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1

Bar Code Labels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

American Bar Codes, Inc. developed special bar code labels for inventory control of space shuttle parts and other space system components. ABC labels are made in a company-developed anodizing aluminum process and consecutively marketed with bar code symbology and human readable numbers. They offer extreme abrasion resistance and indefinite resistance to ultraviolet radiation, capable of withstanding 700 degree temperatures without deterioration and up to 1400 degrees with special designs. They offer high resistance to salt spray, cleaning fluids and mild acids. ABC is now producing these bar code labels commercially or industrial customers who also need labels to resist harsh environments.

1988-01-01

2

Optical System Design For High Speed Bar Code Scanning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectra-Physics recently introduced the Model 750 SL scanner for use in the European point-of-sale market, to meet the European requirement for a scanner of less than 13 cm height. The model 750 SL uses a higher density computer designed scan pattern with a retrodirective collection system to scan and detect UPC, EAN, and JAN bar codes. The scanner "reads" these bar codes in such a way that the user need not precisely align the bar code symbol with respect to the window in the scanner even at package speeds up to 100 inches per second. By using a unique geometrical arrangement of mirrors, a polygonal mirror assembly, and a custom-designed plastic bifocal lens, a design was developed to meet these requirements. This paper describes the design of this new low cost scanner, the use of computer-aided design in the development of this scanner, and some observations on the future of bar code scanning.

Hellekson, Ronald; Reddersen, Brad; Campbell, Scott

1987-04-01

3

Bar coded retroreflective target  

DOEpatents

This small, inexpensive, non-contact laser sensor can detect the location of a retroreflective target in a relatively large volume and up to six degrees of position. The tracker's laser beam is formed into a plane of light which is swept across the space of interest. When the beam illuminates the retroreflector, some of the light returns to the tracker. The intensity, angle, and time of the return beam is measured to calculate the three dimensional location of the target. With three retroreflectors on the target, the locations of three points on the target are measured, enabling the calculation of all six degrees of target position. Until now, devices for three-dimensional tracking of objects in a large volume have been heavy, large, and very expensive. Because of the simplicity and unique characteristics of this tracker, it is capable of three-dimensional tracking of one to several objects in a large volume, yet it is compact, light-weight, and relatively inexpensive. Alternatively, a tracker produces a diverging laser beam which is directed towards a fixed position, and senses when a retroreflective target enters the fixed field of view. An optically bar coded target can be read by the tracker to provide information about the target. The target can be formed of a ball lens with a bar code on one end. As the target moves through the field, the ball lens causes the laser beam to scan across the bar code.

Vann, Charles S. (Fremont, CA)

2000-01-01

4

A Program Evaluation of Classroom Data Collection with Bar Codes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A special education record-keeping system using bar code symbols and optical scanners is described. Bar code symbols were created for each Individualized Educational Plan objective, and symbols are scanned when students emit targeted behaviors. A weekly printed report of student performance is produced. Advantages, disadvantages, and costs are…

Saunders, Muriel D.; And Others

1993-01-01

5

Property Control through Bar Coding.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A public utility company uses laser wands to read bar-coded labels on furniture and equipment. The system allows an 80 percent savings of the time required to create reports for inventory control. (MLF)

Kingma, Gerben J.

1984-01-01

6

A Pilot Study of Bar Codes in a Canadian Hospital  

PubMed Central

Background: In 2004, the US Food and Drug Administration issued a new rule requiring most prescription and some over-the-counter pharmaceutical products to carry bar codes down to the level of individual doses, with the intent of reducing the number of medication errors. Despite these regulatory changes in the United States, Health Canada has not yet adopted any mandatory bar-coding of drugs. Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of using commercial bar codes for receipt and preparation of drug products and to evaluate the readability of the bar codes printed on various levels of drug packaging. Methods: This cross-sectional observational pilot study was conducted in the Pharmacy Department of a Canadian mother–child university hospital centre in July 2010. For the purposes of the study, research drugs and cytotoxic drugs in various storage areas, as well as locally compounded medications with bar codes generated in house, were excluded. For all other drug products, the presence or absence of bar codes was documented for each level of packaging, along with the trade and generic names, content (i.e., drug product), quantity of doses or level of packaging, therapeutic class (if applicable), type of bar code (1- or 2-dimensional symbology), alphanumeric value contained in the bar code, standard of reference used to generate the alphanumeric value (Universal Product Code [UPC], Global Trade Item Number [GTIN], or unknown), and readability of the bar codes by 2 scanners. Results: Only 33 (1.9%) of the 1734 products evaluated had no bar codes on any level of packaging. Of the 2875 levels of packaging evaluated, 2021 (70.3%) had at least one bar code. Of the 2384 bar codes evaluated, 2353 (98.7%) were linear (1-dimensional) and 31 (1.3%) were 2-dimensional. Well over three-quarters (2112 or 88.6%) of the evaluated bar codes were readable by at least 1 of the 2 scanners used in the study. Conclusions: On the basis of these results, bar-coding could be used for receipt of 80.9% of the drug products at this Canadian hospital and for the preparation and dispensing of 70.1% of the products. PMID:22479068

Brisseau, Lionel; Chiveri, Andrei; Lebel, Denis; Bussieres, Jean-Francois

2011-01-01

7

Bar code identification of digital levels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper introduced the algorithm of bar code identification of digital level. In the digital level system, the original gauge rod is substituted by bar code rod. The CCD-sensor is used to substitute the eyes of people. The automatic measuring is realized by identifying the bar code on the rod using image process, code principle and the geometry optics technology. The data processing algorithm is achieved purposively after analyzing the data and waveform of CCD output signal. At first, the noise is attenuated with the filter algorithm and signal noise ratio is increased. Then the bar code information from bar image of the gauge is gotten with the speedy edge detection algorithm based on exponent, and the load of calculation is decreased. According to the principle of photoelectric transform of CCD, identify the corresponding bar code and the altitude of the point was calculated. The experiment results indicate that the algorithm of bar code identification is feasible.

Li, Jinhui; Geng, Liqing

2005-04-01

8

21 CFR 201.25 - Bar code label requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bar code label requirements. 201.25 Section...General Labeling Provisions § 201.25 Bar code label requirements. (a) Who is subject to these bar code requirements? Manufacturers,...

2013-04-01

9

21 CFR 201.25 - Bar code label requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bar code label requirements. 201.25 Section...General Labeling Provisions § 201.25 Bar code label requirements. (a) Who is subject to these bar code requirements? Manufacturers,...

2011-04-01

10

21 CFR 201.25 - Bar code label requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bar code label requirements. 201.25 Section...General Labeling Provisions § 201.25 Bar code label requirements. (a) Who is subject to these bar code requirements? Manufacturers,...

2012-04-01

11

21 CFR 201.25 - Bar code label requirements.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bar code label requirements. 201.25 Section...General Labeling Provisions § 201.25 Bar code label requirements. (a) Who is subject to these bar code requirements? Manufacturers,...

2014-04-01

12

Applications of bar code technology at nuclear power plants  

SciTech Connect

Bar code is an emerging technology that can eliminate handwritten and keyboard data-entry errors. With application-specific software, bar code technology can provide inventory control, reducing staff time and paperwork. This paper summarizes bar code technology, describes hardware commercially available, and reviews application software systems for use in nuclear power plants.

Moose, T.N. Jr. (Sorrento Electronics, Inc., Cary, NC (USA)); Stegall, G. (Carolina Power and Light Company, New Hill, NC (USA))

1989-11-01

13

Biological "bar codes" in human faces.  

PubMed

The structure of the human face allows it to signal a wide range of useful information about a person's gender, identity, mood, etc. We show empirically that facial identity information is conveyed largely via mechanisms tuned to horizontal visual structure. Specifically observers perform substantially better at identifying faces that have been filtered to contain just horizontal information compared to any other orientation band. We then show, computationally, that horizontal structures within faces have an unusual tendency to fall into vertically co-aligned clusters compared with images of natural scenes. We call these clusters "bar codes" and propose that they have important computational properties. We propose that it is this property makes faces "special" visual stimuli because they are able to transmit information as reliable spatial sequence: a highly constrained one-dimensional code. We show that such structure affords computational advantages for face detection and decoding, including robustness to normal environmental image degradation, but makes faces vulnerable to certain classes of transformation that change the sequence of bars such as spatial inversion or contrast-polarity reversal. PMID:19757911

Dakin, Steven C; Watt, Roger J

2009-01-01

14

Bar-Code System for a Microbiological Laboratory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A bar-code system has been assembled for a microbiological laboratory that must examine a large number of samples. The system includes a commercial bar-code reader, computer hardware and software components, plus custom-designed database software. The software generates a user-friendly, menu-driven interface.

Law, Jennifer; Kirschner, Larry

2007-01-01

15

Objectivity in Grading: The Promise of Bar Codes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article proposes the use of a new technology to assure student anonymity and reduce bias hazards: identifying students by using bar codes. The limited finding suggests that the use of bar codes for assuring student anonymity could potentially cause students to perceive that grades are assigned more fairly and reassure teachers that they are…

Jae, Haeran; Cowling, John

2009-01-01

16

Machine-vision-based bar code scanning for long-range applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bar code labeling of products has become almost universal in most industries. However, in the steel industry, problems with high temperatures, harsh physical environments and the large sizes of the products and material handling equipment have slowed implementation of bar code based systems in the hot end of the mill. Typical laser-based bar code scanners have maximum scan distances of only 15 feet or so. Longer distance models have been developed which require the use of retro reflective paper labels, but the labels must be very large, are expensive, and cannot stand the heat and physical abuse of the steel mill environment. Furthermore, it is often difficult to accurately point a hand held scanner at targets in bright sunlight or at long distances. An automated product tag reading system based on CCD cameras and computer image processing has been developed by West Virginia University, and demonstrated at the Weirton Steel Corporation. The system performs both the pointing and reading functions. A video camera is mounted on a pan/tilt head, and connected to a personal computer through a frame grabber board. The computer analyzes the images, and can identify product ID tags in a wide-angle scene. It controls the camera to point at each tag and zoom for a closeup picture. The closeups are analyzed and the program need both a barcode and the corresponding alphanumeric code on the tag. This paper describes the camera pointing and bar-code reading functions of the algorithm. A companion paper describes the OCR functions.

Banta, Larry E.; Pertl, Franz A.; Rosenecker, Charles; Rosenberry-Friend, Kimberly A.

1998-10-01

17

Using bar codes for material control and accounting  

SciTech Connect

Modern computers have become an important part of almost all business operations, including nuclear material control and accountability (NMC&A). However the effectiveness of any computer hardware/software system is a function of the input data provided to it. To maximize the benefit from a computer, timely (ideally, real-time) and accurate data are required. This paper presents the benefits of using automatic data collection, and more specifically bar code technology. Bar coding is a simple and cost effective keyless data entry solution that has been widely adopted in world commerce and government agencies. Since its introduction to the first MINATOM facility in 1995, bar code activities at other facilities have increased. Tasks to integrate bar code technology with computerized MC&A, equipment, and training workshops have been an important part of the USDOE/MINATOM collaboration.

Weil, B.

1997-04-01

18

Improving radiopharmaceutical supply chain safety by implementing bar code technology.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to describe and evaluate an approach for improving radiopharmaceutical supply chain safety by implementing bar code technology. We first evaluated the current situation of our radiopharmaceutical supply chain and, by means of the ALARM protocol, analysed two dispensing errors that occurred in our department. Thereafter, we implemented a bar code system to secure selected key stages of the radiopharmaceutical supply chain. Finally, we evaluated the cost of this implementation, from overtime, to overheads, to additional radiation exposure to workers. An analysis of the events that occurred revealed a lack of identification of prepared or dispensed drugs. Moreover, the evaluation of the current radiopharmaceutical supply chain showed that the dispensation and injection steps needed to be further secured. The bar code system was used to reinforce product identification at three selected key stages: at usable stock entry; at preparation-dispensation; and during administration, allowing to check conformity between the labelling of the delivered product (identity and activity) and the prescription. The extra time needed for all these steps had no impact on the number and successful conduct of examinations. The investment cost was reduced (2600 euros for new material and 30 euros a year for additional supplies) because of pre-existing computing equipment. With regard to the radiation exposure to workers there was an insignificant overexposure for hands with this new organization because of the labelling and scanning processes of radiolabelled preparation vials. Implementation of bar code technology is now an essential part of a global securing approach towards optimum patient management. PMID:25144560

Matanza, David; Hallouard, François; Rioufol, Catherine; Fessi, Hatem; Fraysse, Marc

2014-11-01

19

76 FR 12847 - Change of Address; Requests for Exemption From the Bar Code Label Requirements  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Address; Requests for Exemption From the Bar Code Label Requirements AGENCY: Food and Drug...to update the address for submitting bar code exemption requests to the Center for Drug...to update the address for submitting bar code exemption requests to CDER. The new...

2011-03-09

20

77 FR 49818 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Bar Code Label...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Bar Code Label Requirement for Human Drug and Biological...This notice solicits comments on the bar code label requirements for human drug and biological...other forms of information technology. Bar Code Label Requirement for Human Drug and...

2012-08-17

21

19 CFR 142.45 - Use of bar code by entry filer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Use of bar code by entry filer. 142.45 Section 142...PROCESS Line Release § 142.45 Use of bar code by entry filer. (a) Printing of C-4 Code. Upon receipt of an approved Line...

2012-04-01

22

19 CFR 142.45 - Use of bar code by entry filer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Use of bar code by entry filer. 142.45 Section 142...PROCESS Line Release § 142.45 Use of bar code by entry filer. (a) Printing of C-4 Code. Upon receipt of an approved Line...

2013-04-01

23

19 CFR 142.45 - Use of bar code by entry filer.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Use of bar code by entry filer. 142.45 Section 142...PROCESS Line Release § 142.45 Use of bar code by entry filer. (a) Printing of C-4 Code. Upon receipt of an approved Line...

2014-04-01

24

19 CFR 142.45 - Use of bar code by entry filer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Use of bar code by entry filer. 142.45 Section 142...PROCESS Line Release § 142.45 Use of bar code by entry filer. (a) Printing of C-4 Code. Upon receipt of an approved Line...

2011-04-01

25

Identifying Objects via Encased X-Ray-Fluorescent Materials - the Bar Code Inside  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Systems for identifying objects by means of x-ray fluorescence (XRF) of encased labeling elements have been developed. The XRF spectra of objects so labeled would be analogous to the external bar code labels now used to track objects in everyday commerce. In conjunction with computer-based tracking systems, databases, and labeling conventions, the XRF labels could be used in essentially the same manner as that of bar codes to track inventories and to record and process commercial transactions. In addition, as summarized briefly below, embedded XRF labels could be used to verify the authenticity of products, thereby helping to deter counterfeiting and fraud. A system, as described above, is called an encased core product identification and authentication system (ECPIAS). The ECPIAS concept is a modified version of that of a related recently initiated commercial development of handheld XRF spectral scanners that would identify alloys or detect labeling elements deposited on the surfaces of objects. In contrast, an ECPIAS would utilize labeling elements encased within the objects of interest. The basic ECPIAS concept is best illustrated by means of an example of one of several potential applications: labeling of cultured pearls by labeling the seed particles implanted in oysters to grow the pearls. Each pearl farmer would be assigned a unique mixture of labeling elements that could be distinguished from the corresponding mixtures of other farmers. The mixture would be either incorporated into or applied to the surfaces of the seed prior to implantation in the oyster. If necessary, the labeled seed would be further coated to make it nontoxic to the oyster. After implantation, the growth of layers of mother of pearl on the seed would encase the XRF labels, making these labels integral, permanent parts of the pearls that could not be removed without destroying the pearls themselves. The XRF labels would be read by use of XRF scanners, the spectral data outputs of which would be converted to alphanumeric data in a digital equivalent data system (DEDS), which is the subject of the previous article. These alphanumeric data would be used to track the pearls through all stages of commerce, from the farmer to the retail customer.

Schramm, Harry F.; Kaiser, Bruce

2005-01-01

26

Star Library: Breaking the Code -- A Graphical Exploration Using Bar Charts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Caesar Shift is a translation of the alphabet; for example, a five-letter shift would code the letter a as f, b as g, ... z as e. We describe a five-step process for decoding an encrypted message. First, groups of size 4 construct a frequency table of the letters in two lines of a coded message. Second, students construct a bar chart for a reference message of the frequency of letters in the English language. Third, students create a bar chart of the coded message. Fourth, students visually compare the bar chart of the reference message (step 2) to the bar chart of the coded message (step 3). Based on this comparison, students hypothesize a shift. Fifth, students apply the shift to the coded message. After decoding the message, students are asked a series of questions that assess their ability to see patterns. The questions are geared for higher levels of cognitive reasoning.

Gabrosek, John; Schuckers, Michael E.

2001-01-01

27

Application of bar codes to the automation of analytical sample data collection  

SciTech Connect

The Health Protection Department at the Savannah River Plant collects 500 urine samples per day for tritium analyses. Prior to automation, all sample information was compiled manually. Bar code technology was chosen for automating this program because it provides a more accurate, efficient, and inexpensive method for data entry. The system has three major functions: sample labeling is accomplished at remote bar code label stations composed of an Intermec 8220 (Intermec Corp.) interfaced to an IBM-PC, data collection is done on a central VAX 11/730 (Digital Equipment Corp.). Bar code readers are used to log-in samples to be analyzed on liquid scintillation counters. The VAX 11/730 processes the data and generates reports, data storage is on the VAX 11/730 and backed up on the plant's central computer. A brief description of several other bar code applications at the Savannah River Plant is also presented.

Jurgensen, H A

1986-01-01

28

19 CFR 142.45 - Use of bar code by entry filer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...45 Use of bar code by entry filer. (a) Printing...Release application, the entry filer, in accordance with instructions from the port director, shall...instructions from the port director. The entry filer may either...

2010-04-01

29

Machine readable identification systems: An overview. [Bar code and other labeling methods  

SciTech Connect

The application of automated identification of an item by the use of machine readable methods is improving the accuracy and speed of data capture. Bar codes, optical character recognition, magnetic strips, and magnetic-ink recognition are all current machine readable methods which are used for data collection. Bar code data collection is the most used technology for real time inventory control, tracking, and point of sale applications. Magnetic strip coding is used for highly compact data identification on ID cards and on tags. Optical character recognition is generally used today to capture documents for computer storage and recall. Magnetic-ink character recognition, though used widely in banking, has limited applications elsewhere. Bar code methods are currently experiencing a faster rate of growth than the other technologies. Emphasis of this paper is on bar coding because of its popularity. The fundamentals of bar coding are discussed and labeling and scanning techniques are presented. New, automatic data-collection techniques are being developed, utilizing microcircuits and compact-disk memory media. The greatly increased memory capacity of these systems will likely lead to identification in terms of definitive characteristics of the item.

Smith, F.J.; Cantor, S.

1987-09-01

30

AUTONOMOUS CALIBRATION OF MOVING LINE SCANNERS WITH CODED PHOTOGRAMMETRIC TARGETS RECOGNITION  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe an automatic approach for a terrestrial line scanner calibration. The system is calibrated with prior knowledge of the exterior orientation of the camera in an unknown coordinate system. This data is acquired by tracking the moving sensor platform with an infrared camera tracking system (ARTtrack2) along a calibration scene. The calibration of a line scanner

Thomas D; Frederik Meysel; Ralf Reulke

31

Biosensors and Bio-Bar Code Assays Based on Biofunctionalized Magnetic Microbeads  

PubMed Central

This review paper reports the applications of magnetic microbeads in biosensors and bio-bar code assays. Affinity biosensors are presented through different types of transducing systems: electrochemical, piezo electric or magnetic ones, applied to immunodetection and genodetection. Enzymatic biosensors are based on biofunctionalization through magnetic microbeads of a transducer, more often amperometric, potentiometric or conductimetric. The bio-bar code assays relie on a sandwich structure based on specific biological interaction of a magnetic microbead and a nanoparticle with a defined biological molecule. The magnetic particle allows the separation of the reacted target molecules from unreacted ones. The nanoparticles aim at the amplification and the detection of the target molecule. The bio-bar code assays allow the detection at very low concentration of biological molecules, similar to PCR sensitivity.

Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole; Martelet, Claude; Chevolot, Yann; Cloarec, Jean-Pierre

2007-01-01

32

Bar-coded hydrogel microparticles for protein detection: synthesis, assay and scanning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This protocol describes the core methodology for the fabrication of bar-coded hydrogel microparticles, the capture and labeling of protein targets and the rapid microfluidic scanning of particles for multiplexed detection. Multifunctional hydrogel particles made from poly(ethylene glycol) serve as a sensitive, nonfouling and bio-inert suspension array for the multiplexed measurement of proteins. Each particle type bears a distinctive graphical code

David C Appleyard; Stephen C Chapin; Rathi L Srinivas; Patrick S Doyle

2011-01-01

33

Improving Patient Safety by Identifying Side Effects from Introducing Bar Coding in Medication Administration  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveIn addition to providing new capabilities, the introduction of technology in complex, sociotechnical systems, such as health care and aviation, can have unanticipated side effects on technical, social, and organizational dimensions. To identify potential accidents in the making, the authors looked for side effects from a natural experiment, the implementation of bar code medication administration (BCMA), a technology designed to

EMILY S. PATTERSON; RICHARD I. COOK; MARTA L. RENDER

2002-01-01

34

The Impact of Bar Code Medication Administration Technology on Reported Medication Errors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of bar-code medication administration technology is on the rise in acute care facilities in the United States. The technology is purported to decrease medication errors that occur at the point of administration. How significantly this technology affects actual rate and severity of error is unknown. This descriptive, longitudinal research…

Holecek, Andrea

2011-01-01

35

Patient Safety with Blood Products Administration Using Wireless and Bar-Code Technology  

PubMed Central

Supported by a grant from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, a University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics interdisciplinary research team created an online data-capture-response tool utilizing wireless mobile devices and bar code technology to track and improve blood products administration process. The tool captures 1) sample collection, 2) sample arrival in the blood bank, 3) blood product dispense from blood bank, and 4) administration. At each step, the scanned patient wristband ID bar code is automatically compared to scanned identification barcode on requisition, sample, and/or product, and the system presents either a confirmation or an error message to the user. Following an eight-month, 5 unit, staged pilot, a ‘big bang,’ hospital-wide implementation occurred on February 7, 2005. Pilot period and preliminary house-wide data indicate improved error capture with the new barcode process over the old manual process. PMID:16779113

Porcella, Aleta; Walker, Kristy

2005-01-01

36

Use of DNA bar codes to resolve a canine paternity dispute.  

PubMed

The DNA fingerprinting method was used to resolve a canine paternity dispute. During the same estrus, a Shih Tzu bitch was inseminated by 2 dogs--a Shih Tzu and a Coton de Tulear. Because both breeds are alike phenotypically, it was difficult to decide whether the pups were purebred or of mixed breeding. The DNA bar codes indicated unambiguously that the 2 sires had fathered one pup each, thus documenting superfecundation. PMID:3198464

Georges, M; Hilbert, P; Lequarré, A S; Leclerc, V; Hanset, R; Vassart, G

1988-11-01

37

Sequencing with Agencourt Note: you need special bar-coded tubes with a septum lid. Agencourt provides two suppliers.  

E-print Network

into the special bar-coded tubes (push pipette tip through rubber septum, inject, and remove tip ­ no need to open on the webpage. Agencourt tends to completely erase anything you've written when submitting, prompting you

Koehler, Carla

38

2D BAR-CODES FOR AUTHENTICATION: A SECURITY APPROACH Cleo Baras and Francois Cayre  

E-print Network

of square matrices with size L Ã? L and elements in E. 2.1. 2D-BC construction After encoding with a secret of the good binary identifier encoding, has no choice but to try to estimate the original 2D-BC without), Bucharest : Romania (2012)" #12;Encoder Printer Io b k Bob Scanner Printer Estimator Un ^Io Ne Eve Scanner

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

39

Case Report: Overcoming Barriers to the Implementation of a Pharmacy Bar Code Scanning System for Medication Dispensing: A Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technology has great potential to reduce medication errors in hospitals. This case report describes barriers to, and facilitators of, the implementation of a pharmacy bar code scanning system to reduce medication dispensing errors at a large academic medical center. Ten pharmacy staff were interviewed about their experiences during the implementation. Interview notes were iteratively reviewed to identify common themes. The

Karen C. Nanji; Jennifer Cina; Nirali Patel; William Churchill; Tejal K. Gandhi; Eric G. Poon

2009-01-01

40

The effects of media color and laser wavelength on bar code symbol contrast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of media color and laser wavelength as they relate to bar code symbol contrast. The research employed a balanced 2 x 2 x 6 factorial experiment design. A random sample of 216 specimens was drawn from a population of 910 colors from the 1998 Pantone Color Formula Guide and assigned to one of 24 hue-saturation-wavelength cells. Hue was defined based on the CIE 1964 chromaticity diagram and standard illuminant D65. The chromaticity diagram was divided into six regions: blue, green, yellow, orange, red, and purple. The chromaticity coordinates (Yxy) of each Pantone specimen were transformed such that the coordinates of D65 was the origin. Lines extended from D65 to the spectral locus defined hue regions. Specimens whose transformed coordinates fell within a particular region were assigned that hue. Next, all specimens were classified as highly saturated if their white content was less than 50%. Otherwise, their saturation was defined as low. Finally, specimens from each hue-saturation group were randomly assigned to one of two wavelength levels: 633 or 670 rim. The measurement apparatus was constructed according the geometry defined in the ANSI Bar Code Print Quality Guideline-X3.182-1990. Data were collected following a random cell-order pattern to minimize the effect of any systematic, investigator-induced error. An analysis of variance was performed to test seven hypotheses: the main effects for each of the three independent variables and all possible interactions between them. The analysis indicated the ANOVA model of hue, saturation, and wavelength with all possible interactions was significant (p =.0001; R2 = 74.1) in explaining the variance in symbol contrast. Hue (p =.0001; R2 = 39.3) and saturation (p =.0001; R2 = 28.2) were significant independent variables. There was no significant difference detected between 633 nm and 670 nm wavelengths. The only significant interaction was between hue and saturation (p =.0001; R2 = 5.3). The effect of the interaction was relatively weak and indicated that when specimen hues were less saturated, the effect of hue on symbol contrast was diminished. Recommendations for future research are offered.

Sutton, Mathias Joseph

41

SOLVING THE BIBLE CODE PUZZLE BRENDAN MCKAY, DROR BAR-NATAN, MAYA BAR-HILLEL, AND GIL KALAI  

E-print Network

television documentaries so far and a movie in production. People wishing to find "codes" for themselves have the choice of many commercially avail- able programs. Several large religious organizations (Jewish in detail. Consider a text, consisting of a string of letters G = g1g2 · · ·gL of length L, without any

Bar-Natan, Dror

42

Wide host ranges of herbivorous beetles? Insights from DNA bar coding.  

PubMed

There are very few studies that have investigated host-specificity among tropical herbivorous insects. Indeed, most of the trophic interactions of herbivorous insects in Southeast Asian tropical rainforests remain unknown, and whether polyphagous feeding is common in the herbivores of this ecosystem has not been determined. The present study employed DNA bar coding to reveal the trophic associations of adult leaf-chewing chrysomelid beetles in a Bornean rainforest. Plant material ingested by the adults was retrieved from the bodies of the insects, and a portion of the chloroplast rbcL sequence was then amplified from this material. The plants were identified at the family level using an existing reference database of chloroplast DNA. Our DNA-based diet analysis of eleven chrysomelid species successfully identified their host plant families and indicated that five beetle species fed on more than two families within the angiosperms, and four species fed on several families of gymnosperms and/or ferns together with multiple angiosperm families. These findings suggest that generalist chrysomelid beetles associated with ecologically and taxonomically distant plants constitute a part of the plant-insect network of the Bornean rainforest. PMID:24073210

Kishimoto-Yamada, Keiko; Kamiya, Koichi; Meleng, Paulus; Diway, Bibian; Kaliang, Het; Chong, Lucy; Itioka, Takao; Sakai, Shoko; Ito, Motomi

2013-01-01

43

Antibiotic sensitivity profiles determined with an Escherichia coli gene knockout collection: generating an antibiotic bar code.  

PubMed

We have defined a sensitivity profile for 22 antibiotics by extending previous work testing the entire KEIO collection of close to 4,000 single-gene knockouts in Escherichia coli for increased susceptibility to 1 of 14 different antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, rifampin [rifampicin], vancomycin, ampicillin, sulfamethoxazole, gentamicin, metronidazole, streptomycin, fusidic acid, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, nitrofurantoin, erythromycin, and triclosan). We screened one or more subinhibitory concentrations of each antibiotic, generating more than 80,000 data points and allowing a reduction of the entire collection to a set of 283 strains that display significantly increased sensitivity to at least one of the antibiotics. We used this reduced set of strains to determine a profile for eight additional antibiotics (spectinomycin, cephradine, aztreonem, colistin, neomycin, enoxacin, tobramycin, and cefoxitin). The profiles for the 22 antibiotics represent a growing catalog of sensitivity fingerprints that can be separated into two components, multidrug-resistant mutants and those mutants that confer relatively specific sensitivity to the antibiotic or type of antibiotic tested. The latter group can be represented by a set of 20 to 60 strains that can be used for the rapid typing of antibiotics by generating a virtual bar code readout of the specific sensitivities. Taken together, these data reveal the complexity of intrinsic resistance and provide additional targets for the design of codrugs (or combinations of drugs) that potentiate existing antibiotics. PMID:20065048

Liu, Anne; Tran, Lillian; Becket, Elinne; Lee, Kim; Chinn, Laney; Park, Eunice; Tran, Katherine; Miller, Jeffrey H

2010-04-01

44

Wide Host Ranges of Herbivorous Beetles? Insights from DNA Bar Coding  

PubMed Central

There are very few studies that have investigated host-specificity among tropical herbivorous insects. Indeed, most of the trophic interactions of herbivorous insects in Southeast Asian tropical rainforests remain unknown, and whether polyphagous feeding is common in the herbivores of this ecosystem has not been determined. The present study employed DNA bar coding to reveal the trophic associations of adult leaf-chewing chrysomelid beetles in a Bornean rainforest. Plant material ingested by the adults was retrieved from the bodies of the insects, and a portion of the chloroplast rbcL sequence was then amplified from this material. The plants were identified at the family level using an existing reference database of chloroplast DNA. Our DNA-based diet analysis of eleven chrysomelid species successfully identified their host plant families and indicated that five beetle species fed on more than two families within the angiosperms, and four species fed on several families of gymnosperms and/or ferns together with multiple angiosperm families. These findings suggest that generalist chrysomelid beetles associated with ecologically and taxonomically distant plants constitute a part of the plant-insect network of the Bornean rainforest. PMID:24073210

Kishimoto-Yamada, Keiko; Kamiya, Koichi; Meleng, Paulus; Diway, Bibian; Kaliang, Het; Chong, Lucy; Itioka, Takao; Sakai, Shoko; Ito, Motomi

2013-01-01

45

Enhancing transfusion safety with an innovative bar-code-based tracking system.  

PubMed

In an effort to reduce transfusion errors, a novel, comprehensive, computerized wireless bar-code-based tracking system for matching patients, blood samples and blood products was created and deployed at a major academic medical centre. With a grant from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, software was developed to track scans at the times of sample collection, sample arrival in the blood bank, blood product dispensation from the blood bank and blood product administration. The system was deployed in February 2005. The system was well accepted from the outset, and the sample rejection rate due to clerical errors fell from 1.82 to 0.17%; incident reports fell by 83%. At the final blood administration step, the accumulated data as of November 2008 indicated that identification errors were being detected and prevented every 42.4 days and that the scan completion rate was stable at about 99%. Process analysis suggested that these were independent events and, thus, would be expected to coincide (and potentially produce a mis-transfusion) every 4,240 days (11.6 years) on average. We estimate that the system is 10 times safer than the manual system previously employed at our institution and may be 15-20 times safer than most systems employed in the United States. PMID:19667783

Askeland, Ryan W; McGrane, Steve P; Reifert, Dan R; Kemp, John D

2009-01-01

46

Chandra Reads the Cosmic Bar Code of Gas Around a Black Hole  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An international team of astronomers has used NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory to make an energy bar code of hot gas in the vicinity of a giant black hole. These measurements, the most precise of their kind ever made with an X-ray telescope, demonstrate the existence of a blanket of warm gas that is expanding rapidly away from the black hole. The team consists of Jelle Kaastra, Rolf Mewe and Albert Brinkman of Space Research Organization Netherlands (SRON) in Utrecht, Duane Liedahl of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, Calif., and Stefanie Komossa of Max Planck Institute in Garching, Germany. A report of their findings will be published in the March issue of the European journal Astronomy & Astrophysics. Kaastra and colleagues used the Low Energy Transmission Grating in conjunction with the High Resolution Camera to measure the number of X rays present at each energy. With this information they constructed an X-ray spectrum of the source. Their target was the central region, or nucleus of the galaxy NGC 5548, which they observed for 24 hours. This galaxy is one of a class of galaxies known to have unusually bright nuclei that are associated with gas flowing around and into giant black holes. This inflow produces an enormous outpouring of energy that blows some of the matter away from the black hole. Astronomers have used optical, ultraviolet, and X-ray telescopes in an effort to disentangle the complex nature of inflowing and outflowing gas at different distances from the black hole in NGC 5548. X-ray observations provide a ringside seat to the action around the black hole. By using the Low Energy Transmission Grating, the Dutch-US-German team concentrated on gas that forms a warm blanket that partially covers the innermost region where the highest energy X-rays are produced. As the high-energy X rays stream away from the vicinity of the black hole, they heat the blanketing gas to temperatures of a few million degrees, and the blanket absorbs some of the X rays from the central source. This produces dark stripes, or absorption lines in the X-ray spectrum. Bright stripes or emission lines due to emission from the blanketing gas are also present. Since each element has its own unique structure, these lines can be read like a cosmic bar code to take inventory of the gas. The team was able to determine what atoms the gas contains and how many, the number of electrons each atom has retained in the hostile environment of the black hole, and how the gas is moving there. They found lines from eight different elements including carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and iron. The amount of this gas was found to be about 100 times greater than that found with optical and ultraviolet observations. The Low Energy Transmission Grating was built by the SRON. and the Max Planck Institute under the direction of Albert Brinkman. The High Resolution Camera was built by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory in Cambridge, Mass. under the direction of Stephen Murray. To follow Chandra's progress or download images visit the Chandra sites at: http://chandra.harvard.edu/photo/2000/0170/index.html AND http://chandra.nasa.gov NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program. TRW, Inc., Redondo Beach, Calif., is the prime contractor for the spacecraft. The Smithsonian's Chandra X-ray Center controls science and flight operations from Cambridge, Mass. High resolution digital versions of the X-ray spectrum (JPG, 300 dpi TIFF ) and other information associated with this release are available on the Internet at: http://chandra.harvard.edu

2000-02-01

47

A versatile, bar-coded nuclear marker/reporter for live cell fluorescent and multiplexed high content imaging.  

PubMed

The screening of large numbers of compounds or siRNAs is a mainstay of both academic and pharmaceutical research. Most screens test those interventions against a single biochemical or cellular output whereas recording multiple complementary outputs may be more biologically relevant. High throughput, multi-channel fluorescence microscopy permits multiple outputs to be quantified in specific cellular subcompartments. However, the number of distinct fluorescent outputs available remains limited. Here, we describe a cellular bar-code technology in which multiple cell-based assays are combined in one well after which each assay is distinguished by fluorescence microscopy. The technology uses the unique fluorescent properties of assay-specific markers comprised of distinct combinations of different 'red' fluorescent proteins sandwiched around a nuclear localization signal. The bar-code markers are excited by a common wavelength of light but distinguished ratiometrically by their differing relative fluorescence in two emission channels. Targeting the bar-code to cell nuclei enables individual cells expressing distinguishable markers to be readily separated by standard image analysis programs. We validated the method by showing that the unique responses of different cell-based assays to specific drugs are retained when three assays are co-plated and separated by the bar-code. Based upon those studies, we discuss a roadmap in which even more assays may be combined in a well. The ability to analyze multiple assays simultaneously will enable screens that better identify, characterize and distinguish hits according to multiple biologically or clinically relevant criteria. These capabilities also enable the re-creation of complex mixtures of cell types that is emerging as a central area of interest in many fields. PMID:23691010

Krylova, Irina; Kumar, Rachit R; Kofoed, Eric M; Schaufele, Fred

2013-01-01

48

Modeling nurses' acceptance of bar coded medication administration technology at a pediatric hospital  

PubMed Central

Objective To identify predictors of nurses' acceptance of bar coded medication administration (BCMA). Design Cross-sectional survey of registered nurses (N=83) at an academic pediatric hospital that recently implemented BCMA. Methods Surveys assessed seven BCMA-related perceptions: ease of use; usefulness for the job; social influence from non-specific others to use BCMA; training; technical support; usefulness for patient care; and social influence from patients/families. An all possible subset regression procedure with five goodness-of-fit indicators was used to identify which set of perceptions best predicted BCMA acceptance (intention to use, satisfaction). Results Nurses reported a moderate perceived ease of use and low perceived usefulness of BCMA. Nurses perceived moderate-or-higher social influence to use BCMA and had moderately positive perceptions of BCMA-related training and technical support. Behavioral intention to use BCMA was high, but satisfaction was low. Behavioral intention to use was best predicted by perceived ease of use, perceived social influence from non-specific others, and perceived usefulness for patient care (56% of variance explained). Satisfaction was best predicted by perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness for patient care, and perceived social influence from patients/families (76% of variance explained). Discussion Variation in and low scores on ease of use and usefulness are concerning, especially as these variables often correlate with acceptance, as found in this study. Predicting acceptance benefited from using a broad set of perceptions and adapting variables to the healthcare context. Conclusion Success with BCMA and other technologies can benefit from assessing end-user acceptance and elucidating the factors promoting acceptance and use. PMID:22661559

Brown, Roger L; Scanlon, Matthew C; Karsh, Ben-Tzion

2012-01-01

49

Bar code hotel: diverse interactions of semi-autonomous entities under the partial control of multiple operators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper I describe an interactive installation that was produced in 1994 as one of eight Art and Virtual Environments projects sponsored by the Banff Center for the Arts. The installation, Bar Code Hotel, makes use of a number of strategies to create a casual, social, multi-person interface. Among the goals was to investigate methods that would minimize any significant learning curve, allowing visitors to immediately interact with a virtual world in a meaningful way. By populating this virtual world with semi-independent entities that could be directed by participants even as these entities were interacting with each other, a rich and heterogeneous experience was produced in which a variety of relationships between human participants and virtual objects could be examined. The paper will describe some of the challenges of simultaneously processing multiple input sources affecting a virtual environment in which each object already has its own ongoing behavior.

Hoberman, Perry

1995-03-01

50

Digital Data Matrix Scanner Developnent At Marshall Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has resulted in a system for reading hidden identification codes using a hand-held magnetic scanner. It's an invention that could help businesses improve inventory management, enhance safety, improve security, and aid in recall efforts if defects are discovered. Two-dimensional Data Matrix symbols consisting of letters and numbers permanently etched on items for identification and resembling a small checkerboard pattern are more efficient and reliable than traditional bar codes, and can store up to 100 times more information. A team led by Fred Schramm of the Marshall Center's Technology Transfer Department, in partnership with PRI,Torrance, California, has developed a hand-held device that can read this special type of coded symbols, even if covered by up to six layers of paint. Before this new technology was available, matrix symbols were read with optical scanners, and only if the codes were visible. This latest improvement in digital Data Matrix technologies offers greater flexibility for businesses and industries already using the marking system. Paint, inks, and pastes containing magnetic properties are applied in matrix symbol patterns to objects with two-dimensional codes, and the codes are read by a magnetic scanner, even after being covered with paint or other coatings. The ability to read hidden matrix symbols promises a wide range of benefits in a number of fields, including airlines, electronics, healthcare, and the automotive industry. Many industries would like to hide information on a part, so it can be read only by the party who put it there. For instance, the automotive industry uses direct parts marking for inventory control, but for aesthetic purposes the marks often need to be invisible. Symbols have been applied to a variety of materials, including metal, plastic, glass, paper, fabric and foam, on everything from electronic parts to pharmaceuticals to livestock. The portability of the hand-held scanner makes work faster and easier. It reads marks in darkness, under bright light that might interfere with optical reading of visible marks, and can detect symbols obscured by discoloration or contamination. Through a license with NASA, another partner, Robotic Vision Systems, Inc., of Nashua, New Hampshire, will sell the scanner on the commercial market. NASA continues to seek additional companies to license the product. Joint efforts by Marshall researchers and industry partners are aimed at improving dentification technology as part of NASA's program to better life on Earth through technology designed for the space program. In this photo, Don Roxby, Robotic Vision Systems, Inc., (left)demonstrates the magnetic handheld scanner for Fred Schramm, (Right) MSFC Technology Transfer Department.

2004-01-01

51

High-resolution DNA Fiber-FISH for genomic DNA mapping and colour bar-coding of large genes.  

PubMed

We have applied two-colour fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to DNA fibers and combined it with digital imaging microscopy for the mapping of large cosmid contigs. The technique was validated using a set of unique plasmids and a cosmid contig both originating from the thyroglobulin (Tg) gene and previously mapped by restriction analysis. The resolution proved to be close to the theoretical lower limit of approximately 1 kb, ranging > or = 400 kb. Subsequently a 400 kb cosmid contig derived from a DMD-YAC was directly mapped by Fiber-FISH. The resulting map is in full agreement with the restriction map. Two-colour Fiber-FISH mapping thus showed to be capable for accurately sizing gaps and overlaps, and to identify chimeric or repeat sequence containing cosmids across a 400 kb region at once. The generated 400 kb 'colour bar-code' was subsequently used to map two DMD deletion breakpoints in patient DNA with an accuracy of 1-2 kb. The results underscore the value of this method for the delineation of chromosomal rearrangements for positional cloning and single patient clinical studies. PMID:7633442

Florijn, R J; Bonden, L A; Vrolijk, H; Wiegant, J; Vaandrager, J W; Baas, F; den Dunnen, J T; Tanke, H J; van Ommen, G J; Raap, A K

1995-05-01

52

Identification of internal transcribed spacer sequence motifs in truffles: a first step toward their DNA bar coding.  

PubMed

This work presents DNA sequence motifs from the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of the nuclear rRNA repeat unit which are useful for the identification of five European and Asiatic truffles (Tuber magnatum, T. melanosporum, T. indicum, T. aestivum, and T. mesentericum). Truffles are edible mycorrhizal ascomycetes that show similar morphological characteristics but that have distinct organoleptic and economic values. A total of 36 out of 46 ITS1 or ITS2 sequence motifs have allowed an accurate in silico distinction of the five truffles to be made (i.e., by pattern matching and/or BLAST analysis on downloaded GenBank sequences and directly against GenBank databases). The motifs considered the intraspecific genetic variability of each species, including rare haplotypes, and assigned their respective species from either the ascocarps or ectomycorrhizas. The data indicate that short ITS1 or ITS2 motifs (< or = 50 bp in size) can be considered promising tools for truffle species identification. A dot blot hybridization analysis of T. magnatum and T. melanosporum compared with other close relatives or distant lineages allowed at least one highly specific motif to be identified for each species. These results were confirmed in a blind test which included new field isolates. The current work has provided a reliable new tool for a truffle oligonucleotide bar code and identification in ecological and evolutionary studies. PMID:17601808

El Karkouri, Khalid; Murat, Claude; Zampieri, Elisa; Bonfante, Paola

2007-08-01

53

Automation and adaptation: Nurses’ problem-solving behavior following the implementation of bar coded medication administration technology  

PubMed Central

The most common change facing nurses today is new technology, particularly bar coded medication administration technology (BCMA). However, there is a dearth of knowledge on how BCMA alters nursing work. This study investigated how BCMA technology affected nursing work, particularly nurses’ operational problem-solving behavior. Cognitive systems engineering observations and interviews were conducted after the implementation of BCMA in three nursing units of a freestanding pediatric hospital. Problem-solving behavior, associated problems, and goals, were specifically defined and extracted from observed episodes of care. Three broad themes regarding BCMA’s impact on problem solving were identified. First, BCMA allowed nurses to invent new problem-solving behavior to deal with pre-existing problems. Second, BCMA made it difficult or impossible to apply some problem-solving behaviors that were commonly used pre-BCMA, often requiring nurses to use potentially risky workarounds to achieve their goals. Third, BCMA created new problems that nurses were either able to solve using familiar or novel problem-solving behaviors, or unable to solve effectively. Results from this study shed light on hidden hazards and suggest three critical design needs: (1) ecologically valid design; (2) anticipatory control; and (3) basic usability. Principled studies of the actual nature of clinicians’ work, including problem solving, are necessary to uncover hidden hazards and to inform health information technology design and redesign. PMID:24443642

Holden, Richard J.; Rivera-Rodriguez, A. Joy; Faye, Héléne; Scanlon, Matthew C.; Karsh, Ben-Tzion

2012-01-01

54

Development of a magnetic electrochemical bar code array for point mutation detection in the H5N1 neuraminidase gene.  

