed for recording static and transient response photo sensitive silicon detector are reported in this paper. Entire functionality of scanner is validated by using it for selective excitation of individual pixels in a SiPM and identifying response of active and dead regions within SiPM. Results from these studies are presented in this paper.

Shukla, R. A.; Dugad, S. R.; Garde, C. S.; Gopal, A. V.; Gupta, S. K.; Prabhu, S. S.

2014-02-01

335

In vivo cellular imaging with microscopes enabled by MEMS scanners  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-resolution optical imaging plays an important role in medical diagnosis and biomedical research. Confocal microscopy is a widely used imaging method for obtaining cellular and sub-cellular images of biological tissue in reflectance and fluorescence modes. Its characteristic optical sectioning capability also enables three-dimensional (3-D) image reconstruction. However, its use has mostly been limited to excised tissues due to the requirement of high numerical aperture (NA) lenses for cellular resolution. Microscope miniaturization can enable in vivo imaging to make possible early cancer diagnosis and biological studies in the innate environment. In this dissertation, microscope miniaturization for in vivo cellular imaging is presented. The dual-axes confocal (DAC) architecture overcomes limitations of the conventional single-axis confocal (SAC) architecture to allow for miniaturization with high resolution. A microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) scanner is the central imaging component that is key in miniaturization of the DAC architecture. The design, fabrication, and characterization of the two-dimensional (2-D) MEMS scanner are presented. The gimbaled MEMS scanner is fabricated on a double silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer and is actuated by self-aligned vertical electrostatic combdrives. The imaging performance of the MEMS scanner in a DAC configuration is shown in a breadboard microscope setup, where reflectance and fluorescence imaging is demonstrated. Then, the MEMS scanner is integrated into a miniature DAC microscope. The whole imaging system is integrated into a portable unit for research in small animal models of human biology and disease. In vivo 3-D imaging is demonstrated on mouse skin models showing gene transfer and siRNA silencing. The siRNA silencing process is sequentially imaged in one mouse over time.

Ra, Hyejun

336

Reliability of a 3D surface laser scanner for orthodontic applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A device for recreating three-dimensional (3D) objects on a computer is the surface laser scanner. By triangulating distances between the reflecting laser beam and the scanned surface, the surface laser scanner can detect not only an object's length and width but also its depth. The scanner's ease of use has opened various possibilities in laboratory research and clinical investigation. We

Budi Kusnoto; Carla A. Evans

2002-01-01

337

A Cost Effective Multi-Spectral Scanner for Natural Gas Detection  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to design, fabricate and demonstrate a cost effective, multi-spectral scanner for natural gas leak detection in transmission and distribution pipelines. During the first year of the project, a laboratory version of the multi-spectral scanner was designed, fabricated, and tested at EnUrga Inc. The multi-spectral scanner was also evaluated using a blind Department of Energy study at the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center. The performance of the scanner was inconsistent during the blind study. However, most of the leaks were outside the view of the multi-spectral scanner that was developed during the first year of the project. Therefore, a definite evaluation of the capability of the scanner was not obtained. Despite the results, sufficient number of plumes was detected fully confirming the feasibility of the multi-spectral scanner. During the second year, the optical design of the scanner was changed to improve the sensitivity of the system. Laboratory tests show that the system can reliably detect small leaks (20 SCFH) at 30 to 50 feet. A prototype scanner was built and evaluated during the second year of the project. Only laboratory evaluations were completed during the second year. The laboratory evaluations show the feasibility of using the scanner to determine natural gas pipeline leaks. Further field evaluations and optimization of the scanner are required before commercialization of the scanner can be initiated.

Yudaya Sivathanu; Jongmook Lim; Vinoo Narayanan; Seonghyeon Park

2005-12-07

338

Incorporation of a laser range scanner into an image-guided surgical system  

E-print Network

the scanner's coordinate system and the tracked rigid body was determined using a calibration phantomIncorporation of a laser range scanner into an image-guided surgical system David M. Cash*a , Tuhin, Nashville, TN, USA 37235; ABSTRACT Laser range scanners provide rapid and accurate non-contact methods

Miga, Michael I.

339

Standards for performance measurements of PET scanners: evaluation with the UGM PENN-PET 240H scanner.  

PubMed

A standard set of performance measurements is proposed for use with positron emission tomographs. This set of measurements has been developed by the Computer and Instrumentation Council of the Society of Nuclear Medicine and the National Electrical Manufacturers Associations. These measurements are discussed and compared to the set of standard measurements being proposed by the Instrumentation Task Group of the European Economic Community Concerted Action of Cellular Regeneration and Degeneration. The performance of the PENN-PET 240H scanner from UGM Medical Systems is tested with this set of measurements. The PENN-PET scanner consists of six continuous position-sensitive NaI(T1) detectors, which results in a 50 cm transverse field-of-view and a 12.8 cm axial field-of-view. The fine spatial sampling in the axial direction allows the data to be sorted into as many as 64 transverse planes, each 2 mm thick. A large axial acceptance angle, without inter-plane septa, results in a high sensitivity, with a low scatter and randoms fraction, due to the use of a narrow photopeak energy window. This paper emphasizes those performance measurements which illustrate the special characteristics of a volume imaging scanner, compared to a more traditional multi-ring scanner. PMID:1839847

Karp, J S; Muehllehner, G

1991-01-01

340

Generation of sand bars under surface waves  

E-print Network

(cont.) Experiments were performed in a large wave flume to validate the theory and to study additional aspects of sand bar evolution. The wave envelope and bar profile were recorded for low and high beach reflection, ...

Hancock, Matthew James, 1975-

2005-01-01

341

Adventures of a tidally induced bar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using N-body simulations, we study the properties of a bar induced in a discy dwarf galaxy as a result of tidal interaction with the Milky Way. The bar forms at the first pericentre passage and survives until the end of the evolution at 10 Gyr. Fourier decomposition of the bar reveals that only even modes are significant and preserve a hierarchy so that the bar mode is always the strongest. They show a characteristic profile with a maximum, similar to simulated bars forming in isolated galaxies and observed bars in real galaxies. We adopt the maximum of the bar mode as a measure of the bar strength and we estimate the bar length by comparing the density profiles along the bar and perpendicular to it. The bar strength and the bar length decrease with time, mainly at pericentres, as a result of tidal torques acting at those times and not to secular evolution. The pattern speed of the bar varies significantly on a time-scale of 1 Gyr and is controlled by the orientation of the tidal torque from the Milky Way. The bar is never tidally locked, but we discover a hint of a 5/2 orbital resonance between the third and fourth pericentre passage. The speed of the bar decreases in the long run so that the bar changes from initially rather fast to slow in the later stages. The boxy/peanut shape is present for some time and its occurrence is preceded by a short period of buckling instability.

?okas, E. L.; Athanassoula, E.; Debattista, V. P.; Valluri, M.; Pino, A. del; Semczuk, M.; Gajda, G.; Kowalczyk, K.

2014-12-01

342

Changes in Smoking-Related Norms in Bars Resulting from California’s Smoke-Free Workplace Act*  

PubMed Central

California’s Smoke-Free Workplace Act— CA Labor Code Sec. 6404.5(a)—was extended to bars in 1998. This paper analyzes changes in normative beliefs and behaviors related to bar smoking in the decade following the adoption of the Act. In a series of studies evaluating the smoke-free workplace law in bars, researchers conducted extensive observations and interviews with bar staff and patrons, health officials, and law enforcement personnel in three California counties. Smoking outside became a normal pause in the social environment and created a new type of bar socializing for outside smokers. Although some bar owners and staff reported initially resenting the responsibility to uphold the law, once norms regarding cigarettes and smoking began changing, bar workers experienced less conflict in upholding the law. Non-smoking behavior within bars also became the normative behavior for bar patrons. California’s Smoke-Free Workplace Act has both reflected and encouraged normative beliefs and behaviors related to smoking in bars. The findings indicate that such shifts are possible even in contexts where smoking behaviors and attitudes supporting smoking were deeply entrenched. Recommendations include attending to the synergistic effect of education and policy in effective tobacco control programs. PMID:23705511

Satterlund, Travis D.; Lee, Juliet P.; Moore, Roland S.

2013-01-01

343

Exotic c c-bar Mesons  

E-print Network

A surprising number of new c c-bar mesons with masses above the D D-bar threshold have been discovered at the B factories. Some of them are ordinary charmonium states, but others are definitely exotic mesons. The current theoretical status of the new c c-bar mesons is summarized.

Eric Braaten

2008-08-21

344

Measurement of the semileptonic decays B-bar-->D tau - nu -bar tau and B-bar-->D* tau - nu -bar tau  

E-print Network

We present measurements of the semileptonic decays B--->D0?-?[over-bar] ?, B--->D*0?-?[over-bar] ?, B? 0-->D+?-?? ?, and B? 0-->D*+?-?[over-bar] ?, which are sensitive to non-standard model amplitudes in certain scenarios. ...

Fisher, Peter H.

345

What Does "Raise the Bar" Really Mean?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chanted by educators, business people, parents and politicians of every stripe, the notion of raising the bar of acceptable performance has universal appeal. In education, raising the bar is about much more than raising students' test scores. In this article the author discusses how raising the bar is much more than making schoolwork more…

Rubin, Hank

2005-01-01

346

High bandwidth scanner based on spatial-spectral holograms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I experimentally demonstrated a high bandwidth spatial-spectral holographic (SSH) scanner. Scanners or true time delay lines find their applications in phased-array antennas, radar range-Doppler processing and time-frequency ambiguity function analysis. A typical example of such a device is an acousto-optic deflector (AOD), which has limited bandwidth due to Bragg match conditions, frequency dependent acoustic attenuation of available materials and limitations of piezoelectric transducer technologies. The system proposed in this thesis breaks through the bandwidth limitation of acousto-optic technology, yet resembles the function of an AOD since both operates as a scrolling scanner. It uses a material with large inhomogeneous bandwidth to record space-dependent time-delays as spatial-spectral holograms. The recording of the spatial-spectral holograms utilizes a Galvo scanning (GS) mirror and a chirped laser. In Chapter 2, I experimentally show that a GS mirror can be sufficiently stable for the holographic recording process. After reviewing the relevant physics of the spatial-temporal holographic recording medium, the cryogenically-cooled rare earth doped crystals, in Chapter 3, I give further derivations that are useful in explaining the subsequent experimental results. Chapter 4 describes an efficient and stable numerical scheme for simulating the coherent light-atom interaction in a two-dimensional inhomogeneously-broadened crystal, allowing a search for the optimum experimental geometry for the recording experiment. Chapter 5 integrates the Galvo scanning mirror with the Tm3+:YAG crystal, and gives the experimental demonstration of the first high bandwidth (1.5GHz bandwidth with 20 resolvable spots) spatial-spectral holographic scanner. This system uses one laser for the proof-of concept experiment. Finally, in Chapter 6, I explore the prospect for the future development of the high bandwidth SSH scanner. This chapter also gives the design and demonstration of a two-laser stabilization circuit, with which we can extend our ability to realize the full version of the high bandwidth SSH scanner system.

Xiong, Jingyi

347

ORBITAL SUPPORT OF FAST AND SLOW INNER BARS IN DOUBLE-BARRED GALAXIES  

SciTech Connect

We analyze how the orbital support of the inner bar in a double-barred galaxy (nested bars) depends on the angular velocity (i.e., pattern speed) of this bar. We study orbits in seven models of double bars using the method of invariant loops. The range of pattern speed is covered exhaustively. We find that not all pattern speeds are allowed when the inner bar rotates in the same direction as the outer bar. Below a certain minimum pattern speed orbital support for the inner bar abruptly disappears, while at high values of this speed the orbits indicate an increasingly round bar that looks more like a twist in the nuclear isophotes than a dynamically independent component. For values between these two extremes, orbits supporting the inner bar extend further out as the bar's pattern speed decreases, their corresponding loops become more eccentric, pulsate more, and their rotation becomes increasingly non-uniform, as they speed up and slow down in their motion. Lower pattern speeds also lead to a less coherent bar, as the pulsation and acceleration increasingly varies among the loops supporting the inner bar. The morphologies of fast and slow inner bars expected from the orbital structure studied here have been recently recovered observationally by decomposition of double-barred galaxies. Our findings allow us to link the observed morphology to the dynamics of the inner bar.

Maciejewski, Witold; Small, Emma E., E-mail: wxm@astro.livjm.ac.u [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Twelve Quays House, Egerton Wharf, Birkenhead, CH41 1LD (United Kingdom)

2010-08-10

348

Galaxy Zoo: Observing Secular Evolution through Bars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we use the Galaxy Zoo 2 data set to study the behavior of bars in disk galaxies as a function of specific star formation rate (SSFR) and bulge prominence. Our sample consists of 13,295 disk galaxies, with an overall (strong) bar fraction of 23.6% ± 0.4%, of which 1154 barred galaxies also have bar length (BL) measurements. These samples are the largest ever used to study the role of bars in galaxy evolution. We find that the likelihood of a galaxy hosting a bar is anticorrelated with SSFR, regardless of stellar mass or bulge prominence. We find that the trends of bar likelihood and BL with bulge prominence are bimodal with SSFR. We interpret these observations using state-of-the-art simulations of bar evolution that include live halos and the effects of gas and star formation. We suggest our observed trends of bar likelihood with SSFR are driven by the gas fraction of the disks, a factor demonstrated to significantly retard both bar formation and evolution in models. We interpret the bimodal relationship between bulge prominence and bar properties as being due to the complicated effects of classical bulges and central mass concentrations on bar evolution and also to the growth of disky pseudobulges by bar evolution. These results represent empirical evidence for secular evolution driven by bars in disk galaxies. This work suggests that bars are not stagnant structures within disk galaxies but are a critical evolutionary driver of their host galaxies in the local universe (z < 1). .

Cheung, Edmond; Athanassoula, E.; Masters, Karen L.; Nichol, Robert C.; Bosma, A.; Bell, Eric F.; Faber, S. M.; Koo, David C.; Lintott, Chris; Melvin, Thomas; Schawinski, Kevin; Skibba, Ramin A.; Willett, Kyle W.

2013-12-01

349

Augmented tagging system for annotating and sharing videos on mobile device by bar scanner and social media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social media is very useful for collaborative learning because of their sharing and flexible nature. Many learning activities can use social media to facilitate the processes, such as collaborative writing, brainstorming, and live presentation streaming. Some instructors have paid attention to the popularity of social media. Social media is very simple and intuitive for users with information literacy on desktop

Chih-Kai Chang; Yu-Ying He; Chang-Shing Lee

2010-01-01

350

Bar-holding prosthetic limb  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A prosthetic device for below-the-elbow amputees is disclosed. The device has a removable effector, which is attached to the end of an arm cuff. The effector is comprised of a pair of C-shaped members that are oriented so as to face each other. Working in concert, the C-shaped members are able to hold a bar such as a chainsaw handle. A flat spring is fitted around the C-shaped members to hold them together.

Vest, Thomas W. (inventor); Norton, William E. (inventor); Belcher, Jewell G. (inventor); Carden, James R. (inventor)

1992-01-01

351

Weather Bar 2.1  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It might be raining outside, but how will you know? Fortunately, there is the ever-handy Weather Bar, created by Dennis Delimarsky. This delightfully simple program sits in the taskbar, and visitors can set their location, and also elect to have weather updates sent out every minute. This program promises the highs and lows, the relative humidity levels, and a predictive icon. This version is compatible with computers running with all operating systems, including Linux.

Delimarsky, Dennis

2010-03-26

352

Advances in bar soap technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews recent trends in bar soap technology. Toilet soap markets are highly competitive and the supporting technology\\u000a is changing rapidly. New equipment and processing techniques have been developed, such as high caustic-high solids saponification,\\u000a high speed finishing equipment, and more efficient dryers with better pollution controls. Multicolored, marbleized soaps have\\u000a become important in the marketplace and new plodder

E. Jungermann; Greyhound Tower

1973-01-01

353

21 CFR 886.1650 - Ophthalmic bar prism.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 false Ophthalmic bar prism. 886.1650 Section 886.1650 Food...Diagnostic Devices § 886.1650 Ophthalmic bar prism. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic bar prism is a device that is a bar composed of...

2012-04-01

354

21 CFR 886.1650 - Ophthalmic bar prism.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Ophthalmic bar prism. 886.1650 Section 886.1650 Food...Diagnostic Devices § 886.1650 Ophthalmic bar prism. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic bar prism is a device that is a bar composed of...

2013-04-01

355

21 CFR 886.1650 - Ophthalmic bar prism.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 false Ophthalmic bar prism. 886.1650 Section 886.1650 Food...Diagnostic Devices § 886.1650 Ophthalmic bar prism. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic bar prism is a device that is a bar composed of...

2011-04-01

356

21 CFR 886.1650 - Ophthalmic bar prism.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-04-01 false Ophthalmic bar prism. 886.1650 Section 886.1650 Food...Diagnostic Devices § 886.1650 Ophthalmic bar prism. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic bar prism is a device that is a bar composed of...

2014-04-01

357

Galaxy Zoo: Observing Secular Evolution Through Bars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this talk, I use the Galaxy Zoo 2 dataset to study the behavior of bars in disk galaxies as a function of specific star formation rate (SSFR), and inner galactic structure, i.e., the prominence of the bulge as parameterized by Sérsic index and central surface stellar mass density. Our sample consists of 13,295 disk galaxies, with an overall bar fraction of 23.6 ± 0.4%, of which 1,154 barred galaxies also have bar length measurements. These samples are the largest ever used to study the role of bars in disk galaxy evolution. I find that the likelihood of a galaxy hosting a bar is anti-correlated with SSFR, regardless of stellar mass or bulge prominence. I find that the trends of bar likelihood with bulge prominence are bimodal with SSFR, i.e., in star-forming galaxies, bulges are more prominent in galaxies more likely to host bars, while in quiescent disk galaxies, bars are less frequent where there are prominent bulges. Our observations of bar length reveal a complex picture. In star-forming disks, longer bars are found where the bulges are more prominent, while in quiescent disks there is a maximum in the average bar length as a function of bulge prominence. I interpret these observations using state-of-the-art simulations of bar evolution which include live halos and the effects of gas and star formation. I suggest our observed trends of bar likelihood with SSFR are driven by the gas fraction of the disks; a factor demonstrated to significantly retard both bar formation and evolution in models. I interpret the bimodal relationship between bulge prominence and bar properties as due to the complicated effects of classical bulges and central mass concentrations on bar evolution, and also to the growth of disky pseudobulges by bar evolution. These results represent empirical evidence for secular evolution driven by bars in disk galaxies. This work suggests that bars are not stagnant structures within disk galaxies, but are a critical evolutionary driver of their host galaxies in the local universe (z < 1).

Cheung, Edmond; Athanassoula, L.; Masters, K.; Faber, S. M.; Koo, D. C.; Zoo, Galaxy

2014-01-01

358

Alignment and resolution studies of a MARS scanner  

E-print Network

The MARS scanner is designed for the x-ray spectroscopic study of samples with the aid of computer tomography methods. Computer tomography allows the reconstruction of slices of an investigated sample using a set of shadow projections obtained for different angles. Projections in the MARS scanner are produced using a cone x-ray beam geometry. Correct reconstruction in this scheme requires precise knowledge of several geometrical parameters of a tomograph, such as displacement of a rotation axis, x-ray source position with respect to a camera, and camera inclinations. Use of inaccurate parameters leads to a poor sample reconstruction. Non-ideal positioning of camera, x-ray source and cylindrical rotating frame (gantry) itself on which these parts are located, leads to the need for tomograph alignment. In this note we describe the alignment procedure that was used to get different geometrical corrections for the reconstruction. Also, several different estimations of the final spatial resolution for reconstructe...

Butler, A P; Bell, S T; Chelkov, G; Demichev, M; Gongadze, A; Kotov, S; Kozhevnikov, D; Kruchonak, U; Potrap, I; Smolyanskiy, P; Zhemchugov, A

2015-01-01

359

Prototype Holographic Atmospheric Scanner for Environmental Remote Sensing (PHASERS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A ground-based atmospheric lidar system that utilizes a Holographic Optical Telescope and Scanner has been developed and successfully operated to obtain atmospheric backscatter profiles. The Prototype Holographic Atmospheric Scanner for Environmental Remote Sensing is built around a volume phase reflection Holographic Optical Element. This single optical element both directs and collimates the outgoing laser beam as well as collects, focuses, and filters the atmospheric laser backscatter, while offering significant weight savings over existing telescope mirror technology. Conical scanning is accomplished as the HOE rotates on a turntable sweeping the 1.2 mrad field of view around a 42deg cone. During this technology demonstration, atmospheric aerosol and cloud return signals have been received in both stationary and scanning modes. The success of this program has led to the further development of this technology for integration into airborne and eventually satellite earth observing scanning lidar telescopes.

Guerra, David V.; Schwemmer, Geary K.; Wooten, Albert D., Jr.; Chaudhuri, Sandipan S.; Wilkerson, Thomas D.

1995-01-01

360

The airborne infrared scanner as a geophysical research tool  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The infrared scanner is proving to be an effective anomaly-mapping tool, albeit one which depicts surface emission directly and heat mass transfer from depths only indirectly and at a threshold level 50 to 100 times the normal conductive heat flow of the earth. Moreover, successive terrain observations are affected by time-dependent variables such as the diurnal and seasonal warming and cooling cycle of a point on the earth's surface. In planning precise air borne surveys of radiant flux from the earth's surface, account must be taken of background noise created by variations in micrometeorological factors and emissivity of surface materials, as well as the diurnal temperature cycle. The effect of the diurnal cycle may be minimized by planning predawn aerial surveys. In fact, the diurnal change is very small for most water bodies and the emissivity factor for water (e) =~ 1 so a minimum background noise is characteristic of scanner records of calm water surfaces.

Friedman, Jules D.

1970-01-01

361

Robust Object Segmentation Using a Multi-Layer Laser Scanner  

PubMed Central

The major problem in an advanced driver assistance system (ADAS) is the proper use of sensor measurements and recognition of the surrounding environment. To this end, there are several types of sensors to consider, one of which is the laser scanner. In this paper, we propose a method to segment the measurement of the surrounding environment as obtained by a multi-layer laser scanner. In the segmentation, a full set of measurements is decomposed into several segments, each representing a single object. Sometimes a ghost is detected due to the ground or fog, and the ghost has to be eliminated to ensure the stability of the system. The proposed method is implemented on a real vehicle, and its performance is tested in a real-world environment. The experiments show that the proposed method demonstrates good performance in many real-life situations. PMID:25356645

Kim, Beomseong; Choi, Baehoon; Yoo, Minkyun; Kim, Hyunju; Kim, Euntai

2014-01-01

362

Wire Scanner Beam Profile Measurements: LANSCE Facility Beam Development  

SciTech Connect

The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is replacing Wire Scanner (WS) beam profile measurement systems. Three beam development tests have taken place to test the new wire scanners under beam conditions. These beam development tests have integrated the WS actuator, cable plant, electronics processors and associated software and have used H{sup -} beams of different beam energy and current conditions. In addition, the WS measurement-system beam tests verified actuator control systems for minimum profile bin repeatability and speed, checked for actuator backlash and positional stability, tested the replacement of simple broadband potentiometers with narrow band resolvers, and tested resolver use with National Instruments Compact Reconfigurable Input and Output (cRIO) Virtual Instrumentation. These beam tests also have verified how trans-impedance amplifiers react with various types of beam line background noise and how noise currents were not generated. This paper will describe these beam development tests and show some resulting data.

Gilpatrick, John D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Batygin, Yuri K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gonzales, Fermin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gruchalla, Michael E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kutac, Vincent G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Derwin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sedillo, James Daniel [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pillai, Chandra [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rodriguez Esparza, Sergio [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Smith, Brian G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-05-15

363

Real-time scanner error correction in white light interferometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

3D microscopes based on white light interferometry (WLI) with vertical scanning have been widely used in many areas of surface measurements and characterizations for decades. This technology provides fast, non-contact, and full-field surface 3D measurements with vertical resolution as low as the sub-nanometer range. Its applications include measurements of step height, surface roughness, film thickness, narrow trench and via depths as well as other geometric and texture parameters. In order to assure the highest accuracy of the measurement, scanner linearity needs to be maintained or monitored so that the nonlinearity can be accounted for during the measurement. This paper describes a method that accounts for nonlinearities in real time without the need to store frame data; in addition this method is shown to be less sensitive to vibrations than previous methods described. The method uses an additional interferometer, a distance measuring interferometer to measure the actual scanner position at each scan step.

Chen, Dong; Schmit, Joanna; Novak, Matt

2014-11-01

364

Beam dumping ghost signals in electric sweep scanners  

SciTech Connect

Over the last 20 years many labs started to use Allison scanners to measure low-energy ion beam emittances. We show that large trajectory angles produce ghost signals due to the impact of the beamlet on the electric deflection plates. The strength of the ghost signal is proportional to the amount of beam entering the scanner. Depending on the ions and their velocity, ghost signals can have the opposite polarity as the main beam signals or the same polarity. These ghost signals are easily overlooked because they partly overlap the real signals, they are mostly below the 1% level, and they are often hidden in the noise. However, they cause significant errors in emittance estimates because they are associated with large trajectory angles. The strength of ghost signals, and the associated errors, can be drastically reduced with a simple modification of the deflection plates.

Stockli, M.P.; /SNS Project, Oak Ridge /Tennessee U.; Leitner, M.; /LBL, Berkeley; Moehs, D.P.; /Fermilab; Keller, R.; /LBL, Berkeley; Welton, R.F.; /SNS Project, Oak Ridge

2004-12-01

365

Quantifying the Bias in the Masses of Supermassive Black Holes in Barred Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies of simulations of barred galaxies with supermassive black holes {BH} show that a bar can cause an increase in the central line-of-sight velocity dispersion {sigma} of about 7-12% - an increase that is consistent with the average offset observed for barred galaxies relative to unbarred ones. A more serious consequence of the presence of a bar is that its unique orbital structure {the combination of the radially biased bar orbits and the high bar pattern speed}, results in a high central velocity dispersion but negative 4th Gauss-Hermite parameters, even in the vicinity of the BH. This unique combination of kinematical parameters can result in a systematic over-estimate of the BH mass - if the bar is modelled as axisymmetric. Although nearly 60% of spiral/SO galaxies with existing stellar dynamically BH masses are in barred galaxies, their masses have been derived using axisymmetric models! An overestimate of BH mass in barred disks would erase morphological differences between the BH scaling relations of disks and ellipticals, which could be crucial to understanding the co-evolution of BHs and their host galaxies. In this theory proposal we will use N-body simulations to generate mock kinematic datasets {STIS, FOS and ground based IFU} for barred disk galaxies, model them with an axisymmetric orbit superposition code, and thereby quantify the magnitude of the bias in existing BH mass measurements. This analysis will provide crucial input for developing new and accurate methods for determining BH masses in galaxies of different morphological types, thereby revealing the true extent of intrinsic differences in the supermassive BH scaling relationships.

Valluri, Monica

2014-10-01

366

Effects of sitting versus standing and scanner type on cashiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the retail supermarket industry where cashiers perform repetitive, light manual material-handling tasks when scanning and handling products, reports of musculoskeletal disorders and discomfort are high. Ergonomics tradeoffs exist between sitting and standing postures, which are further confounded by the checkstand design and point-of-sale technology, such as the scanner. A laboratory experiment study was conducted to understand the effects of

K. R. Lehman; J. P. Psihogios; R. G. J. Meulenbroek

2001-01-01

367

Design and Operation of Combined PET-CT Scanners  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Combined PET-CT scanners have been in production for over 10 years, and the technology has undergone rapid evolution. For\\u000a PET, the introduction of new scintillator materials, detector concepts, and electronics is resulting in performance improvements\\u000a in count rate, spatial resolution, and signal-to-noise. At the same time, the increasing number of detector rows and reduction\\u000a in rotation time are transforming whole-body

David W. Townsend

368

ADP of multispectral scanner data for land use mapping  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The advantages and disadvantages of various remote sensing instrumentation and analysis techniques are reviewed. The use of multispectral scanner data and the automatic data processing techniques are considered. A computer-aided analysis system for remote sensor data is described with emphasis on the image display, statistics processor, wavelength band selection, classification processor, and results display. Advanced techniques in using spectral and temporal data are also considered.

Hoffer, R. M.

1971-01-01

369

90. View of scanner building no. 104 showing emplacement process ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

90. View of scanner building no. 104 showing emplacement process for one-half of upper radar switch housing body. RCA Services Company 6 September, 1960, official photograph BMEWS Project by unknown photograph, Photographic Services, Riverton, NJ, BMEWS, clear as negative no. a-1163. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

370

Estimating Reflectance Functions Using a Cyberware 3030 Scanner  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measuring reflectance properties is important to the fields of computer graphics and vision. We present a novel, rapid measurement\\u000a technique specifically targeting the reflectance properties of skin. Using a Cyberware laser scanner to capture range and\\u000a radiance data, a sampling of the surface radiance function under a broad range of incident and view directions is constructed.\\u000a This function is at

Matthew P. Dickens; Edwin R. Hancock

2007-01-01

371

More About Laser Scanner Tests For Single-Event Upsets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two reports describe preliminary theoretical and experimental studies based on method described in "Laser Scanner Tests For Single-Event Upsets" (NPO-18216). Laser-scan and heavy-ion data found correlated within factor of two. Method of testing for single-event upsets intended to overcome disadvantages of, complement, and/or substitute for more-expensive cyclotron-testing method, which does not provide spatial resolution.

Kim, Quiesup; Edmonds, Larry D.; Zoutendyk, John A.; Schwartz, Harvey R.

1993-01-01

372

Scanner studies of composite spectra. II - Giants and dwarfs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of line and continuum indices is calibrated as a function of spectral type, over the range late O-early G for giants, using low resolution scanner observations in the 3500-4400 A region. Line or feature indices are defined for H-gamma, G band, Ca I (4227 A), Ca II (K), H 3889, and the Balmer jump. The combination of the

W. I. Beavers

1982-01-01

373

3D millimetre-wave scanner for luggage and parcels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the framework of a project [1] dealing with the enforcement of harbor security, a radar based luggage and parcel scanner was developed, with the inherent characteristics of the use of non ionizing radiation and thus without any health hazards for the involved people. The development of hardware and imaging software, based upon near field synthetic aperture algorithms, and fast mechanical scanning is described and first results of high resolution images of threat objects within parcels are shown.

Essen, Helmut; Zimmermann, Ralph; Hantscher, Sebastian; Pohl, Nils

2012-10-01

374

Experimental characterization of the Clear-PEM scanner spectrometric performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the framework of the Clear-PEM project for the construction of a high-resolution and high-specificity scanner for breast cancer imaging, a Positron Emission Mammography tomograph has been developed and installed at the Instituto Português de Oncologia do Porto hospital. The Clear-PEM scanner is mainly composed by two planar detector heads attached to a robotic arm, trigger/data acquisition electronics system and computing servers. The detector heads hold crystal matrices built from 2 × 2 × 20 mm3 LYSO:Ce crystals readout by Hamamatsu S8550 APD arrays. The APDs are optically coupled to both ends of the 6144 crystals in order to extract the DOI information for each detected event. Each one of 12288 APD's pixels is read and controlled by Application Specific Integrated Circuits water-cooled by an external cooling unit. The Clear-PEM frontend boards innovative design results in a unprecedented integration of the crystal matrices, APDs and ASICs, making Clear-PEM the PET scanner with the highest number of APD pixels ever integrated so far. In this paper, the scanner's main technical characteristics, calibration strategies and the first spectrometric performance evaluation in a clinical environment are presented. The first commissioning results show 99.7% active channels, which, after calibration, have inter-pixel and absolute gain distributions with dispersions of, respectively, 12.2% and 15.3%, demonstrating that despite the large number of channels, the system is uniform. The mean energy resolution at 511 keV is of 15.9%, with a 8.8% dispersion, and the mean CDOI-1 is 5.9%/mm, with a 7.8% dispersion. The coincidence time resolution, at 511 keV, for a energy window between 400 and 600 keV, is 5.2 ns FWHM.