PubMed

Since its first official detection in the Guangdong province of China in 1996, the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of H5N1 subtype (HPAI H5N1) has reportedly been the cause of outbreaks in birds in more than 60 countries, 24 of which were European. The main issue is still to develop effective antiviral drugs. In this case, single point mutation in the neuraminidase gene, which causes resistance to antiviral drug and is, therefore, subjected to many studies including ours, was observed. In this study, we developed magnetic electrochemical bar code array for detection of single point mutations (mismatches in up to four nucleotides) in H5N1 neuraminidase gene. Paramagnetic particles Dynabeads® with covalently bound oligo (dT)?? were used as a tool for isolation of complementary H5N1 chains (H5N1 Zhejin, China and Aichi). For detection of H5N1 chains, oligonucleotide chains of lengths of 12 (+5 adenine) or 28 (+5 adenine) bp labeled with quantum dots (CdS, ZnS and/or PbS) were used. Individual probes hybridized to target molecules specifically with efficiency higher than 60%. The obtained signals identified mutations present in the sequence. Suggested experimental procedure allows obtaining further information from the redox signals of nucleic acids. Moreover, the used biosensor exhibits sequence specificity and low limits of detection of subnanogram quantities of target nucleic acids. PMID:23860384

Krejcova, Ludmila; Hynek, David; Kopel, Pavel; Rodrigo, Miguel Angel Merlos; Adam, Vojtech; Hubalek, Jaromir; Babula, Petr; Trnkova, Libuse; Kizek, Rene

2013-07-01

55

BAR-CODE BASED WEIGHT MEASUREMENT STATION FOR PHYSICAL INVENTORY TAKING OF PLUTONIUM OXIDE CONTAINERS AT THE MINING AND CHEMICAL COMBINE RADIOCHEMICAL REPROCESSING PLANT NEAR KRASNOYARSK, SIBERIA.  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the technical tasks being implemented to computerize the physical inventory taking (PIT) at the Mining and Chemical Combine (Gorno-Khimichesky Kombinat, GKhK) radiochemical plant under the US/Russian cooperative nuclear material protection, control, and accounting (MPC and A) program. Under the MPC and A program, Lab-to-Lab task agreements with GKhK were negotiated that involved computerized equipment for item verification and confirmatory measurement of the Pu containers. Tasks under Phase I cover the work for demonstrating the plan and procedures for carrying out the comparison of the Pu container identification on the container with the computerized inventory records. In addition to the records validation, the verification procedures include the application of bar codes and bar coded TIDs to the Pu containers. Phase II involves the verification of the Pu content. A plan and procedures are being written for carrying out confirmatory measurements on the Pu containers.

SUDA,S.

1999-09-20

56

DNA sequence-based "bar codes" for tracking the origins of expressed sequence tags from a maize cDNA library constructed using multiple mRNA sources.  

PubMed

To enhance gene discovery, expressed sequence tag (EST) projects often make use of cDNA libraries produced using diverse mixtures of mRNAs. As such, expression data are lost because the origins of the resulting ESTs cannot be determined. Alternatively, multiple libraries can be prepared, each from a more restricted source of mRNAs. Although this approach allows the origins of ESTs to be determined, it requires the production of multiple libraries. A hybrid approach is reported here. A cDNA library was prepared using 21 different pools of maize (Zea mays) mRNAs. DNA sequence "bar codes" were added during first-strand cDNA synthesis to uniquely identify the mRNA source pool from which individual cDNAs were derived. Using a decoding algorithm that included error correction, it was possible to identify the source mRNA pool of more than 97% of the ESTs. The frequency at which a bar code is represented in an EST contig should be proportional to the abundance of the corresponding mRNA in the source pool. Consistent with this, all ESTs derived from several genes (zein and adh1) that are known to be exclusively expressed in kernels or preferentially expressed under anaerobic conditions, respectively, were exclusively tagged with bar codes associated with mRNA pools prepared from kernel and anaerobically treated seedlings, respectively. Hence, by allowing for the retention of expression data, the bar coding of cDNA libraries can enhance the value of EST projects. PMID:14555776

Qiu, Fang; Guo, Ling; Wen, Tsui-Jung; Liu, Feng; Ashlock, Daniel A; Schnable, Patrick S

2003-10-01

57

Analysis of Run-to-Run Variation of Bar-Coded Pyrosequencing for Evaluating Bacterial Community Shifts and Individual Taxa Dynamics  

PubMed Central

Bar-coded pyrosequencing has been increasingly used due to its fine taxonomic resolution and high throughput. Yet, concerns arise regarding the reproducibility of bar-coded pyrosequencing. We evaluated the run-to-run variation of bar-coded pyrosequencing in detecting bacterial community shifts and taxa dynamics. Our results demonstrate that pyrosequencing is reproducible in evaluating community shifts within a run, but not between runs. Also, the reproducibility of pyrosequencing in detecting individual taxa increased as a function of taxa abundance. Based on our findings: (1) for studies with modest sequencing depth, it is doubtful that data from different pyrosequencing runs can be considered comparable; (2) if multiple pyrosequencing runs are needed to increase the sequencing depth, additional sequencing efforts should be applied to all samples, rather than to selected samples; (3) if pyrosequencing is used for estimating bacterial population dynamics, only the abundant taxa should be considered; (4) for less-abundant taxa, the sequencing depth should be increased to ensure an accurate evaluation of taxon variation trends across samples. PMID:24911191

Ge, Yuan; Schimel, Joshua P.; Holden, Patricia A.

2014-01-01

58

Medication Preparation in Pediatric Emergencies: Comparison of a Web-Based, Standard-Dose, Bar Code-Enabled System and a Traditional Approach  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: Increased acuity within the pediatric emergency department increases the risk of medication-related adverse events, despite the availability of validated dosing references. The eBroselow system is a standardized, web-based, bar code–enabled dosing system that eliminates the need for mathematic calculations. This study was designed to assess the accuracy of the eBroselow system and the time needed to prepare medications during pediatric simulated resuscitations compared with standard dosing references. METHODS: This is a two-treatment, two-period crossover trial in which 13 nurses from the adult emergency department who had had pediatric advanced life support training within the previous 3 years, carried out medication dosing during pediatric code simulations. Nurses were randomized to the eBroselow system or to traditional dosing references during period one and transitioned to the opposite treatment group during period two. RESULTS: Use of the eBroselow system resulted in a 24.6% increase in the accuracy of prepared medications, with a complete elimination of clinically significant errors (those ?20% deviation from the recommended dose). In addition, on average, medications were prepared 8 minutes faster with the eBroselow system versus standard dosing references. CONCLUSIONS: Use of the eBroselow system, a standardized, bar code–based, electronic medication dosing reference, increased the accuracy of medication doses prepared during pediatric code simulations by nearly 25%, with no errors being considered clinically significant.

Damhoff, Heather N.; Baker-Justice, Stephanie N.

2014-01-01

59

Aptamer-conjugated bio-bar-code Au-Fe3O4 nanoparticles as amplification station for electrochemiluminescence detection of tumor cells.  

PubMed

An electrochemiluminescence (ECL) assay has been developed for highly sensitive and selective detection of tumor cells based on cell-SELEX aptamer-target cell interactions through a cascaded amplification process by using bio-bar-code Au-Fe3O4 as amplification station. Firstly, bio-bar-code toehold-aptamer/DNA primer/Au-Fe3O4 (TA/DP/Au-Fe3O4) nanoconjugates are fabricated with a ratio of 1:10 to efficiently avoid cross-linking reaction and recognize target cells, which are immobilized on the substrate by hybridizing aptamer to capture probe with 18-mer. Through strand displacement reaction (SDR), the TA/DP/Au-Fe3O4 composites further act as the amplification station to initiate rolling circle amplification (RCA). As a result, on the surface of TA/DP/Au-Fe3O4, a large number of Ru(bpy)2(dcbpy)NHS-labeled probes hybridize to RCA products, which are easily trapped by magnetic electrode to perform the magnetic particle-based ECL platform. Under isothermal conditions, this powerful amplification strategy permits detection of Ramos cells as low as 16 cells with an excellent selectivity. Moreover, analysis of Ramos cells in complex samples and whole blood samples further show the great potential of this ultrasensitive approach in clinical application involving cancer cells-related biological processes. PMID:25000857

Chen, Min; Bi, Sai; Jia, Xiaoqiang; He, Peng

2014-07-21

60

Bar Fight Bar  

E-print Network

dressed up like those suckers. A bar here in Nanjing, China has come up with a new method of attracting clientele: it lets them beat up the staff. Clients ask the staff to dress up like the person they wish to muscle up on most. As of now, China lags...

Hacker, Randi; Tsutsui, William

2006-11-29

61

A post-labeling method for multiplexed and multicolored genotyping analysis of SSR, indel and SNP markers in single tube with bar-coded split tag (BStag)  

PubMed Central

Background Genotyping analysis using capillary DNA sequencing with fluorescently labeled primer pairs obtained by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is widely used, but is expensive. The post-PCR labeling method using fluorescently labeled short oligonucleotides and nested PCR of the amplified product obtained from unlabeled primer pairs is a simple and inexpensive alternative. However, previously reported protocols often produced spurious peaks or inconsistent amplification under multiplexed analysis as a result of simultaneous progress of both the amplification and labeling reactions and local homology of the attached tag sequence. Results A set of 16 bp-long oligonucleotide sequences termed bar-coded split tag (BStag), comprising a common basal region, a three-nucleotide 'bar-code' sequence, and a mismatched nucleotide at the middle position were designed for selective post-PCR labeling. The BStag was attached at the 5' end of the forward primer of interest. The melting temperature of the BStag was low enough to separate the labeling reaction from initial PCR amplification, and each sequence was minimally divergent but maintained maximum selectivity. Post-PCR labeling of the amplified product was achieved by extending for three cycles at a lower annealing temperature after the conventional amplification program with the appropriate fluorescently labeled BStag primer. No amplification was confirmed with BStag primers for 12 plant species. The electropherogram of the labeled product obtained using this method was consistent with that of prelabeled primer, except for their apparent size. Conclusions BStag enabled multiplexed post-PCR labeling of simple sequence repeat or insertion/deletion markers with different dyes in a single tube. BStag in conjunction with locus specific oligo and allele specific oligo was also useful for single nucleotide polymorphism analysis. The labeling protocol was simple and no additional operation was required. Single-tube multiplexed post-PCR labeling is useful for a wide variety of genotyping studies with maximal flexibility and minimal costs. PMID:21615927

2011-01-01

62

Multispectral scanner optical system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An optical system for use in a multispectral scanner of the type used in video imaging devices is disclosed. Electromagnetic radiation reflected by a rotating scan mirror is focused by a concave primary telescope mirror and collimated by a second concave mirror. The collimated beam is split by a dichroic filter which transmits radiant energy in the infrared spectrum and

R. C. Stokes; N. G. Koch

1980-01-01

63

Hybrid Dispersion Laser Scanner  

PubMed Central

Laser scanning technology is one of the most integral parts of today's scientific research, manufacturing, defense, and biomedicine. In many applications, high-speed scanning capability is essential for scanning a large area in a short time and multi-dimensional sensing of moving objects and dynamical processes with fine temporal resolution. Unfortunately, conventional laser scanners are often too slow, resulting in limited precision and utility. Here we present a new type of laser scanner that offers ?1,000 times higher scan rates than conventional state-of-the-art scanners. This method employs spatial dispersion of temporally stretched broadband optical pulses onto the target, enabling inertia-free laser scans at unprecedented scan rates of nearly 100?MHz at 800?nm. To show our scanner's broad utility, we use it to demonstrate unique and previously difficult-to-achieve capabilities in imaging, surface vibrometry, and flow cytometry at a record 2D raster scan rate of more than 100?kHz with 27,000 resolvable points. PMID:22685627

Goda, K.; Mahjoubfar, A.; Wang, C.; Fard, A.; Adam, J.; Gossett, D. R.; Ayazi, A.; Sollier, E.; Malik, O.; Chen, E.; Liu, Y.; Brown, R.; Sarkhosh, N.; Di Carlo, D.; Jalali, B.

2012-01-01

64

Optical fuel pin scanner  

DOEpatents

An optical scanner for indicia arranged in a focal plane at a cylindrical outside surface by use of an optical system including a rotatable dove prism. The dove prism transmits a rotating image of an encircled cylindrical surface area to a stationary photodiode array.

Kirchner, Tommy L. (Richland, WA); Powers, Hurshal G. (Richland, WA)

1983-01-01

65

Bar Graph  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students use preset data or input their own data to be represented by a bar graph. This activity allows students to explore bar graphs and how changing scales will alter how their data is represented. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

2010-01-01

66

High throughput optical scanner  

DOEpatents

A scanning apparatus is provided to obtain automated, rapid and sensitive scanning of substrate fluorescence, optical density or phosphorescence. The scanner uses a constant path length optical train, which enables the combination of a moving beam for high speed scanning with phase-sensitive detection for noise reduction, comprising a light source, a scanning mirror to receive light from the light source and sweep it across a steering mirror, a steering mirror to receive light from the scanning mirror and reflect it to the substrate, whereby it is swept across the substrate along a scan arc, and a photodetector to receive emitted or scattered light from the substrate, wherein the optical path length from the light source to the photodetector is substantially constant throughout the sweep across the substrate. The optical train can further include a waveguide or mirror to collect emitted or scattered light from the substrate and direct it to the photodetector. For phase-sensitive detection the light source is intensity modulated and the detector is connected to phase-sensitive detection electronics. A scanner using a substrate translator is also provided. For two dimensional imaging the substrate is translated in one dimension while the scanning mirror scans the beam in a second dimension. For a high throughput scanner, stacks of substrates are loaded onto a conveyor belt from a tray feeder.

Basiji, David A. (Seattle, WA); van den Engh, Gerrit J. (Seattle, WA)

2001-01-01

67

Multispectral scanner optical system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An optical system for use in a multispectral scanner of the type used in video imaging devices is disclosed. Electromagnetic radiation reflected by a rotating scan mirror is focused by a concave primary telescope mirror and collimated by a second concave mirror. The collimated beam is split by a dichroic filter which transmits radiant energy in the infrared spectrum and reflects visible and near infrared energy. The long wavelength beam is filtered and focused on an infrared detector positioned in a cryogenic environment. The short wavelength beam is dispersed by a pair of prisms, then projected on an array of detectors also mounted in a cryogenic environment and oriented at an angle relative to the optical path of the dispersed short wavelength beam.

Stokes, R. C.; Koch, N. G. (inventors)

1980-01-01

68

Modeling an HF NVIS Towel-Bar Antenna on a Coast Guard Patrol Boat. A Comparison of WIPL-D and the Numerical Electromagnetics Code (NEC).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A Coast Guard patrol boat high-frequency (HF) near-vertical incident skywave (NVIS) antenna is selected as a test case to compare the electromagnetic modeling programs Numerical Electromagnetics Code, NEC and WIPL- D code. Differences between the models a...

D. Mora, C. Weiser, M. McKaughan

2005-01-01

69

QR Codes 101  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A QR (quick-response) code is a two-dimensional scannable code, similar in function to a traditional bar code that one might find on a product at the supermarket. The main difference between the two is that, while a traditional bar code can hold a maximum of only 20 digits, a QR code can hold up to 7,089 characters, so it can contain much more…

Crompton, Helen; LaFrance, Jason; van 't Hooft, Mark

2012-01-01

70

Medical facial surface scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical, non-contact three-dimensional range surface digitizers are employed in the 360-degree examination of object surfaces, especially the heads and faces of individuals. The resultant 3- D surface data is suitable for computer graphics display and manipulation, for numerically controlled object replications, or for further processing such as surface measurement extraction. We employed a scanner with a basic active sensor element consisting of a synchronized pattern projector employing flashtubes that illuminate a surface, with a CID camera to detect, digitize, and transmit the sequence of 24 images (per camera) to a digital image processor for surface triangulation, calibration, and fusion into a single surface description of the headform. A major feature of this unit is its use of multiple (typically 6) stationary active sensor elements, with efficient calibration algorithms that achieve nearly seamless superposition of overlapping surface segments seen by individual cameras. The result is accurate and complete coverage of complex contoured surfaces. Application of this system to digitization of the human head in the planning and evaluation of facial plastic surgery is presented.

Vannier, Michael W.; Bhatia, Gulab H.; Commean, Paul K.; Pilgram, Thomas K.; Brunsden, Barry S.

1992-05-01

71

Math Bars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These interactive learning tools are color-coded in graduated lengths based on rods by Georges Cuisenaire allow users to explore concepts and relationships with concrete objects. The lengths and orientation of the rods can be manipulated for placement on the gridded or non-gridded work area.

King, Colleen

2013-01-01

72

Linear Regression of BMD Scanners  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students complete an exercise showing logarithmic relationships and examine how to find the linear regression of data that does not seem linear upon initial examination. They relate number of BMD scanners to time.

Vu Bioengineering Ret Program

73

MSS D Multispectral Scanner System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development and acceptance testing of the 4-band Multispectral Scanners to be flown on LANDSAT D and LANDSAT D Earth resources satellites are summarized. Emphasis is placed on the acceptance test phase of the program. Test history and acceptance test algorithms are discussed. Trend data of all the key performance parameters are included and discussed separately for each of the two multispectral scanner instruments. Anomalies encountered and their resolutions are included.

Lauletta, A. M.; Johnson, R. L.; Brinkman, K. L. (principal investigators)

1982-01-01

74

3D ultrafast laser scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser scanners are essential for scientific research, manufacturing, defense, and medical practice. Unfortunately, often times the speed of conventional laser scanners (e.g., galvanometric mirrors and acousto-optic deflectors) falls short for many applications, resulting in motion blur and failure to capture fast transient information. Here, we present a novel type of laser scanner that offers roughly three orders of magnitude higher scan rates than conventional methods. Our laser scanner, which we refer to as the hybrid dispersion laser scanner, performs inertia-free laser scanning by dispersing a train of broadband pulses both temporally and spatially. More specifically, each broadband pulse is temporally processed by time stretch dispersive Fourier transform and further dispersed into space by one or more diffractive elements such as prisms and gratings. As a proof-of-principle demonstration, we perform 1D line scans at a record high scan rate of 91 MHz and 2D raster scans and 3D volumetric scans at an unprecedented scan rate of 105 kHz. The method holds promise for a broad range of scientific, industrial, and biomedical applications. To show the utility of our method, we demonstrate imaging, nanometer-resolved surface vibrometry, and high-precision flow cytometry with real-time throughput that conventional laser scanners cannot offer due to their low scan rates.

Mahjoubfar, A.; Goda, K.; Wang, C.; Fard, A.; Adam, J.; Gossett, D. R.; Ayazi, A.; Sollier, E.; Malik, O.; Chen, E.; Liu, Y.; Brown, R.; Sarkhosh, N.; Di Carlo, D.; Jalali, B.

2013-03-01

75

Multispectral Scanner for Monitoring Plants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multispectral scanner has been adapted to capture spectral images of living plants under various types of illumination for purposes of monitoring the health of, or monitoring the transfer of genes into, the plants. In a health-monitoring application, the plants are illuminated with full-spectrum visible and near infrared light and the scanner is used to acquire a reflected-light spectral signature known to be indicative of the health of the plants. In a gene-transfer- monitoring application, the plants are illuminated with blue or ultraviolet light and the scanner is used to capture fluorescence images from a green fluorescent protein (GFP) that is expressed as result of the gene transfer. The choice of wavelength of the illumination and the wavelength of the fluorescence to be monitored depends on the specific GFP.

Gat, Nahum

2004-01-01

76

Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of Barred Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic fields are pervasive in barred galaxies, especially in gaseous substructures such as dust lanes and nuclear rings. To explore the effects of magnetic fields on the formation of the substructures as well as on the mass inflow rates to the galaxy center, we run two-dimensional, ideal magnetohydrodynamic simulations. We use a modified version of the Athena code whose numerical magnetic diffusivity is shown to be of third order in space. In the bar regions, magnetic fields are compressed and abruptly bent around the dust-lane shocks. The associated magnetic stress not only reduces the peak density of the dust-lane shocks but also removes angular momentum further from the gas that is moving radially in. Nuclear rings that form at the location of centrifugal barrier rather than resonance with the bar are smaller and more radially distributed, and the mass flow rate to the galaxy center is correspondingly larger in models with stronger magnetic fields. Outside the bar regions, the bar potential and strong shear conspire to amplify the field strength near the corotation resonance. The amplified fields transport angular momentum outward, producing trailing magnetic arms with strong fields and low density. The base of the magnetic arms are found to be unstable to a tearing-mode instability of magnetic reconnection. This produces numerous magnetic islands that eventually make the outer regions highly chaotic.

Kim, W.-T.

2013-04-01

77

Combined PET/MRI Scanner.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A combined PET/MRI scanner generally includes a magnet for producing a magnetic field suitable for magnetic resonance imaging, a radiofrequency (RF) coil disposed within the magnetic field produced by the magnet and a ring tomograph disposed within the ma...

C. L. Woody, D. J. Schlyer, J. F. Pratte, P. Vaska, S. Stoll, W. D. Rooney

2004-01-01

78

Bar Graph Mania  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Use these activities to build and interpret data on bar graphs. Catch all the bugs in the system and put them in the correct column of the bar graph. Answer the questions about the bugs in the graph. Catch bugs in six rooms. Bugs in the system Do these bar graphing activities. You don\\'t have to do the last question ...

Thurlow, Ms.

2005-10-26

79

Vacuum Attachment for XRF Scanner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vacuum apparatuses have been developed for increasing the range of elements that can be identified by use of x-ray fluorescent (XRF) scanners of the type mentioned in the two immediately preceding articles. As a consequence of the underlying physical principles, in the presence of air, such an XRF scanner is limited to analysis of chlorine and elements of greater atomic number. When the XRF scanner is operated in a vacuum, it extends the range of analysis to lower atomic numbers - even as far as aluminum and sodium. Hence, more elements will be available for use in XRF labeling of objects as discussed in the two preceding articles. The added benefits of the extended capabilities also have other uses for NASA. Detection of elements of low atomic number is of high interest to the aerospace community. High-strength aluminum alloys will be easily analyzed for composition. Silicon, a major contaminant in certain processes, will be detectable before the process is begun, possibly eliminating weld or adhesion problems. Exotic alloys will be evaluated for composition prior to being placed in service where lives depend on them. And in the less glamorous applications, such as bolts and fasteners, substandard products and counterfeit items will be evaluated at the receiving function and never allowed to enter the operation

Schramm, Harry F.; Kaiser, Bruce

2005-01-01

80

Deconvolution in line scanners using a priori information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a digital camera the MTF of the optical system must comprise a low-pass filter in order to avoid aliasing. The MTF of incoherent imaging usually and in principle is far from an ideal low-pass. Theoretically a digital ARMA-Filter can be used to compensate for this drawback. In praxis such deconvolution filters suffer from instability because of time-variant noise and space-variance of the MTF. In addition in a line scanner the MTF in scan direction slightly differs in each scanned image. Therefore inverse filtering will not operate satisfactory in an unknown environment. A new concept is presented which solves both problems using a-priori information about an object, e.g. that parts of it are known to be binary. This information is enough to achieve a stable space and time-variant ARMA-deconvolution filter. Best results are achieved using non linear filtering and pattern feedback. The new method was used to improve the bit-error-rate (BER) of a high-density matrix-code scanner by more than one order of magnitude. An audio scanner will be demonstrated, which reads 12 seconds of music in CD-quality from an audio coded image of 18mmÚ55mm size.

Wirnitzer, Bernhard; Spraggon-Hernandez, Tadeo

2002-12-01

81

DNA bar-coding for phytoplasma identification.  

PubMed

Phytoplasma identification has proved difficult due to their inability to be maintained in vitro. DNA barcoding is an identification method based on comparison of a short DNA sequence with known sequences from a database. A DNA barcoding tool has been developed for phytoplasma identification. While other sequence-based methods may be well adapted to identification of particular strains of phytoplasmas, often they cannot be used for the simultaneous identification of phytoplasmas from different groups. The phytoplasma DNA barcoding protocol in this chapter, based on the tuf and 16SrRNA genes, can be used to identify the following phytoplasma groups: 16SrI, 16SrII, 16SrIII, 16SrIV, 16SrV, 16SrVI, 16SrVII, 16SrIX, 16SrX, 16SrXI, 16SrXII, 16SrXV, 16SrXX, 16SrXXI. PMID:22987426

Makarova, Olga; Contaldo, Nicoletta; Paltrinieri, Samanta; Bertaccini, Assunta; Nyskjold, Henriette; Nicolaisen, Mogens

2013-01-01

82

Interactive WSN-Bar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the concept of ambient intelligence, we utilized wireless sensor network (WSN) and vision-based tracking technologies to create an interactive WSN-Bar. WSN-Bar is an interactive and innovative creation which has two modules: Garden of Light and Vivacious Bushes. It refers the variety of natural environmental factors and focuses on the relationship between human and nature. WSN-Bar can also detect the changes of brightness, temperature, CO2 density outdoors and the movement of people inside the building. Besides, WSN-Bar is an interactive installation art which creates the opportunity to reduce the estranged gape among the participants.

Lin, Jiun-Shian; Hsu, Su-Chu; Chen, Ying-Chung

83

Building Brilliant Bar Graphs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this series of three lesson plans, students create bar graphs, double bar graphs, and determine appropriate intervals for scale. Each lesson incorporates teacher modeling, student practice (students have an opportunity to label and create the scale for their own graphs), assessment (including rubrics), and reteaching or extension options.

Bower, Briana; Miller, Mary

2005-01-01

84

Error-Detecting Identification Codes for Algebra Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses common error-detecting identification codes using linear algebra terminology to provide an interesting application of algebra. Presents examples from the International Standard Book Number, the Universal Product Code, bank identification numbers, and the ZIP code bar code. (YP)

Sutherland, David C.

1990-01-01

85

Academic and Career Advising of Scanners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Scanners" has become a common term for a recently identified category of people who find choosing just one interest or career path difficult (Sher, 2006). Academic and career advisors who work with scanners will likely find that these students have difficulty selecting an academic major or career path and that they seem to suffer anxiety and a…

Bloom, Arvid J.; Tripp, Philip R.; Shaffer, Leigh S.

2011-01-01

86

Evaluating Commercial Scanners for Astronomical Image Digitization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many organizations have been interested in understanding if commercially available scanners are adequate for scientifically useful digitization. These scanners range in price from a few hundred to a few tens of thousands of dollars (USD), often with little apparent difference in performance specifications. This paper describes why the underlying technology used in flatbed scanners tends to effectively limit resolutions to the 600-1200 dots per inch (dpi) range and how the overall system Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) can be used to evaluate the quality of the digitized data for the small feature sizes found in astronomical images. Two scanners, the Epson V750 flatbed scanner and the Nikon Cool Scan 9000ED film strip scanner, are evaluated through their Modulation Transfer Functions (MTF). The MTF of the Harvard DASCH scanner is also shown for comparison. The particular goal of this evaluation was to understand if the scanners could be used for digitizing spectral plates at the University of Toronto. The plates of primary interest were about 15 mm (5/8 inch) wide by 180 mm (7~inches) long and ˜50 mm x 80 mm (2 x 3 inches). The results of the MTF work show that the Epson scanner, despite claims of high resolution, is of limited value for scientific imaging of feature sizes below about 50 ?m and therefore not a good candidate for digitizing the spectral plates and problematic for scanning direct plates. The Nikon scanner is better and, except for some frustrating limitations in its software, its performance seems to hold promise as a digitizer for spectral plates in the University of Toronto collection.

Simcoe, R. J.

2009-08-01

87

Changes in Smoking-Related Norms in Bars Resulting from California's Smoke-Free Workplace Act  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

California's Smoke-Free Workplace Act--CA Labor Code Sec. 6404.5(a)--was extended to bars in 1998. This article analyzes changes in normative beliefs and behaviors related to bar smoking in the decade following the adoption of the Act. In a series of studies evaluating the smoke-free workplace law in bars, researchers conducted extensive…

Satterlund, Travis D.; Lee, Juliet P.; Moore, Roland S.

2012-01-01

88

Mass modeling for bars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methods of modeling mass for bars are surveyed. A method for extending John Archer's concept of consistent mass beyond just translational inertia effects is included. Recommendations are given for various types of modeling situations.

Butler, Thomas G.

1987-01-01

89

Raising the Bar- Houston  

E-print Network

Residential Energy Code 5% ABOVE 2009 IECC 1. Above Code Programs. Such as Energy Star or other above code program. 2. Software and Testing. IC3 Software or other approved simulation software program with duct blaster and blower door tests. 3... Residential Energy Code 5% ABOVE 2009 IECC 1. Above Code Programs. Such as Energy Star or other above code program. 2. Software and Testing. IC3 Software or other approved simulation software program with duct blaster and blower door tests. 3...

Blake, S.

2012-01-01

90

Gray assist bar OPC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assist bar Optical Proximity Correction (OPC) has been demonstrated to increase across pitch performance and depth-of-focus of semi-dense to isolated lines. As the sub-resolution assist feature (SRAF) or assist bar's size increases, so does its desired lithographic effect, as well as its undesired printability. In other words, when large assist features are required at isolated pitches, the assist features may

Neal V. Lafferty; Geert Vandenberghe; Bruce W. Smith; Matthew Lassiter; Patrick M. Martin

2004-01-01

91

Magnetic Bar Field Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EJS Magnetic Bar Field Model shows the field of a bar magnet and has a movable compass that reports the magnetic field values. The bar magnet model is built by placing a group of magnetic dipoles along the bar magnet. You can modify this simulation if you have Ejs installed by right-clicking within the plot and selecting âOpen Ejs Modelâ from the pop-up menu item. The Magnetic Bar Field model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_em_MagneticBarField.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. Ejs is a part of the Open Source Physics Project and is designed to make it easier to access, modify, and generate computer models. Additional Ejs models are available. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or Ejs.

Christian, Wolfgang; Franciscouembre; Cox, Anne

2009-09-18

92

Bars and Dark Matter Halo Cores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Self-consistent bars that form in galaxies embedded within cuspy halos are unable to flatten the cusp. Short bars form in models with quasi-flat rotation curves. They lose angular momentum to the halo through dynamical friction, but the continuous concentration of mass within the disk as the bar grows actually compresses the halo further, overwhelming any density reduction due to the modest angular momentum transfer to the halo. Thus, the Weinberg-Katz proposed solution to the nonexistence of the predicted cuspy halos from cold dark matter simulations would seem to be unworkable. I also find that the concerns over the performance of N-body codes raised by these authors do not apply to the methods used here.

Sellwood, J. A.

2003-04-01

93

21 CFR 892.1220 - Fluorescent scanner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1220 Fluorescent scanner. (a) Identification. A fluorescent...

2010-04-01

94

21 CFR 892.1220 - Fluorescent scanner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1220 Fluorescent scanner. (a) Identification. A fluorescent...

2011-04-01

95

21 CFR 892.1220 - Fluorescent scanner.  

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1220 Fluorescent scanner. (a) Identification. A fluorescent...

2014-04-01

96

21 CFR 892.1220 - Fluorescent scanner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1220 Fluorescent scanner. (a) Identification. A fluorescent...

2013-04-01

97

21 CFR 892.1220 - Fluorescent scanner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1220 Fluorescent scanner. (a) Identification. A fluorescent...

2012-04-01

98

Hand-held optical fuel pin scanner  

DOEpatents

An optical scanner for indicia arranged in a focal plane perpendicular to an optical system including a rotatable dove prism. The dove prism transmits a rotating image to a stationary photodiode array.

Kirchner, T.L.; Powers, H.G.

1980-12-07

99

Hand-held optical fuel pin scanner  

DOEpatents

An optical scanner for indicia arranged in a focal plane perpendicular to an optical system including a rotatable dove prism. The dove prism transmits a rotating image to a stationary photodiode array.

Kirchner, Tommy L. (Richland, WA); Powers, Hurshal G. (Richland, WA)

1987-01-01

100

Spectrometer and scanner with optofluidic configuration.  

PubMed

We present a spectrometer and scanner based on optofluidic configurations. The main optical component of the spectrometer is a compound optical element consisting of an optofluidic lens and standard blazed diffraction grating. The spectrum size can be changed by filling the lens cavity with different liquids. The scanner comprises two hollow 45° angle prisms oriented at 90° to each other. By changing the liquid inside the prisms, two-dimensional light beam scanning can be performed. PMID:23338199

Calixto, Sergio; Rosete-Aguilar, Martha; Sanchez-Morales, Maria Eugenia; Calixto-Solano, Margarita

2013-01-20

101

Web server scanner: scanning on IIS CGI and HTTP  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explains about the design and implementation of Web server scanner. The scanner detected the security weaknesses on IIS, CGI and HTTP. A report is produced for audit log purposes to help decrease the security weaknesses. In Internet security, no hacking tool is more celebrated than the scanner. The scanner is a program that automatically detects security weaknesses in

Siti Rahayu Selamat

2003-01-01

102

A Laser Range Scanner Designed for Minimum Calibration Complexity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser range scanners are a popular method for acquiring three-dimensional geometry due to their accuracy and robustness. Maximizing scanner accuracy while minimizing engineering costs is a key challenge to future scanner designs. Engineering costs arise from both expensive components and difficult calibration requirements. We propose a two camera range scanner design, specifically chosen to minimize calibration complexity and cost. This

James Davis; Xing Chen

2001-01-01

103

A procedure for automated land use mapping using remotely sensed multispectral scanner data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system of processing remotely sensed multispectral scanner data by computer programs to produce color-coded land use maps for large areas is described. The procedure is explained, the software and the hardware are described, and an analogous example of the procedure is presented. Detailed descriptions of the multispectral scanners currently in use are provided together with a summary of the background of current land use mapping techniques. The data analysis system used in the procedure and the pattern recognition software used are functionally described. Current efforts by the NASA Earth Resources Laboratory to evaluate operationally a less complex and less costly system are discussed in a separate section.

Whitley, S. L.

1975-01-01

104

Practice Problems: File Reading and Writing 1. Tracing code with file operations  

E-print Network

increasingly of the opinion that they'd all made a big mistake in coming down from the trees in the first place of the code. import java.util.Scanner; import java.io.File; import java.io.FileNotFoundException; public classScanner.next(); String line = fileScanner.nextLine(); fileScanner.close(); // If you open it, close it! } } import java

Yates, Alexander

105

Trophic classification of Colorado lakes utilizing contact data, Landsat and aircraft-acquired multispectral scanner data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multispectral scanner data, acquired over several Colorado lakes using Landsat-1 and aircraft, were used in conjunction with National Eutrophication Survey contact-sensed data to determine the feasibility of assessing lacustrine trophic levels. A trophic state index was developed using contact-sensed data for several trophic indicators (chlorophyll a, inverse of Secchi disk transparency, conductivity, total phosphorous, total organic nitrogen, algal assay yield). Relationships between the digitally processed multispectral scanner data, several trophic indicators, and the trophic index were examined using a supervised multispectral classification technique and regression techniques. Statistically significant correlations exist between spectral bands, several of the trophic indicators (chlorophyll a, Secchi disk transparency, total organic nitrogen), and the trophic state index. Color-coded photomaps were generated which depict the spectral aspects of trophic state. Multispectral scanner data acquired from satellite and aircraft platforms can be used to advantage in lake monitoring and survey programs.

Boland, D. H. P.; Blackwell, R. J.

1978-01-01

106

Large scan area high-speed atomic force microscopy using a resonant scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large scan area high-speed scan stage for atomic force microscopy using the resonant oscillation of a quartz bar has been constructed. The sample scanner can be used for high-speed imaging in both air and liquid environments. The well-defined time-position response of the scan stage due to the use of resonance allows highly linearized images to be obtained with a scan size up to 37.5 ?m in 0.7 s. The scanner is demonstrated for imaging highly topographic silicon test samples and a semicrystalline polymer undergoing crystallization in air, while images of a polymer and a living bacteria, S. aureus, are obtained in liquid.

Zhao, B.; Howard-Knight, J. P.; Humphris, A. D. L.; Kailas, L.; Ratcliffe, E. C.; Foster, S. J.; Hobbs, J. K.

2009-09-01

107

LANSCE-R WIRE-SCANNER SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

The National Instruments cRIO platform is used for the new LANSCE-R wire-scanner systems. All wire-scanner electronics are integrated into a single BiRa BiRIO 4U cRIO chassis specifically designed for the cRIO crate and all interface electronics. The BiRIO chassis, actuator and LabVIEW VIs provide a complete wire-scanner system integrated with EPICS. The new wire-scanner chassis includes an 8-slot cRIO crate with Virtex-5 LX 110 FPGA and Power-PC real-time controller, the LANL-developed cRIO 2-axis wire-sensor analog interface module (AFE), NI9222 cRIO 4-channel 16-bit digitizer, cRIO resolver demodulator, cRIO event receiver, front-panel touch panel display, motor driver, and all necessary software, interface wiring, connectors and ancillary components. This wirescanner system provides a complete, turn-key, 2-axis wire-scanner system including 2-channel low-noise sensewire interface with variable DC wire bias and wireintegrity monitor, 16-bit signal digitizers, actuator motor drive and control, actuator position sensing, limit-switch interfaces, event receiver, LabVIEW and EPICS interface, and both remote operation and full stand-alone operation using the touch panel.

Gruchalla, Michael E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-01

108

Toll Bar on Sea  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the summer of 2007 the United Kingdom experienced some of the heaviest rainfall since records began. Toll Bar in South Yorkshire featured prominently in media coverage as the village and the homes surrounding it began to flood. Many people lost everything: their homes, their furniture, their possessions. In an effort to come to terms with what…

Hunter, Dave

2008-01-01

109

Bar-grid oscillators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grid oscillators are an attractive way of obtaining high power levels from the solid-state devices, since potentially the output powers of thousands of individual devices can be combined. The active devices do not require an external locking signal, and the power combining is done in free space. Thirty-six transistors were mounted on parallel brass bars, which provide a stable bias

ZOYA BASTA POPOVIC; ROBERT M. WEIKLE; MOONIL KIM; KENT A. POTTER; DAVID B. RUTLEDGE

1990-01-01

110

Permanent Bar Magnets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about the basic properties of magnets and magnetism. Learners explore concepts such as magnetic fields and polarity, which form the basic ingredients of a study of Earth's magnetic field and the technology of magnetometers. Materials needed include bar magnets and paper clips. This is Activity 1 of Exploring Magnetism: A Teacher's Magnetism Activity Guide.

111

Data Analysis: Bar Graphs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this Bridges In Mathematics Supplement, two activities are presented in which primary students are introduced to bar graphs. In each activity students graph catagorical data that reflects their own opinions. Once the graphs are complete, students analyze the data as a class and make conclusions based on the data.

2009-01-01

112

Resonances in barred galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inner parts of many spiral galaxies are dominated by bars. These are strong non-axisymmetric features which significantly affect orbits of stars and dark matter particles. One of the main effects is the dynamical resonances between galactic material and the bar. We detect and characterize these resonances in N-body models of barred galaxies by measuring angular and radial frequencies of individual orbits. We found narrow peaks in the distribution of orbital frequencies with each peak corresponding to a specific resonance. We found five different resonances in the stellar disc and two in the dark matter. The corotation resonance (CR) and the inner and outer Lindblad resonances are the most populated. The spatial distributions of particles near resonances are wide. For example, the inner Lindblad resonance is not localized at a given radius. Particles near this resonance are mainly distributed along the bar and span a wide range of radii. On the other hand, particles near the CR are distributed in two broad areas around the two stable Lagrange points. The distribution resembles a wide ring at the corotation radius. Resonances capture disc and halo material in near-resonant orbits. Our analysis of orbits in both N-body simulations and simple analytical models indicates that resonances tend to prevent the dynamical evolution of this trapped material. Only if the bar evolves as a whole, resonances drift through the phase space. In this case particles anchored near resonant orbits track the resonance shift and evolve. The criteria to ensure a correct resonant behaviour discussed by Weinberg and Katz can be achieved with few millions particles because the regions of trapped orbits near resonances are large and evolving.

Ceverino, D.; Klypin, A.

2007-08-01

113

BAR PACKAGES Standard Bar Package Price Liquor Beer/Wine  

E-print Network

BAR PACKAGES Standard Bar Package Price Liquor Beer/Wine 1-2 hours $21/ person Sobieski Vodka MGD 3 Select Wine Cutty Sark Scotch Cruzan Rum Premium Bar Package Price Liquor Beer/Wine 1-2 hours $24/person Brothers Brewing Co* Dewars Scotch Field Museum Select Wine Bacardi Rum Super Premium Package Price Liquor

Westneat, Mark W.

114

Infrared scanner concept verification test report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The test results from a concept verification test conducted to assess the use of an infrared scanner as a remote temperature sensing device for the space shuttle program are presented. The temperature and geometric resolution limits, atmospheric attenuation effects including conditions with fog and rain, and the problem of surface emissivity variations are included. It is concluded that the basic concept of using an infrared scanner to determine near freezing surface temperatures is feasible. The major problem identified is concerned with infrared reflections which result in significant errors if not controlled. Action taken to manage these errors result in design and operational constraints to control the viewing angle and surface emissivity.

Bachtel, F. D.

1980-01-01

115

Miniature rotating transmissive optical drum scanner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A miniature rotating transmissive optical scanner system employs a drum of small size having an interior defined by a circumferential wall rotatable on a drum axis, an optical element positioned within the interior of the drum, and a light-transmissive lens aperture provided at an angular position in the circumferential wall of the drum for scanning a light beam to or from the optical element in the drum along a beam azimuth angle as the drum is rotated. The miniature optical drum scanner configuration obtains a wide scanning field-of-view (FOV) and large effective aperture is achieved within a physically small size.

Lewis, Robert (Inventor); Parrington, Lawrence (Inventor); Rutberg, Michael (Inventor)

2013-01-01

116

Measurements of vertical bar Vcb vertical bar and vertical bar Vub vertical bar at BaBar  

SciTech Connect

We report results from the BABAR Collaboration on the semileptonic B decays, highlighting the measurements of the magnitude of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements Vub and Vcb. We describe the techniques used to obtain the matrix element |Vcb| using the measurement of the inclusive B {yields} Xclv process and a large sample of exclusive B {yields} D*lv decays. The vertical bar Vub vertical bar matrix elements has been measured studying different kinematic variables of the B {yields} Xulv process, and also with the exclusive reconstruction of B {yields} {pi}({rho})lv decays.