Bugalho, R.; Carriço, B.; Ferreira, C. S.; Frade, M.; Ferreira, M.; Moura, R.; Ortigão, C.; Pinheiro, J. F.; Rodrigues, P.; Rolo, I.; Silva, J. C.; Trindade, A.; Varela, J.

2009-10-01

375

Free-space wavelength-multiplexed optical scanner  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wavelength-multiplexed optical scanning scheme is proposed for deflecting a free-space optical beam by selection of the wavelength of the light incident on a wavelength-dispersive optical element. With fast tunable lasers or optical filters, this scanner features microsecond domain scan setting speeds and large-diameter apertures of several centimeters or more for subdegree angular scans. Analysis performed indicates an optimum scan

Zahid Yaqoob; Azhar A. Rizvi; Nabeel A. Riza

2001-01-01

376

Methods for CT Automatic Exposure Control Protocol Translation between Scanner Platforms  

PubMed Central

Purpose An imaging facility with a diverse fleet of CT scanners faces considerable challenges when propagating CT protocols with consistent image quality and patient dose across scanner makes and models. While some protocol parameters can comfortably remain constant between scanners (e.g. kV, gantry rotation time, etc.), the automatic exposure control parameter, which selects the overall mA level during tube current modulation, is difficult to match between scanners, especially from different CT manufacturers. Method Objective methods for converting tube-current-modulation protocols between CT scanners were developed. Three CT scanners were investigated, a GE LightSpeed 16 scanner, a GE VCT scanner, and a Siemens Definition AS+ scanner. Translation of the automatic exposure control (AEC) parameters such as noise index or quality reference mAs across CT scanners was specifically investigated. A variable-diameter polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) phantom was imaged on the three scanners using a range of AEC parameters for each scanner. The phantom consisted of 5 cylindrical sections with diameters of 13 cm, 16 cm, 20 cm, 25 cm, and 32 cm. The protocol translation scheme was based upon matching either the CTDIvol or image noise (in HU) between two different CT scanners. A series of analytical fit functions, corresponding to different patient sizes (phantom diameters) were developed from the measured CT data. These functions relate the AEC metric of the reference scanner, the GE LightSpeed 16 in this case, to the AEC metric of a secondary scanner. Results When translating protocols between different models of CT scanners (from the GE LightSpeed 16 reference scanner to the GE VCT system), the translation functions were linear. However, a power-law function was necessary to convert the AEC functions of the GE LightSpeed 16 reference scanner to the Siemens Definition AS+ secondary scanner, due to differences in the AEC functionality designed by these two companies. Conclusions Protocol translation based on quantitative metrics – volume computed tomography dose index or measured image noise is feasible. Protocol translation has a dependency on patient size, especially between the GE and Siemens’ systems. Translation schemes that preserve dose levels may not produce identical image quality. PMID:24589404

McKenney, Sarah E.; Seibert, J. Anthony; Lamba, Ramit; Boone, John M.

2013-01-01

377

3D laser scanner system using high dynamic range imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because of its high measuring speed, moderate accuracy, low cost and robustness in the industrial field, 3D laser scanning has been widely used in a variety of applications. However, the measurement of a 3D profile of a high dynamic range (HDR) brightness surface such as a partially highlighted object or a partial specular reflection remains one of the most challenging problems. This difficulty has limited the adoption of such scanner systems. In this paper, an optical imaging system based on a high-resolution liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS) device and an image sensor (CCD or CMOS) was built to adjust the image's brightness pixel by pixel as required. The radiance value of the image captured by the image sensor is constrained to lie within the dynamic range of the sensor after an adaptive algorithm of pixel mapping between the LCoS mask plane and image plane through the HDR imaging system is added. Thus, an HDR image was reconstructed by the LCoS mask and the CCD image on this system. The significant difference between the proposed system and a traditional 3D laser scanner system is that the HDR image was used to calibrate and calculate the 3D profile coordinate. Experimental results show that HDR imaging can enhance 3D laser scanner system environmental adaptability and improve the accuracy of 3D profile measurement.

Zhongdong, Yang; Peng, Wang; Xiaohui, Li; Changku, Sun

2014-03-01

378

CT (computed tomography) scanners. Methodological note No. 1  

SciTech Connect

Flexible need methodologies and planning efforts for computed tomography (CT) scanners are needed to address future utilization rates and technological developments. The 'Leonard methodology' multiplies the number of patients in each disease category diagnosable by a CT scanner by a conversion factor to estimate the number of patients that would benefit from an initial CT scan. This number is then adjusted to estimate the number of follow-up procedures and outpatient procedures generated by a hospital's patients. Other methods suggested include: (1) a weighting formula which expresses a composite weighted scanning volume in head-equivalent CT (HECT) units and (2) a sliding scale which calculates utilization levels using various slice times and a ratio of head to body scans. A standard of 3,500-4,000 HECTs per year, a level comparable to the previous target of 2,500 patient procedures, has been proposed. Adjustments based on local conditions such as data availability and service accessibility were recommended with this standard. Included are: Block McGibony and Associates' Planning for Computed Tomography (CT) Scanning: Considerations for Planners and Providers, which endorses the Leonard methodology; G. M. K. Hughes' 'National Survey of Computed Tomography Unit Capacity,' which proposes the HECT standard; the National Council on Health Planning and Development's proposed standard for CT scanners; and methodologies from the 1980 Missouri State Health Plan and the 1980/81 Southeastern Wisconsin Health Systems Plan.

Geller, G.

1980-12-01

379

Electro-optic and Acousto-optic Laser Beam Scanners  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical solid state de?ectors rely on the electro-optical or acousto-optic effect. These Electro-Optical De?ectors (EODs) and Acousto-Optical De?ectors (AODs) do not contain moving parts and therefore exhibit high de?ection velocities and are free of drawbacks associated with mechanical scanners. A description of the principles of operation of EODs and AODs is presented. In addition, characteristics, properties and the (dis)advantages of EODs and AODs, when compared to mirror based mechanical de?ectors, is discussed. De?ection angles, speed and accuracy are discussed in terms of resolvable spots and related quantities. Also, response time, damage threshold, efficiency and the type and magnitude of beam distortions is addressed. Optical de?ectors are characterized by high angular de?ection velocities, but small de?ection angles. Whereas mechanical mechanical scanners are characterized by relatively small de?ection velocities, but large de?ection angles. Arranging an optical de?ector and a mechanical scanner in series allows to take advantage of the best of both worlds.

Römer, G. R. B. E.; Bechtold, P.

380

Stable throughput of cognitive radios with relaying capability Osvaldo Simeone, Yeheskel Bar-Ness and Umberto Spagnolini  

E-print Network

Stable throughput of cognitive radios with relaying capability Osvaldo Simeone, Yeheskel Bar-Ness "transparency" of the activity of the secondary link. O. Simeone and Y. Bar-Ness are with CCSPR, New Jersey In

Simeone, Osvaldo

381

A secularly evolved model for the Milky Way bar and bulge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bars are strong drivers of secular evolution in disk galaxies. Bars themselves can evolve secularly through angular momentum transport, producing different boxy/peanut and X-shaped bulges. Our Milky Way is an example of a barred galaxy with a boxy bulge. We present a self-consistent N-body simulation of a barred galaxy which matches remarkably well the structure of the inner Milky Way deduced from star counts. In particular, features taken as signatures of a second ``long bar`` can be explained by the interaction between the bar and the spiral arms of the galaxy (Martinez-Valpuesta & Gerhard 2011). Furthermore the structural change in the bulge inside l = 4° measured recently from VVV data can be explained by the high-density near-axisymmetric part of the inner boxy bulge (Gerhard & Martinez-Valpuesta 2012). We also compare this model with kinematic data from recent spectroscopic surveys. We use a modified version of the NMAGIC code (de Lorenzi et al. 2007) to study the properties of the Milky Way bar, obtaining an upper limit for the pattern speed of ~ 42 km/sec/kpc. See Fig. 1 for a comparison of one of our best models with BRAVA data (Kunder et al. 2012).

Martinez-Valpuesta, Inma; Gerhard, Ortwin

2015-03-01

382

Digital Image Analysis for DETCHIP® Code Determination  

PubMed Central

DETECHIP® is a molecular sensing array used for identification of a large variety of substances. Previous methodology for the analysis of DETECHIP® used human vision to distinguish color changes induced by the presence of the analyte of interest. This paper describes several analysis techniques using digital images of DETECHIP®. Both a digital camera and flatbed desktop photo scanner were used to obtain Jpeg images. Color information within these digital images was obtained through the measurement of red-green-blue (RGB) values using software such as GIMP, Photoshop and ImageJ. Several different techniques were used to evaluate these color changes. It was determined that the flatbed scanner produced in the clearest and more reproducible images. Furthermore, codes obtained using a macro written for use within ImageJ showed improved consistency versus pervious methods. PMID:25267940

Lyon, Marcus; Wilson, Mark V.; Rouhier, Kerry A.; Symonsbergen, David J.; Bastola, Kiran; Thapa, Ishwor; Holmes, Andrea E.

2013-01-01

383

Multispectral scanner system for ERTS: Four band scanner system. Volume 2: Engineering model panoramic pictures and engineering tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document is Volume 2 of three volumes of the Final Report for the four band Multispectral Scanner System (MSS). The results are contained of an analysis of pictures of actual outdoor scenes imaged by the engineering model MSS for spectral response, resolution, noise, and video correction. Also included are the results of engineering tests on the MSS for reflectance and saturation from clouds. Finally, two panoramic pictures of Yosemite National Park are provided.

1972-01-01

384

Uplink Coding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews uplink coding. The purpose and goals of the briefing are (1) Show a plan for using uplink coding and describe benefits (2) Define possible solutions and their applicability to different types of uplink, including emergency uplink (3) Concur with our conclusions so we can embark on a plan to use proposed uplink system (4) Identify the need for the development of appropriate technology and infusion in the DSN (5) Gain advocacy to implement uplink coding in flight projects Action Item EMB04-1-14 -- Show a plan for using uplink coding, including showing where it is useful or not (include discussion of emergency uplink coding).

Pollara, Fabrizio; Hamkins, Jon; Dolinar, Sam; Andrews, Ken; Divsalar, Dariush

2006-01-01

385

FE analysis of a notched bar under thermomechanical fatigue using a unified viscoplasticity model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Z-mat software is used to implement the multiaxial form of the Chaboche unified viscoplastic constitutive equations into the Abaqus finite element (FE) code. Complex transient stress fields within a grade P91 steel notched bar specimen are investigated in detail for different thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) loading conditions. The results of this work can be used to determine suitable test conditions for

D. W. J. Tanner; W. Sun; T. H. Hyde

2011-01-01

386

Evaluation of scanners for C-scan imaging in nondestructive inspection of aircraft  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project was to produce a document that contains information on the usability and performance of commercially available, fieldable, and portable scanner systems as they apply to aircraft NDI inspections. In particular, the scanners are used to generate images of eddy current, ultrasonic, or bond tester inspection data. The scanner designs include manual scanners, semiautomated scanners, and fully automated scanners. A brief description of the functionality of each scanner type, a sketch, and a fist of the companies that support the particular design are provided. Vendors of each scanner type provided hands-on demonstrations of their equipment on real aircraft samples in the FAA Aging Aircraft Nondestructive Inspection Validation Center (AANC) in Albuquerque, NM. From evaluations recorded during the demonstrations, a matrix of scanner features and factors and ranking of the capabilities and limitations of the design, portability, articulation, performance, usability, and computer hardware/software was constructed to provide a quick reference for comparing the different scanner types. Illustrations of C-scan images obtained during the demonstration are shown.

Gieske, J.H.

1994-04-01

387

Galaxy Zoo: Observing Secular Evolution Through Bars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although often seen in galaxies, the role that bars play in galaxy evolution has been largely overlooked. Observations show that bars — stellar linear-shaped structures — have been present in galaxies since z ˜ 1, about 8 billion years ago, and that more and more galaxies are becoming barred with time. This trend has continued to the present, where about two-thirds of all disk galaxies are barred. Observations have also shown that there is a connection between the presence of a bar and the properties of a galaxy, including morphology, star formation, chemical abundance gradients, and nuclear activity. These trends are consistent with the predicted effects of bars on galaxy evolution, i.e., secular evolution. Thus, observations and simulations indicate that bars are important drivers of galaxy evolution. But despite these evidence, bars are still commonly omitted in the lore of galaxy evolution. This proceeding briefly highlights work by Cheung et al. (2013), which tries to change this common omission by presenting the best evidence of bar-driven secular evolution yet. This work implies that bars are not stagnant structures within galaxies, but are instead, critical drivers of galaxy evolution.

Cheung, E.; Athanassoula, E.; Masters, K. L.; Nichol, R. C.; Bosma, A.; Bell, E. F.; Faber, S. M.; Koo, D. C.; Lintott, C.; Melvin, T.; Schawinski, K.; Skibba, R. A.; Willett, K. W.

2014-03-01

388

Character coding  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Character coding has been called the bete noire of phylogenetic analysis. As you may have seen from class, the definition of "character" is squishy and varies between authors. Although there isn't agreement on exactly what a character is, it is possible to predict how certain character definitions and coding strategies affect phylogenetic analysis. This activity focuses on character coding, specifically about how different coding strategies can affect analysis. In this exercise we will try to look at different coding strategies by considering the simple shapes below. (1) What is a character, and what qualities do characters have? (2) Given the 'morphology' depicted above, what features vary? (3) Given the variation you identified, come up with as many character codings as you can; i.e., different ways that this variation can be coded into characters. (4) For each of the coding strategies you come up with in question 3, identify its assumptions, limitations, and strengths. (5) Identify your preferred coding strategy and defend your choice. Students asked to define what a character is and to discuss what they 'require', and then to come up with an exhaustive list of coding strategies for the sample morphology. They are then asked to list assumptions/limitations of each strategy.

Jeff Wilson

389

The feasibility of a scanner-independent technique to estimate organ dose from MDCT scans: Using CTDI{sub vol} to account for differences between scanners  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Monte Carlo radiation transport techniques have made it possible to accurately estimate the radiation dose to radiosensitive organs in patient models from scans performed with modern multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT) scanners. However, there is considerable variation in organ doses across scanners, even when similar acquisition conditions are used. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of a technique to estimate organ doses that would be scanner independent. This was accomplished by assessing the ability of CTDI{sub vol} measurements to account for differences in MDCT scanners that lead to organ dose differences. Methods: Monte Carlo simulations of 64-slice MDCT scanners from each of the four major manufacturers were performed. An adult female patient model from the GSF family of voxelized phantoms was used in which all ICRP Publication 103 radiosensitive organs were identified. A 120 kVp, full-body helical scan with a pitch of 1 was simulated for each scanner using similar scan protocols across scanners. From each simulated scan, the radiation dose to each organ was obtained on a per mA s basis (mGy/mA s). In addition, CTDI{sub vol} values were obtained from each scanner for the selected scan parameters. Then, to demonstrate the feasibility of generating organ dose estimates from scanner-independent coefficients, the simulated organ dose values resulting from each scanner were normalized by the CTDI{sub vol} value for those acquisition conditions. Results: CTDI{sub vol} values across scanners showed considerable variation as the coefficient of variation (CoV) across scanners was 34.1%. The simulated patient scans also demonstrated considerable differences in organ dose values, which varied by up to a factor of approximately 2 between some of the scanners. The CoV across scanners for the simulated organ doses ranged from 26.7% (for the adrenals) to 37.7% (for the thyroid), with a mean CoV of 31.5% across all organs. However, when organ doses are normalized by CTDI{sub vol} values, the differences across scanners become very small. For the CTDI{sub vol}, normalized dose values the CoVs across scanners for different organs ranged from a minimum of 2.4% (for skin tissue) to a maximum of 8.5% (for the adrenals) with a mean of 5.2%. Conclusions: This work has revealed that there is considerable variation among modern MDCT scanners in both CTDI{sub vol} and organ dose values. Because these variations are similar, CTDI{sub vol} can be used as a normalization factor with excellent results. This demonstrates the feasibility of establishing scanner-independent organ dose estimates by using CTDI{sub vol} to account for the differences between scanners.

Turner, Adam C.; Zankl, Maria; DeMarco, John J.; Cagnon, Chris H.; Zhang Di; Angel, Erin; Cody, Dianna D.; Stevens, Donna M.; McCollough, Cynthia H.; McNitt-Gray, Michael F. [Departments of Biomedical Physics and Radiology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90024 (United States); Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Institute of Radiation Protection, German Research Center for Environmental Health (GmbH), Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Departments of Biomedical Physics and Radiology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90024 (United States); Department of Imaging Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland, Oregon 97239 (United States); Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota 55901 (United States); Departments of Biomedical Physics and Radiology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90024 (United States)

2010-04-15

390

Bar-driven Dark Halo Evolution: A Resolution of the Cusp-Core Controversy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simulations predict that the dark matter halos of galaxies should have central cusps, while those inferred from observed galaxies do not have cusps. We demonstrate, using both linear perturbation theory and n-body simulations, that a disk bar, which should be ubiquitous in forming galaxies, can produce cores in cuspy cold dark matter profiles within five bar orbital times. Simulations of forming galaxies suggest that one of Milky Way size could have a 10 kpc primordial bar; this bar will remove the cusp out to ~2.5 kpc in ~1.5 Gyr, while the disk would lose only ~8% of its original angular momentum. Larger bars would remove the cusp out to correspondingly larger radii. An inner Lindblad-like resonance couples the rotating bar to orbits at all radii through the cusp, transferring the bar-pattern angular momentum to the dark matter cusp, rapidly flattening it. This resonance disappears for profiles with cores and is responsible for a qualitative difference in bar-driven halo evolution with and without a cusp. This bar-induced evolution will have a profound effect on the structure and evolution of almost all galaxies. Hence, both to understand galaxy formation and evolution and to make predictions from theory, it is necessary to resolve these dynamical processes. Unfortunately, correctly resolving these important dynamical processes in ab initio calculations of galaxy formation is a daunting task, requiring at least 4,000,000 halo particles using our SCF code and probably requiring many times more particles when using noisier tree, direct summation, or grid-based techniques-the usual methods employed in such calculations.

Weinberg, Martin D.; Katz, Neal

2002-12-01

391

Halo evolution in the presence of a disc bar  

E-print Network

Angular momentum transfer from a rotating stellar bar has been proposed by Weinberg & Katz (2002) as a mechanism to destroy dark-matter cusps in a few rotation periods. The N-body simulations performed by these authors in support of their claim employed spherical harmonics for the force computation and were, as shown by Sellwood (2003), very sensitive to inclusion of asymmetric terms (odd l,m). In order to disentangle possible numerical artifacts due to the usage of spherical harmonics from genuine stellar dynamical effects, we performed similar experiments using a tree code and find that significant cusp destruction requires substantially more angular momentum than is realistically available. However, we find that the simplified model (a N-body halo torqued by a rotating bar pinned to the origin) undergoes an instability in which the cusp moves away from the origin. In presence of this off-centring, spherical density profiles centred on the origin display an apparent cusp-removal. We strongly suspect that it is this effect which Weinberg & Katz observed. When suppressing the artificial instability, cusp removal is very slow and requires much more angular momentum to be transferred to the halo than a realistic stellar bar possibly possesses.

Paul J. McMillan; Walter Dehnen

2005-08-30

392

2011 Vibrations -1 VIBRATION OF PLATES & BARS  

E-print Network

of the bar Y = Young's modulus = mass density In the case of aluminum, = 2.7 x103 kg/m3 and a typical (but can vary according to manufacturing process) value of Young's modulus is Y = 7.5 x 1010 N/m2;2011 Vibrations - 3 Procedure: I. Bar Attach the long rectangular bar (about 50 cm length) aluminum plate

Glashausser, Charles

393

Temperature dependence of APD-based PET scanners  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Solid state detectors such as avalanche photodiodes (APDs) are increasingly being used in PET detectors. One of the disadvantages of APDs is the strong decrease of their gain factor with increasing ambient temperature. The light yield of most scintillation crystals also decreases when ambient temperature is increased. Both effects lead to considerable temperature dependence of the performance of APD-based PET scanners. In this paper, the authors propose a model for this dependence and the performance of the LabPET8 APD-based small animal PET scanner is evaluated at different temperatures.Methods: The model proposes that the effect of increasing temperature on the energy histogram of an APD-based PET scanner is a compression of the histogram along the energy axis. The energy histogram of the LabPET system was acquired at 21 °C and 25 °C to verify the validity of this model. Using the proposed model, the effect of temperature on system sensitivity was simulated for different detector temperature coefficients and temperatures. Subsequently, the effect of short term and long term temperature changes on the peak sensitivity of the LabPET system was measured. The axial sensitivity profile was measured at 21 °C and 24 °C following the NEMA NU 4-2008 standard. System spatial resolution was also evaluated. Furthermore, scatter fraction, count losses and random coincidences were evaluated at different temperatures. Image quality was also investigated.Results: As predicted by the model, the photopeak energy at 25 °C is lower than at 21 °C with a shift of approximately 6% per °C. Simulations showed that this results in an approximately linear decrease of sensitivity when temperature is increased from 21 °C to 24 °C and energy thresholds are constant. Experimental evaluation of the peak sensitivity at different temperatures showed a strong linear correlation for short term (2.32 kcps/MBq/°C = 12%/°C, R = ?0.95) and long term (1.92 kcps/MBq/°C = 10%/°C , R = ?0.96) temperature changes. Count rate evaluation showed that although the total count rate is consistently higher at 21 °C than at 24 °C for different source activity concentrations, this is mainly due to an increase in scattered and random coincidences. The peak total count rate is 400 kcps at both temperatures but is reached at lower activity at 21 °C. The peak true count rate is 138 kcps (at 100 MBq) at 21 °C and 180 kcps (at 125 MBq) at 24 °C. The peak noise equivalent count rate is also lower at 21 °C (70 kcps at 70 MBq) than at 24 °C (100 kcps at 100 MBq). At realistic activity levels, the scatter fraction is lower at higher temperatures, but at the cost of a strong decrease in true count rate.Conclusions: A model was proposed for the temperature dependence of APD-based PET scanners and evaluated using the LabPET small animal PET scanner. System sensitivity and count rate performance are strongly dependent on ambient temperature while system resolution is not. The authors’ results indicate that it is important to assure stable ambient temperature to obtain reproducible results in imaging studies with APD-based PET scanners.

Keereman, Vincent; Van Holen, Roel; Vandenberghe, Stefaan; Vanhove, Christian [MEDISIP, Department of Electronics and Information Systems, Ghent University-iMinds-IBiTech, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)] [MEDISIP, Department of Electronics and Information Systems, Ghent University-iMinds-IBiTech, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)

2013-09-15

394

Properties of Bars in the Local Universe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early work on bar fractions suffered from poor sample sizes which limited the study of correlations between bar fraction and physical properties. Recent large surveys like SDSS and COSMOS have helped rectify this deficiency. Sheth et al. (2008) using a sample of 2000 galaxies from COSMOS, have shown that bar fractions decrease with redshift as claimed by Abraham et al. (1999) and van den Bergh et al. (2000) . In addition, they find the bar fraction of spiral galaxies is a strong function of stellar mass, color and bulge prominence such that more massive, redder, concentrated galaxies have a larger bar fraction than less massive, bluer, diskier galaxies. Barazza et al. (2008) using 2000 galaxies from SDSS find results counter to Sheth et al. (2008) i.e., bar fractions increase with decreasing mass and bluer colors (corresponding to late type galaxies). Using a larger sample of 15000 visually classified SDSS galaxies (which includes bar classifications) I further investigate the properties of barred galaxies in the local universe. In addition, I will describe the variation of total fine fraction (bars + rings +lenses) with physical properties and the effects of AGN on the observed fine fraction.

Nair, Preethi

2009-12-01

395

TESTING THEORIES IN BARRED-SPIRAL GALAXIES  

SciTech Connect

According to one version of the recently proposed 'manifold' theory that explains the origin of spirals and rings in relation to chaotic orbits, galaxies with stronger bars should have a higher spiral arms pitch angle when compared to galaxies with weaker bars. A subsample of barred-spiral galaxies in the Ohio State University Bright Galaxy Survey was used to analyze the spiral arms pitch angle. These were compared with bar strengths taken from the literature. It was found that the galaxies in which the spiral arms maintain a logarithmic shape for more than 70 Degree-Sign seem to corroborate the predicted trend.

Martinez-Garcia, Eric E., E-mail: martinez@astroscu.unam.mx [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 70-264, Distrito Federal 04510 (Mexico)

2012-01-10

396

Galileo spacecraft autonomous attitude determination using a V-slit star scanner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The autonomous attitude determination system of Galileo spacecraft, consisting of a radiation hardened star scanner and a processing algorithm is presented. The algorithm applying to this system are the sequential star identification and attitude estimation. The star scanner model is reviewed in detail and the flight software parameters that must be updated frequently during flight, due to degradation of the scanner response and the star background change are identified.

Mobasser, Sohrab; Lin, Shuh-Ren

1991-01-01

397

Monte Carlo simulation of efficient data acquisition for an entire-body PET scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conventional PET scanners can image the whole body using many bed positions. On the other hand, an entire-body PET scanner with an extended axial FOV, which can trace whole-body uptake images at the same time and improve sensitivity dynamically, has been desired. The entire-body PET scanner would have to process a large amount of data effectively. As a result, the entire-body PET scanner has high dead time at a multiplex detector grouping process. Also, the entire-body PET scanner has many oblique line-of-responses. In this work, we study an efficient data acquisition for the entire-body PET scanner using the Monte Carlo simulation. The simulated entire-body PET scanner based on depth-of-interaction detectors has a 2016-mm axial field-of-view (FOV) and an 80-cm ring diameter. Since the entire-body PET scanner has higher single data loss than a conventional PET scanner at grouping circuits, the NECR of the entire-body PET scanner decreases. But, single data loss is mitigated by separating the axially arranged detector into multiple parts. Our choice of 3 groups of axially-arranged detectors has shown to increase the peak NECR by 41%. An appropriate choice of maximum ring difference (MRD) will also maintain the same high performance of sensitivity and high peak NECR while at the same time reduces the data size. The extremely-oblique line of response for large axial FOV does not contribute much to the performance of the scanner. The total sensitivity with full MRD increased only 15% than that with about half MRD. The peak NECR was saturated at about half MRD. The entire-body PET scanner promises to provide a large axial FOV and to have sufficient performance values without using the full data.

Isnaini, Ismet; Obi, Takashi; Yoshida, Eiji; Yamaya, Taiga

2014-07-01

398

Chiral Perturbation Theory and the $\\bar B \\bar B$ Strong Interaction  

E-print Network

We have calculated the potentials of the heavy (charmed or bottomed) pseudoscalar mesons up to $O(\\epsilon^2)$ with the heavy meson chiral perturbation theory. We take into account the contributions from the football, triangle, box, and crossed diagrams with the 2$\\phi$ exchange and one-loop corrections to the contact terms. We notice that the total 2$\\phi$-exchange potential alone is attractive in the small momentum region in the channel ${\\bar B \\bar B}^{I=1}$, ${\\bar B_s \\bar B_s}^{I=0}$, or ${\\bar B \\bar B_s}^{I=1/2}$, while repulsive in the channel ${\\bar B \\bar B}^{I=0}$. Hopefully the analytical chiral structures of the potentials may be useful in the extrapolation of the heavy meson interaction from lattice QCD simulation.

Zhan-Wei Liu; Ning Li; Shi-Lin Zhu

2014-04-13

399

Optical monitoring of scoliosis by 3D medical laser scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three dimensional recording of the human body surface or anatomical areas have gained importance in many medical applications. In this paper, our 3D Medical Laser Scanner is presented. It is based on the novel principle of dynamic triangulation. We analyze the method of operation, medical applications, orthopedically diseases as Scoliosis and the most common types of skin to employ the system the most proper way. It is analyzed a group of medical problems related to the application of optical scanning in optimal way. Finally, experiments are conducted to verify the performance of the proposed system and its method uncertainty.

Rodríguez-Quiñonez, Julio C.; Sergiyenko, Oleg Yu.; Preciado, Luis C. Basaca; Tyrsa, Vera V.; Gurko, Alexander G.; Podrygalo, Mikhail A.; Lopez, Moises Rivas; Balbuena, Daniel Hernandez

2014-03-01

400

Comparative evaluation of ultrasound scanner accuracy in distance measurement.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study is to develop and compare two different automatic methods for accuracy evaluation in ultrasound phantom measurements on B-mode images: both of them give as a result the relative error e between measured distances, performed by 14 brand new ultrasound medical scanners, and nominal distances, among nylon wires embedded in a reference test object. The first method is based on a least squares estimation, while the second one applies the mean value of the same distance evaluated at different locations in ultrasound image (same distance method). Results for both of them are proposed and explained. PMID:23126800

Branca, F P; Sciuto, S A; Scorza, A

2012-10-01

401

Study of a high resolution 3D PET scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some results of a study of the properties of a low pressure multistep avalanche chamber with BaF 2 scintillators and with TMAE as the photosensitive gas for a 3D PET scanner are presented. Absolute gas amplification was carefully measured by two independent methods, giving rise to a maximum attainable total gain of the order of 10 7. A typical electron transmission efficiency of 20-30% was obtained. The time resolution of the detector can be optimized to be ˜ 6 ns FWHM.

Shuping, Zhang; Bruyndonckx, P.; Goldberg, M. B.; Tavernier, S.

1994-09-01

402

Scanner position sensor for an integrated laser/film rangefiner  

SciTech Connect

In an integrated laser/FLIR rangefinder a scanner position sensor comprising an LED of the array of LEDs of a forward looking infrared (FLIR) system, a reticle grating located at the image plane of LED optical path and a silicon detector positioned to receive the light passing through the reticle grating for producing a plurality of signals in response to light passing through each grating slot. One of the signals is selected for the synchronization logic for controlling the charging and firing of the laser. If there is no range return a second signal is selected for adjusting the position of the timing pulse.

Berdanier, B. N.

1985-09-24

403

Agricultural applications for thermal infrared multispectral scanner data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of the Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) data in agricultural landscapes is discussed. The TIMS allows for narrow-band analysis in the 8.2-11.6 micron range at spatial resolutions down to 5 meters in cell size. A coastal plain region in SE Alabama was studied using the TIMS. The crop/plant vigor, canopy density, and thermal response changes for soils obtained from thermal imagery are examined. The application of TIMS data to hydrologic and topographic issues, inventory and conservation monitoring, and the enhancement and extraction of cartographic features is described.

Pelletier, R. E.; Ochoa, M. C.; Hajek, B. F.

1985-01-01

404

Analysis framework for the J-PET scanner  

E-print Network

J-PET analysis framework is a flexible, lightweight, ROOT-based software package which provides the tools to develop reconstruction and calibration procedures for PET tomography. In this article we present the implementation of the full data-processing chain in the J-PET framework which is used for the data analysis of the J-PET tomography scanner. The Framework incorporates automated handling of PET setup parameters' database as well as high level tools for building data reconstruction procedures. Each of these components is briefly discussed.