Rotondo, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica Galileo Galilei, Via Marzolo 8, Padova 35131 (Italy)

2005-10-12

117

Breaking through the Bar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Howard University School of Law had a problem, and school officials knew it. Over a 20-year period, 40 percent of its graduates who took the Maryland bar exam failed it on their first try. During the next 24 months--the time frame required to determine its "eventual pass rate"--almost 90 percent of the students did pass. What they did not know was…

Gray, Katti

2011-01-01

118

Use of ocean color scanner data in water quality mapping  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Remotely sensed data, in combination with in situ data, are used in assessing water quality parameters within the San Francisco Bay-Delta. The parameters include suspended solids, chlorophyll, and turbidity. Regression models are developed between each of the water quality parameter measurements and the Ocean Color Scanner (OCS) data. The models are then extended to the entire study area for mapping water quality parameters. The results include a series of color-coded maps, each pertaining to one of the water quality parameters, and the statistical analysis of the OCS data and regression models. It is found that concurrently collected OCS data and surface truth measurements are highly useful in mapping the selected water quality parameters and locating areas having relatively high biological activity. In addition, it is found to be virtually impossible, at least within this test site, to locate such areas on U-2 color and color-infrared photography.

Khorram, S.

1981-01-01

119

Correction techniques for a multilevel reflection scanner.  

PubMed

This paper discusses the fundamental problems and design solutions for a multilevel reflection scanner. The scanner consists of a computer, a cathode ray tube light source, a system for imaging the light on the scanned document, two photomultiplier tubes, and a system for digitizing the PMT signals. One PMT measures cathode ray tube radiance while the other intercepts reflected light from the document. The computer controls the intensity focus and position of the spot and processes the digitized photomultiplier tube signals. The three fundamental problems associated with this type of scanner are tonal distortion due to the placement of the PMTs, the differing reflection properties of papers, and PMT drift. Procedures for reducing the effects of these problems, utilizing a computer correction table, are discussed. In addition, a detailed analysis is made of the most serious problem of tonal distortion due to the geometry of the system, and the results of this analysis are compared with experimental results. Finally, a noncomputer associated scanner is described. PMID:20076021

Rosenthal, J A; Serednicky, P

1969-11-01

120

Current segmented gamma-ray scanner technology  

SciTech Connect

A new generation of segmented gamma-ray scanners has been developed at Los Alamos for scrap and waste measurements at the Savannah River Plant and the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility. The new designs are highly automated and exhibit special features such as good segmentation and thorough shielding to improve performance.

Bjork, C.W.

1987-01-01

121

Enriching Scanner Panel Models with Choice Experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examines the methods, viability, and benefits of pooling scanner panel choice data with compatible preference data from designed choice experiments. The fact that different choice data sources have diverse strengths and weaknesses suggests it might be possible to pool multiple sources to achieve improved models, due to offsetting advantages and disadvantages. For example, new attributes and attribute levels

Joffre Swait; Rick L. Andrews

2003-01-01

122

Holographic Three Dimensional Printer Using Galvanometer Scanners  

Microsoft Academic Search

To make holograms from computer graphic (CG) in a short time, a new holographic three dimensional (3D) printer is proposed here. This printer consists of galvanometer scanners, a micro computer and a laser, and uses a holographic contact duplicating method. Experiments have shown that a hologram of 39 × 41 mm can be obtained in 4 min.

Masahide Monde; Tsuyoshi Uematsu; Toshiki Toda; Kazuhiko Ohnuma; Yoshizumi Yasuda

1995-01-01

123

Scanner characterization for color measurement and diagnostics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a novel scanner characterization approach for applications requiring color measurement of hardcopy output in calibration, characterization, and diagnostics applications. The method is advantageous for common practical color printing sys- tems that use more than the minimum of three colorants necessary for subtractive color reproduction; printing with cyan (C), magenta (M), yellow (Y), and black (K) is the most

Bong-Sun Lee; Raja Bala; Gaurav Sharma

2007-01-01

124

GEPS: the Gene Expression Pattern Scanner  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gene Expression Pattern Scanner (GEPS) is a web- based server to provide interactive pattern analysis of user-submitted microarray data for facilitating their further interpretation. Putative gene expression patterns such as correlated expression, similar expression and specific expression are determined globally and systematically using geometric com- parison and correlation analysis methods. These patterns can be visualized via linear plot with quan-

Yu-peng Wang; Liang Liang; Bu-cong Han; Yu Quan; Xiao Wang; Tao Tao; Zhi Liang Ji

2006-01-01

125

21 CFR 892.1300 - Nuclear rectilinear scanner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...rectilinear scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear rectilinear scanner is a device intended to image the distribution of radionuclides in the body by means of a detector (or detectors) whose position moves in two directions with...

2012-04-01

126

21 CFR 892.1330 - Nuclear whole body scanner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Diagnostic Devices § 892.1330 Nuclear whole body scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear whole body scanner is a device intended to measure and image the distribution of radionuclides in the body by means of a wide-aperture...

2011-04-01

127

21 CFR 892.1300 - Nuclear rectilinear scanner.  

...rectilinear scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear rectilinear scanner is a device intended to image the distribution of radionuclides in the body by means of a detector (or detectors) whose position moves in two directions with...

2014-04-01

128

21 CFR 892.1300 - Nuclear rectilinear scanner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...rectilinear scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear rectilinear scanner is a device intended to image the distribution of radionuclides in the body by means of a detector (or detectors) whose position moves in two directions with...

2013-04-01

129

21 CFR 892.1330 - Nuclear whole body scanner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Diagnostic Devices § 892.1330 Nuclear whole body scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear whole body scanner is a device intended to measure and image the distribution of radionuclides in the body by means of a wide-aperture...

2013-04-01

130

21 CFR 892.1300 - Nuclear rectilinear scanner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...rectilinear scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear rectilinear scanner is a device intended to image the distribution of radionuclides in the body by means of a detector (or detectors) whose position moves in two directions with...

2011-04-01

131

21 CFR 892.1330 - Nuclear whole body scanner.  

...Diagnostic Devices § 892.1330 Nuclear whole body scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear whole body scanner is a device intended to measure and image the distribution of radionuclides in the body by means of a wide-aperture...

2014-04-01

132

21 CFR 892.1330 - Nuclear whole body scanner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Diagnostic Devices § 892.1330 Nuclear whole body scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear whole body scanner is a device intended to measure and image the distribution of radionuclides in the body by means of a wide-aperture...

2012-04-01

133

21 CFR 892.1300 - Nuclear rectilinear scanner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...rectilinear scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear rectilinear scanner is a device intended to image the distribution of radionuclides in the body by means of a detector (or detectors) whose position moves in two directions with...

2010-04-01

134

21 CFR 892.1330 - Nuclear whole body scanner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Diagnostic Devices § 892.1330 Nuclear whole body scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear whole body scanner is a device intended to measure and image the distribution of radionuclides in the body by means of a wide-aperture...

2010-04-01

135

23. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING RADAR CONTROL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

23. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - RADAR CONTROL INTERFACE "RCL NO. 2" WITH COMPUTER CONTROL DISC DRIVE UNITS IN FOREGROUND. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

136

11. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING EVAPORATIVE COOLING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - EVAPORATIVE COOLING TOWER SYSTEM IN FOREGROUND. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

137

13. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING "B" FACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - "B" FACE LOADING DOCK AND PERSONNEL ACCESS RAMP TO FALLOUT SHELTER. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

138

An ultra fast electron beam x-ray tomography scanner  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces the design of an ultra fast x-ray tomography scanner based on electron beam technology. The scanner has been developed for two-phase flow studies where frame rates of 1 kHz and higher are required. Its functional principle is similar to that of the electron beam x-ray CT scanners used in cardiac imaging. Thus, the scanner comprises an electron

F. Fischer; D. Hoppe; E. Schleicher; G. Mattausch; H. Flaske; R. Bartel; U. Hampel

2008-01-01

139

An ultra fast electron beam x-ray tomography scanner  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces the design of an ultra fast x-ray tomography scanner based on electron beam technology. The scanner has been developed for two-phase flow studies where frame rates of 1 kHz and higher are required. Its functional principle is similar to that of the electron beam x-ray CT scanners used in cardiac imaging. Thus, the scanner comprises an electron

140

Can technology help to reduce underage drinking? Evidence from the false ID laws with scanner provision.  

PubMed

Underage drinkers often use false identification to purchase alcohol or gain access into bars. In recent years, several states have introduced laws that provide incentives to retailers and bar owners who use electronic scanners to ensure that the customer is 21 years or older and uses a valid identification to purchase alcohol. This paper is the first to investigate the effects of these laws using confidential data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997 Cohort (NLSY97). Using a difference-in-differences methodology, I find that the false ID laws with scanner provision significantly reduce underage drinking, including up to a 0.22 drink decrease in the average number of drinks consumed by underage youth per day. This effect is observed particularly in the short-run and more pronounced for non-college students and those who are relatively younger. These results are also robust under alternative model specifications. The findings of this paper highlight the importance of false ID laws in reducing alcohol consumption among underage youth. PMID:24732386

Yörük, Bar?? K

2014-07-01

141

Ghost Signals In Allison Emittance Scanners  

SciTech Connect

For over 20 years, Allison scanners have been used to measure emittances of low-energy ion beams. We show that scanning large trajectory angles produces ghost signals caused by the sampled beamlet impacting on an electric deflection plate. The ghost signal strength is proportional to the amount of beam entering the scanner. Depending on the ions, and their velocity, the ghost signals can have the opposite or the same polarity as the main beam signals. The ghost signals cause significant errors in the emittance estimates because they appear at large trajectory angles. These ghost signals often go undetected because they partly overlap with the real signals, are mostly below the 1% level, and often hide in the noise. A simple deflection plate modification is shown to reduce the ghost signal strength by over 99%.

Stockli, Martin P. [SNS, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Leitner, M.; Keller, R. [SNS, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Rd., Berkeley, CA, 94720 (United States); Moehs, D.P. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Welton, R. F. [SNS, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

2005-03-15

142

Compact conscious animal positron emission tomography scanner  

DOEpatents

A method of serially transferring annihilation information in a compact positron emission tomography (PET) scanner includes generating a time signal for an event, generating an address signal representing a detecting channel, generating a detector channel signal including the time and address signals, and generating a composite signal including the channel signal and similarly generated signals. The composite signal includes events from detectors in a block and is serially output. An apparatus that serially transfers annihilation information from a block includes time signal generators for detectors in a block and an address and channel signal generator. The PET scanner includes a ring tomograph that mounts onto a portion of an animal, which includes opposing block pairs. Each of the blocks in a block pair includes a scintillator layer, detection array, front-end array, and a serial encoder. The serial encoder includes time signal generators and an address signal and channel signal generator.

Schyler, David J. (Bellport, NY); O'Connor, Paul (Bellport, NY); Woody, Craig (Setauket, NY); Junnarkar, Sachin Shrirang (Sound Beach, NY); Radeka, Veljko (Bellport, NY); Vaska, Paul (Sound Beach, NY); Pratte, Jean-Francois (Stony Brook, NY); Volkow, Nora (Chevy Chase, MD)

2006-10-24

143

Detector Position Estimation for PET Scanners  

PubMed Central

Physical positioning of scintillation crystal detector blocks in Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scanners is not always exact. We test a proof of concept methodology for the determination of the six degrees of freedom for detector block positioning errors by utilizing a rotating point source over stepped axial intervals. To test our method, we created computer simulations of seven Micro Crystal Element Scanner (MiCES) PET systems with randomized positioning errors. The computer simulations show that our positioning algorithm can estimate the positions of the block detectors to an average of one-seventh of the crystal pitch tangentially, and one-third of the crystal pitch axially. Virtual acquisitions of a point source grid and a distributed phantom show that our algorithm improves both the quantitative and qualitative accuracy of the reconstructed objects. We believe this estimation algorithm is a practical and accurate method for determining the spatial positions of scintillation detector blocks. PMID:22505789

Pierce, Larry; Miyaoka, Robert; Lewellen, Tom; Alessio, Adam; Kinahan, Paul

2012-01-01

144

Ghost signals in Allison emittance scanners  

SciTech Connect

For over 20 years, Allison scanners have been used to measure emittances of low-energy ion beams. We show that scanning large trajectory angles produces ghost signals caused by the sampled beamlet impacting on an electric deflection plate. The ghost signal strength is proportional to the amount of beam entering the scanner. Depending on the ions, and their velocity, the ghost signals can have the opposite or the same polarity as the main beam signals. The ghost signals cause significant errors in the emittance estimates because they appear at large trajectory angles. These ghost signals often go undetected because they partly overlap with the real signals, are mostly below the 1% level, and often hide in the noise. A simple deflection plate modification is shown to reduce the ghost signal strength by over 99%.

Stockli, Martin P.; /SNS Project, Oak Ridge /Tennessee U.; Leitner, M.; /LBL, Berkeley; Moehs, D.P.; /Fermilab; Keller, R.; /LBL, Berkeley; Welton, R.F.; /SNS Project, Oak

2004-12-01

145

Improvement in measurement accuracy for hybrid scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The capability to provide dense three-dimensional (3D) data (point clouds) at high speed and at high accuracy has made terrestrial laser scanners (TLS) widely used for many purposes especially for documentation, management and analysis. However, similar to other 3D sensors, proper understanding regarding the error sources is necessary to ensure high quality data. A procedure known as calibration is employed to evaluate these errors. This process is crucial for TLS in order to make it suitable for accurate 3D applications (e.g. industrial measurement, reverse engineering and monitoring). Two calibration procedures available for TLS: 1) component, and 2) system calibration. The requirements of special laboratories and tools which are not affordable by most TLS users have become principle drawback for component calibration. In contrast, system calibration only requires a room with appropriate targets. By employing optimal network configuration, this study has performed system calibration through self-calibration for Leica ScanStation C10 scanner. A laboratory with dimensions of 15.5 m × 9 m × 3 m and 138 well-distributed planar targets were used to derive four calibration parameters. Statistical analysis (e.g. t-test) has shown that only two calculated parameters, the constant rangefinder offset error (0.7 mm) and the vertical circle index error (-45.4") were significant for the calibrated scanner. Photogrammetric technique was utilised to calibrate the 3D test points at the calibration field. By using the test points, the residual pattern of raw data and self-calibration results were plotted into the graph to visually demonstrate the improvement in accuracy for Leica ScanStation C10 scanner.

Abbas, M. A.; Setan, H.; Majid, Z.; Chong, A. K.; Lichti, D. D.

2014-02-01

146

Application of airborne laser scanner - aerial navigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation explores the use of an Airborne Laser Scanner (ALS) for use in aircraft Terrain-Referenced Navigation (TRN). Position estimation techniques developed in this dissertation enable the use of large sets of high accuracy ALS measurements to solve for position in real-time. The explored techniques were then used to design, implement, and---for the first time ever---fly a real-time ALS-based TERRain

Jacob L. Campbell

2006-01-01

147

Laser Wire Scanner Development on CTF II  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laser wire scanner is under development at CERN in the framework of the Compact Linear Collider study (CLIC). A first test has been carried out at the CLIC Test Facility II (CTF II) with the aim of developing a beam profile monitor for a low energy, high charge electron beam. In our set-up a 2.5 mJ, 1047 nm, 4

Jacques Bosser; H. H. Braun; Enrico Bravin; T E D'Amico; Steffen Döbert; S Hutchins; T Lefèvre; R MacCaferri; G Penn; G A Blair; T Kamps

2002-01-01

148

Point Relay Scanner Utilizing Ellipsoidal Mirrors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A scanning system uses a polygonal mirror assembly with each facet of the polygon having an ellipsoidal mirror located thereon. One focal point of each ellipsoidal mirror is located at a common point on the axis of rotation of the polygonal mirror assembly. As the mirror assembly rotates. a second focal point of the ellipsoidal mirrors traces out a scan line. The scanner can be utilized for scanned output display of information or for scanning information to be detected.

Manhart, Paul K. (Inventor); Pagano, Robert J. (Inventor)

1997-01-01

149

Learning and teaching with a computer scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper introduces the readers to simple inquiry-based activities (experiments with supporting questions) that one can do with a computer scanner to help students learn and apply the concepts of relative motion in 1 and 2D, vibrational motion and the Doppler effect. We also show how to use these activities to help students think like scientists. They will conduct simple experiments, construct different explanations for their observations, test their explanations in new experiments and represent their ideas in multiple ways.

Planinsic, G.; Gregorcic, B.; Etkina, E.

2014-09-01

150

Number Line Bars--Fractions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use these virtual fraction bars to model fractional addition, subtraction, multiplication (of fractions by whole numbers), and division on a number line. Students can create bars in positive or negative fractional lengths; align, stack, or remove bars; and change the number line marks in increments between 1/2 and 1/15. Applet instructions and teaching ideas are included in the links at the top of the page.

2005-01-01

151

Biomedical applications of a real-time terahertz color scanner  

PubMed Central

A real-time THz color scanner has the potential to further expand the application scope of THz spectral imaging based on its rapid image acquisition rate. We demonstrated three possible applications of a THz color scanner in the biomedical field: imaging of pharmaceutical tablets, human teeth, and human hair. The first application showed the scanner’s potential in total inspection for rapid quality control of pharmaceutical tablets moving on a conveyor belt. The second application demonstrated that the scanner can be used to identify a potential indicator for crystallinity of dental tissue. In the third application, the scanner was successfully used to visualize the drying process of wet hairs. These demonstrations indicated the high potential of the THz color scanner for practical applications in the biomedical field. PMID:21258472

Schirmer, Markus; Fujio, Makoto; Minami, Masaaki; Miura, Jiro; Araki, Tsutomu; Yasui, Takeshi

2010-01-01

152

Double Bars, Inner Disks, and Nuclear Rings in Barred Galaxies  

E-print Network

We present results of a high-resolution imaging survey of barred S0--Sa galaxies which demonstrate that the central regions of these galaxies are surprisingly complex. We see many inner bars --- small, secondary bars (typically less than a kiloparsec in radius) located inside of, and probably rotating faster than, the large primary bars. These are present in about one quarter to one third of all our sample. In contrast to some theoretical expectations, they do not seem to enhance AGN activity significantly. A third of barred S0's appear to host kiloparsec-scale disks within their bars; but the frequency of such inner disks is much lower in our S0/a and Sa galaxies. In addition, we find one example of a triple barred galaxy, and two cases of purely stellar nuclear rings --- probably the fossil remnants of past circumnuclear starbursts. We comment briefly on results from an ongoing analysis of known double-barred systems, extending to Hubble types as late as Sbc, and discuss their characteristic sizes and orientations.

Peter Erwin; Linda S. Sparke; Juan Carlos Vega Beltran; John Beckman

2001-07-07

153

Implementation of viscoelastic Hopkinson bars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge of the properties of soft, viscoelastic materials at high strain rates are important in furthering our understanding of their role during blast or impact events. Testing these low impedance materials using a metallic split Hopkinson pressure bar setup results in poor signal to noise ratios due to impedance mismatching. These difficulties are overcome by using polymeric Hopkinson bars. Conventional Hopkinson bar analysis cannot be used on the polymeric bars due to the viscoelastic nature of the bar material. Implementing polymeric Hopkinson bars requires characterization of the viscoelastic properties of the material used. In this paper, 30 mm diameter Polymethyl Methacrylate bars are used as Hopkinson pressure bars. This testing technique is applied to polymeric foam called Divinycell H80 and H200. Although there is a large body of of literature containing compressive data, this rarely deals with strain rates above 250s-1 which becomes increasingly important when looking at the design of composite structures where energy absorption during impact events is high on the list of priorities. Testing of polymeric foams at high strain rates allows for the development of better constitutive models.

Curry, R.; Cloete, T.; Govender, R.

2012-08-01

154

Another bar in the Bulge  

E-print Network

A map of the projected density of the old stellar population of the Galactic Bulge region is reconstructed using 2MASS data. By making a combination of the H and K photometric bands, it is possible to overcome the effect of reddening, and thus penetrate the inner structure of the Galactic Bulge. The main structure in the map corresponds to the well documented peanut shaped bar which is formed by the inner parts of the Galactic disk as a result of dynamical instabilities. As suggested by numerical simulations, the projected Z profile of the bar, has an almost exponential shape. After subtracting the exponential profile associated with the bar, a large residual appear near the Galactic Center. This residual is elongated and asymmetrical, which suggest a bar structure. Thus we arrive at the conclusion that in addition to the main bar a smaller bar with a different orientation may exist in the central region of the Milky Way. This finding makes the Milky Way very similar to a large number of barred spiral Galaxies which show as well a smaller bar in their central regions.

C. Alard

2001-10-22

155

Slip systems in wurtzite ZnO activated by Vickers indentation on {21bar1bar0} and {101bar0} surfaces at elevated temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dislocations were introduced in wurtzite zinc oxide single crystals by Vickers indentations on {21bar1bar0} and {101bar0} surfaces at elevated temperatures, and their slip systems were determined by transmission electron microscopy combined with etch pit observations. The observed system for {21bar1bar0} indentations was {101bar1bar}<1bar21bar0> or (0001)<1bar21bar0>, while that for {101bar0} indentations was {101bar0}<1bar21bar0>. Activation of the slip systems was briefly discussed in terms of the Peierls stress and resolved shear stress acting on the slip systems.

Ohno, Y.; Koizumi, H.; Tokumoto, Y.; Kutsukake, K.; Taneichi, H.; Yonenaga, I.

2014-05-01

156

Galaxy Zoo: CANDELS Barred Disks and Bar Fractions  

E-print Network

The formation of bars in disk galaxies is a tracer of the dynamical maturity of the population. Previous studies have found that the incidence of bars in disks decreases from the local Universe to z ~ 1, and by z > 1 simulations predict that bar features in dynamically mature disks should be extremely rare. Here we report the discovery of strong barred structures in massive disk galaxies at z ~ 1.5 in deep rest-frame optical images from CANDELS. From within a sample of 876 disk galaxies identified by visual classification in Galaxy Zoo, we identify 123 barred galaxies. Selecting a sub-sample within the same region of the evolving galaxy luminosity function (brighter than L*), we find that the bar fraction across the redshift range 0.5< z < 2 (f_bar = 10.7 +6.3 -3.5% after correcting for incompleteness) does not significantly evolve. We discuss the implications of this discovery in the context of existing simulations and our current understanding of the way disk galaxies have evolved over the last 11 bil...

Simmons, B D; Lintott, Chris; Masters, Karen L; Willett, Kyle W; Keel, William C; Smethurst, R J; Cheung, Edmond; Nichol, Robert C; Schawinski, Kevin; Rutkowski, Michael; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S; Bell, Eric F; Casteels, Kevin R V; Conselice, Christopher J; Almaini, Omar; Ferguson, Henry C; Fortson, Lucy; Hartley, William; Kocevski, Dale; Koekemoer, Anton M; McIntosh, Daniel H; Mortlock, Alice; Newman, Jeffrey A; Ownsworth, Jamie; Bamford, Steven; Dahlen, Tomas; Faber, Sandra M; Finkelstein, Steven L; Fontana, Adriano; Galametz, Audrey; Grogin, N A; Grutzbauch, Ruth; Guo, Yicheng; Haussler, Boris; Jek, Kian J; Kaviraj, Sugata; Lucas, Ray A; Peth, Michael; Salvato, Mara; Wiklind, Tommy; Wuyts, Stijn

2014-01-01

157

Galaxy Zoo: CANDELS barred discs and bar fractions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation of bars in disc galaxies is a tracer of the dynamical maturity of the population. Previous studies have found that the incidence of bars in discs decreases from the local Universe to z ˜ 1, and by z > 1 simulations predict that bar features in dynamically mature discs should be extremely rare. Here, we report the discovery of strong barred structures in massive disc galaxies at z ˜ 1.5 in deep rest-frame optical images from the Cosmic Assembly Near-Infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey. From within a sample of 876 disc galaxies identified by visual classification in Galaxy Zoo, we identify 123 barred galaxies. Selecting a subsample within the same region of the evolving galaxy luminosity function (brighter than L*), we find that the bar fraction across the redshift range 0.5 ? z ? 2 ( f_{bar} = 10.7^{+6.3}_{-3.5} per cent after correcting for incompleteness) does not significantly evolve. We discuss the implications of this discovery in the context of existing simulations and our current understanding of the way disc galaxies have evolved over the last 11 billion years.

Simmons, B. D.; Melvin, Thomas; Lintott, Chris; Masters, Karen L.; Willett, Kyle W.; Keel, William C.; Smethurst, R. J.; Cheung, Edmond; Nichol, Robert C.; Schawinski, Kevin; Rutkowski, Michael; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; Bell, Eric F.; Casteels, Kevin R. V.; Conselice, Christopher J.; Almaini, Omar; Ferguson, Henry C.; Fortson, Lucy; Hartley, William; Kocevski, Dale; Koekemoer, Anton M.; McIntosh, Daniel H.; Mortlock, Alice; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Ownsworth, Jamie; Bamford, Steven; Dahlen, Tomas; Faber, Sandra M.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Fontana, Adriano; Galametz, Audrey; Grogin, N. A.; Grützbauch, Ruth; Guo, Yicheng; Häußler, Boris; Jek, Kian J.; Kaviraj, Sugata; Lucas, Ray A.; Peth, Michael; Salvato, Mara; Wiklind, Tommy; Wuyts, Stijn

2014-12-01

158

How Large Are the Bars in Barred Galaxies?  

E-print Network

I present a study of the sizes (semimajor axes) of bars in disc galaxies, combining a detailed study of 65 S0-Sb galaxies with measurements of 70 Sb-Sd galaxies from Martin (1995). As has been noted before with smaller samples, bars in early-type (S0-Sb) galaxies are clearly larger than bars in late-type (Sc-Sd) galaxies; this is true both for relative sizes (bar length as fraction of isophotal radius R_25 or exponential disc scale length h) and absolute sizes (kpc). S0-Sab bars extend to ~1-10 kpc (mean ~3.3 kpc), ~0.2-0.8 R_25 (mean \\~0.38 R_25) and ~0.5-2.5 h (mean ~1.4 h). Late-type bars extend to only \\~0.5-3.5 kpc, 0.05-0.35 R_25 and 0.2-1.5 h; mean sizes are ~1.5 kpc, 0.14 R_25 and 0.6 h. Sb galaxies resemble earlier-type galaxies in terms of bar size relative to h; their smaller R_25-relative sizes may be a side effect of higher star formation, which increases R_25 but not h. For S0-Sbc galaxies, bar size correlates well with disc size (both R_25 and h); these correlations are stronger than the known correlation with M_B. All correlations appear to be weaker or absent for late-type galaxies; in particular, there seems to be no correlation between bar size and either h or M_B for Sc-Sd galaxies. I show that the bars detected in HST near-IR images at z ~ 1 by Sheth et al. (2003) have absolute sizes consistent with those in bright, nearby S0-Sb galaxies. I also compare the sizes of real bars with those produced in simulations, and discuss some possible implications for scenarios of secular evolution along the Hubble sequence. Simulations often produce bars as large as -- or larger than -- those seen in S0-Sb galaxies, but rarely any as small as those in Sc-Sd galaxies. (Abridged.)

Peter Erwin

2005-08-26

159

Fast wire scanner for intense electron beams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a cost-effective, fast rotating wire scanner for use in accelerators where high beam currents would otherwise melt even carbon wires. This new design uses a simple planetary gear setup to rotate a carbon wire, fixed at one end, through the beam at speeds in excess of 20 m/s. We present results from bench tests, as well as transverse beam profile measurements taken at Cornell's high-brightness energy recovery linac photoinjector, for beam currents up to 35 mA.

Moore, T.; Agladze, N. I.; Bazarov, I. V.; Bartnik, A.; Dobbins, J.; Dunham, B.; Full, S.; Li, Y.; Liu, X.; Savino, J.; Smolenski, K.

2014-02-01

160

Recent advances in segmented gamma scanner analysis  

SciTech Connect

The segmented gamma scanner (SGS) is used in many facilities to assay low-density scrap and waste generated in the facilities. The procedures for using the SGS can cause a negative bias if the sample does not satisfy the assumptions made in the method. Some process samples do not comply with the assumptions. This paper discusses the effect of the presence of lumps on the SGS assay results, describes a method to detect the presence of lumps, and describes an approach to correct for the lumps. Other recent advances in SGS analysis are also discussed.

Sprinkle, J.K. Jr.; Hsue, S.T.

1987-01-01

161

The in-flight calibration of a helicopter-mounted Daedalus multispectral scanner  

SciTech Connect

A convenient way that has been used to calibrate, in-flight, a helicopter-mounted Daedalus multispectral scanner is described. It used four large canvas panels laid out in a square with a Spectralon panel as a reference. A calibrated Barnes modular multispectral radiometer, carried on a 2.2-m boom was rotated around a 2.5-m high tripod at the center of the square. The radiometer sampled the four large panels and the Spectralon panel once every two minutes. Atmospheric spectral transmittance measurements were made using a filter radiometer on an autotracking mount during the morning of the flight. The reflectance and optical depth data were used in an atmospheric radiative transfer code to predict the spectral radiances at the scanner. The calibration was completed by comparing the image digital counts to the predicted spectral radiances. 7 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

Balick, L.K.; Golanics, C.J.; Shines, J.E. (EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (USA)); Biggar, S.F.; Slater, P.N. (Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (USA). Optical Sciences Center)

1991-01-01

162

Next-generation scanner to sub-100-nm lithography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the Canon new scanner 6000 platform, incorporated in FPA-6000ES5 KrF scanner and FPA-6000AS4 ArF scanner, realizing both high productivity and high stage controllability for the sub 100nm lithography. We run aerial simulations and estimate process window criteria called CD-window to assess a focus budget and a CD budget meeting the requirement for CD uniformity at the MPU

Itaru Fujita; Fumio M. Sakai; Shigeyuki Uzawa

2003-01-01

163

THE EL FAROL BAR PROBLEM AND COMPUTATIONAL EFFORT: WHY PEOPLE FAIL TO USE BARS EFFICIENTLY  

E-print Network

THE EL FAROL BAR PROBLEM AND COMPUTATIONAL EFFORT: WHY PEOPLE FAIL TO USE BARS EFFICIENTLY WILLIAM? For instance, if agents attend the bar randomly on average 50 people will go to the bar. On the other hand people will go to the bar. In other words, if the agents spend no computational effort, the bar

Wilensky, Uri

164

Precision pointing using a dual-wedge scanner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system was developed for calibrating and precisely pointing a germanium dual-wedge scanner for a CO2 Doppler lidar from an airborne platform. The equations implemented in pointing the scanner and those in the iterative calibration program, which combines available data with estimated parameters of the scanner orientation relative to the axes of the aircraft's inertial navigation system to arrive at corrected scanner parameters are described. The effect of specific error conditions on program performance and the results of the program when used on 1981 test data are investigated.

Amirault, C. T.; Dimarzio, C. A.

1985-01-01

165

Multispectral scanner, thematic mapper, and beyond  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The capabilities and functions of the Landsat D multispectral scanner (MSS) and thematic mapper (TM) are explored as a basis for improvements to satisfy increasing user demands. The MSS is an object-space line scanner for gathering data in four spectral bands ranging from 0.5-1.1 micron. In a 705 km near-polar sunsynchronous orbit, the MSS will generate 185 x 185 km imagery with 80 x 80 m ground resolution, mapping the entire earth every 16 days. Photomultiplier tubes are used for four of the bands and the other employs Si photodiodes. A calibration light source provides in orbit calibration during every reverse scan period of a pivotal on-board mirror. The TM collects data in seven bands from 0.45-12.5 microns, yielding a ground resolution of 30 x 30 m in six bands for reflected sunlight and 120 x 120 m for the 10.4-12.5 thermal bands. The addition of 16 Si detectors for 0.9-1.1 micron viewing for agricultural purposes, as well as higher resolution, is discussed.

Jones, C. R.; Engel, J. L.

1981-01-01

166

A 3D airborne ultrasound scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work investigates the feasibility of an ultrasound scanner designed to reconstruct three-dimensional profiles of objects in air. There are many industrial applications in which it is important to obtain quickly and accurately the digital reconstruction of solid objects with contactless methods. The final aim of this project was the profile reconstruction of shoe lasts in order to eliminate the mechanical tracers from the reproduction process of shoe prototypes. The feasibility of an ultrasonic scanner was investigated in laboratory conditions on wooden test objects with axial symmetry. A bistatic system based on five airborne polyvinylidenedifluoride (PVDF) transducers was mechanically moved to emulate a cylindrical array transducer that can host objects of maximum width and height 20 cm and 40 cm respectively. The object reconstruction was based on a simplified version of the synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT): the time of flight (TOF) of the first in time echo for each receiving transducer was taken into account, a coarse spatial sampling of the ultrasonic field reflected on the array transducer was delivered and the reconstruction algorithm was based on the ellipsoidal backprojection. Measurements on a wooden cone section provided submillimetre accuracy in a controlled environment.

Capineri, L.; Masotti, L.; Rocchi, S.

1998-06-01

167

Evaluating scanner lens spherical aberration using scatterometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lens spherical error is an important lens aberration used to characterize lens quality and also has a significant contribution to across chip line width variation (ACLV). It also impacts tool-to-tool matching efforts especially when the optical lithography approaches sub-half wavelength geometry. Traditionally, spherical error is measured by using CD SEM with known drawbacks of poor accuracy and long cycle time. At Texas Instruments, an in-house scatterometer-based lens fingerprinting technique (ScatterLith) performs this tedious job accurately and quickly. This paper presents across slit spherical aberration signatures for ArF scanners collected using this method. The technique can successfully correlate these signatures with Litel lens aberration data and Nikon OCD data for spherical aberration errors as small as 10m?. ACLV contributions from such small spherical errors can be quantified using this method. This provides the lithographer with an important tool to evaluate, qualify and match advanced scanners to improve across chip line width variation control.

Wang, Changan; Zhang, Gary; Tan, Colin L.; Atkinson, Chris; Boehm, Mark A.; Brown, Jay M.; Godfrey, David; Littau, Michael E.; Raymond, Christopher J.

2003-06-01

168

A paint-brush laser range scanner Lyubomir Zagorchev and A. Ardeshir Goshtasby  

E-print Network

A paint-brush laser range scanner Lyubomir Zagorchev and A. Ardeshir Goshtasby Computer Science and Engineering Department, Wright State University, Dayton, OH 45435 Abstract A new hand-held laser range scanner are presented. Keywords: Laser range scanner; 3-D scanner; Hand-held scanner; Object-centered scanning; image

Goshtasby, Arthur Ardeshir

169

Scanner OPC signatures: automatic vendor-to-vendor OPE matching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As 193nm lithography continues to be stretched and the k1 factor decreases, optical proximity correction (OPC) has become a vital part of the lithographer's tool kit. Unfortunately, as is now well known, the design variations of lithographic scanners from different vendors cause them to have slightly different optical-proximity effect (OPE) behavior, meaning that they print features through pitch in distinct ways. This in turn means that their response to OPC is not the same, and that an OPC solution designed for a scanner from Company 1 may or may not work properly on a scanner from Company 2. Since OPC is not inexpensive, that causes trouble for chipmakers using more than one brand of scanner. Clearly a scanner-matching procedure is needed to meet this challenge. Previously, automatic matching has only been reported for scanners of different tool generations from the same manufacturer. In contrast, scanners from different companies have been matched using expert tuning and adjustment techniques, frequently requiring laborious test exposures. Automatic matching between scanners from Company 1 and Company 2 has remained an unsettled problem. We have recently solved this problem and introduce a novel method to perform the automatic matching. The success in meeting this challenge required three enabling factors. First, we recognized the strongest drivers of OPE mismatch and are thereby able to reduce the information needed about a tool from another supplier to that information readily available from all modern scanners. Second, we developed a means of reliably identifying the scanners' optical signatures, minimizing dependence on process parameters that can cloud the issue. Third, we carefully employed standard statistical techniques, checking for robustness of the algorithms used and maximizing efficiency. The result is an automatic software system that can predict an OPC matching solution for scanners from different suppliers without requiring expert intervention.

Renwick, Stephen P.

2009-03-01

170

Triple bar, high efficiency mechanical sealer  

DOEpatents

A clamp with a bottom clamp bar that has a planar upper surface is provided. The clamp may also include a top clamp bar connected to the bottom clamp bar, and a pressure distribution bar between the top clamp bar and the bottom clamp bar. The pressure distribution bar may have a planar lower surface in facing relation to the upper surface of the bottom clamp bar. An object is capable of being disposed in a clamping region between the upper surface and the lower surface. The width of the planar lower surface may be less than the width of the upper surface within the clamping region. Also, the pressure distribution bar may be capable of being urged away from the top clamp bar and towards the bottom clamp bar.

Pak, Donald J.; Hawkins, Samantha A.; Young, John E.

2013-03-19

171

Changes in smoking-related norms in bars resulting from California's Smoke-Free Workplace Act.  

PubMed

California's Smoke-Free Workplace Act--CA Labor Code Sec. 6404.5(a)--was extended to bars in 1998. This article analyzes changes in normative beliefs and behaviors related to bar smoking in the decade following the adoption of the Act. In a series of studies evaluating the smoke-free workplace law in bars, researchers conducted extensive observations and interviews with bar staff and patrons, health officials, and law enforcement personnel in three California counties. Smoking outside became a normal pause in the social environment and created a new type of bar socializing for outside smokers. Although some bar owners and staff reported initially resenting the responsibility to uphold the law, once norms regarding cigarettes and smoking began changing, bar workers experienced less conflict in upholding the law. Non-smoking behavior within bars also became the normative behavior for bar patrons. California's Smoke-Free Workplace Act has both reflected and encouraged normative beliefs and behaviors related to smoking in bars. The findings indicate that such shifts are possible even in contexts where smoking behaviors and attitudes supporting smoking were deeply entrenched. Recommendations include attending to the synergistic effect of education and policy in effective tobacco control programs. PMID:23705511

Satterlund, Travis D; Lee, Juliet P; Moore, Roland S

2012-01-01

172

Maximal dismounts from high bar.  

PubMed

In men's artistic gymnastics the triple straight somersault dismount from the high bar has yet to be performed in competition. The present study used a simulation model of a gymnast and the high bar apparatus (J. Appl. Biomech. 19(2003a) 119) to determine whether a gymnast could produce the required angular momentum and flight to complete a triple straight somersault dismount. Optimisations were carried out to maximise the margin for error in timing the bar release for a given number of straight somersaults in flight. The amount of rotation potential (number of straight somersaults) the model could produce whilst maintaining a realistic margin for error was determined. A simulation model of aerial movement (J. Biomech.23 (1990) 85) was used to find what would be possible with this amount of rotation potential. The model was able to produce sufficient angular momentum and time in the air to complete a triple straight somersault dismount. The margin for error when releasing the bar using the optimum technique was 28 ms, which is small when compared with the mean margin for error determined for high bar finalists at the 2000 Sydney Olympic Games (55 ms). Although the triple straight somersault dismount is theoretically possible, it would require close to maximum effort and precise timing of the release from the bar. However, when the model was required to have a realistic margin for error, it was able to produce sufficient angular momentum for a double twisting triple somersault dismount. PMID:16154409

Hiley, Michael J; Yeadon, Maurice R

2005-11-01

173

19. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING AIR POLICE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

19. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - AIR POLICE SITE SECURITY OFFICE WITH "SITE PERIMETER STATUS PANEL" AND REAL TIME VIDEO DISPLAY OUTPUT FROM VIDEO CAMERA SYSTEM AT SECURITY FENCE LOCATIONS. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

174

26. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING OPERATIONS CENTER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

26. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - OPERATIONS CENTER - MWOC IN OPERATION AT 1945 ZULU TIME, 26 OCTOBER, 1999. "SPACE TRACK BOARD" DATA SHOWING ITEMS #16609 MIR (RUSSIA) AND #25544 ISS (INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION) BEING TRACKED. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

175

29. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING FLOOR 3A ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

29. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - FLOOR 3A ("A" FACE) AT SYSTEM LAYOUT GRID 17. GENERAL OBLIQUE VIEW OF "A" FACE INTERIOR SHOWING RADAR EMITTER/ANTENNA INTERFACE ELECTRONICS. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

176

ONE-SHOT RANGE SCANNER USING COPLANARITY CONSTRAINTS Ryo Furukawa,  

E-print Network

or faces with dynamic expres- sions, 3D scanners using high-speed structured light systems have been using structured light have been proposed. Many of these systems use either mul- tiple patterns scanners are widely used for actual 3D model acquisition process [1]. Especially, structured light based

Tokyo, University of

177

Laser excited confocal microscope fluorescence scanner and method  

DOEpatents

A fluorescent scanner is designed for scanning the fluorescence from a fluorescence labeled separated sample on a sample carrier. The scanner includes a confocal microscope for illuminating a predetermined volume of the sample carrier and/or receiving and processing fluorescence emissions from the volume to provide a display of the separated sample. 8 figs.

Mathies, R.A.; Peck, K.

1992-02-25

178

21. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING LOOKING AT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

21. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - LOOKING AT DISC STORAGE SYSTEMS A AND B (A OR B ARE REDUNDANT SYSTEMS), ONE MAINFRAME COMPUTER ON LINE, ONE ON STANDBY WITH STORAGE TAPE, ONE ON STANDBY WITHOUT TAPE INSTALLED. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

179

20. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING IN COMPUTER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - IN COMPUTER ROOM LOOKING AT "CONSOLIDATED MAINTENANCE OPERATIONS CENTER" JOB AREA AND OPERATION WORK CENTER. TASKS INCLUDE RADAR MAINTENANCE, COMPUTER MAINTENANCE, CYBER COMPUTER MAINTENANCE AND RELATED ACTIVITIES. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

180

Quantitative Assay for Starch by Colorimetry Using a Desktop Scanner  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The procedure to produce standard curve for starch concentration measurement by image analysis using a color scanner and computer for data acquisition and color analysis is described. Color analysis is performed by a Visual Basic program that measures red, green, and blue (RGB) color intensities for pixels within the scanner image.

Matthews, Kurt R.; Landmark, James D.; Stickle, Douglas F.

2004-01-01

181

Linearization of electrostatically actuated surface micromachined 2-D optical scanner  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an effective method of linearizing the electrostatic transfer characteristics of micromachined two-dimensional (2-D) scanners. The orthogonal scan angles of surface micromachined polysilicon scanner are controlled by using quadrant electrodes for electrostatic actuation. By using a pair of differential voltages over a bias voltage, we could improve the distortion of projected images from 72% to only 13%. A

Hiroshi Toshiyoshi; Wibool Piyawattanametha; Cheng-Ta Chan; Ming C. Wu

2001-01-01

182

10. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING LOOKING AT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - LOOKING AT SOUTHWEST CORNER "B" FACE AND "C" FACE ON WEST AND EVAPORATIVE COOLING TOWER AT NORTH. VIEW IS LOOKING NORTH 45° EAST. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

183

A cone beam CT scanner without moving parts  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a cone beam CT scanner without moving parts. The proposed scanner has a large number of small, stationary x-ray sources that are aligned along a specially shaped source curve. It also has a stationary detector strip with a large area and a special shaping. The sources are based on carbon nanotube field emitters. The detector is assembled from

Hermann Schomberg; Randy Luhta; Rainer Pietig

2008-01-01

184

Development of a novel laser range scanner Thomas S. Pheiffera  

E-print Network

Development of a novel laser range scanner Thomas S. Pheiffera , Brian Lennonb , Amber L. Simpsona Pathfinder Therapeutics, Inc., Nashville, TN 37204 ABSTRACT Laser range scanning an organ surface laser range scanner with integrated tracking was designed, developed, and analyzed with the goal

Miga, Michael I.