Krzemie?, W; Gruntowski, A; Stola, K; Trybek, D; Bednarski, T; Bia?as, P; Czerwi?ski, E; Kami?ska, D; Kap?on, L; Kochanowski, A; Korcyl, G; Kowal, J; Kowalski, P; Kozik, T; Kubicz, E; Moskal, P; Nied?wiecki, Sz; Pa?ka, M; Raczy?ski, L; Rudy, Z; Salabura, P; Sharma, N G; Silarski, M; S?omski, A; Smyrski, J; Strzelecki, A; Wieczorek, A; Wi?licki, W; Zieli?ski, M; Zo?, N

2015-01-01

405

LAPR - An experimental pushbroom scanner. [for remote sensing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A three-band Linear Array Pushbroom Radiometer (LAPR) was built and flown on an experimental basis by NASA, at the Goddard Space Flight Center. The functional characteristics of the instrument and the methods used to preprocess the data, including radiometric correction, are described. The radiometric sensitivity of the instrument was tested and compared to that of the Thematic Mapper and the Multispectral Scanner. The radiometric correction procedure was evaluated quantitatively, using laboratory testing, and qualitatively, by visual examination of the LAPR test flight imagery. Although effective radiometric correction could not yet be demonstrated by laboratory testing, radiometric distortion did not preclude the visual interpretation or classification of the test imagery.

Wharton, S. W.; Irons, J. R.; Huegel, F.

1981-01-01

406

EUV scanner throughput considerations for the higher mask magnification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EUVL scanner throughputs are calculated considering a higher mask magnification. The calculation results show that the throughput of 8X mask system is 60-70% of that of 4X mask system. However the relative throughput compared to the 4X is higher if the duty cycle is considered as the input EUV power. The throughput is also estimated considering a 450mm wafer. Additionally the throughput for a twin reticle stage system using two 8X 6" masks is estimated for the case of stitching exposure.

Takehisa, Kiwamu

2013-06-01

407

Oil slick studies using photographic and multispectral scanner data.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Field studies of spills of Nos. 6 (Bunker C), 4, and 2 fuel oils and menhaden fish oil in the southern Chesapeake Bay have been supplemented with aerial photographic and multispectral scanner data. Thin films showed best in ultraviolet and blue bands and thick films in the green. Color film was effective for all thicknesses. Thermal infrared imagery provided clear detection, but required field temperature and thickness data to distinguish thickness/emissivity variations from temperature variations. Slick spreading rates agree with the theory of Fay (1969); further study of spreading is in progress.

Munday, J. C., Jr.; Macintyre, W. G.; Penney, M. E.; Oberholtzer, J. D.

1971-01-01

408

Two-dimensional infrared fluorescence scanner used for DNA analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A LI-COR Model 4000 DNA Sequencer has been modified by removing the internal scanning infrared fluorescence microscope and combining it with an external, orthogonal scanner. Due to the reduced background fluorescence and light scattering of nylon membranes in the near- infrared (8000 nm) as compared to the visible region of the optical spectrum, sensitivity of labeled DNA fragments is enhanced. Dot blots of dilution series of labeled oligonucleotides reveal a detection limit of 25 attomole (25 X 10-18 mole). DNA fragments blotted onto nylon membranes using direct transfer electrophoresis in multiplex DNA sequencing can also be detected and subsequently analyzed.

Middendorf, Lyle R.; Bruce, Robert C.; Brumbaugh, John A.; Grone, Daniel L.; Jang, Gi Y.; Richterich, Peter; Hoeltke, Holges J.; Williams, Richard J.; Peralta, Mauro D.

1995-05-01

409

An automated geometric correction system for airborne multispectral scanner imagery  

SciTech Connect

The United States Department of Energy (USDOE) maintains a Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) to support nuclear related programs of the US Government. The mission of the organization includes both emergency response and more routine environmental assessments of nuclear facilities. The USDOE RSL maintains a small fleet of specially equipped aircraft that are used as platforms for remote sensor systems. The aircraft include helicopters, light aircraft, and a business jet suitable for high altitude acquisitions. Multispectral scanners flown on these platforms are subject to geometric distortions related to variations in aircraft orientation (pitch, roll, and yaw), position, and velocity during data acquistions.

Lewis-King, E.; Tinney, L.; Brickey, D. [DOE Remote Sensing Lab., Las Vegas, NV (United States)] [and others

1996-10-01

410

Scanner grid recipe creation improvement for tighter overlay specifications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Overlay specifications are tightening with each lithography technology node. As a result, there is a need to improve overlay control methodologies to make them more robust and less time- or effort-consuming, but without any compromise in quality. Two concepts aimed at improving the creation of scanner grid recipes in order to meet evertightening overlay specifications are proposed in this article. Simulations will prove that these concepts can achieve both goals, namely improving overlay control performance and reducing the time and effort required to do so. While more studies are needed to fine-tune the parameters to employ, the trends presented in this paper clearly show the benefits.

Cotte, Eric; Kathiresan, Hariharasudhan; Ruhm, Matthias; Schulz, Bernd; Schulze, Uwe

2013-10-01

411

Coding of audio data in halftone images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new method for coding and decoding of audio data in halftone images is described and experimentally verified. Coding (modulation) is achieved by replacing printed dots by a set of two-dimensional characteristic symbols. Decoding (demodulation) is achieved by a bank of two-dimensional matched-filters. The system comprises source and channel coding, in order to compress and decompress the audio data and in order to avoid loss of data if the image is degraded physically. Up to 9 seconds of music in CD quality or 20 seconds of speech have been stored in an area of only 10cm2. Decoding is possible with a small hand-held scanner.

Wirnitzer, Bernhard; Dillmann, Vadim; Latorre, Javier

412

Lattice-Constrained Unitarity Bounds for $\\bar B^0 \\to ?^+ l^- \\bar ?_l$ Decays  

E-print Network

Lattice results, kinematical constraints and QCD dispersion relations are combined for the first time to derive model-independent bounds for QCD form factors and corresponding rates. To take into account the error bars on the lattice results we develop a general formalism which ascribes well-defined statistical properties to these bounds. We concentrate on $\\bar B^0 \\to \\pi^+ l^- \\bar\

Laurent Lellouch

1996-09-25

413

Too Much Bar and Not Enough Mitzvah? A Proposed Research Agenda on Bar/Bat Mitzvah  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Jewish educators are understandably interested in research on how bar/bat mitzvah affect Jewish education or research on what Jewish schools have done to avoid the distortions of a focus on bar/bat mitzvah. Research might also focus on the somewhat different and more ambitious topic of the role that bar/bat mitzvah play in contemporary Jewish…

Schoenfeld, Stuart

2010-01-01

414

DO BARS TRIGGER ACTIVITY IN GALACTIC NUCLEI?  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the connection between the presence of bars and active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity, using a volume-limited sample of {approx}9000 late-type galaxies with axis ratio b/a > 0.6 and M{sub r} < -19.5 + 5 log h at low redshift (0.02 {<=} z {approx}< 0.055), selected from Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7. We find that the bar fraction in AGN-host galaxies (42.6%) is {approx}2.5 times higher than in non-AGN galaxies (15.6%), and that the AGN fraction is a factor of two higher in strong-barred galaxies (34.5%) than in non-barred galaxies (15.0%). However, these trends are simply caused by the fact that AGN-host galaxies are on average more massive and redder than non-AGN galaxies because the fraction of strong-barred galaxies (f{sub SB}) increases with u - r color and stellar velocity dispersion. When u - r color and velocity dispersion (or stellar mass) are fixed, both the excess of f{sub SB} in AGN-host galaxies and the enhanced AGN fraction in strong-barred galaxies disappears. Among AGN-host galaxies we find no strong difference of the Eddington ratio distributions between barred and non-barred systems. These results indicate that AGN activity is not dominated by the presence of bars, and that AGN power is not enhanced by bars. In conclusion, we do not find clear evidence that bars trigger AGN activity.

Lee, Gwang-Ho; Woo, Jong-Hak; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Lee, Jong Chul; Sohn, Jubee; Lee, Jong Hwan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Ho Seong, E-mail: ghlee@astro.snu.ac.kr, E-mail: woo@astro.snu.ac.kr, E-mail: mglee@astro.snu.ac.kr, E-mail: jbsohn@astro.snu.ac.kr, E-mail: leejh@astro.snu.ac.kr, E-mail: hhwang@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: jclee@kasi.re.kr [CEA Saclay/Service d'Astrophysique, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

2012-05-10

415

Radial migration in barred galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this talk, I will present the result of high resolution numerical simulations of disk galaxies with various bulge/disk ratios evolving isolated, showing that: • Most of migration takes place when the bar strength is high and decreases in the phases of low activity (in agreement with the results by Brunetti et el. 2011, Minchev et al. 2011). • Most of the stars inside the corotation radius (CR) do not migrate in the outer regions, but stay confined in the inner disk, while stars outside CR can migrate either inwards or outwards, diffusing over the whole disk. • Migration is accompanied by significative azimuthal variations in the metallicity distribution, of the order of 0.1 dex for an initial gradient of ~-0.07 dex/kpc. • Boxy bulges are an example of stellar structures whose properties (stellar content, vertical metallicity, [?/Fe] and age gradients, ..) are affected by radial migration (see also Fig. 1).

Di Matteo, P.; Haywood, M.; Combes, F.; Semelin, B.; Babusiaux, C.; Gomez, A.

2015-03-01

416

Gas flow in barred potentials  

E-print Network

We use a Cartesian grid to simulate the flow of gas in a barred Galactic potential and investigate the effects of varying the sound speed in the gas and the resolution of the grid. For all sound speeds and resolutions, streamlines closely follow closed orbits at large and small radii. At intermediate radii shocks arise and the streamlines shift between two families of closed orbits. The point at which the shocks appear and the streamlines shift between orbit families depends strongly on sound speed and resolution. For sufficiently large values of these two parameters, the transfer happens at the cusped orbit as hypothesised by Binney et al. over two decades ago. For sufficiently high resolutions the flow downstream of the shocks becomes unsteady. If this unsteadiness is physical, as appears to be the case, it provides a promising explanation for the asymmetry in the observed distribution of CO.

Sormani, Mattia C; Magorrian, John

2015-01-01

417

Absolute Temperature Monitoring Using RF Radiometry in the MRI Scanner  

PubMed Central

Temperature detection using microwave radiometry has proven value for noninvasively measuring the absolute temperature of tissues inside the body. However, current clinical radiometers operate in the gigahertz range, which limits their depth of penetration. We have designed and built a noninvasive radiometer which operates at radio frequencies (64 MHz) with ?100-kHz bandwidth, using an external RF loop coil as a thermal detector. The core of the radiometer is an accurate impedance measurement and automatic matching circuit of 0.05 ? accuracy to compensate for any load variations. The radiometer permits temperature measurements with accuracy of ±0.1°K, over a tested physiological range of 28° C–40° C in saline phantoms whose electric properties match those of tissue. Because 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners also operate at 64 MHz, we demonstrate the feasibility of integrating our radiometer with an MRI scanner to monitor RF power deposition and temperature dosimetry, obtaining coarse, spatially resolved, absolute thermal maps in the physiological range. We conclude that RF radiometry offers promise as a direct, noninvasive method of monitoring tissue heating during MRI studies and thereby providing an independent means of verifying patient-safe operation. Other potential applications include titration of hyper- and hypo-therapies. PMID:18026562

El-Sharkawy, AbdEl-Monem M.; Sotiriadis, Paul P.; Bottomley, Paul A.; Atalar, Ergin

2007-01-01

418

Evaluation of Fingerprint Images Captured by Optical Fingerprint Scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we propose the way to evaluate fingerprint image-quality and how to discriminate remnants from captured images. First, we investigate evaluating fingerprint image-quality. Fingerprint image-quality can be digitized using the "measure" we proposed. We simulate using the dataset consists of 1425 fingerprint images captured from 57 people in Feb, which contains a lot of faded images. In the simulation using all our database, recognition rate is 95.6% while type II error is 0.01%. Recognition rate is improved to 98.1%, with rejecting 3.7% faded images evaluated by our measure from the database. Recognition rate is improved to 99.6%, rejecting 14.2% faded images. And we investigate the way to apply the measure of image-quality to fingerprint verification device with customer’s satisfaction in real world. Next we propose the way to discriminate between remnants and fingerprint images captured from optical scanner by using frequency analysis. We can perfectly prevent the fingerprint verification device from malfunctioning caused by remnant, when strong flashlight or direct sunlight slant in optical scanner in real world.

Takeuchi, Hideyo; Matsumoto, Noriyuki; Kuwayama, Kiyoaki; Umezaki, Taizo

419

Thermal analysis for wire scanners in the CSNS Linac  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

3 MeV H- beam from the Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) will be accelerated to 80 MeV in the CSNS (China Spallation Neutron Source) linear accelerator (Linac). The wire scanner is used to measure the transverse beam profile and the emittance, and the carbon or tungsten wire is considered to use. Thermal analysis of the wire scanners in the Linac is presented in this paper. The maximum temperature (Tm) of the wire decreases as the beam energy increases, and we also calculate the influence of all possible parameters on Tm. Tm of carbon wire is significantly lower than tungsten wire if both the beam parameters and wire geometric parameters are set to the same, which can be attributed to its higher heat capacity and radiant emissivity. In addition, we present the results of sublimation rate of the wire, which show that tungsten wire has a much lower evaporation rate than carbon wire in the same temperature, which can be attributed to the different vapor pressures of the two materials. To limit the thermionic emission, the maximum beam frequency approximately has an exponential relationship with beam rms size at a certain beam pulse width.

Yang, Tao; Fu, Shinian; Xu, Taoguang; Xu, Zhihong; Meng, Ming; Qiu, Ruiyang; Tian, Jianmin; Zeng, Lei; Li, Peng; Li, Fang; Wang, Biao

2014-10-01

420

Advancements on galvanometer scanners for high-end applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Galvanometer-based scanners (GSs) are the most utilized devices for lateral scanning. Their applications range from commercial and industrial to biomedical imaging. They are used mostly for 2-D scanning (with typically two GSs), but also for 1-D or 3-D scanning (the latter by example with GSs in combination with Risley prisms). This paper presents an overview of our contributions in the field of GSs with regard to the requirements of their most challenging applications. Specifically, we studied the optimal scanning functions - to produce the maximum possible duty cycle?, and we found that, contrary to what has been stated in the literature, the scanning function that provides the highest ? is not linear plus sinusoidal, but linear plus parabolic. The most common GS input signals (i.e., sawtooth, triangular, and sinusoidal) were investigated experimentally to determine the scanning regimes that produce the minimum image artifacts, for example in Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). The triangular signal was thus shown to be the best from this point of view, and several rules-of-thumb were extracted to make the best of GSs in OCT. We also discuss aspects of the command functions of GSs that are necessary to achieve a trade-off between a performance criteria related to the duty cycle and voltage regimes of the device. We finally review aspects of the control solutions of GSs we investigated, to obtain the highest possible precision or the fastest possible response of the scanner.

Duma, Virgil-Florin; Rolland, Jannick P.

2014-03-01

421

Accuracy of 3D scanners in tooth mark analysis.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to compare the accuracy of contact and laser 3D scanners in tooth mark analysis. Ten dental casts were scanned with both 3D scanners. Seven linear measurements were made from the 3D images of dental casts and biting edges generated with DentalPrint© software (University of Granada, Granada, Spain). The uncertainty value for contact 3D scanning was 0.833 for the upper dental cast and 0.660 mm for the lower cast; similar uncertainty values were found for 3D-laser scanning. Slightly higher uncertainty values were obtained for the 3D biting edges generated. The uncertainty values for single measurements ranged from 0.1 to 0.3 mm with the exception of the intercanine distance, in which higher values were obtained. Knowledge of the error rate in the 3D scanning of dental casts and biting edges is especially relevant to be applied in practical forensic cases. PMID:25388960

Molina, Ana; Martin-de-las-Heras, Stella

2015-01-01

422

Remote sensing of foliar biochemistry with a terrestrial laser scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Foliar biochemistry provides important information about the physiological status of plants. Several different tools and techniques have been developed to infer plant biochemistry (such as state and change of foliar nitrogen (N) and chlorophyll) using remote sensing. However, few techniques allow accurate mapping of foliar biochemistry in 3-dimensions at a sub-cm level. Scanning laser technology is available that measures the x,y,z location of each reflected laser pulse in addition to the intensity of the reflected laser light within a mm-scale ground instantaneous field of view at a very high sampling rate (up to 50,000 points sec-1 in this study). We examined the ability to quantify foliar N of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and chlorophyll content of two broadleaf tree species saplings (Quercus macrocarpa and Acer saccharum) using a green (532 nm) terrestrial laser scanner. The return intensity of the reflected green laser light was significantly correlated with foliar N concentration of wheat (r2 = 0.68) and the foliar chlorophyll content (r2 = 0.77) of the broadleaf saplings. The results indicate that laser scanners are useful to obtain spatially explicit estimates of foliar biochemistry.

Eitel, J.; Vierling, L. A.; Long, D. S.

2011-12-01

423

Algorithms: Graphs Amotz Bar-Noy  

E-print Network

, Databases, Electronic Circuits, . . . An alternative definition: A graph is a collection of subsets of sizeAlgorithms: Graphs Amotz Bar-Noy CUNY Spring 2012 Amotz Bar-Noy (CUNY) Graphs Spring 2012 1 / 95 #12;Graphs Definition: A graph is a collection of edges and vertices. Each edge connects two vertices

Bar-Noy, Amotz

424

The Bar Tack Machine. Module 16.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module on the bar tack machine, one in a series dealing with industrial sewing machines, their attachments, and operation, covers one topic: performing special operations on the bar tack machine. These components are provided: an introduction, directions, an objective, learning activities, student information, a student self-check, and a…

South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

425

MEMS-based resonating xylophone bar magnetometers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel magnetometer which utilizes the Lorentz force to measure vector magnetic fields has recently been described. The device, based on a classical resonating xylophone bar, has an extremely wide dynamic range and is ideally suited to miniaturization using a variety of technologies. The overall dimensions of the xylophone bar are limited by the width of the nodal supports which

Dennis K. Wickenden; R. Ben Givens; Robert Osiander; John L. Champion; Douglas A. Oursler; Thomas J. Kistenmacher

1998-01-01

426

Constraints from microlensing on the COBE bar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the first review of converging evidences for a bar in the center of the Galaxy by de Zeeuw (1992) at the IAU Sym. 153 in Gent five years ago, the Galactic bar idea has been put on a solid footing by an influx of new data (COBE/DIRBE maps, star count data of bulge red clump giants, microlensing optical depth, and bulge stellar proper motions, etc.) and a burst of increasingly sophisticated theoretical models (triaxial luminosity models of Dwek et al. 1994, and Binney, Gerhard & Spergel 1997, steady state stellar bar dynamical model of Zhao 1996, combined luminosity, microlensing and gas kinematics models of Zhao, Rich & Spergel 1996, and Bissantz et al. 1997, etc.), which fit new data and improve upon earlier simple bulge/bar models (Kent 1992, Binney et al. 1991, Blitz & Spergel 1991). While research in this field shifts more and more to constraining the exact phase space and parameter space of the bar, both the non-uniqueness of and the mismatches among bars from different datasets start to show up. I compare the bar from microlensing data with the COBE bar and point out the effects the non-uniqueness.

Zhao, H. S.

427

Constraints on the Galactic bar with RAVE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We derive the pattern speed of the Galactic bar from the analysis of the kinematics of the Hercules stream at different Galactocentric radii with RAVE, assuming that Hercules is caused by the bar. We find a well constrained pattern speed of ?b=1.98+0.04 -0.08 ?o, where ?0 is the local circular frequency.

Antoja, T.; Helmi, A.; Helmi

2014-01-01

428

Sports Nutrition Products PowerBar Protein  

E-print Network

losses for optimal hydration SIS REGO Recovery · Combination of protein and carbohydrate drinkSports Nutrition Products PowerBar Protein Plus 30%, 55g Bar · Contains 16.7g protein (sports nutrition guidelines are for 10g post exercise). · Ideal for post exercise recovery o Especially

Heinke, Dietmar

429

Multiple Offshore Bars and Standing Waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field measurements of multiple offshore bar spacing were compared to theory and wave measurements to corroborate the suggestion that bar formation and spacing are controlled by standing waves in the infragravity range (0.5-5 min). Theoretical and experimental studies predict the reflection of progressive waves from a shoreline as standing waves. Associated drift in the bottom boundary layer is expected to

Andrew D. Short

1975-01-01

430

Conservative Groups Threaten to Sue Bar Association  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A proposed revision in the American Bar Association's accrediting standards for law schools is coming under fire from the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, which says the proposal seems to require the schools to use racial preferences in hiring and admissions despite federal and state laws limiting such policies. Although a bar-association official…

Jacobson, Jennifer

2006-01-01

431

DNA codes  

SciTech Connect

We have begun to characterize a variety of codes, motivated by potential implementation as (quaternary) DNA n-sequences, with letters denoted A, C The first codes we studied are the most reminiscent of conventional group codes. For these codes, Hamming similarity was generalized so that the score for matched letters takes more than one value, depending upon which letters are matched [2]. These codes consist of n-sequences satisfying an upper bound on the similarities, summed over the letter positions, of distinct codewords. We chose similarity 2 for matches of letters A and T and 3 for matches of the letters C and G, providing a rough approximation to double-strand bond energies in DNA. An inherent novelty of DNA codes is 'reverse complementation'. The latter may be defined, as follows, not only for alphabets of size four, but, more generally, for any even-size alphabet. All that is required is a matching of the letters of the alphabet: a partition into pairs. Then, the reverse complement of a codeword is obtained by reversing the order of its letters and replacing each letter by its match. For DNA, the matching is AT/CG because these are the Watson-Crick bonding pairs. Reversal arises because two DNA sequences form a double strand with opposite relative orientations. Thus, as will be described in detail, because in vitro decoding involves the formation of double-stranded DNA from two codewords, it is reasonable to assume - for universal applicability - that the reverse complement of any codeword is also a codeword. In particular, self-reverse complementary codewords are expressly forbidden in reverse-complement codes. Thus, an appropriate distance between all pairs of codewords must, when large, effectively prohibit binding between the respective codewords: to form a double strand. Only reverse-complement pairs of codewords should be able to bind. For most applications, a DNA code is to be bi-partitioned, such that the reverse-complementary pairs are separated across the two blocks. For the foregoing reasons, these two blocks of codewords suffice as the hooks and loops of a digital Velcro. We began our investigations of such codes by constructing quaternary BCH reverse-complement codes, using cyclic codes and conventional Hamming distance [4]. We also obtained upper and lower bounds on the rate of reverse-complement codes with a metric function based on the foregoing similarities [3]. For most applications involving DNA, however, the reverse-complementary analogue of codes based on the insertion-deletion distance is more advantageous. This distance equals the codeword length minus the longest length of a common (not necessarily contiguous) subsequence. (The 'aligned' codes described above may be used under special experimental conditions), The advantage arises because, under the assumption that DNA is very flexible, the sharing of sufficiently long subsequences between codewords would be tantamount to the ability of one of their reverse complements to form a double strand with the other codeword. Thus far, using the random coding method, we have derived an asymptotic lower bound on the rate of reverse-complement insertion-deletion codes, as a function of the insertion-deletion distance fraction and of the alphabet size [1]. For the quaternary DNA alphabet of primary importance, this lower bound yields an asymptotically positive rate if the insertion-deletion-distance fraction does not exceed the threshold {approx} 0.19. Extensions of the Varsamov-Tenengol'ts construction of insertion-deletion codes [5] for reverse-complement insertion-deletion codes will be described. Experiments have been performed involving some of our DNA codes.

Torney, D. C. (David C.)

2001-01-01

432

Monte Carlo simulation of sensitivity and NECR of an entire-body PET scanner.  

PubMed

The current positron emission tomography (PET) design is aimed toward establishing an entire-body PET scanner. An entire-body PET scanner is a scanner whose axial field of view (FOV) covers the whole body of a patient, whereas whole-body PET scanner can be of any axial FOV length, but was designed for a whole-body scan. Despite its high production cost, an entire-body depth-of-interaction PET scanner offers many benefits, such as shorter and dynamic PET time acquisition, as well as higher sensitivity and count rate performance. This PET scanner may be cost-effective for clinical PET scanners with high scan throughput. In this work, we evaluated the sensitivity and count rate performance of a 2-m-long PET scanner with conventional data acquisition (DAQ) architecture, using Monte Carlo simulation, and we evaluated two ring diameters (60 and 80 cm) to reduce the scanner cost. From simulation of scanning with a 2-m axial FOV, the sensitivity for a 2-m-long PET scanner of 60 and 80-cm diameter is around 80 and 68 times higher, respectively, than that of the conventional PET scanner. In addition, for the 2-m-long PET scanner with 60-cm diameter, the peak noise equivalent count rate (NECR) was 843 kcps at 125 MBq, whereas the peak for the 80-cm diameter was 989 kcps at 200 MBq. This shows gains of 15.3 and 17.95, respectively, in comparison with that of the conventional PET scanner. The 2-m-long PET scanner with 60-cm ring diameter could not only reduce the number of detectors by 21 %, but also had a 17 % higher sensitivity compared to that with an 80-cm ring diameter. On the other hand, despite the higher sensitivity, the NECR of the 60-cm ring diameter was smaller than that of the 80-cm ring diameter. This results from the single data loss due to dead time, whereas grouping of axially stacked detectors was used in the conventional DAQ architecture. Parallelization of the DAQ architecture is therefore important for the 2-m-long PET scanner to achieve its optimal performance. PMID:24366757

Isnaini, Ismet; Obi, Takashi; Yoshida, Eiji; Yamaya, Taiga

2014-07-01

433

Important considerations for radiochromic film dosimetry with flatbed CCD scanners and EBT GAFCHROMIC film.  

PubMed

In this study, we present three significant artifacts that have the potential to negatively impact the accuracy and precision of film dosimetry measurements made using GAFCHROMIC EBT radiochromic film when read out with CCD flatbed scanners. Films were scanned using three commonly employed instruments: a Macbeth TD932 spot densitometer, an Epson Expression 1680 CCD array scanner, and a Microtek ScanMaker i900 CCD array scanner. For the two scanners we assessed the variation in optical density (OD) of GAFCHROMIC EBT film with scanning bed position, angular rotation of the film with respect to the scan line direction, and temperature inside the scanner due to repeated scanning. Scanning uniform radiochromic films demonstrated a distinct bowing effect in profiles in the direction of the CCD array with a nonuniformity of up to 17%. Profiles along a direction orthogonal to the CCD array demonstrated a 7% variation. A strong angular dependence was found in measurements made with the flatbed scanners; the effect could not be reproduced with the spot densitometer. An IMRT quality assurance film was scanned twice rotating the film 90' between the scans. For films scanned on the Epson scanner, up to 12% variation was observed in unirradiated EBT films rotated between 0 degrees and 90 degrees, which decreased to approximately 8% for EBT films irradiated to 300 cGy. Variations of up to 80% were observed for films scanned with the Microtek scanner. The scanners were found to significantly increase the film temperature with repeated scanning. Film temperature between 18 and 33 degrees C caused OD changes of approximately 7%. Considering these effects, we recommend adherence to a strict scanning protocol that includes: maintaining the orientation of films scanned on flatbed scanners, limiting scanning to the central portion of the scanner bed, and limiting the number of consecutive scans to minimize changes in OD caused by film heating. PMID:17278806

Lynch, Bart D; Kozelka, Jakub; Ranade, Manisha K; Li, Jonathan G; Simon, William E; Dempsey, James F

2006-12-01

434

Structural Behavior of Concrete Beams Reinforced with Basalt Fiber Reinforced Polymer (BFRP) Bars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main challenge for civil engineers is to provide sustainable, environmentally friendly and financially feasible structures to the society. Finding new materials such as fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) material that can fulfill the above requirements is a must. FRP material was expensive and it was limited to niche markets such as space shuttles and air industry in the 1960s. Over the time, it became cheaper and spread to other industries such as sporting goods in the 1980-1990, and then towards the infrastructure industry. Design and construction guidelines are available for carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP), aramid fiber reinforced polymer (AFRP) and glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) and they are currently used in structural applications. Since FRP is linear elastic brittle material, design guidelines for the steel reinforcement are not valid for FRP materials. Corrosion of steel reinforcement affects the durability of the concrete structures. FRP reinforcement is identified as an alternative to steel reinforcement in corrosive environments. Although basalt fiber reinforced polymer (BFRP) has many advantages over other FRP materials, but limited studies have been done. These studies didn't include larger BFRP bar diameters that are mostly used in practice. Therefore, larger beam sizes with larger BFRP reinforcement bar diameters are needed to investigate the flexural and shear behavior of BFRP reinforced concrete beams. Also, shear behavior of BFRP reinforced concrete beams was not yet studied. Experimental testing of mechanical properties and bond strength of BFRP bars and flexural and shear behavior of BFRP reinforced concrete beams are needed to include BFRP reinforcement bars in the design codes. This study mainly focuses on the use of BFRP bars as internal reinforcement. The test results of the mechanical properties of BFRP reinforcement bars, the bond strength of BFRP reinforcement bars, and the flexural and shear behavior of concrete beams reinforced with BFRP reinforcement bars are presented and verified with other research studies, existing design codes and guidelines provided for other FRP bars. Based on the experimental testing results, analytical equations were developed and existing equations were modified to predict the actual structural behavior of FRP bar reinforced concrete beams with reasonable accuracy.

Ovitigala, Thilan

435

$\\bar K$-Nuclear Deeply Bound States?  

E-print Network

Following the prediction by Akaishi and Yamazaki of relatively narrow $\\bar K$-nuclear states, deeply bound by over 100 MeV where the main decay channel $\\bar K N \\to \\pi \\Sigma$ is closed, several experimental signals in stopped $K^-$ reactions on light nuclei have been interpreted recently as due to such states. In this talk I review (i) the evidence from $K^-$-atom data for a {\\it deep} $\\bar K$-nucleus potential, as attractive as $V_{\\bar K}(\\rho_0) \\sim -(150 - 200)$ MeV at nuclear matter density, that could support such states; and (ii) the theoretical arguments for a {\\it shallow} potential, $V_{\\bar K}(\\rho_0) \\sim -(40 - 60)$ MeV. I then review a recent work by Mare\\v{s}, Friedman and Gal in which $\\bar K$-nuclear bound states are generated dynamically across the periodic table, using a RMF Lagrangian that couples the $\\bar K$ to the scalar and vector meson fields mediating the nuclear interactions. Substantial polarization of the core nucleus is found for light nuclei, with central nuclear densities enhanced by almost a factor of two. The binding energies and widths calculated in this dynamical model differ appreciably from those calculated for a static nucleus. These calculations provide a lower limit of $\\Gamma_{\\bar K} \\sim 50 \\pm 10$ MeV on the width of nuclear bound states for $\\bar K$ binding energy in the range $B_{\\bar K} = 100 - 200$ MeV.