185

Planar landmark detection using a specific arrangement of LIDAR scanners  

Microsoft Academic Search

All terrestrial applications which depend on a GPS receiver for a precise position fix suffer in the urban environments. A Terrestrial Mobile Mapping System is one such application. We have been working on a Terrestrial LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging)scanner (or Laser scanner) based Mobile Mapping System (MMS) in our laboratory. To aid the localization of our moving mapping platform

Keerthi Narayana; Francois Goulette; Bruno Steux

2010-01-01

186

Study of PET scanner designs using clinical metrics to optimize the scanner axial FOV and crystal thickness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study is to understand the trade-off between crystal thickness and scanner axial field-of-view FOV (AFOV) for clinical PET imaging. Clinical scanner design has evolved towards 20-25 mm thick crystals and 16-22 cm long scanner AFOV, as well as time-of-flight (TOF) imaging. While Monte Carlo studies demonstrate that longer AFOV and thicker crystals will lead to higher scanner sensitivity, cost has prohibited the building of commercial scanners with >22 cm AFOV. In this study, we performed a series of system simulations to optimize the use of a given amount of crystal material by evaluating the impact on system sensitivity and noise equivalent counts (NEC), as well as image quality in terms of lesion detectability. We evaluated two crystal types (LSO and LaBr3) and fixed the total crystal volume used for each type (8.2 L of LSO and 17.1 L of LaBr3) while varying the crystal thickness and scanner AFOV. In addition, all imaging times were normalized so that the total scan time needed to scan a 100 cm long object with multiple bed positions was kept constant. Our results show that the highest NEC cm-1 in a 35 cm diameter ×70 cm long line source cylinder is achieved for an LSO scanner with 10 mm long crystals and AFOV of 36 cm, while for LaBr3 scanners, the highest NEC cm-1 is obtained with 20 mm long crystals and an AFOV of 38 cm. Lesion phantom simulations show that the best lesion detection performance is achieved in scanners with long AFOV (?36 cm) and using thin crystals (?10 mm of LSO and ?20 mm of LaBr3). This is due to a combination of improved NEC, as well as improved lesion contrast estimation due to better spatial resolution in thinner crystals. Alternatively, for lesion detection performance similar to that achieved in standard clinical scanner designs, the long AFOV scanners can be used to reduce the total scan time without increasing the amount of crystal used in the scanner. In addition, for LaBr3 based scanners, the reduced lesion contrast relative to LSO based scanners requires improved timing resolution and longer scan times in order to achieve lesion detectability similar to that achieved in an LSO scanner with similar NEC cm-1.

Surti, S.; Werner, M. E.; Karp, J. S.

2013-06-01

187

Echelle crossed grating millimeter wave beam scanner.  

PubMed

We present a two-dimensional, active, millimeter-wave, electronic beam scanner, with Doppler capabilities for stand-off imaging. The two-dimensional scan is achieved by mapping the millimeter wave spectrum to space using a pair of crossed gratings. The active transceiver and heterodyne quadrature detection allow the measurement of the relative phase between two consecutive measurements and the synthesis of the scene's Doppler signature. The frame rate of the imager is currently limited by the sweep rate of the vector network analyzer which is used to drive the millimeter wave extenders. All of the beam steering components are passive and can be designed to operate at any wavelength. The system design, characterization and measurements are presented and further uses and improvements are suggested. PMID:24977888

Furxhi, Orges; Marks, Daniel L; Brady, David J

2014-06-30

188

Laser Wire Scanner Development on CTF II  

E-print Network

A laser wire scanner is under development at CERN in the framework of the Compact Linear Collider study (CLIC). A first test has been carried out at the CLIC Test Facility II (CTF II) with the aim of developing a beam profile monitor for a low energy, high charge electron beam. In our set-up a 2.5 mJ, 1047 nm, 4 ps laser pulse interacts with a 50 MeV, 1 nC, 4 ps electron bunch. A scintillator detects up to 600 X-ray photons, with an average energy of 17 keV. In the present status of the experiment Thomson photons have been observed, but the signal to noise ratio is however still too low for an accurate profile measurement.

Bosser, Jacques; Bravin, Enrico; D'Amico, T E; Döbert, Steffen; Hutchins, S; Lefèvre, T; MacCaferri, R; Penn, G; Blair, G A; Kamps, T

2002-01-01

189

Ultra-Miniature Lidar Scanner for Launch Range Data Collection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The most critical component in lidar is its laser scanner, which delivers pulsed or CW laser to target with desirable field of view (FOV). Most existing lidars use a rotating or oscillating mirror for scanning, resulting in several drawbacks. A lidar scanning technology was developed that could achieve very high scanning speed, with an ultra-miniature size and much lighter weight. This technology promises at least a 10x performance improvement in these areas over existing lidar scanners. Features of the proposed ultra-miniature lidar scanner include the ability to make the entire scanner <2 mm in diameter; very high scanning speed (e.g. 5 - 20 kHz, in contrast to several hundred Hz in existing scanners); structure design to meet stringent requirements on size, weight, power, and compactness for various applications; and the scanning speed and FOV can be altered for obtaining high image resolutions of targeted areas and for diversified uses.

Geng, Jason

2012-01-01

190

Bad bars: A review of risk factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bars, inns, taverns, and hotels have been popular settings for recreational alcohol consumption for centuries. The bar is firmly established as an important adjunct of leisure in many societies. Alcohol consumption in bars is mainly convivial, restrained and problem-free. Even so it has long been apparent that heavy drinking in bars is associated with aggression, violence, public disorder and injuries.

J. Green; M. A. Plant

2007-01-01

191

Design Optimization of a TOF, Breast PET Scanner  

PubMed Central

A dedicated breast positron emission tomography (PET) scanner with limited angle geometry can provide flexibility in detector placement around the patient as well as the ability to combine it with other imaging modalities. A primary challenge of a stationary limited angle scanner is the reduced image quality due to artifacts present in the reconstructed image leading to a loss in quantitative information. Previously it has been shown that using time-of-flight (TOF) information in image reconstruction can help reduce these image artifacts arising due to missing angular projections. Our goal in this work is to optimize the TOF, breast scanner design by performing studies for estimating image uniformity and lesion activity uptake as a function of system timing resolution, scanner angular coverage and shape. Our results show that (i) 1.5 × 1.5 × 15 mm3 lutetium oxy-orthosilicate (LSO) crystals provide a high spatial resolution and system sensitivity relative to clinical scanners, (ii) 2/3 angular coverage scanner design with TOF timing resolution less than 600 ps is appropriate for providing a tomographic image with fewer artifacts and good lesion uptake estimation relative to other partial ring designs studied in this work, (iii) a flat scanner design with 2/3 angular coverage is affected more by larger parallax error than a curved scanner geometry with the same angular coverage, but provides more uniform lesion contrast estimate over the imaging field-of-view (FOV), (iv) 2/3 angular coverage, flat, 300 ps TOF scanner design (for short, practical scan times of ? 5 mins per breast) provides similar precision of contrast recovery coefficient (CRC) values to a full curved, non-TOF scanner, and (v) employing depth-of-interaction (DOI) measuring detector and/or implementing resolution modeling (RM) in image reconstruction lead to improved and more uniform spatial resolution and lesion contrast over the whole FOV. PMID:24078744

Lee, Eunsin; Werner, Matthew E.; Karp, Joel S.; Surti, Suleman

2013-01-01

192

Double-Barred Galaxies: I. A Catalog of Barred Galaxies with Stellar Secondary Bars and Inner Disks  

E-print Network

I present a catalog of 67 barred galaxies which contain distinct, elliptical stellar structures inside their bars. Fifty of these are double-barred galaxies: a small-scale, "inner" or "secondary" bar is embedded within a large-scale, "outer" or "primary" bar. I provide homogenized measurements of the sizes, ellipticities, and orientations of both inner and outer bars, along with with global parameters for the galaxies. The other 17 are classified as "inner-disk" galaxies, where a large-scale bar harbors an inner elliptical structure which is aligned with the galaxy's outer disk. Four of the double-barred galaxies also possess inner disks, located in between the inner and outer bars. While the inner-disk classification is ad-hoc -- and undoubtedly includes some inner bars with chance alignments (five such probable cases are identified) -- there is good evidence that inner disks form a statistically distinct population, and that at least some are indeed disks rather than bars. In addition, I list 36 galaxies which may be double-barred, but for which current observations are ambiguous or incomplete, and another 23 galaxies which have been previously suggested as potentially being double-barred, but which are probably *not*. False double-bar identifications are usually due to features such as nuclear rings and spirals being misclassified as bars; I provide some illustrated examples of how this can happen.

Peter Erwin

2003-10-28

193

/bar p/p collider physics  

SciTech Connect

This note encompasses a set of six lectures given at the summer school held at Campos Do Jordao in January of 1989 near Sao Paulo, Brazil. The intent of the lectures was to describe the physics of /bar p/p at CERN and Fermilab. Particular attention has been paid to making a self contained presentation to a prospective audience of graduate students. Since large Monte Carlo codes might not be available to all members of this audience, great reliance was placed on ''back of the envelope estimates.'' Emphasis was also placed on experimental data rather than theoretical speculation, since predictions for, for example, supersymmetric particle production are easily obtained by transcription of formulae already obtained. 9 refs., 67 figs., 2 tabs.

Green, D.

1989-03-01

194

Combination coding control rod position-indicating system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new control rod position-indicating system for water reactors—the combination coding, control rod position-indicating system—is introduced in this paper. The sensor of the system consists of several grouped transformers and one coding bar which is composed of m lengths of magnetic core and q lengths of non-magnetic portion. As the control-rod is withdrawn, the magnetic cores of the coding bar

Jiang Yueyuan; Wang Wenran; Yang Nianzu; Li Dezhong

1996-01-01

195

6.EE Chocolate Bar Sales  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Stephanie is helping her band collect money to fund a field trip. The band decided to sell boxes of chocolate bars. Each bar sells for \\$1.50 and each ...

196

Characterizing proton beam of 6.7 MeV LEDA RFQ by fitting wire-scanner profiles to 3D nonlinear simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quadrupole scans were used to characterize the transverse beam of the LEDA RFQ. The original scan data, obtained when the HEBT was installed immediately downstream of the RFQ, were reanalyzed by fitting to the 3-D nonlinear simulation code IMPACT. All the data in the measured profiles at the wire scanner were used, not just the rms widths. The measured and

W. P. Lysenko; J. D. Gilpatrick; J. Qiang; L. J. Rybarcyk; R. D. Ryne; J. D. Schneider; H. V. Smith; L. M. Young; M. E. Schultze

2001-01-01

197

Design study for Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of dividing the 8-12 micrometer thermal infrared wavelength region into six spectral bands by an airborne line scanner system was investigated. By combining an existing scanner design with a 6 band spectrometer, a system for the remote sensing of Earth resources was developed. The elements in the spectrometer include an off axis reflective collimator, a reflective diffraction grating, a triplet germanium imaging lens, a photoconductive mercury cadmium telluride sensor array, and the mechanical assembly to hold these parts and maintain their optical alignment across a broad temperature range. The existing scanner design was modified to accept the new spectrometer and two field filling thermal reference sources.

Stanich, C. G.; Osterwisch, F. G.; Szeles, D. M.; Houtman, W. H.

1981-01-01

198

Dynamically possible pattern speeds of double bars.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The method to study oscillating potentials of double bars, based on invariant loops, is introduced here in a new way, intended to be more intelligible. Using this method, I show how the orbital structure of a double-barred galaxy (nested bars) changes with the variation of nuclear bar's pattern speed. Not all pattern speeds are allowed when the inner bar rotates in the same direction as the outer bar. Below a certain minimum pattern speed orbital support for the inner bar abruptly disappears, while high values of this speed lead to loops that are increasingly round. For values between these two extremes, loops supporting the inner bar extend further out as its pattern speed decreases, and they become more eccentric and pulsate more. These findings do not apply to counter-rotating inner bars.

Maciejewski, W.

199

Mobile Construction Supply Chain Management Using PDA and Bar Codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Construction project control aims to effec- tively obtain real-time information and enhance dynamic control by utilizing information sharing and connecting involved participants of the projects to reduce construc- tion conflicts and project delays. However, extending the construction project control system to job sites is not con- sidered efficient because using notebooks in a harsh envi- ronment like a construction site

H. Ping Tserng; Ren-Jye Dzeng; Yu-Cheng Lin; Sheng-Tai Lin

2005-01-01

200

Measuring and test equipment control through bar-code technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past several years, the use, tracking, and documentation of measuring and test equipment (M TE) has become a major issue. New regulations are forcing companies to develop new policies for providing use history, traceability, and accountability of M TE. This paper discusses how the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company and located at the

J. D. Crockett; C. C. Carr

1993-01-01

201

LANDSAT-4 horizon scanner performance evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Representative data spans covering a little more than a year since the LANDSAT-4 launch were analyzed to evaluate the flight performance of the satellite's horizon scanner. High frequency noise was filtered out by 128-point averaging. The effects of Earth oblateness and spacecraft altitude variations are modeled, and residual systematic errors are analyzed. A model for the predicted radiance effects is compared with the flight data and deficiencies in the radiance effects modeling are noted. Correction coefficients are provided for a finite Fourier series representation of the systematic errors in the data. Analysis of the seasonal dependence of the coefficients indicates the effects of some early mission problems with the reference attitudes which were computed by the onboard computer using star trackers and gyro data. The effects of sun and moon interference, unexplained anomalies in the data, and sensor noise characteristics and their power spectrum are described. The variability of full orbit data averages is shown. Plots of the sensor data for all the available data spans are included.

Bilanow, S.; Chen, L. C.; Davis, W. M.; Stanley, J. P.

1984-01-01

202

Design of a multisensor optical surface scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A reconfigurable, optical, 3D scanning system with sub-second acquisition of human body surface data was designed and simulated. Sensor elements (digital cameras/light beam projectors) that meet resolution, accuracy, and speed requirements are included in the system design. The sensors are interfaced to video frame grabber(s) under computer control resulting in a modular, low cost system. System operation and data processing are performed using a desktop graphics workstation. Surface data collected with this system can be oversampled to improve resolution and accuracy (viewed by overlapping camera/projector pairs). Multi- resolution data can be collected for different surfaces simultaneously or separately. Modeling and calibration of this reconfigurable system are achieved via a robust optimal estimation technique. Reconstruction software that allows seamless merging of a range data from multiple sensors has been implemented. Laser scanners that acquire body surface range data using one or two sensors require several seconds for data collection. Surface digitization of inaminate objects is feasible with such devices, but their use in human surface metrology is limited due to motion artifacts and occluded surfaces. Use of multiple, independent active sensors providing rapid collection and multi-resolution data enable sampling of complex human surface morphology not otherwise practical. 3D facial surface data has provided accurate measurements used in facial/craniofacial plastic surgery and modern personal protective equipment systems. Whole body data obtained with this new system is applicable to human factors research, medical diagnosis/treatment, and industrial design.

Bhatia, Gulab H.; Smith, Kirk E.; Commean, Paul K.; Whitestone, Jennifer J.; Vannier, Michael W.

1994-10-01

203

Signal response of a laser beam scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A laser beam scanner, used as an angle measuring device in a particular navigation system for mobile robots, has been developed. It measures heading angles to beacons made of vertical stripes of retro-reflective tape. Expressions giving the received power and energy in the pulse, which is generated when a beacon is traversed by the laser beam, are given. Measurements support the derived expressions. The shape and amplitude of the pulse are functions of the range R to the beacon, but at long range the pulse shape and width become independent of range while the dependence of the received amplitude on range becomes R-3. At long range the pulse shape is determined by the Gaussian irradiance distribution in the laser beam and the pulse width is governed by the laser beam divergence and the scanning speed. Design rules for the optimum field of view of the receiving optics and for an electrical filter, which maximizes the signal-to-noise ratio, are proposed. An expression giving a conservative estimate of the signal-to-noise ratio is derived.

Hyyppa, Kalevi

1994-08-01

204

Barred Owl (Strix varia)1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Have you ever been walking in a forest and heard something that sounded like a very loud, piercing scream? Well, it's very likely that you've heard the call of the Barred Owl. The vocalization of this owl sounds like a powerful voice that says \\

Karen Heulett; Mark E. Hostetler; Ronald F. Labisky

205

Agricultural Applications and Requirements for Thermal Infrared Scanners  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some of the applications of thermal scanner data in agriculture are presented along with illustrations of some of the factors affecting the temperature of plants, soil, and water. Examples of thermal imagery are included.

Wiegand, C. L.

1971-01-01

206

Whole-body 3D scanner and scan data report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the first whole-body 3D scanner now available the next adventure confronting the user is what to do with all of the data. While the system was built for anthropologists, it has created interest among users from a wide variety of fields. Users with applications in the fields of anthropology, costume design, garment design, entertainment, VR and gaming have a need for the data in formats unique to their fields. Data from the scanner is being converted to solid models for art and design and NURBS for computer graphics applications. Motion capture has made scan data move and dance. The scanner has created a need for advanced application software just as other scanners have in the past.

Addleman, Stephen R.

1997-03-01

207

Experiments and simulations on a metamaterial based ultrasonic scanner  

E-print Network

Fingerprint scanning is one form of biometrics used to identify individuals. Ultrasonic fingerprint scanners use acoustic waves to obtain the fingerprint image and their performance is invariant to the surface conditions ...

Hizir, Fahri Erinc

2013-01-01

208

Bars and Cold Dark Matter Halos  

E-print Network

The central part of a dark matter halo reacts to the presence and evolution of a bar. Not only does the halo absorb angular momentum from the disk, it can also be compressed and have its shape modified. We study these issues in a series of cosmologically motivated, highly resolved N-body simulations of barred galaxies run under different initial conditions. In all models we find that the inner halo's central density increases. We model this density increase using the standard adiabatic approximation and the modified formula by Gnedin et al. and find that halo mass profiles are better reproduced by this latter. In models with a strong bar, the dark matter in the central region forms a bar-like structure (``dark matter bar''), which rotates together with the normal bar formed by the stellar component (``stellar bar''). The minor-to-major axial ratio of a halo bar changes with radius with a typical value 0.7 in the central disk region. DM bar amplitude is mostly a function of the stellar bar strength. Models in which the bar amplitude increases or stays roughly constant with time, initially large (40%-60%) misalignment between the halo and disk bars quickly decreases with time as the bar grows. The halo bar is nearly aligned with the stellar bar (~10 degrees lag for the halo) after ~2 Gyr. The torque, which the halo bar exerts on the stellar bar, can serve as a mechanism to regulate the angular momentum transfer from the disk to the halo.

P. Colin; O. Valenzuela; A. Klypin

2005-06-26

209

Galaxy Zoo: Observing Secular Evolution Through Bars  

E-print Network

Observations have shown that there is a connection between the presence of a bar and the properties of a galaxy. In a parallel effort, simulations have shown that this connection is consistent with the theory of bar-driven secular evolution. But observational evidence of bar-driven secular evolution has been sparse. In this paper, we use the Galaxy Zoo 2 dataset to look for evidence of this secular evolution. Our sample consists of 13,295 disk galaxies, with an overall bar fraction of 23.6 +/- 0.4%, of which 1,154 barred galaxies also have bar length measurements. These samples are the largest ever used to study the role of bars in disk galaxy evolution. We characterize bars by the bar likelihood, the likelihood a bar is present in a given galaxy, and the bar length. These two bar properties show interesting correlations with the specific star formation rate and the inner central structure of galaxies. Comparing these observations to state-of-the-art simulations of bar evolution, which include live halos and ...

Cheung, Edmond; Masters, Karen L; Nichol, Robert C; Bosma, A; Bell, Eric F; Faber, S M; Koo, David C; Lintott, Chris; Melvin, Thomas; Schawinski, Kevin; Skibba, Ramin A; Willett, Kyle W

2013-01-01

210

LANDSAT-4 multispectral scanner (MSS) subsystem radiometric characterization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The multispectral band scanner (mass) and its spectral characteristics are described and methods are given for relating video digital levels on computer compatible tapes to radiance into the sensor. Topics covered include prelaunch calibration procedures and postlaunch radiometric processng. Examples of current data resident on the MSS image processing system are included. The MSS on LANDSAT 4 is compared with the scanners on earlier LANDSAT satellites.

Alford, W. (editor); Barker, J. (editor); Clark, B. P.; Dasgupta, R.

1983-01-01

211

47. View of "dry air inlets" to waveguides entering scanner ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

47. View of "dry air inlets" to waveguides entering scanner building 105. Dried air is generated under pressure by Ingersoll-Rand dehumidified/dessicator and compressor system. View is at entrance from passageway that links into corner of scanner building. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

212

A compact optical fiber scanner for medical imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A compact fiber optic scanner for biomedical applications such as optical coherent tomography has been designed, fabricated and tested. The scanner is designed as an in vivo device and composed of an optical fiber coated with nickel-powder loaded paint for external magnetic actuation. The compactness of the imaging device makes it suitable for applications where size, precision and low power consumption is critical. We have previously demonstrated the principles utilizing magnetic actuation for the fiber scanner coated with magnetic gel. This work focused on verification and optimization of the scanner operation. The magnetic properties of the nickel particle mixed with paint were characterized using an alternating gradient magnetometer. The optical scanner is externally actuated by an electromagnet and so it does not require a voltage or current supply in the probe itself. The displacements of the scanner were recorded using a position sensitive detector. The result showed a 0.8-mm displacement under the influence of a static magnetic field of 17.6 KA/m in a fiber with a moveable length of 4.2cm. Dynamic analysis showed a displacement of 0.83mm with an input current amplitude of 41mA and a magnetic field of 2.4 KA/m. The measurements are in good agreement with the theoretical lumped-element calculations. Finite-element analysis was performed and the results agree with the theoretical and experimental results. The static and dynamic displacements of the fiber optic scanner depend on the thickness and length of the magnetic coating. Thus, scanners for different displacements and operating frequencies can be designed by varying the coating thickness and length.

Dhaubanjar, Naresh; Hu, Hans; Dave, Digent; Phuyal, Pratibha; Sin, Jeongsik; Stephanou, Harry; Chiao, J.-C.

2007-01-01

213

CT Coronary Angiography: 256Slice and 320Detector Row Scanners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) has rapidly evolved from 4-detector row systems in 1998 to 256-slice and 320-detector\\u000a row CT systems. With smaller detector element size and faster gantry rotation speed, spatial and temporal resolution of the\\u000a 64-detector MDCT scanners have made coronary artery imaging a reliable clinical test. Wide-area coverage MDCT, such as the\\u000a 256-slice and 320-detector row MDCT scanners,

Edward M. Hsiao; Frank J. Rybicki; Michael Steigner

2010-01-01

214

Development of a 3D CT scanner using cone beam  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to acquire 3D data of high contrast objects such as bone, lung and vessels enhanced by contrast media for use in 3D image processing, we have developed a 3D CT-scanner using cone beam x ray. The 3D CT-scanner consists of a gantry and a patient couch. The gantry consists of an x-ray tube designed for cone beam CT

Masahiro Endo; Nozomu Kamagata; Kazumasa Sato; Yuichi Hattori; Shigeo Kobayashi; Shinichi Mizuno; Masao Jimbo; Masahiro Kusakabe

1995-01-01

215

Pedestrian Tracking Using Single-row Laser Range Scanners  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research, we propose a novel method of monitoring and tracking pedestrians in wide and open area, such as shopping mall and exhibition hall, using a number of laser range scanners (LD-A). LD-A, produced by IBEO Lasertechnik, is a single-row type laser range scanner with a high profiling rate of lOHz and wide viewing angle of 270 degree. LD-As

Huijing Zhao; Ryosuke Shibasaki; Nobuaki Ishihara

2002-01-01

216

Optical Scanner for Immunoassays With Up-Converting Phosphorescent Labels  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 2-D optical scanner was developed for the imaging and quantification of up-converting phosphor (UCP) labels in immunoassays. With resolution better than 500 mum, a scan rate of 0.4 mm\\/s, and a 1-2% coefficient of variation for repeatability, this scanner achieved a detection limit of fewer than 100 UCP particles in an 8.8 times 104 mum2 area and a dynamic

Janice J. Li; Amy L. Ouellette; Laurent Giovangrandi; David E. Cooper; Antonio J. Ricco; Gregory T. A. Kovacs

2008-01-01

217

Basic Business and Economics: Understanding the Uses of the Universal Product Code  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Universal Product Code (UPC), the two-part food labeling and packaging code which is both human- and electronic scanner-readable. Discusses how it affects both consumer and business, and suggests how to teach the UPC code to business education students. (HD)

Blockhus, Wanda

1977-01-01

218

Application of airborne laser scanner - aerial navigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation explores the use of an Airborne Laser Scanner (ALS) for use in aircraft Terrain-Referenced Navigation (TRN). Position estimation techniques developed in this dissertation enable the use of large sets of high accuracy ALS measurements to solve for position in real-time. The explored techniques were then used to design, implement, and---for the first time ever---fly a real-time ALS-based TERRain Aided Inertial Navigator (TERRAIN) precision approach system. During the flight tests, the system provided meter-level horizontal and vertical positioning accuracies in real-time. The ALS-based TRN techniques discussed in the dissertation are constrained to the information found in the terrain shape domain. The data acquisition, pre-processing, and position estimation techniques of ALS TRN vary significantly from traditional radar altimeter-based TRN primarily due to differences in the measurement mechanism used in both TRN systems. First, traditional radar altimeter-based TRN senses the terrain contours traversed in the along-track direction, whereas ALS-based TRN makes measurements in the along-track and in the cross-track directions. The second difference is that the ALS laser's milli-radian beamwidth has sufficient resolution to identify not only the ground, but also objects on the ground such as buildings. A radar altimeter with a beamwidth of several degrees can not observe the same level of detail. These differences increase the spectral content of the ground measurement data in the ALS-based system thus permitting high-accuracy position estimates. The described ALS TRN navigation techniques include methods to estimate the position based on the best match between ALS data and a high resolution/accuracy terrain database. Finally, the dissertation explores the certification path for an ALS-based landing system.

Campbell, Jacob L.

219

A stationary digital breast tomosynthesis scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A prototype stationary digital breast tomosynthesis (s-DBT) system has been developed by retrofitting a Hologic Selenia Dimension rotating gantry tomosynthesis scanner with a spatially distributed carbon nanotube (CNT) x-ray source array. The goal is to improve the system spatial resolution by removing the x-ray tube motion induced focal spot blurring. The CNT x-ray source array comprises 31 individually addressable x-ray beams covering 30° angular span. Each x-ray beam has a minimum focal spot size of 0.64×0.61mm (full-width-at-half-maximum), a stationary W anode operating up to 50kVp, and 1mm thick Al filter. The flux from each beam is regulated and varied using dedicated control electronics. The maximum tube current is determined by the heat load of the stationary anode and depends on the energy, pulse width and the focal spot size used. Stable operation at 28kVp, 27mA tube current, 250msec pulse width and 38mA tube current, 183msec pulse width per exposure was achieved with extended lifetime. The standard ACR phantom was imaged and analyzed to evaluate the image quality. The actual scanning speed depends on the number of views and the readout time of the x-ray detector. With the present detector, 6 second scanning time at either 15 views or 31 views can be achieved at 100mAs total imaging dose with a detector readout time of 240msec.

Qian, Xin; Tucker, Andrew; Gidcumb, Emily; Lu, Jianping; Zhou, Otto; Spronk, Derrek; Sprenger, Frank; Zhang, Yiheng; Kennedy, Don; Farbizio, Tom; Jing, Zhenxue

2012-03-01

220

BAR proteins in cancer and blood disorders  

PubMed Central

Remodeling of the membrane and cytoskeleton is involved in a wide range of normal and pathologic cellular function. These are complex, highly-coordinated biochemical and biophysical processes involving dozens of proteins. Serving as a scaffold for a variety of proteins and possessing a domain that interacts with plasma membranes, the BAR family of proteins contribute to a range of cellular functions characterized by membrane and cytoskeletal remodeling. There are several subgroups of BAR proteins: BAR, N-BAR, I-BAR, and F-BAR. They differ in their ability to induce angles of membrane curvature and in their recruitment of effector proteins. Evidence is accumulating that BAR proteins contribute to cancer cell invasion, T cell trafficking, phagocytosis, and platelet production. In this review, we discuss the physiological function of BAR proteins and discuss how they contribute to blood and cancer disorders. PMID:22773959

Chen, Yolande; Aardema, Jorie; Misra, Ashish; Corey, Seth J

2012-01-01

221

Generation of sand bars under surface waves  

E-print Network

(cont.) Experiments were performed in a large wave flume to validate the theory and to study additional aspects of sand bar evolution. The wave envelope and bar profile were recorded for low and high beach reflection, ...

Hancock, Matthew James, 1975-

2005-01-01

222

Diode laser bars fabricated with pulsed anodization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We report diode laser bar fabrication using pulsed anodization to form isolation trenches and an electrically insulating native oxide layer in one processing step. This technique results in a reduction in laser bar fabrication steps.

D. A. Hudson, M. J. Grove, P. S. Zory, M. A. Emanuel, R. J. Beach

1994-01-01

223

Adventures of a tidally induced bar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using N-body simulations, we study the properties of a bar induced in a discy dwarf galaxy as a result of tidal interaction with the Milky Way. The bar forms at the first pericentre passage and survives until the end of the evolution at 10 Gyr. Fourier decomposition of the bar reveals that only even modes are significant and preserve a hierarchy so that the bar mode is always the strongest. They show a characteristic profile with a maximum, similar to simulated bars forming in isolated galaxies and observed bars in real galaxies. We adopt the maximum of the bar mode as a measure of the bar strength and we estimate the bar length by comparing the density profiles along the bar and perpendicular to it. The bar strength and the bar length decrease with time, mainly at pericentres, as a result of tidal torques acting at those times and not to secular evolution. The pattern speed of the bar varies significantly on a time-scale of 1 Gyr and is controlled by the orientation of the tidal torque from the Milky Way. The bar is never tidally locked, but we discover a hint of a 5/2 orbital resonance between the third and fourth pericentre passage. The speed of the bar decreases in the long run so that the bar changes from initially rather fast to slow in the later stages. The boxy/peanut shape is present for some time and its occurrence is preceded by a short period of buckling instability.

?okas, E. L.; Athanassoula, E.; Debattista, V. P.; Valluri, M.; Pino, A. del; Semczuk, M.; Gajda, G.; Kowalczyk, K.

2014-12-01

224

Sports Nutrition Products PowerBar Protein  

E-print Network

Sports Nutrition Products PowerBar Protein Plus 30%, 55g Bar · Contains 16.7g protein (sports contain caffeine for alertness / focus. PowerBar ProteinPlus 50%, 500 ml · Ready to drink protein shake. · Therefore ideal for those wishing to purchase a ready made drink to take away. · Contains

Heinke, Dietmar

225

RED MOUNTAIN BAR PUMPED STOR AGE PR OJEC T Red Mountain Bar Pumped Storage Project  

E-print Network

RED MOUNTAIN BAR PUMPED STOR AGE PR OJEC T Red Mountain Bar Pumped Storage Project Continuing a pumped storage project to generate electricity during peak demand. The proposed Red Mountain Bar Pumped for irrigation water storage, flood control, power production and recreation, the Red Mountain Bar Pumped Storage

Laughlin, Robert B.

226

Color accuracy and reproducibility in whole slide imaging scanners  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we propose a work-flow for color reproduction in whole slide imaging (WSI) scanners such that the colors in the scanned images match to the actual slide color and the inter scanner variation is minimum. We describe a novel method of preparation and verification of the color phantom slide, consisting of a standard IT8- target transmissive film, which is used in color calibrating and profiling the WSI scanner. We explore several ICC compliant techniques in color calibration/profiling and rendering intents for translating the scanner specific colors to the standard display (sRGB) color-space. Based on the quality of color reproduction in histopathology tissue slides, we propose the matrix-based calibration/profiling and absolute colorimetric rendering approach. The main advantage of the proposed work-ow is that it is compliant to the ICC standard, applicable to color management systems in different platforms, and involves no external color measurement devices. We measure objective color performance using CIE-DeltaE2000 metric, where DeltaE values below 1 is considered imperceptible. Our evaluation 14 phantom slides, manufactured according to the proposed method, show an average inter-slide color difference below 1 DeltaE. The proposed work-flow is implemented and evaluated in 35 Philips Ultra Fast Scanners (UFS). The results show that the average color difference between a scanner and the reference is 3.5 DeltaE, and among the scanners is 3.1 DeltaE. The improvement on color performance upon using the proposed method is apparent on the visual color quality of the tissues scans.

Shrestha, Prarthana; Hulsken, Bas

2014-03-01

227

Galaxy Zoo: Observing Secular Evolution through Bars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we use the Galaxy Zoo 2 data set to study the behavior of bars in disk galaxies as a function of specific star formation rate (SSFR) and bulge prominence. Our sample consists of 13,295 disk galaxies, with an overall (strong) bar fraction of 23.6% ± 0.4%, of which 1154 barred galaxies also have bar length (BL) measurements. These samples are the largest ever used to study the role of bars in galaxy evolution. We find that the likelihood of a galaxy hosting a bar is anticorrelated with SSFR, regardless of stellar mass or bulge prominence. We find that the trends of bar likelihood and BL with bulge prominence are bimodal with SSFR. We interpret these observations using state-of-the-art simulations of bar evolution that include live halos and the effects of gas and star formation. We suggest our observed trends of bar likelihood with SSFR are driven by the gas fraction of the disks, a factor demonstrated to significantly retard both bar formation and evolution in models. We interpret the bimodal relationship between bulge prominence and bar properties as being due to the complicated effects of classical bulges and central mass concentrations on bar evolution and also to the growth of disky pseudobulges by bar evolution. These results represent empirical evidence for secular evolution driven by bars in disk galaxies. This work suggests that bars are not stagnant structures within disk galaxies but are a critical evolutionary driver of their host galaxies in the local universe (z < 1). .

Cheung, Edmond; Athanassoula, E.; Masters, Karen L.; Nichol, Robert C.; Bosma, A.; Bell, Eric F.; Faber, S. M.; Koo, David C.; Lintott, Chris; Melvin, Thomas; Schawinski, Kevin; Skibba, Ramin A.; Willett, Kyle W.

2013-12-01

228

Galaxy Zoo: Observing Secular Evolution Through Bars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this talk, I use the Galaxy Zoo 2 dataset to study the behavior of bars in disk galaxies as a function of specific star formation rate (SSFR), and inner galactic structure, i.e., the prominence of the bulge as parameterized by Sérsic index and central surface stellar mass density. Our sample consists of 13,295 disk galaxies, with an overall bar fraction of 23.6 ± 0.4%, of which 1,154 barred galaxies also have bar length measurements. These samples are the largest ever used to study the role of bars in disk galaxy evolution. I find that the likelihood of a galaxy hosting a bar is anti-correlated with SSFR, regardless of stellar mass or bulge prominence. I find that the trends of bar likelihood with bulge prominence are bimodal with SSFR, i.e., in star-forming galaxies, bulges are more prominent in galaxies more likely to host bars, while in quiescent disk galaxies, bars are less frequent where there are prominent bulges. Our observations of bar length reveal a complex picture. In star-forming disks, longer bars are found where the bulges are more prominent, while in quiescent disks there is a maximum in the average bar length as a function of bulge prominence. I interpret these observations using state-of-the-art simulations of bar evolution which include live halos and the effects of gas and star formation. I suggest our observed trends of bar likelihood with SSFR are driven by the gas fraction of the disks; a factor demonstrated to significantly retard both bar formation and evolution in models. I interpret the bimodal relationship between bulge prominence and bar properties as due to the complicated effects of classical bulges and central mass concentrations on bar evolution, and also to the growth of disky pseudobulges by bar evolution. These results represent empirical evidence for secular evolution driven by bars in disk galaxies. This work suggests that bars are not stagnant structures within disk galaxies, but are a critical evolutionary driver of their host galaxies in the local universe (z < 1).

Cheung, Edmond; Athanassoula, L.; Masters, K.; Faber, S. M.; Koo, D. C.; Zoo, Galaxy

2014-01-01

229

An RF dosimeter for independent SAR measurement in MRI scanners  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The monitoring and management of radio frequency (RF) exposure is critical for ensuring magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) safety. Commercial MRI scanners can overestimate specific absorption rates (SAR) and improperly restrict clinical MRI scans or the application of new MRI sequences, while underestimation of SAR can lead to tissue heating and thermal injury. Accurate scanner-independent RF dosimetry is essential for measuring actual exposure when SAR is critical for ensuring regulatory compliance and MRI safety, for establishing RF exposure while evaluating interventional leads and devices, and for routine MRI quality assessment by medical physicists. However, at present there are no scanner-independent SAR dosimeters. Methods: An SAR dosimeter with an RF transducer comprises two orthogonal, rectangular copper loops and a spherical MRI phantom. The transducer is placed in the magnet bore and calibrated to approximate the resistive loading of the scanner's whole-body birdcage RF coil for human subjects in Philips, GE and Siemens 3 tesla (3T) MRI scanners. The transducer loop reactances are adjusted to minimize interference with the transmit RF field (B{sub 1}) at the MRI frequency. Power from the RF transducer is sampled with a high dynamic range power monitor and recorded on a computer. The deposited power is calibrated and tested on eight different MRI scanners. Whole-body absorbed power vs weight and body mass index (BMI) is measured directly on 26 subjects. Results: A single linear calibration curve sufficed for RF dosimetry at 127.8 MHz on three different Philips and three GE 3T MRI scanners. An RF dosimeter operating at 123.2 MHz on two Siemens 3T scanners required a separate transducer and a slightly different calibration curve. Measurement accuracy was ?3%. With the torso landmarked at the xiphoid, human adult whole?body absorbed power varied approximately linearly with patient weight and BMI. This indicates that whole-body torso SAR is on average independent of the imaging subject, albeit with fluctuations. Conclusions: Our 3T RF dosimeter and transducers accurately measure RF exposure in body-equivalent loads and provide scanner-independent assessments of whole-body RF power deposition for establishing safety compliance useful for MRI sequence and device testing.

Qian, Di; Bottomley, Paul A. [Division of MR Research, Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21287 and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States)] [Division of MR Research, Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21287 and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); El-Sharkawy, AbdEl-Monem M.; Edelstein, William A., E-mail: w.edelstein@gmail.com [Division of MR Research, Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21287 (United States)

2013-12-15

230

Evaluation of GER airborne scanner data for environmental applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In May/June 1989 the German Aerospace Research Establishment (DLR) Institute for Optoelectronics was involved in the first European Imaging Spectroscopy Airborne Campaign (EISAC). Test sites in various countries of the European Community were flown with the GER-Il Scanner. In the presented study the preprocessed and atmospherically corrected data was used for a spectral analysis of an old vegetation covered waste deposit. 2. THE GER-Il Scanner The GER-lI Scanner (Geophysical Environment Corp. ) is a 63 channel imaging spectrometer with three seperate line arrays of detectors which view the ground through the same aperture via a rotating mirror. It contains 31 channels in the visible I near infrared (VIS/NIR) wavelength region (470 nm - 840 nm sampling interval 12. 3 nm) 4 channels between 1440 nm to 1900 nm (sampling interval 120 nm) and another 28 channels in the short wave infrared (SWIR) wavelength region (2000 nm - 2450 nm sampling interval 16. 3 nm). The IFOV was selected to be 3. 3 mrad which leads to a pixel size of 10 m at 3000 m flying altitude. The high spectral and spatial resolution make this scanner a useful tool for environmental studies. 3. DATA PROCESSING As a first evaluation step the GER-Scanner data was preprocessed including a roll- lag- and slope-correction1. Comparison of ground vegetation spectra measured with the IRIS-Mark IV spectroradiometer (GER-Corp. ) during the time of the overflight yielded

Lehmann, Frank; Rothfuss, H.; Richter, Rudolf

1990-07-01

231

Aviation focused eddy current and ultrasonic scanner assessment  

SciTech Connect

Ultrasonic and eddy current C-scan images have been produced for non-destructive inspection (NDI) with laboratory scanners for over 25 years. In the last five years, portable mechanical scanner designs have been improved and modified so that they are suitable for application on aircraft structures. Eddy current and ultrasonic C-scan inspections are significant because they can be used for early detection of hidden damage. As an aid to the airline inspection industry, an evaluation of commercially available portable scanner systems and methodologies used for C-scan imaging of eddy current and ultrasonic inspection data was performed. Eight basic scanner designs were identified and scanner systems from eleven different companies were evaluated. Vendors of the equipment provided hands-on demonstrations on actual aircraft samples in the Federal Aviation Agency (FAA) Aging Aircraft Nondestructive Inspection Validation Center (AANC). From observations and information recorded during the demonstrations, capabilities and limitations of the design, portability, articulation, performance, usability, and computer hardware/software were tabulated.

Gieske, J.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1995-07-01

232

A Synchronization-Desynchronization Code for Natural Communication Signals  

E-print Network

A Synchronization-Desynchronization Code for Natural Communication Signals Jan Benda1,3, Andr the representation of moving bars in area 17 of cats (Engel et al., 1992) to higher level integration of faces

Benda, Jan

233

Universal Product Code From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia  

E-print Network

Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand and in other countries for tracking trade items in stores. Its most common standards. Some retailers (clothing, furniture) do not use the GS1 System (other bar code symbologies, other

Kraft, Hanspeter

234

Improved Scanners for Microscopic Hyperspectral Imaging  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved scanners to be incorporated into hyperspectral microscope-based imaging systems have been invented. Heretofore, in microscopic imaging, including spectral imaging, it has been customary to either move the specimen relative to the optical assembly that includes the microscope or else move the entire assembly relative to the specimen. It becomes extremely difficult to control such scanning when submicron translation increments are required, because the high magnification of the microscope enlarges all movements in the specimen image on the focal plane. To overcome this difficulty, in a system based on this invention, no attempt would be made to move either the specimen or the optical assembly. Instead, an objective lens would be moved within the assembly so as to cause translation of the image at the focal plane: the effect would be equivalent to scanning in the focal plane. The upper part of the figure depicts a generic proposed microscope-based hyperspectral imaging system incorporating the invention. The optical assembly of this system would include an objective lens (normally, a microscope objective lens) and a charge-coupled-device (CCD) camera. The objective lens would be mounted on a servomotor-driven translation stage, which would be capable of moving the lens in precisely controlled increments, relative to the camera, parallel to the focal-plane scan axis. The output of the CCD camera would be digitized and fed to a frame grabber in a computer. The computer would store the frame-grabber output for subsequent viewing and/or processing of images. The computer would contain a position-control interface board, through which it would control the servomotor. There are several versions of the invention. An essential feature common to all versions is that the stationary optical subassembly containing the camera would also contain a spatial window, at the focal plane of the objective lens, that would pass only a selected portion of the image. In one version, the window would be a slit, the CCD would contain a one-dimensional array of pixels, and the objective lens would be moved along an axis perpendicular to the slit to spatially scan the image of the specimen in pushbroom fashion. The image built up by scanning in this case would be an ordinary (non-spectral) image. In another version, the optics of which are depicted in the lower part of the figure, the spatial window would be a slit, the CCD would contain a two-dimensional array of pixels, the slit image would be refocused onto the CCD by a relay-lens pair consisting of a collimating and a focusing lens, and a prism-gratingprism optical spectrometer would be placed between the collimating and focusing lenses. Consequently, the image on the CCD would be spatially resolved along the slit axis and spectrally resolved along the axis perpendicular to the slit. As in the first-mentioned version, the objective lens would be moved along an axis perpendicular to the slit to spatially scan the image of the specimen in pushbroom fashion.

Mao, Chengye

2009-01-01

235

Snowmelt monitoring with Terrestrial Laser Scanner Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increasing use of satellite data has caused an increasing need for validation data. Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) and Mobile Mapping Systems (MMS) are potential methods of gaining information on vast areas at remote locations. We have investigated the snowmelt 2009 using stationary and mobile TLS during the SNORTEX -campaign (Snow Reflectance Transition Experiment) in several locations in Finnish Lapland during 2008-2009. The SNORTEX is a 3-years investigation (started in 2008) piloted by Météo-France and FMI (Finnish Meteorological Institute). The key objectives of SNORTEX are to improve the characterization of snow-melting patterns in boreal regions using a multiscale approach supported by multi-angular and multi-spectral remote sensing information, and to build an integrated database for snow variables (albedo, fraction, water equivalent) in a forested environment for the validation of the SAF (Satellite Application Facilities) snow-related products. Validation data for EUMETSAT Land, Climate and Hydrological SAFs will be gathered in the campaign. The focus of the 2009 campaign was on the melting season. The field work was scheduled to include different snow/weather conditions and to include a time period with fractional snow cover. There will be one more field measurement period in spring 2010. The field survey took place at Sodankylä in Finnish Lapland. The existing facilities of FMI-ARC (The Arctic Research Center of the Finnish Meteorological Institutes) (67.4 °N 26.6 °E) were used. The studied area was chosen for this campaign because it is located far from the coasts, which makes the climate continental. The winters are long and cold during which the snow usually does not completely melt and several layers form in the snow pack. The area is partially forested which makes it possible to observe how the forests affect snow, snow cover and albedo. In addition to this the topography of the area is relatively plain which makes the area ideal for gathering validation data for satellite products. The results of the ground measurements of the SNORTEX campaign will be used to SAF product validations and to support the aerial data collected during the campaign. The TLS measurements during the campaign were made in several different locations at different stages of snowmelt. These measurements were georeferenced and normalized so that they could be compared. The results were compared to different ground measurements, e.g. snow depth, water equivalent etc., made by the Finnish Meteorological Institute. The results were used to estimate the usability of the point cloud and intensity data of the scanner in measuring different snow properties. The results show that TLS data is applicable in profiling seasonal snow conditions and the intensity data helps the classifying of the snow cover. The laser backscatter from snow surface is not directly related to any of the snow cover properties measured during the campaign but the snow structure has a clear effect on the TLS intensity. A MMS method for snow profiling was also developed during the campaign and the results show potential for MMS-based surface roughness profiling and change detection.

Anttila, Kati; Kaasalainen, Sanna; Kaartinen, Harri; Krooks, Anssi; Manninen, Terhikki; Lahtinen, Panu; Riihelä, Aku; Siljamo, Niilo; Thölix, Laura; Karjalainen, Tuure

2010-05-01

236

Comparative analysis of fruit-based functional snack bars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim was to develop snack bars with high dietary fibre (DF) and polyphenol contents. Snack bar base was formulated without (control bar) or with fibre (inulin or apple DF bar). Snack bar filling was formulated with or without apple polyphenol extract (APE). Nutritional assessment of snack bars was based on the total DF, phenolics, protein, fat, uronic acid (UA)

D. Sun-Waterhouse; A. Teoh; C. Massarotto; R. Wibisono; S. Wadhwa

2010-01-01

237

Quantifying the Bias in the Masses of Supermassive Black Holes in Barred Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies of simulations of barred galaxies with supermassive black holes {BH} show that a bar can cause an increase in the central line-of-sight velocity dispersion {sigma} of about 7-12% - an increase that is consistent with the average offset observed for barred galaxies relative to unbarred ones. A more serious consequence of the presence of a bar is that its unique orbital structure {the combination of the radially biased bar orbits and the high bar pattern speed}, results in a high central velocity dispersion but negative 4th Gauss-Hermite parameters, even in the vicinity of the BH. This unique combination of kinematical parameters can result in a systematic over-estimate of the BH mass - if the bar is modelled as axisymmetric. Although nearly 60% of spiral/SO galaxies with existing stellar dynamically BH masses are in barred galaxies, their masses have been derived using axisymmetric models! An overestimate of BH mass in barred disks would erase morphological differences between the BH scaling relations of disks and ellipticals, which could be crucial to understanding the co-evolution of BHs and their host galaxies. In this theory proposal we will use N-body simulations to generate mock kinematic datasets {STIS, FOS and ground based IFU} for barred disk galaxies, model them with an axisymmetric orbit superposition code, and thereby quantify the magnitude of the bias in existing BH mass measurements. This analysis will provide crucial input for developing new and accurate methods for determining BH masses in galaxies of different morphological types, thereby revealing the true extent of intrinsic differences in the supermassive BH scaling relationships.

Valluri, Monica

2014-10-01

238

Determining density of maize canopy. 2: Airborne multispectral scanner data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multispectral scanner data were collected in two flights over a light colored soil background cover plot at an altitude of 305 m. Energy in eleven reflective wavelength band from 0.45 to 2.6 microns was recorded. Four growth stages of maize (Zea mays L.) gave a wide range of canopy densities for each flight date. Leaf area index measurements were taken from the twelve subplots and were used as a measure of canopy density. Ratio techniques were used to relate uncalibrated scanner response to leaf area index. The ratios of scanner data values for the 0.72 to 0.92 micron wavelength band over the 0.61 to 0.70 micron wavelength band were calculated for each plot. The ratios related very well to leaf area index for a given flight date. The results indicated that spectral data from maize canopies could be of value in determining canopy density.

Stoner, E. R.; Baumgardner, M. F.; Cipra, J. E.

1971-01-01

239

In-line digital holographic microscopy using a consumer scanner  

PubMed Central

We demonstrate an in-line digital holographic microscopy using a consumer scanner. The consumer scanner can scan an image with 4,800?dpi. The pixel pitch is approximately 5.29??m. The system using a consumer scanner has a simple structure, compared with synthetic aperture digital holography using a camera mounted on a two-dimensional moving stage. In this demonstration, we captured an in-line hologram with 23, 602 × 18, 023 pixels (?0.43 gigapixels). The physical size of the scanned hologram is approximately 124?mm × 95?mm. In addition, to accelerate the reconstruction time of the gigapixel hologram and decrease the amount of memory for the reconstruction, we applied the band-limited double-step Fresnel diffraction to the reconstruction. PMID:24036588

Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Yamanashi, Hiroya; Kakue, Takashi; Oikawa, Minoru; Okada, Naohisa; Endo, Yutaka; Hirayama, Ryuji; Masuda, Nobuyuki; Ito, Tomoyoshi

2013-01-01

240

Galaxy Zoo: Observing Secular Evolution Through Bars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although often seen in galaxies, the role that bars play in galaxy evolution has been largely overlooked. Observations show that bars — stellar linear-shaped structures — have been present in galaxies since z ˜ 1, about 8 billion years ago, and that more and more galaxies are becoming barred with time. This trend has continued to the present, where about two-thirds of all disk galaxies are barred. Observations have also shown that there is a connection between the presence of a bar and the properties of a galaxy, including morphology, star formation, chemical abundance gradients, and nuclear activity. These trends are consistent with the predicted effects of bars on galaxy evolution, i.e., secular evolution. Thus, observations and simulations indicate that bars are important drivers of galaxy evolution. But despite these evidence, bars are still commonly omitted in the lore of galaxy evolution. This proceeding briefly highlights work by Cheung et al. (2013), which tries to change this common omission by presenting the best evidence of bar-driven secular evolution yet. This work implies that bars are not stagnant structures within galaxies, but are instead, critical drivers of galaxy evolution.

Cheung, E.; Athanassoula, E.; Masters, K. L.; Nichol, R. C.; Bosma, A.; Bell, E. F.; Faber, S. M.; Koo, D. C.; Lintott, C.; Melvin, T.; Schawinski, K.; Skibba, R. A.; Willett, K. W.

2014-03-01

241

Ferrofluid Film Bearing for enhancement of rotary scanner performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrodynamic bearings utilizing ferrofluids are a new class of high performance bearings. These bearings are self-contained with ferrofluid acting both as a hydrodynamic pressure film and a sealant. Although relatively unknown in the laser scanner industry, ferrofluids have been widely used over the last two decades for applications in the semiconductor, computer and audio marketplaces. In this paper, performance features of Ferrofluid Film Bearings are also discussed, and experimental data such as power consumption, rotational accuracy and audible noise are presented to show that Ferrofluid Film Bearings enhance the performance of high resolution scanners and in this application are superior to ball bearing and gas bearing performance.

Cheever, Charles; Li, Zhixin; Raj, Kuldip

1991-02-01

242

Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanner instrument anomaly investigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of an ad-hoc committee investigation of in-Earth orbit operational anomalies noted on two identical Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) Scanner instruments on two different spacecraft busses is presented. The anomalies are attributed to the bearings and the lubrication scheme for the bearings. A detailed discussion of the pertinent instrument operations, the approach of the investigation team and the current status of the instruments now in Earth orbit is included. The team considered operational changes for these instruments, rework possibilities for the one instrument which is waiting to be launched, and preferable lubrication considerations for specific space operational requirements similar to those for the ERBE scanner bearings.

Watson, N. D.; Miller, J. B.; Taylor, L. V.; Lovell, J. B.; Cox, J. W.; Fedors, J. C.; Kopia, L. P.; Holloway, R. M.; Bradley, O. H.

1985-01-01

243

A prototype quantitative film scanner for radiochromic film dosimetry  

SciTech Connect

We have developed a high resolution, quantitative, two-dimensional optical film scanner for use with a commercial high sensitivity radiochromic film (RCF) for measuring single fraction external-beam radiotherapy dose distributions. The film scanner was designed to eliminate artifacts commonly observed in RCF dosimetry. The scanner employed a stationary light source and detector with a moving antireflective glass film platen attached to a high precision computerized X-Y translation stage. An ultrabright red light emitting diode (LED) with a peak output at 633 nm and full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 16 nm was selected as the scanner light source to match the RCF absorption peak. A dual detector system was created using two silicon photodiode detectors to simultaneously measure incident and transmitted light. The LED light output was focused to a submillimeter (FWHM 0.67 mm) spot size, which was determined from a scanning knife-edge technique for measuring Gaussian optical beams. Data acquisition was performed with a 16-bit A/D card in conjunction with commercial software. The linearity of the measured densities on the scanner was tested using a calibrated neutral-density step filter. Sensitometric curves and three IMRT field scans were acquired with a spatial resolution of 1 mm for both radiographic film and RCF. The results were compared with measurements taken with a commercial diode array under identical delivery conditions. The RCF was rotated by 90 deg. and rescanned to study orientation effects. Comparison between the RCF and the diode array measurements using percent dose difference and distance-to-agreement criteria produced average passing rates of 99.0% using 3%/3 mm criteria and 96.7% using 2%/2 mm criteria. The same comparison between the radiographic film and diode array measurements resulted in average passing rates 96.6% and 91.6% for the above two criteria, respectively. No measurable light-scatter or interference scanner artifacts were observed. The RCF rotated by 90 deg. showed no measurable orientation effect. A scan of a 15x15 cm{sup 2} area with 1 mm resolution required 22 min to acquire. The LED densitometer provides an accurate film dosimetry system with 1 mm or better resolution. The scanner eliminates the orientation dependence of RCF dosimetry that was previously reported with commercial flatbed scanners.

Ranade, Manisha K.; Li, Jonathan G.; Dubose, Ryan S.; Kozelka, Jakub; Simon, William E.; Dempsey, James F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32610 (United States); Spartanburg Regional Hospital Gibbs Cancer Center, Spartanburg, South Carolina 29303 (United States); Sun Nuclear Corporation, Melbourne, Florida 32940 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32610 (United States)

2008-02-15

244

30. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING FLOOR 3A ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

30. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - FLOOR 3A ("A" FACE) INTERIOR BETWEEN GRIDS 17-A1 AND 18-A1, SHOWING REAR OF RADAR EMITTER ELECTRONIC INTERFACE TERMINAL NO. 3147-20, "RECEIVER TRANSMITTER RADAR" MODULE. VIEW IS ALSO SHOWING BUILDING FIRE STOP MATERIAL AT BOTTOM OF FLOOR. NOTE: WALL SLOPES BOTTOM TO TOP INWARD; STRUCTURAL ELEMENT IN FOREGROUND. VIEW ALSO SHOWS PIPING GRID OF CHILLED WATER LINES FOR ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS COOLING. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

245

Performance of connected GSO bars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performance of connected GSO (Gd 2SiO 5:Ce) bars was investigated using a proton beam of 0.6-1.0 GeV/ c. Single crystals of 20 cm-long GSO with different Ce concentrations (1.5, 0.5 mol%) and cross-sections (1×1 cm 2, 2×2 cm 2) were prepared. Long GSO bars were constructed by connecting two crystals of the same type with or without a 10 cm-long plastic scintillator between the crystals. The position dependences of the pulse height, energy resolution and time resolution were investigated. At a typical proton momentum, 1.0 GeV/ c, the best energy resolution was 4.8% for 2×2×20 cm 3 GSO crystals doped with 0.5 mol% Ce due to the larger light yield, and the best position resolution was 0.55 cm for 1.5 mol% Ce due to the shorter attenuation length.

Tamagawa, Y.; Shirasaka, H.; Kobayashi, M.; Komatsubara, T. K.; Mimori, K.; Omata, K.; Sekiguchi, T.; Sugimoto, S.; Tsunemi, T.; Yoshioka, T.; Yoshimura, Y.; Fujiwara, T.

2006-06-01

246

COBE's Galactic Bar and Disk  

E-print Network

A model of the bar and old stellar disk of the Galaxy has been derived from the survey of the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) of the Cosmic Background Explorer at wavelengths of 1.25, 2.2, 3.5, and 4.9 microns. It agrees very well with the data, except in directions in which the near- infrared optical depth is high. Among the conclusions drawn from the model: The Sun is located approximately 16.5 pc above the midpoint of the Galactic plane. The disk has an outer edge four kpc from the Sun, and is warped like the HI layer. It has a central hole roughly the diameter of the inner edge of the "three-kiloparsec" molecular cloud ring, and within that hole lies a bright, strong, "early-type" bar, tilted approximately 14 degrees from the Sun-Galactic center line. The model has 47 free parameters. The model is discussed in detail and contour plots and images of the residuals presented.

H. T. Freudenreich

1997-07-30

247

Boric Acid Reclamation System (BARS)  

SciTech Connect

KLM Technologies' personnel have identified a Boric Acid Reclamation System (BARS) utilizing reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration to produce a recyclable grade of otherwise waste boric acid at PWRs, thus reducing a major source of low-level radwaste. The design of a prototype BARS as a compact volume reduction system was the result of KLM's Phase 1 Program, and based upon a preliminary feasibility program, which assessed the applicability of membrane technology to refurbish and recycle waste boric acid from floor and equipment drain streams. The analysis of the overall program indicated a substantial savings regarding off-site disposal costs. Today's economic scenario indicates that optimization of volume reduction operation procedures could significantly reduce waste management costs, especially where burial penalties have become more severe. As a reaction to the economic burden imposed by final disposal, many nuclear plants are currently modifying their design and operating philosophies concerning liquid radwaste processing systems to meet stricter environmental regulations, and to derive potential economic benefits by reducing the ever-increasing volumes of wastes that are produced. To effect these changes, innovative practices in waste management and more efficient processing technologies are being successfully implemented.

Kniazewycz, B.G.; Markind, J.

1986-03-01

248

Augmented tagging system for annotating and sharing videos on mobile device by bar scanner and social media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social media is very useful for collaborative learning because of their sharing and flexible nature. Many learning activities can use social media to facilitate the processes, such as collaborative writing, brainstorming, and live presentation streaming. Some instructors have paid attention to the popularity of social media. Social media is very simple and intuitive for users with information literacy on desktop

Chih-Kai Chang; Yu-Ying He; Chang-Shing Lee

2010-01-01

249

New Constraints on the Galactic Bar  

E-print Network

Previous work has related the Galactic Bar to structure in the local stellar velocity distribution. Here we show that the Bar also influences the spatial gradients of the velocity vector via the Oort constants. By numerical integration of test-particles we simulate measurements of the Oort C value in a gravitational potential including the Galactic Bar. We account for the observed trend that C is increasingly negative for stars with higher velocity dispersion. By comparing measurements of C with our simulations we improve on previous models of the Bar, estimating that the Bar pattern speed is Omega_b/Omega_0=1.87\\pm0.04, where Omega_0 is the local circular frequency, and the Bar angle lies within 20affects measurements of the Oort constants A and B less than ~2 km/s/kpc for the hot stars.

I. Minchev; J. Nordhaus; A. C. Quillen

2007-03-30

250

New Constraints on the Galactic Bar  

E-print Network

Previous work has related the Galactic Bar to structure in the local stellar velocity distribution. Here we show that the Bar also influences the spatial gradients of the velocity vector via the Oort constants. By numerical integration of test-particles we simulate measurements of the Oort C value in a gravitational potential including the Galactic Bar. We account for the observed trend that C is increasingly negative for stars with higher velocity dispersion. By comparing measurements of C with our simulations we improve on previous models of the Bar, estimating that the Bar pattern speed is Omega_b/Omega_0=1.87\\pm0.04, where Omega_0 is the local circular frequency, and the Bar angle lies within 20affects measurements of the Oort constants A and B less than ~2 km/s/kpc for the hot stars.

Minchev, I; Quillen, A C

2007-01-01

251

Studying Brazil-Nut Effect History Line using Disk-Formed Objects, Scanner, and Web Browser  

E-print Network

Grains configuration snapshots of Brazil-nut effect (BNE) in two-dimension are physically modeled using disk-formed objects, e.g., buttons and magnetic pin. These BNE configurations are artificially designed to mimic the real ones observed in experiments. A computer scanner is used to capture the configurations. Obtained images are then digitized using web browser running a HTML equipped with a JavaScript code, which is built mainly only for this work. From digitization process all grains positions (granular bed and intruder) are obtained, which is later analyzed using the simplest model, i.e., potential energy. Since the minimum energy principle (MEP) suggests that a closed system should go to its state with minimum internal energy, our BNE system must also obey it. Evolution of only the intruder seems to violate MEP but not for the whole system. Grains compaction plays important role, so that the system can achieve its configuration with minimum potential energy.

Sparisoma Viridi; Siti Nurul Khotimah; Novitrian; Widayani; Luman Haris; Dimas Praja Purwa Aji

2014-08-07

252

Basic physics of xylophone and marimba bars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The frequency-dependent wave velocity and nonsinusoidal spatial dependence found for transverse waves in finite vibrating bars stands in stark contrast to the solutions to the one-dimensional wave equation, for example for the idealized vibrating string. The difference is particularly important when the resulting vibrations are used to produce music. Here, the appropriate approximate equations for transverse vibrations on a uniform bar are developed and compared to measurements using wooden bars. The results are extended using a simple finite element model to provide a means to predict normal mode behavior in nonuniform wooden bars such as those used for xylophones, marimbas, and related musical instruments.

Suits, B. H.

2001-07-01

253

Dark matter halos of barred disk galaxies  

E-print Network

We use a large volume-limited sample of disk galaxies drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 to study the dependence of the bar fraction on the stellar to halo mass ratio, making use of a group catalog we identify central and satellite galaxies in our sample. For the central galaxies in the sample we estimate the stellar to halo mass ratio (M$_{\\mathrm{*}}/$M$_{\\mathrm{h}}$) and find that the fraction of barred galaxies is a strong function of this ratio, specially for the case of strong bars. Bars are more common on galaxies with high M$_{\\mathrm{*}}/$M$_{\\mathrm{h}}$ values, as expected from early theoretical works which showed that systems with massive dark matter halos are more stable against bar instabilities. We find that the change of the bar fraction with M$_{\\mathrm{h}}$ and M$_{\\mathrm{*}}$ is stronger if we consider a relation with the form $f_{\\mathrm{bar}}=f_{\\mathrm{bar}}$(M$_{\\mathrm{*}}^{\\alpha}/$M$_{\\mathrm{h}}$) with $\\alpha=1.5$, and therefore the bar fraction is largely ind...

Sodi, Bernardo Cervantes; Park, Changbom

2014-01-01

254

NGC 4340: Double Bar + Fossil Nuclear Ring  

E-print Network

NGC 4340 is a double-barred SB0 galaxy in the Virgo cluster (Wozniak et al. 1995). Here, we present evidence that this galaxy also posseses a luminous stellar nuclear ring of relatively old stars with little or no gas. The ring lies just outside the inner bar, at the probable inner inner Lindblad resonance (IILR) of the outer bar. Careful inspection of the isophotes and unsharp masks shows that the two bars are slightly misaligned, which suggests they may be independently rotating.

P. Erwin; J. C. Vega Beltran; J. E. Beckman

2000-09-12

255

Coding theory basics Toric codes  

E-print Network

. Little Department of Mathematics and Computer Science College of the Holy Cross July 29-31, 2013 John B(!) John B. Little Toric Varieties in Coding Theory #12;Coding theory basics Toric codes Tools from-up message noise encoder trans. channel rec. decoder message John B. Little Toric Varieties in Coding

Little, John B.

256

Scanners and drillers: Characterizing expert visual search through volumetric images  

E-print Network

# $ Department of Surgery, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA Modern imaging methods like computed tomography) scan with, perhaps, 1,000 ``slices'' through the body. These high-resolution images allowScanners and drillers: Characterizing expert visual search through volumetric images Trafton Drew

257

21. View from south to southerly face of scanner building ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

21. View from south to southerly face of scanner building 104 showing building radius. Radius of building face matches radius of DR antenna systems. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

258

fMRI Scanner Noise Interaction with Affective Neural Processes  

PubMed Central

The purpose of the present study was the investigation of interaction effects between functional MRI scanner noise and affective neural processes. Stimuli comprised of psychoacoustically balanced musical pieces, expressing three different emotions (fear, neutral, joy). Participants (N=34, 19 female) were split into two groups, one subjected to continuous scanning and another subjected to sparse temporal scanning that features decreased scanner noise. Tests for interaction effects between scanning group (sparse/quieter vs continuous/noisier) and emotion (fear, neutral, joy) were performed. Results revealed interactions between the affective expression of stimuli and scanning group localized in bilateral auditory cortex, insula and visual cortex (calcarine sulcus). Post-hoc comparisons revealed that during sparse scanning, but not during continuous scanning, BOLD signals were significantly stronger for joy than for fear, as well as stronger for fear than for neutral in bilateral auditory cortex. During continuous scanning, but not during sparse scanning, BOLD signals were significantly stronger for joy than for neutral in the left auditory cortex and for joy than for fear in the calcarine sulcus. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study to show a statistical interaction effect between scanner noise and affective processes and extends evidence suggesting scanner noise to be an important factor in functional MRI research that can affect and distort affective brain processes. PMID:24260420

Skouras, Stavros; Gray, Marcus; Critchley, Hugo; Koelsch, Stefan

2013-01-01

259

Compact, quick ID scanner that captures rolled and flat fingerprints.  

E-print Network

application checking (consulates), border control (immigration), inmate handling (prison) and background and 4 flat control prints) the use of single flat or single rolled fingerprints is appropriate. Visa control elements: None at the device, control and image display is done via the PC Scanner power

Hochmuth, Olaff

260

PET\\/CT scanners: A hardware approach to image fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

New technology that combines positron tomography with x-ray computed tomography (PET\\/CT) is available from all major vendors of PET imaging equipment: CTI, Siemens, GE, Philips. Although not all vendors have made the same design choices as those described in this review all have in common that their high performance design places a commercial CT scanner in tandem with a commercial

David W. Townsend; Thomas Beyer; Todd M. Blodgett

2003-01-01

261

Terahertz wave opto-mechanical scanner for security application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a new opto-mechanical scanner that is hopeful for terahertz imaging in security applications. The target of using this scanner is portal screening of personnel for high-resolution imaging of concealed threat objects. It is not only applied to active terahertz imaging but also applied to passive Terahertz imaging. Terahertz wave can penetrate many materials that are opaque to visible and infrared light, such as plastics, cardboard, textiles and so on. So the terahertz imaging technology has a potential to be applicable in security inspection at airports, stations and other public place. Now, the most terahertz imaging system works at point to point mechanical scan pattern. The speed of this raster scan is too slow to apply in practical field. 2-D terahertz array detector can be applied to real time imaging. But at present their cost is prohibitively high. Fortunately low cost, high performance, opto-mechanically scanner is able to meet the current requirements. An opto-mechanical scanner should be able to rapidly scan a 2-D image of the scene. It also should have high optical efficiency so that an image system can achieve the required thermal sensitivity with the minimum number of receivers. These ensure that it can easily operate at any wavelength, and be active or passive. The opto-mechanically scanning can meets these requirements and is being developed into a high performance, low-cost prototype system that will meet the future needs for terahertz security.

Deng, Chao; Zheng, Yongju; Zhang, Cunlin

2010-11-01

262

X- and ?-rays computerized minitomograph scanner for soil science  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computerized tomograph scanner system that uses X- and ?-rays for applications in soil science is described. Use of the apparatus in measuring volumetric water content to an accuracy of ±3% and soil bulk density to ±2% (in grams per cubic centimeters) is discussed. The system features translation and rotation scanning modes, a 200-mm effective field of view, signal processing

PAULO ESTEVAO CRUVINEL; ROBERTO CESAREO; SILVIO CRESTANA; SERGIO MASCARENHAS

1990-01-01

263

COMPUTER PROCESSING OF MULTISPECTRAL SCANNER DATA OVER COAL STRIP MINES  

EPA Science Inventory

There is little doubt that remote sensing techniques can be effectively applied to the task of monitoring coal strip mine progress and reclamation work. Aircraft multispectral scanner data acquired over six coal strip mines in the states of Wyoming, Montana, Colorado, and Arizona...

264

First Test Results of the New LANSCE Wire Scanner  

SciTech Connect

The Beam Diagnostics and Instrumentation Team (BDIT) at Los Alamos National Laboratory's LANSCE facility is presently developing a new and improved wire scanner diagnostics system controlled by National Instrument's cRIO platform. This paper describes the current state of development of the control system along with the results gathered from the latest actuator motion performance and accelerator-beam data acquisition tests.

Sedillo, James Daniel [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-01

265

PPF Control of a Piezoelectric Tube Scanner (Invited Paper)  

E-print Network

PPF Control of a Piezoelectric Tube Scanner (Invited Paper) M. Ratnam, B. Bhikkaji, A. J. Fleming and S. O. R. Moheimani Abstract-- Piezoelectric tubes are commonly used in Scan- ning Tunnelling to a piezoelectric tube or placing the sample on the top of a piezoelectric tube, and actuating the piezoelectric

Fleming, Andrew J.

266

Mosaicking Airborne Scanner Data with the Multiquadric Rectification Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new multiquadric image rectification technique is shown to provide superior results for mosaicking nine flight lines of airborne scanner data covering 200 kmz of hilly terrain with limited ground control. The multiquadric technique provided excellent edge matching and less than half the absolute geo- metric error of polynomial-based techniques.

Kenneth C. McGwire

1998-01-01

267

PIXSCAN: Pixel detector CT-scanner for small animal imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The PIXSCAN is a small animal CT-scanner based on hybrid pixel detectors. These detectors provide very large dynamic range of photons counting at very low detector noise. They also provide high counting rates with fast image readout. Detection efficiency can be optimized by selecting the sensor medium according to the working energy range. Indeed, the use of CdTe allows a

P. Delpierre; F. Debarbieux; S. Basolo; J. F. Berar; A. Bonissent; N. Boudet; P. Breugnon; B. Caillot; F. Cassol Brunnera; B. Chantepie; J. C. Clemens; B. Dinkespiler; R. Khouri; I. Koudobine; V. Mararazzo; C. Meessen; M. Menouni; C. Morel; C. Mouget; P. Pangaud; F. Peyrin; G. Rougon; D. Sappey-Marinier; S. Valton; E. Vigeolas

2007-01-01

268

Engineering evaluation of 24 channel multispectral scanner. [from flight tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of flight tests to evaluate the performance of the 24 channel multispectral scanner are reported. The flight plan and test site are described along with the time response and channel registration. The gain and offset drift, and moire patterns are discussed. Aerial photographs of the test site are included.

Lambeck, P. F.

1973-01-01

269

Millimetre -Wave Personnel Scanners for Automated Weapon Detection  

E-print Network

Millimetre -Wave Personnel Scanners for Automated Weapon Detection Beatriz Grafulla-Gonz´alez1 of realistic millimetre-wave images and a sys- tem for detecting metallic weapons automatically. The latter of weapons concealed under clothes. Existing MMW simulation packages, e.g., PMWCM or Speos, are not designed

Harvey, Andy

270

Trochlear surface reconstruction and evaluation based on laser scanner acquisition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to investigate the accuracy, reproducibility and validation of linear measurements on digital reconstruction of the trochlear articular surface. Surface reconstruction is produced by a laser scanner acquisition pipeline that preserves rough data. Arc and chord measurements between chosen landmarks on physical specimens are simulated by geodesic path length evaluation on the corresponding digital models.

R. Synave; C. Couture-Veschambre

2010-01-01

271

Liquid-explosives scanners stand trial in airports  

SciTech Connect

Air passengers may once more be allowed to pack beverages, lotions, and hair spray in their carry-on luggage, if imaging technologies to detect liquid explosives can prove their worth. Several competing systems, including multi-energy x-ray systems and a low-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner, are undergoing field tests at some airports worldwide.

Matthews, Jermey N. A.

2010-07-15

272

X-ray color scanner with multiple energy discrimination capability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An X-ray color scanner that can distinguish between different photon energies has been developed using X-ray line sensors. This scanner consists of a 64-channel cadmium telluride (CdTe) radiation detection array, a 64-channel application specific integrated circuit (ASIC), and a signal processing circuit that controls both the ASIC and data communication. An X-ray or gamma ray photon absorbed by the CdTe detector is converted into an electric charge proportional to the energy of the incident photon and amplified to an electric pulse with an amplitude proportional to the photon's energy. The pulse's height is then analyzed by the ASIC using 5 different threshold voltages. The X-ray color scanner has the ability to count up to approximately 2 million photons per CdTe element per second. When used as a photon counting system, the X-ray color sensor has a very high signal to noise ratio, since it removes electric noise in the low energy spectrum during the analysis process. When appropriately selected energy thresholds are used, X-ray color scanners, used for X-ray imaging or X-ray CT, were shown to remove the effects of beam-scattering noise and beam-hardening.

Tomita, Y.; Shirayanagi, Y.; Matsui, S.; Aoki, T.; Hatanaka, Y.

2005-08-01

273

Scanner system for separate-sided lumber surface measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel scanner system is presented that is able to separately measure the surface height profile of each side of a piece of lum- ber while moving longitudinally in a sawmill. Such measure- ments are very useful for product quality control. In addition, be- cause each side of the lumber is typically cut by a different tool, separate surface measurements

Gary S. Schajer; Javier I. Gazzarri; Darrell C. Wong; Thomas C. Maness; Robert A. Kozak

274

Speech Perception in MRI Scanner Noise by Persons with Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To examine reductions in performance on auditory tasks by aphasic and neurologically intact individuals as a result of concomitant magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner noise. Method: Four tasks together forming a continuum of linguistic complexity were developed. They included complex-tone pitch discrimination, same-different…

Healy, Eric W.; Moser, Dana C.; Morrow-Odom, K. Leigh; Hall, Deborah A.; Fridriksson, Julius

2007-01-01

275

A WIYN Survey of Early-Type Barred Galaxies: Double Bars and Central Structures  

E-print Network

We present results from a preliminary analysis of a recently-completed, multicolor imaging survey of nearby, early-type barred galaxies in the field, carried out with the WIYN telescope and supplemented with archival HST images. This forms a reasonably complete sample of nearby, bright, barred S0 and Sa galaxies in the field. The excellent seeing provided by WIYN allows us to examine the galaxies for central features such as circumnuclear rings and secondary bars; we find some evidence for dust lanes within secondary bars. The most striking results is the high frequency of double bars: our analysis suggests that at least $\\sim 20%$ of barred S0-Sa galaxies possess secondary bars}. We also find an excellent candidate triply barred galaxy: NGC 2681.

Peter Erwin; Linda S. Sparke

1998-11-21

276

Halo evolution in the presence of a disc bar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Angular momentum transfer from a rotating stellar bar has been proposed by Weinberg & Katz as a mechanism to destroy dark matter cusps in a few rotation periods. The N-body simulations performed by these authors in support of their claim employed spherical harmonics for the force computation and were, as shown by Sellwood, very sensitive to inclusion of asymmetric terms (odd l, m). In order to disentangle possible numerical artefacts due to the usage of spherical harmonics from genuine stellar dynamical effects, we performed similar experiments using a tree code and find that significant cusp destruction requires substantially more angular momentum than is realistically available. However, we find that the simplified model (a N-body halo torqued by a rotating bar pinned to the origin) undergoes an instability in which the cusp moves away from the origin. In presence of this off-centring, spherical density profiles centred on the origin display an apparent cusp removal. We strongly suspect that it is this effect which Weinberg & Katz observed. When suppressing the artificial instability, cusp removal is very slow and requires much more angular momentum to be transferred to the halo than a realistic stellar bar possibly possesses.

McMillan, Paul J.; Dehnen, Walter

2005-11-01

277

Evolution of the Chocolate Bar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The majority of both student and faculty populations react quite favorably to chocolate and may even know something about its history. The movie Chocolat made millions, partly due to its starring actors, but also because the move drew salivating viewers to the multiple applications of chocolate. With its stimulant properties, chocolate generally makes people feel good. For purposes of this essay, chocolate also has the fortunate characteristic of appearing in many different sizes, shapes, and combinations. In this exercise, dubbed 'Evolution of the Chocolate Bar,' students build the most plausible phylogenetic tree based on identified synapomorphies of different 'species,' i.e. brands of chocolate. The exercise described below is easily assembled, works as a class demonstration or could be modified into small group projects, and also fits a variety of class timeframes. Substantial lines of inquiry could also be developed from this example.

Romi Burks (Southwestern University;); Larry Boles (Southwestern University;)

2007-04-20

278

A micron resolution optical scanner for characterization of silicon detectors.  

PubMed

The emergence of high position resolution (?10 ?m) silicon detectors in recent times have highlighted the urgent need for the development of new automated optical scanners of micron level resolution suited for characterizing microscopic features of these detectors. More specifically, for the newly developed silicon photo-multipliers (SiPM) that are compact, possessing excellent photon detection efficiency with gain comparable to photo-multiplier tube. In a short time, since their invention the SiPMs are already being widely used in several high-energy physics and astrophysics experiments as the photon readout element. The SiPM is a high quantum efficiency, multi-pixel photon counting detector with fast timing and high gain. The presence of a wide variety of photo sensitive silicon detectors with high spatial resolution requires their performance evaluation to be carried out by photon beams of very compact spot size. We have designed a high resolution optical scanner that provides a monochromatic focused beam on a target plane. The transverse size of the beam was measured by the knife-edge method to be 1.7 ?m at 1 - ? level. Since the beam size was an order of magnitude smaller than the typical feature size of silicon detectors, this optical scanner can be used for selective excitation of these detectors. The design and operational details of the optical scanner, high precision programmed movement of target plane (0.1 ?m) integrated with general purpose data acquisition system developed for recording static and transient response photo sensitive silicon detector are reported in this paper. Entire functionality of scanner is validated by using it for selective excitation of individual pixels in a SiPM and identifying response of active and dead regions within SiPM. Results from these studies are presented in this paper. PMID:24593348

Shukla, R A; Dugad, S R; Garde, C S; Gopal, A V; Gupta, S K; Prabhu, S S

2014-02-01

279

A micron resolution optical scanner for characterization of silicon detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emergence of high position resolution (˜10 ?m) silicon detectors in recent times have highlighted the urgent need for the development of new automated optical scanners of micron level resolution suited for characterizing microscopic features of these detectors. More specifically, for the newly developed silicon photo-multipliers (SiPM) that are compact, possessing excellent photon detection efficiency with gain comparable to photo-multiplier tube. In a short time, since their invention the SiPMs are already being widely used in several high-energy physics and astrophysics experiments as the photon readout element. The SiPM is a high quantum efficiency, multi-pixel photon counting detector with fast timing and high gain. The presence of a wide variety of photo sensitive silicon detectors with high spatial resolution requires their performance evaluation to be carried out by photon beams of very compact spot size. We have designed a high resolution optical scanner that provides a monochromatic focused beam on a target plane. The transverse size of the beam was measured by the knife-edge method to be 1.7 ?m at 1 - ? level. Since the beam size was an order of magnitude smaller than the typical feature size of silicon detectors, this optical scanner can be used for selective excitation of these detectors. The design and operational details of the optical scanner, high precision programmed movement of target plane (0.1 ?m) integrated with general purpose data acquisition system developed for recording static and transient response photo sensitive silicon detector are reported in this paper. Entire functionality of scanner is validated by using it for selective excitation of individual pixels in a SiPM and identifying response of active and dead regions within SiPM. Results from these studies are presented in this paper.

Shukla, R. A.; Dugad, S. R.; Garde, C. S.; Gopal, A. V.; Gupta, S. K.; Prabhu, S. S.

2014-02-01

280

Too Much Bar and Not Enough Mitzvah? A Proposed Research Agenda on Bar/Bat Mitzvah  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Jewish educators are understandably interested in research on how bar/bat mitzvah affect Jewish education or research on what Jewish schools have done to avoid the distortions of a focus on bar/bat mitzvah. Research might also focus on the somewhat different and more ambitious topic of the role that bar/bat mitzvah play in contemporary Jewish…

Schoenfeld, Stuart

2010-01-01

281

THE EL FAROL BAR PROBLEM AND COMPUTATIONAL EFFORT: WHY PEOPLE FAIL TO USE BARS EFFICIENTLY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Does how much an agent thinks about its own actions affect the global properties of a system? We use the El Farol Bar Problem to investigate this question. In this model, the El Farol Bar represents a scarce resource. Does the amount of computational ability that agents possess affect resource utilization? For instance, if agents attend the bar randomly on

WILLIAM RAND; FORREST STONEDAHL

282

Reliability of a 3D surface laser scanner for orthodontic applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A device for recreating three-dimensional (3D) objects on a computer is the surface laser scanner. By triangulating distances between the reflecting laser beam and the scanned surface, the surface laser scanner can detect not only an object's length and width but also its depth. The scanner's ease of use has opened various possibilities in laboratory research and clinical investigation. We

Budi Kusnoto; Carla A. Evans

2002-01-01

283

Modeling of a piezoelectric micro-scanner A. Chaehoi, M. Begbie, D. Cornez  

E-print Network

Modeling of a piezoelectric micro-scanner A. Chaehoi, M. Begbie, D. Cornez · , K. Kirk · Institute a complete analytical model of the piezoelectric micro-scanner. This theoretical model based on strength of the piezoelectric silicon micro- scanner, is intended for further HDL integration, allowing in this way system level

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

284

Dynamic CT scanner environment effects on a DC electromagnetic tracking system  

E-print Network

D, Vaibhav Patil MD, Raul San Jose Estepar PhD, Conor James Walsh MS CT Scanner Gantry is RotatingDynamic CT scanner environment effects on a DC electromagnetic tracking system Kirby Vosburgh Ph was moving. Summary We have demonstrated that a CT scanner induces increased variability in EM sensor

285

Development of the Brain Tissue Scanner Brain Networks Laboratory Technical Report  

E-print Network

Development of the Brain Tissue Scanner Brain Networks Laboratory Technical Report Document © by Bruce H. McCormick, 3/18/2002 Page 1 Development of the Brain Tissue Scanner Bruce H. McCormick Brain@cs.tamu.edu Last Updated: March 18, 2002 #12;Development of the Brain Tissue Scanner Brain Networks Laboratory

286

Fast, accurate surface acquisition using a laser range scanner for image-guided liver surgery  

E-print Network

Fast, accurate surface acquisition using a laser range scanner for image-guided liver surgery David point (ICP) algorithm. The laser range scanner used the optical principle of triangulation to obtain, Image Guided Surgery, Hepatic Surgery, Laser-Range Scanner 1. INTRODUCTION Image-guided surgery requires

Miga, Michael I.

287

Bar Study Stories. Issues in Prevention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of "Issues in Prevention" focuses on the impact of the availability of drinks in licensed establishments, such as bars and taverns on student drinking. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Cheap Drinks at College Bars Can Escalate Student Drinking (John D. Clapp); (2) High Alcohol Outlet Density: A Problem for Campuses and…

Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

2012-01-01

288

Algorithms: Greedy Algorithms Amotz Bar-Noy  

E-print Network

Algorithms: Greedy Algorithms Amotz Bar-Noy CUNY Spring 2012 Amotz Bar-Noy (CUNY) Greedy Algorithms Spring 2012 1 / 62 #12;Greedy Algorithms Greedy algorithms make decisions that "seem" to be the best) Greedy Algorithms Spring 2012 2 / 62 #12;How and When to use Greedy Algorithms? Initial solution

Bar-Noy, Amotz

289

Adventures of a tidally induced bar  

E-print Network

Using N-body simulations, we study the properties of a bar induced in a dwarf galaxy as a result of tidal interaction with the Milky Way. The dwarf is initially composed of a disk embedded in a dark matter halo and we follow its evolution on a typical orbit for 10 Gyr. It undergoes an evolution typical of tidally stirred dwarf galaxies: it loses mass, the stellar component transforms from a disk to a spheroid and the rotation of the stars is partially replaced by random motions. A tidally induced bar forms at the first pericentre passage and survives until the end of the evolution. Fourier decomposition of the distribution of stars reveals that only even modes are significant and preserve a hierarchy so that the bar mode is always the strongest. They show a characteristic profile with a maximum, similar to simulated bars forming in isolated galaxies and observed bars in real galaxies. We adopt the maximum of the bar mode as a measure of the bar strength and we estimate the bar length by comparing the density ...

Lokas, E L; Debattista, V P; Valluri, M; del Pino, A; Semczuk, M; Gajda, G; Kowalczyk, K

2014-01-01

290

Expander codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new class of asymptotically good, linearerror-correcting codes based upon expander graphs.These codes have linear time sequential decoding algorithms,logarithmic time parallel decoding algorithmswith a linear number of processors, and are simple tounderstand. We present both randomized and explicitconstructions for some of these codes. Experimentalresults demonstrate the extremely good performance ofthe randomly chosen codes.1. IntroductionWe present a new class

Michael Sipser; Daniel A. Spielman

1996-01-01

291

$\\bar K$-Nuclear Deeply Bound States?  

E-print Network

Following the prediction by Akaishi and Yamazaki of relatively narrow $\\bar K$-nuclear states, deeply bound by over 100 MeV where the main decay channel $\\bar K N \\to \\pi \\Sigma$ is closed, several experimental signals in stopped $K^-$ reactions on light nuclei have been interpreted recently as due to such states. In this talk I review (i) the evidence from $K^-$-atom data for a {\\it deep} $\\bar K$-nucleus potential, as attractive as $V_{\\bar K}(\\rho_0) \\sim -(150 - 200)$ MeV at nuclear matter density, that could support such states; and (ii) the theoretical arguments for a {\\it shallow} potential, $V_{\\bar K}(\\rho_0) \\sim -(40 - 60)$ MeV. I then review a recent work by Mare\\v{s}, Friedman and Gal in which $\\bar K$-nuclear bound states are generated dynamically across the periodic table, using a RMF Lagrangian that couples the $\\bar K$ to the scalar and vector meson fields mediating the nuclear interactions. Substantial polarization of the core nucleus is found for light nuclei, with central nuclear densities enhanced by almost a factor of two. The binding energies and widths calculated in this dynamical model differ appreciably from those calculated for a static nucleus. These calculations provide a lower limit of $\\Gamma_{\\bar K} \\sim 50 \\pm 10$ MeV on the width of nuclear bound states for $\\bar K$ binding energy in the range $B_{\\bar K} = 100 - 200$ MeV.

Avraham Gal

2006-04-25

292

Search for B^0-> p p-bar, Lambda Lambda-bar and B^+ -> p Lambda-bar at Belle  

E-print Network

We report on a new search for two-body baryonic decays of the B meson. Improved sensitivity compared to previous Belle results is obtained from 414 fb^-1 of data that corresponds to 449 million B B-bar pairs, which were taken on the Upsilon(4S) resonance and collected with the Belle detector at the KEKB e^+e^- collider. No significant signals are observed and we set the 90% confidence level upper limits: Br(B^0-> p pbar) Lambda Lambda-bar) p Lambda-bar) < 3.2X10^-7.