Avraham Gal

2006-04-25

436

Sharing code  

PubMed Central

Sharing code is becoming increasingly important in the wake of Open Science. In this review I describe and compare two popular code-sharing utilities, GitHub and Open Science Framework (OSF). GitHub is a mature, industry-standard tool but lacks focus towards researchers. In comparison, OSF offers a one-stop solution for researchers but a lot of functionality is still under development. I conclude by listing alternative lesser-known tools for code and materials sharing. PMID:25165519

Kubilius, Jonas

2014-01-01

437

Accuracy in contouring of small and low contrast lesions: Comparison between diagnostic quality computed tomography scanner and computed tomography simulation scanner-A phantom study  

SciTech Connect

To evaluate the accuracy in detection of small and low-contrast regions using a high-definition diagnostic computed tomography (CT) scanner compared with a radiotherapy CT simulation scanner. A custom-made phantom with cylindrical holes of diameters ranging from 2-9 mm was filled with 9 different concentrations of contrast solution. The phantom was scanned using a 16-slice multidetector CT simulation scanner (LightSpeed RT16, General Electric Healthcare, Milwaukee, WI) and a 64-slice high-definition diagnostic CT scanner (Discovery CT750 HD, General Electric Healthcare). The low-contrast regions of interest (ROIs) were delineated automatically upon their full width at half maximum of the CT number profile in Hounsfield units on a treatment planning workstation. Two conformal indexes, CI{sub in}, and CI{sub out}, were calculated to represent the percentage errors of underestimation and overestimation in the automated contours compared with their actual sizes. Summarizing the conformal indexes of different sizes and contrast concentration, the means of CI{sub in} and CI{sub out} for the CT simulation scanner were 33.7% and 60.9%, respectively, and 10.5% and 41.5% were found for the diagnostic CT scanner. The mean differences between the 2 scanners' CI{sub in} and CI{sub out} were shown to be significant with p < 0.001. A descending trend of the index values was observed as the ROI size increases for both scanners, which indicates an improved accuracy when the ROI size increases, whereas no observable trend was found in the contouring accuracy with respect to the contrast levels in this study. Images acquired by the diagnostic CT scanner allow higher accuracy on size estimation compared with the CT simulation scanner in this study. We recommend using a diagnostic CT scanner to scan patients with small lesions (<1 cm in diameter) for radiotherapy treatment planning, especially for those pending for stereotactic radiosurgery in which accurate delineation of small-sized, low-contrast regions is important for dose calculation.

Ho, Yick Wing, E-mail: mpr@hksh.com [Medical Physics and Research Department, Hong Kong Sanatorium and Hospital (Hong Kong); Wong, Wing Kei Rebecca; Yu, Siu Ki; Lam, Wai Wang; Geng Hui [Medical Physics and Research Department, Hong Kong Sanatorium and Hospital (Hong Kong)

2012-01-01

438

Performance evaluation of raytest ClearPET?, a PET scanner for small and medium size animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ClearPET is a high performance small animal PET scanner that has been developed by the Crystal Clear Collaboration. The commercial ClearPET is a very flexible small animal PET scanner that can operate at two different detector diameters (135 mm and 220 mm) thus adapting to different animal sizes. Furthermore it can also operate with partial ring configurations thanks to

P. Sempere Roldan; M. Canadas; O. Dietzel; C. Pautrot; I. Sarasola; A. Wagner

2007-01-01

439

3D Laser Range Scanner with Hemispherical Field of View for Robot Navigation  

E-print Network

3D Laser Range Scanner with Hemispherical Field of View for Robot Navigation Julian Ryde and mapping capability will almost always prove essential. In this paper a 2D laser scanner is modified that is easily made to a standard mobile robot. The modified robot is then able to produces 3D scans at a various

Hu, Huosheng

440

AUTHENTICATION OF FINGERPRINT SCANNERS Vladimir I. Ivanov and John S. Baras  

E-print Network

AUTHENTICATION OF FINGERPRINT SCANNERS Vladimir I. Ivanov and John S. Baras Institute for Systems Research, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA {vivanov, baras}@umd.edu ABSTRACT Fingerprint intrinsic charac- teristic of the fingerprint scanners even to those of the same technology, manufacturer

Baras, John S.

441

Using a Flatbed Scanner to Measure Detergency: A Cost-Effective Undergraduate Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The efficiency of a laundry-washing process is typically assessed using reflection measurements. A spectrometer and an integrating sphere are used to obtain the reflection data. The similarities between this equipment and a commercially available flatbed scanner are examined, and the way a flatbed scanner can be used to obtain detergent…

Poce-Fatou, J. A.; Bethencourt, M.; Moreno-Dorado, F. J.; Palacios-Santander, J. M.

2011-01-01

442

Simulation of dynamics-coupling in piezoelectric tube scanners by reduced order finite element analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Piezoelectric tube scanners are widely used in scanning probe microscopes to position the sample or the probe. Fast and accurate scanning requires the suppression of dominant low-frequency resonances as well as the compensation of dynamics-coupling effects. The present article gives a detailed description of the fully coupled tube scanner dynamics over a wide frequency range modeled by finite element (FE)

Johannes Maess; Andrew J. Fleming

2008-01-01

443

Color Scanner Performance Tradeoffs G. Sharma and H.J. Trussell  

E-print Network

it difficult to realize a colorimetric scanner in practice. In particular, considerations of power efficiency becomes a limiting factor yielding diminishing returns. In this paper, the tradeoff between the #12, the scanner is colorimetric if there is a linear transformation B which satisfies L s M s B = LA

Sharma, Gaurav

444

Absolute accuracy of the Cyberware WB4 whole-body scanner  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cyberware WB4 whole body scanner is one of the first scanning systems in the world that generates a high resolution data set of the outer surface of the human body. The Computerized Anthropometric Research and Design (CARD) Laboratory of Wright-Patterson AFB intends to use the scanner to enable quick and reliable acquisition of anthropometric data. For this purpose, a

Hein A. Daanen; Stacie E. Taylor; Matthew A. Brunsman; Joseph H. Nurre

1997-01-01

445

Application of a laser scanner to three dimensional visual sensing tasks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The issues are described which are associated with using a laser scanner for visual sensing and the methods developed by the author to address them. A laser scanner is a device that controls the direction of a laser beam by deflecting it through a pair of orthogonal mirrors, the orientations of which are specified by a computer. If a calibrated laser scanner is combined with a calibrated camera, it is possible to perform three dimensional sensing by directing the laser at objects within the field of view of the camera. There are several issues associated with using a laser scanner for three dimensional visual sensing that must be addressed in order to use the laser scanner effectively. First, methods are needed to calibrate the laser scanner and estimate three dimensional points. Second, methods to estimate three dimensional points using a calibrated camera and laser scanner are required. Third, methods are required for locating the laser spot in a cluttered image. Fourth, mathematical models that predict the laser scanner's performance and provide structure for three dimensional data points are necessary. Several methods were developed to address each of these and has evaluated them to determine how and when they should be applied. The theoretical development, implementation, and results when used in a dual arm eighteen degree of freedom robotic system for space assembly is described.

Ryan, Arthur M.

1992-01-01

446

COMPARISON OF PHOTOGRAMMETRIC APPLICATIONS BASED ON NARROW ANGLE LINE SCANNERS WITH TRADITIONAL PHOTOGRAMMETRIC METHODS  

Microsoft Academic Search

By the Pegasus project digital line scanner images taken from an elevation of 20km, with a ground sampling distance (GSD) of 20cm, will be available. The photogrammetric use of such images is compared with traditional aerial photos, but also digital aerial cameras as well as high resolution space sensors. Line scanner images usually should be combined with direct sensor orientation.

K. Jacobsen

447

Development of a proton Computed Tomography (pCT) scanner at NIU  

E-print Network

We describe the development of a proton Computed Tomography (pCT) scanner at Northern Illinois University (NIU) in collaboration with Fermilab and Delhi University. This paper provides an overview of major components of the scanner and a detailed description of the data acquisition system (DAQ).

Uzunyan, S A; Boi, S; Coutrakon, G; Dyshkant, A; Erdelyi, B; Gearhart, A; Hedin, D; Johnson, E; Krider, J; Zutshi, V; Ford, R; Fitzpatrick, T; Sellberg, G; Rauch, J E; Roman, M; Rubinov, P; Wilson, P; Lalwani, K; Naimuddin, M

2013-01-01

448

Development of a proton Computed Tomography (pCT) scanner at NIU  

E-print Network

We describe the development of a proton Computed Tomography (pCT) scanner at Northern Illinois University (NIU) in collaboration with Fermilab and Delhi University. This paper provides an overview of major components of the scanner and a detailed description of the data acquisition system (DAQ).

S. A. Uzunyan; G. Blazey; S. Boi; G. Coutrakon; A. Dyshkant; B. Erdelyi; A. Gearhart; D. Hedin; E. Johnson; J. Krider; V. Zutshi; R. Ford; T. Fitzpatrick; G. Sellberg; J. E. Rauch; M. Roman; P. Rubinov; P. Wilson; K. Lalwani; M. Naimuddin

2013-12-13

449

A durable, shock-resistant electromagnetic optical scanner with polyimide-based hinges  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a moving-coil electromagnetic optical scanner with newly developed hinge structure consisting of multilayered polyimide films with aluminum lead wires in between. The main purpose is to obtain a scanner with good durability and shock resistance for practical use. Polyimide has both features, and the aluminum lead wires, connecting the moving-coils and fixed electrode pads, are more reliable,

Hiroshi Miyajima; Nobuyoshi Asaoka; Michitsugu Arima; Yukiaki Minamoto; Kenzi Murakami; Kazunari Tokuda; Kazuya Matsumoto

2001-01-01

450

Modified Kalman filter based autonomous orbit determination using horizon scanner measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

With a pair of Horizon Scanners (HS) working as attitude sensors, four horizon points are obtained during each scan. A simplified non-linear model is developed for the horizon points using an appropriate choice of frame. The modified gain extended Kaiman filter is used to estimate the satellite position in the orbit reference frame based on the non-linear Horizon Scanner data.

K. Kasturirangan; M. S. Bhat

1996-01-01

451

Performance Study Of Multi-slice Whole-body PET Scanners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical imaging requirements for modern positron emission tomography (PET) scanners include thinner “slices” with adequate axial sampling, and improved count rate performance. The impact of collimator thickness and radial extent on system imaging performance assumes greater importance relative to previous generations of PET scanners, especially when block detectors are employed. We have assessed the imaging and count rate performance of

Daniel C. Wack

1990-01-01

452

Reconstruction of the Surface of the Human Body from 3D Scanner Data Using 13-splines  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are an increasing number of applications that require the construction of computerised human body models. Recently, Hamamatsu Photonics have developed an accurate and fast scanner based on position-sensitive photon detectors, capable of providing in a few seconds a dense (256x400 points) representation of the body. The work presented here is designed to exploit such a scanner's capabilities. An algorithm

Ioannis Douros; Laura Dekker; Bernard F. Buxton

1999-01-01

453

Scan using the document feeder There are two scanners with document  

E-print Network

are located near the entrance to the Stone Computing Center classroom; one at the Assistive Technology Station". Note: The scanner will only scan one side of a page. Double-sided pages must be flipped to scan both the Stone Computing classroom and Mann Computing Center lab. Patrons can use scanners, free of charge

Angenent, Lars T.

454

Far-infrared laser scanner for high-voltage-cable inspection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A far infrared (FIR) laser scanner was fabricated and used to simulate the on-line inspection of solid dielectric insulation of high voltage cables employed in underground electric distribution systems. A high speed optical scanner was built to produce a 3600 rotation of a FIR laser beam around the cable at a maximum angular speed of 9000 rpm. A stationary ellipsoidal

P. K. Cheo; J. R. Dunphy; M. C. Foster; R. W. Gagnon; L. G. Puffer Jr.; B. B. Silverman

1982-01-01

455

Surface feature reconnaissance of Death valley, California using skylab S192 multispectral scanner thermal data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal channel data collected with the Skylab S192 multispectral scanner was evaluated for a scene collected over the Death Valley, California area during January 1974. The data collection features of the scanner and the preprocessing of computer compatible precision data products are described. The thermal scene is evaluated for surface feature discrimination using three techniques: 1) false color image construction

A. V. Mazade

1975-01-01

456

$\\Lambda_b \\to \\Lambda_c \\tau \\bar{\  

E-print Network

Recently hints of lepton flavor non-universality emerged when the BaBar Collaboration observed deviations from the standard model predictions in $R(D^{(*)}) \\equiv {\\cal B}({\\bar B} \\to D^{(*)+} \\tau^- {\\bar\

Shivashankara, Shanmuka; Datta, Alakabha

2015-01-01

457

33 CFR 13.01-40 - Miniature medals and bars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-40 Miniature medals and bars. (a) Miniature Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals and bars are replicas of...

2012-07-01

458

33 CFR 13.01-40 - Miniature medals and bars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-40 Miniature medals and bars. (a) Miniature Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals and bars are replicas of...

2011-07-01

459

33 CFR 13.01-40 - Miniature medals and bars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-40 Miniature medals and bars. (a) Miniature Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals and bars are replicas of...

2014-07-01

460

33 CFR 13.01-40 - Miniature medals and bars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-40 Miniature medals and bars. (a) Miniature Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals and bars are replicas of...

2013-07-01

461

33 CFR 13.01-40 - Miniature medals and bars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-40 Miniature medals and bars. (a) Miniature Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals and bars are replicas of...

2010-07-01

462

21 CFR 886.5800 - Ophthalmic bar reader.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic bar reader. 886.5800 Section 886.5800 Food...Therapeutic Devices § 886.5800 Ophthalmic bar reader. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic bar reader is a device that consists of a...

2010-04-01

463

21 CFR 886.5800 - Ophthalmic bar reader.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 false Ophthalmic bar reader. 886.5800 Section 886.5800 Food...Therapeutic Devices § 886.5800 Ophthalmic bar reader. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic bar reader is a device that consists of a...

2011-04-01

464

32 CFR 776.66 - Bar admission and disciplinary matters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bar admission and disciplinary matters. 776... Rules of Professional Conduct § 776.66 Bar admission and disciplinary matters. (a) Bar admission and disciplinary matters. A...

2010-07-01

465

5 CFR 9701.305 - Bar on collective bargaining.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bar on collective bargaining. 9701.305...Administration General § 9701.305 Bar on collective bargaining. As provided...not subject to collective bargaining. This bar on collective bargaining applies...

2010-01-01

466

Laser Scanner Survey to Cultural Heritage Conservation and Restoration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The field of Cultural Heritage has inspired, in the course of last few years, an interest more and more important on behalf of scientific community that deals to survey. The idea that knowledge of a site doesn't apply only to its history but must necessarily include its characteristics of position, shape and geometry, is gathering pace. In Geomatic science the field of cultural heritage benefits to an integrated approach of techniques and different technologies. Every cultural site in fact, is a case in itself, with its own characteristics, problems and specificness. Current techniques offer opportunity to achieve new ways of representation and visualization of cultural site, with the aim of a better metric description. This techniques are powerful tools for analysis of sites and supports to activity of reconstruction and repair. Biggest expectations in this field is laser three-dimensional scanning technique; a system which is able to operate in a methodical way in speed of acquisition and in possibility to access data in real time. Documentation and filing of state of a monument or site is essential in case of reconstruction or conservative project. Possibility to detect very complex geometries with great accuracy allows an in depth study of constructive techniques, making analysis of geometrical details easier which is, with traditional techniques, difficult to achieve. Biggest problems about use of laser scanner survey are graphic outputs for restorers and architects, in fact they often don't know real potential of this techniques, methodologies and functionalities and they expect traditional outputs such as floor plans, cross sections and front elevation of cultural asset. Present study is focused on finding a workflow to support activity of study, restoration and conservative project of cultural heritage, extracting automatically (or with a limited manual operation) graphic outputs from laser scanner survey. Some procedure was tested on two case study the Siviller Castle (XV century), situated in Villasor, a city near Cagliari (Sardinia, Italy) and the tower bell of Mores, near Sassari (Sardinia, Italy). The cultural sites were surveyed with laser scanner Focus 3D by Faro and to process clouds point we were used the JRC 3D Reconstructor software

Vacca, G.; Deidda, M.; Dessi, A.; Marras, M.

2012-07-01

467

Search for the Decay [bar over B][superscript 0] ? ?[+ over c][bar over p]p[bar over p  

E-print Network

We report a search for the decay [bar over B][superscript 0] ? ?[+ over c][bar over p]p[bar over p]. Using a data sample of 471 × 10[superscript 6] B[bar over B] pairs collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II2 storage ...