Y. -T. Tsai; P. Chang

2007-03-30

293

Cam-controlled boring bar  

DOEpatents

A cam-controlled boring bar system (100) includes a first housing (152) which is rotatable about its longitudinal axis (154), and a second housing in the form of a cam-controlled slide (158) which is also rotatable about the axis (154) as well as being translatable therealong. A tool-holder (180) is mounted within the slide (158) for holding a single point cutting tool. Slide (158) has a rectangular configuration and is disposed within a rectangularly configured portion of the first housing (152). Arcuate cam slots (192) are defined within a side plate (172) of the housing (152), while cam followers (194) are mounted upon the cam slide (158) for cooperative engagement with the cam slots (192). In this manner, as the housing (152) and slide (158) rotate, and as the slide (158) also translates, a through-bore (14) having an hourglass configuration will be formed within a workpiece (16) which may be, for example, a nuclear reactor steam generator tube support plate.

Glatthorn, Raymond H. (St. Petersburg, FL)

1986-01-01

294

The airborne infrared scanner as a geophysical research tool  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The infrared scanner is proving to be an effective anomaly-mapping tool, albeit one which depicts surface emission directly and heat mass transfer from depths only indirectly and at a threshold level 50 to 100 times the normal conductive heat flow of the earth. Moreover, successive terrain observations are affected by time-dependent variables such as the diurnal and seasonal warming and cooling cycle of a point on the earth's surface. In planning precise air borne surveys of radiant flux from the earth's surface, account must be taken of background noise created by variations in micrometeorological factors and emissivity of surface materials, as well as the diurnal temperature cycle. The effect of the diurnal cycle may be minimized by planning predawn aerial surveys. In fact, the diurnal change is very small for most water bodies and the emissivity factor for water (e) =~ 1 so a minimum background noise is characteristic of scanner records of calm water surfaces.

Friedman, Jules D.

1970-01-01

295

Robust object segmentation using a multi-layer laser scanner.  

PubMed

The major problem in an advanced driver assistance system (ADAS) is the proper use of sensor measurements and recognition of the surrounding environment. To this end, there are several types of sensors to consider, one of which is the laser scanner. In this paper, we propose a method to segment the measurement of the surrounding environment as obtained by a multi-layer laser scanner. In the segmentation, a full set of measurements is decomposed into several segments, each representing a single object. Sometimes a ghost is detected due to the ground or fog, and the ghost has to be eliminated to ensure the stability of the system. The proposed method is implemented on a real vehicle, and its performance is tested in a real-world environment. The experiments show that the proposed method demonstrates good performance in many real-life situations. PMID:25356645

Kim, Beomseong; Choi, Baehoon; Yoo, Minkyun; Kim, Hyunju; Kim, Euntai

2014-01-01

296

Beam Dumping Ghost Signals in Electric Sweep Scanners  

SciTech Connect

Over the last 20 years many labs started to use Allison scanners to measure low-energy ion beam emittances. We show that large trajectory angles produce ghost signals due to the impact of the beamlet on the electric deflection plates. The strength of the ghost signal is proportional to the amount of beam entering the scanner. Depending on the ions and their velocity, ghost signals can have the opposite polarity as the main beam signals or the same polarity. These ghost signals are easily overlooked because they partly overlap the real signals, they are mostly below the 1% level, and they are often hidden in the noise. However, they cause significant errors in emittance estimates because they are associated with large trajectory angles. The strength of ghost signals, and the associated errors, can be drastically reduced with a simple modification of the deflection plates.

Stockli, M.P. [SNS, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Leitner, M.; Keller, R. [SNS, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Rd., Berkeley, CA, 94720 (United States); Moehs, D.P. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Welton, R.F. [SNS, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

2005-04-06

297

Beam dumping ghost signals in electric sweep scanners  

SciTech Connect

Over the last 20 years many labs started to use Allison scanners to measure low-energy ion beam emittances. We show that large trajectory angles produce ghost signals due to the impact of the beamlet on the electric deflection plates. The strength of the ghost signal is proportional to the amount of beam entering the scanner. Depending on the ions and their velocity, ghost signals can have the opposite polarity as the main beam signals or the same polarity. These ghost signals are easily overlooked because they partly overlap the real signals, they are mostly below the 1% level, and they are often hidden in the noise. However, they cause significant errors in emittance estimates because they are associated with large trajectory angles. The strength of ghost signals, and the associated errors, can be drastically reduced with a simple modification of the deflection plates.

Stockli, M.P.; /SNS Project, Oak Ridge /Tennessee U.; Leitner, M.; /LBL, Berkeley; Moehs, D.P.; /Fermilab; Keller, R.; /LBL, Berkeley; Welton, R.F.; /SNS Project, Oak Ridge

2004-12-01

298

Prototype Holographic Atmospheric Scanner for Environmental Remote Sensing (PHASERS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A ground-based atmospheric lidar system that utilizes a Holographic Optical Telescope and Scanner has been developed and successfully operated to obtain atmospheric backscatter profiles. The Prototype Holographic Atmospheric Scanner for Environmental Remote Sensing is built around a volume phase reflection Holographic Optical Element. This single optical element both directs and collimates the outgoing laser beam as well as collects, focuses, and filters the atmospheric laser backscatter, while offering significant weight savings over existing telescope mirror technology. Conical scanning is accomplished as the HOE rotates on a turntable sweeping the 1.2 mrad field of view around a 42deg cone. During this technology demonstration, atmospheric aerosol and cloud return signals have been received in both stationary and scanning modes. The success of this program has led to the further development of this technology for integration into airborne and eventually satellite earth observing scanning lidar telescopes.

Guerra, David V.; Schwemmer, Geary K.; Wooten, Albert D., Jr.; Chaudhuri, Sandipan S.; Wilkerson, Thomas D.

1995-01-01

299

32 CFR 776.66 - Bar admission and disciplinary matters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Bar admission and disciplinary matters. 776.66 Section 776.66 National...776.66 Bar admission and disciplinary matters. (a) Bar admission and disciplinary matters. A covered attorney, in...

2012-07-01

300

32 CFR 776.66 - Bar admission and disciplinary matters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Bar admission and disciplinary matters. 776.66 Section 776.66 National...776.66 Bar admission and disciplinary matters. (a) Bar admission and disciplinary matters. A covered attorney, in...

2013-07-01

301

33 CFR 13.01-40 - Miniature medals and bars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-40 Miniature medals and bars. (a) Miniature Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals and bars are replicas of...

2013-07-01

302

33 CFR 13.01-40 - Miniature medals and bars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-40 Miniature medals and bars. (a) Miniature Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals and bars are replicas of...

2010-07-01

303

33 CFR 13.01-40 - Miniature medals and bars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-40 Miniature medals and bars. (a) Miniature Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals and bars are replicas of...

2012-07-01

304

33 CFR 13.01-40 - Miniature medals and bars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-40 Miniature medals and bars. (a) Miniature Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals and bars are replicas of...

2011-07-01

305

32 CFR 776.66 - Bar admission and disciplinary matters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Bar admission and disciplinary matters. 776.66 Section 776.66 National...776.66 Bar admission and disciplinary matters. (a) Bar admission and disciplinary matters. A covered attorney, in...

2011-07-01

306

32 CFR 776.66 - Bar admission and disciplinary matters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Bar admission and disciplinary matters. 776.66 Section 776.66 National...776.66 Bar admission and disciplinary matters. (a) Bar admission and disciplinary matters. A covered attorney, in...

2010-07-01

307

32 CFR 776.66 - Bar admission and disciplinary matters.  

...2014-07-01 false Bar admission and disciplinary matters. 776.66 Section 776.66 National...776.66 Bar admission and disciplinary matters. (a) Bar admission and disciplinary matters. A covered attorney, in...

2014-07-01

308

Search for the Decay [bar over B][superscript 0] ? ?[+ over c][bar over p]p[bar over p  

E-print Network

We report a search for the decay [bar over B][superscript 0] ? ?[+ over c][bar over p]p[bar over p]. Using a data sample of 471 × 10[superscript 6] B[bar over B] pairs collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II2 storage ...

Cowan, Ray Franklin

309

The Influence of Bars on Nuclear Activity  

E-print Network

We test ideas on fueling of galactic nuclei by bar-driven inflow by comparing the detection rate and intensity of nuclear H II regions and AGNs among barred and unbarred galaxies in a sample of over 300 spirals selected from our recent optical spectroscopic survey of nearby galaxies. Among late-type spirals (Sc-Sm), but not early-type (S0/a-Sbc), we observe in the barred group a very marginal increase in the detection rate of H II nuclei and a corresponding decrease in the incidence of AGNs. The minor differences in the detection rates, however, are statistically insignificant, most likely stemming from selection effects and not from a genuine influence from the bar. The presence of a bar seems to have no noticeable impact on the likelihood of a galaxy to host either nuclear star formation or an AGN. The nuclei of early-type barred spirals do exhibit measurably higher star-formation rates than their unbarred counterparts, as indicated by either the luminosity or the equivalent width of H-alpha emission. By contrast, late-type spirals do not show such an effect. Bars have a negligible effect on the strength of the AGNs in our sample, regardless of the Hubble type of the host galaxy. This result confirms similar conclusions reached by other studies based on much smaller samples.

Luis C. Ho; Alexei V. Filippenko; Wallace L. W. Sargent

1997-04-11

310

A Cost Effective Multi-Spectral Scanner for Natural Gas Detection  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to design, fabricate and field demonstrate a cost effective, multi-spectral scanner for natural gas leak detection in transmission and distribution pipelines. During the first year of the project, a laboratory version of the multi-spectral scanner was designed, fabricated, and tested at EnUrga Inc. The multi-spectral scanner was also evaluated using a blind DoE study at RMOTC. The performance of the scanner was inconsistent during the blind DoE study. However, most of the leaks were outside the view of the multi-spectral scanner. Therefore, a definite evaluation of the capability of the scanner was not obtained. Despite the results, sufficient number of plumes was detected fully confirming the feasibility of the multi-spectral scanner. During the second year, the optical design of the scanner was changed to improve the sensitivity of the system. Laboratory tests show that the system can reliably detect small leaks (20 SCFH) at 30 to 50 feet. Electronic and mechanical design of the scanner to make it a self standing sensor was completed during the last six months of the project. The prototype scanner was tested with methane leaks at 15 feet and 30 feet, at a flow rate of 25 SCFH. The prototype scanner successfully detected the leaks. This concluded the project.

Yudaya Sivathanu; Jongmook Lim; Vinoo Narayanan; Seonghyeon Park

2005-12-07

311

Comparison of Cyberware PX and PS 3D human head scanners  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A common limitation of laser line three-Dimensional (3D) scanners is the inability to scan objects with surfaces that are either parallel to the laser line or that self-occlude. Filling in missing areas adds some unwanted inaccuracy to the 3D model. Capturing the human head with a Cyberware PS Head Scanner is an example of obtaining a model where the incomplete areas are difficult to fill accurately. The PS scanner uses a single vertical laser line to illuminate the head and is unable to capture data at top of the head, where the line of sight is tangent to the surface, and under the chin, an area occluded by the chin when the subject looks straight forward. The Cyberware PX Scanner was developed to obtain this missing 3D head data. The PX scanner uses two cameras offset at different angles to provide a more detailed head scan that captures surfaces missed by the PS scanner. The PX scanner cameras also use new technology to obtain color maps that are of higher resolution than the PS Scanner. The two scanners were compared in terms of amount of surface captured (surface area and volume) and the quality of head measurements when compared to direct measurements obtained through standard anthropometry methods. Relative to the PS scanner, the PX head scans were more complete and provided the full set of head measurements, but actual measurement values, when available from both scanners, were about the same.

Carson, Jeremy; Corner, Brian D.; Crockett, Eric; Li, Peng; Paquette, Steven

2008-02-01

312

DNA microarray scanner with a DVD pick-up head  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low-cost highly sensitive DNA microarray scanner for fluorescent detection is developed based on the pick-up head of a commercially available optical storage device, DVD. A laser beam of 650nm, generated by a DVD laser diode, is used for dynamic auto-focusing as well as the excitation of Cy5 fluorescent dye. The fluorescence intensity emitted from Cy5 dye is measured by

Kyung-Ho Kim; Seung-Yop Lee; Sookyung Kim; Seong-Gab Jeong

2008-01-01

313

94. View of scanner building no. 105 overall view of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

94. View of scanner building no. 105 overall view of upper (upper left) and lower (lower left) DR switches and waveguide arrangement, access catwalks, ships ladder stairs, and structural support system. Official photograph BMEWS Project by unknown photographer, 25 April 1961, clear as negative no. A-2343. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

314

Intracardiac ultrasound scanner using a micromachine (MEMS) actuator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Catheter-based intracardiac ultrasound offers the potential for improved guidance of interventional cardiac procedures. The objective of this research is the development of catheter-based mechanical sector scanners incorporating high frequency ultrasound transducers operating at frequencies up to 20 MHz. The authors' current transducer assembly consists of a single 1.75 mm by 1.75 mm, 20 MHz, PZT element mounted on a 2

Jason M. Zara; Stephen M. Bobbio; Scott Goodwin-Johansson; Stephen W. Smith

2000-01-01

315

90. View of scanner building no. 104 showing emplacement process ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

90. View of scanner building no. 104 showing emplacement process for one-half of upper radar switch housing body. RCA Services Company 6 September, 1960, official photograph BMEWS Project by unknown photograph, Photographic Services, Riverton, NJ, BMEWS, clear as negative no. a-1163. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

316

Study of Thematic Mapper and Multispectral Scanner Data Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The U.S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center evaluated the utility of LANDSAT multispectral scanner (MSS) and Thematic Mapper (TM) data for natural resource assessment and land cover information, emphasizing manual interpretation and digital classification of the data for U.S. Department of the Interior applications. In most cases, substantially more information was derived from TM data than from MSS data. The test areas included Washington, D.C. and prairie regions of South Dakota and Kansas.

Sadowski, F. G.; Haas, R. H.; Sturdevant, J. A.; Anderson, W. H.; Seevers, P. M.; Feuquay, J. W.; Balick, L. K.; Waltz, F. A.; Lauer, D. T.

1984-01-01

317

Development, Field and Beta Tests of a Generic Manual Scanner  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel Generic Manual Scanner has been developed that combines simple and inexpensive position encoding hardware, hand-held inspection instruments and a pc computer and software, enabling the production of C-Scan images. A core concept of this development is to use NDT\\/I equipment already in use by and familiar to inspectors, intending to reduce changes in procedures. A minimal selection of

D. J. Barnard; D. K. Hsu; J. J. Peters

2007-01-01

318

Scanner K-line photometry of Orion stars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are presented for two-channel scanner measurements of calcium K-line strengths in 39 Orion sword and belt stars. Values of the calcium k index and its associated standard error are given for each observed star, and the K-line strengths are compared with those of K-line standard stars and Hyades stars. Plots of k index against reddening-corrected color and of k-index

J. E. Hesser; W. McClintock; R. C. Henry

1977-01-01

319

Study on Gray code control rod position indicator  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new control rod position indicator for water reactors, the Gray code control rod position indicator, is introduced in this paper. The indicator consists of a primary winding, several grouped secondary coils and one coding bar, which is composed of m sections of magnetic core and q sections of non-magnetic portions arranged alternately on the longitudinal axis of the rod

Jiang Yueyuan; Wang Wenran; Lu Lin; Duan Quansheng

1998-01-01

320

Performance of an improved first generation optical CT scanner for 3D dosimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Performance analysis of a modified 3D dosimetry optical scanner based on the first generation optical CT scanner OCTOPUS is presented. The system consists of PRESAGE™ dosimeters, the modified 3D scanner, and a new developed in-house user control panel written in Labview program which provides more flexibility to optimize mechanical control and data acquisition technique. The total scanning time has been significantly reduced from initial 8 h to ?2 h by using the modified scanner. The functional performance of the modified scanner has been evaluated in terms of the mechanical integrity uncertainty of the data acquisition process. Optical density distribution comparison between the modified scanner, OCTOPUS and the treatment plan system has been studied. It has been demonstrated that the agreement between the modified scanner and treatment plans is comparable with that between the OCTOPUS and treatment plans.

Qian, Xin; Adamovics, John; Wuu, Cheng-Shie

2013-12-01

321

Galaxy Zoo: bars in disc galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present first results from Galaxy Zoo 2, the second phase of the highly successful Galaxy Zoo project (). Using a volume-limited sample of 13 665 disc galaxies (0.01 < z < 0.06 and Mr < -19.38), we study the fraction of galaxies with bars as a function of global galaxy properties like colour, luminosity and bulge prominence. Overall, 29.4 ± 0.5 per cent of galaxies in our sample have a bar, in excellent agreement with previous visually classified samples of galaxies (although this overall fraction is lower than that measured by automated bar-finding methods). We see a clear increase in the bar fraction with redder (g-r) colours, decreased luminosity and in galaxies with more prominent bulges, to the extent that over half of the red, bulge-dominated disc galaxies in our sample possess a bar. We see evidence for a colour bimodality for our sample of disc galaxies, with a 'red sequence' that is both bulge and bar dominated, and a 'blue cloud' which has little, or no, evidence for a (classical) bulge or bar. These results are consistent with similar trends for barred galaxies seen recently both locally and at higher redshift, and with early studies using the RC3. We discuss these results in the context of internal (secular) galaxy evolution scenarios and the possible links to the formation of bars and bulges in disc galaxies. This publication has been made possible by the participation of more than 200 000 volunteers in the Galaxy Zoo project. Their contributions are individually acknowledged at http://www.galaxyzoo.org/Volunteers.aspx

Masters, Karen L.; Nichol, Robert C.; Hoyle, Ben; Lintott, Chris; Bamford, Steven P.; Edmondson, Edward M.; Fortson, Lucy; Keel, William C.; Schawinski, Kevin; Smith, Arfon M.; Thomas, Daniel

2011-03-01

322

Evaluating Parameters Affecting the Georeferencing Accuracy of Terrestrial Laser Scanners  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today laser scanning is used as a powerful technology in measuring various simple and complex objects in cultural heritage applications. Depending on the size and the complexity of the objects, these measurements are usually made from several stations. Similar to all other surveying techniques, the coordinate systems of such measurements need to be registered. For this, a number of retro-reflective targets visible from different stations are used. In practice, the target centres are entered in the computations. The accuracy of the target centres, therefore, need to be high or the final object coordinates might not be of sufficient accuracy. A number of factors including the distance between a target and the laser scanner, the direction of the target surface with respect to the laser scanner beams, the intensity and the number of reflected laser beams affect the accuracy of target centres. In this paper, various tests are carried out to examine the effect of such factors on the accuracy of coordinates obtained for the target centres. The results show that the distance to the laser scanner and the angle between a target surface and the corresponding laser beams have considerable effects on the locational accuracy of the targets.

Miri, M.; Varshosaz, M.

2011-09-01

323

3D laser scanner system using high dynamic range imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because of its high measuring speed, moderate accuracy, low cost and robustness in the industrial field, 3D laser scanning has been widely used in a variety of applications. However, the measurement of a 3D profile of a high dynamic range (HDR) brightness surface such as a partially highlighted object or a partial specular reflection remains one of the most challenging problems. This difficulty has limited the adoption of such scanner systems. In this paper, an optical imaging system based on a high-resolution liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS) device and an image sensor (CCD or CMOS) was built to adjust the image's brightness pixel by pixel as required. The radiance value of the image captured by the image sensor is constrained to lie within the dynamic range of the sensor after an adaptive algorithm of pixel mapping between the LCoS mask plane and image plane through the HDR imaging system is added. Thus, an HDR image was reconstructed by the LCoS mask and the CCD image on this system. The significant difference between the proposed system and a traditional 3D laser scanner system is that the HDR image was used to calibrate and calculate the 3D profile coordinate. Experimental results show that HDR imaging can enhance 3D laser scanner system environmental adaptability and improve the accuracy of 3D profile measurement.

Zhongdong, Yang; Peng, Wang; Xiaohui, Li; Changku, Sun

2014-03-01

324

Vector near-field beam scanner for the SMA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we describe the principles behind the design, construction, and implementation of a vector near-field beam scanner for the antennas of the Submillimeter Array. The Submillimeter Array (SMA) is a radio interferometer array operating at frequencies ranging from 200 { 700 GHz at the summit of Maunakea in Hawaii. A set of 4 receivers cover the key atmospheric windows over which the SMA operates. Each receiver insert is equipped with an ambient optical insert, which is pre-aligned in the lab prior to installation at the summit. However, as a result of receiver upgrades and problems, some receiver inserts may no longer be matched to the original optics inserts. Since the SMA is used extensively in dual-receiver observations, such beam mis-alignments lead to a relative pointing error between a pair of receivers during the observation. In order to address this issue, we have designed a near-field beam scanner which can be used to map out the receiver beam of each antenna. The setup employs the existing radio references available in each antenna for the vector beam measurement. We have successfully used this scanner to improve the on-sky co-alignment of receiver beams. In this presentation, we will describe the system and operational aspect of this in-situ radio frequency alignment technique.

Christensen, Robert D.; Rao, Ramprasad; Sridharan, T. K.; Tong, Edward

2014-07-01

325

PIXSCAN: Pixel detector CT-scanner for small animal imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The PIXSCAN is a small animal CT-scanner based on hybrid pixel detectors. These detectors provide very large dynamic range of photons counting at very low detector noise. They also provide high counting rates with fast image readout. Detection efficiency can be optimized by selecting the sensor medium according to the working energy range. Indeed, the use of CdTe allows a detection efficiency of 100% up to 50 keV. Altogether these characteristics are expected to improve the contrast of the CT-scanner, especially for soft tissues, and to reduce both the scan duration and the absorbed dose. A proof of principle has been performed by assembling into a PIXSCAN-XPAD2 prototype the photon counting pixel detector initially built for detection of X-ray synchrotron radiations. Despite the relatively large pixel size of this detector (330×330 ?m 2), we can present three-dimensional tomographic reconstruction of mice at good contrast and spatial resolution. A new photon counting chip (XPAD3) is designed in sub-micronique technology to achieve 130×130 ?m 2 pixels. This improved circuit has been equipped with an energy selection circuit to act as a band-pass emission filter. Furthermore, the PIXSCAN-XPAD3 hybrid pixel detectors will be combined with the Lausanne ClearPET scanner demonstrator. CT image reconstruction in this non-conventional geometry is under study for this purpose.

Delpierre, P.; Debarbieux, F.; Basolo, S.; Berar, J. F.; Bonissent, A.; Boudet, N.; Breugnon, P.; Caillot, B.; Cassol Brunner, F.; Chantepie, B.; Clemens, J. C.; Dinkespiler, B.; Khouri, R.; Koudobine, I.; Mararazzo, V.; Meessen, C.; Menouni, M.; Morel, C.; Mouget, C.; Pangaud, P.; Peyrin, F.; Rougon, G.; Sappey-Marinier, D.; Valton, S.; Vigeolas, E.

2007-02-01

326

Electro-optic and Acousto-optic Laser Beam Scanners  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical solid state de?ectors rely on the electro-optical or acousto-optic effect. These Electro-Optical De?ectors (EODs) and Acousto-Optical De?ectors (AODs) do not contain moving parts and therefore exhibit high de?ection velocities and are free of drawbacks associated with mechanical scanners. A description of the principles of operation of EODs and AODs is presented. In addition, characteristics, properties and the (dis)advantages of EODs and AODs, when compared to mirror based mechanical de?ectors, is discussed. De?ection angles, speed and accuracy are discussed in terms of resolvable spots and related quantities. Also, response time, damage threshold, efficiency and the type and magnitude of beam distortions is addressed. Optical de?ectors are characterized by high angular de?ection velocities, but small de?ection angles. Whereas mechanical mechanical scanners are characterized by relatively small de?ection velocities, but large de?ection angles. Arranging an optical de?ector and a mechanical scanner in series allows to take advantage of the best of both worlds.

Römer, G. R. B. E.; Bechtold, P.

327

Star Formation Properties in Barred Galaxies(SFB). III. Statistical Study of Bar-driven Secular Evolution using a sample of nearby barred spirals  

E-print Network

Stellar bars are important internal drivers of secular evolution in disk galaxies. Using a sample of nearby spiral galaxies with weak and strong bars, we explore the relationships between the star formation feature and stellar bars in galaxies. We find that galaxies with weak bars tend to be coincide with low concentrical star formation activity, while those with strong bars show a large scatter in the distribution of star formation activity. We find enhanced star formation activity in bulges towards stronger bars, although not predominantly, consistent with previous studies. Our results suggest that different stages of the secular process and many other factors may contribute to the complexity of the secular evolution. In addition, barred galaxies with intense star formation in bars tend to have active star formation in their bulges and disks, and bulges have higher star formation densities than bars and disks, indicating the evolutionary effects of bars. We then derived a possible criterion to quantify the ...

Zhou, Zhi-Min; Wu, Hong

2014-01-01

328

Character coding  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Character coding has been called the bete noire of phylogenetic analysis. As you may have seen from class, the definition of "character" is squishy and varies between authors. Although there isn't agreement on exactly what a character is, it is possible to predict how certain character definitions and coding strategies affect phylogenetic analysis. This activity focuses on character coding, specifically about how different coding strategies can affect analysis. In this exercise we will try to look at different coding strategies by considering the simple shapes below. (1) What is a character, and what qualities do characters have? (2) Given the 'morphology' depicted above, what features vary? (3) Given the variation you identified, come up with as many character codings as you can; i.e., different ways that this variation can be coded into characters. (4) For each of the coding strategies you come up with in question 3, identify its assumptions, limitations, and strengths. (5) Identify your preferred coding strategy and defend your choice. Students asked to define what a character is and to discuss what they 'require', and then to come up with an exhaustive list of coding strategies for the sample morphology. They are then asked to list assumptions/limitations of each strategy.

Wilson, Jeff

329

Neutrino tracking calorimetry with plastic scintillator bars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The technique of plastic scintillator bars coupled to wavelength shifting fibers is proposed for neutrino tracking calorimeters, in the context of very large, massive detectors for experiments on the neutrino factory beam. A prototype has been built with 180 scintillator bars interleaved with an equal number of iron bars. The light from the fibers is collected by multi-anode PMTs and converted with Amplitude-Time-Pattern self-triggering digitizing electronics. The prototype has been tested with electron and pion beams at CERN.

Giannini, Gianrossano; Santin, Giovanni; Spinetti, Mario; Votano, Lucia; Hoepfner, Kerstin

2001-10-01

330

Digital Image Analysis for DETCHIP® Code Determination  

PubMed Central

DETECHIP® is a molecular sensing array used for identification of a large variety of substances. Previous methodology for the analysis of DETECHIP® used human vision to distinguish color changes induced by the presence of the analyte of interest. This paper describes several analysis techniques using digital images of DETECHIP®. Both a digital camera and flatbed desktop photo scanner were used to obtain Jpeg images. Color information within these digital images was obtained through the measurement of red-green-blue (RGB) values using software such as GIMP, Photoshop and ImageJ. Several different techniques were used to evaluate these color changes. It was determined that the flatbed scanner produced in the clearest and more reproducible images. Furthermore, codes obtained using a macro written for use within ImageJ showed improved consistency versus pervious methods.

Lyon, Marcus; Wilson, Mark V.; Rouhier, Kerry A.; Symonsbergen, David J.; Bastola, Kiran; Thapa, Ishwor; Holmes, Andrea E.

2013-01-01

331

Code constructions and code families for nonbinary quantum stabilizer code  

E-print Network

Stabilizer codes form a special class of quantum error correcting codes. Nonbinary quantum stabilizer codes are studied in this thesis. A lot of work on binary quantum stabilizer codes has been done. Nonbinary stabilizer codes have received much...

Ketkar, Avanti Ulhas

2005-11-01

332

Design of a hybrid composite roof bar  

SciTech Connect

This project entailed the design and construction of a hybrid composite roof bar for a passenger vehicle in accordance to AS 1235-1989. The design was based on finite element modeling. The manufacture of the roof bar incorporated tool fabrication and a wet lay-up technique. Experimental substantiation of the roof bar was performed by testing the roof bar to the static loading requirements set by AS 1235-1989. The findings of both the finite element and experimental work were presented and discussed, which included a comparison between the two sets of results. A commercial manufacture technique which could be adopted, alternative designs, and the applicability of composites in high load bearing automotive structures, were also discussed and recommended.

Falzon, P.J.; Janardhana, M.N. [Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (Australia). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

1993-12-31

333

Immediate loading and implant-bar overdenture.  

PubMed

Immediate loaded implants may be used with an implant-bar overdenture to provide fixed splinting. This is a relatively new system that provides for immediate implant placement and restoration. PMID:24787132

Chang, John; Millstein, Philip

2014-10-01

334

Symmetry violations at BaBar  

E-print Network

Following a brief introduction I report the current status of symmetry violation tests from the BaBar experiment, including recent results on the measurement of T violation, and searches for CP and T violation in mixing.

Bevan, Adrian J

2014-01-01

335

HOW DIFFERENT ARE NORMAL AND BARRED SPIRALS?  

SciTech Connect

No significant color differences are found between normal and barred spirals over the range of Hubble stages a-ab-b-bc. Furthermore, no significant difference is seen between the luminosity distributions of normal and barred galaxies over the same range of Hubble stages. However, SBc galaxies are found to be systematically fainter than Sc galaxies at 99% confidence. The observation that normal and barred spirals with Hubble stages a-ab-b-bc have indistinguishable intrinsic colors hints at the possibility that the bars in such spiral galaxies might be ephemeral structures. Finally, it is pointed out that lenticular galaxies of types S0 and SB0 are systematically fainter than are other early-type galaxies, suggesting that such galaxies are situated on evolutionary tracks that differ systematically from those of galaxies that lie along the E-Sa-Sb-Sc and E-SBa-SBb-SBc sequences.

Van den Bergh, Sidney, E-mail: sidney.vandenbergh@nrc.gc.ca [Dominion Astrophysical Observatory, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada)

2011-06-15

336

Intelligent Bar Chart Plagiarism Detection in Documents  

PubMed Central

This paper presents a novel features mining approach from documents that could not be mined via optical character recognition (OCR). By identifying the intimate relationship between the text and graphical components, the proposed technique pulls out the Start, End, and Exact values for each bar. Furthermore, the word 2-gram and Euclidean distance methods are used to accurately detect and determine plagiarism in bar charts. PMID:25309952

Al-Dabbagh, Mohammed Mumtaz; Salim, Naomie; Alkawaz, Mohammed Hazim; Saba, Tanzila; Al-Rodhaan, Mznah; Al-Dhelaan, Abdullah

2014-01-01

337

Intelligent bar chart plagiarism detection in documents.  

PubMed

This paper presents a novel features mining approach from documents that could not be mined via optical character recognition (OCR). By identifying the intimate relationship between the text and graphical components, the proposed technique pulls out the Start, End, and Exact values for each bar. Furthermore, the word 2-gram and Euclidean distance methods are used to accurately detect and determine plagiarism in bar charts. PMID:25309952

Al-Dabbagh, Mohammed Mumtaz; Salim, Naomie; Rehman, Amjad; Alkawaz, Mohammed Hazim; Saba, Tanzila; Al-Rodhaan, Mznah; Al-Dhelaan, Abdullah

2014-01-01

338

Comparing Columns on a Bar Graph (Illuminations)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson plan students learn to create bar graphs using unifix cubes, translate this representation to graph paper, and then compare the data that has been collected and displayed. Students are encouraged to make up their own questions about the data (favorite juice) and to practice with multiple sets of data. Sample questions for students and extension ideas are included. The lesson contains links to a PDF of graph paper and the Bar Grapher tool which is cataloged separately in this database.

Burton, Grace M.

2012-01-01

339

Gaseous Vortices in Barred Spiral Galaxies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simulations of the gas flow in a variety of two-dimensional barred spiral galaxies have shown that vortices in the gas appear, when viewed from above, in the corotation frame of the bar. These low-density vortices generally appear at or near the L4 and L5 Lagrangian points. We show that these gas vortices in our models are the hydrodynamic analogs of

Martin N. England; J. H. Hunter Jr.; G. Contopoulos

2000-01-01

340

Boston University Physics Applets: A Moving Bar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page is an interactive physics problem on magnetic flux. Given a bar sliding on rails with a current passing through it, the user is asked to determine if changes in the magnetic flux will cause the bar to speed up or slow down. The guide then works through the problem from both a magnetism and a conservation of energy perspective. This is part of a collection of similar simulation-based student activities.

Duffy, Andrew

2008-07-11

341

Barred Galaxies in the Coma Cluster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use ACS data from the HST Treasury survey of the Coma cluster (z˜0.02) to study the properties of barred galaxies in the Coma core, the densest environment in the nearby Universe. This study provides a complementary data point for studies of barred galaxies as a function of redshift and environment. From ˜470 cluster members brighter than MI = -11 mag, we select a sample of 46 disk galaxies (S0-Im) based on visual classification. The sample is dominated by S0s for which we find an optical bar fraction of 47±11% through ellipse fitting and visual inspection. Among the bars in the core of the Coma cluster, we do not find any very large (abar>2 kpc) bars. Comparison to other studies reveals that while the optical bar fraction for S0s shows only a modest variation across low-to-intermediate density environments (field to intermediate-density clusters), it can be higher by up to a factor of ˜ 2 in the very high-density environment of the rich Coma cluster core.

Marinova, I.; Jogee, S.; Trentham, N.; Ferguson, H. C.; Weinzirl, T.; Balcells, M.; Carter, D.; den Brok, M.; Erwin, P.; Graham, A. W.; Goudfrooij, P.; Guzmán, R.; Hammer, D.; Hoyos, C.; Peletier, R. F.; Peng, E.; Verdoes Kleijn, G.

2010-10-01

342

Scintillator Replacement Option for BaBar  

SciTech Connect

A replacement technology for the muon detection system in BaBar using scintillator bars with Wavelength Shifting (WLS) fibers and Avalanche Photo Diodes (APDs). APDs must be used in BaBar due to the high magnetic fields that disrupt the electron multiplying effects of Photo Multiplier Tubes (PMTs). Muons passing through scintillator cause fluors in the scintillator to emit photons, which are captured by WLS fibers and then re-emitted at the ends of the fibers to awaiting APDs. The detector configuration that will produce the largest Light Yield (LY) and produce a clear APD signal that will be larger than background noise is the main goal of the study. Bar dimensions, number of WLS fibers, and placement of fibers are parameters that may be adjusted to produce the largest LY. Additionally, good timing resolution is needed to determine where a muon passed through the detector along the long direction of the bar. A scintillator bar 2cm x 4cm in x-y with four round lmm fibers produced the largest LY out of four different configurations with a timing resolution of 25cm. A Monte Carlo simulation confirmed the relative LY compared to other detectors. This detector was able to produce a 40mV pulse from the APD that was easily discernable above the 2-SmV background noise. Refinement of the fabrication process could produced higher LYs and better timing resolutions, while a redesign of the electronics may increase the signal to noise ratio.

Lometti, m

2004-02-05

343

DYNAMICAL BAR-MODE INSTABILITY IN DIFFERENTIALLY ROTATING MAGNETIZED NEUTRON STARS  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a numerical study over a wide parameter space of the likelihood of dynamical bar-mode instability in differentially rotating magnetized neutron stars. The innovative aspect of this study is the incorporation of magnetic fields in such a context, which have thus far been neglected in the purely hydrodynamical simulations available in the literature. The investigation uses the Cosmos++ code which allows us to perform three-dimensional simulations on a cylindrical grid at high resolution. A sample of Newtonian magnetohydrodynamical simulations starting from a set of models previously analyzed by other authors without magnetic fields has been performed, providing estimates of the effects of magnetic fields on the dynamical bar-mode deformation of rotating neutron stars. Overall, our results suggest that the effect of magnetic fields is not likely to be very significant in realistic configurations. Only in the most extreme cases are the magnetic fields able to suppress growth of the bar mode.

Camarda, Karen D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Washburn University, Topeka, KS 66621 (United States); Anninos, Peter [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Fragile, P. Chris [Department of Physics and Astronomy, College of Charleston, Charleston, SC 29424 (United States); Font, Jose A. [Departamento de AstronomIa y AstrofIsica, Universidad de Valencia, Dr. Moliner 50, 46100, Burjassot, Valencia (Spain)

2009-12-20

344

$\\bar d - \\bar u$ asymmetry in the proton in chiral effective theory  

E-print Network

We compute the $\\bar d - \\bar u$ asymmetry in the proton in chiral effective theory, including both nucleon and $\\Delta$ degrees of freedom, within both the relativistic and heavy baryon frameworks. In addition to the distribution at $x>0$, we compute the corrections to the asymmetry arising from zero momentum contributions from pion rainbow and bubble diagrams at $x=0$, which have not been accounted for in previous analyses. We find that the empirical $x$ dependence of $\\bar d - \\bar u$ as well as the integrated asymmetry can be well reproduced in terms of a transverse momentum cutoff parameter.

Salamu, Yusupujiang; Melnitchouk, W; Wang, P

2014-01-01

345

Raptor codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We exhibit a class of universal Raptor Codes: for a given integer k, and any real ?> 0 ,R ap- tor Codes in this class produce a potentially infinite stream of symbols such that any subset of symbols of size k(1 + ?) is sufficient to recover the original k sym- bols, with high probability. Each output symbol is generated

Amin Shokrollahi

2006-01-01

346

SPH Simulations of Barred Galaxies: Evolution of Nuclear Rings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerical simulations based on the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) is performed to investigate the dynamical properties of barred galaxies that have nuclear rings. The nuclear ring morphology depends on the relative strength of bar potentials. Nuclear rings form between the two ILRs and align perpendicular to the bars unless the bar potentials are strong enough to allow the x1 orbits

H. B. Ann

2001-01-01

347

Estimating crop acreage from space-simulated multispectral scanner data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The need for multispectral data processing methods to permit the estimation of proportions of objects and materials appearing within the instantaneous field of view of a scanning system is discussed. An algorithm developed for proportion estimation is described as well as other supporting processing techniques. Application of this algorithm to space-simulated multispectral scanner data is discussed and some results presented and compared. Results indicate that, for this data set, the true proportions of the various crops contained within this data set are with one exception more closely in agreement with the proportions determined by the proportion estimation algorithm than with the proportions determined by conventional classfication algorithm.

Nalepka, R. F.; Hyde, P. D.

1973-01-01

348

Oil slick studies using photographic and multispectral scanner data.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Field studies of spills of Nos. 6 (Bunker C), 4, and 2 fuel oils and menhaden fish oil in the southern Chesapeake Bay have been supplemented with aerial photographic and multispectral scanner data. Thin films showed best in ultraviolet and blue bands and thick films in the green. Color film was effective for all thicknesses. Thermal infrared imagery provided clear detection, but required field temperature and thickness data to distinguish thickness/emissivity variations from temperature variations. Slick spreading rates agree with the theory of Fay (1969); further study of spreading is in progress.

Munday, J. C., Jr.; Macintyre, W. G.; Penney, M. E.; Oberholtzer, J. D.

1971-01-01

349

Optical monitoring of scoliosis by 3D medical laser scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three dimensional recording of the human body surface or anatomical areas have gained importance in many medical applications. In this paper, our 3D Medical Laser Scanner is presented. It is based on the novel principle of dynamic triangulation. We analyze the method of operation, medical applications, orthopedically diseases as Scoliosis and the most common types of skin to employ the system the most proper way. It is analyzed a group of medical problems related to the application of optical scanning in optimal way. Finally, experiments are conducted to verify the performance of the proposed system and its method uncertainty.

Rodríguez-Quiñonez, Julio C.; Sergiyenko, Oleg Yu.; Preciado, Luis C. Basaca; Tyrsa, Vera V.; Gurko, Alexander G.; Podrygalo, Mikhail A.; Lopez, Moises Rivas; Balbuena, Daniel Hernandez

2014-03-01

350

Scanner K-line photometry of Orion stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are presented for two-channel scanner measurements of calcium K-line strengths in 39 Orion sword and belt stars. Values of the calcium k index and its associated standard error are given for each observed star, and the K-line strengths are compared with those of K-line standard stars and Hyades stars. Plots of k index against reddening-corrected color and of k-index deviation against metal-strength index deviation are provided which show that the Orion sword and belt stars do not differ significantly in their calcium and metal abundances from general field stars.

Hesser, J. E.; Mcclintock, W.; Henry, R. C.

1977-01-01

351

91. View of scanner building No. 105 construction view showing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

91. View of scanner building No. 105 construction view showing upper (upper left) and (lower right) DR switches (note apertures for future waveguide connection) and structural steel support system. RCA Services Company 22 September, 1960, official photograph BMEWS Project by unknown photograph, Photographic Services, Riverton, NJ, BMEWS, clear as negative no. A-1219. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

352

Jefferson Lab IR demo FEL photocathode quantum efficiency scanner  

SciTech Connect

Jefferson Laboratory's Free Electron Laser (FEL) incorporates a cesiated gallium arsenide (GaAs) DC photocathode gun as its electron source. By using a setof scanning mirrors, the surface of the GaAs wafer is illuminated with a 543.5nm helium-neon laser. Measuring the current flow across the biased photocathodegenerates a quantum efficiency (QE) map of the 1-in. diameter wafer surface. The resulting QE map provides a very detailed picture of the efficiency of thewafer surface. By generating a QE map in a matter of minutes, the photocathode scanner has proven to be an exceptional tool in quickly determining sensitivityand availability of the photocathode for operation.

Grippo, Albert; Gubeli, Joseph; Jordan, Kevin; Michelle D. Shinn; Evans, Richard

2001-12-01

353

Comparative evaluation of ultrasound scanner accuracy in distance measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the present study is to develop and compare two different automatic methods for accuracy evaluation in ultrasound phantom measurements on B-mode images: both of them give as a result the relative error e between measured distances, performed by 14 brand new ultrasound medical scanners, and nominal distances, among nylon wires embedded in a reference test object. The first method is based on a least squares estimation, while the second one applies the mean value of the same distance evaluated at different locations in ultrasound image (same distance method). Results for both of them are proposed and explained.

Branca, F. P.; Sciuto, S. A.; Scorza, A.

2012-10-01

354

Evaluation Of Back Shape Using The ISIS Scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Integrated Shape Investigation System (ISIS) is a structured light scanner and shape analysis system, developed as a safe alternative to follow-up radiographs for the clinical assessment of deformities of the human back. The system is described and results presented of several clinic studies. These show a significant correlation between ISIS measures and conventional radiographic measures of spinal curvature, such as the Cobb angle. The development of a predictor for deterioration in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, based on surface shape weasures, is discussed.

Turner-Smith, Alan R.; Thomas, David C.

1989-04-01

355

Social Organization in Bars: Implications for Tobacco Control Policy  

PubMed Central

This paper considers social roles and relationships of the patrons, staff and owners of bars as critical factors determining adherence to public health policies, and specifically California’s smokefree workplace law. Specific elements of social organization in bars affecting health policy include the community within which the bar is set, the unique identity the bar creates, the bar staff and patrons who enact this identity, and their bar society. These elements were found to contribute to the development of power relations within the bar and solidarity against the outside world, resulting in either resistance to or compliance with smokefree workplace policy. PMID:22522904

Lee, Juliet P.; Antin, Tamar M.J.; Moore, Roland S.

2011-01-01

356

Morphology of Cold Bars in Early and Late Type Galaxies  

E-print Network

We compare stellar orbits in an early (NGC 4314) and a late-type barred galaxy (NGC 1073). We find that these bars are cold in the sense that the majority of stars can be described as being nearby to periodic orbits. We place limits of (65km/s)^2 and (50km/s)^2 on the components of the diagonalized velocity dispersion ellipsoid matrix for stars in the bars of NGC 4314 and NGC 1073 respectively. Both bars end near the inner 4:1 Lindblad (ultraharmonic) resonance. We conjecture that a large class of bars end near this resonance. The morphology of the bars depends on the strength of the 4:1 resonance, which is strong in the early-type barred galaxy and weak in the other. This results in a flat bar major axis surface brightness profile for the early-type bar and an exponential profile for the late-type bar.

A. C. Quillen

1996-09-05

357

Poll Code  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Are you a pollster? Would you like to be one? PollCode makes all of this quite simple. With this handy application, visitors can type in a poll question and up to 30 possible answers. Visitors can customize the poll with their own colors, font, and settings. After visitors have completed their poll, they can use the HTML code provided here to share their poll with others via social media networks and the like. This version of Poll Code is compatible with all operating systems. [KMG

2013-05-09

358

Monte Carlo simulation of efficient data acquisition for an entire-body PET scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conventional PET scanners can image the whole body using many bed positions. On the other hand, an entire-body PET scanner with an extended axial FOV, which can trace whole-body uptake images at the same time and improve sensitivity dynamically, has been desired. The entire-body PET scanner would have to process a large amount of data effectively. As a result, the entire-body PET scanner has high dead time at a multiplex detector grouping process. Also, the entire-body PET scanner has many oblique line-of-responses. In this work, we study an efficient data acquisition for the entire-body PET scanner using the Monte Carlo simulation. The simulated entire-body PET scanner based on depth-of-interaction detectors has a 2016-mm axial field-of-view (FOV) and an 80-cm ring diameter. Since the entire-body PET scanner has higher single data loss than a conventional PET scanner at grouping circuits, the NECR of the entire-body PET scanner decreases. But, single data loss is mitigated by separating the axially arranged detector into multiple parts. Our choice of 3 groups of axially-arranged detectors has shown to increase the peak NECR by 41%. An appropriate choice of maximum ring difference (MRD) will also maintain the same high performance of sensitivity and high peak NECR while at the same time reduces the data size. The extremely-oblique line of response for large axial FOV does not contribute much to the performance of the scanner. The total sensitivity with full MRD increased only 15% than that with about half MRD. The peak NECR was saturated at about half MRD. The entire-body PET scanner promises to provide a large axial FOV and to have sufficient performance values without using the full data.

Isnaini, Ismet; Obi, Takashi; Yoshida, Eiji; Yamaya, Taiga

2014-07-01

359

Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS): An investigator's guide to TIMS data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) is a NASA aircraft scanner providing six channel spectral capability in the thermal infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Operating in the atmospheric window region (8 to 12 micrometers) with a channel sensitivity of approximately 0.1 C, TIMS may be used whenever an accurate measure of the Earth's surface is needed. A description of this scanner is provided as well as a discussion of data acquisition and reduction.

Palluconi, F. D.; Meeks, G. R.

1985-01-01

360

Cooperation and cognitive radio O. Simeone, J. Gambini(), Y. Bar-Ness  

E-print Network

Cooperation and cognitive radio O. Simeone, J. Gambini(), Y. Bar-Ness CWCSPR, NJIT University implementation of cognitive radio. In this paper, we first give a brief overview of the envisioned applications of cooperative technology to cognitive radio, distinguishing among cooperative sensing for detection

Simeone, Osvaldo

361

Long-time fatigue properties of high yield reinforcing bars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatigue tests were conducted on beam specimens containing reinforcing bars. 6 bars from five US manufacturers were evaluated.\\u000a Each bar was embedded as main reinforcement in a concrete beam. 5 bars were evaluated at target stress ranges of 2 ksi (13.8\\u000a M Pa) below the mean fatigue limit at 5 million cycles. 1 bar was loaded at a target stress

B. G. Rabbat; W. G. Corley

1984-01-01

362

Dynamical evolution of two associated galactic bars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the dynamical interactions of mass systems in equilibrium under their own gravity that mutually exert and experience gravitational forces. The method we employ is to model the dynamical evolution of two isolated bars, hosted within the same galactic system, under their mutual gravitational interaction. In this study, we present an analytical treatment of the secular evolution of two bars that oscillate with respect to one another. Two cases of interaction, with and without geometrical deformation, are discussed. In the latter case, the bars are described as modified Jacobi ellipsoids. These triaxial systems are formed by a rotating fluid mass in gravitational equilibrium with its own rotational velocity and the gravitational field of the other bar. The governing equation for the variation of their relative angular separation is then numerically integrated, which also provides the time evolution of the geometrical parameters of the bodies. The case of rigid, non-deformable, bars produces in some cases an oscillatory motion in the bodies similar to that of a harmonic oscillator. For the other case, a deformable rotating body that can be represented by a modified Jacobi ellipsoid under the influence of an exterior massive body will change its rotational velocity to escape from the attracting body, just as if the gravitational torque exerted by the exterior body were of opposite sign. Instead, the exchange of angular momentum will cause the Jacobian body to modify its geometry by enlarging its long axis, located in the plane of rotation, thus decreasing its axial ratios.

Garzón, F.; López-Corredoira, M.

2014-10-01

363

Partial entrainment of gravel bars during floods  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Spatial patterns of bed material entrainment by floods were documented at seven gravel bars using arrays of metal washers (bed tags) placed in the streambed. The observed patterns were used to test a general stochastic model that bed material entrainment is a spatially independent, random process where the probability of entrainment is uniform over a gravel bar and a function of the peak dimensionless shear stress ??*0 of the flood. The fraction of tags missing from a gravel bar during a flood, or partial entrainment, had an approximately normal distribution with respect to ??*0 with a mean value (50% of the tags entrained) of 0.085 and standard deviation of 0.022 (root-mean-square error of 0.09). Variation in partial entrainment for a given ??*0 demonstrated the effects of flow conditioning on bed strength, with lower values of partial entrainment after intermediate magnitude floods (0.065 < ??*0 < 0.08) than after higher magnitude floods. Although the probability of bed material entrainment was approximately uniform over a gravel bar during individual floods and independent from flood to flood, regions of preferential stability and instability emerged at some bars over the course of a wet season. Deviations from spatially uniform and independent bed material entrainment were most pronounced for reaches with varied flow and in consecutive floods with small to intermediate magnitudes.

Konrad, C.P.; Booth, D.B.; Burges, S.J.; Montgomery, D.R.

2002-01-01

364

Dependence of CT attenuation values on scanner type using in vivo measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the key measures of response to treatment for patients in multicenter clinical trials is the lung density measured in Hounsfield Units (HU) from Computer Tomography (CT) scans. The purpose of this work is to determine the dependence of CT attenuation values on scanner type by using in vivo measurements made from homogeneous anatomic areas. In vivo measurements were made in areas within the trachea, aorta, fat and muscle regions of CT scans obtained from subjects scanned as part of a multicenter treatment trial. Scans were selected so that exams from all four major manufacturers were included in the study. For each anatomic region of interest, the mean and standard deviation values were computed to investigate attenuation dependence on scanners. For example, trachea mean (standard deviation) measurements for exams from GE, Siemens, Philips and Toshiba scanners were -986 HU(+/-15), - 993 HU(+/-9), -988HU(+/-8), -1046(+/-10) respectively. Inter-scanner variability was observed for each scanner showing significant differences (all p-values <0.005). Previous work in examining attenuation dependence on scanners has been performed using anthropomorphic phantoms. The novelty of this work is the use of in vivo measurements from homogeneous regions in order to examine scanner effects on CT attenuation values. Our results show that CT attenuation values for the anatomic regions vary between scanners and hence, dependence of CT attenuation values on scanners is observed.

Prasad, Mithun; Meza, Alicia; Kim, Hyun J.; Brown, Matthew S.; Abtin, Fereidoun; Goldin, Jonathan G.; McNitt-Gray, Michael F.

2008-03-01

365

Computed tomography coronary angiography with a 16-row multislice scanner: early experience and technical considerations.  

PubMed

The visualization of coronary arteries has become possible only after the introduction of multislice CT scanners (MSCT), which allow a gantry rotation time of 500/ms, a number of 4 detector array, and an in-plane spatial resolution of 1 mm. Such spatial and temporal resolution has been recently improved with a new generation of MSCT scanners with 16 detector rows and a gantry rotation time of 420/ms. We report a preliminary experience with this new generation of scanners in a patient with coronary artery stent. Technical parameters are described with particular focus on the comparison with the past generation of 4-row MSCT scanners. PMID:15315089

Cademartiri, Filippo; Pavone, Paolo

2004-04-01

366

On the Galactic Spin of Barred Disk Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a study of the connection between the galactic spin parameter (? d ) and the bar fraction in a volume-limited sample of 10,674 disk galaxies drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7. The galaxies in our sample are visually classified into one of three groups: non-barred galaxies and galaxies hosting long or short bars, respectively. We find that the spin distributions of these three classes are statistically different, with galaxies hosting long bars having the lowest ? d values, followed by non-barred galaxies, while galaxies with short bars present typically high spin parameters. The bar fraction presents its maximum at low to intermediate ? d values for the case of long bars, while the maximum for short bars is at high ? d . This bimodality is in good agreement with previous studies finding longer bars hosted by luminous, massive, red galaxies with a low content of cold gas, while short bars were found in low luminosity, low mass, blue galaxies that were typically gas rich. In addition, the rise and fall of the bar fraction as a function of ? d , within the long-bar sample shown in our results, can be explained as a result of two competing factors: the self-gravity of the disk that enhances bar instabilities and the support by random motions, instead of ordered rotational motion, that prevents the formation/growth of bars.

Cervantes-Sodi, Bernardo; Li, Cheng; Park, Changbom; Wang, Lixin

2013-09-01

367

ON THE GALACTIC SPIN OF BARRED DISK GALAXIES  

SciTech Connect

We present a study of the connection between the galactic spin parameter (?{sub d}) and the bar fraction in a volume-limited sample of 10,674 disk galaxies drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7. The galaxies in our sample are visually classified into one of three groups: non-barred galaxies and galaxies hosting long or short bars, respectively. We find that the spin distributions of these three classes are statistically different, with galaxies hosting long bars having the lowest ?{sub d} values, followed by non-barred galaxies, while galaxies with short bars present typically high spin parameters. The bar fraction presents its maximum at low to intermediate ?{sub d} values for the case of long bars, while the maximum for short bars is at high ?{sub d}. This bimodality is in good agreement with previous studies finding longer bars hosted by luminous, massive, red galaxies with a low content of cold gas, while short bars were found in low luminosity, low mass, blue galaxies that were typically gas rich. In addition, the rise and fall of the bar fraction as a function of ?{sub d}, within the long-bar sample shown in our results, can be explained as a result of two competing factors: the self-gravity of the disk that enhances bar instabilities and the support by random motions, instead of ordered rotational motion, that prevents the formation/growth of bars.

Cervantes-Sodi, Bernardo; Li, Cheng; Wang, Lixin [Partner Group of the Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics and Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Nandan Road 80, Shanghai 200030 (China); Park, Changbom, E-mail: bernardo@shao.ac.cn [Korea Institute for Advanced Study, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-722 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-09-20

368

Remote sensing of foliar biochemistry with a terrestrial laser scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Foliar biochemistry provides important information about the physiological status of plants. Several different tools and techniques have been developed to infer plant biochemistry (such as state and change of foliar nitrogen (N) and chlorophyll) using remote sensing. However, few techniques allow accurate mapping of foliar biochemistry in 3-dimensions at a sub-cm level. Scanning laser technology is available that measures the x,y,z location of each reflected laser pulse in addition to the intensity of the reflected laser light within a mm-scale ground instantaneous field of view at a very high sampling rate (up to 50,000 points sec-1 in this study). We examined the ability to quantify foliar N of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and chlorophyll content of two broadleaf tree species saplings (Quercus macrocarpa and Acer saccharum) using a green (532 nm) terrestrial laser scanner. The return intensity of the reflected green laser light was significantly correlated with foliar N concentration of wheat (r2 = 0.68) and the foliar chlorophyll content (r2 = 0.77) of the broadleaf saplings. The results indicate that laser scanners are useful to obtain spatially explicit estimates of foliar biochemistry.

Eitel, J.; Vierling, L. A.; Long, D. S.

2011-12-01

369

A very low thermal EMF computer-controlled scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A very low thermal electromotive force (EMF) scanner was designed in our laboratory five years ago. The device was developed to automatically calibrate up to 12 Zener-based voltage standards by comparison to a programmable Josephson voltage standard, but can be used in any set-up that requires automation to set electrical contacts with a repeatability of the thermal EMFs at the nanovolt level. This paper explains how this device achieves robustness of metrological characteristics even after several thousand connections since its first installation. One scanner position shows a voltage offset of 60 nV with a standard deviation of 7 nV while the remaining 11 show offset values between -15 nV and +25 nV with an associated Type A uncertainty varying from 2 to 7 nV. Herein, we present the results of a series of measurements on all channels. Sub-nanovolt residual thermal short EMF variations are demonstrated using Allan variance statistical analysis.

Chayramy, R.; Solve, S.

2013-02-01

370

Absolute Temperature Monitoring Using RF Radiometry in the MRI Scanner  

PubMed Central

Temperature detection using microwave radiometry has proven value for noninvasively measuring the absolute temperature of tissues inside the body. However, current clinical radiometers operate in the gigahertz range, which limits their depth of penetration. We have designed and built a noninvasive radiometer which operates at radio frequencies (64 MHz) with ?100-kHz bandwidth, using an external RF loop coil as a thermal detector. The core of the radiometer is an accurate impedance measurement and automatic matching circuit of 0.05 ? accuracy to compensate for any load variations. The radiometer permits temperature measurements with accuracy of ±0.1°K, over a tested physiological range of 28° C–40° C in saline phantoms whose electric properties match those of tissue. Because 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners also operate at 64 MHz, we demonstrate the feasibility of integrating our radiometer with an MRI scanner to monitor RF power deposition and temperature dosimetry, obtaining coarse, spatially resolved, absolute thermal maps in the physiological range. We conclude that RF radiometry offers promise as a direct, noninvasive method of monitoring tissue heating during MRI studies and thereby providing an independent means of verifying patient-safe operation. Other potential applications include titration of hyper- and hypo-therapies. PMID:18026562

El-Sharkawy, AbdEl-Monem M.; Sotiriadis, Paul P.; Bottomley, Paul A.; Atalar, Ergin

2007-01-01

371

Calibrated and geocoded clutter from an airborne multispectral scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Robustness of automatic target recognition (ATR) to varying observation conditions and countermeasures is substantially increased by use of multispectral sensors. Assessment of such ATR systems is performed by captive flight tests and simulations (HWIL or complete modeling). Although the clutter components of a scene can be generated with specified statistics, clutter maps directly obtained from measurement are required for validation of a simulation. In addition, urban scenes have non-stationary characteristics and are difficult to simulate. The present paper describes a scanner, data acquisition and processing system used for the generation of realistic clutter maps incorporating infrared, passive and active millimeter wave channels. The sensors are mounted on a helicopter with coincident line-of-sight, enabling us to measure consistent clutter signatures under varying observation conditions. Position and attitude data from GPS and an inertial measurement unit, respectively, are used to geometrically correct the raw scanner data. After sensor calibration the original voltage signals are converted to physical units, i.e. temperatures and reflectivities, describing the clutter independently of the scanning sensor, thus allowing us the use of the clutter maps in tests of a priori unknown multispectral sensors. The data correction procedures are described and results are presented.

Heuer, Markus; Bruehlmann, Ralph; John, Marc-Andre; Schmid, Konrad J.; Hueppi, Rudolph; Koenig, Reto

1999-07-01

372

The four- and five-band multispectral scanners for Landsat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The earth resources sensing Multispectral Scanner (MSS) for the Landsat satellite has two versions; one with four spectral bands from 0.5 to 1.1 microns, and one with five bands, the added band being 10.4 to 12.6 microns. This paper describes optical design and performance. The instrument uses a flat, object-space scanning mirror of near-linear motion, with a sensitive optical position monitor to detect mirror angular position. The 22.9-cm aperture telescope images the scene on an array of fiber optics, which dissect and transmit the scene energy to photomultiplier tubes detecting in Bands 1, 2, and 3, and silicon photodiodes detecting Band 4. Band 5 energy passes the fiber optic assembly and is reimaged on a radiatively cooled mercury cadmium telluride (HgCdTe) detector. The orbiting four-band scanner is furnishing data registered to better than 50-m band-to-band and resolving 80-m repetitive pattern over a 185-km swath width from 907-km altitude.

Lansing, J. C., Jr.; Cline, R. W.

1975-01-01

373

Novel design of a parallax free Compton enhanced PET scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular imaging by PET is a powerful tool in modern clinical practice for cancer diagnosis. Nevertheless, improvements are needed with respect to the spatial resolution and sensitivity of the technique for its application to specific human organs (breast, prostate, brain, etc.), and to small animals. Presently, commercial PET scanners do not detect the depth of interaction of photons in scintillators, which results in a not negligible parallax error. We describe here a novel concept of PET scanner design that provides full three-dimensional (3D) gamma reconstruction with high spatial resolution over the total detector volume, free of parallax errors. It uses matrices of long scintillators read at both ends by hybrid photon detectors. This so-called 3D axial concept also enhances the gamma detection efficiency since it allows one to reconstruct a significant fraction of Compton scattered events. In this note, we describe the concept, a possible design and the expected performance of this new PET device. We also report about first characterization measurements of 10 cm long YAP:Ce scintillation crystals.

Braem, A.; Chamizo, M.; Chesi, E.; Colonna, N.; Cusanno, F.; De Leo, R.; Garibaldi, F.; Joram, C.; Marrone, S.; Mathot, S.; Nappi, E.; Schoenahl, F.; Seguinot, J.; Weilhammer, P.; Zaidi, H.

2004-06-01

374

Emittance scanner for intense low-energy ion beams  

SciTech Connect

An emittance scanner has been developed for use with low-energy H/sup -/ ion beams to satisfy the following requirements: (1) angular resolution of +-1/2 mrad, (2) small errors from beam space charge, and (3) compact and simple design. The scanner consists of a 10-cm-long analyzer containing two slits and a pair of electric deflection plates driven by a +-500-V linear ramp generator. As the analyzer is mechanically driven across the beam, the front slit passes a thin ribbon of beam through the plates. The ion transit time is short compared with the ramp speed; therefore, the initial angle of the ions that pass through the rear slit is proportional to the instantaneous ramp voltage. The current through the rear slit then is proportional to the phase-space density d/sup 2/i/dxdx'. The data are computer-analyzed to give, for example, rms emittance and phase-space density contours. Comparison of measured data with those calculated from a prepared (collimated) phase space is in good agreement.

Allison, P.W.; Sherman, J.D.; Holtkamp, D.B.

1983-01-01

375

Scanners and drillers: Characterizing expert visual search through volumetric images  

PubMed Central

Modern imaging methods like computed tomography (CT) generate 3-D volumes of image data. How do radiologists search through such images? Are certain strategies more efficient? Although there is a large literature devoted to understanding search in 2-D, relatively little is known about search in volumetric space. In recent years, with the ever-increasing popularity of volumetric medical imaging, this question has taken on increased importance as we try to understand, and ultimately reduce, errors in diagnostic radiology. In the current study, we asked 24 radiologists to search chest CTs for lung nodules that could indicate lung cancer. To search, radiologists scrolled up and down through a “stack” of 2-D chest CT “slices.” At each moment, we tracked eye movements in the 2-D image plane and coregistered eye position with the current slice. We used these data to create a 3-D representation of the eye movements through the image volume. Radiologists tended to follow one of two dominant search strategies: “drilling” and “scanning.” Drillers restrict eye movements to a small region of the lung while quickly scrolling through depth. Scanners move more slowly through depth and search an entire level of the lung before moving on to the next level in depth. Driller performance was superior to the scanners on a variety of metrics, including lung nodule detection rate, percentage of the lung covered, and the percentage of search errors where a nodule was never fixated. PMID:23922445

Drew, Trafton; Vo, Melissa Le-Hoa; Olwal, Alex; Jacobson, Francine; Seltzer, Steven E.; Wolfe, Jeremy M.

2013-01-01

376

A noble refractive optical scanner with linear response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many applications in various fields of science and engineering use steered optical beam systems. Currently, many methods utilize mirrors in order to steer the beam. However, this approach is an off-axis solution, which normally increases the total size of the system as well as its error and complexity. Other methods use a "Risely Prisms" based solution, which is on-axis solution, however it poses some difficulties from an engineering standpoint, and therefore isn't widely used. We present here a novel technique for steering a beam on its optical axis with a linear deflection response. We derived the formulation for the profile required of the refractive optical component necessary for preforming the beam steering. The functionality of the device was simulated analytically using Matlab, as well as using a ray-tracing software, Zemax, and showed agreement with the analytical model. An optical element was manufactured based on the proposed design and the device was tested. The results show agreement with our hypothesis. We also present some proposed geometries of the several other devices, all based on the same concept, which can be used for higher performance applications such as two-dimensional scanner, video rate scanner etc.

Mega, Yair J.; Lai, Zhenhua; DiMarzio, Charles A.

2013-03-01

377

Thermal analysis for wire scanners in the CSNS Linac  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

3 MeV H- beam from the Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) will be accelerated to 80 MeV in the CSNS (China Spallation Neutron Source) linear accelerator (Linac). The wire scanner is used to measure the transverse beam profile and the emittance, and the carbon or tungsten wire is considered to use. Thermal analysis of the wire scanners in the Linac is presented in this paper. The maximum temperature (Tm) of the wire decreases as the beam energy increases, and we also calculate the influence of all possible parameters on Tm. Tm of carbon wire is significantly lower than tungsten wire if both the beam parameters and wire geometric parameters are set to the same, which can be attributed to its higher heat capacity and radiant emissivity. In addition, we present the results of sublimation rate of the wire, which show that tungsten wire has a much lower evaporation rate than carbon wire in the same temperature, which can be attributed to the different vapor pressures of the two materials. To limit the thermionic emission, the maximum beam frequency approximately has an exponential relationship with beam rms size at a certain beam pulse width.

Yang, Tao; Fu, Shinian; Xu, Taoguang; Xu, Zhihong; Meng, Ming; Qiu, Ruiyang; Tian, Jianmin; Zeng, Lei; Li, Peng; Li, Fang; Wang, Biao

2014-10-01

378

On Spurious Reflection Waves in Hopkinson Bar Tensile Tests Using a Collar  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to investigate the effect of the spurious waves present in the Hopkinson bar tensile testing technique using a collar, tests are performed with different set-ups (simple and net-shaped collars, normal and cut specimens) and different specimen materials (steel, aluminum and polyethylen). Numerical simulation (using the FD dynamic code AUTODYN-2D) is also done to support the experimental results. The

C. H. Nguyen; H. J. Schindler

1997-01-01

379

Evidence for B+ -> K*0bar K*+  

SciTech Connect

We present measurements of the branching fraction and fraction of longitudinal polarization for the decay B{sup +} {yields} {bar K}*{sup 0} K*{sup +} with a sample of 467 {+-} 5 million B{bar B} pairs collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. We obtain the branching fraction {Beta}(B{sup +} {yields} {bar K}*{sup 0} K*{sup +}) = (1.2 {+-} 0.5 {+-} 0.1) x 10{sup ?6} with a significance of 3.7 standard deviations including systematic uncertainties. We measure the fraction of longitudinal polarization f{sub L} = 0.75{sub -0.26}{sup +0.16} {+-} 0.03. The first error quoted is statistical and the second is systematic.

Aubert, B.; Bona, M.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Prudent, X.; Tisserand, V.; /Annecy, LAPP; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; /Barcelona U., ECM; Lopez, L.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; /INFN, Bari /Bari U.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; /Bergen U.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D.N.; Kerth, L.T.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Lynch, G.; /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UCLA /UC, Riverside /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /Frascati /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /Harvard U. /Heidelberg U. /Humboldt U., Berlin /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Orsay, LAL /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Karlsruhe U., EKP /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT, LNS /McGill U. /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /Mt. Holyoke Coll. /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /Paris U., VI-VII /Pennsylvania U. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Princeton U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DSM, DAPNIA, Saclay /South Carolina U. /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Albany /Tennessee U. /Texas U. /Texas U., Dallas /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /Valencia U., IFIC /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison

2009-06-19

380

A 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar  

E-print Network

by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO as the registration authority for ISBN worldwide and the ISBN Standard is developed under the control of ISO TechnicalA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar code. International Standard

Kraft, Hanspeter

381

THE CAMPUS BAR AS A "BASTARD INSTITUTION"  

E-print Network

for its pa.~~):: A 'Halloween party is held every year, whe.re approxim~::';'-,~::: 150 people in complete .cosrume crowd inside and outside1~t:~:': bar and drink free beer as long as the three free kegs 1ast'1;~:;~f~ . annual "End-of-Summer Get Together...':at:mosphere of sexual tension which exists at most ca.mtt;:::::·~·:: bars.: There is little "pick-up" activity; in fact, women areHk·;..:;;,~:,.,,~ to:h:ugother women and all kinds of people readily talk and:\\:.; together. ":.~;!~:~~!;i;l~: ;At::five minutes before...

Willsie, Deborah A.; Riemer, Jeffrey W.

1980-04-01

382

Pseudobulges in Barred S0 Galaxies  

E-print Network

We present preliminary results from an ongoing study of the bulges of S0 galaxies. We show that in a subsample of 14 barred S0 galaxies, fully half the photometrically defined bulges show kinematic signatures of "pseudobulges" -- that is, their kinematics are dominated by rotation. In four of these galaxies, we identify at least two subcomponents in the photometric bulge region: flatter, disk or bar components, assocated with disklike kinematics; and rounder "inner bulges,'' which appear to be hotter systems more like classical bulges.

Peter Erwin; John E. Beckman; Juan Carlos Vega Beltran

2004-09-05

383

High Performance “Reach” Codes  

E-print Network

Jim Edelson New Buildings Institute A Growing Role for Codes and Stretch Codes in Utility Programs Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency November 9, 2011 ESL-KT-11-11-39 CATEE 2011, Dallas, Texas, Nov. 7 ? 9, 2011 New Buildings Institute ESL..., Nov. 7 ? 9, 2011 ?31? Flavors of Codes ? Building Codes Construction Codes Energy Codes Stretch or Reach Energy Codes Above-code programs Green or Sustainability Codes Model Codes ?Existing Building? Codes Outcome-Based Codes ESL-KT-11...

Edelson, J.

2011-01-01

384

Voxel-based classification of FDG PET in dementia using inter-scanner normalization.  

PubMed

Statistical mapping of FDG PET brain images has become a common tool in differential diagnosis of patients with dementia. We present a voxel-based classification system of neurodegenerative dementias based on partial least squares (PLS). Such a classifier relies on image databases of normal controls and dementia cases as training data. Variations in PET image characteristics can be expected between databases, for example due to differences in instrumentation, patient preparation, and image reconstruction. This study evaluates (i) the impact of databases from different scanners on classification accuracy and (ii) a method to improve inter-scanner classification. Brain FDG PET databases from three scanners (A, B, C) at two clinical sites were evaluated. Diagnostic categories included normal controls (NC, nA=26, nB=20, nC=24 for each scanner respectively), Alzheimer's disease (AD, nA=44, nB=11, nC=16), and frontotemporal dementia (FTD, nA=13, nB=13, nC=5). Spatially normalized images were classified as NC, AD, or FTD using partial least squares. Supervised learning was employed to determine classifier parameters, whereby available data is sub-divided into training and test sets. Four different database setups were evaluated: (i) "in-scanner": training and test data from the same scanner, (ii) "x-scanner": training and test data from different scanners, (iii) "train other": train on both x-scanners, and (iv) "train all": train on all scanners. In order to moderate the impact of inter-scanner variations on image evaluation, voxel-by-voxel scaling was applied based on "ratio images". Good classification accuracy of on average 94% was achieved for the in-scanner setups. Accuracy deteriorated for setups with mismatched scanners (79-91%). Ratio-image normalization improved all results with mismatched scanners (85-92%). In conclusion, automatic classification of individual FDG PET in differential diagnosis of dementia is feasible. Accuracy can vary with respect to scanner or acquisition characteristics of the training image data. The adopted approach of ratio-image normalization has been demonstrated to effectively moderate these effects. PMID:23541799

Thiele, Frank; Young, Stewart; Buchert, Ralph; Wenzel, Fabian

2013-08-15

385

Speech coding  

SciTech Connect

Speech is the predominant means of communication between human beings and since the invention of the telephone by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876, speech services have remained to be the core service in almost all telecommunication systems. Original analog methods of telephony had the disadvantage of speech signal getting corrupted by noise, cross-talk and distortion Long haul transmissions which use repeaters to compensate for the loss in signal strength on transmission links also increase the associated noise and distortion. On the other hand digital transmission is relatively immune to noise, cross-talk and distortion primarily because of the capability to faithfully regenerate digital signal at each repeater purely based on a binary decision. Hence end-to-end performance of the digital link essentially becomes independent of the length and operating frequency bands of the link Hence from a transmission point of view digital transmission has been the preferred approach due to its higher immunity to noise. The need to carry digital speech became extremely important from a service provision point of view as well. Modem requirements have introduced the need for robust, flexible and secure services that can carry a multitude of signal types (such as voice, data and video) without a fundamental change in infrastructure. Such a requirement could not have been easily met without the advent of digital transmission systems, thereby requiring speech to be coded digitally. The term Speech Coding is often referred to techniques that represent or code speech signals either directly as a waveform or as a set of parameters by analyzing the speech signal. In either case, the codes are transmitted to the distant end where speech is reconstructed or synthesized using the received set of codes. A more generic term that is applicable to these techniques that is often interchangeably used with speech coding is the term voice coding. This term is more generic in the sense that the coding techniques are equally applicable to any voice signal whether or not it carries any intelligible information, as the term speech implies. Other terms that are commonly used are speech compression and voice compression since the fundamental idea behind speech coding is to reduce (compress) the transmission rate (or equivalently the bandwidth) And/or reduce storage requirements In this document the terms speech and voice shall be used interchangeably.

Ravishankar, C., Hughes Network Systems, Germantown, MD

1998-05-08

386

Automatic fusion of photogrammetric imagery and laser scanner point clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Close-range photogrammetry and the relatively new technology of terrestrial laser scanning can be considered as complementary rather than competitive technologies. For instance, terrestrial laser scanners (TLS) have the ability to rapidly collect high-resolution 3D surface information about an object. The same type of data can be generated using close-range photogrammetric (CRP) techniques, but image disparities common to close-range scenes makes this an operator intensive task. The imaging systems of some TLSs do not have very high radiometric resolution whereas high-resolution digital cameras used in modern CRP do. Finally, TLSs are essentially earth-bound whereas cameras can be moved at will around the object being imaged. This thesis, therefore, explores and attempts to provide a solution to the problems of developing a methodology to fuse terrestrial laser scanner generated 3D data and high-resolution digital images. Four phases of the methodology have been investigated: data pre-processing (fusion of data from the two sensors), automatic measurements (feature detection and correspondence matching), mapping (creation of point cloud visual index), and orientation (calculation of exterior orientation parameters). Individual phases were initially investigated in a manually controlled environment, typically using commercial photogrammetric software, and then combined in a completely automated system. Focusing on the amount of geometric primitives, three different scenes (data set A, data set B, and data set C) representing three levels of complexity (low, medium and high) were scanned with the laser scanner, and for each scan, a 2D photographic image was taken with a digital camera. To overcome the differences in datasets, a hybrid matching (both feature and area-based) algorithm was successfully developed and implemented. The fidelity of the concept of generating synthetic camera images has been tested by determining the exterior orientation of the synthetic camera images and the real camera images relative to the point cloud. This orientation process was first achieved by using manual methods and existing photogrammetric application software. The results verified that there were no conceptual errors in the developed methods. However, in order to meet the objective of this thesis, an automatic technique with photogrammetric bundle adjustment was developed. Three different sets of data were used to check the validity and reliability of the developed methodology. The results of measurements on interest points and correspondence matching are presented. Also, the results of manual and automatic exterior orientation are presented. The results indicate that the concept of the synthetic camera image is a feasible method for multisensor fusion. The greatest promise is offered by the point cloud visual index.

Forkuo, Eric Kwabena

387

Vegetated landslide monitoring: target tracking with terrestrial laser scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitoring landslides with terrestrial LiDAR is currently a well-known technique. One problem often encountered is the vegetation that produces shadow areas on the scans. Indeed, the points behind the obstacle are hidden and are absent from the point cloud. Thereby, locations monitored with terrestrial laser scanner are mostly rock instabilities and few vegetated landslides, being difficult or even impossible to survey vegetated slopes using this method. The Peney landslide (Geneva, Switzerland) is partially vegetated by bushes and trees, and in order to monitor its displacements during the drawdown of the Verbois reservoir located at its base, which activates the movement, an alternative solution has to be found. The Goal of this study are: (1) to illustrate a technique to monitor vegetated landslides with a terrestrial laser scanner and (2) to compare the both manual and automatic methods for displacement vectors extraction. We installed 14 targets, four of which are in stable areas which are considered as references. Targets are made of expanded polystyrene, two are spherical and 12 are cubic. They were installed on metallic poles ranging between 2 to 4 meters high. The LiDAR device was located on a fixed point on a pontoon on the reservoir opposite bank. The whole area, including the targets, needed three scans to be entirely covered and was scanned 10 times along on two weeks (duration of drawdown - filling). The acquired point clouds were cleaned and georeferenced. In order to determine the displacements for every target, two methods (manual and automatic) were used. The manual method consists on manual selection of, for example, the apex of the cubes, and so to have its 3D coordinates for a comparison in time. The automatic method uses an algorithm that recognises shapes trough time series. The obtained displacements were compared with classical measurement methods (theodolite and extensometer) showing good resemblance of results, indicating the validity of this method. The low cost of the additional field equipment and the relatively low time of installation makes it interesting and deserve to be further developed. The automatic data analysis method considerably lowered the errors and was way faster than a manual operation. Those combined methods offer new application field for vegetated landslide monitoring using terrestrial laser scanner, including a more accurate and faster treatment.

Franz, Martin; Carrea, Dario; Abellan, Antonio; Derron, Marc-Henri; Jaboyedoff, Michel

2013-04-01

388

The Morphology of Collisionless Galactic Rings Exterior to Evolving Bars  

E-print Network

The morphology of the outer rings of early-type spiral galaxies is compared to integrations of massless collisionless particles initially in nearly circular orbits. Particles are perturbed by a quadrupolar gravitational potential corresponding to a growing and secularly evolving bar. We find that outer rings with R1R2 morphology and pseudorings are exhibited by the simulations even though they lack gaseous dissipation. Simulations with stronger bars form pseudorings earlier and more quickly than those with weaker bars. We find that the R1 ring, perpendicular to the bar, is fragile and dissolves after a few bar rotation periods if the bar pattern speed increases by more than ~ 8%, bar strength increases (by >~ 140%) after bar growth, or the bar is too strong (Q_T>0.3). If the bar slows down after formation, pseudoring morphology persists and the R2 ring perpendicular to the bar is populated due to resonance capture. The R2 ring remains misaligned with the bar and increases in ellipticity as the bar slows down. The R2 ring becomes scalloped and does not resemble any ringed galaxies if the bar slows down more than 3.5% suggesting that bars decrease in strength before they slow down this much. We compare the morphology of our simulations to B-band images of 9 ringed galaxies from the Ohio State University Bright Spiral Galaxy Survey, and we find a reasonable match in morphologies to R1R2' pseudorings seen within a few bar rotation periods of bar formation. Some of the features previously interpreted in terms of dissipative models may be due to transient structure associated with recent bar growth and evolution.

Micaela Bagley; Ivan Minchev; Alice C. Quillen

2008-08-13

389

Free Code  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Free Code, a service of Andover.Net, is a large index of Internet-related software tool source code. The tools are written in C/C++, Perl, Java, or Visual Basic, and are free for personal and commercial use. They range from handy Perl CGI scripts to Java-based graphics packages. Each tool in the index is briefly described, characterized by language and operating system, and linked to both the home page for the tool and the source code. The total lack of documentation for the search engine makes useful queries hard to create, but the tools are still easy-to-find. This is a very useful index for anyone building Internet or Web-based applications.

390

My Bar Graph Tells a Story  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Connecting stories to qualitative coordinate graphs has been suggested as an effective instructional strategy. Even students who are able to "create" bar graphs may struggle to correctly "interpret" them. Giving children opportunities to work with qualitative graphs can help them develop the skills to interpret, describe, and compare information…

McMillen, Sue; McMillen, Beth

2010-01-01

391

Charm Baryon Results from BaBar  

SciTech Connect

We present experimental results from the BaBar experiment on charm baryon spectroscopy and production studies, including studies of excited cascades produced in charm baryon decays. We review the discovery of new decay modes of known states and searches for predicted states.

Ziegler, Veronique; /SLAC

2012-04-27

392

BARRED OWL RANGE EXPANSION INTO THE  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past century the geographic range of the Barred Owl (Strix varia) has expanded in western North America beginning in Alberta and British Columbia and moving southward in the United States. The pattern of range expansion remains poorly documented and several untested ex- planatory hypotheses have been proposed. We surveyed for owls in central Idaho from 1980-95 and recorded

ANTHONY L. WRIGHT; GREGORY D. HAYWARD

393

Divorce and Bar Mitzvah: A First Look.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After an introductory discussion and review of literature on divorce among Jewish families, this document presents and analyzes two case studies which show the adverse effect of divorce and child-custody battles on the children of Jewish families who subsequently plan a B'nai Mitzvah (Bar or Bat Mitzvah) ceremony--a joyous ritual of initiation…

Geffen, Michael; Kaplan, Earl

394

NYC Bar Association meeting, March 22, 2007  

E-print Network

Good for New York City? March 22, 2007 #12;Transfer Station & HHW Facility Lancaster County Frey Farm· NYC Bar Association meeting, · March 22, 2007 Jim Warner #12;Is Thermal Treatment of Solid Wastes Landfill & LFG Plant Waste-to-Energy Facility Pennsylvania Only County in Pennsylvania to Own & Operate

Columbia University

395

Control of gymnast on a high bar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fundamental problems in controlling a gymnast robot to do stunts on a high bar are discussed. To increase swing amplitude there are two methods. One is to pull up and pull down the mass center of the whole body. The other is to oscillate swing by sinusoidal joint movement at the eigenfrequency of the pendulum. But oscillation in constant frequency

S. Takashima

1991-01-01

396

Spinners, Scroll Bars and Simpson's Rule  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the most remarkable devices embedded in a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet is known as the spinner. Its staggering simplicity is undoubtedly its strength. As an incrementing device that allows graphs to dance across the screen, it gives the concept of variability a whole new meaning. Spinners and their close cousins scroll bars can be grabbed…

Staples, Ed

2005-01-01

397

Unitarity Triangles at BaBar  

SciTech Connect

The BaBar experiment has used a variety of methods to determine the angles {alpha}, {beta}, and {gamma} of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa Unitarity Triangle, which give insight into the Standard Model description of CP violation in the quark sector of the electroweak interactions. Here we review the main experimental techniques and analyses, with emphasis in the most recent results.

Martinez-Vidal, Fernando; /Valencia U., IFIC

2011-11-23

398

2Cosmic Bar Graphs Galaxy Type  

E-print Network

2Cosmic Bar Graphs 0 20 40 60 80 100 S E SB I Galaxy Type Number 0 200 400 600 800 1000 FB SB Burst Classification Number Problem1 ­ Astronomers have classified the 160 largest galaxies in the Virgo Cluster classed as E, 56 were classed as SB and 3 were classed as I. About what fraction of galaxies

399

Measuring Di-Higgs Physics via the $t \\bar t hh \\to t \\bar t b \\bar bb\\bar b$ Channel  

E-print Network

The measurement of di-Higgs physics may provide crucial information on how electroweak phase transition is achieved in the early Universe and important clues on new physics which couples with the Higgs field directly. It has been suggested to be pursued mainly via the $gg \\to hh$ channel. In this letter, we propose a new strategy to measure the di-Higgs physics, i.e., via the $t \\bar t hh \\to tt b \\bar b b \\bar b$ channel. We conclude that this strategy provides a sensitivity potentially comparable to that of the $gg \\to hh \\to bb \\gamma\\gamma$ channel in searching for the di-Higgs production predicted by the Standard Model at High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC). Explicitly, we analyzed two possibilities in which the $t\\bar t$ pair decays semi-leptonically and di-leptonically, respectively. With 3000fb$^{-1}$ of data, a statistical significance of $2.0 \\sigma$ can be achieved in the semi-leptonic top-pair case, and with the di-leptonic possibility incorporated, a statistical significance of $2.2 \\sigma$ can be achieved.

Tao Liu; Hao Zhang

2014-10-07

400

An Experimental Ultrasonic Scanner for Time Resolved 3-D Flow Field Measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

In medical ultrasound, the improvement of measurement accuracy in color flow imaging is still a very demanding goal since the scanner is limited by constraints such as transducer center frequency restrictions or the acoustic field emission intensity set by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The authors report on the development of an ultrasonic scanner whose signal and image processing

Florian Maier; Bernhard G. Zagar

2006-01-01

401

Application of a laser scanner to three dimensional visual sensing tasks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The issues are described which are associated with using a laser scanner for visual sensing and the methods developed by the author to address them. A laser scanner is a device that controls the direction of a laser beam by deflecting it through a pair of orthogonal mirrors, the orientations of which are specified by a computer. If a calibrated laser scanner is combined with a calibrated camera, it is possible to perform three dimensional sensing by directing the laser at objects within the field of view of the camera. There are several issues associated with using a laser scanner for three dimensional visual sensing that must be addressed in order to use the laser scanner effectively. First, methods are needed to calibrate the laser scanner and estimate three dimensional points. Second, methods to estimate three dimensional points using a calibrated camera and laser scanner are required. Third, methods are required for locating the laser spot in a cluttered image. Fourth, mathematical models that predict the laser scanner's performance and provide structure for three dimensional data points are necessary. Several methods were developed to address each of these and has evaluated them to determine how and when they should be applied. The theoretical development, implementation, and results when used in a dual arm eighteen degree of freedom robotic system for space assembly is described.

Ryan, Arthur M.

1992-01-01

402

Scan using the document feeder There are two scanners with document  

E-print Network

are located near the entrance to the Stone Computing Center classroom; one at the Assistive Technology Station". Note: The scanner will only scan one side of a page. Double-sided pages must be flipped to scan both the Stone Computing classroom and Mann Computing Center lab. Patrons can use scanners, free of charge

Angenent, Lars T.

403

AUTHENTICATION OF FINGERPRINT SCANNERS Vladimir I. Ivanov and John S. Baras  

E-print Network

AUTHENTICATION OF FINGERPRINT SCANNERS Vladimir I. Ivanov and John S. Baras Institute for Systems Research, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA {vivanov, baras}@umd.edu ABSTRACT Fingerprint intrinsic charac- teristic of the fingerprint scanners even to those of the same technology, manufacturer

Baras, John S.

404

Ris DTU Dec.3 2009WindScanner.eu 1 Ris DTU, Technical University of Denmark  

E-print Network

and to industry (Wind Energy Industry and WT manufactures). #12;Risø DTU Dec.3 2009WindScanner.eu 4 Risø DTU resources including wind power · The wind energy industry need new and detailed knowledge of windScanner.eu Envisioned new RI European Centre for Wind Energy Research in Atmospheric Turbulent Flow "The Wind

405

TRACKING CORTICAL SURFACE DEFORMATIONS BASED ON VESSEL STRUCTURE USING A LASER RANGE SCANNER  

E-print Network

TRACKING CORTICAL SURFACE DEFORMATIONS BASED ON VESSEL STRUCTURE USING A LASER RANGE SCANNER Aize and deforma- tion tracking using a laser-range scanner(LRS). The LRS con- tains both geometric and texture, and image processing techniques [2][3]. In our pre- vious work [4], the laser ranged scanning (LRS) system

Miga, Michael I.