Cowan, Ray Franklin

468

SiliPET: An ultra-high resolution design of a small animal PET scanner based on stacks of double-sided silicon strip detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated with Monte Carlo simulations, using the EGSNrcMP code, the capabilities of a small animal PET scanner based on four stacks of double-sided silicon strip detectors. Each stack consists of 40 silicon detectors with dimension of 60×60×1 mm 3 and 128 orthogonal strips on each side. Two coordinates of the interaction are given by the strips, whereas the third coordinate is given by the detector number in the stack. The stacks are arranged to form a box of 5×5×6 cm 3 with minor sides opened; the box represents the minimal FOV of the scanner. The performance parameters of the SiliPET scanner have been estimated giving a (positron range limited) spatial resolution of 0.52 mm FWHM, and an absolute sensitivity of 5.1% at the center of system. Preliminary results of a proof of principle measurement done with the MEGA advanced Compton imager using a ?1 mm diameter 22Na source, showed a focal ray tracing FWHM of 1 mm.

Di Domenico, Giovanni; Zavattini, Guido; Cesca, Nicola; Auricchio, Natalia; Andritschke, Robert; Schopper, Florian; Kanbach, Gottfried

2007-02-01

469

SiliPET: Design of an ultra-high resolution small animal PET scanner based on stacks of semi-conductor detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied with Monte Carlo simulations, using the EGSnrc code, a new scanner for small animal positron emission tomography (PET), based on stacks of double-sided semiconductor detectors. Each stack is composed of planar detectors with dimension 70×60×1 mm 3 and orthogonal strips on both sides with 500 ?m pitch to read the two interaction coordinates, the third being the detector number in the stack. Multiple interactions in a stack are discarded. In this way, we achieve a precise determination of the first interaction point of the two 511 keV photons. The reduced dimensions of the scanner also improve the solid angle coverage resulting in a high sensitivity. Preliminary results of scanners based on Si planar detectors are presented and the initial tomographic reconstructions demonstrate very good spatial resolution limited only by the positron range. This suggests that, this is a promising new approach for small animal PET imaging. We are testing some double-sided silicon detectors, equipped with 128 orthogonal p and n strips on opposite sides using VATAGP3 ASIC by IDEAS.

Cesca, N.; Auricchio, N.; Di Domenico, G.; Zavattini, G.; Malaguti, R.; Andritschke, R.; Kanbach, G.; Schopper, F.

2007-03-01

470

A COST EFFECTIVE MULTI-SPECTRAL SCANNER FOR NATURAL GAS DETECTION  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to design, fabricate and field demonstrate a cost effective, multi-spectral scanner for natural gas leak detection in transmission and distribution pipelines. During the first six months of the project, the design for a laboratory version of the multispectral scanner was completed. The optical, mechanical, and electronic design for the scanner was completed. The optical design was analyzed using Zeemax Optical Design software and found to provide sufficiently resolved performance for the scanner. The electronic design was evaluated using a bread board and very high signal to noise ratios were obtained. Fabrication of a laboratory version of the multi-spectral scanner is currently in progress. A technology status report and a research management plan was also completed during the same period.

Yudaya Sivathanu; Jongmook Lim; Vinoo Narayanan

2004-04-01

471

Studies on the dynamics of vacuum encapsulated 2D MEMS scanners by laser Doppler vibrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

2D MEMS scanners are used for e.g. Laser projection purposes or Lidar applications. Electrostatically driven resonant torsional oscillations of both axes of the scanners lead to Lissajous trajectories for Laser beams reflected from the micro mirror. Wafer level vacuum encapsulation with tilt glass capping ensures high angular amplitudes at low driving voltages additionally preventing environmental impacts. Applying Laser Doppler Vibrometry, the effect of residual gas friction, squeezed film damping and internal friction on 2D MEMS scanners is analyzed by measuring the Q-values associated with the torsional oscillations. Vibrometry is also used to analyze the oscillatory motion of the micro mirror and the gimbal of the scanners. Excited modes of the scanner structures are identified giving rise to coupling effects influencing the scanning performance of the 2D MEMS mirrors.

Janes, Joachim; Hofmann, Ulrich

2014-03-01

472

NS001MS - Landsat-D thematic mapper band aircraft scanner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The thematic mapper is a multispectral scanner which will be launched aboard Landsat-D in the early 1980s. Compared with previous Landsat scanners, this instrument will have an improved spatial resolution (30 m) and new spectral bands. Designated NS001MS, the scanner is designed to duplicate the thematic mapper spectral bands plus two additional bands (1.0 to 1.3 microns and 2.08 to 2.35 microns) in an aircraft scanner for evaluation and investigation prior to design and launch of the final thematic mapper. Applicable specifications used in defining the thematic mapper were retained in the NS001MS design, primarily with respect to spectral bandwidths, noise equivalent reflectance, and noise equivalent difference temperature. The technical design and operational characteristics of the multispectral scanner (with thematic mapper bands) are discussed.

Richard, R. R.; Merkel, R. F.; Meeks, G. R.

1978-01-01

473

High-speed two-dimensional laser scanner based on Bragg gratings stored in photothermorefractive glass.  

PubMed

A high-speed free-space wavelength-multiplexed optical scanner with high-speed wavelength selection coupled with narrowband volume Bragg gratings stored in photothermorefractive (PTR) glass is reported. The proposed scanner with no moving parts has a modular design with a wide angular scan range, accurate beam pointing, low scanner insertion loss, and two-dimensional beam scan capabilities. We present a complete analysis and design procedure for storing multiple tilted Bragg-grating structures in a single PTR glass volume (for normal incidence) in an optimal fashion. Because the scanner design is modular, many PTR glass volumes (each having multiple tilted Bragg-grating structures) can be stacked together, providing an efficient throughput with operations in both the visible and the infrared (IR) regions. A proof-of-concept experimental study is conducted with four Bragg gratings in independent PTR glass plates, and both visible and IR region scanner operations are demonstrated. PMID:14503693

Yaqoob, Zahid; Arain, Muzammil A; Riza, Nabeel A

2003-09-10

474

A double-bent planar leaf flexure guide for a nano-scanner: Experimental report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe an experimental study on the double-bent leaf flexure-guided nano-scanner introduced in a previous paper [J. Korean Phy. Soc. 57, 1581 (2010)]. The optimally-designed nano-scanner was fabricated. Its performances were verified using a finite element analysis (FEA). The nano-scanner is actuated by a voice coil motor. Its characteristics were measured with a laser interferometer. The first resonant frequency is calculated as 17.1 Hz. The performances of the nano-scanner, including sine tracking capability, a multi-step response, and range of travel check were evaluated using various experimental procedures. Test results reveal that the scanner traveled over a 4.0 mm range and had good nano-precision (4 nm).

Jeon, Jeong-Woo; Kim, Jong-Moon; Lee, Young-Hyoung; Lee, Dong-Yeon

2014-11-01

475

A newly developed Kolsky tension bar.  

SciTech Connect

Investigation of damage and failure of materials under impact loading relies on reliable dynamic tensile experiments. A precise Kolsky tension bar is highly desirable. Based on the template of the Kolsky compression bar that we recently developed and presented at 2009 SEM conference, a new Kolsky tension bar apparatus was completed at Sandia National Laboratories, California. It is secured to the same optical table. Linear bearings with interior Frelon coating were employed to support the whole tension bar system including the bars and gun barrel. The same laser based alignment system was used to efficiently facilitate highly precise alignment of the bar system. However, the gun part was completely re-designed. One end of the gun barrel, as a part of loading device, was directly jointed to the bar system. A solid cylindrical striker is launched inside the gun barrel and then impacts on a flange attached to the other end of the gun barrel to facilitate a sudden tensile loading on the whole system. This design improves the quality of impact to easily produce a perfect stress wave and is convenient to utilize pulse shaping technique. A calibration and dynamic characterization of an aluminum specimen are presented.

Lu, Wei-Yang; Song, Bo; Antoun, Bonnie R.; Connelly, Kevin; Korellis, John S.

2010-03-01

476

Cam-controlled boring bar  

DOEpatents

A cam-controlled boring bar system (100) includes a first housing (152) which is rotatable about its longitudinal axis (154), and a second housing in the form of a cam-controlled slide (158) which is also rotatable about the axis (154) as well as being translatable therealong. A tool-holder (180) is mounted within the slide (158) for holding a single point cutting tool. Slide (158) has a rectangular configuration and is disposed within a rectangularly configured portion of the first housing (152). Arcuate cam slots (192) are defined within a side plate (172) of the housing (152), while cam followers (194) are mounted upon the cam slide (158) for cooperative engagement with the cam slots (192). In this manner, as the housing (152) and slide (158) rotate, and as the slide (158) also translates, a through-bore (14) having an hourglass configuration will be formed within a workpiece (16) which may be, for example, a nuclear reactor steam generator tube support plate.

Glatthorn, Raymond H. (St. Petersburg, FL)

1986-01-01

477

Evaluation of an electronic scanner of pressure (ESOP) module  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An electronic scanner of pressure (ESOP) module, developed by NASA Ames Research Center, was installed in a wind tunnel and evaluated over a 5-month testing period. The solid-state ESOP module has 48 miniature pressure transducers and a heater circuit to maintain a constant module temperature. During the wind tunnel test, the module was subjected to an environmental temperature range from 60 F to 104 F, and to considerable module vibration. Zero drift was within + or - 0.5 percent of full-scale output for 37 of the transducers, and was greater than 5.0 percent for four transducers. Pressure measurements from 12 transducers were compared with Scanivalve modules. The agreement of these measurements was considered to be good.

Smeltzer, D. B.; Levin, A. D.

1986-01-01

478

An electronic scanner of pressure for wind tunnel models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An electronic scanner of pressure (ESOP) has been developed by NASA Ames Research Center for installation in wind tunnel models. An ESOP system consists of up to 20 pressure modules (PMs), each with 48 pressure transducers and a heater, an analog-to-digital (A/D) converter module, a microprocessor, a data controller, a monitor unit, a control and processing unit, and a heater controller. The PMs and the A/D converter module are sized to be installed in the models tested in the Ames Aerodynamics Division wind tunnels. A unique feature of the pressure module is the lack of moving parts such as a pneumatic switch used in other systems for in situ calibrations. This paper describes the ESOP system and the results of the initial testing of the system. The initial results indicate the system meets the original design goal of 0.15 percent accuracy.

Kauffman, Ronald C.; Coe, Charles F.

1986-01-01

479

Cloud screening Coastal Zone Color Scanner images using channel 5  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Clouds are removed from Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) data using channel 5. Instrumentation problems require pre-processing of channel 5 before an intelligent cloud-screening algorithm can be used. For example, at intervals of about 16 lines, the sensor records anomalously low radiances. Moreover, the calibration equation yields negative radiances when the sensor records zero counts, and pixels corrupted by electronic overshoot must also be excluded. The remaining pixels may then be used in conjunction with the procedure of Simpson and Humphrey to determine the CZCS cloud mask. These results plus in situ observations of phytoplankton pigment concentration show that pre-processing and proper cloud-screening of CZCS data are necessary for accurate satellite-derived pigment concentrations. This is especially true in the coastal margins, where pigment content is high and image distortion associated with electronic overshoot is also present. The pre-processing algorithm is critical to obtaining accurate global estimates of pigment from spacecraft data.

Eckstein, B. A.; Simpson, J. J.

1991-01-01

480

Estimating proportions of objects from multispectral scanner data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress is reported in developing and testing methods of estimating, from multispectral scanner data, proportions of target classes in a scene when there are a significiant number of boundary pixels. Procedures were developed to exploit: (1) prior information concerning the number of object classes normally occurring in a pixel, and (2) spectral information extracted from signals of adjoining pixels. Two algorithms, LIMMIX and nine-point mixtures, are described along with supporting processing techniques. An important by-product of the procedures, in contrast to the previous method, is that they are often appropriate when the number of spectral bands is small. Preliminary tests on LANDSAT data sets, where target classes were (1) lakes and ponds, and (2) agricultural crops were encouraging.

Horwitz, H. M.; Lewis, J. T.; Pentland, A. P.

1975-01-01

481

An ERTS multispectral scanner experiment for mapping iron compounds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are no author-identified significant results in this report. An experimental plan for enhancing spectral features related to the chemical composition of geological targets in ERTS multispectral scanner data is described. The experiment is designed to produce visible-reflective infrared ratio images from ERTS-1 data. Iron compounds are promising remote sensing targets because they display prominent spectral features in the visible-reflective infrared wavelength region and are geologically significant. The region selected for this ERTS experiment is the southern end of the Wind River Range in Wyoming. If this method proves successful it should prove useful for regional geologic mapping, mineralogical exploration, and soil mapping. It may also be helpful to ERTS users in scientific disciplines other than geology, especially to those concerned with targets composed of mixtures of live vegetation and soil or rock.

Vincent, R. K. (principal investigator)

1972-01-01

482

Multispectral scanner data applications evaluation. Volume 1: User applications study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A six-month systems study of earth resource surveys from satellites was conducted and is reported. SKYLAB S-192 multispectral scanner (MSS) data were used as a baseline to aid in evaluating the characteristics of future systems using satellite MSS sensors. The study took the viewpoint that overall system (sensor and processing) characteristics and parameter values should be determined largely by user requirements for automatic information extraction performance in quasi-operational earth resources surveys, the other major factor being hardware limitations imposed by state-of-the-art technology and cost. The objective was to use actual aircraft and spacecraft MSS data to outline parametrically the trade-offs between user performance requirements and hardware performance and limitations so as to allow subsequent evaluation of compromises which must be made in deciding what system(s) to build.

Thomson, F. J.; Erickson, J. D.; Nalepka, R. F.; Weber, J. D.

1974-01-01

483

ARIES segmented gamma-ray scanner user manual  

SciTech Connect

The segmented gamma-ray scatter (SGS) designated as Win{_}SGS at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility has been installed and is intended for use in quantifying the radioisotope content of DOE-STD-3013-96 equivalent containers. The SGS features new software written in C and a new user interface that runs under Microsoft Windows{trademark}. The operation of the ARIES Segmented Gamma-ray Scanner is documented in this manual. It covers user instructions as well as hardware and software details. Additional information is found in the documentation for the commercially available components and modules that compose the SGS. The objective of the ARIES project is to demonstrate technology to dismantle plutonium pits from excess nuclear weapons, convert the plutonium to a metal ingot or an oxide powder, package the metal or oxide, and verify the contents of the package by nondestructive assay.

Biddle, R.S.; Sheppard, G.A.; Schneider, C.M.

1998-04-16

484

Advances in automatic extraction of information from multispectral scanner data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The state-of-the-art of automatic multispectral scanner data analysis and interpretation is reviewed. Sources of system variability which tend to obscure the spectral characteristics of the classes under consideration are discussed, and examples of the application of spatial and temporal discrimination bases are given. Automatic processing functions, techniques and methods, and equipment are described with particular attention to those that are applicable to large land surveys using satellite data. The development and characteristics of the Multivariate Interactive Digital Analysis System (MIDAS) for processing aircraft or satellite multispectral scanning data are discussed in detail. The MIDAS system combines the parallel digital implementation capabilities of a low-cost processor with a general purpose PDP-11/45 minicomputer to provide near-real-time data processing. The preprocessing functions are user-selectable. The input subsystem accepts data stored on high density digital tape, computer compatible tape, and analog tape.

Erickson, J. D.

1975-01-01

485

Crop water-stress assessment using an airborne thermal scanner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An airborne thermal scanner was used to measure the temperature of a wheat crop canopy in Phoenix, Arizona. The results indicate that canopy temperatures acquired about an hour and a half past solar noon were well correlated with presunrise plant water tension, a parameter directly related to plant growth and development. Pseudo-colored thermal images reading directly in stress degree days, a unit indicative of crop irrigation needs and yield potential, were produced. The aircraft data showed significant within-field canopy temperature variability, indicating the superiority of the synoptic view provided by aircraft over localized ground measurements. The standard deviation between airborne and ground-acquired canopy temperatures was 2 C or less.

Millard, J. P.; Jackson, R. D.; Reginato, R. J.; Idso, S. B.; Goettelman, R. C.