406

A Laser Range Scanner Designed for Minimum Calibration Complexity James Davis, Xing Chen  

E-print Network

A Laser Range Scanner Designed for Minimum Calibration Complexity James Davis, Xing Chen Computer Graphics Lab, Stanford University {jedavis, xcchen}@graphics.stanford.edu Abstract Laser range scanners cost; or equivalently, reducing cost given a fixed accuracy. One traditional design for laser range

Stanford University

407

Cortical Shift Tracking Using a Laser Range Scanner and Deformable Registration Methods  

E-print Network

Cortical Shift Tracking Using a Laser Range Scanner and Deformable Registration Methods Tuhin K://bmlweb.vuse.vanderbilt.edu Abstract. A novel brain shift tracking protocol is introduced in this paper which utilizes laser range scan;Cortical Shift Tracking Using a Laser Range Scanner 167 driven with sparse data (i.e. data with limited

Miga, Michael I.

408

Measurement of Root Mean Square Granularity of X-ray Films Using a Commercial Film Scanner  

Microsoft Academic Search

Root mean square granularity of films are generally measured using a microdensito-meter, although it is costly and not easily available. To solve the cost problem, we tried to use an inexpensive commercial film scanner. Films with different densities were prepared and the relationship between densities by a diffuse densitometer and pixel values by a film scanner was obtained. We found

Kazuhiko Ohnuma

2001-01-01

409

Rune, Syen, Tony Dale, Richard, JM A virtual spectral CT scanner  

E-print Network

Rune, Syen, Tony Dale, Richard, JM A virtual spectral CT scanner Spectral computed tomography (sCT of this new technology are energy selective photon counting detectors (PCD) combined with theories on how. This enables the comparison of conventional CT with optimised spectral CT. Furthermore, the virtual sCT scanner

Hickman, Mark

410

Solar radiance models for determination of ERBE scanner filter factor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Shortwave spectral radiance models for use in the spectral correction algorithms for the ERBE Scanner Instrument are provided. The required data base was delivered to the ERBe Data Reduction Group in October 1984. It consisted of two sets of data files: (1) the spectral bidirectional angular models and (2) the spectral flux modes. The bidirectional models employ the angular characteristics of reflection by the Earth-atmosphere system and were derived from detailed radiance calculations using a finite difference model of the radiative transfer process. The spectral flux models were created through the use of a delta-Eddington model to economically simulate the effects of atmospheric variability. By combining these data sets, a wide range of radiances may be approximated for a number of scene types.

Arduini, R. F.

1985-01-01

411

Geometric analysis and restitution of digital multispectral scanner data arrays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation was conducted to define causes of geometric defects within digital multispectral scanner (MSS) data arrays, to analyze the resulting geometric errors, and to investigate restitution methods to correct or reduce these errors. Geometric transformation relationships for scanned data, from which collinearity equations may be derived, served as the basis of parametric methods of analysis and restitution of MSS digital data arrays. The linearization of these collinearity equations is presented. Algorithms considered for use in analysis and restitution included the MSS collinearity equations, piecewise polynomials based on linearized collinearity equations, and nonparametric algorithms. A proposed system for geometric analysis and restitution of MSS digital data arrays was used to evaluate these algorithms, utilizing actual MSS data arrays. It was shown that collinearity equations and nonparametric algorithms both yield acceptable results, but nonparametric algorithms possess definite advantages in computational efficiency. Piecewise polynomials were found to yield inferior results.

Baker, J. R.; Mikhail, E. M.

1975-01-01

412

Estimating proportions of objects from multispectral scanner data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress is reported in developing and testing methods of estimating, from multispectral scanner data, proportions of target classes in a scene when there are a significiant number of boundary pixels. Procedures were developed to exploit: (1) prior information concerning the number of object classes normally occurring in a pixel, and (2) spectral information extracted from signals of adjoining pixels. Two algorithms, LIMMIX and nine-point mixtures, are described along with supporting processing techniques. An important by-product of the procedures, in contrast to the previous method, is that they are often appropriate when the number of spectral bands is small. Preliminary tests on LANDSAT data sets, where target classes were (1) lakes and ponds, and (2) agricultural crops were encouraging.

Horwitz, H. M.; Lewis, J. T.; Pentland, A. P.

1975-01-01

413

0.5 gigapixel microscopy using a flatbed scanner.  

PubMed

The capability to perform high-resolution, wide field-of-view (FOV) microscopy imaging is highly sought after in biomedical applications. In this paper, we report a wide FOV microscopy system that uses a closed-circuit-television (CCTV) lens for image relay and a flatbed scanner for data acquisition. We show that such an imaging system is capable of capturing a 10 mm × 7.5 mm FOV image with 0.78 µm resolution, resulting in more than 0.5 billion pixels across the entire image. The resolution and field curve of the proposed system were characterized by imaging a USAF resolution target and a hole-array target. To demonstrate its application, 0.5 gigapixel images of histology slides were acquired using this system. PMID:24466471

Zheng, Guoan; Ou, Xiaoze; Yang, Changhuei

2013-12-01

414

0.5 gigapixel microscopy using a flatbed scanner  

PubMed Central

The capability to perform high-resolution, wide field-of-view (FOV) microscopy imaging is highly sought after in biomedical applications. In this paper, we report a wide FOV microscopy system that uses a closed-circuit-television (CCTV) lens for image relay and a flatbed scanner for data acquisition. We show that such an imaging system is capable of capturing a 10 mm × 7.5 mm FOV image with 0.78 µm resolution, resulting in more than 0.5 billion pixels across the entire image. The resolution and field curve of the proposed system were characterized by imaging a USAF resolution target and a hole-array target. To demonstrate its application, 0.5 gigapixel images of histology slides were acquired using this system. PMID:24466471

Zheng, Guoan; Ou, Xiaoze; Yang, Changhuei

2013-01-01

415

Scanner-characteristics-aware OPC modeling and correction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As scanner projection lens captures only a finite number of IC pattern diffraction orders. This low pass filtering leads to a range of optical proximity effects such as pitch-dependent CD variations, corner rounding and line-end pullback, resulting in imaged IC pattern excursions from the intended designs. These predictable OPEs are driven by the imaging conditions, such as wavelength, illuminator layout, reticle technology, and lens numerical aperture. To mitigate the pattern excursion due to OPEs, the photolithography community developed optical proximity correction methodologies, adopted and refined by the EDA industry. In the current implementations, OPC applied to IC designs can correct layouts to compensate for OPEs and to provide imaged patterns meeting the design requirements.

Tyminski, Jacek K.; Zhang, Qiaolin; Lucas, Kevin; Depre, Laurent; VanAdrichem, Paul

2007-03-01

416

Multispectral scanner data applications evaluation. Volume 1: User applications study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A six-month systems study of earth resource surveys from satellites was conducted and is reported. SKYLAB S-192 multispectral scanner (MSS) data were used as a baseline to aid in evaluating the characteristics of future systems using satellite MSS sensors. The study took the viewpoint that overall system (sensor and processing) characteristics and parameter values should be determined largely by user requirements for automatic information extraction performance in quasi-operational earth resources surveys, the other major factor being hardware limitations imposed by state-of-the-art technology and cost. The objective was to use actual aircraft and spacecraft MSS data to outline parametrically the trade-offs between user performance requirements and hardware performance and limitations so as to allow subsequent evaluation of compromises which must be made in deciding what system(s) to build.

Thomson, F. J.; Erickson, J. D.; Nalepka, R. F.; Weber, J. D.

1974-01-01

417

Advanced Multispectral Scanner (AMS) study. [aircraft remote sensing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The status of aircraft multispectral scanner technology was accessed in order to develop preliminary design specifications for an advanced instrument to be used for remote sensing data collection by aircraft in the 1980 time frame. The system designed provides a no-moving parts multispectral scanning capability through the exploitation of linear array charge coupled device technology and advanced electronic signal processing techniques. Major advantages include: 10:1 V/H rate capability; 120 deg FOV at V/H = 0.25 rad/sec; 1 to 2 rad resolution; high sensitivity; large dynamic range capability; geometric fidelity; roll compensation; modularity; long life; and 24 channel data acquisition capability. The field flattening techniques of the optical design allow wide field view to be achieved at fast f/nos for both the long and short wavelength regions. The digital signal averaging technique permits maximization of signal to noise performance over the entire V/H rate range.

1978-01-01

418

A study of techniques for processing multispectral scanner data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A linear decision rule to reduce the time required for processing multispectral scanner data is developed. Test results are presented which justify the use of the new rule for digital processing whenever both accuracy and processing time are important. A method of evaluating the performance of the rule is also developed and applied to the problem of choosing a subset of channels. A technique used to find linear combinations of channels is described. The ability to extend signatures throughout a small area of approximately fifty square miles is tested. After preprocessing, signatures derived from the first of seven overlapping data sets are applied to all data sets. The test results show that the average probability of misclassification tends to increase with an increase in the number of data sets over which the signatures are extended.

Crane, R. B.; Richardson, W.; Hieber, R. H.; Malila, W. A.

1973-01-01

419

Study of adaptive methods for data compression of scanner data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance of adaptive image compression techniques and the applicability of a variety of techniques to the various steps in the data dissemination process are examined in depth. It is concluded that the bandwidth of imagery generated by scanners can be reduced without introducing significant degradation such that the data can be transmitted over an S-band channel. This corresponds to a compression ratio equivalent to 1.84 bits per pixel. It is also shown that this can be achieved using at least two fairly simple techniques with weight-power requirements well within the constraints of the LANDSAT-D satellite. These are the adaptive 2D DPCM and adaptive hybrid techniques.

1977-01-01

420

Application of Infrared Scanners to Forest Fire Detection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential of using infrared scanners for the detection of forest fires is discussed. An experiment is described in which infrared and visual detection systems were used jointly to study timber fire detection. Many fires were detected visually but missed by the airborne IR system, and many fires were detected by the IR system but missed visually. Until more is learned about the relationship between heat output and smoke output from latent fires, the relative effectiveness of visual and IR systems cannot be determined. The 1970 tests indicated that IR used in combination with visual detection will result in a more efficient system than visual alone. Even with limited knowledge of the relative effectiveness of the two systems, operational use of a combined system can be used to substantially reduce total firefighting costs.

Hirsch, S. N.

1971-01-01

421

Cryogenic cooling study for the advanced limb scanner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The cryogenic operating requirements for a VM refrigerator to be used for detector cooling of the advanced limb scanner (ALS) instrument are defined. Determination of these requirements include consideration of mission and environmental constraints. Based on the operating requirements a detailed refrigerator design and performance analysis is conducted resulting in an optimized VM refrigerator conceptual design. The cooler-instrument-spacecraft interfaces are evaluated resulting in recommendations as to the best approach and most effective concepts resulting in simple and satisfactory interfaces. A preliminary implementation plan and schedule describing the general tasks required to develop, design, manufacture, test, and deliver three VM coolers and required support equipment to support an ALS flight experiment are presented. The result of this effort shows that existing VM cooler technology is sufficient to satisfy ALS mission requirements and schedules.

Russo, S. C.

1980-01-01

422

Determination of the branching fractions for $?(3770) \\to D^0 \\bar D^0, D^+D^-,D\\bar D$ and $?(3770) \\to {\\rm non-}D\\bar D$  

E-print Network

The branching fractions for $\\psi(3770) \\to D^0 \\bar D^0, D^+D^-,D\\bar D$ and $\\psi(3770) \\to {\\rm non-}D\\bar D$ are determined based on the cross sections for $\\psi(3770)$ and $D \\bar D$ production measured by BES Collaboration. From its recent publications we determine the branching fractions for $\\psi(3770) \\to D^0 \\bar D^0, D^+D^-$ and $\\psi(3770) \\to D\\bar D$ to be $(52.2\\pm 4.8\\pm 5.5)%$, $(37.0 \\pm 5.0 \\pm 4.3)%$ and $(89.1 \\pm 6.9 \\pm 9.2)%$, respectively. The latter one implies the branching fraction for $\\psi(3770) \\to {\\rm non-}D\\bar D$ to be $(10.9 \\pm 6.9 \\pm 9.2)%$, corresponding the inclusive ${\\rm non-}D \\bar D$ partial width $\\Gamma(\\psi(3770) \\to {\\rm non-}D\\bar D) = (2.8 \\pm 1.8 \\pm 2.4)$ MeV. Meanwhile we determine the observed cross section for $non-D\\bar D$ event production from $\\psi(3770)$ decays to be $\\sigma^{\\rm obs}(\\psi(3770)\\to non-D\\bar D) = (0.72 \\pm 0.46 \\pm 0.62)$ nb.

G. Rong; D. H. Zhang; J. C. Chen

2005-06-23

423

Intracardiac ultrasound scanner using a micromachine (MEMS) actuator.  

PubMed

Catheter-based intracardiac ultrasound offers the potential for improved guidance of interventional cardiac procedures. The objective of this research is the development of catheter-based mechanical sector scanners incorporating high frequency ultrasound transducers operating at frequencies up to 20 MHz. The authors' current transducer assembly consists of a single 1.75 mm by 1.75 mm, 20 MHz, PZT element mounted on a 2 mm by 2 mm square, 75 mum thick polyimide table that pivots on 3-mum thick gold plated polyimide hinges. The hinges also serve as the electrical connections to the transducer. This table-mounted transducer is tilted using a miniature linear actuator to produce a sector scan. This linear actuator is an integrated force array (IFA), which is an example of a micromachine, i.e., a microelectromechanical system (MEMS). The IFA is a thin (2.2 mum) polyimide membrane, which consists of a network of hundreds of thousands of micron scale deformable capacitors made from pairs of metallized polyimide plates. IFAs contract with an applied voltage of 30-120 V and have been shown to produce strains as large as 20% and forces of up to 8 dynes. The prototype transducer and actuator assembly was fabricated and interfaced with a GagePCI analog to digital conversion board digitizing 12 bit samples at a rate of 100 MSamples/second housed in a personal computer to create a single channel ultrasound scanner. The deflection of the table transducer in a low viscosity insulating fluid (HFE 7100, 3M) is up to +/-10 degrees at scan rates of 10-60 Hz. Software has been developed to produce real-time sector scans on the PC monitor. PMID:18238633

Zara, J M; Bobbio, S M; Goodwin-Johansson, S; Smith, S W

2000-01-01

424

Gaseous Vortices in Barred Spiral Galaxies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the course of examining many two-dimensional, as well as a smaller sample of three-dimensional, models of gas flows in barred spiral galaxies, we have been impressed by the ubiquitous presence fo vortex pairs, oriented roughly perpendicular to their bars, with one vortex on each side. The vortices are obvious only when viewed in the bar frame, and the centers of their velocity fields usually are near Lagrangian points L(sub 4,5). In all models that we have studied, the vortices form on essentially the same time scale as that for the development of gaseous spiral arms, typically two bar rotations. Usually the corotation radius, r(sub c), lies slightly beyond the end of the bar. Depending upon the mass distributions of the various components, gas spirals either into, or out of, the vortices: In the former case, the vortices become regions of high density, whereas the opposite is true if the gas spirals out of a vortex. The models described in this paper have low-density vortices, as do most of the models we have studied. Moreover, usually the vortex centers lie approximately within +/- 15 deg of L(sub 4,5). In the stellar dynamic limit, when pressure and viscous forces are absent, short-period orbits exist, centered on L(sub 4,5). These orbits need not cross and therefore their morphology is that of gas streamlines, that is, vortices. We believe that the gas vortices in our models are hydrodynamic analogues of closed, short-period, libration orbits centered on L(sub 4,5).

England, Martin N.; Hunter, James H., Jr.

1995-01-01

425

50 CFR Figures 14a and 14b to Part... - Maximum Angle of Deflector Bars With Straight Bars Attached to the Bottom of the Frame and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Maximum Angle of Deflector Bars With Straight Bars Attached to the Bottom of the Frame and Maximum Angle of Deflector Bars With Bent Bars Attached...Figures 14a and 14b to Part 223—Maximum Angle of Deflector Bars With Straight Bars...

2011-10-01

426

A COST EFFECTIVE MULTI-SPECTRAL SCANNER FOR NATURAL GAS DETECTION  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to design, fabricate and field demonstrate a cost effective, multi-spectral scanner for natural gas leak detection in transmission and distribution pipelines. During the first six months of the project, the design for a laboratory version of the multispectral scanner was completed. The optical, mechanical, and electronic design for the scanner was completed. The optical design was analyzed using Zeemax Optical Design software and found to provide sufficiently resolved performance for the scanner. The electronic design was evaluated using a bread board and very high signal to noise ratios were obtained. Fabrication of a laboratory version of the multi-spectral scanner is currently in progress. A technology status report and a research management plan was also completed during the same period.

Yudaya Sivathanu; Jongmook Lim; Vinoo Narayanan

2004-04-01

427

QR Codes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study presents an m-learning method that incorporates Integrated Quick Response (QR) codes. This learning method not only achieves the objectives of outdoor education, but it also increases applications of Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning (CTML) (Mayer, 2001) in m-learning for practical use in a diverse range of outdoor locations. When…

Lai, Hsin-Chih; Chang, Chun-Yen; Li, Wen-Shiane; Fan, Yu-Lin; Wu, Ying-Tien

2013-01-01

428

Quantum coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theorem is proven for quantum information theory that is analogous to the noiseless coding theorem of classical information theory. In the quantum result, the von Neumann entropy S of the density operator describing an ensemble of pure quantum signal states is equal to the number of spin-1\\/2 systems (``quantum bits'' or ``qubits'') necessary to represent the signal faithfully. The

Benjamin Schumacher

1995-01-01

429

First measurements of J/Psi decays into $?^+ \\bar?^-$ and $?^0 \\bar?^0$  

E-print Network

Based on 58 million J/Psi events collected with the BESII detector at the BEPC, the baryon pair processes J/Psi to $\\Sigma^+ \\bar{\\Sigma}^-$ and J/Psi to $\\Xi^0 \\bar{\\Xi}^0$ are observed for the first time. The branching fractions are measured to be ${\\cal B}(J/Psi to \\Sigma^+ \\bar{\\Sigma}^-)=(1.50\\pm 0.10\\pm 0.22)\\times 10^{-3}$ and ${\\cal B}(J/Psi to \\Xi^0 \\bar{\\Xi}^0)=(1.20\\pm 0.12\\pm 0.21)\\times 10^{-3}$, where the first errors are statistical and the second ones are systematic.

BES Collaboration

2008-10-10

430

Consistency of breast density measured from the same women in four different MR scanners  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To compare the breast volume (BV), fibroglandular tissue volume (FV), and percent density (PD) measured from breast MRI of the same women using four different MR scanners. Methods: The study was performed in 34 healthy Asian volunteers using two 1.5T (GE and Siemens) and two 3T (GE and Philips) MR scanners. The BV, FV, and PD were measured on nonfat-suppressed T1-weighted images using a comprehensive computer algorithm-based segmentation method. The scanner-to-scanner measurement difference, and the coefficient of variation (CV) among the four scanners were calculated. The measurement variation between two density morphological patterns presenting as the central type and the intermingled type was separately analyzed and compared. Results: All four scanners provided satisfactory image quality allowing for successful completion of the segmentation processes. The measured parameters between each pair of MR scanners were highly correlated, with R2 ? 0.95 for BV, R2 ? 0.99 for FV, and R2 ? 0.97 for PD in all comparisons. The mean percent differences between each pair of scanners were 5.9%–7.8% for BV, 5.3%–6.5% for FV, 4.3%–7.3% for PD; with the overall CV of 5.8% for BV, 4.8% for FV, and 4.9% for PD. The variation of FV was smaller in the central type than in the intermingled type (p = 0.04). Conclusions: The results showed that the variation of FV and PD measured from four different MR scanners is around 5%, suggesting the parameters measured using different scanners can be used for a combined analysis in a multicenter study. PMID:22894415

Chen, Jeon-Hor; Chan, Siwa; Liu, Yi-Jui; Yeh, Dah-Cherng; Chang, Chih-Kai; Chen, Li-Kuang; Pan, Wei-Fan; Kuo, Chih-Chen; Lin, Muqing; Chang, Daniel H. E.; Fwu, Peter T.; Su, Min-Ying

2012-01-01

431

nu. (nu-bar)+d. --> nu. (nu-bar)+n+p at intermediate energies  

SciTech Connect

The deuteron disintegration processes ..nu..(nu-bar)+d..--> nu..(nu-bar)+n+p have been studied at intermediate energies in impulse approximation using closure over the final dinucleon states. The disintegration cross section sigma has been discussed as a function of neutrino (antineutrino) energy in various SU(2) x U(1) models for the helicity conserving weak neutral currents. A discussion on the helicity flipping weak neutral currents models of S, P, T couplings is also given.

Singh, S.K.; Khan, S.A.

1981-03-01

432

Triple Bars and Complex Central Structures in Disk Galaxies  

E-print Network

We present an analysis of ground-based and HST images of three early-type barred galaxies. The first, NGC 2681, may be the clearest example yet of a galaxy with three concentric bars. The two other galaxies were previously suggested as triple-barred. Our analysis shows that while NGC 3945 is probably double-barred, NGC 4371 has only one bar; but both have intriguing central structures. NGC 3945 has a large, extremely bright disk inside its primary bar, with patchy dust lanes, a faint nuclear ring or pseudo-ring within the disk, and an apparent secondary bar crossing the ring. NGC 4371 has a bright nuclear ring only marginally bluer than the surrounding bulge and bar. There is no evidence for significant dust or star formation in either of these nuclear rings. The presence of stellar nuclear rings suggests that the centers of these galaxies are dynamically cool and disklike.

Peter Erwin; Linda S. Sparke

1999-06-16

433

27 CFR 70.266 - Credit against barred liability.  

...27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01... Credit against barred liability. 70.266 Section 70.266 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... Credit against barred liability. Any credit...

2014-04-01

434

27 CFR 70.266 - Credit against barred liability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01... Credit against barred liability. 70.266 Section 70.266 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... Credit against barred liability. Any credit...

2013-04-01

435

27 CFR 70.266 - Credit against barred liability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01... Credit against barred liability. 70.266 Section 70.266 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... Credit against barred liability. Any credit...

2012-04-01

436

27 CFR 70.266 - Credit against barred liability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01... Credit against barred liability. 70.266 Section 70.266 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... Credit against barred liability. Any credit...

2010-04-01

437

27 CFR 70.266 - Credit against barred liability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01... Credit against barred liability. 70.266 Section 70.266 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... Credit against barred liability. Any credit...

2011-04-01

438

Preliminary resolution performance of the prototype system for a 4Layer DOI-PET scanner: jPET-D4  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are developing a high-performance brain PET scanner, jPET-D4, which provides 4-layer depth-of-interaction (DOI) information. The scanner is designed to achieve not only high spatial resolution but also high scanner sensitivity with the DOI information obtained from multi-layered thin crystals. The scanner has 5 rings of 24 detector blocks each, and each block consists of 1024 GSO crystals of 2.9

Taiga Yamaya; Naoki Hagiwara; Takashi Obi; Tomoaki Tsuda; Keishi Kitamura; Tomoyuki Hasegawa; Hideaki Haneishi; Naoko Inadama; Eiji Yoshida; Hideo Murayama

2006-01-01

439

The Interplay between Bulge-Disk-Bar Photometric Measures in the Most Isolated Spiral Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We perform bulge-disk-bar decomposition using the BUDDA code (de Souza, Gadotti, dos Anjos 2004) on i-band SDSS images for a sample isolated galaxies from the AMIGA sample (Verdes-Montenegro et al. 2004). We studied 100 of the isolated galaxies classified Sb-Sc that were also included in SDSS. This appears to be the dominant population of isolated galaxies representing 2/3 of the reasonably complete AMIGA sample. We report a series of correlations and scaling relations between the photometrically derived parameters describing the three main structural components i.e. bulges, disks and bars. We illustrate how various measures that quantify the structure of galaxies evolve along the Sb-Sbc-Sc morphological sequence. Comparison with other studies seems to suggest that both the frecquency of barred galaxies and the bar sizes are sensitive to environment. Additionally our results suggest that most galaxies in our sample host pseudobulges rather than classical bulges, consistent with the idea that classical bulges are environmentally formed and fostered.

Durbala, Adriana; Sulentic, J. W.; Verdes-Montenegro, L.

2008-05-01

440

Incorporation of a laser range scanner into image-guided liver surgery: Surface acquisition, registration, and tracking  

E-print Network

Incorporation of a laser range scanner into image-guided liver surgery: Surface acquisition for tissue deformation in the organ. In this paper we outline methods for which a laser range scanner may be used to accomplish these tasks intraoperatively. A laser range scanner based on the optical principle

Miga, Michael I.

441

Phantom-based Comparison of the Accuracy of Point Clouds Extracted from Stereo Cameras and Laser Range Scanner  

E-print Network

-guided surgical (IGS) systems. An optically tracked textured laser range scanner (tLRS) furnishes the 3D, laser range scanner, intraoperative imaging, surgical microscope, accuracy, brain shift 30 1 modalities include magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound, laser range scanner and stereovision systems

Miga, Michael I.

442

33 CFR 13.01-10 - Gold and silver bars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Gold and silver bars. 13.01-10 Section...MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-10 Gold and silver bars. No person shall...

2013-07-01

443

33 CFR 13.01-10 - Gold and silver bars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Gold and silver bars. 13.01-10 Section...MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-10 Gold and silver bars. No person shall...

2011-07-01

444

33 CFR 13.01-10 - Gold and silver bars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gold and silver bars. 13.01-10 Section...MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-10 Gold and silver bars. No person shall...

2010-07-01

445

33 CFR 13.01-10 - Gold and silver bars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Gold and silver bars. 13.01-10 Section...MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-10 Gold and silver bars. No person shall...

2012-07-01

446

Automatically Recognizing Intended Messages in Grouped Bar Charts  

E-print Network

Automatically Recognizing Intended Messages in Grouped Bar Charts Richard Burns1 , Sandra Carberry1 17551 USA elzer@cs.millersville.edu Abstract. Information graphics (bar charts, line graphs, grouped bar charts, etc.) often appear in popular media such as newspapers and mag- azines. In most cases

Carberry, Sandra

447

12. LOOKING NORTH INSIDE OF THE 22' BAR STOCKING AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. LOOKING NORTH INSIDE OF THE 22' BAR STOCKING AND FINISHING BUILDING AT THE 22' BAR MILL. RUNOUT TABLE ON LEFT AND THE SLOW COOLING PITS ON THE RIGHT. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, 22-Inch Bar Mill, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

448

Chord, Tie Bar & Crossbracing Joint Detail in Plan; Crossbracing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Chord, Tie Bar & Crossbracing Joint Detail in Plan; Crossbracing Center Joint Detail in Plan; Chord Joining Detail in Plan & Elevation; Chord, Panel Post, Tie Bar, & Diagonal Brace Joint Detail; Crossbracing Center Joint Detail in Section; Chord, Panel Post, Tie Bar & Horizontal Brace Joint Detail - Narrows Bridge, Spanning Sugar Creek at Old County Road 280 East, Marshall, Parke County, IN

449

10 CFR 39.49 - Uranium sinker bars.  

... 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Uranium sinker bars. 39.49 Section 39.49...FOR WELL LOGGING Equipment § 39.49 Uranium sinker bars. The licensee may use a uranium sinker bar in well logging applications...

2014-01-01

450

10 CFR 39.49 - Uranium sinker bars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Uranium sinker bars. 39.49 Section 39.49...FOR WELL LOGGING Equipment § 39.49 Uranium sinker bars. The licensee may use a uranium sinker bar in well logging applications...

2013-01-01

451

10 CFR 39.49 - Uranium sinker bars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Uranium sinker bars. 39.49 Section 39.49...FOR WELL LOGGING Equipment § 39.49 Uranium sinker bars. The licensee may use a uranium sinker bar in well logging applications...

2011-01-01

452

10 CFR 39.49 - Uranium sinker bars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uranium sinker bars. 39.49 Section 39.49...FOR WELL LOGGING Equipment § 39.49 Uranium sinker bars. The licensee may use a uranium sinker bar in well logging applications...

2010-01-01

453

10 CFR 39.49 - Uranium sinker bars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Uranium sinker bars. 39.49 Section 39.49...FOR WELL LOGGING Equipment § 39.49 Uranium sinker bars. The licensee may use a uranium sinker bar in well logging applications...

2012-01-01

454

EAST ELEVATION, LTV STEEL (FORMERLY REPUBLIC STEEL), 8" BAR MILL, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

EAST ELEVATION, LTV STEEL (FORMERLY REPUBLIC STEEL), 8" BAR MILL, BUFFALO PLANT. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM ROLL SHOP. 8" BAR MILL DESIGNED AND BUILT BY DONNER STEEL CO. (PREDECESSOR OF REPUBLIC), 1919-1920. FOR DESCRIPTION OF ORIGINAL MILL SEE "IRON AGE", 116\\4 (23 JULY 1925): 201-204. - LTV Steel, 8-inch Bar Mill, Buffalo Plant, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

455

Print media coverage of California's smokefree bar law  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVETo assess the print media coverage of California's smokefree bar law in the state of California.DESIGNContent analysis of newspaper, trade journal, and magazine items.SUBJECTSItems regarding the smokefree bar law published seven months before and one year following the implementation of the smokefree bar law (June 1997 to December 1998). Items consisted of news articles (n = 446), opinion editorials (n

Sheryl Magzamen; Annemarie Charlesworth; Stanton A Glantz

2001-01-01

456

Access to Bathtub Grab Bars: Evidence of a Policy Gap  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines access to bathtub grab bars in privately and publicly owned apartment buildings and explores the profile of seniors who have access to bathtub grab bars. Results indicate that bathtub grab bars were significantly more prevalent in apartments that were publicly owned (91.3%) as compared to privately owned (37.8%) (p lesser than…

Birkett, Nicholas; Nair, Rama; Murphy, Maureen; Roberge, Ginette; Lockett, Donna

2006-01-01

457

Did liberalising bar hours decrease traffic accidents?  

PubMed

Legal bar closing times in England and Wales have historically been early and uniform. Recent legislation liberalised closing times with the object of reducing social problems thought associated with drinking to "beat the clock." Indeed, using both difference in difference and synthetic control approaches we show that one consequence of this liberalisation was a decrease in traffic accidents. This decrease is heavily concentrated among younger drivers. Moreover, we provide evidence that the effect was most pronounced in the hours of the week directly affected by the liberalisation: late nights and early mornings on weekends. This evidence survives a series of robustness checks and suggests at least one socially positive consequence of extending bar hours. PMID:24721184

Green, Colin P; Heywood, John S; Navarro, Maria

2014-05-01

458

Semileptonic B Decays at BaBar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on studies of charmless semileptonic decays based on the data collected at the ?(4S) resonance using the the BABAR detector [1] at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. We present a number of inclusive methods to isolate b -> ulbar {? } decays and suppress the more abundant b -> clbar {? } process and show results of measurements based on: the lepton energy and squared lepton-neutrino invariant mass, E? and q2, the hadron invariant mass and squared lepton-neutrino invariant mass, MX and q2. Exclusive charmless semileptonic decays have also been investigated. We report studies on B ?/??? decay on untagged events, the bar {B} -> Xulbar {? } decay modes with hadronic tags, the B± ? ?0?±? using semileptonic B- -> D0 l- /line{? } (X) tags and B0 ? ?- ?+ ? with semileptonic /line{B}0 -> D(*)+l-bar {? }s tags. From the measurements of partial and total braching fractions, the magnitude of the CKM element |Vub| is derived using several theoretical predictions and frameworks.

Azzolini, V.

2006-10-01

459

Strength of hydrostation trash rack bars  

SciTech Connect

Trash racks are one of the important parts of the mechanical equipment of hydroelectric stations since their breakage causes shutdown of the turbines until they are repaired. Therefore, the provision of trouble-free operation of racks is of importance. The author states that the most vulnerable part of the rack structure is the bars, which can be damaged both from the static load as a result of clogging and from the stresses occurring during vibration of the bars under the effect of the water passing through them. Used for explaining the processes in the case reported here is the Milovich theory, which does not however touch on all the causes and conditions of increase of oscillation amplitude as it is observed in the laboratory.

Tsvetkov, A.P.

1985-07-01

460

Complex statistics in Hamiltonian barred galaxy models  

E-print Network

We use probability density functions (pdfs) of sums of orbit coordinates, over time intervals of the order of one Hubble time, to distinguish weakly from strongly chaotic orbits in a barred galaxy model. We find that, in the weakly chaotic case, quasi-stationary states arise, whose pdfs are well approximated by $q$-Gaussian functions (with $1galaxy models has been investigated thoroughly in recent years due of their ability to support galaxy structures for relatively long time scales. In this paper, we demonstrate, on specific orbits of 2 and 3 degree of freedom barred galaxy models, that the proposed statistical approach can distinguish weakly from strongly chaotic motion accurately and efficiently, especially in cases where Lyapunov exponents and other local dynamic indicators appear to be inconclusive.

Tassos Bountis; Thanos Manos; Chris Antonopoulos

2011-08-25

461

Comparison of working efficiency of terrestrial laser scanner in day and night conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terrestrial Laser Scanning is a popular and widely used technique to scan existing objects, document historical sites and items, and remodel them if and when needed. Their ability to collect thousands of point data per second makes them an invaluable tool in many areas from engineering to historical reconstruction. There are many scanners in the market with different technical specifications. One main technical specification of laser scanners is range and illumination. In this study, it is tested to be determined the optimal working times of a laser scanner and the scanners consistency with its specifications sheet. In order to conduct this work, series of GNSS measurements in Istanbul Technical University have been carried out, connected to the national reference network, to determine precise positions of target points and the scanner, which makes possible to define a precise distance between the scanner and targets. Those ground surveys has been used for calibration and registration purposes. Two different scan campaigns conducted at 12 am and 11 pm to compare working efficiency of laser scanner in different illumination conditions and targets are measured with a handheld spectro-radiometer in order to determine their reflective characteristics. The obtained results are compared and their accuracies have been analysed.

Arslan, A. E.; Kalkan, K.

2013-10-01

462

The optimal optical readout for the x-ray light valve--Document scanners  

SciTech Connect

The x-ray light valve (XLV) is a novel, potentially low-cost, x-ray detector that converts an x-ray exposure into an optical image stored in a liquid crystal cell. This optical image is then transferred from the liquid crystal cell to a computer through an optical-to-digital imaging readout system. Previously, CCD-based cameras were used for the optical readout, but recently it was proposed that an inexpensive optical scanner, such as an office document scanner, is a better match to the optical properties of the XLV. A methodology for characterizing a document scanner's ability to produce medical quality images from the XLV is outlined and tested on a particular scanner (Canon LiDE 30). This scanner was shown to have key characteristics of a medical device--a linear response, dynamic range sufficient for chest radiography (although not mammography) in a single pass, and an MTF and NPS that exceed the requirements for all medical applications of the scanner. This combination of criteria shows that a document scanner can be used as a digitization method for the XLV.

Oakham, P.; MacDougall, Robert D.; Rowlands, J. A. [Imaging Research, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada)

2008-12-15

463

An FPGA-based method for a reconfigurable and compact scanner controller  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An essential part of a LADAR system is the scanner component. The physical scanner and its electrical controller must often be as compact as possible to meet the stringent physical requirements of the system. It is also advantageous to have a reconfigurable electrical scanner controller. This can allow real-time automated dynamic modifications to the scanning characteristics. Via reconfiguration, this can also allow a single scanner controller to be used on multiple physical scanners with different resonant frequencies and reflection angles. The most efficient method to construct a compact scanner with static or dcynamic re-configurability is by using an FPGA-based system. FPGAs are extremely compact, reconfigurable, and can be programmed with very complex algorithms. We show here the design and testing of such an FPGA-based system has been designed and tested. We show here this FPGA-based system is able to drive scanners at arbitrary frequencies with different waveforms and produce appropriate horizontal and vertical syncs of arbitrary pulse width. Several programmable constants are provided to allow re-configurability. Additionally we show how very few essential components are required so the system could potentially be compacted to approximately the size of a cell phone.

Thomas, J.; Megherbi, D.; Sliney, P.; Pyburn, D.; Sengupta, S.; Khoury, J.; Woods, C.; Kirstead, J.

2005-08-01

464

Simulation of BaBar Drift Chamber  

SciTech Connect

The BaBar drift chamber (DCH) is used to measure the properties of charged particles created from e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions in the PEP-II asymmetric-energy storage rings by making precise measurements of position, momentum and ionization energy loss (dE/dx). In October of 2005, the PEP-II storage rings operated with a luminosity of 10 x 10{sup 33} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}; the goal for 2007 is a luminosity of 20 x 10{sup 33} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}, which will increase the readout dead time, causing uncertainty in drift chamber measurements to become more significant in physics results. The research described in this paper aims to reduce position and dE/dx uncertainties by improving our understanding of the BaBar drift chamber performance. A simulation program--called GARFIELD--is used to model the behavior of the drift chamber with adjustable parameters such as gas mixture, wire diameter, voltage, and magnetic field. By exploring the simulation options offered in GARFIELD, we successfully produced a simulation model of the BaBar drift chamber. We compared the time-to-distance calibration from BaBar to that calculated by GARFIELD to validate our model as well as check for discrepancies between the simulated and calibrated time-to-distance functions, and found that for a 0{sup o} entrance angle there is a very good match between calibrations, but at an entrance angle of 90{sup o} the calibration breaks down. Using this model, we also systematically varied the gas mixture to find one that would optimize chamber operation, which showed that the gas mixture of 80:20 Helium:isobutane is a good operating point, though more calculations need to be done to confirm that it is the optimal mixture.

Anderson, Rachel; /Wisconsin U., Eau Claire /SLAC

2006-09-27

465

Delamination Analysis Of Composite Curved Bars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Classical anisotropic elasticity theory used to construct "multilayer" composite semicircular curved bar subjected to end forces and end moments. Radial location and intensity of open-mode delamination stress calculated and compared with results obtained from anisotropic continuum theory and from finite element method. Multilayer theory gave more accurate predictions of location and intensity of open-mode delamination stress. Currently being applied to predict open-mode delamination stress concentrations in horse-shoe-shaped composite test coupons.

Ko, William L.; Jackson, Raymond H.

1990-01-01

466

Discussions on Standardization of Hopkinson Bars Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well known that the constitutive behaviour of most materials exhibits rate sensitivity and that the rate dependent (tensile\\/compressive)\\u000a properties of such materials should be experimentally studied. The Split Hopkinson Bar (SHB) technique has been successfully\\u000a applied to investigate the visco-elastic and visco-plastic behaviour of plastics and metals under high strain rates. Recently,\\u000a it has widely been used to

L. M. Yang; Li Song; Li-Li Wang

467

Leptonic B Decays at BaBar  

SciTech Connect

We will present the most recent results on leptonic B decays B{sup {+-}(0)} {yields} K*{sup {+-}(0)}{nu}{bar {nu}} and B{sup {+-}} {yields} {mu}{sup {+-}}{nu}, based on the data collected by the BaBar detector at PEP-II, an asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} collider at the center of mass energy of the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance. Rare B decays have always been a standard probe for New Physics (NP) searches. The very low Standard Model (SM) rate of these decays often make them unaccessible with the present experimental datasets, unless NP effects enhance the rate up to the current experimental sensitivity. Moreover, as NP effects can modify the decay kinematic, particular attention must be paid in order to perform a model independent analysis. A B-Factory provides an unique environment to investigate these processes. The high number of B{bar B} pairs produced by a B-Factory often allows to approach the needed experimental sensitivity. Moreover, the clean environment and the closed kinematic of the initial state enable to obtaining a very pure sample where to look for these decays.

Baracchini, Elisabetta; /Rome U. /INFN, Rome

2011-11-10

468

Leptonic B Decays at BaBar  

SciTech Connect

The authors will present the most recent results on leptonic B decays B{sup {+-}(0)} {yields} K*{sup {+-}(0)} {nu}{bar {nu}} and B{sup {+-}} {yields} {mu}{sup {+-}}{nu}, based on the data collected by the BaBar detector at PEP-II, an asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} collider at the center of mass energy of the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance. Rare B decays have always been a standard probe for New Physics (NP) searches. The very low Standard Model (SM) rate of these decays often make them unaccessible with the present experimental datasets, unless NP effects enhance the rate up to the current experimental sensitivity. Moreover, as NP effects can modify the decay kinematic, particular attention must be payed in order to perform a model independent analysis. A B-Factory provides an unique environment where to investigate these processes. The high number of B{bar B} pairs produced by a B-Factory often allows to approach the needed experimental sensitivity. Moreover, the clean environment and the closed kinematic of the initial state enable to obtaining a very pure sample where to look for these decays.

Monorchio, Diego; /INFN, Naples /Naples U.

2011-09-13

469

Evaluation of portable CT scanners for otologic image-guided surgery  

PubMed Central

Purpose Portable CT scanners are beneficial for diagnosis in the intensive care unit, emergency room, and operating room. Portable fixed-base versus translating-base CT systems were evaluated for otologic image-guided surgical (IGS) applications based on geometric accuracy and utility for percutaneous cochlear implantation. Methods Five cadaveric skulls were fitted with fiducial markers and scanned using both a translating-base, 8-slice CT scanner (CereTom®) and a fixed-base, flat-panel, volume-CT (fpVCT) scanner (Xoran xCAT®). Images were analyzed for: (a) subjective quality (i.e. noise), (b) consistency of attenuation measurements (Hounsfield units) across similar tissue, and (c) geometric accuracy of fiducial marker positions. The utility of these scanners in clinical IGS cases was tested. Results Five cadaveric specimens were scanned using each of the scanners. The translating-base, 8-slice CT scanner had spatially consistent Hounsfield units, and the image quality was subjectively good. However, because of movement variations during scanning, the geometric accuracy of fiducial marker positions was low. The fixed-base, fpVCT system had high spatial resolution, but the images were noisy and had spatially inconsistent attenuation measurements; while the geometric representation of the fiducial markers was highly accurate. Conclusion Two types of portable CT scanners were evaluated for otologic IGS. The translating-base, 8-slice CT scanner provided better image quality than a fixed-base, fpVCT scanner. However, the inherent error in three-dimensional spatial relationships by the translating-based system makes it suboptimal for otologic IGS use. PMID:21779768

Balachandran, Ramya; Schurzig, Daniel; Fitzpatrick, J Michael; Labadie, Robert F

2011-01-01

470

Revised benchmarking of contact-less fingerprint scanners for forensic fingerprint detection: challenges and results for chromatic white light scanners (CWL)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mobile contact-less fingerprint scanners can be very important tools for the forensic investigation of crime scenes. To be admissible in court, data and the collection process must adhere to rules w.r.t. technology and procedures of acquisition, processing and the conclusions drawn from that evidence. Currently, no overall accepted benchmarking methodology is used to support some of the rules regarding the localisation, acquisition and pre-processing using contact-less fingerprint scanners. Benchmarking is seen essential to rate those devices according to their usefulness for investigating crime scenes. Our main contribution is a revised version of our extensible framework for methodological benchmarking of contact-less fingerprint scanners using a collection of extensible categories and items. The suggested main categories describing a contact-less fingerprint scanner are properties of forensic country-specific legal requirements, technical properties, application-related aspects, input sensory technology, pre-processing algorithm, tested object and materials. Using those it is possible to benchmark fingerprint scanners and describe the setup and the resulting data. Additionally, benchmarking profiles for different usage scenarios are defined. First results for all suggested benchmarking properties, which will be presented in detail in the final paper, were gained using an industrial device (FRT MicroProf200) and conducting 18 tests on 10 different materials.

Kiltz, Stefan; Leich, Marcus; Dittmann, Jana; Vielhauer, Claus; Ulrich, Michael

2011-02-01

471